Cohen, J. A.; Podgornik, R.; Hansen, P. L.; Parsegian, V. A.
2014-01-01
We present a phenomenological one-parameter scaling equation of state that accurately represents osmotic pressures of neutral flexible polymers in good solvents from the dilute through the semidilute regime. The equation comprises a sum of scaled van’t Hoff and des Cloizeaux terms including a fitted parameter α, the “crossover index”, which encapsulates all chemical specificity and determines the relevant prefactors. Strikingly different values of α are found for the two very different systems poly(ethyleneglycol)/water (PEG) and poly(α-methylstyrene)/toluene (PAMS). α-dependent rescaling collapses both data sets to a simple one-parameter scaling function. The fact that the anomalous system PEG/water and the canonical system PAMS/toluene can both be described by the same equation of state attests to the robustness of the polymer-scaling concepts introduced by de Gennes. PMID:19265418
One parameter family of master equations for logistic growth and BCM theory
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
De Oliveira, L. R.; Castellani, C.; Turchetti, G.
2015-02-01
We propose a one parameter family of master equations, for the evolution of a population, having the logistic equation as mean field limit. The parameter α determines the relative weight of linear versus nonlinear terms in the population number n ⩽ N entering the loss term. By varying α from 0 to 1 the equilibrium distribution changes from maximum growth to almost extinction. The former is a Gaussian centered at n = N, the latter is a power law peaked at n = 1. A bimodal distribution is observed in the transition region. When N grows and tends to ∞, keeping the value of α fixed, the distribution tends to a Gaussian centered at n = N whose limit is a delta function corresponding to the stable equilibrium of the mean field equation. The choice of the master equation in this family depends on the equilibrium distribution for finite values of N. The presence of an absorbing state for n = 0 does not change this picture since the extinction mean time grows exponentially fast with N. As a consequence for α close to zero extinction is not observed, whereas when α approaches 1 the relaxation to a power law is observed before extinction occurs. We extend this approach to a well known model of synaptic plasticity, the so called BCM theory in the case of a single neuron with one or two synapses.
Equation of State of Phenomenological Mechanochemistry of Damage
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Greenfield, Michael
2015-06-01
Traditional damage theory deals with distributed microcracks rather than with individual cracks. This theory adds just one additional parameter to the set of classical thermodynamic parameters of deformable solids, like strain and temperature. Basically, the traditional damage theory reflects only one experimental observation: the elastic modules become smaller with growing damage. Contrary to the traditional damage theory, the Phenomenological Mechanochemistry of Damage (PMD) includes, in addition to the bulk elastic energy, the energy associated with braking/recovery of chemical bonds. Therefore, in addition to the elasticity equations it includes the equation, describing evolution/dynamics of chemical bonds. Although ``chemical bonds'' is a nano-scale concept, we treat the bonds using phenomenological approach. The additional equation of damage evolution is of the rate type, thus, making the whole model rate-dependent (even in quasi-static approach.) In the paper, we review some earlier results and present the novel ones with emphasis on the rate-dependent effects.
Phenomenological friction equation for turbulent flow of Bingham fluids
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Anbarlooei, H. R.; Cruz, D. O. A.; Ramos, F.; Santos, Cecilia M. M.; Silva Freire, A. P.
2017-08-01
Most discussions in the literature on the friction coefficient of turbulent flows of fluids with complex rheology are empirical. As a rule, theoretical frameworks are not available even for some relatively simple constitutive models. In the present work, a formula is proposed for the evaluation of the friction coefficient of turbulent flows of Bingham fluids. The developments combine a fresh analysis for the description of the microscales of Kolmogorov and the phenomenological turbulence model of Gioia and Chakraborty [G. Gioia and P. Chakraborty, Phys. Rev. Lett. 96, 044502 (2006), 10.1103/PhysRevLett.96.044502]. The resulting Blasius-type friction equation is tested against some experimental data and shows good agreement over a significant range of Hedstrom and Reynolds numbers. Comments on pressure measurements in yielding fluids are made. The limits of the proposed model are also discussed.
Phenomenological memory-kernel master equations and time-dependent Markovian processes
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Mazzola, L.; Laine, E.-M.; Breuer, H.-P.; Maniscalco, S.; Piilo, J.
2010-06-01
Do phenomenological master equations with a memory kernel always describe a non-Markovian quantum dynamics characterized by reverse flow of information? Is the integration over the past states of the system an unmistakable signature of non-Markovianity? We show by a counterexample that this is not always the case. We consider two commonly used phenomenological integro-differential master equations describing the dynamics of a spin 1/2 in a thermal bath. By using a recently introduced measure to quantify non-Markovianity [Breuer , Phys. Rev. Lett.PRLTAO0031-900710.1103/PhysRevLett.103.210401 103, 210401 (2009)] we demonstrate that as far as the equations retain their physical sense, the key feature of non-Markovian behavior does not appear in the considered memory kernel master equations. Namely, there is no reverse flow of information from the environment to the open system. Therefore, the assumption that the integration over a memory kernel always leads to a non-Markovian dynamics turns out to be vulnerable to phenomenological approximations. Instead, the considered phenomenological equations are able to describe time-dependent and unidirectional information flow from the system to the reservoir associated with time-dependent Markovian processes.
Hitchin’s equations and M-theory phenomenology
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Pantev, Tony; Wijnholt, Martijn
2011-07-01
Phenomenological compactifications of M-theory involve seven-manifolds with G2 holonomy and various singularities. Here we study local geometries with such singularities, by thinking of them as compactifications of 7d supersymmetric Yang-Mills theory on a three-manifold Q3. We give a general discussion of compactifications of 7d Yang-Mills theory in terms of Higgs bundles on Q3. We show that they can be constructed using spectral covers, which are Lagrangian branes with a flat connection in the cotangent bundle T∗Q3. We explain the dictionary with ALE fibrations over Q3 and conjecture that these configurations have G2 holonomy. We further develop tools to study the low energy effective theory of such a model. We show that the naive massless spectrum is corrected by instanton effects. Taking the instanton effects into account, we find that the massless spectrum and many of the interactions can be computed with Morse theoretic methods.
Phenomenological QCD equations of state for neutron stars
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kojo, Toru; Powell, Philip D.; Song, Yifan; Baym, Gordon
2016-12-01
We delineate the properties of QCD matter at baryon density nB = 1 - 10n0 (n0: nuclear saturation density), through the construction of neutron star equations of state that satisfy the neutron star mass-radius constraints as well as physical conditions on the speed of sound. The QCD matter is described in the 3-window modeling: at nB ≲ 2n0 purely nuclear matter; at nB ≳ 5n0 percolated quark matter; and at 2n0 ≲nB ≲ 5n0 matter intermediate between these two which are constructed by interpolation. Using a schematic quark model with effective interactions inspired from hadron and nuclear physics, we analyze the strength of interactions necessary to describe observed neutron star properties. Our finding is that the interactions should remain as strong as in the QCD vacuum, indicating that gluons at nB = 1 - 10n0 remain non-perturbative even after quark matter formation.
Hecht, M. B.; Roberts, C. D.; Schmidt, S. M.
2000-05-22
A perspective on the contemporary application of Dyson-Schwinger equations, focusing on some recent phenomenological applications: a description and unification of light-meson observable using a one-parameter model of the effective quark-quark interaction, and studies of leptonic and nonleptonic nucleon form factors. The theory and phenomenological application of Dyson-Schwinger equations (DSEs) have seen something of a renaissance. For example, they have been applied simultaneously to phenomena as apparently unconnected as low-energy {pi}{pi} scattering, B {r_arrow} D{sup *} decays and the equation of state for a quark gluon plasma, and there are renewed attempts to understand the origin of the infrared enhancement necessary in the kernel of the quark DSE (QCD gap equation) to generate dynamical chiral symmetry breaking (DCSB). Also significant is the appreciation that in this approach current algebra's anomalies remain a feature of the global aspects of DCSB.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kauranen, P. S.
1993-04-01
In the solid state concept of a direct methanol fuel cell (DMFC), methanol is directly oxidized at the anode of a solid polymer electrolyte fuel cell (SPEFC). Mathematical modelling of the transport and reaction phenomena within the electrodes and the electrolyte membrane is needed in order to get a closer insight into the operation of the fuel cell. In the work, macro-homogenous porous electrode and dilute solution theories are used to derive the phenomenological equations describing the transport and reaction mechanisms in a SPEFC single cell. The equations are first derived for a conventional H2/air SPEFC, and then extended for a DMFC. The basic model is derived in a one dimensional form in which it is assumed that species transport take place only in the direction crossing the cell sandwich. In addition, two dimensional descriptions of the catalyst layer are reviewed.
Phenomenological evolution equations for heat-induced shrinkage of a collagenous tissue.
Chen, S S; Wright, N T; Humphrey, J D
1998-10-01
Optimization of clinical heat treatments for various pathologies requires accurate numerical modeling of the heat transfer, evolution of thermal damage, and associated changes in the material properties of the tissues. This paper presents two phenomenological equations that quantify time-dependent thermal damage in a uniaxial collagenous tissue. Specifically, an empirical rule-of-mixtures model is shown to describe well heat-induced axial shrinkage (a measure of underlying denaturation) in chordae tendineae which results from a spectrum of thermomechanical loading histories. Likewise an exponential decay model is shown to describe well the partial recovery (e.g., renaturation) of chordae when it is returned to body temperature following heating. Together these models provide the first quantitative descriptors of the evolution of heat-induced damage and subsequent recovery in collagen. Such descriptors are fundamental to numerical analyses of many heat treatments because of the prevalence of collagen in many tissues and organs.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hamano, Katsumi; Hirotsu, Shunsuke
1980-01-01
Phenomenological equations are derived which interrelate the anomalies in various thermodynamic quantities above the transition point of a cubic-to-tetragonal phase transition caused by an instability of a triply degenerate soft mode. The anomalous part of the Gibbs free energy is assumed to be a simple sum of the three parts which represent the contributions from the three fluctuation components. A cylindrical approximation is adopted to each of the three contributions by taking into account the symmetry of the fluctuations. The theory predicts that the adiabatic elastic compliances, s11s, s12s, and also s11s-s12s should exhibit anomalies proportional to the anomaly in the specific heat at constant pressure. This is in marked contrast with the result of the generalized Pippard equations derived by Garland, and by Janovec. The new equations are successfully tested for KMnF3, CsPbCl3, and CsPbBr3. The β-γ transition of NH4Br is also discussed.
Phenomenological Blasius-type friction equation for turbulent power-law fluid flows
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Anbarlooei, H. R.; Cruz, D. O. A.; Ramos, F.; Silva Freire, A. P.
2015-12-01
We propose a friction formula for turbulent power-law fluid flows, a class of purely viscous non-Newtonian fluids commonly found in applications. Our model is derived through an extension of the friction factor analysis based on Kolmogorov's phenomenology, recently proposed by Gioia and Chakraborty. Tests against classical empirical data show excellent agreement over a significant range of Reynolds number. Limits of the model are also discussed.
Potential constitutive models for salt: Survey of phenomenology, micromechanisms, and equations
Senseny, P.E.; Hansen, F.D.
1987-12-01
Results are given of a literature survey performed to document the thermomechanical phenomena and micromechanical processes observed for salt over the ranges of stress and temperature of interest for a high-level nuclear repository. The elastic and thermal expansion behavior of salt can be readily modeled by the generalized Duhamel Neumann form of Hooke's law with temperature-dependent elastic constants and coefficient of thermal expansion. Inelastic deformation is primarily viscoplastic, but also has a brittle component. The observed phenomenological behavior of salt occurs because of micromechanical processes. To the extent that these processes have been studied, a summary of deformation mechanisms in natural salt is included in this report. Eight constitutive models that appear to be capable of modeling the viscoplastic deformation have been selected from the literature. Two models have been selected to model brittle deformation. Insufficient data are available to develop a model for failure. 92 refs., 39 figs., 6 tabs.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ma, Hua; Qu, Shao-Bo; Xu, Zhuo; Zhang, Jie-Qiu; Wang, Jia-Fu
2009-01-01
By using the coordinate transformation method, we have deduced the material parameter equation for rotating elliptical spherical cloaks and carried out simulation as well. The results indicate that the rotating elliptical spherical cloaking shell, which is made of meta-materials whose permittivity and permeability are governed by the equation deduced in this paper, can achieve perfect invisibility by excluding electromagnetic fields from the internal region without disturbing any external field.
One-parameter semigroups of analytic functions, fixed points and the Koenigs function
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Goryainov, Victor V.; Kudryavtseva, Olga S.
2011-07-01
Analogues of the Berkson-Porta formula for the infinitesimal generator of a one-parameter semigroup of holomorphic maps of the unit disc into itself are obtained in the case when, along with a Denjoy-Wolff point, there also exist other fixed points. With each one-parameter semigroup a so-called Koenigs function is associated, which is a solution, common for all elements of the one-parameter semigroup, of a certain functional equation (Schröder's equation in the case of an interior Denjoy-Wolff point and Abel's equation in the case of a boundary Denjoy-Wolff point). A parametric representation for classes of Koenigs functions that takes account of the Denjoy-Wolff point and other fixed points of the maps in the one-parameter semigroup is presented. Bibliography: 19 titles.
One-parameter semigroups of analytic functions, fixed points and the Koenigs function
Goryainov, Victor V; Kudryavtseva, Olga S
2011-07-31
Analogues of the Berkson-Porta formula for the infinitesimal generator of a one-parameter semigroup of holomorphic maps of the unit disc into itself are obtained in the case when, along with a Denjoy-Wolff point, there also exist other fixed points. With each one-parameter semigroup a so-called Koenigs function is associated, which is a solution, common for all elements of the one-parameter semigroup, of a certain functional equation (Schroeder's equation in the case of an interior Denjoy-Wolff point and Abel's equation in the case of a boundary Denjoy-Wolff point). A parametric representation for classes of Koenigs functions that takes account of the Denjoy-Wolff point and other fixed points of the maps in the one-parameter semigroup is presented. Bibliography: 19 titles.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wu, Jing-Chun; Qin, Sheng-Gao; Wang, Yang
2009-08-01
The convective dispersion equation with adsorption is derived on the basis of the Chapman-Kolmogroff equation which expresses the statistical properties of the Markov transition probability. The acquired equation has the same expression as the one derived on the basis of the combination of both the mass balance equation and the particles retention kinetics equation. The probability variables that describe the random movement of solute particles have a definite physical significance associated with the parameters in the convective dispersion equation. The derivation confirms the validity of the Markov process to describe the particles movement in the process of convective dispersion.
Topological Equivalences for One-parameter Bifurcations of Scalar Maps
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Balibrea, Francisco; Oliveira, Henrique M.; Valverde, Jose C.
2017-04-01
Homeomorphisms allowing us to prove topological equivalences between one-parameter families of maps undergoing the same bifurcation are constructed in this paper. This provides a solution for a classical problem in bifurcation theory that was set out three decades ago and remained unexpectedly unpublished until now.
Estimation Methods for One-Parameter Testlet Models
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Jiao, Hong; Wang, Shudong; He, Wei
2013-01-01
This study demonstrated the equivalence between the Rasch testlet model and the three-level one-parameter testlet model and explored the Markov Chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) method for model parameter estimation in WINBUGS. The estimation accuracy from the MCMC method was compared with those from the marginalized maximum likelihood estimation (MMLE)…
Estimation Methods for One-Parameter Testlet Models
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Jiao, Hong; Wang, Shudong; He, Wei
2013-01-01
This study demonstrated the equivalence between the Rasch testlet model and the three-level one-parameter testlet model and explored the Markov Chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) method for model parameter estimation in WINBUGS. The estimation accuracy from the MCMC method was compared with those from the marginalized maximum likelihood estimation (MMLE)…
A one parameter class of fractional Maxwell-like models
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Colombaro, Ivano; Giusti, Andrea; Mainardi, Francesco
2017-06-01
In this paper we discuss a one parameter modification of the well known fractional Maxwell model of viscoelasticity. Such models appear to be particularly interesting because they describe the short time asymptotic limit of a more general class of viscoelastic models known in the literature as Bessel models.
Bayesian Estimation in the One-Parameter Latent Trait Model.
1980-03-01
parameter, difficulty, is commonly known as the Rasch model or the one-parameter logistic model . For a detailed description of this model and its prop...Journal of Mathematical and Statistical Psychology, 1973, 26, 31-44. (a) Andersen, E. B. A goodness of fit test for the Rasch model . Psychometrika, 1973, 28...Psychometrika, 1972, 37, 29-51. Bock, R. D., & Lieberman, M. Fitting a response model for n dichotomously scored items. Psychometrika, 1970, 35, 179-197
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kawasaki, Zen
This paper presents a phenomenological idea about lightning flash to share the back ground understanding for this special issue. Lightning discharges are one of the terrible phenomena, and Benjamin Franklin has led this natural phenomenon to the stage of scientific investigation. Technical aspects like monitoring and location are also summarized in this article.
Braby, L.A.
1990-09-01
The biological effects of ionizing radiation exposure are the result of a complex sequence of physical, chemical, biochemical, and physiological interactions. One way to begin a search for an understanding of health effects of radiation is through the development of phenomenological models of the response. Many models have been presented and tested in the slowly evolving process of characterizing cellular response. A range of models covering different endpoints and phenomena has developed in parallel. Many of these models employ similar assumptions about some underlying processes while differing about the nature of others. An attempt is made to organize many of the models into groups with similar features and to compare the consequences of those features with the actual experimental observations. It is assumed that by showing that some assumptions are inconsistent with experimental observations, the job of devising and testing mechanistic models can be simplified. 43 refs., 13 figs.
Superconductivity: Phenomenology
Falicov, L.M.
1988-08-01
This document discusses first the following topics: (a) The superconducting transition temperature; (b) Zero resistivity; (c) The Meissner effect; (d) The isotope effect; (e) Microwave and optical properties; and (f) The superconducting energy gap. Part II of this document investigates the Ginzburg-Landau equations by discussing: (a) The coherence length; (b) The penetration depth; (c) Flux quantization; (d) Magnetic-field dependence of the energy gap; (e) Quantum interference phenomena; and (f) The Josephson effect.
Probing the No-Scale F-SU(5) one-parameter model via gluino searches at the LHC2
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Li, Tianjun; Maxin, James A.; Nanopoulos, Dimitri V.
2017-10-01
In our recent paper entitled ;The return of the King: No-Scale F- SU (5);, we showed that the model space supporting the most favorable phenomenology should have been probed in 2016 at the LHC2, with an even further reach into this region of the model in 2017-18. This ideal realm of the one-parameter version of No-Scale F- SU (5) yields a 1.9-2.3 TeV gluino mass at the very same point where the light Higgs boson mass enters its rather narrow experimentally determined range of mh = 125.09 ± 0.24 GeV. Given the recent results reported at Moriond 2017 for 36 fb-1 of luminosity collected in 2016 at the 13 TeV LHC2, we now update the status of the No-Scale F- SU (5) model space in light of the gluino mass exclusion limits presented by the ATLAS and CMS Collaborations. We illustrate that a resolution could be reached soon as to whether supersymmetry lives in this most critical region of the model space.
Using Spreadsheets To Implement the One-Parameter Item Response Theory (IRT) Model.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Henard, David H.
Item response theory models arose from the inherent limitations of classical test theory methods of test analysis. A brief description of those limitations and the corresponding enhancements provided by item response models is provided. Further, an examination of the popular Rasch one-parameter latent trait model is undertaken. Specific…
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Wang, Wen-Chung; Huang, Sheng-Yun
2011-01-01
The one-parameter logistic model with ability-based guessing (1PL-AG) has been recently developed to account for effect of ability on guessing behavior in multiple-choice items. In this study, the authors developed algorithms for computerized classification testing under the 1PL-AG and conducted a series of simulations to evaluate their…
Ha, Kil-Chan; Kye, Seung-Hyeok
2011-08-15
In a recent paper [D. Chruscinski and F. A. Wudarski, Open Sys. Information Dyn. (unpublished)], it was conjectured that the entanglement witnesses arising from some generalized Choi maps are optimal. We show that this conjecture is true. Furthermore, we show that they provide a one-parameter family of indecomposable optimal entanglement witnesses.
Visual Criterion for Understanding the Notion of Convergence if Integrals in One Parameter
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Alves, Francisco Regis Vieira
2014-01-01
Admittedly, the notion of generalized integrals in one parameter has a fundamental role. En virtue that, in this paper, we discuss and characterize an approach for to promote the visualization of this scientific mathematical concept. We still indicate the possibilities of graphical interpretation of formal properties related to notion of…
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Wang, Wen-Chung; Huang, Sheng-Yun
2011-01-01
The one-parameter logistic model with ability-based guessing (1PL-AG) has been recently developed to account for effect of ability on guessing behavior in multiple-choice items. In this study, the authors developed algorithms for computerized classification testing under the 1PL-AG and conducted a series of simulations to evaluate their…
Experimental estimation of one-parameter qubit gates in the presence of phase diffusion
Brivio, Davide; Cialdi, Simone; Vezzoli, Stefano; Gebrehiwot, Berihu Teklu; Genoni, Marco G.; Olivares, Stefano; Paris, Matteo G. A.
2010-01-15
We address estimation of one-parameter qubit gates in the presence of phase diffusion. We evaluate the ultimate quantum limits to precision, seek optimal probes and measurements, and demonstrate an optimal estimation scheme for polarization encoded optical qubits. An adaptive method to achieve optimal estimation in any working regime is also analyzed in detail and experimentally implemented.
Sample Size and Item Parameter Estimation Precision When Utilizing the One-Parameter "Rasch" Model
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Custer, Michael
2015-01-01
This study examines the relationship between sample size and item parameter estimation precision when utilizing the one-parameter model. Item parameter estimates are examined relative to "true" values by evaluating the decline in root mean squared deviation (RMSD) and the number of outliers as sample size increases. This occurs across…
Whitmarsh, Tom
2013-07-01
There is a great overlap between the way of seeing the world in clinical homeopathy and in the technical philosophical system known as phenomenology. A knowledge of phenomenologic principles reveals Hahnemann to have been an unwitting phenomenologist. The ideas of phenomenology as applied to medicine show that homeopathy is the ideal medical system to fulfill the goals of coming ever closer to true patient concerns and experience of illness.
One-parameter formal deformations of Hom-Lie-Yamaguti algebras
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ma, Yao; Chen, Liangyun; Lin, Jie
2015-01-01
This paper studies one-parameter formal deformations of Hom-Lie-Yamaguti algebras. The first, second, and third cohomology groups on Hom-Lie-Yamaguti algebras extending ones on Lie-Yamaguti algebras are provided. It is proved that first and second cohomology groups are suitable to the deformation theory involving infinitesimals, equivalent deformations, and rigidity. However, the third cohomology group is not suitable for the obstructions.
A singular one-parameter family of solutions in cubic superstring field theory
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Arroyo, E. Aldo
2016-05-01
Performing a gauge transformation of a simple identity-like solution of superstring field theory, we construct a one-parameter family of solutions, and by evaluating the energy associated to this family, we show that for most of the values of the parameter the solution represents the tachyon vacuum, except for two isolated singular points where the solution becomes the perturbative vacuum and the half brane solution.
