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Sample records for phenomenological one-parameter equation

  1. Meson and glueball masses from a one-parameter potential and a relativistic wave equation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lichtenberg, D. B.; Namgung, W.; Wills, J. G.

    1982-06-01

    A one-parameter quark-antiquark potential has been used in the Todorov relativistic wave equation to calculate the masses of heavy and light vector mesons. The effective quark masses turn out to be intermediate between the usual masses of current and constituent quarks. The same potential, multiplied by an appropriate color factor, is used to calculate a spectrum of glueball masses.

  2. One-parameter equation of state for metals and certain other solids.

    PubMed

    Libby, L M; Libby, W F

    1972-11-01

    A GENERAL ISOTHERMAL EQUATION OF STATE FOR METALS AND CERTAIN OTHER SOLIDS [FORMULA: see text] Where BT(0) is the bulk modulus at zero pressure, P is the pressure, and V(0) and V are the volumes at zero pressure and pressure P, respectively, has been discovered empirically. The fit to a straight line for twenty metals and twelve metallic halides is within a few percent mean deviation. The rationale leading to this particular relation is that of the Virial Theorem, as applied to those solids for which the potential energy scales as the mean inverse of the inter-atomic distance, and for which on compression the entropy change is small.

  3. One-parameter equation of state for metals and certain other solids.

    PubMed

    Libby, L M; Libby, W F

    1972-11-01

    A GENERAL ISOTHERMAL EQUATION OF STATE FOR METALS AND CERTAIN OTHER SOLIDS [FORMULA: see text] Where BT(0) is the bulk modulus at zero pressure, P is the pressure, and V(0) and V are the volumes at zero pressure and pressure P, respectively, has been discovered empirically. The fit to a straight line for twenty metals and twelve metallic halides is within a few percent mean deviation. The rationale leading to this particular relation is that of the Virial Theorem, as applied to those solids for which the potential energy scales as the mean inverse of the inter-atomic distance, and for which on compression the entropy change is small. PMID:16592026

  4. A one-parameter family of LAD methods for the steady-state Navier-Stokes equations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mittal, R. C.; Sharma, P. K.

    Numerical solutions for the square driven cavity flow problem have been obtained using the Laplacian-Driver Method. The Reynolds number of the driven cavity flow was in the range 1-500 for different values of Theta, the boundary condition parameter. The steps involved in the computational procedure are described, and computed values for primary vortex strength and vorticity at the vortex center are given in a table. On the basis of the numerical results, it is found that: (1) the LAD method developed here is more stable than the method developed by Roache (1975) for steady state Navier-Stokes equations; and (2), at small Reynolds numbers the behavior of CDC and CDD is the same, but for large Reynolds numbers (greater than 20), the accuracy and stability of CDD surpass those of CDC. Computed values for the size of the downstream secondary vortex confirmed the experimental results of Pan and Archivos (1966).

  5. Phenomenological Blasius-type friction equation for turbulent power-law fluid flows

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anbarlooei, H. R.; Cruz, D. O. A.; Ramos, F.; Silva Freire, A. P.

    2015-12-01

    We propose a friction formula for turbulent power-law fluid flows, a class of purely viscous non-Newtonian fluids commonly found in applications. Our model is derived through an extension of the friction factor analysis based on Kolmogorov's phenomenology, recently proposed by Gioia and Chakraborty. Tests against classical empirical data show excellent agreement over a significant range of Reynolds number. Limits of the model are also discussed.

  6. Phenomenological Blasius-type friction equation for turbulent power-law fluid flows.

    PubMed

    Anbarlooei, H R; Cruz, D O A; Ramos, F; Silva Freire, A P

    2015-12-01

    We propose a friction formula for turbulent power-law fluid flows, a class of purely viscous non-Newtonian fluids commonly found in applications. Our model is derived through an extension of the friction factor analysis based on Kolmogorov's phenomenology, recently proposed by Gioia and Chakraborty. Tests against classical empirical data show excellent agreement over a significant range of Reynolds number. Limits of the model are also discussed.

  7. One-parameter semigroups of analytic functions, fixed points and the Koenigs function

    SciTech Connect

    Goryainov, Victor V; Kudryavtseva, Olga S

    2011-07-31

    Analogues of the Berkson-Porta formula for the infinitesimal generator of a one-parameter semigroup of holomorphic maps of the unit disc into itself are obtained in the case when, along with a Denjoy-Wolff point, there also exist other fixed points. With each one-parameter semigroup a so-called Koenigs function is associated, which is a solution, common for all elements of the one-parameter semigroup, of a certain functional equation (Schroeder's equation in the case of an interior Denjoy-Wolff point and Abel's equation in the case of a boundary Denjoy-Wolff point). A parametric representation for classes of Koenigs functions that takes account of the Denjoy-Wolff point and other fixed points of the maps in the one-parameter semigroup is presented. Bibliography: 19 titles.

  8. Estimation Methods for One-Parameter Testlet Models

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jiao, Hong; Wang, Shudong; He, Wei

    2013-01-01

    This study demonstrated the equivalence between the Rasch testlet model and the three-level one-parameter testlet model and explored the Markov Chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) method for model parameter estimation in WINBUGS. The estimation accuracy from the MCMC method was compared with those from the marginalized maximum likelihood estimation (MMLE)…

  9. QCD phenomenology

    SciTech Connect

    Hess, Peter O.

    2006-09-25

    A review is presented on the contributions of Mexican Scientists to QCD phenomenology. These contributions range from Constituent Quark model's (CQM) with a fixed number of quarks (antiquarks) to those where the number of quarks is not conserved. Also glueball spectra were treated with phenomenological models. Several other approaches are mentioned.

  10. Lightning Phenomenology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kawasaki, Zen

    This paper presents a phenomenological idea about lightning flash to share the back ground understanding for this special issue. Lightning discharges are one of the terrible phenomena, and Benjamin Franklin has led this natural phenomenon to the stage of scientific investigation. Technical aspects like monitoring and location are also summarized in this article.

  11. TMD Phenomenology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anselmino, Mauro

    2016-06-01

    The transverse momentum dependent partonic distributions and fragmentation functions should reveal new properties of the three-dimensional structure of nucleons and of the quark hadronization process. Many experimental data are now available and much progress has been made in their phenomenological interpretation. A short summary of the situation is presented.

  12. Phenomenological models

    SciTech Connect

    Braby, L.A.

    1990-09-01

    The biological effects of ionizing radiation exposure are the result of a complex sequence of physical, chemical, biochemical, and physiological interactions. One way to begin a search for an understanding of health effects of radiation is through the development of phenomenological models of the response. Many models have been presented and tested in the slowly evolving process of characterizing cellular response. A range of models covering different endpoints and phenomena has developed in parallel. Many of these models employ similar assumptions about some underlying processes while differing about the nature of others. An attempt is made to organize many of the models into groups with similar features and to compare the consequences of those features with the actual experimental observations. It is assumed that by showing that some assumptions are inconsistent with experimental observations, the job of devising and testing mechanistic models can be simplified. 43 refs., 13 figs.

  13. Phenomenological models.

    PubMed

    Braby, L A

    1991-01-01

    The biological effects of ionizing radiation exposure are the result of a complex sequence of physical, chemical, biochemical, and physiological interactions which are modified by characteristics of the radiation, the timing of its administration, the chemical and physical environment, and the nature of the biological system. However, it is generally agreed that the health effects in animals originate from changes in individual cells, or possibly small groups of cells, and that these cellular changes are initiated by ionizations and excitations produced by the passage of charged particles through the cells. One way to begin a search for an understanding of health effects of radiation is through the development of phenomenological models of the response. Many models have been presented and tested in the slowly evolving process of characterizing cellular response. Different phenomena (LET dependence, dose rate effect, oxygen effect etc.) and different end points (cell survival, aberration formation, transformation, etc.) have been observed, and no single model has been developed to cover all of them. Instead, a range of models covering different end points and phenomena have developed in parallel. Many of these models employ similar assumptions about some underlying processes while differing about the nature of others. An attempt is made to organize many of the models into groups with similar features and to compare the consequences of those features with the actual experimental observations. It is assumed that by showing that some assumptions are inconsistent with experimental observations, the job of devising and testing mechanistic models can be simplified. PMID:1811477

  14. Phenomenological models.

    PubMed

    Braby, L A

    1991-01-01

    The biological effects of ionizing radiation exposure are the result of a complex sequence of physical, chemical, biochemical, and physiological interactions which are modified by characteristics of the radiation, the timing of its administration, the chemical and physical environment, and the nature of the biological system. However, it is generally agreed that the health effects in animals originate from changes in individual cells, or possibly small groups of cells, and that these cellular changes are initiated by ionizations and excitations produced by the passage of charged particles through the cells. One way to begin a search for an understanding of health effects of radiation is through the development of phenomenological models of the response. Many models have been presented and tested in the slowly evolving process of characterizing cellular response. Different phenomena (LET dependence, dose rate effect, oxygen effect etc.) and different end points (cell survival, aberration formation, transformation, etc.) have been observed, and no single model has been developed to cover all of them. Instead, a range of models covering different end points and phenomena have developed in parallel. Many of these models employ similar assumptions about some underlying processes while differing about the nature of others. An attempt is made to organize many of the models into groups with similar features and to compare the consequences of those features with the actual experimental observations. It is assumed that by showing that some assumptions are inconsistent with experimental observations, the job of devising and testing mechanistic models can be simplified.

  15. Transitions of the 3D medial axis under a one-parameter family of deformations.

    PubMed

    Giblin, Peter J; Kimia, Benjamin B; Pollitt, Anthony J

    2009-05-01

    The instabilities of the medial axis of a shape under deformations have long been recognized as a major obstacle to its use in recognition and other applications. These instabilities, or transitions, occur when the structure of the medial axis graph changes abruptly under deformations of shape. The recent classification of these transitions in 2D for the medial axis and for the shock graph was a key factor in the development of an object recognition system where the classified instabilities were utilized to represent deformation paths. The classification of generic transitions of the 3D medial axis could likewise potentially lead to a similar representation in 3D. In this paper, these transitions are classified by examining the order of contact of spheres with the surface, leading to an enumeration of possible transitions which are then examined on a case-by-case basis. Some cases are ruled out as never occurring in any family of deformations, while others are shown to be nongeneric in a one-parameter family of deformations. Finally, the remaining cases are shown to be viable by developing a specific example for each. Our work is inspired by that of Bogaevsky, who obtained the transitions as part of an investigation of viscosity solutions of Hamilton-Jacobi equations. Our contribution is to give a more down-to-earth approach, bringing this work to the attention of the computer vision community, and to provide explicit constructions for the various transitions using simple surfaces. We believe that the classification of these transitions is vital to the successful regularization of the medial axis in its use in real applications. PMID:19299863

  16. Nonlinear analysis of AS4/PEEK thermoplastic composite laminate using a one parameter plasticity model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sun, C. T.; Yoon, K. J.

    1990-01-01

    A one-parameter plasticity model was shown to adequately describe the orthotropic plastic deformation of AS4/PEEK (APC-2) unidirectional thermoplastic composite. This model was verified further for unidirectional and laminated composite panels with and without a hole. The nonlinear stress-strain relations were measured and compared with those predicted by the finite element analysis using the one-parameter elastic-plastic constitutive model. The results show that the one-parameter orthotropic plasticity model is suitable for the analysis of elastic-plastic deformation of AS4/PEEK composite laminates.

  17. Computerized Classification Testing under the One-Parameter Logistic Response Model with Ability-Based Guessing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wang, Wen-Chung; Huang, Sheng-Yun

    2011-01-01

    The one-parameter logistic model with ability-based guessing (1PL-AG) has been recently developed to account for effect of ability on guessing behavior in multiple-choice items. In this study, the authors developed algorithms for computerized classification testing under the 1PL-AG and conducted a series of simulations to evaluate their…

  18. Visual Criterion for Understanding the Notion of Convergence if Integrals in One Parameter

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alves, Francisco Regis Vieira

    2014-01-01

    Admittedly, the notion of generalized integrals in one parameter has a fundamental role. En virtue that, in this paper, we discuss and characterize an approach for to promote the visualization of this scientific mathematical concept. We still indicate the possibilities of graphical interpretation of formal properties related to notion of…

  19. Phenomenology and homeopathy.

    PubMed

    Whitmarsh, Tom

    2013-07-01

    There is a great overlap between the way of seeing the world in clinical homeopathy and in the technical philosophical system known as phenomenology. A knowledge of phenomenologic principles reveals Hahnemann to have been an unwitting phenomenologist. The ideas of phenomenology as applied to medicine show that homeopathy is the ideal medical system to fulfill the goals of coming ever closer to true patient concerns and experience of illness.

  20. Shifted one-parameter supersymmetric family of quartic asymmetric double-well potentials

    SciTech Connect

    Rosu, Haret C.; Mancas, Stefan C.; Chen, Pisin

    2014-10-15

    Extending our previous work (Rosu, 2014), we define supersymmetric partner potentials through a particular Riccati solution of the form F(x)=(x−c){sup 2}−1, where c is a real shift parameter, and work out the quartic double-well family of one-parameter isospectral potentials obtained by using the corresponding general Riccati solution. For these parametric double well potentials, we study how the localization properties of the two wells depend on the parameter of the potentials for various values of the shifting parameter. We also consider the supersymmetric parametric family of the first double-well potential in the Razavy chain of double well potentials corresponding to F(x)=1/2 sinh2x−2((1+√(2))sinh2x)/((1+√(2))cosh2x+1) , both unshifted and shifted, to test and compare the localization properties. - Highlights: • Quartic one-parameter DWs with an additional shift parameter are introduced. • Anomalous localization feature of their zero modes is confirmed at different shifts. • Razavy one-parameter DWs are also introduced and shown not to have this feature.

  1. Amedeo Giorgis Empirical Phenomenology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alexandersson, Claes

    In August 1979, Amedeo Giorgi presented a workshop on "Phenomenological Theory and Method" at the University of Goteborg (Sweden). This report describes that workshop. First, the major concepts of phenomenology are introduced (Intentionality, Description, Reduction, and Essence), followed by a brief description of Husserl's philosophical…

  2. One-parameter class of uncertainty relations based on entropy power.

    PubMed

    Jizba, Petr; Ma, Yue; Hayes, Anthony; Dunningham, Jacob A

    2016-06-01

    We use the concept of entropy power to derive a one-parameter class of information-theoretic uncertainty relations for pairs of conjugate observables in an infinite-dimensional Hilbert space. This class constitutes an infinite tower of higher-order statistics uncertainty relations, which allows one in principle to determine the shape of the underlying information-distribution function by measuring the relevant entropy powers. We illustrate the capability of this class by discussing two examples: superpositions of vacuum and squeezed states and the Cauchy-type heavy-tailed wave function. PMID:27415188

  3. One-parameter class of uncertainty relations based on entropy power

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jizba, Petr; Ma, Yue; Hayes, Anthony; Dunningham, Jacob A.

    2016-06-01

    We use the concept of entropy power to derive a one-parameter class of information-theoretic uncertainty relations for pairs of conjugate observables in an infinite-dimensional Hilbert space. This class constitutes an infinite tower of higher-order statistics uncertainty relations, which allows one in principle to determine the shape of the underlying information-distribution function by measuring the relevant entropy powers. We illustrate the capability of this class by discussing two examples: superpositions of vacuum and squeezed states and the Cauchy-type heavy-tailed wave function.

  4. One-parameter class of uncertainty relations based on entropy power.

    PubMed

    Jizba, Petr; Ma, Yue; Hayes, Anthony; Dunningham, Jacob A

    2016-06-01

    We use the concept of entropy power to derive a one-parameter class of information-theoretic uncertainty relations for pairs of conjugate observables in an infinite-dimensional Hilbert space. This class constitutes an infinite tower of higher-order statistics uncertainty relations, which allows one in principle to determine the shape of the underlying information-distribution function by measuring the relevant entropy powers. We illustrate the capability of this class by discussing two examples: superpositions of vacuum and squeezed states and the Cauchy-type heavy-tailed wave function.

  5. Resonant diphoton phenomenology simplified

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Panico, Giuliano; Vecchi, Luca; Wulzer, Andrea

    2016-06-01

    A framework is proposed to describe resonant diphoton phenomenology at hadron colliders in full generality. It can be employed for a comprehensive model-independent interpretation of the experimental data. Within the general framework, few benchmark scenarios are defined as representative of the various phenomenological options and/or of motivated new physics scenarios. Their usage is illustrated by performing a characterization of the 750 GeV excess, based on a recast of available experimental results.

  6. Caging planar bodies by one-parameter two-fingered gripping systems

    SciTech Connect

    Rimon, E.; Blake, A.

    1999-03-01

    This paper is concerned with a caging problem: the authors wish to surround an object B by a multifingered hand such that B has some freedom to move, but still cannot escape the cage formed by the fingers. The authors introduce a new notion of the caging set, which is based on the configuration-space representation of the free motions of the hand system with respect to the object. Using stratified Morse theory, they show that the hand`s configuration at which the cage is broken corresponds to a frictionless equilibrium grasp. This allows them to formulate a technique for computing the caging set of a two-fingered hand whose opening is controlled by a single parameter. The technique generalizes to one-parameter gripping systems having a higher number of fingers.

  7. Universality in Quantum Chaos and the One-Parameter Scaling Theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    García-García, Antonio M.; Wang, Jiao

    2008-02-01

    The one-parameter scaling theory is adapted to the context of quantum chaos. We define a generalized dimensionless conductance, g, semiclassically and then study Anderson localization corrections by renormalization group techniques. This analysis permits a characterization of the universality classes associated to a metal (g→∞), an insulator (g→0), and the metal-insulator transition (g→gc) in quantum chaos provided that the classical phase space is not mixed. According to our results the universality class related to the metallic limit includes all the systems in which the Bohigas-Giannoni-Schmit conjecture holds but automatically excludes those in which dynamical localization effects are important. The universality class related to the metal-insulator transition is characterized by classical superdiffusion or a fractal spectrum in low dimensions (d≤2). Several examples are discussed in detail.

  8. One-parameter families of supersymmetric isospectral potentials from Riccati solutions in function composition form

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rosu, Haret C.; Mancas, Stefan C.; Chen, Pisin

    2014-04-01

    In the context of supersymmetric quantum mechanics, we define a potential through a particular Riccati solution of the composition form (F∘f)(x)=F(f(x) and obtain a generalized Mielnik construction of one-parameter isospectral potentials when we use the general Riccati solution. Some examples for special cases of F and f are given to illustrate the method. An interesting result is obtained in the case of a parametric double well potential generated by this method, for which it is shown that the parameter of the potential controls the heights of the localization probability in the two wells, and for certain values of the parameter the height of the localization probability can be higher in the smaller well.

  9. On a one-parameter family of exotic superspaces in two dimensions

    SciTech Connect

    Guenaydin, M. )

    1991-11-20

    Using Jordan algebraic techniques we define and study a family of exotic superspaces in two dimensions with two bosonic and two fermionic coordinates. They are defined by the one-parameter family of Jordan superalgebras JD(2/2){sub {alpha}}. For two special values of {alpha} the JD(2/2){sub {alpha}} can be realized in terms of a single fermionic or a single bosonic oscillator, respectively. For other values of {alpha} it can be interpreted as defining an exotic oscillator algebra. The derivation, reduced structure and Mobius superalgebras of JD(2/2){sub {alpha}} are identified with the rotation, Lorentz and finite-dimensional conformal superalgebras of the corresponding superspaces. The conformal superalgebras turn out to be the superalgebras D(2,1; {alpha}) with the even subgroup SO(2, 2) {times} SU(2). This paper gives an explicit differential operator realization of the actions of D(2,1; {alpha}) on these superspaces.

  10. Learning Phenomenology with Heidegger: Experiencing the Phenomenological "Starting Point" as the Beginning of Phenomenological Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Quay, John

    2016-01-01

    Phenomenology has been with us for many years, and yet grasping phenomenology remains a difficult task. Heidegger, too, experienced this difficulty and devoted much of his teaching to the challenge of working phenomenologically. This article draws on aspects of Heidegger's commentary in progressing the teaching and learning of phenomenology,…

  11. A Priori Analyses of Three Subgrid-Scale Models for One-Parameter Families of Filters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pruett, C. David; Adams, Nikolaus A.

    1998-01-01

    The decay of isotropic turbulence a compressible flow is examined by direct numerical simulation (DNS). A priori analyses of the DNS data are then performed to evaluate three subgrid-scale (SGS) models for large-eddy simulation (LES): a generalized Smagorinsky model (M1), a stress-similarity model (M2), and a gradient model (M3). The models exploit one-parameter second- or fourth-order filters of Pade type, which permit the cutoff wavenumber k(sub c) to be tuned independently of the grid increment (delta)x. The modeled (M) and exact (E) SGS-stresses are compared component-wise by correlation coefficients of the form C(E,M) computed over the entire three-dimensional fields. In general, M1 correlates poorly against exact stresses (C < 0.2), M3 correlates moderately well (C approx. 0.6), and M2 correlates remarkably well (0.8 < C < 1.0). Specifically, correlations C(E, M2) are high provided the grid and test filters are of the same order. Moreover, the highest correlations (C approx.= 1.0) result whenever the grid and test filters are identical (in both order and cutoff). Finally, present results reveal the exact SGS stresses obtained by grid filters of differing orders to be only moderately well correlated. Thus, in LES the model should not be specified independently of the filter.

  12. Procedure for statistical analysis of one-parameter discrepant experimental data.

    PubMed

    Badikov, Sergey A; Chechev, Valery P

    2012-09-01

    A new, Mandel-Paule-type procedure for statistical processing of one-parameter discrepant experimental data is described. The procedure enables one to estimate a contribution of unrecognized experimental errors into the total experimental uncertainty as well as to include it in analysis. A definition of discrepant experimental data for an arbitrary number of measurements is introduced as an accompanying result. In the case of negligible unrecognized experimental errors, the procedure simply reduces to the calculation of the weighted average and its internal uncertainty. The procedure was applied to the statistical analysis of half-life experimental data; Mean half-lives for 20 actinides were calculated and results were compared to the ENSDF and DDEP evaluations. On the whole, the calculated half-lives are consistent with the ENSDF and DDEP evaluations. However, the uncertainties calculated in this work essentially exceed the ENSDF and DDEP evaluations for discrepant experimental data. This effect can be explained by adequately taking into account unrecognized experimental errors.

  13. Phenomenology and Connectionism

    PubMed Central

    Yoshimi, Jeff

    2011-01-01

    I show how the dynamics of consciousness can be formally derived from the “open dynamics” of neural activity, and develop a mathematical framework for neuro-phenomenological investigation. I describe the space of possible brain states, the space of possible conscious states, and a “supervenience function” linking them. I show how this framework can be used to associate phenomenological structures with neuro-computational structures, and vice-versa. I pay special attention to the relationship between (1) the relatively fast dynamics of consciousness and neural activity, and (2) the slower dynamics of knowledge update and brain development. PMID:22121354

  14. Phenomenology and connectionism.

    PubMed

    Yoshimi, Jeff

    2011-01-01

    I show how the dynamics of consciousness can be formally derived from the "open dynamics" of neural activity, and develop a mathematical framework for neuro-phenomenological investigation. I describe the space of possible brain states, the space of possible conscious states, and a "supervenience function" linking them. I show how this framework can be used to associate phenomenological structures with neuro-computational structures, and vice-versa. I pay special attention to the relationship between (1) the relatively fast dynamics of consciousness and neural activity, and (2) the slower dynamics of knowledge update and brain development.

  15. Testing for homogeneity in meta-analysis I. The one-parameter case: standardized mean difference.

    PubMed

    Kulinskaya, Elena; Dollinger, Michael B; Bjørkestøl, Kirsten

    2011-03-01

    Meta-analysis seeks to combine the results of several experiments in order to improve the accuracy of decisions. It is common to use a test for homogeneity to determine if the results of the several experiments are sufficiently similar to warrant their combination into an overall result. Cochran's Q statistic is frequently used for this homogeneity test. It is often assumed that Q follows a chi-square distribution under the null hypothesis of homogeneity, but it has long been known that this asymptotic distribution for Q is not accurate for moderate sample sizes. Here, we present an expansion for the mean of Q under the null hypothesis that is valid when the effect and the weight for each study depend on a single parameter, but for which neither normality nor independence of the effect and weight estimators is needed. This expansion represents an order O(1/n) correction to the usual chi-square moment in the one-parameter case. We apply the result to the homogeneity test for meta-analyses in which the effects are measured by the standardized mean difference (Cohen's d-statistic). In this situation, we recommend approximating the null distribution of Q by a chi-square distribution with fractional degrees of freedom that are estimated from the data using our expansion for the mean of Q. The resulting homogeneity test is substantially more accurate than the currently used test. We provide a program available at the Paper Information link at the Biometrics website http://www.biometrics.tibs.org for making the necessary calculations.

  16. Predictions in ungauged basins: Potential challenges and development of a one parameter model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hendrickx, J. M.; Ogden, F. L.; Pradhan, N. R.; Byrd, A.

    2009-12-01

    Meeting the demand for spatially-distributed model outputs such as soil moisture is a major challenge in distributed hydrological modeling. While physics-based distributed parameter hydrologic models surely have their place in water-quality and land-use change studies, the ungauged basin problem has eluded solution using this approach, which has necessitated examination of simpler model formulations. We tested the SEBAL/METRIC approach to develop the soil moisture state in a basin and used a distributed hydrological model which successfully predicted the continuity of the soil moisture state for a long time frame filling the gaps in the satellite timing. But a distributed hydrological model's calibration data demand can't be met in an ungauged basin. Thus this research develops a one-parameter model, 'OPM', of saturated source area dynamics and the spatial distribution of soil moisture. The single required parameter in 'OPM' is the maximum soil moisture deficit within the catchment. The scaling formulation allows the prediction of the dynamics of saturated source areas as a function of basin-wide soil moisture state. This model offers a number of potential advantages. Firstly, the model parameter is independent of topographic index distribution and its' associated scale effects. Secondly, it may be possible to measure this single parameter using field measurements or remote sensing for initialization while the model uses a simple sand box water balance model to update this initialized parameter. Finally, the fact that this maximum soil moisture deficit parameter is a physical characteristic of the basin, estimation of this parameter avoids regionalization and parameter transferability problems.

  17. The Phenomenology of Democracy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shaw, Robert

    2009-01-01

    Human beings originate votes, and democracy constitutes decisions. This is the essence of democracy. A phenomenological analysis of the vote and of the decision reveals for us the inherent strength of democracy and its deficiencies. Alexis de Tocqueville pioneered this form of enquiry into democracy and produced positive results from it.…

  18. Supersymmetry and Superstring Phenomenology

    SciTech Connect

    Gaillard, Mary K; Gaillard, Mary K.; Zumino, Bruno

    2008-05-05

    We briefly cover the early history of supersymmetry, describe the relation of SUSY quantum field theories to superstring theories and explain why they are considered a likely tool to describe the phenomenology of high energy particle theory beyond the Standard Model.

  19. Husserl, phenomenology and nursing.

    PubMed

    Paley, J

    1997-07-01

    Discussions of phenomenological research in nursing consistently appeal to either Husserl or Heidegger in justifying the technical and conceptual resources they deploy. This paper focuses on Husserl, and examines the relationship between his phenomenology and the accounts of it that are to be found in the nursing literature. Three central ideas are given particular attention: the phenomenological reduction, phenomena, and essence. It is argued that nurse researchers largely misunderstand these concepts and that, as a result, their version of Husserl's philosophy bears little resemblance to the original. A further consequence is that the project of identifying the 'essential structure' of a phenomenon, typically adopted by the nurse researchers who cite Husserl as an authority, comes close to being unintelligible. It is suggested that, while the methods used in 'phenomenological' nursing research may still have some legitimacy, they cannot achieve what they are alleged to achieve, and they should be detached from the framework of Husserlian ideas and terminology which is supposed to justify them.

  20. Elastic-plastic analysis of AS4/PEEK composite laminate using a one-parameter plasticity model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sun, C. T.; Yoon, K. J.

    1992-01-01

    A one-parameter plasticity model was shown to adequately describe the plastic deformation of AS4/PEEK (APC-2) unidirectional thermoplastic composite. This model was verified further for unidirectional and laminated composite panels with and without a hole. The elastic-plastic stress-strain relations of coupon specimens were measured and compared with those predicted by the finite element analysis using the one-parameter plasticity model. The results show that the one-parameter plasticity model is suitable for the analysis of elastic-plastic deformation of AS4/PEEK composite laminates.

  1. The Phenomenology of Pedagogic Observation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Van Manen, Max

    1979-01-01

    The intent of this paper is to begin a reflective discussion of the phenomenology of pedagogic observation. In doing this it borrows extensively from Beets and draws attention to one aspect of phenomenological method: the function of "example" in phenomenological inquiry. (Author/SJL)

  2. Paraphilias: phenomenology and classification.

    PubMed

    Money, J

    1984-04-01

    DSM-III incorrectly designates the majority of paraphilias as atypical. Only eight are named, and those because of their forensic history, rather than their pathology and therapeutic need. In this paper, thirty-odd paraphilias are subdivided into six categories on the basis of their phenomenological dynamics. The new concept of the developmental lovemap is introduced for the first time. A new treatment originated by the author in 1966 combines an androgen agonist with counseling therapy.

  3. Chameleons and Their Phenomenology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khoury, Justin

    2016-03-01

    If dark energy consists of a light scalar field, it might be detectable as a ``fifth force'' between ordinary-matter objects, in potential conflict with precision tests of gravity. Chameleon fields and other theories with screening mechanisms, however, can evade these tests by suppressing the forces in regions of high density, such as the laboratory. The manifestation of chameleons therefore depends sensitively on their environment, which in turn leads to striking experimental signatures. I will review chameleon field theories, their phenomenology, and recent experimental constraints using atom interferometry.

  4. Neutrinos: Theory and Phenomenology

    SciTech Connect

    Parke, Stephen

    2013-10-22

    The theory and phenomenology of neutrinos will be addressed, especially that relating to the observation of neutrino flavor transformations. The current status and implications for future experiments will be discussed with special emphasis on the experiments that will determine the neutrino mass ordering, the dominant flavor content of the neutrino mass eigenstate with the smallest electron neutrino content and the size of CP violation in the neutrino sector. Beyond the neutrino Standard Model, the evidence for and a possible definitive experiment to confirm or refute the existence of light sterile neutrinos will be briefly discussed.

  5. A method of phenomenological interviewing.

    PubMed

    Bevan, Mark T

    2014-01-01

    In this article I propose a method of interviewing for descriptive phenomenological research that offers an explicit, theoretically based approach for researchers. My approach enables application of descriptive phenomenology as a total method for research, and not one just focused on data analysis. This structured phenomenological approach to interviewing applies questions based on themes of experience contextualization, apprehending the phenomenon and its clarification. The method of questioning employs descriptive and structural questioning as well as novel use of imaginative variation to explore experience. The approach will help researchers understand how to undertake descriptive phenomenological research interviews.

  6. Phenomenology Depends on Human Nature

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reber, Rolf

    2006-01-01

    This paper comments on the article "Psychology and Phenomenology: A Clarification" by H. H. Kendler. Kendler contrasted objective phenomena going on in the mind with phenomenological convictions. He concluded, on the basis of a thoughtful analysis, that scientific psychology cannot validate moral principles, which have to be agreed upon by…

  7. Analytical and phenomenological studies of rotating turbulence

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mahalov, Alex; Zhou, YE

    1995-01-01

    A framework, which combines mathematical analysis, closure theory, and phenomenological treatment, is developed to study the spectral transfer process and reduction of dimensionality in turbulent flows that are subject to rotation. First, we outline a mathematical procedure that is particularly appropriate for problems with two disparate time scales. The approach which is based on the Green's method leads to the Poincare velocity variables and the Poincare transformation when applied to rotating turbulence. The effects of the rotation are now reflected in the modifications to the convolution of a nonlinear term. The Poincare transformed equations are used to obtain a time-dependent analog of the Taylor-Proudman theorem valid in the asymptotic limit when the non-dimensional parameter mu is identical to Omega(t) approaches infinity (Omega is the rotation rate and t is the time). The 'split' of the energy transfer in both direct and inverse directions is established. Secondly, we apply the Eddy-Damped-Quasinormal-Markovian (EDQNM) closure to the Poincare transformed Euler/Navier-Stokes equations. This closure leads to expressions for the spectral energy transfer. In particular, an unique triple velocity decorrelation time is derived with an explicit dependence on the rotation rate. This provides an important input for applying the phenomenological treatment of Zhou. In order to characterize the relative strength of rotation, another non-dimensional number, a spectral Rossby number, which is defined as the ratio of rotation and turbulence time scales, is introduced. Finally, the energy spectrum and the spectral eddy viscosity are deduced.

  8. [Phenomenology of dreams].

    PubMed

    Pringuey, Dominique

    2011-10-01

    A phenomenology of dreams searches for meaning, with the aim not only of explaining but also of understanding the experience. What and who is it for? And what about the nearly forgotten dream among the moderns, the banal returning to the nightmare, sleepiness, or dreamlike reverie. Nostalgia for the dream, where we saw a very early state of light, not a ordinaire qu duel. Regret for the dreamlike splendor exceeded by the modeling power of modern aesthetics--film and the explosion of virtual imaging technologies. Disappointment at the discovery of a cognitive permanence throughout sleep and a unique fit with the real upon awaking? An excess of methodological rigor where we validate the logic of the dream, correlating the clinical improvement in psychotherapy and the ability to interpret one's own dreams. The dangerous psychological access when the dream primarily is mine, viewed as a veiled expression of an unspoken desire, or when the dream reveals to me, in an existential conception of man, through time and space, my daily life, my freedom beyond my needs. Might its ultimate sense also mean its abolition? From the story of a famous forgotten dream, based on unexpected scientific data emerges the question: do we dream to forget? The main thing would not be consciousness but confidence, when " the sleeping man, his regard extinguished, dead to himself seizes the light in the night " (Heraclitus).

  9. [Phenomenology of dreams].

    PubMed

    Pringuey, Dominique

    2011-10-01

    A phenomenology of dreams searches for meaning, with the aim not only of explaining but also of understanding the experience. What and who is it for? And what about the nearly forgotten dream among the moderns, the banal returning to the nightmare, sleepiness, or dreamlike reverie. Nostalgia for the dream, where we saw a very early state of light, not a ordinaire qu duel. Regret for the dreamlike splendor exceeded by the modeling power of modern aesthetics--film and the explosion of virtual imaging technologies. Disappointment at the discovery of a cognitive permanence throughout sleep and a unique fit with the real upon awaking? An excess of methodological rigor where we validate the logic of the dream, correlating the clinical improvement in psychotherapy and the ability to interpret one's own dreams. The dangerous psychological access when the dream primarily is mine, viewed as a veiled expression of an unspoken desire, or when the dream reveals to me, in an existential conception of man, through time and space, my daily life, my freedom beyond my needs. Might its ultimate sense also mean its abolition? From the story of a famous forgotten dream, based on unexpected scientific data emerges the question: do we dream to forget? The main thing would not be consciousness but confidence, when " the sleeping man, his regard extinguished, dead to himself seizes the light in the night " (Heraclitus). PMID:22812163

  10. Fitting the phenomenological MSSM

    SciTech Connect

    AbdusSalam, Shehu S.; Allanach, Benjamin C.; Quevedo, Fernando; Feroz, Farhan; Hobson, Mike

    2010-05-01

    We perform a global Bayesian fit of the phenomenological minimal supersymmetric standard model (pMSSM) to current indirect collider and dark matter data. The pMSSM contains the most relevant 25 weak-scale MSSM parameters, which are simultaneously fit using 'nested sampling' Monte Carlo techniques in more than 15 years of CPU time. We calculate the Bayesian evidence for the pMSSM and constrain its parameters and observables in the context of two widely different, but reasonable, priors to determine which inferences are robust. We make inferences about sparticle masses, the sign of the {mu} parameter, the amount of fine-tuning, dark matter properties, and the prospects for direct dark matter detection without assuming a restrictive high-scale supersymmetry breaking model. We find the inferred lightest CP-even Higgs boson mass as an example of an approximately prior-independent observable. This analysis constitutes the first statistically convergent pMSSM global fit to all current data.

  11. Southern Ocean eddy phenomenology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frenger, I.; Münnich, M.; Gruber, N.; Knutti, R.

    2015-11-01

    Mesoscale eddies are ubiquitous features in the Southern Ocean, yet their phenomenology is not well quantified. To tackle this task, we use satellite observations of sea level anomalies and sea surface temperature (SST) as well as in situ temperature and salinity measurements from profiling floats. Over the period 1997-2010, we identified over a million mesoscale eddy instances and were able to track about 105 of them over 1 month or more. The Antarctic Circumpolar Current (ACC), the boundary current systems, and the regions where they interact are hot spots of eddy presence, representing also the birth places and graveyards of most eddies. These hot spots contrast strongly to areas shallower than about 2000 m, where mesoscale eddies are essentially absent, likely due to topographical steering. Anticyclones tend to dominate the southern subtropical gyres, and cyclones the northern flank of the ACC. Major causes of regional polarity dominance are larger formation numbers and lifespans, with a contribution of differential propagation pathways of long-lived eddies. Areas of dominance of one polarity are generally congruent with the same polarity being longer-lived, bigger, of larger amplitude, and more intense. Eddies extend down to at least 2000 m. In the ACC, eddies show near surface temperature and salinity maxima, whereas eddies in the subtropical areas generally have deeper anomaly maxima, presumably inherited from their origin in the boundary currents. The temperature and salinity signatures of the average eddy suggest that their tracer anomalies are a result of both trapping in the eddy core and stirring.

  12. Phenomenological consequences of supersymmetry

    SciTech Connect

    Hinchliffe, I.; Littenberg, L.

    1982-01-01

    This report deals with the phenomenological consequences of supersymmetric theories, and with the implications of such theories for future high energy machines. It is concerned only with high energy predictions of supersymmetry; low energy consequences (for example in the K/sub o/anti K/sub o/ system) are discussed in the context of future experiments by another group, and will be mentioned briefly only in the context of constraining existing models. However a brief section is included on the implication for proton decay, although detailed experimental questions are not discussed. The report is organized as follows. Section I consists of a brief review of supersymmetry and the salient features of existing supersymmetric models; this section can be ignored by those familiar with such models since it contains nothing new. Section 2 deals with the consequences for nucleon decay of SUSY. The remaining sections then discuss the physics possibilities of various machines; e anti e in Section 3, ep in Section 4, pp (or anti pp) colliders in Section 5 and fixed target hadron machines in Section 6.

  13. Phenomenology beyond the standard model

    SciTech Connect

    Lykken, Joseph D.; /Fermilab

    2005-03-01

    An elementary review of models and phenomenology for physics beyond the Standard Model (excluding supersymmetry). The emphasis is on LHC physics. Based upon a talk given at the ''Physics at LHC'' conference, Vienna, 13-17 July 2004.

  14. Unparticle Phenomenology - A Mini Review

    SciTech Connect

    Cheung Kingman; Keung, W.-Y.; Yuan, T.-C.

    2008-11-23

    We review some collider phenomenology of unparticle physics, including real emissions and virtual exchanges of unparticle. Existing experimental constraints from collider physics as well as astrophysics are briefly discussed.

  15. Localized phenomenology: A recurrent debate.

    PubMed

    Shanahan, Murray

    2010-09-01

    Abstract The neuroscience carried out by Lamme and colleagues is fascinating and important. But his case for localised phenomenology rests on a flawed understanding of rival theories and a misguided view of introspective report. PMID:24168343

  16. Phenomenological Mechanochemical of Damage and Radial Cracking in Brittle Substances

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grinfeld, Michael

    2015-06-01

    Basic principles of Phenomenological Mechanochemistry of Damage (PMD) have been formulated in Grinfeld and Wright (2002, 2004.) To some extent, it is a natural extension of the traditional damage theory, presented by Kachanov (1976.) Contrary to Kachanov's approach, the PMD theory includes, in addition to the bulk elastic energy, the energy associated with braking/recovery of chemical bonds. Therefore, in addition to the elasticity equations it includes the equation, describing evolution/dynamics of chemical bonds. Although ``chemical bonds'' is a nano-scale concept, we treat the bonds using phenomenological approach. The additional equation of damage evolution is of the rate type, thus, making the whole model rate-dependent (even in quasi-static approach.) In the paper, we review some earlier results and present the novel ones with emphasis on the rate-dependent effects.

  17. A methodology for determining interactions in probabilistic safety assessment models by varying one parameter at a time.

    PubMed

    Borgonovo, Emanuele

    2010-03-01

    In risk analysis problems, the decision-making process is supported by the utilization of quantitative models. Assessing the relevance of interactions is an essential information in the interpretation of model results. By such knowledge, analysts and decisionmakers are able to understand whether risk is apportioned by individual factor contributions or by their joint action. However, models are oftentimes large, requiring a high number of input parameters, and complex, with individual model runs being time consuming. Computational complexity leads analysts to utilize one-parameter-at-a-time sensitivity methods, which prevent one from assessing interactions. In this work, we illustrate a methodology to quantify interactions in probabilistic safety assessment (PSA) models by varying one parameter at a time. The method is based on a property of the functional ANOVA decomposition of a finite change that allows to exactly determine the relevance of factors when considered individually or together with their interactions with all other factors. A set of test cases illustrates the technique. We apply the methodology to the analysis of the core damage frequency of the large loss of coolant accident of a nuclear reactor. Numerical results reveal the nonadditive model structure, allow to quantify the relevance of interactions, and to identify the direction of change (increase or decrease in risk) implied by individual factor variations and by their cooperation.

  18. Entwined paths, difference equations, and the Dirac equation

    SciTech Connect

    Ord, G.N.; Mann, R.B.

    2003-02-01

    Entwined space-time paths are bound pairs of trajectories which are traversed in opposite directions with respect to macroscopic time. In this paper, we show that ensembles of entwined paths on a discrete space-time lattice are simply described by coupled difference equations which are discrete versions of the Dirac equation. There is no analytic continuation, explicit or forced, involved in this description. The entwined paths are ''self-quantizing.'' We also show that simple classical stochastic processes that generate the difference equations as ensemble averages are stable numerically and converge at a rate governed by the details of the stochastic process. This result establishes the Dirac equation in one dimension as a phenomenological equation describing an underlying classical stochastic process, in the same sense that the diffusion and telegraph equations are phenomenological descriptions of stochastic processes.

  19. A Phenomenological Theory of Muscular Contraction

    PubMed Central

    Bornhorst, W. J.; Minardi, J. E.

    1970-01-01

    A phenomenological theory for contracting muscle based on irreversible thermodynamics and the sliding filament theory is developed. The individual cross bridges, considered as subunits, are viewed as linear energy converters with constant transport coefficients. With this view of the subunits, phenomenological equations applicable to the whole muscle are obtained. The transport coefficients are shown to be a function of a single parameter which is the number of activated cross bridges at any instant. By requiring Hill's force-velocity relation (1) to be satisfied, the response of the muscle is related to the number of activated cross bridges. The resulting theory differs significantly from the theory developed by Caplan (2) and a comparison of the theories is presented. The theory is shown to correlate well with the heat data of Woledge (3) for a tortoise muscle and gives a value of Y (ratio of chemical affinity to enthalpy of reaction) equal to 0.945. The comparison of the theory with Hill's frog muscle data (1) and (4) is also encouraging. In part II of this series, length variations are considered and the resulting theoretical predictions are shown to be consistent with experimental data. PMID:5461140

  20. Quantum Gravity and Phenomenological Philosophy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rosen, Steven M.

    2008-06-01

    The central thesis of this paper is that contemporary theoretical physics is grounded in philosophical presuppositions that make it difficult to effectively address the problems of subject-object interaction and discontinuity inherent to quantum gravity. The core objectivist assumption implicit in relativity theory and quantum mechanics is uncovered and we see that, in string theory, this assumption leads into contradiction. To address this challenge, a new philosophical foundation is proposed based on the phenomenology of Maurice Merleau-Ponty and Martin Heidegger. Then, through the application of qualitative topology and hypernumbers, phenomenological ideas about space, time, and dimension are brought into focus so as to provide specific solutions to the problems of force-field generation and unification. The phenomenological string theory that results speaks to the inconclusiveness of conventional string theory and resolves its core contradiction.

  1. A guide to phenomenological research.

    PubMed

    Wilson, Anthea

    2015-04-22

    Phenomenological research is a method with strong philosophical origins, which can sometimes be challenging for novice investigators. However, developing an appreciation of these philosophical origins can enhance and strengthen the research design. A fundamental challenge is to understand the range of philosophical and empirical approaches to situate one's own research. Such phenomenological approaches are often characterised and differentiated by the degree to which it is accepted that an investigator can achieve objective descriptions of, or interpret, lived experience. This article explains these issues, relating the philosophy to the research practicalities. PMID:25902251

  2. Phenomenological approach to mechanical damage growth analysis.

    PubMed

    Pugno, Nicola; Bosia, Federico; Gliozzi, Antonio S; Delsanto, Pier Paolo; Carpinteri, Alberto

    2008-10-01

    The problem of characterizing damage evolution in a generic material is addressed with the aim of tracing it back to existing growth models in other fields of research. Based on energetic considerations, a system evolution equation is derived for a generic damage indicator describing a material system subjected to an increasing external stress. The latter is found to fit into the framework of a recently developed phenomenological universality (PUN) approach and, more specifically, the so-called U2 class. Analytical results are confirmed by numerical simulations based on a fiber-bundle model and statistically assigned local strengths at the microscale. The fits with numerical data prove, with an excellent degree of reliability, that the typical evolution of the damage indicator belongs to the aforementioned PUN class. Applications of this result are briefly discussed and suggested. PMID:18999489

  3. A method for phenomenological analysis of ecological data.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Huang, H.-W.; Morowitz, H. J.

    1972-01-01

    The experimental meaning of the phenomenological differential equations for a competing population is reviewed. It is concluded that it is virtually impossible to construct the differential equations precise enough for studying stability. We consider instead a method of phenomenological analysis which can be applied to a set of population curves. We suggest an ecological index calculated from the population curves, which indicates a group property of the entire system. As a function of time, the index is presumably insensitive to Volterra type fluctuations. A marked increase of the index's value however indicates a marked change of the environmental conditions. It is not easy to deduce the group property from the population curves alone, because a change in population is in general due to the superposition of external disturbances and Volterra fluctuations.

  4. Phenomenological Classification of Depressive Disorders.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Overall, John E.; Hollister, Leo E.

    1980-01-01

    Empirical cluster analysis methods have been the basis for development of a phenomenological classification of depressive disorders. Verbal descriptions of the distinguishing features of anxious, hostile, agitated, and retarded subtypes of depression are provided to facilitate development of clinical classification concepts. A review of validity…

  5. Phenomenological Characteristics of College Dropouts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Waters Zelbovitz, Karyn T.

    2013-01-01

    This mixed methods study was designed to explore why students leave college before graduation and draws upon their phenomenological insights, educational experiences, and readmission reflections. This study used a convergent parallel design that matched the qualitative content from interviews and quantitative responses to questionnaires to…

  6. A Phenomenological Perspective on Communication.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schrag, Calvin O.

    Phenomenology, a constantly renewed effort to see the world in a nonreductive and originative way, is useful in bringing about radical reflection on the phenomenon of communication as a human science. A human science is both a scientific and a humanistic endeavor; it is necessary to return to the phenomena under investigation and to permit them to…

  7. Naturalizing phenomenology - A philosophical imperative.

    PubMed

    Harney, Maurita

    2015-12-01

    Phenomenology since Husserl has always had a problematic relationship with empirical science. In its early articulations, there was Husserl's rejection of 'the scientific attitude', Merleau-Ponty's distancing of the scientifically-objectified self, and Heidegger's critique of modern science. These suggest an antipathy to science and to its methods of explaining the natural world. Recent developments in neuroscience have opened new opportunities for an engagement between phenomenology and cognitive science and through this, a re-thinking of science and its hidden assumptions more generally. This is so partly because of the shortcomings of conventional mechanistically-conceived science in dealing with complex and dynamic phenomena such as climate change, brain plasticity, the behaviour of collectives, the dynamics of various microbiological processes, etc. But it is also due to recent phenomenological scholarship focussed on the 'embodied' phenomenology of Husserl's Ideen II and Merleau Ponty's later ontology of nature which have helped to extend the insights of phenomenology beyond the narrowly 'human' to an understanding of nature (which includes the human) more generally. Thus re-contextualised, phenomenology is well placed to examine some of the assumptions that give rise to the reductionism and associated scientism which has characterised conventional science in its approach to the study of natural processes. In light of this, it might be suggested that the 'anti-science' of early articulations of phenomenology is more a hostility to the underlying assumptions of science as conventionally understood than to science itself - that it is scientism rather than science that is targeted. In this paper, I aim to show how a phenomenological naturalism might be seen as a necessary step towards the development of a non-reductionist and non-scientistic approach to scientific inquiry. A key to this is a reconceptualization of nature as inclusive of meanings and of mind. It

  8. Naturalizing phenomenology - A philosophical imperative.

    PubMed

    Harney, Maurita

    2015-12-01

    Phenomenology since Husserl has always had a problematic relationship with empirical science. In its early articulations, there was Husserl's rejection of 'the scientific attitude', Merleau-Ponty's distancing of the scientifically-objectified self, and Heidegger's critique of modern science. These suggest an antipathy to science and to its methods of explaining the natural world. Recent developments in neuroscience have opened new opportunities for an engagement between phenomenology and cognitive science and through this, a re-thinking of science and its hidden assumptions more generally. This is so partly because of the shortcomings of conventional mechanistically-conceived science in dealing with complex and dynamic phenomena such as climate change, brain plasticity, the behaviour of collectives, the dynamics of various microbiological processes, etc. But it is also due to recent phenomenological scholarship focussed on the 'embodied' phenomenology of Husserl's Ideen II and Merleau Ponty's later ontology of nature which have helped to extend the insights of phenomenology beyond the narrowly 'human' to an understanding of nature (which includes the human) more generally. Thus re-contextualised, phenomenology is well placed to examine some of the assumptions that give rise to the reductionism and associated scientism which has characterised conventional science in its approach to the study of natural processes. In light of this, it might be suggested that the 'anti-science' of early articulations of phenomenology is more a hostility to the underlying assumptions of science as conventionally understood than to science itself - that it is scientism rather than science that is targeted. In this paper, I aim to show how a phenomenological naturalism might be seen as a necessary step towards the development of a non-reductionist and non-scientistic approach to scientific inquiry. A key to this is a reconceptualization of nature as inclusive of meanings and of mind. It

  9. Theory and phenomenology of sparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Drees, M.; Godbole, Rohini M.; Roy, Probir

    the MSSM -- ch. 9. Soft supersymmetry breaking in the MSSM. 9.1. The content of [symbol]SOFT. 9.2. Electroweak gauginos and higgsinos. 9.3. Chargino and neutralino interactions with gauge bosons. 9.4. Masses and mixing patterns of sfermions. 9.5. The flavor problem in supersymmetry. 9.6. Interactions of sfermions with gauge bosons. 9.7. Fermion-sfermion-gaugino/higgsino interactions. 9.8. Quartic sfermion vertices -- ch. 10. Higgs bosons in the MSSM. 10.1. Higgs potential in the MSSM. 10.2. Spontaneous breakdown and VEVs. 10.3. Higgs masses at the tree level. 10.4. Higgs-particle vertices. 10.5. Higgs-sparticle vertices. 10.6. Radiative effects on MSSM Higgs particles -- ch. 11. Evolution from very high energies. 11.1. The need for a high scale. 11.2. The running of gauge couplings in the SM and the MSSM. 11.3. Derivation of the remaining RGE equations. 11.4. Application to the MSSM -- ch. 12. Gravity mediated supersymmetry breaking. 12.1. General remarks. 12.2. N=l supergravity broken in the hidden sector. 12.3. mSUGRA and its parameters. 12.4. Phenomenology with mSUGRA. 12.5. Beyond mSUGRA. 12.6. Quantum effects and extra dimensions. 12.7. Annex to Ch.12: A brief discussion of N=1 supergravity theory -- ch. 13. Gauge mediated supersymmetry breaking. 13.1. The basic ingredients. 13.2. The minimal model mGMSB. 13.3. Nonminimal messenger sector. 13.4. The [symbol] and B[symbol] problems. 13.5. Direct messenger-matter coupling. 13.6. Flavor symmetries for the GMSB scenario -- ch. 14. Beyond the MSSM. 14.1. Motivation and outline. 14.2. The next-to-the-minimal supersymmetric standard model. 14.3. Introduction to imparity violation. 14.4. Phenomenological limits on trilinear [symbol] couplings. 14.5. Bilinear [symbol] violation. 14.6. Neutrino masses in supersymmetric theories -- ch. 15. Supersymmetry at colliders. 15.1. Introduction. 15.2. Signals of charginos and neutralinos. 15.3. Signals of sleptons. 15.4. Signals of gluinos and squarks. 15.5. The quest for

  10. Phenomenological Modeling for Langmuir Monolayers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baptiste, Dimitri; Kelly, David; Safford, Twymun; Prayaga, Chandra; Varney, Christopher N.; Wade, Aaron

    Experimentally, Langmuir monolayers have applications in molecular optical, electronic, and sensor devices. Traditionally, Langmuir monolayers are described by a rigid rod model where the rods interact via a Leonard-Jones potential. Here, we propose effective phenomenological models and utilize Monte Carlo simulations to analyze the phase behavior and compare with experimental isotherms. Research reported in this abstract was supported by UWF NIH MARC U-STAR 1T34GM110517-01.

