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Sample records for phenomenological one-parameter equation

  1. A Phenomenological One-Parameter Equation of State for Osmotic Pressures of PEG and Other Neutral Flexible Polymers in Good Solvents

    PubMed Central

    Cohen, J. A.; Podgornik, R.; Hansen, P. L.; Parsegian, V. A.

    2014-01-01

    We present a phenomenological one-parameter scaling equation of state that accurately represents osmotic pressures of neutral flexible polymers in good solvents from the dilute through the semidilute regime. The equation comprises a sum of scaled van’t Hoff and des Cloizeaux terms including a fitted parameter α, the “crossover index”, which encapsulates all chemical specificity and determines the relevant prefactors. Strikingly different values of α are found for the two very different systems poly(ethyleneglycol)/water (PEG) and poly(α-methylstyrene)/toluene (PAMS). α-dependent rescaling collapses both data sets to a simple one-parameter scaling function. The fact that the anomalous system PEG/water and the canonical system PAMS/toluene can both be described by the same equation of state attests to the robustness of the polymer-scaling concepts introduced by de Gennes. PMID:19265418

  2. One parameter family of master equations for logistic growth and BCM theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    De Oliveira, L. R.; Castellani, C.; Turchetti, G.

    2015-02-01

    We propose a one parameter family of master equations, for the evolution of a population, having the logistic equation as mean field limit. The parameter α determines the relative weight of linear versus nonlinear terms in the population number n ⩽ N entering the loss term. By varying α from 0 to 1 the equilibrium distribution changes from maximum growth to almost extinction. The former is a Gaussian centered at n = N, the latter is a power law peaked at n = 1. A bimodal distribution is observed in the transition region. When N grows and tends to ∞, keeping the value of α fixed, the distribution tends to a Gaussian centered at n = N whose limit is a delta function corresponding to the stable equilibrium of the mean field equation. The choice of the master equation in this family depends on the equilibrium distribution for finite values of N. The presence of an absorbing state for n = 0 does not change this picture since the extinction mean time grows exponentially fast with N. As a consequence for α close to zero extinction is not observed, whereas when α approaches 1 the relaxation to a power law is observed before extinction occurs. We extend this approach to a well known model of synaptic plasticity, the so called BCM theory in the case of a single neuron with one or two synapses.

  3. Equation of State of Phenomenological Mechanochemistry of Damage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Greenfield, Michael

    2015-06-01

    Traditional damage theory deals with distributed microcracks rather than with individual cracks. This theory adds just one additional parameter to the set of classical thermodynamic parameters of deformable solids, like strain and temperature. Basically, the traditional damage theory reflects only one experimental observation: the elastic modules become smaller with growing damage. Contrary to the traditional damage theory, the Phenomenological Mechanochemistry of Damage (PMD) includes, in addition to the bulk elastic energy, the energy associated with braking/recovery of chemical bonds. Therefore, in addition to the elasticity equations it includes the equation, describing evolution/dynamics of chemical bonds. Although ``chemical bonds'' is a nano-scale concept, we treat the bonds using phenomenological approach. The additional equation of damage evolution is of the rate type, thus, making the whole model rate-dependent (even in quasi-static approach.) In the paper, we review some earlier results and present the novel ones with emphasis on the rate-dependent effects.

  4. Hitchin’s equations and M-theory phenomenology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pantev, Tony; Wijnholt, Martijn

    2011-07-01

    Phenomenological compactifications of M-theory involve seven-manifolds with G2 holonomy and various singularities. Here we study local geometries with such singularities, by thinking of them as compactifications of 7d supersymmetric Yang-Mills theory on a three-manifold Q3. We give a general discussion of compactifications of 7d Yang-Mills theory in terms of Higgs bundles on Q3. We show that they can be constructed using spectral covers, which are Lagrangian branes with a flat connection in the cotangent bundle T∗Q3. We explain the dictionary with ALE fibrations over Q3 and conjecture that these configurations have G2 holonomy. We further develop tools to study the low energy effective theory of such a model. We show that the naive massless spectrum is corrected by instanton effects. Taking the instanton effects into account, we find that the massless spectrum and many of the interactions can be computed with Morse theoretic methods.

  5. Phenomenological QCD equations of state for neutron stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kojo, Toru; Powell, Philip D.; Song, Yifan; Baym, Gordon

    2016-12-01

    We delineate the properties of QCD matter at baryon density nB = 1 - 10n0 (n0: nuclear saturation density), through the construction of neutron star equations of state that satisfy the neutron star mass-radius constraints as well as physical conditions on the speed of sound. The QCD matter is described in the 3-window modeling: at nB ≲ 2n0 purely nuclear matter; at nB ≳ 5n0 percolated quark matter; and at 2n0 ≲nB ≲ 5n0 matter intermediate between these two which are constructed by interpolation. Using a schematic quark model with effective interactions inspired from hadron and nuclear physics, we analyze the strength of interactions necessary to describe observed neutron star properties. Our finding is that the interactions should remain as strong as in the QCD vacuum, indicating that gluons at nB = 1 - 10n0 remain non-perturbative even after quark matter formation.

  6. DSE hadron phenomenology.

    SciTech Connect

    Hecht, M. B.; Roberts, C. D.; Schmidt, S. M.

    2000-05-22

    A perspective on the contemporary application of Dyson-Schwinger equations, focusing on some recent phenomenological applications: a description and unification of light-meson observable using a one-parameter model of the effective quark-quark interaction, and studies of leptonic and nonleptonic nucleon form factors. The theory and phenomenological application of Dyson-Schwinger equations (DSEs) have seen something of a renaissance. For example, they have been applied simultaneously to phenomena as apparently unconnected as low-energy {pi}{pi} scattering, B {r_arrow} D{sup *} decays and the equation of state for a quark gluon plasma, and there are renewed attempts to understand the origin of the infrared enhancement necessary in the kernel of the quark DSE (QCD gap equation) to generate dynamical chiral symmetry breaking (DCSB). Also significant is the appreciation that in this approach current algebra's anomalies remain a feature of the global aspects of DCSB.

  7. Modelling of solid polymer and direct methanol fuel cells: Phenomenological equations and analytical solutions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kauranen, P. S.

    1993-04-01

    In the solid state concept of a direct methanol fuel cell (DMFC), methanol is directly oxidized at the anode of a solid polymer electrolyte fuel cell (SPEFC). Mathematical modelling of the transport and reaction phenomena within the electrodes and the electrolyte membrane is needed in order to get a closer insight into the operation of the fuel cell. In the work, macro-homogenous porous electrode and dilute solution theories are used to derive the phenomenological equations describing the transport and reaction mechanisms in a SPEFC single cell. The equations are first derived for a conventional H2/air SPEFC, and then extended for a DMFC. The basic model is derived in a one dimensional form in which it is assumed that species transport take place only in the direction crossing the cell sandwich. In addition, two dimensional descriptions of the catalyst layer are reviewed.

  8. Phenomenological Equations Relating Various Critical Anomalies above a Cubic-to-Tetragonal Phase Transition Point

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hamano, Katsumi; Hirotsu, Shunsuke

    1980-01-01

    Phenomenological equations are derived which interrelate the anomalies in various thermodynamic quantities above the transition point of a cubic-to-tetragonal phase transition caused by an instability of a triply degenerate soft mode. The anomalous part of the Gibbs free energy is assumed to be a simple sum of the three parts which represent the contributions from the three fluctuation components. A cylindrical approximation is adopted to each of the three contributions by taking into account the symmetry of the fluctuations. The theory predicts that the adiabatic elastic compliances, s11s, s12s, and also s11s-s12s should exhibit anomalies proportional to the anomaly in the specific heat at constant pressure. This is in marked contrast with the result of the generalized Pippard equations derived by Garland, and by Janovec. The new equations are successfully tested for KMnF3, CsPbCl3, and CsPbBr3. The β-γ transition of NH4Br is also discussed.

  9. Phenomenological Blasius-type friction equation for turbulent power-law fluid flows

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anbarlooei, H. R.; Cruz, D. O. A.; Ramos, F.; Silva Freire, A. P.

    2015-12-01

    We propose a friction formula for turbulent power-law fluid flows, a class of purely viscous non-Newtonian fluids commonly found in applications. Our model is derived through an extension of the friction factor analysis based on Kolmogorov's phenomenology, recently proposed by Gioia and Chakraborty. Tests against classical empirical data show excellent agreement over a significant range of Reynolds number. Limits of the model are also discussed.

  10. One-parameter semigroups of analytic functions, fixed points and the Koenigs function

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goryainov, Victor V.; Kudryavtseva, Olga S.

    2011-07-01

    Analogues of the Berkson-Porta formula for the infinitesimal generator of a one-parameter semigroup of holomorphic maps of the unit disc into itself are obtained in the case when, along with a Denjoy-Wolff point, there also exist other fixed points. With each one-parameter semigroup a so-called Koenigs function is associated, which is a solution, common for all elements of the one-parameter semigroup, of a certain functional equation (Schröder's equation in the case of an interior Denjoy-Wolff point and Abel's equation in the case of a boundary Denjoy-Wolff point). A parametric representation for classes of Koenigs functions that takes account of the Denjoy-Wolff point and other fixed points of the maps in the one-parameter semigroup is presented. Bibliography: 19 titles.

  11. Estimation Methods for One-Parameter Testlet Models

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jiao, Hong; Wang, Shudong; He, Wei

    2013-01-01

    This study demonstrated the equivalence between the Rasch testlet model and the three-level one-parameter testlet model and explored the Markov Chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) method for model parameter estimation in WINBUGS. The estimation accuracy from the MCMC method was compared with those from the marginalized maximum likelihood estimation (MMLE)…

  12. Topological Equivalences for One-parameter Bifurcations of Scalar Maps

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Balibrea, Francisco; Oliveira, Henrique M.; Valverde, Jose C.

    2017-04-01

    Homeomorphisms allowing us to prove topological equivalences between one-parameter families of maps undergoing the same bifurcation are constructed in this paper. This provides a solution for a classical problem in bifurcation theory that was set out three decades ago and remained unexpectedly unpublished until now.

  13. Bayesian Estimation in the One-Parameter Latent Trait Model.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1980-03-01

    3 MASSACHUSETTS LNIV AMHERST LAB OF PSYCHOMETRIC AND -- ETC F/G 12/1 BAYESIAN ESTIMATION IN THE ONE-PARA1ETER LATENT TRAIT MODEL. (U) MAR 80 H...TEST CHART VVNN lfl’ ,. [’ COD BAYESIAN ESTIMATION IN THE ONE-PARAMETER LATENT TRAIT MODEL 0 wtHAR IHARAN SWA I NATHAN AND JANICE A. GIFFORD Research...block numbef) latent trait theory Bayesain estimation 20. ABSTRACT (Continue on reveso aide If neceaar and identlfy by Nock mambe) ,-When several

  14. Lightning Phenomenology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kawasaki, Zen

    This paper presents a phenomenological idea about lightning flash to share the back ground understanding for this special issue. Lightning discharges are one of the terrible phenomena, and Benjamin Franklin has led this natural phenomenon to the stage of scientific investigation. Technical aspects like monitoring and location are also summarized in this article.

  15. Phenomenological models

    SciTech Connect

    Braby, L.A.

    1990-09-01

    The biological effects of ionizing radiation exposure are the result of a complex sequence of physical, chemical, biochemical, and physiological interactions. One way to begin a search for an understanding of health effects of radiation is through the development of phenomenological models of the response. Many models have been presented and tested in the slowly evolving process of characterizing cellular response. A range of models covering different endpoints and phenomena has developed in parallel. Many of these models employ similar assumptions about some underlying processes while differing about the nature of others. An attempt is made to organize many of the models into groups with similar features and to compare the consequences of those features with the actual experimental observations. It is assumed that by showing that some assumptions are inconsistent with experimental observations, the job of devising and testing mechanistic models can be simplified. 43 refs., 13 figs.

  16. Experimental estimation of one-parameter qubit gates in the presence of phase diffusion

    SciTech Connect

    Brivio, Davide; Cialdi, Simone; Vezzoli, Stefano; Gebrehiwot, Berihu Teklu; Genoni, Marco G.; Olivares, Stefano; Paris, Matteo G. A.

    2010-01-15

    We address estimation of one-parameter qubit gates in the presence of phase diffusion. We evaluate the ultimate quantum limits to precision, seek optimal probes and measurements, and demonstrate an optimal estimation scheme for polarization encoded optical qubits. An adaptive method to achieve optimal estimation in any working regime is also analyzed in detail and experimentally implemented.

  17. Visual Criterion for Understanding the Notion of Convergence if Integrals in One Parameter

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alves, Francisco Regis Vieira

    2014-01-01

    Admittedly, the notion of generalized integrals in one parameter has a fundamental role. En virtue that, in this paper, we discuss and characterize an approach for to promote the visualization of this scientific mathematical concept. We still indicate the possibilities of graphical interpretation of formal properties related to notion of…

  18. Using Spreadsheets To Implement the One-Parameter Item Response Theory (IRT) Model.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Henard, David H.

    Item response theory models arose from the inherent limitations of classical test theory methods of test analysis. A brief description of those limitations and the corresponding enhancements provided by item response models is provided. Further, an examination of the popular Rasch one-parameter latent trait model is undertaken. Specific…

  19. Sample Size and Item Parameter Estimation Precision When Utilizing the One-Parameter "Rasch" Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Custer, Michael

    2015-01-01

    This study examines the relationship between sample size and item parameter estimation precision when utilizing the one-parameter model. Item parameter estimates are examined relative to "true" values by evaluating the decline in root mean squared deviation (RMSD) and the number of outliers as sample size increases. This occurs across…

  20. Computerized Classification Testing under the One-Parameter Logistic Response Model with Ability-Based Guessing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wang, Wen-Chung; Huang, Sheng-Yun

    2011-01-01

    The one-parameter logistic model with ability-based guessing (1PL-AG) has been recently developed to account for effect of ability on guessing behavior in multiple-choice items. In this study, the authors developed algorithms for computerized classification testing under the 1PL-AG and conducted a series of simulations to evaluate their…

  1. Phenomenology and homeopathy.

    PubMed

    Whitmarsh, Tom

    2013-07-01

    There is a great overlap between the way of seeing the world in clinical homeopathy and in the technical philosophical system known as phenomenology. A knowledge of phenomenologic principles reveals Hahnemann to have been an unwitting phenomenologist. The ideas of phenomenology as applied to medicine show that homeopathy is the ideal medical system to fulfill the goals of coming ever closer to true patient concerns and experience of illness.

  2. A singular one-parameter family of solutions in cubic superstring field theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arroyo, E. Aldo

    2016-05-01

    Performing a gauge transformation of a simple identity-like solution of superstring field theory, we construct a one-parameter family of solutions, and by evaluating the energy associated to this family, we show that for most of the values of the parameter the solution represents the tachyon vacuum, except for two isolated singular points where the solution becomes the perturbative vacuum and the half brane solution.

  3. One-parameter formal deformations of Hom-Lie-Yamaguti algebras

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ma, Yao; Chen, Liangyun; Lin, Jie

    2015-01-01

    This paper studies one-parameter formal deformations of Hom-Lie-Yamaguti algebras. The first, second, and third cohomology groups on Hom-Lie-Yamaguti algebras extending ones on Lie-Yamaguti algebras are provided. It is proved that first and second cohomology groups are suitable to the deformation theory involving infinitesimals, equivalent deformations, and rigidity. However, the third cohomology group is not suitable for the obstructions.

  4. Shifted one-parameter supersymmetric family of quartic asymmetric double-well potentials

    SciTech Connect

    Rosu, Haret C.; Mancas, Stefan C.; Chen, Pisin

    2014-10-15

    Extending our previous work (Rosu, 2014), we define supersymmetric partner potentials through a particular Riccati solution of the form F(x)=(x−c){sup 2}−1, where c is a real shift parameter, and work out the quartic double-well family of one-parameter isospectral potentials obtained by using the corresponding general Riccati solution. For these parametric double well potentials, we study how the localization properties of the two wells depend on the parameter of the potentials for various values of the shifting parameter. We also consider the supersymmetric parametric family of the first double-well potential in the Razavy chain of double well potentials corresponding to F(x)=1/2 sinh2x−2((1+√(2))sinh2x)/((1+√(2))cosh2x+1) , both unshifted and shifted, to test and compare the localization properties. - Highlights: • Quartic one-parameter DWs with an additional shift parameter are introduced. • Anomalous localization feature of their zero modes is confirmed at different shifts. • Razavy one-parameter DWs are also introduced and shown not to have this feature.

  5. Amedeo Giorgis Empirical Phenomenology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alexandersson, Claes

    In August 1979, Amedeo Giorgi presented a workshop on "Phenomenological Theory and Method" at the University of Goteborg (Sweden). This report describes that workshop. First, the major concepts of phenomenology are introduced (Intentionality, Description, Reduction, and Essence), followed by a brief description of Husserl's philosophical…

  6. Quantum-Spacetime Phenomenology.

    PubMed

    Amelino-Camelia, Giovanni

    2013-01-01

    I review the current status of phenomenological programs inspired by quantum-spacetime research. I stress in particular the significance of results establishing that certain data analyses provide sensitivity to effects introduced genuinely at the Planck scale. My main focus is on phenomenological programs that affect the directions taken by studies of quantum-spacetime theories.

  7. One-parameter class of uncertainty relations based on entropy power.

    PubMed

    Jizba, Petr; Ma, Yue; Hayes, Anthony; Dunningham, Jacob A

    2016-06-01

    We use the concept of entropy power to derive a one-parameter class of information-theoretic uncertainty relations for pairs of conjugate observables in an infinite-dimensional Hilbert space. This class constitutes an infinite tower of higher-order statistics uncertainty relations, which allows one in principle to determine the shape of the underlying information-distribution function by measuring the relevant entropy powers. We illustrate the capability of this class by discussing two examples: superpositions of vacuum and squeezed states and the Cauchy-type heavy-tailed wave function.

  8. One-parameter class of uncertainty relations based on entropy power

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jizba, Petr; Ma, Yue; Hayes, Anthony; Dunningham, Jacob A.

    2016-06-01

    We use the concept of entropy power to derive a one-parameter class of information-theoretic uncertainty relations for pairs of conjugate observables in an infinite-dimensional Hilbert space. This class constitutes an infinite tower of higher-order statistics uncertainty relations, which allows one in principle to determine the shape of the underlying information-distribution function by measuring the relevant entropy powers. We illustrate the capability of this class by discussing two examples: superpositions of vacuum and squeezed states and the Cauchy-type heavy-tailed wave function.

  9. Supergravity and superstring signatures of the one-parameter model at LHC

    SciTech Connect

    Maxin, James A.; Mayes, Van E.; Nanopoulos, Dimitri V.

    2009-03-15

    Many string constructions have a classical no-scale structure, resulting in a one-parameter model (OPM) for the supersymmetry breaking soft terms. As a highly constrained subset of mSUGRA, the OPM has the potential to be predictive. Conversely, if the observed superpartner spectrum at LHC is a subset of the OPM parameter space, then this may provide a clue to the underlying theory at high energies. We investigate the allowed supersymmetry parameter space for a generic one-parameter model taking into account the most recent experimental constraints. We find that, in the strict moduli scenario, there are no regions of the parameter space which may satisfy all constraints. However, for the dilaton scenario, there are small regions of the parameter space where all constraints may be satisfied and for which the observed dark matter density may be generated. We also survey the possible signatures which may be observable at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC). Finally, we compare collider signatures of OPM to those from a model with nonuniversal soft terms, in particular, those of an intersecting D6-brane model. We find that it may be possible to distinguish between these diverse scenarios at LHC.

  10. One-parameter families of supersymmetric isospectral potentials from Riccati solutions in function composition form

    SciTech Connect

    Rosu, Haret C.; Mancas, Stefan C.; Chen, Pisin

    2014-04-15

    In the context of supersymmetric quantum mechanics, we define a potential through a particular Riccati solution of the composition form (F∘f)(x)=F(f(x)) and obtain a generalized Mielnik construction of one-parameter isospectral potentials when we use the general Riccati solution. Some examples for special cases of F and f are given to illustrate the method. An interesting result is obtained in the case of a parametric double well potential generated by this method, for which it is shown that the parameter of the potential controls the heights of the localization probability in the two wells, and for certain values of the parameter the height of the localization probability can be higher in the smaller well. -- Highlights: •Function-composition generalization of parametric isospectral potentials is presented. •Mielnik one-parameter family of harmonic potentials is obtained as a particular case. •Graphical discussion of regular and singular regions in the parameter space is given.

  11. Resonant diphoton phenomenology simplified

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Panico, Giuliano; Vecchi, Luca; Wulzer, Andrea

    2016-06-01

    A framework is proposed to describe resonant diphoton phenomenology at hadron colliders in full generality. It can be employed for a comprehensive model-independent interpretation of the experimental data. Within the general framework, few benchmark scenarios are defined as representative of the various phenomenological options and/or of motivated new physics scenarios. Their usage is illustrated by performing a characterization of the 750 GeV excess, based on a recast of available experimental results.

  12. Dirac-Born-Infeld inflation using a one-parameter family of throat geometries

    SciTech Connect

    Gmeiner, Florian; White, Chris D E-mail: cwhite@nikhef.nl

    2008-02-15

    We demonstrate the possibility of examining cosmological signatures in the Dirac-Born-Infeld (DBI) inflation setup using the BGMPZ solution, a one-parameter family of geometries for the warped throat which interpolate between the Maldacena-Nunez and Klebanov-Strassler solutions. The warp factor is determined numerically and is subsequently used to calculate cosmological observables, including the scalar and tensor spectral indices, for a sample point in the parameter space. As one moves away from the Klebanov-Strassler (KS) solution for the throat, the warp factor is qualitatively different, which leads to a significant change for the observables, but also generically increases the non-Gaussianity of the models. We argue that the different models can potentially be differentiated by current and future experiments.

  13. Universality in quantum chaos and the one-parameter scaling theory.

    PubMed

    García-García, Antonio M; Wang, Jiao

    2008-02-22

    The one-parameter scaling theory is adapted to the context of quantum chaos. We define a generalized dimensionless conductance, g, semiclassically and then study Anderson localization corrections by renormalization group techniques. This analysis permits a characterization of the universality classes associated to a metal (g-->infinity), an insulator (g-->0), and the metal-insulator transition (g-->g(c)) in quantum chaos provided that the classical phase space is not mixed. According to our results the universality class related to the metallic limit includes all the systems in which the Bohigas-Giannoni-Schmit conjecture holds but automatically excludes those in which dynamical localization effects are important. The universality class related to the metal-insulator transition is characterized by classical superdiffusion or a fractal spectrum in low dimensions (d < or = 2). Several examples are discussed in detail.

  14. Learning Phenomenology with Heidegger: Experiencing the Phenomenological "Starting Point" as the Beginning of Phenomenological Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Quay, John

    2016-01-01

    Phenomenology has been with us for many years, and yet grasping phenomenology remains a difficult task. Heidegger, too, experienced this difficulty and devoted much of his teaching to the challenge of working phenomenologically. This article draws on aspects of Heidegger's commentary in progressing the teaching and learning of phenomenology,…

  15. Restoring particle phenomenology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Valente, Giovanni

    2015-08-01

    No-go theorems are known in the literature to the effect that, in relativistic quantum field theory, particle localizability in the strict sense violates relativistic causality. In order to account for particle phenomenology without particle ontology, Halvorson and Clifton (2002) proposed an approximate localization scheme. In a recent paper, Arageorgis and Stergiou (2013) proved a no-go result that suggests that, even within such a scheme, there would arise act-outcome correlations over the entire spacetime, thereby violating relativistic causality. Here, we show that this conclusion is untenable. In particular, we argue that one can recover particle phenomenology without having to give up relativistic causality.

  16. Phenomenology and Connectionism

    PubMed Central

    Yoshimi, Jeff

    2011-01-01

    I show how the dynamics of consciousness can be formally derived from the “open dynamics” of neural activity, and develop a mathematical framework for neuro-phenomenological investigation. I describe the space of possible brain states, the space of possible conscious states, and a “supervenience function” linking them. I show how this framework can be used to associate phenomenological structures with neuro-computational structures, and vice-versa. I pay special attention to the relationship between (1) the relatively fast dynamics of consciousness and neural activity, and (2) the slower dynamics of knowledge update and brain development. PMID:22121354

  17. Phenomenology and connectionism.

    PubMed

    Yoshimi, Jeff

    2011-01-01

    I show how the dynamics of consciousness can be formally derived from the "open dynamics" of neural activity, and develop a mathematical framework for neuro-phenomenological investigation. I describe the space of possible brain states, the space of possible conscious states, and a "supervenience function" linking them. I show how this framework can be used to associate phenomenological structures with neuro-computational structures, and vice-versa. I pay special attention to the relationship between (1) the relatively fast dynamics of consciousness and neural activity, and (2) the slower dynamics of knowledge update and brain development.

  18. Testing for homogeneity in meta-analysis I. The one-parameter case: standardized mean difference.

    PubMed

    Kulinskaya, Elena; Dollinger, Michael B; Bjørkestøl, Kirsten

    2011-03-01

    Meta-analysis seeks to combine the results of several experiments in order to improve the accuracy of decisions. It is common to use a test for homogeneity to determine if the results of the several experiments are sufficiently similar to warrant their combination into an overall result. Cochran's Q statistic is frequently used for this homogeneity test. It is often assumed that Q follows a chi-square distribution under the null hypothesis of homogeneity, but it has long been known that this asymptotic distribution for Q is not accurate for moderate sample sizes. Here, we present an expansion for the mean of Q under the null hypothesis that is valid when the effect and the weight for each study depend on a single parameter, but for which neither normality nor independence of the effect and weight estimators is needed. This expansion represents an order O(1/n) correction to the usual chi-square moment in the one-parameter case. We apply the result to the homogeneity test for meta-analyses in which the effects are measured by the standardized mean difference (Cohen's d-statistic). In this situation, we recommend approximating the null distribution of Q by a chi-square distribution with fractional degrees of freedom that are estimated from the data using our expansion for the mean of Q. The resulting homogeneity test is substantially more accurate than the currently used test. We provide a program available at the Paper Information link at the Biometrics website http://www.biometrics.tibs.org for making the necessary calculations.

  19. The Phenomenology of Democracy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shaw, Robert

    2009-01-01

    Human beings originate votes, and democracy constitutes decisions. This is the essence of democracy. A phenomenological analysis of the vote and of the decision reveals for us the inherent strength of democracy and its deficiencies. Alexis de Tocqueville pioneered this form of enquiry into democracy and produced positive results from it.…

  20. Supersymmetry and Superstring Phenomenology

    SciTech Connect

    Gaillard, Mary K; Gaillard, Mary K.; Zumino, Bruno

    2008-05-05

    We briefly cover the early history of supersymmetry, describe the relation of SUSY quantum field theories to superstring theories and explain why they are considered a likely tool to describe the phenomenology of high energy particle theory beyond the Standard Model.

  1. Husserl, phenomenology and nursing.

    PubMed

    Paley, J

    1997-07-01

    Discussions of phenomenological research in nursing consistently appeal to either Husserl or Heidegger in justifying the technical and conceptual resources they deploy. This paper focuses on Husserl, and examines the relationship between his phenomenology and the accounts of it that are to be found in the nursing literature. Three central ideas are given particular attention: the phenomenological reduction, phenomena, and essence. It is argued that nurse researchers largely misunderstand these concepts and that, as a result, their version of Husserl's philosophy bears little resemblance to the original. A further consequence is that the project of identifying the 'essential structure' of a phenomenon, typically adopted by the nurse researchers who cite Husserl as an authority, comes close to being unintelligible. It is suggested that, while the methods used in 'phenomenological' nursing research may still have some legitimacy, they cannot achieve what they are alleged to achieve, and they should be detached from the framework of Husserlian ideas and terminology which is supposed to justify them.

  2. The Phenomenology of Pedagogic Observation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Van Manen, Max

    1979-01-01

    The intent of this paper is to begin a reflective discussion of the phenomenology of pedagogic observation. In doing this it borrows extensively from Beets and draws attention to one aspect of phenomenological method: the function of "example" in phenomenological inquiry. (Author/SJL)

  3. Paraphilias: phenomenology and classification.

    PubMed

    Money, J

    1984-04-01

    DSM-III incorrectly designates the majority of paraphilias as atypical. Only eight are named, and those because of their forensic history, rather than their pathology and therapeutic need. In this paper, thirty-odd paraphilias are subdivided into six categories on the basis of their phenomenological dynamics. The new concept of the developmental lovemap is introduced for the first time. A new treatment originated by the author in 1966 combines an androgen agonist with counseling therapy.

  4. Calculation of the transverse Nernst-Ettingshausen effect of semiconductor with standard zone by using one-parameter Fermi functions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mamedov, Bahtiyar Akber; Askerov, Iskender M.; Akkuş, Adem

    2017-02-01

    A new analytical approach is proposed for the evaluation of the transverse Nernst-Ettingshausen effect of semiconductor with standard zone in the case of weak magnetic field. The obtained formula is expressed in terms of the one-parameter Fermi functions. One of the authors proposed efficient formulae for accurate evaluation of the one-parameter Fermi functions. This method gives satisfying results for arbitrary values of parameters and allows us to evaluate accurately of the Nernst-Ettingshausen transverse effect. The results show that proposed algorithm has high efficiency and accuracy for theoretical evaluations of the Nernst-Ettingshausen transverse effect.

  5. Pragmatic phenomenological types.

    PubMed

    Goranson, Ted; Cardier, Beth; Devlin, Keith

    2015-12-01

    We approach a well-known problem: how to relate component physical processes in biological systems to governing imperatives in multiple system levels. The intent is to further practical tools that can be used in the clinical context. An example proposes a formal type system that would support this kind of reasoning, including in machines. Our example is based on a model of the connection between a quality of mind associated with creativity and neuropsychiatric dynamics: constructing narrative as a form of conscious introspection, which allows the manipulation of one's own driving imperatives. In this context, general creativity is indicated by an ability to manage multiple heterogeneous worldviews simultaneously in a developing narrative. 'Narrative' in this context is framed as the organizing concept behind rational linearization that can be applied to metaphysics as well as modeling perceptive dynamics. Introspection is framed as the phenomenological 'tip' that allows a perceiver to be within experience or outside it, reflecting on and modifying it. What distinguishes the approach is the rooting in well founded but disparate disciplines: phenomenology, ontic virtuality, two-sorted geometric logics, functional reactive programming, multi-level ontologies and narrative cognition. This paper advances the work by proposing a type strategy within a two-sorted reasoning system that supports cross-ontology structure. The paper describes influences on this approach, and presents an example that involves phenotype classes and monitored creativity enhanced by both soft methods and transcranial direct-current stimulation. The proposed solution integrates pragmatic phenomenology, situation theory, narratology and functional programming in one framework.

  6. Neutrinos: Theory and Phenomenology

    SciTech Connect

    Parke, Stephen

    2013-10-22

    The theory and phenomenology of neutrinos will be addressed, especially that relating to the observation of neutrino flavor transformations. The current status and implications for future experiments will be discussed with special emphasis on the experiments that will determine the neutrino mass ordering, the dominant flavor content of the neutrino mass eigenstate with the smallest electron neutrino content and the size of CP violation in the neutrino sector. Beyond the neutrino Standard Model, the evidence for and a possible definitive experiment to confirm or refute the existence of light sterile neutrinos will be briefly discussed.

  7. Chameleons and Their Phenomenology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khoury, Justin

    2016-03-01

    If dark energy consists of a light scalar field, it might be detectable as a ``fifth force'' between ordinary-matter objects, in potential conflict with precision tests of gravity. Chameleon fields and other theories with screening mechanisms, however, can evade these tests by suppressing the forces in regions of high density, such as the laboratory. The manifestation of chameleons therefore depends sensitively on their environment, which in turn leads to striking experimental signatures. I will review chameleon field theories, their phenomenology, and recent experimental constraints using atom interferometry.

  8. A method of phenomenological interviewing.

    PubMed

    Bevan, Mark T

    2014-01-01

    In this article I propose a method of interviewing for descriptive phenomenological research that offers an explicit, theoretically based approach for researchers. My approach enables application of descriptive phenomenology as a total method for research, and not one just focused on data analysis. This structured phenomenological approach to interviewing applies questions based on themes of experience contextualization, apprehending the phenomenon and its clarification. The method of questioning employs descriptive and structural questioning as well as novel use of imaginative variation to explore experience. The approach will help researchers understand how to undertake descriptive phenomenological research interviews.

  9. Phenomenology Depends on Human Nature

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reber, Rolf

    2006-01-01

    This paper comments on the article "Psychology and Phenomenology: A Clarification" by H. H. Kendler. Kendler contrasted objective phenomena going on in the mind with phenomenological convictions. He concluded, on the basis of a thoughtful analysis, that scientific psychology cannot validate moral principles, which have to be agreed upon by…

  10. Exploring the Phenomenology of Suicide

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pompili, Maurizio

    2010-01-01

    Phenomenology studies conscious experience as experienced from the subjective or first-person point of view. This paper was developed with the aim of shedding light on the phenomenology of suicide; that is, to focus on suicide as a phenomenon affecting a unique individual with unique motives for the suicidal act. To explore this topic, the author…

  11. Phenomenological Quantum Gravity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kimberly, Dagny; Magueijo, Joa~O.

    2005-08-01

    These notes summarize a set of lectures on phenomenological quantum gravity which one of us delivered and the other attended with great diligence. They cover an assortment of topics on the border between theoretical quantum gravity and observational anomalies. Specifically, we review non-linear relativity in its relation to loop quantum gravity and high energy cosmic rays. Although we follow a pedagogic approach we include an open section on unsolved problems, presented as exercises for the student. We also review varying constant models: the Brans-Dicke theory, the Bekenstein varying α model, and several more radical ideas. We show how they make contact with strange high-redshift data, and perhaps other cosmological puzzles. We conclude with a few remaining observational puzzles which have failed to make contact with quantum gravity, but who knows... We would like to thank Mario Novello for organizing an excellent school in Mangaratiba, in direct competition with a very fine beach indeed.

  12. Phenomenological nursing research: methodological insights derived from Heidegger's interpretive phenomenology.

    PubMed

    Mackey, Sandra

    2005-02-01

    The phenomenological approach is increasingly being utilised as the method structure for nursing research studies. However, the nursing literature is beginning to reflect a concern with nurse researchers' adoption of phenomenological methods without, at the same time, laying the philosophical and methodological foundations on which the method is built. It is important for nursing knowledge development through research that the choice of research methodology can be argued for, and is judged to be coherent with, both the philosophical tone of the research and the nature of the research question. In this article the concepts underpinning Heidegger's interpretive phenomenological philosophy are examined and discussed in terms of the methodological insights they provide for the conduct of nursing phenomenological research.

  13. Analytical and phenomenological studies of rotating turbulence

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mahalov, Alex; Zhou, YE

    1995-01-01

    A framework, which combines mathematical analysis, closure theory, and phenomenological treatment, is developed to study the spectral transfer process and reduction of dimensionality in turbulent flows that are subject to rotation. First, we outline a mathematical procedure that is particularly appropriate for problems with two disparate time scales. The approach which is based on the Green's method leads to the Poincare velocity variables and the Poincare transformation when applied to rotating turbulence. The effects of the rotation are now reflected in the modifications to the convolution of a nonlinear term. The Poincare transformed equations are used to obtain a time-dependent analog of the Taylor-Proudman theorem valid in the asymptotic limit when the non-dimensional parameter mu is identical to Omega(t) approaches infinity (Omega is the rotation rate and t is the time). The 'split' of the energy transfer in both direct and inverse directions is established. Secondly, we apply the Eddy-Damped-Quasinormal-Markovian (EDQNM) closure to the Poincare transformed Euler/Navier-Stokes equations. This closure leads to expressions for the spectral energy transfer. In particular, an unique triple velocity decorrelation time is derived with an explicit dependence on the rotation rate. This provides an important input for applying the phenomenological treatment of Zhou. In order to characterize the relative strength of rotation, another non-dimensional number, a spectral Rossby number, which is defined as the ratio of rotation and turbulence time scales, is introduced. Finally, the energy spectrum and the spectral eddy viscosity are deduced.

  14. A phenomenological model of the muscle as an active composite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chernous, D. A.; Shil'ko, S. V.

    2008-12-01

    A phenomenological model consisting of a spring, a contractive element, and a Voigt element is proposed for describing muscle functions. To refine the description of the mechanical behavior of muscle tissue, an additional, inertial element is introduced into the model. The contractive element is characterized based on the Hill equation. A technique is elaborated for identifying the parameters of the model from the experimental time-dependent length of the muscle during its isotonic contraction. The phenomenological model is used for describing the deformation of tailor's muscle of frogs under isotonic and isometric conditions.

  15. Southern Ocean eddy phenomenology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frenger, I.; Münnich, M.; Gruber, N.; Knutti, R.

    2015-11-01

    Mesoscale eddies are ubiquitous features in the Southern Ocean, yet their phenomenology is not well quantified. To tackle this task, we use satellite observations of sea level anomalies and sea surface temperature (SST) as well as in situ temperature and salinity measurements from profiling floats. Over the period 1997-2010, we identified over a million mesoscale eddy instances and were able to track about 105 of them over 1 month or more. The Antarctic Circumpolar Current (ACC), the boundary current systems, and the regions where they interact are hot spots of eddy presence, representing also the birth places and graveyards of most eddies. These hot spots contrast strongly to areas shallower than about 2000 m, where mesoscale eddies are essentially absent, likely due to topographical steering. Anticyclones tend to dominate the southern subtropical gyres, and cyclones the northern flank of the ACC. Major causes of regional polarity dominance are larger formation numbers and lifespans, with a contribution of differential propagation pathways of long-lived eddies. Areas of dominance of one polarity are generally congruent with the same polarity being longer-lived, bigger, of larger amplitude, and more intense. Eddies extend down to at least 2000 m. In the ACC, eddies show near surface temperature and salinity maxima, whereas eddies in the subtropical areas generally have deeper anomaly maxima, presumably inherited from their origin in the boundary currents. The temperature and salinity signatures of the average eddy suggest that their tracer anomalies are a result of both trapping in the eddy core and stirring.

  16. [Phenomenology of dreams].

    PubMed

    Pringuey, Dominique

    2011-10-01

    A phenomenology of dreams searches for meaning, with the aim not only of explaining but also of understanding the experience. What and who is it for? And what about the nearly forgotten dream among the moderns, the banal returning to the nightmare, sleepiness, or dreamlike reverie. Nostalgia for the dream, where we saw a very early state of light, not a ordinaire qu duel. Regret for the dreamlike splendor exceeded by the modeling power of modern aesthetics--film and the explosion of virtual imaging technologies. Disappointment at the discovery of a cognitive permanence throughout sleep and a unique fit with the real upon awaking? An excess of methodological rigor where we validate the logic of the dream, correlating the clinical improvement in psychotherapy and the ability to interpret one's own dreams. The dangerous psychological access when the dream primarily is mine, viewed as a veiled expression of an unspoken desire, or when the dream reveals to me, in an existential conception of man, through time and space, my daily life, my freedom beyond my needs. Might its ultimate sense also mean its abolition? From the story of a famous forgotten dream, based on unexpected scientific data emerges the question: do we dream to forget? The main thing would not be consciousness but confidence, when " the sleeping man, his regard extinguished, dead to himself seizes the light in the night " (Heraclitus).

  17. Phenomenology beyond the standard model

    SciTech Connect

    Lykken, Joseph D.; /Fermilab

    2005-03-01

    An elementary review of models and phenomenology for physics beyond the Standard Model (excluding supersymmetry). The emphasis is on LHC physics. Based upon a talk given at the ''Physics at LHC'' conference, Vienna, 13-17 July 2004.

  18. Phenomenological Mechanochemical of Damage and Radial Cracking in Brittle Substances

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grinfeld, Michael

    2015-06-01

    Basic principles of Phenomenological Mechanochemistry of Damage (PMD) have been formulated in Grinfeld and Wright (2002, 2004.) To some extent, it is a natural extension of the traditional damage theory, presented by Kachanov (1976.) Contrary to Kachanov's approach, the PMD theory includes, in addition to the bulk elastic energy, the energy associated with braking/recovery of chemical bonds. Therefore, in addition to the elasticity equations it includes the equation, describing evolution/dynamics of chemical bonds. Although ``chemical bonds'' is a nano-scale concept, we treat the bonds using phenomenological approach. The additional equation of damage evolution is of the rate type, thus, making the whole model rate-dependent (even in quasi-static approach.) In the paper, we review some earlier results and present the novel ones with emphasis on the rate-dependent effects.

  19. A methodology for determining interactions in probabilistic safety assessment models by varying one parameter at a time.

    PubMed

    Borgonovo, Emanuele

    2010-03-01

    In risk analysis problems, the decision-making process is supported by the utilization of quantitative models. Assessing the relevance of interactions is an essential information in the interpretation of model results. By such knowledge, analysts and decisionmakers are able to understand whether risk is apportioned by individual factor contributions or by their joint action. However, models are oftentimes large, requiring a high number of input parameters, and complex, with individual model runs being time consuming. Computational complexity leads analysts to utilize one-parameter-at-a-time sensitivity methods, which prevent one from assessing interactions. In this work, we illustrate a methodology to quantify interactions in probabilistic safety assessment (PSA) models by varying one parameter at a time. The method is based on a property of the functional ANOVA decomposition of a finite change that allows to exactly determine the relevance of factors when considered individually or together with their interactions with all other factors. A set of test cases illustrates the technique. We apply the methodology to the analysis of the core damage frequency of the large loss of coolant accident of a nuclear reactor. Numerical results reveal the nonadditive model structure, allow to quantify the relevance of interactions, and to identify the direction of change (increase or decrease in risk) implied by individual factor variations and by their cooperation.

  20. Quantum Gravity and Phenomenological Philosophy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rosen, Steven M.

    2008-06-01

    The central thesis of this paper is that contemporary theoretical physics is grounded in philosophical presuppositions that make it difficult to effectively address the problems of subject-object interaction and discontinuity inherent to quantum gravity. The core objectivist assumption implicit in relativity theory and quantum mechanics is uncovered and we see that, in string theory, this assumption leads into contradiction. To address this challenge, a new philosophical foundation is proposed based on the phenomenology of Maurice Merleau-Ponty and Martin Heidegger. Then, through the application of qualitative topology and hypernumbers, phenomenological ideas about space, time, and dimension are brought into focus so as to provide specific solutions to the problems of force-field generation and unification. The phenomenological string theory that results speaks to the inconclusiveness of conventional string theory and resolves its core contradiction.

  1. Functional constraints on phenomenological coefficients

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klika, Václav; Pavelka, Michal; Benziger, Jay B.

    2017-02-01

    Thermodynamic fluxes (diffusion fluxes, heat flux, etc.) are often proportional to thermodynamic forces (gradients of chemical potentials, temperature, etc.) via the matrix of phenomenological coefficients. Onsager's relations imply that the matrix is symmetric, which reduces the number of unknown coefficients is reduced. In this article we demonstrate that for a class of nonequilibrium thermodynamic models in addition to Onsager's relations the phenomenological coefficients must share the same functional dependence on the local thermodynamic state variables. Thermodynamic models and experimental data should be validated through consistency with the functional constraint. We present examples of coupled heat and mass transport (thermodiffusion) and coupled charge and mass transport (electro-osmotic drag). Additionally, these newly identified constraints further reduce the number of experiments needed to describe the phenomenological coefficient.

  2. Individualized assessment and phenomenological psychology.

    PubMed

    Fischer, C T

    1979-04-01

    Although there is growing openness to tailoring of assessment procedures and reports to the particular client, these efforts typically have been sporadic and incomplete. This article reviews a systematic approach to individualized assessment, one whose practices are referred to as collaborative, contextual, and interventional. Clinical examples of these practices are presented in terms of their grounding in phenomenological psychology. Prior to that, themes such as intentionality, situatedness, dialectics, structuralism, and hermeneutics are introduced briefly. Phenomenological psychology as such is not seen here as necessary for all individualized practices, but it is seen as a critical touchpoint for development of theory and further practices.

  3. Phenomenological Characteristics of College Dropouts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Waters Zelbovitz, Karyn T.

    2013-01-01

    This mixed methods study was designed to explore why students leave college before graduation and draws upon their phenomenological insights, educational experiences, and readmission reflections. This study used a convergent parallel design that matched the qualitative content from interviews and quantitative responses to questionnaires to…

  4. Teacher Reflection: A Phenomenological Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilson, Rebecca E.

    2013-01-01

    This study is concerned with the reflective practices of middle school teachers. Based on Dewey's theory of reflective practice and Schon's types of reflection, this experience is one of student learning, relationships, curriculum planning, and lesson delivery. This is a qualitative study using the research method of phenomenology through…

  5. Gifted Dropouts: A Phenomenological Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zabloski, James

    2010-01-01

    This qualitative phenomenological study of the life experiences of seven rural gifted individuals who dropped out of school investigated whether they shared commonalities that might have led to the phenomenon of dropping out. The problem was that no one had asked them to share their stories prior to this study. By searching for meaning in their…

  6. Naturalizing phenomenology - A philosophical imperative.

    PubMed

    Harney, Maurita

    2015-12-01

    Phenomenology since Husserl has always had a problematic relationship with empirical science. In its early articulations, there was Husserl's rejection of 'the scientific attitude', Merleau-Ponty's distancing of the scientifically-objectified self, and Heidegger's critique of modern science. These suggest an antipathy to science and to its methods of explaining the natural world. Recent developments in neuroscience have opened new opportunities for an engagement between phenomenology and cognitive science and through this, a re-thinking of science and its hidden assumptions more generally. This is so partly because of the shortcomings of conventional mechanistically-conceived science in dealing with complex and dynamic phenomena such as climate change, brain plasticity, the behaviour of collectives, the dynamics of various microbiological processes, etc. But it is also due to recent phenomenological scholarship focussed on the 'embodied' phenomenology of Husserl's Ideen II and Merleau Ponty's later ontology of nature which have helped to extend the insights of phenomenology beyond the narrowly 'human' to an understanding of nature (which includes the human) more generally. Thus re-contextualised, phenomenology is well placed to examine some of the assumptions that give rise to the reductionism and associated scientism which has characterised conventional science in its approach to the study of natural processes. In light of this, it might be suggested that the 'anti-science' of early articulations of phenomenology is more a hostility to the underlying assumptions of science as conventionally understood than to science itself - that it is scientism rather than science that is targeted. In this paper, I aim to show how a phenomenological naturalism might be seen as a necessary step towards the development of a non-reductionist and non-scientistic approach to scientific inquiry. A key to this is a reconceptualization of nature as inclusive of meanings and of mind. It

  7. Phenomenological model of visual acuity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gómez-Pedrero, José A.; Alonso, José

    2016-12-01

    We propose in this work a model for describing visual acuity (V) as a function of defocus and pupil diameter. Although the model is mainly based on geometrical optics, it also incorporates nongeometrical effects phenomenologically. Compared to similar visual acuity models, the proposed one considers the effect of astigmatism and the variability of best corrected V among individuals; it also takes into account the accommodation and the "tolerance to defocus," the latter through a phenomenological parameter. We have fitted the model to the V data provided in the works of Holladay et al. and Peters, showing the ability of this model to accurately describe the variation of V against blur and pupil diameter. We have also performed a comparison between the proposed model and others previously published in the literature. The model is mainly intended for use in the design of ophthalmic compensations, but it can also be useful in other fields such as visual ergonomics, design of visual tests, and optical instrumentation.

  8. A phenomenological approach to psychoprosthetics.

    PubMed

    Mills, Frederick B

    2013-05-01

    The phenomenology of human embodiment can advance the practitioner's understanding of the lived human body and in particular, what it means to incorporate a prosthetic device into one's body. In order for a prosthesis to be incorporated into the lived body of the patient, the prosthesis must arguably be integrated into the body schema. This article uses the phenomenology of Maurice Merleau-Ponty and others to identify three of the necessary conditions of embodiment that determine the body schema: corporeal understanding, transparency and sensorimotor feedback. It then examines the structure of each of these conditions of embodiment and how they impact the lived body's incorporation of prostheses and other artifacts. [Box: see text].

  9. [Social actors and phenomenologic modelling].

    PubMed

    Laflamme, Simon

    2012-05-01

    The phenomenological approach has a quasi-monopoly in the individual and subjectivity analyses in social sciences. However, the conceptual apparatus associated with this approach is very restrictive. The human being has to be understood as rational, conscious, intentional, interested, and autonomous. Because of this, a large dimension of human activity cannot be taken into consideration: all that does not fit into the analytical categories (nonrational, nonconscious, etc.). Moreover, this approach cannot really move toward a relational analysis unless it is between individuals predefined by its conceptual apparatus. This lack of complexity makes difficult the establishment of links between phenomenology and systemic analysis in which relation (and its derivatives such as recursiveness, dialectic, correlation) plays an essential role. This article intends to propose a way for systemic analysis to apprehend the individual with respect to his complexity.

  10. Phenomenological Modeling for Langmuir Monolayers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baptiste, Dimitri; Kelly, David; Safford, Twymun; Prayaga, Chandra; Varney, Christopher N.; Wade, Aaron

    Experimentally, Langmuir monolayers have applications in molecular optical, electronic, and sensor devices. Traditionally, Langmuir monolayers are described by a rigid rod model where the rods interact via a Leonard-Jones potential. Here, we propose effective phenomenological models and utilize Monte Carlo simulations to analyze the phase behavior and compare with experimental isotherms. Research reported in this abstract was supported by UWF NIH MARC U-STAR 1T34GM110517-01.

  11. Phenomenology of universal extra dimensions

    SciTech Connect

    Kong, Kyoungchul; Matchev, Konstantin T.; /Florida U.

    2006-10-01

    In this proceeding, the phenomenology of Universal Extra Dimensions (UED), in which all the Standard Model fields propagate, is explored. We focus on models with one universal extra dimension, compactified on an S{sub 1}/Z{sub 2} orbifold. We revisit calculations of Kaluza-Klein (KK) dark matter without an assumption of the KK mass degeneracy including all possible coannihilations. We then contrast the experimental signatures of low energy supersymmetry and UED.

  12. Inferring phenomenological models of Markov processes from data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rivera, Catalina; Nemenman, Ilya

    Microscopically accurate modeling of stochastic dynamics of biochemical networks is hard due to the extremely high dimensionality of the state space of such networks. Here we propose an algorithm for inference of phenomenological, coarse-grained models of Markov processes describing the network dynamics directly from data, without the intermediate step of microscopically accurate modeling. The approach relies on the linear nature of the Chemical Master Equation and uses Bayesian Model Selection for identification of parsimonious models that fit the data. When applied to synthetic data from the Kinetic Proofreading process (KPR), a common mechanism used by cells for increasing specificity of molecular assembly, the algorithm successfully uncovers the known coarse-grained description of the process. This phenomenological description has been notice previously, but this time it is derived in an automated manner by the algorithm. James S. McDonnell Foundation Grant No. 220020321.

  13. SOURCE PHENOMENOLOGY EXPERIMENTS IN ARIZONA

    SciTech Connect

    Jessie L. Bonner; Brian Stump; Mark Leidig; Heather Hooper; Xiaoning Yang; Rongmao Zhou; Tae Sung Kim; William R. Walter; Aaron Velasco; Chris Hayward; Diane Baker; C. L. Edwards; Steven Harder; Travis Glenn; Cleat Zeiler; James Britton; James F. Lewkowicz

    2005-09-30

    The Arizona Source Phenomenology Experiments (SPE) have resulted in an important dataset for the nuclear monitoring community. The 19 dedicated single-fired explosions and multiple delay-fired mining explosions were recorded by one of the most densely instrumented accelerometer and seismometer arrays ever fielded, and the data have already proven useful in quantifying confinement and excitation effects for the sources. It is very interesting to note that we have observed differences in the phenomenology of these two series of explosions resulting from the differences between the relatively slow (limestone) and fast (granodiorite) media. We observed differences at the two SPE sites in the way the rock failed during the explosions, how the S-waves were generated, and the amplitude behavior as a function of confinement. Our consortium's goal is to use the synergy of the multiple datasets collected during this experiment to unravel the phenomenological differences between the two emplacement media. The data suggest that the main difference between single-fired chemical and delay-fired mining explosion seismograms at regional distances is the increased surface wave energy for the latter source type. The effect of the delay-firing is to decrease the high-frequency P-wave amplitudes while increasing the surface wave energy because of the longer source duration and spall components. The results suggest that the single-fired explosions are surrogates for nuclear explosions in higher frequency bands (e.g., 6-8 Hz Pg/Lg discriminants). We have shown that the SPE shots, together with the mining explosions, are efficient sources of S-wave energy, and our next research stage is to postulate the possible sources contributing to the shear-wave energy.