Shifted one-parameter supersymmetric family of quartic asymmetric double-well potentials
Rosu, Haret C.; Mancas, Stefan C.; Chen, Pisin
2014-10-15
Extending our previous work (Rosu, 2014), we define supersymmetric partner potentials through a particular Riccati solution of the form F(x)=(x−c){sup 2}−1, where c is a real shift parameter, and work out the quartic double-well family of one-parameter isospectral potentials obtained by using the corresponding general Riccati solution. For these parametric double well potentials, we study how the localization properties of the two wells depend on the parameter of the potentials for various values of the shifting parameter. We also consider the supersymmetric parametric family of the first double-well potential in the Razavy chain of double well potentials corresponding to F(x)=1/2 sinh2x−2((1+√(2))sinh2x)/((1+√(2))cosh2x+1) , both unshifted and shifted, to test and compare the localization properties. - Highlights: • Quartic one-parameter DWs with an additional shift parameter are introduced. • Anomalous localization feature of their zero modes is confirmed at different shifts. • Razavy one-parameter DWs are also introduced and shown not to have this feature.
Phenomenology of stochastic exponential growth
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Pirjol, Dan; Jafarpour, Farshid; Iyer-Biswas, Srividya
2017-06-01
Stochastic exponential growth is observed in a variety of contexts, including molecular autocatalysis, nuclear fission, population growth, inflation of the universe, viral social media posts, and financial markets. Yet literature on modeling the phenomenology of these stochastic dynamics has predominantly focused on one model, geometric Brownian motion (GBM), which can be described as the solution of a Langevin equation with linear drift and linear multiplicative noise. Using recent experimental results on stochastic exponential growth of individual bacterial cell sizes, we motivate the need for a more general class of phenomenological models of stochastic exponential growth, which are consistent with the observation that the mean-rescaled distributions are approximately stationary at long times. We show that this behavior is not consistent with GBM, instead it is consistent with power-law multiplicative noise with positive fractional powers. Therefore, we consider this general class of phenomenological models for stochastic exponential growth, provide analytical solutions, and identify the important dimensionless combination of model parameters, which determines the shape of the mean-rescaled distribution. We also provide a prescription for robustly inferring model parameters from experimentally observed stochastic growth trajectories.
Quantum-Spacetime Phenomenology.
Amelino-Camelia, Giovanni
2013-01-01
I review the current status of phenomenological programs inspired by quantum-spacetime research. I stress in particular the significance of results establishing that certain data analyses provide sensitivity to effects introduced genuinely at the Planck scale. My main focus is on phenomenological programs that affect the directions taken by studies of quantum-spacetime theories.
Amedeo Giorgis Empirical Phenomenology.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Alexandersson, Claes
In August 1979, Amedeo Giorgi presented a workshop on "Phenomenological Theory and Method" at the University of Goteborg (Sweden). This report describes that workshop. First, the major concepts of phenomenology are introduced (Intentionality, Description, Reduction, and Essence), followed by a brief description of Husserl's philosophical…
Amedeo Giorgis Empirical Phenomenology.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Alexandersson, Claes
In August 1979, Amedeo Giorgi presented a workshop on "Phenomenological Theory and Method" at the University of Goteborg (Sweden). This report describes that workshop. First, the major concepts of phenomenology are introduced (Intentionality, Description, Reduction, and Essence), followed by a brief description of Husserl's philosophical…
One-parameter class of uncertainty relations based on entropy power.
Jizba, Petr; Ma, Yue; Hayes, Anthony; Dunningham, Jacob A
2016-06-01
We use the concept of entropy power to derive a one-parameter class of information-theoretic uncertainty relations for pairs of conjugate observables in an infinite-dimensional Hilbert space. This class constitutes an infinite tower of higher-order statistics uncertainty relations, which allows one in principle to determine the shape of the underlying information-distribution function by measuring the relevant entropy powers. We illustrate the capability of this class by discussing two examples: superpositions of vacuum and squeezed states and the Cauchy-type heavy-tailed wave function.
One-parameter class of uncertainty relations based on entropy power
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Jizba, Petr; Ma, Yue; Hayes, Anthony; Dunningham, Jacob A.
2016-06-01
We use the concept of entropy power to derive a one-parameter class of information-theoretic uncertainty relations for pairs of conjugate observables in an infinite-dimensional Hilbert space. This class constitutes an infinite tower of higher-order statistics uncertainty relations, which allows one in principle to determine the shape of the underlying information-distribution function by measuring the relevant entropy powers. We illustrate the capability of this class by discussing two examples: superpositions of vacuum and squeezed states and the Cauchy-type heavy-tailed wave function.
Supergravity and superstring signatures of the one-parameter model at LHC
Maxin, James A.; Mayes, Van E.; Nanopoulos, Dimitri V.
2009-03-15
Many string constructions have a classical no-scale structure, resulting in a one-parameter model (OPM) for the supersymmetry breaking soft terms. As a highly constrained subset of mSUGRA, the OPM has the potential to be predictive. Conversely, if the observed superpartner spectrum at LHC is a subset of the OPM parameter space, then this may provide a clue to the underlying theory at high energies. We investigate the allowed supersymmetry parameter space for a generic one-parameter model taking into account the most recent experimental constraints. We find that, in the strict moduli scenario, there are no regions of the parameter space which may satisfy all constraints. However, for the dilaton scenario, there are small regions of the parameter space where all constraints may be satisfied and for which the observed dark matter density may be generated. We also survey the possible signatures which may be observable at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC). Finally, we compare collider signatures of OPM to those from a model with nonuniversal soft terms, in particular, those of an intersecting D6-brane model. We find that it may be possible to distinguish between these diverse scenarios at LHC.
Rosu, Haret C.; Mancas, Stefan C.; Chen, Pisin
2014-04-15
In the context of supersymmetric quantum mechanics, we define a potential through a particular Riccati solution of the composition form (F∘f)(x)=F(f(x)) and obtain a generalized Mielnik construction of one-parameter isospectral potentials when we use the general Riccati solution. Some examples for special cases of F and f are given to illustrate the method. An interesting result is obtained in the case of a parametric double well potential generated by this method, for which it is shown that the parameter of the potential controls the heights of the localization probability in the two wells, and for certain values of the parameter the height of the localization probability can be higher in the smaller well. -- Highlights: •Function-composition generalization of parametric isospectral potentials is presented. •Mielnik one-parameter family of harmonic potentials is obtained as a particular case. •Graphical discussion of regular and singular regions in the parameter space is given.
Dirac-Born-Infeld inflation using a one-parameter family of throat geometries
Gmeiner, Florian; White, Chris D E-mail: cwhite@nikhef.nl
2008-02-15
We demonstrate the possibility of examining cosmological signatures in the Dirac-Born-Infeld (DBI) inflation setup using the BGMPZ solution, a one-parameter family of geometries for the warped throat which interpolate between the Maldacena-Nunez and Klebanov-Strassler solutions. The warp factor is determined numerically and is subsequently used to calculate cosmological observables, including the scalar and tensor spectral indices, for a sample point in the parameter space. As one moves away from the Klebanov-Strassler (KS) solution for the throat, the warp factor is qualitatively different, which leads to a significant change for the observables, but also generically increases the non-Gaussianity of the models. We argue that the different models can potentially be differentiated by current and future experiments.
Universality in quantum chaos and the one-parameter scaling theory.
García-García, Antonio M; Wang, Jiao
2008-02-22
The one-parameter scaling theory is adapted to the context of quantum chaos. We define a generalized dimensionless conductance, g, semiclassically and then study Anderson localization corrections by renormalization group techniques. This analysis permits a characterization of the universality classes associated to a metal (g-->infinity), an insulator (g-->0), and the metal-insulator transition (g-->g(c)) in quantum chaos provided that the classical phase space is not mixed. According to our results the universality class related to the metallic limit includes all the systems in which the Bohigas-Giannoni-Schmit conjecture holds but automatically excludes those in which dynamical localization effects are important. The universality class related to the metal-insulator transition is characterized by classical superdiffusion or a fractal spectrum in low dimensions (d < or = 2). Several examples are discussed in detail.
Resonant diphoton phenomenology simplified
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Panico, Giuliano; Vecchi, Luca; Wulzer, Andrea
2016-06-01
A framework is proposed to describe resonant diphoton phenomenology at hadron colliders in full generality. It can be employed for a comprehensive model-independent interpretation of the experimental data. Within the general framework, few benchmark scenarios are defined as representative of the various phenomenological options and/or of motivated new physics scenarios. Their usage is illustrated by performing a characterization of the 750 GeV excess, based on a recast of available experimental results.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Quay, John
2016-01-01
Phenomenology has been with us for many years, and yet grasping phenomenology remains a difficult task. Heidegger, too, experienced this difficulty and devoted much of his teaching to the challenge of working phenomenologically. This article draws on aspects of Heidegger's commentary in progressing the teaching and learning of phenomenology,…
Evaluation of a one-parameter flow analysis of cervical samples for gynecology cancer screening.
Tsou, K C; Pearson, S; Atkinson, B F; Giuntoli, R; Mangan, C
1983-06-01
A total of 246 endocervical samples were collected for Papanicolaou staining and one-parameter flow cytometric DNA analysis (FCDA) using 4',6-diamidino-2-phenylindole as a DNA stain. Typical histograms derived from FCDA analysis were designated class I, II, III, and V. Two groups of patients were studied: 135 women referred for colposcopy (COLPO), and 79 women exposed to diethylstilbestrol (DES). The remaining 32 samples were evaluated and found unsatisfactory. In the colposcopy group FCDA assigned 38 patients normal, 62 mild to moderate dysplasia, 33 moderate to severe dysplasia, and 2 carcinoma in situ and invasive carcinoma. Agreement of Pap smear and FCDA occurred in 56, 59, 72, and 100%, respectively. In the diethylstilbestrol group 57 patients were normal and 12 had mild to moderate dysplasia according to Pap diagnosis. Agreement between FCDA and Pap diagnosis were 45 and 58%, respectively. However, FCDA did not falsely assign severe dysplasia or carcinoma in situ to any DES patient. This preliminary study based on FCDA appears to clearly differentiate patients with normal Pap smears from those patients with invasive cancer.
A Priori Analyses of Three Subgrid-Scale Models for One-Parameter Families of Filters
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Pruett, C. David; Adams, Nikolaus A.
1998-01-01
The decay of isotropic turbulence a compressible flow is examined by direct numerical simulation (DNS). A priori analyses of the DNS data are then performed to evaluate three subgrid-scale (SGS) models for large-eddy simulation (LES): a generalized Smagorinsky model (M1), a stress-similarity model (M2), and a gradient model (M3). The models exploit one-parameter second- or fourth-order filters of Pade type, which permit the cutoff wavenumber k(sub c) to be tuned independently of the grid increment (delta)x. The modeled (M) and exact (E) SGS-stresses are compared component-wise by correlation coefficients of the form C(E,M) computed over the entire three-dimensional fields. In general, M1 correlates poorly against exact stresses (C < 0.2), M3 correlates moderately well (C approx. 0.6), and M2 correlates remarkably well (0.8 < C < 1.0). Specifically, correlations C(E, M2) are high provided the grid and test filters are of the same order. Moreover, the highest correlations (C approx.= 1.0) result whenever the grid and test filters are identical (in both order and cutoff). Finally, present results reveal the exact SGS stresses obtained by grid filters of differing orders to be only moderately well correlated. Thus, in LES the model should not be specified independently of the filter.
Extended class of phenomenological universalities
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Molski, Marcin
2017-08-01
The phenomenological universalities (PU) are extended to include quantum oscillatory phenomena, coherence and supersymmetry. It will be proved that this approach generates minimum uncertainty coherent states of time-dependent oscillators, which in the dissociation (classical) limit reduce to the functions describing growth (regression) of the systems evolving over time. The PU formalism can be applied also to construct the coherent states of space-dependent oscillators, which in the dissociation limit produce cumulative distribution functions widely used in probability theory and statistics. A combination of the PU and supersymmetry provides a convenient tool for generating analytical solutions of the Fokker-Planck equation with the drift term related to the different forms of potential energy function. The results obtained reveal existence of a new class of macroscopic quantum (or quasi-quantum) phenomena, which may play a vital role in coherent formation of the specific growth patterns in complex systems.
Phenomenological modification of horizon temperature
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Khurshudyan, M.; Khurshudyan, As.
2017-09-01
In this paper, a study of the accelerated expansion problem of the large scale universe is presented. To derive Friedmann like equations, describing the background dynamics of the recent universe, we take into account, that it is possible to interpret the spacetime dynamics as an emergent phenomenon. It is a consequence of the deep study of connection between gravitation and thermodynamics. The models considered are based on phenomenological modifications of the horizon temperature. In general, there are various reasons to modify the horizon temperature, one of which is related to the feedback from the spacetime on the horizon, generating additional heat. In order to constrain the parameters of the models, we use Om analysis and the constraints on this parameter at z = 0.0, z = 0.57 and z = 2.34.
Testing for homogeneity in meta-analysis I. The one-parameter case: standardized mean difference.
Kulinskaya, Elena; Dollinger, Michael B; Bjørkestøl, Kirsten
2011-03-01
Meta-analysis seeks to combine the results of several experiments in order to improve the accuracy of decisions. It is common to use a test for homogeneity to determine if the results of the several experiments are sufficiently similar to warrant their combination into an overall result. Cochran's Q statistic is frequently used for this homogeneity test. It is often assumed that Q follows a chi-square distribution under the null hypothesis of homogeneity, but it has long been known that this asymptotic distribution for Q is not accurate for moderate sample sizes. Here, we present an expansion for the mean of Q under the null hypothesis that is valid when the effect and the weight for each study depend on a single parameter, but for which neither normality nor independence of the effect and weight estimators is needed. This expansion represents an order O(1/n) correction to the usual chi-square moment in the one-parameter case. We apply the result to the homogeneity test for meta-analyses in which the effects are measured by the standardized mean difference (Cohen's d-statistic). In this situation, we recommend approximating the null distribution of Q by a chi-square distribution with fractional degrees of freedom that are estimated from the data using our expansion for the mean of Q. The resulting homogeneity test is substantially more accurate than the currently used test. We provide a program available at the Paper Information link at the Biometrics website http://www.biometrics.tibs.org for making the necessary calculations.
Higher-dimensional realization of a nonlinear, one-parameter quantum oscillator
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Schulze-Halberg, Axel; Morris, John R.
2013-05-01
We generalize a recently introduced quantum model of a nonlinear oscillator to arbitrary dimensions. In our realization of the model we impose hyperspherical symmetry, which allows for separation of variables in the governing equation. We obtain the discrete spectrum in closed form, as well as the corresponding orthogonal set of normalizable eigenfunctions, located in a weighted Hilbert space. Furthermore, conditions for emptiness of the discrete spectrum are obtained, as well as spectral bounds for the eigenvalues.
Coral Cratering Phenomenology.
1980-10-31
effect for producing the final crater volumes. Based on a known relationship between high-explosive cratering in coral and a similar continen- tal...mhh|hhMENENEinllmiEilEEE- IIIELJEIEOIOEIII E~hhhhhEE|hlhI �oo 96 3 DNA 5813T 0 4f CORAL CRATERING PHENOMENOLOGY R. L. LaFrenz Systems, Science...PERIOD COVERED Topical Report for Perio CORAL CRATERING PHENOMENOLOGY 1 May 77-31 Oct 80 S. PERFORMING ORG. REPORT NUMBER 7. AUTHOR(s) 8. CONTRACT OR
Phenomenology and Connectionism
Yoshimi, Jeff
2011-01-01
I show how the dynamics of consciousness can be formally derived from the “open dynamics” of neural activity, and develop a mathematical framework for neuro-phenomenological investigation. I describe the space of possible brain states, the space of possible conscious states, and a “supervenience function” linking them. I show how this framework can be used to associate phenomenological structures with neuro-computational structures, and vice-versa. I pay special attention to the relationship between (1) the relatively fast dynamics of consciousness and neural activity, and (2) the slower dynamics of knowledge update and brain development. PMID:22121354
Elastic scattering phenomenology
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Mackintosh, R. S.
2017-04-01
We argue that, in many situations, fits to elastic scattering data that were historically, and frequently still are, considered "good", are not justifiably so describable. Information about the dynamics of nucleon-nucleus and nucleus-nucleus scattering is lost when elastic scattering phenomenology is insufficiently ambitious. It is argued that in many situations, an alternative approach is appropriate for the phenomenology of nuclear elastic scattering of nucleons and other light nuclei. The approach affords an appropriate means of evaluating folding models, one that fully exploits available empirical data. It is particularly applicable for nucleons and other light ions.
Phenomenology and connectionism.
Yoshimi, Jeff
2011-01-01
I show how the dynamics of consciousness can be formally derived from the "open dynamics" of neural activity, and develop a mathematical framework for neuro-phenomenological investigation. I describe the space of possible brain states, the space of possible conscious states, and a "supervenience function" linking them. I show how this framework can be used to associate phenomenological structures with neuro-computational structures, and vice-versa. I pay special attention to the relationship between (1) the relatively fast dynamics of consciousness and neural activity, and (2) the slower dynamics of knowledge update and brain development.
Restoring particle phenomenology
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Valente, Giovanni
2015-08-01
No-go theorems are known in the literature to the effect that, in relativistic quantum field theory, particle localizability in the strict sense violates relativistic causality. In order to account for particle phenomenology without particle ontology, Halvorson and Clifton (2002) proposed an approximate localization scheme. In a recent paper, Arageorgis and Stergiou (2013) proved a no-go result that suggests that, even within such a scheme, there would arise act-outcome correlations over the entire spacetime, thereby violating relativistic causality. Here, we show that this conclusion is untenable. In particular, we argue that one can recover particle phenomenology without having to give up relativistic causality.
Elastic-plastic analysis of AS4/PEEK composite laminate using a one-parameter plasticity model
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Sun, C. T.; Yoon, K. J.
1992-01-01
A one-parameter plasticity model was shown to adequately describe the plastic deformation of AS4/PEEK (APC-2) unidirectional thermoplastic composite. This model was verified further for unidirectional and laminated composite panels with and without a hole. The elastic-plastic stress-strain relations of coupon specimens were measured and compared with those predicted by the finite element analysis using the one-parameter plasticity model. The results show that the one-parameter plasticity model is suitable for the analysis of elastic-plastic deformation of AS4/PEEK composite laminates.
The Phenomenology of Democracy
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Shaw, Robert
2009-01-01
Human beings originate votes, and democracy constitutes decisions. This is the essence of democracy. A phenomenological analysis of the vote and of the decision reveals for us the inherent strength of democracy and its deficiencies. Alexis de Tocqueville pioneered this form of enquiry into democracy and produced positive results from it.…
Phenomenology, Behaviorism and Psychotherapy
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
O'Neill, William; Demos, George D.
1973-01-01
Everything begins with subjective states,'' is the basic position of Phenomenology, and only through subjectivity can ultimate reality be reached. Behaviorism, on the contrary, sees mind'' as part of the material world and behavior as determining man's essence. Change is attained by altering behavior which leads to changes in attitudes. The best…
Husserl, phenomenology and nursing.
Paley, J
1997-07-01
Discussions of phenomenological research in nursing consistently appeal to either Husserl or Heidegger in justifying the technical and conceptual resources they deploy. This paper focuses on Husserl, and examines the relationship between his phenomenology and the accounts of it that are to be found in the nursing literature. Three central ideas are given particular attention: the phenomenological reduction, phenomena, and essence. It is argued that nurse researchers largely misunderstand these concepts and that, as a result, their version of Husserl's philosophy bears little resemblance to the original. A further consequence is that the project of identifying the 'essential structure' of a phenomenon, typically adopted by the nurse researchers who cite Husserl as an authority, comes close to being unintelligible. It is suggested that, while the methods used in 'phenomenological' nursing research may still have some legitimacy, they cannot achieve what they are alleged to achieve, and they should be detached from the framework of Husserlian ideas and terminology which is supposed to justify them.
The Phenomenology of Democracy
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Shaw, Robert
2009-01-01
Human beings originate votes, and democracy constitutes decisions. This is the essence of democracy. A phenomenological analysis of the vote and of the decision reveals for us the inherent strength of democracy and its deficiencies. Alexis de Tocqueville pioneered this form of enquiry into democracy and produced positive results from it.…
Supersymmetry and Superstring Phenomenology
Gaillard, Mary K; Gaillard, Mary K.; Zumino, Bruno
2008-05-05
We briefly cover the early history of supersymmetry, describe the relation of SUSY quantum field theories to superstring theories and explain why they are considered a likely tool to describe the phenomenology of high energy particle theory beyond the Standard Model.
The Phenomenology of Pedagogic Observation.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Van Manen, Max
1979-01-01
The intent of this paper is to begin a reflective discussion of the phenomenology of pedagogic observation. In doing this it borrows extensively from Beets and draws attention to one aspect of phenomenological method: the function of "example" in phenomenological inquiry. (Author/SJL)
The Phenomenology of Pedagogic Observation.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Van Manen, Max
1979-01-01
The intent of this paper is to begin a reflective discussion of the phenomenology of pedagogic observation. In doing this it borrows extensively from Beets and draws attention to one aspect of phenomenological method: the function of "example" in phenomenological inquiry. (Author/SJL)
Paraphilias: phenomenology and classification.
Money, J
1984-04-01
DSM-III incorrectly designates the majority of paraphilias as atypical. Only eight are named, and those because of their forensic history, rather than their pathology and therapeutic need. In this paper, thirty-odd paraphilias are subdivided into six categories on the basis of their phenomenological dynamics. The new concept of the developmental lovemap is introduced for the first time. A new treatment originated by the author in 1966 combines an androgen agonist with counseling therapy.
Phenomenologies of ferromagnetism in metals (invited) (abstract)
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Arrott, A. S.; Heinrich, B.
1988-11-01
Magnetism remains mysterious 100 years after Ewing made his initial models of interacting compasses. Many aspects are seen clearly, but at each step from the spinning electron to the rotor of a motor complexity obscures. At the macroscopic level the difficulties in ferromagnetism start with magnetostatics, which in principle calls for the evaluation of sixfold integrals. At the quantum level one needs fully relativistic spin-polarized calculations that remain beyond the current state of the art in order to have a full description of the ground state of a homogeneous piece of material with periodic boundary conditions. While it is known in principle how to carry out such calculations, in practice an experimentalist relies on phenomenology for the interpretation of data. The role of phenomenology is to create molds into which the experimental data is pressed. Theoretical analyses of critical phenomena are among the triumphs of modern magnetism. The picture is beautiful as long as one ignores anisotropies, dipole-dipole interactions, magnetostriction, and dynamic effects, all of which are the heart of micromagnetics, not to mention imperfections, inhomogeneities, and surface effects. Studies of the response, static and dynamic, of nearly perfect single crystals of Fe, grown from the decomposition of FeCl2 in the form of whiskers, provide examples where the experiments attempt to approach the neatness of the theories. Interpretation of data requires understanding of the dominant magnetostatics, the underlying micromagnetics and the resulting magnetization patterns, and the major role of eddy currents in obscuring intrinsic loss effects. One combines these aspects of Maxwell's equations with parametric formulations of the equation of state and the Landau-Lifshitz equations of motion to extract magnetizations, susceptibilities, anisotropies, and damping parameters as functions of internal fields and frequency. The micromagnetics of the ideally soft ferromagnetic material
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Mamedov, Bahtiyar Akber; Askerov, Iskender M.; Akkuş, Adem
2017-02-01
A new analytical approach is proposed for the evaluation of the transverse Nernst-Ettingshausen effect of semiconductor with standard zone in the case of weak magnetic field. The obtained formula is expressed in terms of the one-parameter Fermi functions. One of the authors proposed efficient formulae for accurate evaluation of the one-parameter Fermi functions. This method gives satisfying results for arbitrary values of parameters and allows us to evaluate accurately of the Nernst-Ettingshausen transverse effect. The results show that proposed algorithm has high efficiency and accuracy for theoretical evaluations of the Nernst-Ettingshausen transverse effect.