  11. Astrophysical Phenomenology and the MRI: Progress, Challenges, and Laboratory Connections

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blackman, Eric

    2010-05-01

    The MRI shows excellent promise as a mechanism for generating turbulence with properties needed to transport angular momentum in sufficiently ionized accretion engines. However, it remains a long-term challenge to incorporate what is learned from the MRI into robust practical improvements to current mean field spectral and phenomenological models of accretion engines. We do not understand disk phenomenology nearly as well as stellar phenomenology. In this respect, I discuss how the study of accretion disk theory currently parallels that of mean field dynamo theory, the 21st century version of which has found success through a symbiosis of analytic modeling and numerical simulations. In fact, the two theories are actually complementary components of what should be a unified theory: mean field dynamos prioritize the induction equation whereas mean field accretion theory prioritize the momentum equation. Indeed, much of what has yet to be understood in the application of the MRI to realistic systems is its role in the generation of dynamically significant large-scale fields, which in turn can power coronae and jets. Finally, I discuss how our understanding of the interplay between disks, coronae, and jets may benefit from laboratory plasma studies.

  12. "big" Divisor D3/D7 Swiss-Cheese Phenomenology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Misra, Aalok

    We review progress made over the past couple of years in the field of Swiss-Cheese Phenomenology involving a mobile spacetime filling D3-brane and stack(s) of fluxed D7-branes wrapping the "big" (as opposed to the "small") divisor in (the orientifold of (a) Swiss-Cheese Calabi-Yau. The topics reviewed include reconciliation of large volume cosmology and phenomenology, evaluation of soft supersymmetry breaking parameters, one-loop RG-flow equations' solutions for scalar masses, obtaining fermionic (possibly first two generations' quarks/leptons) mass scales in the {O}(MeV--GeV)-regime as well as (first two generations') neutrino masses (and their one-loop RG flow) of around an eV. The heavy sparticles and the light fermions indicate the possibility of "split SUSY" large volume scenario.

  13. Inferring phenomenological models of Markov processes from data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rivera, Catalina; Nemenman, Ilya

    Microscopically accurate modeling of stochastic dynamics of biochemical networks is hard due to the extremely high dimensionality of the state space of such networks. Here we propose an algorithm for inference of phenomenological, coarse-grained models of Markov processes describing the network dynamics directly from data, without the intermediate step of microscopically accurate modeling. The approach relies on the linear nature of the Chemical Master Equation and uses Bayesian Model Selection for identification of parsimonious models that fit the data. When applied to synthetic data from the Kinetic Proofreading process (KPR), a common mechanism used by cells for increasing specificity of molecular assembly, the algorithm successfully uncovers the known coarse-grained description of the process. This phenomenological description has been notice previously, but this time it is derived in an automated manner by the algorithm. James S. McDonnell Foundation Grant No. 220020321.

  14. SOURCE PHENOMENOLOGY EXPERIMENTS IN ARIZONA

    SciTech Connect

    Jessie L. Bonner; Brian Stump; Mark Leidig; Heather Hooper; Xiaoning Yang; Rongmao Zhou; Tae Sung Kim; William R. Walter; Aaron Velasco; Chris Hayward; Diane Baker; C. L. Edwards; Steven Harder; Travis Glenn; Cleat Zeiler; James Britton; James F. Lewkowicz

    2005-09-30

    The Arizona Source Phenomenology Experiments (SPE) have resulted in an important dataset for the nuclear monitoring community. The 19 dedicated single-fired explosions and multiple delay-fired mining explosions were recorded by one of the most densely instrumented accelerometer and seismometer arrays ever fielded, and the data have already proven useful in quantifying confinement and excitation effects for the sources. It is very interesting to note that we have observed differences in the phenomenology of these two series of explosions resulting from the differences between the relatively slow (limestone) and fast (granodiorite) media. We observed differences at the two SPE sites in the way the rock failed during the explosions, how the S-waves were generated, and the amplitude behavior as a function of confinement. Our consortium's goal is to use the synergy of the multiple datasets collected during this experiment to unravel the phenomenological differences between the two emplacement media. The data suggest that the main difference between single-fired chemical and delay-fired mining explosion seismograms at regional distances is the increased surface wave energy for the latter source type. The effect of the delay-firing is to decrease the high-frequency P-wave amplitudes while increasing the surface wave energy because of the longer source duration and spall components. The results suggest that the single-fired explosions are surrogates for nuclear explosions in higher frequency bands (e.g., 6-8 Hz Pg/Lg discriminants). We have shown that the SPE shots, together with the mining explosions, are efficient sources of S-wave energy, and our next research stage is to postulate the possible sources contributing to the shear-wave energy.

  15. FLIC Fermions and Hadron Phenomenology

    SciTech Connect

    D. Leinweber; J.N. Hedditch; W. Melnitchouk; A.W. Thomas; A.G. Williams; R.D. Young; J.M. Zanotti; J.B. Zhang

    2002-06-01

    A pedagogical overview of the formulation of the Fat Link Irrelevant Clover (FLIC) fermion action and its associated phenomenology is described. The scaling analysis indicates FLIC fermions provide a new form of nonperturbative order (a) improvement where near-continuum results are obtained at finite lattice spacing. Spin-1/2 and spin-3/2, even and odd parity baryon resonances are investigated in quenched QCD, where the nature of the Roper resonance and Lambda (1405) are of particular interest. FLIC fermions allow efficient access to the light quark-mass regime, where evidence of chiral nonanalytic behavior in the Delta mass is observed.

  16. Z' Phenomenology and the LHC

    SciTech Connect

    Rizzo, Thomas G.

    2006-10-17

    A brief pedagogical overview of the phenomenology of Z{prime} gauge bosons is ILC in determining Z{prime} properties is also discussed. and explore in detail how the LHC may discover and help elucidate the models, review the current constraints on the possible properties of a Z{prime} nature of these new particles. We provide an overview of the Z{prime} studies presented. Such particles can arise in various electroweak extensions of that have been performed by both ATLAS and CMS. The role of the the Standard Model (SM). We provide a quick survey of a number of Z{prime}.

  17. Phenomenological implementations of TMD evolution

    SciTech Connect

    Boglione, Mariaelena; Gonzalez Hernandez, Jose Osvaldo; Melis, Stefano; Prokudin, Alexey

    2015-03-01

    Although the theoretical set-up of TMD evolution appears to be well established, its phenomenological implementations still require special attention, particularly as far as the interplay between perturbative and non-perturbative contributions is concerned. These issues have been extensively studied in Drell-Yan processes, where they seem to be reasonably under control. Instead, applying the same prescriptions and methodologies to Semi-Inclusive Deep Inelastic (SIDIS) processes is, at present, far from obvious. Some of the controversies related to the applications of TMD Evolution to SIDIS processes will be discussed with practical examples, exploring different kinematical configurations of SIDIS experiments.

  18. Quantum corrected spherical collapse: A phenomenological framework

    SciTech Connect

    Ziprick, Jonathan; Kunstatter, Gabor

    2010-08-15

    A phenomenological framework is presented for incorporating quantum gravity motivated corrections into the dynamics of spherically symmetric collapse. The effective equations are derived from a variational principle that guarantees energy conservation and the existence of a Birkhoff theorem. The gravitational potential can be chosen as a function of the areal radius to yield specific nonsingular static spherically symmetric solutions that generically have two horizons. For a specific choice of potential, the effective stress energy tensor violates only the dominant energy condition. The violations are maximum near the inner horizon and die off rapidly. A numerical study of the quantum corrected collapse of a spherically symmetric scalar field in this case reveals that the modified gravitational potential prevents the formation of a central singularity and ultimately yields a static, mostly vacuum, spacetime with two horizons. The matter 'piles up' on the inner horizon giving rise to mass inflation at late times. The Cauchy horizon is transformed into a null, weak singularity, but in contrast to Einstein gravity, the absence of a central singularity renders this null singularity stable.

  19. Teleology as Logical Phenomenology: Some Therapeutic Implications.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rychlak, Joseph F.

    Phenomenology is an important force in the development of psychological theory, rather than a variant type of counseling method. A distinction must be drawn between the sensory phenomenology in which gestaltists focus on sensory receptors, and logical pheomenology in which the grounding of belief or self-identity is viewed as a prediction or…

  20. Hamiltonian and phenomenological models of microemulsions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Widom, B.; Dawson, K. A.; Lipkin, M. D.

    1986-12-01

    We review briefly a phenomenological microemulsion model, its phase diagram, and its interfacial tensions. We then describe a lattice model of a microemulsion, based on a prescribed Hamiltonian equivalent to that of an Ising model with competing nearest- and further-neighbor interactions. Its phase diagram and interfacial tensions are compared with those in the phenomenological model.

  1. Developing Phenomenological Method for Researching Lesbian Existence.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hunnisett, Rowena J.

    1986-01-01

    Argues a complementary relationship between phenomenological method and feminist theory, then develops a research method suited to the study of lesbians in their communities. A comparison of three phenomenological methods produces one new method with methodological innovations in interviewing, mapping, and data analysis. Findings of the study…

  2. Some Phenomenological Aspects of the Peak Experience

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rosenblatt, Howard S.; Bartlett, Iris

    1976-01-01

    This article relates the psychological dynamics of "peak experiences" to two concepts, intentionality and paradoxical intention, within the philosophical orientation of phenomenology. A review of early philosophical theories of self (Kant and Hume) is presented and compared with the experiential emphasis found in the phenomenology of Husserl.…

  3. Phenomenological Research Methods for Counseling Psychology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wertz, Frederick J.

    2005-01-01

    This article familiarizes counseling psychologists with qualitative research methods in psychology developed in the tradition of European phenomenology. A brief history includes some of Edmund Husserl's basic methods and concepts, the adoption of existential-phenomenology among psychologists, and the development and formalization of qualitative…

  4. Conformality Emergent In String Phenomenology

    SciTech Connect

    Frampton, Paul H.

    2005-12-02

    Use of the AdS/CFT correspondence to arrive at phenomenological gauge field theories is discussed, focusing on the orbifolded case without supersymmetry. An abelian orbifold with the finite group Zp can give rise to a G = U(N)p gauge group with chiral fermions and complex scalars in different bi-fundamental representations of G. The naturalness issue is discussed, particularly the absence of quadratic divergences in the scalar propagator at one loop. This requires that the scalars all be in bi-fundamentals with no adjoints, coincident with the necessary and sufficient condition for presence of chiral fermions. Speculations are made concerning new gauge and matter particles expected soon to be pursued experimentally at the LHC.

  5. Observation and phenomenology of glueballs

    SciTech Connect

    Lindenbaum, S.J.

    1985-01-01

    The experimental evidence and the relevant phenomenology of glueballs are reviewed. The opinion is expressed that the glueball resonance explanation is the only viable one for the data on g/sub T/, g/sub T/sup 1//, and g/sub T/sup 11//. It is shown that alternative explanations are either incorrect, or do not fit the data, or both, leading to the conclusion that these states are probably produced by glueballs. The OZI rule is explained. Glueball masses and width are considered. Some conclusions are drawn regarding an OZI suppressed reaction ..pi../sup -/p ..-->.. phi phi n. Glueball candidates from the J/psi radiative decay are discussed. 44 refs., 16 figs. (LEW)

  6. Phenomenological Approaches in Psychology and Health Sciences

    PubMed Central

    Davidsen, Annette Sofie

    2013-01-01

    A whole family of qualitative methods is informed by phenomenological philosophy. When applying these methods, the material is analyzed using concepts from this philosophy to interrogate the findings and to enable greater theoretical analysis. However, the phenomenological approach represents different approaches, from pure description to those more informed by interpretation. Phenomenological philosophy developed from a discipline focusing on thorough descriptions, and only descriptions, toward a greater emphasis on interpretation being inherent in experience. An analogous development toward a broader acknowledgment of the need for interpretation, the influence of the relationship and the researcher, and the co-construction of the narrative is mirrored in qualitative analytic theory and the description of newer analytic methods as, for example, Interpretative Phenomenological Analysis and Critical Narrative Analysis, methods which are theoretically founded in phenomenology. This methodological development and the inevitable contribution of interpretation are illustrated by a case from my own research about psychological interventions and the process of understanding in general practice. PMID:23606810

  7. Phenomenological studies of neutrino physics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liao, Jiajun

    In this thesis, we studied the phenomenological results of several classes of neutrino models. We begin with an investigation of the effect of small perturbations on the mu-tau symmetrical models. We found that since m 1 and m2 are nearly degenerate, mu-tau symmetry mixing scenarios are able to explain the experimental data with about the same size perturbation for most values of &theta12. This suggests that the underlying unperturbed mixing need not have &theta12 close to the experimentally preferred value. Then we studied a simple case of type I seesaw model that have four texture zeros in the Yukawa couplings matrix, which is equivalent to a single texture or cofactor zero for an off-diagonal element of the light neutrino mass matrix M in the context of low energy phenomenology. Furthermore we studied a variety of neutrino models that have one or two texture and/or cofactor zeros. We determined the constraints in the space of the CP phase and lightest neutrino mass using a global fit to neutrino parameters, including recent data on &theta 13. We used leptogenesis to further constrain the parameter space for the seesaw models with four zeros in the Yukawa matrix, and made predictions on neutrinoless double beta decay for these models. Finally we showed that any neutrino model with a homogeneous relationship among elements of the light neutrino mass matrix with one mass hierarchy predicts oscillation parameters and Majorana phases similar to those of models with the same homogeneous relationship among cofactors of the mass matrix with the opposite mass hierarchy if the lightest mass is not too small, e.g., less than about 20 meV. This general result applies to texture and/or cofactor zero models, scaling models, and models that have two equal mass matrix elements or cofactors, e.g. mu-tau symmetric models.

  8. Phenomenological theory giving the full statistics of the position of fluctuating pulled fronts.

    PubMed

    Brunet, E; Derrida, B; Mueller, A H; Munier, S

    2006-05-01

    We propose a phenomenological description for the effect of a weak noise on the position of a front described by the Fisher-Kolmogorov-Petrovsky-Piscounov equation or any other traveling-wave equation in the same class. Our scenario is based on four hypotheses on the relevant mechanism for the diffusion of the front. Our parameter-free analytical predictions for the velocity of the front, its diffusion constant and higher cumulants of its position agree with numerical simulations. PMID:16803017

  9. A Paradox between IRT Invariance and Model-Data Fit When Utilizing the One-Parameter and Three-Parameter Models

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Custer, Michael; Sharairi, Sid; Yamazaki, Kenji; Signatur, Diane; Swift, David; Frey, Sharon

    2008-01-01

    The present study compared item and ability invariance as well as model-data fit between the one-parameter (1PL) and three-parameter (3PL) Item Response Theory (IRT) models utilizing real data across five grades; second through sixth as well as simulated data at second, fourth and sixth grade. At each grade, the 1PL and 3PL IRT models were run…

  10. Phenomenology of neutrinophilic Higgs GUT

    SciTech Connect

    Haba, Naoyuki; Kaneta, Kunio; Shimizu, Yasuhiro

    2012-07-27

    Among three typical energy scales, a neutrino mass scale (m{sub {nu}}{approx}0.1eV), a GUT scale (M{sub GUT}{approx}10{sup 16}GeV), and a TeV-scale (M{sub NP}{approx}1TeV), there is a fascinating relation of M{sub NP} Asymptotically-Equal-To {radical}(m{sub {nu}} Dot-Operator M{sub GUT}) The TeV-scale, M{sub NP}, is a new physics scale beyond the standard model which is regarded as 'supersymmetry' (SUSY) in this letter. We investigate phenomenology of SUSY SU(5) GUT with neutrinophilic Higgs, which realizes the above relation dynamically as well as the suitable magnitude of Dirac mass, m{sub {nu}}, through a tiny vacuum expectation value of neutrinophilic Higgs. As a remarkable feature of this model, accurate gauge coupling unification can be achieved as keeping with a proton stability. We also evaluate flavor changing processes in quark/lepton sectors.

  11. Phenomenological modeling of geometric metasurfaces.

    PubMed

    Ye, Weimin; Guo, Qinghua; Xiang, Yuanjiang; Fan, Dianyuan; Zhang, Shuang

    2016-04-01

    Metasurfaces, with their superior capability in manipulating the optical wavefront at the subwavelength scale and low manufacturing complexity, have shown great potential for planar photonics and novel optical devices. However, vector field simulation of metasurfaces is so far limited to periodic-structured metasurfaces containing a small number of meta-atoms in the unit cell by using full-wave numerical methods. Here, focusing on achiral meta-atoms only with electric polarizability and thickness far less than the wavelength of light, and ignoring the coupling between meta-atoms, we propose a general phenomenological method to analytically model the metasurfaces based on the assumption that the meta-atoms possess localized resonances with Lorentz-Drude forms, whose exact form can be retrieved from the full wave simulation of a single element. Applied to phase modulated geometric metasurfaces constituted by identical meta-atoms with different orientations, our analytical results show good agreement with full-wave numerical simulations. The proposed theory provides an efficient method to model and design optical devices based on metasurfaces.

  12. Phenomenology of the CAH+ measure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Salem, Michael P.; Vilenkin, Alexander

    2011-12-01

    The CAH+ measure regulates the infinite spacetime volume of the multiverse by constructing a surface of constant comoving apparent horizon (CAH) and then removing the future light cones of all points on that surface (the latter prescription is referred to by the + in the name of the measure). This measure was motivated by the conjectured duality between the bulk of the multiverse and its future infinity and by the causality condition, requiring that the cutoff surfaces of the measure should be spacelike or null. Here we investigate the phenomenology of the CAH+ measure and find that it does not suffer from any known pathologies. The distribution for the cosmological constant Λ derived from this measure is in a good agreement with the observed value, and the distribution for the number of inflationary e-foldings satisfies the observational constraint. The CAH+ measure does not exhibit any “runaway” behaviors at zero or negative values of Lambda, which have been recently shown to afflict a number of other measures.

  13. HEMP internal coupling phenomenology study

    SciTech Connect

    Kunz, K.S.; Hudson, H.G.; Breakall, J.K.; King, R.J.; Ziolkowski, R.; Madsen, N.; Peterson, J.; Pennock, S.T.

    1985-09-01

    This report documents a task sponsored by DNA to unravel the electromagnetic coupling problem associated with the interaction of the high altitude electromagnetic pulse HEMP) with typical aerospace systems. A bottom up approach to this task has been selected. In this approach, tools are developed for measuring and predicting the responses of simple test systems; from these measurements and predictions phenomenological understanding of the coupling mechanisms may be obtained and the tools may be verified. The construction and the experimental characterization of a test system embodying the fundamental features of an interior coupling problem, is discussed. Experimental, computational and analytical tools has been applied to this test system. Experimental measurements have revealed a pronounced modal interior response which has been closely replicated with the time domain three dimensional finite difference code G3DXL3. The persistence of these modes has been established analytically with an N-series analysis. Focusing and reflection effects as well as hot spot formation have been examined with the N-series analysis and with a time domain two-dimensional finite element code GEM2D.

  14. Phenomenological modeling of geometric metasurfaces.

    PubMed

    Ye, Weimin; Guo, Qinghua; Xiang, Yuanjiang; Fan, Dianyuan; Zhang, Shuang

    2016-04-01

    Metasurfaces, with their superior capability in manipulating the optical wavefront at the subwavelength scale and low manufacturing complexity, have shown great potential for planar photonics and novel optical devices. However, vector field simulation of metasurfaces is so far limited to periodic-structured metasurfaces containing a small number of meta-atoms in the unit cell by using full-wave numerical methods. Here, focusing on achiral meta-atoms only with electric polarizability and thickness far less than the wavelength of light, and ignoring the coupling between meta-atoms, we propose a general phenomenological method to analytically model the metasurfaces based on the assumption that the meta-atoms possess localized resonances with Lorentz-Drude forms, whose exact form can be retrieved from the full wave simulation of a single element. Applied to phase modulated geometric metasurfaces constituted by identical meta-atoms with different orientations, our analytical results show good agreement with full-wave numerical simulations. The proposed theory provides an efficient method to model and design optical devices based on metasurfaces. PMID:27137005

  15. Psychoanalysis--a phenomenology of language.

    PubMed

    Kupke, Christian

    2003-01-01

    It is often said that there is an unbridgeable gap between phenomenology and psychoanalysis. But this is only half the truth. Starting from Merleau-Ponty's proposal of an objectivistic and an idealistic divergence of Freud's enterprise the paper tries to reconstruct two possible movements: the objectivistic divergence of Husserl's enterprise as a phenomenological shift towards psychoanalysis and the idealistic divergence of Freud's enterprise as a psychoanalytical shift towards phenomenology. It is shown that this approach is possible on the field of language and semiotics where psychic life, as the essence of our subjectivity, may be rendered as a uniform phenomenon of an articulation in the world of signs. This thesis is elucidated at the end of the paper by discussing first (to the phenomenological side) a certain interpretation of the use of Husserl's reduction as a method of investigation in psychiatry and second (to the psychoanalytic side) the importance of Lacan's difference between repression and foreclosure for a psychopathological understanding of psychosis.

  16. Phenomenology of Sarks and Dileptons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chaudhry, Jyoti

    We have studied three extensions of the standard model; the sark model, the vector quark model and the 331 model. The sark model has a gauge group SU(2) _{X}otimes SU(3)_{C} otimes SU(2)_{S}otimes U(1) _{Q}, where all gauge symmetries are unbroken. The vector-quark model contains an extra vector-like quark doublet. Finally, the 331 model has a gauge group SU(3)_{C}otimes SU(3)_{L}otimes U(1)_{X } where SU(3)otimes U(1)_ {X} contains the standard electroweak group SU(2)_{L}otimes U(1) _{Y}. This model contains three extended fermion families with the third family treated differently and additional vector gauge bosons. In the sark model, the number of quark-lepton families is constrained to three by the asymptotic freedom for the SU(2)_{X} group. Further, quantization of the electric charge is achieved by the anomaly cancellation conditions. Neutral sark baryons, called narks, are candidates for the cosmological dark matter having the characteristics designed for WIMPS. Further phenomenological implications of sarks are analyzed including electron-positron annihilation, Z^{0 } decay, flavor-changing neutral currents, baryon-number non-conservation, sarkonium and the neutron electric dipole moment. Next, we have studied the CP violation parameter Re(epsilon^'/epsilon) in the vector-quark model and also in the 331 model. For a given value of m_{t}, the vector quark model tends to reduce Re(epsilon ^'/epsilon) whereas the 331 model tends to increase it. If m_{t } is discovered around 150 GeV and the lower experimental value for Re(epsilon^ '/epsilon) (0.74+/- 0.60times 10^{-3}, Fermilab) is confirmed, the standard model is acceptable. But, if its higher value (2.3+/- 0.65times 10 ^{-3}, CERN) persists, a dynamics like the 331 model seems to be favored. Lastly, we have looked for the signatures of the dileptons in e^-p and e ^-e^+ colliders. At HERA, with the center-of-mass energy 314 GeV, a dilepton mass above 150 GeV is inaccessible but at LEPII-LHC, with a 1790 Ge

  17. Phenomenology as a resource for patients.

    PubMed

    Carel, Havi

    2012-04-01

    Patient support tools have drawn on a variety of disciplines, including psychotherapy, social psychology, and social care. One discipline that has not so far been used to support patients is philosophy. This paper proposes that a particular philosophical approach, phenomenology, could prove useful for patients, giving them tools to reflect on and expand their understanding of their illness. I present a framework for a resource that could help patients to philosophically examine their illness, its impact on their life, and its meaning. I explain the need for such a resource, provide philosophical grounding for it, and outline the epistemic and existential gains philosophy offers. Illness often begins as an intrusion on one's life but with time becomes a way of being. I argue that this transition impacts on core human features such as the experience of space and time, human abilities, and adaptability. It therefore requires philosophical analysis and response. The paper uses ideas from Husserl and Merleau-Ponty to present such a response in the form of a phenomenological toolkit for patients. The toolkit includes viewing illness as a form of phenomenological reduction, thematizing illness, and examining illness as altering the ill person's being in the world. I suggest that this toolkit could be offered to patients as a workshop, using phenomenological concepts, texts, and film clips to reflect on illness. I conclude by arguing that examining illness as a limit case of embodied existence deepens our understanding of phenomenology.

  18. The current dialogue between phenomenology and psychiatry: a problematic misunderstanding.

    PubMed

    Abettan, Camille

    2015-11-01

    A revival of the dialogue between phenomenology and psychiatry currently takes place in the best international journals of psychiatry. In this article, we analyse this revival and the role given to phenomenology in this context. Although this dialogue seems at first sight interesting, we show that it is problematic. It leads indeed to use phenomenology in a special way, transforming it into a discipline dealing with empirical facts, so that what is called "phenomenology" has finally nothing to do with phenomenology. This so-called phenomenology tallies however with what we have always called semiology. We try to explain the reasons why phenomenology is misused in that way. In our view, this transformation of phenomenology into an empirical and objectifying discipline is explained by the role attributed to phenomenology by contemporary authors, which is to solve the problems raised by the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders.

  19. Constraints on modern microscopic equations of state

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Taranto, G.; Baldo, M.; Burgio, G. F.

    2016-01-01

    We compare a set of equations of state derived within microscopic many-body approaches, and study their predictions as far as phenomenological data on nuclei from heavy ion collisions, and astrophysical observations on neutron stars are concerned. All the data, taken together, put strong constraints not easy to be fulfilled accurately. However the results provide an estimate of the uncertainty on the theoretical prediction at a microscopic level of the nuclear equation of state.

  20. Statistical turbulence theory and turbulence phenomenology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Herring, J. R.

    1973-01-01

    The application of deductive turbulence theory for validity determination of turbulence phenomenology at the level of second-order, single-point moments is considered. Particular emphasis is placed on the phenomenological formula relating the dissipation to the turbulence energy and the Rotta-type formula for the return to isotropy. Methods which deal directly with most or all the scales of motion explicitly are reviewed briefly. The statistical theory of turbulence is presented as an expansion about randomness. Two concepts are involved: (1) a modeling of the turbulence as nearly multipoint Gaussian, and (2) a simultaneous introduction of a generalized eddy viscosity operator.

  1. Supersymmetry and supergravity: Phenomenology and grand unification

    SciTech Connect

    Arnowitt, R. |; Nath, P.

    1993-12-31

    A survey is given of supersymmetry and supergravity and their phenomenology. Some of the topics discussed are the basic ideas of global supersymmetry, the minimal supersymmetric Standard Model (MSSM) and its phenomenology, the basic ideas of local supersymmetry (supergravity), grand unification, supersymmetry breaking in supergravity grand unified models, radiative breaking of SU(2) {times} U(1), proton decay, cosmological constraints, and predictions of supergravity grand unified models. While the number of detailed derivations are necessarily limited, a sufficient number of results are given so that a reader can get a working knowledge of this field.

  2. Phenomenology as research method or substantive metaphysics? An overview of phenomenology's uses in nursing.

    PubMed

    Earle, Vicki

    2010-10-01

    In exploring phenomenological literature, it is evident that the term 'phenomenology' holds rather different meanings depending upon the context. Phenomenology has been described as both a philosophical movement and an approach to human science research. The phenomenology of Husserl, Heidegger, Gadamer, and Merleau-Ponty was philosophical in nature and not intended to provide rules or procedures for conducting research. The Canadian social scientist, van Manen, however, introduced specific guidelines for conducting human science research, which is rooted in hermeneutic phenomenology and this particular method has been employed in professional disciplines such as education, nursing, clinical psychology, and law. The purpose of this paper is to explore the difference between the phenomenological method as described by van Manen and that of other philosophers such as Husserl, Heidegger, Gadamer, and Merleau-Ponty. In so doing, the author aims to address the blurred boundaries of phenomenology as a research method and as a philosophical movement and highlight the influence of these blurred boundaries on nursing knowledge development.

  3. Folk Phenomenology and the Offering of Teaching

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rocha, Samuel D.

    2016-01-01

    This article will move in five parts. It begins with some priming notes on the relationship between philosophy of education and curriculum theory. Then it rehearses a collage of selected passages from a recent book, "Folk Phenomenology: Education, Study, and the Human Person" (Rocha, 2015a). Then the author works in a more speculative…

  4. Superstring phenomenology present-and-future perspective

    SciTech Connect

    Faraggi, A.E.

    1997-07-01

    The objective of superstring phenomenology is to develop the models and methodology needed to connect quantitatively between Planck scale and electroweak scale experimental data. I review the present status of this endeavor with a focus on the three generation free fermionic models.

  5. Can An American Do Semiotic Phenomenology?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lanigan, Richard L.

    Divided into three sections, this paper explores semiotic phenomenology as a paradigm for communicology (a translation for the new French "comunicologie" and the "German Kommunikationgemeinschaft," which are used increasingly to suggest a qualitative and human signification as opposed to the quantitative and technological reference of…

  6. Why natural science needs phenomenological philosophy.

    PubMed

    Rosen, Steven M

    2015-12-01

    Through an exploration of theoretical physics, this paper suggests the need for regrounding natural science in phenomenological philosophy. To begin, the philosophical roots of the prevailing scientific paradigm are traced to the thinking of Plato, Descartes, and Newton. The crisis in modern science is then investigated, tracking developments in physics, science's premier discipline. Einsteinian special relativity is interpreted as a response to the threat of discontinuity implied by the Michelson-Morley experiment, a challenge to classical objectivism that Einstein sought to counteract. We see that Einstein's efforts to banish discontinuity ultimately fall into the "black hole" predicted in his general theory of relativity. The unavoidable discontinuity that haunts Einstein's theory is also central to quantum mechanics. Here too the attempt has been made to manage discontinuity, only to have this strategy thwarted in the end by the intractable problem of quantum gravity. The irrepressible discontinuity manifested in the phenomena of modern physics proves to be linked to a merging of subject and object that flies in the face of Cartesian philosophy. To accommodate these radically non-classical phenomena, a new philosophical foundation is called for: phenomenology. Phenomenological philosophy is elaborated through Merleau-Ponty's concept of depth and is then brought into focus for use in theoretical physics via qualitative work with topology and hypercomplex numbers. In the final part of this paper, a detailed summary is offered of the specific application of topological phenomenology to quantum gravity that was systematically articulated in The Self-Evolving Cosmos (Rosen, 2008a). PMID:26143599

  7. Phenomenology: A Review of the Literature

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Randles, Clint

    2012-01-01

    This article is a review of relevant literature on the use of phenomenology as a research methodology in education research, with a focus on music education research. The review is organized as follows: (a) general education, (b) music research, (c) music education research, (d) dissertations, (e) important figures, (f) themes, and (g) the future.…

  8. A Phenomenological Study of Financial Knowledge Application

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nduku, Enita Bernice

    2012-01-01

    The intent of this qualitative phenomenological research study was to explore the influence of financial knowledge application and financial debts or freedom of traditional Texas college students. The study identified how financial knowledge application influenced whether traditional Texas college students do or do not accumulate debt. The study…

  9. Theory and phenomenology of supernova neutrinos

    SciTech Connect

    Lunardini, Cecilia

    2015-07-15

    The theory and phenomenology of supernova neutrinos is reviewed, with focus on the most recent advancements on the neutrino flux predicted by supernova numerical models, on neutrino oscillations inside the star and in the Earth, and on the physics of the diffuse supernova neutrino background. Future directions of research are briefly summarized.

  10. A Phenomenology of Outdoor Education Leader Experiences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Field, Stephanie C.; Lauzon, Lara L.; Meldrum, John T.

    2016-01-01

    Limited qualitative research exists on the experiences of outdoor education leaders. The purpose of this phenomenological study was to explore the job-related experiences of outdoor education leaders within and outside the workplace. Five participants who had experience as outdoor education leaders completed in-depth, one-on-one interviews about…

  11. A Phenomenological Analysis of the Invisibility Syndrome

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tovar-Murray, Darrick; Tovar-Murray, Maria

    2012-01-01

    Interpretative phenomenological analysis was used to explore 10 African American men's perceptions of invisibility. Participants perceived invisibility as an extra unwarranted burden that is accompanied by feelings of hopelessness, anxiety, and anger. Participants also coped with invisibility by finding safe havens within the Black community.…

  12. Why natural science needs phenomenological philosophy.

    PubMed

    Rosen, Steven M

    2015-12-01

    Through an exploration of theoretical physics, this paper suggests the need for regrounding natural science in phenomenological philosophy. To begin, the philosophical roots of the prevailing scientific paradigm are traced to the thinking of Plato, Descartes, and Newton. The crisis in modern science is then investigated, tracking developments in physics, science's premier discipline. Einsteinian special relativity is interpreted as a response to the threat of discontinuity implied by the Michelson-Morley experiment, a challenge to classical objectivism that Einstein sought to counteract. We see that Einstein's efforts to banish discontinuity ultimately fall into the "black hole" predicted in his general theory of relativity. The unavoidable discontinuity that haunts Einstein's theory is also central to quantum mechanics. Here too the attempt has been made to manage discontinuity, only to have this strategy thwarted in the end by the intractable problem of quantum gravity. The irrepressible discontinuity manifested in the phenomena of modern physics proves to be linked to a merging of subject and object that flies in the face of Cartesian philosophy. To accommodate these radically non-classical phenomena, a new philosophical foundation is called for: phenomenology. Phenomenological philosophy is elaborated through Merleau-Ponty's concept of depth and is then brought into focus for use in theoretical physics via qualitative work with topology and hypercomplex numbers. In the final part of this paper, a detailed summary is offered of the specific application of topological phenomenology to quantum gravity that was systematically articulated in The Self-Evolving Cosmos (Rosen, 2008a).

  13. Recovery from Psychosis: A Phenomenological Inquiry

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nixon, Gary; Hagen, Brad; Peters, Tracey

    2010-01-01

    While mainstream psychiatry tends to view psychosis as an enduring and chronic condition, there is growing interest in the possibility of recovery from psychosis. A phenomenological research method was utilized in interviewing 17 individuals who all self-identified as being in recovery from psychosis. The research question was, "What was the lived…

  14. Alternative Education Completers: A Phenomenological Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Murray, Becky L.; Holt, Carleton R.

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore the elements of the alternative education experience significant to successful completion of the program. This phenomenological paradigm provided the framework for all aspects of the qualitative study. Students, parents, administrators, and staff members of two alternative programs in the southeast Kansas…

  15. Exploring Relationships in Education: A Phenomenological Inquiry

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Giles, David; Smythe, Elizabeth; Spence, Debra

    2012-01-01

    Research that seeks to understand the lived experience of the teacher-student relationship is not prevalent. This article reports on a phenomenological inquiry which explored the nature of this relationship in the context of teacher education. Participant's lived experiences were hermeneutically interpreted against the philosophical writings of…

  16. Phenomenology of n - n ¯ oscillations revisited

    DOE PAGES

    Gardner, S.; Jafari, E.

    2015-05-22

    We revisit the phenomenology of n-n¯ oscillations in the presence of external magnetic fields, highlighting the role of spin. We show, contrary to long-held belief, that the n-n¯ transition rate need not be suppressed, opening new opportunities for its empirical study.

  17. Downward relativistic potential step and phenomenological account of Bohmian trajectories of the Klein paradox

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Razavi, M.; Mollai, M.; Jami, S.; Ahanj, A.

    2016-09-01

    The Dirac equation has been applied to fermions scattering from the downward potential step. The results show that some particles do not fall off the edge of the step and reflect. Then, based on the de Broglie-Bohm interpretation of quantum mechanics (Bohmian mechanics) and Bohmian trajectories we have resolved the problem. Lastly, a phenomenological study of the Bohmian trajectory of the Klein paradox has been discussed.

  18. The role of supersymmetry phenomenology in particle physics

    SciTech Connect

    Wells, James D.

    2000-12-14

    Supersymmetry phenomenology is an important component of particle physics today. I provide a definition of supersymmetry phenomenology, outline the scope of its activity, and argue its legitimacy. This essay derives from a presentation given at the 2000 SLAC Summer Institute.

  19. Using Phenomenology to Conduct Environmental Education Research: Experience and Issues

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nazir, Joanne

    2016-01-01

    Recently, I applied a phenomenological methodology to study environmental education at an outdoor education center. In this article, I reflect on my experience of doing phenomenological research to highlight issues researchers may want to consider in using this type of methodology. The main premise of the article is that phenomenology, with its…

  20. The Domain-Specificity of Creativity: Insights from New Phenomenology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Julmi, Christian; Scherm, Ewald

    2015-01-01

    The question of the domain-specificity of creativity represents one of the key questions in creativity research. This article contributes to the discussion by applying insights from "new phenomenology," which is a phenomenological movement from Germany initiated by philosopher Hermann Schmitz. The findings of new phenomenology suggest…

  1. Phenomenological models of vibration signals for condition monitoring and fault diagnosis of epicyclic gearboxes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lei, Yaguo; Liu, Zongyao; Lin, Jing; Lu, Fanbo

    2016-05-01

    Condition monitoring and fault diagnosis of epicyclic gearboxes using vibration signals are not as straightforward as that of fixed-axis gearboxes since epicyclic gearboxes behave quite differently from fixed-axis gearboxes in many aspects, like spectral structures. Aiming to present the spectral structures of vibration signals of epicyclic gearboxes, phenomenological models of vibration signals of epicyclic gearboxes are developed by algebraic equations and spectral structures of these models are deduced using Fourier series analysis. In the phenomenological models, all the possible vibration transfer paths from gear meshing points to a fixed transducer and the effects of angular shifts of planet gears on the spectral structures are considered. Accordingly, time-varying vibration transfer paths from sun-planet/ring-planet gear meshing points to the fixed transducer due to carrier rotation are given by window functions with different amplitudes. And an angular shift in one planet gear position is introduced in the process of modeling. After the theoretical derivations, three experiments are conducted on an epicyclic gearbox test rig and the spectral structures of collected vibration signals are analyzed. As a result, the effects of angular shifts of planet gears are verified, and the phenomenological models of vibration signals when a local fault occurs on the sun gear and the planet gear are validated, respectively. The experiment results demonstrate that the established phenomenological models in this paper are helpful to the condition monitoring and fault diagnosis of epicyclic gearboxes.

  2. Spin Hall phenomenology of magnetic dynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tserkovnyak, Yaroslav; Bender, Scott A.

    2014-07-01

    We study the role of spin-orbit interactions in the coupled magnetoelectric dynamics of a ferromagnetic film coated with an electrical conductor. While the main thrust of this work is phenomenological, several popular simple models are considered microscopically in some detail, including Rashba and Dirac two-dimensional electron gases coupled to a magnetic insulator, as well as a diffusive spin Hall system. We focus on the long-wavelength magnetic dynamics that experiences current-induced torques and produces fictitious electromotive forces. Our phenomenology provides a suitable framework for analyzing experiments on current-induced magnetic dynamics and reciprocal charge pumping, including the effects of magnetoresistance and Gilbert-damping anisotropies, without a need to resort to any microscopic considerations or modeling. Finally, some remarks are made regarding the interplay of spin-orbit interactions and magnetic textures.

  3. Planetary Bootstrap: A Prelude to Biosphere Phenomenology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kazansky, Alexander B.

    2004-08-01

    This paper deals with systemic status as well as with some phenomenological and evolutionary aspects of biosphere. Biosphere is represented as multilevel autopoietic system in which different organizational levels are nested into each other. The conceptual model of punctuated epigenesis, biosphere evolutionary process is suggested, in which endogenous planetary organizational crises play role of evolutionary mechanism, creating novelty. The hypothesis is proposed, that the biosphere reaction on the humankind destructive activity reminds the distributed immune response of biological organism, described by F.Varela in his "cognitive immunology". The biosphere evolution is interpreted as the hermeneutical spiral of "Process Being" self-uncovering thus illustrating the historical process of transformation of biosphere as the type of Being in the periods of crises. Some arguments are adduced in favor of biosphere phenomenology development and application of the methods of second-order cybernetics to actual problems of planetary scale.

  4. Phenomenological Modeling of Infrared Sources: Recent Advances

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Leung, Chun Ming; Kwok, Sun (Editor)

    1993-01-01

    Infrared observations from planned space facilities (e.g., ISO (Infrared Space Observatory), SIRTF (Space Infrared Telescope Facility)) will yield a large and uniform sample of high-quality data from both photometric and spectroscopic measurements. To maximize the scientific returns of these space missions, complementary theoretical studies must be undertaken to interpret these observations. A crucial step in such studies is the construction of phenomenological models in which we parameterize the observed radiation characteristics in terms of the physical source properties. In the last decade, models with increasing degree of physical realism (in terms of grain properties, physical processes, and source geometry) have been constructed for infrared sources. Here we review current capabilities available in the phenomenological modeling of infrared sources and discuss briefly directions for future research in this area.

  5. Phenomenology and adapted physical activity: philosophy and professional practice.

    PubMed

    Standal, Øyvind F

    2014-01-01

    Through the increased use of qualitative research methods, the term phenomenology has become a quite familiar notion for researchers in adapted physical activity (APA). In contrast to this increasing interest in phenomenology as methodology, relatively little work has focused on phenomenology as philosophy or as an approach to professional practice. Therefore, the purpose of this article is to examine the relevance of phenomenology as philosophy and as pedagogy to the field of APA. First, phenomenology as philosophy is introduced through three key notions, namely the first-person perspective, embodiment, and life-world. The relevance of these terms to APA is then outlined. Second, the concept of phenomenological pedagogy is introduced, and its application and potential for APA are discussed. In conclusion, it is argued that phenomenology can help theorize ways of understanding human difference in movement contexts and form a basis of action-oriented research aiming at developing professional practice.

  6. Phenomenology in minimal theory of massive gravity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    De Felice, Antonio; Mukohyama, Shinji

    2016-04-01

    We investigate the minimal theory of massive gravity (MTMG) recently introduced. After reviewing the original construction based on its Hamiltonian in the vielbein formalism, we reformulate it in terms of its Lagrangian in both the vielbein and the metric formalisms. It then becomes obvious that, unlike previous attempts in the literature of Lorentz-violating massive gravity, not only the potential but also the kinetic structure of the action is modified from the de Rham-Gabadadze-Tolley (dRGT) massive gravity theory. We confirm that the number of physical degrees of freedom in MTMG is two at fully nonlinear level. This proves the absence of various possible pathologies such as superluminality, acausality and strong coupling. Afterwards, we discuss the phenomenology of MTMG in the presence of a dust fluid. We find that on a flat homogeneous and isotropic background we have two branches. One of them (self-accelerating branch) naturally leads to acceleration without the genuine cosmological constant or dark energy. For this branch both the scalar and the vector modes behave exactly as in general relativity (GR). The phenomenology of this branch differs from GR in the tensor modes sector, as the tensor modes acquire a non-zero mass. Hence, MTMG serves as a stable nonlinear completion of the self-accelerating cosmological solution found originally in dRGT theory. The other branch (normal branch) has a dynamics which depends on the time-dependent fiducial metric. For the normal branch, the scalar mode sector, even though as in GR only one scalar mode is present (due to the dust fluid), differs from the one in GR, and, in general, structure formation will follow a different phenomenology. The tensor modes will be massive, whereas the vector modes, for both branches, will have the same phenomenology as in GR.

  7. Photochemical Phenomenology Model for the New Millennium

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bishop, James; Evans, J. Scott

    2001-01-01

    The "Photochemical Phenomenology Model for the New Millennium" project tackles the issue of reengineering and extension of validated physics-based modeling capabilities ("legacy" computer codes) to application-oriented software for use in science and science-support activities. While the design and architecture layouts are in terms of general particle distributions involved in scattering, impact, and reactive interactions, initial Photochemical Phenomenology Modeling Tool (PPMT) implementations are aimed at construction and evaluation of photochemical transport models with rapid execution for use in remote sensing data analysis activities in distributed systems. Current focus is on the Composite Infrared Spectrometer (CIRS) data acquired during the CASSINI flyby of Jupiter. Overall, the project has stayed on the development track outlined in the Year 1 annual report and most Year 2 goals have been met. The issues that have required the most attention are: implementation of the core photochemistry algorithms; implementation of a functional Java Graphical User Interface; completion of a functional CORBA Component Model framework; and assessment of performance issues. Specific accomplishments and the difficulties encountered are summarized in this report. Work to be carried out in the next year center on: completion of testing of the initial operational implementation; its application to analysis of the CASSINI/CIRS Jovian flyby data; extension of the PPMT to incorporate additional phenomenology algorithms; and delivery of a mature operational implementation.

  8. Leptonic mixing, family symmetries, and neutrino phenomenology

    SciTech Connect

    Medeiros Varzielas, I. de; Gonzalez Felipe, R.; Serodio, H.

    2011-02-01

    Tribimaximal leptonic mixing is a mass-independent mixing scheme consistent with the present solar and atmospheric neutrino data. By conveniently decomposing the effective neutrino mass matrix associated to it, we derive generic predictions in terms of the parameters governing the neutrino masses. We extend this phenomenological analysis to other mass-independent mixing schemes which are related to the tribimaximal form by a unitary transformation. We classify models that produce tribimaximal leptonic mixing through the group structure of their family symmetries in order to point out that there is often a direct connection between the group structure and the phenomenological analysis. The type of seesaw mechanism responsible for neutrino masses plays a role here, as it restricts the choices of family representations and affects the viability of leptogenesis. We also present a recipe to generalize a given tribimaximal model to an associated model with a different mass-independent mixing scheme, which preserves the connection between the group structure and phenomenology as in the original model. This procedure is explicitly illustrated by constructing toy models with the transpose tribimaximal, bimaximal, golden ratio, and hexagonal leptonic mixing patterns.

  9. Minimal relativistic three-particle equations

    SciTech Connect

    Lindesay, J.

    1981-07-01

    A minimal self-consistent set of covariant and unitary three-particle equations is presented. Numerical results are obtained for three-particle bound states, elastic scattering and rearrangement of bound pairs with a third particle, and amplitudes for breakup into states of three free particles. The mathematical form of the three-particle bound state equations is explored; constraints are set upon the range of eigenvalues and number of eigenstates of these one parameter equations. The behavior of the number of eigenstates as the two-body binding energy decreases to zero in a covariant context generalizes results previously obtained non-relativistically by V. Efimov.

  10. Medicine and the individual: is phenomenology the answer?

    PubMed

    Gergel, Tania L

    2012-10-01

    The issue of how to incorporate the individual's first-hand experience of illness into broader medical understanding is a major question in medical theory and practice. In a philosophical context, phenomenology, with its emphasis on the subject's perception of phenomena as the basis for knowledge and its questioning of naturalism, seems an obvious candidate for addressing these issues. This is a review of current phenomenological approaches to medicine, looking at what has motivated this philosophical approach, the main problems it faces and suggesting how it might become a useful philosophical tool within medicine, with its own individual, but interrelated, contribution to make to current medical debates. After the general background, there is a brief summary of phenomenological ideas and their current usage in a medical context. Next is a critique of four key claims within current phenomenological medical works, concerning both the role phenomenology plays and the supposedly clear divide between phenomenology and other approaches. There are significant problems within these claims, largely because they overlook the complexity of the questions they consider. Finally, there is some more in-depth examination of phenomenology itself and the true complexity of phenomenological debate concerning subjectivity. The aim is to show that it will be both more productive and truer to phenomenology itself, if we use phenomenology as a philosophical method for explicating and gaining deeper understanding of complex and fundamental problems, which are central to medicine, rather than as providing simple, but flawed solutions. PMID:22995017

  11. Darboux transformation for the NLS equation

    SciTech Connect

    Aktosun, Tuncay; Mee, Cornelis van der

    2010-03-08

    We analyze a certain class of integral equations associated with Marchenko equations and Gel'fand-Levitan equations. Such integral equations arise through a Fourier transformation on various ordinary differential equations involving a spectral parameter. When the integral operator is perturbed by a finite-rank perturbation, we explicitly evaluate the change in the solution in terms of the unperturbed quantities and the finite-rank perturbation. We show that this result provides a fundamental approach to derive Darboux transformations for various systems of ordinary differential operators. We illustrate our theory by providing the explicit Darboux transformation for the Zakharov-Shabat system and show how the potential and wave function change when a simple discrete eigenvalue is added to the spectrum, and thus we also provide a one-parameter family of Darboux transformations for the nonlinear Schroedinger equation.

  12. The damping of spin motions in ultrathin films: Is the Landau Lifschitz Gilbert phenomenology applicable?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mills, D. L.; Arias, Rodrigo

    2006-10-01

    The Landau-Lifschitz-Gilbert (LLG) equation is used widely in device design to describe spin motions in magnetic nanoscale structures. The damping term in this equation plays an essential role in the description of the magnetization dynamics. The form of this term is simple and appealing, but it is derived through use of elementary phenomenological considerations. An important question is whether or not it provides a proper description of the damping of the magnetization in real materials. Recently, it was predicted that a mechanism called two magnon damping should contribute importantly to linewidths and consequently spin damping in ultrathin ferromagnetic films. This process yields ferromagnetic resonance (FMR) linewidths whose frequency dependence is incompatible with the linear variation expected from the Landau-Lifschitz equation. This prediction has now been confirmed experimentally. Furthermore, subsequent experimental and theoretical studies have demonstrated that the damping rate depends strongly on wave vector as well. It is thus clear that for many samples, the LLG equation fails to account for the systematics of the damping of the magnetization in ultrathin ferromagnets, at the linear response level. The paper will review the recent literature on this topic relevant to this issue. One must then inquire into the nature of a proper phenomenology to describe these materials. At the linear response level, the theory of the two magnon mechanism is sufficiently complete that one can describe the response of these systems without resort to LLG phenomenology. However, currently there is very great interest in the large amplitude response of the magnetization in magnetic nanostructures. In the view of the authors, it is difficult to envision a generally applicable extension of linear response theory into the large amplitude regime.

  13. Penetration equations

    SciTech Connect

    Young, C.W.

    1997-10-01

    In 1967, Sandia National Laboratories published empirical equations to predict penetration into natural earth materials and concrete. Since that time there have been several small changes to the basic equations, and several more additions to the overall technique for predicting penetration into soil, rock, concrete, ice, and frozen soil. The most recent update to the equations was published in 1988, and since that time there have been changes in the equations to better match the expanding data base, especially in concrete penetration. This is a standalone report documenting the latest version of the Young/Sandia penetration equations and related analytical techniques to predict penetration into natural earth materials and concrete. 11 refs., 6 tabs.

  14. Michael Crotty and nursing phenomenology: criticism or critique?

    PubMed

    Barkway, P

    2001-09-01

    In 1996 Michael Crotty published the text Phenomenology and nursing research in which he criticised many nurse researchers' interpretation of the methodology of phenomenology and their utilisation of phenomenology as a method for undertaking qualitative nursing research. Crotty's thesis proposes that the research conducted by nurses is not phenomenology according to the European tradition, but a North American hybrid. Subsequently, debate has occurred amongst nurses as to whether Crotty's work is a scholarly, reasoned critique or a severe, judgmental, fault-finding criticism of nursing research. Considering the increasing utilisation of phenomenology as a methodology that informs nursing research, this debate is an important one and has implications for the conduct of research. This article examines this debate and the implications of Crotty's work for phenomenological research in nursing.

  15. Phenomenology and treatment of behavioural addictions.

    PubMed

    Grant, Jon E; Schreiber, Liana R N; Odlaug, Brian L

    2013-05-01

    Behavioural addictions are characterized by an inability to resist an urge or drive resulting in actions that are harmful to oneself or others. Behavioural addictions share characteristics with substance and alcohol abuse, and in areas such as natural history, phenomenology, and adverse consequences. Behavioural addictions include pathological gambling, kleptomania, pyromania, compulsive buying, compulsive sexual behaviour, Internet addiction, and binge eating disorder. Few studies have examined the efficacy of pharmacological and psychological treatment for the various behavioural addictions, and therefore, currently, no treatment recommendations can be made.