  14. Phenomenological implementations of TMD evolution

    SciTech Connect

    Boglione, Mariaelena; Gonzalez Hernandez, Jose Osvaldo; Melis, Stefano; Prokudin, Alexey

    2015-03-01

    Although the theoretical set-up of TMD evolution appears to be well established, its phenomenological implementations still require special attention, particularly as far as the interplay between perturbative and non-perturbative contributions is concerned. These issues have been extensively studied in Drell-Yan processes, where they seem to be reasonably under control. Instead, applying the same prescriptions and methodologies to Semi-Inclusive Deep Inelastic (SIDIS) processes is, at present, far from obvious. Some of the controversies related to the applications of TMD Evolution to SIDIS processes will be discussed with practical examples, exploring different kinematical configurations of SIDIS experiments.

  15. Z' Phenomenology and the LHC

    SciTech Connect

    Rizzo, Thomas G.

    2006-10-17

    A brief pedagogical overview of the phenomenology of Z{prime} gauge bosons is ILC in determining Z{prime} properties is also discussed. and explore in detail how the LHC may discover and help elucidate the models, review the current constraints on the possible properties of a Z{prime} nature of these new particles. We provide an overview of the Z{prime} studies presented. Such particles can arise in various electroweak extensions of that have been performed by both ATLAS and CMS. The role of the the Standard Model (SM). We provide a quick survey of a number of Z{prime}.

  16. Next Generation Transport Phenomenology Model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Strickland, Douglas J.; Knight, Harold; Evans, J. Scott

    2004-01-01

    This report describes the progress made in Quarter 3 of Contract Year 3 on the development of Aeronomy Phenomenology Modeling Tool (APMT), an open-source, component-based, client-server architecture for distributed modeling, analysis, and simulation activities focused on electron and photon transport for general atmospheres. In the past quarter, column emission rate computations were implemented in Java, preexisting Fortran programs for computing synthetic spectra were embedded into APMT through Java wrappers, and work began on a web-based user interface for setting input parameters and running the photoelectron and auroral electron transport models.

  17. Thermodynamically admissible boundary conditions for the regularized 13 moment equations

    SciTech Connect

    Rana, Anirudh Singh; Struchtrup, Henning

    2016-02-15

    A phenomenological approach to the boundary conditions for linearized R13 equations is derived using the second law of thermodynamics. The phenomenological coefficients appearing in the boundary conditions are calculated by comparing the slip, jump, and thermal creep coefficients with linearized Boltzmann solutions for Maxwell’s accommodation model for different values of the accommodation coefficient. For this, the linearized R13 equations are solved for viscous slip, thermal creep, and temperature jump problems and the results are compared to the solutions of the linearized Boltzmann equation. The influence of different collision models (hard-sphere, Bhatnagar–Gross–Krook, and Maxwell molecules) and accommodation coefficients on the phenomenological coefficients is studied.

  18. Existential and Phenomenological Influences in Educational Philosophy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vandenberg, Donald

    1979-01-01

    Existentialism, methodology, phenomenology, and hermeneutics are defined as they apply to philosophy of education. A chronological presentation of the literature outlines the contributions of each. (JMF)

  19. Particle phenomenology on noncommutative spacetime

    SciTech Connect

    Joseph, Anosh

    2009-05-01

    We introduce particle phenomenology on the noncommutative spacetime called the Groenewold-Moyal plane. The length scale of spacetime noncommutativity is constrained from the CPT violation measurements in the K{sup 0}-K{sup 0} system and g-2 difference of {mu}{sup +}-{mu}{sup -}. The K{sup 0}-K{sup 0} system provides an upper bound on the length scale of spacetime noncommutativity of the order of 10{sup -32} m, corresponding to a lower energy bound E of the order of E > or approx. 10{sup 16} GeV. The g-2 difference of {mu}{sup +}-{mu}{sup -} constrains the noncommutativity length scale to be of the order of 10{sup -20} m, corresponding to a lower energy bound E of the order of E > or approx. 10{sup 3} GeV. We also present the phenomenology of the electromagnetic interaction of electrons and nucleons at the tree level on the noncommutative spacetime. We show that the distributions of charge and magnetization of nucleons are affected by spacetime noncommutativity. The analytic properties of electromagnetic form factors are also changed and it may give rise to interesting experimental signals.

  20. Cell phenomenology: The first phenomenon.

    PubMed

    Pattee, H H

    2015-12-01

    As a broad academic discipline phenomenology may be summarized as the study from a first person point of view of what appears to subjective human conscious experience. As a historical philosophical movement phenomenology was often motivated by the belief that subjective human experience is the proper foundation of all philosophy. I explore phenomena from a broader evolutionary and physical point of view. I consider a phenomenon as the subjective consequence of a physical interaction with an individual organism. In physical terms, a phenomenon requires some form of detection or measurement. What is detected is determined by the organism, and is potentially functional for the organism as a self or subject. The concept of function has meaning only for living organisms. The classical human mind-body problem is an ill-defined complicated case of the more general epistemic subject-object problem, which at the origin of life I reduce to the primitive symbol-matter problem. I argue that the first memory-based self-replicating unit, like a cell, is the most primitive case of a necessary symbol-matter distinction. The first phenomena, which include all forms or sensing, detection, and measurement, require a subject-object distinction, called the epistemic cut. It is only because of such a subject-object distinction that populations of individual subjects can selectively adapt to their environment by heritable variations. This basic evolutionary process requires distinguishing the individual's subjective phenomena from the objective events of inexorable physical laws.

  1. Quantum corrected spherical collapse: A phenomenological framework

    SciTech Connect

    Ziprick, Jonathan; Kunstatter, Gabor

    2010-08-15

    A phenomenological framework is presented for incorporating quantum gravity motivated corrections into the dynamics of spherically symmetric collapse. The effective equations are derived from a variational principle that guarantees energy conservation and the existence of a Birkhoff theorem. The gravitational potential can be chosen as a function of the areal radius to yield specific nonsingular static spherically symmetric solutions that generically have two horizons. For a specific choice of potential, the effective stress energy tensor violates only the dominant energy condition. The violations are maximum near the inner horizon and die off rapidly. A numerical study of the quantum corrected collapse of a spherically symmetric scalar field in this case reveals that the modified gravitational potential prevents the formation of a central singularity and ultimately yields a static, mostly vacuum, spacetime with two horizons. The matter 'piles up' on the inner horizon giving rise to mass inflation at late times. The Cauchy horizon is transformed into a null, weak singularity, but in contrast to Einstein gravity, the absence of a central singularity renders this null singularity stable.

  2. The phenomenological movement: implications for nursing research.

    PubMed

    Walters, A J

    1995-10-01

    This paper presents a comparison of the phenomenologies of Edmund Husserl and Martin Heidegger with the aim of highlighting some of the critical distinctions between these two 'schools' of phenomenology concerning the methodological implications of each approach for nursing research. Specifically, the paper examines: the implications of epistemology versus ontology; issues relating to validity; the involvement of the researcher, and aspects relating to interpretation.

  3. Phenomenological Research Methods for Counseling Psychology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wertz, Frederick J.

    2005-01-01

    This article familiarizes counseling psychologists with qualitative research methods in psychology developed in the tradition of European phenomenology. A brief history includes some of Edmund Husserl's basic methods and concepts, the adoption of existential-phenomenology among psychologists, and the development and formalization of qualitative…

  4. Some Phenomenological Aspects of the Peak Experience

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rosenblatt, Howard S.; Bartlett, Iris

    1976-01-01

    This article relates the psychological dynamics of "peak experiences" to two concepts, intentionality and paradoxical intention, within the philosophical orientation of phenomenology. A review of early philosophical theories of self (Kant and Hume) is presented and compared with the experiential emphasis found in the phenomenology of Husserl.…

  5. Teleology as Logical Phenomenology: Some Therapeutic Implications.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rychlak, Joseph F.

    Phenomenology is an important force in the development of psychological theory, rather than a variant type of counseling method. A distinction must be drawn between the sensory phenomenology in which gestaltists focus on sensory receptors, and logical pheomenology in which the grounding of belief or self-identity is viewed as a prediction or…

  6. Phenomenological Approaches in Psychology and Health Sciences

    PubMed Central

    Davidsen, Annette Sofie

    2013-01-01

    A whole family of qualitative methods is informed by phenomenological philosophy. When applying these methods, the material is analyzed using concepts from this philosophy to interrogate the findings and to enable greater theoretical analysis. However, the phenomenological approach represents different approaches, from pure description to those more informed by interpretation. Phenomenological philosophy developed from a discipline focusing on thorough descriptions, and only descriptions, toward a greater emphasis on interpretation being inherent in experience. An analogous development toward a broader acknowledgment of the need for interpretation, the influence of the relationship and the researcher, and the co-construction of the narrative is mirrored in qualitative analytic theory and the description of newer analytic methods as, for example, Interpretative Phenomenological Analysis and Critical Narrative Analysis, methods which are theoretically founded in phenomenology. This methodological development and the inevitable contribution of interpretation are illustrated by a case from my own research about psychological interventions and the process of understanding in general practice. PMID:23606810

  7. [Reflections on phenomenological research in nursing].

    PubMed

    Schoppmann, S; Pohlmann, M

    2000-12-01

    This essay is concerned with the question which philosophical traditions underpin the phenomenological perspective in nursing research. The word phenomenology is often used synonymously on the level of the theory of science as well as on the level of research methods. Besides the similarity in the designation of phenomenology as a philosophical tradition and as a research method, there are to be found a number of terms in the nursing literature, such as hermeneutic, interpretive or interpretative phenomenology. Therefore it is hard to differentiate between the various accounts and to use them for a concrete inquiry in nursing. The differences and the resulting consequences for phenomenological research methods shall be described whereby the ideas of Edmund Husserl and Martin Heidegger are taken into account.

  8. Observation and phenomenology of glueballs

    SciTech Connect

    Lindenbaum, S.J.

    1985-01-01

    The experimental evidence and the relevant phenomenology of glueballs are reviewed. The opinion is expressed that the glueball resonance explanation is the only viable one for the data on g/sub T/, g/sub T/sup 1//, and g/sub T/sup 11//. It is shown that alternative explanations are either incorrect, or do not fit the data, or both, leading to the conclusion that these states are probably produced by glueballs. The OZI rule is explained. Glueball masses and width are considered. Some conclusions are drawn regarding an OZI suppressed reaction ..pi../sup -/p ..-->.. phi phi n. Glueball candidates from the J/psi radiative decay are discussed. 44 refs., 16 figs. (LEW)

  9. Phenomenology of Large Nc QCD

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lebed, Richard F.

    1999-09-01

    These lectures are designed to introduce the methods and results of large N c QCD in a presentation intended for nuclear and particle physicists alike. Beginning with definitions and motivations of the approach, we demonstrate that all quark and gluon Feynman diagrams are organized into classes based on powers of 1/N c. We then show that this result can be translated into definite statements about mesons and baryons containing arbitrary numbers of constituents. In the mesons, numerous well-known phenomenological properties follow as immediate consequences of simply counting powers of N c, while for the baryons, quantitative large N c analyses of masses and other properties are seen to agree with experiment, even when large” N c is set equal to its observed value of 3. Large N c reasoning is also used to explain some simple features of nuclear interactions.

  10. Phenomenological theory giving the full statistics of the position of fluctuating pulled fronts.

    PubMed

    Brunet, E; Derrida, B; Mueller, A H; Munier, S

    2006-05-01

    We propose a phenomenological description for the effect of a weak noise on the position of a front described by the Fisher-Kolmogorov-Petrovsky-Piscounov equation or any other traveling-wave equation in the same class. Our scenario is based on four hypotheses on the relevant mechanism for the diffusion of the front. Our parameter-free analytical predictions for the velocity of the front, its diffusion constant and higher cumulants of its position agree with numerical simulations.

  11. Phenomenological theory giving the full statistics of the position of fluctuating pulled fronts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brunet, E.; Derrida, B.; Mueller, A. H.; Munier, S.

    2006-05-01

    We propose a phenomenological description for the effect of a weak noise on the position of a front described by the Fisher-Kolmogorov-Petrovsky-Piscounov equation or any other traveling-wave equation in the same class. Our scenario is based on four hypotheses on the relevant mechanism for the diffusion of the front. Our parameter-free analytical predictions for the velocity of the front, its diffusion constant and higher cumulants of its position agree with numerical simulations.

  12. Phenomenology as a paradigm of movement.

    PubMed

    Rapport, Frances; Wainwright, Paul

    2006-09-01

    Phenomenology is a well-founded qualitative methodology that is frequently used by nurse researchers and considered of value when addressing research questions in nursing practice and nurse education. However, at present, nurse researchers using phenomenology tend to divide phenomenological methodology into the descriptive and interpretive formats. The nursing literature suggests that there is a deep divide between researchers following the methodological underpinnings and basic precepts pertaining to these two camps. If we are to reach a clearer understanding of the theory underlying phenomenological methods it would be more helpful if we started to recognise that there are also important associations between transcendental and interpretive phenomenology. One such association is that a paradigm of movement exists that is not unique to transcendental and interpretive phenomenology but is common to them, as well as being inherent within a variety of fields of study. If we consider the universality of such imagery, looking to examples through parallel texts, we can obtain insights into phenomenology and its transposition into a workable scientific method that can be of use to the nurse researcher.

  13. The phenomenological mechanochemistry of damage and radial cracking

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grinfeld, Michael

    2017-01-01

    Traditional damage theory deals with distributed microcracks rather than with individual cracks. In its simplest form, this theory adds just one additional parameter to the set of classical thermodynamic parameters of deformable solids like strain and temperature. Basically, the traditional damage theory reflects only one experimental observation: The elastic moduli become smaller with growing damage. Contrary to the traditional damage theory, the Phenomenological Mechanochemistry of Damage (PMD) uses an energetic approach; it includes, in addition to the bulk elastic energy, the energy associated with braking/recovery of chemical bonds. Therefore, in addition to the elasticity equations, it includes the equation describing evolution/dynamics of chemical bonds. With the minimum amount of physically transparent assumptions, it allows the reproduction of radial cracking patterns that are often observed in experiments and nature. In this paper, we review some earlier results and present the novel ones with emphasis on the electro- or magnetostatics ponderomotive forces.

  14. A Paradox between IRT Invariance and Model-Data Fit When Utilizing the One-Parameter and Three-Parameter Models

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Custer, Michael; Sharairi, Sid; Yamazaki, Kenji; Signatur, Diane; Swift, David; Frey, Sharon

    2008-01-01

    The present study compared item and ability invariance as well as model-data fit between the one-parameter (1PL) and three-parameter (3PL) Item Response Theory (IRT) models utilizing real data across five grades; second through sixth as well as simulated data at second, fourth and sixth grade. At each grade, the 1PL and 3PL IRT models were run…

  15. Phenomenology of Active Galactic Nuclei

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leahy, J. P.

    1999-04-01

    I review the observational data on AGN, focusing especially on results that may be relevant to sub-parsec discs. After emphasizing the essential unity of the different AGN, from LINERs to quasars, I review several observational tracers which have been claimed to be produced by accretion discs. In most cases the interpretation of these data is ambiguous, but the recent detections of redshifted Fe K alpha by ASCA provide convincing evidence for discs. I briefly review the phenomenology of jets in AGN, and emphasize that jets are detected in all classes of AGN, and in radio-loud AGN comprise a major component of the energy budget. Evidence that jets are relativistic is now compelling for all types of radio-loud AGN and is accumulating even for radio-quiet objects. Data on jets provide a long-term record of AGN activity which constrains aspects of disc history including start-up times, alignment stability and precession, lifetimes, and recurrent activity. Finally, I discuss the distinction between radio-quiet and radio loud AGN, which is broad enough to suggest two fundamentally different types of central engine, although it may not be as clear-cut as is sometimes claimed. At present there is no consensus on the nature of this difference. I draw attention to the broad absorption line (BAL) phenomenon, which signposts powerful but uncollimated outflows in radio-quiet AGN, which may correspond to the powerful jets in the radio-loud objects.

  16. HEMP internal coupling phenomenology study

    SciTech Connect

    Kunz, K.S.; Hudson, H.G.; Breakall, J.K.; King, R.J.; Ziolkowski, R.; Madsen, N.; Peterson, J.; Pennock, S.T.

    1985-09-01

    This report documents a task sponsored by DNA to unravel the electromagnetic coupling problem associated with the interaction of the high altitude electromagnetic pulse HEMP) with typical aerospace systems. A bottom up approach to this task has been selected. In this approach, tools are developed for measuring and predicting the responses of simple test systems; from these measurements and predictions phenomenological understanding of the coupling mechanisms may be obtained and the tools may be verified. The construction and the experimental characterization of a test system embodying the fundamental features of an interior coupling problem, is discussed. Experimental, computational and analytical tools has been applied to this test system. Experimental measurements have revealed a pronounced modal interior response which has been closely replicated with the time domain three dimensional finite difference code G3DXL3. The persistence of these modes has been established analytically with an N-series analysis. Focusing and reflection effects as well as hot spot formation have been examined with the N-series analysis and with a time domain two-dimensional finite element code GEM2D.

  17. Phenomenology and its application in medicine.

    PubMed

    Carel, Havi

    2011-02-01

    Phenomenology is a useful methodology for describing and ordering experience. As such, phenomenology can be specifically applied to the first person experience of illness in order to illuminate this experience and enable health care providers to enhance their understanding of it. However, this approach has been underutilized in the philosophy of medicine as well as in medical training and practice. This paper demonstrates the usefulness of phenomenology to clinical medicine. In order to describe the experience of illness, we need a phenomenological approach that gives the body a central role and acknowledges the primacy of perception. I present such a phenomenological method and show how it could usefully illuminate the experience of illness through a set of concepts taken from Merleau-Ponty. His distinction between the biological body and the body as lived, analysis of the habitual body, and the notions of motor intentionality and intentional arc are used to capture the experience of illness. I then discuss the applications this approach could have in medicine. These include narrowing the gap between objective assessments of well-being in illness and subjective experiences which are varied and diverse; developing a more attuned dialogue between physicians and patients based on a thick understanding of illness; developing research methods that are informed by phenomenology and thus go beyond existing qualitative methods; and providing medical staff with a concrete understanding of the impact of illness on the life-world of patients.

  18. Schizophrenia: from phenomenology to neurobiology.

    PubMed

    Wong, Albert Hung Choy; Van Tol, Hubert H M

    2003-05-01

    Schizophrenia is a common and debilitating illness, characterized by chronic psychotic symptoms and psychosocial impairment that exact considerable human and economic costs. The literature in electronic databases as well as citations and major articles are reviewed with respect to the phenomenology, pathology, treatment, genetics and neurobiology of schizophrenia. Although studied extensively from a clinical, psychological, biological and genetic perspective, our expanding knowledge of schizophrenia provides only an incomplete understanding of this complex disorder. Recent advances in neuroscience have allowed the confirmation or refutation of earlier findings in schizophrenia, and permit useful comparisons between the different levels of organization from which the illness has been studied. Schizophrenia is defined as a clinical syndrome that may include a collection of diseases that share a common presentation. Genetic factors are the most important in the etiology of the disease, with unknown environmental factors potentially modulating the expression of symptoms. Schizophrenia is a complex genetic disorder in which many genes may be implicated, with the possibility of gene-gene interactions and a diversity of genetic causes in different families or populations. A neurodevelopmental rather than degenerative process has received more empirical support as a general explanation of the pathophysiology, although simple dichotomies are not particularly helpful in such a complicated disease. Structural brain changes are present in vivo and post-mortem, with both histopathological and imaging studies in overall agreement that the temporal and frontal lobes of the cerebral cortex are the most affected. Functional imaging, neuropsychological testing and clinical observation are also generally consistent in demonstrating deficits in cognitive ability that correlate with abnormalities in the areas of the brain with structural abnormalities. The dopamine and other

  19. Phenomenology of genius and psychopathology.

    PubMed

    Doerr-Zegers, Otto

    2003-01-01

    The relationship between genius and madness has been a subject of interest since the beginning of critical and philosophical thinking. Thus, Aristotle, in the Book XXX of the Problemata, asks himself "why are all extraordinary men in the fields of philosophy, politics, poetry and art melancholic?, adding afterwards: "...and some of them in such a way that they may suffer from pathologic manifestations whose origin is in the black bile". In the past decades the German author Tellenbach studied the personalities of several geniuses, both from fiction, such as Hamlet, and from reality, such as the writer von Kleist, concluding that they suffered from a specific form of depression that he called "Schwermut" (melancholy), which was supposedly different from the narrowly defined illness of depression. Other work done on this subject is the extensive study by the North American author Kay Jamison, who, after researching the biography and the tree of a long list of writers, composers and musicians, concluded that all of them had suffered to some degree from a bipolar disorder. This author strives to carry out a phenomenology of genius, and he finds that, together with other essential features, the geniuses always show forms of experiencing and/or of behaving which do not fall within the range that is considered normal, although they can not always be classified as pathological. His study is based on the analysis of the life and the work of three men whose genius could not be doubted: the naturalist Alexander von Humboldt, the philosopher Soeren Kierkegaard and the poet Rainer Maria Rilke. This author specially focuses on the last named, since in his later work he explicitly meditated on the suffering that has meant for him his condition of genius and what he considered the only way to overcome them: to be faithful to the work of art, whose fulfilment was imposed on him--to a certain degree from the endogenous--as an unavoidable imperative.

  20. Nonlinear dirac and diffusion equations in 1+1 dimensions from stochastic considerations

    PubMed

    Maharana

    2000-08-01

    We generalize the method of obtaining fundamental linear partial differential equations such as the diffusion and Schrodinger equation, the Dirac, and the telegrapher's equation from a simple stochastic consideration to arrive at a certain nonlinear form of these equations. A group classification through a one-parameter group of transformations for two of these equations is also carried out.

  1. Phenomenology as a resource for patients.

    PubMed

    Carel, Havi

    2012-04-01

    Patient support tools have drawn on a variety of disciplines, including psychotherapy, social psychology, and social care. One discipline that has not so far been used to support patients is philosophy. This paper proposes that a particular philosophical approach, phenomenology, could prove useful for patients, giving them tools to reflect on and expand their understanding of their illness. I present a framework for a resource that could help patients to philosophically examine their illness, its impact on their life, and its meaning. I explain the need for such a resource, provide philosophical grounding for it, and outline the epistemic and existential gains philosophy offers. Illness often begins as an intrusion on one's life but with time becomes a way of being. I argue that this transition impacts on core human features such as the experience of space and time, human abilities, and adaptability. It therefore requires philosophical analysis and response. The paper uses ideas from Husserl and Merleau-Ponty to present such a response in the form of a phenomenological toolkit for patients. The toolkit includes viewing illness as a form of phenomenological reduction, thematizing illness, and examining illness as altering the ill person's being in the world. I suggest that this toolkit could be offered to patients as a workshop, using phenomenological concepts, texts, and film clips to reflect on illness. I conclude by arguing that examining illness as a limit case of embodied existence deepens our understanding of phenomenology.

  2. The current dialogue between phenomenology and psychiatry: a problematic misunderstanding.

    PubMed

    Abettan, Camille

    2015-11-01

    A revival of the dialogue between phenomenology and psychiatry currently takes place in the best international journals of psychiatry. In this article, we analyse this revival and the role given to phenomenology in this context. Although this dialogue seems at first sight interesting, we show that it is problematic. It leads indeed to use phenomenology in a special way, transforming it into a discipline dealing with empirical facts, so that what is called "phenomenology" has finally nothing to do with phenomenology. This so-called phenomenology tallies however with what we have always called semiology. We try to explain the reasons why phenomenology is misused in that way. In our view, this transformation of phenomenology into an empirical and objectifying discipline is explained by the role attributed to phenomenology by contemporary authors, which is to solve the problems raised by the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders.

  3. Generalized Thomas-Fermi equations as the Lampariello class of Emden-Fowler equations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rosu, Haret C.; Mancas, Stefan C.

    2017-04-01

    A one-parameter family of Emden-Fowler equations defined by Lampariello's parameter p which, upon using Thomas-Fermi boundary conditions, turns into a set of generalized Thomas-Fermi equations comprising the standard Thomas-Fermi equation for p = 1 is studied in this paper. The entire family is shown to be non integrable by reduction to the corresponding Abel equations whose invariants do not satisfy a known integrability condition. We also discuss the equivalent dynamical system of equations for the standard Thomas-Fermi equation and perform its phase-plane analysis. The results of the latter analysis are similar for the whole class.

  4. The phenomenology of trapped inflation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pearce, Lauren; Peloso, Marco; Sorbo, Lorenzo

    2016-11-01

    Trapped inflation is a mechanism in which particle production from the moving inflaton is the main source of friction in the inflaton equation of motion. The produced fields source inflaton perturbations, which dominate over the vacuum ones. We review the computation of the perturbations performed in the original work and in a successive analysis that makes use of the effective field theory (EFT) of inflation. This second paper employs the power spectrum of the inflaton perturbations obtained in the original work, and obtains a bispectrum which parametrically agrees with that of the original work, even if it originates from a different operator. We show that one approximation used in the original work to compute the correlators of the produced quanta is invalid. We replace this approximation with an exact solution of the system of equations developed in the original work and obtain a different amplitude for the power spectrum of the inflaton perturbations, which has a significant consequence for the allowed region of parameter space in this mechanism. We then show that the operator responsible for the bispectrum in the EFT computation does not arise from the computational scheme developed in the original paper and that the agreement between the bispectra of the two works is also caused by the invalid approximation.

  5. Phenomenology as research method or substantive metaphysics? An overview of phenomenology's uses in nursing.

    PubMed

    Earle, Vicki

    2010-10-01

    In exploring phenomenological literature, it is evident that the term 'phenomenology' holds rather different meanings depending upon the context. Phenomenology has been described as both a philosophical movement and an approach to human science research. The phenomenology of Husserl, Heidegger, Gadamer, and Merleau-Ponty was philosophical in nature and not intended to provide rules or procedures for conducting research. The Canadian social scientist, van Manen, however, introduced specific guidelines for conducting human science research, which is rooted in hermeneutic phenomenology and this particular method has been employed in professional disciplines such as education, nursing, clinical psychology, and law. The purpose of this paper is to explore the difference between the phenomenological method as described by van Manen and that of other philosophers such as Husserl, Heidegger, Gadamer, and Merleau-Ponty. In so doing, the author aims to address the blurred boundaries of phenomenology as a research method and as a philosophical movement and highlight the influence of these blurred boundaries on nursing knowledge development.

  6. [An existential-phenomenological approach to consciousness].

    PubMed

    Langle, A

    2014-01-01

    The human beings are characterized as subjects. Their essence is understood as Person. A treatment which does not consider the subjective and the Person would not correspond their essence. For a feeling and autonomous being, consciousness plays a role but cannot fully correspond the being a person. This has a therapeutic impact on the treatment of unconscious patients and gives the treatment a specific access. Some instructions for the therapeutic application of the phenomenological-existential concept and the phenomenological attitude towards unconscious or brain traumatized patients are given. The role of consciousness for being human is briefly reflected from an existential perspective.

  7. Statistical turbulence theory and turbulence phenomenology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Herring, J. R.

    1973-01-01

    The application of deductive turbulence theory for validity determination of turbulence phenomenology at the level of second-order, single-point moments is considered. Particular emphasis is placed on the phenomenological formula relating the dissipation to the turbulence energy and the Rotta-type formula for the return to isotropy. Methods which deal directly with most or all the scales of motion explicitly are reviewed briefly. The statistical theory of turbulence is presented as an expansion about randomness. Two concepts are involved: (1) a modeling of the turbulence as nearly multipoint Gaussian, and (2) a simultaneous introduction of a generalized eddy viscosity operator.

  8. Supersymmetry and supergravity: Phenomenology and grand unification

    SciTech Connect

    Arnowitt, R. |; Nath, P.

    1993-12-31

    A survey is given of supersymmetry and supergravity and their phenomenology. Some of the topics discussed are the basic ideas of global supersymmetry, the minimal supersymmetric Standard Model (MSSM) and its phenomenology, the basic ideas of local supersymmetry (supergravity), grand unification, supersymmetry breaking in supergravity grand unified models, radiative breaking of SU(2) {times} U(1), proton decay, cosmological constraints, and predictions of supergravity grand unified models. While the number of detailed derivations are necessarily limited, a sufficient number of results are given so that a reader can get a working knowledge of this field.

  9. Phenomenological theory of kinetic friction for the solid lubricant film

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Braun, O. M.

    2008-07-01

    Molecular dynamics based on the Langevin equations with the coordinate- and velocity-dependent damping coefficients is used to investigate the friction properties of a 'hard' lubricant film confined between two solids, when the lubricant remains in the solid state during sliding. The dependence of the friction force on the temperature and sliding velocity in the smooth sliding regime is studied in detail for all three states of the lubricant: a lubricant with a crystalline structure, when the system exhibits a very low friction (superlubricity), an amorphous lubricant structure, which results in a high friction, and the liquid state of the lubricant film at high temperatures or velocities. A phenomenological theory of the kinetic friction is developed, which allows us to explain the simulation results and predict a variation of the friction properties with model parameters analytically.

  10. Exploring complete positivity in hierarchy equations of motion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Witt, B.; Rudnicki, Ł.; Tanimura, Y.; Mintert, F.

    2017-01-01

    We derive a purely algebraic framework for the identification of hierarchy equations of motion that induce completely positive dynamics and demonstrate the applicability of our approach with several examples. We find bounds on the violation of complete positivity for microscopically derived hierarchy equations of motion and construct well-behaved phenomenological models with strongly non-Markovian revivals of quantum coherence.

  11. The role of supersymmetry phenomenology in particle physics

    SciTech Connect

    Wells, James D.

    2000-12-14

    Supersymmetry phenomenology is an important component of particle physics today. I provide a definition of supersymmetry phenomenology, outline the scope of its activity, and argue its legitimacy. This essay derives from a presentation given at the 2000 SLAC Summer Institute.

  12. A Phenomenology of Outdoor Education Leader Experiences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Field, Stephanie C.; Lauzon, Lara L.; Meldrum, John T.

    2016-01-01

    Limited qualitative research exists on the experiences of outdoor education leaders. The purpose of this phenomenological study was to explore the job-related experiences of outdoor education leaders within and outside the workplace. Five participants who had experience as outdoor education leaders completed in-depth, one-on-one interviews about…

  13. Recovery from Psychosis: A Phenomenological Inquiry

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nixon, Gary; Hagen, Brad; Peters, Tracey

    2010-01-01

    While mainstream psychiatry tends to view psychosis as an enduring and chronic condition, there is growing interest in the possibility of recovery from psychosis. A phenomenological research method was utilized in interviewing 17 individuals who all self-identified as being in recovery from psychosis. The research question was, "What was the lived…

  14. Phenomenology of n - n ¯ oscillations revisited

    DOE PAGES

    Gardner, S.; Jafari, E.

    2015-05-22

    We revisit the phenomenology of n-n¯ oscillations in the presence of external magnetic fields, highlighting the role of spin. We show, contrary to long-held belief, that the n-n¯ transition rate need not be suppressed, opening new opportunities for its empirical study.

  15. Can An American Do Semiotic Phenomenology?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lanigan, Richard L.

    Divided into three sections, this paper explores semiotic phenomenology as a paradigm for communicology (a translation for the new French "comunicologie" and the "German Kommunikationgemeinschaft," which are used increasingly to suggest a qualitative and human signification as opposed to the quantitative and technological…

  16. Exploring Relationships in Education: A Phenomenological Inquiry

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Giles, David; Smythe, Elizabeth; Spence, Debra

    2012-01-01

    Research that seeks to understand the lived experience of the teacher-student relationship is not prevalent. This article reports on a phenomenological inquiry which explored the nature of this relationship in the context of teacher education. Participant's lived experiences were hermeneutically interpreted against the philosophical writings of…

  17. Professor Ninian Smart, Phenomenology and Religious Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Grady, Kevin

    2005-01-01

    I reply to L. Philip Barnes' assessment of the contributions of Ninian Smart and phenomenology to religious education. My argument is that Barnes first misconceives and then underestimates Smart's legacy. I sketch Smart's relevance to some current issues in religious education, suggesting that his thought helps us to avoid potentially damaging…

  18. Theory and phenomenology of supernova neutrinos

    SciTech Connect

    Lunardini, Cecilia

    2015-07-15

    The theory and phenomenology of supernova neutrinos is reviewed, with focus on the most recent advancements on the neutrino flux predicted by supernova numerical models, on neutrino oscillations inside the star and in the Earth, and on the physics of the diffuse supernova neutrino background. Future directions of research are briefly summarized.

  19. Alternative Education Completers: A Phenomenological Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Murray, Becky L.; Holt, Carleton R.

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore the elements of the alternative education experience significant to successful completion of the program. This phenomenological paradigm provided the framework for all aspects of the qualitative study. Students, parents, administrators, and staff members of two alternative programs in the southeast Kansas…

  20. A Phenomenological Study of Financial Knowledge Application

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nduku, Enita Bernice

    2012-01-01

    The intent of this qualitative phenomenological research study was to explore the influence of financial knowledge application and financial debts or freedom of traditional Texas college students. The study identified how financial knowledge application influenced whether traditional Texas college students do or do not accumulate debt. The study…

  1. Folk Phenomenology and the Offering of Teaching

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rocha, Samuel D.

    2016-01-01

    This article will move in five parts. It begins with some priming notes on the relationship between philosophy of education and curriculum theory. Then it rehearses a collage of selected passages from a recent book, "Folk Phenomenology: Education, Study, and the Human Person" (Rocha, 2015a). Then the author works in a more speculative…

  2. Phenomenology: A Review of the Literature

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Randles, Clint

    2012-01-01

    This article is a review of relevant literature on the use of phenomenology as a research methodology in education research, with a focus on music education research. The review is organized as follows: (a) general education, (b) music research, (c) music education research, (d) dissertations, (e) important figures, (f) themes, and (g) the future.…

  3. Why natural science needs phenomenological philosophy.

    PubMed

    Rosen, Steven M

    2015-12-01

    Through an exploration of theoretical physics, this paper suggests the need for regrounding natural science in phenomenological philosophy. To begin, the philosophical roots of the prevailing scientific paradigm are traced to the thinking of Plato, Descartes, and Newton. The crisis in modern science is then investigated, tracking developments in physics, science's premier discipline. Einsteinian special relativity is interpreted as a response to the threat of discontinuity implied by the Michelson-Morley experiment, a challenge to classical objectivism that Einstein sought to counteract. We see that Einstein's efforts to banish discontinuity ultimately fall into the "black hole" predicted in his general theory of relativity. The unavoidable discontinuity that haunts Einstein's theory is also central to quantum mechanics. Here too the attempt has been made to manage discontinuity, only to have this strategy thwarted in the end by the intractable problem of quantum gravity. The irrepressible discontinuity manifested in the phenomena of modern physics proves to be linked to a merging of subject and object that flies in the face of Cartesian philosophy. To accommodate these radically non-classical phenomena, a new philosophical foundation is called for: phenomenology. Phenomenological philosophy is elaborated through Merleau-Ponty's concept of depth and is then brought into focus for use in theoretical physics via qualitative work with topology and hypercomplex numbers. In the final part of this paper, a detailed summary is offered of the specific application of topological phenomenology to quantum gravity that was systematically articulated in The Self-Evolving Cosmos (Rosen, 2008a).

  4. Using Phenomenology to Conduct Environmental Education Research: Experience and Issues

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nazir, Joanne

    2016-01-01

    Recently, I applied a phenomenological methodology to study environmental education at an outdoor education center. In this article, I reflect on my experience of doing phenomenological research to highlight issues researchers may want to consider in using this type of methodology. The main premise of the article is that phenomenology, with its…

  5. The Domain-Specificity of Creativity: Insights from New Phenomenology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Julmi, Christian; Scherm, Ewald

    2015-01-01

    The question of the domain-specificity of creativity represents one of the key questions in creativity research. This article contributes to the discussion by applying insights from "new phenomenology," which is a phenomenological movement from Germany initiated by philosopher Hermann Schmitz. The findings of new phenomenology suggest…

  6. Putting phenomenology in its place: some limits of a phenomenology of medicine.

    PubMed

    Sholl, Jonathan

    2015-12-01

    Several philosophers have recently argued that phenomenology is well-suited to help understand the concepts of health, disease, and illness. The general claim is that by better analysing how illness appears to or is experienced by ill individuals--incorporating the first-person perspective--some limitations of what is seen as the currently dominant third-person or 'naturalistic' approaches to understand health and disease can be overcome. In this article, after discussing some of the main insights and benefits of the phenomenological approach, I develop three general critiques of it. First, I show that what is often referred to as naturalism tends to be misunderstood and/or misrepresented, resulting in straw-man arguments. Second, the concept of normality is often problematically employed such that some aspects of naturalism are actually presupposed by many phenomenologists of medicine. Third, several of the key phenomenological insights and concepts, e.g. having vs. being a body, the alienation of illness, the epistemic role of the first-person perspective, and the idea of health within illness, each bring with them new problems that limit their utility. While acknowledging the possible contributions of phenomenology, these criticisms point to some severe limitations of bringing phenomenological insights to bear on the problems facing philosophy of medicine that should be addressed if phenomenology is to add anything substantially new to its debates.

  7. Phenomenological models of vibration signals for condition monitoring and fault diagnosis of epicyclic gearboxes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lei, Yaguo; Liu, Zongyao; Lin, Jing; Lu, Fanbo

    2016-05-01

    Condition monitoring and fault diagnosis of epicyclic gearboxes using vibration signals are not as straightforward as that of fixed-axis gearboxes since epicyclic gearboxes behave quite differently from fixed-axis gearboxes in many aspects, like spectral structures. Aiming to present the spectral structures of vibration signals of epicyclic gearboxes, phenomenological models of vibration signals of epicyclic gearboxes are developed by algebraic equations and spectral structures of these models are deduced using Fourier series analysis. In the phenomenological models, all the possible vibration transfer paths from gear meshing points to a fixed transducer and the effects of angular shifts of planet gears on the spectral structures are considered. Accordingly, time-varying vibration transfer paths from sun-planet/ring-planet gear meshing points to the fixed transducer due to carrier rotation are given by window functions with different amplitudes. And an angular shift in one planet gear position is introduced in the process of modeling. After the theoretical derivations, three experiments are conducted on an epicyclic gearbox test rig and the spectral structures of collected vibration signals are analyzed. As a result, the effects of angular shifts of planet gears are verified, and the phenomenological models of vibration signals when a local fault occurs on the sun gear and the planet gear are validated, respectively. The experiment results demonstrate that the established phenomenological models in this paper are helpful to the condition monitoring and fault diagnosis of epicyclic gearboxes.

  8. Phenomenology and adapted physical activity: philosophy and professional practice.

    PubMed

    Standal, Øyvind F

    2014-01-01

    Through the increased use of qualitative research methods, the term phenomenology has become a quite familiar notion for researchers in adapted physical activity (APA). In contrast to this increasing interest in phenomenology as methodology, relatively little work has focused on phenomenology as philosophy or as an approach to professional practice. Therefore, the purpose of this article is to examine the relevance of phenomenology as philosophy and as pedagogy to the field of APA. First, phenomenology as philosophy is introduced through three key notions, namely the first-person perspective, embodiment, and life-world. The relevance of these terms to APA is then outlined. Second, the concept of phenomenological pedagogy is introduced, and its application and potential for APA are discussed. In conclusion, it is argued that phenomenology can help theorize ways of understanding human difference in movement contexts and form a basis of action-oriented research aiming at developing professional practice.

  9. Planetary Bootstrap: A Prelude to Biosphere Phenomenology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kazansky, Alexander B.

    2004-08-01

    This paper deals with systemic status as well as with some phenomenological and evolutionary aspects of biosphere. Biosphere is represented as multilevel autopoietic system in which different organizational levels are nested into each other. The conceptual model of punctuated epigenesis, biosphere evolutionary process is suggested, in which endogenous planetary organizational crises play role of evolutionary mechanism, creating novelty. The hypothesis is proposed, that the biosphere reaction on the humankind destructive activity reminds the distributed immune response of biological organism, described by F.Varela in his "cognitive immunology". The biosphere evolution is interpreted as the hermeneutical spiral of "Process Being" self-uncovering thus illustrating the historical process of transformation of biosphere as the type of Being in the periods of crises. Some arguments are adduced in favor of biosphere phenomenology development and application of the methods of second-order cybernetics to actual problems of planetary scale.

  10. Phenomenological Modeling of Infrared Sources: Recent Advances

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Leung, Chun Ming; Kwok, Sun (Editor)

    1993-01-01

    Infrared observations from planned space facilities (e.g., ISO (Infrared Space Observatory), SIRTF (Space Infrared Telescope Facility)) will yield a large and uniform sample of high-quality data from both photometric and spectroscopic measurements. To maximize the scientific returns of these space missions, complementary theoretical studies must be undertaken to interpret these observations. A crucial step in such studies is the construction of phenomenological models in which we parameterize the observed radiation characteristics in terms of the physical source properties. In the last decade, models with increasing degree of physical realism (in terms of grain properties, physical processes, and source geometry) have been constructed for infrared sources. Here we review current capabilities available in the phenomenological modeling of infrared sources and discuss briefly directions for future research in this area.

  11. Reenactment interviewing: a methodology for phenomenological research.

    PubMed

    Drew, N

    1993-01-01

    Reenactment is proposed as an alternative interviewing strategy for phenomenological research. Three techniques borrowed from the psychodramatic method, warming up, scene-setting and soliloquy, are described as they were used in interviews with nurses participating in a study of caregiver/patient relationships. The rationale for and implementation of the techniques are discussed. Indications of successful reenactment during an interview are described and discussed. The data suggest that skillfully directed reenactment can generate intensely vivid recall of memories experiences and emotions, engendering rich descriptions of participants' lived experience and subsequently, produces significant dialogue between interviewer and participant. Parallels are drawn between phenomenological research/philosophy and the philosophy of action upon which psychodramatic techniques are based.

  12. Phenomenological Lagrangians, gauge models and branes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zheltukhin, A. A.

    2017-03-01

    Phenomenological Lagrangians for physical systems with spontaneously broken symmetries are reformulated in terms of gauge field theory. Description of the Dirac p-branes in terms of the Yang-Mills- Cartan gauge multiplets interacting with gravity, is proved to be equivalent to their description as a closed dynamical system with the symmetry ISO(1, D - 1) spontaneously broken to ISO(1, p) × SO( D - p - 1).

  13. Phenomenological Studies of Macroscale Failure in Metals

    SciTech Connect

    Kashiwa, Bryan Andrew; Hull, Lawrence Mark

    2016-12-06

    Highlights of recent phenomenological studies of metal failure are given. Failure leading to spallation and fragmentation are typically of interest. The current ‘best model’ includes the following; a full history stress in tension; nucleation initiating dynamic relaxation; toward a tensile yield function; failure dependent on strain, strain rate, and temperature; a mean-preserving ‘macrodefect’ is introduced when failure occurs in tension; and multifield theoretical refinements

  14. Phenomenology in minimal theory of massive gravity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    De Felice, Antonio; Mukohyama, Shinji

    2016-04-01

    We investigate the minimal theory of massive gravity (MTMG) recently introduced. After reviewing the original construction based on its Hamiltonian in the vielbein formalism, we reformulate it in terms of its Lagrangian in both the vielbein and the metric formalisms. It then becomes obvious that, unlike previous attempts in the literature of Lorentz-violating massive gravity, not only the potential but also the kinetic structure of the action is modified from the de Rham-Gabadadze-Tolley (dRGT) massive gravity theory. We confirm that the number of physical degrees of freedom in MTMG is two at fully nonlinear level. This proves the absence of various possible pathologies such as superluminality, acausality and strong coupling. Afterwards, we discuss the phenomenology of MTMG in the presence of a dust fluid. We find that on a flat homogeneous and isotropic background we have two branches. One of them (self-accelerating branch) naturally leads to acceleration without the genuine cosmological constant or dark energy. For this branch both the scalar and the vector modes behave exactly as in general relativity (GR). The phenomenology of this branch differs from GR in the tensor modes sector, as the tensor modes acquire a non-zero mass. Hence, MTMG serves as a stable nonlinear completion of the self-accelerating cosmological solution found originally in dRGT theory. The other branch (normal branch) has a dynamics which depends on the time-dependent fiducial metric. For the normal branch, the scalar mode sector, even though as in GR only one scalar mode is present (due to the dust fluid), differs from the one in GR, and, in general, structure formation will follow a different phenomenology. The tensor modes will be massive, whereas the vector modes, for both branches, will have the same phenomenology as in GR.

  15. Phenomenology in minimal theory of massive gravity

    SciTech Connect

    Felice, Antonio De; Mukohyama, Shinji

    2016-04-15

    We investigate the minimal theory of massive gravity (MTMG) recently introduced. After reviewing the original construction based on its Hamiltonian in the vielbein formalism, we reformulate it in terms of its Lagrangian in both the vielbein and the metric formalisms. It then becomes obvious that, unlike previous attempts in the literature of Lorentz-violating massive gravity, not only the potential but also the kinetic structure of the action is modified from the de Rham-Gabadadze-Tolley (dRGT) massive gravity theory. We confirm that the number of physical degrees of freedom in MTMG is two at fully nonlinear level. This proves the absence of various possible pathologies such as superluminality, acausality and strong coupling. Afterwards, we discuss the phenomenology of MTMG in the presence of a dust fluid. We find that on a flat homogeneous and isotropic background we have two branches. One of them (self-accelerating branch) naturally leads to acceleration without the genuine cosmological constant or dark energy. For this branch both the scalar and the vector modes behave exactly as in general relativity (GR). The phenomenology of this branch differs from GR in the tensor modes sector, as the tensor modes acquire a non-zero mass. Hence, MTMG serves as a stable nonlinear completion of the self-accelerating cosmological solution found originally in dRGT theory. The other branch (normal branch) has a dynamics which depends on the time-dependent fiducial metric. For the normal branch, the scalar mode sector, even though as in GR only one scalar mode is present (due to the dust fluid), differs from the one in GR, and, in general, structure formation will follow a different phenomenology. The tensor modes will be massive, whereas the vector modes, for both branches, will have the same phenomenology as in GR.

  16. Hearing voices: A phenomenological-hermeneutic approach.

    PubMed

    Thomas, Philip; Bracken, Patrick; Leudar, Ivan

    2004-01-01

    The word "phenomenology" has a number of meanings. In this paper we briefly contrast the different meanings of the word in psychiatry and philosophy. We then consider the work of the philosophers Heidegger and Merleau-Ponty, as examples of what Hubert Dreyfus calls ontological phenomenology, in contrast to an epistemological approach. We present a brief outline of Merleau-Ponty's theory of embodiment, and contrast this with the dominant, epistemological (or Cartesian) view of experience. Through the example of a woman who experienced bereavement hallucinations, we try to show how this approach can open up a hermeneutic approach to the experience of hearing voices. An understanding of embodiment can help to counter reductionism, whether biological or social, and dualism (body/mind and mind/society). It is only when we consider the totality of human experience that we can understand its meaning. This has two main benefits. First, it legitimates the claims made by those who hear voices that their experiences are intrinsically meaningful. Second, it can provide a framework for those who work with voice hearers and who are interested in understanding these experiences. In this sense, phenomenology can become a valuable clinical tool.

  17. Photochemical Phenomenology Model for the New Millennium

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bishop, James; Evans, J. Scott

    2001-01-01

    The "Photochemical Phenomenology Model for the New Millennium" project tackles the issue of reengineering and extension of validated physics-based modeling capabilities ("legacy" computer codes) to application-oriented software for use in science and science-support activities. While the design and architecture layouts are in terms of general particle distributions involved in scattering, impact, and reactive interactions, initial Photochemical Phenomenology Modeling Tool (PPMT) implementations are aimed at construction and evaluation of photochemical transport models with rapid execution for use in remote sensing data analysis activities in distributed systems. Current focus is on the Composite Infrared Spectrometer (CIRS) data acquired during the CASSINI flyby of Jupiter. Overall, the project has stayed on the development track outlined in the Year 1 annual report and most Year 2 goals have been met. The issues that have required the most attention are: implementation of the core photochemistry algorithms; implementation of a functional Java Graphical User Interface; completion of a functional CORBA Component Model framework; and assessment of performance issues. Specific accomplishments and the difficulties encountered are summarized in this report. Work to be carried out in the next year center on: completion of testing of the initial operational implementation; its application to analysis of the CASSINI/CIRS Jovian flyby data; extension of the PPMT to incorporate additional phenomenology algorithms; and delivery of a mature operational implementation.

  18. Leptonic mixing, family symmetries, and neutrino phenomenology

    SciTech Connect

    Medeiros Varzielas, I. de; Gonzalez Felipe, R.; Serodio, H.

    2011-02-01

    Tribimaximal leptonic mixing is a mass-independent mixing scheme consistent with the present solar and atmospheric neutrino data. By conveniently decomposing the effective neutrino mass matrix associated to it, we derive generic predictions in terms of the parameters governing the neutrino masses. We extend this phenomenological analysis to other mass-independent mixing schemes which are related to the tribimaximal form by a unitary transformation. We classify models that produce tribimaximal leptonic mixing through the group structure of their family symmetries in order to point out that there is often a direct connection between the group structure and the phenomenological analysis. The type of seesaw mechanism responsible for neutrino masses plays a role here, as it restricts the choices of family representations and affects the viability of leptogenesis. We also present a recipe to generalize a given tribimaximal model to an associated model with a different mass-independent mixing scheme, which preserves the connection between the group structure and phenomenology as in the original model. This procedure is explicitly illustrated by constructing toy models with the transpose tribimaximal, bimaximal, golden ratio, and hexagonal leptonic mixing patterns.

  19. Michael Crotty and nursing phenomenology: criticism or critique?

    PubMed

    Barkway, P

    2001-09-01

    In 1996 Michael Crotty published the text Phenomenology and nursing research in which he criticised many nurse researchers' interpretation of the methodology of phenomenology and their utilisation of phenomenology as a method for undertaking qualitative nursing research. Crotty's thesis proposes that the research conducted by nurses is not phenomenology according to the European tradition, but a North American hybrid. Subsequently, debate has occurred amongst nurses as to whether Crotty's work is a scholarly, reasoned critique or a severe, judgmental, fault-finding criticism of nursing research. Considering the increasing utilisation of phenomenology as a methodology that informs nursing research, this debate is an important one and has implications for the conduct of research. This article examines this debate and the implications of Crotty's work for phenomenological research in nursing.

  20. An approach to the phenomenological analysis of data.

    PubMed

    Priest, Helena

    2003-01-01

    In this paper, Helena Priest describes and justifies a phenomenological research method that may be used to explore complex and nebulous concepts relevant to nursing and health care, for example, the concept of 'caring'. The history and development of Husserlian phenomenology are outlined, followed by an account of the use of phenomenology within nursing research. Tensions inherent in the use of Husserlian phenomenology in nursing research are noted. A phenomenological approach to data analysis, designed to address some of these tensions, is described and compared with several well-established phenomenological analysis strategies. Issues of reliability, validity and generalisability are discussed, as are limitations in the use of the approach, before conclusions relevant to healthcare researchers are drawn.

  1. Minimal relativistic three-particle equations

    SciTech Connect

    Lindesay, J.

    1981-07-01

    A minimal self-consistent set of covariant and unitary three-particle equations is presented. Numerical results are obtained for three-particle bound states, elastic scattering and rearrangement of bound pairs with a third particle, and amplitudes for breakup into states of three free particles. The mathematical form of the three-particle bound state equations is explored; constraints are set upon the range of eigenvalues and number of eigenstates of these one parameter equations. The behavior of the number of eigenstates as the two-body binding energy decreases to zero in a covariant context generalizes results previously obtained non-relativistically by V. Efimov.