Pragmatic phenomenological types.
Goranson, Ted; Cardier, Beth; Devlin, Keith
2015-12-01
We approach a well-known problem: how to relate component physical processes in biological systems to governing imperatives in multiple system levels. The intent is to further practical tools that can be used in the clinical context. An example proposes a formal type system that would support this kind of reasoning, including in machines. Our example is based on a model of the connection between a quality of mind associated with creativity and neuropsychiatric dynamics: constructing narrative as a form of conscious introspection, which allows the manipulation of one's own driving imperatives. In this context, general creativity is indicated by an ability to manage multiple heterogeneous worldviews simultaneously in a developing narrative. 'Narrative' in this context is framed as the organizing concept behind rational linearization that can be applied to metaphysics as well as modeling perceptive dynamics. Introspection is framed as the phenomenological 'tip' that allows a perceiver to be within experience or outside it, reflecting on and modifying it. What distinguishes the approach is the rooting in well founded but disparate disciplines: phenomenology, ontic virtuality, two-sorted geometric logics, functional reactive programming, multi-level ontologies and narrative cognition. This paper advances the work by proposing a type strategy within a two-sorted reasoning system that supports cross-ontology structure. The paper describes influences on this approach, and presents an example that involves phenotype classes and monitored creativity enhanced by both soft methods and transcranial direct-current stimulation. The proposed solution integrates pragmatic phenomenology, situation theory, narratology and functional programming in one framework. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Neutrinos: Theory and Phenomenology
Parke, Stephen
2013-10-22
The theory and phenomenology of neutrinos will be addressed, especially that relating to the observation of neutrino flavor transformations. The current status and implications for future experiments will be discussed with special emphasis on the experiments that will determine the neutrino mass ordering, the dominant flavor content of the neutrino mass eigenstate with the smallest electron neutrino content and the size of CP violation in the neutrino sector. Beyond the neutrino Standard Model, the evidence for and a possible definitive experiment to confirm or refute the existence of light sterile neutrinos will be briefly discussed.
Chameleons and Their Phenomenology
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Khoury, Justin
2016-03-01
If dark energy consists of a light scalar field, it might be detectable as a ``fifth force'' between ordinary-matter objects, in potential conflict with precision tests of gravity. Chameleon fields and other theories with screening mechanisms, however, can evade these tests by suppressing the forces in regions of high density, such as the laboratory. The manifestation of chameleons therefore depends sensitively on their environment, which in turn leads to striking experimental signatures. I will review chameleon field theories, their phenomenology, and recent experimental constraints using atom interferometry.
A method of phenomenological interviewing.
Bevan, Mark T
2014-01-01
In this article I propose a method of interviewing for descriptive phenomenological research that offers an explicit, theoretically based approach for researchers. My approach enables application of descriptive phenomenology as a total method for research, and not one just focused on data analysis. This structured phenomenological approach to interviewing applies questions based on themes of experience contextualization, apprehending the phenomenon and its clarification. The method of questioning employs descriptive and structural questioning as well as novel use of imaginative variation to explore experience. The approach will help researchers understand how to undertake descriptive phenomenological research interviews.
Exploring the Phenomenology of Suicide
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Pompili, Maurizio
2010-01-01
Phenomenology studies conscious experience as experienced from the subjective or first-person point of view. This paper was developed with the aim of shedding light on the phenomenology of suicide; that is, to focus on suicide as a phenomenon affecting a unique individual with unique motives for the suicidal act. To explore this topic, the author…
A Clarification of Heidegger's Phenomenology
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Garza, Gilbert
2006-01-01
Comments on the article "Psychology and Phenomenology: A Clarification" by H. H. Kendler. This article calls for clarifications regarding its characterization of Heideggerian phenomenology. Kendler drew on his admittedly "limited understanding" (p. 322) of Heidegger and rested his critique upon a critical confusion that pervaded his…
Exploring the Phenomenology of Suicide
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Pompili, Maurizio
2010-01-01
Phenomenology studies conscious experience as experienced from the subjective or first-person point of view. This paper was developed with the aim of shedding light on the phenomenology of suicide; that is, to focus on suicide as a phenomenon affecting a unique individual with unique motives for the suicidal act. To explore this topic, the author…
Phenomenology Depends on Human Nature
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Reber, Rolf
2006-01-01
This paper comments on the article "Psychology and Phenomenology: A Clarification" by H. H. Kendler. Kendler contrasted objective phenomena going on in the mind with phenomenological convictions. He concluded, on the basis of a thoughtful analysis, that scientific psychology cannot validate moral principles, which have to be agreed upon by…
Phenomenology Depends on Human Nature
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Reber, Rolf
2006-01-01
This paper comments on the article "Psychology and Phenomenology: A Clarification" by H. H. Kendler. Kendler contrasted objective phenomena going on in the mind with phenomenological convictions. He concluded, on the basis of a thoughtful analysis, that scientific psychology cannot validate moral principles, which have to be agreed upon by…
Phenomenological Quantum Gravity
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kimberly, Dagny; Magueijo, Joa~O.
2005-08-01
These notes summarize a set of lectures on phenomenological quantum gravity which one of us delivered and the other attended with great diligence. They cover an assortment of topics on the border between theoretical quantum gravity and observational anomalies. Specifically, we review non-linear relativity in its relation to loop quantum gravity and high energy cosmic rays. Although we follow a pedagogic approach we include an open section on unsolved problems, presented as exercises for the student. We also review varying constant models: the Brans-Dicke theory, the Bekenstein varying α model, and several more radical ideas. We show how they make contact with strange high-redshift data, and perhaps other cosmological puzzles. We conclude with a few remaining observational puzzles which have failed to make contact with quantum gravity, but who knows... We would like to thank Mario Novello for organizing an excellent school in Mangaratiba, in direct competition with a very fine beach indeed.
Fundamental thermodynamical equation of a self-gravitating system
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Martinez, Erik A.
1996-06-01
The features of the fundamental thermodynamical relation (expressing entropy as function of state variables) that arise from the self-gravitating character of a system are analyzed. The models studied include not only a spherically symmetric hot matter shell with constant particle number but also a black hole characterized by a general thermal equation of state. These examples illustrate the formal structure of thermodynamics developed by Callen as applied to a gravitational configuration as well as the phenomenological manner in which Einstein equations largely determine the thermodynamical equations of state. We consider in detail the thermodynamics and quasistatic collapse of a self-gravitating shell. This includes a discussion of intrinsic stability for a one-parameter family of thermal equations of state and the interpretation of the Bekenstein bound. The entropy growth associated with a collapsing sequence of equilibrium states of a shell is computed under different boundary conditions in the quasistatic approximation and compared with black hole entropy. Although explicit expressions involve empirical coefficients, these are constrained by physical conditions of thermodynamical origin. The absence of a Gibbs-Duhem relation and the associated scaling laws for self-gravitating matter systems are presented.
Analytical and phenomenological studies of rotating turbulence
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Mahalov, Alex; Zhou, YE
1995-01-01
A framework, which combines mathematical analysis, closure theory, and phenomenological treatment, is developed to study the spectral transfer process and reduction of dimensionality in turbulent flows that are subject to rotation. First, we outline a mathematical procedure that is particularly appropriate for problems with two disparate time scales. The approach which is based on the Green's method leads to the Poincare velocity variables and the Poincare transformation when applied to rotating turbulence. The effects of the rotation are now reflected in the modifications to the convolution of a nonlinear term. The Poincare transformed equations are used to obtain a time-dependent analog of the Taylor-Proudman theorem valid in the asymptotic limit when the non-dimensional parameter mu is identical to Omega(t) approaches infinity (Omega is the rotation rate and t is the time). The 'split' of the energy transfer in both direct and inverse directions is established. Secondly, we apply the Eddy-Damped-Quasinormal-Markovian (EDQNM) closure to the Poincare transformed Euler/Navier-Stokes equations. This closure leads to expressions for the spectral energy transfer. In particular, an unique triple velocity decorrelation time is derived with an explicit dependence on the rotation rate. This provides an important input for applying the phenomenological treatment of Zhou. In order to characterize the relative strength of rotation, another non-dimensional number, a spectral Rossby number, which is defined as the ratio of rotation and turbulence time scales, is introduced. Finally, the energy spectrum and the spectral eddy viscosity are deduced.
Mackey, Sandra
2005-02-01
The phenomenological approach is increasingly being utilised as the method structure for nursing research studies. However, the nursing literature is beginning to reflect a concern with nurse researchers' adoption of phenomenological methods without, at the same time, laying the philosophical and methodological foundations on which the method is built. It is important for nursing knowledge development through research that the choice of research methodology can be argued for, and is judged to be coherent with, both the philosophical tone of the research and the nature of the research question. In this article the concepts underpinning Heidegger's interpretive phenomenological philosophy are examined and discussed in terms of the methodological insights they provide for the conduct of nursing phenomenological research.
A phenomenological model of the muscle as an active composite
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Chernous, D. A.; Shil'ko, S. V.
2008-12-01
A phenomenological model consisting of a spring, a contractive element, and a Voigt element is proposed for describing muscle functions. To refine the description of the mechanical behavior of muscle tissue, an additional, inertial element is introduced into the model. The contractive element is characterized based on the Hill equation. A technique is elaborated for identifying the parameters of the model from the experimental time-dependent length of the muscle during its isotonic contraction. The phenomenological model is used for describing the deformation of tailor's muscle of frogs under isotonic and isometric conditions.
Pringuey, Dominique
2011-10-01
A phenomenology of dreams searches for meaning, with the aim not only of explaining but also of understanding the experience. What and who is it for? And what about the nearly forgotten dream among the moderns, the banal returning to the nightmare, sleepiness, or dreamlike reverie. Nostalgia for the dream, where we saw a very early state of light, not a ordinaire qu duel. Regret for the dreamlike splendor exceeded by the modeling power of modern aesthetics--film and the explosion of virtual imaging technologies. Disappointment at the discovery of a cognitive permanence throughout sleep and a unique fit with the real upon awaking? An excess of methodological rigor where we validate the logic of the dream, correlating the clinical improvement in psychotherapy and the ability to interpret one's own dreams. The dangerous psychological access when the dream primarily is mine, viewed as a veiled expression of an unspoken desire, or when the dream reveals to me, in an existential conception of man, through time and space, my daily life, my freedom beyond my needs. Might its ultimate sense also mean its abolition? From the story of a famous forgotten dream, based on unexpected scientific data emerges the question: do we dream to forget? The main thing would not be consciousness but confidence, when " the sleeping man, his regard extinguished, dead to himself seizes the light in the night " (Heraclitus).
Phenomenological consequences of supersymmetry
Hinchliffe, I.; Littenberg, L.
1982-01-01
This report deals with the phenomenological consequences of supersymmetric theories, and with the implications of such theories for future high energy machines. It is concerned only with high energy predictions of supersymmetry; low energy consequences (for example in the K/sub o/anti K/sub o/ system) are discussed in the context of future experiments by another group, and will be mentioned briefly only in the context of constraining existing models. However a brief section is included on the implication for proton decay, although detailed experimental questions are not discussed. The report is organized as follows. Section I consists of a brief review of supersymmetry and the salient features of existing supersymmetric models; this section can be ignored by those familiar with such models since it contains nothing new. Section 2 deals with the consequences for nucleon decay of SUSY. The remaining sections then discuss the physics possibilities of various machines; e anti e in Section 3, ep in Section 4, pp (or anti pp) colliders in Section 5 and fixed target hadron machines in Section 6.
Southern Ocean eddy phenomenology
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Frenger, I.; Münnich, M.; Gruber, N.; Knutti, R.
2015-11-01
Mesoscale eddies are ubiquitous features in the Southern Ocean, yet their phenomenology is not well quantified. To tackle this task, we use satellite observations of sea level anomalies and sea surface temperature (SST) as well as in situ temperature and salinity measurements from profiling floats. Over the period 1997-2010, we identified over a million mesoscale eddy instances and were able to track about 105 of them over 1 month or more. The Antarctic Circumpolar Current (ACC), the boundary current systems, and the regions where they interact are hot spots of eddy presence, representing also the birth places and graveyards of most eddies. These hot spots contrast strongly to areas shallower than about 2000 m, where mesoscale eddies are essentially absent, likely due to topographical steering. Anticyclones tend to dominate the southern subtropical gyres, and cyclones the northern flank of the ACC. Major causes of regional polarity dominance are larger formation numbers and lifespans, with a contribution of differential propagation pathways of long-lived eddies. Areas of dominance of one polarity are generally congruent with the same polarity being longer-lived, bigger, of larger amplitude, and more intense. Eddies extend down to at least 2000 m. In the ACC, eddies show near surface temperature and salinity maxima, whereas eddies in the subtropical areas generally have deeper anomaly maxima, presumably inherited from their origin in the boundary currents. The temperature and salinity signatures of the average eddy suggest that their tracer anomalies are a result of both trapping in the eddy core and stirring.
Phenomenology beyond the standard model
Lykken, Joseph D.; /Fermilab
2005-03-01
An elementary review of models and phenomenology for physics beyond the Standard Model (excluding supersymmetry). The emphasis is on LHC physics. Based upon a talk given at the ''Physics at LHC'' conference, Vienna, 13-17 July 2004.
Unparticle Phenomenology - A Mini Review
Cheung Kingman; Keung, W.-Y.; Yuan, T.-C.
2008-11-23
We review some collider phenomenology of unparticle physics, including real emissions and virtual exchanges of unparticle. Existing experimental constraints from collider physics as well as astrophysics are briefly discussed.
Phenomenological Mechanochemical of Damage and Radial Cracking in Brittle Substances
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Grinfeld, Michael
2015-06-01
Basic principles of Phenomenological Mechanochemistry of Damage (PMD) have been formulated in Grinfeld and Wright (2002, 2004.) To some extent, it is a natural extension of the traditional damage theory, presented by Kachanov (1976.) Contrary to Kachanov's approach, the PMD theory includes, in addition to the bulk elastic energy, the energy associated with braking/recovery of chemical bonds. Therefore, in addition to the elasticity equations it includes the equation, describing evolution/dynamics of chemical bonds. Although ``chemical bonds'' is a nano-scale concept, we treat the bonds using phenomenological approach. The additional equation of damage evolution is of the rate type, thus, making the whole model rate-dependent (even in quasi-static approach.) In the paper, we review some earlier results and present the novel ones with emphasis on the rate-dependent effects.
Borgonovo, Emanuele
2010-03-01
In risk analysis problems, the decision-making process is supported by the utilization of quantitative models. Assessing the relevance of interactions is an essential information in the interpretation of model results. By such knowledge, analysts and decisionmakers are able to understand whether risk is apportioned by individual factor contributions or by their joint action. However, models are oftentimes large, requiring a high number of input parameters, and complex, with individual model runs being time consuming. Computational complexity leads analysts to utilize one-parameter-at-a-time sensitivity methods, which prevent one from assessing interactions. In this work, we illustrate a methodology to quantify interactions in probabilistic safety assessment (PSA) models by varying one parameter at a time. The method is based on a property of the functional ANOVA decomposition of a finite change that allows to exactly determine the relevance of factors when considered individually or together with their interactions with all other factors. A set of test cases illustrates the technique. We apply the methodology to the analysis of the core damage frequency of the large loss of coolant accident of a nuclear reactor. Numerical results reveal the nonadditive model structure, allow to quantify the relevance of interactions, and to identify the direction of change (increase or decrease in risk) implied by individual factor variations and by their cooperation.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Yoo, Chi-Deuk
We investigate the phenomenological properties of supersolids---materials that simultaneously display both crystalline order and superfluidity. To explain the recent observation in the torsional oscillator experiments on 4He solid by Kim and Chan we adopt a viscoelastic solid model which is characterized by a frequency-dependent complex shear modulus. In this model, we found that a characteristic time scale which accounts for dissipation in solids grows rapidly as the temperature is reduced, and results in a decrease in the resonant period and a peak in the inverse of Q-factor. We also briefly discuss the possible relation between the torsional oscillator results and the anomalous increase of shear modulus obtained by Day and Beamish. In a related study, we employ a variational principle together with Galilean covariance and thermodynamic relations to obtain the non-dissipative hydrodynamics and an effective Lagrangian density for supersolids. We study the mode structure of supersolids by calculating the second and fourth sound speeds due to defect propagation. We also calculate the density-density correlation function of a model supersolid using the hydrodynamics of Andreev and Lifshitz, and propose a light scattering experiment to measure the density-density correlation function (which is related to the intensity of scattered light). We find that the central Rayleigh peak of the defect diffusion mode of a normal solid in the density-density correlation function splits into an additional Brillouin doublet due to the longitudinal second sound modes in supersolid phase. Finally, we study the dynamics of vortices and dislocations in supersolids by using the derived Lagrangian for supersolids. We obtain the effective actions for vortices and dislocations in two-dimensional isotropic supersolids emphasizing the differences from the dynamics in superfluids and solids. As a result we obtain the frequency-dependent inertial masses for slowly moving vortices and
A Phenomenological Theory of Muscular Contraction
Bornhorst, W. J.; Minardi, J. E.
1970-01-01
A phenomenological theory for contracting muscle based on irreversible thermodynamics and the sliding filament theory is developed. The individual cross bridges, considered as subunits, are viewed as linear energy converters with constant transport coefficients. With this view of the subunits, phenomenological equations applicable to the whole muscle are obtained. The transport coefficients are shown to be a function of a single parameter which is the number of activated cross bridges at any instant. By requiring Hill's force-velocity relation (1) to be satisfied, the response of the muscle is related to the number of activated cross bridges. The resulting theory differs significantly from the theory developed by Caplan (2) and a comparison of the theories is presented. The theory is shown to correlate well with the heat data of Woledge (3) for a tortoise muscle and gives a value of Y (ratio of chemical affinity to enthalpy of reaction) equal to 0.945. The comparison of the theory with Hill's frog muscle data (1) and (4) is also encouraging. In part II of this series, length variations are considered and the resulting theoretical predictions are shown to be consistent with experimental data. PMID:5461140
Chemical Diffusion Across Grain Boundaries: In-Situ Observation and Phenomenological Modeling
2001-01-01
capacitances and electrochemical resistances is introduced. This model, which is derived from the Nernst - Planck - Poisson equations, turns out to be a very...the continuity equations and, since the carriers are charged, the Poisson equation ( Nernst - Planck - Poisson equations). The materials parameters which...Observation and Phenomenological Modeling J. Jamnik, M. Leonhardt and J. Maier Max- Planck Institut fUr Festkorperforschung, Heisenbergstrasse 1, DE-70569
Functional constraints on phenomenological coefficients
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Klika, Václav; Pavelka, Michal; Benziger, Jay B.
2017-02-01
Thermodynamic fluxes (diffusion fluxes, heat flux, etc.) are often proportional to thermodynamic forces (gradients of chemical potentials, temperature, etc.) via the matrix of phenomenological coefficients. Onsager's relations imply that the matrix is symmetric, which reduces the number of unknown coefficients is reduced. In this article we demonstrate that for a class of nonequilibrium thermodynamic models in addition to Onsager's relations the phenomenological coefficients must share the same functional dependence on the local thermodynamic state variables. Thermodynamic models and experimental data should be validated through consistency with the functional constraint. We present examples of coupled heat and mass transport (thermodiffusion) and coupled charge and mass transport (electro-osmotic drag). Additionally, these newly identified constraints further reduce the number of experiments needed to describe the phenomenological coefficient.
Quantum Gravity and Phenomenological Philosophy
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Rosen, Steven M.
2008-06-01
The central thesis of this paper is that contemporary theoretical physics is grounded in philosophical presuppositions that make it difficult to effectively address the problems of subject-object interaction and discontinuity inherent to quantum gravity. The core objectivist assumption implicit in relativity theory and quantum mechanics is uncovered and we see that, in string theory, this assumption leads into contradiction. To address this challenge, a new philosophical foundation is proposed based on the phenomenology of Maurice Merleau-Ponty and Martin Heidegger. Then, through the application of qualitative topology and hypernumbers, phenomenological ideas about space, time, and dimension are brought into focus so as to provide specific solutions to the problems of force-field generation and unification. The phenomenological string theory that results speaks to the inconclusiveness of conventional string theory and resolves its core contradiction.
A method for phenomenological analysis of ecological data.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Huang, H.-W.; Morowitz, H. J.
1972-01-01
The experimental meaning of the phenomenological differential equations for a competing population is reviewed. It is concluded that it is virtually impossible to construct the differential equations precise enough for studying stability. We consider instead a method of phenomenological analysis which can be applied to a set of population curves. We suggest an ecological index calculated from the population curves, which indicates a group property of the entire system. As a function of time, the index is presumably insensitive to Volterra type fluctuations. A marked increase of the index's value however indicates a marked change of the environmental conditions. It is not easy to deduce the group property from the population curves alone, because a change in population is in general due to the superposition of external disturbances and Volterra fluctuations.
A guide to phenomenological research.
Wilson, Anthea
2015-04-22
Phenomenological research is a method with strong philosophical origins, which can sometimes be challenging for novice investigators. However, developing an appreciation of these philosophical origins can enhance and strengthen the research design. A fundamental challenge is to understand the range of philosophical and empirical approaches to situate one's own research. Such phenomenological approaches are often characterised and differentiated by the degree to which it is accepted that an investigator can achieve objective descriptions of, or interpret, lived experience. This article explains these issues, relating the philosophy to the research practicalities.
Individualized assessment and phenomenological psychology.
Fischer, C T
1979-04-01
Although there is growing openness to tailoring of assessment procedures and reports to the particular client, these efforts typically have been sporadic and incomplete. This article reviews a systematic approach to individualized assessment, one whose practices are referred to as collaborative, contextual, and interventional. Clinical examples of these practices are presented in terms of their grounding in phenomenological psychology. Prior to that, themes such as intentionality, situatedness, dialectics, structuralism, and hermeneutics are introduced briefly. Phenomenological psychology as such is not seen here as necessary for all individualized practices, but it is seen as a critical touchpoint for development of theory and further practices.
Phenomenological modeling of durotaxis
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Yu, Guangyuan; Feng, Jingchen; Man, Haoran; Levine, Herbert
2017-07-01
Cells exhibit qualitatively different behaviors on substrates with different rigidities. The fact that cells are more polarized on the stiffer substrate motivates us to construct a two-dimensional cell with the distribution of focal adhesions dependent on substrate rigidities. This distribution affects the forces exerted by the cell and thereby determines its motion. Our model reproduces the experimental observation that the persistence time is higher on the stiffer substrate. This stiffness-dependent persistence will lead to durotaxis, the preference in moving towards stiffer substrates. This propensity is characterized by the durotaxis index first defined in experiments. We derive and validate a two-dimensional corresponding Fokker-Planck equation associated with our model. Our approach highlights the possible role of the focal adhesion arrangement in durotaxis.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hayashi, C.; Narita, S.; Miyama, S. M.