  16. Topological and phenomenological classification of bursting oscillations.

    PubMed

    Bertram, R; Butte, M J; Kiemel, T; Sherman, A

    1995-05-01

    We describe a classification scheme for bursting oscillations which encompasses many of those found in the literature on bursting in excitable media. This is an extension of the scheme of Rinzel (in Mathematical Topics in Population Biology, Springer, Berlin, 1987), put in the context of a sequence of horizontal cuts through a two-parameter bifurcation diagram. We use this to describe the phenomenological character of different types of bursting, addressing the issue of how well the bursting can be characterized given the limited amount of information often available in experimental settings. PMID:7728115

  17. Phenomenology of electromagnetic coupling. Part II

    SciTech Connect

    King, R.J.; Ludwigsen, A.P.; Kunz, K.S.

    1985-08-01

    This report is the second of a planned series which summarize efforts at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory relating to phenomenology studies of back door coupling from several MHz to 10's of GHz. These studies are pertinent to high altitude EMP (HEMP), enhanced HEMP and microwave coupling. Part I dealt with coupling through apertures into large free-standing cavities having, at most, one interior cable. An overview of the effort is given, and a summary of the effects observed in Part I. The main effort since Part I has been devoted to Facilities Development, development of an interior coupling decomposition model and coupling experiments. Projected future effort is discussed.

  18. Dark matter complementarity in the phenomenological MSSM

    SciTech Connect

    Ismail, Ahmed

    2014-06-24

    The lightest neutralino of the Minimal Supersymmetric Standard Model (MSSM) with R-parity conservation is one of the most well-studied dark matter (DM) candidates. Using a set of models in the 19-parameter phenomenological MSSM (pMSSM), we examine the abilities of XENON100/1T, LUX-ZEPLIN, Fermi, CTA, IceCube/DeepCore, and the LHC to study neutralino dark matter. We find that direct detection, indirect detection, neutrino telescope, and collider searches for minimal supersymmetry often fulfill concomitant roles.

  19. Research philosophy and Socrates: rediscovering the birth of phenomenology.

    PubMed

    Vivilaki, Victoria; Johnson, Martin

    2008-01-01

    Socrates can, to some extent, be credited with an original conception of what is now seen as 20th century phenomenology 'invented' by Heidegger. With phenomenology becoming more recognised as important in understanding health care and all its complexities, this article by Victoria Vivilaki and Martin Johnson provides a theoretical evaluation of some of the terminology and the underpinning philosophy used in recent phenomenological studies.

  20. Sour Fruits on the Trail: Renewing Phenomenological Practice

    PubMed Central

    De Monticelli, Roberta; Simionescu-Panait, Andrei

    2015-01-01

    This summer, Europe’s Journal of Psychology hosts a fruitful discussion about phenomenology, its method, the possibilities of application in today's context and its current troubled waters stemming from recent historical-ideological debates. Prof. Roberta De Monticelli offers lush and informative answers to provocative issues like overdriving the epoché, Heidegger's dark undertones, the relation between pedagogy and authorship in phenomenology and the idea of filtering politics through Husserlian phenomenology. PMID:27247664

  1. Sour Fruits on the Trail: Renewing Phenomenological Practice.

    PubMed

    De Monticelli, Roberta; Simionescu-Panait, Andrei

    2015-08-01

    This summer, Europe's Journal of Psychology hosts a fruitful discussion about phenomenology, its method, the possibilities of application in today's context and its current troubled waters stemming from recent historical-ideological debates. Prof. Roberta De Monticelli offers lush and informative answers to provocative issues like overdriving the epoché, Heidegger's dark undertones, the relation between pedagogy and authorship in phenomenology and the idea of filtering politics through Husserlian phenomenology.

  2. The problem of psychopathology and phenomenology. What is viable and not viable in phenomenological psychiatry.

    PubMed

    Ramos-Gorostiza, Pablo; Adán-Manes, Jaime

    2013-01-01

    The epistemological underpinnings of psychiatric theory and practice have always been unstable. This reflects the essential contradiction existing between the task (the description and individuation of speech and behavior as psychopathological symptoms) and tools (semiotics). As a result of this contradiction, the history of psychiatry is one of permanent crisis in which there are moments of temporary stability as approaches that aim at organizing this mismatch between tasks and tools gain prevalence. However, these approaches can only offer a false sense of unity, consistency and progress. In this sense, a narrow perspective on a particular period may lead us to believe that psychiatry is just another medical specialty with its own specific theoretical framework like others. However, any such perspective overlooks the coexistence of different schools, disagreements, contradictions, global alternatives, etc. For a certain period of time, phenomenology was assumed to be as the solution for psychiatry’s internal contradiction. As we see it, phenomenology was only partially understood. Despite the great influence it exerted upon psychiatry worldwide, it finally fell into disuse as a mere empiricism. Husserl’s phenomenology was more thoroughly understood and better assimilated by other psychiatrists, and its influence has persisted to the present day. If we view phenomenology in its proper (Husserlian) sense, it is possible to understand psychopathology as a means of creating intelligibility and clarifying the uniqueness of psychiatry. On the other hand, if phenomenology is understood as a representational theory, it will eventually lead to an unavoidable relapse into psychologism, which has been the main path of psychiatry until now. PMID:24096395

  3. The problem of psychopathology and phenomenology. What is viable and not viable in phenomenological psychiatry.

    PubMed

    Ramos-Gorostiza, Pablo; Adán-Manes, Jaime

    2013-01-01

    The epistemological underpinnings of psychiatric theory and practice have always been unstable. This reflects the essential contradiction existing between the task (the description and individuation of speech and behavior as psychopathological symptoms) and tools (semiotics). As a result of this contradiction, the history of psychiatry is one of permanent crisis in which there are moments of temporary stability as approaches that aim at organizing this mismatch between tasks and tools gain prevalence. However, these approaches can only offer a false sense of unity, consistency and progress. In this sense, a narrow perspective on a particular period may lead us to believe that psychiatry is just another medical specialty with its own specific theoretical framework like others. However, any such perspective overlooks the coexistence of different schools, disagreements, contradictions, global alternatives, etc. For a certain period of time, phenomenology was assumed to be as the solution for psychiatry’s internal contradiction. As we see it, phenomenology was only partially understood. Despite the great influence it exerted upon psychiatry worldwide, it finally fell into disuse as a mere empiricism. Husserl’s phenomenology was more thoroughly understood and better assimilated by other psychiatrists, and its influence has persisted to the present day. If we view phenomenology in its proper (Husserlian) sense, it is possible to understand psychopathology as a means of creating intelligibility and clarifying the uniqueness of psychiatry. On the other hand, if phenomenology is understood as a representational theory, it will eventually lead to an unavoidable relapse into psychologism, which has been the main path of psychiatry until now.

  4. Personality disorders from a phenomenological perspective.

    PubMed

    Dörr Zengers, O

    2008-01-01

    Different studies have questioned the capacity of the categorical diagnostics to establish a clear distinction between the existence or not of a determined personality disorder. The dimensional perspective would approach more to reality, in the measure that it tries to measure the different intensity degrees in which these disorders are present in the patients. But its application is very laborious and besides, presupposes that those categories whose nuances it pretends to measure really exist. The foresaid leads us to appeal to phenomenological perspective, which seems to be more adequate for the study of complex realities, as it is the case of the personality and its disorders. The essential features of the phenomenological method in the sense of Husserl are described, as well as his contribution to the study of personality disorders. This can be summarized in three fundamental points: the ideal types, introduced in psychiatry by Karl Jaspers, the existential types, by Ludwig Binswanger, and the dialectic typologies and polarities, by Wolfgang Blankenburg and the undersigned. This author defines and develops each one of these concepts, aiming to show their advantages with respect to the categorical and dimensional systems.

  5. Dissociative phenomenology of dissociative identity disorder.

    PubMed

    Dell, Paul F

    2002-01-01

    The goal of this study was to investigate the dissociative phenomenology of dissociative identity disorder (DID). The Multidimensional Inventory of Dissociation (MID) was administered to 34 patients with DID, 23 patients with dissociative disorder not otherwise specified (DDNOS), 52 patients with mixed psychiatric disorders, and 58 normal individuals. DID patients obtained significantly higher scores than the other three groups on 27 dissociation-related variables. DDNOS patients had significantly higher scores than normals and mixed psychiatric patients on 17 and 15 dissociation-related variables, respectively. The findings of the present study are virtually identical to a large body of replicated findings about the dissociative phenomenology of DID. This broad range of dissociation-related phenomena, which routinely occurs in individuals with DID, is largely absent from the DSM-IV-TR account of DID. Factor analysis of the 11 dimensions of dissociation that are measured by the MID extracted only one factor that accounted for 85% of the variance. It was concluded that dissociation is a unifactorial taxon or natural type that has different aspects or epiphenomena (i.e., amnesia, depersonalization, voices, trance, etc.).

  6. Torsion phenomenology at the CERN LHC

    SciTech Connect

    Belyaev, A. S.; Shapiro, I. L.; Vale, M. A. B. do

    2007-02-01

    We explore the potential of the CERN Large Hadron Collider (LHC) to test the dynamical torsion parameters. The form of the torsion action can be established from the requirements of consistency of effective quantum field theory. The most phenomenologically relevant part of the torsion tensor is dual to a massive axial vector field. This axial vector has geometric nature, that means it does not belong to any representation of the gauge group of the SM extension or GUT theory. At the same time, torsion should interact with all fermions, that opens the way for the phenomenological applications. We demonstrate that LHC collider can establish unique constraints on the interactions between fermions and torsion field considerably exceeding present experimental lower bounds on the torsion couplings and its mass. It is also shown how possible nonuniversal nature of torsion couplings due to the renormalization group running between the Planck and TeV energy scales can be tested via the combined analysis of Drell-Yan and tt production processes.

  7. Phenomenology of hybrid scenarios of neutrino dark energy

    SciTech Connect

    Antusch, Stefan; Dutta, Koushik; Das, Subinoy E-mail: subinoy@nyu.edu

    2008-10-15

    We study the phenomenology of hybrid scenarios of neutrino dark energy, where in addition to a so-called mass-varying neutrino (MaVaN) sector a cosmological constant (from a false vacuum) is driving the accelerated expansion of the universe today. For general power law potentials we calculate the effective equation of state parameter w{sub eff}(z) in terms of the neutrino mass scale. Due to the interaction of the dark energy field ('acceleron') with the neutrino sector, w{sub eff}(z) is predicted to become smaller than -1 for z>0, which could be tested in future cosmological observations. For the scenarios considered, the neutrino mass scale additionally determines which fraction of the dark energy is dynamical, and which originates from the 'cosmological-constant-like' vacuum energy of the false vacuum. On the other hand, the field value of the 'acceleron' field today as well as the masses of the right-handed neutrinos, which appear in the seesaw-type mechanism for small neutrino masses, are not fixed. This, in principle, allows us to realize hybrid scenarios of neutrino dark energy with a 'high-scale' seesaw where the right-handed neutrino masses are close to the GUT scale. We also comment on how MaVaN hybrid scenarios with 'high-scale' seesaw might help to resolve stability problems of dark energy models with non-relativistic neutrinos.

  8. Characterisation of a phenomenological model for commercial pneumatic muscle actuators.

    PubMed

    Serres, J L; Reynolds, D B; Phillips, C A; Gerschutz, M J; Repperger, D W

    2009-08-01

    This study focuses on the parameter characterisation of a three-element phenomenological model for commercially available pneumatic muscle actuators (PMAs). This model consists of a spring, damping and contractile element arranged in parallel. Data collected from static loading, contraction and relaxation experiments were fitted to theoretical solutions of the governing equation for the three-element model resulting in prediction profiles for the spring, damping and contractile force coefficient. For the spring coefficient, K N/mm, the following relationships were found: K = 32.7 - 0.0321P for 150 < or = P < or = 314 kPa and K = 17 + 0.0179P for 314 < or = P < or = 550 kPa. For the damping coefficient, B Ns/mm, the following relationship was found during contraction: B = 2.90 for 150 < or = P < or = 550 kPa. During relaxation, B = 1.57 for 150 < or = P < or = 372 kPa and B = 0.311 + 0.00338P for 372 < or = P < or = 550. The following relationship for the contractile force coefficient, F(ce) N, was also determined: F(ce) = 2.91P+44.6 for 150 < or = P < or = 550 kPa. The model was then validated by reasonably predicting the response of the PMA to a triangular wave input in pressure under a constant load on a dynamic test station.

  9. Supernatural supersymmetry: Phenomenological implications of anomaly-mediated supersymmetry breaking

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feng, Jonathan L.; Moroi, Takeo

    2000-05-01

    We discuss the phenomenology of supersymmetric models in which supersymmetry breaking terms are induced by the super-Weyl anomaly. Such a scenario is envisioned to arise when supersymmetry breaking takes place in another world, i.e., on another brane. We review the anomaly-mediated framework and study in detail the minimal anomaly-mediated model parametrized by only 3+1 parameters: Maux, m0, tan β, and sgn(μ). The renormalization group equations exhibit a novel ``focus point'' (as opposed to fixed point) behavior, which allows squark and slepton masses far above their usual naturalness bounds. We present the superparticle spectrum and highlight several implications for high energy colliders. Three lightest supersymmetric particle (LSP) candidates exist: the W-ino, the stau, and the tau sneutrino. For the W-ino LSP scenario, light W-ino triplets with the smallest possible mass splittings are preferred; such W-inos are within reach of run II Fermilab Tevatron searches. Finally, we study a variety of sensitive low energy probes, including b-->sγ, the anomalous magnetic moment of the muon, and the electric dipole moments of the electron and neutron.

  10. Phenomenological investigations in high-altitude EMP (HEMP)

    SciTech Connect

    Cabayan, H.S.

    1984-07-01

    This report describes the presently available state-of-the-art analysis tools and extensions of these that are applicable to enhancing our understanding of the interaction and coupling phenomena associated with the high-altitude nuclear electromagnetic pulse (HEMP) and its effects on military systems. Such an in-depth understanding would provide the framework for a more scientific approach to system testing and hardening. In the report, we also briefly review past research programs in this area and evaluate the degree of their success. The emphasis in system assessment tools is placed on a probabilistic failure analysis approach that can provide a framework for vulnerabilities assessment and hardening. In coupling the emphasis is placed on a phenomenological understanding which involves a multifaceted approach involving analytical, computational, and experimental techniques in a complementary way. In component susceptibility, the emphasis is on the development of validated one, two and possibly three dimensional computer models that include the major physical phenomena such as heat and electronic transport equations. A gap exists in being able to express physics quantities in these codes in terms of nonlinear circuit parameters that can be used in the circuit codes.

  11. Supernatural supersymmetry: Phenomenological implications of anomaly-mediated supersymmetry breaking

    SciTech Connect

    Feng, Jonathan L.; Moroi, Takeo

    2000-05-01

    We discuss the phenomenology of supersymmetric models in which supersymmetry breaking terms are induced by the super-Weyl anomaly. Such a scenario is envisioned to arise when supersymmetry breaking takes place in another world, i.e., on another brane. We review the anomaly-mediated framework and study in detail the minimal anomaly-mediated model parametrized by only 3+1 parameters: M{sub aux}, m{sub 0}, tan {beta}, and sgn({mu}). The renormalization group equations exhibit a novel ''focus point'' (as opposed to fixed point) behavior, which allows squark and slepton masses far above their usual naturalness bounds. We present the superparticle spectrum and highlight several implications for high energy colliders. Three lightest supersymmetric particle (LSP) candidates exist: the W-ino, the stau, and the tau sneutrino. For the W-ino LSP scenario, light W-ino triplets with the smallest possible mass splittings are preferred; such W-inos are within reach of run II Fermilab Tevatron searches. Finally, we study a variety of sensitive low energy probes, including b{yields}s{gamma}, the anomalous magnetic moment of the muon, and the electric dipole moments of the electron and neutron. (c) 2000 The American Physical Society.

  12. Non-commutative relativistic equation with a Coulomb potential

    SciTech Connect

    Zaim, Slimane; Khodja, Lamine; Delenda, Yazid

    2012-06-27

    We improve the previous study of the Klein-Gordon equation in a non-commutative space-time as applied to the Hydrogen atom to extract the energy levels, by considering the secondorder corrections in the non-commutativity parameter. Phenomenologically we show that noncommutativity plays the role of spin.

  13. Researching Embodiment in Movement Contexts: A Phenomenological Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Standal, Oyvind F.; Engelsrud, Gunn

    2013-01-01

    This article takes a phenomenological approach to understanding embodiment in relation to teaching and learning taking place in movement contexts. Recently a number of studies have pointed to the potential that phenomenology has to understand the meanings and experiences of moving subjects. By presenting two examples of our own work on embodied…

  14. Interpretive and Critical Phenomenological Crime Studies: A Model Design

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miner-Romanoff, Karen

    2012-01-01

    The critical and interpretive phenomenological approach is underutilized in the study of crime. This commentary describes this approach, guided by the question, "Why are interpretive phenomenological methods appropriate for qualitative research in criminology?" Therefore, the purpose of this paper is to describe a model of the interpretive…

  15. Conflict Experience: A Phenomenological Study among Young People in Sweden

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Szklarski, Andrzej

    2007-01-01

    The aim of this study is to investigate how young people in Sweden experience conflicts. The study is phenomenological, which means that the focus is on the essence of the investigated experience. Data have been collected by self-reports and analyzed with the help of an empirical phenomenological method. The research process has resulted in…

  16. Women, Anger, and Aggression: An Interpretative Phenomenological Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eatough, Virginia; Smith, Jonathan A.; Shaw, Rachel

    2008-01-01

    This study reports a qualitative phenomenological investigation of anger and anger-related aggression in the context of the lives of individual women. Semistructured interviews with five women are analyzed using interpretative phenomenological analysis. This inductive approach aims to capture the richness and complexity of the lived experience of…

  17. Phenomenological Varying Modified Chaplygin Gas with Variable G and Λ: Toy Models for Our Universe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sadeghi, J.; Khurshudyan, M.; Farahani, H.

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, we have considered varying modified Chaplygin gas in case of variable G and Λ. Since varying G and Λ give rises to modified form of field equations and conservation law, we have considered two different toy models. In the first model, the Universe is filled with a phenomenological gas while in the second one, there is the existence of gas and a matter with P = ω( t) ρ m . By considering sign changeable interaction between fluids we have analyzed important cosmological parameters such as EoS parameter of the fluids and deceleration parameter q of the models.

  18. Palatini actions and quantum gravity phenomenology

    SciTech Connect

    Olmo, Gonzalo J.

    2011-10-01

    We show that an invariant an universal length scale can be consistently introduced in a generally covariant theory through the gravitational sector using the Palatini approach. The resulting theory is able to capture different aspects of quantum gravity phenomenology in a single framework. In particular, it is found that in this theory field excitations propagating with different energy-densities perceive different background metrics, which is a fundamental characteristic of the DSR and Rainbow Gravity approaches. We illustrate these properties with a particular gravitational model and explicitly show how the soccer ball problem is avoided in this framework. The isotropic and anisotropic cosmologies of this model also avoid the big bang singularity by means of a big bounce.

  19. [Phenomenology of multiculturalism and intercultural pluralism].

    PubMed

    Hoyos, Guillermo

    2012-01-01

    Multiculturalism is defined as the combination, within a given territory, of a social unit and a cultural plurality by way of exchanges and communications among actors who use different categories of expression, analysis and interpretation. A multiculturalist project should not promote a society that is split up into closed groups; on the contrary, it should set forth policies based on communication and cooperation processes among the cultural communities. To understand this concept, we will present the ontological basis of this phenomenonin the search for a communicational solution, with our startpoint being a phenomenological description of the way in which multiculturalism manifests to us in life; to later deepen into the meaning of the phenomenon,and finally offer a pluralist solution to the problems and challenges cultural differences bring about.

  20. International nursing students: a phenomenological perspective.

    PubMed

    Pross, Elizabeth

    2003-08-01

    Colleges and universities are faced with the challenge of how to create learning environments relevant to the internationalization of society and culture. International learning experiences, the focus of this article, may be one effective tool for internationalizing nursing curricula. Baccalaureate nursing students with international education experiences who were residing in a rural USA state were invited to participate in a qualitative descriptive study informed by phenomenology. Sixteen nursing students participated in mail surveys and eleven in interviews. Participants were mainly female, Caucasian, university seniors with an average age of 31 years. Thematic statements were isolated into nine experiential structures and four essential themes. Themes were identified as preparing, adjusting, caring, and transforming and were found to be influenced by culture, values, and ethics. A descriptive diagram was created summarizing the structure of meaning. Significance of this nursing study was the identification of plausible descriptive insights that may be useful to educators who assist students with international education experiences. PMID:12900187

  1. Mid-wave infrared DIAL noise phenomenology

    SciTech Connect

    Magnotta, F., Morris, J.R., Neuman, W.A., Scharlemann, E.T.

    1997-07-23

    LLNL has utilized optical parametric oscillator technology to develop and field a rapidly-tunable mid-wave infrared (MWIR) DIAL system. The system can be tuned at up to 1 KHz over the 3.3-3.8 micron spectral region, where hydrogen-bond stretching modes provide spectroscopic signatures for a wide variety of chemicals. We have fielded the DIAL system on the LLNL site with targets at horizontal ranges of up to 2 km. We have collected data on noise levels and correlations and their dependences on range, turbulence, and receiver aperture size. In this paper we describe some of the implications of this data for MWIR DIAL phenomenology. In particular, the interplay of turbulence and speckle to produce the observed noise fluctuations at short ranges (<500 m) is presented.

  2. The auditory hallucination: a phenomenological survey.

    PubMed

    Nayani, T H; David, A S

    1996-01-01

    A comprehensive semi-structured questionnaire was administered to 100 psychotic patients who had experienced auditory hallucinations. The aim was to extend the phenomenology of the hallucination into areas of both form and content and also to guide future theoretical development. All subjects heard 'voices' talking to or about them. The location of the voice, its characteristics and the nature of address were described. Precipitants and alleviating factors plus the effect of the hallucinations on the sufferer were identified. Other hallucinatory experiences, thought insertion and insight were examined for their inter-relationships. A pattern emerged of increasing complexity of the auditory-verbal hallucination over time by a process of accretion, with the addition of more voices and extended dialogues, and more intimacy between subject and voice. Such evolution seemed to relate to the lessening of distress and improved coping. These findings should inform both neurological and cognitive accounts of the pathogenesis of auditory hallucinations in psychotic disorders. PMID:8643757

  3. Phenomenological theory of uniaxial relaxor ferroelectrics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shirokov, V. B.; Pavlenko, A. V.; Yuzyuk, Yu I.

    2016-10-01

    A phenomenological thermodynamic theory of uniaxial relaxor strontium barium niobate \\text{B}{{\\text{a}}0.5}\\text{S}{{\\text{r}}0.5}\\text{N}{{\\text{b}}2}{{\\text{O}}6} is developed using the Landau-Devonshire approach with two order parameters. The fourth-order thermodynamic potential allowed to explain the shape of the polarization hysteresis loops experimentally observed at different temperatures. We show that the broad maximum of the dielectric permittivity is not related to the phase transition and arise due to the coupling between polarization and true order parameter which has antiferroelectric nature. We found that the phase transition temperature is much higher than the maximum of the dielectric permittivity and very likely corresponds to so-called Burn’s temperature. True order parameter has no simple relation with polar modes.

  4. JUNIOR JADE - containment phenomenology of decoupled events

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, C.W.

    1995-02-01

    With five 8 pound high-explosive experiments, the author has investigated aspects of the containment phenomenology of partially decoupled events. In three experiments he observed multiple fractures and little cavity growth. In the final two experiments there were no fractures and cavity volumes grew by factors of approximately two and three. With the five experiments a spectrum of results ranging from hydraulic fracture - like crack propagation through multiple fracture propagation to the no fracture, or fully contained, case, was observed. For the multiple fracture experiments a partial residual stress field may have controlled the release of the cavity pressure. Measurements of cavity pressure versus time provided containment diagnostics; post event mining allowed visual observation of the cavities and fractures.

  5. The Phenomenology of Small-Scale Turbulence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sreenivasan, K. R.; Antonia, R. A.

    I have sometimes thought that what makes a man's work classic is often just this multiplicity [of interpretations], which invites and at the same time resists our craving for a clear understanding. Wright (1982, p. 34), on Wittgenstein's philosophy Small-scale turbulence has been an area of especially active research in the recent past, and several useful research directions have been pursued. Here, we selectively review this work. The emphasis is on scaling phenomenology and kinematics of small-scale structure. After providing a brief introduction to the classical notions of universality due to Kolmogorov and others, we survey the existing work on intermittency, refined similarity hypotheses, anomalous scaling exponents, derivative statistics, intermittency models, and the structure and kinematics of small-scale structure - the latter aspect coming largely from the direct numerical simulation of homogeneous turbulence in a periodic box.

  6. Radion phenomenology with 3 and 4 generations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frank, Mariana; Korutlu, Beste; Toharia, Manuel

    2011-12-01

    We study radion phenomenology in an warped extra-dimension scenario with standard model fields in the bulk, with and without an additional fourth family of fermions. The radion couplings with the fermions will be generically misaligned with respect to the standard model fermion mass matrices, therefore producing some amount of flavor-violating couplings and potentially influencing production and decay rates of the radion. Simple analytic expressions for the radion-fermion couplings are obtained with three or four families. We also update and analyze the current experimental limits on radion couplings and on the model parameters, again with both three- and four-family scenarios. We finally present the modified decay branching ratios of the radion with an emphasis on the new channels involving flavor-diagonal and flavor-violating decays into fourth-generation quarks and leptons.

  7. Phenomenological modeling of ferromagnetic shape memory alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kiefer, Bjorn; Lagoudas, Dimitris C.

    2004-07-01

    A thermodynamically consistent phenomenological model is presented which captures the ferromagnetic shape memory effect, i. e. the large macroscopically observable shape change of magnetic shape memory materials under the application of external magnetic fields. In its most general form the model includes the influence of the microstructure for both the volume fraction of different martensitic variants and magnetic domains on the described macroscopic constitutive behavior. A phase diagram based approach is taken to postulate functions governing the onset and termination of the reorientation process. A numerical example is given for an experiment on a NiMnGa single crystal specimen reported in the literature, for which the model is reduced to a two-dimensional case of an assumed magnetic domain structure.

  8. Automated adaptive inference of phenomenological dynamical models

    PubMed Central

    Daniels, Bryan C.; Nemenman, Ilya

    2015-01-01

    Dynamics of complex systems is often driven by large and intricate networks of microscopic interactions, whose sheer size obfuscates understanding. With limited experimental data, many parameters of such dynamics are unknown, and thus detailed, mechanistic models risk overfitting and making faulty predictions. At the other extreme, simple ad hoc models often miss defining features of the underlying systems. Here we develop an approach that instead constructs phenomenological, coarse-grained models of network dynamics that automatically adapt their complexity to the available data. Such adaptive models produce accurate predictions even when microscopic details are unknown. The approach is computationally tractable, even for a relatively large number of dynamical variables. Using simulated data, it correctly infers the phase space structure for planetary motion, avoids overfitting in a biological signalling system and produces accurate predictions for yeast glycolysis with tens of data points and over half of the interacting species unobserved. PMID:26293508

  9. Cognitive representations of AIDS: a phenomenological study.

    PubMed

    Anderson, Elizabeth H; Spencer, Margaret Hull

    2002-12-01

    Cognitive representations of illness determine behavior. How persons living with AIDS image their disease might be key to understanding medication adherence and other health behaviors. The authors' purpose was to describe AIDS patients' cognitive representations of their illness. A purposive sample of 58 men and women with AIDS were interviewed. Using Colaizzi's (1978) phenomenological method, rigor was established through application of verification, validation, and validity. From 175 significant statements, 11 themes emerged. Cognitive representations included imaging AIDS as death, bodily destruction, and just a disease. Coping focused on wiping AIDS out of the mind, hoping for the right drug, and caring for oneself. Inquiring about a patient's image of AIDS might help nurses assess coping processes and enhance nurse-patient relationships.

  10. Evaluation of Mesoscale Model Phenomenological Verification Techniques

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lambert, Winifred

    2006-01-01

    Forecasters at the Spaceflight Meteorology Group, 45th Weather Squadron, and National Weather Service in Melbourne, FL use mesoscale numerical weather prediction model output in creating their operational forecasts. These models aid in forecasting weather phenomena that could compromise the safety of launch, landing, and daily ground operations and must produce reasonable weather forecasts in order for their output to be useful in operations. Considering the importance of model forecasts to operations, their accuracy in forecasting critical weather phenomena must be verified to determine their usefulness. The currently-used traditional verification techniques involve an objective point-by-point comparison of model output and observations valid at the same time and location. The resulting statistics can unfairly penalize high-resolution models that make realistic forecasts of a certain phenomena, but are offset from the observations in small time and/or space increments. Manual subjective verification can provide a more valid representation of model performance, but is time-consuming and prone to personal biases. An objective technique that verifies specific meteorological phenomena, much in the way a human would in a subjective evaluation, would likely produce a more realistic assessment of model performance. Such techniques are being developed in the research community. The Applied Meteorology Unit (AMU) was tasked to conduct a literature search to identify phenomenological verification techniques being developed, determine if any are ready to use operationally, and outline the steps needed to implement any operationally-ready techniques into the Advanced Weather Information Processing System (AWIPS). The AMU conducted a search of all literature on the topic of phenomenological-based mesoscale model verification techniques and found 10 different techniques in various stages of development. Six of the techniques were developed to verify precipitation forecasts, one

  11. [Phenomenology of multiculturalism and intercultural pluralism].

    PubMed

    Hoyos, Guillermo

    2012-01-01

    Multiculturalism is defined as the combination, within a given territory, of a social unit and a cultural plurality by way of exchanges and communications among actors who use different categories of expression, analysis and interpretation. A multiculturalist project should not promote a society that is split up into closed groups; on the contrary, it should set forth policies based on communication and cooperation processes among the cultural communities. To understand this concept, we will present the ontological basis of this phenomenonin the search for a communicational solution, with our startpoint being a phenomenological description of the way in which multiculturalism manifests to us in life; to later deepen into the meaning of the phenomenon,and finally offer a pluralist solution to the problems and challenges cultural differences bring about. PMID:23338645

  12. Phenomenological theory of uniaxial relaxor ferroelectrics.

    PubMed

    Shirokov, V B; Pavlenko, A V; Yuzyuk, Yu I

    2016-10-01

    A phenomenological thermodynamic theory of uniaxial relaxor strontium barium niobate [Formula: see text] is developed using the Landau-Devonshire approach with two order parameters. The fourth-order thermodynamic potential allowed to explain the shape of the polarization hysteresis loops experimentally observed at different temperatures. We show that the broad maximum of the dielectric permittivity is not related to the phase transition and arise due to the coupling between polarization and true order parameter which has antiferroelectric nature. We found that the phase transition temperature is much higher than the maximum of the dielectric permittivity and very likely corresponds to so-called Burn's temperature. True order parameter has no simple relation with polar modes. PMID:27485244

  13. Phenomenology and the life sciences: Clarifications and complementarities.

    PubMed

    Sheets-Johnstone, Maxine

    2015-12-01

    This paper first clarifies phenomenology in ways essential to demonstrating its basic concern with Nature and its recognition of individual and cultural differences as well as commonalities. It furthermore clarifies phenomenological methodology in ways essential to understanding the methodology itself, its purpose, and its consequences. These clarifications show how phenomenology, by hewing to the dynamic realities of life itself and experiences of life itself, counters reductive thinking and "embodiments" of one kind and another. On the basis of these clarifications, the paper then turns to detailing conceptual complementarities between phenomenology and the life sciences, particularly highlighting studies in coordination dynamics. In doing so, it brings to light fundamental relationships such as those between mind and motion and between intrinsic dynamics and primal animation. It furthermore highlights the common concern with origins in both phenomenology and evolutionary biology: the history of how what is present is related to its inception in the past and to its transformations from past to present.

  14. Self, Voices and Embodiment: A Phenomenological Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Rosen, C; Jones, N; Chase, KA; Grossman, LS; Gin, H; Sharma, RP

    2016-01-01

    Objective The primary aim of this study was to examine first-person phenomenological descriptions of the relationship between the self and Auditory Verbal Hallucinations (AVHs). Complex AVHs are frequently described as entities with clear interpersonal characteristics. Strikingly, investigations of first-person (subjective) descriptions of the phenomenology of the relationship are virtually absent from the literature. Method Twenty participants with psychosis and actively experiencing AVHs were recruited from the University of Illinois at Chicago. A mixed-methods design involving qualitative and quantitative components was utilized. Following a priority-sequence model of complementarity, quantitative analyses were used to test elements of emergent qualitative themes. Results The qualitative analysis identified three foundational constructs in the relationship between self and voices: ‘understanding of origin,’ ‘distinct interpersonal identities,’ and ‘locus of control.’ Quantitative analyses further supported identified links of these constructs. Subjects experienced their AVHs as having identities distinct from self and actively engaged with their AVHs experienced a greater sense of autonomy and control over AVHs. Discussion Given the clinical importance of AVHs and emerging strategies targeting the relationship between the hearer and voices, our findings highlight the importance of these relational constructs in improvement and innovation of clinical interventions. Our analyses also underscore the value of detailed voice assessments such as those provided by the Maastricht Interview are needed in the evaluation process. Subjects narratives shows that the relational phenomena between hearer and AVH(s) is dynamic, and can be influenced and changed through the hearers’ engagement, conversation, and negotiation with their voices. PMID:27099869

  15. The phenomenology of the intersubjective impairment.

    PubMed

    Hipolito, Ines

    2016-08-01

    Several studies suggest that the disorders of the self include a disturbance of the most elementary component of self - the minimal self. Characterizing these disorders and understanding the mechanisms involved remain a challenge to medical epistemology and health care professionals. In the present work, I bring together concepts of different fields, such as neuroscience, epistemology and phenomenology. The main goal is to show that the second-person perspective can be used to point out particular features of social cognition and its related psychopathology. Taking the hypothesis that the second-person perspective is the congruence point between an objective process and the subjective experience, I will attempt to explain schizophrenia as a self-related deficit, first in the light of the first-person and the third-person perspective and afterward, in the light of the poorly less understood second-person perspective. On the one hand, the first-person experience is correlated both with space and time. In fact, psychiatric patients report subjective experiences that can be understood within research on the bodily self, such as (1) spatially incongruent proprioception and (2) impaired sense of time as the basic mechanism that allows conscious experience. On the other hand, the second-person approach has already begun to prove productive within social cognition research, pointing out the importance of experiencing and interacting with others as our primarily way well-being. I will phenomenological analyse subjective and intersubjective experience in the disorders of the self and derive practical consequences to evidence-based medicine.

  16. Phenomenology and Mass Communication Research: An Uncertain Past and a Promising Future.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Whitney, D. Charles; Barkin, Steve M.

    Future research on mass media and mass communication organizations might profitably emphasize phenomenological methods (phenomenology being an interpersonal, subjective reality construction as contrasted to an objective, rationalistic, institutional reality construction). Some major phenomenological concepts important to such research were…

  17. Curriculum as Post-Intentional Phenomenological Text: Working along the Edges and Margins of Phenomenology Using Post-Structuralist Ideas

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vagle, Mark D.

    2015-01-01

    In this article, I experiment along the edges and margins of the phenomenological notion of intentionality using the Deleuzoguattarian concepts of multiplicity and line of flight. Working from Pinar et al.'s anticipation that phenomenology would undergo discursive shifts tending towards the post-structural, I theorize curriculum as…

  18. Beautiful equations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Viljamaa, Panu; Jacobs, J. Richard; Chris; JamesHyman; Halma, Matthew; EricNolan; Coxon, Paul

    2014-07-01

    In reply to a Physics World infographic (part of which is given above) about a study showing that Euler's equation was deemed most beautiful by a group of mathematicians who had been hooked up to a functional magnetic-resonance image (fMRI) machine while viewing mathematical expressions (14 May, http://ow.ly/xHUFi).

  19. Parallel solution of the three-dimensional time-dependent Ginzburg- Landau equation

    SciTech Connect

    Galbreath, N.; Gropp, W.; Gunter, D.; Leaf, G.; Levine, D.

    1996-08-01

    The recent discovery of superconductivity in a class of copper-oxide compounds (the cuprate superconductors) at liquid nitrogen temperatures has generated a renewed interest in the magnetic properties of type-II superconductors. In our work, we are investigating these properties using the phenomenological time- dependent Ginzburg-Landau equation. This paper describes the parallelization of this equation.

  20. Phenomenological modelling of eclipsing binary stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Andronov, I. L.; Tkachenko, M. G.; Chinarova, L. L.

    2016-03-01

    We review the method NAV ("New Algol Variable") first introduced in (2012Ap.....55..536A) which uses the locally-dependent shapes of eclipses in an addition to the trigonometric polynomial of the second order (which typically describes the "out-of-eclipse" part of the light curve with effects of reflection, ellipticity and O'Connell). Eclipsing binary stars are believed to show distinct eclipses only if belonging to the EA (Algol) type. With a decreasing eclipse width, the statistically optimal value of the trigonometric polynomial s(2003ASPC..292..391A) drastically increases from ~2 for elliptic (EL) variables without eclipses, ~6-8 for EW and up to ~30-50 for some EA with narrow eclipses. In this case of large number of parameters, the smoothing curve becomes very noisy and apparent waves (the Gibbs phenomenon) may be seen. The NAV set of the parameters may be used for classification in the GCVS, VSX and similar catalogs. The maximal number of parameters is m=12, which corresponds to s=5, if correcting both the period and the initial epoch. We have applied the method to few stars, also in a case of multi-color photometry (2015JASS...32..127A), when it is possible to use the phenomenological parameters from the NAV fit to estimate physical parameters using statistical dependencies. For the one-color observations, one may estimate the ratio of the surface brightnesses of the components. We compiled a catalog of phenomenological characteristics based on published observations. We conclude that the NAV approximation is better than the TP one even for the case of EW-type stars with much wider eclipses. It may also be used to determine timings (see 2005ASPC..335...37A for a review of methods) or to determine parameters in the case of variable period, using a complete light curve modeling the phase variations. The method is illustrated on 2MASS J11080447-6143290 (EA-type), USNO-B1.0 1265-0306001 and USNO-B1.01266-0313413 (EW-type) and compared to various other methods

  1. The collider phenomenology of supersymmetric models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Muller, David J.

    Scope and method of study. The purpose of this study is to investigate the phenomenology of various supersymmetric models. First, the Minimal Supersymmetric Standard Model (MSSM) is investigated. This model contains an extended Higgs sector that includes a charged boson. The effect that this charged Higgs boson has on the signatures for top quark pair production at the Tevatron is investigated. The rest of the work is devoted to the phenomenology of models with gauge mediated supersymmetry breaking (GMSB). In GMSB models, the lighter stau can be the next to lightest supersymmetric particle. The signals at hadronic colliders for GMSB models with minimal visible sector content are explored for this case. A GMSB model with non-minimal visible sector content is also explored. This is the left-right symmetric GMSB model which contains doubly charged bosons and fermions that could be light enough in mass to be produced at Run II of the Tevatron. Findings and conclusions. The presence of a charged Higgs boson that is lighter than the top quark is found to have a significant impact on the expected signatures for top quark pair production at the Tevatron. This is marked by an overall decrease in high pT electrons and muons in the final states. In addition, for tan beta less than about one, the three-body decay H+→bbW leads to final states that are not present in the Standard Model. For GMSB models with the lighter stau as the next to lightest supersymmetric particle, the signature at the Tevatron typically involves two or three tau-jets plus large missing transverse energy. This tau-jet signature can be even more pronounced in left-right symmetric GMSB models due to the production of light doubly charged fermions that may couple preferentially to the third generation of leptons. The left-right models can be distinguished from GMSB models with minimal visible sector content by the distribution in angle between the highest ET tau-jets when they come from same sign tau

  2. A preliminary phenomenological study of being hypnotized and hypnotizing.

    PubMed

    Woodard, Fredrick James

    2005-10-01

    This paper presents phenomenological research conducted following Woodard's phenomenological and perceptual research methodology for understanding hypnotic experiencing. The research emphasizes examining the internal experiencings of individuals involved in hypnotic experiencing. Examples are presented of Individual Situated Structures and the General Structures from both a group of 8 participants who hypnotized their clients and another group of 17 individuals who volunteered to be hypnotized. The explicated themes identified in hypnotic experiencing (the hypnotic relationship, phenomenology of trance, use of imagination, problem with psychic energy, a gestalt of experiencing, and linear-nonlinear experiencing) are discussed. The author discusses limitations of this study and suggestions for further work. PMID:16342574

  3. The Phenomenological Circle and the Unity of Life and Thought.

    PubMed

    Atwood, George E; Stolorow, Robert D

    2016-06-01

    This paper describes the important role of our deep immersions in philosophy in the development of our phenomenological-contextualist approach to psychoanalysis. Influenced most particularly by the phenomenological movement, our collaborative dialogue over more than four decades has led us to a shared commitment to reflection upon the philosophical underpinnings and constitutive contexts of origin of all our theoretical ideas. The growth of our thinking follows an endlessly recurring phenomenological circle joining theoretical perspectives with the inquirers from whose emotional worlds they arise. PMID:27248037

  4. The Phenomenological Circle and the Unity of Life and Thought.

    PubMed

    Atwood, George E; Stolorow, Robert D

    2016-06-01

    This paper describes the important role of our deep immersions in philosophy in the development of our phenomenological-contextualist approach to psychoanalysis. Influenced most particularly by the phenomenological movement, our collaborative dialogue over more than four decades has led us to a shared commitment to reflection upon the philosophical underpinnings and constitutive contexts of origin of all our theoretical ideas. The growth of our thinking follows an endlessly recurring phenomenological circle joining theoretical perspectives with the inquirers from whose emotional worlds they arise.

  5. Multivariate Moran process with Lotka-Volterra phenomenology.

    PubMed

    Noble, Andrew E; Hastings, Alan; Fagan, William F

    2011-11-25

    For a population with any given number of types, we construct a new multivariate Moran process with frequency-dependent selection and establish, analytically, a correspondence to equilibrium Lotka-Volterra phenomenology. This correspondence, on the one hand, allows us to infer the phenomenology of our Moran process based on much simpler Lokta-Volterra phenomenology and, on the other, allows us to study Lotka-Volterra dynamics within the finite populations of a Moran process. Applications to community ecology, population genetics, and evolutionary game theory are discussed.

  6. The cruel and unusual phenomenology of solitary confinement

    PubMed Central

    Gallagher, Shaun

    2014-01-01

    What happens when subjects are deprived of intersubjective contact? This paper looks closely at the phenomenology and psychology of one example of that deprivation: solitary confinement. It also puts the phenomenology and psychology of solitary confinement to use in the legal context. Not only is there no consensus on whether solitary confinement is a “cruel and unusual punishment,” there is no consensus on the definition of the term “cruel” in the use of that legal phrase. I argue that we can find a moral consensus on the meaning of “cruelty” by looking specifically at the phenomenology and psychology of solitary confinement. PMID:24971072

  7. Marcus equation

    DOE R&D Accomplishments Database

    1998-09-21

    In the late 1950s to early 1960s Rudolph A. Marcus developed a theory for treating the rates of outer-sphere electron-transfer reactions. Outer-sphere reactions are reactions in which an electron is transferred from a donor to an acceptor without any chemical bonds being made or broken. (Electron-transfer reactions in which bonds are made or broken are referred to as inner-sphere reactions.) Marcus derived several very useful expressions, one of which has come to be known as the Marcus cross-relation or, more simply, as the Marcus equation. It is widely used for correlating and predicting electron-transfer rates. For his contributions to the understanding of electron-transfer reactions, Marcus received the 1992 Nobel Prize in Chemistry. This paper discusses the development and use of the Marcus equation. Topics include self-exchange reactions; net electron-transfer reactions; Marcus cross-relation; and proton, hydride, atom and group transfers.

  8. Navier-Stokes symmetry in the phenomenological transport theory for bacterial chemotaxis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rosen, Gerald

    1984-05-01

    It is observed that the Navier-Stokes space-time dilatation invariance (x-->-->λx-->,t-->λ2t) implies that the random motility and chemotactic flux function take the forms observed experimentally for motile Escherichia coli attracted by low concentrations of oxygen; moreover, the rate function for E. coli consumption of dissolved oxygen is required to have the form (const) × (local oxygen concentration)2/3. It is also noteworthy that the Schrödinger-Bloch function for redistribution of chemotactic bacteria cells is invariant under the space-time dilatation transformations if and only if the chemotactic flux coefficient-random motility ratio equals 2, a value in the range 1.1 to 2.5 observed experimentally by Holz and Chen in the oxygen chemotaxis of motile E. coli. Suitably specialized governing equations for the phenomenological transport theory also admit a Galilean transformation invariance symmetry if and only if the chemotactic flux coefficient-critical substrate diffusivity ratio equals -2 and the consumption rate function is simply linear in the local oxygen concentration. Applicable to the regime of viscous incompressible flows with Reynolds numbers much less than unity, the Navier-Stokes superposition invariance may also give rise to a corresponding invariance symmetry in equivalent but linear phenomenological transport equations.

  9. Cluster-size dynamics: A phenomenological model for the interaction between coagulation and fragmentation processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rotstein, Horacio G.

    2015-06-01

    We present a novel phenomenological modeling approach to describe the growth of clusters as the result of the interaction between cluster coagulation and fragmentation. The cluster-size growth (CSG) model tracks the evolution of cluster-sizes rather than the concentrations of clusters with different sizes as in the Smoluchowski and Becker-Döring coagulation-fragmentation equations. Our modeling perspective allows for a description of cluster growth in realistic systems by using a significantly smaller number of differential equations to describe their dynamics. We used dynamical system tools (phase-plane analysis) and numerical simulations to investigate the CSG model dynamics and to understand how the model parameters describing the coagulation and fragmentation processes determine balances between these two processes that create non-zero stationary cluster size distributions.

  10. A note on the numerical solution of the von Karman small disturbance equation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pilant, M. S.

    1985-09-01

    In this short note, the von Karman small disturbance equation is derived from the full potential equation of gas dynamics through perturbation methods. Guderley (1962) and Germain (1964) have previously computed exact solutions, in similarity form, for the small disturbance equation. It is shown that these solutions can be computed efficiently by solving a single nonlinear second-order differential equation. The shock and entropy conditions are automatically satisfied, and a one-parameter family of solutions is recovered.

  11. Some exact solutions of a system of nonlinear Schroedinger equations in three-dimensional space

    SciTech Connect

    Moskalyuk, S.S.

    1988-02-01

    Interactions that break the symmetry of systems of nonrelativistic Schroedinger equations but preserve their symmetry with respect to one-parameter subgroups of the Schroedinger group are described. Ansatzes for invariant solutions and the corresponding systems of reduced equations in invariant variables for Galileo-invariant Schroedinger equations are found. Exact solutions for the system of nonlinear Schroedinger equations in three-dimensional space for the generalized Hubbard model are obtained.

  12. Conciliating neuroscience and phenomenology via category theory.

    PubMed

    Ehresmann, Andrée C; Gomez-Ramirez, Jaime

    2015-12-01

    The paper discusses how neural and mental processes correlate for developing cognitive abilities like memory or spatial representation and allowing the emergence of higher cognitive processes up to embodied cognition, consciousness and creativity. It is done via the presentation of MENS (for Memory Evolutive Neural System), a mathematical methodology, based on category theory, which encompasses the neural and mental systems and analyzes their dynamics in the process of 'becoming'. Using the categorical notion of a colimit, it describes the generation of mental objects through the iterative binding of distributed synchronous assemblies of neurons, and presents a new rationale of spatial representation in the hippocampus (Gómez-Ramirez and Sanz, 2011). An important result is that the degeneracy of the neural code (Edelman, 1989) is the property allowing for the formation of mental objects and cognitive processes of increasing complexity order, with multiple neuronal realizabilities; it is essential "to explain certain empirical phenomena like productivity and systematicity of thought and thinking (Aydede 2010)". Rather than restricting the discourse to linguistics or philosophy of mind, the formal methods used in MENS lead to precise notions of Compositionality, Productivity and Systematicity, which overcome the dichotomic debate of classicism vs. connectionism and their multiple facets. It also allows developing the naturalized phenomenology approach asked for by Varela (1996) which "seeks articulations by mutual constraints between phenomena present in experience and the correlative field of phenomena established by the cognitive sciences", while avoiding their pitfalls. PMID:26193173

  13. Phenomenological theory of the pseudogap state

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Kai-Yu; Rice, T. M.; Zhang, Fu-Chun

    2006-05-01

    An ansatz is proposed for the coherent part of the single particle Green’s function in a doped resonant valence bond (RVB) state by analogy with the form derived by Konik and co-workers for a doped spin liquid formed by an array of two-leg Hubbard ladders near half-filling. The parameters of the RVB state are taken from the renormalized mean field theory of Zhang and co-workers for underdoped cuprates. The ansatz shows good agreement with recent angle resolved photoemission on underdoped cuprates and resolves an apparent disagreement with the Luttinger sum rule. The transition in the normal state from a doped RVB spin liquid to a standard Landau Fermi liquid, that occurs in the renormalized mean field theory, appears as a quantum critical point characterized by a change in the analytic form of the Green’s function. A d -wave superconducting dome surrounding this quantum critical point is introduced phenomenologically. Results are also presented for the Drude weight and tunneling density of states as functions of the hole density.

  14. [MENTORING IN NURSING, A PHENOMENOLOGICAL APPROACH].

    PubMed

    Osuna Torres, Blanca Herlinda; González Rendón, M C E Cristina

    2014-11-01

    The essay explains that mentoring, originally established to improve student trajectories, reflects a deeper improvement of the people involved in the process. The method used is the analysis of the mentoring experience from participant observation and phenomenology of lived processes. The results reveal that the early analysis of risk factors present in academics--socio-psychological, family and institutional matters, that may affect the student experience in its passage through the academic unit--, requires the intervention of a preventive nature and monitoring operating variables. In addition, tutoring is a teaching experience which is consolidated with the daily life from the human relationship established between the mentor and the mentee, from the position of the older adult and experience is a state meet demand related care. However, in the tutorial process face to face, usually with academic aspects, therefore, the teaching function is fulfilled but operated in particular. By helping to find meaning to knowledge not understood, this function is still performed if tutors pairs learn to know each other that occasionally is the mirror which reflects the own story. While they are recognizing the problems of the mentee, the mentor will exorcise his ghosts. Therefore, we argue that, although originally born tutoring to abate dropout rates, failure and increase retention and degree, over time, has become a process of improving people.

  15. Photochemical Phenomenology Model for the New Millenium

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bishop, James; Evans, J. Scott

    2000-01-01

    This project tackles the problem of conversion of validated a priori physics-based modeling capabilities, specifically those relevant to the analysis and interpretation of planetary atmosphere observations, to application-oriented software for use in science and science-support activities. The software package under development, named the Photochemical Phenomenology Modeling Tool (PPMT), has particular focus on the atmospheric remote sensing data to be acquired by the CIRS instrument during the CASSINI Jupiter flyby and orbital tour of the Saturnian system. Overall, the project has followed the development outline given in the original proposal, and the Year 1 design and architecture goals have been met. Specific accomplishments and the difficulties encountered are summarized in this report. Most of the effort has gone into complete definition of the PPMT interfaces within the context of today's IT arena: adoption and adherence to the CORBA Component Model (CCM) has yielded a solid architecture basis, and CORBA-related issues (services, specification options, development plans, etc.) have been largely resolved. Implementation goals have been redirected somewhat so as to be more relevant to the upcoming CASSINI flyby of Jupiter, with focus now being more on data analysis and remote sensing retrieval applications.

  16. Theory and phenomenology of Dirac leptogenesis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thomas, Brooks D.

    2007-07-01

    Dirac leptogenesis, in which neutrinos are purely Dirac and develop small but nonzero effective masses without the aid of the see-saw mechanism, provides an interesting alternative to the standard leptogenesis picture. Here we review the theory and phenomenology of Dirac leptogenesis and show that it is a viable theory capable of simultaneously satisfying all relevant bounds from cosmology, neutrino physics, and flavor violation. In addition, we also explore several potential extensions of the model, such as the possibility of right-handed sneutrino dark matter and the potential for relating the leptogenesis mechanism to the origin of the mu-term. Theories with a heavy gravitino and gaugino masses generated by anomaly mediation emerge as one natural context for Dirac leptogenesis. In such models the lightest neutralino is often expected to be predominately wino or Higgsino, and is a viable dark matter candidate. We conclude with an examination of the prospects for detecting the effectively monoenergetic photon signal that results from the annihilation of such a dark matter particle in the galactic halo.