  2. Phenomenology of Heavy Quarkonia and Quantum Chromodynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schmitz, Stefan Josef Anton

    Heavy quarkonia, the cc, b(')b, and soon to be discovered t(')t families of states, are studied in the framework of potential theory. The earlier proposed, flavor independent "Riverside"-potential is fit to masses of cc and b(')b states and their electronic widths are calculated. An unusual feature of the potential is the use of a parameter b which controls the small r or "asymptotic freedom" behavior and which can be related to the QCD scale parameter (LAMDA)(,MS). This param- eter b is virtually undetermined by the cc and b(')b spectra, merely excluding the range b < 4 or (LAMDA)(,MS) < 120MeV and slightly favoring (LAMDA)(,MS) (DBLTURN) 250MeV. It is shown how even minimal information on the t(')t states will restrict the (LAMDA)(,MS) value to a range of the order of 50MeV. A recent Lattice Gauge potential shows a remarkable closeness to the phenomenological approach. In view of the approximations involved, the difference between the two potentials is small. This difference is investigated in terms of the strong coupling constant (alpha) which can be extracted from both potentials. In the main r regime the Lattice Gauge (alpha) is markedly smaller than the phenomenological one. It is shown that the absence of intermediate, virtual quark loops in the Lattice Gauge calculation, i.e. the so-called quenched approximation, accounts for at least some and possibly most of that difference. Overall, the phenomenology of heavy quarkonia as studied in this work is in no conflict with QCD.

  3. Sour Fruits on the Trail: Renewing Phenomenological Practice

    PubMed Central

    De Monticelli, Roberta; Simionescu-Panait, Andrei

    2015-01-01

    This summer, Europe’s Journal of Psychology hosts a fruitful discussion about phenomenology, its method, the possibilities of application in today's context and its current troubled waters stemming from recent historical-ideological debates. Prof. Roberta De Monticelli offers lush and informative answers to provocative issues like overdriving the epoché, Heidegger's dark undertones, the relation between pedagogy and authorship in phenomenology and the idea of filtering politics through Husserlian phenomenology. PMID:27247664

  4. Sour Fruits on the Trail: Renewing Phenomenological Practice.

    PubMed

    De Monticelli, Roberta; Simionescu-Panait, Andrei

    2015-08-01

    This summer, Europe's Journal of Psychology hosts a fruitful discussion about phenomenology, its method, the possibilities of application in today's context and its current troubled waters stemming from recent historical-ideological debates. Prof. Roberta De Monticelli offers lush and informative answers to provocative issues like overdriving the epoché, Heidegger's dark undertones, the relation between pedagogy and authorship in phenomenology and the idea of filtering politics through Husserlian phenomenology.

  5. Research philosophy and Socrates: rediscovering the birth of phenomenology.

    PubMed

    Vivilaki, Victoria; Johnson, Martin

    2008-01-01

    Socrates can, to some extent, be credited with an original conception of what is now seen as 20th century phenomenology 'invented' by Heidegger. With phenomenology becoming more recognised as important in understanding health care and all its complexities, this article by Victoria Vivilaki and Martin Johnson provides a theoretical evaluation of some of the terminology and the underpinning philosophy used in recent phenomenological studies.

  6. Dark matter complementarity in the phenomenological MSSM

    SciTech Connect

    Ismail, Ahmed

    2014-06-24

    The lightest neutralino of the Minimal Supersymmetric Standard Model (MSSM) with R-parity conservation is one of the most well-studied dark matter (DM) candidates. Using a set of models in the 19-parameter phenomenological MSSM (pMSSM), we examine the abilities of XENON100/1T, LUX-ZEPLIN, Fermi, CTA, IceCube/DeepCore, and the LHC to study neutralino dark matter. We find that direct detection, indirect detection, neutrino telescope, and collider searches for minimal supersymmetry often fulfill concomitant roles.

  7. Phenomenology of Supersymmetric Large Extra Dimensions

    SciTech Connect

    Hewett, JoAnne L.

    2002-12-09

    We study the phenomenology of a supersymmetric bulk in the scenario of large extra dimensions. The virtual exchange of gravitino KK states in selectron pair production in polarized e{sup +}e{sup -} collisions is examined. The leading order operator for this exchange is dimension six, in contrast to that of graviton KK exchange which induces a dimension eight operator at lowest order. Some kinematic distributions for selectron production are presented. These processes yield an enormous sensitivity to the fundamental higher dimensional Planck scale.

  8. Phenomenology of electromagnetic coupling. Part II

    SciTech Connect

    King, R.J.; Ludwigsen, A.P.; Kunz, K.S.

    1985-08-01

    This report is the second of a planned series which summarize efforts at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory relating to phenomenology studies of back door coupling from several MHz to 10's of GHz. These studies are pertinent to high altitude EMP (HEMP), enhanced HEMP and microwave coupling. Part I dealt with coupling through apertures into large free-standing cavities having, at most, one interior cable. An overview of the effort is given, and a summary of the effects observed in Part I. The main effort since Part I has been devoted to Facilities Development, development of an interior coupling decomposition model and coupling experiments. Projected future effort is discussed.

  9. Phenomenological extraction of Transverse Momentum Dependent distributions

    SciTech Connect

    Prokudin, Alexei

    2011-10-24

    We discuss phenomenological extraction of Transverse Momentum Dependent Distributions (TMDs) from experimental data. At leading twist spin structure of spin-1/2 hadron can be described by 8 TMDs. TMDs reveal three-dimensional distribution of partons inside polarised nucleon. Experimentally these functions can be studied in polarised experiments using Spin Asymmetries in particular Single Spin Asymmetries (SSAs). We discuss transversity that measures distribution of transversely polarised quarks in a transversely polarised nucleon and Sivers distribution function that describes distribution of unpolarised quarks in a transversely polarised nucleon.

  10. Phenomenology and treatment of behavioural addictions.

    PubMed

    Grant, Jon E; Schreiber, Liana R N; Odlaug, Brian L

    2013-05-01

    Behavioural addictions are characterized by an inability to resist an urge or drive resulting in actions that are harmful to oneself or others. Behavioural addictions share characteristics with substance and alcohol abuse, and in areas such as natural history, phenomenology, and adverse consequences. Behavioural addictions include pathological gambling, kleptomania, pyromania, compulsive buying, compulsive sexual behaviour, Internet addiction, and binge eating disorder. Few studies have examined the efficacy of pharmacological and psychological treatment for the various behavioural addictions, and therefore, currently, no treatment recommendations can be made.

  11. Darboux transformation for the NLS equation

    SciTech Connect

    Aktosun, Tuncay; Mee, Cornelis van der

    2010-03-08

    We analyze a certain class of integral equations associated with Marchenko equations and Gel'fand-Levitan equations. Such integral equations arise through a Fourier transformation on various ordinary differential equations involving a spectral parameter. When the integral operator is perturbed by a finite-rank perturbation, we explicitly evaluate the change in the solution in terms of the unperturbed quantities and the finite-rank perturbation. We show that this result provides a fundamental approach to derive Darboux transformations for various systems of ordinary differential operators. We illustrate our theory by providing the explicit Darboux transformation for the Zakharov-Shabat system and show how the potential and wave function change when a simple discrete eigenvalue is added to the spectrum, and thus we also provide a one-parameter family of Darboux transformations for the nonlinear Schroedinger equation.

  12. The problem of psychopathology and phenomenology. What is viable and not viable in phenomenological psychiatry.

    PubMed

    Ramos-Gorostiza, Pablo; Adán-Manes, Jaime

    2013-01-01

    The epistemological underpinnings of psychiatric theory and practice have always been unstable. This reflects the essential contradiction existing between the task (the description and individuation of speech and behavior as psychopathological symptoms) and tools (semiotics). As a result of this contradiction, the history of psychiatry is one of permanent crisis in which there are moments of temporary stability as approaches that aim at organizing this mismatch between tasks and tools gain prevalence. However, these approaches can only offer a false sense of unity, consistency and progress. In this sense, a narrow perspective on a particular period may lead us to believe that psychiatry is just another medical specialty with its own specific theoretical framework like others. However, any such perspective overlooks the coexistence of different schools, disagreements, contradictions, global alternatives, etc. For a certain period of time, phenomenology was assumed to be as the solution for psychiatry’s internal contradiction. As we see it, phenomenology was only partially understood. Despite the great influence it exerted upon psychiatry worldwide, it finally fell into disuse as a mere empiricism. Husserl’s phenomenology was more thoroughly understood and better assimilated by other psychiatrists, and its influence has persisted to the present day. If we view phenomenology in its proper (Husserlian) sense, it is possible to understand psychopathology as a means of creating intelligibility and clarifying the uniqueness of psychiatry. On the other hand, if phenomenology is understood as a representational theory, it will eventually lead to an unavoidable relapse into psychologism, which has been the main path of psychiatry until now.

  13. Phenomenology of bibliotherapy in modifying teacher punitiveness.

    PubMed

    Marlowe, M; Maycock, G

    2000-09-01

    The authors examined the phenomenology of bibliotherapy and its effects in changing preservice teachers' punitive attitudes toward children. Participants (N = 29) were enrolled in a university course (Introduction to Emotional Disturbance). Five books by Torey Hayden, autobiographical accounts of teaching and building relationships with students with emotional and behavioral disorders, were read and discussed within the framework of group bibliotherapy. Participants completed a self-report rating form measuring their tendency toward punitiveness during the first and last weeks of the 15-week semester. Participants also completed a questionnaire measuring the bibliotherapeutic impact of reading Hayden's texts, and they kept journals about the experience of reading Hayden. Comparison of the group's pre- and post-measures on punitiveness showed a small, albeit significant decrease in punitiveness; decreased punitiveness was associated with the therapeutic impact of reading Hayden. Phenomenological analysis of the participants' journal entries revealed that the structure of the experience of reading Hayden was one of identification with the protagonist, leading to emotional and cognitive learning.

  14. Dissociative phenomenology of dissociative identity disorder.

    PubMed

    Dell, Paul F

    2002-01-01

    The goal of this study was to investigate the dissociative phenomenology of dissociative identity disorder (DID). The Multidimensional Inventory of Dissociation (MID) was administered to 34 patients with DID, 23 patients with dissociative disorder not otherwise specified (DDNOS), 52 patients with mixed psychiatric disorders, and 58 normal individuals. DID patients obtained significantly higher scores than the other three groups on 27 dissociation-related variables. DDNOS patients had significantly higher scores than normals and mixed psychiatric patients on 17 and 15 dissociation-related variables, respectively. The findings of the present study are virtually identical to a large body of replicated findings about the dissociative phenomenology of DID. This broad range of dissociation-related phenomena, which routinely occurs in individuals with DID, is largely absent from the DSM-IV-TR account of DID. Factor analysis of the 11 dimensions of dissociation that are measured by the MID extracted only one factor that accounted for 85% of the variance. It was concluded that dissociation is a unifactorial taxon or natural type that has different aspects or epiphenomena (i.e., amnesia, depersonalization, voices, trance, etc.).

  15. Phenomenology of microwave coupling. Part I

    SciTech Connect

    King, R.J.; Breakall, J.K.; Hudson, H.G.; Morrison, J.J.; McGevna, V.G.; Kunz, K.S.; Ludwigsen, A.P.; Gnade, D.K.

    1984-11-01

    Recent advances in the development of high power microwave sources have increased the potential for future deployment of microwave weapons. A key ingredient in being able to predict the vulnerability of military systems to such threats involves understanding the phenomenology of how electromagnetic energy couples into cavity-like objects, or the so-called back-door coupling. A similar but much longer standing problem is that of nuclear electromagnetic pulses (EMP) in which the frequencies extend up to several hundreds of MHz. However, compared to EMP coupling, microwave coupling (from 1 GHz to above 40 GHz) is distinctively different because the wavelength is comparable to the size of the ports of entry (apertures, seams, cracks, protruding connectors, etc.). These ports of entry and the interior configuration of a vulnerable system are no longer below cutoff, and can permit significant penetration of the microwave energy into susceptible electronic systems. In fact, these coupling paths can be highly resonant at certain microwave frequencies, making the shielding against microwave threats difficult. This report summarizes the initial efforts at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory to study the phenomenology of back door coupling at the low microwave frequencies (up to 2.5 GHz). These studies were limited to 2.5 GHz because the limitations of the Electromagnetic Transient Range Facility.

  16. Hermann Weyl's Phenomenological Contribution to Quantum Physics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mastrobisi, Giorgio J.

    On examining carefully Weyl's writings one realizes that the great mathematician from Göttingen in his researches follows the programmatic scheme of the binomial of "wissenschaftliche Erkenntnis" (scientific Knowledge) and "philosophische Besinnung" (philosophical Reflection). In 1954 in a retrospective writing he affirmed: «The formulation of Einstein's Theory of Relativity and the Laws of Gravitation, valid in this context and corroborated by experimental proofs turning to experience, constitute a method which combines "Wesenanalyse" with "mathematische Konstruktion" of convincing and excellent exemplarity». This conviction has conducted him to a close collaboration with A. Einstein (documented by punctual correspondence) for the decisive formulation of the "General Theory of Relativity", but also of the Theory of unified Field of Gravitation and Electromagnetism and therefore the following formulation of some fundamental principles of Quantum Physics. So Weyl's theoretical formation was marked by the devotion toward a mathematical formalization ("mathematische Konstruktion") of physical phenomena, reporting each of them to the causal structure of the "mathematical thinking" and geometry, contemporarely to a strong inclination toward the phenomenological "Analysis of essence". He brings really a notable quantity of considerations in that 1954 essay by the point of view of the decisive role that the "pure Phenomenology" of Edmund Husserl developed in the determination of his scientific activity.

  17. Personality disorders from a phenomenological perspective.

    PubMed

    Dörr Zengers, O

    2008-01-01

    Different studies have questioned the capacity of the categorical diagnostics to establish a clear distinction between the existence or not of a determined personality disorder. The dimensional perspective would approach more to reality, in the measure that it tries to measure the different intensity degrees in which these disorders are present in the patients. But its application is very laborious and besides, presupposes that those categories whose nuances it pretends to measure really exist. The foresaid leads us to appeal to phenomenological perspective, which seems to be more adequate for the study of complex realities, as it is the case of the personality and its disorders. The essential features of the phenomenological method in the sense of Husserl are described, as well as his contribution to the study of personality disorders. This can be summarized in three fundamental points: the ideal types, introduced in psychiatry by Karl Jaspers, the existential types, by Ludwig Binswanger, and the dialectic typologies and polarities, by Wolfgang Blankenburg and the undersigned. This author defines and develops each one of these concepts, aiming to show their advantages with respect to the categorical and dimensional systems.

  18. On Coupled Rate Equations with Quadratic Nonlinearities

    PubMed Central

    Montroll, Elliott W.

    1972-01-01

    Rate equations with quadratic nonlinearities appear in many fields, such as chemical kinetics, population dynamics, transport theory, hydrodynamics, etc. Such equations, which may arise from basic principles or which may be phenomenological, are generally solved by linearization and application of perturbation theory. Here, a somewhat different strategy is emphasized. Alternative nonlinear models that can be solved exactly and whose solutions have the qualitative character expected from the original equations are first searched for. Then, the original equations are treated as perturbations of those of the solvable model. Hence, the function of the perturbation theory is to improve numerical accuracy of solutions, rather than to furnish the basic qualitative behavior of the solutions of the equations. PMID:16592013

  19. Phenomenology of hybrid scenarios of neutrino dark energy

    SciTech Connect

    Antusch, Stefan; Dutta, Koushik; Das, Subinoy E-mail: subinoy@nyu.edu

    2008-10-15

    We study the phenomenology of hybrid scenarios of neutrino dark energy, where in addition to a so-called mass-varying neutrino (MaVaN) sector a cosmological constant (from a false vacuum) is driving the accelerated expansion of the universe today. For general power law potentials we calculate the effective equation of state parameter w{sub eff}(z) in terms of the neutrino mass scale. Due to the interaction of the dark energy field ('acceleron') with the neutrino sector, w{sub eff}(z) is predicted to become smaller than -1 for z>0, which could be tested in future cosmological observations. For the scenarios considered, the neutrino mass scale additionally determines which fraction of the dark energy is dynamical, and which originates from the 'cosmological-constant-like' vacuum energy of the false vacuum. On the other hand, the field value of the 'acceleron' field today as well as the masses of the right-handed neutrinos, which appear in the seesaw-type mechanism for small neutrino masses, are not fixed. This, in principle, allows us to realize hybrid scenarios of neutrino dark energy with a 'high-scale' seesaw where the right-handed neutrino masses are close to the GUT scale. We also comment on how MaVaN hybrid scenarios with 'high-scale' seesaw might help to resolve stability problems of dark energy models with non-relativistic neutrinos.

  20. Phenomenological investigations in high-altitude EMP (HEMP)

    SciTech Connect

    Cabayan, H.S.

    1984-07-01

    This report describes the presently available state-of-the-art analysis tools and extensions of these that are applicable to enhancing our understanding of the interaction and coupling phenomena associated with the high-altitude nuclear electromagnetic pulse (HEMP) and its effects on military systems. Such an in-depth understanding would provide the framework for a more scientific approach to system testing and hardening. In the report, we also briefly review past research programs in this area and evaluate the degree of their success. The emphasis in system assessment tools is placed on a probabilistic failure analysis approach that can provide a framework for vulnerabilities assessment and hardening. In coupling the emphasis is placed on a phenomenological understanding which involves a multifaceted approach involving analytical, computational, and experimental techniques in a complementary way. In component susceptibility, the emphasis is on the development of validated one, two and possibly three dimensional computer models that include the major physical phenomena such as heat and electronic transport equations. A gap exists in being able to express physics quantities in these codes in terms of nonlinear circuit parameters that can be used in the circuit codes.

  1. Supernatural supersymmetry: Phenomenological implications of anomaly-mediated supersymmetry breaking

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feng, Jonathan L.; Moroi, Takeo

    2000-05-01

    We discuss the phenomenology of supersymmetric models in which supersymmetry breaking terms are induced by the super-Weyl anomaly. Such a scenario is envisioned to arise when supersymmetry breaking takes place in another world, i.e., on another brane. We review the anomaly-mediated framework and study in detail the minimal anomaly-mediated model parametrized by only 3+1 parameters: Maux, m0, tan β, and sgn(μ). The renormalization group equations exhibit a novel ``focus point'' (as opposed to fixed point) behavior, which allows squark and slepton masses far above their usual naturalness bounds. We present the superparticle spectrum and highlight several implications for high energy colliders. Three lightest supersymmetric particle (LSP) candidates exist: the W-ino, the stau, and the tau sneutrino. For the W-ino LSP scenario, light W-ino triplets with the smallest possible mass splittings are preferred; such W-inos are within reach of run II Fermilab Tevatron searches. Finally, we study a variety of sensitive low energy probes, including b-->sγ, the anomalous magnetic moment of the muon, and the electric dipole moments of the electron and neutron.

  2. Equation poems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prentis, Jeffrey J.

    1996-05-01

    One of the most challenging goals of a physics teacher is to help students see that the equations of physics are connected to each other, and that they logically unfold from a small number of basic ideas. Derivations contain the vital information on this connective structure. In a traditional physics course, there are many problem-solving exercises, but few, if any, derivation exercises. Creating an equation poem is an exercise to help students see the unity of the equations of physics, rather than their diversity. An equation poem is a highly refined and eloquent set of symbolic statements that captures the essence of the derivation of an equation. Such a poetic derivation is uncluttered by the extraneous details that tend to distract a student from understanding the essential physics of the long, formal derivation.

  3. Penetration equations

    SciTech Connect

    Young, C.W.

    1997-10-01

    In 1967, Sandia National Laboratories published empirical equations to predict penetration into natural earth materials and concrete. Since that time there have been several small changes to the basic equations, and several more additions to the overall technique for predicting penetration into soil, rock, concrete, ice, and frozen soil. The most recent update to the equations was published in 1988, and since that time there have been changes in the equations to better match the expanding data base, especially in concrete penetration. This is a standalone report documenting the latest version of the Young/Sandia penetration equations and related analytical techniques to predict penetration into natural earth materials and concrete. 11 refs., 6 tabs.

  4. A Phenomenological Model of the Growth of Two-Species Atomic Bose-Einstein Condensates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pattinson, R. W.; Parker, N. G.; Proukakis, N. P.

    2014-04-01

    We introduce a phenomenological mean-field model to describe the growth of immiscible two-species atomic Bose-Einstein condensates towards some equilibrium. Our model is based on the coupled Gross-Pitaevskii equations with the addition of dissipative terms to account for growth. While our model may be applied generally, we take a recent Rb-Cs experiment [McCarron et al., Phys. Rev. A 84 011603(R) (2011)] as a case study. As the condensates grow, they can pass through ranging transient density structures which can be distinct from the equilibrium states, although such a model always predicts the predominance of one condensate species over longer evolution times.

  5. Merleau-Ponty's Phenomenology of Language and General Semantics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lapointe, Francois H.

    A survey of Maurice Merleau-Ponty's views on the phenomenology of language yields insight into the basic semiotic nature of language. Merleau-ponty's conceptions stand in opposition to Saussure's linguistic postulations and Korzybski's scientism. That is, if language is studied phenomenologically, the acts of speech and gesture take on greater…

  6. Crosscurrents: Phenomenology and Fond Memories of Bill Kell.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beere, Don

    The author clarifies, in a memorium address, how he experiences phenomenological ideas and how they apply to therapy and supervision. The phenomenological method called "epokhe" is defined as the "suspension of preconceptions" or "judgments" concerning a series of events, and, as a result, the achievement of greater clarity in experiencing those…

  7. Interpretive and Critical Phenomenological Crime Studies: A Model Design

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miner-Romanoff, Karen

    2012-01-01

    The critical and interpretive phenomenological approach is underutilized in the study of crime. This commentary describes this approach, guided by the question, "Why are interpretive phenomenological methods appropriate for qualitative research in criminology?" Therefore, the purpose of this paper is to describe a model of the interpretive…

  8. Phenomenology and Mass Communication Research: An Uncertain Past and a Promising Future.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Whitney, D. Charles; Barkin, Steve M.

    Future research on mass media and mass communication organizations might profitably emphasize phenomenological methods (phenomenology being an interpersonal, subjective reality construction as contrasted to an objective, rationalistic, institutional reality construction). Some major phenomenological concepts important to such research were…

  9. Phenomenology and the life sciences: Clarifications and complementarities.

    PubMed

    Sheets-Johnstone, Maxine

    2015-12-01

    This paper first clarifies phenomenology in ways essential to demonstrating its basic concern with Nature and its recognition of individual and cultural differences as well as commonalities. It furthermore clarifies phenomenological methodology in ways essential to understanding the methodology itself, its purpose, and its consequences. These clarifications show how phenomenology, by hewing to the dynamic realities of life itself and experiences of life itself, counters reductive thinking and "embodiments" of one kind and another. On the basis of these clarifications, the paper then turns to detailing conceptual complementarities between phenomenology and the life sciences, particularly highlighting studies in coordination dynamics. In doing so, it brings to light fundamental relationships such as those between mind and motion and between intrinsic dynamics and primal animation. It furthermore highlights the common concern with origins in both phenomenology and evolutionary biology: the history of how what is present is related to its inception in the past and to its transformations from past to present.

  10. Δ(54) flavor phenomenology and strings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carballo-Pérez, Brenda; Peinado, Eduardo; Ramos-Sánchez, Saúl

    2016-12-01

    Δ(54) can serve as a flavor symmetry in particle physics, but remains almost unexplored. We show that in a classification of semi-realistic ℤ 3 × ℤ 3 heterotic string orbifolds, Δ(54) turns out to be the most natural flavor symmetry, providing additional motivation for its study. We revisit its phenomenological potential from a low-energy perspective and subject to the constraints of string models. We find a model with Δ(54) arising from heterotic orbifolds that leads to the Gatto-Sartori-Tonin relation for quarks and charged-leptons. Additionally, in the neutrino sector, it leads to a normal hierarchy for neutrino masses and a correlation between the reactor and the atmospheric mixing angles, the latter taking values in the second octant and being compatible at three sigmas with experimental data.

  11. Automated adaptive inference of phenomenological dynamical models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Daniels, Bryan C.; Nemenman, Ilya

    2015-08-01

    Dynamics of complex systems is often driven by large and intricate networks of microscopic interactions, whose sheer size obfuscates understanding. With limited experimental data, many parameters of such dynamics are unknown, and thus detailed, mechanistic models risk overfitting and making faulty predictions. At the other extreme, simple ad hoc models often miss defining features of the underlying systems. Here we develop an approach that instead constructs phenomenological, coarse-grained models of network dynamics that automatically adapt their complexity to the available data. Such adaptive models produce accurate predictions even when microscopic details are unknown. The approach is computationally tractable, even for a relatively large number of dynamical variables. Using simulated data, it correctly infers the phase space structure for planetary motion, avoids overfitting in a biological signalling system and produces accurate predictions for yeast glycolysis with tens of data points and over half of the interacting species unobserved.

  12. JUNIOR JADE - containment phenomenology of decoupled events

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, C.W.

    1995-02-01

    With five 8 pound high-explosive experiments, the author has investigated aspects of the containment phenomenology of partially decoupled events. In three experiments he observed multiple fractures and little cavity growth. In the final two experiments there were no fractures and cavity volumes grew by factors of approximately two and three. With the five experiments a spectrum of results ranging from hydraulic fracture - like crack propagation through multiple fracture propagation to the no fracture, or fully contained, case, was observed. For the multiple fracture experiments a partial residual stress field may have controlled the release of the cavity pressure. Measurements of cavity pressure versus time provided containment diagnostics; post event mining allowed visual observation of the cavities and fractures.

  13. Toward a phenomenology of inner speaking.

    PubMed

    Hurlburt, Russell T; Heavey, Christopher L; Kelsey, Jason M

    2013-12-01

    Inner speaking is a common and widely discussed phenomenon of inner experience. Based on our studies of inner experience using Descriptive Experience Sampling (a qualitative method designed to produce high fidelity descriptions of randomly selected pristine inner experience), we advance an initial phenomenology of inner speaking. Inner speaking does occur in many, though certainly not all, moments of pristine inner experience. Most commonly it is experienced by the person as speaking in his or her own naturally inflected voice but with no sound being produced. In addition to prototypical instances of inner speaking, there are wide-ranging variations that fit the broad category of inner speaking and large individual differences in the frequency with which individuals experience inner speaking. Our observations are discrepant from what many have said about inner speaking, which we attribute to the characteristics of the methods different researchers have used to examine inner speaking.

  14. Phenomenology of strangeness production at high energies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nasser Tawfik, Abdel; Yassin, Hayam; Abo Elyazeed, Eman R.; Maher, Muhammad; Magied Diab, Abdel; Abdel Wahab, Magda; Abou El Dahab, Eiman

    2016-12-01

    The strange-quark occupation factor (γ_s) is determined from the statistical fit of the multiplicity ratio {K}^+/π+ in a wide range of nucleon-nucleon center-of-mass energies (\\sqrt{sNN} ). From this single-strange-quark subsystem, γ_s(\\sqrt{sNN}) was parametrized as a damped trigonometric functionality and successfully implemented into the hadron resonance gas model, at chemical semi-equilibrium. Various particle ratios including {K}^-/ π- , Λ/π- , and \\barΛ/π- are well reproduced. The phenomenology of γ_s(\\sqrt{sNN}) suggests that the hadrons (γs rises) at \\sqrt{sNN} ≃ 7 \\text{GeV} seem to undergo a phase transition to a mixed phase (γs decreases), which is then derived into partons (γs remains unchanged with increasing \\sqrt{sNN} ), at \\sqrt{sNN} ≃ 20 \\text{GeV} .

  15. [Phenomenology of multiculturalism and intercultural pluralism].

    PubMed

    Hoyos, Guillermo

    2012-01-01

    Multiculturalism is defined as the combination, within a given territory, of a social unit and a cultural plurality by way of exchanges and communications among actors who use different categories of expression, analysis and interpretation. A multiculturalist project should not promote a society that is split up into closed groups; on the contrary, it should set forth policies based on communication and cooperation processes among the cultural communities. To understand this concept, we will present the ontological basis of this phenomenonin the search for a communicational solution, with our startpoint being a phenomenological description of the way in which multiculturalism manifests to us in life; to later deepen into the meaning of the phenomenon,and finally offer a pluralist solution to the problems and challenges cultural differences bring about.

  16. Evaluation of Mesoscale Model Phenomenological Verification Techniques

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lambert, Winifred

    2006-01-01

    Forecasters at the Spaceflight Meteorology Group, 45th Weather Squadron, and National Weather Service in Melbourne, FL use mesoscale numerical weather prediction model output in creating their operational forecasts. These models aid in forecasting weather phenomena that could compromise the safety of launch, landing, and daily ground operations and must produce reasonable weather forecasts in order for their output to be useful in operations. Considering the importance of model forecasts to operations, their accuracy in forecasting critical weather phenomena must be verified to determine their usefulness. The currently-used traditional verification techniques involve an objective point-by-point comparison of model output and observations valid at the same time and location. The resulting statistics can unfairly penalize high-resolution models that make realistic forecasts of a certain phenomena, but are offset from the observations in small time and/or space increments. Manual subjective verification can provide a more valid representation of model performance, but is time-consuming and prone to personal biases. An objective technique that verifies specific meteorological phenomena, much in the way a human would in a subjective evaluation, would likely produce a more realistic assessment of model performance. Such techniques are being developed in the research community. The Applied Meteorology Unit (AMU) was tasked to conduct a literature search to identify phenomenological verification techniques being developed, determine if any are ready to use operationally, and outline the steps needed to implement any operationally-ready techniques into the Advanced Weather Information Processing System (AWIPS). The AMU conducted a search of all literature on the topic of phenomenological-based mesoscale model verification techniques and found 10 different techniques in various stages of development. Six of the techniques were developed to verify precipitation forecasts, one

  17. Automated adaptive inference of phenomenological dynamical models

    PubMed Central

    Daniels, Bryan C.; Nemenman, Ilya

    2015-01-01

    Dynamics of complex systems is often driven by large and intricate networks of microscopic interactions, whose sheer size obfuscates understanding. With limited experimental data, many parameters of such dynamics are unknown, and thus detailed, mechanistic models risk overfitting and making faulty predictions. At the other extreme, simple ad hoc models often miss defining features of the underlying systems. Here we develop an approach that instead constructs phenomenological, coarse-grained models of network dynamics that automatically adapt their complexity to the available data. Such adaptive models produce accurate predictions even when microscopic details are unknown. The approach is computationally tractable, even for a relatively large number of dynamical variables. Using simulated data, it correctly infers the phase space structure for planetary motion, avoids overfitting in a biological signalling system and produces accurate predictions for yeast glycolysis with tens of data points and over half of the interacting species unobserved. PMID:26293508

  18. Palatini actions and quantum gravity phenomenology

    SciTech Connect

    Olmo, Gonzalo J.

    2011-10-01

    We show that an invariant an universal length scale can be consistently introduced in a generally covariant theory through the gravitational sector using the Palatini approach. The resulting theory is able to capture different aspects of quantum gravity phenomenology in a single framework. In particular, it is found that in this theory field excitations propagating with different energy-densities perceive different background metrics, which is a fundamental characteristic of the DSR and Rainbow Gravity approaches. We illustrate these properties with a particular gravitational model and explicitly show how the soccer ball problem is avoided in this framework. The isotropic and anisotropic cosmologies of this model also avoid the big bang singularity by means of a big bounce.

  19. The Phenomenology of Small-Scale Turbulence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sreenivasan, K. R.; Antonia, R. A.

    I have sometimes thought that what makes a man's work classic is often just this multiplicity [of interpretations], which invites and at the same time resists our craving for a clear understanding. Wright (1982, p. 34), on Wittgenstein's philosophy Small-scale turbulence has been an area of especially active research in the recent past, and several useful research directions have been pursued. Here, we selectively review this work. The emphasis is on scaling phenomenology and kinematics of small-scale structure. After providing a brief introduction to the classical notions of universality due to Kolmogorov and others, we survey the existing work on intermittency, refined similarity hypotheses, anomalous scaling exponents, derivative statistics, intermittency models, and the structure and kinematics of small-scale structure - the latter aspect coming largely from the direct numerical simulation of homogeneous turbulence in a periodic box.

  20. Self, Voices and Embodiment: A Phenomenological Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Rosen, C; Jones, N; Chase, KA; Grossman, LS; Gin, H; Sharma, RP

    2016-01-01

    Objective The primary aim of this study was to examine first-person phenomenological descriptions of the relationship between the self and Auditory Verbal Hallucinations (AVHs). Complex AVHs are frequently described as entities with clear interpersonal characteristics. Strikingly, investigations of first-person (subjective) descriptions of the phenomenology of the relationship are virtually absent from the literature. Method Twenty participants with psychosis and actively experiencing AVHs were recruited from the University of Illinois at Chicago. A mixed-methods design involving qualitative and quantitative components was utilized. Following a priority-sequence model of complementarity, quantitative analyses were used to test elements of emergent qualitative themes. Results The qualitative analysis identified three foundational constructs in the relationship between self and voices: ‘understanding of origin,’ ‘distinct interpersonal identities,’ and ‘locus of control.’ Quantitative analyses further supported identified links of these constructs. Subjects experienced their AVHs as having identities distinct from self and actively engaged with their AVHs experienced a greater sense of autonomy and control over AVHs. Discussion Given the clinical importance of AVHs and emerging strategies targeting the relationship between the hearer and voices, our findings highlight the importance of these relational constructs in improvement and innovation of clinical interventions. Our analyses also underscore the value of detailed voice assessments such as those provided by the Maastricht Interview are needed in the evaluation process. Subjects narratives shows that the relational phenomena between hearer and AVH(s) is dynamic, and can be influenced and changed through the hearers’ engagement, conversation, and negotiation with their voices. PMID:27099869

  1. Curriculum as Post-Intentional Phenomenological Text: Working along the Edges and Margins of Phenomenology Using Post-Structuralist Ideas

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vagle, Mark D.

    2015-01-01

    In this article, I experiment along the edges and margins of the phenomenological notion of intentionality using the Deleuzoguattarian concepts of multiplicity and line of flight. Working from Pinar et al.'s anticipation that phenomenology would undergo discursive shifts tending towards the post-structural, I theorize curriculum as…

  2. A phenomenological model for the chemo-responsive shape memory effect in amorphous polymers undergoing viscoelastic transition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lu, Haibao; Huang, Wei Min

    2013-11-01

    We present a phenomenological approach to study the viscoelastic transition and working mechanism of the chemo-responsive shape memory effect (SME) in amorphous shape memory polymers (SMPs). Both the copolymerization viscosity model and Doolittle equation are initially applied to quantitatively identify the influential factors behind the chemo-responsive SME in the SMPs exposure to a right solvent. After this, the Williams-Landel-Ferry (WLF) equation is employed to couple the viscosity (η), time-temperature shift factor (ατ) and glass transition temperature (Tg) in amorphous polymers. By means of combining the WLF and Arrhenius equations together, the inductively decreased transition temperature is confirmed as the driving force for the chemo-responsive SME. Finally, a phenomenological viscoelastic model is proposed and then verified by the available experimental data reported in the literature and then compared with the simulation results of a semi-empirical model. This phenomenological model is expected to provide a powerful simulation tool for theoretical prediction and experimental substantiation of the chemo-responsive SME in amorphous SMPs by viscoelastic transition.

  3. High-pressure two temperature equations of state

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eliezer, S.

    1989-01-01

    A phenomenological approach is suggested for calculating two temperature equations of state at high pressures. The Thomas-Fermi Dirac model and the SESAME equation of state are used to calculate the electron contribution while the solid gas interpolation method is used for ions. An algorithm to calculate the first and higher moments of the charge distribution within the framework of the Thomas-Fermi-Dirac model is proposed.

  4. On the phenomenology of empathy in nursing: empathy or sympathy?

    PubMed

    Yegdich, T

    1999-07-01

    In her recent phenomenological study Baillie attempted to describe the essential structure of empathy in surgical nursing. The study is important in that it utilizes a qualitative research method to investigate the phenomena of empathy, in contrast to previous quantitative studies. Although the phenomenological approach is clearly identified and ascribed to Husserl as the founder of the phenomenological movement, as well as utilizing the peculiarly Husserlian notion of bracketing, or epoché, in an attempt to describe the essence (another Husserlian objective) of the phenomenon under investigation (empathy), the research method does not reflect Husserl's philosophy. The results reflect nurses' subjective views on empathy, an exercise consistent with the nurse-phenomenologists quoted, who without exception, all believe Husserlian phenomenology concerns itself with subjective experience. However, in seeking the essence of phenomena unclouded by subjective opinion, Husserl stands in contrast to nursing interpretations of phenomenology's famous catch phrase, 'back to the things themselves' (zu den Sachen selbst). Nurse-phenomenologists have misunderstood the intention of Husserlian phenomenology, and despite their opposition to traditional scientific methods, are still mired in the Kantian notion of science as a reality independent of mind. A theme consistent with the 'things-in-themselves', not the things themselves. As such, nursing's use of the phenomenological method is questionable, and therefore the research findings on the phenomenon of empathy need to be reformulated. Interestingly, the phenomenon of empathy challenges us to question such underlying assumptions on how we view the world.

  5. Materials data base and design equations for the UCLA solid breeder blanket

    SciTech Connect

    Sharafat, S.; Amodeo, R.; Ghoniem, N.M.

    1986-02-01

    The materials and properties investigated for this blanket study are listed. The phenomenological equations and mathematical fits for all materials and properties considered are given. Efforts to develop a swelling equation based on the few experimental data points available for breeder materials are described. The sintering phenomena for ceramics is investigated.

  6. The Phenomenological Circle and the Unity of Life and Thought.

    PubMed

    Atwood, George E; Stolorow, Robert D

    2016-06-01

    This paper describes the important role of our deep immersions in philosophy in the development of our phenomenological-contextualist approach to psychoanalysis. Influenced most particularly by the phenomenological movement, our collaborative dialogue over more than four decades has led us to a shared commitment to reflection upon the philosophical underpinnings and constitutive contexts of origin of all our theoretical ideas. The growth of our thinking follows an endlessly recurring phenomenological circle joining theoretical perspectives with the inquirers from whose emotional worlds they arise.

  7. The cruel and unusual phenomenology of solitary confinement.

    PubMed

    Gallagher, Shaun

    2014-01-01

    What happens when subjects are deprived of intersubjective contact? This paper looks closely at the phenomenology and psychology of one example of that deprivation: solitary confinement. It also puts the phenomenology and psychology of solitary confinement to use in the legal context. Not only is there no consensus on whether solitary confinement is a "cruel and unusual punishment," there is no consensus on the definition of the term "cruel" in the use of that legal phrase. I argue that we can find a moral consensus on the meaning of "cruelty" by looking specifically at the phenomenology and psychology of solitary confinement.

  8. The cruel and unusual phenomenology of solitary confinement

    PubMed Central

    Gallagher, Shaun

    2014-01-01

    What happens when subjects are deprived of intersubjective contact? This paper looks closely at the phenomenology and psychology of one example of that deprivation: solitary confinement. It also puts the phenomenology and psychology of solitary confinement to use in the legal context. Not only is there no consensus on whether solitary confinement is a “cruel and unusual punishment,” there is no consensus on the definition of the term “cruel” in the use of that legal phrase. I argue that we can find a moral consensus on the meaning of “cruelty” by looking specifically at the phenomenology and psychology of solitary confinement. PMID:24971072

  9. A preliminary phenomenological study of being hypnotized and hypnotizing.

    PubMed

    Woodard, Fredrick James

    2005-10-01

    This paper presents phenomenological research conducted following Woodard's phenomenological and perceptual research methodology for understanding hypnotic experiencing. The research emphasizes examining the internal experiencings of individuals involved in hypnotic experiencing. Examples are presented of Individual Situated Structures and the General Structures from both a group of 8 participants who hypnotized their clients and another group of 17 individuals who volunteered to be hypnotized. The explicated themes identified in hypnotic experiencing (the hypnotic relationship, phenomenology of trance, use of imagination, problem with psychic energy, a gestalt of experiencing, and linear-nonlinear experiencing) are discussed. The author discusses limitations of this study and suggestions for further work.

  10. The phenomenology of maverick dark matter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krusberg, Zosia Anna Celina

    Astrophysical observations from galactic to cosmological scales point to a substantial non-baryonic component to the universe's total matter density. Although very little is presently known about the physical properties of dark matter, its existence offers some of the most compelling evidence for physics beyond the standard model (BSM). In the weakly interacting massive particle (WIMP) scenario, the dark matter consists of particles that possess weak-scale interactions with the particles of the standard model, offering a compelling theoretical framework that allows us to understand the relic abundance of dark matter as a natural consequence of the thermal history of the early universe. From the perspective of particle physics phenomenology, the WIMP scenario is appealing for two additional reasons. First, many theories of BSM physics contain attractive WIMP candidates. Second, the weak-scale interactions between WIMPs and standard model particles imply the possibility of detecting scatterings between relic WIMPs and detector nuclei in direct detection experiments, products of WIMP annihilations at locations throughout the galaxy in indirect detection programs, and WIMP production signals at high-energy particle colliders. In this work, we use an effective field theory approach to study model-independent dark matter phenomenology in direct detection and collider experiments. The maverick dark matter scenario is defined by an effective field theory in which the WIMP is the only new particle within the energy range accessible to the Large Hadron Collider (LHC). Although certain assumptions are necessary to keep the problem tractable, we describe our WIMP candidate generically by specifying only its spin and dominant interaction form with standard model particles. Constraints are placed on the masses and coupling constants of the maverick WIMPs using the Wilkinson Microwave Anisotropy Probe (WMAP) relic density measurement and direct detection exclusion data from both

  11. Navier-Stokes symmetry in the phenomenological transport theory for bacterial chemotaxis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rosen, Gerald

    1984-05-01

    It is observed that the Navier-Stokes space-time dilatation invariance (x-->-->λx-->,t-->λ2t) implies that the random motility and chemotactic flux function take the forms observed experimentally for motile Escherichia coli attracted by low concentrations of oxygen; moreover, the rate function for E. coli consumption of dissolved oxygen is required to have the form (const) × (local oxygen concentration)2/3. It is also noteworthy that the Schrödinger-Bloch function for redistribution of chemotactic bacteria cells is invariant under the space-time dilatation transformations if and only if the chemotactic flux coefficient-random motility ratio equals 2, a value in the range 1.1 to 2.5 observed experimentally by Holz and Chen in the oxygen chemotaxis of motile E. coli. Suitably specialized governing equations for the phenomenological transport theory also admit a Galilean transformation invariance symmetry if and only if the chemotactic flux coefficient-critical substrate diffusivity ratio equals -2 and the consumption rate function is simply linear in the local oxygen concentration. Applicable to the regime of viscous incompressible flows with Reynolds numbers much less than unity, the Navier-Stokes superposition invariance may also give rise to a corresponding invariance symmetry in equivalent but linear phenomenological transport equations.

  12. ‘Firewall’ phenomenology with astrophysical neutrinos

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Afshordi, Niayesh; Yazdi, Yasaman K.

    2016-12-01

    One of the most fundamental features of a black hole in general relativity is its event horizon: a boundary from which nothing can escape. There has been a recent surge of interest in the nature of these event horizons and their local neighbourhoods. In an attempt to resolve black hole information paradox(es), and more generally, to better understand the path towards quantum gravity, ‘firewalls’ have been proposed as an alternative to black hole event horizons. In this paper, we explore the phenomenological implications of black holes possessing a surface or ‘firewall’, and predict a potentially detectable signature of these firewalls in the form of a high energy astrophysical neutrino flux. We compute the spectrum of this neutrino flux in different models and show that it is a possible candidate for the source of the PeV neutrinos recently detected by IceCube. This opens up a new area of research, bridging the non-perturbative physics of quantum gravity with the observational black hole and high energy astrophysics.

  13. Dante's inferno: phenomenology of a strange passion.

    PubMed

    De Monticelli, R

    2000-01-01

    Dante's Inferno presents us with a spiritual adventure where the experience of wrath plays a crucial role. The infernal pilgrim's 'passage through wrath' is their only access to the lower part of Hell. Wrath - and the place where it is punished as a vice - occupy a very central position in the moral topography of Dante's Inferno: the Stygian Marsh, which defends the heart of Hell, its stronghold, and makes it inaccessible. Wrathfulness is situated at the borderline between 'carnal' and 'spiritual' sins, higher and lower Hell, weakness and wickedness of the will. What is the meaning of this situation? How is the sin of wrathfulness related to wrath as an expression of just indignation? How can the same passion have an angelical and an infernal face? What is anger's relation to reason? Does the trial gone through by the two pilgrims teach us something on the nature of this passion? Here are some questions which this paper tries to answer, thereby outlining a phenomenological theory of those passions which might be called 'dynamic'.

  14. Topics in TeV-scale phenomenology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krohn, David

    With the LHC turning on, the Tevatron running better than ever, and dark matter direct detection experiments pushing to ever higher sensitivities, we are on the cusp of a new era in particle physics. Over the next decade, these experiments will likely discover the mechanism responsible for electroweak symmetry breaking, and may well uncover the identity of particle dark matter. This thesis addresses some topics in the phenomenology of TeV-scale physics which we may hope to probe at these experiments. Chapter 1 serves as an introduction, reviewing physics at this scale and motivating phenomenologists' excitement and expectations. Chapter 2 discusses ways to incorporate dark matter particles into a particular model of electroweak symmetry breaking, making sure that they remains stable against anomalous decays. Chapter 3 discusses an interesting class of dark matter models which would leave a striking signal at direct detection experiments. Chapter 4 discusses a new collider based probe of electroweak symmetry breaking, designed to look for models that approximate the Standard Model at the electroweak scale, but which deviate from it at higher energies. Chapter 5 discusses another collider based measurement, this one designed to measure the polarized tops one expects from the decay of certain new-physics states. Finally, chapters 6 and 7 present two new jet algorithms, useful for interpreting messy collider data and looking for signals of new physics. Chapter 8 contains the conclusions.

  15. Phenomenology of Dirac Neutralino Dark Matter

    SciTech Connect

    Buckley, Matthew R.; Hooper, Dan; Kumar, Jason

    2013-09-01

    In supersymmetric models with an unbroken R-symmetry (rather than only R-parity), the neutralinos are Dirac fermions rather than Majorana. In this article, we discuss the phenomenology of neutralino dark matter in such models, including the calculation of the thermal relic abundance, and constraints and prospects for direct and indirect searches. Due to the large elastic scattering cross sections with nuclei predicted in R-symmetric models, we are forced to consider a neutralino that is predominantly bino, with very little higgsino mixing. We find a large region of parameter space in which bino-like Dirac neutralinos with masses between 10 and 380 GeV can annihilate through slepton exchange to provide a thermal relic abundance in agreement with the observed cosmological density, without relying on coannihilations or resonant annihilations. The signatures for the indirect detection of Dirac neutralinos are very different than predicted in the Majorana case, with annihilations proceeding dominately to $\\tau^+ \\tau^-$, $\\mu^+ \\mu^-$ and $e^+ e^-$ final states, without the standard chirality suppression. And unlike Majorana dark matter candidates, Dirac neutralinos experience spin-independent scattering with nuclei through vector couplings (via $Z$ and squark exchange), leading to potentially large rates at direct detection experiments. These and other characteristics make Dirac neutralinos potentially interesting within the context of recent direct and indirect detection anomalies. We also discuss the case in which the introduction of a small Majorana mass term breaks the $R$-symmetry, splitting the Dirac neutralino into a pair of nearly degenerate Majorana states.

  16. Phenomenological model for H-mode

    SciTech Connect

    Ohyabu, N.

    1985-08-01

    A phenomenological model has been developed to clarify the role of the boundary configuration in the heat transport of the H-mode regime. We assume that the dominant mechanism of heat loss at the edge of the plasma is convection and that the diffusion coefficient (D/sub edge/) at the edge of the plasma increases rapidly with plasma pressure, but drops to a low value when the temperature exceeds a certain threshold value. When particle refueling takes place without time delay, as in the case of a limiter discharge, the unfavorable temperature dependence of the D/sub edge/ prohibits even a modest rise of the edge temperature. In a divertor discharge, the particles lost from the closed surface are kept away from the edge region for a time comparable to or longer than the energy transport time in the edge region. Thus, rapid increase in the heat flux allows an excursion of the edge temperature to a higher value thereby reaching the threshold value of the H-transition.

  17. Phenomenological model for light-projectile breakup

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kalbach, C.

    2017-01-01

    Background: Projectile breakup can make a large contribution to reactions induced by projectiles with mass numbers 2, 3, and 4, yet there is no global model for it and no clear agreement on the details of the reaction mechanism. Purpose: This project aims to develop a phenomenological model for light-projectile breakup that can guide the development of detailed theories and provide a useful tool for applied calculations. Method: An extensive database of double-differential cross sections for the breakup of deuterons, 3He ions, and α particles was assembled from the literature and analyzed in a consistent way. Results: Global systematics for the centroid energies, peak widths, and angular distributions of the breakup peaks have been extracted from the data. The dominant mechanism appears to be absorptive breakup, where the unobserved projectile fragment fuses with the target nucleus during the initial interaction. The global target-mass-number and incident-energy dependencies of the absorptive breakup cross section have also been determined, along with channel-specific normalization constants. Conclusions: Results from the model generally agree with the original data after subtraction of a reasonable underlying continuum. Absorptive breakup can account for as much as 50%-60% of the total reaction cross section.

  18. New Dimensions for Randall-Sundrum Phenomenology

    SciTech Connect

    Davoudiasl, Hooman; Rizzo, Thomas G.

    2008-09-30

    We consider a 6D extension of the Randall-Sundrum (RS) model, RS6, where the Standard Model (SM) gauge fields are allowed to propagate in an additional dimension, compactified on S{sup 1} or S{sup 1}/Z{sub 2}. In a minimal scenario, fermions propagate in the 5D RS subspace and their localization provides a model of flavor. New Kaluza-Klein (KK) states, corresponding to excitations of the gauge fields along the 6th dimension, appear near the TeV scale. The new gauge KK modes behave differently from those in the 5D warped models. These RS6 states have couplings with strong dependence on 5D field localization and, within the SM, only interact with heavy fermions and the Higgs sector, to a very good approximation. Thus, the collider phenomenology of the new gauge KK states sensitively depends on the 5D fermion geography. We briefly discuss inclusion of SM fermions in all 6 dimensions, as well as the possibility of going beyond 6D.

  19. A phenomenological treatment of rotating turbulence

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zhou, YE

    1995-01-01

    The strong similarity between the magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) turbulence and initially isotropic turbulence subject to rotation is noted. We then apply the MHD phenomenologies of Kraichnan and Matthaeus & Zhou to rotating turbulence. When the turbulence is subject to a strong rotation, the energy spectrum is found to scale as E(k) = C(sub Omega)(Omega(sub epsilon))(sup 1/2)k(sup -2), where Omega is the rotation rate, k is the wavenumber, and epsilon is the dissipation rate. This spectral form is consistent with a recent letter by Zeman. However, here the constant C(sub Omega) is found to be related to the Kolmogorov constant and is estimated in the range 1.22 - 1.87 for the typical values of the latter constant. A 'rule' that relates spectral transfer times to the eddy turnover time and the time scale for decay of the triple correlations is deduced. A hypothesis for the triple correlation decay rate leads to the spectral law which varies between the '-5/3' (without rotation) and '-2' laws (with strong rotation). For intermediate rotation rates, the spectrum varies according to the value of a dimensionless parameter that measures the strength of the rotation wavenumber k(sub Omega) = (Omega(sup 3)/epsiolon)(sup 1/2) relative to the wavenumber k. An eddy viscosity is derived with an explicit dependence on the rotation rate.

  20. Nucleon-nucleon theory and phenomenology

    SciTech Connect

    Signell, P.