1982-12-01
Equilibrium states of rotating axisymmetric isothermal gas clouds are studied and it is found that, if the linear rotation velocity is constant throughout a cloud, there exists a one-parameter family of conformal solutions which describe the equilibrium exactly. The parameter depends only on the ratio of the rotation velocity to the sound velocity and represents the flatness of equi-density contours in the direction of the rotation axis. Two extreme values of the parameter correspond to a non-rotating spherical configuration and a rapidly-rotating thin disk. Specific angular momentum on a cylindrical surface around the rotation axis is found to be proportional to the amount of mass contained inside the cylinder considered. The stability of the equilibrium configurations is examined analytically as well as numerically and it is found that nearly spherical configurations are unstable to contraction and expansion as a whole, very flat configurations are unstable to ring formation and intermediate configurations are likely to be stable. Finally, these equilibrium configurations are compared with the results of numerical computations which have so far been performed by many people on the collapse of rotating isothermal clouds.
Phenomenological holographic model of superconductivity
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Afonin, S. S.; Pusenkov, I. V.
2017-02-01
We propose a soft-wall holographic model for describing high-temperature superconductivity. Compared with the existing bottom-up holographic superconductivity models, the proposed approach is more phenomenological. On the other hand, the proposed model is mathematically simpler and has more degrees of freedom for describing the conductivity of real high-temperature superconductors. We construct several examples of such models.
Gifted Dropouts: A Phenomenological Study
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Zabloski, James
2010-01-01
This qualitative phenomenological study of the life experiences of seven rural gifted individuals who dropped out of school investigated whether they shared commonalities that might have led to the phenomenon of dropping out. The problem was that no one had asked them to share their stories prior to this study. By searching for meaning in their…
A Phenomenological Perspective on Communication.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Schrag, Calvin O.
Phenomenology, a constantly renewed effort to see the world in a nonreductive and originative way, is useful in bringing about radical reflection on the phenomenon of communication as a human science. A human science is both a scientific and a humanistic endeavor; it is necessary to return to the phenomena under investigation and to permit them to…
Phenomenological Characteristics of College Dropouts
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Waters Zelbovitz, Karyn T.
2013-01-01
This mixed methods study was designed to explore why students leave college before graduation and draws upon their phenomenological insights, educational experiences, and readmission reflections. This study used a convergent parallel design that matched the qualitative content from interviews and quantitative responses to questionnaires to…
Teacher Reflection: A Phenomenological Study
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Wilson, Rebecca E.
2013-01-01
This study is concerned with the reflective practices of middle school teachers. Based on Dewey's theory of reflective practice and Schon's types of reflection, this experience is one of student learning, relationships, curriculum planning, and lesson delivery. This is a qualitative study using the research method of phenomenology through…
Nonequivalent Group Equating via 1-P HGLLM.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Chu, Kwang-lee; Kamata, Akihito
The quality of nonequivalent group equating by the one-parameter hierarchical generalized linear logistic model (1-P HGLLM) was examined by comparing it with: (1) traditional concurrent equating; (2) Stocking-Lord's method; and (3) multiple-group concurrent equating. Root mean squared errors (RMSEs) for item parameters indicated that there was no…
Thoughts on Phenomenology, Education, and Art.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Streb, Joseph H.
1984-01-01
The phenomenological method of Edmund Hesserl is discussed. The mode of being of the teacher is phenomoneologically analyzed, and the results of the analysis are used in conjunction with the results of various phenomenological analyses of aesthetics to construct a rudimentary phenomenological theory of art education. (Author/RM)
Naturalizing phenomenology - A philosophical imperative.
Harney, Maurita
2015-12-01
Phenomenology since Husserl has always had a problematic relationship with empirical science. In its early articulations, there was Husserl's rejection of 'the scientific attitude', Merleau-Ponty's distancing of the scientifically-objectified self, and Heidegger's critique of modern science. These suggest an antipathy to science and to its methods of explaining the natural world. Recent developments in neuroscience have opened new opportunities for an engagement between phenomenology and cognitive science and through this, a re-thinking of science and its hidden assumptions more generally. This is so partly because of the shortcomings of conventional mechanistically-conceived science in dealing with complex and dynamic phenomena such as climate change, brain plasticity, the behaviour of collectives, the dynamics of various microbiological processes, etc. But it is also due to recent phenomenological scholarship focussed on the 'embodied' phenomenology of Husserl's Ideen II and Merleau Ponty's later ontology of nature which have helped to extend the insights of phenomenology beyond the narrowly 'human' to an understanding of nature (which includes the human) more generally. Thus re-contextualised, phenomenology is well placed to examine some of the assumptions that give rise to the reductionism and associated scientism which has characterised conventional science in its approach to the study of natural processes. In light of this, it might be suggested that the 'anti-science' of early articulations of phenomenology is more a hostility to the underlying assumptions of science as conventionally understood than to science itself - that it is scientism rather than science that is targeted. In this paper, I aim to show how a phenomenological naturalism might be seen as a necessary step towards the development of a non-reductionist and non-scientistic approach to scientific inquiry. A key to this is a reconceptualization of nature as inclusive of meanings and of mind. It
[Social actors and phenomenologic modelling].
Laflamme, Simon
2012-05-01
The phenomenological approach has a quasi-monopoly in the individual and subjectivity analyses in social sciences. However, the conceptual apparatus associated with this approach is very restrictive. The human being has to be understood as rational, conscious, intentional, interested, and autonomous. Because of this, a large dimension of human activity cannot be taken into consideration: all that does not fit into the analytical categories (nonrational, nonconscious, etc.). Moreover, this approach cannot really move toward a relational analysis unless it is between individuals predefined by its conceptual apparatus. This lack of complexity makes difficult the establishment of links between phenomenology and systemic analysis in which relation (and its derivatives such as recursiveness, dialectic, correlation) plays an essential role. This article intends to propose a way for systemic analysis to apprehend the individual with respect to his complexity.
Phenomenological model of visual acuity
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Gómez-Pedrero, José A.; Alonso, José
2016-12-01
We propose in this work a model for describing visual acuity (V) as a function of defocus and pupil diameter. Although the model is mainly based on geometrical optics, it also incorporates nongeometrical effects phenomenologically. Compared to similar visual acuity models, the proposed one considers the effect of astigmatism and the variability of best corrected V among individuals; it also takes into account the accommodation and the "tolerance to defocus," the latter through a phenomenological parameter. We have fitted the model to the V data provided in the works of Holladay et al. and Peters, showing the ability of this model to accurately describe the variation of V against blur and pupil diameter. We have also performed a comparison between the proposed model and others previously published in the literature. The model is mainly intended for use in the design of ophthalmic compensations, but it can also be useful in other fields such as visual ergonomics, design of visual tests, and optical instrumentation.
A phenomenological approach to psychoprosthetics.
Mills, Frederick B
2013-05-01
The phenomenology of human embodiment can advance the practitioner's understanding of the lived human body and in particular, what it means to incorporate a prosthetic device into one's body. In order for a prosthesis to be incorporated into the lived body of the patient, the prosthesis must arguably be integrated into the body schema. This article uses the phenomenology of Maurice Merleau-Ponty and others to identify three of the necessary conditions of embodiment that determine the body schema: corporeal understanding, transparency and sensorimotor feedback. It then examines the structure of each of these conditions of embodiment and how they impact the lived body's incorporation of prostheses and other artifacts. [Box: see text].
Phenomenology of universal extra dimensions
Kong, Kyoungchul; Matchev, Konstantin T.; /Florida U.
2006-10-01
In this proceeding, the phenomenology of Universal Extra Dimensions (UED), in which all the Standard Model fields propagate, is explored. We focus on models with one universal extra dimension, compactified on an S{sub 1}/Z{sub 2} orbifold. We revisit calculations of Kaluza-Klein (KK) dark matter without an assumption of the KK mass degeneracy including all possible coannihilations. We then contrast the experimental signatures of low energy supersymmetry and UED.
Phenomenological Modeling for Langmuir Monolayers
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Baptiste, Dimitri; Kelly, David; Safford, Twymun; Prayaga, Chandra; Varney, Christopher N.; Wade, Aaron
Experimentally, Langmuir monolayers have applications in molecular optical, electronic, and sensor devices. Traditionally, Langmuir monolayers are described by a rigid rod model where the rods interact via a Leonard-Jones potential. Here, we propose effective phenomenological models and utilize Monte Carlo simulations to analyze the phase behavior and compare with experimental isotherms. Research reported in this abstract was supported by UWF NIH MARC U-STAR 1T34GM110517-01.
The myth of phenomenological overflow.
Brown, Richard
2012-06-01
In this paper I examine the dispute between Hakwan Lau, Ned Block, and David Rosenthal over the extent to which empirical results can help us decide between first-order and higher-order theories of consciousness. What emerges from this is an overall argument to the best explanation against the first-order view of consciousness and the dispelling of the mythological notion of phenomenological overflow that comes with it. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Hyperbolic type transport equations
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
García-Colín, L. S.; Olivares-Robles, M. A.
1995-02-01
In recent years hyperbolic type transport equations have acquired a great deal of importance in problems ranging from theoretical physics to biology. In spite of their greater mathematical difficulty as compared with their parabolic type analogs arising from the framework of Linear Irreversible Thermodynamics, they have, in many ways, superseded the latter ones. Although the use of this type of equations is well known since the last century through the telegraphist equation of electromagnetic theory, their use in studying several problems in transport theory is hardly fifty years old. In fact the first appearance of a hyperbolic type transport equation for the problem of heat conduction dates back to Cattaneos' work in 1948. Three years later, in 1951 S. Goldstein showed how in the theory of stochastic processes this type of an equation is obtained in the continuous limit of a one-dimensional persistent random walk problem. After that, other phenomenological derivations have been offered for such equations. The main purpose of this paper is to critically discuss a derivation of a hyperbolic type Fokker-Planck equation recently presented using the same ideas as M.S. Green did in 1952 to provide the stochastic foundations of irreversible statistical mechanics. Arguments are given to show that such an equation as well as transport equations derived from it by taking appropriate averages are at most approximate and that a much more detailed analysis is required before asserting their validity.
Thermodynamically admissible boundary conditions for the regularized 13 moment equations
Rana, Anirudh Singh; Struchtrup, Henning
2016-02-15
A phenomenological approach to the boundary conditions for linearized R13 equations is derived using the second law of thermodynamics. The phenomenological coefficients appearing in the boundary conditions are calculated by comparing the slip, jump, and thermal creep coefficients with linearized Boltzmann solutions for Maxwell’s accommodation model for different values of the accommodation coefficient. For this, the linearized R13 equations are solved for viscous slip, thermal creep, and temperature jump problems and the results are compared to the solutions of the linearized Boltzmann equation. The influence of different collision models (hard-sphere, Bhatnagar–Gross–Krook, and Maxwell molecules) and accommodation coefficients on the phenomenological coefficients is studied.
Inferring phenomenological models of Markov processes from data
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Rivera, Catalina; Nemenman, Ilya
Microscopically accurate modeling of stochastic dynamics of biochemical networks is hard due to the extremely high dimensionality of the state space of such networks. Here we propose an algorithm for inference of phenomenological, coarse-grained models of Markov processes describing the network dynamics directly from data, without the intermediate step of microscopically accurate modeling. The approach relies on the linear nature of the Chemical Master Equation and uses Bayesian Model Selection for identification of parsimonious models that fit the data. When applied to synthetic data from the Kinetic Proofreading process (KPR), a common mechanism used by cells for increasing specificity of molecular assembly, the algorithm successfully uncovers the known coarse-grained description of the process. This phenomenological description has been notice previously, but this time it is derived in an automated manner by the algorithm. James S. McDonnell Foundation Grant No. 220020321.
Philosophy of phenomenology: how understanding aids research.
Converse, Mary
2012-01-01
To assist the researcher in understanding the similarities and differences between the Husserlian and Heideggerian philosophies of phenomenology, and how that philosophy can inform nursing research as a useful methodology. Nurse researchers using phenomenology as a methodology need to understand the philosophy of phenomenology to produce a research design that is philosophically congruent. However, phenomenology has a long and complex history of development, and may be difficult to understand and apply. The author draws from Heidegger (1962), Gadamer (2004), and nurse scholars and methodologists. To give the reader a sense of the development of the philosophy of phenomenology, the author briefly recounts its historical origins and interpretations, specifically related to Husserl, Heidegger and Gadamer. The author outlines the ontological and epistemological assumptions of Husserlian and Heideggerian phenomenology and guidance for methodology inspired by these philosophers. Difficulties with engaging in phenomenological research are addressed, especially the processes of phenomenological reduction and bracketing, and the lack of clarity about the methods of interpretation. Despite its complexity, phenomenology can provide the nurse researcher with indepth insight into nursing practice. An understanding of phenomenology can guide nurse researchers to produce results that have meaning in nursing patient care.
SOURCE PHENOMENOLOGY EXPERIMENTS IN ARIZONA
Jessie L. Bonner; Brian Stump; Mark Leidig; Heather Hooper; Xiaoning Yang; Rongmao Zhou; Tae Sung Kim; William R. Walter; Aaron Velasco; Chris Hayward; Diane Baker; C. L. Edwards; Steven Harder; Travis Glenn; Cleat Zeiler; James Britton; James F. Lewkowicz
2005-09-30
The Arizona Source Phenomenology Experiments (SPE) have resulted in an important dataset for the nuclear monitoring community. The 19 dedicated single-fired explosions and multiple delay-fired mining explosions were recorded by one of the most densely instrumented accelerometer and seismometer arrays ever fielded, and the data have already proven useful in quantifying confinement and excitation effects for the sources. It is very interesting to note that we have observed differences in the phenomenology of these two series of explosions resulting from the differences between the relatively slow (limestone) and fast (granodiorite) media. We observed differences at the two SPE sites in the way the rock failed during the explosions, how the S-waves were generated, and the amplitude behavior as a function of confinement. Our consortium's goal is to use the synergy of the multiple datasets collected during this experiment to unravel the phenomenological differences between the two emplacement media. The data suggest that the main difference between single-fired chemical and delay-fired mining explosion seismograms at regional distances is the increased surface wave energy for the latter source type. The effect of the delay-firing is to decrease the high-frequency P-wave amplitudes while increasing the surface wave energy because of the longer source duration and spall components. The results suggest that the single-fired explosions are surrogates for nuclear explosions in higher frequency bands (e.g., 6-8 Hz Pg/Lg discriminants). We have shown that the SPE shots, together with the mining explosions, are efficient sources of S-wave energy, and our next research stage is to postulate the possible sources contributing to the shear-wave energy.
Next Generation Transport Phenomenology Model
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Strickland, Douglas J.; Knight, Harold; Evans, J. Scott
2004-01-01
This report describes the progress made in Quarter 3 of Contract Year 3 on the development of Aeronomy Phenomenology Modeling Tool (APMT), an open-source, component-based, client-server architecture for distributed modeling, analysis, and simulation activities focused on electron and photon transport for general atmospheres. In the past quarter, column emission rate computations were implemented in Java, preexisting Fortran programs for computing synthetic spectra were embedded into APMT through Java wrappers, and work began on a web-based user interface for setting input parameters and running the photoelectron and auroral electron transport models.
Phenomenological implementations of TMD evolution
Boglione, Mariaelena; Gonzalez Hernandez, Jose Osvaldo; Melis, Stefano; Prokudin, Alexey
2015-03-01
Although the theoretical set-up of TMD evolution appears to be well established, its phenomenological implementations still require special attention, particularly as far as the interplay between perturbative and non-perturbative contributions is concerned. These issues have been extensively studied in Drell-Yan processes, where they seem to be reasonably under control. Instead, applying the same prescriptions and methodologies to Semi-Inclusive Deep Inelastic (SIDIS) processes is, at present, far from obvious. Some of the controversies related to the applications of TMD Evolution to SIDIS processes will be discussed with practical examples, exploring different kinematical configurations of SIDIS experiments.
Rizzo, Thomas G.
2006-10-17
A brief pedagogical overview of the phenomenology of Z{prime} gauge bosons is ILC in determining Z{prime} properties is also discussed. and explore in detail how the LHC may discover and help elucidate the models, review the current constraints on the possible properties of a Z{prime} nature of these new particles. We provide an overview of the Z{prime} studies presented. Such particles can arise in various electroweak extensions of that have been performed by both ATLAS and CMS. The role of the the Standard Model (SM). We provide a quick survey of a number of Z{prime}.
Next Generation Transport Phenomenology Model
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Strickland, Douglas J.; Knight, Harold; Evans, J. Scott
2004-01-01
This report describes the progress made in Quarter 3 of Contract Year 3 on the development of Aeronomy Phenomenology Modeling Tool (APMT), an open-source, component-based, client-server architecture for distributed modeling, analysis, and simulation activities focused on electron and photon transport for general atmospheres. In the past quarter, column emission rate computations were implemented in Java, preexisting Fortran programs for computing synthetic spectra were embedded into APMT through Java wrappers, and work began on a web-based user interface for setting input parameters and running the photoelectron and auroral electron transport models.
Norlyk, Annelise; Harder, Ingegerd
2010-03-01
This article contributes to the debate about phenomenology as a research approach in nursing by providing a systematic review of what nurse researchers hold as phenomenology in published empirical studies. Based on the assumption that presentations of phenomenological approaches in peer-reviewed journals have consequences for the quality of future research, the aim was to analyze articles presenting phenomenological studies and, in light of the findings, raise a discussion about addressing scientific criteria. The analysis revealed considerable variations, ranging from brief to detailed descriptions of the stated phenomenological approach, and from inconsistencies to methodological clarity and rigor. Variations, apparent inconsistencies, and omissions made it unclear what makes a phenomenological study phenomenological. There is a need for clarifying how the principles of the phenomenological philosophy are implemented in a particular study before publishing. This should include an articulation of methodological keywords of the investigated phenomenon, and how an open attitude was adopted.
Existential and Phenomenological Influences in Educational Philosophy.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Vandenberg, Donald
1979-01-01
Existentialism, methodology, phenomenology, and hermeneutics are defined as they apply to philosophy of education. A chronological presentation of the literature outlines the contributions of each. (JMF)
Conscious Connections: Phenomenology and Decoding the Disciplines
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Currie, Genevieve
2017-01-01
This chapter describes how seven disciplinary bottlenecks from four diverse disciplines were analyzed using a phenomenological perspective and includes a discussion of embodied knowing and implications for educators.
Particle phenomenology on noncommutative spacetime
Joseph, Anosh
2009-05-01
We introduce particle phenomenology on the noncommutative spacetime called the Groenewold-Moyal plane. The length scale of spacetime noncommutativity is constrained from the CPT violation measurements in the K{sup 0}-K{sup 0} system and g-2 difference of {mu}{sup +}-{mu}{sup -}. The K{sup 0}-K{sup 0} system provides an upper bound on the length scale of spacetime noncommutativity of the order of 10{sup -32} m, corresponding to a lower energy bound E of the order of E > or approx. 10{sup 16} GeV. The g-2 difference of {mu}{sup +}-{mu}{sup -} constrains the noncommutativity length scale to be of the order of 10{sup -20} m, corresponding to a lower energy bound E of the order of E > or approx. 10{sup 3} GeV. We also present the phenomenology of the electromagnetic interaction of electrons and nucleons at the tree level on the noncommutative spacetime. We show that the distributions of charge and magnetization of nucleons are affected by spacetime noncommutativity. The analytic properties of electromagnetic form factors are also changed and it may give rise to interesting experimental signals.
Phenomenological model of visual acuity.
Gómez-Pedrero, José A; Alonso, José
2016-12-01
We propose in this work a model for describing visual acuity (V) as a function of defocus and pupil diameter. Although the model is mainly based on geometrical optics, it also incorporates nongeometrical effects phenomenologically. Compared to similar visual acuity models, the proposed one considers the effect of astigmatism and the variability of best corrected V among individuals; it also takes into account the accommodation and the “tolerance to defocus,” the latter through a phenomenological parameter. We have fitted the model to the V data provided in the works of Holladay et al. and Peters, showing the ability of this model to accurately describe the variation of V against blur and pupil diameter. We have also performed a comparison between the proposed model and others previously published in the literature. The model is mainly intended for use in the design of ophthalmic compensations, but it can also be useful in other fields such as visual ergonomics, design of visual tests, and optical instrumentation.
Quantum corrected spherical collapse: A phenomenological framework
Ziprick, Jonathan; Kunstatter, Gabor
2010-08-15
A phenomenological framework is presented for incorporating quantum gravity motivated corrections into the dynamics of spherically symmetric collapse. The effective equations are derived from a variational principle that guarantees energy conservation and the existence of a Birkhoff theorem. The gravitational potential can be chosen as a function of the areal radius to yield specific nonsingular static spherically symmetric solutions that generically have two horizons. For a specific choice of potential, the effective stress energy tensor violates only the dominant energy condition. The violations are maximum near the inner horizon and die off rapidly. A numerical study of the quantum corrected collapse of a spherically symmetric scalar field in this case reveals that the modified gravitational potential prevents the formation of a central singularity and ultimately yields a static, mostly vacuum, spacetime with two horizons. The matter 'piles up' on the inner horizon giving rise to mass inflation at late times. The Cauchy horizon is transformed into a null, weak singularity, but in contrast to Einstein gravity, the absence of a central singularity renders this null singularity stable.
Some Phenomenological Aspects of the Peak Experience
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Rosenblatt, Howard S.; Bartlett, Iris
1976-01-01
This article relates the psychological dynamics of "peak experiences" to two concepts, intentionality and paradoxical intention, within the philosophical orientation of phenomenology. A review of early philosophical theories of self (Kant and Hume) is presented and compared with the experiential emphasis found in the phenomenology of Husserl.…
Phenomenological Research Methods for Counseling Psychology
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Wertz, Frederick J.
2005-01-01
This article familiarizes counseling psychologists with qualitative research methods in psychology developed in the tradition of European phenomenology. A brief history includes some of Edmund Husserl's basic methods and concepts, the adoption of existential-phenomenology among psychologists, and the development and formalization of qualitative…
The phenomenological movement: implications for nursing research.
Walters, A J
1995-10-01
This paper presents a comparison of the phenomenologies of Edmund Husserl and Martin Heidegger with the aim of highlighting some of the critical distinctions between these two 'schools' of phenomenology concerning the methodological implications of each approach for nursing research. Specifically, the paper examines: the implications of epistemology versus ontology; issues relating to validity; the involvement of the researcher, and aspects relating to interpretation.
Phenomenological Research Methods for Counseling Psychology
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Wertz, Frederick J.
2005-01-01
This article familiarizes counseling psychologists with qualitative research methods in psychology developed in the tradition of European phenomenology. A brief history includes some of Edmund Husserl's basic methods and concepts, the adoption of existential-phenomenology among psychologists, and the development and formalization of qualitative…
Some Phenomenological Aspects of the Peak Experience
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Rosenblatt, Howard S.; Bartlett, Iris
1976-01-01
This article relates the psychological dynamics of "peak experiences" to two concepts, intentionality and paradoxical intention, within the philosophical orientation of phenomenology. A review of early philosophical theories of self (Kant and Hume) is presented and compared with the experiential emphasis found in the phenomenology of Husserl.…
Existential Speech and the Phenomenology of Communication.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Lanigan, Richard L.
John Searle's book, "Speech Acts," opened with the question, "How do words relate to the world?" This paper suggests a way of answering Searle's question by relying--in spirit if not in method--on Austin's linguistic phenomenology. The existential phenomenology approach is described in Austin's phrase as a "sharpened…
Teleology as Logical Phenomenology: Some Therapeutic Implications.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Rychlak, Joseph F.