  17. A phenomenological treatment of rotating turbulence

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zhou, YE

    1995-01-01

    The strong similarity between the magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) turbulence and initially isotropic turbulence subject to rotation is noted. We then apply the MHD phenomenologies of Kraichnan and Matthaeus & Zhou to rotating turbulence. When the turbulence is subject to a strong rotation, the energy spectrum is found to scale as E(k) = C(sub Omega)(Omega(sub epsilon))(sup 1/2)k(sup -2), where Omega is the rotation rate, k is the wavenumber, and epsilon is the dissipation rate. This spectral form is consistent with a recent letter by Zeman. However, here the constant C(sub Omega) is found to be related to the Kolmogorov constant and is estimated in the range 1.22 - 1.87 for the typical values of the latter constant. A 'rule' that relates spectral transfer times to the eddy turnover time and the time scale for decay of the triple correlations is deduced. A hypothesis for the triple correlation decay rate leads to the spectral law which varies between the '-5/3' (without rotation) and '-2' laws (with strong rotation). For intermediate rotation rates, the spectrum varies according to the value of a dimensionless parameter that measures the strength of the rotation wavenumber k(sub Omega) = (Omega(sup 3)/epsiolon)(sup 1/2) relative to the wavenumber k. An eddy viscosity is derived with an explicit dependence on the rotation rate.

  18. Phenomenological Theory of the Photoevaporation Front Instability

    SciTech Connect

    Ryutov, D D; Kane, J O; Mizuta, A; Pound, M W; Remington, B A

    2006-04-10

    The dynamics of photoevaporated molecular clouds is determined by the ablative pressure acting on the ionization front. An important step in the understanding of the ensuing motion is to develop the linear stability theory for the initially flat front. Despite the simplifications introduced by the linearization, the problem remains quite complex and still draws a lot of attention. The complexity is related to the large number of effects that have to be included in the analysis: acceleration of the front, possible temporal variation of the intensity of the ionizing radiation, the tilt of the radiation flux with respect to the normal to the surface, and partial absorption of the incident radiation in the ablated material. In this paper, we describe a model where all these effects can be taken into account simultaneously, and a relatively simple and universal dispersion relation can be obtained. The proposed phenomenological model may prove to be a helpful tool in assessing the feasibility of the laboratory experiments directed towards scaled modeling of astrophysical phenomena.

  19. Phenomenological Theory of the Photoevaporation Front Instability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ryutov, D. D.; Kane, J. O.; Mizuta, A.; Pound, M. W.; Remington, B. A.

    2007-01-01

    The dynamics of photoevaporated molecular clouds is determined by the ablative pressure acting on the ionization front. An important step in the understanding of the ensuing motion is to develop the linear stability theory for an initially flat front. Despite the simplifications introduced by linearization, the problem remains quite complex and still draws a lot of attention. The complexity is related to the large number of effects that have to be included in the analysis: acceleration of the front, possible temporal variation of the intensity of the ionizing radiation, the tilt of the radiation flux with respect to the normal to the surface, and partial absorption of the incident radiation in the ablated material. In this paper, we describe a model where all these effects can be taken into account simultaneously, and a relatively simple and universal dispersion relation can be obtained. The proposed phenomenological model may prove to be a helpful tool in assessing the feasibility of the laboratory experiments directed towards scaled modeling of astrophysical phenomena.

  20. New Dimensions for Randall-Sundrum Phenomenology

    SciTech Connect

    Davoudiasl, Hooman; Rizzo, Thomas G.

    2008-09-30

    We consider a 6D extension of the Randall-Sundrum (RS) model, RS6, where the Standard Model (SM) gauge fields are allowed to propagate in an additional dimension, compactified on S{sup 1} or S{sup 1}/Z{sub 2}. In a minimal scenario, fermions propagate in the 5D RS subspace and their localization provides a model of flavor. New Kaluza-Klein (KK) states, corresponding to excitations of the gauge fields along the 6th dimension, appear near the TeV scale. The new gauge KK modes behave differently from those in the 5D warped models. These RS6 states have couplings with strong dependence on 5D field localization and, within the SM, only interact with heavy fermions and the Higgs sector, to a very good approximation. Thus, the collider phenomenology of the new gauge KK states sensitively depends on the 5D fermion geography. We briefly discuss inclusion of SM fermions in all 6 dimensions, as well as the possibility of going beyond 6D.

  1. Phenomenology of Dirac Neutralino Dark Matter

    SciTech Connect

    Buckley, Matthew R.; Hooper, Dan; Kumar, Jason

    2013-09-01

    In supersymmetric models with an unbroken R-symmetry (rather than only R-parity), the neutralinos are Dirac fermions rather than Majorana. In this article, we discuss the phenomenology of neutralino dark matter in such models, including the calculation of the thermal relic abundance, and constraints and prospects for direct and indirect searches. Due to the large elastic scattering cross sections with nuclei predicted in R-symmetric models, we are forced to consider a neutralino that is predominantly bino, with very little higgsino mixing. We find a large region of parameter space in which bino-like Dirac neutralinos with masses between 10 and 380 GeV can annihilate through slepton exchange to provide a thermal relic abundance in agreement with the observed cosmological density, without relying on coannihilations or resonant annihilations. The signatures for the indirect detection of Dirac neutralinos are very different than predicted in the Majorana case, with annihilations proceeding dominately to $\\tau^+ \\tau^-$, $\\mu^+ \\mu^-$ and $e^+ e^-$ final states, without the standard chirality suppression. And unlike Majorana dark matter candidates, Dirac neutralinos experience spin-independent scattering with nuclei through vector couplings (via $Z$ and squark exchange), leading to potentially large rates at direct detection experiments. These and other characteristics make Dirac neutralinos potentially interesting within the context of recent direct and indirect detection anomalies. We also discuss the case in which the introduction of a small Majorana mass term breaks the $R$-symmetry, splitting the Dirac neutralino into a pair of nearly degenerate Majorana states.

  2. Phenomenology of 10{sup 32} dark sectors

    SciTech Connect

    Dvali, Gia; Redi, Michele

    2009-09-01

    We postulate an exact permutation symmetry acting on 10{sup 32} standard model copies as the largest possible symmetry extension of the standard model. This setup automatically lowers the fundamental gravity cutoff down to TeV, and thus, accounts for the quantum stability of the weak scale. We study the phenomenology of this framework and show that below TeV energies the copies are well hidden, obeying all the existing observational bounds. Nevertheless, we identify a potential low energy window into the hidden world, the oscillation of the neutron into its dark copies. At the same time, proton decay can be suppressed by gauging the diagonal baryon number of the different copies. This framework offers an alternative approach to several particle physics questions. For example, we suggest a novel mechanism for generating naturally small neutrino masses that are suppressed by the number of neutrino species. The mirror copies of the standard model naturally house dark matter candidates. The general experimentally observable prediction of this scenario is an emergence of strong gravitational effects at the LHC. The low energy permutation symmetry powerfully constrains the form of this new gravitational physics and allows to make observational predictions, such as, production of micro black holes with very peculiar properties.

  3. Experiences of Vasectomy: A Phenomenological Study

    PubMed Central

    Hosseini, Habibollah; Abdi, Fatemeh

    2012-01-01

    Background: Irregular growth of population is considered as a serious threat to the international community. It is a major obstacle for socioeconomic development. One of the methods to control the population is by providing effective methods of contraception. Vasectomy, as a simple and effective contraceptive method, has been approved by the World Health Organization (WHO). It is very important to involve men in the control of population and the promotion of reproductive health. Aims: This study was conducted with the aim of describing the experiences of the men who underwent vasectomy. Materials and Methods: This qualitative study was performed by using a phenomenological research design. The sample consisted of 14 vasectomized men selected through purposive sampling method. In-depth and open interviews with participants were conducted to collect the data. Results: The results were transcribed and recorded in comprehensive field notes. Colaizzi's method was used to analyze the data. Four themes emerged from the obtained results of the present study, which described the structure of the experiences of men as follows: Opinions about vasectomy, own perceptions about vasectomy, experiences with the procedure, and recommendation of vasectomy to others. Conclusion: Vasectomy can influence achievement of family planning goals and participation of men in this regard. The results of this study can help the planners and health-care providers for appropriate interventions, and training and counseling programmers to increase the acceptability and uptake of vasectomy in the society. PMID:23272302

  4. Dante's inferno: phenomenology of a strange passion.

    PubMed

    De Monticelli, R

    2000-01-01

    Dante's Inferno presents us with a spiritual adventure where the experience of wrath plays a crucial role. The infernal pilgrim's 'passage through wrath' is their only access to the lower part of Hell. Wrath - and the place where it is punished as a vice - occupy a very central position in the moral topography of Dante's Inferno: the Stygian Marsh, which defends the heart of Hell, its stronghold, and makes it inaccessible. Wrathfulness is situated at the borderline between 'carnal' and 'spiritual' sins, higher and lower Hell, weakness and wickedness of the will. What is the meaning of this situation? How is the sin of wrathfulness related to wrath as an expression of just indignation? How can the same passion have an angelical and an infernal face? What is anger's relation to reason? Does the trial gone through by the two pilgrims teach us something on the nature of this passion? Here are some questions which this paper tries to answer, thereby outlining a phenomenological theory of those passions which might be called 'dynamic'.

  5. A general phenomenological model for work function

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brodie, I.; Chou, S. H.; Yuan, H.

    2014-07-01

    A general phenomenological model is presented for obtaining the zero Kelvin work function of any crystal facet of metals and semiconductors, both clean and covered with a monolayer of electropositive atoms. It utilizes the known physical structure of the crystal and the Fermi energy of the two-dimensional electron gas assumed to form on the surface. A key parameter is the number of electrons donated to the surface electron gas per surface lattice site or adsorbed atom, which is taken to be an integer. Initially this is found by trial and later justified by examining the state of the valence electrons of the relevant atoms. In the case of adsorbed monolayers of electropositive atoms a satisfactory justification could not always be found, particularly for cesium, but a trial value always predicted work functions close to the experimental values. The model can also predict the variation of work function with temperature for clean crystal facets. The model is applied to various crystal faces of tungsten, aluminium, silver, and select metal oxides, and most demonstrate good fits compared to available experimental values.

  6. Phenomenology of flavon fields at the LHC

    SciTech Connect

    Tsumura, Koji; Velasco-Sevilla, Liliana

    2010-02-01

    We study low energy constraints from flavor violating processes, production, and decay at the LHC of a scalar field {phi} (flavon) associated to the breaking of a nonsupersymmetric Abelian family symmetry at the TeV scale. This symmetry is constrained to reproduce fermion masses and mixing, up to O(1) coefficients. The nonsupersymmetric gauged U(1) models considered are severely restricted by cancellation of anomalies and LEP bounds on contact interactions; consequently its phenomenology is out of the LHC reach. We therefore introduce an effective U(1) which is not gauged and is broken explicitly by a CP-odd term at the TeV scale. This helps us to explore flavor violating processes, production, and decay at the LHC for these kind of light scalars. In this context we first study the constraints on the flavon mass and its vacuum expectation value from low energy flavor changing processes such as {mu}{yields}e{gamma}. We find that a flavon of about m{sub {phi}}< or approx. 150 GeV could be experimentally allowed. These kinds of flavons could be significantly generated at the LHC via the gluon fusion mechanism and the single top production channel gu{yields}t{phi}. The produced flavons can have characteristic decay modes such as tc for m{sub {phi}}> or approx. m{sub t}, and {tau}{mu} for m{sub {phi}}< or approx. m{sub t}, which could be effectively useful to detect flavons.

  7. Harnessing psychoanalytical methods for a phenomenological neuroscience

    PubMed Central

    Cusumano, Emma P.; Raz, Amir

    2014-01-01

    Psychoanalysis proffers a wealth of phenomenological tools to advance the study of consciousness. Techniques for elucidating the structures of subjective life are sorely lacking in the cognitive sciences; as such, experiential reporting techniques must rise to meet both complex theories of brain function and increasingly sophisticated neuroimaging technologies. Analysis may offer valuable methods for bridging the gap between first-person and third-person accounts of the mind. Using both systematic observational approaches alongside unstructured narrative interactions, psychoanalysts help patients articulate their experience and bring unconscious mental contents into awareness. Similar to seasoned meditators or phenomenologists, individuals who have undergone analysis are experts in discerning and describing their subjective experience, thus making them ideal candidates for neurophenomenology. Moreover, analytic techniques may provide a means of guiding untrained experimental participants to greater awareness of their mental continuum, as well as gathering subjective reports about fundamental yet elusive aspects of experience including selfhood, temporality, and inter-subjectivity. Mining psychoanalysis for its methodological innovations provides a fresh turn for the neuropsychoanalysis movement and cognitive science as a whole – showcasing the integrity of analysis alongside the irreducibility of human experience. PMID:24808869

  8. Phenomenology of a light scalar: The dilaton

    SciTech Connect

    Vecchi, Luca

    2010-10-01

    We make use of the language of nonlinear realizations to analyze electroweak symmetry breaking scenarios in which a light dilaton emerges from the breaking of a nearly conformal strong dynamics and compare the phenomenology of the dilaton to that of the well-motivated light composite Higgs scenario. We argue that - in addition to departures in the decay/production rates into massless gauge bosons mediated by the conformal anomaly - characterizing features of the light dilaton scenario are enhancements in off-shell events at high invariant mass involving two longitudinally polarized vector bosons and a dilaton, and tree-level flavor violating processes. Accommodating both electroweak precision measurements and flavor constraints appears especially challenging in the ambiguous scenario in which the Higgs and the dilaton fields strongly mix. We show that warped higgsless models of electroweak symmetry breaking are explicit and tractable realizations of this limiting case. The relation between the naive radion profile often adopted in the study of holographic realizations of the light dilaton scenario and the actual dynamical dilaton field is clarified in the Appendix.

  9. Constrained Sypersymmetric Flipped SU (5) GUT Phenomenology

    SciTech Connect

    Ellis, John; Mustafayev, Azar; Olive, Keith A.; /Minnesota U., Theor. Phys. Inst. /Minnesota U. /Stanford U., Phys. Dept. /SLAC

    2011-08-12

    We explore the phenomenology of the minimal supersymmetric flipped SU(5) GUT model (CFSU(5)), whose soft supersymmetry-breaking (SSB) mass parameters are constrained to be universal at some input scale, Min, above the GUT scale, M{sub GUT}. We analyze the parameter space of CFSU(5) assuming that the lightest supersymmetric particle (LSP) provides the cosmological cold dark matter, paying careful attention to the matching of parameters at the GUT scale. We first display some specific examples of the evolutions of the SSB parameters that exhibit some generic features. Specifically, we note that the relationship between the masses of the lightest neutralino {chi} and the lighter stau {tilde {tau}}{sub 1} is sensitive to M{sub in}, as is the relationship between m{sub {chi}} and the masses of the heavier Higgs bosons A,H. For these reasons, prominent features in generic (m{sub 1/2}, m{sub 0}) planes such as coannihilation strips and rapid-annihilation funnels are also sensitive to Min, as we illustrate for several cases with tan {beta} = 10 and 55. However, these features do not necessarily disappear at large Min, unlike the case in the minimal conventional SU(5) GUT. Our results are relatively insensitive to neutrino masses.

  10. A Process for Testing a Methematical Model for the Solution of a Practical Problem: Applications to Test Equating.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Douglass, James B.

    A general process for testing the feasibility of applying alternative mathematical or statistical models to the solution of a practical problem is presented and flowcharted. The system is used to compare five models for test equating: (1) anchor test equating using classical test theory; (2) anchor test equating using the one-parameter logistic…

  11. Final Report String Phenomenology 2011: The Tenth Annual Meeting on String Phenomenology

    SciTech Connect

    Shiu, Gary; Everett, Lisa

    2011-08-26

    The Tenth Annual International String Phenomenology Conference was held at the University of Wisconsin, Madison on August 22-26, 2011. The Conference was organized by Profs. Gary Shiu and Lisa Everett, with the help of two postdoctoral fellows Heng-Yu Chen and Jiajun Xu. The scientific subjects of the talks and discussions were chosen to be widely interdisciplinary, reflecting the scope and maturity of the field. The conference brought together researchers of diverse subfields in physics and mathematics to present and discuss recent developments in connecting observable particle physics and cosmology with the domain of fundamental theory. This report summarizes the outcome of this conference.

  12. Conditions that Create Therapeutic Connection: A Phenomenological Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dollarhide, Colette T.; Shavers, Marjorie C.; Baker, Caroline A.; Dagg, David R.; Taylor, Demetra T.

    2012-01-01

    In this phenomenological study, counselor and client participants (N = 14) described the conditions that fostered meaningful therapeutic connections. Among all participants, consistent descriptors appeared that were rigorously synthesized into a detailed depiction of therapeutic contact. (Contains 2 figures.)

  13. Autonomic energy conversion. I. The input relation: phenomenological and mechanistic considerations.

    PubMed

    Caplan, S R

    1968-10-01

    The differences between completely and incompletely coupled linear energy converters are discussed using suitable electrochemical cells as examples. The output relation for the canonically simplest class of self-regulated incompletely coupled linear energy converters has been shown to be identical to the Hill force-velocity characteristic for muscle. The corresponding input relation (the "inverse" Hill equation) is now derived by two independent methods. The first method is a direct transformation of the output relation through the phenomenological equations of the converter; Onsager symmetry has no influence on the result. The second method makes use of a model system, a hydroelectric device with a regulator mechanism which depends only on the operational limits of the converter (an electro-osmosis cell operated in reverse) and on the load. The inverse Hill equation is shown to be the simplest solution of the regulator equation. An interesting and testable series of relations between input and output parameters arises from the two forms of the Hill equation. For optimal regulation the input should not be greatly different in the two limiting stationary states (level flow and static head). The output power will then be nearly maximal over a considerable range of load resistance, peak output being obtained at close to peak efficiency.

  14. Phenomenology and cosmology of weakly coupled string theory

    SciTech Connect

    Gaillard, Mary K.

    1998-05-18

    The weakly coupled vacuum of E{sub 8} {circle_times} E{sub 8} heterotic string theory remains an attractive scenario for phenomenology and cosmology. The particle spectrum is reviewed and the issues of gauge coupling unification, dilaton stabilization and modular cosmology are discussed. A specific model for condensation and supersymmetry breaking, that respects known constraints from string theory and is phenomenologically viable, is described.

  15. Stroke rehabilitation and the phenomenological reconstitution of the self.

    PubMed

    Banja, John D

    2011-01-01

    This commentary will apply the notions of constitution and "phenomenological introspection" developed by phenomenology's founder Edmund Husserl to certain themes in Sharon Kaufman's 1988 essay, "Toward a Phenomenology of Boundaries in Medicine: Chronic Illness Experience in the Case of Stroke." The article will discuss how phenomenological analysis can provide important therapeutic insights about the lived experiences of stroke patients and their caregivers, especially as that experience is shaped in the immediate aftermath of a serious stroke. This article will also argue that phenomenology in and by itself is woefully inadequate for producing the kind of self-knowledge and political will needed to produce a socioeconomic environment that reasonably accommodates the needs of stroke patients. The article will end with a brief discussion of how an Eastern, particularly Buddhist, conception of the self is considerably more disability friendly than the one Westerners (phenomenologically) "constitute" and how the former's more realistic understanding of the trajectory of human functioning and its inevitable decline over a lifespan offers a superior platform for developing disability policy and care than its Western counterpart.

  16. Sport Sciences and the Promise of Phenomenology: Philosophy, Method, and Insight.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kerry, Daniel S.; Armour, Kathleen M.

    2000-01-01

    Examines how phenomenology might make a more significant contribution to knowledge and understanding within sport-related research. The paper discusses the philosophical roots of phenomenology; highlights the key contributions of and differences between Husserl and Heidegger; examines phenomenology as philosophy and phenomenology as method; and…

  17. Light-cone quantization and QCD phenomenology

    SciTech Connect

    Brodsky, S.J.; Robertson, D.G.

    1995-12-31

    In principle, quantum chromodynamics provides a fundamental description of hadronic and nuclear structure and dynamics in terms of their elementary quark and gluon degrees of freedom. In practice, the direct application of QCD to reactions involving the structure of hadrons is extremely complex because of the interplay of nonperturbative effects such as color confinement and multi-quark coherence. A crucial tool in analyzing such phenomena is the use of relativistic light-cone quantum mechanics and Fock state methods to provide tractable and consistent treatments of relativistic many-body systems. In this article we present an overview of this formalism applied to QCD, focusing in particular on applications to the final states in deep inelastic lepton scattering that will be relevant for the proposed European Laboratory for Electrons (ELFE), HERMES, HERA, SLAC, and CEBAF. We begin with a brief introduction to light-cone field theory, stressing how it many allow the derivation of a constituent picture, analogous to the constituent quark model, from QCD. We then discuss several applications of the light-cone Fock state formalism to QCD phenomenology. The Fock state representation includes all quantum fluctuations of the hadron wavefunction, including far off-shell configurations such as intrinsic charm and, in the case of nuclei, hidden color. In some applications, such as exclusive processes at large momentum transfer, one can make first-principle predictions using factorization theorems which separate the hard perturbative dynamics from the nonpertubative physics associated with hadron binding. The Fock state components of the hadron with small transverse size, which dominate hard exclusive reactions, have small color dipole moments and thus diminished hadronic interactions. Thus QCD predicts minimal absorptive corrections, i.e., color transparency for quasi-elastic exclusive reactions in nuclear targets at large momentum transfer.

  18. Supporting hemodialysis patients: A phenomenological study

    PubMed Central

    Shahgholian, Nahid; Yousefi, Hojatollah

    2015-01-01

    Background: Chronic renal disease and hemodialysis cause numerous psychological, social, cultural, and spiritual challenges for both patients and their families. Overcoming these challenges is possible only through providing holistic support for the patients. Today, despite the support provided by family and professional caregivers for the patients, patients still express dissatisfaction with the support provided and believe it to be inadequate. In fact, patients and family caregivers and healthcare practitioners seem to have different understandings of the notion of support. Thus, the researcher decided to examine the concept of support from the viewpoint of hemodialysis patients. Materials and Methods: This descriptive phenomenological research was conducted on 17 patients with end-stage renal disease (ESRD) who were undergoing hemodialysis. Purposive sampling was performed and continued until data saturation. Data were collected through 30–60 min unstructured interviews and analyzed using Colaizzi's method. Results: From the analysis of data, 4 themes (psychological support, accompaniment, social support, and spiritual support) and 11 sub-themes were obtained. Psychological support consisted of two sub-themes of psychological support by healthcare practitioners and emotional support by family and relatives. Accompaniment included three sub-themes of assistance in transportation, providing and using medicine, and daily activities. Social support was identified with four sub-themes of promotion of the society's understanding of the patients’ condition, improvement of communication with others, the need for employment, and independence. Spiritual support was identified with two sub-themes of the need for faith and trust in God or Imams and the need to resolve spiritual contradictions. Conclusion: The results showed that from the viewpoint of the participants, the concept of support consisted of psychological support, social support, accompanying the patient

  19. From Husserl to van Manen. A review of different phenomenological approaches.

    PubMed

    Dowling, Maura

    2007-01-01

    This paper traces the development of phenomenology as a philosophy originating from the writings of Husserl to its use in phenomenological research and theory development in nursing. The key issues of phenomenological reduction and bracketing are also discussed as they play a pivotal role in the how phenomenological research studies are approached. What has become to be known as "new" phenomenology is also explored and the key differences between it and "traditional" phenomenology are discussed. van Manen's phenomenology is also considered in light of its contemporary popularity among nurse researchers.

  20. Collider Phenomenology with Split-UED

    SciTech Connect

    Kong, Kyoungchul; Park, Seong Chan; Rizzo, Thomas G.; /SLAC

    2011-12-15

    We investigate the collider implications of Split Universal Extra Dimensions. The non-vanishing fermion mass in the bulk, which is consistent with the KK-parity, largely modifies the phenomenology of Minimal Universal Extra Dimensions. We scrutinize the behavior of couplings and study the discovery reach of the Tevatron and the LHC for level-2 Kaluza-Klein modes in the dilepton channel, which would indicates the presence of the extra dimensions. Observation of large event rates for dilepton resonances can result from a nontrivial fermion mass profile along the extra dimensions, which, in turn, may corroborate extra dimensional explanation for the observation of the positron excess in cosmic rays. The Minimal Universal Extra Dimensions scenario has received great attention. Recently non-vanishing bulk fermion masses have been introduced without spoiling the virtue of KK-parity. The fermion profiles are no longer simple sine/cosine functions and depend upon the specific values of bulk parameters. The profiles of fermions are split along the extra dimensions while the wave functions of the bosons remain the same as in UED. A simple introduction of a KK-parity conserving bulk fermion mass has significant influences on collider aspects as well as astrophysical implications of UED. For instance, the DM annihilation fraction into certain SM fermion pairs is either enhanced or reduced (compared to the MUED case) so that one can perhaps explain the PAMELA positron excess while suppressing the anti-proton flux. In this paper, we have concentrated on collider phenomenology of Split Universal Extra Dimensions. We have revisited the KK decomposition in detail and analyzed wave function overlaps to compute relevant couplings for collider studies. We have discussed general collider implication for level-1 KK modes and level-2 KK with non-zero bulk mass and have computed LHC reach for the EW level-2 KK bosons, {gamma}{sub 2} and Z{sub 2}, in the dilepton channel. The LHC should

  1. Consistency check of {Lambda}CDM phenomenology

    SciTech Connect

    Lombriser, Lucas

    2011-03-15

    The standard model of cosmology {Lambda}CDM assumes general relativity, flat space, and the presence of a positive cosmological constant. We relax these assumptions allowing spatial curvature, a time-dependent effective dark energy equation of state, as well as modifications of the Poisson equation for the lensing potential, and modifications of the growth of linear matter density perturbations in alternate combinations. Using six parameters characterizing these relations, we check {Lambda}CDM for consistency utilizing cosmic microwave background anisotropies, cross correlations thereof with high-redshift galaxies through the integrated Sachs-Wolfe effect, the Hubble constant, supernovae, and baryon acoustic oscillation distances, as well as the relation between weak gravitational lensing and galaxy flows. In all scenarios, we find consistency of the concordance model at the 95% confidence level. However, we emphasize that constraining supplementary background parameters and parametrizations of the growth of large-scale structure separately may lead to a priori exclusion of viable departures from the concordance model.

  2. High Temperature Formability Prediction of Dual Phase Brass Using Phenomenological and Physical Constitutive Models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Farabi, E.; Zarei-Hanzaki, A.; Abedi, H. R.

    2015-01-01

    Characterizing the high temperature flow behavior of a lead bearing duplex brass in a wide range of forming temperatures (673-1073 K) and strain rates (0.001-0.1 s-1) has been conducted in the present work. In order to establish the constitutive equations, two major modeling procedures, phenomenological (the Original Johnson-Cook and the Arrhenius-type) and physically based (the modified Zerilli-Armstrong) models, have been employed. The capability and accuracy of each model has been assessed via standard statistical parameters such as average absolute relative error and correlation coefficient. The comparative and comprehensive study of the flow behavior indicated that the accuracy of the phenomenological models was strongly dependent on the range of the testing temperatures and the corresponding mechanism which operate under the specified deformation conditions. It has been indicated that by limiting the temperature range a more precise Q-value is reached, which positively influences the accuracy of the Arrhenius-type model. In contrast, the modified Zerilli-Armstrong model was capable to overcome these limitations and properly considers the physical characteristics including dislocation dynamics and thermal activation to develop the materials constants.

  3. Adventures in high energy theory and phenomenology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Robinson, Dean Jonathan

    Various studies of high energy theory and phenomenology are presented. We first present a mechanism that naturally produces light Dirac neutrinos. The central idea is that the right-handed neutrinos are composite. Any realistic composite model must involve 'hidden flavor' chiral symmetries. In general some of these symmetries may survive confinement, and in particular, if a U(1) survives it must imply an exact B -- L symmetry at low energies. Dirac neutrinos are therefore produced, which are naturally light due to compositeness. In general, elementary keV sterile Dirac neutrinos can be a natural ingredient of this composite neutrino scenario. For a certain class of composite neutrino theories, these sterile neutrinos naturally have the appropriate mixing angles to be resonantly produced warm dark matter (WDM). Alternatively, we show these sterile neutrinos can be WDM produced by an entropy-diluted thermal freeze-out, with the necessary entropy production arising not from an out-of-equilibrium decay, but rather from the confinement of the composite neutrino sector, provided there is sufficient supercooling. We next present a formalism for the flavor oscillation of unstable particles that relies only upon the analytic structure of the time Fourier-transformed two-point function. We derive exact oscillation probability and integrated oscillation probability formulae, and verify that our results reproduce the known results for both neutrino and neutral meson oscillation in the expected regimes of parameter space. The generality of our approach permits us to investigate flavor oscillation in exotic parameter regimes, and present the corresponding oscillation formulae. Kinematic edges in cascade decays provide a probe of the masses of new particles. In some new physics scenarios the decay chain involves intermediate particles of different flavors that can mix and oscillate. We discuss the implication of such oscillation, and in particular its interplay with the non

  4. The varieties of ecstasy experience: a phenomenological ethnography.

    PubMed

    Leneghan, Sean

    2013-01-01

    Ecstasy (MDMA) has attracted widespread attention with its association as a "recreational substance" that is concentrated in club and rave settings. This paper outlines a phenomenologically grounded ethnographic study of the experiences of ecstasy users in the Sydney, Australia, area. I espouse phenomenology as a framework for describing and understanding these experiences. A number of excerpts are presented from my primary corpus of ethnographic material. For the purposes of this paper I assemble user's reports into nine thematic areas: (1) initial reactions and peaking; (2) the rush; (3) plateau; (4) coming down/scattering; (5) love; (6) peace, love, understanding, and respect; (7) connections on ecstasy; (8) unificatory experiences; (9) returning to baseline. The typical experiences presented in these reports confirm and extend interdisciplinary approaches to understanding ecstasy. I suggest that a context-specific approach that is phenomenologically attuned to user's experiences with ecstasy can contribute to the growing body of literature undertaken in the Australian and international research community.

  5. Situated phenomenology and biological systems: Eastern and Western synthesis.

    PubMed

    Schroeder, Marcin J; Vallverdú, Jordi

    2015-12-01

    Phenomenology was born with the mission to give foundations for science of experience and to open consciousness to scientific study. The influence of phenomenology initiated in the works of Husserl and continued in a wide range of works of others was immense, but mainly within the confines of philosophy and the humanities. The actual attempts to develop a scientific discipline of the study of consciousness and to carry out research on cognition and consciousness were always based on the methods of traditional science in which elimination of the subjective has been always a primary tenet. Thus, focus was mainly on neurological correlates of conscious phenomena. The present paper is an attempt to initiate an extension and revision of phenomenological methodology with the use of philosophical and scientific experience and knowledge accumulated in a century of inquiry and research in relevant disciplines. The question which disciplines are relevant is crucial and our answer is innovative. The range of disciplines involved here is from information science and studies of computation, up to cultural psychology and the studies of philosophical traditions of the East. Concepts related to information and computation studies provide a general conceptual framework free from the limitations of particular languages and of linguistic analysis. This conceptual framework is extending the original perspective of phenomenology to issues of modern technology and science. Cultural psychology gives us tools to root out what in phenomenology was considered universal for humanity, but was a result of European ethnocentrism. Most important here is the contrast between individualistic and collectivistic cultural determinants of consciousness. Finally, philosophical tradition of the East gives alternatives in seeking solutions for fundamental problems. This general outline of the research methodology is illustrated by an example of its use when phenomenology is studied within the conceptual

  6. Situated phenomenology and biological systems: Eastern and Western synthesis.

    PubMed

    Schroeder, Marcin J; Vallverdú, Jordi

    2015-12-01

    Phenomenology was born with the mission to give foundations for science of experience and to open consciousness to scientific study. The influence of phenomenology initiated in the works of Husserl and continued in a wide range of works of others was immense, but mainly within the confines of philosophy and the humanities. The actual attempts to develop a scientific discipline of the study of consciousness and to carry out research on cognition and consciousness were always based on the methods of traditional science in which elimination of the subjective has been always a primary tenet. Thus, focus was mainly on neurological correlates of conscious phenomena. The present paper is an attempt to initiate an extension and revision of phenomenological methodology with the use of philosophical and scientific experience and knowledge accumulated in a century of inquiry and research in relevant disciplines. The question which disciplines are relevant is crucial and our answer is innovative. The range of disciplines involved here is from information science and studies of computation, up to cultural psychology and the studies of philosophical traditions of the East. Concepts related to information and computation studies provide a general conceptual framework free from the limitations of particular languages and of linguistic analysis. This conceptual framework is extending the original perspective of phenomenology to issues of modern technology and science. Cultural psychology gives us tools to root out what in phenomenology was considered universal for humanity, but was a result of European ethnocentrism. Most important here is the contrast between individualistic and collectivistic cultural determinants of consciousness. Finally, philosophical tradition of the East gives alternatives in seeking solutions for fundamental problems. This general outline of the research methodology is illustrated by an example of its use when phenomenology is studied within the conceptual

  7. Phenomenological approaches of inflation and their equivalence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boubekeur, Lotfi; Giusarma, Elena; Mena, Olga; Ramírez, Héctor

    2015-04-01

    In this work, we analyze two possible alternative and model-independent approaches to describe the inflationary period. The first one assumes a general equation of state during inflation due to Mukhanov, while the second one is based on the slow-roll hierarchy suggested by Hoffman and Turner. We find that, remarkably, the two approaches are equivalent from the observational viewpoint, as they single out the same areas in the parameter space, and agree with the inflationary attractors where successful inflation occurs. Rephrased in terms of the familiar picture of a slowly rolling, canonically normalized scalar field, the resulting inflaton excursions in these two approaches are almost identical. Furthermore, once the Galactic dust polarization data from Planck are included in the numerical fits, inflaton excursions can safely take sub-Planckian values.

  8. Phenomenologically viable Lorentz-violating quantum gravity.

    PubMed

    Sotiriou, Thomas P; Visser, Matt; Weinfurtner, Silke

    2009-06-26

    Horava's "Lifschitz point gravity" has many desirable features, but in its original incarnation one is forced to accept a nonzero cosmological constant of the wrong sign to be compatible with observation. We develop an extension of Horava's model that abandons "detailed balance" and regains parity invariance, and in 3+1 dimensions exhibit all five marginal (renormalizable) and four relevant (super-renormalizable) operators, as determined by power counting. We also consider the classical limit of this theory, evaluate the Hamiltonian and supermomentum constraints, and extract the classical equations of motion in a form similar to the Arnowitt-Deser-Misner formulation of general relativity. This puts the model in a framework amenable to developing detailed precision tests.

  9. Plant intentionality and the phenomenological framework of plant intelligence

    PubMed Central

    Marder, Michael

    2012-01-01

    This article aims to bridge phenomenology and the study of plant intelligence with the view to enriching both disciplines. Besides considering the world from the perspective of sessile organisms, it would be necessary, in keeping with the phenomenological framework, to rethink (1) the meaning of being-sessile and being-in-a-place; (2) the concepts of sentience and attention; (3) how aboveground and underground environments appear to plants; (4) the significance of modular development for our understanding of intelligence; and (5) the concept of communication within and between plants and plant tissues. What emerges from these discussions is the image of a mind embodied in plant life. PMID:22951403

  10. Plant intentionality and the phenomenological framework of plant intelligence.

    PubMed

    Marder, Michael

    2012-11-01

    This article aims to bridge phenomenology and the study of plant intelligence with the view to enriching both disciplines. Besides considering the world from the perspective of sessile organisms, it would be necessary, in keeping with the phenomenological framework, to rethink (1) the meaning of being-sessile and being-in-a-place; (2) the concepts of sentience and attention; (3) how aboveground and underground environments appear to plants; (4) the significance of modular development for our understanding of intelligence; and (5) the concept of communication within and between plants and plant tissues. What emerges from these discussions is the image of a mind embodied in plant life.

  11. Presence, objecthood, and the phenomenology of predictive perception.

    PubMed

    Seth, Anil K

    2015-01-01

    Can perceptual presence be explained by counterfactually-rich predictive models linking perception and action? Considering an unusually rich range of responses to this idea has led me to (1) re-emphasize the core conceptual commitment of "predictive processing of sensorimotor contingencies" (PPSMC) to predictive model-based perception, (2) reconsider the relationship between presence and objecthood, and (3) refine the phenomenological target by differentiating between perceptual presence and the phenomenology of absence-of-presence, or "phenomenal unreality." It turns out that this requires blue-sky thinking. PMID:25849361

  12. Extended rate equations

    SciTech Connect

    Shore, B.W.

    1981-01-30

    The equations of motion are discussed which describe time dependent population flows in an N-level system, reviewing the relationship between incoherent (rate) equations, coherent (Schrodinger) equations, and more general partially coherent (Bloch) equations. Approximations are discussed which replace the elaborate Bloch equations by simpler rate equations whose coefficients incorporate long-time consequences of coherence.

  13. Nonlinear Generalized Hydrodynamic Wave Equations in Strongly Coupled Dusty Plasmas

    SciTech Connect

    Veeresha, B. M.; Sen, A.; Kaw, P. K.

    2008-09-07

    A set of nonlinear equations for the study of low frequency waves in a strongly coupled dusty plasma medium is derived using the phenomenological generalized hydrodynamic (GH) model and is used to study the modulational stability of dust acoustic waves to parallel perturbations. Dust compressibility contributions arising from strong Coulomb coupling effects are found to introduce significant modifications in the threshold and range of the instability domain.

  14. From Boltzmann equations to steady wall velocities

    SciTech Connect

    Konstandin, Thomas; Nardini, Germano; Rues, Ingo E-mail: germano.nardini@desy.de

    2014-09-01

    By means of a relativistic microscopic approach we calculate the expansion velocity of bubbles generated during a first-order electroweak phase transition. In particular, we use the gradient expansion of the Kadanoff-Baym equations to set up the fluid system. This turns out to be equivalent to the one found in the semi-classical approach in the non-relativistic limit. Finally, by including hydrodynamic deflagration effects and solving the Higgs equations of motion in the fluid, we determine velocity and thickness of the bubble walls. Our findings are compared with phenomenological models of wall velocities. As illustrative examples, we apply these results to three theories providing first-order phase transitions with a particle content in the thermal plasma that resembles the Standard Model.

  15. Phenomenology from SIDIS and e+e- multiplicities: multiplicities and phenomenology - part I

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bacchetta, Alessandro; Echevarria, Miguel G.; Radici, Marco; Signori, Andrea

    2015-01-01

    This study is part of a project to investigate the transverse momentum dependence in parton distribution and fragmentation functions, analyzing (semi-)inclusive high-energy processes within a proper QCD framework. We calculate the transverse-momentum-dependent (TMD) multiplicities for e+e- annihilation into two hadrons (considering different combinations of pions and kaons) aiming to investigate the impact of intrinsic and radiative partonic transverse momentum and their mixing with flavor. Different descriptions of the non-perturbative evolution kernel (see, e.g., Refs. [1-5]) are available on the market and there are 200 sets of flavor configurations for the unpolarized TMD fragmentation functions (FFs) resulting from a Monte Carlo fit of Semi-Inclusive Deep-Inelastic Scattering (SIDIS) data at Hermes (see Ref. [6]). We build our predictions of e+e- multiplicities relying on this rich phenomenology. The comparison of these calculations with future experimental data (from Belle and BaBar collaborations) will shed light on non-perturbative aspects of hadron structure, opening important insights into the physics of spin, flavor and momentum structure of hadrons.

  16. On the phenomenological theory of magnetic storms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guglielmi, Anatol

    2016-06-01

    This article describes the methodical issues of modeling of the Dst variation of geomagnetic storms. We describe the so-called the RBM model, having the form of an ordinary differential equation whose solutions simulate the relation of Dst variations with azimuthal component of the interplanetary electric field. It has been paid a special attention to the threshold nature of the excitation Dst variation. We have emphasize the needs of statistical generalization of RBM model by taking into account the fluctuations inherent in any physical system. The integral representation of the bifurcation diagram of Dst variation is found. It allowed to take into account the effect of the fluctuations, which eliminate the root singularity of the diagram and lead to a shift in the threshold point. It is shown that the Dst variation belongs to a wide class of threshold phenomena related to phase transitions of the second kind. We have shown an analogy with threshold phenomena in the magnetosphere, atmosphere and lithosphere of the Earth's. In addition, we briefly discussed the issue of soft and hard regimes of passing through the threshold, and raised the issue of explosive instability in the geophysical media.

  17. After Dark in the Antipodes: Pedagogy, Place and Queer Phenomenology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crowley, Vicki; Rasmussen, Mary Lou

    2010-01-01

    This paper pursues issues of pedagogy, place and queer phenomenology in the context of what might be meant by the term "after-queer" or "what falls outside queer" as we currently theorise, practice and locate queer. Inspired by Sara Ahmed's account of how bodies become oriented by the ways in which they take up time and space, this paper…

  18. Community College Administrators as Educational Partnership Champions: Phenomenological Perspectives

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boodrookas, George J.

    2013-01-01

    This study explored, through the use of phenomenological research methods, the experiences of community college administrators in the development and implementation of educational partnerships. The study focused on the actions of these administrators who serve as partnership "champions" in ventures related to community, economic and…

  19. Retention in Special Education Teachers in Georgia: A Phenomenological Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jackson, Arndra N.

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this qualitative study using a phenomenological approach was to identify and examine factors influencing the retention rate of special education teachers in rural and urban schools in middle Georgia. Provided in this study are factors that are related to retention in special education teachers. Semistructured interviews were used to…

  20. How to Protect Children from Internet Predators: A Phenomenological Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alexander, Rodney T.

    2012-01-01

    Teenage Internet users are the fastest growing segment in the Internet user population. These teenagers are at risk of sexual assault from Internet predators. This phenomenological study explored teacher and counselors' perceptions of how to prevent this sexual assault. Twenty-five teacher and counselor participants were interviewed. A…

  1. Family Therapy: A Phenomenological and Active Directive Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ellis, Albert

    1978-01-01

    A "third force" in family therapy is outlined in this paper, which combines a phenomenological-humanistic approach with a highly active-directive attempt to help family members surrender their misperceptions of themselves and others and to make profound philosophic changes in their intrapersonal and interpersonal attitudes and behaviors. (Author)

  2. The Relationship between EFL Reading and Existential-Phenomenology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tercanlioglu, Leyla; Akarsu, Oktay

    2012-01-01

    This study reviews an overall theoretical framework of two major phenomena: reading and existential-phenomenology. Nine different predominant theories in reading education, their attributes, effective reading techniques and educational studies of learners' experiences towards effective reading will be examined with some basic issues to grasp the…

  3. Getting There: A Phenomenology of the Contexts of Car Buying.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aanstoos, Christopher M.; Barrell, James J.

    The importance of understanding the manner in which the desire to buy arises in buyers has been neglected in the study of consumer psychology. This report identifies those few research projects which have studied the origins of consumer motivation and describes a phenomenologically-guided investigation which studied individuals' desires to…

  4. Phenomenology and Correlates of Complicated Grief in Children and Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Melhem, Nadine M.; Moritz, Grace; Walker, Monica; Shear, M. Katherine; Brent, David

    2007-01-01

    Objective: To describe the phenomenology of complicated grief (CG) in parentally bereaved children and adolescents and to examine its correlates. Method: This is a preliminary report from an ongoing 5-year, population-based, longitudinal study of the impact of parental loss on family members. Analyses of cross-sectional data at intake are…

  5. A Phenomenological Study of Parents' Involvement in Mathematics Instruction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Delbridge, Natalie H.

    2013-01-01

    Many areas of support are needed when educating children and youth in mathematics education. One of the untapped areas is that of parental support and involvement. The purpose of this phenomenological study is to describe the "lived" experiences of parental involvement in their children's mathematics home instruction through individual…

  6. Inquiring into the Real: A Realist Phenomenological Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Budd, John M.; Hill, Heather; Shannon, Brooke

    2010-01-01

    The need for postpositivist or antipositivist methods in the social sciences, including library and information science, is well documented. A promising alternative synthesizes critical realism and phenomenology. This method embraces ontological reality in all things, including human and social action. The ontology underlying the realist…

  7. A Phenomenological Investigation of Counseling Doctoral Students Becoming Mothers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holm, Jessica M.; Prosek, Elizabeth A.; Godwin Weisberger, Andrea C.

    2015-01-01

    Women often face challenges when balancing academic and familial responsibilities (Gilbert, 2008); Trepal & Stinchfield, 2012). This phenomenological study explored women's (N = 10) experiences of becoming mothers during a doctoral program in counseling. The results highlight the importance of mentorship and other protective factors associated…

  8. Exploring the Experiences of Administrative Interns: A Phenomenological Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jamison, Kimberly R.

    2014-01-01

    This phenomenological investigation explores the experiences of administrative interns throughout their administrative internship to discover how they perceive and make meaning of their internship experiences--their thoughts, feelings, concerns, and aspirations. All thirteen participants were students in one university administrator preparation…

  9. Lived Experience of Women Suffering from Vitiligo: A Phenomenological Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Borimnejad, Leili; Yekta, Zohreh Parsa; Nasrabadi, Alireza Nikbakht

    2006-01-01

    Vitiligo is a chronic skin disease, which through change of appearance and body image, exerts a devastating effect on people, especially women. The objective of this study is to explore lived experience of women with Vitiligo by the hermeneutic phenomenology method. The purposive sample consisted of 16 Iranian women. Data analysis followed…

  10. Authentically Engaged Learning through Live Supervision: A Phenomenological Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moody, Steven; Kostohryz, Katie; Vereen, Linwood

    2014-01-01

    This phenomenological study explored the experiential learning of 5 master's-level counseling students undergoing live supervision in a group techniques course. Multiple themes were identified to provide a textural-structural description of how students authentically engaged in the learning process. Implications for counselor education and…

  11. Recent Progress in Weakly-Coupled Heterotic String Phenomenology

    SciTech Connect

    Wu, Yi-Yen

    1997-07-28

    Some recent developments in the weakly-coupled heterotic string phenomenology are reviewed. We discuss several important issues such as dilaton/moduli stabilization, supersymmetry breaking (by hidden-sector gaugino condensation), gauge coupling unification (or the Newton's constant), the QCD axion, as well as cosmological problems involving the dilaton/moduli and the axion.

  12. The Pleasures of Learning at Work: Foucault and Phenomenology Compared

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hughes, Christina

    2007-01-01

    This paper provides a comparative account of two conceptualisations of pleasure. The first draws on Foucault's analysis of bio-power. The second provides a phenomenological account where pleasure is viewed as an aspect of our immediate consciousness. These conceptualisations are illuminated through an analysis of employees' accounts of learning at…

  13. Standardized Patients in Art Therapy Education: A Phenomenological Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Jeffrey; Salisbury, Helen; Deaver, Sarah; Johansson, Mark; Calisch, Abby

    2013-01-01

    Simulation is used widely in medical and health professions educational programs. Standardized patients (SPs) are individuals who are trained to simulate specific symptoms or conditions as part of a structured learning experience with students. In this qualitative, phenomenological study the researcher interviewed 8 first-year graduate art therapy…

  14. Expression of Emotions through Art: A Phenomenological Approach.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kasson, Cheryl G.

    This paper examines phenomenological approaches to studying expressions of emotions through art. The author begins her discussion by defining the terms in the title. Expressions are controlled, deliberate gestures. Emotions are sensations which involve appraisals of something. Art is something consciously controlled by the artist. The creation of…

  15. The Essence of the Principal Internship: A Phenomenological Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bush, Shawnta M.

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents a phenomenological investigation of principals' experience as they reflect on the essence of the administration internship, an integral part of school administration preparation programs. Five principals, all within the initial year or two of their first public school principal job, revealed the essence of their internship…

  16. Phenomenological Aspects of Psychosocial Maturity in Adolescence. Report No. 198.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Josselson, Ruthellen; And Others

    Forty-one subjects who score at the high and low extremes of the Psychosocial Maturity (PSM) Inventory were intensively interviewed. These interview data were analyzed to contrast the phenomenological and psychodynamic forces in the lives of these subjects that influence their current state of psychosocial maturity. Case material is presented.…

  17. Phenomenological Study of Special Education Teachers Using an Emergency License

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alborn-Yilek, Susan

    2010-01-01

    The shortage of special education teachers is critical. One means used to increase the supply of available teachers is to issue an emergency license to teachers not fully certified in special education. This is a phenomenological study of four general education teachers practicing special education using an emergency license. Their experience is…

  18. Coping with a Child Who Stutters: A Phenomenological Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Plexico, Laura W.; Burrus, Embry

    2012-01-01

    Qualitative methods were used in the form of a phenomenological analysis to explore how families cope with having a child who stutters. Twelve participants, 2 men and 10 women, who have children who stutter participated in this study. The participants were asked to consider their experiences with being the parent of a child who stutters. Analysis…

  19. The Phenomenology of the Music-Listening Experience

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dura, Marian T.

    2006-01-01

    Phenomenology has been defined as "an approach to philosophy centering on analysis of the phenomena that flood (human) awareness" (Jorgenson, 1992), including the essences, meanings, and essentially necessary relations of these phenomena. In the last fifty years, an increasing number of writers have begun to examine the music-listening experience…

  20. Heteronormativity and Teaching: A Phenomenological Study of Lesbian Teachers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Melillo, Sandra M.

    The purpose of a phenomenological study was to understand what impact heteronormativity has on a lesbian teacher's perception of her instructional style, content, and context of curriculum taught. Through taped interviews with nine lesbian educators teaching in the K-12 programs in Florida's Dade, Broward, and Miami-Dade counties, this study…

  1. Social Anxiety and Close Relationships: A Hermeneutic Phenomenological Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nielsen, Kate E. J.; Cairns, Sharon L.

    2009-01-01

    While only a few quantitative studies have looked at social anxiety and close relationships, this study uses the qualitative approach of hermeneutic phenomenology to explore the meaning of being in a close relationship for eight individuals with social anxiety. Participants completed a written questionnaire with open-ended questions about their…

  2. Defining Campus Violence: A Phenomenological Analysis of Community Stakeholder Perspectives

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mayhew, Matthew J.; Caldwell, Rebecca J.; Goldman, Emily Grey

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to derive an empirically based understanding of campus violence. Grounded in a communication paradigm offered by sociolinguistic scholars, we adopted a phenomenological approach for conducting and analyzing 23 interviews from campus community stakeholders, including students, staff, faculty, administrators, and…

  3. Educators' Perspectives on Having Been Cyber Harassed: A Phenomenological Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davenport, Paula M.

    2014-01-01

    The abuse of individuals through electronic means, typically of students by other students, has been researched extensively. The electronic abuse of other individuals through electronic means has received a dearth of research attention. The purpose of this qualitative transcendental phenomenological study was to explore, describe, and expand the…

  4. Cyberbullying Victimization among College Students: An Interpretive Phenomenological Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rivituso, Jack

    2014-01-01

    This interpretive phenomenological analysis explored the lived experiences and the psychological impact of victimization from cyberbullying among college students. Two theories, Bandura's Theory of Triadic Reciprocal Determinism and the General Strain Theory, guided the primary research questions used for this exploration. Each of these…

  5. A Phenomenological Approach to the Analysis of Film Viewing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Woodruff, Saundra Kay

    This investigation, based on the phenomenological philosophy of Alfred Schutz, was an attempt to determine how people view films by determining the meaning that the action has for them. Twenty college freshmen and sophomores and two seniors viewed the film "Tilt," a production of the National Film Board of Canada. All subjects were asked to tape…

  6. The Prevalence and Phenomenology of Repetitive Behavior in Genetic Syndromes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moss, Joanna; Oliver, Chris; Arron, Kate; Burbidge, Cheryl; Berg, Katy

    2009-01-01

    We investigated the prevalence and phenomenology of repetitive behavior in genetic syndromes to detail profiles of behavior. The Repetitive Behaviour Questionnaire (RBQ) provides fine-grained identification of repetitive behaviors. The RBQ was employed to examine repetitive behavior in Angelman (N = 104), Cornelia de Lange (N = 101), Cri-du-Chat…

  7. Phenomenological Analysis of Rationale for School Transfer Credit Policies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Melton, Amye M.