    1981-03-01

    This project involves five inter-related subprojects: (1) derivation of the intermediate range nucleon-nucleon interaction using a new method that utilizes much shorter and simpler analytic continuation through the unphysical region that lies between the ..pi..N and ..pi pi.. physical regions of the N anti N ..-->.. ..pi pi.. amplitude (with significantly improved accuracy for the nucleon-nucleon interaction); (2) construction of a short range phenomenological potential that, with the theoretical part mentioned above, gives a precise fit to the nucleon-nucleon data and is parameterized for easy use in nucleon calculations; (3) phase shift analyses of the world data below 400 MeV, especially the large amount of very precise data below 20 MeV and the new data near 55 MeV that have never been analyzed properly; (4) the introduction of a K-matrix formulation of the Optimal Polynomial Expansion in order to accelerate convergence of the partial wave series at LAMPF energies; and (5) setting up of a cooperatively evaluated permanent nucleon-nucleon data bank in the 0-1200 MeV range that can be used by all nucleon-nucleon reseachers.

  1. Experience of miscarriage: an interpretative phenomenological analysis

    PubMed Central

    Meaney, S; Corcoran, P; Spillane, N; O'Donoghue, K

    2017-01-01

    Objective The objective of the study was to explore the experiences of those who have experienced miscarriage, focusing on men's and women's accounts of miscarriage. Design This was a qualitative study using a phenomenological framework. Following in-depth semistructured interviews, analysis was undertaken in order to identify superordinate themes relating to their experience of miscarriage. Setting A large tertiary-level maternity hospital in Ireland. Participants A purposive sample of 16 participants, comprising 10 women and 6 men, was recruited. Results 6 superordinate themes in relation to the participant's experience of miscarriage were identified: (1) acknowledgement of miscarriage as a valid loss; (2) misperceptions of miscarriage; (3) the hospital environment, management of miscarriage; (4) support and coping; (5) reproductive history; and (6) implications for future pregnancies. Conclusions One of the key findings illustrates a need for increased awareness in relation to miscarriage. The study also indicates that the experience of miscarriage has a considerable impact on men and women. This study highlights that a thorough investigation of the underlying causes of miscarriage and continuity of care in subsequent pregnancies are priorities for those who experience miscarriage. Consideration should be given to the manner in which women who have not experienced recurrent miscarriage but have other potential risk factors for miscarriage could be followed up in clinical practice. PMID:28348180

  2. Photochemical Phenomenology Model for the New Millenium

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bishop, James; Evans, J. Scott

    2000-01-01

    This project tackles the problem of conversion of validated a priori physics-based modeling capabilities, specifically those relevant to the analysis and interpretation of planetary atmosphere observations, to application-oriented software for use in science and science-support activities. The software package under development, named the Photochemical Phenomenology Modeling Tool (PPMT), has particular focus on the atmospheric remote sensing data to be acquired by the CIRS instrument during the CASSINI Jupiter flyby and orbital tour of the Saturnian system. Overall, the project has followed the development outline given in the original proposal, and the Year 1 design and architecture goals have been met. Specific accomplishments and the difficulties encountered are summarized in this report. Most of the effort has gone into complete definition of the PPMT interfaces within the context of today's IT arena: adoption and adherence to the CORBA Component Model (CCM) has yielded a solid architecture basis, and CORBA-related issues (services, specification options, development plans, etc.) have been largely resolved. Implementation goals have been redirected somewhat so as to be more relevant to the upcoming CASSINI flyby of Jupiter, with focus now being more on data analysis and remote sensing retrieval applications.

  3. Phenomenology of flavon fields at the LHC

    SciTech Connect

    Tsumura, Koji; Velasco-Sevilla, Liliana

    2010-02-01

    We study low energy constraints from flavor violating processes, production, and decay at the LHC of a scalar field {phi} (flavon) associated to the breaking of a nonsupersymmetric Abelian family symmetry at the TeV scale. This symmetry is constrained to reproduce fermion masses and mixing, up to O(1) coefficients. The nonsupersymmetric gauged U(1) models considered are severely restricted by cancellation of anomalies and LEP bounds on contact interactions; consequently its phenomenology is out of the LHC reach. We therefore introduce an effective U(1) which is not gauged and is broken explicitly by a CP-odd term at the TeV scale. This helps us to explore flavor violating processes, production, and decay at the LHC for these kind of light scalars. In this context we first study the constraints on the flavon mass and its vacuum expectation value from low energy flavor changing processes such as {mu}{yields}e{gamma}. We find that a flavon of about m{sub {phi}}< or approx. 150 GeV could be experimentally allowed. These kinds of flavons could be significantly generated at the LHC via the gluon fusion mechanism and the single top production channel gu{yields}t{phi}. The produced flavons can have characteristic decay modes such as tc for m{sub {phi}}> or approx. m{sub t}, and {tau}{mu} for m{sub {phi}}< or approx. m{sub t}, which could be effectively useful to detect flavons.

  4. Phenomenological Theory of the Photoevaporation Front Instability

    SciTech Connect

    Ryutov, D D; Kane, J O; Mizuta, A; Pound, M W; Remington, B A

    2006-04-10

    The dynamics of photoevaporated molecular clouds is determined by the ablative pressure acting on the ionization front. An important step in the understanding of the ensuing motion is to develop the linear stability theory for the initially flat front. Despite the simplifications introduced by the linearization, the problem remains quite complex and still draws a lot of attention. The complexity is related to the large number of effects that have to be included in the analysis: acceleration of the front, possible temporal variation of the intensity of the ionizing radiation, the tilt of the radiation flux with respect to the normal to the surface, and partial absorption of the incident radiation in the ablated material. In this paper, we describe a model where all these effects can be taken into account simultaneously, and a relatively simple and universal dispersion relation can be obtained. The proposed phenomenological model may prove to be a helpful tool in assessing the feasibility of the laboratory experiments directed towards scaled modeling of astrophysical phenomena.

  5. Constrained Sypersymmetric Flipped SU (5) GUT Phenomenology

    SciTech Connect

    Ellis, John; Mustafayev, Azar; Olive, Keith A.; /Minnesota U., Theor. Phys. Inst. /Minnesota U. /Stanford U., Phys. Dept. /SLAC

    2011-08-12

    We explore the phenomenology of the minimal supersymmetric flipped SU(5) GUT model (CFSU(5)), whose soft supersymmetry-breaking (SSB) mass parameters are constrained to be universal at some input scale, Min, above the GUT scale, M{sub GUT}. We analyze the parameter space of CFSU(5) assuming that the lightest supersymmetric particle (LSP) provides the cosmological cold dark matter, paying careful attention to the matching of parameters at the GUT scale. We first display some specific examples of the evolutions of the SSB parameters that exhibit some generic features. Specifically, we note that the relationship between the masses of the lightest neutralino {chi} and the lighter stau {tilde {tau}}{sub 1} is sensitive to M{sub in}, as is the relationship between m{sub {chi}} and the masses of the heavier Higgs bosons A,H. For these reasons, prominent features in generic (m{sub 1/2}, m{sub 0}) planes such as coannihilation strips and rapid-annihilation funnels are also sensitive to Min, as we illustrate for several cases with tan {beta} = 10 and 55. However, these features do not necessarily disappear at large Min, unlike the case in the minimal conventional SU(5) GUT. Our results are relatively insensitive to neutrino masses.

  6. Constituent Quark Model Description of Charmonium Phenomenology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Segovia, J.; Entem, D. R.; Fernandez, F.; Hernandez, E.

    2013-10-01

    We review how quark models are able to describe the phenomenology of the charm meson sector. The spectroscopy and decays of charmonium and open charm mesons are described in a particular quark model and compared with the data and the results of other existing models in the literature. A quite reasonable global description of the heavy meson spectra is reached. A new assignment of the ψ(4415) resonance as a 3D state leaving aside the 4S state to the X(4360) is tested through the analysis of the resonance structure in e+e- exclusive reactions around the ψ(4415) energy region. We make tentative assignments of some of the XYZ mesons. To elucidate the structure of the 1+cs states, i.e., Ds1(2460) and Ds1(2536), we study the strong decay properties of the Ds1(2536) meson. We also perform a calculation of the branching fractions for the semileptonic decays of B and Bs mesons into final states containing orbitally excited charmed and charmed-strange mesons, which have become a very important source of information about the structure of heavy mesons. Analysis of the nonleptonic B-meson decays into D(*)DsJ are also included.

  7. Final Report String Phenomenology 2011: The Tenth Annual Meeting on String Phenomenology

    SciTech Connect

    Shiu, Gary; Everett, Lisa

    2011-08-26

    The Tenth Annual International String Phenomenology Conference was held at the University of Wisconsin, Madison on August 22-26, 2011. The Conference was organized by Profs. Gary Shiu and Lisa Everett, with the help of two postdoctoral fellows Heng-Yu Chen and Jiajun Xu. The scientific subjects of the talks and discussions were chosen to be widely interdisciplinary, reflecting the scope and maturity of the field. The conference brought together researchers of diverse subfields in physics and mathematics to present and discuss recent developments in connecting observable particle physics and cosmology with the domain of fundamental theory. This report summarizes the outcome of this conference.

  8. Conditions that Create Therapeutic Connection: A Phenomenological Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dollarhide, Colette T.; Shavers, Marjorie C.; Baker, Caroline A.; Dagg, David R.; Taylor, Demetra T.

    2012-01-01

    In this phenomenological study, counselor and client participants (N = 14) described the conditions that fostered meaningful therapeutic connections. Among all participants, consistent descriptors appeared that were rigorously synthesized into a detailed depiction of therapeutic contact. (Contains 2 figures.)

  9. Acute peritraumatic dissociation: in favor of a phenomenological inquiry.

    PubMed

    Ataria, Yochai

    2014-01-01

    Fundamental aspects of trauma--among them dissociation during trauma, which is considered one of the strongest predictors of posttraumatic stress disorder-are not fully understood. This article argues that the application of the phenomenological structure of time and the phenomenological description of the self (minimal self, sense of ownership, sense of agency, sense of self) to dissociation during trauma can improve our understanding of this phenomenon-at its occurrence and during any possible ensuing symptoms. In addition, it is argued that the phenomenological approach, as a method that focuses on the bodily level of experience, in particular the body as it is experienced from within, enables us to penetrate the traumatic experience. Thus, by applying the phenomenological approach we may be able to improve our understanding of the traumatic experience and enable the development of better treatment.

  10. Some exact solutions of a system of nonlinear Schroedinger equations in three-dimensional space

    SciTech Connect

    Moskalyuk, S.S.

    1988-02-01

    Interactions that break the symmetry of systems of nonrelativistic Schroedinger equations but preserve their symmetry with respect to one-parameter subgroups of the Schroedinger group are described. Ansatzes for invariant solutions and the corresponding systems of reduced equations in invariant variables for Galileo-invariant Schroedinger equations are found. Exact solutions for the system of nonlinear Schroedinger equations in three-dimensional space for the generalized Hubbard model are obtained.

  11. Autonomic energy conversion. I. The input relation: phenomenological and mechanistic considerations.

    PubMed

    Caplan, S R

    1968-10-01

    The differences between completely and incompletely coupled linear energy converters are discussed using suitable electrochemical cells as examples. The output relation for the canonically simplest class of self-regulated incompletely coupled linear energy converters has been shown to be identical to the Hill force-velocity characteristic for muscle. The corresponding input relation (the "inverse" Hill equation) is now derived by two independent methods. The first method is a direct transformation of the output relation through the phenomenological equations of the converter; Onsager symmetry has no influence on the result. The second method makes use of a model system, a hydroelectric device with a regulator mechanism which depends only on the operational limits of the converter (an electro-osmosis cell operated in reverse) and on the load. The inverse Hill equation is shown to be the simplest solution of the regulator equation. An interesting and testable series of relations between input and output parameters arises from the two forms of the Hill equation. For optimal regulation the input should not be greatly different in the two limiting stationary states (level flow and static head). The output power will then be nearly maximal over a considerable range of load resistance, peak output being obtained at close to peak efficiency.

  12. Beautiful equations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Viljamaa, Panu; Jacobs, J. Richard; Chris; JamesHyman; Halma, Matthew; EricNolan; Coxon, Paul

    2014-07-01

    In reply to a Physics World infographic (part of which is given above) about a study showing that Euler's equation was deemed most beautiful by a group of mathematicians who had been hooked up to a functional magnetic-resonance image (fMRI) machine while viewing mathematical expressions (14 May, http://ow.ly/xHUFi).

  13. Renormalization of tracer turbulence leading to fractional differential equations.

    PubMed

    Sánchez, R; Carreras, B A; Newman, D E; Lynch, V E; van Milligen, B Ph

    2006-07-01

    For many years quasilinear renormalization has been applied to numerous problems in turbulent transport. This scheme relies on the localization hypothesis to derive a linear transport equation from a simplified stochastic description of the underlying microscopic dynamics. However, use of the localization hypothesis narrows the range of transport behaviors that can be captured by the renormalized equations. In this paper, we construct a renormalization procedure that manages to avoid the localization hypothesis completely and produces renormalized transport equations, expressed in terms of fractional differential operators, that exhibit much more of the transport phenomenology observed in nature. This technique provides a first step toward establishing a rigorous link between the microscopic physics of turbulence and the fractional transport models proposed phenomenologically for a wide variety of turbulent systems such as neutral fluids or plasmas.

  14. Sport Sciences and the Promise of Phenomenology: Philosophy, Method, and Insight.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kerry, Daniel S.; Armour, Kathleen M.

    2000-01-01

    Examines how phenomenology might make a more significant contribution to knowledge and understanding within sport-related research. The paper discusses the philosophical roots of phenomenology; highlights the key contributions of and differences between Husserl and Heidegger; examines phenomenology as philosophy and phenomenology as method; and…

  15. Some phenomenology of intersecting D-brane models

    SciTech Connect

    Kane, Gordon L.; Kumar, Piyush; Lykken, Joseph D.; Wang, Ting T.; /Michigan U., MCTP

    2004-11-01

    We present some phenomenology of a new class of intersecting D-brane models. Soft SUSY breaking terms for these models are calculated in the complex structure (u)-moduli dominant SUSY breaking approach (in type IIA). In this case, the dependence of the soft terms on the Yukawas and Wilson lines drops out. These soft terms have a different pattern compared to the usual heterotic string models. Phenomenological implications for dark matter are discussed.

  16. Stroke rehabilitation and the phenomenological reconstitution of the self.

    PubMed

    Banja, John D

    2011-01-01

    This commentary will apply the notions of constitution and "phenomenological introspection" developed by phenomenology's founder Edmund Husserl to certain themes in Sharon Kaufman's 1988 essay, "Toward a Phenomenology of Boundaries in Medicine: Chronic Illness Experience in the Case of Stroke." The article will discuss how phenomenological analysis can provide important therapeutic insights about the lived experiences of stroke patients and their caregivers, especially as that experience is shaped in the immediate aftermath of a serious stroke. This article will also argue that phenomenology in and by itself is woefully inadequate for producing the kind of self-knowledge and political will needed to produce a socioeconomic environment that reasonably accommodates the needs of stroke patients. The article will end with a brief discussion of how an Eastern, particularly Buddhist, conception of the self is considerably more disability friendly than the one Westerners (phenomenologically) "constitute" and how the former's more realistic understanding of the trajectory of human functioning and its inevitable decline over a lifespan offers a superior platform for developing disability policy and care than its Western counterpart.

  17. From Husserl to van Manen. A review of different phenomenological approaches.

    PubMed

    Dowling, Maura

    2007-01-01

    This paper traces the development of phenomenology as a philosophy originating from the writings of Husserl to its use in phenomenological research and theory development in nursing. The key issues of phenomenological reduction and bracketing are also discussed as they play a pivotal role in the how phenomenological research studies are approached. What has become to be known as "new" phenomenology is also explored and the key differences between it and "traditional" phenomenology are discussed. van Manen's phenomenology is also considered in light of its contemporary popularity among nurse researchers.

  18. Supporting hemodialysis patients: A phenomenological study

    PubMed Central

    Shahgholian, Nahid; Yousefi, Hojatollah

    2015-01-01

    Background: Chronic renal disease and hemodialysis cause numerous psychological, social, cultural, and spiritual challenges for both patients and their families. Overcoming these challenges is possible only through providing holistic support for the patients. Today, despite the support provided by family and professional caregivers for the patients, patients still express dissatisfaction with the support provided and believe it to be inadequate. In fact, patients and family caregivers and healthcare practitioners seem to have different understandings of the notion of support. Thus, the researcher decided to examine the concept of support from the viewpoint of hemodialysis patients. Materials and Methods: This descriptive phenomenological research was conducted on 17 patients with end-stage renal disease (ESRD) who were undergoing hemodialysis. Purposive sampling was performed and continued until data saturation. Data were collected through 30–60 min unstructured interviews and analyzed using Colaizzi's method. Results: From the analysis of data, 4 themes (psychological support, accompaniment, social support, and spiritual support) and 11 sub-themes were obtained. Psychological support consisted of two sub-themes of psychological support by healthcare practitioners and emotional support by family and relatives. Accompaniment included three sub-themes of assistance in transportation, providing and using medicine, and daily activities. Social support was identified with four sub-themes of promotion of the society's understanding of the patients’ condition, improvement of communication with others, the need for employment, and independence. Spiritual support was identified with two sub-themes of the need for faith and trust in God or Imams and the need to resolve spiritual contradictions. Conclusion: The results showed that from the viewpoint of the participants, the concept of support consisted of psychological support, social support, accompanying the patient

  19. Marcus equation

    DOE R&D Accomplishments Database

    1998-09-21

    In the late 1950s to early 1960s Rudolph A. Marcus developed a theory for treating the rates of outer-sphere electron-transfer reactions. Outer-sphere reactions are reactions in which an electron is transferred from a donor to an acceptor without any chemical bonds being made or broken. (Electron-transfer reactions in which bonds are made or broken are referred to as inner-sphere reactions.) Marcus derived several very useful expressions, one of which has come to be known as the Marcus cross-relation or, more simply, as the Marcus equation. It is widely used for correlating and predicting electron-transfer rates. For his contributions to the understanding of electron-transfer reactions, Marcus received the 1992 Nobel Prize in Chemistry. This paper discusses the development and use of the Marcus equation. Topics include self-exchange reactions; net electron-transfer reactions; Marcus cross-relation; and proton, hydride, atom and group transfers.

  20. Master equation analysis of deterministic chemical chaos

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Hongli; Li, Qianshu

    1998-05-01

    The underlying microscopic dynamics of deterministic chemical chaos was investigated in this paper. We analyzed the master equation for the Williamowski-Rössler model by direct stochastic simulation as well as in the generating function representation. Simulation within an ensemble revealed that in the chaotic regime the deterministic mass action kinetics is related neither to the ensemble mean nor to the most probable value within the ensemble. Cumulant expansion analysis of the master equation also showed that the molecular fluctuations do not admit bounded values but increase linearly in time infinitely, indicating the meaninglessness of the chaotic trajectories predicted by the phenomenological equations. These results proposed that the macroscopic description is no longer useful in the chaotic regime and a more microscopic description is necessary in this circumstance.

  1. Scaling analysis of the conservation growth equation with temporally correlated noise

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Li-Ping; Tang, Gang; Xia, Hui; Hao, Da-Peng; Chen, Hua

    2004-07-01

    The effects of temporally correlated noise on the conservation growth are studied via the Flory-type approach introduced by Hentschel and Family (Phys. Rev. Lett. 66, (1991) 1982). This phenomenological equation contains the Kardar-Parisi-Zhang, Sun-Guo-Grant, and molecular-beam epitaxy growth equations as special cases and allows for a unified investigation of growth equations. The scaling exponents obtained here can be in good agreement with the corresponding results derived by previous scaling approach.

  2. A phenomenological model for intergranular failure by r-type and wedge-type cavitation

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, S.B.; Miller, A.K.

    1995-07-01

    Equations to predict local intergranular failure (by r-type and wedge-type cavitation and the coupling between them) have been developed. The derivation has utilized physically based concepts such as thermal activation of the controlling processes, wedge cracking driven by grain boundary sliding, and cavity growth driven by diffusion. It has also been based upon phenomenological observations such as the variation in the steady-state creep rate with stress and temperature, incomplete healing of cavities under compression, and differences in life under slow-fast and fast-slow cycling. The model has been tested against data on the low-cycle fatigue life of 304 stainless steel under unequal ramp rates. The new equations simulate, for example, the differences in life produced by slow-fast, fast-slow, and equal ramp rate cycling in terms of their effects on internal cavitation. Together with the new equations` ability to treat monotonic creep rupture, these comparisons demonstrate that the intergranular failure equations are capable of simulating a number of phenomena of importance in life prediction for high-temperature structures.

  3. Collider Phenomenology with Split-UED

    SciTech Connect

    Kong, Kyoungchul; Park, Seong Chan; Rizzo, Thomas G.; /SLAC

    2011-12-15

    We investigate the collider implications of Split Universal Extra Dimensions. The non-vanishing fermion mass in the bulk, which is consistent with the KK-parity, largely modifies the phenomenology of Minimal Universal Extra Dimensions. We scrutinize the behavior of couplings and study the discovery reach of the Tevatron and the LHC for level-2 Kaluza-Klein modes in the dilepton channel, which would indicates the presence of the extra dimensions. Observation of large event rates for dilepton resonances can result from a nontrivial fermion mass profile along the extra dimensions, which, in turn, may corroborate extra dimensional explanation for the observation of the positron excess in cosmic rays. The Minimal Universal Extra Dimensions scenario has received great attention. Recently non-vanishing bulk fermion masses have been introduced without spoiling the virtue of KK-parity. The fermion profiles are no longer simple sine/cosine functions and depend upon the specific values of bulk parameters. The profiles of fermions are split along the extra dimensions while the wave functions of the bosons remain the same as in UED. A simple introduction of a KK-parity conserving bulk fermion mass has significant influences on collider aspects as well as astrophysical implications of UED. For instance, the DM annihilation fraction into certain SM fermion pairs is either enhanced or reduced (compared to the MUED case) so that one can perhaps explain the PAMELA positron excess while suppressing the anti-proton flux. In this paper, we have concentrated on collider phenomenology of Split Universal Extra Dimensions. We have revisited the KK decomposition in detail and analyzed wave function overlaps to compute relevant couplings for collider studies. We have discussed general collider implication for level-1 KK modes and level-2 KK with non-zero bulk mass and have computed LHC reach for the EW level-2 KK bosons, {gamma}{sub 2} and Z{sub 2}, in the dilepton channel. The LHC should

  4. Localized surface plasmon resonances in spatially dispersive nano-objects: phenomenological treatise.

    PubMed

    Ginzburg, Pavel; Zayats, Anatoly V

    2013-05-28

    Nonlocal optical response of materials, important at the nanometric scale, influences numerous optical phenomena, such as electromagnetic field confinement and spectral characteristics of plasmonic resonances. Here, we present a general phenomenological approach to account for nonlocal material polarizabilities in nanoscale metal particles. The problem of nonlocal plasmonic resonances is formulated by an integro-differential equation in a space domain and solved by adopting its weak form, implemented in the finite element method, thus, dispensing with the requirements on additional boundary conditions. As an example, nonlocal smearing effects in plasmonic nanorods of various cross sections and nanotubes have been considered. Clear signature of nonlocality manifests itself in the interference fringes in the potential profile and a significant frequency shift of the localized surface plasmon resonances. These effects are especially important for nanoparticles with geometrical features comparable to the de Broglie wavelengths of electrons participating in the light-matter interactions. The proposed method provides a universal tool for phenomenological account of nonlocalities of any kind with the only requirement of linearity in system's response.

  5. High Temperature Formability Prediction of Dual Phase Brass Using Phenomenological and Physical Constitutive Models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Farabi, E.; Zarei-Hanzaki, A.; Abedi, H. R.

    2015-01-01

    Characterizing the high temperature flow behavior of a lead bearing duplex brass in a wide range of forming temperatures (673-1073 K) and strain rates (0.001-0.1 s-1) has been conducted in the present work. In order to establish the constitutive equations, two major modeling procedures, phenomenological (the Original Johnson-Cook and the Arrhenius-type) and physically based (the modified Zerilli-Armstrong) models, have been employed. The capability and accuracy of each model has been assessed via standard statistical parameters such as average absolute relative error and correlation coefficient. The comparative and comprehensive study of the flow behavior indicated that the accuracy of the phenomenological models was strongly dependent on the range of the testing temperatures and the corresponding mechanism which operate under the specified deformation conditions. It has been indicated that by limiting the temperature range a more precise Q-value is reached, which positively influences the accuracy of the Arrhenius-type model. In contrast, the modified Zerilli-Armstrong model was capable to overcome these limitations and properly considers the physical characteristics including dislocation dynamics and thermal activation to develop the materials constants.

  6. Vantage perspective during encoding: The effects on phenomenological memory characteristics.

    PubMed

    Mooren, Nora; Krans, Julie; Näring, Gérard W B; Moulds, Michelle L; van Minnen, Agnes

    2016-05-01

    The vantage perspective from which a memory is retrieved influences the memory's emotional impact, intrusiveness, and phenomenological characteristics. This study tested whether similar effects are observed when participants were instructed to imagine the events from a specific perspective. Fifty student participants listened to a verbal report of car-accidents and visualized the scenery from either a field or observer perspective. There were no between-condition differences in emotionality of memories and the number of intrusions, but imagery experienced from a relative observer perspective was rated as less self-relevant. In contrast to earlier studies on memory retrieval, vantage perspective influenced phenomenological memory characteristics of the memory representation such as sensory details, and ratings of vividness and distancing of the memory. However, vantage perspective is most likely not a stable phenomenological characteristic itself. Implications and suggestions for future research are discussed.

  7. Phenomenology of Particle Production during Ination

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Namba, Ryo

    This thesis is devoted to the study on particle production during the era of primordial inflation and its phenomenological impacts. The simplest models of inflation typically assume only one dynamical degree of freedom, inflaton, that is responsible for all the inflationary dynamics and predictions. Yet, it is a natural expectation that the inflaton should be coupled to some other fields, in need of successful reheating of the universe after inflation. We first consider the models in which the inflaton is coupled to a U(1) gauge field. For a pseudo-scalar inflaton, its natural coupling induces tachyonic growth of the gauge quanta, which then inverse-decay to the inflaton perturbations. This imprints non-Gaussianity in the cosmic microwave background (CMB) anisotropies. This non-Gaussianity has a nearly equilateral shape, and the fact that we have not observed it with Planck provides a bound on the axion decay constant, which is in the range naturally obtained in UV completed theories. The produced gauge quanta also source gravitational waves (GWs). Future GW interferometer experiments can improve over the CMB non-Gaussianity limits. We then study a different model characterized by a scalar inflaton coupled to gauge fields via a dilation-like interaction. This coupling can result in a nearly scale-invariant spectrum for the gauge field. Also in this case, the produced gauge quanta source inflaton perturbations, but the resulting non-Gaussianity now has a shape peaked for squeezed triangles, and which exhibits a peculiar angular dependence, that, if detected, would be a smoking gun of the higher-spin fields involved. In the above two models, the GW signals are always subdominant at the CMB scales, due to the non-Gaussianity bounds from the scalar perturbations (namely, from the perturbations generated by the inflaton quanta produced by the gauge fields). We study the radically different situation in which some field other than the inflaton produces the gauge quanta

  8. Adventures in high energy theory and phenomenology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Robinson, Dean Jonathan

    Various studies of high energy theory and phenomenology are presented. We first present a mechanism that naturally produces light Dirac neutrinos. The central idea is that the right-handed neutrinos are composite. Any realistic composite model must involve 'hidden flavor' chiral symmetries. In general some of these symmetries may survive confinement, and in particular, if a U(1) survives it must imply an exact B -- L symmetry at low energies. Dirac neutrinos are therefore produced, which are naturally light due to compositeness. In general, elementary keV sterile Dirac neutrinos can be a natural ingredient of this composite neutrino scenario. For a certain class of composite neutrino theories, these sterile neutrinos naturally have the appropriate mixing angles to be resonantly produced warm dark matter (WDM). Alternatively, we show these sterile neutrinos can be WDM produced by an entropy-diluted thermal freeze-out, with the necessary entropy production arising not from an out-of-equilibrium decay, but rather from the confinement of the composite neutrino sector, provided there is sufficient supercooling. We next present a formalism for the flavor oscillation of unstable particles that relies only upon the analytic structure of the time Fourier-transformed two-point function. We derive exact oscillation probability and integrated oscillation probability formulae, and verify that our results reproduce the known results for both neutrino and neutral meson oscillation in the expected regimes of parameter space. The generality of our approach permits us to investigate flavor oscillation in exotic parameter regimes, and present the corresponding oscillation formulae. Kinematic edges in cascade decays provide a probe of the masses of new particles. In some new physics scenarios the decay chain involves intermediate particles of different flavors that can mix and oscillate. We discuss the implication of such oscillation, and in particular its interplay with the non

  9. Situated phenomenology and biological systems: Eastern and Western synthesis.

    PubMed

    Schroeder, Marcin J; Vallverdú, Jordi

    2015-12-01

    Phenomenology was born with the mission to give foundations for science of experience and to open consciousness to scientific study. The influence of phenomenology initiated in the works of Husserl and continued in a wide range of works of others was immense, but mainly within the confines of philosophy and the humanities. The actual attempts to develop a scientific discipline of the study of consciousness and to carry out research on cognition and consciousness were always based on the methods of traditional science in which elimination of the subjective has been always a primary tenet. Thus, focus was mainly on neurological correlates of conscious phenomena. The present paper is an attempt to initiate an extension and revision of phenomenological methodology with the use of philosophical and scientific experience and knowledge accumulated in a century of inquiry and research in relevant disciplines. The question which disciplines are relevant is crucial and our answer is innovative. The range of disciplines involved here is from information science and studies of computation, up to cultural psychology and the studies of philosophical traditions of the East. Concepts related to information and computation studies provide a general conceptual framework free from the limitations of particular languages and of linguistic analysis. This conceptual framework is extending the original perspective of phenomenology to issues of modern technology and science. Cultural psychology gives us tools to root out what in phenomenology was considered universal for humanity, but was a result of European ethnocentrism. Most important here is the contrast between individualistic and collectivistic cultural determinants of consciousness. Finally, philosophical tradition of the East gives alternatives in seeking solutions for fundamental problems. This general outline of the research methodology is illustrated by an example of its use when phenomenology is studied within the conceptual

  10. Rogue waves in Lugiato-Lefever equation with variable coefficients

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kol, Guy; Kingni, Sifeu; Woafo, Paul

    2014-11-01

    In this paper, we theoretically investigate the generation of optical rogue waves from a Lugiato-Lefever equation with variable coefficients by using the nonlinear Schrödinger equation-based constructive method. Exact explicit rogue-wave solutions of the Lugiato-Lefever equation with constant dispersion, detuning and dissipation are derived and presented. The bright rogue wave, intermediate rogue wave and the dark rogue wave are obtained by changing the value of one parameter in the exact explicit solutions corresponding to the external pump power of a continuous-wave laser.

  11. Plant intentionality and the phenomenological framework of plant intelligence

    PubMed Central

    Marder, Michael

    2012-01-01

    This article aims to bridge phenomenology and the study of plant intelligence with the view to enriching both disciplines. Besides considering the world from the perspective of sessile organisms, it would be necessary, in keeping with the phenomenological framework, to rethink (1) the meaning of being-sessile and being-in-a-place; (2) the concepts of sentience and attention; (3) how aboveground and underground environments appear to plants; (4) the significance of modular development for our understanding of intelligence; and (5) the concept of communication within and between plants and plant tissues. What emerges from these discussions is the image of a mind embodied in plant life. PMID:22951403

  12. Aging and identity-in-the-world: a phenomenological analysis.

    PubMed

    Ainlay, S C; Redfoot, D L

    This paper uses a criticism of "objectivistic" approaches to aging and identity as a vehicle for a phenomenological rethinking of those topics. This phenomenological approach to "identity-in-the-world" as it is experienced in everyday life leads necessarily to a theory of the temporal limits of that experience in the aging process; that is, a theory of identity, properly understood, is already a theory of aging. It is concluded that this approach overcomes the parallel problems of objectivism versus subjectivism and biologism versus sociologism, demanding a rethinking of conceptions of human nature that have predominated in social science.

  13. A Phenomenological Model for Tool Wear in Friction Stir Welding of Metal Matrix Composites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prater, Tracie J.; Strauss, Alvin M.; Cook, George E.; Gibson, Brian T.; Cox, Chase D.

    2013-08-01

    Friction stir welding (FSW) of metal matrix composites (MMCs) is advantageous because the solid-state nature of the process precludes formation of deleterious intermetallic phases which accompany melting. FSW of MMCs is complicated by rapid and severe wear of the welding tool, a consequence of contact between the tool and the much harder abrasive reinforcement which gives the workpiece material its enhanced strength. The current article demonstrates that Nunes's rotating plug model of material flow in FSW, which has been successfully applied in many other contexts, can also help us understand wear in FSW of MMCs. An equation for predicting the amount of wear in this application is developed and compared with experimental data. This phenomenological model explains the relationship between wear and FSW process parameters documented in previous studies.

  14. Phenomenological consequences of enhanced bulk viscosity near the QCD critical point

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Monnai, Akihiko; Mukherjee, Swagato; Yin, Yi

    2017-03-01

    In the proximity of the QCD critical point the bulk viscosity of quark-gluon matter is expected to be proportional to nearly the third power of the critical correlation length, and become significantly enhanced. This work is the first attempt to study the phenomenological consequences of enhanced bulk viscosity near the QCD critical point. For this purpose, we implement the expected critical behavior of the bulk viscosity within a non-boost-invariant, longitudinally expanding 1 +1 dimensional causal relativistic hydrodynamical evolution at nonzero baryon density. We demonstrate that the critically enhanced bulk viscosity induces a substantial nonequilibrium pressure, effectively softening the equation of state, and leads to sizable effects in the flow velocity and single-particle distributions at the freeze-out. The observable effects that may arise due to the enhanced bulk viscosity in the vicinity of the QCD critical point can be used as complementary information to facilitate searches for the QCD critical point.

  15. Phenomenological approaches of inflation and their equivalence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boubekeur, Lotfi; Giusarma, Elena; Mena, Olga; Ramírez, Héctor

    2015-04-01

    In this work, we analyze two possible alternative and model-independent approaches to describe the inflationary period. The first one assumes a general equation of state during inflation due to Mukhanov, while the second one is based on the slow-roll hierarchy suggested by Hoffman and Turner. We find that, remarkably, the two approaches are equivalent from the observational viewpoint, as they single out the same areas in the parameter space, and agree with the inflationary attractors where successful inflation occurs. Rephrased in terms of the familiar picture of a slowly rolling, canonically normalized scalar field, the resulting inflaton excursions in these two approaches are almost identical. Furthermore, once the Galactic dust polarization data from Planck are included in the numerical fits, inflaton excursions can safely take sub-Planckian values.

  16. Phenomenologically viable Lorentz-violating quantum gravity.

    PubMed

    Sotiriou, Thomas P; Visser, Matt; Weinfurtner, Silke

    2009-06-26

    Horava's "Lifschitz point gravity" has many desirable features, but in its original incarnation one is forced to accept a nonzero cosmological constant of the wrong sign to be compatible with observation. We develop an extension of Horava's model that abandons "detailed balance" and regains parity invariance, and in 3+1 dimensions exhibit all five marginal (renormalizable) and four relevant (super-renormalizable) operators, as determined by power counting. We also consider the classical limit of this theory, evaluate the Hamiltonian and supermomentum constraints, and extract the classical equations of motion in a form similar to the Arnowitt-Deser-Misner formulation of general relativity. This puts the model in a framework amenable to developing detailed precision tests.

  17. Nonlinear Generalized Hydrodynamic Wave Equations in Strongly Coupled Dusty Plasmas

    SciTech Connect

    Veeresha, B. M.; Sen, A.; Kaw, P. K.

    2008-09-07

    A set of nonlinear equations for the study of low frequency waves in a strongly coupled dusty plasma medium is derived using the phenomenological generalized hydrodynamic (GH) model and is used to study the modulational stability of dust acoustic waves to parallel perturbations. Dust compressibility contributions arising from strong Coulomb coupling effects are found to introduce significant modifications in the threshold and range of the instability domain.

  18. The Phenomenology of Research: The Construction of Meaning in Composition Research.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davis, Kevin

    1995-01-01

    Describes the philosophical phenomenology of Edmund Husserl and argues that his insights can greatly inform contemporary composition theory. Discusses how phenomenology affects both design and analysis in composition research. (HB)

  19. Phenomenology from SIDIS and e+e- multiplicities: multiplicities and phenomenology - part I

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bacchetta, Alessandro; Echevarria, Miguel G.; Radici, Marco; Signori, Andrea

    2015-01-01

    This study is part of a project to investigate the transverse momentum dependence in parton distribution and fragmentation functions, analyzing (semi-)inclusive high-energy processes within a proper QCD framework. We calculate the transverse-momentum-dependent (TMD) multiplicities for e+e- annihilation into two hadrons (considering different combinations of pions and kaons) aiming to investigate the impact of intrinsic and radiative partonic transverse momentum and their mixing with flavor. Different descriptions of the non-perturbative evolution kernel (see, e.g., Refs. [1-5]) are available on the market and there are 200 sets of flavor configurations for the unpolarized TMD fragmentation functions (FFs) resulting from a Monte Carlo fit of Semi-Inclusive Deep-Inelastic Scattering (SIDIS) data at Hermes (see Ref. [6]). We build our predictions of e+e- multiplicities relying on this rich phenomenology. The comparison of these calculations with future experimental data (from Belle and BaBar collaborations) will shed light on non-perturbative aspects of hadron structure, opening important insights into the physics of spin, flavor and momentum structure of hadrons.

  20. The Pleasures of Learning at Work: Foucault and Phenomenology Compared

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hughes, Christina

    2007-01-01

    This paper provides a comparative account of two conceptualisations of pleasure. The first draws on Foucault's analysis of bio-power. The second provides a phenomenological account where pleasure is viewed as an aspect of our immediate consciousness. These conceptualisations are illuminated through an analysis of employees' accounts of learning at…

  1. Social Anxiety and Close Relationships: A Hermeneutic Phenomenological Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nielsen, Kate E. J.; Cairns, Sharon L.

    2009-01-01

    While only a few quantitative studies have looked at social anxiety and close relationships, this study uses the qualitative approach of hermeneutic phenomenology to explore the meaning of being in a close relationship for eight individuals with social anxiety. Participants completed a written questionnaire with open-ended questions about their…

  2. Phenomenology and Correlates of Complicated Grief in Children and Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Melhem, Nadine M.; Moritz, Grace; Walker, Monica; Shear, M. Katherine; Brent, David

    2007-01-01

    Objective: To describe the phenomenology of complicated grief (CG) in parentally bereaved children and adolescents and to examine its correlates. Method: This is a preliminary report from an ongoing 5-year, population-based, longitudinal study of the impact of parental loss on family members. Analyses of cross-sectional data at intake are…

  3. Experiencing nursing education research: narrative inquiry and interpretive phenomenology.

    PubMed

    Lindsay, Gail M

    2006-01-01

    Narrative inquiry is emerging from higher education curriculum studies into nursing, and interpretive phenomenology is established in nursing education research. These two research methods are compared by subject matter, agent, method, data and outcome, using examples from nursing education research. This comparison facilitates a researcher's choice of method by showing what is revealed by each type of inquiry and how they differ.

  4. Insights on raft behavior from minimal phenomenological models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garbès Putzel, G.; Schick, M.

    2011-07-01

    We construct a simple phenomenological theory of phase separation in ternary mixtures of cholesterol and saturated and unsaturated lipids. Such separation is relevant to the formation of 'rafts' in the plasma membrane. We also show how simple cross-linking of proteins which prefer one form of lipid to the other can trigger raft-formation, the first step in a signaling pathway.

  5. The Relationship between EFL Reading and Existential-Phenomenology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tercanlioglu, Leyla; Akarsu, Oktay

    2012-01-01

    This study reviews an overall theoretical framework of two major phenomena: reading and existential-phenomenology. Nine different predominant theories in reading education, their attributes, effective reading techniques and educational studies of learners' experiences towards effective reading will be examined with some basic issues to grasp the…

  6. The Prevalence and Phenomenology of Repetitive Behavior in Genetic Syndromes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moss, Joanna; Oliver, Chris; Arron, Kate; Burbidge, Cheryl; Berg, Katy

    2009-01-01

    We investigated the prevalence and phenomenology of repetitive behavior in genetic syndromes to detail profiles of behavior. The Repetitive Behaviour Questionnaire (RBQ) provides fine-grained identification of repetitive behaviors. The RBQ was employed to examine repetitive behavior in Angelman (N = 104), Cornelia de Lange (N = 101), Cri-du-Chat…

  7. [The world of the epileptic: anthropo-phenomenological considerations].

    PubMed

    Simone, F; Felici, F

    1976-01-01

    After pointing out that in literature studies concerning the anthropo-phenomenologic aspects of the existence of subjects suffering from epilepsy are very scanty, the Authors dwell upon the opportunity of deepening this study which may allow a better knowledge of the complex problems of the patient. These problems should be neglected if only the biologic side of the disease was taken into consideration.

  8. Social Engagement in a Diversifying Campus: A Phenomenological Exploration

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Min, Yang; Chau, Albert

    2012-01-01

    With more non-local (Mainland China and overseas) students admitted into the universities of Hong Kong, the student population on campus is becoming much more diversified. This study was a phenomenological inquiry into the social engagement experiences of local and non-local Chinese students in their first year at a university in Hong Kong.…

  9. Cyberbullying Victimization among College Students: An Interpretive Phenomenological Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rivituso, Jack

    2014-01-01

    This interpretive phenomenological analysis explored the lived experiences and the psychological impact of victimization from cyberbullying among college students. Two theories, Bandura's Theory of Triadic Reciprocal Determinism and the General Strain Theory, guided the primary research questions used for this exploration. Each of these…

  10. A Phenomenological Approach to the Analysis of Film Viewing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Woodruff, Saundra Kay

    This investigation, based on the phenomenological philosophy of Alfred Schutz, was an attempt to determine how people view films by determining the meaning that the action has for them. Twenty college freshmen and sophomores and two seniors viewed the film "Tilt," a production of the National Film Board of Canada. All subjects were asked…

  11. Lived Experience of Women Suffering from Vitiligo: A Phenomenological Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Borimnejad, Leili; Yekta, Zohreh Parsa; Nasrabadi, Alireza Nikbakht

    2006-01-01

    Vitiligo is a chronic skin disease, which through change of appearance and body image, exerts a devastating effect on people, especially women. The objective of this study is to explore lived experience of women with Vitiligo by the hermeneutic phenomenology method. The purposive sample consisted of 16 Iranian women. Data analysis followed…

  12. After Dark in the Antipodes: Pedagogy, Place and Queer Phenomenology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crowley, Vicki; Rasmussen, Mary Lou

    2010-01-01

    This paper pursues issues of pedagogy, place and queer phenomenology in the context of what might be meant by the term "after-queer" or "what falls outside queer" as we currently theorise, practice and locate queer. Inspired by Sara Ahmed's account of how bodies become oriented by the ways in which they take up time and space,…

  13. The Adolescent Female Changing Voice: A Phenomenological Investigation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sweet, Bridget

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this phenomenological study was to investigate the experience of female voice change from the perspective of female middle and high school choral students. The study was guided by two questions: How do adolescent female choir students experience voice change? What is the essence of the experience of voice change for middle school…

  14. Principals' Experiences of Being Evaluated: A Phenomenological Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parylo, Oksana; Zepeda, Sally J.; Bengtson, Ed

    2012-01-01

    This phenomenological study sought to understand principals' lived experiences of being evaluated with reliance on the principles of developmental supervision and adult learning theory. Analysis of interview data from 16 principals revealed 3 major constructs in principal evaluation: evaluation is a complex, constantly changing system; principal…

  15. Getting There: A Phenomenology of the Contexts of Car Buying.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aanstoos, Christopher M.; Barrell, James J.

    The importance of understanding the manner in which the desire to buy arises in buyers has been neglected in the study of consumer psychology. This report identifies those few research projects which have studied the origins of consumer motivation and describes a phenomenologically-guided investigation which studied individuals' desires to…

  16. A Phenomenological Narrative Study: Elementary Charter School Principals' Managerial Roles

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cetinkaya, Ahmet

    2016-01-01

    This study was a phenomenological narrative research investigating the managerial roles of elementary charter school principals. Managerial leadership practices were investigated under three categories personnel management, student management, and finance management. Elementary charter school principals provided positive feedback for having small…

  17. Undergraduate Female Science-Related Career Choices: A Phenomenological Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Curry, Kathy S.

    2010-01-01

    This qualitative phenomenological study used a modified Groenewald's five steps method with semi-structured, recorded, and transcribed interviews to focus on the underrepresentation of females in science-related careers. The study explored the lived experiences of a purposive sample of 25 senior female college students attending a college in…

  18. Caring Teacher-Pupil Relationship: Feminist or Phenomenological?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morrison, Harriet B.

    Nel Noddings'"Caring: A Feminine Approach to Ethics and Moral Education" (1984) represents a feminist view of the caring teacher-pupil relationship, focusing on the personal and social setting and speaking directly about the relationship. The works of Maurice Merleau-Ponty contribute a phenomenological perspective which is universal and…

  19. Educator-on-Educator Workplace Bullying: A Phenomenological Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    de Wet, N. C.

    2011-01-01

    Husserlian phenomenology was used as the philosophical underpinning for this study, since its purpose is to describe human experience as it is lived by educators who have experienced workplace bullying. In-depth interviews were conducted with participants identified by means of the snowball sampling technique. Colaizzi's method for descriptive…

  20. Doing Phenomenology in Science Education: A Research Review

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    OStergaard, Edvin; Dahlin, Bo; Hugo, Aksel

    2008-01-01

    This article is a review of applications of phenomenology, as a philosophy of knowledge and qualitative research approach, to the field of science education (SE). The purpose is to give an overview of work that has been done as well as to assess it and discuss its possibilities of future development. We ask: what attempts for connecting…

  1. E-Learning: A Student's Perspective a Phenomenological Investigation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Antoine, Julia E.

    2011-01-01

    This phenomenological investigation focused on the exploration of the lived experiences of students who had dropped out of traditional four year colleges and returned to complete their degree by e-Learning. The goal of this investigation was to gain a new understanding of the psychological, motivational, and ethical aspects of continuing a four…

  2. Retention in Special Education Teachers in Georgia: A Phenomenological Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jackson, Arndra N.

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this qualitative study using a phenomenological approach was to identify and examine factors influencing the retention rate of special education teachers in rural and urban schools in middle Georgia. Provided in this study are factors that are related to retention in special education teachers. Semistructured interviews were used to…

  3. A Phenomenological Study of Parents' Involvement in Mathematics Instruction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Delbridge, Natalie H.

    2013-01-01

    Many areas of support are needed when educating children and youth in mathematics education. One of the untapped areas is that of parental support and involvement. The purpose of this phenomenological study is to describe the "lived" experiences of parental involvement in their children's mathematics home instruction through individual…

  4. Exploring the Experiences of Administrative Interns: A Phenomenological Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jamison, Kimberly R.

    2014-01-01

    This phenomenological investigation explores the experiences of administrative interns throughout their administrative internship to discover how they perceive and make meaning of their internship experiences--their thoughts, feelings, concerns, and aspirations. All thirteen participants were students in one university administrator preparation…

  5. Gifted Dropouts: Phenomenological Case Studies of Rural Gifted Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zabloski, Jim; Milacci, Fred

    2012-01-01

    In this qualitative phenomenological study, we sought to explore the life experiences of 7 rural gifted individuals who dropped out of school. In addition, we investigated whether participants shared commonalities that might have led to the phenomenon of dropping out. The problem was that a paucity of research exists about gifted dropouts;…

  6. Parental Involvement in Elementary Children's Religious Education: A Phenomenological Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bunnell, Peter Wayne

    2016-01-01

    The issue of parental involvement in religious education is an important one for the family, the church, the Christian school, and society. The purpose of this phenomenological study was to describe parents' concepts and practices of involvement in their children's religious education as evangelical Christian parents in Midwestern communities.…

  7. American Apprenticeship as a Transformative Learning Experience: A Phenomenology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Howze, Pamela Bolton

    2015-01-01

    "American Apprenticeship as a Transformative Learning Experience: A Phenomenology" is an in-depth investigation into the phenomenon of a transformative learning experience for three American high school students who were given a traditional apprenticeship opportunity, including a community college degree, in lieu of going away to a…

  8. Relationships Always Matter: Findings from a Phenomenological Research Inquiry

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Giles, David L.

    2011-01-01

    This paper reports on findings from a hermeneutic phenomenological research inquiry which explored the nature of relational experiences in teacher education. Stories of the lived experience of relationships in an educational context were hermeneutically interpreted against the philosophical writings of Heidegger, Gadamer, Levinas, and Buber. The…

  9. Standardized Patients in Art Therapy Education: A Phenomenological Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Jeffrey; Salisbury, Helen; Deaver, Sarah; Johansson, Mark; Calisch, Abby

    2013-01-01

    Simulation is used widely in medical and health professions educational programs. Standardized patients (SPs) are individuals who are trained to simulate specific symptoms or conditions as part of a structured learning experience with students. In this qualitative, phenomenological study the researcher interviewed 8 first-year graduate art therapy…

  10. A Phenomenological Study of Falling out of Romantic Love

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sailor, Joanni L.

    2013-01-01

    Romantic love is considered a necessary ingredient in marriage. In this study, the experience of falling out of romantic love with one's spouse was examined. Eight individuals who had fallen out of romantic love with their spouse were interviewed. By using Moustakas' Transcendental Phenomenological method, several themes emerged which provided a…

  11. A Phenomenological Analysis of College Students' Spiritual Struggles

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rockenbach, Alyssa Bryant; Walker, Coretta Roseboro; Luzader, Jordan

    2012-01-01

    Through in-depth interviews with ten diverse participants, this phenomenological study explored the meaning, dimensions, and processes of spiritual struggle in college students' lives. The findings revealed that encountering contrast was the unifying dimension underlying students' spiritual struggle narratives. Contrast was apparent in students'…

  12. Phenomenological Aspects of Psychosocial Maturity in Adolescence. Report No. 198.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Josselson, Ruthellen; And Others

    Forty-one subjects who score at the high and low extremes of the Psychosocial Maturity (PSM) Inventory were intensively interviewed. These interview data were analyzed to contrast the phenomenological and psychodynamic forces in the lives of these subjects that influence their current state of psychosocial maturity. Case material is presented.…

  13. Community College Administrators as Educational Partnership Champions: Phenomenological Perspectives

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boodrookas, George J.

    2013-01-01

    This study explored, through the use of phenomenological research methods, the experiences of community college administrators in the development and implementation of educational partnerships. The study focused on the actions of these administrators who serve as partnership "champions" in ventures related to community, economic and…

  14. Educators' Perspectives on Having Been Cyber Harassed: A Phenomenological Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davenport, Paula M.

    2014-01-01

    The abuse of individuals through electronic means, typically of students by other students, has been researched extensively. The electronic abuse of other individuals through electronic means has received a dearth of research attention. The purpose of this qualitative transcendental phenomenological study was to explore, describe, and expand the…

  15. Inquiring into the Real: A Realist Phenomenological Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Budd, John M.; Hill, Heather; Shannon, Brooke

    2010-01-01

    The need for postpositivist or antipositivist methods in the social sciences, including library and information science, is well documented. A promising alternative synthesizes critical realism and phenomenology. This method embraces ontological reality in all things, including human and social action. The ontology underlying the realist…

  16. Mexican Immigrant Families Crossing the Education Border: A Phenomenological Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Plata-Potter, Sandra Ixa; de Guzman, Maria Rosario T.

    2012-01-01

    This phenomenological study examines Mexican immigrant parents' experiences of helping their children navigate and succeed in school and their perceptions regarding differences between the U.S. and Mexican educational systems. Findings highlight parents' challenges in helping their children succeed in a new and unfamiliar school system and the…

  17. Aging and Identity-In-The-World: A Phenomenological Analysis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ainlay, Stephen C.; Redfoot, Donald L.