Phenomenology is an important force in the development of psychological theory, rather than a variant type of counseling method. A distinction must be drawn between the sensory phenomenology in which gestaltists focus on sensory receptors, and logical pheomenology in which the grounding of belief or self-identity is viewed as a prediction or…
Phenomenological Approaches in Psychology and Health Sciences
Davidsen, Annette Sofie
2013-01-01
A whole family of qualitative methods is informed by phenomenological philosophy. When applying these methods, the material is analyzed using concepts from this philosophy to interrogate the findings and to enable greater theoretical analysis. However, the phenomenological approach represents different approaches, from pure description to those more informed by interpretation. Phenomenological philosophy developed from a discipline focusing on thorough descriptions, and only descriptions, toward a greater emphasis on interpretation being inherent in experience. An analogous development toward a broader acknowledgment of the need for interpretation, the influence of the relationship and the researcher, and the co-construction of the narrative is mirrored in qualitative analytic theory and the description of newer analytic methods as, for example, Interpretative Phenomenological Analysis and Critical Narrative Analysis, methods which are theoretically founded in phenomenology. This methodological development and the inevitable contribution of interpretation are illustrated by a case from my own research about psychological interventions and the process of understanding in general practice. PMID:23606810
[Reflections on phenomenological research in nursing].
Schoppmann, S; Pohlmann, M
2000-12-01
This essay is concerned with the question which philosophical traditions underpin the phenomenological perspective in nursing research. The word phenomenology is often used synonymously on the level of the theory of science as well as on the level of research methods. Besides the similarity in the designation of phenomenology as a philosophical tradition and as a research method, there are to be found a number of terms in the nursing literature, such as hermeneutic, interpretive or interpretative phenomenology. Therefore it is hard to differentiate between the various accounts and to use them for a concrete inquiry in nursing. The differences and the resulting consequences for phenomenological research methods shall be described whereby the ideas of Edmund Husserl and Martin Heidegger are taken into account.
Observation and phenomenology of glueballs
Lindenbaum, S.J.
1985-01-01
The experimental evidence and the relevant phenomenology of glueballs are reviewed. The opinion is expressed that the glueball resonance explanation is the only viable one for the data on g/sub T/, g/sub T/sup 1//, and g/sub T/sup 11//. It is shown that alternative explanations are either incorrect, or do not fit the data, or both, leading to the conclusion that these states are probably produced by glueballs. The OZI rule is explained. Glueball masses and width are considered. Some conclusions are drawn regarding an OZI suppressed reaction ..pi../sup -/p ..-->.. phi phi n. Glueball candidates from the J/psi radiative decay are discussed. 44 refs., 16 figs. (LEW)
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lebed, Richard F.
1999-09-01
These lectures are designed to introduce the methods and results of large N c QCD in a presentation intended for nuclear and particle physicists alike. Beginning with definitions and motivations of the approach, we demonstrate that all quark and gluon Feynman diagrams are organized into classes based on powers of 1/N c. We then show that this result can be translated into definite statements about mesons and baryons containing arbitrary numbers of constituents. In the mesons, numerous well-known phenomenological properties follow as immediate consequences of simply counting powers of N c, while for the baryons, quantitative large N c analyses of masses and other properties are seen to agree with experiment, even when large” N c is set equal to its observed value of 3. Large N c reasoning is also used to explain some simple features of nuclear interactions.
Cell phenomenology: The first phenomenon.
Pattee, H H
2015-12-01
As a broad academic discipline phenomenology may be summarized as the study from a first person point of view of what appears to subjective human conscious experience. As a historical philosophical movement phenomenology was often motivated by the belief that subjective human experience is the proper foundation of all philosophy. I explore phenomena from a broader evolutionary and physical point of view. I consider a phenomenon as the subjective consequence of a physical interaction with an individual organism. In physical terms, a phenomenon requires some form of detection or measurement. What is detected is determined by the organism, and is potentially functional for the organism as a self or subject. The concept of function has meaning only for living organisms. The classical human mind-body problem is an ill-defined complicated case of the more general epistemic subject-object problem, which at the origin of life I reduce to the primitive symbol-matter problem. I argue that the first memory-based self-replicating unit, like a cell, is the most primitive case of a necessary symbol-matter distinction. The first phenomena, which include all forms or sensing, detection, and measurement, require a subject-object distinction, called the epistemic cut. It is only because of such a subject-object distinction that populations of individual subjects can selectively adapt to their environment by heritable variations. This basic evolutionary process requires distinguishing the individual's subjective phenomena from the objective events of inexorable physical laws. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Ltd.
Phenomenological theory giving the full statistics of the position of fluctuating pulled fronts
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Brunet, E.; Derrida, B.; Mueller, A. H.; Munier, S.
2006-05-01
We propose a phenomenological description for the effect of a weak noise on the position of a front described by the Fisher-Kolmogorov-Petrovsky-Piscounov equation or any other traveling-wave equation in the same class. Our scenario is based on four hypotheses on the relevant mechanism for the diffusion of the front. Our parameter-free analytical predictions for the velocity of the front, its diffusion constant and higher cumulants of its position agree with numerical simulations.
Phenomenological theory giving the full statistics of the position of fluctuating pulled fronts.
Brunet, E; Derrida, B; Mueller, A H; Munier, S
2006-05-01
We propose a phenomenological description for the effect of a weak noise on the position of a front described by the Fisher-Kolmogorov-Petrovsky-Piscounov equation or any other traveling-wave equation in the same class. Our scenario is based on four hypotheses on the relevant mechanism for the diffusion of the front. Our parameter-free analytical predictions for the velocity of the front, its diffusion constant and higher cumulants of its position agree with numerical simulations.
Phenomenology as a paradigm of movement.
Rapport, Frances; Wainwright, Paul
2006-09-01
Phenomenology is a well-founded qualitative methodology that is frequently used by nurse researchers and considered of value when addressing research questions in nursing practice and nurse education. However, at present, nurse researchers using phenomenology tend to divide phenomenological methodology into the descriptive and interpretive formats. The nursing literature suggests that there is a deep divide between researchers following the methodological underpinnings and basic precepts pertaining to these two camps. If we are to reach a clearer understanding of the theory underlying phenomenological methods it would be more helpful if we started to recognise that there are also important associations between transcendental and interpretive phenomenology. One such association is that a paradigm of movement exists that is not unique to transcendental and interpretive phenomenology but is common to them, as well as being inherent within a variety of fields of study. If we consider the universality of such imagery, looking to examples through parallel texts, we can obtain insights into phenomenology and its transposition into a workable scientific method that can be of use to the nurse researcher.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Custer, Michael; Sharairi, Sid; Yamazaki, Kenji; Signatur, Diane; Swift, David; Frey, Sharon
2008-01-01
The present study compared item and ability invariance as well as model-data fit between the one-parameter (1PL) and three-parameter (3PL) Item Response Theory (IRT) models utilizing real data across five grades; second through sixth as well as simulated data at second, fourth and sixth grade. At each grade, the 1PL and 3PL IRT models were run…
The phenomenological mechanochemistry of damage and radial cracking
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Grinfeld, Michael
2017-01-01
Traditional damage theory deals with distributed microcracks rather than with individual cracks. In its simplest form, this theory adds just one additional parameter to the set of classical thermodynamic parameters of deformable solids like strain and temperature. Basically, the traditional damage theory reflects only one experimental observation: The elastic moduli become smaller with growing damage. Contrary to the traditional damage theory, the Phenomenological Mechanochemistry of Damage (PMD) uses an energetic approach; it includes, in addition to the bulk elastic energy, the energy associated with braking/recovery of chemical bonds. Therefore, in addition to the elasticity equations, it includes the equation describing evolution/dynamics of chemical bonds. With the minimum amount of physically transparent assumptions, it allows the reproduction of radial cracking patterns that are often observed in experiments and nature. In this paper, we review some earlier results and present the novel ones with emphasis on the electro- or magnetostatics ponderomotive forces.
Schizophrenic delusions: a phenomenological approach.
Bovet, P; Parnas, J
1993-01-01
The issue of specificity of delusions in schizophrenia is still a matter of debate. The authors analyze the delusion formation in schizophrenia from a prototypical, phenomenological point of view, focusing on the subject's experience. This perspective links delusion formation to the autistic predisposition, which is considered here as the elementary phenotypic expression of the vulnerability to schizophrenia. Autism is viewed as a defective preconceptual (i.e., before language) attunement to the world. It impedes the individual's sharing of "common sense" with others and impairs the ability to project into the future. The development of delusions is illustrated, in part, by Klaus Conrad's work on the onset of paranoid schizophrenia. Delusions are viewed as transformations of the structure of experiencing. When threatened in future ability to be, the autistic, vulnerable person looks for the clues to becoming by attributing significance to disparate elements of the environment, which become self-referential. The link established between these disparate elements is based on universal characteristics that give the schizophrenic delusion a metaphysical quality. The transitivistic experience in delusions of control and omnipotence points to a specific way of crossing the border between "mine" and "yours" (disturbances of the experiencing "I"). What strikes a clinician in these delusions is that the normally tacit link between the sense of being and the sense of acting becomes quite apparent. The authors also propose a specificity in the themes of schizophrenic delusions. Delusions acquire a schizophrenic quality when ontological (i.e., universal) elements of the discourse between the locutor and the Other dominate at the expense of the worldly elements. It is emphasized that delusional content and form are dialectically related and hardly distinguishable. The authors consider the delusion formation as a phenomenon of emergence, a situation in which a new qualitative
Nonlinear dirac and diffusion equations in 1+1 dimensions from stochastic considerations
Maharana
2000-08-01
We generalize the method of obtaining fundamental linear partial differential equations such as the diffusion and Schrodinger equation, the Dirac, and the telegrapher's equation from a simple stochastic consideration to arrive at a certain nonlinear form of these equations. A group classification through a one-parameter group of transformations for two of these equations is also carried out.
Phenomenology of ELDER dark matter
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kuflik, Eric; Perelstein, Maxim; Lorier, Nicolas Rey-Le; Tsai, Yu-Dai
2017-08-01
We explore the phenomenology of Elastically Decoupling Relic (ELDER) dark matter. ELDER is a thermal relic whose present density is determined primarily by the cross-section of its elastic scattering off Standard Model (SM) particles. Assuming that this scattering is mediated by a kinetically mixed dark photon, we argue that the ELDER scenario makes robust predictions for electron-recoil direct-detection experiments, as well as for dark photon searches. These predictions are independent of the details of interactions within the dark sector. Together with the closely related Strongly-Interacting Massive Particle (SIMP) scenario, the ELDER predictions provide a physically motivated, well-defined target region, which will be almost entirely accessible to the next generation of searches for sub-GeV dark matter and dark photons. We provide useful analytic approximations for various quantities of interest in the ELDER scenario, and discuss two simple renormalizable toy models which incorporate the required strong number-changing interactions among the ELDERs, as well as explicitly implement the coupling to electrons via the dark photon portal.
HEMP internal coupling phenomenology study
Kunz, K.S.; Hudson, H.G.; Breakall, J.K.; King, R.J.; Ziolkowski, R.; Madsen, N.; Peterson, J.; Pennock, S.T.
1985-09-01
This report documents a task sponsored by DNA to unravel the electromagnetic coupling problem associated with the interaction of the high altitude electromagnetic pulse HEMP) with typical aerospace systems. A bottom up approach to this task has been selected. In this approach, tools are developed for measuring and predicting the responses of simple test systems; from these measurements and predictions phenomenological understanding of the coupling mechanisms may be obtained and the tools may be verified. The construction and the experimental characterization of a test system embodying the fundamental features of an interior coupling problem, is discussed. Experimental, computational and analytical tools has been applied to this test system. Experimental measurements have revealed a pronounced modal interior response which has been closely replicated with the time domain three dimensional finite difference code G3DXL3. The persistence of these modes has been established analytically with an N-series analysis. Focusing and reflection effects as well as hot spot formation have been examined with the N-series analysis and with a time domain two-dimensional finite element code GEM2D.
Phenomenology of Active Galactic Nuclei
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Leahy, J. P.
1999-04-01
I review the observational data on AGN, focusing especially on results that may be relevant to sub-parsec discs. After emphasizing the essential unity of the different AGN, from LINERs to quasars, I review several observational tracers which have been claimed to be produced by accretion discs. In most cases the interpretation of these data is ambiguous, but the recent detections of redshifted Fe K alpha by ASCA provide convincing evidence for discs. I briefly review the phenomenology of jets in AGN, and emphasize that jets are detected in all classes of AGN, and in radio-loud AGN comprise a major component of the energy budget. Evidence that jets are relativistic is now compelling for all types of radio-loud AGN and is accumulating even for radio-quiet objects. Data on jets provide a long-term record of AGN activity which constrains aspects of disc history including start-up times, alignment stability and precession, lifetimes, and recurrent activity. Finally, I discuss the distinction between radio-quiet and radio loud AGN, which is broad enough to suggest two fundamentally different types of central engine, although it may not be as clear-cut as is sometimes claimed. At present there is no consensus on the nature of this difference. I draw attention to the broad absorption line (BAL) phenomenon, which signposts powerful but uncollimated outflows in radio-quiet AGN, which may correspond to the powerful jets in the radio-loud objects.
Psychoanalysis--a phenomenology of language.
Kupke, Christian
2003-01-01
It is often said that there is an unbridgeable gap between phenomenology and psychoanalysis. But this is only half the truth. Starting from Merleau-Ponty's proposal of an objectivistic and an idealistic divergence of Freud's enterprise the paper tries to reconstruct two possible movements: the objectivistic divergence of Husserl's enterprise as a phenomenological shift towards psychoanalysis and the idealistic divergence of Freud's enterprise as a psychoanalytical shift towards phenomenology. It is shown that this approach is possible on the field of language and semiotics where psychic life, as the essence of our subjectivity, may be rendered as a uniform phenomenon of an articulation in the world of signs. This thesis is elucidated at the end of the paper by discussing first (to the phenomenological side) a certain interpretation of the use of Husserl's reduction as a method of investigation in psychiatry and second (to the psychoanalytic side) the importance of Lacan's difference between repression and foreclosure for a psychopathological understanding of psychosis.
The politics of phenomenological concepts in nursing.
Holmes, C A
1996-09-01
This paper challenges those nurses who champion Heideggerian phenomenology, by outlining some of the possible political consequences of that philosophy. Some relationships between phenomenology and fascism are discussed, with special reference to anti-humanism and authenticity. Heidegger's commitment to Nazism is affirmed and, following the lead of other recent contributions to the debate, it is suggested that this was the likely, if not inevitable, result of his phenomenological philosophy. It is concluded that, because of its immanent fascism, Heideggerian phenomenology is at odds with the general value orientation publicly espoused by the nursing profession, and that this may render it not only unsuitable as a means of understanding and elaborating nursing knowledge, but also actively counter-productive to the conventional aspirations of nurses.
Overview on Neutrino Theory and Phenomenology
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zhou, Shun
2017-06-01
In this talk, I give an overview on recent theoretical and phenomenological studies of massive neutrinos. First of all, the present status of neutrino mixing parameters is summarized. The phenomenology of neutrino oscillations is then discussed, and current understanding of lepton flavor mixing is presented. Finally, I consider the seesaw models of neutrino masses and briefly mention the direct searches at the CERN Large Hadron Collider (LHC).
Phenomenology and its application in medicine.
Carel, Havi
2011-02-01
Phenomenology is a useful methodology for describing and ordering experience. As such, phenomenology can be specifically applied to the first person experience of illness in order to illuminate this experience and enable health care providers to enhance their understanding of it. However, this approach has been underutilized in the philosophy of medicine as well as in medical training and practice. This paper demonstrates the usefulness of phenomenology to clinical medicine. In order to describe the experience of illness, we need a phenomenological approach that gives the body a central role and acknowledges the primacy of perception. I present such a phenomenological method and show how it could usefully illuminate the experience of illness through a set of concepts taken from Merleau-Ponty. His distinction between the biological body and the body as lived, analysis of the habitual body, and the notions of motor intentionality and intentional arc are used to capture the experience of illness. I then discuss the applications this approach could have in medicine. These include narrowing the gap between objective assessments of well-being in illness and subjective experiences which are varied and diverse; developing a more attuned dialogue between physicians and patients based on a thick understanding of illness; developing research methods that are informed by phenomenology and thus go beyond existing qualitative methods; and providing medical staff with a concrete understanding of the impact of illness on the life-world of patients.
Dark matter phenomenology of SM and enlarged Higgs sectors extended with vector-like leptons
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Angelescu, Andrei; Arcadi, Giorgio
2017-07-01
We will investigate the scenario in which the Standard Model (SM) Higgs sector and its two-doublet extension (called the Two Higgs Doublet Model or 2HDM) are the "portal" for the interactions between the Standard Model and a fermionic Dark Matter (DM) candidate. The latter is the lightest stable neutral particle of a family of vector-like leptons (VLLs). We will provide an extensive overview of this scenario combining the constraints coming purely from DM phenomenology with more general constraints like Electroweak Precision Test (EWPT) as well as with collider searches. In the case that the new fermionic sector interacts with the SM Higgs sector, constraints from DM phenomenology force the new states to lie above the TeV scale. This requirement is relaxed in the case of 2HDM. Nevertheless, strong constraints coming from EWPTs and the Renormalization Group Equations (RGEs) limit the impact of VLFs on collider phenomenology.
Generalized Thomas-Fermi equations as the Lampariello class of Emden-Fowler equations
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Rosu, Haret C.; Mancas, Stefan C.
2017-04-01
A one-parameter family of Emden-Fowler equations defined by Lampariello's parameter p which, upon using Thomas-Fermi boundary conditions, turns into a set of generalized Thomas-Fermi equations comprising the standard Thomas-Fermi equation for p = 1 is studied in this paper. The entire family is shown to be non integrable by reduction to the corresponding Abel equations whose invariants do not satisfy a known integrability condition. We also discuss the equivalent dynamical system of equations for the standard Thomas-Fermi equation and perform its phase-plane analysis. The results of the latter analysis are similar for the whole class.
Schizophrenia: from phenomenology to neurobiology.
Wong, Albert Hung Choy; Van Tol, Hubert H M
2003-05-01
Schizophrenia is a common and debilitating illness, characterized by chronic psychotic symptoms and psychosocial impairment that exact considerable human and economic costs. The literature in electronic databases as well as citations and major articles are reviewed with respect to the phenomenology, pathology, treatment, genetics and neurobiology of schizophrenia. Although studied extensively from a clinical, psychological, biological and genetic perspective, our expanding knowledge of schizophrenia provides only an incomplete understanding of this complex disorder. Recent advances in neuroscience have allowed the confirmation or refutation of earlier findings in schizophrenia, and permit useful comparisons between the different levels of organization from which the illness has been studied. Schizophrenia is defined as a clinical syndrome that may include a collection of diseases that share a common presentation. Genetic factors are the most important in the etiology of the disease, with unknown environmental factors potentially modulating the expression of symptoms. Schizophrenia is a complex genetic disorder in which many genes may be implicated, with the possibility of gene-gene interactions and a diversity of genetic causes in different families or populations. A neurodevelopmental rather than degenerative process has received more empirical support as a general explanation of the pathophysiology, although simple dichotomies are not particularly helpful in such a complicated disease. Structural brain changes are present in vivo and post-mortem, with both histopathological and imaging studies in overall agreement that the temporal and frontal lobes of the cerebral cortex are the most affected. Functional imaging, neuropsychological testing and clinical observation are also generally consistent in demonstrating deficits in cognitive ability that correlate with abnormalities in the areas of the brain with structural abnormalities. The dopamine and other
Phenomenology of genius and psychopathology.
Doerr-Zegers, Otto
2003-01-01
The relationship between genius and madness has been a subject of interest since the beginning of critical and philosophical thinking. Thus, Aristotle, in the Book XXX of the Problemata, asks himself "why are all extraordinary men in the fields of philosophy, politics, poetry and art melancholic?, adding afterwards: "...and some of them in such a way that they may suffer from pathologic manifestations whose origin is in the black bile". In the past decades the German author Tellenbach studied the personalities of several geniuses, both from fiction, such as Hamlet, and from reality, such as the writer von Kleist, concluding that they suffered from a specific form of depression that he called "Schwermut" (melancholy), which was supposedly different from the narrowly defined illness of depression. Other work done on this subject is the extensive study by the North American author Kay Jamison, who, after researching the biography and the tree of a long list of writers, composers and musicians, concluded that all of them had suffered to some degree from a bipolar disorder. This author strives to carry out a phenomenology of genius, and he finds that, together with other essential features, the geniuses always show forms of experiencing and/or of behaving which do not fall within the range that is considered normal, although they can not always be classified as pathological. His study is based on the analysis of the life and the work of three men whose genius could not be doubted: the naturalist Alexander von Humboldt, the philosopher Soeren Kierkegaard and the poet Rainer Maria Rilke. This author specially focuses on the last named, since in his later work he explicitly meditated on the suffering that has meant for him his condition of genius and what he considered the only way to overcome them: to be faithful to the work of art, whose fulfilment was imposed on him--to a certain degree from the endogenous--as an unavoidable imperative.
Collider Phenomenology of Extra Dimensions
Lillie, Benjamin Huntington; /Stanford U., Phys. Dept. /SLAC
2006-03-10
In recent years there has been much interest in the possibility that there exist more spacetime dimensions than the usual four. Models of particle physics beyond the Standard Model that incorporate these extra dimensions can solve the gauge hierarchy problem and explain why the fermion masses a spread over many orders of magnitude. In this thesis we explore several possibilities for models with extra dimensions. First we examine constraints on the proposal of Arkani-Hamed and Schmaltz that the Standard Model fermions are localized to different positions in an extra dimension, thereby generating the hierarchy in fermion masses. We find strong constraints on the compactification scale of such models arising from flavor-changing neutral currents. Next we investigate the phenomenology of the Randall-Sundrum model, where the hierarchy between the electroweak and Planck scales is generated by the warping in a five-dimensional anti-de Sitter space. In particular, we investigate the ''Higgsless'' model of electroweak symmetry breaking due to Csaki et. al., where the Higgs has been decoupled from the spectrum by taking its vacuum expectation value to infinity. We find that this model produces many distinctive features at the LHC. However, we also find that it is strongly constrained by precision electroweak observables and the requirement that gauge-boson scattering be perturbative. We then examine the model with a finite vacuum expectation value, and find that there are observable shifts to the Higgs scalar properties. Finally, in the original large extra dimension scenario of Arkani-Hamed, Dimopoulos, and Dvali, the hierarchy problem is solved by allowing gravity to propagate in a large extra dimensional volume, while the Standard Model fields are confined to 4 dimensions. We consider the case where there are a large number of extra dimensions (n {approx} 20). This model can solve the hierarchy problem without introducing a exponentially large radii for the extra
Phenomenological aspects of the cognitive rumination construct.