    2012-01-01

    Students face challenges when attempting to transfer college credits; sometimes, the process results in having to retake classes already completed at another institution. A qualitative phenomenological study, grounded in an advocacy/participatory worldview, was used to explore how leaders of higher learning institutions determined reasons academic…

  8. A Phenomenological Analysis of College Students' Spiritual Struggles

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rockenbach, Alyssa Bryant; Walker, Coretta Roseboro; Luzader, Jordan

    2012-01-01

    Through in-depth interviews with ten diverse participants, this phenomenological study explored the meaning, dimensions, and processes of spiritual struggle in college students' lives. The findings revealed that encountering contrast was the unifying dimension underlying students' spiritual struggle narratives. Contrast was apparent in students'…

  9. Christian School Leaders and Spirituality: A Phenomenological Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Banke, Susan; Maldonado, Nancy; Lacey, Candace H.

    2011-01-01

    This phenomenological study examined the spiritual experiences of Christian school leaders who are the spiritual leaders of their schools. A purposeful, nominated sample of 12 Christian school leaders was selected. In-depth, open-ended interviews were conducted, audio taped, and then transcribed verbatim. Data analysis was based on Rudestam and…

  10. A Phenomenological Study of Falling out of Romantic Love

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sailor, Joanni L.

    2013-01-01

    Romantic love is considered a necessary ingredient in marriage. In this study, the experience of falling out of romantic love with one's spouse was examined. Eight individuals who had fallen out of romantic love with their spouse were interviewed. By using Moustakas' Transcendental Phenomenological method, several themes emerged which provided a…

  11. A Phenomenological Exploration of Faculty Experiences Using Lecture Capture Systems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vande Voort, Pamela S.

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this qualitative, phenomenological study was to describe the perceived experiences of faculty who use lecture capture systems in face-to-face class meetings at small and medium-sized, four-year, highly residential, undergraduate colleges and universities with enrollments between 1,000 and 9,999 students. Through audio-recorded…

  12. Caring Teacher-Pupil Relationship: Feminist or Phenomenological?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morrison, Harriet B.

    Nel Noddings'"Caring: A Feminine Approach to Ethics and Moral Education" (1984) represents a feminist view of the caring teacher-pupil relationship, focusing on the personal and social setting and speaking directly about the relationship. The works of Maurice Merleau-Ponty contribute a phenomenological perspective which is universal and culturally…

  13. Thought Reform, Coercion, and Persuasion: A Phenomenological Analysis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Purnell, Sandra E.

    "Thought reform" is a calculated strategy of social action designed to convert individuals to another ideology through a long-term process, during which threat underlies all experiences. In this article, part of the "Freedom of Speech Newsletter," insights from a phenomenological view of rhetoric are used to explain the nature and impact of…

  14. Phenomenology of Models with Non-universal Sfermion Masses

    SciTech Connect

    Sakurai, Kazuki

    2008-11-23

    We propose some special type of non-universal sfermion mass spectrum inspired from naturalness of electroweak symmetry breaking and supersymmetric flavor problem. We discuss phenomenology of the models, lepton flavor violation, CP asymmetry of rare B decays, and LHC signature are investigated.

  15. A Phenomenological Narrative Study: Elementary Charter School Principals' Managerial Roles

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cetinkaya, Ahmet

    2016-01-01

    This study was a phenomenological narrative research investigating the managerial roles of elementary charter school principals. Managerial leadership practices were investigated under three categories personnel management, student management, and finance management. Elementary charter school principals provided positive feedback for having small…

  16. Doing Phenomenology in Science Education: A Research Review

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    OStergaard, Edvin; Dahlin, Bo; Hugo, Aksel

    2008-01-01

    This article is a review of applications of phenomenology, as a philosophy of knowledge and qualitative research approach, to the field of science education (SE). The purpose is to give an overview of work that has been done as well as to assess it and discuss its possibilities of future development. We ask: what attempts for connecting…

  17. Insights on raft behavior from minimal phenomenological models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garbès Putzel, G.; Schick, M.

    2011-07-01

    We construct a simple phenomenological theory of phase separation in ternary mixtures of cholesterol and saturated and unsaturated lipids. Such separation is relevant to the formation of 'rafts' in the plasma membrane. We also show how simple cross-linking of proteins which prefer one form of lipid to the other can trigger raft-formation, the first step in a signaling pathway.

  18. The Adolescent Female Changing Voice: A Phenomenological Investigation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sweet, Bridget

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this phenomenological study was to investigate the experience of female voice change from the perspective of female middle and high school choral students. The study was guided by two questions: How do adolescent female choir students experience voice change? What is the essence of the experience of voice change for middle school…

  19. Toward a Phenomenological-Longitudinal Model of Media Gratification Processes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kielwasser, Alfred P.; And Others

    While not dismissing the "uses and gratifications" approach to research, this paper attempts to increase the theoretical and practical utility of gratifications measures by approaching them through a more phenomenological and longitudinal tack. The paper suggests that any "gratification unit" is given a unique meaning by the situated-gratified…

  20. Perceptual anomalies in schizophrenia: integrating phenomenology and cognitive neuroscience.

    PubMed

    Uhlhaas, Peter J; Mishara, Aaron L

    2007-01-01

    From phenomenological and experimental perspectives, research in schizophrenia has emphasized deficits in "higher" cognitive functions, including attention, executive function, as well as memory. In contrast, general consensus has viewed dysfunctions in basic perceptual processes to be relatively unimportant in the explanation of more complex aspects of the disorder, including changes in self-experience and the development of symptoms such as delusions. We present evidence from phenomenology and cognitive neuroscience that changes in the perceptual field in schizophrenia may represent a core impairment. After introducing the phenomenological approach to perception (Husserl, the Gestalt School), we discuss the views of Paul Matussek, Klaus Conrad, Ludwig Binswanger, and Wolfgang Blankenburg on perception in schizophrenia. These 4 psychiatrists describe changes in perception and automatic processes that are related to the altered experience of self. The altered self-experience, in turn, may be responsible for the emergence of delusions. The phenomenological data are compatible with current research that conceptualizes dysfunctions in perceptual processing as a deficit in the ability to combine stimulus elements into coherent object representations. Relationships of deficits in perceptual organization to cognitive and social dysfunction as well as the possible neurobiological mechanisms are discussed.

  1. Phenomenological Behavior-Exchange Models of Marital Success.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gottman, John; And Others

    The objective of two studies was to devise an assessment procedure for the evaluation of therapy with distressed marriages. An extension of behavior exchange theory was proposed to include phenomenological ratings by the couple of the intent of messages sent and the impact of messages received. Convergent criteria were used to select 14…

  2. Principal Socialization in One Virginia School District: A Phenomenological Investigation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Joppy, Dalphine A.

    2013-01-01

    This phenomenological investigation examines the lived experiences of school principals to discover how principals hired from within their school division perceive and make meaning of their organizational socialization experiences--their thoughts, feelings, beliefs, values, and assumptive worlds. Nineteen public school principals participated in…

  3. Mexican Immigrant Families Crossing the Education Border: A Phenomenological Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Plata-Potter, Sandra Ixa; de Guzman, Maria Rosario T.

    2012-01-01

    This phenomenological study examines Mexican immigrant parents' experiences of helping their children navigate and succeed in school and their perceptions regarding differences between the U.S. and Mexican educational systems. Findings highlight parents' challenges in helping their children succeed in a new and unfamiliar school system and the…

  4. Phenomenological Study of Empowering Women Senior Leaders in Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cselenszky, Mila P.

    2012-01-01

    The number of women in senior administrative and leadership roles in higher education is minimal compared to the number of women in higher education jobs in general. This phenomenological study explored pathways women took to advance in their careers and barriers that prevent more women from gaining senior administrative and leadership roles.…

  5. How Student Affairs Professionals Learn to Advocate: A Phenomenological Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harrison, Laura M.

    2014-01-01

    This phenomenological study examined how student affairs professionals learn advocacy skills and what they learn in their education on this topic. Findings based on 22 interviews show participants felt underprepared by their graduate programs for the myriad challenges involved with advocating for students. Findings indicate participants found…

  6. Phenomenology of transverse spin: Past, present and future

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boglione, Mariaelena; Prokudin, Alexei

    2016-06-01

    We summarize the most significant aspects in the study of transverse spin phenomena over the last few decades, focusing on Semi-Inclusive Deep Inelastic Scattering processes and hadronic production in e + e - annihilations. The phenomenology of transverse-momentum-dependent distribution and fragmentation functions will be reviewed in an in-depth analysis of the most recent developments and of the future perspectives.

  7. Undergraduate Female Science-Related Career Choices: A Phenomenological Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Curry, Kathy S.

    2010-01-01

    This qualitative phenomenological study used a modified Groenewald's five steps method with semi-structured, recorded, and transcribed interviews to focus on the underrepresentation of females in science-related careers. The study explored the lived experiences of a purposive sample of 25 senior female college students attending a college in…

  8. The Phenomenology of Research: The Construction of Meaning in Composition Research.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davis, Kevin

    1995-01-01

    Describes the philosophical phenomenology of Edmund Husserl and argues that his insights can greatly inform contemporary composition theory. Discusses how phenomenology affects both design and analysis in composition research. (HB)

  9. Lost in Space? Located in Place: Geo-Phenomenological Exploration and School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hung, Ruyu; Stables, Andrew

    2011-01-01

    This paper aims at revealing the various meanings of schools as more than built physical environments from a geographical-phenomenological (or "geo-phenomenological") perspective. This paper consists of five sections: the first explicates the meaning of "geo-phenomenology"; the second reveals the meaning of "environment" and a dialectics of…

  10. Looks Good on Paper: A Phenomenological Study of Reflective High School Teaching

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Skemp, Charles John

    2010-01-01

    This study is a phenomenology of the practice of high school teaching. It is an examination of the day-to-day lived experience of high school teachers. The research is grounded in Heidegger's (1962) theory of hermeneutic phenomenology, as well as Polanyi's (1961) theory of tacit knowing. The study uses a phenomenological research design influenced…

  11. Philosophical Phenomenology: A Methodology for Holistic Educational Research. Multicultural Research Guides Series, Number Four.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stone, Frank Andrews

    This paper presents phenomenology as an alternative approach in conducting educational research. The aim of phenomenological research is the exploration of the fundamental consciousness of the person or people being studied so that their perceptions can be identified and interpreted. Today's phenomenology comes from the work of a group of European…

  12. Dyson-Schwinger equations : connecting small and large length-scales.

    SciTech Connect

    Roberts, C.

    1999-02-08

    The phenomenological application of Dyson-Schwinger equations to the calculation of meson properties observable at TJNAF is illustrated. Particular emphasis is given to the ability of this framework to unify long-range effects constrained by chiral symmetry with short-range effects prescribed by perturbation theory, and interpolate between them.

  13. Basic lubrication equations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hamrock, B. J.; Dowson, D.

    1981-01-01

    Lubricants, usually Newtonian fluids, are assumed to experience laminar flow. The basic equations used to describe the flow are the Navier-Stokes equation of motion. The study of hydrodynamic lubrication is, from a mathematical standpoint, the application of a reduced form of these Navier-Stokes equations in association with the continuity equation. The Reynolds equation can also be derived from first principles, provided of course that the same basic assumptions are adopted in each case. Both methods are used in deriving the Reynolds equation, and the assumptions inherent in reducing the Navier-Stokes equations are specified. Because the Reynolds equation contains viscosity and density terms and these properties depend on temperature and pressure, it is often necessary to couple the Reynolds with energy equation. The lubricant properties and the energy equation are presented. Film thickness, a parameter of the Reynolds equation, is a function of the elastic behavior of the bearing surface. The governing elasticity equation is therefore presented.

  14. Is there nursing phenomenology after Paley? Essay on rigorous reading.

    PubMed

    Petrovskaya, Olga

    2014-01-01

    At the bedside, nurses are expected to be precise when they read indications on screens and on the bodies of patients and decide on the meaning of words framed by the context of acute care. In academia, although there is no incident report to fill when we misread or misrepresent complex philosophical ideas, the consequences of inaccurate reading include misplaced epistemological claims and poor scholarship. A long and broad convention of nursing phenomenological research, in its various forms, claims a philosophical grounding in the ideas of Husserl, Heidegger, and other thinkers. But for nearly two decades, nurse phenomenologists' knowledge claims have been challenged by well-informed criticisms, most notably by John Paley. At the heart of criticism lies an observation that Continental phenomenological thought is misrepresented in many nursing sources and that nursing phenomenology, both descriptive and interpretive, cannot appeal to the authority of either Husserl or Heidegger. Taking these criticisms seriously, I am asking, Is phenomenology after Paley possible? If misreading seems to be an issue, how can - or should - we read rigorously? My thinking through these questions is influenced by the ideas of Jacques Derrida. Under a condition of a play of language, of Derridian différance, when meaning is never self-identical and never fully arrives, I suggest that one has to negotiate meanings through reading for differences. I develop this idea in relation to the methodological conventions of phenomenological nursing research and argue for a careful rereading of the whole field of phenomenological nursing research. Such rereading presupposes and necessitates interdisciplinary engagement between nursing and the humanities and interpretive social sciences. Greater familiarity with research practices of those disciplines that stress theoretical and writing rigour might make visible the limits of nursing research approaches and their quality criteria. An understanding

  15. Is there nursing phenomenology after Paley? Essay on rigorous reading.

    PubMed

    Petrovskaya, Olga

    2014-01-01

    At the bedside, nurses are expected to be precise when they read indications on screens and on the bodies of patients and decide on the meaning of words framed by the context of acute care. In academia, although there is no incident report to fill when we misread or misrepresent complex philosophical ideas, the consequences of inaccurate reading include misplaced epistemological claims and poor scholarship. A long and broad convention of nursing phenomenological research, in its various forms, claims a philosophical grounding in the ideas of Husserl, Heidegger, and other thinkers. But for nearly two decades, nurse phenomenologists' knowledge claims have been challenged by well-informed criticisms, most notably by John Paley. At the heart of criticism lies an observation that Continental phenomenological thought is misrepresented in many nursing sources and that nursing phenomenology, both descriptive and interpretive, cannot appeal to the authority of either Husserl or Heidegger. Taking these criticisms seriously, I am asking, Is phenomenology after Paley possible? If misreading seems to be an issue, how can - or should - we read rigorously? My thinking through these questions is influenced by the ideas of Jacques Derrida. Under a condition of a play of language, of Derridian différance, when meaning is never self-identical and never fully arrives, I suggest that one has to negotiate meanings through reading for differences. I develop this idea in relation to the methodological conventions of phenomenological nursing research and argue for a careful rereading of the whole field of phenomenological nursing research. Such rereading presupposes and necessitates interdisciplinary engagement between nursing and the humanities and interpretive social sciences. Greater familiarity with research practices of those disciplines that stress theoretical and writing rigour might make visible the limits of nursing research approaches and their quality criteria. An understanding

  16. Derivation of the Landau-Lifshitz-Bloch equation from continuum thermodynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berti, Alessia; Giorgi, Claudio

    2016-11-01

    Within the continuum thermodynamic framework, we derive the evolution equation for the magnetization vector in a ferromagnetic body. This procedure leads to an evolution equation that generalizes the well-known Landau-Lifshitz model for magnetically saturated bodies and looks very similar to the Landau-Lifshitz-Bloch equation which was obtained by Garanin in 1997 from statistical mechanics. As a byproduct, we also obtain a generalization of the Gilbert equation when the magnetic field is far from saturation. By virtue of a suitable choice of the Gibbs free energy, this phenomenological model is able to describe the phase transition occurring from the paramagnetic to the ferromagnetic regime in anisotropic ferromagnets.

  17. Constitutive equations for meeting elevated-temperature-design needs

    SciTech Connect

    Pugh, C.E.; Robinson, D.N.

    1981-01-01

    Constitutive equations for representing the inelastic behavior of structural alloys at temperatures in the creep regime are discussed from the viewpoint of advances made over the past decade. An emphasis is placed on the progress that has been made in meeting the needs of the program whose design process is based in part on a design-by-inelastic-analysis approach. In particular, the constitutive equations that have been put into place for current use in design analyses are discussed along with some material behavior background information. Equations representing short-term plastic and long-term creep behaviors are considered. Trends towards establishing improved equations for use in the future are also described. Progress relating to fundamentals of continuum mechanics, physical modeling, phenomenological modeling, and implementation is addressed.

  18. The constitutive equation for membrane tether extraction.

    PubMed

    Chen, Yong; Yao, Da-Kang; Shao, Jin-Yu

    2010-12-01

    Membrane tethers or nanotubes play a critical role in a variety of cellular and subcellular processes such as leukocyte rolling and intercellular mass transport. The current constitutive equations that describe the relationship between the pulling force and the tether velocity during tether extraction have serious limitations. In this article, we propose a new phenomenological constitutive equation that captures all known characteristics of nanotube formation, including nonlinearity, nonzero threshold force, and possible negative tether velocity. We used tether extraction from endothelial cells as a prototype to illustrate how to obtain the material constants in the constitutive equation. With the micropipette aspiration technique, we measured tether pulling forces at both positive and negative tether velocities. We also determined the threshold force of 55 pN experimentally for the first time. This new constitutive equation unites two established ones and provides us a unified platform to better understand not only the physiological role of tether extraction during leukocyte rolling and intercellular or intracellular transport, but also the physics of membrane tether growth or retraction.

  19. Undular bore theory for the Gardner equation.

    PubMed

    Kamchatnov, A M; Kuo, Y-H; Lin, T-C; Horng, T-L; Gou, S-C; Clift, R; El, G A; Grimshaw, R H J

    2012-09-01

    We develop modulation theory for undular bores (dispersive shock waves) in the framework of the Gardner, or extended Korteweg-de Vries (KdV), equation, which is a generic mathematical model for weakly nonlinear and weakly dispersive wave propagation, when effects of higher order nonlinearity become important. Using a reduced version of the finite-gap integration method we derive the Gardner-Whitham modulation system in a Riemann invariant form and show that it can be mapped onto the well-known modulation system for the Korteweg-de Vries equation. The transformation between the two counterpart modulation systems is, however, not invertible. As a result, the study of the resolution of an initial discontinuity for the Gardner equation reveals a rich phenomenology of solutions which, along with the KdV-type simple undular bores, include nonlinear trigonometric bores, solibores, rarefaction waves, and composite solutions representing various combinations of the above structures. We construct full parametric maps of such solutions for both signs of the cubic nonlinear term in the Gardner equation. Our classification is supported by numerical simulations. PMID:23031043

  20. Lipschitz Regularity for Elliptic Equations with Random Coefficients

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Armstrong, Scott N.; Mourrat, Jean-Christophe

    2016-01-01

    We develop a higher regularity theory for general quasilinear elliptic equations and systems in divergence form with random coefficients. The main result is a large-scale L ∞-type estimate for the gradient of a solution. The estimate is proved with optimal stochastic integrability under a one-parameter family of mixing assumptions, allowing for very weak mixing with non-integrable correlations to very strong mixing (for example finite range of dependence). We also prove a quenched L 2 estimate for the error in homogenization of Dirichlet problems. The approach is based on subadditive arguments which rely on a variational formulation of general quasilinear divergence-form equations.

  1. [Dealing with the phenomenological interview with prostitutes: experience report].

    PubMed

    Moreira, Isabel Cristina Cavalcante Carvalho; Monteiro, Claudete Ferreira de Souza

    2009-01-01

    This article aims at describing our experience in obtaining statements using the phenomenological interview. Eleven prostitutes were interviewed in Teresina, PI. Along this journey we have had several remarkable moments such as: the strategy of approaching the interviewee, the site of the interviews and the own emotional narration of the prostitutes. This process has showed us that one needs to be familiar and empathic with the research subjects. We have also learned that there is not a specific formula of conducting the interview, but it is the role of the researcher to identify the difficulties and propose strategies to obtain the statements. Thus, the empathic relationship that we have experienced in obtaining the statements from these women through the phenomenological interview was essential to understand the contact with violence throughout the prostitution daily life.

  2. A Modest Proposal for Another Phenomenological Approach to Psychopathology

    PubMed Central

    Mullen, Paul E.

    2007-01-01

    In 1912, Karl Jaspers published an article entitled “The Phenomenological Approach to Psychopathology.” This and his subsequent text, General Psychopathology, was to exert a profound influence on the development of psychiatry in general and psychiatric nosology in particular. The current Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders and International Classification of Diseases both reflect, at least in part, that legacy. This article will argue that the descriptive psychopathology of Jaspers has been gradually transformed into a caricature which has substituted authority for enquiry and simplification for subtlety. We have been left with classificatory systems which impose reified categories increasingly at variance with clinical reality and increasingly divorced from the data generated by scientific enquiry. Returning to the phenomenological method, despite its contradictions, may open the way to clinical and research approaches which free us from the current straightjacket of orthodoxy which is impending our progress. PMID:17023563

  3. How I remember my parents' divorce: a phenomenological investigation.

    PubMed

    Stambaugh, Suzanne E; Hector, Mark A; Carr, Austin R

    2011-01-01

    In order to examine the experience of parental divorce for adult women, a phenomenological method was used. Ten women were interviewed and the interviews were transcribed verbatim and thematized. The themes that came from the texts of the interviews transcripts and the researchers' reflections on the phenomenological research group analysis were: Before the Divorce, During the Divorce, and After the Divorce. These themes were centered on a contextual ground of Time Frame of the Divorce. The results of this study can provide individuals with a context for understanding their own experiences of parental divorce. These results could also be helpful for mental health clinicians in anticipating the themes that clients will discuss relative to the stages of their parents' divorce.

  4. The anatomy of sorrow: a spiritual, phenomenological, and neurological perspective

    PubMed Central

    Pies, Ronald

    2008-01-01

    There is considerable controversy, both within and outside the field of psychiatry, regarding the boundaries of normal sadness and clinical depression. Furthermore, while there are frequent calls for a "pluralistic", comprehensive approach to understanding depression, few writers have tried to integrate insights from the spiritual, philosophical, and neurobiological literature. The author proposes that such a synthesis is possible, and that our understanding of ordinary sorrow and clinical depression is enriched by drawing from these disparate sources. In particular, a phenomenological analysis of sorrow and depression reveals two overlapping but distinct "lifeworlds". These differ in the relational, temporal, dialectical, and intentional realms. Recent brain imaging studies are also beginning to reveal the neurobiological correlates of sorrow and depression. As we come to understand the neurobiology of these states, we may be able to correlate specific alterations in "neurocircuitry" with their phenomenological expressions. PMID:18559111

  5. How To Protect Children From Internet Predators: A Phenomenological Study.

    PubMed

    Alexander, Rodney

    2015-01-01

    Teenage Internet users are the fastest growing segment in the Internet user population. These teenagers are at risk of sexual assault from Internet predators. This phenomenological study explored teacher and counselors' perceptions of how to prevent this sexual assault. Twenty-five teacher and counselor participants were interviewed. A modified van Kaam method was used to analyze the data and develop themes. Participants stated that mainly the lack of parental support and social networking website were the circumstances leading to teenage Internet sexual assault, while teen needs and gratification usually played a role in teen encounters with predators on the Internet. There were 5 emergent themes in this phenomenological study and those themes were; lack of parental support, social networking websites and chat rooms, teenage need for relationships, instant gratification among teenagers, improved parental support. PMID:26799884

  6. Descriptive psychopathology, phenomenology, and the legacy of Karl Jaspers

    PubMed Central

    Häfner, Heinz

    2015-01-01

    With his early publications (1910-1913), Karl Jaspers created a comprehensive methodological arsenal for psychiatry, thus laying the foundation for descriptive psychopathology. Following Edmund Husserl, the founder of philosophical phenomenology, Jaspers introduced phenomenology into psychopathology as “static understanding,” ie, the unprejudiced intuitive reproduction (Vergegenwärtigung) and description of conscious phenomena. In a longitudinal perspective, “genetic understanding” based on empathy reveals how mental phenomena arise from mental phenomena. Severance in understanding of, or alienation from, meaningful connections is seen as indicating illness or transition of a natural development into a somatic process. Jaspers opted for philosophy early. After three terms of law, he switched to studying medicine, came to psychopathology after very little training in psychiatry; to psychology without ever studying psychology; and to a chair in philosophy without ever studying philosophy. In the fourth and subsequent editions of his General Psychopathology, imbued by his existential philosophy, Jaspers partly abandoned the descriptive method. PMID:25987860

  7. Descriptive psychopathology, phenomenology, and the legacy of Karl Jaspers.

    PubMed

    Häfner, Heinz

    2015-03-01

    With his early publications (1910-1913), Karl Jaspers created a comprehensive methodological arsenal for psychiatry, thus laying the foundation for descriptive psychopathology. Following Edmund Husserl, the founder of philosophical phenomenology, Jaspers introduced phenomenology into psychopathology as "static understanding," ie, the unprejudiced intuitive reproduction (Vergegenwärtigung) and description of conscious phenomena. In a longitudinal perspective, "genetic understanding" based on empathy reveals how mental phenomena arise from mental phenomena. Severance in understanding of, or alienation from, meaningful connections is seen as indicating illness or transition of a natural development into a somatic process. Jaspers opted for philosophy early. After three terms of law, he switched to studying medicine, came to psychopathology after very little training in psychiatry; to psychology without ever studying psychology; and to a chair in philosophy without ever studying philosophy. In the fourth and subsequent editions of his General Psychopathology, imbued by his existential philosophy, Jaspers partly abandoned the descriptive method.

  8. Emotion and dissociative seizures: A phenomenological analysis of patients' perspectives.

    PubMed

    Pick, Susannah; Mellers, John D C; Goldstein, Laura H

    2016-03-01

    Quantitative research has indicated that patients with dissociative seizures (DS) show altered responses to emotional stimuli, in addition to considerable emotional distress and dysregulation. The present study sought to further explore emotional processes in this population, to extend previous findings, and to provide a phenomenological insight into patients' perspectives on these issues. Semistructured interviews were carried out with 15 patients with DS, and the principles of interpretative phenomenological analysis (IPA) were adopted in data analysis. Key themes elicited included: i) general emotional functioning; ii) adverse (stressful/traumatic) life experiences; iii) the role of emotions in DS; iv) relating to others; and v) resilience, protective factors, and coping mechanisms. The clinical and theoretical implications of the findings are discussed.

  9. Disformal scalars as dark matter candidates — Branon phenomenology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cembranos, Jose A. R.; Maroto, Antonio L.

    2016-05-01

    Scalar particles coupled to the Standard Model fields through a disformal coupling arise in different theories, such as massive gravity or braneworld models. We will review the main phenomenology associated with such particles. Distinctive disformal signatures could be measured at colliders and with astrophysical observations. The phenomenological relevance of the disformal coupling demands the introduction of a set of symmetries, which may ensure the stability of these new degrees of freedom. In such a case, they constitute natural dark matter candidates since they are generally massive and weakly coupled. We will illustrate these ideas by paying particular attention to the branon case, since these questions arise naturally in braneworld models with low tension, where they were first discussed.

  10. Time-Dependent Ginzburg-Landau Equation and Boltzmann Transport Equation for Charge-Density-Wave Conductors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takane, Yositake; Hayashi, Masahiko; Ebisawa, Hiromichi

    2016-08-01

    The time-dependent Ginzburg-Landau equation and the Boltzmann transport equation for charge-density-wave (CDW) conductors are derived from a microscopic one-dimensional model by applying the Keldysh Green's function approach under a quasiclassical approximation. The effects of an external electric field and impurity pinning of the CDW are fully taken into account without relying on a phenomenological argument. These equations simultaneously describe the spatiotemporal dynamics of both the CDW and quasiparticles; thus, they serve as a starting point to develop a general framework to analyze various nonequilibrium phenomena, such as current conversion between the CDW condensate and quasiparticles, in realistic CDW conductors. It is shown that, in typical situations, the equations correctly describe the nonlinear behavior of electric conductivity in a simpler manner.

  11. Relating Schizotypy and Personality to the Phenomenology of Creativity

    PubMed Central

    Nelson, B.; Rawlings, D.

    2010-01-01

    Introduction: Although a considerable amount of research has addressed psychopathological and personality correlates of creativity, the relationship between these characteristics and the phenomenology of creativity has been neglected. Relating these characteristics to the phenomenology of creativity may assist in clarifying the precise nature of the relationship between psychopathology and creativity. The current article reports on an empirical study of the relationship between the phenomenology of the creative process and psychopathological and personality characteristics in a sample of artists. Method: A total of 100 artists (43 males, 57 females, mean age = 34.69 years) from a range of disciplines completed the Experience of Creativity Questionnaire and measures of “positive” schizotypy, affective disturbance, mental boundaries, and normal personality. Results: The sample of artists was found to be elevated on “positive” schizotypy, unipolar affective disturbance, thin boundaries, and the personality dimensions of Openness to Experience and Neuroticism, compared with norm data. Schizotypy was found to be the strongest predictor of a range of creative experience scales (Distinct Experience, Anxiety, Absorption, Power/Pleasure), suggesting a strong overlap of schizotypal and creative experience. Discussion: These findings indicate that “positive” schizotypy is associated with central features of “flow”-type experience, including distinct shift in phenomenological experience, deep absorption, focus on present experience, and sense of pleasure. The neurologically based construct of latent inhibition may be a mechanism that facilitates entry into flow-type states for schizotypal individuals. This may occur by reduced latent inhibition providing a “fresh” awareness and therefore a greater absorption in present experience, thus leading to flow-type states. PMID:18682376

  12. Resilience to Social Bullying in Academia: A Phenomenological Study.

    PubMed

    Wieland, Diane; Beitz, Janice M

    2015-01-01

    While social bullying, negative workplace behaviors, and incivility are receiving scholarly attention, no research study could be identified targeting resilience to social bullying in nursing programs. This article describes a phenomenological study that investigated resilience to social bullying. Seventeen self-identified bullied nurse faculty were audiotaped. Colaizzi's method guided data analysis. Multiple themes reflected 3 chronologic periods: during bullying, decisional phase, and after bullying. Implications for the health and well-being of nursing faculty are posed.

  13. Beyond-standard-model tensor interaction and hadron phenomenology

    SciTech Connect

    Courtoy, Aurore; Baessler, Stefan; Gonzalez-Alonso, Martin; Liuti, Simonetta

    2015-10-15

    Here, we evaluate the impact of recent developments in hadron phenomenology on extracting possible fundamental tensor interactions beyond the standard model. We show that a novel class of observables, including the chiral-odd generalized parton distributions, and the transversity parton distribution function can contribute to the constraints on this quantity. Experimental extractions of the tensor hadronic matrix elements, if sufficiently precise, will provide a, so far, absent testing ground for lattice QCD calculations.

  14. Some phenomenological predictions of charged Higgs bosons in electroweak interactions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Canal, C. A. García; Santangelo, E. M.

    1984-06-01

    Some phenomenological consequences of an extended Salam-Weinberg model are studied. In particular, the existence, or absence, of e-μ asymmetry in beam-dump experiments is analyzed and an increase in same sign dilepton cross sections is shown to exist due to the contribution of charged Higgs-mediated diagrams. The model is shown to be compatible with experimental results for other processes.

  15. Improvement in a phenomenological formula for ground state binding energies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gangopadhyay, G.

    2016-07-01

    The phenomenological formula for ground state binding energy derived earlier [G. Gangopadhyay, Int. J. Mod. Phys. E 20 (2011) 179] has been modified. The parameters have been obtained by fitting the latest available tabulation of experimental values. The major modifications include a new term for pairing and introduction of a new neutron magic number at N = 160. The new formula reduced the root mean square deviation to 363keV, a substantial improvement over the previous version of the formula.

  16. Inductive approach towards a phenomenologically more satisfactory unififed field theory

    SciTech Connect

    Rayski, J.; Rayski J.M. Jnr.

    1985-11-01

    A unified field theory constituting a fusion of the ideas of supersymmetries with general relativity and gauge theory is investigated. A Lagrangian formalism is constructed step by step; the last step consists in a marriage with Kaluza's idea of a multidimensional space-time. Our aim is not to achieve a full local supersymmetry in eleven dimensions, but rather to attain a compromise with the symmetries of the fundamental interactions either known phenomenologically, or only suspected to exist in nature.

  17. Irreducible tensor phenomenology for pd→3Heπ+π-

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ramachandran, G.; Deepak, P. N.

    2000-03-01

    A phenomenology based on the irreducible tensor formalism is developed for the reaction pdicons/Journals/Common/to" ALT="to" ALIGN="TOP"/> 3 Heicons/Journals/Common/pi" ALT="pi" ALIGN="TOP"/> + icons/Journals/Common/pi" ALT="pi" ALIGN="TOP"/> - , to study incisively the P-wave dominance noticed in the recent kinematically complete experiment at c.m. excess energy of 70 MeV at the MOMO facility.

  18. Theory and phenomenology of coherent neutrino-nucleus scattering

    SciTech Connect

    McLaughlin, Gail

    2015-07-15

    We review the theory and phenomenology of coherent elastic neutrino-nucleus scattering (CEνNS). After a brief introduction, we summarize the places where CEνNS is already in use and then turn to future physics opportunities from CEνNS. CEνNS has been proposed as a way to limit or discover beyond the standard model physics, measure the nuclear-neutron radius and constrain the Weinberg angle.

  19. Beyond-Standard-Model Tensor Interaction and Hadron Phenomenology.

    PubMed

    Courtoy, Aurore; Baeßler, Stefan; González-Alonso, Martín; Liuti, Simonetta

    2015-10-16

    We evaluate the impact of recent developments in hadron phenomenology on extracting possible fundamental tensor interactions beyond the standard model. We show that a novel class of observables, including the chiral-odd generalized parton distributions, and the transversity parton distribution function can contribute to the constraints on this quantity. Experimental extractions of the tensor hadronic matrix elements, if sufficiently precise, will provide a, so far, absent testing ground for lattice QCD calculations. PMID:26550868

  20. Overcoming parallelism: Naturalizing phenomenology with goldstein and Merleau-Ponty.

    PubMed

    Whitehead, Patrick M

    2015-12-01

    This paper examines two related problems that stand in the way of the development of an interdisciplinary project that spans biology and phenomenology. To be sure, each of these disciplines is interested in the body, but there are two ways through which the body may be understood. Biology examines the corporeal or living body (Kӧrper); phenomenology examines the body of lived experience (Leib). Both problems discussed in this paper stem from this two-fold nature of the body. The first concerns the anti-naturalist position taken by Husserl - a position that emphasizes the lived body and rejects any consideration of the corporeal body. Following Roy et al. (1999), I maintain that Husserl's anti-naturalism is no longer necessary. Kurt Goldstein (1934/1995) is used as an example that demonstrates a biological investigation of the corporeal body that is consonant with a phenomenological perspective, a quality which may also be seen in the many references it receives from Merleau-Ponty (1942/1963, 1945/1962). The second problem is that of parallelism - also called the body-body problem (Thompson, 2004). A parallelist collaboration between biology and phenomenology maintains the assumption that there are two bodies that must receive special attention. The problem of parallelism is viewed within the research program of neurophenomenology (Varela, 1996). It is argued that this problem dissolves when it is recognized that there are not two bodies - Kӧrper and Leib - but that these are two ways of recognizing one and the same body. Once again, Goldstein and Merleau-Ponty are used to help describe a two-fold investigation of the body that avoids parallelism and promotes the collaboration which this Special Issue seeks.

  1. Dark matter phenomenology of GUT inspired simplified models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arcadi, Giorgio

    2016-05-01

    We discuss some aspects of dark matter phenomenology, in particular related to Direct detection and collider searches, of models in which a fermionic Dark Matter interacts with SM fermions through spin 1 mediators. Contrary to conventional simplified models we will consider fixed assignments of the couplings of the (Z' ) mediator, according theoretically motivated embeddings. This allows to predict signals at future experimental facilities which can be used to test and possibly discriminate different realizations.

  2. Phenomenological relations for neutrino masses and mixing parameters

    SciTech Connect

    Khruschov, V. V.

    2013-11-15

    Phenomenological relations for masses, angles, and CP phases in the neutrino mixing matrix are proposed with allowance for available experimental data. For the case of CP violation in the lepton sector, an analysis of the possible structure of the neutrino mass matrix and a calculation of the neutrino mass features and the Dirac CP phase for the bimodal-neutrino model are performed. The values obtained in this way can be used to interpret and predict the results of various neutrino experiments.

  3. Eddington-inspired Born-Infeld gravity: Phenomenology of nonlinear gravity-matter coupling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pani, Paolo; Delsate, Térence; Cardoso, Vitor

    2012-04-01

    Viable corrections to the matter sector of Poisson’s equation may result in qualitatively different astrophysical phenomenology, for example, the gravitational collapse and the properties of compact objects can change drastically. We discuss a class of modified nonrelativistic theories and focus on a relativistic completion, Eddington-inspired Born-Infeld gravity. This recently proposed theory is equivalent to General Relativity in vacuum, but its nontrivial coupling to matter prevents singularities in early cosmology and in the nonrelativistic collapse of noninteracting particles. We extend our previous analysis, discussing further developments. We present a full numerical study of spherically symmetric nonrelativistic gravitational collapse of dust. For any positive coupling, the final state of the collapse is a regular pressureless star rather than a singularity. We also argue that there is no Chandrasekhar limit for the mass of a nonrelativistic white dwarf in this theory. Finally, we extend our previous results in the fully relativistic theory by constructing static and slowly rotating compact stars governed by nuclear-physics inspired equations of state. In the relativistic theory, there exists an upper bound on the mass of compact objects, suggesting that black holes can still be formed in the relativistic collapse.

  4. Phenomenological model relating cell shape to water reabsorption in proximal nephron.

    PubMed

    Welling, D J; Welling, L W; Hill, J J

    1978-04-01

    If the complex pattern of intercellular channels in proximal tubule is determined in part by the forces of large transepithelial water flow, the shape of the cells is an indicator of the type and magnitude of the forces required for water movement and the routes of that flow. To test this thesis, morphologic data and volume flow parameters for rabbit proximal tubule are related generally by a mass balance equation. If the intercellular boundaries are assumed to be highly deformable and to respond to changes in hydrostatic pressure, the solution to that equation is a simple relationship between cell shape and the forces required for water movement. The resulting phenomenological model suggests an important new role for peritubular serum proteins and can be used to compute reasonable values for cell wall hydraulic conductivity, intercellular protein diffusion constant, and a channel fluid osmolality not more than 1% greater than that of luminal fluid. It is concluded that quantitative morphologic studies may serve as a powerful means for evaluating and understanding transport phenomena in the nephron.

  5. Using Phenomenological Models to Characterize Transmissibility and Forecast Patterns and Final Burden of Zika Epidemics

    PubMed Central

    Chowell, Gerardo; Hincapie-Palacio, Doracelly; Ospina, Juan; Pell, Bruce; Tariq, Amna; Dahal, Sushma; Moghadas, Seyed; Smirnova, Alexandra; Simonsen, Lone; Viboud, Cécile

    2016-01-01

    Background: The World Health Organization declared the ongoing Zika virus (ZIKV) epidemic in the Americas a Public Health Emergency of International Concern on February 1, 2016. ZIKV disease in humans is characterized by a “dengue-like” syndrome including febrile illness and rash. However, ZIKV infection in early pregnancy has been associated with severe birth defects, including microcephaly and other developmental issues. Mechanistic models of disease transmission can be used to forecast trajectories and likely disease burden but are currently hampered by substantial uncertainty on the epidemiology of the disease (e.g., the role of asymptomatic transmission, generation interval, incubation period, and key drivers). When insight is limited, phenomenological models provide a starting point for estimation of key transmission parameters, such as the reproduction number, and forecasts of epidemic impact. Methods: We obtained daily counts of suspected Zika cases by date of symptoms onset from the Secretary of Health of Antioquia, Colombia during January-April 2016. We calibrated the generalized Richards model, a phenomenological model that accommodates a variety of early exponential and sub-exponential growth kinetics, against the early epidemic trajectory and generated predictions of epidemic size. The reproduction number was estimated by applying the renewal equation to incident cases simulated from the fitted generalized-growth model and assuming gamma or exponentially-distributed generation intervals derived from the literature. We estimated the reproduction number for an increasing duration of the epidemic growth phase. Results: The reproduction number rapidly declined from 10.3 (95% CI: 8.3, 12.4) in the first disease generation to 2.2 (95% CI: 1.9, 2.8) in the second disease generation, assuming a gamma-distributed generation interval with the mean of 14 days and standard deviation of 2 days. The generalized-Richards model outperformed the logistic growth

  6. The phenomenology of lucid dreaming: an online survey.

    PubMed

    Stumbrys, Tadas; Erlacher, Daniel; Johnson, Miriam; Schredl, Michael

    2014-01-01

    In lucid dreams the dreamer is aware that he or she is dreaming. Although such dreams are not that uncommon, many aspects of lucid dream phenomenology are still unclear. An online survey was conducted to gather data about lucid dream origination, duration, active or passive participation in the dream, planned actions for lucid dreams, and other phenomenological aspects. Among the 684 respondents who filled out the questionnaire, there were 571 lucid dreamers (83.5%). According to their reports, lucid dreams most often originate spontaneously in adolescence. The average lucid dream duration is about 14 minutes. Lucid dreamers are likely to be active in their lucid dreams and plan to accomplish different actions (e.g., flying, talking with dream characters, or having sex), yet they are not always able to remember or successfully execute their intentions (most often because of awakening or hindrances in the dream environment). The frequency of lucid dream experience was the strongest predictor of lucid dream phenomenology, but some differences were also observed in relation to age, gender, or whether the person is a natural or self-trained lucid dreamer. The findings are discussed in light of lucid dream research, and suggestions for future studies are provided. PMID:24934010

  7. Phenomenology of future-oriented mind-wandering episodes

    PubMed Central

    Stawarczyk, David; Cassol, Helena; D'Argembeau, Arnaud

    2013-01-01

    Recent research suggests that prospective and non-prospective forms of mind-wandering possess distinct properties, yet little is known about what exactly differentiates between future-oriented and non-future-oriented mind-wandering episodes. In the present study, we used multilevel exploratory factor analyses (MEFA) to examine the factorial structure of various phenomenological dimensions of mind-wandering, and we then investigated whether future-oriented mind-wandering episodes differ from other classes of mind-wandering along the identified factors. We found that the phenomenological dimensions of mind-wandering are structured in four factors: representational format (inner speech vs. visual imagery), personal relevance, realism/concreteness, and structuration. Prospective mind-wandering differed from non-prospective mind-wandering along each of these factors. Specifically, future-oriented mind-wandering episodes involved inner speech to a greater extent, were more personally relevant, more realistic/concrete, and more often part of structured sequences of thoughts. These results show that future-oriented mind-wandering possesses a unique phenomenological signature and provide new insights into how this particular form of mind-wandering may adaptively contribute to autobiographical planning. PMID:23882236

  8. Interdisciplinary Approaches to the Phenomenology of Auditory Verbal Hallucinations

    PubMed Central

    Woods, Angela; Jones, Nev; Bernini, Marco; Callard, Felicity; Alderson-Day, Ben; Badcock, Johanna C.; Bell, Vaughan; Cook, Chris C. H.; Csordas, Thomas; Humpston, Clara; Krueger, Joel; Larøi, Frank; McCarthy-Jones, Simon; Moseley, Peter; Powell, Hilary; Raballo, Andrea; Smailes, David; Fernyhough, Charles

    2014-01-01

    Despite the recent proliferation of scientific, clinical, and narrative accounts of auditory verbal hallucinations (AVHs), the phenomenology of voice hearing remains opaque and undertheorized. In this article, we outline an interdisciplinary approach to understanding hallucinatory experiences which seeks to demonstrate the value of the humanities and social sciences to advancing knowledge in clinical research and practice. We argue that an interdisciplinary approach to the phenomenology of AVH utilizes rigorous and context-appropriate methodologies to analyze a wider range of first-person accounts of AVH at 3 contextual levels: (1) cultural, social, and historical; (2) experiential; and (3) biographical. We go on to show that there are significant potential benefits for voice hearers, clinicians, and researchers. These include (1) informing the development and refinement of subtypes of hallucinations within and across diagnostic categories; (2) “front-loading” research in cognitive neuroscience; and (3) suggesting new possibilities for therapeutic intervention. In conclusion, we argue that an interdisciplinary approach to the phenomenology of AVH can nourish the ethical core of scientific enquiry by challenging its interpretive paradigms, and offer voice hearers richer, potentially more empowering ways to make sense of their experiences. PMID:24903416

  9. The phenomenology of lucid dreaming: an online survey.

    PubMed

    Stumbrys, Tadas; Erlacher, Daniel; Johnson, Miriam; Schredl, Michael

    2014-01-01

    In lucid dreams the dreamer is aware that he or she is dreaming. Although such dreams are not that uncommon, many aspects of lucid dream phenomenology are still unclear. An online survey was conducted to gather data about lucid dream origination, duration, active or passive participation in the dream, planned actions for lucid dreams, and other phenomenological aspects. Among the 684 respondents who filled out the questionnaire, there were 571 lucid dreamers (83.5%). According to their reports, lucid dreams most often originate spontaneously in adolescence. The average lucid dream duration is about 14 minutes. Lucid dreamers are likely to be active in their lucid dreams and plan to accomplish different actions (e.g., flying, talking with dream characters, or having sex), yet they are not always able to remember or successfully execute their intentions (most often because of awakening or hindrances in the dream environment). The frequency of lucid dream experience was the strongest predictor of lucid dream phenomenology, but some differences were also observed in relation to age, gender, or whether the person is a natural or self-trained lucid dreamer. The findings are discussed in light of lucid dream research, and suggestions for future studies are provided.

  10. Addiction and self-determination: a phenomenological approach.

    PubMed

    Schlimme, Jann E

    2010-02-01

    In this article, I focus on possibly impaired self-determination in addiction. After some methodological reflections, I introduce a phenomenological description of the experience of being self-determined. I argue that being self-determined implies effectivity of agency regarding three different behavioural domains. Such self-referential agency shall be called 'self-effectivity' in this article. In a second step, I will use this phenomenological description to understand the impairments of self-determination in addiction. While addiction does not necessarily imply a basic lack of control over one's life, this can well be the case during certain periods of time or in special situations. Addiction is herein described as an embodied custom-highly effective with respect to changing one's lived experience-which is learned and developed while becoming addicted. Such a repeatedly performed custom, called a 'psychotropic technique', implies deep changes in one's personal identity and alters an agent's 'self-effectivity'. In the closing section, I discuss the possible implications of a phenomenological approach to personal responsibility.

  11. Bridging Mechanistic and Phenomenological Models of Complex Biological Systems

    PubMed Central

    Transtrum, Mark K.; Qiu, Peng

    2016-01-01

    The inherent complexity of biological systems gives rise to complicated mechanistic models with a large number of parameters. On the other hand, the collective behavior of these systems can often be characterized by a relatively small number of phenomenological parameters. We use the Manifold Boundary Approximation Method (MBAM) as a tool for deriving simple phenomenological models from complicated mechanistic models. The resulting models are not black boxes, but remain expressed in terms of the microscopic parameters. In this way, we explicitly connect the macroscopic and microscopic descriptions, characterize the equivalence class of distinct systems exhibiting the same range of collective behavior, and identify the combinations of components that function as tunable control knobs for the behavior. We demonstrate the procedure for adaptation behavior exhibited by the EGFR pathway. From a 48 parameter mechanistic model, the system can be effectively described by a single adaptation parameter τ characterizing the ratio of time scales for the initial response and recovery time of the system which can in turn be expressed as a combination of microscopic reaction rates, Michaelis-Menten constants, and biochemical concentrations. The situation is not unlike modeling in physics in which microscopically complex processes can often be renormalized into simple phenomenological models with only a few effective parameters. The proposed method additionally provides a mechanistic explanation for non-universal features of the behavior. PMID:27187545

  12. Internal transport properties of macroporous sugar polyacrylate hydrogels: microsphere diffusion described by phenomenological laws.

    PubMed

    Martin, Brett D; Soto, Carissa M; Taitt, Chris; Charles, Paul T

    2008-04-01

    We have determined the internal transport properties of heterogeneous, macroporous hydrogels based on the regioregular sugar polyacrylate poly(6-acryloyl-beta-O-methyl-galactopyranoside). This was accomplished by measuring the diffusive flux of variously sized polystyrene microspheres and combining these results with solutions of phenomenological transport laws (the Navier-Stokes equations and Fick's Law with an assumption of first-order irreversible sphere capture by the gel polymer). This enabled calculation of gel properties such as average pore diameters (ca. 11.76 microm) and the diffusivities of the polystyrene spheres in the gel. These values range from 76% to 83% of that in free solution and correlate closely with the equilibrium solution content of the gel (82.3%). This approach has also enabled calculation of the sphere capture rates (2.4 x 10(-3) to 9.6 x 10(-5) s(-1)). These low capture rates indicate that the gel is extremely non-adhesive towards the spheres, and a linear correlation with sphere form drag area (r(2) = 1) was found. The pore sizes of the hydrated gel were observed via DIC light microscopy and the visible effective diameters corresponded very closely to the calculated values (11.66 vs. 11.76 microm). The diffusion/capture of inert spheres in the hydrogel can thus be described in a non-destructive manner by straightforward application of phenomenological transport laws. This result is significant in that these laws were intended to describe macroscopic ensembles of very large numbers of particles in continuous media, not small numbers (i.e., hundreds) in discontinuous media.

  13. Chemical Equation Balancing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blakley, G. R.

    1982-01-01

    Reviews mathematical techniques for solving systems of homogeneous linear equations and demonstrates that the algebraic method of balancing chemical equations is a matter of solving a system of homogeneous linear equations. FORTRAN programs using this matrix method to chemical equation balancing are available from the author. (JN)

  14. Kinetic energy equations for the average-passage equation system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, Richard W.; Adamczyk, John J.

    1989-01-01

    Important kinetic energy equations derived from the average-passage equation sets are documented, with a view to their interrelationships. These kinetic equations may be used for closing the average-passage equations. The turbulent kinetic energy transport equation used is formed by subtracting the mean kinetic energy equation from the averaged total instantaneous kinetic energy equation. The aperiodic kinetic energy equation, averaged steady kinetic energy equation, averaged unsteady kinetic energy equation, and periodic kinetic energy equation, are also treated.

  15. Equation of State from Lattice QCD Calculations

    SciTech Connect

    Gupta, Rajan

    2011-01-01

    We provide a status report on the calculation of the Equation of State (EoS) of QCD at finite temperature using lattice QCD. Most of the discussion will focus on comparison of recent results obtained by the HotQCD and Wuppertal-Budapest collaborations. We will show that very significant progress has been made towards obtaining high precision results over the temperature range of T = 150-700 MeV. The various sources of systematic uncertainties will be discussed and the differences between the two calculations highlighted. Our final conclusion is that these lattice results of EoS are precise enough to be used in the phenomenological analysis of heavy ion experiments at RHIC and LHC.