    1982-01-01

    Uses a criticism of "objectivistic" approaches to aging and identity as a vehicle for a phenomenological rethinking of those topics. Suggests a theory of identity, properly understood, is already a theory of aging. Concludes that this approach overcomes the parallel problems of objectivism versus subjectivism and biologism versus…

  18. Coping with a Child Who Stutters: A Phenomenological Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Plexico, Laura W.; Burrus, Embry

    2012-01-01

    Qualitative methods were used in the form of a phenomenological analysis to explore how families cope with having a child who stutters. Twelve participants, 2 men and 10 women, who have children who stutter participated in this study. The participants were asked to consider their experiences with being the parent of a child who stutters. Analysis…

  19. Christian School Leaders and Spirituality: A Phenomenological Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Banke, Susan; Maldonado, Nancy; Lacey, Candace H.

    2011-01-01

    This phenomenological study examined the spiritual experiences of Christian school leaders who are the spiritual leaders of their schools. A purposeful, nominated sample of 12 Christian school leaders was selected. In-depth, open-ended interviews were conducted, audio taped, and then transcribed verbatim. Data analysis was based on Rudestam and…

  20. Phenomenological Study of Empowering Women Senior Leaders in Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cselenszky, Mila P.

    2012-01-01

    The number of women in senior administrative and leadership roles in higher education is minimal compared to the number of women in higher education jobs in general. This phenomenological study explored pathways women took to advance in their careers and barriers that prevent more women from gaining senior administrative and leadership roles.…

  1. Perceptual Anomalies in Schizophrenia: Integrating Phenomenology and Cognitive Neuroscience

    PubMed Central

    Uhlhaas, Peter J.; Mishara, Aaron L.

    2007-01-01

    From phenomenological and experimental perspectives, research in schizophrenia has emphasized deficits in “higher” cognitive functions, including attention, executive function, as well as memory. In contrast, general consensus has viewed dysfunctions in basic perceptual processes to be relatively unimportant in the explanation of more complex aspects of the disorder, including changes in self-experience and the development of symptoms such as delusions. We present evidence from phenomenology and cognitive neuroscience that changes in the perceptual field in schizophrenia may represent a core impairment. After introducing the phenomenological approach to perception (Husserl, the Gestalt School), we discuss the views of Paul Matussek, Klaus Conrad, Ludwig Binswanger, and Wolfgang Blankenburg on perception in schizophrenia. These 4 psychiatrists describe changes in perception and automatic processes that are related to the altered experience of self. The altered self-experience, in turn, may be responsible for the emergence of delusions. The phenomenological data are compatible with current research that conceptualizes dysfunctions in perceptual processing as a deficit in the ability to combine stimulus elements into coherent object representations. Relationships of deficits in perceptual organization to cognitive and social dysfunction as well as the possible neurobiological mechanisms are discussed. PMID:17118973

  2. Perceptual anomalies in schizophrenia: integrating phenomenology and cognitive neuroscience.

    PubMed

    Uhlhaas, Peter J; Mishara, Aaron L

    2007-01-01

    From phenomenological and experimental perspectives, research in schizophrenia has emphasized deficits in "higher" cognitive functions, including attention, executive function, as well as memory. In contrast, general consensus has viewed dysfunctions in basic perceptual processes to be relatively unimportant in the explanation of more complex aspects of the disorder, including changes in self-experience and the development of symptoms such as delusions. We present evidence from phenomenology and cognitive neuroscience that changes in the perceptual field in schizophrenia may represent a core impairment. After introducing the phenomenological approach to perception (Husserl, the Gestalt School), we discuss the views of Paul Matussek, Klaus Conrad, Ludwig Binswanger, and Wolfgang Blankenburg on perception in schizophrenia. These 4 psychiatrists describe changes in perception and automatic processes that are related to the altered experience of self. The altered self-experience, in turn, may be responsible for the emergence of delusions. The phenomenological data are compatible with current research that conceptualizes dysfunctions in perceptual processing as a deficit in the ability to combine stimulus elements into coherent object representations. Relationships of deficits in perceptual organization to cognitive and social dysfunction as well as the possible neurobiological mechanisms are discussed.

  3. Phenomenology for Introductory Architectural Analysis Courses: The Pentagon Methodological Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pombo, Fátima; Bervoets, Wouter; De Smet, Henk

    2015-01-01

    As a consequence of fruitful discussions about joining theory and practice both in design research and educational design programmes, this article aims to explore phenomenological parameters in the framework of an exercise for Engineer-architecture students from the University of Leuven in Belgium. Relying upon the arguments of recognised…

  4. Recent Progress in Weakly-Coupled Heterotic String Phenomenology

    SciTech Connect

    Wu, Yi-Yen

    1997-07-28

    Some recent developments in the weakly-coupled heterotic string phenomenology are reviewed. We discuss several important issues such as dilaton/moduli stabilization, supersymmetry breaking (by hidden-sector gaugino condensation), gauge coupling unification (or the Newton's constant), the QCD axion, as well as cosmological problems involving the dilaton/moduli and the axion.

  5. Phenomenological Study of Special Education Teachers Using an Emergency License

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alborn-Yilek, Susan

    2010-01-01

    The shortage of special education teachers is critical. One means used to increase the supply of available teachers is to issue an emergency license to teachers not fully certified in special education. This is a phenomenological study of four general education teachers practicing special education using an emergency license. Their experience is…

  6. Phenomenological Analysis of Rationale for School Transfer Credit Policies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Melton, Amye M.

    2012-01-01

    Students face challenges when attempting to transfer college credits; sometimes, the process results in having to retake classes already completed at another institution. A qualitative phenomenological study, grounded in an advocacy/participatory worldview, was used to explore how leaders of higher learning institutions determined reasons academic…

  7. How to Protect Children from Internet Predators: A Phenomenological Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alexander, Rodney T.

    2012-01-01

    Teenage Internet users are the fastest growing segment in the Internet user population. These teenagers are at risk of sexual assault from Internet predators. This phenomenological study explored teacher and counselors' perceptions of how to prevent this sexual assault. Twenty-five teacher and counselor participants were interviewed. A…

  8. Challenging Normative Assumptions Regarding Disengaged Youth: A Phenomenological Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lewthwaite, Brian; Wilson, Kimberley; Wallace, Valda; McGinty, Sue; Swain, Luke

    2017-01-01

    This paper explores the experiences of 12 young people, all teenagers, who have chosen to attend alternative schools known as flexible learning options within the Australian context. Using a phenomenological approach, the study seeks to understand their experiences outside the normalised public discourse that they had "disengaged" from…

  9. A Phenomenological Investigation of Counseling Doctoral Students Becoming Mothers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holm, Jessica M.; Prosek, Elizabeth A.; Godwin Weisberger, Andrea C.

    2015-01-01

    Women often face challenges when balancing academic and familial responsibilities (Gilbert, 2008); Trepal & Stinchfield, 2012). This phenomenological study explored women's (N = 10) experiences of becoming mothers during a doctoral program in counseling. The results highlight the importance of mentorship and other protective factors associated…

  10. A Phenomenological Study: Perceptions of Student Voice on Academic Success

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marberry, Tammie

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this qualitative, phenomenological study was to explore rural high school graduates', teachers', and administrators' perceptions of student voice on academic success. This study was designed to examine the following three questions: What were the common beliefs regarding opportunities for input, or student voice, on the educational…

  11. How Student Affairs Professionals Learn to Advocate: A Phenomenological Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harrison, Laura M.

    2014-01-01

    This phenomenological study examined how student affairs professionals learn advocacy skills and what they learn in their education on this topic. Findings based on 22 interviews show participants felt underprepared by their graduate programs for the myriad challenges involved with advocating for students. Findings indicate participants found…

  12. Brain microstructure of subclinical apathy phenomenology in healthy individuals.

    PubMed

    Spalletta, Gianfranco; Fagioli, Sabrina; Caltagirone, Carlo; Piras, Fabrizio

    2013-12-01

    Although apathy has been extensively studied in relation to neuropsychiatric disorders, it is still unclear whether, in healthy people, it should be considered as a physiological phenomenon or whether it is a risk factor for progression to clinical disturbances. Here, we investigated subclinical apathy phenomenology and its brain microstructural correlates in healthy individuals. We submitted 72 participants to a comprehensive clinical assessment, a high-resolution structural MRI and a diffusion tensor imaging scan protocol. Data of individual microstructural (mean diffusivity and fractional anisotropy) variations were processed across genders in relation to the Apathy Rating Scale score. In females, subclinical apathy phenomenology was associated with microstructural variation of the bilateral thalami, the anterior thalamic radiation, the forceps major, and the corona radiate. These are white matter areas mostly connecting the thalami to the frontal and occipital cortices, regions that are known to be implicated in the expression of apathy in clinical samples. No significant relationship with brain microstructure was found in males who showed a positive correlation between subclinical apathy and somatic phenomenology of depression. In conclusion, our results show that in healthy individuals subclinical apathy phenomenology is associated with different mechanisms across genders, and raise the issue about whether brain microstructural changes associated with subclinical apathy in healthy females could be a precocious marker useful in the prediction of progression to more severe apathetic conditions.

  13. Phenomenology of Light Sterile Neutrinos: a Brief Review

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Palazzo, Antonio

    2013-03-01

    An increasing number of anomalous experimental results are emerging, which cannot be described within the standard three-neutrino framework. We present a concise discussion of the most popular phenomenological interpretation of such findings, based on a hypothetical flavor conversion phenomenon of the ordinary "active" neutrinos into new light "sterile" species having mass m ˜{O}(1) eV.

  14. Exploring the Experiences of Women Adjunct Faculty: A Phenomenology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cross, Emily L.

    2013-01-01

    This qualitative phenomenological study was designed to give an in-depth understanding of the lived experiences of women adjunct faculty working at a mid-sized community college in California. A review of literature surrounding adjunct faculty, community colleges, and women in higher education found a gap in the exploration and discussion of…

  15. A consistent hierarchy of generalized kinetic equation approximations to the master equation applied to surface catalysis.

    PubMed

    Herschlag, Gregory J; Mitran, Sorin; Lin, Guang

    2015-06-21

    We develop a hierarchy of approximations to the master equation for systems that exhibit translational invariance and finite-range spatial correlation. Each approximation within the hierarchy is a set of ordinary differential equations that considers spatial correlations of varying lattice distance; the assumption is that the full system will have finite spatial correlations and thus the behavior of the models within the hierarchy will approach that of the full system. We provide evidence of this convergence in the context of one- and two-dimensional numerical examples. Lower levels within the hierarchy that consider shorter spatial correlations are shown to be up to three orders of magnitude faster than traditional kinetic Monte Carlo methods (KMC) for one-dimensional systems, while predicting similar system dynamics and steady states as KMC methods. We then test the hierarchy on a two-dimensional model for the oxidation of CO on RuO2(110), showing that low-order truncations of the hierarchy efficiently capture the essential system dynamics. By considering sequences of models in the hierarchy that account for longer spatial correlations, successive model predictions may be used to establish empirical approximation of error estimates. The hierarchy may be thought of as a class of generalized phenomenological kinetic models since each element of the hierarchy approximates the master equation and the lowest level in the hierarchy is identical to a simple existing phenomenological kinetic models.

  16. Tip-of-the-tongue phenomena: an introductory phenomenological analysis.

    PubMed

    Brown, S R

    2000-12-01

    The issue of meaningful yet unexpressed background-to language and to our experiences of the body-is one whose exploration is still in its infancy. There are various aspects of "invisible," implicit, or background experiences which have been investigated from the viewpoints of phenomenology, cognitive psychology, and linguistics. I will argue that James's concept of the phenomenon of fringes, as explicated by Gurwitsch, provides a structural framework from which to investigate and better understand ideas and concepts that are indeterminate, particularly those experienced in the sense of being sought-after. Johnson's conception of the image-schematic gestalt (ISG) provides an approach to bridging the descriptive gap between phenomenology and cognitive psychology. Starting from an analysis of the fringes, I will turn to a consideration of the tip-of-tongue (TOT) state, as a kind of feeling-of-knowing (FOK) state, from a variety of approaches, focusing mainly on cognitive psychology and phenomenology. I will then integrate a phenomenological analysis of these experiences, from the James/Gurwitsch structural viewpoint, with a cognitive/phenomenological analysis in terms of ISGs, and further integrate that with a cognitive/functional analysis of the relation between consciousness and retrieval, employing Anderson et al's theory of inhibitory mechanisms in cognition. This synthesis of these viewpoints will be employed to explore the thesis that the TOT state and similar experiences may relate to the gestalt nature of schemas, and that figure/ground and other contrast-enhancing structures may be both explanatory and descriptive characterizations of the field of consciousness.

  17. Lost in Space? Located in Place: Geo-Phenomenological Exploration and School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hung, Ruyu; Stables, Andrew

    2011-01-01

    This paper aims at revealing the various meanings of schools as more than built physical environments from a geographical-phenomenological (or "geo-phenomenological") perspective. This paper consists of five sections: the first explicates the meaning of "geo-phenomenology"; the second reveals the meaning of "environment" and a dialectics of…

  18. Looks Good on Paper: A Phenomenological Study of Reflective High School Teaching

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Skemp, Charles John

    2010-01-01

    This study is a phenomenology of the practice of high school teaching. It is an examination of the day-to-day lived experience of high school teachers. The research is grounded in Heidegger's (1962) theory of hermeneutic phenomenology, as well as Polanyi's (1961) theory of tacit knowing. The study uses a phenomenological research design influenced…

  19. Philosophical Phenomenology: A Methodology for Holistic Educational Research. Multicultural Research Guides Series, Number Four.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stone, Frank Andrews

    This paper presents phenomenology as an alternative approach in conducting educational research. The aim of phenomenological research is the exploration of the fundamental consciousness of the person or people being studied so that their perceptions can be identified and interpreted. Today's phenomenology comes from the work of a group of European…

  20. The Audience Performs: A Phenomenological Model for Criticism of Oral Interpretation Performance.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Langellier, Kristin M.

    Richard Lanigan's phenomenology of human communication is applicable to the development of a model for critiquing oral interpretation performance. This phenomenological model takes conscious experience of the relationship of a person and the lived-world as its data base, and assumes a phenomenology of performance which creates text in the triadic…

  1. Is there nursing phenomenology after Paley? Essay on rigorous reading.

    PubMed

    Petrovskaya, Olga

    2014-01-01

    At the bedside, nurses are expected to be precise when they read indications on screens and on the bodies of patients and decide on the meaning of words framed by the context of acute care. In academia, although there is no incident report to fill when we misread or misrepresent complex philosophical ideas, the consequences of inaccurate reading include misplaced epistemological claims and poor scholarship. A long and broad convention of nursing phenomenological research, in its various forms, claims a philosophical grounding in the ideas of Husserl, Heidegger, and other thinkers. But for nearly two decades, nurse phenomenologists' knowledge claims have been challenged by well-informed criticisms, most notably by John Paley. At the heart of criticism lies an observation that Continental phenomenological thought is misrepresented in many nursing sources and that nursing phenomenology, both descriptive and interpretive, cannot appeal to the authority of either Husserl or Heidegger. Taking these criticisms seriously, I am asking, Is phenomenology after Paley possible? If misreading seems to be an issue, how can - or should - we read rigorously? My thinking through these questions is influenced by the ideas of Jacques Derrida. Under a condition of a play of language, of Derridian différance, when meaning is never self-identical and never fully arrives, I suggest that one has to negotiate meanings through reading for differences. I develop this idea in relation to the methodological conventions of phenomenological nursing research and argue for a careful rereading of the whole field of phenomenological nursing research. Such rereading presupposes and necessitates interdisciplinary engagement between nursing and the humanities and interpretive social sciences. Greater familiarity with research practices of those disciplines that stress theoretical and writing rigour might make visible the limits of nursing research approaches and their quality criteria. An understanding

  2. Phenomenological theory of a renormalized simplified model based on time-convolutionless mode-coupling theory near the glass transition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tokuyama, Michio

    2017-01-01

    The renormalized simplified model is proposed to investigate indirectly how the static structure factor plays an important role in renormalizing a quadratic nonlinear term in the ideal mode-coupling memory function near the glass transition. The renormalized simplified recursion equation is then derived based on the time-convolutionless mode-coupling theory (TMCT) proposed recently by the present author. This phenomenological approach is successfully applied to check from a unified point of view how strong liquids are different from fragile liquids. The simulation results for those two types of liquids are analyzed consistently by the numerical solutions of the recursion equation. Then, the control parameter dependence of the renormalized nonlinear exponent in both types of liquids is fully investigated. Thus, it is shown that there exists a novel difference between the universal behavior in strong liquids and that in fragile liquids not only for their transport coefficients but also for their dynamics.

  3. Derivation of the Landau-Lifshitz-Bloch equation from continuum thermodynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berti, Alessia; Giorgi, Claudio

    2016-11-01

    Within the continuum thermodynamic framework, we derive the evolution equation for the magnetization vector in a ferromagnetic body. This procedure leads to an evolution equation that generalizes the well-known Landau-Lifshitz model for magnetically saturated bodies and looks very similar to the Landau-Lifshitz-Bloch equation which was obtained by Garanin in 1997 from statistical mechanics. As a byproduct, we also obtain a generalization of the Gilbert equation when the magnetic field is far from saturation. By virtue of a suitable choice of the Gibbs free energy, this phenomenological model is able to describe the phase transition occurring from the paramagnetic to the ferromagnetic regime in anisotropic ferromagnets.

  4. [Dealing with the phenomenological interview with prostitutes: experience report].

    PubMed

    Moreira, Isabel Cristina Cavalcante Carvalho; Monteiro, Claudete Ferreira de Souza

    2009-01-01

    This article aims at describing our experience in obtaining statements using the phenomenological interview. Eleven prostitutes were interviewed in Teresina, PI. Along this journey we have had several remarkable moments such as: the strategy of approaching the interviewee, the site of the interviews and the own emotional narration of the prostitutes. This process has showed us that one needs to be familiar and empathic with the research subjects. We have also learned that there is not a specific formula of conducting the interview, but it is the role of the researcher to identify the difficulties and propose strategies to obtain the statements. Thus, the empathic relationship that we have experienced in obtaining the statements from these women through the phenomenological interview was essential to understand the contact with violence throughout the prostitution daily life.

  5. Phenomenological study of binding in optically trapped photonic crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maystre, D.; Vincent, P.

    2007-08-01

    We describe a phenomenological theory of the phenomenon of binding observed both experimentally and numerically when particles are trapped by an interference system in order to make a structure close to a photonic crystal. This theory leads to a very simple conclusion, which links the binding phenomenon to the bottom of the lowest bandgap of the trapped crystal in a given direction. The phenomenological theory allows one to calculate the period of the trapped crystal by using numerical tools on dispersion diagrams of photonic crystals. It emerges that the agreement of our theory with our rigorous numerical results given in a previous paper [J. Opt A8, 1059 (2006)] is better than 2% on the crystal period. Furthermore, it is shown that in two-dimensional problems and s polarization, all the optical forces derive from a scalar potential.

  6. The anatomy of sorrow: a spiritual, phenomenological, and neurological perspective

    PubMed Central

    Pies, Ronald

    2008-01-01

    There is considerable controversy, both within and outside the field of psychiatry, regarding the boundaries of normal sadness and clinical depression. Furthermore, while there are frequent calls for a "pluralistic", comprehensive approach to understanding depression, few writers have tried to integrate insights from the spiritual, philosophical, and neurobiological literature. The author proposes that such a synthesis is possible, and that our understanding of ordinary sorrow and clinical depression is enriched by drawing from these disparate sources. In particular, a phenomenological analysis of sorrow and depression reveals two overlapping but distinct "lifeworlds". These differ in the relational, temporal, dialectical, and intentional realms. Recent brain imaging studies are also beginning to reveal the neurobiological correlates of sorrow and depression. As we come to understand the neurobiology of these states, we may be able to correlate specific alterations in "neurocircuitry" with their phenomenological expressions. PMID:18559111

  7. Descriptive psychopathology, phenomenology, and the legacy of Karl Jaspers.

    PubMed

    Häfner, Heinz

    2015-03-01

    With his early publications (1910-1913), Karl Jaspers created a comprehensive methodological arsenal for psychiatry, thus laying the foundation for descriptive psychopathology. Following Edmund Husserl, the founder of philosophical phenomenology, Jaspers introduced phenomenology into psychopathology as "static understanding," ie, the unprejudiced intuitive reproduction (Vergegenwärtigung) and description of conscious phenomena. In a longitudinal perspective, "genetic understanding" based on empathy reveals how mental phenomena arise from mental phenomena. Severance in understanding of, or alienation from, meaningful connections is seen as indicating illness or transition of a natural development into a somatic process. Jaspers opted for philosophy early. After three terms of law, he switched to studying medicine, came to psychopathology after very little training in psychiatry; to psychology without ever studying psychology; and to a chair in philosophy without ever studying philosophy. In the fourth and subsequent editions of his General Psychopathology, imbued by his existential philosophy, Jaspers partly abandoned the descriptive method.

  8. How I remember my parents' divorce: a phenomenological investigation.

    PubMed

    Stambaugh, Suzanne E; Hector, Mark A; Carr, Austin R

    2011-01-01

    In order to examine the experience of parental divorce for adult women, a phenomenological method was used. Ten women were interviewed and the interviews were transcribed verbatim and thematized. The themes that came from the texts of the interviews transcripts and the researchers' reflections on the phenomenological research group analysis were: Before the Divorce, During the Divorce, and After the Divorce. These themes were centered on a contextual ground of Time Frame of the Divorce. The results of this study can provide individuals with a context for understanding their own experiences of parental divorce. These results could also be helpful for mental health clinicians in anticipating the themes that clients will discuss relative to the stages of their parents' divorce.

  9. Descriptive psychopathology, phenomenology, and the legacy of Karl Jaspers

    PubMed Central

    Häfner, Heinz

    2015-01-01

    With his early publications (1910-1913), Karl Jaspers created a comprehensive methodological arsenal for psychiatry, thus laying the foundation for descriptive psychopathology. Following Edmund Husserl, the founder of philosophical phenomenology, Jaspers introduced phenomenology into psychopathology as “static understanding,” ie, the unprejudiced intuitive reproduction (Vergegenwärtigung) and description of conscious phenomena. In a longitudinal perspective, “genetic understanding” based on empathy reveals how mental phenomena arise from mental phenomena. Severance in understanding of, or alienation from, meaningful connections is seen as indicating illness or transition of a natural development into a somatic process. Jaspers opted for philosophy early. After three terms of law, he switched to studying medicine, came to psychopathology after very little training in psychiatry; to psychology without ever studying psychology; and to a chair in philosophy without ever studying philosophy. In the fourth and subsequent editions of his General Psychopathology, imbued by his existential philosophy, Jaspers partly abandoned the descriptive method. PMID:25987860

  10. A Modest Proposal for Another Phenomenological Approach to Psychopathology

    PubMed Central

    Mullen, Paul E.

    2007-01-01

    In 1912, Karl Jaspers published an article entitled “The Phenomenological Approach to Psychopathology.” This and his subsequent text, General Psychopathology, was to exert a profound influence on the development of psychiatry in general and psychiatric nosology in particular. The current Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders and International Classification of Diseases both reflect, at least in part, that legacy. This article will argue that the descriptive psychopathology of Jaspers has been gradually transformed into a caricature which has substituted authority for enquiry and simplification for subtlety. We have been left with classificatory systems which impose reified categories increasingly at variance with clinical reality and increasingly divorced from the data generated by scientific enquiry. Returning to the phenomenological method, despite its contradictions, may open the way to clinical and research approaches which free us from the current straightjacket of orthodoxy which is impending our progress. PMID:17023563

  11. Baryonium with a phenomenological Skyrmion-type potential

    SciTech Connect

    Yan Mulin; Li Si; Wu Bin; Ma Boqiang

    2005-08-01

    In this paper, we investigate the nucleon-antinucleon static energies in the Skyrme model with the product Anzatz. The calculation shows that, in the ungroomed SS (Skyrmion and anti-Skyrmion) channel which leads to rapid annihilation, there exists a quasistable bound state which may give a natural explanation for the near-threshold enhancement in the proton-antiproton (pp) mass spectrum reported by the BES Collaboration and the Belle Collaboration. Similar to the phenomenological well potential of the deuteron, we construct a phenomenological Skyrmion-type potential to study this narrow pp-resonance in J/{psi}{yields}{gamma}pp. By this potential model, a pp baryonium with small binding energies is suggested and the decay width of this state is calculated by WKB approximation. In this picture the decay is attributed to quantum tunneling and pp annihilation. Prediction on the decay mode from the baryonium annihilation at rest is also pointed out.

  12. Using Phenomenological Models to Characterize Transmissibility and Forecast Patterns and Final Burden of Zika Epidemics

    PubMed Central

    Chowell, Gerardo; Hincapie-Palacio, Doracelly; Ospina, Juan; Pell, Bruce; Tariq, Amna; Dahal, Sushma; Moghadas, Seyed; Smirnova, Alexandra; Simonsen, Lone; Viboud, Cécile

    2016-01-01

    Background: The World Health Organization declared the ongoing Zika virus (ZIKV) epidemic in the Americas a Public Health Emergency of International Concern on February 1, 2016. ZIKV disease in humans is characterized by a “dengue-like” syndrome including febrile illness and rash. However, ZIKV infection in early pregnancy has been associated with severe birth defects, including microcephaly and other developmental issues. Mechanistic models of disease transmission can be used to forecast trajectories and likely disease burden but are currently hampered by substantial uncertainty on the epidemiology of the disease (e.g., the role of asymptomatic transmission, generation interval, incubation period, and key drivers). When insight is limited, phenomenological models provide a starting point for estimation of key transmission parameters, such as the reproduction number, and forecasts of epidemic impact. Methods: We obtained daily counts of suspected Zika cases by date of symptoms onset from the Secretary of Health of Antioquia, Colombia during January-April 2016. We calibrated the generalized Richards model, a phenomenological model that accommodates a variety of early exponential and sub-exponential growth kinetics, against the early epidemic trajectory and generated predictions of epidemic size. The reproduction number was estimated by applying the renewal equation to incident cases simulated from the fitted generalized-growth model and assuming gamma or exponentially-distributed generation intervals derived from the literature. We estimated the reproduction number for an increasing duration of the epidemic growth phase. Results: The reproduction number rapidly declined from 10.3 (95% CI: 8.3, 12.4) in the first disease generation to 2.2 (95% CI: 1.9, 2.8) in the second disease generation, assuming a gamma-distributed generation interval with the mean of 14 days and standard deviation of 2 days. The generalized-Richards model outperformed the logistic growth

  13. Inductive approach towards a phenomenologically more satisfactory unififed field theory

    SciTech Connect

    Rayski, J.; Rayski J.M. Jnr.

    1985-11-01

    A unified field theory constituting a fusion of the ideas of supersymmetries with general relativity and gauge theory is investigated. A Lagrangian formalism is constructed step by step; the last step consists in a marriage with Kaluza's idea of a multidimensional space-time. Our aim is not to achieve a full local supersymmetry in eleven dimensions, but rather to attain a compromise with the symmetries of the fundamental interactions either known phenomenologically, or only suspected to exist in nature.

  14. Irreducible tensor phenomenology for pd→3Heπ+π-

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ramachandran, G.; Deepak, P. N.

    2000-03-01

    A phenomenology based on the irreducible tensor formalism is developed for the reaction pdicons/Journals/Common/to" ALT="to" ALIGN="TOP"/> 3 Heicons/Journals/Common/pi" ALT="pi" ALIGN="TOP"/> + icons/Journals/Common/pi" ALT="pi" ALIGN="TOP"/> - , to study incisively the P-wave dominance noticed in the recent kinematically complete experiment at c.m. excess energy of 70 MeV at the MOMO facility.

  15. Overcoming parallelism: Naturalizing phenomenology with goldstein and Merleau-Ponty.

    PubMed

    Whitehead, Patrick M

    2015-12-01

    This paper examines two related problems that stand in the way of the development of an interdisciplinary project that spans biology and phenomenology. To be sure, each of these disciplines is interested in the body, but there are two ways through which the body may be understood. Biology examines the corporeal or living body (Kӧrper); phenomenology examines the body of lived experience (Leib). Both problems discussed in this paper stem from this two-fold nature of the body. The first concerns the anti-naturalist position taken by Husserl - a position that emphasizes the lived body and rejects any consideration of the corporeal body. Following Roy et al. (1999), I maintain that Husserl's anti-naturalism is no longer necessary. Kurt Goldstein (1934/1995) is used as an example that demonstrates a biological investigation of the corporeal body that is consonant with a phenomenological perspective, a quality which may also be seen in the many references it receives from Merleau-Ponty (1942/1963, 1945/1962). The second problem is that of parallelism - also called the body-body problem (Thompson, 2004). A parallelist collaboration between biology and phenomenology maintains the assumption that there are two bodies that must receive special attention. The problem of parallelism is viewed within the research program of neurophenomenology (Varela, 1996). It is argued that this problem dissolves when it is recognized that there are not two bodies - Kӧrper and Leib - but that these are two ways of recognizing one and the same body. Once again, Goldstein and Merleau-Ponty are used to help describe a two-fold investigation of the body that avoids parallelism and promotes the collaboration which this Special Issue seeks.

  16. Women's anger and its meanings: a phenomenological perspective.

    PubMed

    Munhall, P

    1993-01-01

    This study focused on the interactions of somatizations, thoughts, and social processes evolving from unrecognized, unexpressed, or repressed anger in women. Material from patients' clinical narratives was phenomenologically described and interpreted. The most critical finding was the transformation of anger as lived by women into socially acceptable pathology. Anger was left in silence, and the possibilities for its expression were found in physiological disorders, substance abuse, self-deprecation, and affiliation problems, among other conditions.

  17. Relating Schizotypy and Personality to the Phenomenology of Creativity

    PubMed Central

    Nelson, B.; Rawlings, D.

    2010-01-01

    Introduction: Although a considerable amount of research has addressed psychopathological and personality correlates of creativity, the relationship between these characteristics and the phenomenology of creativity has been neglected. Relating these characteristics to the phenomenology of creativity may assist in clarifying the precise nature of the relationship between psychopathology and creativity. The current article reports on an empirical study of the relationship between the phenomenology of the creative process and psychopathological and personality characteristics in a sample of artists. Method: A total of 100 artists (43 males, 57 females, mean age = 34.69 years) from a range of disciplines completed the Experience of Creativity Questionnaire and measures of “positive” schizotypy, affective disturbance, mental boundaries, and normal personality. Results: The sample of artists was found to be elevated on “positive” schizotypy, unipolar affective disturbance, thin boundaries, and the personality dimensions of Openness to Experience and Neuroticism, compared with norm data. Schizotypy was found to be the strongest predictor of a range of creative experience scales (Distinct Experience, Anxiety, Absorption, Power/Pleasure), suggesting a strong overlap of schizotypal and creative experience. Discussion: These findings indicate that “positive” schizotypy is associated with central features of “flow”-type experience, including distinct shift in phenomenological experience, deep absorption, focus on present experience, and sense of pleasure. The neurologically based construct of latent inhibition may be a mechanism that facilitates entry into flow-type states for schizotypal individuals. This may occur by reduced latent inhibition providing a “fresh” awareness and therefore a greater absorption in present experience, thus leading to flow-type states. PMID:18682376

  18. Theory and phenomenology of coherent neutrino-nucleus scattering

    SciTech Connect

    McLaughlin, Gail

    2015-07-15

    We review the theory and phenomenology of coherent elastic neutrino-nucleus scattering (CEνNS). After a brief introduction, we summarize the places where CEνNS is already in use and then turn to future physics opportunities from CEνNS. CEνNS has been proposed as a way to limit or discover beyond the standard model physics, measure the nuclear-neutron radius and constrain the Weinberg angle.

  19. Phenomenology-Based Inverse Scattering for Sensor Information Fusion

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-09-15

    SENSOR INFORMATION FUSION Kung-Hau Ding 15 September 2006 Final Report Approved for Public Release; Distribution...Hanscom AFB MA 01731-2909 TECHNICAL REPORT Title: Phenomenology-Based Inverse Scattering for Sensors Information Fusion Unlimited, Statement A...Scattering for Sensor Information Fusion 5b. GRANT NUMBER N/A 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 61102F 6. AUTHOR(S) 5d. PROJECT NUMBER 2304 Kung

  20. Living with migraine headache: a phenomenological study of women's experiences.

    PubMed

    Ramsey, Anthony R

    2012-01-01

    This qualitative study explored the lived experience of women who had migraine headache. The guiding framework was phenomenological inquiry and story theory. The transcripts of audiotaped stories gathered from 8 women living with migraine headache were analyzed. Seven interrelated themes comprised the findings of the study. Implications for holistic nursing practice emphasizing assessment of lived time, lived body, lived space, and lived relations in the context of the findings of the study are discussed.

  1. Parameter Estimation for the Phenomenological Model of Hysteresis Using Efficient Genetic Algorithm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xiaomin, Xue; Ling, Zhang; Qing, Sun

    2010-05-01

    Magnetorheological (MR) dampers provide an ideal candidate for diverse applications including structural vibration suppression as well as shock absorption and vibration control in vehicle systems in recent years. To understand the dynamic characteristics of MR damper, many researchers have utilized some useful models to illustrate the behavior of the MR damper, which are Bingham model, polynomial curve-fitting model using sigmoid function, Bouc-Wen phenomenological model, etc. The Bouc-Wen differential model is one of the most widely accepted phenomenological models due to its capability to capture a range of shapes of hysteretic cycles which can match the behavior of a MR damper. As a result, it is the tendency of this model being used to describe hysteretic phenomena. However, this model has an obvious shortcoming, its complicated equation expression, which seems to be a big problem for multi-parameter estimation simultaneously. With the development of the computer technology, a powerful multi-processing algorithm is found out possible to solve these complicated problems efficiently. Thus, this paper devotes to the use of an efficient Genetic Algorithm (GA) to estimate the multi-parameter of the Bouc-Wen model efficiently. A modified GA is adopted and improved by effective methods including adaptive genetic operators and appropriate termination criteria. The modified GA has greatly improved the performance of the traditional GA. Finally, experimental data of the MR damper are used to verify the proposed approaches with satisfactory parameter estimation results and highly efficient computational capability. Meanwhile, the algorithm and the results proposed herein also throw light on development and characterization of other novel smart dampers.

  2. The phenomenology of lucid dreaming: an online survey.

    PubMed

    Stumbrys, Tadas; Erlacher, Daniel; Johnson, Miriam; Schredl, Michael

    2014-01-01

    In lucid dreams the dreamer is aware that he or she is dreaming. Although such dreams are not that uncommon, many aspects of lucid dream phenomenology are still unclear. An online survey was conducted to gather data about lucid dream origination, duration, active or passive participation in the dream, planned actions for lucid dreams, and other phenomenological aspects. Among the 684 respondents who filled out the questionnaire, there were 571 lucid dreamers (83.5%). According to their reports, lucid dreams most often originate spontaneously in adolescence. The average lucid dream duration is about 14 minutes. Lucid dreamers are likely to be active in their lucid dreams and plan to accomplish different actions (e.g., flying, talking with dream characters, or having sex), yet they are not always able to remember or successfully execute their intentions (most often because of awakening or hindrances in the dream environment). The frequency of lucid dream experience was the strongest predictor of lucid dream phenomenology, but some differences were also observed in relation to age, gender, or whether the person is a natural or self-trained lucid dreamer. The findings are discussed in light of lucid dream research, and suggestions for future studies are provided.

  3. Bridging Mechanistic and Phenomenological Models of Complex Biological Systems

    PubMed Central

    Transtrum, Mark K.; Qiu, Peng

    2016-01-01

    The inherent complexity of biological systems gives rise to complicated mechanistic models with a large number of parameters. On the other hand, the collective behavior of these systems can often be characterized by a relatively small number of phenomenological parameters. We use the Manifold Boundary Approximation Method (MBAM) as a tool for deriving simple phenomenological models from complicated mechanistic models. The resulting models are not black boxes, but remain expressed in terms of the microscopic parameters. In this way, we explicitly connect the macroscopic and microscopic descriptions, characterize the equivalence class of distinct systems exhibiting the same range of collective behavior, and identify the combinations of components that function as tunable control knobs for the behavior. We demonstrate the procedure for adaptation behavior exhibited by the EGFR pathway. From a 48 parameter mechanistic model, the system can be effectively described by a single adaptation parameter τ characterizing the ratio of time scales for the initial response and recovery time of the system which can in turn be expressed as a combination of microscopic reaction rates, Michaelis-Menten constants, and biochemical concentrations. The situation is not unlike modeling in physics in which microscopically complex processes can often be renormalized into simple phenomenological models with only a few effective parameters. The proposed method additionally provides a mechanistic explanation for non-universal features of the behavior. PMID:27187545

  4. Phenomenology of future-oriented mind-wandering episodes.

    PubMed

    Stawarczyk, David; Cassol, Helena; D'Argembeau, Arnaud

    2013-01-01

    Recent research suggests that prospective and non-prospective forms of mind-wandering possess distinct properties, yet little is known about what exactly differentiates between future-oriented and non-future-oriented mind-wandering episodes. In the present study, we used multilevel exploratory factor analyses (MEFA) to examine the factorial structure of various phenomenological dimensions of mind-wandering, and we then investigated whether future-oriented mind-wandering episodes differ from other classes of mind-wandering along the identified factors. We found that the phenomenological dimensions of mind-wandering are structured in four factors: representational format (inner speech vs. visual imagery), personal relevance, realism/concreteness, and structuration. Prospective mind-wandering differed from non-prospective mind-wandering along each of these factors. Specifically, future-oriented mind-wandering episodes involved inner speech to a greater extent, were more personally relevant, more realistic/concrete, and more often part of structured sequences of thoughts. These results show that future-oriented mind-wandering possesses a unique phenomenological signature and provide new insights into how this particular form of mind-wandering may adaptively contribute to autobiographical planning.

  5. Interdisciplinary Approaches to the Phenomenology of Auditory Verbal Hallucinations

    PubMed Central

    Woods, Angela; Jones, Nev; Bernini, Marco; Callard, Felicity; Alderson-Day, Ben; Badcock, Johanna C.; Bell, Vaughan; Cook, Chris C. H.; Csordas, Thomas; Humpston, Clara; Krueger, Joel; Larøi, Frank; McCarthy-Jones, Simon; Moseley, Peter; Powell, Hilary; Raballo, Andrea; Smailes, David; Fernyhough, Charles

    2014-01-01

    Despite the recent proliferation of scientific, clinical, and narrative accounts of auditory verbal hallucinations (AVHs), the phenomenology of voice hearing remains opaque and undertheorized. In this article, we outline an interdisciplinary approach to understanding hallucinatory experiences which seeks to demonstrate the value of the humanities and social sciences to advancing knowledge in clinical research and practice. We argue that an interdisciplinary approach to the phenomenology of AVH utilizes rigorous and context-appropriate methodologies to analyze a wider range of first-person accounts of AVH at 3 contextual levels: (1) cultural, social, and historical; (2) experiential; and (3) biographical. We go on to show that there are significant potential benefits for voice hearers, clinicians, and researchers. These include (1) informing the development and refinement of subtypes of hallucinations within and across diagnostic categories; (2) “front-loading” research in cognitive neuroscience; and (3) suggesting new possibilities for therapeutic intervention. In conclusion, we argue that an interdisciplinary approach to the phenomenology of AVH can nourish the ethical core of scientific enquiry by challenging its interpretive paradigms, and offer voice hearers richer, potentially more empowering ways to make sense of their experiences. PMID:24903416

  6. Interdisciplinary approaches to the phenomenology of auditory verbal hallucinations.

    PubMed

    Woods, Angela; Jones, Nev; Bernini, Marco; Callard, Felicity; Alderson-Day, Ben; Badcock, Johanna C; Bell, Vaughan; Cook, Chris C H; Csordas, Thomas; Humpston, Clara; Krueger, Joel; Larøi, Frank; McCarthy-Jones, Simon; Moseley, Peter; Powell, Hilary; Raballo, Andrea; Smailes, David; Fernyhough, Charles

    2014-07-01

    Despite the recent proliferation of scientific, clinical, and narrative accounts of auditory verbal hallucinations (AVHs), the phenomenology of voice hearing remains opaque and undertheorized. In this article, we outline an interdisciplinary approach to understanding hallucinatory experiences which seeks to demonstrate the value of the humanities and social sciences to advancing knowledge in clinical research and practice. We argue that an interdisciplinary approach to the phenomenology of AVH utilizes rigorous and context-appropriate methodologies to analyze a wider range of first-person accounts of AVH at 3 contextual levels: (1) cultural, social, and historical; (2) experiential; and (3) biographical. We go on to show that there are significant potential benefits for voice hearers, clinicians, and researchers. These include (1) informing the development and refinement of subtypes of hallucinations within and across diagnostic categories; (2) "front-loading" research in cognitive neuroscience; and (3) suggesting new possibilities for therapeutic intervention. In conclusion, we argue that an interdisciplinary approach to the phenomenology of AVH can nourish the ethical core of scientific enquiry by challenging its interpretive paradigms, and offer voice hearers richer, potentially more empowering ways to make sense of their experiences.

  7. The Constitutive Equation for Membrane Tether Extraction

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Yong; Yao, Da-Kang; Shao, Jin-Yu

    2010-01-01

    Membrane tethers or nanotubes play a critical role in a variety of cellular and subcellular processes such as leukocyte rolling and intercellular mass transport. The current constitutive equations that describe the relationship between the pulling force and the tether velocity during tether extraction have serious limitations. Here we propose a new phenomenological constitutive equation that captures all known characteristics of nanotube formation, including nonlinearity, nonzero threshold force, and possible negative tether velocity. We used tether extraction from endothelial cells as a prototype to illustrate how to obtain the material constants in the constitutive equation. With the micropipette aspiration technique, we measured tether pulling forces at both positive and negative tether velocities. We also determined the threshold force of 55 pN experimentally for the first time. This new constitutive equation unites two established ones and provides us a unified platform to better understand not only the physiological role of tether extraction during leukocyte rolling and intercellular or intracellular transport, but also the physics of membrane tether growth or retraction. PMID:20614242

  8. Undular bore theory for the Gardner equation.

    PubMed

    Kamchatnov, A M; Kuo, Y-H; Lin, T-C; Horng, T-L; Gou, S-C; Clift, R; El, G A; Grimshaw, R H J

    2012-09-01

    We develop modulation theory for undular bores (dispersive shock waves) in the framework of the Gardner, or extended Korteweg-de Vries (KdV), equation, which is a generic mathematical model for weakly nonlinear and weakly dispersive wave propagation, when effects of higher order nonlinearity become important. Using a reduced version of the finite-gap integration method we derive the Gardner-Whitham modulation system in a Riemann invariant form and show that it can be mapped onto the well-known modulation system for the Korteweg-de Vries equation. The transformation between the two counterpart modulation systems is, however, not invertible. As a result, the study of the resolution of an initial discontinuity for the Gardner equation reveals a rich phenomenology of solutions which, along with the KdV-type simple undular bores, include nonlinear trigonometric bores, solibores, rarefaction waves, and composite solutions representing various combinations of the above structures. We construct full parametric maps of such solutions for both signs of the cubic nonlinear term in the Gardner equation. Our classification is supported by numerical simulations.

  9. Lipschitz Regularity for Elliptic Equations with Random Coefficients

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Armstrong, Scott N.; Mourrat, Jean-Christophe

    2016-01-01

    We develop a higher regularity theory for general quasilinear elliptic equations and systems in divergence form with random coefficients. The main result is a large-scale L ∞-type estimate for the gradient of a solution. The estimate is proved with optimal stochastic integrability under a one-parameter family of mixing assumptions, allowing for very weak mixing with non-integrable correlations to very strong mixing (for example finite range of dependence). We also prove a quenched L 2 estimate for the error in homogenization of Dirichlet problems. The approach is based on subadditive arguments which rely on a variational formulation of general quasilinear divergence-form equations.

  10. Basic lubrication equations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hamrock, B. J.; Dowson, D.

    1981-01-01

    Lubricants, usually Newtonian fluids, are assumed to experience laminar flow. The basic equations used to describe the flow are the Navier-Stokes equation of motion. The study of hydrodynamic lubrication is, from a mathematical standpoint, the application of a reduced form of these Navier-Stokes equations in association with the continuity equation. The Reynolds equation can also be derived from first principles, provided of course that the same basic assumptions are adopted in each case. Both methods are used in deriving the Reynolds equation, and the assumptions inherent in reducing the Navier-Stokes equations are specified. Because the Reynolds equation contains viscosity and density terms and these properties depend on temperature and pressure, it is often necessary to couple the Reynolds with energy equation. The lubricant properties and the energy equation are presented. Film thickness, a parameter of the Reynolds equation, is a function of the elastic behavior of the bearing surface. The governing elasticity equation is therefore presented.

  11. Variational Derivation of Dissipative Equations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sogo, Kiyoshi

    2017-03-01

    A new variational principle is formulated to derive various dissipative equations. Model equations considered are the damping equation, Bloch equation, diffusion equation, Fokker-Planck equation, Kramers equation and Smoluchowski equation. Each equation and its time reversal equation are simultaneously obtained in our variational principle.

  12. Characteristic function method for classification of equations of hydrodynamics of a perfect fluid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abd-El-Malek, M. B.; Helal, M. M.

    2005-10-01

    The characteristic function method has been employed to determine and investigate certain classes of solution of a system of first-order nonlinear hydrodynamical equations of a perfect fluid with respect to different Coriolis parameters. The application of a one-parameter group of infinitesimal transformations reduces the number of independent variables by one, and consequently, the system of partial differential equations in two independent variables reduces to a system of ordinary differential equations. The resulting differential equations are solved analytically for some special cases.

  13. Chemical Equation Balancing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blakley, G. R.

    1982-01-01

    Reviews mathematical techniques for solving systems of homogeneous linear equations and demonstrates that the algebraic method of balancing chemical equations is a matter of solving a system of homogeneous linear equations. FORTRAN programs using this matrix method to chemical equation balancing are available from the author. (JN)

  14. Equation of State from Lattice QCD Calculations

    SciTech Connect

    Gupta, Rajan

    2011-01-01

    We provide a status report on the calculation of the Equation of State (EoS) of QCD at finite temperature using lattice QCD. Most of the discussion will focus on comparison of recent results obtained by the HotQCD and Wuppertal-Budapest collaborations. We will show that very significant progress has been made towards obtaining high precision results over the temperature range of T = 150-700 MeV. The various sources of systematic uncertainties will be discussed and the differences between the two calculations highlighted. Our final conclusion is that these lattice results of EoS are precise enough to be used in the phenomenological analysis of heavy ion experiments at RHIC and LHC.

  15. Informing phenomenological structural bone remodelling with a mechanistic poroelastic model.

    PubMed

    Villette, Claire C; Phillips, Andrew T M

    2016-02-01

    Studies suggest that fluid motion in the extracellular space may be involved in the cellular mechanosensitivity at play in the bone tissue adaptation process. Previously, the authors developed a mesoscale predictive structural model of the femur using truss elements to represent trabecular bone, relying on a phenomenological strain-based bone adaptation algorithm. In order to introduce a response to bending and shear, the authors considered the use of beam elements, requiring a new formulation of the bone adaptation drivers. The primary goal of the study presented here was to isolate phenomenological drivers based on the results of a mechanistic approach to be used with a beam element representation of trabecular bone in mesoscale structural modelling. A single-beam model and a microscale poroelastic model of a single trabecula were developed. A mechanistic iterative adaptation algorithm was implemented based on fluid motion velocity through the bone matrix pores to predict the remodelled geometries of the poroelastic trabecula under 42 different loading scenarios. Regression analyses were used to correlate the changes in poroelastic trabecula thickness and orientation to the initial strain outputs of the beam model. Linear (R(2) > 0.998) and third-order polynomial (R(2) > 0.98) relationships were found between change in cross section and axial strain at the central axis, and between beam reorientation and ratio of bending strain to axial strain, respectively. Implementing these relationships into the phenomenological predictive algorithm for the mesoscale structural femur has the potential to produce a model combining biofidelic structure and mechanical behaviour with computational efficiency.

  16. Phenomenological and neurocognitive perspectives on delusions: A critical overview

    PubMed Central

    Sass, Louis; Byrom, Greg

    2015-01-01

    There is considerable overlap between phenomenological and neurocognitive perspectives on delusions. In this paper, we first review major phenomenological accounts of delusions, beginning with Jaspers’ ideas regarding incomprehensibility, delusional mood, and disturbed “cogito” (basic, minimal, or core self-experience) in what he termed “delusion proper” in schizophrenia. Then we discuss later studies of decontextualization and delusional mood by Matussek, changes in self and world in delusion formation according to Conrad's notions of “apophany” and “anastrophe”, and the implications of ontological transformations in the felt sense of reality in some delusions. Next we consider consistencies between: a) phenomenological models stressing minimal-self (ipseity) disturbance and hyperreflexivity in schizophrenia, and b) recent neurocognitive models of delusions emphasizing salience dysregulation and prediction error. We voice reservations about homogenizing tendencies in neurocognitive explanations of delusions (the “paranoia paradigm”), given experiential variations in states of delusion. In particular we consider shortcomings of assuming that delusions necessarily or always involve “mistaken beliefs” concerning objective facts about the world. Finally, we offer some suggestions regarding possible neurocognitive factors. Current models that stress hypersalience (banal stimuli experienced as strange) might benefit from considering the potential role of hyposalience in delusion formation. Hyposalience – associated with experiencing the strange as if it were banal, and perhaps with activation of the default mode network – may underlie a kind of delusional derealization and an “anything goes” attitude. Such an attitude would be conducive to delusion formation, yet differs significantly from the hypersalience emphasized in current neurocognitive theories. PMID:26043327

  17. Narcissism, self-esteem, and the phenomenology of autobiographical memories.

    PubMed

    Jones, Lara L; Norville, Gregory A; Wright, A Michelle

    2016-09-16

    Across two studies, we investigated the influence of narcissism and self-esteem along with gender on phenomenological ratings across the four subscales of the Autobiographical Memory Questionnaire (AMQ; impact, recollection, rehearsal, and belief). Memory cues varied in valence (positive vs. negative) and agency (agentic vs. communal). In Study 2, we used different memory cues reflecting these four Valence by Agency conditions and additionally investigated retrieval times for the autobiographical memories (AMs). Results were consistent with the agency model of narcissism [Campbell, W. K., Brunell, A. B., & Finkel, E. J. (2006). Narcissism, interpersonal self-regulation, and romantic relationships: An agency model approach. In E. J. Finkel & K. D. Vohs (Eds.), Self and relationships: Connecting intrapersonal and interpersonal processes. New York, NY: Guilford], which characterises narcissists as being more concerned with agentic (self-focused) rather than communal (other-focused) positive self-relevant information. Narcissism predicted greater phenomenology across the four subscales for the positive-agentic memories (Study 1: clever; Study 2: attractive, talented) as well as faster memory retrieval times. Narcissism also predicted greater recollection and faster retrieval times for the negative-communal AMs (Study 1: rude; Study 2: annoying, dishonest). In contrast, self-esteem predicted greater phenomenology and faster retrieval times for the positive-communal AMs (Study 1: cooperative; Study 2: romantic, sympathetic). In both studies, results of LIWC analyses further differentiated between narcissism and self-esteem in the content (word usage) of the AMs.

  18. The phenomenological method in qualitative psychology and psychiatry.

    PubMed

    Englander, Magnus

    2016-01-01

    This article will closely examine the phenomenological method as applied to qualitative inquiry in psychology and psychiatry. In a critical comparison between Amedeo Giorgi's and Larry Davidson's qualitatively methods, conclusions were drawn with regard to how different kinds of qualitative inquiry are possible while remaining faithful to Husserlian philosophical foundations. Utilizing Lester Embree's recent articulation of how Husserl's method of the epochē can be disclosed as specific to a discipline, varieties of these two qualitative methods were seen in their relation to the original scientific aim instigated by the developer.

  19. Value of first principles and phenomenological modeling in mineral processing

    SciTech Connect

    Concha, F.

    1995-12-31

    There is confusion in naming the several models developed in Mineral Processing. The authors often hear of empirical, first principle, mechanistic and phenomenological models. The objective of this paper is to clarify and distinguish between these models, based on a philosophical and linguistic analysis. A state of the art review for mathematical modeling in Mineral Processing is also made. The advantage of considering Mineral Processing as a series of unit operations was recognized by Gaudin a long time ago. He divided the area into four unit operations: (1) comminution, (2) classification, (3) concentration and (4) dewatering.