Meyer, Leonardo Fernandez; Taborda, José Geraldo Vernet; da Costa, Fábio Antônio; Soares, Ana Luiza Alfaya Galego; Mecler, Kátia; Valença, Alexandre Martins
2015-01-01
To evaluate the importance of phenomenological aspects of the cognitive rumination (CR) construct in current empirical psychiatric research. We searched SciELO, Scopus, ScienceDirect, MEDLINE, OneFile (GALE), SpringerLink, Cambridge Journals and Web of Science between February and March of 2014 for studies whose title and topic included the following keywords: cognitive rumination; rumination response scale; and self-reflection. The inclusion criteria were: empirical clinical study; CR as the main object of investigation; and study that included a conceptual definition of CR. The studies selected were published in English in biomedical journals in the last 10 years. Our phenomenological analysis was based on Karl Jaspers' General Psychopathology. Most current empirical studies adopt phenomenological cognitive elements in conceptual definitions. However, these elements do not seem to be carefully examined and are indistinctly understood as objective empirical factors that may be measured, which may contribute to misunderstandings about CR, erroneous interpretations of results and problematic theoretical models. Empirical studies fail when evaluating phenomenological aspects of the cognitive elements of the CR construct. Psychopathology and phenomenology may help define the characteristics of CR elements and may contribute to their understanding and hierarchical organization as a construct. A review of the psychopathology principles established by Jasper may clarify some of these issues.
Phenomenology as a resource for patients.
Carel, Havi
2012-04-01
Patient support tools have drawn on a variety of disciplines, including psychotherapy, social psychology, and social care. One discipline that has not so far been used to support patients is philosophy. This paper proposes that a particular philosophical approach, phenomenology, could prove useful for patients, giving them tools to reflect on and expand their understanding of their illness. I present a framework for a resource that could help patients to philosophically examine their illness, its impact on their life, and its meaning. I explain the need for such a resource, provide philosophical grounding for it, and outline the epistemic and existential gains philosophy offers. Illness often begins as an intrusion on one's life but with time becomes a way of being. I argue that this transition impacts on core human features such as the experience of space and time, human abilities, and adaptability. It therefore requires philosophical analysis and response. The paper uses ideas from Husserl and Merleau-Ponty to present such a response in the form of a phenomenological toolkit for patients. The toolkit includes viewing illness as a form of phenomenological reduction, thematizing illness, and examining illness as altering the ill person's being in the world. I suggest that this toolkit could be offered to patients as a workshop, using phenomenological concepts, texts, and film clips to reflect on illness. I conclude by arguing that examining illness as a limit case of embodied existence deepens our understanding of phenomenology.
Exploring complete positivity in hierarchy equations of motion
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Witt, B.; Rudnicki, Ł.; Tanimura, Y.; Mintert, F.
2017-01-01
We derive a purely algebraic framework for the identification of hierarchy equations of motion that induce completely positive dynamics and demonstrate the applicability of our approach with several examples. We find bounds on the violation of complete positivity for microscopically derived hierarchy equations of motion and construct well-behaved phenomenological models with strongly non-Markovian revivals of quantum coherence.
Primordial power spectrum features in phenomenological descriptions of inflation
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Gariazzo, Stefano; Mena, Olga; Ramírez, Héctor; Boubekeur, Lotfi
2017-09-01
We extend an alternative, phenomenological approach to inflation by means of an equation of state and a sound speed, both of them functions of the number of e-folds and four phenomenological parameters. This approach captures a number of possible inflationary models, including those with non-canonical kinetic terms or scale-dependent non-gaussianities. We perform Markov Chain Monte Carlo analyses using the latest cosmological publicly available measurements, which include Cosmic Microwave Background (CMB) data from the Planck satellite. Within this parameterization, we discard scale invariance with a significance of about 10 σ, and the running of the spectral index is constrained as αs = - 0.60-0.10+0.08 × 10-3 (68% CL errors). The limit on the tensor-to-scalar ratio is r < 0 . 005 at 95% CL from CMB data alone. We find no significant evidence for this alternative parameterization with present cosmological observations. The maximum amplitude of the equilateral non-gaussianity that we obtain, | fNLequil | < 1, is much smaller than the current Planck mission errors, strengthening the case for future high-redshift, all-sky surveys, which could reach the required accuracy on equilateral non-gaussianities.
An overview of interpretive phenomenology as a research methodology.
Tuohy, Dympna; Cooney, Adeline; Dowling, Maura; Murphy, Kathy; Sixsmith, Jane
2013-07-01
To provide an overview of interpretive phenomenology. Phenomenology is a philosophy and a research approach. As a research approach, it is used extensively in nursing and 'interpretive' phenomenology is becoming increasingly popular. Online and manual searches of relevant books and electronic databases were undertaken. Literature review on papers on phenomenology, research and nursing (written in English) was undertaken. A brief outline of the origins of the concept, and the influence of 'descriptive' phenomenology on the development of interpretive phenomenology is provided. Its aim, origins and philosophical basis, including the core concepts of dasein, fore-structure/pre-understanding, world view existential themes and the hermeneutic circle, are described and the influence of these concepts in phenomenological nursing research is illustrated. This paper will assist readers when deciding whether interpretive phenomenology is appropriate for their research projects. This paper adds to the discussion on interpretive phenomenology and helps inform readers of its use as a research methodology.
The current dialogue between phenomenology and psychiatry: a problematic misunderstanding.
Abettan, Camille
2015-11-01
A revival of the dialogue between phenomenology and psychiatry currently takes place in the best international journals of psychiatry. In this article, we analyse this revival and the role given to phenomenology in this context. Although this dialogue seems at first sight interesting, we show that it is problematic. It leads indeed to use phenomenology in a special way, transforming it into a discipline dealing with empirical facts, so that what is called "phenomenology" has finally nothing to do with phenomenology. This so-called phenomenology tallies however with what we have always called semiology. We try to explain the reasons why phenomenology is misused in that way. In our view, this transformation of phenomenology into an empirical and objectifying discipline is explained by the role attributed to phenomenology by contemporary authors, which is to solve the problems raised by the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders.
The phenomenology of trapped inflation
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Pearce, Lauren; Peloso, Marco; Sorbo, Lorenzo
2016-11-01
Trapped inflation is a mechanism in which particle production from the moving inflaton is the main source of friction in the inflaton equation of motion. The produced fields source inflaton perturbations, which dominate over the vacuum ones. We review the computation of the perturbations performed in the original work and in a successive analysis that makes use of the effective field theory (EFT) of inflation. This second paper employs the power spectrum of the inflaton perturbations obtained in the original work, and obtains a bispectrum which parametrically agrees with that of the original work, even if it originates from a different operator. We show that one approximation used in the original work to compute the correlators of the produced quanta is invalid. We replace this approximation with an exact solution of the system of equations developed in the original work and obtain a different amplitude for the power spectrum of the inflaton perturbations, which has a significant consequence for the allowed region of parameter space in this mechanism. We then show that the operator responsible for the bispectrum in the EFT computation does not arise from the computational scheme developed in the original paper and that the agreement between the bispectra of the two works is also caused by the invalid approximation.
A phenomenological interpretation of holistic nursing.
Bishop, A H; Scudder, J R
1997-06-01
Phenomenology contributes to holistic nursing by interpreting the first-person encounter with the lived world. Holistic nursing care integrates biopsychosociological knowledge with the practical care that is the legacy of generations of practicing nurses. A practice, when interpreted phenomenologically, is a historically developed way of fostering human well-being. Nursing is the practice of caring. Because nursing care concerns helping persons to live better in their world, it includes the moral, esthetic, and interpersonal aspects of care. These spiritual aspects are integrally enmeshed in holistic nursing. The spiritual in holistic nursing also designates the value dimension of meaning that gives life its worth and patients and nurses the courage to be. Interpreted phenomenologically, holistic nursing integrally relates scientific meaning with the meanings of nursing practice, the lived world of patients, and the meaning that gives patients and nurses the courage to seek well-being in a world altered by illness and debilitation.
Phenomenological model for the optically induced easy direction.
Alexe-Ionescu, A L; Uncheselu, C; Lucchetti, L; Barbero, G
2007-02-01
We present a phenomenological model to interprete the optically induced easy direction in a nematic cell in the slab approximation. One of the surfaces of the sample is supposed to give strong anchoring, whereas the other, covered with photosensible material, very weak anchoring. We assume that a surface nematic molecule is submitted to a potential connected with its interaction with the surface easy direction, with the surface nematic field, and with the optical induced anisotropy. The case in which the coupling with the nematic order in the bulk is important is considered too. A differential equation for the time evolution of the surface director is proposed, in which the viscous torque is balanced by the torque related to the surface fields. We show that our theoretical predictions are in agreement with experimental data on the optical induced surface orientation. The dependence of the anchoring energy strength on the irradiation time for dye-doped liquid crystals is also investigated.
Phenomenological theory of kinetic friction for the solid lubricant film
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Braun, O. M.
2008-07-01
Molecular dynamics based on the Langevin equations with the coordinate- and velocity-dependent damping coefficients is used to investigate the friction properties of a 'hard' lubricant film confined between two solids, when the lubricant remains in the solid state during sliding. The dependence of the friction force on the temperature and sliding velocity in the smooth sliding regime is studied in detail for all three states of the lubricant: a lubricant with a crystalline structure, when the system exhibits a very low friction (superlubricity), an amorphous lubricant structure, which results in a high friction, and the liquid state of the lubricant film at high temperatures or velocities. A phenomenological theory of the kinetic friction is developed, which allows us to explain the simulation results and predict a variation of the friction properties with model parameters analytically.
Earle, Vicki
2010-10-01
In exploring phenomenological literature, it is evident that the term 'phenomenology' holds rather different meanings depending upon the context. Phenomenology has been described as both a philosophical movement and an approach to human science research. The phenomenology of Husserl, Heidegger, Gadamer, and Merleau-Ponty was philosophical in nature and not intended to provide rules or procedures for conducting research. The Canadian social scientist, van Manen, however, introduced specific guidelines for conducting human science research, which is rooted in hermeneutic phenomenology and this particular method has been employed in professional disciplines such as education, nursing, clinical psychology, and law. The purpose of this paper is to explore the difference between the phenomenological method as described by van Manen and that of other philosophers such as Husserl, Heidegger, Gadamer, and Merleau-Ponty. In so doing, the author aims to address the blurred boundaries of phenomenology as a research method and as a philosophical movement and highlight the influence of these blurred boundaries on nursing knowledge development.
Supersymmetry and supergravity: Phenomenology and grand unification
Arnowitt, R. |; Nath, P.
1993-12-31
A survey is given of supersymmetry and supergravity and their phenomenology. Some of the topics discussed are the basic ideas of global supersymmetry, the minimal supersymmetric Standard Model (MSSM) and its phenomenology, the basic ideas of local supersymmetry (supergravity), grand unification, supersymmetry breaking in supergravity grand unified models, radiative breaking of SU(2) {times} U(1), proton decay, cosmological constraints, and predictions of supergravity grand unified models. While the number of detailed derivations are necessarily limited, a sufficient number of results are given so that a reader can get a working knowledge of this field.
[An existential-phenomenological approach to consciousness].
Langle, A
2014-01-01
The human beings are characterized as subjects. Their essence is understood as Person. A treatment which does not consider the subjective and the Person would not correspond their essence. For a feeling and autonomous being, consciousness plays a role but cannot fully correspond the being a person. This has a therapeutic impact on the treatment of unconscious patients and gives the treatment a specific access. Some instructions for the therapeutic application of the phenomenological-existential concept and the phenomenological attitude towards unconscious or brain traumatized patients are given. The role of consciousness for being human is briefly reflected from an existential perspective.
Statistical turbulence theory and turbulence phenomenology
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Herring, J. R.
1973-01-01
The application of deductive turbulence theory for validity determination of turbulence phenomenology at the level of second-order, single-point moments is considered. Particular emphasis is placed on the phenomenological formula relating the dissipation to the turbulence energy and the Rotta-type formula for the return to isotropy. Methods which deal directly with most or all the scales of motion explicitly are reviewed briefly. The statistical theory of turbulence is presented as an expansion about randomness. Two concepts are involved: (1) a modeling of the turbulence as nearly multipoint Gaussian, and (2) a simultaneous introduction of a generalized eddy viscosity operator.
The role of supersymmetry phenomenology in particle physics
Wells, James D.
2000-12-14
Supersymmetry phenomenology is an important component of particle physics today. I provide a definition of supersymmetry phenomenology, outline the scope of its activity, and argue its legitimacy. This essay derives from a presentation given at the 2000 SLAC Summer Institute.
A Phenomenological Study of Financial Knowledge Application
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Nduku, Enita Bernice
2012-01-01
The intent of this qualitative phenomenological research study was to explore the influence of financial knowledge application and financial debts or freedom of traditional Texas college students. The study identified how financial knowledge application influenced whether traditional Texas college students do or do not accumulate debt. The study…
A Phenomenology of Outdoor Education Leader Experiences
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Field, Stephanie C.; Lauzon, Lara L.; Meldrum, John T.
2016-01-01
Limited qualitative research exists on the experiences of outdoor education leaders. The purpose of this phenomenological study was to explore the job-related experiences of outdoor education leaders within and outside the workplace. Five participants who had experience as outdoor education leaders completed in-depth, one-on-one interviews about…
Training Online Faculty: A Phenomenology Study
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Kang, Haijun
2012-01-01
Literature on training faculty to teach online still dwells on the issues explored a decade ago. To make a substantial move in this area, it is necessary to re-evaluate the essence of training in the context of producing qualified online faculty to teach quality online courses. Employing a phenomenological approach, this study examines seven…
Folk Phenomenology and the Offering of Teaching
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Rocha, Samuel D.
2016-01-01
This article will move in five parts. It begins with some priming notes on the relationship between philosophy of education and curriculum theory. Then it rehearses a collage of selected passages from a recent book, "Folk Phenomenology: Education, Study, and the Human Person" (Rocha, 2015a). Then the author works in a more speculative…
Theory and phenomenology of supernova neutrinos
Lunardini, Cecilia
2015-07-15
The theory and phenomenology of supernova neutrinos is reviewed, with focus on the most recent advancements on the neutrino flux predicted by supernova numerical models, on neutrino oscillations inside the star and in the Earth, and on the physics of the diffuse supernova neutrino background. Future directions of research are briefly summarized.
Exploring Relationships in Education: A Phenomenological Inquiry
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Giles, David; Smythe, Elizabeth; Spence, Debra
2012-01-01
Research that seeks to understand the lived experience of the teacher-student relationship is not prevalent. This article reports on a phenomenological inquiry which explored the nature of this relationship in the context of teacher education. Participant's lived experiences were hermeneutically interpreted against the philosophical writings of…
Can An American Do Semiotic Phenomenology?
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Lanigan, Richard L.
Divided into three sections, this paper explores semiotic phenomenology as a paradigm for communicology (a translation for the new French "comunicologie" and the "German Kommunikationgemeinschaft," which are used increasingly to suggest a qualitative and human signification as opposed to the quantitative and technological…
Can An American Do Semiotic Phenomenology?
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Lanigan, Richard L.
Divided into three sections, this paper explores semiotic phenomenology as a paradigm for communicology (a translation for the new French "comunicologie" and the "German Kommunikationgemeinschaft," which are used increasingly to suggest a qualitative and human signification as opposed to the quantitative and technological…
A Phenomenological Analysis of the Invisibility Syndrome
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Tovar-Murray, Darrick; Tovar-Murray, Maria
2012-01-01
Interpretative phenomenological analysis was used to explore 10 African American men's perceptions of invisibility. Participants perceived invisibility as an extra unwarranted burden that is accompanied by feelings of hopelessness, anxiety, and anger. Participants also coped with invisibility by finding safe havens within the Black community.…
A Phenomenological Study of Financial Knowledge Application
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Nduku, Enita Bernice
2012-01-01
The intent of this qualitative phenomenological research study was to explore the influence of financial knowledge application and financial debts or freedom of traditional Texas college students. The study identified how financial knowledge application influenced whether traditional Texas college students do or do not accumulate debt. The study…
Alternative Education Completers: A Phenomenological Study
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Murray, Becky L.; Holt, Carleton R.
2014-01-01
The purpose of this study was to explore the elements of the alternative education experience significant to successful completion of the program. This phenomenological paradigm provided the framework for all aspects of the qualitative study. Students, parents, administrators, and staff members of two alternative programs in the southeast Kansas…
Recovery from Psychosis: A Phenomenological Inquiry
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Nixon, Gary; Hagen, Brad; Peters, Tracey
2010-01-01
While mainstream psychiatry tends to view psychosis as an enduring and chronic condition, there is growing interest in the possibility of recovery from psychosis. A phenomenological research method was utilized in interviewing 17 individuals who all self-identified as being in recovery from psychosis. The research question was, "What was the lived…
Folk Phenomenology and the Offering of Teaching
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Rocha, Samuel D.
2016-01-01
This article will move in five parts. It begins with some priming notes on the relationship between philosophy of education and curriculum theory. Then it rehearses a collage of selected passages from a recent book, "Folk Phenomenology: Education, Study, and the Human Person" (Rocha, 2015a). Then the author works in a more speculative…
Professor Ninian Smart, Phenomenology and Religious Education
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
O'Grady, Kevin
2005-01-01
I reply to L. Philip Barnes' assessment of the contributions of Ninian Smart and phenomenology to religious education. My argument is that Barnes first misconceives and then underestimates Smart's legacy. I sketch Smart's relevance to some current issues in religious education, suggesting that his thought helps us to avoid potentially damaging…
A Phenomenology of Outdoor Education Leader Experiences
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Field, Stephanie C.; Lauzon, Lara L.; Meldrum, John T.
2016-01-01
Limited qualitative research exists on the experiences of outdoor education leaders. The purpose of this phenomenological study was to explore the job-related experiences of outdoor education leaders within and outside the workplace. Five participants who had experience as outdoor education leaders completed in-depth, one-on-one interviews about…
Recovery from Psychosis: A Phenomenological Inquiry
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Nixon, Gary; Hagen, Brad; Peters, Tracey
2010-01-01
While mainstream psychiatry tends to view psychosis as an enduring and chronic condition, there is growing interest in the possibility of recovery from psychosis. A phenomenological research method was utilized in interviewing 17 individuals who all self-identified as being in recovery from psychosis. The research question was, "What was the lived…
Phenomenology: A Review of the Literature
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Randles, Clint
2012-01-01
This article is a review of relevant literature on the use of phenomenology as a research methodology in education research, with a focus on music education research. The review is organized as follows: (a) general education, (b) music research, (c) music education research, (d) dissertations, (e) important figures, (f) themes, and (g) the future.…
Superstring phenomenology present-and-future perspective
Faraggi, A.E.
1997-07-01
The objective of superstring phenomenology is to develop the models and methodology needed to connect quantitatively between Planck scale and electroweak scale experimental data. I review the present status of this endeavor with a focus on the three generation free fermionic models.
Phenomenology of n - n ¯ oscillations revisited
Gardner, S.; Jafari, E.
2015-05-22
We revisit the phenomenology of n-n¯ oscillations in the presence of external magnetic fields, highlighting the role of spin. We show, contrary to long-held belief, that the n-n¯ transition rate need not be suppressed, opening new opportunities for its empirical study.
The Domain-Specificity of Creativity: Insights from New Phenomenology
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Julmi, Christian; Scherm, Ewald
2015-01-01
The question of the domain-specificity of creativity represents one of the key questions in creativity research. This article contributes to the discussion by applying insights from "new phenomenology," which is a phenomenological movement from Germany initiated by philosopher Hermann Schmitz. The findings of new phenomenology suggest…
Using Phenomenology to Conduct Environmental Education Research: Experience and Issues
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Nazir, Joanne
2016-01-01
Recently, I applied a phenomenological methodology to study environmental education at an outdoor education center. In this article, I reflect on my experience of doing phenomenological research to highlight issues researchers may want to consider in using this type of methodology. The main premise of the article is that phenomenology, with its…
Using Phenomenology to Conduct Environmental Education Research: Experience and Issues
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Nazir, Joanne
2016-01-01
Recently, I applied a phenomenological methodology to study environmental education at an outdoor education center. In this article, I reflect on my experience of doing phenomenological research to highlight issues researchers may want to consider in using this type of methodology. The main premise of the article is that phenomenology, with its…
The Domain-Specificity of Creativity: Insights from New Phenomenology
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Julmi, Christian; Scherm, Ewald
2015-01-01
The question of the domain-specificity of creativity represents one of the key questions in creativity research. This article contributes to the discussion by applying insights from "new phenomenology," which is a phenomenological movement from Germany initiated by philosopher Hermann Schmitz. The findings of new phenomenology suggest…
Putting phenomenology in its place: some limits of a phenomenology of medicine.
Sholl, Jonathan
2015-12-01
Several philosophers have recently argued that phenomenology is well-suited to help understand the concepts of health, disease, and illness. The general claim is that by better analysing how illness appears to or is experienced by ill individuals--incorporating the first-person perspective--some limitations of what is seen as the currently dominant third-person or 'naturalistic' approaches to understand health and disease can be overcome. In this article, after discussing some of the main insights and benefits of the phenomenological approach, I develop three general critiques of it. First, I show that what is often referred to as naturalism tends to be misunderstood and/or misrepresented, resulting in straw-man arguments. Second, the concept of normality is often problematically employed such that some aspects of naturalism are actually presupposed by many phenomenologists of medicine. Third, several of the key phenomenological insights and concepts, e.g. having vs. being a body, the alienation of illness, the epistemic role of the first-person perspective, and the idea of health within illness, each bring with them new problems that limit their utility. While acknowledging the possible contributions of phenomenology, these criticisms point to some severe limitations of bringing phenomenological insights to bear on the problems facing philosophy of medicine that should be addressed if phenomenology is to add anything substantially new to its debates.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lei, Yaguo; Liu, Zongyao; Lin, Jing; Lu, Fanbo
2016-05-01
Condition monitoring and fault diagnosis of epicyclic gearboxes using vibration signals are not as straightforward as that of fixed-axis gearboxes since epicyclic gearboxes behave quite differently from fixed-axis gearboxes in many aspects, like spectral structures. Aiming to present the spectral structures of vibration signals of epicyclic gearboxes, phenomenological models of vibration signals of epicyclic gearboxes are developed by algebraic equations and spectral structures of these models are deduced using Fourier series analysis. In the phenomenological models, all the possible vibration transfer paths from gear meshing points to a fixed transducer and the effects of angular shifts of planet gears on the spectral structures are considered. Accordingly, time-varying vibration transfer paths from sun-planet/ring-planet gear meshing points to the fixed transducer due to carrier rotation are given by window functions with different amplitudes. And an angular shift in one planet gear position is introduced in the process of modeling. After the theoretical derivations, three experiments are conducted on an epicyclic gearbox test rig and the spectral structures of collected vibration signals are analyzed. As a result, the effects of angular shifts of planet gears are verified, and the phenomenological models of vibration signals when a local fault occurs on the sun gear and the planet gear are validated, respectively. The experiment results demonstrate that the established phenomenological models in this paper are helpful to the condition monitoring and fault diagnosis of epicyclic gearboxes.
Phenomenology and adapted physical activity: philosophy and professional practice.
Standal, Øyvind F
2014-01-01
Through the increased use of qualitative research methods, the term phenomenology has become a quite familiar notion for researchers in adapted physical activity (APA). In contrast to this increasing interest in phenomenology as methodology, relatively little work has focused on phenomenology as philosophy or as an approach to professional practice. Therefore, the purpose of this article is to examine the relevance of phenomenology as philosophy and as pedagogy to the field of APA. First, phenomenology as philosophy is introduced through three key notions, namely the first-person perspective, embodiment, and life-world. The relevance of these terms to APA is then outlined. Second, the concept of phenomenological pedagogy is introduced, and its application and potential for APA are discussed. In conclusion, it is argued that phenomenology can help theorize ways of understanding human difference in movement contexts and form a basis of action-oriented research aiming at developing professional practice.