  16. Student experiences in an integrated science course: A phenomenological study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Crapenhoft-Gatewood, Kelly Lynn

    The purpose of conducting this study was to describe the experiences of average to high-achieving, middle-income students in a newly implemented integrated science course at a Midwest inner-city high school. The focus of this study was to describe the meaning students ascribed to their experiences in this non-tracked, two-year science course, in which many of the suggestions made by science reform efforts were implemented. A phenomenological approach was used in order to develop a holistic picture of the student participants' experiences. Data collection was confined to interviewing, observing, and analyzing the journals of four middle-income, average to high-achieving students enrolled in the same class during the 1994-95 school year. The data were subjective perceptions of the students in their learning environment. A modified version of the Colaizzi method of analysis of phenomenological data was used. This design utilized the Epoche, Phenomenological Reduction, Imaginative Variation and Synthesis. Co-researchers' statements were clustered into horizons of meaning and organized into themes. The textural themes included curriculum, instruction, teachers, peers, and overall impressions. Relationships to time and interactions with peers and teachers were among the structural themes. From these themes, individual and composite textual descriptions were developed. With the addition of the structural components, an integrated composite textual-structural description of the students' experience in the integrated science course resulted. This final product captured the meanings and essences of their experience. This study adds to the scholarly literature and research as it relates to the implementation of progressive pedagogy and theory regarding student experiences in a science course. It will improve educational practice by helping educators make informed decisions regarding curriculum reform, instructional practices, and classroom environment. This study will also

  17. Phenomenological and neurocognitive perspectives on delusions: A critical overview

    PubMed Central

    Sass, Louis; Byrom, Greg

    2015-01-01

    There is considerable overlap between phenomenological and neurocognitive perspectives on delusions. In this paper, we first review major phenomenological accounts of delusions, beginning with Jaspers’ ideas regarding incomprehensibility, delusional mood, and disturbed “cogito” (basic, minimal, or core self-experience) in what he termed “delusion proper” in schizophrenia. Then we discuss later studies of decontextualization and delusional mood by Matussek, changes in self and world in delusion formation according to Conrad's notions of “apophany” and “anastrophe”, and the implications of ontological transformations in the felt sense of reality in some delusions. Next we consider consistencies between: a) phenomenological models stressing minimal-self (ipseity) disturbance and hyperreflexivity in schizophrenia, and b) recent neurocognitive models of delusions emphasizing salience dysregulation and prediction error. We voice reservations about homogenizing tendencies in neurocognitive explanations of delusions (the “paranoia paradigm”), given experiential variations in states of delusion. In particular we consider shortcomings of assuming that delusions necessarily or always involve “mistaken beliefs” concerning objective facts about the world. Finally, we offer some suggestions regarding possible neurocognitive factors. Current models that stress hypersalience (banal stimuli experienced as strange) might benefit from considering the potential role of hyposalience in delusion formation. Hyposalience – associated with experiencing the strange as if it were banal, and perhaps with activation of the default mode network – may underlie a kind of delusional derealization and an “anything goes” attitude. Such an attitude would be conducive to delusion formation, yet differs significantly from the hypersalience emphasized in current neurocognitive theories. PMID:26043327

  18. Deflected Mirage Mediation: A Phenomenological Framework for Generalized Supersymmetry Breaking

    SciTech Connect

    Everett, Lisa L.; Kim, Ian-Woo; Ouyang, Peter; Zurek, Kathryn M.

    2008-09-05

    We present a general phenomenological framework for dialing between gravity mediation, gauge mediation, and anomaly mediation. The approach is motivated from recent developments in moduli stabilization, which suggest that gravity mediated terms can be effectively loop suppressed and thus comparable to gauge and anomaly mediated terms. The gauginos exhibit a mirage unification behavior at a ''deflected'' scale, and gluinos are often the lightest colored sparticles. The approach provides a rich setting in which to explore generalized supersymmetry breaking at the CERN Large Hadron Collider.

  19. The phenomenological method in qualitative psychology and psychiatry.

    PubMed

    Englander, Magnus

    2016-01-01

    This article will closely examine the phenomenological method as applied to qualitative inquiry in psychology and psychiatry. In a critical comparison between Amedeo Giorgi's and Larry Davidson's qualitatively methods, conclusions were drawn with regard to how different kinds of qualitative inquiry are possible while remaining faithful to Husserlian philosophical foundations. Utilizing Lester Embree's recent articulation of how Husserl's method of the epochē can be disclosed as specific to a discipline, varieties of these two qualitative methods were seen in their relation to the original scientific aim instigated by the developer.

  20. An alternative NMSSM phenomenology with manifest perturbative unification

    SciTech Connect

    Hall, Lawrence; Barbieri, Riccardo; Pappadopulo, Duccio; Rychkov, Vyacheslav S.; Hall, Lawrence J.; Papaioannou, Anastasios Y.

    2007-12-18

    Can supersymmetric models with a moderate stop mass be made consistent with the negative Higgs boson searches at LEP, while keeping perturbative unification manifest? The NMSSM achieves this rather easily, but only if extra matter multiplets filling complete SU(5) representations are present at intermediate energies. As a concrete example which makes use of this feature, we give an analytic description of the phenomenology of a constrained NMSSM close to a Peccei-Quinn symmetry point. The related pseudo-Goldstone boson appears in decays of the Higgs bosons and possibly of the lightest neutralino, and itself decays into (b anti-b) and (tau anti-tau).

  1. Alternative approaches to research in physical therapy: positivism and phenomenology.

    PubMed

    Shepard, K F; Jensen, G M; Schmoll, B J; Hack, L M; Gwyer, J

    1993-02-01

    This article presents philosophical approaches to research in physical therapy. A comparison is made to demonstrate how the research purpose, research design, research methods, and research data differ when one approaches research from the philosophical perspective of positivism (predominantly quantitative) as compared with the philosophical perspective of phenomenology (predominantly qualitative). Differences between the two approaches are highlighted by examples from research articles published in Physical Therapy. The authors urge physical therapy researchers to become familiar with the tenets, rigor, and knowledge gained from the use of both approaches in order to increase their options in conducting research relevant to the practice of physical therapy.

  2. Phenomenological Theory of Isotropic-Genesis Nematic Elastomers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lu, Bing-Sui; Ye, Fangfu; Xing, Xiangjun; Goldbart, Paul M.

    2012-06-01

    We consider the impact of the elastomer network on the nematic structure and fluctuations in isotropic-genesis nematic elastomers, via a phenomenological model that underscores the role of network compliance. The model contains a network-mediated nonlocal interaction as well as a new kind of random field that reflects the memory of the nematic order present at network formation and also encodes local anisotropy due to localized nematogenic polymers. This model enables us to predict regimes of short-ranged oscillatory spatial correlations (thermal and glassy) in the nematic alignment.

  3. The Experience of Pregnancy: A Hermeneutical/Phenomenological Study

    PubMed Central

    Lundgren, Ingela; Wahlberg, Vivian

    1999-01-01

    The aim of this study was to describe women's experience of pregnancy. The setting was the Alternative Birth Center at Sahlgrenska University Hospital in Göteborg, Sweden, from 1996 to 1997. Anonymous diaries were written by 12 women and analyzed using a hermeneutical/phenomenological approach. The essential structure and interpretation of women's experience of pregnancy can be expressed as “transition to the unknown,” which includes three themes: (1) meeting one's life situation, (2) meeting something inevitable, and (3) preparing for the unknown.The essential structure and interpretation of women's experience of pregnancy can be expressed as “transition to the unknown” … PMID:22945994

  4. Phenomenology of the Z boson plus jet process at NNLO

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boughezal, Radja; Liu, Xiaohui; Petriello, Frank

    2016-10-01

    We present a detailed phenomenological study of Z -boson production in association with a jet through next-to-next-to-leading order (NNLO) in perturbative QCD. Fiducial cross sections and differential distributions for both 8 TeV and 13 TeV LHC collisions are presented. We study the impact of different parton distribution functions (PDFs) on predictions for the Z +jet process. Upon inclusion of the NNLO corrections, the residual scale uncertainty is reduced such that both the total rate and the transverse momentum distributions can be used to discriminate between various PDF sets.

  5. Experience of Time Passage:. Phenomenology, Psychophysics, and Biophysical Modelling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wackermann, Jiří

    2005-10-01

    The experience of time's passing appears, from the 1st person perspective, to be a primordial subjective experience, seemingly inaccessible to the 3rd person accounts of time perception (psychophysics, cognitive psychology). In our analysis of the `dual klepsydra' model of reproduction of temporal durations, time passage occurs as a cognitive construct, based upon more elementary (`proto-cognitive') function of the psychophysical organism. This conclusion contradicts the common concepts of `subjective' or `psychological' time as readings of an `internal clock'. Our study shows how phenomenological, experimental and modelling approaches can be fruitfully combined.

  6. The phenomenological approach to modeling the dark energy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kunz, Martin

    2012-07-01

    In this mini-review we discuss first why we should investigate cosmological models beyond ΛCDM. We then show how to describe dark energy or modified gravity models in a fluid language with the help of one background and two perturbation quantities. We review a range of dark energy models and study how they fit into the phenomenological framework, including generalizations like phantom crossing, sound speeds different from c and non-zero anisotropic stress, and how these effective quantities are linked to the underlying physical models. We also discuss the limits of what can be measured with cosmological data, and some challenges for the framework.

  7. Phenomenological contributions to understanding hypnosis: review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Woodard, Fredrick

    2003-12-01

    This article provides a summary of the available qualitative literature on hypnosis of importance to empirical study of hypnosis. The author advocates a link between phenomenological research and the qualitative research of perceptual theory to deepen an understanding of hypnosis previously missing in the research literature and in debates on the theoretical approaches to hypnosis. The author suggests linking Giorgi's and Wasicsko's research methodologies to advance qualitative research. Researchers could conduct more qualitative research on the experience of hypnosis to expand and explicate subjective experiencing and enhance exploration of individual differences that cannot be captured in artificially controlled environments. PMID:14723451

  8. Phenomenology in nursing research: methodology, interviewing and transcribing.

    PubMed

    Balls, Paula

    While nurses can relate to the phenomenological approach because they see it as sharing the values of nursing, this may not be sufficient on its own to start conducting this kind of research. Using examples from my own research experience, this article aims to examine what draws nursing to this method and why nurses think they may be good at it. It also offers practical advice on how to carry out a good interview, how and what to transcribe and how to use quotes to support research.

  9. Phenomenological determination of polarized quark distributions in the nucleon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bartelski, Jan; Tatur, Stanisław

    1996-03-01

    We present a fit to spin asymmetries which gives polarized quark distributions. These functions are closely related to the ones given by the Martin, Roberts and Stirling fit for unpolarized structure functions. The integrals of polarized distributions are discussed and compared with the corresponding quantities obtained from neutron and hyperon β-decay data. We use the combination of proton, neutron and deuteron spin asymmetries in order to determine the coefficients of our polarized quark distributions. Our fit shows that phenomenologically there is no need for taking polarized gluons into account.

  10. The personal experience of dysmenorrhoea: an interpretative phenomenological analysis.

    PubMed

    Burbeck, Rachel; Willig, Carla

    2014-10-01

    This study explored six women's experiences of primary dysmenorrhoea using semi-structured interviews analysed using interpretative phenomenological analysis. Rather than focusing on pain, participants broadened the study focus to coping with the menstrual process as a whole. This was seen to be mediated by menstrual taboos and by the theme of 'order', arising from a strong feeling of a menstrual timetable and the need for rational explanation. Another theme was pain as a separate entity, which was connected to the theme of order. Placing dysmenorrhoea in its context may be useful for health-care professionals treating women with the condition.

  11. The phenomenological method in qualitative psychology and psychiatry

    PubMed Central

    Englander, Magnus

    2016-01-01

    This article will closely examine the phenomenological method as applied to qualitative inquiry in psychology and psychiatry. In a critical comparison between Amedeo Giorgi's and Larry Davidson's qualitatively methods, conclusions were drawn with regard to how different kinds of qualitative inquiry are possible while remaining faithful to Husserlian philosophical foundations. Utilizing Lester Embree's recent articulation of how Husserl's method of the epochē can be disclosed as specific to a discipline, varieties of these two qualitative methods were seen in their relation to the original scientific aim instigated by the developer. PMID:26968361

  12. Quark-Hadron Duality for the Pion: a Phenomenological Study

    SciTech Connect

    Wally Melnitchouk

    2002-08-01

    We explore the relationship between exclusive and inclusive electromagnetic scattering from the pion, focusing on the transition region at intermediate Q{sup 2}. Combining Drell-Yan data on the leading twist quark distribution in the pion with a model for the resonance region at large x, we calculate QCD moments of the pion structure function over a range of Q{sup 2}, and quantify the role of higher twist corrections. Using a parameterization of the pion elastic form factor and phenomenological models for the pi --> p transition form factor, we test the extent to which local duality may be valid for the pion.

  13. Women's perspectives toward menopause: A phenomenological study in Iran.

    PubMed

    Hakimi, Sevil; Simbar, Masoumeh; Ramezani Tehrani, Fahimeh; Zaiery, Farid; Khatami, Shiva

    2016-01-01

    This study explores the attitude and feelings toward menopause among Azeri menopausal women using hermeneutic phenomenology based on Van Manen's approach. A total of 18 menopausal women who were attended in urban health centers of Tabriz, Iran, were recruited using a purposive sampling method. Data were gathered through semistructured interviews. Each interview was transcribed verbatim and analyzed simultaneously. Data analysis led to the emergence of five main themes: positive attitude, neutral attitude, negative attitude, positive feelings, and negative feelings. Participants had different feelings and attitude. Acceptance of menopause as a natural process helps women to have a neutral attitude toward menopause.

  14. A phenomenological π-p scattering length from pionic hydrogen

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ericson, T. E. O.; Loiseau, B.; Wycech, S.

    2004-07-01

    We derive a closed, model independent, expression for the electromagnetic correction factor to a phenomenological hadronic scattering length ah extracted from a hydrogenic atom. It is obtained in a non-relativistic approach and in the limit of a short ranged hadronic interaction to terms of order α2logα using an extended charge distribution. A hadronic πN scattering length ahπ-p=0.0870(5)mπ-1 is deduced leading to a πNN coupling constant from the GMO relation gc2/(4π)=14.04(17).

  15. Stroke in young women: An interpretative phenomenological analysis.

    PubMed

    Leahy, Dorothy M; Desmond, Deirdre; Coughlan, Tara; O'Neill, Des; Collins, D Rónán

    2016-05-01

    Stroke among adults of working age is increasing. We aimed to explore the experience of stroke among young women in Ireland. In total, 12 women (aged between 18 and 50 years) participated in semi-structured interviews. Data were analysed using interpretative phenomenological analysis. Four super-ordinate themes were identified: stroke as an illness of later life ('obviously it's for older people'), post-stroke selves, a desire for peer support and the impact of stroke on relationships. Findings indicate the importance of addressing the specific needs of younger stroke patients from admission to recovery through provision of inclusive all-age acute stroke services with tailored rehabilitation.

  16. Reflections on Chemical Equations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gorman, Mel

    1981-01-01

    The issue of how much emphasis balancing chemical equations should have in an introductory chemistry course is discussed. The current heavy emphasis on finishing such equations is viewed as misplaced. (MP)

  17. Interpretation of Bernoulli's Equation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bauman, Robert P.; Schwaneberg, Rolf

    1994-01-01

    Discusses Bernoulli's equation with regards to: horizontal flow of incompressible fluids, change of height of incompressible fluids, gases, liquids and gases, and viscous fluids. Provides an interpretation, properties, terminology, and applications of Bernoulli's equation. (MVL)

  18. Karl Jaspers' phenomenology in the light of histological and X-ray metaphors.

    PubMed

    Vlasova, Olga Alexandrovna; Beveridge, Allan

    2014-03-01

    The study considers the origins of Karl Jaspers' phenomenology. What did phenomenology mean to Jaspers and what was his personal perspective? What metaphors did he associate with it? This paper describes his phenomenological method by using the metaphors of histology and the X-ray. This perspective enables a better understanding, not only of the origins and essence of his phenomenology but also of its value for Jaspers himself. In Jaspers' daily life, he would have been familiar with microscopes and X-ray machines.

  19. Exchange bias phenomenology and models of core/shell nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Iglesias, Oscar; Labarta, Amílcar; Batlle, Xavier

    2008-06-01

    Some of the main experimental observations related to the occurrence of exchange bias in magnetic systems are reviewed, focusing the attention on the peculiar phenomenology associated to nanoparticles with core/shell structure as compared to thin film bilayers. The main open questions posed by the experimental observations are presented and contrasted to existing theories and models for exchange bias formulated up to date. We also present results of simulations based on a simple model of a core/shell nanoparticle in which the values of microscopic parameters such as anisotropy and exchange constants can be tuned in the core, shell and at the interfacial regions, offering new insight on the microscopic origin of the experimental phenomenology. A detailed study of the magnetic order of the interfacial spins shows compelling evidence that most of the experimentally observed effects can be qualitatively accounted within the context of this model and allows also to quantify the magnitude of the loop shifts in striking agreement with the macroscopic observed values.

  20. An internally consistent gamma ray burst time history phenomenology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cline, T. L.

    1985-01-01

    A phenomenology for gamma ray burst time histories is outlined. Order of their generally chaotic appearance is attempted, based on the speculation that any one burst event can be represented above 150 keV as a superposition of similarly shaped increases of varying intensity. The increases can generally overlap, however, confusing the picture, but a given event must at least exhibit its own limiting characteristic rise and decay times if the measurements are made with instruments having adequate temporal resolution. Most catalogued observations may be of doubtful or marginal utility to test this hypothesis, but some time histories from Helios-2, Pioneer Venus Orbiter and other instruments having one-to several-millisecond capabilities appear to provide consistency. Also, recent studies of temporally resolved Solar Maximum Mission burst energy spectra are entirely compatible with this picture. The phenomenology suggested here, if correct, may assist as an analytic tool for modelling of burst processes and possibly in the definition of burst source populations.

  1. Phenomenology of left-right symmetric dark matter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garcia-Cely, Camilo; Heeck, Julian

    2016-03-01

    We present a detailed study of dark matter phenomenology in low-scale left-right symmetric models. Stability of new fermion or scalar multiplets is ensured by an accidental matter parity that survives the spontaneous symmetry breaking of the gauge group by scalar triplets. The relic abundance of these particles is set by gauge interactions and gives rise to dark matter candidates with masses above the electroweak scale. Dark matter annihilations are thus modified by the Sommerfeld effect, not only in the early Universe, but also today, for instance, in the Center of the Galaxy. Majorana candidates—triplet, quintuplet, bi-doublet, and bi-triplet—bring only one new parameter to the model, their mass, and are hence highly testable at colliders and through astrophysical observations. Scalar candidates—doublet and 7-plet, the latter being only stable at the renormalizable level—have additional scalar-scalar interactions that give rise to rich phenomenology. The particles under discussion share many features with the well-known candidates wino, Higgsino, inert doublet scalar, sneutrino, and Minimal Dark Matter. In particular, they all predict a large gamma-ray flux from dark matter annihilations, which can be searched for with Cherenkov telescopes. We furthermore discuss models with unequal left-right gauge couplings, gR ≠ gL, taking the recent experimental hints for a charged gauge boson with 2 TeV mass as a benchmark point. In this case, the dark matter mass is determined by the observed relic density.

  2. The Concept of Psychosis: Historical and Phenomenological Aspects

    PubMed Central

    2008-01-01

    The historical development of the concept of psychosis and its increasing differentiation from the neuroses up to the modern classification systems, Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders and International Statistical Classification of Diseases, is initially presented. In portraying this development, the struggle surrounding the clinical relevance of concepts on the one hand and their reliability and validity on the other are reflected. Thus far, diagnostic reliability has primarily been improved by focusing on externally observable symptoms in connection with expression and behavior. The identification of disease-specific symptoms, however, is principally achieved through the differential description of subjective experience. How this experience is to be explored and assessed remains for the most part unclear. With reference to its founder Karl Jaspers, the phenomenological method is presented as the decisive instrument for the assessment of experience. It is shown that a return to the legacy of phenomenology and a reformulation of the long-standing question concerning the specific symptoms of the schizophrenic psychosis are currently in progress. The revival of historical knowledge and a focus on direct clinical phenomena continue to provide inspiration for further advancement in modern psychiatry. PMID:18174608

  3. A phenomenological finite element model of stereolithography processing

    SciTech Connect

    Chambers, R.S.; Guess, T.R.; Hinnerichs, T.D.

    1996-03-01

    In the stereolithography process, three dimensional parts are built layer by layer using a laser to selectively cure slices of a photocurable resin, one on top of another. As the laser spot passes over the surface of the resin, the ensuing chemical reaction causes the resin to shrink and stiffen during solidification. When laser paths cross or when new layers are cured on top of existing layers, residual stresses are generated as the cure shrinkage of the freshly gelled resin is constrained by the adjoining previously-cured material. These internal stresses can cause curling in the compliant material. A capability for performing finite element analyses of the stereolithography process has been developed. Although no attempt has been made to incorporate all the physics of the process, a numerical platform suitable for such development has been established. A methodology and code architecture have been structured to allow finite elements to be birthed (activated) according to a prescribed order mimicking the procedure by which a laser is used to cure and build-up surface layers of resin to construct a three dimensional geometry. In its present form, the finite element code incorporates a simple phenomenological viscoelastic material model of solidification that is based on the shrinkage and relaxation observed following isolated, uncoupled laser exposures. The phenomenological material model has been used to analyze the curl in a simple cantilever beam and to make qualitative distinctions between two contrived build styles.

  4. Ontology or phenomenology? How the LVAD challenges the euthanasia debate.

    PubMed

    Kraemer, Felicitas

    2013-03-01

    This article deals with the euthanasia debate in light of new life-sustaining technologies such as the left ventricular assist device (LVAD). The question arises: does the switching off of a LVAD by a doctor upon the request of a patient amount to active or passive euthanasia, i.e. to 'killing' or to 'letting die'? The answer hinges on whether the device is to be regarded as a proper part of the patient's body or as something external. We usually regard the switching off of an internal device as killing, whereas the deactivation of an external device is seen as 'letting die'. The case is notoriously difficult to decide for hybrid devices such as LVADs, which are partly inside and partly outside the patient's body. Additionally, on a methodological level, I will argue that the 'ontological' arguments from analogy given for both sides are problematic. Given the impasse facing the ontological arguments, complementary phenomenological arguments deserve closer inspection. In particular, we should consider whether phenomenologically the LVAD is perceived as a body part or as an external device. I will support the thesis that the deactivation of a LVAD is to be regarded as passive euthanasia if the device is not perceived by the patient as a part of the body proper.

  5. Phenomenology of electromagnetic coupling: Conductors penetrating an aperture

    SciTech Connect

    Wright, D.B.; King, R.J.

    1987-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the coupling effects of penetrating conductors through free-standing apertures. This penetrating conductor and aperture arrangement are referred to as a modified aperture. A penetrating conductor is defined here to be a thin, single wire bent twice at 90 angles. The wire was inserted through a rectangular aperture in a metal wall. Vertical segments on both sides of the wall coupled energy from one region to the other. Energy was incident upon the modified aperture from what is referred to as the exterior region. The amount of coupling was measured by a D sensor on the other (interior) side of the wall. This configuration of an aperture in a metal wall was used as opposed to an aperture in a cavity in order to simplify the interpretation of resulting data. The added complexity of multiple cavity resonances was therefore eliminated. Determining the effects of penetrating conductors on aperture coupling is one of several topics being investigated as part of on-going research at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory on the phenomenology of electromagnetic coupling. These phenomenology studies are concerned with the vulnerability of electronic systems to high intensity electromagnetic fields. The investigation is relevant to high altitude EMP (HEMP), enhanced HEMP (EHEMP), and high power microwave (HPM) coupling.

  6. Salvia divinorum use and phenomenology: results from an online survey.

    PubMed

    Sumnall, H R; Measham, F; Brandt, S D; Cole, J C

    2011-11-01

    Salvia divinorum is a hallucinogenic plant with ethnopharmacological and recreational uses. It differs from classic serotonergic hallucinogens such as LSD and psilocin in both phenomenology and potent agonist activity of the active component salvinorin A at κ-opioid receptors. Awareness of S. divinorum has grown recently, with both an increase in its public representation and concern over its potential harmful effects. This discussion is particularly relevant as S. divinorum is legal to use in many countries and regions and easily available through online retailers. Drawing upon previous investigations of S. divinorum and other hallucinogens, this study surveyed 154 recent users and questioned them on their use behaviours, consequences of use and other attitudinal measures. Although reporting an extensive substance use history, and considering the limitations of online surveys, there was little evidence of dysfunctional S. divinorum use, and few reports of troubling adverse consequences of use. Furthermore, there was no evidence that users exhibited increased schizotypy. Respondents reported that S. divinorum produced mixed hallucinogenic and dissociative effects, which lends support to assertions that it phenomenologically differs from other hallucinogens with primary serotonergic activity. The functions of use changed with greater experiences with the drug, and although many respondents reported use of S. divinorum as an alternative to illegal drugs it, was apparent that legal proscription would be unlikely to dissuade them from use. These results are discussed with reference to psychopharmacologically informed public health responses to substance use.

  7. Empathy ≠ sharing: Perspectives from phenomenology and developmental psychology.

    PubMed

    Zahavi, Dan; Rochat, Philippe

    2015-11-01

    We argue that important insights regarding the topic of sharing can be gathered from phenomenology and developmental psychology; insights that in part challenge widespread ideas about what sharing is and where it can be found. To be more specific, we first exemplify how the notion of sharing is being employed in recent discussions of empathy, and then argue that this use of the notion tends to be seriously confused. It typically conflates similarity and sharing and, more generally speaking, fails to recognize that sharing proper involves reciprocity. As part of this critical analysis, we draw on sophisticated analyses of the distinction between empathy and emotional sharing that can be found in early phenomenology. Next, we turn to developmental psychology. Sharing is not simply one thing, but a complex and many-layered phenomenon. By tracing its early developmental trajectory from infancy and beyond, we show how careful psychological observations can help us develop a more sophisticated understanding of sharing than the one currently employed in many discussions in the realm of neuroscience. In our conclusion, we return to the issue of empathy and argue that although empathy does not involve or entail sharing, empathy understood as a basic sensitivity to and understanding of others (rather than as a special prosocial concern for others) might be a precondition for sharing.

  8. Proof phenomenon as a function of the phenomenology of proving.

    PubMed

    Hipólito, Inês

    2015-12-01

    Kurt Gödel wrote (1964, p. 272), after he had read Husserl, that the notion of objectivity raises a question: "the question of the objective existence of the objects of mathematical intuition (which, incidentally, is an exact replica of the question of the objective existence of the outer world)". This "exact replica" brings to mind the close analogy Husserl saw between our intuition of essences in Wesensschau and of physical objects in perception. What is it like to experience a mathematical proving process? What is the ontological status of a mathematical proof? Can computer assisted provers output a proof? Taking a naturalized world account, I will assess the relationship between mathematics, the physical world and consciousness by introducing a significant conceptual distinction between proving and proof. I will propose that proving is a phenomenological conscious experience. This experience involves a combination of what Kurt Gödel called intuition, and what Husserl called intentionality. In contrast, proof is a function of that process - the mathematical phenomenon - that objectively self-presents a property in the world, and that results from a spatiotemporal unity being subject to the exact laws of nature. In this essay, I apply phenomenology to mathematical proving as a performance of consciousness, that is, a lived experience expressed and formalized in language, in which there is the possibility of formulating intersubjectively shareable meanings.

  9. Beyond a code of ethics: phenomenological ethics for everyday practice.

    PubMed

    Greenfield, Bruce; Jensen, Gail M

    2010-06-01

    Physical therapy, like all health-care professions, governs itself through a code of ethics that defines its obligations of professional behaviours. The code of ethics provides professions with a consistent and common moral language and principled guidelines for ethical actions. Yet, and as argued in this paper, professional codes of ethics have limits applied to ethical decision-making in the presence of ethical dilemmas. Part of the limitations of the codes of ethics is that there is no particular hierarchy of principles that govern in all situations. Instead, the exigencies of clinical practice, the particularities of individual patient's illness experiences and the transformative nature of chronic illnesses and disabilities often obscure the ethical concerns and issues embedded in concrete situations. Consistent with models of expert practice, and with contemporary models of patient-centred care, we advocate and describe in this paper a type of interpretative and narrative approach to moral practice and ethical decision-making based on phenomenology. The tools of phenomenology that are well defined in research are applied and examined in a case that illustrates their use in uncovering the values and ethical concerns of a patient. Based on the deconstruction of this case on a phenomenologist approach, we illustrate how such approaches for ethical understanding can help assist clinicians and educators in applying principles within the context and needs of each patient.

  10. Psychosocial needs of burns nurses: a descriptive phenomenological inquiry.

    PubMed

    Kornhaber, Rachel Anne; Wilson, Anne

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this qualitative study was to explore the psychosocial needs of nurses who care for patients with severe burn injuries. Burns nurses work in an emotionally challenging and confronting environment, for which they are in need of emotional and clinical support. Exposure to such high levels of stress in this occupational environment has implications for nurses' health and psychosocial well-being. Seven burns nurses were recruited in 2009 from a severe burn injury unit in New South Wales, Australia. A qualitative phenomenological methodology was used to construct themes depicting nurses' experiences. Participants were selected through purposeful sampling, and data were collected through in-depth individual semistructured interviews using open-ended questions. Data were analyzed with Colaizzi's phenomenological method of data analysis. The psychosocial needs of burns nurses were identified and organized into five categories: peer nursing support, informal support, lack of support, multidisciplinary team collaboration, and professional support. The findings clearly demonstrate that support and unity within the workplace are fundamental factors for the psychosocial well-being of nurses caring for patients who have sustained a severe burn injury. Support for nurses in the form of regular professional or collegial debriefing sessions and utilization of employee assistance programs could ease the impact of the stressful environment in which they operate, and could influence staff retention. However, a supportive workplace culture is necessary to encourage nurses to access these services.

  11. Chiral symmetry breaking revisited: the gap equation with lattice ingredients

    SciTech Connect

    Aguilar, Arlene C.

    2011-05-23

    We study chiral symmetry breaking in QCD, using as ingredients in the quark gap equation recent lattice results for the gluon and ghost propagators. The Ansatz employed for the quark-gluon vertex is purely non-Abelian, introducing a crucial dependence on the ghost dressing function and the quark-ghost scattering amplitude. The numerical impact of these quantities is considerable: the need to invoke confinement explicitly is avoided, and the dynamical quark masses generated are of the order of 300 MeV. In addition, the pion decay constant and the quark condensate are computed, and are found to be in good agreement with phenomenology.

  12. Phenomenology of dark matter via a bimetric extension of general relativity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bernard, Laura; Blanchet, Luc

    2015-05-01

    We propose a relativistic model of dark matter reproducing at once the concordance cosmological model Λ -cold-dark-matter (Λ -CDM ) at cosmological scales and the phenomenology of the modified Newtonian dynamics (MOND) at galactic scales. To achieve this we postulate a nonstandard form of dark matter, consisting of two different species of particles coupled to gravity via a bimetric extension of general relativity and linked together through an internal vector field (a "graviphoton") generated by the mass of these particles. We prove that this dark matter behaves like ordinary cold dark matter at the level of first-order cosmological perturbation, while a pure cosmological constant plays the role of dark energy. The MOND equation emerges in the nonrelativistic limit through a mechanism of gravitational polarization of the dark matter medium in the gravitational field of ordinary matter. Finally we show that the model is viable in the Solar System as it predicts the same parametrized post-Newtonian parameters as general relativity.

  13. A phenomenological dynamic model of a magnetorheological damper using a neuro-fuzzy system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zeinali, Mohammadjavad; Amri Mazlan, Saiful; Yasser Abd Fatah, Abdul; Zamzuri, Hairi

    2013-12-01

    A magnetorheological (MR) damper is a promising appliance for semi-active suspension systems, due to its capability of damping undesired movement using an adequate control strategy. This research has been carried out a phenomenological dynamic model of two MR dampers using an adaptive-network-based fuzzy inference system (ANFIS) approach. Two kinds of Lord Corporation MR damper (a long stroke damper and a short stroke damper) were used in experiments, and then modeled using the experimental results. In addition, an investigation of the influence of the membership function selection on predicting the behavior of the MR damper and obtaining a mathematical model was conducted to realize the relationship between input current, displacement, and velocity as the inputs and force as output. The results demonstrate that the proposed models for both short stroke and long stroke MR dampers have successfully predicted the behavior of the MR damper with adequate accuracy, and an equation is presented to precisely describe the behavior of each MR damper.

  14. Separable representation of phenomenological optical potentials of Woods-Saxon type

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hlophe, L.; Elster, Ch.; Johnson, R. C.; Upadhyay, N. J.; Nunes, F. M.; Arbanas, G.; Eremenko, V.; Escher, J. E.; Thompson, I. J.; Torus Collaboration

    2013-12-01

    Background: One important ingredient for many applications of nuclear physics to astrophysics, nuclear energy, and stockpile stewardship are the cross sections for reactions of neutrons with rare isotopes. Since direct measurements are often not feasible, indirect methods, e.g., (d,p) reactions, should be used. Those (d,p) reactions may be viewed as three-body reactions and described with Faddeev techniques.Purpose: Faddeev equations in momentum space have a long tradition of utilizing separable interactions in order to arrive at sets of coupled integral equations in one variable. While there exist several separable representations for the nucleon-nucleon interaction, the optical potential between a neutron (proton) and a nucleus is not readily available in separable form. The purpose of this paper is to introduce a separable representation for complex phenomenological optical potentials of Woods-Saxon type.Results: Starting from a global optical potential, a separable representation thereof is introduced based on the Ernst-Shakin-Thaler (EST) scheme. This scheme is generalized to non-Hermitian potentials. Applications to n+48Ca, n+132Sn, and n+208Pb are investigated for energies from 0 to 50 MeV and the quality of the representation is examined.Conclusions: We find a good description of the on-shell t matrix for all systems with rank up to 5. The required rank depends inversely on the angular momentum. The resulting separable interaction exhibits a different off-shell behavior compared to the original potential, reducing the high-momentum contributions.

  15. On the solutions of the second heavenly and Pavlov equations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Manakov, S. V.; Santini, P. M.

    2009-10-01

    We have recently solved the inverse scattering problem for one-parameter families of vector fields, and used this result to construct the formal solution of the Cauchy problem for a class of integrable nonlinear partial differential equations connected with the commutation of multidimensional vector fields, such as the heavenly equation of Plebanski, the dispersionless Kadomtsev-Petviashvili (dKP) equation and the two-dimensional dispersionless Toda (2ddT) equation, as well as with the commutation of one-dimensional vector fields, such as the Pavlov equation. We also showed that the associated Riemann-Hilbert inverse problems are powerful tools to establish if the solutions of the Cauchy problem break at finite time, to construct their long-time behaviour and characterize classes of implicit solutions. In this paper, using the above theory, we concentrate on the heavenly and Pavlov equations, (i) establishing that their localized solutions evolve without breaking, unlike the cases of dKP and 2ddT; (ii) constructing the long-time behaviour of the solutions of their Cauchy problems; (iii) characterizing a distinguished class of implicit solutions of the heavenly equation.

  16. Phenomenological model of photoluminescence degradation and photoinduced defect formation in silicon nanocrystal ensembles under singlet oxygen generation

    SciTech Connect

    Gongalsky, Maxim B. Timoshenko, Victor Yu.

    2014-12-28

    We propose a phenomenological model to explain photoluminescence degradation of silicon nanocrystals under singlet oxygen generation in gaseous and liquid systems. The model considers coupled rate equations, which take into account the exciton radiative recombination in silicon nanocrystals, photosensitization of singlet oxygen generation, defect formation on the surface of silicon nanocrystals as well as quenching processes for both excitons and singlet oxygen molecules. The model describes well the experimentally observed power law dependences of the photoluminescence intensity, singlet oxygen concentration, and lifetime versus photoexcitation time. The defect concentration in silicon nanocrystals increases by power law with a fractional exponent, which depends on the singlet oxygen concentration and ambient conditions. The obtained results are discussed in a view of optimization of the photosensitized singlet oxygen generation for biomedical applications.

  17. A phenomenological model for orificed hollow cathodes. Ph.D. Thesis, 1 Dec. 1981 - 1 Dec. 1982; [electrostatic thruster

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Siegfried, D. E.

    1982-01-01

    A quartz hollow tube cathode was used to determine the operating conditions within a mercury orificed hollow cathode. Insert temperature profiles, cathode current distributions, plasma properties profile, and internal pressure-mass flow rate results are summarized and used in a phenomenological model which qualitatively describes electron emission and plasma production processes taking place within the cathode. By defining an idealized ion production region within which most of the plasma processes are concentrated, this model is expressed analytically as a simple set of equations which relate cathode dimensions and specifiable operating conditions, such as mass flow rate and discharge current, to such important parameters as emission surface temperature and internal plasma properties. Key aspects of the model are examined.

  18. Terahertz Systems Engineering: Detectors, Sources, Propagation, Phenomenology, Design and Analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suen, Jonathan Ying-Yan

    The terahertz (THz) band, from 300 GHz to 20 THz, is the last remaining frontier of the electromagnetic spectrum. Fundamentally, the frequency is too high to use current electronic technologies, yet the photon energy is too low for optical systems. However, there is a rich set of phenomenology, science, and applications, which are only available with THz radiation. In order to exploit this, the THz engineer who is designing systems must be adept at integrating components with very limited performance into a system. This requires understanding and knowledge of a wide range of fields, including microwaves, infrared optics, material science, software development, atmospheric science, and the overall analysis and design of a system. Any THz system involves the sensing of some phenomena, which can be under the direct control of the engineer, such as in a communication system, or set by the laws of physics, such as in an astronomical telescope, or some variant in between. Thus, the design of such a system is fundamentally related to sensing science. Here, we have to consider detector and source technology, the propagation of radiation, target phenomenology, and the overall design and analysis of the system. This dissertation presents research in all of these areas. Specifically, in the field of THz phenomenology, I conducted a study to show the primary contrast mechanism in reflective biomedical imaging is water concentration. For source technology, I detail the development and characterization of photoconductive switches with record-breaking optical efficiency. In a separate study I developed a model which explains the complex photocarrier dynamics in fast-trapping THz photoconductive materials and show that high-frequency THz generation (>1 THz) is caused by beaching saturation. My work in detectors shows the design of a quasi-optical radar that exploits low 1/f noise Schottky diodes for detection of slow moving objects, useful for biomedical sensing of respiration and

  19. Evolution equations for phase separation and ordering in binary alloys

    SciTech Connect

    Cahn, J.W.; Novick-Cohen, A.

    1994-08-01

    We explore two phenomenological approaches leading to systems of coupled Cahn-Hilliard and Cahn-Allen equations for describing the dynamics of systems which can undergo first-order phase separation and order-disorder transitions simultaneously, starting from the same discrete lattice free energy function. In the first approach, a quasicontinuum limit is taken for this discrete energy and the evolution of the system is then assumed to be given by gradient flow. In the second approach, a discrete set of gradient flow evolution equations is derived for the lattice dynamics and a quasicontinuum limit is then taken. We demonstrate in the context of BCC Fe-Al binary alloys that it is important that variables be chosen that accommodate the variations in the average concentration as well as the underlying ordered structure of the possible coexistent phases. Only then will the two approaches lead to roughly the same continuum descriptions. We conjecture that in general the number of variables necessary to describe the dynamics of such systems is equal to N{sub 1} + N{sub 2}-1, where N{sub 1} is given by the dimension of the span of the bases of the irreducible representations needed to describe the symmetry groups of the possible equilibrium phases and N{sub 2} is the number of chemical components. N{sub 1} of these variables are nonconserved, and the remaining are conserved and represent the average concentrations. For the Fe-Al alloys this implies a description of one conserved order parameter and one nonconserved order parameter. The resultant description is given by a Cahn-Hilliard equation coupled to a Cahn-Allen equation via the lower-order nonlinear terms. The rough equivalence of the two phenomenological methods adds credibility to the validity of the resulting evolution equations. A similar description should also be valid for alloy systems in which the structure of the competing phases is more complicated.

  20. Functional BES equation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kostov, Ivan; Serban, Didina; Volin, Dmytro

    2008-08-01

    We give a realization of the Beisert, Eden and Staudacher equation for the planar Script N = 4 supersymetric gauge theory which seems to be particularly useful to study the strong coupling limit. We are using a linearized version of the BES equation as two coupled equations involving an auxiliary density function. We write these equations in terms of the resolvents and we transform them into a system of functional, instead of integral, equations. We solve the functional equations perturbatively in the strong coupling limit and reproduce the recursive solution obtained by Basso, Korchemsky and Kotański. The coefficients of the strong coupling expansion are fixed by the analyticity properties obeyed by the resolvents.

  1. Situated cognition and the phenomenology of place: lifeworld, environmental embodiment, and immersion-in-world.

    PubMed

    Seamon, David

    2015-09-01

    This article makes use of a passage from novelist Gabriel García Márquez's One Hundred Years of Solitude to illustrate Merleau-Ponty's phenomenology of the lived body and to consider what the related phenomenological concepts of place, environmental embodiment, and immersion-in-world might offer research in situated cognition.

  2. Teachers' Interactive Whiteboard Training in Title I Mathematics Classrooms: A Qualitative Phenomenological Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, James M.

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this qualitative phenomenological study was to investigate the lived experiences of teachers at an urban Title 1 elementary school regarding the training, beliefs and use of interactive whiteboards as a resource to raise student mathematical achievement levels. The problem addressed in this qualitative phenomenological study was the…

  3. An Interpretative Phenomenological Analysis of Sense-Making by Department of Defense Employees

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harrison, John L., Sr.

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this qualitative, phenomenological study was to explore the perceptions and lived experiences of Department of Defense (DOD) civilian employees to identify how their personal sense-making affects their coaching of adult students. The author used an interpretative phenomenological analysis (IPA) method involving personal interviews…

  4. The History of the Present: Towards a Contemporary Phenomenology of the School.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peim, Nick

    2001-01-01

    Discusses phenomenology as it relates to the theory that radical distinction cannot be sustained for subject and object, based on our perceptions of the factors involved. Focuses on Michel Foucault's philosophy and Jacques Derrida's anti-essentialist phenomenology. States that potential exists for rethinking the politics of theory in education.…

  5. Applications of Phenomenology in Transpersonal, Person-Centered, and Existential Counseling.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Souza, Katherine Zimmer; Do, Vinh The

    This article explains that the phenomenological approach in counseling began as a movement to counterbalance the influence of psychoanalysis in psychotherapy and counseling. Phenomenology is defined as the study of the world as we immediately experience it, pre-reflectively rather than as we conceptualize, categorize, or reflect on it. Through…

  6. The Confluence of Curriculum Theory and the Phenomenological for the Critical Pedagogue

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rafferty, Patricia

    2011-01-01

    In this article the author explores the confluence of curriculum theory and the phenomenological by utilizing the assumptions and foundations inherent in critical pedagogical theory. The author will first explore the meaning of these concepts, along with an examination of the relationship between the phenomenological and contemporary curricular…

  7. A theoretical discussion about the clinical value of phenomenology for nurses.

    PubMed

    Edward, Karen-leigh

    2006-01-01

    This article develops a theoretical discussion related to the value of a phenomenological framework in contributing to contemporary nursing knowledge. Nursing is based on the understanding of patients' personal experiences and their responses to their illness. Phenomenological methodology utilizes the patient's own language to reflect meanings embedded in their health experience. PMID:16974178

  8. Goethe's Phenomenological Optics: The Point Where Language Ends and Experience Begins in Science.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Junker, Kirk

    This paper explores whether phenomenology, in general, and the case of Johann Wolfgang von Goethe's phenomenological optics in particular, provides a case and a location for "minimal realism," located between the extreme positions of absolute scientific realists and "radical rhetoricians." The paper begins with a description of the…

  9. Impact of Involvement of Chief Information Officer in Strategic Decisions: A Phenomenological Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moussa, Samir

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of the qualitative phenomenological study was to investigate the influence of the CIO on strategic decision making in organizations. The phenomenological study was deployed to address 2 research questions by interviewing a purposive sample of 23 executives (7 IT leaders, 10 CFOs, and 6 CEOs) in 5 different countries. A qualitative…

  10. A theoretical discussion about the clinical value of phenomenology for nurses.

    PubMed

    Edward, Karen-leigh

    2006-01-01

    This article develops a theoretical discussion related to the value of a phenomenological framework in contributing to contemporary nursing knowledge. Nursing is based on the understanding of patients' personal experiences and their responses to their illness. Phenomenological methodology utilizes the patient's own language to reflect meanings embedded in their health experience.

  11. Memory, Reality, and Ethnography in a Colombian War Zone: Towards a Social Phenomenology of Collective Remembrance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haymes, Stephen Nathan

    2012-01-01

    This paper considers phenomenology as a philosophical framework from which to understand the moral experience of collective memory. As a philosophical approach to human reality, phenomenology contributes insight into the connection between the experiential grounding of collective memory and the reality of the social world. The inspiration for…

  12. Assistant Principals' Lived Experiences with Managerial Skills Needed for Promotion: A Phenomenological Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Flowers, Melnice

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this qualitative, phenomenological study was to explore the lived experiences of assistant principals in what they deem to be the needed managerial skills for promotion to campus principal. The sample for the study included 20 assistant principals in an urban school district located in Texas. The process of phenomenological enquiry…

  13. Phenomenological analysis of the CLAS data on double charged pion photo and electro- production

    SciTech Connect

    Viktor Mokeev; Volker Burkert; Latifa Elouadrhiri; A.A. Boluchevsky; Gleb Fedotov; Eugeny Isupov; Boris Ishkhanov; Nikolay Shvedunov

    2005-10-01

    First comprehensive data on the evolution of nucleon resonance photocouplings with photon virtuality Q{sup 2} are presented for excited proton states in the mass range from 1.4 to 2.0 GeV. N* photocouplings were determined in phenomenological analysis of CLAS data on 2 pi photo and electroproduction within the framework of the JLAB-MSU phenomenological model.

  14. Behavioral Measurement of Remembering Phenomenologies: So Simple a Child Can Do It

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brainerd, C. J.; Holliday, R. E.; Reyna, V. F.

    2004-01-01

    Two remembering phenomenologies, vivid recollection and vague familiarity, have been extensively studied in adults using introspective self-report tasks, such as rememberknow. Because such tasks are beyond the capabilities of young children, there is no database on how these phenomenologies first develop and what factors affect them. In…

  15. Phenomenology without phenomena: a discussion of the use of phenomenology to examine expertise in long-term care of elderly patients.

    PubMed

    Reed, J

    1994-02-01

    Phenomenological approaches to research have gained popularity in nursing research over past years, in particular the use of critical incident technique. Phenomenology can be traced back to existentialist philosophy where it is expounded in the work of Husserl and Heidegger. One of the most notable examples of phenomenological research in nursing has been the work of Benner who has used this approach to examine expertise in nursing. This paper is an account of a study which attempted to adapt phenomenological methods to the investigation of expertise in nurses working in long-term care settings, which was curtailed by the apparent inability of nurses in the study to identify any significant incidents. The paper examines this problem in the light of existentialist philosophy and suggests that the apparent lack of expertise identified in the nurses might be due more to a tendency of phenomenological studies to focus more on articulation than on attunement or potential, the other elements of dasein. The paper concludes that attention to these elements is required when phenomenology is used. PMID:8188966

  16. Einstein equation at singularities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stoica, Ovidiu-Cristinel

    2014-02-01

    Einstein's equation is rewritten in an equivalent form, which remains valid at the singularities in some major cases. These cases include the Schwarzschild singularity, the Friedmann-Lemaître-Robertson-Walker Big Bang singularity, isotropic singularities, and a class of warped product singularities. This equation is constructed in terms of the Ricci part of the Riemann curvature (as the Kulkarni-Nomizu product between Einstein's equation and the metric tensor).

  17. Solving Ordinary Differential Equations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Krogh, F. T.

    1987-01-01

    Initial-value ordinary differential equation solution via variable order Adams method (SIVA/DIVA) package is collection of subroutines for solution of nonstiff ordinary differential equations. There are versions for single-precision and double-precision arithmetic. Requires fewer evaluations of derivatives than other variable-order Adams predictor/ corrector methods. Option for direct integration of second-order equations makes integration of trajectory problems significantly more efficient. Written in FORTRAN 77.

  18. Hadron properties and Dyson-Schwinger equations.

    SciTech Connect

    Roberts, C. D.; Physics

    2008-01-01

    An overview of the theory and phenomenology of hadrons and QCD is provided from a Dyson-Schwinger equation viewpoint. Following a discussion of the definition and realization of light-quark confinement, the nonperturbative nature of the running mass in QCD and inferences from the gap equation relating to the radius of convergence for expansions of observables in the current-quark mass are described. Some exact results for pseudoscalar mesons are also highlighted, with details relating to the U{sub A}(1) problem, and calculated masses of the lightest J = 0,1 states are discussed. Studies of nucleon properties are recapitulated upon and illustrated: through a comparison of the In-weighted ratios of Pauli and Dirac form factors for the neutron and proton; and a perspective on the contribution of quark orbital angular momentum to the spin of a nucleon at rest. Comments on prospects for the future of the study of quarks in hadrons and nuclei round out the contribution.

  19. USING A PHENOMENOLOGICAL MODEL TO TEST THE COINCIDENCE PROBLEM OF DARK ENERGY

    SciTech Connect

    Chen Yun; Zhu Zonghong; Alcaniz, J. S.; Gong Yungui

    2010-03-01

    By assuming a phenomenological form for the ratio of the dark energy and matter densities rho{sub X} {proportional_to} rho{sub m} a {sup x}i, we discuss the cosmic coincidence problem in light of current observational data. Here, xi is a key parameter to denote the severity of the coincidence problem. In this scenario, xi = 3 and xi = 0 correspond to LAMBDACDM and the self-similar solution without the coincidence problem, respectively. Hence, any solution with a scaling parameter 0 < xi < 3 makes the coincidence problem less severe. In addition, the standard cosmology without interaction between dark energy and dark matter is characterized by xi + 3omega{sub X} = 0, where omega{sub X} is the equation of state of the dark energy component, whereas the inequality xi + 3omega{sub X} {ne} 0 represents non-standard cosmology. We place observational constraints on the parameters (OMEGA{sub X,0}, omega{sub X}, xi) of this model, where OMEGA{sub X,0} is the present value of density parameter of dark energy OMEGA{sub X}, by using the Constitution Set (397 supernovae of type Ia data, hereafter SNeIa), the cosmic microwave background shift parameter from the five-year Wilkinson Microwave Anisotropy Probe and the Sloan Digital Sky Survey baryon acoustic peak. Combining the three samples, we get OMEGA{sub X,0} = 0.72 +- 0.02, omega{sub X} = -0.98 +- 0.07, and xi = 3.06 +- 0.35 at 68.3% confidence level. The result shows that the LAMBDACDM model still remains a good fit to the recent observational data, and the coincidence problem indeed exists and is quite severe, in the framework of this simple phenomenological model. We further constrain the model with the transition redshift (deceleration/acceleration). It shows that if the transition from deceleration to acceleration happens at the redshift z > 0.73, within the framework of this model, we can conclude that the interaction between dark energy and dark matter is necessary.

  20. Junior Jade events: An investigation of decoupling phenomenology

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, C.W.

    1987-01-01

    With five 8-pound high-explosive events, we have explored aspects of the containment phenomenology of partially decoupled events. Three events drove multiple fractures and showed little cavity growth, suggesting that the fracture propagation was part of the dynamic process. Two events were contained; their cavity volumes grew by factors of approximately two and three with the tighter-coupled event showing the larger growth. With the five events we see a spectrum of results ranging from hydrofrac type fracture propagation through multiple fracture propagation to the fully contained case. For the multiple fracture case a partial residual stress field may control the release of the cavity pressure. Measurements of cavity pressure versus time provides a valuable diagnostic of containment. 2 refs., 7 figs., 1 tab.

  1. The experience of being a trauma nurse: a phenomenological study.

    PubMed

    Freeman, Lisa; Fothergill-Bourbonnais, Frances; Rashotte, Judy

    2014-02-01

    The lived experience of being a trauma nurse was explored using a phenomenological qualitative research approach. Seven registered nurses employed in a trauma unit from one large metropolitan Canadian teaching hospital participated in in-depth conversational interviews. Data analysis revealed four sub theme clusters embedded within the overarching theme of Seeing Through Cloudy Situations: being on guard all the time, being caught up short, facing the challenge and sharing the journey. Even though trauma nurses are able to find meaning and satisfaction in their work, the findings of this research reveal the need for support and the assurance of safe work environments as trauma nurses can live with violence and aggression in their daily nursing practice. PMID:23958431

  2. Aerodynamic Effects in Weakly Ionized Gas: Phenomenology and Applications

    SciTech Connect

    Popovic, S.; Vuskovic, L.

    2006-12-01

    Aerodynamic effects in ionized gases, often neglected phenomena, have been subject of a renewed interest in recent years. After a brief historical account, we discuss a selected number of effects and unresolved problems that appear to be relevant in both aeronautic and propulsion applications in subsonic, supersonic, and hypersonic flow. Interaction between acoustic shock waves and weakly ionized gas is manifested either as plasma-induced shock wave dispersion and acceleration or as shock-wave induced double electric layer in the plasma, followed by the localized increase of the average electron energy and density, as well as enhancement of optical emission. We describe the phenomenology of these effects and discuss several experiments that still do not have an adequate interpretation. Critical for application of aerodynamic effects is the energy deposition into the flow. We classify and discuss some proposed wall-free generation schemes with respect to the efficiency of energy deposition and overall generation of the aerodynamic body force.