  20. Phenomenological Magnetic Model in Tsai-Type Approximants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sugimoto, Takanori; Tohyama, Takami; Hiroto, Takanobu; Tamura, Ryuji

    2016-05-01

    Motivated by recent discovery of canted ferromagnetism in Tsai-type approximants Au-Si-RE (RE = Tb, Dy, Ho), we propose a phenomenological magnetic model reproducing their magnetic structure and thermodynamic quantities. In the model, cubic symmetry ($m\\bar{3}$) of the approximately-regular icosahedra plays a key role in the peculiar magnetic structure determined by a neutron diffraction experiment. Our magnetic model does not only explain magnetic behaviors in the quasicrystal approximants, but also provides a good starting point for the possibility of coexistence between magnetic long-range order and aperiodicity in quasicrystals.

  1. Recent progress on QCD inputs for axion phenomenology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bonati, Claudio; D'Elia, Massimo; Mariti, Marco; Martinelli, Guido; Mesiti, Michele; Negro, Francesco; Sanfilippo, Francesco; Villadoro, Giovanni

    2017-03-01

    The properties of the QCD axion are strictly related to the dependence of strong interactions on the topological parameter theta. We present a determination of the topological properties of QCD for temperatures up to around 600 MeV, obtained by lattice QCD simulations with 2+1 flavors and physical quark masses. Numerical results for the topological susceptibility, when compared to instanton gas computations, differ both in size and in the temperature dependence. We discuss the implications of such findings for axion phenomenology, also in comparison to similar studies in the literature, and the prospects for future investigations.

  2. Linking loop quantum gravity quantization ambiguities with phenomenology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brahma, Suddhasattwa; Ronco, Michele; Amelino-Camelia, Giovanni; Marcianò, Antonino

    2017-02-01

    It is well known that extracting viable testable predictions out of fundamental quantum gravity theories is notoriously difficult. In this paper, we aim to incorporate putative quantum corrections coming from loop quantum gravity in deriving modified dispersion relations for particles in a deformed Minkowski spacetime. We show how different choices of the Immirzi parameter can, in some cases, serendipitously lead to different outcomes for such modifications, depending on the quantization scheme chosen. This allows one to differentiate between these quantization choices via testable phenomenological predictions.

  3. A phenomenological π-p scattering length from pionic hydrogen

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ericson, T. E. O.; Loiseau, B.; Wycech, S.

    2004-07-01

    We derive a closed, model independent, expression for the electromagnetic correction factor to a phenomenological hadronic scattering length ah extracted from a hydrogenic atom. It is obtained in a non-relativistic approach and in the limit of a short ranged hadronic interaction to terms of order α2logα using an extended charge distribution. A hadronic πN scattering length ahπ-p=0.0870(5)mπ-1 is deduced leading to a πNN coupling constant from the GMO relation gc2/(4π)=14.04(17).

  4. The phenomenological method in qualitative psychology and psychiatry

    PubMed Central

    Englander, Magnus

    2016-01-01

    This article will closely examine the phenomenological method as applied to qualitative inquiry in psychology and psychiatry. In a critical comparison between Amedeo Giorgi's and Larry Davidson's qualitatively methods, conclusions were drawn with regard to how different kinds of qualitative inquiry are possible while remaining faithful to Husserlian philosophical foundations. Utilizing Lester Embree's recent articulation of how Husserl's method of the epochē can be disclosed as specific to a discipline, varieties of these two qualitative methods were seen in their relation to the original scientific aim instigated by the developer. PMID:26968361

  5. Deflected mirage mediation: a phenomenological framework for generalized supersymmetry breaking.

    PubMed

    Everett, Lisa L; Kim, Ian-Woo; Ouyang, Peter; Zurek, Kathryn M

    2008-09-05

    We present a general phenomenological framework for dialing between gravity mediation, gauge mediation, and anomaly mediation. The approach is motivated from recent developments in moduli stabilization, which suggest that gravity mediated terms can be effectively loop suppressed and thus comparable to gauge and anomaly mediated terms. The gauginos exhibit a mirage unification behavior at a "deflected" scale, and gluinos are often the lightest colored sparticles. The approach provides a rich setting in which to explore generalized supersymmetry breaking at the CERN Large Hadron Collider.

  6. Deflected Mirage Mediation: A Phenomenological Framework for Generalized Supersymmetry Breaking

    SciTech Connect

    Everett, Lisa L.; Kim, Ian-Woo; Ouyang, Peter; Zurek, Kathryn M.

    2008-09-05

    We present a general phenomenological framework for dialing between gravity mediation, gauge mediation, and anomaly mediation. The approach is motivated from recent developments in moduli stabilization, which suggest that gravity mediated terms can be effectively loop suppressed and thus comparable to gauge and anomaly mediated terms. The gauginos exhibit a mirage unification behavior at a ''deflected'' scale, and gluinos are often the lightest colored sparticles. The approach provides a rich setting in which to explore generalized supersymmetry breaking at the CERN Large Hadron Collider.

  7. Phenomenology of the Randall-Sundrum Gauge Hierarchy Model

    SciTech Connect

    Davoudiasl, H.; Hewett, J. L.; Rizzo, T. G.

    2000-03-06

    We explore the phenomenology of the localized gravity model of Randall and Sundrum where a 5-dimensional nonfactorizable geometry generates the gauge hierarchy by an exponential function called a warp factor. The Kaluza-Klein (KK) tower of gravitons in this scenario has different properties from those in factorizable models. We derive the KK graviton interactions with the standard model fields and obtain constraints from their direct production at hadron colliders as well as from virtual KK exchanges. We study the KK spectrum in e{sup +}e{sup -} annihilation and show how to determine the model parameters if the first KK state is observed. (c) 2000 The American Physical Society.

  8. Phenomenological Extraction of Transverse-Momentum-Dependent Distributions

    SciTech Connect

    Alexei Prokudin

    2011-10-01

    We discuss phenomenological extraction of Transverse Momentum Dependent Distributions (TMDs) from experimental data. At leading twist spin structure of spin-1/2 hadron can be described by 8 TMDs. TMDs reveal three-dimensional distribution of partons inside polarised nucleon. Experimentally these functions can be studied in polarised experiments using Spin Asymmetries in particular Single Spin Asymmetries (SSAs). We discuss transversity that measures distribution of transversely polarised quarks in a transversely polarised nucleon and Sivers distribution function that describes distribution of unpolarised quarks in a transversely polarised nucleon.

  9. Experiences of hearing voices: analysis of a novel phenomenological survey

    PubMed Central

    Woods, Angela; Jones, Nev; Alderson-Day, Ben; Callard, Felicity; Fernyhough, Charles

    2015-01-01

    Summary Background Auditory hallucinations—or voices—are a common feature of many psychiatric disorders and are also experienced by individuals with no psychiatric history. Understanding of the variation in subjective experiences of hallucination is central to psychiatry, yet systematic empirical research on the phenomenology of auditory hallucinations remains scarce. We aimed to record a detailed and diverse collection of experiences, in the words of the people who hear voices themselves. Methods We made a 13 item questionnaire available online for 3 months. To elicit phenomenologically rich data, we designed a combination of open-ended and closed-ended questions, which drew on service-user perspectives and approaches from phenomenological psychiatry, psychology, and medical humanities. We invited people aged 16–84 years with experience of voice-hearing to take part via an advertisement circulated through clinical networks, hearing voices groups, and other mental health forums. We combined qualitative and quantitative methods, and used inductive thematic analysis to code the data and χ2 tests to test additional associations of selected codes. Findings Between Sept 9 and Nov 29, 2013, 153 participants completed the study. Most participants described hearing multiple voices (124 [81%] of 153 individuals) with characterful qualities (106 [69%] individuals). Less than half of the participants reported hearing literally auditory voices—70 (46%) individuals reported either thought-like or mixed experiences. 101 (66%) participants reported bodily sensations while they heard voices, and these sensations were significantly associated with experiences of abusive or violent voices (p=0·024). Although fear, anxiety, depression, and stress were often associated with voices, 48 (31%) participants reported positive emotions and 49 (32%) reported neutral emotions. Our statistical analysis showed that mixed voices were more likely to have changed over time (p=0·030), be

  10. Managing multiple goals during fertility treatment: An interpretative phenomenological analysis.

    PubMed

    Phillips, Elly; Elander, James; Montague, Jane

    2014-04-01

    This study investigated how men and women made sense of multiple goals during fertility treatment. Both members of three heterosexual couples participated in two or three semi-structured interviews over 6 months, producing 14 accounts, which were analysed using interpretative phenomenological analysis. The goal of biological parenthood dominates assumptions in infertility research, but its importance varied between participants, who balanced that goal with retaining emotional well-being, avoiding financial difficulties and maintaining their relationship. These themes are discussed in the context of the self-regulation model, which allows fertility treatment experiences to be conceptualised more broadly than do other models.

  11. Perceived needs of critical care family members: a phenomenological discourse.

    PubMed

    Fry, Shirley; Warren, Nancy A

    2007-01-01

    A phenomenological study with Heideggerian hermeneutic contextual analysis was used to illuminate the perceived needs of family members who were in the critical care waiting room. Family members freely expressed their perceptions of perceived needs, and thick descriptions supported 4 explicit needs expressed by all participants. These needs were seeking information, trusting the professionals, being a part of the care, and maintaining a positive outlook. The dialogues of the participants were presented to develop awareness and stimulate conversation regarding the needs of family members in the critical care waiting room who are an integral part of the healing process of patients in the critical care unit.

  12. Phenomenological study of the isovector tensor meson family

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pang, Cheng-Qun; He, Li-Ping; Liu, Xiang; Matsuki, Takayuki

    2014-07-01

    In this work, we study all the observed a2 states and group them into the a2 meson family, where their total and two-body Okubo-Zweig-Iizuka allowed strong decay partial widths are calculated via the quark pair creation model. Taking into account the present experimental data, we further give the corresponding phenomenological analysis, which is valuable to test whether each a2 state can be assigned into the a2 meson family. What is more important is that the prediction of their decay behaviors will be helpful for future experimental study of the a2 states.

  13. An alternative NMSSM phenomenology with manifest perturbative unification

    SciTech Connect

    Hall, Lawrence; Barbieri, Riccardo; Pappadopulo, Duccio; Rychkov, Vyacheslav S.; Hall, Lawrence J.; Papaioannou, Anastasios Y.

    2007-12-18

    Can supersymmetric models with a moderate stop mass be made consistent with the negative Higgs boson searches at LEP, while keeping perturbative unification manifest? The NMSSM achieves this rather easily, but only if extra matter multiplets filling complete SU(5) representations are present at intermediate energies. As a concrete example which makes use of this feature, we give an analytic description of the phenomenology of a constrained NMSSM close to a Peccei-Quinn symmetry point. The related pseudo-Goldstone boson appears in decays of the Higgs bosons and possibly of the lightest neutralino, and itself decays into (b anti-b) and (tau anti-tau).

  14. Phenomenological determination of polarized quark distributions in the nucleon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bartelski, Jan; Tatur, Stanisław

    1996-03-01

    We present a fit to spin asymmetries which gives polarized quark distributions. These functions are closely related to the ones given by the Martin, Roberts and Stirling fit for unpolarized structure functions. The integrals of polarized distributions are discussed and compared with the corresponding quantities obtained from neutron and hyperon β-decay data. We use the combination of proton, neutron and deuteron spin asymmetries in order to determine the coefficients of our polarized quark distributions. Our fit shows that phenomenologically there is no need for taking polarized gluons into account.

  15. Phenomenological Theory of Isotropic-Genesis Nematic Elastomers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lu, Bing-Sui; Ye, Fangfu; Xing, Xiangjun; Goldbart, Paul M.

    2012-06-01

    We consider the impact of the elastomer network on the nematic structure and fluctuations in isotropic-genesis nematic elastomers, via a phenomenological model that underscores the role of network compliance. The model contains a network-mediated nonlocal interaction as well as a new kind of random field that reflects the memory of the nematic order present at network formation and also encodes local anisotropy due to localized nematogenic polymers. This model enables us to predict regimes of short-ranged oscillatory spatial correlations (thermal and glassy) in the nematic alignment.

  16. Women's perspectives toward menopause: A phenomenological study in Iran.

    PubMed

    Hakimi, Sevil; Simbar, Masoumeh; Ramezani Tehrani, Fahimeh; Zaiery, Farid; Khatami, Shiva

    2016-01-01

    This study explores the attitude and feelings toward menopause among Azeri menopausal women using hermeneutic phenomenology based on Van Manen's approach. A total of 18 menopausal women who were attended in urban health centers of Tabriz, Iran, were recruited using a purposive sampling method. Data were gathered through semistructured interviews. Each interview was transcribed verbatim and analyzed simultaneously. Data analysis led to the emergence of five main themes: positive attitude, neutral attitude, negative attitude, positive feelings, and negative feelings. Participants had different feelings and attitude. Acceptance of menopause as a natural process helps women to have a neutral attitude toward menopause.

  17. Karl Jaspers' phenomenology in the light of histological and X-ray metaphors.

    PubMed

    Vlasova, Olga Alexandrovna; Beveridge, Allan

    2014-03-01

    The study considers the origins of Karl Jaspers' phenomenology. What did phenomenology mean to Jaspers and what was his personal perspective? What metaphors did he associate with it? This paper describes his phenomenological method by using the metaphors of histology and the X-ray. This perspective enables a better understanding, not only of the origins and essence of his phenomenology but also of its value for Jaspers himself. In Jaspers' daily life, he would have been familiar with microscopes and X-ray machines.

  18. The Concept of Psychosis: Historical and Phenomenological Aspects

    PubMed Central

    2008-01-01

    The historical development of the concept of psychosis and its increasing differentiation from the neuroses up to the modern classification systems, Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders and International Statistical Classification of Diseases, is initially presented. In portraying this development, the struggle surrounding the clinical relevance of concepts on the one hand and their reliability and validity on the other are reflected. Thus far, diagnostic reliability has primarily been improved by focusing on externally observable symptoms in connection with expression and behavior. The identification of disease-specific symptoms, however, is principally achieved through the differential description of subjective experience. How this experience is to be explored and assessed remains for the most part unclear. With reference to its founder Karl Jaspers, the phenomenological method is presented as the decisive instrument for the assessment of experience. It is shown that a return to the legacy of phenomenology and a reformulation of the long-standing question concerning the specific symptoms of the schizophrenic psychosis are currently in progress. The revival of historical knowledge and a focus on direct clinical phenomena continue to provide inspiration for further advancement in modern psychiatry. PMID:18174608

  19. Robustness of replica symmetry breaking phenomenology in random laser.

    PubMed

    Tommasi, Federico; Ignesti, Emilio; Lepri, Stefano; Cavalieri, Stefano

    2016-11-16

    Random lasers are optical sources where light is amplified by stimulated emission along random paths through an amplifying scattering medium. Connections between their physics and the one of quenched disordered nonlinear systems, notably spin glasses, have been recently suggested. Here we report a first experimental study of correlations of spectral fluctuations intensity in a random laser medium where the scatterers displacement significantly changes among consecutive shots. Remarkably, our results reveal that the replica symmetry breaking (RSB) phenomenology is robust with respect to an averaging over different realizations of the disorder. Moreover, besides opening new intriguing questions about the understanding of such a phenomenon, this work aims to clarify the connection between the RSB with the onset of the Lévy regime, i.e. the fluctuations regime that is a peculiar feature of the random lasing under critical conditions. Our results suggest that the former occurs independently of the latter and then the RSB phenomenology is a generic feature linked to the random laser threshold.

  20. Exchange bias phenomenology and models of core/shell nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Iglesias, Oscar; Labarta, Amílcar; Batlle, Xavier

    2008-06-01

    Some of the main experimental observations related to the occurrence of exchange bias in magnetic systems are reviewed, focusing the attention on the peculiar phenomenology associated to nanoparticles with core/shell structure as compared to thin film bilayers. The main open questions posed by the experimental observations are presented and contrasted to existing theories and models for exchange bias formulated up to date. We also present results of simulations based on a simple model of a core/shell nanoparticle in which the values of microscopic parameters such as anisotropy and exchange constants can be tuned in the core, shell and at the interfacial regions, offering new insight on the microscopic origin of the experimental phenomenology. A detailed study of the magnetic order of the interfacial spins shows compelling evidence that most of the experimentally observed effects can be qualitatively accounted within the context of this model and allows also to quantify the magnitude of the loop shifts in striking agreement with the macroscopic observed values.

  1. Robustness of replica symmetry breaking phenomenology in random laser

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tommasi, Federico; Ignesti, Emilio; Lepri, Stefano; Cavalieri, Stefano

    2016-11-01

    Random lasers are optical sources where light is amplified by stimulated emission along random paths through an amplifying scattering medium. Connections between their physics and the one of quenched disordered nonlinear systems, notably spin glasses, have been recently suggested. Here we report a first experimental study of correlations of spectral fluctuations intensity in a random laser medium where the scatterers displacement significantly changes among consecutive shots. Remarkably, our results reveal that the replica symmetry breaking (RSB) phenomenology is robust with respect to an averaging over different realizations of the disorder. Moreover, besides opening new intriguing questions about the understanding of such a phenomenon, this work aims to clarify the connection between the RSB with the onset of the Lévy regime, i.e. the fluctuations regime that is a peculiar feature of the random lasing under critical conditions. Our results suggest that the former occurs independently of the latter and then the RSB phenomenology is a generic feature linked to the random laser threshold.

  2. Environmental complexity across scales: mechanism, scaling and the phenomenological fallacy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lovejoy, Shaun

    2015-04-01

    Ever since Van Leeuwenhoek used a microscope to discover "new worlds in a drop of water" we have become used to the idea that "zooming in" - whether in space or in time - will reveal new processes, new phenomena. Yet in the natural environment - geosystems - this is often wrong. For example, in the temporal domain, a recent publication has shown that from hours to hundreds of millions of years the conventional scale bound view of atmospheric variability was wrong by a factor of over a quadrillion (10**15). Mandelbrot challenged the "scale bound" ideology and proposed that many natural systems - including many geosystems - were instead better treated as fractal systems in which the same basic mechanism acts over potentially huge ranges of scale. However, in its original form Mandelbrot's isotropic scaling (self-similar) idea turned out to be too naïve: geosystems are typically anisotropic so that shapes and morphologies (e.g. of clouds landmasses) are not the same at different resolutions. However it turns out that the scaling idea often still applies on condition that the notion of scale is generalized appropriately (using the framework of Generalized Scale Invariance). The overall result is that unique processes, unique dynamical mechanisms may act over huge ranges of scale even though the morphologies systematically change with scale. Therefore the common practice of inferring mechanism from shapes, forms, morphologies is unjustified, the "phenomenological fallacy". We give examples of the phenomenological fallacy drawn from diverse areas of geoscience.

  3. Proof phenomenon as a function of the phenomenology of proving.

    PubMed

    Hipólito, Inês

    2015-12-01

    Kurt Gödel wrote (1964, p. 272), after he had read Husserl, that the notion of objectivity raises a question: "the question of the objective existence of the objects of mathematical intuition (which, incidentally, is an exact replica of the question of the objective existence of the outer world)". This "exact replica" brings to mind the close analogy Husserl saw between our intuition of essences in Wesensschau and of physical objects in perception. What is it like to experience a mathematical proving process? What is the ontological status of a mathematical proof? Can computer assisted provers output a proof? Taking a naturalized world account, I will assess the relationship between mathematics, the physical world and consciousness by introducing a significant conceptual distinction between proving and proof. I will propose that proving is a phenomenological conscious experience. This experience involves a combination of what Kurt Gödel called intuition, and what Husserl called intentionality. In contrast, proof is a function of that process - the mathematical phenomenon - that objectively self-presents a property in the world, and that results from a spatiotemporal unity being subject to the exact laws of nature. In this essay, I apply phenomenology to mathematical proving as a performance of consciousness, that is, a lived experience expressed and formalized in language, in which there is the possibility of formulating intersubjectively shareable meanings.

  4. HBT Pion Interferometry with Phenomenological Mean Field Interaction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hattori, K.

    2010-11-01

    To extract information on hadron production dynamics in the ultrarelativistic heavy ion collision, the space-time structure of the hadron source has been measured using Hanbury Brown and Twiss interferometry. We study the distortion of the source images due to the effect of a final state interaction. We describe the interaction, taking place during penetrating through a cloud formed by evaporating particles, in terms of a one-body mean field potential localized in the vicinity of the source region. By adopting the semiclassical method, the modification of the propagation of an emitted particle is examined. In analogy to the optical model applied to nuclear reactions, our phenomenological model has an imaginary part of the potential, which describes the absorption in the cloud. In this work, we focus on the pion interferometry and mean field interaction obtained using a phenomenological pipi forward scattering amplitude in the elastic channels. The p-wave scattering wit h rho meson resonance leads to an attractive mean field interaction, and the presence of the absorptive part is mainly attributed to the formation of this resonance. We also incorporate a simple time dependence of the potential reflecting the dynamics of the evaporating source. Using the obtained potential, we examine how and to what extent the so-called HBT Gaussian radius is varied by the modification of the propagation.

  5. Phenomenology of electromagnetic coupling: Conductors penetrating an aperture

    SciTech Connect

    Wright, D.B.; King, R.J.

    1987-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the coupling effects of penetrating conductors through free-standing apertures. This penetrating conductor and aperture arrangement are referred to as a modified aperture. A penetrating conductor is defined here to be a thin, single wire bent twice at 90 angles. The wire was inserted through a rectangular aperture in a metal wall. Vertical segments on both sides of the wall coupled energy from one region to the other. Energy was incident upon the modified aperture from what is referred to as the exterior region. The amount of coupling was measured by a D sensor on the other (interior) side of the wall. This configuration of an aperture in a metal wall was used as opposed to an aperture in a cavity in order to simplify the interpretation of resulting data. The added complexity of multiple cavity resonances was therefore eliminated. Determining the effects of penetrating conductors on aperture coupling is one of several topics being investigated as part of on-going research at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory on the phenomenology of electromagnetic coupling. These phenomenology studies are concerned with the vulnerability of electronic systems to high intensity electromagnetic fields. The investigation is relevant to high altitude EMP (HEMP), enhanced HEMP (EHEMP), and high power microwave (HPM) coupling.

  6. Salvia divinorum use and phenomenology: results from an online survey.

    PubMed

    Sumnall, H R; Measham, F; Brandt, S D; Cole, J C

    2011-11-01

    Salvia divinorum is a hallucinogenic plant with ethnopharmacological and recreational uses. It differs from classic serotonergic hallucinogens such as LSD and psilocin in both phenomenology and potent agonist activity of the active component salvinorin A at κ-opioid receptors. Awareness of S. divinorum has grown recently, with both an increase in its public representation and concern over its potential harmful effects. This discussion is particularly relevant as S. divinorum is legal to use in many countries and regions and easily available through online retailers. Drawing upon previous investigations of S. divinorum and other hallucinogens, this study surveyed 154 recent users and questioned them on their use behaviours, consequences of use and other attitudinal measures. Although reporting an extensive substance use history, and considering the limitations of online surveys, there was little evidence of dysfunctional S. divinorum use, and few reports of troubling adverse consequences of use. Furthermore, there was no evidence that users exhibited increased schizotypy. Respondents reported that S. divinorum produced mixed hallucinogenic and dissociative effects, which lends support to assertions that it phenomenologically differs from other hallucinogens with primary serotonergic activity. The functions of use changed with greater experiences with the drug, and although many respondents reported use of S. divinorum as an alternative to illegal drugs it, was apparent that legal proscription would be unlikely to dissuade them from use. These results are discussed with reference to psychopharmacologically informed public health responses to substance use.

  7. Psychosocial needs of burns nurses: a descriptive phenomenological inquiry.

    PubMed

    Kornhaber, Rachel Anne; Wilson, Anne

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this qualitative study was to explore the psychosocial needs of nurses who care for patients with severe burn injuries. Burns nurses work in an emotionally challenging and confronting environment, for which they are in need of emotional and clinical support. Exposure to such high levels of stress in this occupational environment has implications for nurses' health and psychosocial well-being. Seven burns nurses were recruited in 2009 from a severe burn injury unit in New South Wales, Australia. A qualitative phenomenological methodology was used to construct themes depicting nurses' experiences. Participants were selected through purposeful sampling, and data were collected through in-depth individual semistructured interviews using open-ended questions. Data were analyzed with Colaizzi's phenomenological method of data analysis. The psychosocial needs of burns nurses were identified and organized into five categories: peer nursing support, informal support, lack of support, multidisciplinary team collaboration, and professional support. The findings clearly demonstrate that support and unity within the workplace are fundamental factors for the psychosocial well-being of nurses caring for patients who have sustained a severe burn injury. Support for nurses in the form of regular professional or collegial debriefing sessions and utilization of employee assistance programs could ease the impact of the stressful environment in which they operate, and could influence staff retention. However, a supportive workplace culture is necessary to encourage nurses to access these services.

  8. The intrasubjectivity of self, voices and delusions: A phenomenological analysis

    PubMed Central

    Rosen, Cherise; Jones, Nev; Chase, Kayla A.; Gin, Hannah; Grossman, Linda S.; Sharma, Rajiv P.

    2016-01-01

    To advance the area of phenomenology of voices and their interrelatedness to forms of delusions this study investigated the prevalence and interrelatedness of co-occurring auditory verbal hallucinations (AVHs) and delusions. Additionally we explored the characterization of distinct sub-categories/clusters of AVHs and delusions. Ninety-two participants experiencing psychosis were administered standardized clinical measures. We found a significant diagnostic difference with increased prevalence of co-occurring AVHs and delusions within the schizophrenia group compared to the bipolar with psychosis group. Regardless of diagnosis, there was a significant positive correlation between AVHs and delusions of reference, persecution, control, thought insertion, thought withdrawal and thought broadcasting. However, no significant relationship was found between AVHs and grandiose, somatic, religious, guilty or jealousy-themed delusions. Cluster analysis yielded two distinct cluster groups. Cluster One: Voices and Thought Delusions, and Cluster Two: Voices and Thematic Delusions. Cluster One participants showed elevated disorganized, cognitive and depressive symptoms, but not negative symptoms or excitement. This study underscores the need for expanded clinical and phenomenological research into the intersection of AVHs and delusions, including work that seeks to deconstruct conventional divisions between ostensible symptoms of perception’ (hallucinations) and belief’ (delusions). PMID:27829870

  9. Empathy ≠ sharing: Perspectives from phenomenology and developmental psychology.

    PubMed

    Zahavi, Dan; Rochat, Philippe

    2015-11-01

    We argue that important insights regarding the topic of sharing can be gathered from phenomenology and developmental psychology; insights that in part challenge widespread ideas about what sharing is and where it can be found. To be more specific, we first exemplify how the notion of sharing is being employed in recent discussions of empathy, and then argue that this use of the notion tends to be seriously confused. It typically conflates similarity and sharing and, more generally speaking, fails to recognize that sharing proper involves reciprocity. As part of this critical analysis, we draw on sophisticated analyses of the distinction between empathy and emotional sharing that can be found in early phenomenology. Next, we turn to developmental psychology. Sharing is not simply one thing, but a complex and many-layered phenomenon. By tracing its early developmental trajectory from infancy and beyond, we show how careful psychological observations can help us develop a more sophisticated understanding of sharing than the one currently employed in many discussions in the realm of neuroscience. In our conclusion, we return to the issue of empathy and argue that although empathy does not involve or entail sharing, empathy understood as a basic sensitivity to and understanding of others (rather than as a special prosocial concern for others) might be a precondition for sharing.

  10. Ontology or phenomenology? How the LVAD challenges the euthanasia debate.

    PubMed

    Kraemer, Felicitas

    2013-03-01

    This article deals with the euthanasia debate in light of new life-sustaining technologies such as the left ventricular assist device (LVAD). The question arises: does the switching off of a LVAD by a doctor upon the request of a patient amount to active or passive euthanasia, i.e. to 'killing' or to 'letting die'? The answer hinges on whether the device is to be regarded as a proper part of the patient's body or as something external. We usually regard the switching off of an internal device as killing, whereas the deactivation of an external device is seen as 'letting die'. The case is notoriously difficult to decide for hybrid devices such as LVADs, which are partly inside and partly outside the patient's body. Additionally, on a methodological level, I will argue that the 'ontological' arguments from analogy given for both sides are problematic. Given the impasse facing the ontological arguments, complementary phenomenological arguments deserve closer inspection. In particular, we should consider whether phenomenologically the LVAD is perceived as a body part or as an external device. I will support the thesis that the deactivation of a LVAD is to be regarded as passive euthanasia if the device is not perceived by the patient as a part of the body proper.

  11. "Caring for insiderness": phenomenologically informed insights that can guide practice.

    PubMed

    Todres, Les; Galvin, Kathleen T; Dahlberg, Karin

    2014-01-01

    Understanding the "insider" perspective has been a pivotal strength of qualitative research. Further than this, within the more applied fields in which the human activity of "caring" takes place, such understanding of "what it is like" for people from within their lifeworlds has also been acknowledged as the foundational starting point in order for "care" to be caring. But we believe that more attention needs to be paid to this foundational generic phenomenon: what it means to understand the "insiderness" of another, but more importantly, how to act on this in caring ways. We call this human phenomenon "caring for insiderness." Drawing on existing phenomenological studies of marginal caring situations at the limits of caring capability, and through a process of phenomenologically oriented reflection, we interrogated some existential themes implicit in these publications that could lead to deeper insights for both theoretical and applied purposes. The paper provides direction for practices of caring by highlighting some dangers as well as some remedies along this path.

  12. Robustness of replica symmetry breaking phenomenology in random laser

    PubMed Central

    Tommasi, Federico; Ignesti, Emilio; Lepri, Stefano; Cavalieri, Stefano

    2016-01-01

    Random lasers are optical sources where light is amplified by stimulated emission along random paths through an amplifying scattering medium. Connections between their physics and the one of quenched disordered nonlinear systems, notably spin glasses, have been recently suggested. Here we report a first experimental study of correlations of spectral fluctuations intensity in a random laser medium where the scatterers displacement significantly changes among consecutive shots. Remarkably, our results reveal that the replica symmetry breaking (RSB) phenomenology is robust with respect to an averaging over different realizations of the disorder. Moreover, besides opening new intriguing questions about the understanding of such a phenomenon, this work aims to clarify the connection between the RSB with the onset of the Lévy regime, i.e. the fluctuations regime that is a peculiar feature of the random lasing under critical conditions. Our results suggest that the former occurs independently of the latter and then the RSB phenomenology is a generic feature linked to the random laser threshold. PMID:27849029

  13. Familiarity is not notoriety: phenomenological accounts of face recognition

    PubMed Central

    Liccione, Davide; Moruzzi, Sara; Rossi, Federica; Manganaro, Alessia; Porta, Marco; Nugrahaningsih, Nahumi; Caserio, Valentina; Allegri, Nicola

    2014-01-01

    From a phenomenological perspective, faces are perceived differently from objects as their perception always involves the possibility of a relational engagement (Bredlau, 2011). This is especially true for familiar faces, i.e., faces of people with a history of real relational engagements. Similarly, valence of emotional expressions assumes a key role, as they define the sense and direction of this engagement. Following these premises, the aim of the present study is to demonstrate that face recognition is facilitated by at least two variables, familiarity and emotional expression, and that perception of familiar faces is not influenced by orientation. In order to verify this hypothesis, we implemented a 3 × 3 × 2 factorial design, showing 17 healthy subjects three type of faces (unfamiliar, personally familiar, famous) characterized by three different emotional expressions (happy, hungry/sad, neutral) and in two different orientation (upright vs. inverted). We showed every subject a total of 180 faces with the instructions to give a familiarity judgment. Reaction times (RTs) were recorded and we found that the recognition of a face is facilitated by personal familiarity and emotional expression, and that this process is otherwise independent from a cognitive elaboration of stimuli and remains stable despite orientation. These results highlight the need to make a distinction between famous and personally familiar faces when studying face perception and to consider its historical aspects from a phenomenological point of view. PMID:25225476

  14. A second-order differential equation for a point charged particle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Torromé, Ricardo Gallego

    A model for the dynamics of a classical point charged particle interacting with higher order jet fields is introduced. In this model, the dynamics of the charged particle is described by an implicit ordinary second-order differential equation. Such equation is free of run-away and pre-accelerated solutions of Dirac’s type. The theory is Lorentz invariant, compatible with the first law of Newton and Larmor’s power radiation formula. Few implications of the new equation in the phenomenology of non-neutral plasmas is considered.

  15. A phenomenological model for the photocurrent transient relaxation observed in ZnO-based photodetector devices.

    PubMed

    Moore, James C; Thompson, Cody V

    2013-08-05

    We present a phenomenological model for the photocurrent transient relaxation observed in ZnO-based metal-semiconductor-metal (MSM) planar photodetector devices based on time-resolved surface band bending. Surface band bending decreases during illumination, due to migration of photogenerated holes to the surface. Immediately after turning off illumination, conduction-band electrons must overcome a relatively low energy barrier to recombine with photogenerated holes at the surface; however, with increasing time, the adsorption of oxygen at the surface or electron trapping in the depletion region increases band bending, resulting in an increased bulk/surface energy barrier that slows the transport of photogenerated electrons. We present a complex rate equation based on thermionic transition of charge carriers to and from the surface and numerically fit this model to transient photocurrent measurements of several MSM planar ZnO photodetectors at variable temperature. Fitting parameters are found to be consistent with measured values in the literature. An understanding of the mechanism for persistent photoconductivity could lead to mitigation in future device applications.

  16. A Phenomenological Model for the Photocurrent Transient Relaxation Observed in ZnO-Based Photodetector Devices

    PubMed Central

    Moore, James C.; Thompson, Cody V.

    2013-01-01

    We present a phenomenological model for the photocurrent transient relaxation observed in ZnO-based metal-semiconductor-metal (MSM) planar photodetector devices based on time-resolved surface band bending. Surface band bending decreases during illumination, due to migration of photogenerated holes to the surface. Immediately after turning off illumination, conduction-band electrons must overcome a relatively low energy barrier to recombine with photogenerated holes at the surface; however, with increasing time, the adsorption of oxygen at the surface or electron trapping in the depletion region increases band bending, resulting in an increased bulk/surface energy barrier that slows the transport of photogenerated electrons. We present a complex rate equation based on thermionic transition of charge carriers to and from the surface and numerically fit this model to transient photocurrent measurements of several MSM planar ZnO photodetectors at variable temperature. Fitting parameters are found to be consistent with measured values in the literature. An understanding of the mechanism for persistent photoconductivity could lead to mitigation in future device applications. PMID:23921826

  17. Mechanochemical spinodal decomposition: a phenomenological theory of phase transformations in multi-component, crystalline solids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rudraraju, Shiva; van der Ven, Anton; Garikipati, Krishna

    2016-06-01

    We present a phenomenological treatment of diffusion-driven martensitic phase transformations in multi-component crystalline solids that arise from non-convex free energies in mechanical and chemical variables. The treatment describes diffusional phase transformations that are accompanied by symmetry-breaking structural changes of the crystal unit cell and reveals the importance of a mechanochemical spinodal, defined as the region in strain-composition space, where the free-energy density function is non-convex. The approach is relevant to phase transformations wherein the structural order parameters can be expressed as linear combinations of strains relative to a high-symmetry reference crystal. The governing equations describing mechanochemical spinodal decomposition are variationally derived from a free-energy density function that accounts for interfacial energy via gradients of the rapidly varying strain and composition fields. A robust computational framework for treating the coupled, higher-order diffusion and nonlinear strain gradient elasticity problems is presented. Because the local strains in an inhomogeneous, transforming microstructure can be finite, the elasticity problem must account for geometric nonlinearity. An evaluation of available experimental phase diagrams and first-principles free energies suggests that mechanochemical spinodal decomposition should occur in metal hydrides such as ZrH2-2c. The rich physics that ensues is explored in several numerical examples in two and three dimensions, and the relevance of the mechanism is discussed in the context of important electrode materials for Li-ion batteries and high-temperature ceramics.

  18. Higher-level Kac-Moody string models and their phenomenological implications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Font, Anamaría; Ibáñez, Luis E.; Quevedo, Fernando

    1990-12-01

    We present a systematic approach to string compactifications in which some of the gauge interactions are realized at higher Kac-Moody level. This can be realized in the current constructions of four-dimensional strings including symmetric and asymmetric compactifications. It is shown that there exist higher-level models which can be obtained from exactly marginal deformations of a level-one model, and a simple field theory interpretation is provided in terms of flat scalar field directions in the original level-one model. We then consider the phenomenological possibilities opened to four-dimensional higher-level string models. In particular we show how the levels associated to standard model interactions as well as the massless content of the theory are constrained by unitarity and the renormalization group equations. We also consider the prospects for string GUT models. Mechanisms like "missing partner" in SU(5) or "see-saw" neutrino in SO(10) are only possible for k ⩾ 5. For E 6 at any level only adjoints or fundamentals can be light. A generic feature of the unification models seem to be the existence of relatively light chiral multiplets transforming like (8, 1, 0) + (1, 3, 0) + (1, 1, 0) under SU(3) × SU(2) × U(1). The problems of neutrino masses and proton stability are reconsidered and a possible simultaneous solution involving a discrete gauge symmetry is suggested.

  19. Passive millimeter-wave imaging technology and phenomenology: a common denominator approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, Roger M.; Trott, Keith D.; Ewen, Doc

    1995-10-01

    Passive imaging technology has been recognized and reduced to practice for sensing targets in the battlefield environment for several decades. Most imaging is done at optical and infrared wavelengths which require favorable weather conditions. This paper describes what is on the horizon for a new imaging technology 'passive millimeter wave (PMMW) imaging' that can operate in all weather conditions. It will introduce the reader to the unique world of PMMW imaging by describing the technical approach underway at the Wright Laboratory Armament Directorate, Advanced Guidance Division, Eglin AFB, Florida. A PMMW analytical model has been developed and a data collection/phenomenology testbed is being built to validate this model. This will be a mobile test facility that will provide the needed ground truth for an Airborne PMMW Captive Flight Test program in the FY97/98 timeframe. The thrust of this analytical model is the treatment of theoretical equations that allow low altitude imaging in and out of the millimeter wave spectral 'window' frequencies. PMMW sensors at 35, 60 (non- window), and 95 GHz are being fabricated and will be collocated on the same platform to validate this model. This testbed will be the hardware used to begin a radiometric imaging program that will serve not only military needs for advanced munition sensor development, but commercial and academic endeavors as well.

  20. Single wall penetration equations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hayashida, K. B.; Robinson, J. H.

    1991-01-01

    Five single plate penetration equations are compared for accuracy and effectiveness. These five equations are two well-known equations (Fish-Summers and Schmidt-Holsapple), two equations developed by the Apollo project (Rockwell and Johnson Space Center (JSC), and one recently revised from JSC (Cour-Palais). They were derived from test results, with velocities ranging up to 8 km/s. Microsoft Excel software was used to construct a spreadsheet to calculate the diameters and masses of projectiles for various velocities, varying the material properties of both projectile and target for the five single plate penetration equations. The results were plotted on diameter versus velocity graphs for ballistic and spallation limits using Cricket Graph software, for velocities ranging from 2 to 15 km/s defined for the orbital debris. First, these equations were compared to each other, then each equation was compared with various aluminum projectile densities. Finally, these equations were compared with test results performed at JSC for the Marshall Space Flight Center. These equations predict a wide variety of projectile diameters at a given velocity. Thus, it is very difficult to choose the 'right' prediction equation. The thickness of a single plate could have a large variation by choosing a different penetration equation. Even though all five equations are empirically developed with various materials, especially for aluminum alloys, one cannot be confident in the shield design with the predictions obtained by the penetration equations without verifying by tests.

  1. Reflections on Chemical Equations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gorman, Mel

    1981-01-01

    The issue of how much emphasis balancing chemical equations should have in an introductory chemistry course is discussed. The current heavy emphasis on finishing such equations is viewed as misplaced. (MP)

  2. A phenomenological model for orificed hollow cathodes. Ph.D. Thesis, 1 Dec. 1981 - 1 Dec. 1982; [electrostatic thruster

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Siegfried, D. E.

    1982-01-01

    A quartz hollow tube cathode was used to determine the operating conditions within a mercury orificed hollow cathode. Insert temperature profiles, cathode current distributions, plasma properties profile, and internal pressure-mass flow rate results are summarized and used in a phenomenological model which qualitatively describes electron emission and plasma production processes taking place within the cathode. By defining an idealized ion production region within which most of the plasma processes are concentrated, this model is expressed analytically as a simple set of equations which relate cathode dimensions and specifiable operating conditions, such as mass flow rate and discharge current, to such important parameters as emission surface temperature and internal plasma properties. Key aspects of the model are examined.

  3. Phenomenological model of photoluminescence degradation and photoinduced defect formation in silicon nanocrystal ensembles under singlet oxygen generation

    SciTech Connect

    Gongalsky, Maxim B. Timoshenko, Victor Yu.

    2014-12-28

    We propose a phenomenological model to explain photoluminescence degradation of silicon nanocrystals under singlet oxygen generation in gaseous and liquid systems. The model considers coupled rate equations, which take into account the exciton radiative recombination in silicon nanocrystals, photosensitization of singlet oxygen generation, defect formation on the surface of silicon nanocrystals as well as quenching processes for both excitons and singlet oxygen molecules. The model describes well the experimentally observed power law dependences of the photoluminescence intensity, singlet oxygen concentration, and lifetime versus photoexcitation time. The defect concentration in silicon nanocrystals increases by power law with a fractional exponent, which depends on the singlet oxygen concentration and ambient conditions. The obtained results are discussed in a view of optimization of the photosensitized singlet oxygen generation for biomedical applications.

  4. Parametrically defined differential equations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Polyanin, A. D.; Zhurov, A. I.

    2017-01-01

    The paper deals with nonlinear ordinary differential equations defined parametrically by two relations. It proposes techniques to reduce such equations, of the first or second order, to standard systems of ordinary differential equations. It obtains the general solution to some classes of nonlinear parametrically defined ODEs dependent on arbitrary functions. It outlines procedures for the numerical solution of the Cauchy problem for parametrically defined differential equations.

  5. The Pendulum Equation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fay, Temple H.

    2002-01-01

    We investigate the pendulum equation [theta] + [lambda][squared] sin [theta] = 0 and two approximations for it. On the one hand, we suggest that the third and fifth-order Taylor series approximations for sin [theta] do not yield very good differential equations to approximate the solution of the pendulum equation unless the initial conditions are…

  6. Impact of Involvement of Chief Information Officer in Strategic Decisions: A Phenomenological Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moussa, Samir

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of the qualitative phenomenological study was to investigate the influence of the CIO on strategic decision making in organizations. The phenomenological study was deployed to address 2 research questions by interviewing a purposive sample of 23 executives (7 IT leaders, 10 CFOs, and 6 CEOs) in 5 different countries. A qualitative…

  7. Memory, Reality, and Ethnography in a Colombian War Zone: Towards a Social Phenomenology of Collective Remembrance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haymes, Stephen Nathan

    2012-01-01

    This paper considers phenomenology as a philosophical framework from which to understand the moral experience of collective memory. As a philosophical approach to human reality, phenomenology contributes insight into the connection between the experiential grounding of collective memory and the reality of the social world. The inspiration for…

  8. An Interpretative Phenomenological Analysis of Sense-Making by Department of Defense Employees

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harrison, John L., Sr.

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this qualitative, phenomenological study was to explore the perceptions and lived experiences of Department of Defense (DOD) civilian employees to identify how their personal sense-making affects their coaching of adult students. The author used an interpretative phenomenological analysis (IPA) method involving personal interviews…

  9. Applications of Phenomenology in Transpersonal, Person-Centered, and Existential Counseling.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Souza, Katherine Zimmer; Do, Vinh The

    This article explains that the phenomenological approach in counseling began as a movement to counterbalance the influence of psychoanalysis in psychotherapy and counseling. Phenomenology is defined as the study of the world as we immediately experience it, pre-reflectively rather than as we conceptualize, categorize, or reflect on it. Through…

  10. Idols of the psychologist: Johannes Linschoten and the demise of phenomenological psychology in the Netherlands.

    PubMed

    van Hezewijk, René; Stam, Henderikus J

    2008-08-01

    Before and after World War II, a loose movement within Dutch psychology solidified as a nascent phenomenological psychology. Dutch phenomenological psychologists attempted to generate an understanding of psychology that was based on Husserlian interpretations of phenomenological philosophy. This movement came to a halt in the 1960s, even though it had been exported to North America and elsewhere as "phenomenological psychology." Frequently referred to as the "Utrecht school," most of the activity of the group was centered at Utrecht University. In this article, the authors examine the role played by Johannes Linschoten in both aspects of the development of a phenomenological psychology: its rise in North America and Europe, and its institutional demise. By the time of his early death in 1964, Linschoten had cast considerable doubt on the possibilities of a purely phenomenological psychology. Nonetheless, his own empirical work, especially his 1956 dissertation published in German, can be seen to be a form of empiricism inspired by phenomenology but that clearly distanced itself from the more elitist and esoteric aspects of Dutch phenomenological psychology.

  11. The History of the Present: Towards a Contemporary Phenomenology of the School.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peim, Nick

    2001-01-01

    Discusses phenomenology as it relates to the theory that radical distinction cannot be sustained for subject and object, based on our perceptions of the factors involved. Focuses on Michel Foucault's philosophy and Jacques Derrida's anti-essentialist phenomenology. States that potential exists for rethinking the politics of theory in education.…

  12. A Phenomenological Study of Korean Students' Acculturation in Middle Schools in the USA

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Inkyung; Koro-Ljungberg, Mirka

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of this phenomenological interview study was to describe how visiting Korean students experience social adjustment and acculturation when attending US middle schools. As a result of phenomenological analysis, the essences of Korean students' social adjustment included: (1) descriptions of power struggles; (2) misconceptions of cultural…

  13. Assistant Principals' Lived Experiences with Managerial Skills Needed for Promotion: A Phenomenological Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Flowers, Melnice

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this qualitative, phenomenological study was to explore the lived experiences of assistant principals in what they deem to be the needed managerial skills for promotion to campus principal. The sample for the study included 20 assistant principals in an urban school district located in Texas. The process of phenomenological enquiry…

  14. A Phenomenological Investigation of the Lived Experiences of Successful First Generation Hispanic College Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Puente, Christina C.

    2013-01-01

    This qualitative phenomenological research study investigated the lived experiences of five successful first generation Hispanic college students. Participants' interviews were analyzed using Creswell's (2007) six steps for analyzing phenomenological studies. Findings from this study affirm the factors for student success in college regarding…

  15. Terahertz Systems Engineering: Detectors, Sources, Propagation, Phenomenology, Design and Analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suen, Jonathan Ying-Yan

    The terahertz (THz) band, from 300 GHz to 20 THz, is the last remaining frontier of the electromagnetic spectrum. Fundamentally, the frequency is too high to use current electronic technologies, yet the photon energy is too low for optical systems. However, there is a rich set of phenomenology, science, and applications, which are only available with THz radiation. In order to exploit this, the THz engineer who is designing systems must be adept at integrating components with very limited performance into a system. This requires understanding and knowledge of a wide range of fields, including microwaves, infrared optics, material science, software development, atmospheric science, and the overall analysis and design of a system. Any THz system involves the sensing of some phenomena, which can be under the direct control of the engineer, such as in a communication system, or set by the laws of physics, such as in an astronomical telescope, or some variant in between. Thus, the design of such a system is fundamentally related to sensing science. Here, we have to consider detector and source technology, the propagation of radiation, target phenomenology, and the overall design and analysis of the system. This dissertation presents research in all of these areas. Specifically, in the field of THz phenomenology, I conducted a study to show the primary contrast mechanism in reflective biomedical imaging is water concentration. For source technology, I detail the development and characterization of photoconductive switches with record-breaking optical efficiency. In a separate study I developed a model which explains the complex photocarrier dynamics in fast-trapping THz photoconductive materials and show that high-frequency THz generation (>1 THz) is caused by beaching saturation. My work in detectors shows the design of a quasi-optical radar that exploits low 1/f noise Schottky diodes for detection of slow moving objects, useful for biomedical sensing of respiration and

  16. Excited heavy baryons and their symmetries III: Phenomenology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baccouche, Z. Aziza; Chow, Chi-Keung; Cohen, Thomas D.; Gelman, Boris A.

    2001-12-01

    Phenomenological applications of an effective theory of low-lying excited states of charm and bottom isoscalar baryons are discussed at leading and next-to-leading order in the combined heavy-quark and large- Nc expansion. The combined expansion is formulated in terms of the counting parameter λ˜1/ mQ,1/ Nc; the combined expansion is in powers of λ1/2. We work up to next-to-leading order. We obtain model-independent predictions for the excitation energies, the semileptonic form factors and electromagnetic decay rates. At leading order in the combined expansion these observables are given in terms of one phenomenological constant which can be determined from the excitation energy of the first excited state of Λc baryon. At next-to-leading order an additional phenomenological constant is required. The spin-averaged mass of the doublet of the first orbitally excited state of Λb is predicted to be approximately 5920 MeV. It is shown that in the combined limit at leading and next-to-leading order there is only one independent form factor describing Λ b→Λ cℓ ν¯; similarly, Λ b→Λ c∗ℓ ν¯ and Λ b→Λ c1ℓ ν¯ decays are described by a single independent form factor. These form factors are calculated at leading and next-to-leading order in the combined expansion. The value of the Λ b→Λ cℓ ν¯ form factor at zero recoil is predicted to be 0.998 at leading order which is very close to HQET value of unity. The electromagnetic decay rates of the first excited states of Λc and Λb are determined at leading and next-to-leading order. The ratio of radiative decay rates Γ(Λ c∗→Λ cγ)/Γ(Λ b1→Λ bγ) is predicted to be approximately 0.2, greatly different from the heavy-quark effective theory value of unity.

  17. USING A PHENOMENOLOGICAL MODEL TO TEST THE COINCIDENCE PROBLEM OF DARK ENERGY

    SciTech Connect

    Chen Yun; Zhu Zonghong; Alcaniz, J. S.; Gong Yungui

    2010-03-01

    By assuming a phenomenological form for the ratio of the dark energy and matter densities rho{sub X} {proportional_to} rho{sub m} a {sup x}i, we discuss the cosmic coincidence problem in light of current observational data. Here, xi is a key parameter to denote the severity of the coincidence problem. In this scenario, xi = 3 and xi = 0 correspond to LAMBDACDM and the self-similar solution without the coincidence problem, respectively. Hence, any solution with a scaling parameter 0 < xi < 3 makes the coincidence problem less severe. In addition, the standard cosmology without interaction between dark energy and dark matter is characterized by xi + 3omega{sub X} = 0, where omega{sub X} is the equation of state of the dark energy component, whereas the inequality xi + 3omega{sub X} {ne} 0 represents non-standard cosmology. We place observational constraints on the parameters (OMEGA{sub X,0}, omega{sub X}, xi) of this model, where OMEGA{sub X,0} is the present value of density parameter of dark energy OMEGA{sub X}, by using the Constitution Set (397 supernovae of type Ia data, hereafter SNeIa), the cosmic microwave background shift parameter from the five-year Wilkinson Microwave Anisotropy Probe and the Sloan Digital Sky Survey baryon acoustic peak. Combining the three samples, we get OMEGA{sub X,0} = 0.72 +- 0.02, omega{sub X} = -0.98 +- 0.07, and xi = 3.06 +- 0.35 at 68.3% confidence level. The result shows that the LAMBDACDM model still remains a good fit to the recent observational data, and the coincidence problem indeed exists and is quite severe, in the framework of this simple phenomenological model. We further constrain the model with the transition redshift (deceleration/acceleration). It shows that if the transition from deceleration to acceleration happens at the redshift z > 0.73, within the framework of this model, we can conclude that the interaction between dark energy and dark matter is necessary.

  18. [Interest and value of the phenomenological narrative: a dicovery of logic and rigor].