A Physical Interpretation of the Phenomenological Coefficients of Membrane Permeability
Kedem, O.; Katchalsky, A.
1961-01-01
A "translation" of the phenomenological permeability coefficients into friction and distribution coefficients amenable to physical interpretation is presented. Expressions are obtained for the solute permeability coefficient ω and the reflection coefficient σ for both non-electrolytic and electrolytic permeants. An analysis of the coefficients is given for loose membranes as well as for dense natural membranes where transport may go through capillaries or by solution in the lipoid parts of the membrane. Water diffusion and filtration and the relation between these and capillary pore radius of the membrane are discussed. For the permeation of ions through the charged membranes equations are developed for the case of zero electrical current in the membrane. The correlation of σ with ω and Lp for electrolytes resembles that for non-electrolytes. In this case ω and σ depend markedly on ion concentration and on the charge density of the membrane. The reflection coefficient may assume negative values indicating anomalous osmosis. An analysis of the phenomena of anomalous osmosis was carried out for the model of Teorell and Meyer and Sievers and the results agree with the experimental data of Loeb and of Grim and Sollner. A set of equations and reference curves are presented for the evaluation of ω and σ in the transport of polyvalent ions through charged membranes. PMID:13752127
Reenactment interviewing: a methodology for phenomenological research.
Drew, N
1993-01-01
Reenactment is proposed as an alternative interviewing strategy for phenomenological research. Three techniques borrowed from the psychodramatic method, warming up, scene-setting and soliloquy, are described as they were used in interviews with nurses participating in a study of caregiver/patient relationships. The rationale for and implementation of the techniques are discussed. Indications of successful reenactment during an interview are described and discussed. The data suggest that skillfully directed reenactment can generate intensely vivid recall of memories experiences and emotions, engendering rich descriptions of participants' lived experience and subsequently, produces significant dialogue between interviewer and participant. Parallels are drawn between phenomenological research/philosophy and the philosophy of action upon which psychodramatic techniques are based.
Planetary Bootstrap: A Prelude to Biosphere Phenomenology
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kazansky, Alexander B.
2004-08-01
This paper deals with systemic status as well as with some phenomenological and evolutionary aspects of biosphere. Biosphere is represented as multilevel autopoietic system in which different organizational levels are nested into each other. The conceptual model of punctuated epigenesis, biosphere evolutionary process is suggested, in which endogenous planetary organizational crises play role of evolutionary mechanism, creating novelty. The hypothesis is proposed, that the biosphere reaction on the humankind destructive activity reminds the distributed immune response of biological organism, described by F.Varela in his "cognitive immunology". The biosphere evolution is interpreted as the hermeneutical spiral of "Process Being" self-uncovering thus illustrating the historical process of transformation of biosphere as the type of Being in the periods of crises. Some arguments are adduced in favor of biosphere phenomenology development and application of the methods of second-order cybernetics to actual problems of planetary scale.
Phenomenological Modeling of Infrared Sources: Recent Advances
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Leung, Chun Ming; Kwok, Sun (Editor)
1993-01-01
Infrared observations from planned space facilities (e.g., ISO (Infrared Space Observatory), SIRTF (Space Infrared Telescope Facility)) will yield a large and uniform sample of high-quality data from both photometric and spectroscopic measurements. To maximize the scientific returns of these space missions, complementary theoretical studies must be undertaken to interpret these observations. A crucial step in such studies is the construction of phenomenological models in which we parameterize the observed radiation characteristics in terms of the physical source properties. In the last decade, models with increasing degree of physical realism (in terms of grain properties, physical processes, and source geometry) have been constructed for infrared sources. Here we review current capabilities available in the phenomenological modeling of infrared sources and discuss briefly directions for future research in this area.
Minimal relativistic three-particle equations
Lindesay, J.
1981-07-01
A minimal self-consistent set of covariant and unitary three-particle equations is presented. Numerical results are obtained for three-particle bound states, elastic scattering and rearrangement of bound pairs with a third particle, and amplitudes for breakup into states of three free particles. The mathematical form of the three-particle bound state equations is explored; constraints are set upon the range of eigenvalues and number of eigenstates of these one parameter equations. The behavior of the number of eigenstates as the two-body binding energy decreases to zero in a covariant context generalizes results previously obtained non-relativistically by V. Efimov.
Phenomenological Studies of Macroscale Failure in Metals
Kashiwa, Bryan Andrew; Hull, Lawrence Mark
2016-12-06
Highlights of recent phenomenological studies of metal failure are given. Failure leading to spallation and fragmentation are typically of interest. The current ‘best model’ includes the following; a full history stress in tension; nucleation initiating dynamic relaxation; toward a tensile yield function; failure dependent on strain, strain rate, and temperature; a mean-preserving ‘macrodefect’ is introduced when failure occurs in tension; and multifield theoretical refinements
Phenomenological Lagrangians, gauge models and branes
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zheltukhin, A. A.
2017-03-01
Phenomenological Lagrangians for physical systems with spontaneously broken symmetries are reformulated in terms of gauge field theory. Description of the Dirac p-branes in terms of the Yang-Mills- Cartan gauge multiplets interacting with gravity, is proved to be equivalent to their description as a closed dynamical system with the symmetry ISO(1, D - 1) spontaneously broken to ISO(1, p) × SO( D - p - 1).
On the verge: phenomenology and empathic unsettlement.
Shuman, Amy
2011-01-01
Using a phenomenological approach to questions about empathy and stigma, this essay explores stories told by parents of children with disabilities. In a close reading of "Welcome to Holland," an allegorical account of discovering that one's child has Down syndrome, I explore the concepts of narrative alignment (and positionality) and the politics of recognition in narratives about disability. In addition, this autoethnographic account describes my own "empathic unsettlement" as a parent and as an ethnographer.
High- Tc superconductivity: phenomenology and microscopics
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Eliashberg, G. M.
1993-11-01
The Luttinger-Wart sum rule is used as the start-point of a consistent semi-phenomenological description of the one-electron spectrum in solids. For normal metals it is essentially the Fermi-liquid theory but the effects of the Coulomb correlations are explicitly included. It is shown that the BCS theory can be formulated for strongly correlated metals, although the accuracy of this description decreases along with enhancement of Tc.
Phenomenology in minimal theory of massive gravity
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
De Felice, Antonio; Mukohyama, Shinji
2016-04-01
We investigate the minimal theory of massive gravity (MTMG) recently introduced. After reviewing the original construction based on its Hamiltonian in the vielbein formalism, we reformulate it in terms of its Lagrangian in both the vielbein and the metric formalisms. It then becomes obvious that, unlike previous attempts in the literature of Lorentz-violating massive gravity, not only the potential but also the kinetic structure of the action is modified from the de Rham-Gabadadze-Tolley (dRGT) massive gravity theory. We confirm that the number of physical degrees of freedom in MTMG is two at fully nonlinear level. This proves the absence of various possible pathologies such as superluminality, acausality and strong coupling. Afterwards, we discuss the phenomenology of MTMG in the presence of a dust fluid. We find that on a flat homogeneous and isotropic background we have two branches. One of them (self-accelerating branch) naturally leads to acceleration without the genuine cosmological constant or dark energy. For this branch both the scalar and the vector modes behave exactly as in general relativity (GR). The phenomenology of this branch differs from GR in the tensor modes sector, as the tensor modes acquire a non-zero mass. Hence, MTMG serves as a stable nonlinear completion of the self-accelerating cosmological solution found originally in dRGT theory. The other branch (normal branch) has a dynamics which depends on the time-dependent fiducial metric. For the normal branch, the scalar mode sector, even though as in GR only one scalar mode is present (due to the dust fluid), differs from the one in GR, and, in general, structure formation will follow a different phenomenology. The tensor modes will be massive, whereas the vector modes, for both branches, will have the same phenomenology as in GR.
Why natural science needs phenomenological philosophy.
Rosen, Steven M
2015-12-01
Through an exploration of theoretical physics, this paper suggests the need for regrounding natural science in phenomenological philosophy. To begin, the philosophical roots of the prevailing scientific paradigm are traced to the thinking of Plato, Descartes, and Newton. The crisis in modern science is then investigated, tracking developments in physics, science's premier discipline. Einsteinian special relativity is interpreted as a response to the threat of discontinuity implied by the Michelson-Morley experiment, a challenge to classical objectivism that Einstein sought to counteract. We see that Einstein's efforts to banish discontinuity ultimately fall into the "black hole" predicted in his general theory of relativity. The unavoidable discontinuity that haunts Einstein's theory is also central to quantum mechanics. Here too the attempt has been made to manage discontinuity, only to have this strategy thwarted in the end by the intractable problem of quantum gravity. The irrepressible discontinuity manifested in the phenomena of modern physics proves to be linked to a merging of subject and object that flies in the face of Cartesian philosophy. To accommodate these radically non-classical phenomena, a new philosophical foundation is called for: phenomenology. Phenomenological philosophy is elaborated through Merleau-Ponty's concept of depth and is then brought into focus for use in theoretical physics via qualitative work with topology and hypercomplex numbers. In the final part of this paper, a detailed summary is offered of the specific application of topological phenomenology to quantum gravity that was systematically articulated in The Self-Evolving Cosmos (Rosen, 2008a). Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Ltd.
Phenomenology in minimal theory of massive gravity
Felice, Antonio De; Mukohyama, Shinji
2016-04-15
We investigate the minimal theory of massive gravity (MTMG) recently introduced. After reviewing the original construction based on its Hamiltonian in the vielbein formalism, we reformulate it in terms of its Lagrangian in both the vielbein and the metric formalisms. It then becomes obvious that, unlike previous attempts in the literature of Lorentz-violating massive gravity, not only the potential but also the kinetic structure of the action is modified from the de Rham-Gabadadze-Tolley (dRGT) massive gravity theory. We confirm that the number of physical degrees of freedom in MTMG is two at fully nonlinear level. This proves the absence of various possible pathologies such as superluminality, acausality and strong coupling. Afterwards, we discuss the phenomenology of MTMG in the presence of a dust fluid. We find that on a flat homogeneous and isotropic background we have two branches. One of them (self-accelerating branch) naturally leads to acceleration without the genuine cosmological constant or dark energy. For this branch both the scalar and the vector modes behave exactly as in general relativity (GR). The phenomenology of this branch differs from GR in the tensor modes sector, as the tensor modes acquire a non-zero mass. Hence, MTMG serves as a stable nonlinear completion of the self-accelerating cosmological solution found originally in dRGT theory. The other branch (normal branch) has a dynamics which depends on the time-dependent fiducial metric. For the normal branch, the scalar mode sector, even though as in GR only one scalar mode is present (due to the dust fluid), differs from the one in GR, and, in general, structure formation will follow a different phenomenology. The tensor modes will be massive, whereas the vector modes, for both branches, will have the same phenomenology as in GR.
Hearing voices: A phenomenological-hermeneutic approach.
Thomas, Philip; Bracken, Patrick; Leudar, Ivan
2004-01-01
The word "phenomenology" has a number of meanings. In this paper we briefly contrast the different meanings of the word in psychiatry and philosophy. We then consider the work of the philosophers Heidegger and Merleau-Ponty, as examples of what Hubert Dreyfus calls ontological phenomenology, in contrast to an epistemological approach. We present a brief outline of Merleau-Ponty's theory of embodiment, and contrast this with the dominant, epistemological (or Cartesian) view of experience. Through the example of a woman who experienced bereavement hallucinations, we try to show how this approach can open up a hermeneutic approach to the experience of hearing voices. An understanding of embodiment can help to counter reductionism, whether biological or social, and dualism (body/mind and mind/society). It is only when we consider the totality of human experience that we can understand its meaning. This has two main benefits. First, it legitimates the claims made by those who hear voices that their experiences are intrinsically meaningful. Second, it can provide a framework for those who work with voice hearers and who are interested in understanding these experiences. In this sense, phenomenology can become a valuable clinical tool.
Photochemical Phenomenology Model for the New Millennium
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Bishop, James; Evans, J. Scott
2001-01-01
The "Photochemical Phenomenology Model for the New Millennium" project tackles the issue of reengineering and extension of validated physics-based modeling capabilities ("legacy" computer codes) to application-oriented software for use in science and science-support activities. While the design and architecture layouts are in terms of general particle distributions involved in scattering, impact, and reactive interactions, initial Photochemical Phenomenology Modeling Tool (PPMT) implementations are aimed at construction and evaluation of photochemical transport models with rapid execution for use in remote sensing data analysis activities in distributed systems. Current focus is on the Composite Infrared Spectrometer (CIRS) data acquired during the CASSINI flyby of Jupiter. Overall, the project has stayed on the development track outlined in the Year 1 annual report and most Year 2 goals have been met. The issues that have required the most attention are: implementation of the core photochemistry algorithms; implementation of a functional Java Graphical User Interface; completion of a functional CORBA Component Model framework; and assessment of performance issues. Specific accomplishments and the difficulties encountered are summarized in this report. Work to be carried out in the next year center on: completion of testing of the initial operational implementation; its application to analysis of the CASSINI/CIRS Jovian flyby data; extension of the PPMT to incorporate additional phenomenology algorithms; and delivery of a mature operational implementation.
Phenomenological and microscopic theories for catch bonds.
Chakrabarti, Shaon; Hinczewski, Michael; Thirumalai, D
2017-01-01
Lifetimes of bound states of protein complexes or biomolecule folded states typically decrease when subject to mechanical force. However, a plethora of biological systems exhibit the counter-intuitive phenomenon of catch bonding, where non-covalent bonds become stronger under externally applied forces. The quest to understand the origin of catch-bond behavior has led to the development of phenomenological and microscopic theories that can quantitatively recapitulate experimental data. Here, we assess the successes and limitations of such theories in explaining experimental data. The most widely applied approach is a phenomenological two-state model, which fits all of the available data on a variety of complexes: actomyosin, kinetochore-microtubule, selectin-ligand, and cadherin-catenin binding to filamentous actin. With a primary focus on the selectin family of cell-adhesion complexes, we discuss the positives and negatives of phenomenological models and the importance of evaluating the physical relevance of fitting parameters. We describe a microscopic theory for selectins, which provides a structural basis for catch bonds and predicts a crucial allosteric role for residues Asn82-Glu88. We emphasize the need for new theories and simulations that can mimic experimental conditions, given the complex response of cell adhesion complexes to force and their potential role in a variety of biological contexts. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Darboux transformation for the NLS equation
Aktosun, Tuncay; Mee, Cornelis van der
2010-03-08
We analyze a certain class of integral equations associated with Marchenko equations and Gel'fand-Levitan equations. Such integral equations arise through a Fourier transformation on various ordinary differential equations involving a spectral parameter. When the integral operator is perturbed by a finite-rank perturbation, we explicitly evaluate the change in the solution in terms of the unperturbed quantities and the finite-rank perturbation. We show that this result provides a fundamental approach to derive Darboux transformations for various systems of ordinary differential operators. We illustrate our theory by providing the explicit Darboux transformation for the Zakharov-Shabat system and show how the potential and wave function change when a simple discrete eigenvalue is added to the spectrum, and thus we also provide a one-parameter family of Darboux transformations for the nonlinear Schroedinger equation.
On Coupled Rate Equations with Quadratic Nonlinearities
Montroll, Elliott W.
1972-01-01
Rate equations with quadratic nonlinearities appear in many fields, such as chemical kinetics, population dynamics, transport theory, hydrodynamics, etc. Such equations, which may arise from basic principles or which may be phenomenological, are generally solved by linearization and application of perturbation theory. Here, a somewhat different strategy is emphasized. Alternative nonlinear models that can be solved exactly and whose solutions have the qualitative character expected from the original equations are first searched for. Then, the original equations are treated as perturbations of those of the solvable model. Hence, the function of the perturbation theory is to improve numerical accuracy of solutions, rather than to furnish the basic qualitative behavior of the solutions of the equations. PMID:16592013
Young, C.W.
1997-10-01
In 1967, Sandia National Laboratories published empirical equations to predict penetration into natural earth materials and concrete. Since that time there have been several small changes to the basic equations, and several more additions to the overall technique for predicting penetration into soil, rock, concrete, ice, and frozen soil. The most recent update to the equations was published in 1988, and since that time there have been changes in the equations to better match the expanding data base, especially in concrete penetration. This is a standalone report documenting the latest version of the Young/Sandia penetration equations and related analytical techniques to predict penetration into natural earth materials and concrete. 11 refs., 6 tabs.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Britz, Dieter
In this chapter, we present most of the equations that apply to the systems and processes to be dealt with later. Most of these are expressed as equations of concentration dynamics, that is,concentration of one or more solution species as a function of time, as well as other variables, in the form of differential equations. Fundamentally, these are transport (diffusion-, convection- and migration-) equations but may be complicated by chemical processes occurring heterogeneously (i.e. at the electrode surface - electrochemical reaction) or homogeneously (in the solution bulk - chemical reaction). The transport components are all included in the general Nernst-Planck equation (see also Bard and Faulkner 2001) for the flux J j of species j
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Prentis, Jeffrey J.
1996-05-01
One of the most challenging goals of a physics teacher is to help students see that the equations of physics are connected to each other, and that they logically unfold from a small number of basic ideas. Derivations contain the vital information on this connective structure. In a traditional physics course, there are many problem-solving exercises, but few, if any, derivation exercises. Creating an equation poem is an exercise to help students see the unity of the equations of physics, rather than their diversity. An equation poem is a highly refined and eloquent set of symbolic statements that captures the essence of the derivation of an equation. Such a poetic derivation is uncluttered by the extraneous details that tend to distract a student from understanding the essential physics of the long, formal derivation.
Research approaches related to phenomenology: negotiating a complex landscape.
Dowling, Maura; Cooney, Adeline
2012-01-01
To provide a comprehensive overview of the many research approaches related to phenomenology and their philosophical underpinnings. Phenomenological research approaches are varied and often difficult to apply appropriately. Some researchers persist in labelling their studies as examples of Heideggerian or Husserlian phenomenology without fully understanding the implications of the underpinning philosophical assumptions. Methodological sources related to phenomenology as a philosophy and phenomenology as a research approach are used to illustrate the range of phenomenological methods and their philosophical underpinnings. The origins of phenomenology are the writings of Husserl and the advancement of his thoughts by Merleau-Ponty, Heidegger, Gadamer and Ricoeur. The importance of fully understanding a methodology and its philosophical underpinnings before using it, or claiming to use it, is emphasised. In addition, the variety of phenomenological research approaches that have evolved over the past 50 years are explored and placed in the context of their philosophical underpinnings. There is no single way to conduct a phenomenological study. There are many approaches from which researchers can choose. This has resulted in a range of labels and often in different descriptions for the same approach. It is essential that researchers planning to use phenomenology are familiar with the many approaches available. This knowledge will help researchers choose the approaches that best suit the aims of their studies.
Michael Crotty and nursing phenomenology: criticism or critique?
Barkway, P
2001-09-01
In 1996 Michael Crotty published the text Phenomenology and nursing research in which he criticised many nurse researchers' interpretation of the methodology of phenomenology and their utilisation of phenomenology as a method for undertaking qualitative nursing research. Crotty's thesis proposes that the research conducted by nurses is not phenomenology according to the European tradition, but a North American hybrid. Subsequently, debate has occurred amongst nurses as to whether Crotty's work is a scholarly, reasoned critique or a severe, judgmental, fault-finding criticism of nursing research. Considering the increasing utilisation of phenomenology as a methodology that informs nursing research, this debate is an important one and has implications for the conduct of research. This article examines this debate and the implications of Crotty's work for phenomenological research in nursing.
An approach to the phenomenological analysis of data.
Priest, Helena
2003-01-01
In this paper, Helena Priest describes and justifies a phenomenological research method that may be used to explore complex and nebulous concepts relevant to nursing and health care, for example, the concept of 'caring'. The history and development of Husserlian phenomenology are outlined, followed by an account of the use of phenomenology within nursing research. Tensions inherent in the use of Husserlian phenomenology in nursing research are noted. A phenomenological approach to data analysis, designed to address some of these tensions, is described and compared with several well-established phenomenological analysis strategies. Issues of reliability, validity and generalisability are discussed, as are limitations in the use of the approach, before conclusions relevant to healthcare researchers are drawn.
Phenomenology of Heavy Quarkonia and Quantum Chromodynamics
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Schmitz, Stefan Josef Anton
Heavy quarkonia, the cc, b(')b, and soon to be discovered t(')t families of states, are studied in the framework of potential theory. The earlier proposed, flavor independent "Riverside"-potential is fit to masses of cc and b(')b states and their electronic widths are calculated. An unusual feature of the potential is the use of a parameter b which controls the small r or "asymptotic freedom" behavior and which can be related to the QCD scale parameter (LAMDA)(,MS). This param- eter b is virtually undetermined by the cc and b(')b spectra, merely excluding the range b < 4 or (LAMDA)(,MS) < 120MeV and slightly favoring (LAMDA)(,MS) (DBLTURN) 250MeV. It is shown how even minimal information on the t(')t states will restrict the (LAMDA)(,MS) value to a range of the order of 50MeV. A recent Lattice Gauge potential shows a remarkable closeness to the phenomenological approach. In view of the approximations involved, the difference between the two potentials is small. This difference is investigated in terms of the strong coupling constant (alpha) which can be extracted from both potentials. In the main r regime the Lattice Gauge (alpha) is markedly smaller than the phenomenological one. It is shown that the absence of intermediate, virtual quark loops in the Lattice Gauge calculation, i.e. the so-called quenched approximation, accounts for at least some and possibly most of that difference. Overall, the phenomenology of heavy quarkonia as studied in this work is in no conflict with QCD.
Sour Fruits on the Trail: Renewing Phenomenological Practice
De Monticelli, Roberta; Simionescu-Panait, Andrei
2015-01-01
This summer, Europe’s Journal of Psychology hosts a fruitful discussion about phenomenology, its method, the possibilities of application in today's context and its current troubled waters stemming from recent historical-ideological debates. Prof. Roberta De Monticelli offers lush and informative answers to provocative issues like overdriving the epoché, Heidegger's dark undertones, the relation between pedagogy and authorship in phenomenology and the idea of filtering politics through Husserlian phenomenology. PMID:27247664
Sour Fruits on the Trail: Renewing Phenomenological Practice.
De Monticelli, Roberta; Simionescu-Panait, Andrei
2015-08-01
This summer, Europe's Journal of Psychology hosts a fruitful discussion about phenomenology, its method, the possibilities of application in today's context and its current troubled waters stemming from recent historical-ideological debates. Prof. Roberta De Monticelli offers lush and informative answers to provocative issues like overdriving the epoché, Heidegger's dark undertones, the relation between pedagogy and authorship in phenomenology and the idea of filtering politics through Husserlian phenomenology.
Phenomenological differences of hallucinations between schizophrenic patients in Penang & Kelantan.
Azhar, M Z; Varma, S L; Hakim, H R
1993-06-01
Two hundred and seventy patients with schizophrenia (104 patients in Kelantan and 166 patients in Penang) were interviewed using the Present State Examination to elicit the differences in the phenomenology of their hallucinations. The results indicate that there are significant differences in the phenomenology of hallucinations between the Malays of Penang and Kelantan and also among some Chinese patients. These findings indicate that culture does affect the phenomenology of schizophrenia, even among people of the same race but of different regions.