  3. Inner Speech: Development, Cognitive Functions, Phenomenology, and Neurobiology

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Inner speech—also known as covert speech or verbal thinking—has been implicated in theories of cognitive development, speech monitoring, executive function, and psychopathology. Despite a growing body of knowledge on its phenomenology, development, and function, approaches to the scientific study of inner speech have remained diffuse and largely unintegrated. This review examines prominent theoretical approaches to inner speech and methodological challenges in its study, before reviewing current evidence on inner speech in children and adults from both typical and atypical populations. We conclude by considering prospects for an integrated cognitive science of inner speech, and present a multicomponent model of the phenomenon informed by developmental, cognitive, and psycholinguistic considerations. Despite its variability among individuals and across the life span, inner speech appears to perform significant functions in human cognition, which in some cases reflect its developmental origins and its sharing of resources with other cognitive processes. PMID:26011789

  4. Dreaming and the brain: from phenomenology to neurophysiology

    PubMed Central

    Nir, Yuval; Tononi, Giulio

    2009-01-01

    Dreams are a most remarkable experiment in psychology and neuroscience, conducted every night in every sleeping person. They show that our brain, disconnected from the environment, can generate by itself an entire world of conscious experiences. Content analysis and developmental studies have furthered our understanding of dream phenomenology. In parallel, brain lesion studies, functional imaging, and neurophysiology have advanced our knowledge of the neural basis of dreaming. It is now possible to start integrating these two strands of research in order to address some fundamental questions that dreams pose for cognitive neuroscience: how conscious experiences in sleep relate to underlying brain activity; why the dreamer is largely disconnected from the environment; and whether dreaming is more closely related to mental imagery or to perception. PMID:20079677

  5. LETTER: Dynamic instability in a phenomenological model of correlated assets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Raffaelli, Giacomo; Marsili, Matteo

    2006-08-01

    We show that financial correlations exhibit a non-trivial dynamic behaviour. We introduce a simple phenomenological model of a multi-asset financial market, which takes into account the impact of portfolio investment on price dynamics. This captures the fact that correlations determine the optimal portfolio but are affected by investment based on it. We show that such a feedback on correlations gives rise to an instability when the volume of investment exceeds a critical value. Close to the critical point the model exhibits dynamical correlations very similar to those observed in real markets. Maximum likelihood estimates of the model's parameter for empirical data indeed confirm this conclusion, thus suggesting that real markets operate close to a dynamically unstable point.

  6. Inner Speech: Development, Cognitive Functions, Phenomenology, and Neurobiology.

    PubMed

    Alderson-Day, Ben; Fernyhough, Charles

    2015-09-01

    Inner speech-also known as covert speech or verbal thinking-has been implicated in theories of cognitive development, speech monitoring, executive function, and psychopathology. Despite a growing body of knowledge on its phenomenology, development, and function, approaches to the scientific study of inner speech have remained diffuse and largely unintegrated. This review examines prominent theoretical approaches to inner speech and methodological challenges in its study, before reviewing current evidence on inner speech in children and adults from both typical and atypical populations. We conclude by considering prospects for an integrated cognitive science of inner speech, and present a multicomponent model of the phenomenon informed by developmental, cognitive, and psycholinguistic considerations. Despite its variability among individuals and across the life span, inner speech appears to perform significant functions in human cognition, which in some cases reflect its developmental origins and its sharing of resources with other cognitive processes. PMID:26011789

  7. Organic food as a healthy lifestyle: a phenomenological psychological analysis.

    PubMed

    Von Essen, Elisabeth; Englander, Magnus

    2013-06-14

    This study explored the phenomenon of the lived experience of choosing a healthy lifestyle based upon an organic diet as seen from the perspective of the young adult. Interviews were collected in Sweden and analyzed using the descriptive phenomenological psychological research method. The results showed the general psychological structure of the phenomenon, comprising four constituents: (1) the lived body as the starting point for life exploration, (2) a narrative self through emotional-relational food memories, (3) a conscious life strategy for well-being and vitality, and (4) a personal set of values in relation to ethical standards. The results provide plausible insights into the intricate relation between psychological meaning and the natural world.

  8. Organic food as a healthy lifestyle: A phenomenological psychological analysis

    PubMed Central

    Von Essen, Elisabeth; Englander, Magnus

    2013-01-01

    This study explored the phenomenon of the lived experience of choosing a healthy lifestyle based upon an organic diet as seen from the perspective of the young adult. Interviews were collected in Sweden and analyzed using the descriptive phenomenological psychological research method. The results showed the general psychological structure of the phenomenon, comprising four constituents: (1) the lived body as the starting point for life exploration, (2) a narrative self through emotional-relational food memories, (3) a conscious life strategy for well-being and vitality, and (4) a personal set of values in relation to ethical standards. The results provide plausible insights into the intricate relation between psychological meaning and the natural world. PMID:23769652

  9. Phenomenology of TeV little string theory from holography.

    PubMed

    Antoniadis, Ignatios; Arvanitaki, Asimina; Dimopoulos, Savas; Giveon, Amit

    2012-02-24

    We study the graviton phenomenology of TeV little string theory by exploiting its holographic gravity dual five-dimensional theory. This dual corresponds to a linear dilaton background with a large bulk that constrains the standard model fields on the boundary of space. The linear dilaton geometry produces a unique Kaluza-Klein graviton spectrum that exhibits a ~TeV mass gap followed by a near continuum of narrow resonances that are separated from each other by only ~30 GeV. Resonant production of these particles at the LHC is the signature of this framework that distinguishes it from large extra dimensions, where the Kaluza-Klein states are almost a continuum with no mass gap, and warped models, where the states are separated by a TeV.

  10. Phenomenological Spin Transport Theory Driven by Anomalous Nernst Effect

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Taniguchi, Tomohiro

    2016-07-01

    Several experimental efforts such as material investigation and structure improvement have been made recently to find a large anomalous Nernst effect in ferromagnetic metals. Here, we develop a theory of spin transport driven by the anomalous Nernst effect in a diffusive ferromagnetic/nonmagnetic multilayer. Starting from a phenomenological formula of a spin-dependent electric current, the theoretical formulas of electric voltage and spin torque generated by the anomalous Nernst effect are derived. The magnitude of the electric voltage generated from the spin current via the inverse spin Hall effect is on the order of 0.1 µV for currently available experimental parameter values. The temperature gradient necessary to switch the magnetization is quite larger than the typical experimental value. The separation of the contributions of the Seebeck and transverse spin Seebeck effects is also discussed.

  11. Inner Speech: Development, Cognitive Functions, Phenomenology, and Neurobiology.

    PubMed

    Alderson-Day, Ben; Fernyhough, Charles

    2015-09-01

    Inner speech-also known as covert speech or verbal thinking-has been implicated in theories of cognitive development, speech monitoring, executive function, and psychopathology. Despite a growing body of knowledge on its phenomenology, development, and function, approaches to the scientific study of inner speech have remained diffuse and largely unintegrated. This review examines prominent theoretical approaches to inner speech and methodological challenges in its study, before reviewing current evidence on inner speech in children and adults from both typical and atypical populations. We conclude by considering prospects for an integrated cognitive science of inner speech, and present a multicomponent model of the phenomenon informed by developmental, cognitive, and psycholinguistic considerations. Despite its variability among individuals and across the life span, inner speech appears to perform significant functions in human cognition, which in some cases reflect its developmental origins and its sharing of resources with other cognitive processes.

  12. Phenomenology of large N{sub c} QCD

    SciTech Connect

    Richard Lebed

    1998-09-01

    These lectures are designed to introduce the methods and results of large N{sub c} QCD in a presentation intended for nuclear and particle physicists alike. Beginning with definitions and motivations of the approach, they demonstrate that all quark and gluon Feynman diagrams are organized into classes based on powers of 1/N{sub c}. They then show that this result can be translated into definite statements about mesons and baryons containing arbitrary numbers of constituents. In the mesons, numerous well-known phenomenological properties follow as immediate consequences of simply counting powers of N{sub c}, while for the baryons, quantitative large N{sub c} analyses of masses and other properties are seen to agree with experiment, even when ``large'' N{sub c} is set equal to its observed value of 3. Large N{sub c} reasoning is also used to explain some simple features of nuclear interactions.

  13. SociAL Sensor Analytics: Measuring Phenomenology at Scale

    SciTech Connect

    Corley, Courtney D.; Dowling, Chase P.; Rose, Stuart J.; McKenzie, Taylor K.

    2013-06-04

    The objective of this paper is to present a system for interrogating immense social media streams through analytical methodologies that characterize topics and events critical to tactical and strategic planning. First, we propose a conceptual framework for interpreting social media as a sensor network. Time-series models and topic clustering algorithms are used to implement this concept into a functioning analytical system. Next, we address two scientific challenges: 1) to understand, quantify, and baseline phenomenology of social media at scale, and 2) to develop analytical methodologies to detect and investigate events of interest. This paper then documents computational methods and reports experimental findings that address these challenges. Ultimately, the ability to process billions of social media posts per week over a period of years enables the identification of patterns and predictors of tactical and strategic concerns at an unprecedented rate through SociAL Sensor Analytics (SALSA).

  14. A Phenomenological Description of Primary Creep in Class M Materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Raj, S. V.; Freed, A. D.

    1999-01-01

    Observations of creep microstructures in the primary creep region in class M materials show a remarkable similarity with those formed in the exponential creep regime. As a result, it is proposed that the constitutive creep law for normal primary creep is similar to that for the exponential creep regime. A phenomenological description is discussed to rationalize these microstructural observations in terms of a normalized strain rate vs. stress plot. The implications of this plot in describing different testing procedures, steady-state flow, and on the observed deviations from the universal creep law are discussed. The plot is also extended to explain the observed similarities in the transient creep behavior in pre-strained materials and in stress change experiments.

  15. Fatigue experience in advanced cancer: a phenomenological approach.

    PubMed

    Potter, Joan

    2004-01-01

    This study describes the experience of fatigue in patients with advanced cancer. A phenomenological approach was adopted to allow a fuller expression of the phenomenon of fatigue in the sample of six patients. Five major themes were identified. These were physical, psychological, social and spiritual consequences of fatigue, and helpful and unhelpful coping strategies. The themes demonstrate the complexity of fatigue, which had an all-encompassing effect on patients' lives. The themes were interconnected and cannot be viewed independently. For these patients with advanced cancer the meaning of fatigue was intertwined with the process of adjusting to living with a terminal illness and ultimately death. It was impossible for them to separate the two. Coping strategies that would normally be of use to fatigued individuals were shown to have little or no benefit. Sensitive communication about fatigue and its meaning to the patient may assist adjustment and generate hope.

  16. Clarifying Clinical Nurse Consultant work in Australia: A phenomenological study.

    PubMed

    Cashin, Andrew; Stasa, Helen; Gullick, Janice; Conway, Rae; Cunich, Michelle; Buckley, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    The Clinical Nurse Consultant role in Australia is an Advanced Practice Registered Nurse Role (APRN). This role has been conceptualized from the discrete pillars of research, education, practice, system support and leadership, articulated in the Strong Model of Advanced Practice. This conceptualization has been manifested in job descriptions, workforce. planning and course design. This paper explored whether there was a more refined way of conceptualizing the unique 'value add' of the role. A hermeneutic phenomenological approach was employed to explore the lived experience of the role. It was identified that the pillars of education, practice, leadership and research are interconnected and expressed in the system work of the Clinical Nurse Consultant. The findings have implications for education and workforce planning. PMID:26775527

  17. Phenomenology of passive multi-band submillimeter-wave imagery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Enestam, Sissi; Kajatkari, Perttu; Kivimäki, Olli; Leivo, Mikko M.; Rautiainen, Anssi; Tamminen, Aleksi A.; Luukanen, Arttu R.

    2016-05-01

    In 2015, Asqella Oy commercialized a passive multi-band submillimeter-wave camera system intended for use in walk-by personnel security screening applications. In this paper we study the imagery acquired with the prototype of the ARGON passive multi-band submm-wave video camera. To challenge the system and test its limits, imagery has been obtained in various environments with varying background surface temperatures, with people of different body types, with different clothing materials and numbers of layers of clothing and with objects of different materials. In addition to the phenomenological study, we discuss the detection statistics of the system, evaluated by running blind trials with human operators. While significant improvements have been made particularly in the software side since the beginning of the testing, the obtained imagery enables a comprehensive evaluation of the capabilities and challenges of the multiband submillimeter-wave imaging system.

  18. a New Phenomenological Formula for Ground-State Binding Energies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gangopadhyay, G.

    A phenomenological formula based on liquid drop model has been proposed for ground-state binding energies of nuclei. The effect due to bunching of single particle levels has been incorporated through a term resembling the one-body Hamiltonian. The effect of n-p interaction has been included through a function of valence nucleons. A total of 50 parameters has been used in the present calculation. The root mean square (r.m.s.) deviation for the binding energy values for 2140 nuclei comes out to be 0.376 MeV, and that for 1091 alpha decay energies is 0.284 MeV. The correspondence with the conventional liquid drop model is discussed.

  19. 'A leg to stand on': an existential-phenomenological analysis.

    PubMed

    van der Bruggen, H

    1999-12-01

    The analysis of a paradigm-case (a person with an injured leg, an autobiographical history related by Dr Sacks) presented here is an illustration of how existential-phenomenological analysis can be done. The aim of existential-phenomenological research is to analyse and to describe some dimensions of being. The person with an injured leg appears 'to bescotomized'. Well then, 'being-scotomized' can be analysed and described as a particular mode of 'being', even as a particular mode of 'being-ill'. 'Being' has been studied (in the philosophical tradition of Husserl, Heidegger, Merleau-Ponty and Sartre) as that existential movement that brings an individual, the 'self', towards the world, meanwhile 'affecting' the personal body, personal time and space, the objects in a person's life-world, the individual's life-world and, finally, coexistence. The study of 'being-ill' is the study of the particular way the self, the body, time and space, the objects, the life-world, and coexistence are affected when being-ill. 'Being-scotomized' may appear as affecting: (i) the self, isolating the subject and leading to a personal disintegration; (ii) the body to which he maintains an ambiguous relationship: being a body and having a body, and not having a part of the body any more; (iii) time and space being vanished with the vanished leg. The subject is 'at' a nowhereness and 'at' a motionless time; there is no meaningful future; (iv) the things in the person's life-world, to which it appears impossible to give the 'right' sense; (v) the life-world, revealing itself as a noland, characterized by silence and motionlessness; (vi) the others in this life-world that appears no-man's-land, uninhabitable nearly by definition. Coexistence reveals not to be possible.

  20. [Phenomenological and Diagnostic Implications of Paraschemazia: A Case Report].

    PubMed

    Mehta, Urvakhsh Meherwan; Thippeswamy, Harish; Bharath, Rose Dawn; Satishcandra, Parthasarathy

    2015-01-01

    Paraschemazia is characterized by distortions of body image, and has been observed in neurological disorders (epilepsies, migraine, and non-dominant cortical lesions), retinal damage, and hallucinogenic drug use. This complex symptom cluster of subjective and objective perceptual abnormalities forms an essential feature of Todd's Alice in Wonderland syndrome. This neuropsychiatric manifestation must be phenomenologically differentiated from hallucinations, illusions, and agnosias. Herein we report a patient with paraschemazia that occurred during the ictal phase of temporal lobe epilepsy; the patient was referred to the department of psychiatry due to symptoms of transient intense fear and abnormal perceptions. We also discuss the diagnostic difficulty and phenomenological implications associated with this rare phenomenon. A 45-year-old female presented with brief episodes (30-45 s) of sensory distortion, during which the faces and limbs of other people and her own appeared distorted (e.g. protruding eyes, elongated nose, and oval or square head). The episodes of sensory distortion were associated with intense fear and were followed by loss of consciousness for 5 min. She had been experiencing these episodes since the age of 12 years and responded poorly to several antiepileptic medications. 3-Tesla MRI performed using a complex partial seizure protocol showed altered signal intensity and volume loss in the right hippocampus, suggestive of right mesial temporal sclerosis. Neuropsychological assessment showed impaired sustained attention, working memory, and verbal and visual learning and memory, suggestive of bilateral dorsolateral prefrontal and temporal lobe deficits. She improved in response to a combination of levetiracetam and clobazam, and was seizure free at the 2-year follow-up. PMID:26111290

  1. [Phenomenological and Diagnostic Implications of Paraschemazia: A Case Report].

    PubMed

    Mehta, Urvakhsh Meherwan; Thippeswamy, Harish; Bharath, Rose Dawn; Satishcandra, Parthasarathy

    2015-01-01

    Paraschemazia is characterized by distortions of body image, and has been observed in neurological disorders (epilepsies, migraine, and non-dominant cortical lesions), retinal damage, and hallucinogenic drug use. This complex symptom cluster of subjective and objective perceptual abnormalities forms an essential feature of Todd's Alice in Wonderland syndrome. This neuropsychiatric manifestation must be phenomenologically differentiated from hallucinations, illusions, and agnosias. Herein we report a patient with paraschemazia that occurred during the ictal phase of temporal lobe epilepsy; the patient was referred to the department of psychiatry due to symptoms of transient intense fear and abnormal perceptions. We also discuss the diagnostic difficulty and phenomenological implications associated with this rare phenomenon. A 45-year-old female presented with brief episodes (30-45 s) of sensory distortion, during which the faces and limbs of other people and her own appeared distorted (e.g. protruding eyes, elongated nose, and oval or square head). The episodes of sensory distortion were associated with intense fear and were followed by loss of consciousness for 5 min. She had been experiencing these episodes since the age of 12 years and responded poorly to several antiepileptic medications. 3-Tesla MRI performed using a complex partial seizure protocol showed altered signal intensity and volume loss in the right hippocampus, suggestive of right mesial temporal sclerosis. Neuropsychological assessment showed impaired sustained attention, working memory, and verbal and visual learning and memory, suggestive of bilateral dorsolateral prefrontal and temporal lobe deficits. She improved in response to a combination of levetiracetam and clobazam, and was seizure free at the 2-year follow-up.

  2. In search of salience: phenomenological analysis of moral distress.

    PubMed

    Manara, Duilio F; Villa, Giulia; Moranda, Dina

    2014-07-01

    The nurse's moral competences in the management of situations which present ethical implications are less investigated in literature than other ethical problems related to clinical nursing. Phenomenology affirms that emotional warmth is the first fundamental attitude as well as the premise of any ethical reasoning. Nevertheless, it is not clear how and when this could be confirmed in situations where the effect of emotions on the nurse's decisional process is undiscovered. To explore the processes through which situations of moral distress are determined for the nurses involved in nursing situations, a phenomenological-hermeneutic analysis of a nurse's report of an experience lived by her as a moral distress situation has been conducted. Nursing emerges as a relational doctrine that requires the nurse to have different degrees of personal involvement, the integration between logical-formal thinking and narrative thinking, the perception of the salience of the given situation also through the interpretation and management of one's own emotions, and the capacity to undergo a process of co-construction of shared meanings that the others might consider adequate for the resolution of her problem. Moral action requires the nurse to think constantly about the important things that are happening in a nursing situation. Commitment towards practical situations is directed to training in order to promote the nurse's reflective ability towards finding salience in nursing situations, but it is also directed to the management of nursing assistance and human resources for the initial impact that this reflexive ability has on patients' and their families' lives and on their need to be heard and assisted. The only case analysed does not allow generalizations. Further research is needed to investigate how feelings generated by emotional acceptance influence ethical decision making and moral distress in nursing situations. PMID:24528533

  3. Flavor symmetry based MSSM: Theoretical models and phenomenological analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Babu, K. S.; Gogoladze, Ilia; Raza, Shabbar; Shafi, Qaisar

    2014-09-01

    We present a class of supersymmetric models in which symmetry considerations alone dictate the form of the soft SUSY breaking Lagrangian. We develop a class of minimal models, denoted as sMSSM—for flavor symmetry-based minimal supersymmetric standard model—that respect a grand unified symmetry such as SO(10) and a non-Abelian flavor symmetry H which suppresses SUSY-induced flavor violation. Explicit examples are constructed with the flavor symmetry being gauged SU(2)H and SO(3)H with the three families transforming as 2+1 and 3 representations, respectively. A simple solution is found in the case of SU(2)H for suppressing the flavor violating D-terms based on an exchange symmetry. Explicit models based on SO(3)H without the D-term problem are developed. In addition, models based on discrete non-Abelian flavor groups are presented which are automatically free from D-term issues. The permutation group S3 with a 2+1 family assignment, as well as the tetrahedral group A4 with a 3 assignment are studied. In all cases, a simple solution to the SUSY CP problem is found, based on spontaneous CP violation leading to a complex quark mixing matrix. We develop the phenomenology of the resulting sMSSM, which is controlled by seven soft SUSY breaking parameters for both the 2+1 assignment and the 3 assignment of fermion families. These models are special cases of the phenomenological MSSM (pMSSM), but with symmetry restrictions. We discuss the parameter space of sMSSM compatible with LHC searches, B-physics constraints and dark matter relic abundance. Fine-tuning in these models is relatively mild, since all SUSY particles can have masses below about 3 TeV.

  4. In search of salience: phenomenological analysis of moral distress.

    PubMed

    Manara, Duilio F; Villa, Giulia; Moranda, Dina

    2014-07-01

    The nurse's moral competences in the management of situations which present ethical implications are less investigated in literature than other ethical problems related to clinical nursing. Phenomenology affirms that emotional warmth is the first fundamental attitude as well as the premise of any ethical reasoning. Nevertheless, it is not clear how and when this could be confirmed in situations where the effect of emotions on the nurse's decisional process is undiscovered. To explore the processes through which situations of moral distress are determined for the nurses involved in nursing situations, a phenomenological-hermeneutic analysis of a nurse's report of an experience lived by her as a moral distress situation has been conducted. Nursing emerges as a relational doctrine that requires the nurse to have different degrees of personal involvement, the integration between logical-formal thinking and narrative thinking, the perception of the salience of the given situation also through the interpretation and management of one's own emotions, and the capacity to undergo a process of co-construction of shared meanings that the others might consider adequate for the resolution of her problem. Moral action requires the nurse to think constantly about the important things that are happening in a nursing situation. Commitment towards practical situations is directed to training in order to promote the nurse's reflective ability towards finding salience in nursing situations, but it is also directed to the management of nursing assistance and human resources for the initial impact that this reflexive ability has on patients' and their families' lives and on their need to be heard and assisted. The only case analysed does not allow generalizations. Further research is needed to investigate how feelings generated by emotional acceptance influence ethical decision making and moral distress in nursing situations.

  5. Nursing Care Aesthetic in Iran: A Phenomenological Study

    PubMed Central

    Radmehr, Maryam; Ashktorab, Tahereh; Abedsaeedi, Zhila

    2015-01-01

    Background: Despite the emphasis of contemporary nursing theories on the belief that nursing is a science and an art in care, published studies show that only the nursing science has developed. Many experts believe that by recognizing and perceiving this concept, the clinical field can develop aesthetic knowledge in nursing and education of students. Objectives: The purpose of this study was to explain clients and nurses perspective of nursing care aesthetics. Patients and Methods: Using an interpretive phenomenology, 12 clients and 14 nurses were interviewed. Participants in this study were purposefully selected and their experiences were analyzed using Van Manen’s hermeneutic phenomenological framework. Results: Emerged themes were as follows: subjective description, overt spirituality, opening desperate impasse, sense of unity, continue to shine, and painful pass and pleasing. According the participants experiences, nursing care aesthetics includes subjective description of spiritual and desirable caring behaviors combined with sense of unity and sympathy between the nurse and the patients, which leads to opening in desperate impasse with creating the feeling of satisfaction and peace in the patient. It is a shining of clinical capabilities and an action beyond what should be combined with a decorating care that leads to a pleasant ending against the pain and suffering of the others for the nurse. Conclusions: Many caring behaviors associate with aesthetic experience for both patients and nurses and despite two different views, findings of this study showed that these experiences were similar in most cases. The aesthetics of nursing care was defined as what reflects the holistic nature of nursing with an emphasis on spirituality and skill. Results of this study are effective in identification of the values existed in nurse caring behaviors and developing of profession by instruction, implementation, and evaluation them. PMID:26339668

  6. Reduced Braginskii equations

    SciTech Connect

    Yagi, M.; Horton, W. )

    1994-07-01

    A set of reduced Braginskii equations is derived without assuming flute ordering and the Boussinesq approximation. These model equations conserve the physical energy. It is crucial at finite [beta] that the perpendicular component of Ohm's law be solved to ensure [del][center dot][bold j]=0 for energy conservation.

  7. Uniqueness of Maxwell's Equations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cohn, Jack

    1978-01-01

    Shows that, as a consequence of two feasible assumptions and when due attention is given to the definition of charge and the fields E and B, the lowest-order equations that these two fields must satisfy are Maxwell's equations. (Author/GA)

  8. Octonic Massive Field Equations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Demir, Süleyman; Kekeç, Seray

    2016-07-01

    In the present paper we propose the octonic form of massive field equations based on the analogy with electromagnetism and linear gravity. Using the advantages of octon algebra the Maxwell-Dirac-Proca equations have been reformulated in compact and elegant way. The energy-momentum relations for massive field are discussed.

  9. Dilaton and off-shell (non-critical string) effects in Boltzmann equation for species abundances

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lahanas, Ab; Mavromatos, Ne; Nanopoulos, Dv

    In this work we derive the modifications to the Boltzmann equation governing the cosmic evolution of relic abundances induced by dilaton dissipative-source and non-critical-string terms in dilaton-driven non-equilibrium string Cosmologies. We also discuss briefly the most important phenomenological consequences, including modifications of the constraints on the available parameter space of cosmologically appealing particle physics models, imposed by recent precision data of astrophysical measurements.

  10. A New Family of Schroder's Method and Its Variants Based on Power Means for Multiple Roots of Nonlinear Equations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kanwar, V.; Sharma, Kapil K.; Behl, Ramandeep

    2010-01-01

    In this article, we derive one-parameter family of Schroder's method based on Gupta et al.'s (K.C. Gupta, V. Kanwar, and S. Kumar, "A family of ellipse methods for solving non-linear equations", Int. J. Math. Educ. Sci. Technol. 40 (2009), pp. 571-575) family of ellipse methods for the solution of nonlinear equations. Further, we introduce new…

  11. Quantum Markovian master equation for scattering from surfaces.

    PubMed

    Li, Haifeng; Shao, Jiushu; Azuri, Asaf; Pollak, Eli; Alicki, Robert

    2014-01-01

    We propose a semi-phenomenological Markovian Master equation for describing the quantum dynamics of atom-surface scattering. It embodies the Lindblad-like structure and can describe both damping and pumping of energy between the system and the bath. It preserves positivity and correctly accounts for the vanishing of the interaction of the particle with the surface when the particle is distant from the surface. As a numerical test, we apply it to a model of an Ar atom scattered from a LiF surface, allowing for interaction only in the vertical direction. At low temperatures, we find that the quantum mechanical average energy loss is smaller than the classical energy loss. The numerical results obtained from the space dependent friction master equation are compared with numerical simulations for a discretized bath, using the multi-configurational time dependent Hartree methodology. The agreement between the two simulations is quantitative. PMID:24410218

  12. Stop, look, listen: the need for philosophical phenomenological perspectives on auditory verbal hallucinations

    PubMed Central

    McCarthy-Jones, Simon; Krueger, Joel; Larøi, Frank; Broome, Matthew; Fernyhough, Charles

    2013-01-01

    One of the leading cognitive models of auditory verbal hallucinations (AVHs) proposes such experiences result from a disturbance in the process by which inner speech is attributed to the self. Research in this area has, however, proceeded in the absence of thorough cognitive and phenomenological investigations of the nature of inner speech, against which AVHs are implicitly or explicitly defined. In this paper we begin by introducing philosophical phenomenology and highlighting its relevance to AVHs, before briefly examining the evolving literature on the relation between inner experiences and AVHs. We then argue for the need for philosophical phenomenology (Phenomenology) and the traditional empirical methods of psychology for studying inner experience (phenomenology) to mutually inform each other to provide a richer and more nuanced picture of both inner experience and AVHs than either could on its own. A critical examination is undertaken of the leading model of AVHs derived from phenomenological philosophy, the ipseity disturbance model. From this we suggest issues that future work in this vein will need to consider, and examine how interdisciplinary methodologies may contribute to advances in our understanding of AVHs. Detailed suggestions are made for the direction and methodology of future work into AVHs, which we suggest should be undertaken in a context where phenomenology and physiology are both necessary, but neither sufficient. PMID:23576974

  13. The Effective Equation Method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuksin, Sergei; Maiocchi, Alberto

    In this chapter we present a general method of constructing the effective equation which describes the behavior of small-amplitude solutions for a nonlinear PDE in finite volume, provided that the linear part of the equation is a hamiltonian system with a pure imaginary discrete spectrum. The effective equation is obtained by retaining only the resonant terms of the nonlinearity (which may be hamiltonian, or may be not); the assertion that it describes the limiting behavior of small-amplitude solutions is a rigorous mathematical theorem. In particular, the method applies to the three- and four-wave systems. We demonstrate that different possible types of energy transport are covered by this method, depending on whether the set of resonances splits into finite clusters (this happens, e.g. in case of the Charney-Hasegawa-Mima equation), or is connected (this happens, e.g. in the case of the NLS equation if the space-dimension is at least two). For equations of the first type the energy transition to high frequencies does not hold, while for equations of the second type it may take place. Our method applies to various weakly nonlinear wave systems, appearing in plasma, meteorology and oceanography.

  14. Nonlinear gyrokinetic equations

    SciTech Connect

    Dubin, D.H.E.; Krommes, J.A.; Oberman, C.; Lee, W.W.

    1983-03-01

    Nonlinear gyrokinetic equations are derived from a systematic Hamiltonian theory. The derivation employs Lie transforms and a noncanonical perturbation theory first used by Littlejohn for the simpler problem of asymptotically small gyroradius. For definiteness, we emphasize the limit of electrostatic fluctuations in slab geometry; however, there is a straight-forward generalization to arbitrary field geometry and electromagnetic perturbations. An energy invariant for the nonlinear system is derived, and various of its limits are considered. The weak turbulence theory of the equations is examined. In particular, the wave kinetic equation of Galeev and Sagdeev is derived from an asystematic truncation of the equations, implying that this equation fails to consider all gyrokinetic effects. The equations are simplified for the case of small but finite gyroradius and put in a form suitable for efficient computer simulation. Although it is possible to derive the Terry-Horton and Hasegawa-Mima equations as limiting cases of our theory, several new nonlinear terms absent from conventional theories appear and are discussed.

  15. Nonlinear ordinary difference equations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Caughey, T. K.

    1979-01-01

    Future space vehicles will be relatively large and flexible, and active control will be necessary to maintain geometrical configuration. While the stresses and strains in these space vehicles are not expected to be excessively large, their cumulative effects will cause significant geometrical nonlinearities to appear in the equations of motion, in addition to the nonlinearities caused by material properties. Since the only effective tool for the analysis of such large complex structures is the digital computer, it will be necessary to gain a better understanding of the nonlinear ordinary difference equations which result from the time discretization of the semidiscrete equations of motion for such structures.

  16. Stochastic Gauss equations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pierret, Frédéric

    2016-02-01

    We derived the equations of Celestial Mechanics governing the variation of the orbital elements under a stochastic perturbation, thereby generalizing the classical Gauss equations. Explicit formulas are given for the semimajor axis, the eccentricity, the inclination, the longitude of the ascending node, the pericenter angle, and the mean anomaly, which are expressed in term of the angular momentum vector H per unit of mass and the energy E per unit of mass. Together, these formulas are called the stochastic Gauss equations, and they are illustrated numerically on an example from satellite dynamics.

  17. Analysis of bacterial migration; 1: Numerical solution of balance equation

    SciTech Connect

    Frymier, P.D.; Ford, R.M.; Cummings, P.T. . Dept. of Chemical Engineering)

    1994-04-01

    Chemotaxis describes the ability of motile bacteria to bias their motion in the direction of increasing gradients of chemicals, usually energy sources, known as attractants. In experimental studies of the migration of chemotactic bacteria, 1-D phenomenological cell balance equations have been used to quantitatively analyze experimental observations. While attractive for their simplicity and the ease of solution, they are limited in the strict mathematical sense to the situation in which individual bacteria are confined to motion in one dimension and respond to attractant gradients in one dimension only. Recently, Ford and Cummings (1992) reduced the general 3-D cell balance equation of Alt (1980) to obtain an equation describing the migration of a bacterial population in response to a 1-D attractant gradient. Solutions of this equation for single gradients of attractants are compared to those of 1-D balance equations, results from cellular dynamics simulations, and experimental data from the authors' laboratory for E. coli responding to [alpha]-methylaspartate. The authors also investigate two aspects of the experimentally derived expression for the tumbling probability: the effect of different models for the down-gradient swimming behavior of the bacteria and the validity of ignoring the temporal derivative of the attractant concentration.

  18. A systematic approach to sketch Bethe-Salpeter equation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qin, Si-xue

    2016-03-01

    To study meson properties, one needs to solve the gap equation for the quark propagator and the Bethe-Salpeter (BS) equation for the meson wavefunction, self-consistently. The gluon propagator, the quark-gluon vertex, and the quark-anti-quark scattering kernel are key pieces to solve those equations. Predicted by lattice-QCD and Dyson-Schwinger analyses of QCD's gauge sector, gluons are non-perturbatively massive. In the matter sector, the modeled gluon propagator which can produce a veracious description of meson properties needs to possess a mass scale, accordingly. Solving the well-known longitudinal Ward-Green-Takahashi identities (WGTIs) and the less-known transverse counterparts together, one obtains a nontrivial solution which can shed light on the structure of the quark-gluon vertex. It is highlighted that the phenomenologically proposed anomalous chromomagnetic moment (ACM) vertex originates from the QCD Lagrangian symmetries and its strength is proportional to the magnitude of dynamical chiral symmetry breaking (DCSB). The color-singlet vector and axial-vector WGTIs can relate the BS kernel and the dressed quark-gluon vertex to each other. Using the relation, one can truncate the gap equation and the BS equation, systematically, without violating crucial symmetries, e.g., gauge symmetry and chiral symmetry.

  19. The measurement problem in quantum mechanics: A phenomenological investigation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hunter, Joel Brooks

    2008-10-01

    This dissertation is a phenomenological investigation of the measurement problem in quantum mechanics. The primary subject matter for description and analysis is scientific instruments and their use in experiments which elicit the measurement problem. A methodological critique is mounted against the ontological commitments taken for granted in the canonical interpretations of quantum theory and the scientific activity of measurement as the necessary interface between theoretical interest and perceptual results. I argue that an aesthetic dimension of reality functions as aproto-scientific establishment of sense-making that constantly operates to set integratively all other cognitively neat determinations, including scientifically rendered objects that are intrinsically non-visualizable. The way in which data "key in" to the original and originative register of the sensible in observation is clarified by examining prostheses, measuring apparatuses and instruments that are sense-conveying and -integrative with the human sensorium. Experiments, technology and instrumentation are examined in order to understand how knowing and that which is known is bonded by praxis-aisthesis. Quantum measurement is a praxic-dynamie activity and homologically structured and structur ing functional engagement in terms of instantiation, quantifiability, and spatiotemporal differentiation. The distinctions between a beauty-aesthetic and praxis-aisthesis are delineated. It is argued that a beauty-aesthetic is a construal of the economic dimension of scientific objects and work, and is not the primary manner in which the aesthetic dimension is disclosed. The economic dimension of abstractions reduces to an austere aesthetic of calculative economy. Nature itself, however, is not stingy; it is intrinsically capacious, extravagant, full of surprise, nuance, ambiguity and allusiveness. The capaciousness of Nature and the way in which we are integratively set within Nature in a materiality

  20. Phenomenological and evidence based research in ego state therapy: recognized and unrecognized successes and future directions.

    PubMed

    Hageman, Joan H; Frederick, Claire

    2013-07-01

    The status of research in ego state therapy is examined against the backdrop of 20th and 21st century developments in the philosophy of science and the emerging recognition of the subjective as a vital element in all science. Attention is paid to the phenomenological method because until recently phenomenological studies have been the basis for the standards of care and training in ego state therapy as well as in many aspects of hypnotically facilitated psychotherapy. The importance of bringing an end to the "science wars" through the integration of the subjective and the objective, of phenomenological studies and evidence-based studies in ego state therapy and hypnosis research, is proposed.

  1. The sociopolitical importance of genetic, phenomenological approaches to science teaching and learning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bazzul, Jesse

    2015-06-01

    This article discusses Wolff-Michael Roth's theoretical framework for a phenomenological, genetic approach to science teaching and learning based on the work of Edmund Husserl. This approach advocates the inclusion of student lifeworlds in science education and underlines the importance of thinking about subjectivity in both science and science education. Roth's phenomenological approach exposes several important social, political, and cultural questions for science education. Drawing from Edmund Husserl's philosophy, social theorists, and science education literature, this article discusses some of these important concerns with the goal of highlighting the productive power of a phenomenological approach to science pedagogies.

  2. Nonlinear differential equations

    SciTech Connect

    Dresner, L.

    1988-01-01

    This report is the text of a graduate course on nonlinear differential equations given by the author at the University of Wisconsin-Madison during the summer of 1987. The topics covered are: direction fields of first-order differential equations; the Lie (group) theory of ordinary differential equations; similarity solutions of second-order partial differential equations; maximum principles and differential inequalities; monotone operators and iteration; complementary variational principles; and stability of numerical methods. The report should be of interest to graduate students, faculty, and practicing scientists and engineers. No prior knowledge is required beyond a good working knowledge of the calculus. The emphasis is on practical results. Most of the illustrative examples are taken from the fields of nonlinear diffusion, heat and mass transfer, applied superconductivity, and helium cryogenics.

  3. Relativistic Guiding Center Equations

    SciTech Connect

    White, R. B.; Gobbin, M.

    2014-10-01

    In toroidal fusion devices it is relatively easy that electrons achieve relativistic velocities, so to simulate runaway electrons and other high energy phenomena a nonrelativistic guiding center formalism is not sufficient. Relativistic guiding center equations including flute mode time dependent field perturbations are derived. The same variables as used in a previous nonrelativistic guiding center code are adopted, so that a straightforward modifications of those equations can produce a relativistic version.

  4. SIMULTANEOUS DIFFERENTIAL EQUATION COMPUTER

    DOEpatents

    Collier, D.M.; Meeks, L.A.; Palmer, J.P.

    1960-05-10

    A description is given for an electronic simulator for a system of simultaneous differential equations, including nonlinear equations. As a specific example, a homogeneous nuclear reactor system including a reactor fluid, heat exchanger, and a steam boiler may be simulated, with the nonlinearity resulting from a consideration of temperature effects taken into account. The simulator includes three operational amplifiers, a multiplier, appropriate potential sources, and interconnecting R-C networks.

  5. Static axisymmetric Einstein equations in vacuum: Symmetry, new solutions, and Ricci solitons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Akbar, M. M.; MacCallum, M. A. H.

    2015-09-01

    An explicit one-parameter Lie point symmetry of the four-dimensional vacuum Einstein equations with two commuting hypersurface-orthogonal Killing vector fields is presented. The parameter takes values over all of the real line and the action of the group can be effected algebraically on any solution of the system. This enables one to construct particular one-parameter extended families of axisymmetric static solutions and cylindrical gravitational wave solutions from old ones, in a simpler way than most solution-generation techniques, including the prescription given by Ernst for this system. As examples, we obtain the families that generalize the Schwarzschild solution and the C -metric. These in effect superpose a Levi-Civita cylindrical solution on the seeds. Exploiting a correspondence between static solutions of Einstein's equations and Ricci solitons (self-similar solutions of the Ricci flow), this also enables us to construct new steady Ricci solitons.

  6. Could quantum gravity phenomenology be tested with high intensity lasers?

    SciTech Connect

    Magueijo, Joao

    2006-06-15

    In phenomenological quantum gravity theories, Planckian behavior is triggered by the energy of elementary particles approaching the Planck energy, E{sub P}, but it is also possible that anomalous behavior strikes systems of particles with total energy near E{sub P}. This is usually perceived to be pathological and has been labeled 'the soccer ball problem'. We point out that there is no obvious contradiction with experiment if coherent collections of particles with bulk energy of order E{sub P} do indeed display Planckian behavior, a possibility that would open a new experimental window. Unfortunately, field theory realizations of 'doubly' (or deformed) special relativity never exhibit a soccer ball problem; we present several formulations where this is undeniably true. Upon closer scrutiny we discover that the only chance for Planckian behavior to be triggered by large coherent energies involves the details of second quantization. We find a formulation where the quanta have their energy-momentum (mass-shell) relations deformed as a function of the bulk energy of the coherent packet to which they belong, rather than the frequency. Given ongoing developments in laser technology, such a possibility would be of great experimental interest.

  7. [Deactualization and orthostrophy. Phenomenological psychopathology of receding delusions].

    PubMed

    Schlimme, J E; Brückner, B

    2015-07-01

    In this article we develop a phenomenological psychopathology of receding delusions in persons with a diagnosis of schizophrenia. Drawing on Klaus Conrad's (1905-1961) descriptions of beginning schizophrenia and an in-depth single case study, we develop descriptions of the process of receding delusions as opposed to ongoing delusions in the manner of a double-orientation to reality. We distinguish two stages in this process of social recovery and term these stages deactualization and orthostrophy. We argue that delusional convictions lose importance and persuasive power if they are no longer supported by corresponding value apprehensions or perceptions and perception-like experiences (i.e. hallucinations). Consequently, we propose that the process of receding delusions proceeds in layers comparable to a regression of the process of upcoming delusions. Lastly we discuss both stages of receding delusions (deactualization and orthostrophy) and ongoing delusions (double-orientation to reality) as possible continuous manners of social recovery concerning delusional psychosis (diagnosis of schizophrenia) and argue for specific interventions according to these different continuous manners. PMID:25740384

  8. LHC phenomenology of SO(10) models with Yukawa unification. II.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anandakrishnan, Archana; Bryant, B. Charles; Raby, Stuart

    2014-07-01

    In this paper we study Yukawa-unified SO(10) supersymmetric (SUSY) grand unified theories (GUTs) with two types of SO(10) boundary conditions: (i) universal gaugino masses and (ii) nonuniversal gaugino masses with effective "mirage" mediation. With these boundary conditions, we perform a global χ2 analysis to obtain the parameters consistent with 11 low energy observables, including the top, bottom, and tau masses. Both boundary conditions have universal scalar masses and "just so" splitting for the up- and down-type Higgs masses. In these models, the third family scalars are lighter than the first two families and the gauginos are lighter than all the scalars. We therefore focus on the gluino phenomenology in these models. In particular, we estimate the lowest allowed gluino mass in our models coming from the most recent LHC data and compare this to limits obtained using simplified models. We find that the lower bound on Mg ˜ in Yukawa-unified SO(10) SUSY GUTs is generically ˜1.2 TEV at the 1σ level unless there is considerable degeneracy between the gluino and the lightest supersymmetric particle, in which case the bounds are much weaker. Hence many of our benchmark points are not ruled out by the present LHC data and are still viable models which can be tested at LHC 14.

  9. Dancing Mindfulness: A Phenomenological Investigation of the Emerging Practice.

    PubMed

    Marich, Jamie; Howell, Terra

    2015-01-01

    An extensive review of both quantitative and qualitative literature reveals numerous connections between mindfulness practice and psychological well-being. Dancing Mindfulness, as a holistic wellness practice, is a creative approach to mindfulness meditation that draws on dance as the vehicle for engaging in the ancient practice characterized by non-judgment, loving kindness, and present-centered awareness. Of the first participants who learned the Dancing Mindfulness practice in a community-based setting, 10 shared their lived experience with the practice, and these experiences were analyzed using A.P. Giorgi׳s descriptive phenomenological psychological method. As a collective sample, the women described positive experiences with the Dancing Mindfulness practice. Specific themes indicated improvements in emotional and spiritual well-being, increased acceptance, positive changes to the self, and increased application of mindfulness techniques and strategies to real-world living. Another thematic area suggested that dancing and music are the two major components of action within Dancing Mindfulness leading to these benefits. PMID:26260236

  10. Plasma phenomenology in astrophysical systems: Radio-sources and jets

    SciTech Connect

    Montani, Giovanni; Petitta, Jacopo

    2014-06-15

    We review the plasma phenomenology in the astrophysical sources which show appreciable radio emissions, namely Radio-Jets from Pulsars, Microquasars, Quasars, and Radio-Active Galaxies. A description of their basic features is presented, then we discuss in some details the links between their morphology and the mechanisms that lead to the different radio-emissions, investigating especially the role played by the plasma configurations surrounding compact objects (Neutron Stars, Black Holes). For the sake of completeness, we briefly mention observational techniques and detectors, whose structure set them apart from other astrophysical instruments. The fundamental ideas concerning angular momentum transport across plasma accretion disks—together with the disk-source-jet coupling problem—are discussed, by stressing their successes and their shortcomings. An alternative scenario is then inferred, based on a parallelism between astrophysical and laboratory plasma configurations, where small-scale structures can be found. We will focus our attention on the morphology of the radio-jets, on their coupling with the accretion disks and on the possible triggering phenomena, viewed as profiles of plasma instabilities.

  11. Higgs phenomenology in the standard model and beyond

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Field, Bryan Jonathan

    2005-07-01

    The way in which the electroweak symmetry is broken in nature is currently unknown. The electroweak symmetry is theoretically broken in the Standard Model by the Higgs mechanism which generates masses for the particle content and introduces a single scalar to the particle spectrum, the Higgs boson. This particle has not yet been observed and the value of it mass is a free parameter in the Standard Model. The observation of one (or more) Higgs bosons would confirm our understanding of the Standard Model. In this thesis, we study the phenomenology of the Standard Model Higgs boson and compare its production observables to those of the Pseudoscalar Higgs boson and the lightest scalar Higgs boson of the Minimally Supersymmetric Standard Model. We study the production at both the Fermilab Tevatron and the future CERN Large Hadron Collider (LHC). In the first part of the thesis, we present the results of our calculations in the framework of perturbative QCD. In the second part, we present our resummed calculations.

  12. Music and health. Phenomenological investigation of a medical humanity.

    PubMed

    McLellan, Lucy; McLachlan, Emma; Perkins, Laurence; Dornan, Tim

    2013-05-01

    In response to the tendency for music to be under-represented in the discourse of medical humanities, we framed the question 'how can music heal?' We answered it by exploring the lived experiences of musicians with lay or professional interests in health. Two medical students and a medically qualified educationalist, all musicians, conducted a co-operative inquiry with a professional musician interested in health. All researchers and six respondents kept audio or written diaries. Three respondents were interviewed in depth. A medical school head (and experienced musician) critiqued the phenomenological analysis of respondents' accounts of music, health, and its relationship with undergraduate medical education. Respondents experienced music as promoting health, even in seriously diseased people. Music affected people's identity and emotions. Through the medium of structure and harmony, it provided a means of self-expression that adapted to whatever condition people were in. Music was a communication medium, which could make people feel less isolated. Immersion in music could change negative states of mind to more positive ones. A transport metaphor was commonly used; music 'taking people to better places'. Exercising control by becoming physically involved in music enhanced diseased people's self-esteem. Music was able to bring the spiritual, mental, and physical elements of their lives into balance, to the benefit of their wellbeing. Music could help medical students appreciate holistically that the state of health of people who are either well or diseased can be enhanced by a 'non-technical' intervention.

  13. Dancing Mindfulness: A Phenomenological Investigation of the Emerging Practice.

    PubMed

    Marich, Jamie; Howell, Terra

    2015-01-01

    An extensive review of both quantitative and qualitative literature reveals numerous connections between mindfulness practice and psychological well-being. Dancing Mindfulness, as a holistic wellness practice, is a creative approach to mindfulness meditation that draws on dance as the vehicle for engaging in the ancient practice characterized by non-judgment, loving kindness, and present-centered awareness. Of the first participants who learned the Dancing Mindfulness practice in a community-based setting, 10 shared their lived experience with the practice, and these experiences were analyzed using A.P. Giorgi׳s descriptive phenomenological psychological method. As a collective sample, the women described positive experiences with the Dancing Mindfulness practice. Specific themes indicated improvements in emotional and spiritual well-being, increased acceptance, positive changes to the self, and increased application of mindfulness techniques and strategies to real-world living. Another thematic area suggested that dancing and music are the two major components of action within Dancing Mindfulness leading to these benefits.

  14. Empowering embodiment through belly dancin in pregancy: a phenomenological exploration.

    PubMed

    Jackson, Imogen

    2015-05-01

    Exercise during pregnancy has physical benefits for mother and fetus; however there has been little research into potential emotional benefits. At least 10-15 per cent of mothers suffer from ante- and postnatal depression, which can lead to extreme adverse consequences. This has been linked to self esteem, body image and isolation, amongst other factors. Belly dance has been shown to increase self esteem and body image and to provide a sense of community in non-pregnant women. This study uses phenomenology to explore how pregnant women experience belly dance using semi-structured interviews with two mothers. Three themes emerged from the data: in tune and able, connecting with others and pride and joy. The findings suggest that pregnancy belly dancing provides an opportunity for women to celebrate their femininity and maternity through connecting with others, their bodies and their babies. Belly dance is shown to be a joyful, empowering activity, with potential for improving psychological well being during pregnancy. PMID:26336784

  15. African American males diagnosed with schizophrenia: a phenomenological study.

    PubMed

    Anderson, Lorraine Ballard

    2014-08-01

    Little is known about how African American men with schizophrenia experience their every day existence. Through applying interpretive phenomenology and using a methodological structure designed by van Manen (1990, 1997), this research aimed to enrich the current understanding of what it is like for these African American males to live with schizophrenia. In this study, five men ranging in age from 21 to 57 described their lives within the context of existing with the diagnosis of schizophrenia. The lived experiences across the interviews revealed four overarching themes: They know that they are mentally ill; they make a special effort to test reality; they assert their autonomy and; they experience reality differently, which they see as a gift. To provide appropriate treatment support to African American males diagnosed with schizophrenia, it is important to recognize the clients' ability to assert their autonomy and appreciate each man's view of himself as unique and special. Moreover, in terms of symptom management, it is pivotal to understand that although the client may not be free of hallucinations and delusions, he nevertheless may be at his optimum state of wellness. The realization that these men have transcended their diagnosis of schizophrenia rather than being crushed by their condition is evident in their stories.

  16. Agnew's general strain theory reconsidered: a phenomenological perspective.

    PubMed

    Polizzi, David

    2011-10-01

    Since its inception, strain theory has attempted to explore the dynamic evoked between the process of goal identification and the process of goal acquisition as this relates to subsequent criminal behavior. Over the years of its development, strain theorists have attempted to broaden the initial scope of this perspective. Robert Agnew with his general strain theory has sought to introduce a variety of other factors relative to the experience of strain and the capacity they represent concerning subsequent criminal activity. However, these recent developments have not addressed until recently, and only in somewhat limited ways, the theoretical and methodologic implications and limits of this theoretical approach. This article proposes that the way in which Agnew's formulation of general strain, particularly in its most recent conceptualization as story lines, fundamentally transforms the theoretical and methodological grounding of this approach but fails to offer a clearly articulated alternative theoretical perspective by which to conceptualize this "turn." Phenomenology provides such an alternative perspective and helps to greatly expand our understanding of the human experience of strain. PMID:20807864

  17. [The phenomenology and psychodynamics of affects in borderline patients].