    PubMed

    Ntebutse, Jean-gabin; Croyere, Nicole

    2016-03-01

    The aim of this paper is to highlight the interest and the value of the method of phenomenological narrative as the result of a rigorous approach of phenomenological examination of the data that allows a fine understanding of phenomena. The exercise leans on two steps of research about different objects but which both ended in the construction of phenomenological narratives. The first research explores university professors'dynamics of change when they experiment major educational innovation. The second research examines experiential knowledges for nursing assistant in nursing homes. In this paper, you can read the systematization of the methodological approach to reach the phenomenological narrative. After a brief overview of theoretical anchorages, the operationalisation is described. Finally the value of phenomenological narrative is observed regard to the criteria of scientificity in qualitative research.

  19. Nursing teachers in clinical training areas: a phenomenological focus.

    PubMed

    Bettancourt, Lorena; Muñoz, Luz Angelica; Merighi, Miriam Aparecida Barbosa; dos Santos, Marcia Fernandes

    2011-01-01

    During theoretical and practical activities in clinical training areas, nursing teachers provide the bases needed for the development of future professionals. The goal is to understand the experience of nursing teachers with nursing students in clinical training areas. Therefore, a phenomenological qualitative method was chosen, and Martin Heidegger's philosophical framework was used to support data analysis. Five faculty from a Chilean university participated in the study. The analysis permitted discovering the following themes: being a faculty at the hospital, contact with nurse practitioners and being a faculty in care teaching. The study demonstrated that teaching/care integration is a constructive element that facilitates the teaching and learning process, aiming to prepare nursing professionals who incorporate the bases of authentic care into their activities.

  20. ``A Minority View'' Gian-Carlo Rota's Phenomenological Realism

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Palombi, Fabrizio

    In 1997 Rota's second anthology was published, entitled Indiscrete Thoughts. The theses put forward in the book were "minority" positions in a Unites States cultural context that, after long having attempted to replace philosophy with logical analysis and the analysis of language (Hersh, 1997, pp. IX-X), was preparing to interpret it also in neuroscientific terms. Rota intended to show that he did not fear uncomfortable positions and chose the phrase "a minority view" as a provocative title for the philosophy section of the book, inspired by phenomenology. We cannot understand the importance of Rota's intellectual figure, within the American cultural context of the end of the twentieth century, and the importance of his heritage if we interpret it in terms of architectonic of philosophy.

  1. Dreaming and the brain: from phenomenology to neurophysiology.

    PubMed

    Nir, Yuval; Tononi, Giulio

    2010-02-01

    Dreams are a remarkable experiment in psychology and neuroscience, conducted every night in every sleeping person. They show that the human brain, disconnected from the environment, can generate an entire world of conscious experiences by itself. Content analysis and developmental studies have promoted understanding of dream phenomenology. In parallel, brain lesion studies, functional imaging and neurophysiology have advanced current knowledge of the neural basis of dreaming. It is now possible to start integrating these two strands of research to address fundamental questions that dreams pose for cognitive neuroscience: how conscious experiences in sleep relate to underlying brain activity; why the dreamer is largely disconnected from the environment; and whether dreaming is more closely related to mental imagery or to perception.

  2. Obsessionality & compulsivity: a phenomenology of obsessive-compulsive disorder

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Progress in psychiatry depends on accurate definitions of disorders. As long as there are no known biologic markers available that are highly specific for a particular psychiatric disorder, clinical practice as well as scientific research is forced to appeal to clinical symptoms. Currently, the nosology of obsessive-compulsive disorder is being reconsidered in view of the publication of DSM-V. Since our diagnostic entities are often simplifications of the complicated clinical profile of patients, definitions of psychiatric disorders are imprecise and always indeterminate. This urges researchers and clinicians to constantly think and rethink well-established definitions that in psychiatry are at risk of being fossilised. In this paper, we offer an alternative view to the current definition of obsessive-compulsive disorder from a phenomenological perspective. Translation This article is translated from Dutch, originally published in [Handbook Obsessive-compulsive disorders, Damiaan Denys, Femke de Geus (Eds.), (2007). De Tijdstroom uitgeverij BV, Utrecht. ISBN13: 9789058980878.] PMID:21284843

  3. Phenomenological vs. biophysical models of thermal stress in aquatic eggs.

    PubMed

    Martin, Benjamin T; Pike, Andrew; John, Sara N; Hamda, Natnael; Roberts, Jason; Lindley, Steven T; Danner, Eric M

    2017-01-01

    Predicting species responses to climate change is a central challenge in ecology. These predictions are often based on lab-derived phenomenological relationships between temperature and fitness metrics. We tested one of these relationships using the embryonic stage of a Chinook salmon population. We parameterised the model with laboratory data, applied it to predict survival in the field, and found that it significantly underestimated field-derived estimates of thermal mortality. We used a biophysical model based on mass transfer theory to show that the discrepancy was due to the differences in water flow velocities between the lab and the field. This mechanistic approach provides testable predictions for how the thermal tolerance of embryos depends on egg size and flow velocity of the surrounding water. We found support for these predictions across more than 180 fish species, suggesting that flow and temperature mediated oxygen limitation is a general mechanism underlying the thermal tolerance of embryos.

  4. Higgs-radion phenomenology in stabilized RS models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boos, Eduard; Bunichev, Viacheslav; Keizerov, Sergey; Perfilov, Maxim; Rakhmetov, Eduard; Smolyakov, Mikhail; Svirina, Kseniia; Volobuev, Igor

    2016-10-01

    An important general prediction of stabilized brane world models is the existence of a bulk scalar radion field, whose lowest Kaluza-Klein (KK) mode is the scalar particle called the radion. This field comes from the fluctuations of the metric in the extra dimension and the radion mass can be smaller than that of all the massive KK modes of the other particles propagating in the multidimensional bulk. Due to its origin, the radion and its KK tower couple to the trace of the energy-momentum tensor of the Standard Model. These fields have the same quantum numbers as the neutral Higgs field and can mix with the latter, if they are coupled. We present a short review of some aspects of Higgs-radion phenomenology in stabilized brane-world models. In particular, we discuss the possibility of explaining the 750 GeV excess by the production of a radion-dominated state.

  5. Phenomenological study of ICU nurses' experiences caring for dying patients.

    PubMed

    King, Phyllis Ann; Thomas, Sandra P

    2013-11-01

    This existential phenomenological study explored caring for the dying based on the philosophical works of Merleau-Ponty. Fourteen critical care nurses were asked to describe lived experiences of caring for dying patients. An encompassing theme of Promises to Keep emerged, with five subthemes, including the following: (a) promise to be truthful: "Nurses are in the game of reality," (b) promise to provide comfort: "I'll make him comfortable," (c) promise to be an advocate: "Just one more day," (d) "Promise that couldn't be kept," and (e) "Promise to remain connected." The essence of intensive care nurses' lived experience of caring for dying patients is captured in the theme Promises to Keep. Nurses accept the reality of death and express strong commitment to making it as comfortable, peaceful, and dignified as possible, despite critical care unit environments that foster a "paradigm of curing" rather than a "paradigm of caring.".

  6. Phenomenological loop quantum geometry of the Schwarzschild black hole

    SciTech Connect

    Chiou, D.-W.

    2008-09-15

    The interior of a Schwarzschild black hole is investigated at the level of phenomenological dynamics with the discreteness corrections of loop quantum geometry implemented in two different improved quantization schemes. In one scheme, the classical black hole singularity is resolved by the quantum bounce, which bridges the black hole interior with a white hole interior. In the other scheme, the classical singularity is resolved and the event horizon is also diffused by the quantum bounce. Jumping over the quantum bounce, the black hole gives birth to a baby black hole with a much smaller mass. This lineage continues as each classical black hole brings forth its own descendant in the consecutive classical cycle, giving the whole extended spacetime fractal structure, until the solution eventually descends into the deep Planck regime, signaling a breakdown of the semiclassical description. The issues of scaling symmetry and no-hair theorem are also discussed.

  7. Empowering embodiment through belly dancin in pregancy: a phenomenological exploration.

    PubMed

    Jackson, Imogen

    2015-05-01

    Exercise during pregnancy has physical benefits for mother and fetus; however there has been little research into potential emotional benefits. At least 10-15 per cent of mothers suffer from ante- and postnatal depression, which can lead to extreme adverse consequences. This has been linked to self esteem, body image and isolation, amongst other factors. Belly dance has been shown to increase self esteem and body image and to provide a sense of community in non-pregnant women. This study uses phenomenology to explore how pregnant women experience belly dance using semi-structured interviews with two mothers. Three themes emerged from the data: in tune and able, connecting with others and pride and joy. The findings suggest that pregnancy belly dancing provides an opportunity for women to celebrate their femininity and maternity through connecting with others, their bodies and their babies. Belly dance is shown to be a joyful, empowering activity, with potential for improving psychological well being during pregnancy.

  8. An Update on Tardive Dyskinesia: From Phenomenology to Treatment

    PubMed Central

    Waln, Olga; Jankovic, Joseph

    2013-01-01

    Tardive dyskinesia (TD), characterized by oro-buccal-lingual stereotypy, can manifest in the form of akathisia, dystonia, tics, tremor, chorea, or as a combination of different types of abnormal movements. In addition to movement disorders (including involuntary vocalizations), patients with TD may have a variety of sensory symptoms, such as urge to move (as in akathisia), paresthesias, and pain. TD is a form of tardive syndrome—a group of iatrogenic hyperkinetic and hypokinetic movement disorders caused by dopamine receptor-blocking agents. The pathophysiology of TD remains poorly understood, and treatment of this condition is often challenging. In this update, we provide the most current information on the history, nomenclature, etiology, pathophysiology, epidemiology, phenomenology, differential diagnosis, and treatment of TD. PMID:23858394

  9. Dreaming and the brain: from phenomenology to neurophysiology

    PubMed Central

    Nir, Yuval; Tononi, Giulio

    2009-01-01

    Dreams are a most remarkable experiment in psychology and neuroscience, conducted every night in every sleeping person. They show that our brain, disconnected from the environment, can generate by itself an entire world of conscious experiences. Content analysis and developmental studies have furthered our understanding of dream phenomenology. In parallel, brain lesion studies, functional imaging, and neurophysiology have advanced our knowledge of the neural basis of dreaming. It is now possible to start integrating these two strands of research in order to address some fundamental questions that dreams pose for cognitive neuroscience: how conscious experiences in sleep relate to underlying brain activity; why the dreamer is largely disconnected from the environment; and whether dreaming is more closely related to mental imagery or to perception. PMID:20079677

  10. Phenomenological barrier parameters for total reaction cross section

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Phookan, C. K.; Kalita, K.

    2016-01-01

    A phenomenological formula for total reaction cross section is introduced for reactions induced by three types of projectiles. The formula is based on Wong's formula in which, the barrier parameters are calculated from the Bass, Aage Winther and the Akyuz Winther potentials. For the reactions studied, we find that a uniform correction of the barrier parameters can account for the total reaction cross section satisfactorily. An unusually large deviation of the barrier parameters is noticed for the reaction {}8{B} + {}^{58}{Ni}. Arguments are given that most likely the radius of the proton halo nucleus {}8{B} is not well accounted by the above potentials and hence, an increase in the effective radius of {}^8{B} is proposed. Analysis is also presented for the reaction {}^{11}{Li} + {}^{208}{Pb} by making the assumption that its reduced total reaction cross section lies on the same trajectory as that for other halo reactions.

  11. Junior Jade events: An investigation of decoupling phenomenology

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, C W

    1987-01-01

    With five 8-pound high-explosive events, we have explored aspects of the containment phenomenology of partially decoupled events. Three events drove multiple fractures and showed little cavity growth, suggesting that the fracture propagation was part of the dynamic process. Two events were contained; their cavity volumes grew by factors of approximately two and three with the tighter-coupled event showing the larger growth. With the five events we see a spectrum of results ranging from hydrofrac type fracture propagation through multiple fracture propagation to the fully contained case. For the multiple fracture case a partial residual stress field may control the release of the cavity pressure. Measurements of cavity pressure versus time provides a valuable diagnostic of containment. 2 refs., 7 figs., 1 tab.

  12. [The teaching-learning process in ICU: a phenomenological study].

    PubMed

    Guedes, Glauteice Freitas; Ohara, Conceição Vieira da Silva; Silva, Gilberto Tadeu Reis da

    2008-01-01

    This study aimed to understanding the meaning attributed by teaching staff throughout the traineeship from nursing under graduation course in intensive care on the teaching and learning process. It's a study of phenomenological qualitative approach. The data were obtained through the following guiding question: 'How do you live the teaching-learning process at the ICU traineeship?'. From the subjects' descriptions, four open categories came up: 'An awakening to ICU', 'A searching for how to teaching Nursing in Intensive Care', 'A connection between the teaching staff and the students' and 'A meaningful experience'. This study showed that this living experience, which is shared, permits an approaching and the meeting of the teaching staff with the students in this setting, facilitating the teaching-learning process.

  13. Phenomenological models of elastic nucleon scattering and predictions for LHC

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kašpar, Jan; Kundrát, Vojtěch; Lokajíček, Miloš; Procházka, Jiří

    2011-02-01

    The hitherto analyses of elastic collisions of charged nucleons involving common influence of Coulomb and hadronic scattering have been based practically on West and Yennie formula. However, this approach has been shown recently to be inadequate from experimental as well as theoretical points of view. The eikonal model enabling to determine physical characteristics in impact parameter space seems to be more pertinent. The contemporary phenomenological models admit, of course, different distributions of collision processes in the impact parameter space and cannot give any definite answer. Nevertheless, some predictions for the planned LHC energy that have been given on their basis may be useful, as well as the possibility of determining the luminosity from elastic scattering.

  14. Phenomenology of a pseudo-scalar inflaton: naturally large nongaussianity

    SciTech Connect

    Barnaby, Neil; Namba, Ryo; Peloso, Marco E-mail: namba@physics.umn.edu

    2011-04-01

    Many controlled realizations of chaotic inflation employ pseudo-scalar axions. Pseudo-scalars φ are naturally coupled to gauge fields through cφF F-tilde . In the presence of this coupling, gauge field quanta are copiously produced by the rolling inflaton. The produced gauge quanta, in turn, source inflaton fluctuations via inverse decay. These new cosmological perturbations add incoherently with the ''vacuum'' perturbations, and are highly nongaussian. This provides a natural mechanism to generate large nongaussianity in single or multi field slow-roll inflation. The resulting phenomenological signatures are highly distinctive: large nongaussianity of (nearly) equilateral shape, in addition to detectably large values of both the scalar spectral tilt and tensor-to-scalar ratio (both being typical of large field inflation). The WMAP bound on nongaussianity implies that the coupling c of the pseudo-scalar inflaton to any gauge field must be smaller than about 10{sup 2} M{sub p}{sup −1}.

  15. Phenomenological Spin Transport Theory Driven by Anomalous Nernst Effect

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Taniguchi, Tomohiro

    2016-07-01

    Several experimental efforts such as material investigation and structure improvement have been made recently to find a large anomalous Nernst effect in ferromagnetic metals. Here, we develop a theory of spin transport driven by the anomalous Nernst effect in a diffusive ferromagnetic/nonmagnetic multilayer. Starting from a phenomenological formula of a spin-dependent electric current, the theoretical formulas of electric voltage and spin torque generated by the anomalous Nernst effect are derived. The magnitude of the electric voltage generated from the spin current via the inverse spin Hall effect is on the order of 0.1 µV for currently available experimental parameter values. The temperature gradient necessary to switch the magnetization is quite larger than the typical experimental value. The separation of the contributions of the Seebeck and transverse spin Seebeck effects is also discussed.

  16. Exploring nurses' confirmed expectations regarding health IT: a phenomenological study.

    PubMed

    Zadvinskis, Inga M; Chipps, Esther; Yen, Po-Yin

    2014-02-01

    Health information technology (IT) benefits both patients and providers with respect to health care quality and perceived usefulness. Although existing research provides a preliminary understanding of nurses' perception of health IT, perceptions do not guide actions. This phenomenological study explored nurses' perceptions regarding electronic health records and bar code medication administration four months post implementation on a medical-surgical unit in an academic medical center. Ten staff nurses (8 females and 2 males) participated. We categorized the results into five themes from personal-level to organizational-level confirmed expectations: (1) nurses' interaction with computer, (2) nursing performance regarding task accomplishment, (3) unit-specific teamwork, (4) interdisciplinary teamwork, and (5) quality of care. We discovered that effective health IT must be congruent with nursing expectations. IT professionals, nursing and organizational leaders may use findings to structure an environment supportive of effective health IT in nursing practice.

  17. SociAL Sensor Analytics: Measuring Phenomenology at Scale

    SciTech Connect

    Corley, Courtney D.; Dowling, Chase P.; Rose, Stuart J.; McKenzie, Taylor K.

    2013-06-04

    The objective of this paper is to present a system for interrogating immense social media streams through analytical methodologies that characterize topics and events critical to tactical and strategic planning. First, we propose a conceptual framework for interpreting social media as a sensor network. Time-series models and topic clustering algorithms are used to implement this concept into a functioning analytical system. Next, we address two scientific challenges: 1) to understand, quantify, and baseline phenomenology of social media at scale, and 2) to develop analytical methodologies to detect and investigate events of interest. This paper then documents computational methods and reports experimental findings that address these challenges. Ultimately, the ability to process billions of social media posts per week over a period of years enables the identification of patterns and predictors of tactical and strategic concerns at an unprecedented rate through SociAL Sensor Analytics (SALSA).

  18. a New Phenomenological Formula for Ground-State Binding Energies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gangopadhyay, G.

    A phenomenological formula based on liquid drop model has been proposed for ground-state binding energies of nuclei. The effect due to bunching of single particle levels has been incorporated through a term resembling the one-body Hamiltonian. The effect of n-p interaction has been included through a function of valence nucleons. A total of 50 parameters has been used in the present calculation. The root mean square (r.m.s.) deviation for the binding energy values for 2140 nuclei comes out to be 0.376 MeV, and that for 1091 alpha decay energies is 0.284 MeV. The correspondence with the conventional liquid drop model is discussed.

  19. Phenomenology of TeV little string theory from holography.

    PubMed

    Antoniadis, Ignatios; Arvanitaki, Asimina; Dimopoulos, Savas; Giveon, Amit

    2012-02-24

    We study the graviton phenomenology of TeV little string theory by exploiting its holographic gravity dual five-dimensional theory. This dual corresponds to a linear dilaton background with a large bulk that constrains the standard model fields on the boundary of space. The linear dilaton geometry produces a unique Kaluza-Klein graviton spectrum that exhibits a ~TeV mass gap followed by a near continuum of narrow resonances that are separated from each other by only ~30 GeV. Resonant production of these particles at the LHC is the signature of this framework that distinguishes it from large extra dimensions, where the Kaluza-Klein states are almost a continuum with no mass gap, and warped models, where the states are separated by a TeV.

  20. Low Hurst-Kolmogorov exponents: Estimation and possible underlying phenomenology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Villanueva, Luís; Ulloa, Marco; Carsteanu, Alin-Andrei

    2014-05-01

    The present work presents an estimation of the Hurst-Kolmogorov exponent for horizontal water velocity differences in a vertical profile taken in the sea, at a water depth of up to 20m in Playa Miramar, Tamaulipas (22.307 N, 97.773 W), for a period in February-May to 2012. The existence of a single exponent is suggested by the linearity of the transversal structure function that has been estimated from the data. The vertical velocity profile has been measured every 50cm, by means of an AWAC (R) acoustic Doppler device. The results indicate low values of the estimated exponent, situated around 0.17 - 0.18, which points to a negative correlation structure between eddies, a fact that is usually not encountered in homogeneos settings, and needs a careful phenomenological analysis.

  1. Phenomenology of passive multi-band submillimeter-wave imagery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Enestam, Sissi; Kajatkari, Perttu; Kivimäki, Olli; Leivo, Mikko M.; Rautiainen, Anssi; Tamminen, Aleksi A.; Luukanen, Arttu R.

    2016-05-01

    In 2015, Asqella Oy commercialized a passive multi-band submillimeter-wave camera system intended for use in walk-by personnel security screening applications. In this paper we study the imagery acquired with the prototype of the ARGON passive multi-band submm-wave video camera. To challenge the system and test its limits, imagery has been obtained in various environments with varying background surface temperatures, with people of different body types, with different clothing materials and numbers of layers of clothing and with objects of different materials. In addition to the phenomenological study, we discuss the detection statistics of the system, evaluated by running blind trials with human operators. While significant improvements have been made particularly in the software side since the beginning of the testing, the obtained imagery enables a comprehensive evaluation of the capabilities and challenges of the multiband submillimeter-wave imaging system.

  2. On the phenomenology of tilted domains in lamellar eutectic growth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Caroli, B.; Caroli, C.; Fauve, S.

    1992-03-01

    We show that, due to the coupling between tilt (amplitude of the antisymmetric part of the font profile) and phase dynamics, the phenomenology of tilt domains of finite width proposed by Coullet et al. within the assumption of a subcritical homogeneous tilt bifurcation retains the same qualitative features when this bifurcation is direct, as is the case for lamellar eutectics. Nous montrons que, du fait du couplage entre les dynamiques d'inclinaison (amplitude de la partie impaire du profil de front) et de phase, la phénoménologie des domaines d'inclinaison de largeur finie proposée par Coullet et al. pour le cas d'une bifurcation d'inclinaison homogène sous critique garde les mêmes caractéristiques qualitatives quand cette bifurcation est directe, comme c'est le cas pour la croissance eutectique lamellaire.

  3. Phenomenological models of the dynamics of muscle during isotonic shortening.

    PubMed

    Yeo, Sang Hoon; Monroy, Jenna A; Lappin, A Kristopher; Nishikawa, Kiisa C; Pai, Dinesh K

    2013-09-27

    We investigated the effectiveness of simple, Hill-type, phenomenological models of the force-length-velocity relationship for simulating measured length trajectories during muscle shortening, and, if so, what forms of the model are most useful. Using isotonic shortening data from mouse soleus and toad depressor mandibulae muscles, we showed that Hill-type models can indeed simulate the shortening trajectories with sufficiently good accuracy. However, we found that the standard form of the Hill-type muscle model, called the force-scaling model, is not a satisfactory choice. Instead, the results support the use of less frequently used models, the f-max scaling model and force-scaling with parallel spring, to simulate the shortening dynamics of muscle.

  4. Inner Speech: Development, Cognitive Functions, Phenomenology, and Neurobiology

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Inner speech—also known as covert speech or verbal thinking—has been implicated in theories of cognitive development, speech monitoring, executive function, and psychopathology. Despite a growing body of knowledge on its phenomenology, development, and function, approaches to the scientific study of inner speech have remained diffuse and largely unintegrated. This review examines prominent theoretical approaches to inner speech and methodological challenges in its study, before reviewing current evidence on inner speech in children and adults from both typical and atypical populations. We conclude by considering prospects for an integrated cognitive science of inner speech, and present a multicomponent model of the phenomenon informed by developmental, cognitive, and psycholinguistic considerations. Despite its variability among individuals and across the life span, inner speech appears to perform significant functions in human cognition, which in some cases reflect its developmental origins and its sharing of resources with other cognitive processes. PMID:26011789

  5. Phenomenology of left-right symmetric dark matter

    SciTech Connect

    Garcia-Cely, Camilo; Heeck, Julian E-mail: Julian.Heeck@ulb.ac.be

    2016-03-01

    We present a detailed study of dark matter phenomenology in low-scale left-right symmetric models. Stability of new fermion or scalar multiplets is ensured by an accidental matter parity that survives the spontaneous symmetry breaking of the gauge group by scalar triplets. The relic abundance of these particles is set by gauge interactions and gives rise to dark matter candidates with masses above the electroweak scale. Dark matter annihilations are thus modified by the Sommerfeld effect, not only in the early Universe, but also today, for instance, in the Center of the Galaxy. Majorana candidates—triplet, quintuplet, bi-doublet, and bi-triplet—bring only one new parameter to the model, their mass, and are hence highly testable at colliders and through astrophysical observations. Scalar candidates—doublet and 7-plet, the latter being only stable at the renormalizable level—have additional scalar-scalar interactions that give rise to rich phenomenology. The particles under discussion share many features with the well-known candidates wino, Higgsino, inert doublet scalar, sneutrino, and Minimal Dark Matter. In particular, they all predict a large gamma-ray flux from dark matter annihilations, which can be searched for with Cherenkov telescopes. We furthermore discuss models with unequal left-right gauge couplings, g{sub R} ≠ g{sub L}, taking the recent experimental hints for a charged gauge boson with 2 TeV mass as a benchmark point. In this case, the dark matter mass is determined by the observed relic density.

  6. 'A leg to stand on': an existential-phenomenological analysis.

    PubMed

    van der Bruggen, H

    1999-12-01

    The analysis of a paradigm-case (a person with an injured leg, an autobiographical history related by Dr Sacks) presented here is an illustration of how existential-phenomenological analysis can be done. The aim of existential-phenomenological research is to analyse and to describe some dimensions of being. The person with an injured leg appears 'to bescotomized'. Well then, 'being-scotomized' can be analysed and described as a particular mode of 'being', even as a particular mode of 'being-ill'. 'Being' has been studied (in the philosophical tradition of Husserl, Heidegger, Merleau-Ponty and Sartre) as that existential movement that brings an individual, the 'self', towards the world, meanwhile 'affecting' the personal body, personal time and space, the objects in a person's life-world, the individual's life-world and, finally, coexistence. The study of 'being-ill' is the study of the particular way the self, the body, time and space, the objects, the life-world, and coexistence are affected when being-ill. 'Being-scotomized' may appear as affecting: (i) the self, isolating the subject and leading to a personal disintegration; (ii) the body to which he maintains an ambiguous relationship: being a body and having a body, and not having a part of the body any more; (iii) time and space being vanished with the vanished leg. The subject is 'at' a nowhereness and 'at' a motionless time; there is no meaningful future; (iv) the things in the person's life-world, to which it appears impossible to give the 'right' sense; (v) the life-world, revealing itself as a noland, characterized by silence and motionlessness; (vi) the others in this life-world that appears no-man's-land, uninhabitable nearly by definition. Coexistence reveals not to be possible.

  7. [Phenomenological and Diagnostic Implications of Paraschemazia: A Case Report].

    PubMed

    Mehta, Urvakhsh Meherwan; Thippeswamy, Harish; Bharath, Rose Dawn; Satishcandra, Parthasarathy

    2015-01-01

    Paraschemazia is characterized by distortions of body image, and has been observed in neurological disorders (epilepsies, migraine, and non-dominant cortical lesions), retinal damage, and hallucinogenic drug use. This complex symptom cluster of subjective and objective perceptual abnormalities forms an essential feature of Todd's Alice in Wonderland syndrome. This neuropsychiatric manifestation must be phenomenologically differentiated from hallucinations, illusions, and agnosias. Herein we report a patient with paraschemazia that occurred during the ictal phase of temporal lobe epilepsy; the patient was referred to the department of psychiatry due to symptoms of transient intense fear and abnormal perceptions. We also discuss the diagnostic difficulty and phenomenological implications associated with this rare phenomenon. A 45-year-old female presented with brief episodes (30-45 s) of sensory distortion, during which the faces and limbs of other people and her own appeared distorted (e.g. protruding eyes, elongated nose, and oval or square head). The episodes of sensory distortion were associated with intense fear and were followed by loss of consciousness for 5 min. She had been experiencing these episodes since the age of 12 years and responded poorly to several antiepileptic medications. 3-Tesla MRI performed using a complex partial seizure protocol showed altered signal intensity and volume loss in the right hippocampus, suggestive of right mesial temporal sclerosis. Neuropsychological assessment showed impaired sustained attention, working memory, and verbal and visual learning and memory, suggestive of bilateral dorsolateral prefrontal and temporal lobe deficits. She improved in response to a combination of levetiracetam and clobazam, and was seizure free at the 2-year follow-up.

  8. Phenomenology and neurobiology of self disorder in schizophrenia: Primary factors.

    PubMed

    Borda, Juan P; Sass, Louis A

    2015-12-01

    Schizophrenia is a heterogeneous syndrome, varying between persons and over course of illness. In this and a companion article, we argue that comprehension of this condition or set of conditions may require combining a phenomenological perspective emphasizing disorders of basic-self experience ("ipseity disturbance") with a multidimensional appreciation of possible neurobiological correlates--both primary and secondary. Previous attempts to link phenomenology and neurobiology generally focus on a single neurocognitive factor. We consider diverse aspects of schizophrenia in light of a diverse, albeit interacting, set of neurocognitive abnormalities, examining both synchronic (structural) interdependence and diachronic (temporal) succession. In this article we focus on the primary or foundational role of early perceptual and motoric disturbances that affect perceptual organization and especially intermodal or multisensory perceptual integration (“perceptual dys-integration”). These disturbances are discussed in terms of their implications for three interconnected aspects of selfhood in schizophrenia, primary forms of: disrupted "hold" or "grip" on the world, hyperreflexivity, diminished self-presence (self-affection). Disturbances of organization or integration imply forms of perceptual incoherence or diminished cognitive coordination. The effect is to disrupt one's ability to apprehend the world in holistic, vital, or contextually grounded fashion, or to fully identify with or experience the unity of one's own body or thinking--thereby generating an early and profound (albeit often subtle) disruption or diminishment of basic or core self and of the sense of existing in a coherent world. We discuss interrelationships or possible complementarities between these three aspects, and consider their relevance for a neurodevelopmental account of schizophrenia.

  9. Phenomenology and neurobiology of self disorder in schizophrenia: Secondary factors.

    PubMed

    Sass, Louis A; Borda, Juan P

    2015-12-01

    Schizophrenia is a diverse and varying syndrome that defies most attempts at classification and pathogenetic explanation. This is the second of two articles offering a comprehensive model meant to integrate an understanding of schizophrenia-related forms of subjectivity, especially anomalous core-self experience (disturbed ipseity), with neurocognitive and neurodevelopmental findings. Previously we discussed the primary or foundational role of disturbed intermodal perceptional integration ("perceptual dys-integration"). Here we discuss phenomenological alterations that can be considered secondary in a pathogenetic sense--whether as consequential products downstream from a more originary disruption, or as defensive reactions involving quasi-intentional or even volitional compensations to the more primary disruptions. These include secondary forms of: 1, hyperreflexivity, 2, diminished self-presence (self-affection), and 3. disturbed "rip" or "hold" on the cognitive/perceptual field of awareness. We consider complementary relations between these secondary abnormal experiences while also considering their temporal relationships and pathogenetic intertwining with the more primary phenomenological alterations discussed previously, all in relation to the neurodevelopmental model. The secondary phenomena can be understood as highly variable factors involving overall orientations or attitudes toward experience; they have some affinities with experiences of meditation, introspectionism, and depersonalization defense. Also, they seem likely to become more pronounced during adolescence as a result of new cognitive capacities related to development of the prefrontal lobes, especially attention allocation, executive functions, abstraction, and meta-awareness. Heterogeneity in these secondary alterations might help explain much of the clinical diversity in schizophrenia, both between patients and within individual patients over time--without however losing sight of key

  10. Nursing Care Aesthetic in Iran: A Phenomenological Study

    PubMed Central

    Radmehr, Maryam; Ashktorab, Tahereh; Abedsaeedi, Zhila

    2015-01-01

    Background: Despite the emphasis of contemporary nursing theories on the belief that nursing is a science and an art in care, published studies show that only the nursing science has developed. Many experts believe that by recognizing and perceiving this concept, the clinical field can develop aesthetic knowledge in nursing and education of students. Objectives: The purpose of this study was to explain clients and nurses perspective of nursing care aesthetics. Patients and Methods: Using an interpretive phenomenology, 12 clients and 14 nurses were interviewed. Participants in this study were purposefully selected and their experiences were analyzed using Van Manen’s hermeneutic phenomenological framework. Results: Emerged themes were as follows: subjective description, overt spirituality, opening desperate impasse, sense of unity, continue to shine, and painful pass and pleasing. According the participants experiences, nursing care aesthetics includes subjective description of spiritual and desirable caring behaviors combined with sense of unity and sympathy between the nurse and the patients, which leads to opening in desperate impasse with creating the feeling of satisfaction and peace in the patient. It is a shining of clinical capabilities and an action beyond what should be combined with a decorating care that leads to a pleasant ending against the pain and suffering of the others for the nurse. Conclusions: Many caring behaviors associate with aesthetic experience for both patients and nurses and despite two different views, findings of this study showed that these experiences were similar in most cases. The aesthetics of nursing care was defined as what reflects the holistic nature of nursing with an emphasis on spirituality and skill. Results of this study are effective in identification of the values existed in nurse caring behaviors and developing of profession by instruction, implementation, and evaluation them. PMID:26339668

  11. The phenomenology of life phenomena--in a nursing context.

    PubMed

    Delmar, Charlotte

    2006-10-01

    The purpose of this article is to describe and develop knowledge about life phenomena in a life-philosophical and nursing context. Knowledge about life phenomena is part of a care-ethical understanding with a focus on relations. Life phenomena are to be understood as a generalized label for the various phenomena which are given with human existence. The Danish life philosophical tradition with the perspective of life as experienced has something to say in relation to a further refinement of the phenomenology of life phenomena. The refinement will be described as an ethical and existential understanding of the phenomena of nursing. The first part of the article takes a philosophical approach to the phenomenology of life phenomena. It attempts to locate life phenomena in relation to, respectively, needs, senses, and feelings. In order to maintain an overview, the attempt is made to separate needs, senses, and feelings, although in real life these are closely interwoven. The article also describes philosophy and life phenomena in relation to nursing as an empirical field. In nursing there is a risk that life phenomena become invisible to those whose task is to help the ill person adjust to a new life situation. For the nurse, it will be a continuing task, never completed, to develop a sensory-based, situation-determined attention to the patient. And the nurse must be continually aware of whether mere 'need-oriented' nursing is controlling her professional actions as a nurse. Taking a point of departure in the nurse's sensory, situationally determined attention, the last part of the article focuses on needs, senses, and feelings in connection with the nurse being able to direct her attention to the patient's life phenomena.

  12. A comparative study of equations of state for MgO

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kushwah, S. S.; Shanker, J.

    1998-10-01

    The pressure-volume-temperature relationship, isothermal bulk modulus KT and pressure derivative of KT have been evaluated for MgO in the temperature range 300-2000 K and down to a compression of V/ V0=0.60 using six different phenomenological forms for the isothermal equation of state (EOS). The results are discussed and compared with the values for MgO obtained by Isaak et al. using the potential induced breathing electron gas model based on the first principles approach. It is found that phenomenological isothermal equations are applicable even at a high temperature if the input parameters ( K0 and K0‧) corresponding to that temperature are used. The results obtained from the Vinet EOS and the Shanker EOS are very similar and also close to the ab initio values determined by Isaak et al.

  13. A dynamical equation for the distribution of a scalar advected by turbulence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Venaille, Antoine; Sommeria, Joel

    2007-02-01

    A phenomenological model for the dissipation of scalar fluctuations due to the straining by the fluid motion is proposed in this Brief Communication. An explicit equation is obtained for the time evolution of the probability distribution function of a coarse-grained scalar concentration. The model relies on a self-convolution process. We first present this model in the Batchelor regime and then extend empirically our result to the turbulent case. This approach is finally compared with other models.

  14. Functional BES equation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kostov, Ivan; Serban, Didina; Volin, Dmytro

    2008-08-01

    We give a realization of the Beisert, Eden and Staudacher equation for the planar Script N = 4 supersymetric gauge theory which seems to be particularly useful to study the strong coupling limit. We are using a linearized version of the BES equation as two coupled equations involving an auxiliary density function. We write these equations in terms of the resolvents and we transform them into a system of functional, instead of integral, equations. We solve the functional equations perturbatively in the strong coupling limit and reproduce the recursive solution obtained by Basso, Korchemsky and Kotański. The coefficients of the strong coupling expansion are fixed by the analyticity properties obeyed by the resolvents.

  15. Fractional chemotaxis diffusion equations.

    PubMed

    Langlands, T A M; Henry, B I

    2010-05-01

    We introduce mesoscopic and macroscopic model equations of chemotaxis with anomalous subdiffusion for modeling chemically directed transport of biological organisms in changing chemical environments with diffusion hindered by traps or macromolecular crowding. The mesoscopic models are formulated using continuous time random walk equations and the macroscopic models are formulated with fractional order differential equations. Different models are proposed depending on the timing of the chemotactic forcing. Generalizations of the models to include linear reaction dynamics are also derived. Finally a Monte Carlo method for simulating anomalous subdiffusion with chemotaxis is introduced and simulation results are compared with numerical solutions of the model equations. The model equations developed here could be used to replace Keller-Segel type equations in biological systems with transport hindered by traps, macromolecular crowding or other obstacles.

  16. Stop, look, listen: the need for philosophical phenomenological perspectives on auditory verbal hallucinations

    PubMed Central

    McCarthy-Jones, Simon; Krueger, Joel; Larøi, Frank; Broome, Matthew; Fernyhough, Charles

    2013-01-01

    One of the leading cognitive models of auditory verbal hallucinations (AVHs) proposes such experiences result from a disturbance in the process by which inner speech is attributed to the self. Research in this area has, however, proceeded in the absence of thorough cognitive and phenomenological investigations of the nature of inner speech, against which AVHs are implicitly or explicitly defined. In this paper we begin by introducing philosophical phenomenology and highlighting its relevance to AVHs, before briefly examining the evolving literature on the relation between inner experiences and AVHs. We then argue for the need for philosophical phenomenology (Phenomenology) and the traditional empirical methods of psychology for studying inner experience (phenomenology) to mutually inform each other to provide a richer and more nuanced picture of both inner experience and AVHs than either could on its own. A critical examination is undertaken of the leading model of AVHs derived from phenomenological philosophy, the ipseity disturbance model. From this we suggest issues that future work in this vein will need to consider, and examine how interdisciplinary methodologies may contribute to advances in our understanding of AVHs. Detailed suggestions are made for the direction and methodology of future work into AVHs, which we suggest should be undertaken in a context where phenomenology and physiology are both necessary, but neither sufficient. PMID:23576974

  17. Solving Ordinary Differential Equations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Krogh, F. T.

    1987-01-01

    Initial-value ordinary differential equation solution via variable order Adams method (SIVA/DIVA) package is collection of subroutines for solution of nonstiff ordinary differential equations. There are versions for single-precision and double-precision arithmetic. Requires fewer evaluations of derivatives than other variable-order Adams predictor/ corrector methods. Option for direct integration of second-order equations makes integration of trajectory problems significantly more efficient. Written in FORTRAN 77.

  18. A New Family of Schroder's Method and Its Variants Based on Power Means for Multiple Roots of Nonlinear Equations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kanwar, V.; Sharma, Kapil K.; Behl, Ramandeep

    2010-01-01

    In this article, we derive one-parameter family of Schroder's method based on Gupta et al.'s (K.C. Gupta, V. Kanwar, and S. Kumar, "A family of ellipse methods for solving non-linear equations", Int. J. Math. Educ. Sci. Technol. 40 (2009), pp. 571-575) family of ellipse methods for the solution of nonlinear equations. Further, we introduce new…

  19. Phenomenological and evidence based research in ego state therapy: recognized and unrecognized successes and future directions.

    PubMed

    Hageman, Joan H; Frederick, Claire

    2013-07-01

    The status of research in ego state therapy is examined against the backdrop of 20th and 21st century developments in the philosophy of science and the emerging recognition of the subjective as a vital element in all science. Attention is paid to the phenomenological method because until recently phenomenological studies have been the basis for the standards of care and training in ego state therapy as well as in many aspects of hypnotically facilitated psychotherapy. The importance of bringing an end to the "science wars" through the integration of the subjective and the objective, of phenomenological studies and evidence-based studies in ego state therapy and hypnosis research, is proposed.

  20. The sociopolitical importance of genetic, phenomenological approaches to science teaching and learning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bazzul, Jesse

    2015-06-01

    This article discusses Wolff-Michael Roth's theoretical framework for a phenomenological, genetic approach to science teaching and learning based on the work of Edmund Husserl. This approach advocates the inclusion of student lifeworlds in science education and underlines the importance of thinking about subjectivity in both science and science education. Roth's phenomenological approach exposes several important social, political, and cultural questions for science education. Drawing from Edmund Husserl's philosophy, social theorists, and science education literature, this article discusses some of these important concerns with the goal of highlighting the productive power of a phenomenological approach to science pedagogies.

  1. The measurement problem in quantum mechanics: A phenomenological investigation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hunter, Joel Brooks

    2008-10-01

    This dissertation is a phenomenological investigation of the measurement problem in quantum mechanics. The primary subject matter for description and analysis is scientific instruments and their use in experiments which elicit the measurement problem. A methodological critique is mounted against the ontological commitments taken for granted in the canonical interpretations of quantum theory and the scientific activity of measurement as the necessary interface between theoretical interest and perceptual results. I argue that an aesthetic dimension of reality functions as aproto-scientific establishment of sense-making that constantly operates to set integratively all other cognitively neat determinations, including scientifically rendered objects that are intrinsically non-visualizable. The way in which data "key in" to the original and originative register of the sensible in observation is clarified by examining prostheses, measuring apparatuses and instruments that are sense-conveying and -integrative with the human sensorium. Experiments, technology and instrumentation are examined in order to understand how knowing and that which is known is bonded by praxis-aisthesis. Quantum measurement is a praxic-dynamie activity and homologically structured and structur ing functional engagement in terms of instantiation, quantifiability, and spatiotemporal differentiation. The distinctions between a beauty-aesthetic and praxis-aisthesis are delineated. It is argued that a beauty-aesthetic is a construal of the economic dimension of scientific objects and work, and is not the primary manner in which the aesthetic dimension is disclosed. The economic dimension of abstractions reduces to an austere aesthetic of calculative economy. Nature itself, however, is not stingy; it is intrinsically capacious, extravagant, full of surprise, nuance, ambiguity and allusiveness. The capaciousness of Nature and the way in which we are integratively set within Nature in a materiality

  2. Uniqueness of Maxwell's Equations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cohn, Jack

    1978-01-01

    Shows that, as a consequence of two feasible assumptions and when due attention is given to the definition of charge and the fields E and B, the lowest-order equations that these two fields must satisfy are Maxwell's equations. (Author/GA)

  3. Linear Equations: Equivalence = Success

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baratta, Wendy

    2011-01-01

    The ability to solve linear equations sets students up for success in many areas of mathematics and other disciplines requiring formula manipulations. There are many reasons why solving linear equations is a challenging skill for students to master. One major barrier for students is the inability to interpret the equals sign as anything other than…

  4. Reduced Braginskii equations

    SciTech Connect

    Yagi, M.; Horton, W. )

    1994-07-01

    A set of reduced Braginskii equations is derived without assuming flute ordering and the Boussinesq approximation. These model equations conserve the physical energy. It is crucial at finite [beta] that the perpendicular component of Ohm's law be solved to ensure [del][center dot][bold j]=0 for energy conservation.

  5. Functional Cantor equation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shabat, A. B.

    2016-12-01

    We consider the class of entire functions of exponential type in relation to the scattering theory for the Schrödinger equation with a finite potential that is a finite Borel measure. These functions have a special self-similarity and satisfy q-difference functional equations. We study their asymptotic behavior and the distribution of zeros.

  6. Phenomenological microstructure simulation of incremental bulk metal forming using a multi mesh method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hirt, G.; Schäfer, D.

    2010-06-01

    For the process design of incremental forming processes like ring rolling or stretch forging there is need for fast and accurate simulation techniques. For many applications it would be necessary to predict the microstructural evolution during the process. For this reason the FEM-software Larstran/Shape which is used for the plastomechanical simulation can be coupled with the microstructure simulation module Strucsim. This software uses phenomenological equations for the calculation of recrystallization (dynamic and static) and grain size evolution [7]. To accelerate the simulation a multi mesh method has been developed. This method uses an adapted simulation mesh with fine elements only in the locally limited contact and forming zone to achieve a reduction of the number of elements. Due to the relative movement of the tool and workpiece the adapted FE-mesh has to be remeshed regularly according to the position of the tool. To avoid loss of information caused by the use of coarse elements the multi mesh method uses a second storage mesh which represents the entire workpiece and which is discretized using only fine elements. For the update of the storage mesh the displacement vectors and changes of scalar values like temperature can be interpolated. For the application of the multi mesh method to the microstructure simulation the update algorithm for the microstructure values has to be modified. The microstructure and plastomechanical simulation have to be uncoupled and the static recrystallization and grain growth outside the forming zone have to be calculated separately. Using the multi mesh method the simulation of incremental bulk metal forming processes including a microstructural simulation can be accelerated. The acceleration factor of the simulation compared to a simulation without adaptive meshing is dependent on the reduction of elements and nodes.

  7. A systematic approach to sketch Bethe-Salpeter equation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qin, Si-xue

    2016-03-01

    To study meson properties, one needs to solve the gap equation for the quark propagator and the Bethe-Salpeter (BS) equation for the meson wavefunction, self-consistently. The gluon propagator, the quark-gluon vertex, and the quark-anti-quark scattering kernel are key pieces to solve those equations. Predicted by lattice-QCD and Dyson-Schwinger analyses of QCD's gauge sector, gluons are non-perturbatively massive. In the matter sector, the modeled gluon propagator which can produce a veracious description of meson properties needs to possess a mass scale, accordingly. Solving the well-known longitudinal Ward-Green-Takahashi identities (WGTIs) and the less-known transverse counterparts together, one obtains a nontrivial solution which can shed light on the structure of the quark-gluon vertex. It is highlighted that the phenomenologically proposed anomalous chromomagnetic moment (ACM) vertex originates from the QCD Lagrangian symmetries and its strength is proportional to the magnitude of dynamical chiral symmetry breaking (DCSB). The color-singlet vector and axial-vector WGTIs can relate the BS kernel and the dressed quark-gluon vertex to each other. Using the relation, one can truncate the gap equation and the BS equation, systematically, without violating crucial symmetries, e.g., gauge symmetry and chiral symmetry.

  8. Phenomenological Magnetic Model in Tsai-Type Approximants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sugimoto, Takanori; Tohyama, Takami; Hiroto, Takanobu; Tamura, Ryuji

    Recent neutron diffraction study has reported a curious ferromagnetism in Tsai-type approximants Au-Si-RE (RE=Tb,Dy,Ho), which have the same local structure as quasi-crystals with a translational symmetry simultaneously. In these materials, magnetic moments of rare-earth atoms have a single-ion anisotropy determined locally via spin-orbit coupling around crystal fields satisfying a distorted icosahedral crystal structure. We phenomenologically propose a possible magnetic model reproducing the magnetic structure and the thermodynamical quantities. The corresponding energies of the single-ion anisotropy and RKKY exchange couplings are also estimated by comparing magnetization curves and susceptibility of our model and experiments. Moreover, simulated annealing calculations with the energies in our model coincide with the strange ferromagnetism. In conclusion, a distortion of icosahedral cluster in body-centered cubic structure plays a key role to emerge the peculiar magnetic structure. Our magnetic model does not only explain magnetic behaviors in quasi-crystal approximants, but also can approach to a coexistence of a long-ranged order and a quasi-periodicity.

  9. Phenomenological Modelling of a Group of Eclipsing Binary Stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Andronov, Ivan L.; Tkachenko, Mariia G.; Chinarova, Lidia L.

    2016-03-01

    Phenomenological modeling of variable stars allows determination of a set of the parameters, which are needed for classification in the "General Catalogue of Variable Stars" and similar catalogs. We apply a recent method NAV ("New Algol Variable") to eclipsing binary stars of different types. Although all periodic functions may be represented as Fourier series with an infinite number of coefficients, this is impossible for a finite number of the observations. Thus one may use a restricted Fourier series, i.e. a trigonometric polynomial (TP) of order s either for fitting the light curve, or to make a periodogram analysis. However, the number of parameters needed drastically increases with decreasing width of minimum. In the NAV algorithm, the special shape of minimum is used, so the number of parameters is limited to 10 (if the period and initial epoch are fixed) or 12 (not fixed). We illustrate the NAV method by application to a recently discovered Algol-type eclipsing variable 2MASS J11080308-6145589 (in the field of previously known variable star RS Car) and compare results to that obtained using the TP fits. For this system, the statistically optimal number of parameters is 44, but the fit is still worse than that of the NAV fit. Application to the system GSC 3692-00624 argues that the NAV fit is better than the TP one even for the case of EW-type stars with much wider eclipses. Model parameters are listed.

  10. A Qualitative Phenomenological Exploration of Teachers' Experience With Nutrition Education.

    PubMed

    Hall, Elisha; Chai, Weiwen; Albrecht, Julie A

    2016-05-03

    Background: Nutrition education delivered by classroom teachers has become a popular intervention designed to combat childhood obesity. However, few qualitative studies have explored nutrition education with teachers Purpose: The purpose of this study was to explore how elementary teachers describe their experience with nutrition education. Methods: A qualitative phenomenological approach was used. Semistructured interviews, observations, and document analysis were conducted with 10 teachers who delivered nutrition education in their classrooms. Inductive coding was used to determine invariant constituents, reduce constituents to categories, and cluster categories into themes. Reliability and validity were accomplished through intercoder agreement, audio recording, triangulation, bracketing, and member checking. Results: Results identified 5 core themes related to roles teachers play in nutrition education, the importance placed upon nutrition, motivation for supplementary activities, barriers, and a triadic relationship between students, teachers, and curriculum. Discussion: Findings reveal interactions within the nutrition education experience in which teachers balance barriers with their value of nutrition education and motivation to help students make healthy choices. Translation to Health Education Practice: Health educators should work with classroom teachers at the program design, implementation, and evaluation stages of curriculum development to better address needs and facilitate the delivery of high-quality nutrition education for students.

  11. Developing improved metamodels by combining phenomenological reasoning with statistical methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bigelow, James H.; Davis, Paul K.

    2002-07-01

    A metamodel is relatively small, simple model that approximates the behavior of a large, complex model. A common and superficially attractive way to develop a metamodel is to generate data from a number of large-model runs and to then use off-the-shelf statistical methods without attempting to understand the models internal workings. This paper describes research illuminating why it is important and fruitful, in some problems, to improve the quality of such metamodels by using various types of phenomenological knowledge. The benefits are sometimes mathematically subtle, but strategically important, as when one is dealing with a system that could fail if any of several critical components fail. Naive metamodels may fail to reflect the individual criticality of such components and may therefore be quite misleading if used for policy analysis. Na*ve metamodeling may also give very misleading results on the relative importance of inputs, thereby skewing resource-allocation decisions. By inserting an appropriate dose of theory, however, such problems can be greatly mitigated. Our work is intended to be a contribution to the emerging understanding of multiresolution, multiperspective modeling (MRMPM), as well as a contribution to interdisciplinary work combining virtues of statistical methodology with virtues of more theory-based work. Although the analysis we present is based on a particular experiment with a particular large and complex model, we believe that the insights are more general.

  12. A phenomenological approach to assessing a DUI/DWI program.

    PubMed

    Narag, Raymund E; Maxwell, Sheila Royo; Lee, Byung

    2013-02-01

    In an effort to find a more proactive solution to the problem of drunk driving, a midwestern city has implemented a Driving Under the Influence or Driving While Impaired (DUI/DWI) Court program, a derivative of the popular drug courts. Eligible participants are those who have had two or more drunk-driving offenses but who have not been convicted of a violent offense. Participants volunteer for a 36-week program in exchange for a suspension of their prison sentence. Program elements include drug/alcohol monitoring, support groups, counseling, and extensive supervision. Using a phenomenological approach, this article describes the challenges faced by 20 participants, how they navigated the program requirements, their key realizations about their conditions, and their views on the viability and effectiveness of the program. The article uses qualitative interviews of participants and stakeholders collected for a process evaluation of the DUI program, and official records collected for programming purposes. Findings from this research can be used broadly for programming purposes and can be used by other court jurisdictions that are developing similar programs.

  13. Passive millimeter-wave cross polarization imaging and phenomenology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stein, E. Lee, Jr.; Schuetz, Christopher A.; Martin, Richard D.; Samluk, Jesse P.; Wilson, John P.; Mackrides, Daniel G.; Murakowski, Janusz A.; Murakowski, Maciej; Prather, Dennis W.