    PubMed

    Leichsenring, Falk

    2004-01-01

    This paper presents a review of the phenomenology and psychodynamics of affects in borderline patients. The first part demonstrates that in most current conceptions of the borderline disorder affective disturbances are regarded as to be characteristic. In this context, the strong overlap between borderline disorders and affective disorders found in many empirical studies is described and different hypotheses are presented to explain this phenomenon. The second part of this review is concerned with the psychodynamics of affects in borderline patients. The role of affects in thinking, behaviour, self perception and the regulation of object relations is discussed. Borderline and other severe personality disorders are assessed from the perspective of affective disturbances. The psychodynamic functions of particularly characteristic affects such as anger, anxiety, depression and boredom are discussed. The close connection between affective and cognitive functioning in borderline patients is described and evaluated with regard to modern theories of affect and cognition. Finally, the role of affects in the treatment of borderline patients is discussed. PMID:15510348

  18. Cooperativity in Binding Processes: New Insights from Phenomenological Modeling

    PubMed Central

    Cattoni, Diego I.; Chara, Osvaldo; Kaufman, Sergio B.; González Flecha, F. Luis

    2015-01-01

    Cooperative binding is one of the most interesting and not fully understood phenomena involved in control and regulation of biological processes. Here we analyze the simplest phenomenological model that can account for cooperativity (i.e. ligand binding to a macromolecule with two binding sites) by generating equilibrium binding isotherms from deterministically simulated binding time courses. We show that the Hill coefficients determined for cooperative binding, provide a good measure of the Gibbs free energy of interaction among binding sites, and that their values are independent of the free energy of association for empty sites. We also conclude that although negative cooperativity and different classes of binding sites cannot be distinguished at equilibrium, they can be kinetically differentiated. This feature highlights the usefulness of pre-equilibrium time-resolved strategies to explore binding models as a key complement of equilibrium experiments. Furthermore, our analysis shows that under conditions of strong negative cooperativity, the existence of some binding sites can be overlooked, and experiments at very high ligand concentrations can be a valuable tool to unmask such sites. PMID:26717487

  19. LHC and dark matter phenomenology of the NUGHM

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cabrera, Maria Eugenia; Casas, Alberto; de Austri, Roberto Ruiz; Bertone, Gianfranco

    2014-12-01

    We present a Bayesian analysis of the NUGHM, a supersymmetric scenario with non-universal gaugino masses and Higgs masses, including all the relevant experimental observables and dark matter constraints. The main merit of the NUGHM is that it essentially includes all the possibilities for dark matter (DM) candidates within the MSSM, since the neutralino and chargino spectrum -and composition- are as free as they can be in the general MSSM. We identify the most probable regions in the NUHGM parameter space, and study the associated phenomenology at the LHC and the prospects for DM direct detection. Requiring that the neutralino makes all of the DM in the Universe, we identify two preferred regions around TeV, 3 TeV, which correspond to the (almost) pure Higgsino and wino case. There exist other marginal regions (e.g. Higgs-funnel), but with much less statistical weight. The prospects for detection at the LHC in this case are quite pessimistic, but future direct detection experiments like LUX and XENON1T, will be able to probe this scenario. In contrast, when allowing other DM components, the prospects for detection at the LHC become more encouraging — the most promising signals being, beside the production of gluinos and squarks, the production of the heavier chargino and neutralino states, which lead to WZ and same-sign WW final states — and direct detection remains a complementary, and even more powerful, way to probe the scenario.

  20. Phenomenological aspects of no-scale inflation models

    SciTech Connect

    Ellis, John; Garcia, Marcos A.G.; Nanopoulos, Dimitri V.; Olive, Keith A.

    2015-10-01

    We discuss phenomenological aspects of inflationary models wiith a no-scale supergravity Kähler potential motivated by compactified string models, in which the inflaton may be identified either as a Kähler modulus or an untwisted matter field, focusing on models that make predictions for the scalar spectral index n{sub s} and the tensor-to-scalar ratio r that are similar to the Starobinsky model. We discuss possible patterns of soft supersymmetry breaking, exhibiting examples of the pure no-scale type m{sub 0}=B{sub 0}=A{sub 0}=0, of the CMSSM type with universal A{sub 0} and m{sub 0}≠0 at a high scale, and of the mSUGRA type with A{sub 0}=B{sub 0}+m{sub 0} boundary conditions at the high input scale. These may be combined with a non-trivial gauge kinetic function that generates gaugino masses m{sub 1/2}≠0, or one may have a pure gravity mediation scenario where trilinear terms and gaugino masses are generated through anomalies. We also discuss inflaton decays and reheating, showing possible decay channels for the inflaton when it is either an untwisted matter field or a Kähler modulus. Reheating is very efficient if a matter field inflaton is directly coupled to MSSM fields, and both candidates lead to sufficient reheating in the presence of a non-trivial gauge kinetic function.

  1. Quantitative phenomenological model of the BOLD contrast mechanism

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dickson, John D.; Ash, Tom W. J.; Williams, Guy B.; Sukstanskii, Alexander L.; Ansorge, Richard E.; Yablonskiy, Dmitriy A.

    2011-09-01

    Different theoretical models of the BOLD contrast mechanism are used for many applications including BOLD quantification (qBOLD) and vessel size imaging, both in health and disease. Each model simplifies the system under consideration, making approximations about the structure of the blood vessel network and diffusion of water molecules through inhomogeneities in the magnetic field created by deoxyhemoglobin-containing blood vessels. In this study, Monte-Carlo methods are used to simulate the BOLD MR signal generated by diffusing water molecules in the presence of long, cylindrical blood vessels. Using these simulations we introduce a new, phenomenological model that is far more accurate over a range of blood oxygenation levels and blood vessel radii than existing models. This model could be used to extract physiological parameters of the blood vessel network from experimental data in BOLD-based experiments. We use our model to establish ranges of validity for the existing analytical models of Yablonskiy and Haacke, Kiselev and Posse, Sukstanskii and Yablonskiy (extended to the case of arbitrary time in the spin echo sequence) and Bauer et al. (extended to the case of randomly oriented cylinders). Although these models are shown to be accurate in the limits of diffusion under which they were derived, none of them is accurate for the whole physiological range of blood vessels radii and blood oxygenation levels. We also show the extent of systematic errors that are introduced due to the approximations of these models when used for BOLD signal quantification.

  2. Passive millimeter-wave cross polarization imaging and phenomenology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stein, E. Lee, Jr.; Schuetz, Christopher A.; Martin, Richard D.; Samluk, Jesse P.; Wilson, John P.; Mackrides, Daniel G.; Murakowski, Janusz A.; Murakowski, Maciej; Prather, Dennis W.

    2009-05-01

    Passive millimeter-wave (mmW) imaging has many specific defense, security and safety applications, due to the fact that all terrestrial bodies above absolute zero are emissive, and these wavelengths are not scattered by normal obscurants such as haze, fog, smoke, dust, sandstorms, clouds, or fabrics. We have previously demonstrated results from the construction of a 94 GHz passive mmW far-field imaging system utilizing optical upconversion, which imaged in only horizontal polarization. The effective radiometric temperature of an object is a combination of the object's surface and scattered radiometric temperatures. The surface radiometric temperature is a function of the object's emissivity, which is polarization dependent. Imaging with radiometric temperature data from both polarizations will allow a greater identification of the scene being imaged, and allow the recognition of subtle features which were not previously observable. This additional functionality is accomplished through the installation of added equipment and programming on our system, thus allowing the simultaneous data collection of imagery in both polarizations. Herein, we present our experimental procedures, results and passive mmW images obtained by using our far-field imaging system, a brief discussion of the phenomenology observed through the application of these techniques, as well as the preliminary details regarding our work on a 3-D passive mmW simulator capable of true physical polarization dependent effective emissivity and reflectivity rendering, based on the open-source Blender engine.

  3. Moving target feature phenomenology data collection at China Lake

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gross, David C.; Hill, Jeff; Schmitz, James L.

    2002-08-01

    This paper describes the DARPA Moving Target Feature Phenomenology (MTFP) data collection conducted at the China Lake Naval Weapons Center's Junction Ranch in July 2001. The collection featured both X-band and Ku-band radars positioned on top of Junction Ranch's Parrot Peak. The test included seven targets used in eleven configurations with vehicle motion consisting of circular, straight-line, and 90-degree turning motion. Data was collected at 10-degree and 17-degree depression angles. Key parameters in the collection were polarization, vehicle speed, and road roughness. The collection also included a canonical target positioned at Junction Ranch's tilt-deck turntable. The canonical target included rotating wheels (military truck tire and civilian pick-up truck tire) and a flat plate with variable positioned corner reflectors. The canonical target was also used to simulate a rotating antenna and a vibrating plate. The target vehicles were instrumented with ARDS pods for differential GPS and roll, pitch and yaw measurements. Target motion was also documented using a video camera slaved to the X-band radar antenna and by a video camera operated near the target site.

  4. Evidence for universality in phenomenological emotion response system coherence.

    PubMed

    Matsumoto, David; Nezlek, John B; Koopmann, Birgit

    2007-02-01

    The authors reanalyzed data from Scherer and Wallbott's (Scherer, 1997b; Scherer & Wallbott, 1994) International Study of Emotion Antecedents and Reactions to examine how phenomenological reports of emotional experience, expression, and physiological sensations were related to each other within cultures and to determine if these relationships were moderated by cultural differences, which were operationally defined using Hofstede's (2001) typology. Multilevel random coefficient modeling analyses produced several findings of note. First, the vast majority of the variance in ratings was within countries (i.e., at the individual level); a much smaller proportion of the total variance was between countries. Second, there were negative relationships between country-level means and long- versus short-term orientation for numerous measures. Greater long-term orientation was associated with lowered emotional expressivity and fewer physiological sensations. Third, at the individual (within-culture) level, across the 7 emotions, there were consistent and reliable positive relationships among the response systems, indicating coherence among them. Fourth, such relationships were not moderated by cultural differences, as measured by the Hofstede dimensions. PMID:17352563

  5. A Qualitative Phenomenological Exploration of Teachers' Experience With Nutrition Education

    PubMed Central

    Hall, Elisha; Chai, Weiwen; Albrecht, Julie A.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Nutrition education delivered by classroom teachers has become a popular intervention designed to combat childhood obesity. However, few qualitative studies have explored nutrition education with teachers Purpose: The purpose of this study was to explore how elementary teachers describe their experience with nutrition education. Methods: A qualitative phenomenological approach was used. Semistructured interviews, observations, and document analysis were conducted with 10 teachers who delivered nutrition education in their classrooms. Inductive coding was used to determine invariant constituents, reduce constituents to categories, and cluster categories into themes. Reliability and validity were accomplished through intercoder agreement, audio recording, triangulation, bracketing, and member checking. Results: Results identified 5 core themes related to roles teachers play in nutrition education, the importance placed upon nutrition, motivation for supplementary activities, barriers, and a triadic relationship between students, teachers, and curriculum. Discussion: Findings reveal interactions within the nutrition education experience in which teachers balance barriers with their value of nutrition education and motivation to help students make healthy choices. Translation to Health Education Practice: Health educators should work with classroom teachers at the program design, implementation, and evaluation stages of curriculum development to better address needs and facilitate the delivery of high-quality nutrition education for students. PMID:27226814

  6. Complementarity of dark matter searches in the phenomenological MSSM

    SciTech Connect

    Cahill-Rowley, Matthew; Cotta, Randy; Drlica-Wagner, Alex; Funk, Stefan; Hewett, JoAnne; Ismail, Ahmed; Rizzo, Tom; Wood, Matthew

    2015-03-11

    As is well known, the search for and eventual identification of dark matter in supersymmetry requires a simultaneous, multipronged approach with important roles played by the LHC as well as both direct and indirect dark matter detection experiments. We examine the capabilities of these approaches in the 19-parameter phenomenological MSSM which provides a general framework for complementarity studies of neutralino dark matter. We summarize the sensitivity of dark matter searches at the 7 and 8 (and eventually 14) TeV LHC, combined with those by Fermi, CTA, IceCube/DeepCore, COUPP, LZ and XENON. The strengths and weaknesses of each of these techniques are examined and contrasted and their interdependent roles in covering the model parameter space are discussed in detail. We find that these approaches explore orthogonal territory and that advances in each are necessary to cover the supersymmetric weakly interacting massive particle parameter space. We also find that different experiments have widely varying sensitivities to the various dark matter annihilation mechanisms, some of which would be completely excluded by null results from these experiments.

  7. Evidence for universality in phenomenological emotion response system coherence.

    PubMed

    Matsumoto, David; Nezlek, John B; Koopmann, Birgit

    2007-02-01

    The authors reanalyzed data from Scherer and Wallbott's (Scherer, 1997b; Scherer & Wallbott, 1994) International Study of Emotion Antecedents and Reactions to examine how phenomenological reports of emotional experience, expression, and physiological sensations were related to each other within cultures and to determine if these relationships were moderated by cultural differences, which were operationally defined using Hofstede's (2001) typology. Multilevel random coefficient modeling analyses produced several findings of note. First, the vast majority of the variance in ratings was within countries (i.e., at the individual level); a much smaller proportion of the total variance was between countries. Second, there were negative relationships between country-level means and long- versus short-term orientation for numerous measures. Greater long-term orientation was associated with lowered emotional expressivity and fewer physiological sensations. Third, at the individual (within-culture) level, across the 7 emotions, there were consistent and reliable positive relationships among the response systems, indicating coherence among them. Fourth, such relationships were not moderated by cultural differences, as measured by the Hofstede dimensions.

  8. Inelastic deformation and phenomenological modeling of aluminum including transient effect

    SciTech Connect

    Cho, C.W.

    1980-01-01

    A review was made of several phenomenological theories which have recently been proposed to describe the inelastic deformation of crystalline solids. Hart's deformation theory has many advantages, but there are disagreements with experimental deformation at stress levels below yield. A new inelastic deformation theory was proposed, introducing the concept of microplasticity. The new model consists of five deformation elements: a friction element representing a deformation element controlled by dislocation glide, a nonrecoverable plastic element representing the dislocation leakage rate over the strong dislocation barriers, a microplastic element representing the dislocation leakage rate over the weak barriers, a short range anelastic spring element representing the recoverable anelastic strain stored by piled-up dislocations against the weak barriers, and a long range anelastic spring element representing the recoverable strain stored by piled-up dislocations against the strong barriers. Load relaxation and tensile testing in the plastic range were used to determine the material parameters for the plastic friction elements. The short range and long range anelastic moduli and the material parameters for the kinetics of microplasticity were determined by the measurement of anelastic loops and by performing load relaxation tests in the microplastic region. Experimental results were compared with a computer simulation of the transient deformation behavior of commercial purity aluminum. An attempt was made to correlate the material parameters and the microstructure from TEM. Stability of material parameters during inelastic deformation was discussed and effect of metallurgical variables was examined experimentally. 71 figures, 5 tables.

  9. Light radioactive nuclei capture reactions with phenomenological potential models

    SciTech Connect

    Guimaraes, V.; Bertulani, C. A.

    2010-05-21

    Light radioactive nuclei play an important role in many astrophysical environments. Due to very low cross sections of some neutron and proton capture reactions by these radioactive nuclei at energies of astrophysical interest, direct laboratory measurements are very difficult. For radioactive nuclei such as {sup 8}Li and {sup 8}B, the direct measurement of neutron capture reactions is impossible. Indirect methods have been applied to overcome these difficulties. In this work we will report on the results and discussion of phenomenological potential models used to determine some proton and neutron capture reactions. As a test we show the results for the {sup 16}O(p,gamma){sup 17}F{sub gs}(5/2{sup +}) and {sup 16}O(p,gamma){sup 17}F{sub ex}(1/2{sup +}) capture reactions. We also computed the nucleosynthesis cross sections for the {sup 7}Li(n,gamma){sup 8}Li{sub gs}, {sup 8}Li(n,gamma){sup 9}Li{sub gs} and {sup 8}B(p,gamma){sup 9}C{sub gs} capture reactions.

  10. Being a non-drinking student: an interpretative phenomenological analysis.

    PubMed

    Conroy, Dominic; de Visser, Richard

    2014-01-01

    Recent research suggests that safer student alcohol consumption might be assisted by understanding how social occasions are managed by non-drinkers. In-depth, semi-structured interviews with five 19-22 year old non-drinking English undergraduates were subjected to interpretative phenomenological analysis. We present five inter-linked themes: 'living with challenges to non-drinking'; 'seeing what goes on in drinking environments'; 'dealing with conversations about non-drinking (making excuses vs. coming out)'; 'knowing which friends care about you'; and 'the importance of minimising "legroom" for peer pressure'. Participants felt under persistent peer scrutiny (as a form of peer pressure) and could feel alienated in drinking environments. Talking about non-drinking was characterised by whether to 'come out' (as a non-drinker) or 'fake it' (e.g. 'I'm on antibiotics'). Loyal friendships were reported as particularly important in this context. The decision not to drink was experienced as providing a successful buffer to peer pressure for former drinkers. Our findings unsettle traditional health promotion campaigns which advocate moderate drinking among students without always suggesting how it might be most successfully accomplished and offer tentative guidance on how non-drinking during specific social occasions might be managed more successfully. Findings are discussed in relation to extant literature and future research directions are suggested. PMID:24245802

  11. Phenomenological studies of CLAS data on double charge pion electroproduction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mokeev, Victor; Burkert, Volker

    2007-10-01

    Comprehensive studies of unpolarized &-circ;&+circ;p electroproduction cross-sections, for the first time available from CLAS [1,2], were carried out within the framework of phenomenological approach [3]. Analysis of these data allowed us to establish all important mechanisms, contributing to this exclusive channel in N^* excitation region at photon virtualities from 0.2 to 1.5 GeV^2. Electrocouplings for P11(1440), D13(1520) states at Q^2 < 0.6GeV^2 were obtained from the analysis of CLAS data [1]. The contributions from various mechanisms in terms of both amplitudes and single differential cross-sections were determined from the data fit. This information is of particular interest for N^* studies in coupled channel approaches under development at EBAC [4]. [1] G.V.Fedotov, et. al., Bull. of Russian Academy of Science,71,328 (2007). [2] M.Ripani, et. al., Phys. Rev.,91,0222002 (2003). [3] V.I.Mokeev, et. al., Int. Workshop on the Physics of Excited Baryons (NSTAR05) Tallahassee, Florida, 10-15 Oct 2005, ed by V.Crede, P.Eugenio and S.Capstick, p.47. [4] A.Matsuyama, et.al., Phys.Rep.,439,193 (2007); B.Julia-Diaz, et.al., arXiv:0704.1615.

  12. Rediscovering Psychopathology: The Epistemology and Phenomenology of the Psychiatric Object

    PubMed Central

    Parnas, Josef

    2013-01-01

    Questions concerning both the ontology and epistemology of the “psychiatric object” (symptoms and signs) should be at the forefront of current concerns of psychiatry as a clinical neuroscience. We argue that neglect of these issues is a crucial source of the stagnation of psychiatric research. In honor of the centenary of Karl Jaspers’ book, General Psychopathology, we offer a critique of the contemporary “operationalist” epistemology, a critique that is consistent with Jaspers’ views. Symptoms and signs cannot be properly understood or identified apart from an appreciation of the nature of consciousness or subjectivity, which in turn cannot be treated as a collection of thing-like, mutually independent objects, accessible to context-free, “atheoretical” definitions or unproblematic forms of measurement (as is often assumed in structured interviewing). Adequate and faithful distinctions in the phenomenal or experiential realm are therefore a fundamental prerequisite for classification, treatment, and research. This requires a multidisciplinary approach, incorporating (among other things) insights provided by psychology, phenomenological philosophy, and the philosophy of mind. PMID:23267191

  13. Phenomenological theory of bulk diffusion in metal oxides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chuvil'deev, V. N.; Smirnova, E. S.

    2016-07-01

    Phenomenological description of bulk diffusion in oxide ceramics has been proposed. Variants of vacancy and vacancy-free diffusion models have been considered. In the vacancy models, ion migration is described as a fluctuation with the formation of a "liquid corridor," along which the diffusion ion transport in a "melt" is performed, or, as a fluctuation with the formation of an "empty corridor," in which the ion motion proceeds without activation. The vacancy-free model considers a fluctuation with the formation of a spherical liquid region whose sizes correspond to the first coordination sphere. It has been shown that both the vacancy models work in cubic metal oxides and the vacancy-free model is effective for describing diffusion in oxides having a noncubic structure. Detailed comparison of the models developed has been performed. It has been shown that the values of the activation energies for diffusion of metal and oxygen ions agree with the published data on bulk diffusion in stoichiometric oxide ceramics.

  14. Tunability of aluminum nitride acoustic resonators: a phenomenological approach.

    PubMed

    Defay, Emmanuel; Ben Hassine, Nizar; Emery, Patrick; Parat, Guy; Abergel, Julie; Devos, Arnaud

    2011-12-01

    A phenomenological approach is developed to identify the physical parameters causing the dc-voltage-induced tunability of aluminum nitride (AlN) acoustic resonators, widely used for RF filters. The typical resonance frequency of these resonators varies from 2.038 GHz at -200 V to 2.062 GHz at +200 V. This indicates, based on these RF measurements versus dc bias and the model used, that the AlN stiffness variation versus dc bias is the prominent effect because both resonance and antiresonance experience a similar variation, respectively, 24 MHz and 19 MHz at 400 V. Picosecond ultrasonics were also used to prove independently that the acoustic velocity (and therefore AlN stiffness) is sensitive to dc bias and that the variation induced is comparable to that extracted from the resonance measurements. It turned out that the stiffness relative variation for an electric field of 1 V/μm extracted from picosecond ultrasonics is 54 ppm-μm/V. This is in good agreement with the value extracted from the RF measurements, namely 57.2 ppm-μm/V. The overall tunability of these AlN resonators reaches 1.1%, which is an interesting figure, although probably not high enough for genuine applications.

  15. Phenomenological analysis of D-brane Pati-Salam vacua

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anastasopoulos, P.; Leontaris, G. K.; Vlachos, N. D.

    2010-05-01

    In the present work, we perform a phenomenological analysis of the effective low energy models with Pati-Salam (PS) gauge symmetry derived in the context of D-branes. The main issue in these models arises from the fact that the right-handed fermions and the PS-symmetry breaking Higgs field transform identically under the symmetry, causing unnatural matter-Higgs mixing effects. We argue that this problem can be solved in particular D-brane setups where these fields arise in different intersections. We further observe that whenever a large Higgs mass term is being generated in a particular class of mass spectra, a splitting mechanism -reminiscent of the doublet triplet splitting- may protect the neutral Higgs components from becoming heavy. We analyze the implications of each individual representation available in these models in order to specify the minimal spectrum required to build up a consistent model that reconciles the low energy data. A short discussion is devoted to the effects of stringy instanton corrections, particularly those generating missing Yukawa couplings and contributing to the fermion mass textures. We discuss the correlations of the intersecting D-brane spectra with those obtained from Gepner constructions and analyze the superpotential, the resulting mass textures and the low energy implications of some examples of the latter along the lines proposed above.

  16. Rediscovering psychopathology: the epistemology and phenomenology of the psychiatric object.

    PubMed

    Parnas, Josef; Sass, Louis A; Zahavi, Dan

    2013-03-01

    Questions concerning both the ontology and epistemology of the "psychiatric object" (symptoms and signs) should be at the forefront of current concerns of psychiatry as a clinical neuroscience. We argue that neglect of these issues is a crucial source of the stagnation of psychiatric research. In honor of the centenary of Karl Jaspers' book, General Psychopathology, we offer a critique of the contemporary "operationalist" epistemology, a critique that is consistent with Jaspers' views. Symptoms and signs cannot be properly understood or identified apart from an appreciation of the nature of consciousness or subjectivity, which in turn cannot be treated as a collection of thing-like, mutually independent objects, accessible to context-free, "atheoretical" definitions or unproblematic forms of measurement (as is often assumed in structured interviewing). Adequate and faithful distinctions in the phenomenal or experiential realm are therefore a fundamental prerequisite for classification, treatment, and research. This requires a multidisciplinary approach, incorporating (among other things) insights provided by psychology, phenomenological philosophy, and the philosophy of mind.

  17. Set Equation Transformation System.

    2002-03-22

    Version 00 SETS is used for symbolic manipulation of Boolean equations, particularly the reduction of equations by the application of Boolean identities. It is a flexible and efficient tool for performing probabilistic risk analysis (PRA), vital area analysis, and common cause analysis. The equation manipulation capabilities of SETS can also be used to analyze noncoherent fault trees and determine prime implicants of Boolean functions, to verify circuit design implementation, to determine minimum cost fire protectionmore » requirements for nuclear reactor plants, to obtain solutions to combinatorial optimization problems with Boolean constraints, and to determine the susceptibility of a facility to unauthorized access through nullification of sensors in its protection system. Two auxiliary programs, SEP and FTD, are included. SEP performs the quantitative analysis of reduced Boolean equations (minimal cut sets) produced by SETS. The user can manipulate and evaluate the equations to find the probability of occurrence of any desired event and to produce an importance ranking of the terms and events in an equation. FTD is a fault tree drawing program which uses the proprietary ISSCO DISSPLA graphics software to produce an annotated drawing of a fault tree processed by SETS. The DISSPLA routines are not included.« less

  18. What Determines the Nature of Gravity? A Phenomenological Approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lämmerzahl, Claus

    2009-12-01

    The gravitational field can only be explored through the motion of test objects. To achieve this one first has to set up the correct equations of motion. Initially these equations are based on Newton’s laws. Corresponding experiments that support Newton’s laws are described. Furthermore, the basic characteristics of the motion of test objects in gravitational fields are described. This leads to the notion of Einstein’s Equivalence Principle which has as consequence a metric theory of gravity. One particular metric theory is General Relativity based on Einstein’s field equations with its particular predictions for effects like periastron advance, light deflection, etc. An overview over the experimental confirmation of General Relativity, in particular those presented at this workshop, is given. This workshop summary ends with open problems. We also describe some of the strategies for the experimental search for a quantum gravity theory.

  19. Directional Radiometry and Radiative Transfer: the Convoluted Path From Centuries-old Phenomenology to Physical Optics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mishchenko, Michael I.

    2014-01-01

    This Essay traces the centuries-long history of the phenomenological disciplines of directional radiometry and radiative transfer in turbid media, discusses their fundamental weaknesses, and outlines the convoluted process of their conversion into legitimate branches of physical optics.

  20. The Intersectionality of African American Mothers in Counselor Education: A Phenomenological Examination

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haskins, Natoya H.; Ziomek-Daigle, Jolie; Sewell, Cheryl; Crumb, Lonika; Appling, Brandee; Trepal, Heather

    2016-01-01

    Using phenomenological inquiry, this study explored the lived experiences and intersecting identities of 8 African American counselor educators who are mothers. Six themes were identified: race, professional strain, work-life balance, support, internalized success, and mothering pedagogy.

  1. [Phenomenological anthropological social psychiatry--paving the way for a theoretical reanimation].

    PubMed

    Thoma, Samuel

    2012-11-01

    This article tries to link the present lack of theoretical discussion within German Social Psychiatry with a loss of phenomenological and anthropological thought. The so-called Phenomenological Psychiatry used to play a very important role in German psychiatry during the 50 ies until the 70 ies and had strong influences on the first reformers of German psychiatry, such as Walter Ritter von Baeyer, Heinz Häfner, Caspar Kulenkampff, Karl Peter Kisker and Erich Wulff. Their reforms were not only founded by a social criticism put forth by theories such as marxism (Basaglia, Wulff) or structuralism (Foucault) but also by a concrete notion of what it is like to suffer from mental illness and what kind of needs are linked to such suffering. This very notion was given by the phenomenological approach. Finally the article tries to give reasons for today's reciprocal loss of connection of the phenomenological and the socio-psychiatric school.

  2. Van der Waals equation of state revisited: importance of the dispersion correction.

    PubMed

    de Visser, Sam P

    2011-04-28

    One of the most basic equations of state describing nonideal gases and liquids is the van der Waals equation of state, and as a consequence, it is generally taught in most first year undergraduate chemistry courses. In this work, we show that the constants a and b in the van der Waals equation of state are linearly proportional to the polarizability volume of the molecules in a gas or liquid. Using this information, a new thermodynamic one-parameter equation of state is derived that contains experimentally measurable variables and physics constants only. This is the first equation of state apart from the Ideal Gas Law that contains experimentally measurable variables and physics constants only, and as such, it may be a very useful and practical equation for the description of dilute gases and liquids. The modified van der Waals equation of state describes pV as the sum of repulsive and attractive intermolecular interaction energies that are represented by an exponential repulsion function between the electron clouds of the molecules and a London dispersion component, respectively. The newly derived equation of state is tested against experimental data for several gas and liquid examples, and the agreement is satisfactory. The description of the equation of state as a one-parameter function also has implications on other thermodynamic functions, such as critical parameters, virial coefficients, and isothermal compressibilities. Using our modified van der Waals equation of state, we show that all of these properties are a function of the molecular polarizability volume. Correlations of experimental data confirm the derived proportionalities.

  3. Van der Waals equation of state revisited: importance of the dispersion correction.

    PubMed

    de Visser, Sam P

    2011-04-28

    One of the most basic equations of state describing nonideal gases and liquids is the van der Waals equation of state, and as a consequence, it is generally taught in most first year undergraduate chemistry courses. In this work, we show that the constants a and b in the van der Waals equation of state are linearly proportional to the polarizability volume of the molecules in a gas or liquid. Using this information, a new thermodynamic one-parameter equation of state is derived that contains experimentally measurable variables and physics constants only. This is the first equation of state apart from the Ideal Gas Law that contains experimentally measurable variables and physics constants only, and as such, it may be a very useful and practical equation for the description of dilute gases and liquids. The modified van der Waals equation of state describes pV as the sum of repulsive and attractive intermolecular interaction energies that are represented by an exponential repulsion function between the electron clouds of the molecules and a London dispersion component, respectively. The newly derived equation of state is tested against experimental data for several gas and liquid examples, and the agreement is satisfactory. The description of the equation of state as a one-parameter function also has implications on other thermodynamic functions, such as critical parameters, virial coefficients, and isothermal compressibilities. Using our modified van der Waals equation of state, we show that all of these properties are a function of the molecular polarizability volume. Correlations of experimental data confirm the derived proportionalities. PMID:21469648

  4. Introducing Chemical Formulae and Equations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dawson, Chris; Rowell, Jack

    1979-01-01

    Discusses when the writing of chemical formula and equations can be introduced in the school science curriculum. Also presents ways in which formulae and equations learning can be aided and some examples for balancing and interpreting equations. (HM)

  5. The Bernoulli-Poiseuille Equation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Badeer, Henry S.; Synolakis, Costas E.

    1989-01-01

    Describes Bernoulli's equation and Poiseuille's equation for fluid dynamics. Discusses the application of the combined Bernoulli-Poiseuille equation in real flows, such as viscous flows under gravity and acceleration. (YP)

  6. The problem of arriving at a phenomenological description of memory loss.

    PubMed

    Moyle, W; Clinton, M

    1997-07-01

    This paper discusses a methodological difficulty that arose when uncovering the conscious experience of being nurtured as an in-patient with depression on a psychiatric ward. It considers the problem of arriving at a phenomenological description of memory loss in a patient who had undergone electroconvulsive therapy (ECT). The paper begins by describing the prevalence of depression and its significance for nurses working in in-patient settings. Examples of empirical research into memory loss in depression are used to show what researchers must set aside if they are to arrive at a phenomenological description of memory loss. The choice of a phenomenological approach to the wider study from which the methodological problem discussed here arose is then justified. The phenomena of memory is introduced to show the methodological significance of attempting to arrive at a phenomenological description of the statement made by one of the participants, a woman being treated as an in-patient for major depression. A possible description of the phenomena of memory loss based on the existential phenomenology of Sartre is offered to call into question the ability of researchers to bracket their assumptions. The significance for nurses of the wider study from which our example is taken is then described. Finally it is argued that despite the methodological difficulty described, a phenomenological perspective based on the philosophy of Husserl can point nurses in the direction of meeting the human needs of their patients.

  7. Two-body Dirac equations for meson spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Crater, Horace W.; van Alstine, Peter

    1988-04-01

    Recently we used Dirac's constraint mechanics and supersymmetries to derive two coupled compatible 16-component Dirac equations that govern two relativistic spinning particles interacting through world scalar and vector potentials. They reduce exactly to four decoupled four-component local Schrödinger-like equations with energy-dependent quasipotentials Φw. Their nonperturbative covariant structure [leading to perturbative and O(1/c2) expansions that agree with field-theoretic approaches] suit these equations ideally for phenomenological applications in which the potentials have some links with relativistic field theories. (These equations are exactly solvable for singlet positronium producing a spectrum correct through order α4.) Here we use our equations to extend the validity of various one- or two-parameter models for the heavy-quark static potential to the relativistic light-quark regime. These models include the leading-log model (for all length scales) of Adler and Piran and Richardson's potential modified by flavor-dependent vacuum corrections. They significantly improve the good results that we obtained using Richardson's potential alone. Both nonperturbative and perturbative properties of the constraint approach are responsible for the spin-dependent consequences of the potential that result in a good overall fit to the meson masses. The nonperturbative structure dictated by the compatibility of our two Dirac equations enforces an approximate chiral symmetry that may account for the goodness of our pion fit. Perturbatively, for weak potentials, the upper-upper components of our equations reduce to the appropriate Todorov equation and then for low velocities to the Breit Hamiltonian. Thus, our approach reproduces the semirelativistic spin-dependent consequences of a quantum field theory. We strengthen this connection by deriving the Todorov inhomogeneous quasipotential equation for Φw from the Bethe-Salpeter equation using an operator generalization of

  8. MADANALYSIS 5, a user-friendly framework for collider phenomenology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Conte, Eric; Fuks, Benjamin; Serret, Guillaume

    2013-01-01

    We present MADANALYSIS 5, a new framework for phenomenological investigations at particle colliders. Based on a C++ kernel, this program allows us to efficiently perform, in a straightforward and user-friendly fashion, sophisticated physics analyses of event files such as those generated by a large class of Monte Carlo event generators. MADANALYSIS 5 comes with two modes of running. The first one, easier to handle, uses the strengths of a powerful PYTHON interface in order to implement physics analyses by means of a set of intuitive commands. The second one requires one to implement the analyses in the C++ programming language, directly within the core of the analysis framework. This opens unlimited possibilities concerning the level of complexity which can be reached, being only limited by the programming skills and the originality of the user. Program summaryProgram title: MadAnalysis 5 Catalogue identifier: AENO_v1_0 Program summary URL:http://cpc.cs.qub.ac.uk/summaries/AENO_v1_0.html Program obtainable from: CPC Program Library, Queen's University, Belfast, N. Ireland Licensing provisions: Permission to use, copy, modify and distribute this program is granted under the terms of the GNU General Public License. No. of lines in distributed program, including test data, etc.: 31087 No. of bytes in distributed program, including test data, etc.: 399105 Distribution format: tar.gz Programming language: PYTHON, C++. Computer: All platforms on which Python version 2.7, Root version 5.27 and the g++ compiler are available. Compatibility with newer versions of these programs is also ensured. However, the Python version must be below version 3.0. Operating system: Unix, Linux and Mac OS operating systems on which the above-mentioned versions of Python and Root, as well as g++, are available. Classification: 11.1. External routines: ROOT (http://root.cern.ch/drupal/) Nature of problem: Implementing sophisticated phenomenological analyses in high-energy physics through a

  9. A phenomenological model for particle retention in single, saturated fractures.

    PubMed

    Rodrigues, Sandrina; Dickson, Sarah

    2014-01-01

    Fractured aquifers are some of the most poorly characterized subsurface environments despite posing one of the highest risks to the protection of potable groundwater. This research was designed to improve the understanding of the factors affecting particle transport through fractures by developing a phenomenological model based on laboratory-scale transport data. The model presented in this research employed data from over 70 particle tracer tests conducted in single, saturated, variable-aperture fractures that were obtained from the natural environment and fractured in the laboratory or cast from epoxy in the laboratory. The particles employed were Escherichia coli RS2-GFP and microspheres. The tracer experiments were conducted in natural (dolomitic limestone and granite) as well as epoxy replicas of the natural fractures. The multiple linear regression analysis revealed that the most important factors influencing particle retention in fractures are the ratio of the ionic strength of solution to collector charge, the ratio of particle to collector charge, and the ratio of advective to diffusive forces as described by the Peclet number. The model was able to reasonably (R(2)  = 0.64) predict the fraction of particles retained; however, it is evident that some factors not accounted for in the model also contributed to retention. This research presents a novel approach to understanding particle transport in fractures, and illustrates the relative importance of various factors affecting the transport mechanisms. The utility of this model lies in the increased understanding of particle transport in fractures, which is extremely useful for directing future research. PMID:23647360

  10. Phenomenological perspectives on self-care in aging

    PubMed Central

    Söderhamn, Olle

    2013-01-01

    Self-care is a central concept in health care and may be considered as a means to maintain, restore, and improve one’s health and well-being. When performed effectively, self-care contributes not only to human functioning but also to human structural integrity and human development (ie, to a dynamic and holistic state of health). Self-care as a clinical concept is relevant for health care professionals, and it should be meaningful to investigate it at a philosophical level and to further elaborate upon this concept. The aim of this article is to discuss and elaborate upon a phenomenological perspective on self-care in aging that is relevant for the health sciences. Self-care may be preliminarily regarded as a fundamental perspective for the conscious older individual, and as a way of being in the world with both the objective body and with the lived body. The lived body is the personal center of perception and the field of action, and it is also the center of self-care. The potentiality or ability for self-care activity and self-care activity itself are structures given to perception, with self-care ability as an integral part of the lived body. The actualization of self-care ability comes about through a certain meaning, which can be regarded as an important driving force. It is constituted by communication, a healthy lifestyle, and by building meaning and socializing. Successful self-care involves having contacts with the health care system, being conscious of a sound lifestyle, being physically and mentally active, being engaged, having social contacts with family and others, as well as being satisfied, positive, and being able to look forward. One fundamental cornerstone is serenity on behalf of the individual. Self-care can facilitate transitions, and it may also be an outcome of transitions. PMID:23807842

  11. Volunteering in dementia care – a Norwegian phenomenological study

    PubMed Central

    Söderhamn, Ulrika; Landmark, Bjørg; Aasgaard, Live; Eide, Hilde; Söderhamn, Olle

    2012-01-01

    Introduction The number of people suffering from dementia will increase dramatically in the future, and this will be a great challenge and concern for health care services. It is assumed that volunteers will strengthen community health care services more in the future than they do today. Aim The aim of this study was to elucidate lived experiences of working as a volunteer in an activity center with adapted activities for home-dwelling people with early stage dementia. Methods Qualitative interviews were implemented in a group of nine female volunteers from an activity center in southern Norway. The interviews were recorded, transcribed verbatim, and analyzed with a descriptive phenomenological method. Results Volunteering in an activity center for home-dwelling people with early stage dementia was reported to provide experiences of being useful and feeling satisfied with performing a good job. It was an advantage for the volunteers to have had experiences from life in general, but also as a health professional or as being the next of kin of a dementia sufferer. It was important for the volunteers to focus on the dementia sufferer and show caring behavior, and interaction with and the appreciation of the health care professionals were also important. The volunteers were motivated by being able to have influence and participate in the planning of the work, to be a part of the social setting, and to learn. However, for some volunteers it was difficult to adjust to an appropriate role. Conclusion In order to promote volunteering in a caring context, mutual trust and freedom should be emphasized. Being conscious of important volunteer characteristics like their experiences, knowledge, and caring behavior, as well as a focus on the staff showing appreciation and providing feedback, may be the difference between success and failure. PMID:22396627

  12. A phenomenological model for particle retention in single, saturated fractures.

    PubMed

    Rodrigues, Sandrina; Dickson, Sarah

    2014-01-01

    Fractured aquifers are some of the most poorly characterized subsurface environments despite posing one of the highest risks to the protection of potable groundwater. This research was designed to improve the understanding of the factors affecting particle transport through fractures by developing a phenomenological model based on laboratory-scale transport data. The model presented in this research employed data from over 70 particle tracer tests conducted in single, saturated, variable-aperture fractures that were obtained from the natural environment and fractured in the laboratory or cast from epoxy in the laboratory. The particles employed were Escherichia coli RS2-GFP and microspheres. The tracer experiments were conducted in natural (dolomitic limestone and granite) as well as epoxy replicas of the natural fractures. The multiple linear regression analysis revealed that the most important factors influencing particle retention in fractures are the ratio of the ionic strength of solution to collector charge, the ratio of particle to collector charge, and the ratio of advective to diffusive forces as described by the Peclet number. The model was able to reasonably (R(2)  = 0.64) predict the fraction of particles retained; however, it is evident that some factors not accounted for in the model also contributed to retention. This research presents a novel approach to understanding particle transport in fractures, and illustrates the relative importance of various factors affecting the transport mechanisms. The utility of this model lies in the increased understanding of particle transport in fractures, which is extremely useful for directing future research.

  13. Non-actual motion: phenomenological analysis and linguistic evidence.

    PubMed

    Blomberg, Johan; Zlatev, Jordan

    2015-09-01

    Sentences with motion verbs describing static situations have been seen as evidence that language and cognition are geared toward dynamism and change (Talmy in Toward a cognitive semantics, MIT Press, Cambridge, 2000; Langacker in Concept, image, and symbol: the cognitive basis of grammar, Mouton de Gruyter, Berlin and New York, 1990). Different concepts have been used in the literature, e.g., fictive motion, subjective motion and abstract motion to denote this. Based on phenomenological analysis, we reinterpret such concepts as reflecting different motivations for the use of such constructions (Blomberg and Zlatev in Phenom Cogn Sci 13(3):395-418, 2014). To highlight the multifaceted character of the phenomenon, we propose the concept non-actual motion (NAM), which we argue is more compatible with the situated cognition approach than explanations such as "mental simulation" (e.g., Matlock in Studies in linguistic motivation, Mouton de Gruyter, Berlin, 2004). We investigate the expression of NAM by means of a picture-based elicitation task with speakers of Swedish, French and Thai. Pictures represented figures that either afford human motion or not (±afford); crossed with this, the figure extended either across the picture from a third-person perspective (3 pp) or from a first-person perspective (1 pp). All picture types elicited NAM-sentences with the combination [+afford, 1 pp] producing most NAM-sentences in all three languages. NAM-descriptions also conformed to language-specific patterns for the expression of actual motion. We conclude that NAM shows interaction between pre-linguistic motivations and language-specific conventions.

  14. Goethe's phenomenology of nature: a juvenilization of science.

    PubMed

    Skaftnesmo, Trond

    2009-01-01

    Empirical science is not a mere collection of facts. It builds theories and frames hypotheses within those theories. Empirical theories are stated as plausible answers to questions we pose to nature. According to the Galilean-Baconian tradition within science, these questions should basically explore the causes of observed phenomena, and further be restricted to the measurable and quantitative realm. Thus, the answers are generally expected to explain the effective causes behind the actual phenomena. By framing falsifiable hypotheses, the theories are tested against the empirical foundation on which they rest. In this way we try to relieve science from false theories. Thus, we have two epistemological levels: First, the theoretical level; the scientific theory explaining the phenomena, and second, the empirical level; the phenomena or facts verifying or falsifying those theories. According to the poet and multi-scientist Johann Wolfgang von Goethe (1749-1832), there is however another way of science, namely an approach where these two levels fuse and become one. Goethe intended this approach to be a complementation of the Galilean-Baconian method, more than an alternative. He considered his "hypothesis-free method" to be a more comprehensive and secure way to understand nature. Whereas the Galilean-Baconian method aimed at explaining the effective causes of natural phenomena, in order to control and exploit nature for technical and industrial purposes, Goethe aimed at an exposition of the inherent meaning of the phenomena.We will explore, exemplify and discuss this approach with reference to the inherently Goethean phenomenology of evolution credited to the Dutch anatomist Louis Bolk (1866-1930), later commented and complemented by Stephen Jay Gould (1941-2002) and Jos Verhulst (1949 ). In the course of this presentation we will outline the Goethean approach as a method representing a juvenilization or in Bolk's terms, a fetalization of science.

  15. Surface circulation variability and upwelling phenomenology in the western Sardinia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Olita, Antonio; Cucco, Andrea; Fazioli, Leopoldo; Perilli, Angelo; Ribotti, Alberto; Sorgente, Roberto

    2013-04-01

    The mean and turbulent surface circulation of the Sardinan Sea (the shelf-slope region west of Sardinia, western Mediterranean sea) was studied by analyzing an interannual simulation performed with a hydrodinamic 3D numerical model. The model (an implementation of the Princeton Ocean Model) was forced with realistic atmospheric and oceanic fields (analyses) for the quadriennium 2008-2011. The model assimilates along track Sea Level Anomalies by means of a 3D-variational software. Velocities (meridional and zonal components) were decomposed in their mean and turbulent part to investigate the mean and fluctuating surface flow. EOF decomposition was used to get further insight on the simulated dataset and throw light on the variability of the main circulation features. At surface the mean circulation is characterized by a southward current field getting closer to the coast in the southern corner of the Island where if flows over the shelf edge. Eddy momentum flux field suggests that this southward stream is accelerated by a transfer of momentum from the eddy to the mean field. The accelerated stream contributes to precontidition the coastal upwelling in the southern area. The phenomenology of such a coastal upwelling along the SW Sardinia is described for the first time. The upwelling in the southern part of Sardinia constitutes the main surface temperature signal of the modeled SST anomalies, as evidenced by EOF decomposition. A significant correlation both with wind directions and current intensity was found. This, jointly with synoptic satellite observations before and during an upwelling event, suggests that both current and winds participate in creating the upwelling: alongshore current preconditions the upwelling that is finally triggered by favourable NW winds.

  16. Multi-phenomenology Observation Network Evaluation Tool'' (MONET)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oltrogge, D.; North, P.; Vallado, D.

    2014-09-01

    Evaluating overall performance of an SSA "system-of-systems" observational network collecting against thousands of Resident Space Objects (RSO) is very difficult for typical tasking or scheduling-based analysis tools. This is further complicated by networks that have a wide variety of sensor types and phenomena, to include optical, radar and passive RF types, each having unique resource, ops tempo, competing customer and detectability constraints. We present details of the Multi-phenomenology Observation Network Evaluation Tool (MONET), which circumvents these difficulties by assessing the ideal performance of such a network via a digitized supply-vs-demand approach. Cells of each sensors supply time are distributed among RSO targets of interest to determine the average performance of the network against that set of RSO targets. Orbit Determination heuristics are invoked to represent observation quantity and geometry notionally required to obtain the desired orbit estimation quality. To feed this approach, we derive the detectability and collection rate performance of optical, radar and passive RF sensor physical and performance characteristics. We then prioritize the selected RSO targets according to object size, active/inactive status, orbit regime, and/or other considerations. Finally, the OD-derived tracking demands of each RSO of interest are levied against remaining sensor supply until either (a) all sensor time is exhausted; or (b) the list of RSO targets is exhausted. The outputs from MONET include overall network performance metrics delineated by sensor type, objects and orbits tracked, along with likely orbit accuracies which might result from the conglomerate network tracking.

  17. Phenomenology and Thermodynamical Characteristics of West African Heat Waves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barbier, J.; Guichard, F.; Couvreux, F.; Bouniol, D.; Roehrig, R.; Mougin, E.; Leauthaud, C.

    2015-12-01

    Most of the studies on heat waves focus on their occurrences in the USA, Europe, China and Australia. Only a few articles deal with heat waves over the Sahel, even though monthly maximum temperatures in this region can rise to up to 40°C before the arrival of the summer monsoon. The focus here is on identifying and comprehending the physical mechanisms involved in the occurrence and phenomenology of springtime heat waves over the Sahel. In order to analyse those physical mechanisms, a heat index based on synoptic and intra-seasonal changes was defined. This new detection method was applied separately to daily maximum and minimum temperatures, leading to heat indexes respectively called HWmax and HWmin. This separation matters because physical processes linked to these two temperatures are expected to differ: maximum temperature fluctuations may be connected to cloud-aerosol-induced changes in surface shortwave radiation, whereas the influence of atmospheric humidity may be predominant for the minimum temperature, via its impact on surface longwave fluxes during nightime. Using the ERA-Interim reanalysis over the period 1979-2014, a hundred heat waves per heat index have been detected, that is roughly three heat waves per year, of mean length 5 to 6 days. HWmax perceived heat waves from March to July whereas HWmin recorded heat waves from March to May only. The temperature and other dynamic and thermodynamic variables, as well as severity, were further analysed in order to provide the major heat wave properties, and to assess whether archetypes can be identified.Finally, the detected heat waves have been compared to those picked up by classical heat indexes like the NOAA index and quantile-based indexes. The differences between the heat waves identified with the ERA-Interim, ERA-40, MERRA and NCEP2 reanalyses, the observationally-based BEST data and those obtained with local data will also be discussed, in particular their fluctuations over the past decades.

  18. Broken flavor symmetries in high energy particle phenomenology

    SciTech Connect

    Antaramian, A.

    1995-02-22

    Over the past couple of decades, the Standard Model of high energy particle physics has clearly established itself as an invaluable tool in the analysis of high energy particle phenomenon. However, from a field theorists point of view, there are many dissatisfying aspects to the model. One of these, is the large number of free parameters in the theory arising from the Yukawa couplings of the Higgs doublet. In this thesis, we examine various issues relating to the Yukawa coupeng structure of high energy particle field theories. We begin by examining extensions to the Standard Model of particle physics which contain additional scalar fields. By appealing to the flavor structure observed in the fermion mass and Kobayashi-Maskawa matrices, we propose a reasonable phenomenological parameterization of the new Yukawa couplings based on the concept of approximate flavor symmetries. It is shown that such a parameterization eliminates the need for discrete symmetries which limit the allowed couplings of the new scalars. New scalar particles which can mediate exotic flavor changing reactions can have masses as low as the weak scale. Next, we turn to the issue of neutrino mass matrices, where we examine a particular texture which leads to matter independent neutrino oscillation results for solar neutrinos. We, then, examine the basis for extremely strict limits placed on flavor changing interactions which also break lepton- and/or baryon-number. These limits are derived from cosmological considerations. Finally, we embark on an extended analysis of proton decay in supersymmetric SO(10) grand unified theories. In such theories, the dominant decay diagrams involve the Yukawa couplings of a heavy triplet superfield. We argue that past calculations of proton decay which were based on the minimal supersymmetric SU(5) model require reexamination because the Yukawa couplings of that theory are known to be wrong.

  19. Phenomenological Model of Current Sheet Canting in Pulsed Electromagnetic Accelerators

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Markusic, Thomas; Choueiri, E. Y.

    2003-01-01

    The phenomenon of current sheet canting in pulsed electromagnetic accelerators is the departure of the plasma sheet (that carries the current) from a plane that is perpendicular to the electrodes to one that is skewed, or tipped. Review of pulsed electromagnetic accelerator literature reveals that current sheet canting is a ubiquitous phenomenon - occurring in all of the standard accelerator geometries. Developing an understanding of current sheet canting is important because it can detract from the propellant sweeping capabilities of current sheets and, hence, negatively impact the overall efficiency of pulsed electromagnetic accelerators. In the present study, it is postulated that depletion of plasma near the anode, which results from axial density gradient induced diamagnetic drift, occurs during the early stages of the discharge, creating a density gradient normal to the anode, with a characteristic length on the order of the ion skin depth. Rapid penetration of the magnetic field through this region ensues, due to the Hall effect, leading to a canted current front ahead of the initial current conduction channel. In this model, once the current sheet reaches appreciable speeds, entrainment of stationary propellant replenishes plasma in the anode region, inhibiting further Hall-convective transport of the magnetic field; however, the previously established tilted current sheet remains at a fairly constant canting angle for the remainder of the discharge cycle, exerting a transverse J x B force which drives plasma toward the cathode and accumulates it there. This proposed sequence of events has been incorporated into a phenomenological model. The model predicts that canting can be reduced by using low atomic mass propellants with high propellant loading number density; the model results are shown to give qualitative agreement with experimentally measured canting angle mass dependence trends.

  20. Hallucinations in Parkinson's disease: prevalence, phenomenology and risk factors.

    PubMed

    Fénelon, G; Mahieux, F; Huon, R; Ziégler, M

    2000-04-01

    Hallucinations, mainly of a visual nature, are considered to affect about one-quarter of patients with Parkinson's disease. They are commonly viewed as a side-effect of antiparkinsonian treatment, but other factors may be involved. The aim of this study was to determine the phenomenology, prevalence and risk factors of hallucinations in Parkinson's disease. Two-hundred and sixteen consecutive patients fulfilling clinical criteria for Parkinson's disease were studied. Demographic and clinical variables were recorded, including motor and cognitive status, depressive symptoms and sleep-wake disturbances. Patients with and without hallucinations were compared using non-parametric tests, and logistic regression was applied to significant data. Hallucinations had been present during the previous 3 months in 39.8% of the patients, and fell into three categories: minor forms, consisting of a sensation of a presence (person), a sideways passage (commonly of an animal) or illusions were present in 25.5% of the patients (an isolated occurrence in 14.3%), formed visual hallucinations were present in 22.2% (isolated in 9.3%) and auditory hallucinations were present in 9.7% (isolated in 2.3%). Patients with minor hallucinations had a higher depression score than non-hallucinators but did not differ in other respects. Logistic regression analysis identified three factors independently predictive of formed visual hallucinations: severe cognitive disorders, daytime somnolence and a long duration of Parkinson's disease. These findings indicate that, when minor hallucinations are included, the total prevalence is much higher than previously reported. A simple side-effect of dopaminergic treatment is not sufficient to explain the occurrence of all visual hallucinations. The main risk factor in treated patients is cognitive impairment, although sleep-wake cycle disturbances, and possibly other factors related to the duration of the disease, act as cofactors.