    2009-05-01

    Passive millimeter-wave (mmW) imaging has many specific defense, security and safety applications, due to the fact that all terrestrial bodies above absolute zero are emissive, and these wavelengths are not scattered by normal obscurants such as haze, fog, smoke, dust, sandstorms, clouds, or fabrics. We have previously demonstrated results from the construction of a 94 GHz passive mmW far-field imaging system utilizing optical upconversion, which imaged in only horizontal polarization. The effective radiometric temperature of an object is a combination of the object's surface and scattered radiometric temperatures. The surface radiometric temperature is a function of the object's emissivity, which is polarization dependent. Imaging with radiometric temperature data from both polarizations will allow a greater identification of the scene being imaged, and allow the recognition of subtle features which were not previously observable. This additional functionality is accomplished through the installation of added equipment and programming on our system, thus allowing the simultaneous data collection of imagery in both polarizations. Herein, we present our experimental procedures, results and passive mmW images obtained by using our far-field imaging system, a brief discussion of the phenomenology observed through the application of these techniques, as well as the preliminary details regarding our work on a 3-D passive mmW simulator capable of true physical polarization dependent effective emissivity and reflectivity rendering, based on the open-source Blender engine.

  14. Plasma phenomenology in astrophysical systems: Radio-sources and jets

    SciTech Connect

    Montani, Giovanni; Petitta, Jacopo

    2014-06-15

    We review the plasma phenomenology in the astrophysical sources which show appreciable radio emissions, namely Radio-Jets from Pulsars, Microquasars, Quasars, and Radio-Active Galaxies. A description of their basic features is presented, then we discuss in some details the links between their morphology and the mechanisms that lead to the different radio-emissions, investigating especially the role played by the plasma configurations surrounding compact objects (Neutron Stars, Black Holes). For the sake of completeness, we briefly mention observational techniques and detectors, whose structure set them apart from other astrophysical instruments. The fundamental ideas concerning angular momentum transport across plasma accretion disks—together with the disk-source-jet coupling problem—are discussed, by stressing their successes and their shortcomings. An alternative scenario is then inferred, based on a parallelism between astrophysical and laboratory plasma configurations, where small-scale structures can be found. We will focus our attention on the morphology of the radio-jets, on their coupling with the accretion disks and on the possible triggering phenomena, viewed as profiles of plasma instabilities.

  15. A hermeneutic phenomenological study of community nurses' CPD.

    PubMed

    Banning, Maggi; Stafford, Mariline

    2008-04-01

    Continuing professional development (CPD) is a mandatory aspect of nurse registration. In the NHS, more demanding professional roles compel nurses to develop and update their knowledge and skills through CPD. Even though CPD is an essential component of nurse education, research investigating community practitioners' views, experiences and perceptions of the link between reflection and CPD is limited. This phenomenological study explored community health practitioners' experiences of CPD and perceptions of the link between CPD and reflection. Ten community practitioners who specialized in district or school nursing and health visiting were interviewed using an in-depth approach. Data was analysed using thematic networks as a tool (Attride-Stirling, 2001). Findings revealed that community practitioners viewed CPD positively, perceived the benefits as both professional and personal development. Development needs were identified through reflective practice and appraisal. Even though significant barriers were apparent, the organization provided opportunities to access formal and self-directed learning events. There is a need for organizations to invest in CPD of the workforce, consider cheaper alternatives for meeting CPD needs and for further research to assess the impact of CPD on clinical practice.

  16. Light radioactive nuclei capture reactions with phenomenological potential models

    SciTech Connect

    Guimaraes, V.; Bertulani, C. A.

    2010-05-21

    Light radioactive nuclei play an important role in many astrophysical environments. Due to very low cross sections of some neutron and proton capture reactions by these radioactive nuclei at energies of astrophysical interest, direct laboratory measurements are very difficult. For radioactive nuclei such as {sup 8}Li and {sup 8}B, the direct measurement of neutron capture reactions is impossible. Indirect methods have been applied to overcome these difficulties. In this work we will report on the results and discussion of phenomenological potential models used to determine some proton and neutron capture reactions. As a test we show the results for the {sup 16}O(p,gamma){sup 17}F{sub gs}(5/2{sup +}) and {sup 16}O(p,gamma){sup 17}F{sub ex}(1/2{sup +}) capture reactions. We also computed the nucleosynthesis cross sections for the {sup 7}Li(n,gamma){sup 8}Li{sub gs}, {sup 8}Li(n,gamma){sup 9}Li{sub gs} and {sup 8}B(p,gamma){sup 9}C{sub gs} capture reactions.

  17. Neutrino phenomenology of very low-energy seesaw scenarios

    SciTech Connect

    Gouvea, Andre de; Jenkins, James; Vasudevan, Nirmala

    2007-01-01

    The standard model augmented by the presence of gauge-singlet right-handed neutrinos proves to be an ideal scenario for accommodating nonzero neutrino masses. Among the new parameters of this 'new standard model' are right-handed neutrino Majorana masses M. Theoretical prejudice points to M much larger than the electroweak symmetry breaking scale, but it has recently been emphasized that all M values are technically natural and should be explored. Indeed, M around 1-10 eV can accommodate an elegant oscillation solution to the liquid scintillator neutrino detector (LSND) anomaly, while other M values lead to several observable consequences. We consider the phenomenology of low-energy (M < or approx. 1 keV) seesaw scenarios. By exploring such a framework with three right-handed neutrinos, we can consistently fit all oscillation data--including those from LSND--while partially addressing several astrophysical puzzles, including anomalous pulsar kicks, heavy element nucleosynthesis in supernovae, and the existence of warm dark matter. In order to accomplish all of this, we find that a nonstandard cosmological scenario is required. Finally, low-energy seesaws - regardless of their relation to the LSND anomaly - can also be tested by future tritium beta-decay experiments, neutrinoless double-beta decay searches, and other observables. We estimate the sensitivity of such probes to M.

  18. Two phenomenological constants explain similarity laws in stably stratified turbulence.

    PubMed

    Katul, Gabriel G; Porporato, Amilcare; Shah, Stimit; Bou-Zeid, Elie

    2014-02-01

    In stably stratified turbulent flows, the mixing efficiency associated with eddy diffusivity for heat, or equivalently the turbulent Prandtl number (Pr(t)), is fraught with complex dynamics originating from the scalewise interplay between shear generation of turbulence and its dissipation by density gradients. A large corpus of data and numerical simulations agree on a near-universal relation between Pr(t) and the Richardson number (R(i)), which encodes the relative importance of buoyancy dissipation to mechanical production of turbulent kinetic energy. The Pr(t)-R(i) relation is shown to be derivable solely from the cospectral budgets for momentum and heat fluxes if a Rotta-like return to isotropy closure for the pressure-strain effects and Kolmogorov's theory for turbulent cascade are invoked. The ratio of the Kolmogorov to the Kolmogorov-Obukhov-Corrsin phenomenological constants, and a constant associated with isotropization of the production whose value (= 3/5) has been predicted from Rapid Distortion Theory, explain all the macroscopic nonlinearities.

  19. LHC phenomenology of SO(10) models with Yukawa unification. II.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anandakrishnan, Archana; Bryant, B. Charles; Raby, Stuart

    2014-07-01

    In this paper we study Yukawa-unified SO(10) supersymmetric (SUSY) grand unified theories (GUTs) with two types of SO(10) boundary conditions: (i) universal gaugino masses and (ii) nonuniversal gaugino masses with effective "mirage" mediation. With these boundary conditions, we perform a global χ2 analysis to obtain the parameters consistent with 11 low energy observables, including the top, bottom, and tau masses. Both boundary conditions have universal scalar masses and "just so" splitting for the up- and down-type Higgs masses. In these models, the third family scalars are lighter than the first two families and the gauginos are lighter than all the scalars. We therefore focus on the gluino phenomenology in these models. In particular, we estimate the lowest allowed gluino mass in our models coming from the most recent LHC data and compare this to limits obtained using simplified models. We find that the lower bound on Mg ˜ in Yukawa-unified SO(10) SUSY GUTs is generically ˜1.2 TEV at the 1σ level unless there is considerable degeneracy between the gluino and the lightest supersymmetric particle, in which case the bounds are much weaker. Hence many of our benchmark points are not ruled out by the present LHC data and are still viable models which can be tested at LHC 14.

  20. Complementarity of dark matter searches in the phenomenological MSSM

    SciTech Connect

    Cahill-Rowley, Matthew; Cotta, Randy; Drlica-Wagner, Alex; Funk, Stefan; Hewett, JoAnne; Ismail, Ahmed; Rizzo, Tom; Wood, Matthew

    2015-03-11

    As is well known, the search for and eventual identification of dark matter in supersymmetry requires a simultaneous, multipronged approach with important roles played by the LHC as well as both direct and indirect dark matter detection experiments. We examine the capabilities of these approaches in the 19-parameter phenomenological MSSM which provides a general framework for complementarity studies of neutralino dark matter. We summarize the sensitivity of dark matter searches at the 7 and 8 (and eventually 14) TeV LHC, combined with those by Fermi, CTA, IceCube/DeepCore, COUPP, LZ and XENON. The strengths and weaknesses of each of these techniques are examined and contrasted and their interdependent roles in covering the model parameter space are discussed in detail. We find that these approaches explore orthogonal territory and that advances in each are necessary to cover the supersymmetric weakly interacting massive particle parameter space. We also find that different experiments have widely varying sensitivities to the various dark matter annihilation mechanisms, some of which would be completely excluded by null results from these experiments.

  1. Phenomenology of buoyancy-driven turbulence: recent results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Verma, Mahendra K.; Kumar, Abhishek; Pandey, Ambrish

    2017-02-01

    In this paper, we describe the recent developments in the field of buoyancy-driven turbulence with a focus on energy spectrum and flux. Scaling and numerical arguments show that the stably-stratified turbulence with moderate stratification has kinetic energy spectrum {E}u(k)∼ {k}-11/5 and the kinetic energy flux {{{\\Pi }}}u(k)∼ {k}-4/5, which is called Bolgiano-Obukhov scaling. However, for Prandtl number near unity, the energy flux for the three-dimensional Rayleigh–Bénard convection (RBC) is approximately constant in the inertial range that results in Kolmorogorv’s spectrum ({E}u(k)∼ {k}-5/3) for the kinetic energy. The phenomenology of RBC should apply to other flows where the buoyancy feeds the kinetic energy, e.g. bubbly turbulence and fully-developed Rayleigh Taylor instability. This paper also covers several models that predict the Reynolds and Nusselt numbers of RBC. Recent works show that the viscous dissipation rate of RBC scales as ∼ {{Ra}}1.3, where {Ra} is the Rayleigh number.

  2. Phenomenological model of maize starches expansion by extrusion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kristiawan, M.; Della Valle, G.; Kansou, K.; Ndiaye, A.; Vergnes, B.

    2016-10-01

    During extrusion of starchy products, the molten material is forced through a die so that the sudden abrupt pressure drop causes part of the water to vaporize giving an expanded, cellular structure. The objective of this work was to elaborate a phenomenological model of expansion and couple it with Ludovic® mechanistic model of twin screw extrusion process. From experimental results that cover a wide range of thermomechanical conditions, a concept map of influence relationships between input and output variables was built. It took into account the phenomena of bubbles nucleation, growth, coalescence, shrinkage and setting, in a viscoelastic medium. The input variables were the moisture content MC, melt temperature T, specific mechanical energy SME, shear viscosity η at the die exit, computed by Ludovic®, and the melt storage moduli E'(at T > Tg). The outputs of the model were the macrostructure (volumetric expansion index VEI, anisotropy) and cellular structure (fineness F) of solid foams. Then a general model was established: VEI = α (η/η0)n in which α and n depend on T, MC, SME and E' and the link between anisotropy and fineness was established.

  3. Higgs phenomenology in warped extra dimensions with a fourth generation

    SciTech Connect

    Frank, Mariana; Korutlu, Beste; Toharia, Manuel

    2011-10-01

    We study a warped extra-dimension scenario where the standard model fields lie in the bulk, with the addition of a fourth family of fermions. We concentrate on the flavor structure of the Higgs couplings with fermions in the flavor anarchy ansatz. Even without a fourth family, these couplings will be generically misaligned with respect to the standard model fermion mass matrices. The presence of the fourth family typically enhances the misalignment effects and we show that one should expect them to be highly nonsymmetrical in the (34) intergenerational mixing. The radiative corrections from the new fermions and their flavor-violating couplings to the Higgs affect negligibly known experimental precision measurements such as the oblique parameters and Z{yields}bb or Z{yields}{mu}{sup +}{mu}{sup -}. On the other hand, {Delta}F=1, 2 processes, mediated by tree-level Higgs exchange, as well as radiative corrections to b{yields}s{gamma} and {mu}{yields}e{gamma} put some generic pressure on the allowed size of the flavor-violating couplings. But more importantly, these couplings will alter the Higgs decay patterns as well as those of the new fermions, and produce very interesting new signals associated to Higgs phenomenology in high energy colliders. These signals might become very important indirect signals for these type of models as they would be present even when the KK mass scale is high and no heavy KK particle is discovered.

  4. Solar and space weather phenomenological forecasting using pattern recognition operators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rosa, R.; Ramos, F.; Vijaykumar, N.; Andrade, M.; Fernandes, F.; Cecatto, J.; Sharma, A.; Sawant, H.

    Yohkoh, SOHO and HESSI satellites have shown morphological change of the coronal magnetic structures in several scales. Particularly, the soft X ray images- have revealed the existence of dynamic structures with magnetic field configuration varying from regular to complex patterns. In order to characterize the spatio- temporal evolution of such structures, a methodology is proposed in terms of matrix computational operators to quantify the amount of symmetry breaking along the gradient field evolution of the sequence of images. Characterization of symmetry breaking in the gradient field of the energy envelope has been an useful tool to understand complex plasma regimes. In this paper we introduce the application of the Gradient Pattern Analysis (GPA) technique as a new matrix computational operator for spatio-temporal plasma gradient field analysis. This operator yields a measure of the symmetry breaking and phase disorder parameters responding to the active region plasma regimes. In order to characterize the GPA performance into the context of solar physics, we apply this technique on X-ray emission measurement from solar coronal plasma observed by means of Yohkoh satellite. The preliminary results and interpretations suggest a new phenomenological approach for the spatio- temporal evolution of soft X ray active regions, mainly those whose morphology- goes from a regular to a complex magnetic configuration a companied by thec increase of the dissipated energy. We discuss the importance of this semi-empirical modelling for space weather forecasting into the context of solar-terrestrial relationship.

  5. Cooperativity in Binding Processes: New Insights from Phenomenological Modeling

    PubMed Central

    Cattoni, Diego I.; Chara, Osvaldo; Kaufman, Sergio B.; González Flecha, F. Luis

    2015-01-01

    Cooperative binding is one of the most interesting and not fully understood phenomena involved in control and regulation of biological processes. Here we analyze the simplest phenomenological model that can account for cooperativity (i.e. ligand binding to a macromolecule with two binding sites) by generating equilibrium binding isotherms from deterministically simulated binding time courses. We show that the Hill coefficients determined for cooperative binding, provide a good measure of the Gibbs free energy of interaction among binding sites, and that their values are independent of the free energy of association for empty sites. We also conclude that although negative cooperativity and different classes of binding sites cannot be distinguished at equilibrium, they can be kinetically differentiated. This feature highlights the usefulness of pre-equilibrium time-resolved strategies to explore binding models as a key complement of equilibrium experiments. Furthermore, our analysis shows that under conditions of strong negative cooperativity, the existence of some binding sites can be overlooked, and experiments at very high ligand concentrations can be a valuable tool to unmask such sites. PMID:26717487

  6. A phenomenological approach of solidification of polymeric phase change materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bahrani, Seyed Amir; Royon, Laurent; Abou, Bérengère; Osipian, Rémy; Azzouz, Kamel; Bontemps, André

    2017-01-01

    Phase Change Materials (PCMs) are widely used in thermal energy storage and thermal management systems due to their small volume for a given stored energy and their capability for maintaining nearly constant temperatures. However, their performance is limited by their low thermal conductivity and possible leaks while in the liquid phase. One solution is to imprison the PCM inside a polymer mesh to create a Polymeric Phase Change Material (PPCM). In this work, we have studied the cooling and solidification of five PPCMs with different PCMs and polymer fractions. To understand the heat transfer mechanisms involved, we have carried out micro- and macrorheological measurements in which Brownian motion of tracers embedded in PPCMs has been depicted and viscoelastic moduli have been measured, respectively. Beyond a given polymer concentration, it was shown that the Brownian motion of the tracers is limited by the polymeric chains and that the material exhibits an elastic behavior. This would suggest that heat transfer essentially occurs by conduction, instead of convection. Experiments were conducted to measure temperature variation during cooling of the five samples, and a semi-empirical model based on a phenomenological approach was proposed as a practical tool to choose and size PPCMs.

  7. Phenomenological aspects of no-scale inflation models

    SciTech Connect

    Ellis, John; Garcia, Marcos A.G.; Nanopoulos, Dimitri V.; Olive, Keith A.

    2015-10-01

    We discuss phenomenological aspects of inflationary models wiith a no-scale supergravity Kähler potential motivated by compactified string models, in which the inflaton may be identified either as a Kähler modulus or an untwisted matter field, focusing on models that make predictions for the scalar spectral index n{sub s} and the tensor-to-scalar ratio r that are similar to the Starobinsky model. We discuss possible patterns of soft supersymmetry breaking, exhibiting examples of the pure no-scale type m{sub 0}=B{sub 0}=A{sub 0}=0, of the CMSSM type with universal A{sub 0} and m{sub 0}≠0 at a high scale, and of the mSUGRA type with A{sub 0}=B{sub 0}+m{sub 0} boundary conditions at the high input scale. These may be combined with a non-trivial gauge kinetic function that generates gaugino masses m{sub 1/2}≠0, or one may have a pure gravity mediation scenario where trilinear terms and gaugino masses are generated through anomalies. We also discuss inflaton decays and reheating, showing possible decay channels for the inflaton when it is either an untwisted matter field or a Kähler modulus. Reheating is very efficient if a matter field inflaton is directly coupled to MSSM fields, and both candidates lead to sufficient reheating in the presence of a non-trivial gauge kinetic function.

  8. Levodopa-induced dyskinesias in Parkinson's disease phenomenology and pathophysiology.

    PubMed

    Marconi, R; Lefebvre-Caparros, D; Bonnet, A M; Vidailhet, M; Dubois, B; Agid, Y

    1994-01-01

    The aim of this study was to provide further insight into the phenomenology and pathophysiology of monophasic and biphasic dyskinesias induced by levodopa in Parkinson's disease. For this purpose, the type, localization, severity, and timing of dyskinesias were evaluated in 15 parkinsonian patients in relation to motor disability after administration of levodopa using a video-electromyographic recording device. Foot-dystonia, myoclonus, and akathisia were observed in most patients. The dyskinesias started in the foot, usually on the side most affected by the disease, and spread in an "ascending wave" to the contralateral side, the trunk, and upper extremities. In a few patients, onset was axial, spreading almost instantaneously to all limbs. The dyskinesias were dystonic and ballistic at the start, and became increasingly choreic as they attained the upper limbs. Their intensity was maximal in the lower limbs, then progressively decreased, while increasing in upper limbs and head. The results indicate that there is no strict dichotomy between biphasic and monophasic dyskinesias. In other words, there is a "continuum" between the first dyskinesias and those observed during the period of maximal clinical improvement. These dyskinesias can also appear in reverse order, as if there were an "oscillator" determining a sequence of alternating patterns.

  9. Music and health. Phenomenological investigation of a medical humanity.

    PubMed

    McLellan, Lucy; McLachlan, Emma; Perkins, Laurence; Dornan, Tim

    2013-05-01

    In response to the tendency for music to be under-represented in the discourse of medical humanities, we framed the question 'how can music heal?' We answered it by exploring the lived experiences of musicians with lay or professional interests in health. Two medical students and a medically qualified educationalist, all musicians, conducted a co-operative inquiry with a professional musician interested in health. All researchers and six respondents kept audio or written diaries. Three respondents were interviewed in depth. A medical school head (and experienced musician) critiqued the phenomenological analysis of respondents' accounts of music, health, and its relationship with undergraduate medical education. Respondents experienced music as promoting health, even in seriously diseased people. Music affected people's identity and emotions. Through the medium of structure and harmony, it provided a means of self-expression that adapted to whatever condition people were in. Music was a communication medium, which could make people feel less isolated. Immersion in music could change negative states of mind to more positive ones. A transport metaphor was commonly used; music 'taking people to better places'. Exercising control by becoming physically involved in music enhanced diseased people's self-esteem. Music was able to bring the spiritual, mental, and physical elements of their lives into balance, to the benefit of their wellbeing. Music could help medical students appreciate holistically that the state of health of people who are either well or diseased can be enhanced by a 'non-technical' intervention.

  10. [Rating scales based on the phenomenological and structural approach].

    PubMed

    Schiltz, L

    2006-01-01

    A current tendency of research in clinical psychology consists in using an integrated quantitative and qualitative methodology. This approach is especially suited to the study of the therapeutic intervention where the researcher is himself part of the situation he is investigating. As to the tools of research, the combination of the semi-structured clinical interview, of psychometric scales and projective tests has proved to be pertinent to describe the multidimensional and fluctuating reality of the therapeutic relationship and the changes induced by it in the two partners. In arts therapeutic research the investigation of the artistic production or of the free expression of people may complete the psychometric and projective tools. The concept of "expressive test" is currently being used to characterise this method. In this context, the development of rating scales, based on the phenomenological and structural or holistic approach allows us making the link between qualitative analysis and quantification, leading to the use of inferential statistics, providing that we remain at the nominal or ordinal level of measurement. We are explaining the principle of construction of these rating scales and we are illustrating our practice with some examples drawn from studies we realized in clinical psychology.

  11. A New Understanding of Psychopathy: The Contribution of Phenomenological Psychopathology.

    PubMed

    Englebert, Jérôme

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this study is to present a theoretical paper about a clinical issue. Our aim is to propose some clinical and semiological considerations for a psychopathological conception of psychopathy. We will discuss several major theoretical works dedicated to this nosographic entity (mainly those of Schneider [Psychopathic Personalities (1923). London, Cassell, 1950], Cleckley [The Mask of Sanity. St. Louis, Mosby, 1941] and Hare [The Hare Psychopathy Checklist - Revised Manual, ed 2. Toronto, Multi-Health Systems, 2003]). We will also examine a significant issue raised by Cooke et al. [Psychol Assess 2001;13:171-188; J Person Disord 2004;18:337-357; Br J Psychiatry Suppl 2007;49:s39-s50; Int J Forensic Ment Health 2012;11:242-252], namely whether psychopathic functioning is consistently related to antisocial behavior. This theoretical essay is informed by clinical situations (involving psychopaths who were interviewed in prison or in forensic centers). The method applied a phenomenological psychopathology analysis to the clinical material. We first compare Binswanger's conception of mania with psychopathic functioning. Patient behavior is similar, but there is a difference related to the dialectic between the ego and the alter ego. A patient with mania has a fundamental crisis of the ego, which a psychopath does not have. A second finding of our investigations concerns emotions and the adaptive dimension of the psychopathic disorder. An epistemological discussion of the concept of emotions reveals that psychopaths are competent in the management of emotional stimuli, which confers a psychological advantage upon them.

  12. Rediscovering Psychopathology: The Epistemology and Phenomenology of the Psychiatric Object

    PubMed Central

    Parnas, Josef

    2013-01-01

    Questions concerning both the ontology and epistemology of the “psychiatric object” (symptoms and signs) should be at the forefront of current concerns of psychiatry as a clinical neuroscience. We argue that neglect of these issues is a crucial source of the stagnation of psychiatric research. In honor of the centenary of Karl Jaspers’ book, General Psychopathology, we offer a critique of the contemporary “operationalist” epistemology, a critique that is consistent with Jaspers’ views. Symptoms and signs cannot be properly understood or identified apart from an appreciation of the nature of consciousness or subjectivity, which in turn cannot be treated as a collection of thing-like, mutually independent objects, accessible to context-free, “atheoretical” definitions or unproblematic forms of measurement (as is often assumed in structured interviewing). Adequate and faithful distinctions in the phenomenal or experiential realm are therefore a fundamental prerequisite for classification, treatment, and research. This requires a multidisciplinary approach, incorporating (among other things) insights provided by psychology, phenomenological philosophy, and the philosophy of mind. PMID:23267191

  13. Moving target feature phenomenology data collection at China Lake

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gross, David C.; Hill, Jeff; Schmitz, James L.

    2002-08-01

    This paper describes the DARPA Moving Target Feature Phenomenology (MTFP) data collection conducted at the China Lake Naval Weapons Center's Junction Ranch in July 2001. The collection featured both X-band and Ku-band radars positioned on top of Junction Ranch's Parrot Peak. The test included seven targets used in eleven configurations with vehicle motion consisting of circular, straight-line, and 90-degree turning motion. Data was collected at 10-degree and 17-degree depression angles. Key parameters in the collection were polarization, vehicle speed, and road roughness. The collection also included a canonical target positioned at Junction Ranch's tilt-deck turntable. The canonical target included rotating wheels (military truck tire and civilian pick-up truck tire) and a flat plate with variable positioned corner reflectors. The canonical target was also used to simulate a rotating antenna and a vibrating plate. The target vehicles were instrumented with ARDS pods for differential GPS and roll, pitch and yaw measurements. Target motion was also documented using a video camera slaved to the X-band radar antenna and by a video camera operated near the target site.

  14. Inelastic deformation and phenomenological modeling of aluminum including transient effect

    SciTech Connect

    Cho, C.W.

    1980-01-01

    A review was made of several phenomenological theories which have recently been proposed to describe the inelastic deformation of crystalline solids. Hart's deformation theory has many advantages, but there are disagreements with experimental deformation at stress levels below yield. A new inelastic deformation theory was proposed, introducing the concept of microplasticity. The new model consists of five deformation elements: a friction element representing a deformation element controlled by dislocation glide, a nonrecoverable plastic element representing the dislocation leakage rate over the strong dislocation barriers, a microplastic element representing the dislocation leakage rate over the weak barriers, a short range anelastic spring element representing the recoverable anelastic strain stored by piled-up dislocations against the weak barriers, and a long range anelastic spring element representing the recoverable strain stored by piled-up dislocations against the strong barriers. Load relaxation and tensile testing in the plastic range were used to determine the material parameters for the plastic friction elements. The short range and long range anelastic moduli and the material parameters for the kinetics of microplasticity were determined by the measurement of anelastic loops and by performing load relaxation tests in the microplastic region. Experimental results were compared with a computer simulation of the transient deformation behavior of commercial purity aluminum. An attempt was made to correlate the material parameters and the microstructure from TEM. Stability of material parameters during inelastic deformation was discussed and effect of metallurgical variables was examined experimentally. 71 figures, 5 tables.

  15. Phenomenological modeling of nonlinear holograms based on metallic geometric metasurfaces.

    PubMed

    Ye, Weimin; Li, Xin; Liu, Juan; Zhang, Shuang

    2016-10-31

    Benefiting from efficient local phase and amplitude control at the subwavelength scale, metasurfaces offer a new platform for computer generated holography with high spatial resolution. Three-dimensional and high efficient holograms have been realized by metasurfaces constituted by subwavelength meta-atoms with spatially varying geometries or orientations. Metasurfaces have been recently extended to the nonlinear optical regime to generate holographic images in harmonic generation waves. Thus far, there has been no vector field simulation of nonlinear metasurface holograms because of the tremendous computational challenge in numerically calculating the collective nonlinear responses of the large number of different subwavelength meta-atoms in a hologram. Here, we propose a general phenomenological method to model nonlinear metasurface holograms based on the assumption that every meta-atom could be described by a localized nonlinear polarizability tensor. Applied to geometric nonlinear metasurfaces, we numerically model the holographic images formed by the second-harmonic waves of different spins. We show that, in contrast to the metasurface holograms operating in the linear optical regime, the wavelength of incident fundamental light should be slightly detuned from the fundamental resonant wavelength to optimize the efficiency and quality of nonlinear holographic images. The proposed modeling provides a general method to simulate nonlinear optical devices based on metallic metasurfaces.

  16. The phenomenology of hairpulling in a community sample.

    PubMed

    Duke, Danny C; Bodzin, Danielle K; Tavares, Priscilla; Geffken, Gary R; Storch, Eric A

    2009-12-01

    Assessment and treatment of trichotillomania (TTM) has evolved substantially over the past decade. However, standardized assessment and empirically supported treatment for TTM is still in early stages of development. We proposed that information important to the ongoing evolution of assessment and treatment could be obtained through the study of hairpulling across its range of severity. Hairpulling phenomenology was assessed in a large community sample across its range of presentation. Although the estimated prevalence rate of .6% for TTM is congruent with past studies, the 1.2% prevalence estimated for clinically significant hairpulling suggests that the current diagnostic criteria are overly restrictive. Overall, hairpulling occurred at a rate of 6.5%, while age of onset was 15.92 years. Symptoms of depression, anxiety, and history of teasing were positively associated with hairpulling, while self-esteem was negatively related to hairpulling. Cognitions most commonly associated with hairpulling were "feels coarse" (53.3%), "doesn't feel right" (30.0%), "is curly" (26.7%), and "doesn't look right" (23.3%). Environments most commonly associated with hairpulling included "while reading" (38.9%), "while watching television" (37.0%), and "in class" (35.25). Applications of findings to assessment and intervention formulation are suggested, and limitations and future directions are discussed.

  17. Aerodynamic Effects in Weakly Ionized Gas: Phenomenology and Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Popovic, Svetozar

    2006-10-01

    Successful application of gas discharges in aerodynamics requires their efficient generation, sustaining and control at supersonic or hypersonic flow conditions. Wall-free plasma formations that meet the requirements may then act as time-controlled and space-localized actuators to modify the flow. Potential candidates for this challenging task are plasmas contained in open or linear-cavity microwave field structures. We present and discuss direct observations of aerodynamic effects activated or modified by wall-free discharges. Further, we compare two generic types of wall-free discharges. First group, applicable for inlet-type structures, consists of a periodic series of microwave-induced plasmoids generated in a linear cavity, using the outgoing wave from a microwave antenna and the reflected wave from a nearby on-axis concave reflector. The plasmoids are spaced at half-wavelength separations according to the standing-wave pattern. The plasmoids are enhanced by an ``effective focusing'' in the near field of the antenna (Fresnel region) as a result of diffraction effects and mode structure. Second group, applicable to supersonic and hypersonic boundary layers, are the surface microwave discharges enhanced by a structure of Hertz dipoles. Standard microwave discharge phenomenology, such as microwave breakdown, mode structure and plasma parameters, is revisited to present a quantitative interpretation of the observed effects. Special attention is given to complex phenomena specific to flow-plasma interaction (double electric layers, ionization waves, instabilities), which provide the physical basis for localized heating in the aerodynamic flow.

  18. A Qualitative Phenomenological Exploration of Teachers' Experience With Nutrition Education

    PubMed Central

    Hall, Elisha; Chai, Weiwen; Albrecht, Julie A.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Nutrition education delivered by classroom teachers has become a popular intervention designed to combat childhood obesity. However, few qualitative studies have explored nutrition education with teachers Purpose: The purpose of this study was to explore how elementary teachers describe their experience with nutrition education. Methods: A qualitative phenomenological approach was used. Semistructured interviews, observations, and document analysis were conducted with 10 teachers who delivered nutrition education in their classrooms. Inductive coding was used to determine invariant constituents, reduce constituents to categories, and cluster categories into themes. Reliability and validity were accomplished through intercoder agreement, audio recording, triangulation, bracketing, and member checking. Results: Results identified 5 core themes related to roles teachers play in nutrition education, the importance placed upon nutrition, motivation for supplementary activities, barriers, and a triadic relationship between students, teachers, and curriculum. Discussion: Findings reveal interactions within the nutrition education experience in which teachers balance barriers with their value of nutrition education and motivation to help students make healthy choices. Translation to Health Education Practice: Health educators should work with classroom teachers at the program design, implementation, and evaluation stages of curriculum development to better address needs and facilitate the delivery of high-quality nutrition education for students. PMID:27226814

  19. Phenomenological Review on Quark–Gluon Plasma: Concepts vs. Observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pasechnik, Roman; Šumbera, Michal

    2017-01-01

    In this review, we present an up-to-date phenomenological summary of research developments in the physics of the Quark--Gluon Plasma (QGP). A short historical perspective and theoretical motivation for this rapidly developing field of contemporary particle physics is provided. In addition, we introduce and discuss the role of the quantum chromodynamics (QCD) ground state, non-perturbative and lattice QCD results on the QGP properties, as well as the transport models used to make a connection between theory and experiment. The experimental part presents the selected results on bulk observables, hard and penetrating probes obtained in the ultra-relativistic heavy-ion experiments carried out at the Brookhaven National Laboratory Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (BNL RHIC) and CERN Super Proton Synchrotron (SPS) and Large Hadron Collider (LHC) accelerators. We also give a brief overview of new developments related to the ongoing searches of the QCD critical point and to the collectivity in small ($p+p$ and $p+A$) systems.

  20. Phenomenology of a Flavorful Two Higgs Doublet Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tuckler, Douglas; Altmannshofer, Wolfgang; Eby, Joshua; Gori, Stefania; Lotito, Matteo; Martone, Mario

    2017-01-01

    The discovery of the Higgs boson in 2012 gave us the final piece of the SM, and since then there has been a large effort to understand its properties. Current experimental sensitivities allow us to probe the couplings of the Higgs to the 3rd generation of quarks and leptons, and measurements tell us that the Higgs is responsible for generating their mass. However, a lot less is known about the origin of mass of the 1st and 2nd generations: measurements of their couplings to the Higgs are out of experimental reach. With limited experimental sensitivities, one might be led to ask: is the origin of mass of the 1st and 2nd generation fermions due to the SM Higgs at all? In this talk, the idea that the mass of the 1st and 2nd generation fermions is not due to the SM Higgs, but a second source of electroweak symmetry breaking, is investigated. This can be realized simply by a two Higgs doublet model (2HDM), where one doublet couples mainly to the 3rd generations fermions while the second doublet couples mainly to the 1st and 2nd generation. We will see how a non-standard Yukawa texture leads to phenomenology that is markedly different from well studied 2HDMs, enhancing the collider signatures involving 2nd generation quarks and leptons.

  1. Phenomenology with fluctuating quantum geometries in loop quantum cosmology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Agullo, Ivan; Ashtekar, Abhay; Gupt, Brajesh

    2017-04-01

    The goal of this paper is to probe phenomenological implications of large fluctuations of quantum geometry in the Planck era, using cosmology of the early universe. For the background (Friedmann, Lemaître, Robertson, Walker) quantum geometry, we allow ‘widely spread’ states in which the relative dispersions are as large as 168 % in the Planck regime. By introducing suitable methods to overcome the ensuing conceptual and computational issues, we calculate the power spectrum {{P}R}(k) and the spectral index n s (k) of primordial curvature perturbations. These results generalize the previous work in loop quantum cosmology which focused on those states which were known to remain sharply peaked throughout the Planck regime. Surprisingly, even though the fluctuations we now consider are large, their presence does not add new features to the final {{P}R}(k) and n s (k): within observational error bars, their effect is degenerate with a different freedom in the theory, namely the number of pre-inflationary e-folds {{N}\\text{B\\star}} between the bounce and the onset of inflation. Therefore, with regard to observational consequences, one can simulate the freedom in the choice of states with large fluctuations in the Planck era using the simpler, sharply peaked states, simply by allowing for different values of {{N}\\text{B \\star}} .

  2. Dancing Mindfulness: A Phenomenological Investigation of the Emerging Practice.

    PubMed

    Marich, Jamie; Howell, Terra

    2015-01-01

    An extensive review of both quantitative and qualitative literature reveals numerous connections between mindfulness practice and psychological well-being. Dancing Mindfulness, as a holistic wellness practice, is a creative approach to mindfulness meditation that draws on dance as the vehicle for engaging in the ancient practice characterized by non-judgment, loving kindness, and present-centered awareness. Of the first participants who learned the Dancing Mindfulness practice in a community-based setting, 10 shared their lived experience with the practice, and these experiences were analyzed using A.P. Giorgi׳s descriptive phenomenological psychological method. As a collective sample, the women described positive experiences with the Dancing Mindfulness practice. Specific themes indicated improvements in emotional and spiritual well-being, increased acceptance, positive changes to the self, and increased application of mindfulness techniques and strategies to real-world living. Another thematic area suggested that dancing and music are the two major components of action within Dancing Mindfulness leading to these benefits.

  3. Experiencing Seclusion in a Forensic Psychiatric Setting: A Phenomenological Study.

    PubMed

    Holmes, Dave; Murray, Stuart J; Knack, Natasha

    2015-01-01

    In hospital settings, and especially in forensic psychiatric ones, restlessness, aggression, and even violence are familiar issues to healthcare workers. Under these circumstances, the need for restrictive measures (seclusion, mechanical/chemical restraints) is sometimes needed. Although such measures should be considered as exceptional interventions, they continue to be widespread in general, psychiatric, and forensic psychiatric settings. Although there is a great deal of literature on a myriad of issues associated with the use of seclusion, very little research has focused on the lived experience of the seclusion room in forensic psychiatric settings, whether from the patient's perspective or from the perspective of nursing staff responsible for these patients. Such an examination could help ameliorate the experience of secluded forensic psychiatric patients while informing nursing staff about the impacts of seclusion. This article reports the results of a federally funded qualitative, phenomenological research study conducted in a Canadian forensic psychiatric environment. Our results show that the "structure of place" matters for both patients who experience seclusion and nursing staff who work therapeutically in these settings. "Place" is irreducible to the physical "space" in which bodies find themselves; this study of place took into consideration the ways the lived body experiences seclusion and interrelates with others. Although there can be no doubt that many patients who experience seclusion are oftentimes objectively at risk, with a heightened potential to self-harm and to harm other inpatients and nursing staff as well, as our study participants attested, the bodies secluded in this space are not "objects."

  4. Studies of millimeter-wave phenomenology for helicopter brownout mitigation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schuetz, Christopher A.; Stein, E. Lee, Jr.; Samluk, Jesse; Mackrides, Daniel; Wilson, John P.; Martin, Richard D.; Dillon, Thomas E.; Prather, Dennis W.

    2009-09-01

    The unique ability of the millimeter-wave portion of the spectrum to penetrate typical visual obscurants has resulted in a wide range of possible applications for imagers in this spectrum. Of particular interest to the military community are imagers that can operate effectively in Degraded Visual Environments (DVE's) experienced by helicopter pilots when landing in dry, dusty environments, otherwise known as "brownout." One of the first steps to developing operational requirements for imagers in this spectrum is to develop a quantitative understanding of the phenomenology that governs imaging in these environments. While preliminary studies have been done in this area, quantitative, calibrated measurements of typical targets and degradation of target contrasts due to brownout conditions are not available. To this end, we will present results from calibrated, empirical measurements of typical targets of interest to helicopter pilots made in a representative desert environment. In addition, real-time measurements of target contrast reduction due to brownout conditions generated by helicopter downwash will be shown. These data were acquired using a W-band, dual-polarization radiometric scanner using optical-upconversion detectors.

  5. Rediscovering psychopathology: the epistemology and phenomenology of the psychiatric object.

    PubMed

    Parnas, Josef; Sass, Louis A; Zahavi, Dan

    2013-03-01

    Questions concerning both the ontology and epistemology of the "psychiatric object" (symptoms and signs) should be at the forefront of current concerns of psychiatry as a clinical neuroscience. We argue that neglect of these issues is a crucial source of the stagnation of psychiatric research. In honor of the centenary of Karl Jaspers' book, General Psychopathology, we offer a critique of the contemporary "operationalist" epistemology, a critique that is consistent with Jaspers' views. Symptoms and signs cannot be properly understood or identified apart from an appreciation of the nature of consciousness or subjectivity, which in turn cannot be treated as a collection of thing-like, mutually independent objects, accessible to context-free, "atheoretical" definitions or unproblematic forms of measurement (as is often assumed in structured interviewing). Adequate and faithful distinctions in the phenomenal or experiential realm are therefore a fundamental prerequisite for classification, treatment, and research. This requires a multidisciplinary approach, incorporating (among other things) insights provided by psychology, phenomenological philosophy, and the philosophy of mind.

  6. Evidence for universality in phenomenological emotion response system coherence.

    PubMed

    Matsumoto, David; Nezlek, John B; Koopmann, Birgit

    2007-02-01

    The authors reanalyzed data from Scherer and Wallbott's (Scherer, 1997b; Scherer & Wallbott, 1994) International Study of Emotion Antecedents and Reactions to examine how phenomenological reports of emotional experience, expression, and physiological sensations were related to each other within cultures and to determine if these relationships were moderated by cultural differences, which were operationally defined using Hofstede's (2001) typology. Multilevel random coefficient modeling analyses produced several findings of note. First, the vast majority of the variance in ratings was within countries (i.e., at the individual level); a much smaller proportion of the total variance was between countries. Second, there were negative relationships between country-level means and long- versus short-term orientation for numerous measures. Greater long-term orientation was associated with lowered emotional expressivity and fewer physiological sensations. Third, at the individual (within-culture) level, across the 7 emotions, there were consistent and reliable positive relationships among the response systems, indicating coherence among them. Fourth, such relationships were not moderated by cultural differences, as measured by the Hofstede dimensions.

  7. String Theory, String Model-Building, and String Phenomenology — A Practical Introduction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dienes, Keith R.

    This is the written version of an introductory self-contained course on string model-building and string phenomenology given at the 2006 TASI summer school. No prior knowledge of string theory is assumed. The goal is to provide a practical, "how-to" manual on string theory, string model-building, and string phenomenology with a minimum of mathematics. These notes cover the construction of bosonic strings, super-strings, and heterotic strings prior to compactification. These notes also develop the ten-dimensional free-fermionic construction. A final lecture discusses general features of heterotic string models, Type I (open) string models, and recent trends of string phenomenology. and general features of low-energy string phenomenology.

  8. Phenomenology of transverse-spin and transverse-momentum effects in hard processes

    SciTech Connect

    Barone, Vincenzo

    2011-07-15

    Some recent analyses of single-spin and azimuthal asymmetries in SIDIS and Drell-Yan processes, focusing in particular on Collins, Sivers and Boer-Mulders effects, are briefly reviewed. The perspectives for future phenomenological studies are also outlined.

  9. [Phenomenological anthropological social psychiatry--paving the way for a theoretical reanimation].

    PubMed

    Thoma, Samuel

    2012-11-01

    This article tries to link the present lack of theoretical discussion within German Social Psychiatry with a loss of phenomenological and anthropological thought. The so-called Phenomenological Psychiatry used to play a very important role in German psychiatry during the 50 ies until the 70 ies and had strong influences on the first reformers of German psychiatry, such as Walter Ritter von Baeyer, Heinz Häfner, Caspar Kulenkampff, Karl Peter Kisker and Erich Wulff. Their reforms were not only founded by a social criticism put forth by theories such as marxism (Basaglia, Wulff) or structuralism (Foucault) but also by a concrete notion of what it is like to suffer from mental illness and what kind of needs are linked to such suffering. This very notion was given by the phenomenological approach. Finally the article tries to give reasons for today's reciprocal loss of connection of the phenomenological and the socio-psychiatric school.

  10. Directional Radiometry and Radiative Transfer: the Convoluted Path From Centuries-old Phenomenology to Physical Optics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mishchenko, Michael I.

    2014-01-01

    This Essay traces the centuries-long history of the phenomenological disciplines of directional radiometry and radiative transfer in turbid media, discusses their fundamental weaknesses, and outlines the convoluted process of their conversion into legitimate branches of physical optics.

  11. The Intersectionality of African American Mothers in Counselor Education: A Phenomenological Examination

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haskins, Natoya H.; Ziomek-Daigle, Jolie; Sewell, Cheryl; Crumb, Lonika; Appling, Brandee; Trepal, Heather

    2016-01-01

    Using phenomenological inquiry, this study explored the lived experiences and intersecting identities of 8 African American counselor educators who are mothers. Six themes were identified: race, professional strain, work-life balance, support, internalized success, and mothering pedagogy.

  12. The complementarity of phenomenology, hermeneutics and existentialism as a philosophical perspective for nursing research.

    PubMed

    Todres, L; Wheeler, S

    2001-02-01

    The focus of this paper draws on the thinking of Husserl, Dilthey and Heidegger to identify elements of the phenomenological movement that can provide focus and direction for qualitative research in nursing. The authors interpret this tradition in two ways: emphasizing the possible complementarity of phenomenology, hermeneutics and existentialism, and demonstrating how these emphases ask for grounding, reflexivity and humanization in qualitative research. The paper shows that the themes of grounding, reflexivity and humanization are particularly important for nursing research.

  13. A Phenomenological Model for Circadian and Sleep Allostatic Modulation of Plasma Cortisol Concentration

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-09-25

    RJ, Ortega-Soto H, Huerto-Delgadillo L, Camacho- Arroyo I, Roldán-Roldán G, Tamarkin L. The effect of total sleep deprivation on plasma melatonin and...A phenomenological model for circadian and sleep allostatic modulation of plasma cortisol concentration David Thorsley,1 Rachel Leproult,2,3 Karine...2012 Thorsley D, Leproult R, Spiegel K, Reifman J. A phenomenological model for circadian and sleep allostatic modulation of plasma cortisol

  14. Nonlinear gyrokinetic equations

    SciTech Connect

    Dubin, D.H.E.; Krommes, J.A.; Oberman, C.; Lee, W.W.

    1983-03-01

    Nonlinear gyrokinetic equations are derived from a systematic Hamiltonian theory. The derivation employs Lie transforms and a noncanonical perturbation theory first used by Littlejohn for the simpler problem of asymptotically small gyroradius. For definiteness, we emphasize the limit of electrostatic fluctuations in slab geometry; however, there is a straight-forward generalization to arbitrary field geometry and electromagnetic perturbations. An energy invariant for the nonlinear system is derived, and various of its limits are considered. The weak turbulence theory of the equations is examined. In particular, the wave kinetic equation of Galeev and Sagdeev is derived from an asystematic truncation of the equations, implying that this equation fails to consider all gyrokinetic effects. The equations are simplified for the case of small but finite gyroradius and put in a form suitable for efficient computer simulation. Although it is possible to derive the Terry-Horton and Hasegawa-Mima equations as limiting cases of our theory, several new nonlinear terms absent from conventional theories appear and are discussed.

  15. The Effective Equation Method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuksin, Sergei; Maiocchi, Alberto

    In this chapter we present a general method of constructing the effective equation which describes the behavior of small-amplitude solutions for a nonlinear PDE in finite volume, provided that the linear part of the equation is a hamiltonian system with a pure imaginary discrete spectrum. The effective equation is obtained by retaining only the resonant terms of the nonlinearity (which may be hamiltonian, or may be not); the assertion that it describes the limiting behavior of small-amplitude solutions is a rigorous mathematical theorem. In particular, the method applies to the three- and four-wave systems. We demonstrate that different possible types of energy transport are covered by this method, depending on whether the set of resonances splits into finite clusters (this happens, e.g. in case of the Charney-Hasegawa-Mima equation), or is connected (this happens, e.g. in the case of the NLS equation if the space-dimension is at least two). For equations of the first type the energy transition to high frequencies does not hold, while for equations of the second type it may take place. Our method applies to various weakly nonlinear wave systems, appearing in plasma, meteorology and oceanography.

  16. The problem of arriving at a phenomenological description of memory loss.

    PubMed

    Moyle, W; Clinton, M

    1997-07-01

    This paper discusses a methodological difficulty that arose when uncovering the conscious experience of being nurtured as an in-patient with depression on a psychiatric ward. It considers the problem of arriving at a phenomenological description of memory loss in a patient who had undergone electroconvulsive therapy (ECT). The paper begins by describing the prevalence of depression and its significance for nurses working in in-patient settings. Examples of empirical research into memory loss in depression are used to show what researchers must set aside if they are to arrive at a phenomenological description of memory loss. The choice of a phenomenological approach to the wider study from which the methodological problem discussed here arose is then justified. The phenomena of memory is introduced to show the methodological significance of attempting to arrive at a phenomenological description of the statement made by one of the participants, a woman being treated as an in-patient for major depression. A possible description of the phenomena of memory loss based on the existential phenomenology of Sartre is offered to call into question the ability of researchers to bracket their assumptions. The significance for nurses of the wider study from which our example is taken is then described. Finally it is argued that despite the methodological difficulty described, a phenomenological perspective based on the philosophy of Husserl can point nurses in the direction of meeting the human needs of their patients.

  17. The Quadrature Master Equations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hassan, N. J.; Pourdarvish, A.; Sadeghi, J.; Olaomi, J. O.

    2017-04-01

    In this paper, we derive the non-Markovian stochastic equation of motion (SEM) and master equations (MEs) for the open quantum system by using the non-Markovian stochastic Schrödinger equations (SSEs) for the quadrature unraveling in linear and nonlinear cases. The SSEs for quadrature unraveling arise as a special case of a quantum system. Also we derive the Markovian SEM and ME by using linear and nonlinear Itô SSEs for the measurement probabilities. In linear non-Markovian case, we calculate the convolutionless linear quadrature non-Markovian SEM and ME. We take advantage from example and show that corresponding theory.

  18. Nonlinear ordinary difference equations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Caughey, T. K.

    1979-01-01

    Future space vehicles will be relatively large and flexible, and active control will be necessary to maintain geometrical configuration. While the stresses and strains in these space vehicles are not expected to be excessively large, their cumulative effects will cause significant geometrical nonlinearities to appear in the equations of motion, in addition to the nonlinearities caused by material properties. Since the only effective tool for the analysis of such large complex structures is the digital computer, it will be necessary to gain a better understanding of the nonlinear ordinary difference equations which result from the time discretization of the semidiscrete equations of motion for such structures.

  19. Dyson-Schwinger equations : a tool for hadron physics.

    SciTech Connect

    Maris, P.; Roberts, C. D.; Physics; North Carolina State Univ.

    2003-06-01

    Dyson-Schwinger equations furnish a Poincare covariant framework within which to study hadrons. A particular feature is the existence of a nonperturbative, symmetry preserving truncation that enables the proof of exact results. The gap equation reveals that dynamical chiral symmetry breaking is tied to the long-range behavior of the strong interaction, which is thereby constrained by observables, and the pion is precisely understood, and seen to exist simultaneously as a Goldstone mode and a bound state of strongly dressed quarks. The systematic error associated with the simplest truncation has been quantified, and it underpins a one-parameter model efficacious in describing an extensive body of mesonic phenomena. Incipient applications to baryons have brought successes and encountered challenges familiar from early studies of mesons, and promise a covariant field theory upon which to base an understanding of contemporary large momentum transfer data.

  20. MADANALYSIS 5, a user-friendly framework for collider phenomenology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Conte, Eric; Fuks, Benjamin; Serret, Guillaume

    2013-01-01

    We present MADANALYSIS 5, a new framework for phenomenological investigations at particle colliders. Based on a C++ kernel, this program allows us to efficiently perform, in a straightforward and user-friendly fashion, sophisticated physics analyses of event files such as those generated by a large class of Monte Carlo event generators. MADANALYSIS 5 comes with two modes of running. The first one, easier to handle, uses the strengths of a powerful PYTHON interface in order to implement physics analyses by means of a set of intuitive commands. The second one requires one to implement the analyses in the C++ programming language, directly within the core of the analysis framework. This opens unlimited possibilities concerning the level of complexity which can be reached, being only limited by the programming skills and the originality of the user. Program summaryProgram title: MadAnalysis 5 Catalogue identifier: AENO_v1_0 Program summary URL:http://cpc.cs.qub.ac.uk/summaries/AENO_v1_0.html Program obtainable from: CPC Program Library, Queen's University, Belfast, N. Ireland Licensing provisions: Permission to use, copy, modify and distribute this program is granted under the terms of the GNU General Public License. No. of lines in distributed program, including test data, etc.: 31087 No. of bytes in distributed program, including test data, etc.: 399105 Distribution format: tar.gz Programming language: PYTHON, C++. Computer: All platforms on which Python version 2.7, Root version 5.27 and the g++ compiler are available. Compatibility with newer versions of these programs is also ensured. However, the Python version must be below version 3.0. Operating system: Unix, Linux and Mac OS operating systems on which the above-mentioned versions of Python and Root, as well as g++, are available. Classification: 11.1. External routines: ROOT (http://root.cern.ch/drupal/) Nature of problem: Implementing sophisticated phenomenological analyses in high-energy physics through a