Research philosophy and Socrates: rediscovering the birth of phenomenology.
Vivilaki, Victoria; Johnson, Martin
2008-01-01
Socrates can, to some extent, be credited with an original conception of what is now seen as 20th century phenomenology 'invented' by Heidegger. With phenomenology becoming more recognised as important in understanding health care and all its complexities, this article by Victoria Vivilaki and Martin Johnson provides a theoretical evaluation of some of the terminology and the underpinning philosophy used in recent phenomenological studies.
Phenomenology and treatment of behavioural addictions.
Grant, Jon E; Schreiber, Liana R N; Odlaug, Brian L
2013-05-01
Behavioural addictions are characterized by an inability to resist an urge or drive resulting in actions that are harmful to oneself or others. Behavioural addictions share characteristics with substance and alcohol abuse, and in areas such as natural history, phenomenology, and adverse consequences. Behavioural addictions include pathological gambling, kleptomania, pyromania, compulsive buying, compulsive sexual behaviour, Internet addiction, and binge eating disorder. Few studies have examined the efficacy of pharmacological and psychological treatment for the various behavioural addictions, and therefore, currently, no treatment recommendations can be made.
Phenomenological extraction of Transverse Momentum Dependent distributions
Prokudin, Alexei
2011-10-24
We discuss phenomenological extraction of Transverse Momentum Dependent Distributions (TMDs) from experimental data. At leading twist spin structure of spin-1/2 hadron can be described by 8 TMDs. TMDs reveal three-dimensional distribution of partons inside polarised nucleon. Experimentally these functions can be studied in polarised experiments using Spin Asymmetries in particular Single Spin Asymmetries (SSAs). We discuss transversity that measures distribution of transversely polarised quarks in a transversely polarised nucleon and Sivers distribution function that describes distribution of unpolarised quarks in a transversely polarised nucleon.
Dark matter complementarity in the phenomenological MSSM
Ismail, Ahmed
2014-06-24
The lightest neutralino of the Minimal Supersymmetric Standard Model (MSSM) with R-parity conservation is one of the most well-studied dark matter (DM) candidates. Using a set of models in the 19-parameter phenomenological MSSM (pMSSM), we examine the abilities of XENON100/1T, LUX-ZEPLIN, Fermi, CTA, IceCube/DeepCore, and the LHC to study neutralino dark matter. We find that direct detection, indirect detection, neutrino telescope, and collider searches for minimal supersymmetry often fulfill concomitant roles.
Phenomenology of effective geometries from quantum gravity
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Torromé, Ricardo Gallego; Letizia, Marco; Liberati, Stefano
2015-12-01
In a recent paper [M. Assanioussi, A. Dapor, and J. Lewandowski, Phys. Lett. B 751, 302 (2015)] a general mechanism for the emergence of cosmological spacetime geometry from a quantum gravity setting was devised and a departure from standard dispersion relations for an elementary particle was predicted. We elaborate here on this approach extending the results obtained in that paper and showing that generically such a framework will not lead to higher order modified dispersion relations in the matter sector. Furthermore, we shall discuss possible phenomenological constraints to this scenario showing that spacetime will have to be classical to a very high degree by now in order to be consistent with current observations.
Phenomenology of electromagnetic coupling. Part II
King, R.J.; Ludwigsen, A.P.; Kunz, K.S.
1985-08-01
This report is the second of a planned series which summarize efforts at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory relating to phenomenology studies of back door coupling from several MHz to 10's of GHz. These studies are pertinent to high altitude EMP (HEMP), enhanced HEMP and microwave coupling. Part I dealt with coupling through apertures into large free-standing cavities having, at most, one interior cable. An overview of the effort is given, and a summary of the effects observed in Part I. The main effort since Part I has been devoted to Facilities Development, development of an interior coupling decomposition model and coupling experiments. Projected future effort is discussed.
Phenomenology of Supersymmetric Large Extra Dimensions
Hewett, JoAnne L.
2002-12-09
We study the phenomenology of a supersymmetric bulk in the scenario of large extra dimensions. The virtual exchange of gravitino KK states in selectron pair production in polarized e{sup +}e{sup -} collisions is examined. The leading order operator for this exchange is dimension six, in contrast to that of graviton KK exchange which induces a dimension eight operator at lowest order. Some kinematic distributions for selectron production are presented. These processes yield an enormous sensitivity to the fundamental higher dimensional Planck scale.
Characteristics of the phenomenological interview in nursing research.
Guerrero-Castañeda, Raúl Fernando; Menezes, Tânia Maria de Oliva; Ojeda-Vargas, Ma Guadalupe
2017-07-06
To reflect on the characteristics of the phenomenological interview as part of a phenomenological research in nursing research and to present some practical recommendations for its realization. Reflective theoretical study conducted in October and November of 2016 about the development of the phenomenological interview in nursing, based on the scientific literature and critical analysis of the authors. We present the characteristics of the phenomenological interview and suggest some practical recommendations for its application in nursing. The interview is a valuable tool to access the phenomenon studied in nursing and unveiled by being.
Non-commutative relativistic equation with a Coulomb potential
Zaim, Slimane; Khodja, Lamine; Delenda, Yazid
2012-06-27
We improve the previous study of the Klein-Gordon equation in a non-commutative space-time as applied to the Hydrogen atom to extract the energy levels, by considering the secondorder corrections in the non-commutativity parameter. Phenomenologically we show that noncommutativity plays the role of spin.
Ramos-Gorostiza, Pablo; Adán-Manes, Jaime
2013-01-01
The epistemological underpinnings of psychiatric theory and practice have always been unstable. This reflects the essential contradiction existing between the task (the description and individuation of speech and behavior as psychopathological symptoms) and tools (semiotics). As a result of this contradiction, the history of psychiatry is one of permanent crisis in which there are moments of temporary stability as approaches that aim at organizing this mismatch between tasks and tools gain prevalence. However, these approaches can only offer a false sense of unity, consistency and progress. In this sense, a narrow perspective on a particular period may lead us to believe that psychiatry is just another medical specialty with its own specific theoretical framework like others. However, any such perspective overlooks the coexistence of different schools, disagreements, contradictions, global alternatives, etc. For a certain period of time, phenomenology was assumed to be as the solution for psychiatry’s internal contradiction. As we see it, phenomenology was only partially understood. Despite the great influence it exerted upon psychiatry worldwide, it finally fell into disuse as a mere empiricism. Husserl’s phenomenology was more thoroughly understood and better assimilated by other psychiatrists, and its influence has persisted to the present day. If we view phenomenology in its proper (Husserlian) sense, it is possible to understand psychopathology as a means of creating intelligibility and clarifying the uniqueness of psychiatry. On the other hand, if phenomenology is understood as a representational theory, it will eventually lead to an unavoidable relapse into psychologism, which has been the main path of psychiatry until now.
Hermann Weyl's Phenomenological Contribution to Quantum Physics
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Mastrobisi, Giorgio J.
On examining carefully Weyl's writings one realizes that the great mathematician from Göttingen in his researches follows the programmatic scheme of the binomial of "wissenschaftliche Erkenntnis" (scientific Knowledge) and "philosophische Besinnung" (philosophical Reflection). In 1954 in a retrospective writing he affirmed: «The formulation of Einstein's Theory of Relativity and the Laws of Gravitation, valid in this context and corroborated by experimental proofs turning to experience, constitute a method which combines "Wesenanalyse" with "mathematische Konstruktion" of convincing and excellent exemplarity». This conviction has conducted him to a close collaboration with A. Einstein (documented by punctual correspondence) for the decisive formulation of the "General Theory of Relativity", but also of the Theory of unified Field of Gravitation and Electromagnetism and therefore the following formulation of some fundamental principles of Quantum Physics. So Weyl's theoretical formation was marked by the devotion toward a mathematical formalization ("mathematische Konstruktion") of physical phenomena, reporting each of them to the causal structure of the "mathematical thinking" and geometry, contemporarely to a strong inclination toward the phenomenological "Analysis of essence". He brings really a notable quantity of considerations in that 1954 essay by the point of view of the decisive role that the "pure Phenomenology" of Edmund Husserl developed in the determination of his scientific activity.
Personality disorders from a phenomenological perspective.
Dörr Zengers, O
2008-01-01
Different studies have questioned the capacity of the categorical diagnostics to establish a clear distinction between the existence or not of a determined personality disorder. The dimensional perspective would approach more to reality, in the measure that it tries to measure the different intensity degrees in which these disorders are present in the patients. But its application is very laborious and besides, presupposes that those categories whose nuances it pretends to measure really exist. The foresaid leads us to appeal to phenomenological perspective, which seems to be more adequate for the study of complex realities, as it is the case of the personality and its disorders. The essential features of the phenomenological method in the sense of Husserl are described, as well as his contribution to the study of personality disorders. This can be summarized in three fundamental points: the ideal types, introduced in psychiatry by Karl Jaspers, the existential types, by Ludwig Binswanger, and the dialectic typologies and polarities, by Wolfgang Blankenburg and the undersigned. This author defines and develops each one of these concepts, aiming to show their advantages with respect to the categorical and dimensional systems.
Phenomenology of bibliotherapy in modifying teacher punitiveness.
Marlowe, M; Maycock, G
2000-09-01
The authors examined the phenomenology of bibliotherapy and its effects in changing preservice teachers' punitive attitudes toward children. Participants (N = 29) were enrolled in a university course (Introduction to Emotional Disturbance). Five books by Torey Hayden, autobiographical accounts of teaching and building relationships with students with emotional and behavioral disorders, were read and discussed within the framework of group bibliotherapy. Participants completed a self-report rating form measuring their tendency toward punitiveness during the first and last weeks of the 15-week semester. Participants also completed a questionnaire measuring the bibliotherapeutic impact of reading Hayden's texts, and they kept journals about the experience of reading Hayden. Comparison of the group's pre- and post-measures on punitiveness showed a small, albeit significant decrease in punitiveness; decreased punitiveness was associated with the therapeutic impact of reading Hayden. Phenomenological analysis of the participants' journal entries revealed that the structure of the experience of reading Hayden was one of identification with the protagonist, leading to emotional and cognitive learning.
Phenomenology of microwave coupling. Part I
King, R.J.; Breakall, J.K.; Hudson, H.G.; Morrison, J.J.; McGevna, V.G.; Kunz, K.S.; Ludwigsen, A.P.; Gnade, D.K.
1984-11-01
Recent advances in the development of high power microwave sources have increased the potential for future deployment of microwave weapons. A key ingredient in being able to predict the vulnerability of military systems to such threats involves understanding the phenomenology of how electromagnetic energy couples into cavity-like objects, or the so-called back-door coupling. A similar but much longer standing problem is that of nuclear electromagnetic pulses (EMP) in which the frequencies extend up to several hundreds of MHz. However, compared to EMP coupling, microwave coupling (from 1 GHz to above 40 GHz) is distinctively different because the wavelength is comparable to the size of the ports of entry (apertures, seams, cracks, protruding connectors, etc.). These ports of entry and the interior configuration of a vulnerable system are no longer below cutoff, and can permit significant penetration of the microwave energy into susceptible electronic systems. In fact, these coupling paths can be highly resonant at certain microwave frequencies, making the shielding against microwave threats difficult. This report summarizes the initial efforts at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory to study the phenomenology of back door coupling at the low microwave frequencies (up to 2.5 GHz). These studies were limited to 2.5 GHz because the limitations of the Electromagnetic Transient Range Facility.
[Phenomenological study of infertile women with obesity].
Arranz-Lara, Lilia; Martínez-Lemus, Hugo; Ruíz-Ornelas, Jaime; Sauceda-González, Luciano; Pimentel, Elizabeth; Anguiano, Norma; Sondón, Zoé; Cedillo, Javier; Chávez, Alvaro; Regalado, Miguel Angel; Moreno, Daniel
2010-10-01
Obesity is a condition strongly associated with polycystic ovary and other conditions that interfere with or complicate the treatment of assisted reproduction. To examine, from a phenomenological point of view, the perception of infertile women obesity problem before undergoing assisted reproduction treatment. This analysis should help to design a psychotherapeutic strategy focused on this problem. One hundred patients with infertility, with a BMI equal to or greater than 30, candidates for assisted reproductive treatments in the service of Human Reproduction, Centro Médico Nacional 20 de Noviembre, ISSSTE. The phenomenological qualitative analysis was performed in 72 women who agreed to be interviewed in depth. The phenomenon is to study obesity in infertile women candidates for assisted reproduction treatment. Obese infertile women subject to assisted reproduction treatment perceive their difficulty losing weight is closely associated with infertility. Most patients had social feelings of worthlessness, sadness, worthlessness, and family rejection. The inability to obtain a steady weight loss is regarded as a minor frustration that sterility. It is very important to perform intensive, multidisciplinary labor, which is focused on concepts associated with psychological distress, such as: management of depression by sterility, control of anxiety and stress, control of social pressures and management of the illusion of motherhood. Also rely on specialists of eating habits and exercise.
Dissociative phenomenology of dissociative identity disorder.
Dell, Paul F
2002-01-01
The goal of this study was to investigate the dissociative phenomenology of dissociative identity disorder (DID). The Multidimensional Inventory of Dissociation (MID) was administered to 34 patients with DID, 23 patients with dissociative disorder not otherwise specified (DDNOS), 52 patients with mixed psychiatric disorders, and 58 normal individuals. DID patients obtained significantly higher scores than the other three groups on 27 dissociation-related variables. DDNOS patients had significantly higher scores than normals and mixed psychiatric patients on 17 and 15 dissociation-related variables, respectively. The findings of the present study are virtually identical to a large body of replicated findings about the dissociative phenomenology of DID. This broad range of dissociation-related phenomena, which routinely occurs in individuals with DID, is largely absent from the DSM-IV-TR account of DID. Factor analysis of the 11 dimensions of dissociation that are measured by the MID extracted only one factor that accounted for 85% of the variance. It was concluded that dissociation is a unifactorial taxon or natural type that has different aspects or epiphenomena (i.e., amnesia, depersonalization, voices, trance, etc.).
High-pressure two temperature equations of state
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Eliezer, S.
1989-01-01
A phenomenological approach is suggested for calculating two temperature equations of state at high pressures. The Thomas-Fermi Dirac model and the SESAME equation of state are used to calculate the electron contribution while the solid gas interpolation method is used for ions. An algorithm to calculate the first and higher moments of the charge distribution within the framework of the Thomas-Fermi-Dirac model is proposed.
Supernatural supersymmetry: Phenomenological implications of anomaly-mediated supersymmetry breaking
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Feng, Jonathan L.; Moroi, Takeo
2000-05-01
We discuss the phenomenology of supersymmetric models in which supersymmetry breaking terms are induced by the super-Weyl anomaly. Such a scenario is envisioned to arise when supersymmetry breaking takes place in another world, i.e., on another brane. We review the anomaly-mediated framework and study in detail the minimal anomaly-mediated model parametrized by only 3+1 parameters: Maux, m0, tan β, and sgn(μ). The renormalization group equations exhibit a novel ``focus point'' (as opposed to fixed point) behavior, which allows squark and slepton masses far above their usual naturalness bounds. We present the superparticle spectrum and highlight several implications for high energy colliders. Three lightest supersymmetric particle (LSP) candidates exist: the W-ino, the stau, and the tau sneutrino. For the W-ino LSP scenario, light W-ino triplets with the smallest possible mass splittings are preferred; such W-inos are within reach of run II Fermilab Tevatron searches. Finally, we study a variety of sensitive low energy probes, including b-->sγ, the anomalous magnetic moment of the muon, and the electric dipole moments of the electron and neutron.
Phenomenology of hybrid scenarios of neutrino dark energy
Antusch, Stefan; Dutta, Koushik; Das, Subinoy E-mail: subinoy@nyu.edu
2008-10-15
We study the phenomenology of hybrid scenarios of neutrino dark energy, where in addition to a so-called mass-varying neutrino (MaVaN) sector a cosmological constant (from a false vacuum) is driving the accelerated expansion of the universe today. For general power law potentials we calculate the effective equation of state parameter w{sub eff}(z) in terms of the neutrino mass scale. Due to the interaction of the dark energy field ('acceleron') with the neutrino sector, w{sub eff}(z) is predicted to become smaller than -1 for z>0, which could be tested in future cosmological observations. For the scenarios considered, the neutrino mass scale additionally determines which fraction of the dark energy is dynamical, and which originates from the 'cosmological-constant-like' vacuum energy of the false vacuum. On the other hand, the field value of the 'acceleron' field today as well as the masses of the right-handed neutrinos, which appear in the seesaw-type mechanism for small neutrino masses, are not fixed. This, in principle, allows us to realize hybrid scenarios of neutrino dark energy with a 'high-scale' seesaw where the right-handed neutrino masses are close to the GUT scale. We also comment on how MaVaN hybrid scenarios with 'high-scale' seesaw might help to resolve stability problems of dark energy models with non-relativistic neutrinos.
Phenomenological investigations in high-altitude EMP (HEMP)
Cabayan, H.S.
1984-07-01
This report describes the presently available state-of-the-art analysis tools and extensions of these that are applicable to enhancing our understanding of the interaction and coupling phenomena associated with the high-altitude nuclear electromagnetic pulse (HEMP) and its effects on military systems. Such an in-depth understanding would provide the framework for a more scientific approach to system testing and hardening. In the report, we also briefly review past research programs in this area and evaluate the degree of their success. The emphasis in system assessment tools is placed on a probabilistic failure analysis approach that can provide a framework for vulnerabilities assessment and hardening. In coupling the emphasis is placed on a phenomenological understanding which involves a multifaceted approach involving analytical, computational, and experimental techniques in a complementary way. In component susceptibility, the emphasis is on the development of validated one, two and possibly three dimensional computer models that include the major physical phenomena such as heat and electronic transport equations. A gap exists in being able to express physics quantities in these codes in terms of nonlinear circuit parameters that can be used in the circuit codes.
A Phenomenological Model of the Growth of Two-Species Atomic Bose-Einstein Condensates
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Pattinson, R. W.; Parker, N. G.; Proukakis, N. P.
2014-04-01
We introduce a phenomenological mean-field model to describe the growth of immiscible two-species atomic Bose-Einstein condensates towards some equilibrium. Our model is based on the coupled Gross-Pitaevskii equations with the addition of dissipative terms to account for growth. While our model may be applied generally, we take a recent Rb-Cs experiment [McCarron et al., Phys. Rev. A 84 011603(R) (2011)] as a case study. As the condensates grow, they can pass through ranging transient density structures which can be distinct from the equilibrium states, although such a model always predicts the predominance of one condensate species over longer evolution times.
Interpretive and Critical Phenomenological Crime Studies: A Model Design
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Miner-Romanoff, Karen
2012-01-01
The critical and interpretive phenomenological approach is underutilized in the study of crime. This commentary describes this approach, guided by the question, "Why are interpretive phenomenological methods appropriate for qualitative research in criminology?" Therefore, the purpose of this paper is to describe a model of the interpretive…
Women, Anger, and Aggression: An Interpretative Phenomenological Analysis
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Eatough, Virginia; Smith, Jonathan A.; Shaw, Rachel
2008-01-01
This study reports a qualitative phenomenological investigation of anger and anger-related aggression in the context of the lives of individual women. Semistructured interviews with five women are analyzed using interpretative phenomenological analysis. This inductive approach aims to capture the richness and complexity of the lived experience of…
Text and Context in Translation: The Phenomenological Approach.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Njozi, Hamza Mustafa
A discussion of the phenomenological approach to text translation first analyzes the deconstructive approach, contrasts the two, and then describes the elements of the phenomenological approach that offer promise for the improvement of translation. The deconstructive theory, which draws on the insights of post-structuralism on the question of…
Researching Embodiment in Movement Contexts: A Phenomenological Approach
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Standal, Oyvind F.; Engelsrud, Gunn
2013-01-01
This article takes a phenomenological approach to understanding embodiment in relation to teaching and learning taking place in movement contexts. Recently a number of studies have pointed to the potential that phenomenology has to understand the meanings and experiences of moving subjects. By presenting two examples of our own work on embodied…
Crosscurrents: Phenomenology and Fond Memories of Bill Kell.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Beere, Don
The author clarifies, in a memorium address, how he experiences phenomenological ideas and how they apply to therapy and supervision. The phenomenological method called "epokhe" is defined as the "suspension of preconceptions" or "judgments" concerning a series of events, and, as a result, the achievement of greater clarity in experiencing those…
Merleau-Ponty's Phenomenology of Language and General Semantics.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Lapointe, Francois H.
A survey of Maurice Merleau-Ponty's views on the phenomenology of language yields insight into the basic semiotic nature of language. Merleau-ponty's conceptions stand in opposition to Saussure's linguistic postulations and Korzybski's scientism. That is, if language is studied phenomenologically, the acts of speech and gesture take on greater…
Human all too human reasoning: comparing clinical and phenomenological intuition.
Braude, Hillel D
2013-04-01
This paper compares clinical intuition and phenomenological intuition. I begin with a brief analysis of Husserl's conception of intuition. Second, I review the attitude toward clinical intuition by physicians and philosophers. Third, I discuss the Aristotelian conception of intellectual intuition or nous and its relation to phronesis. Phronesis provides a philosophical ground for clinical intuition by linking medicine as both a techné and praxis. Considering medicine as a techné, Pellegrino and Thomasma exclude clinical intuitions from their philosophy of medicine. However, in modeling clinical reasoning on phronesis, they link Aristotelian nous with clinical reasoning. While supporting the application of phronesis to clinical reasoning, I consider Pellegrino and Thomasma's model deficient for eliminating intuition as an inalienable element of clinical reasoning. Rather, clinical intuitions are necessary in linking medicine as both art and practice. This becomes more obvious through the phenomenological analysis of clinical intuitions. Clinical reasoning and phenomenological intuitions are similar in joining the perceptual and intellectual aspects of human judgment. Furthermore, clinical intuitions can be extended to become phenomenological intuitions through phenomenological reflection. Clinical intuitions may be examined phenomenologically for their originary foundations. In this way, medicine acts as a phenomenological clue. Phenomenology provides a method to restore the Hippocratic synthesis of empirical observation and wholism associated with clinical intuitions.
Phenomenology and Mass Communication Research: An Uncertain Past and a Promising Future.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Whitney, D. Charles; Barkin, Steve M.
Future research on mass media and mass communication organizations might profitably emphasize phenomenological methods (phenomenology being an interpersonal, subjective reality construction as contrasted to an objective, rationalistic, institutional reality construction). Some major phenomenological concepts important to such research were…
Phenomenology and Mass Communication Research: An Uncertain Past and a Promising Future.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Whitney, D. Charles; Barkin, Steve M.
Future research on mass media and mass communication organizations might profitably emphasize phenomenological methods (phenomenology being an interpersonal, subjective reality construction as contrasted to an objective, rationalistic, institutional reality construction). Some major phenomenological concepts important to such research were…
Materials data base and design equations for the UCLA solid breeder blanket
Sharafat, S.; Amodeo, R.; Ghoniem, N.M.
1986-02-01
The materials and properties investigated for this blanket study are listed. The phenomenological equations and mathematical fits for all materials and properties considered are given. Efforts to develop a swelling equation based on the few experimental data points available for breeder materials are described. The sintering phenomena for ceramics is investigated.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Viljamaa, Panu; Jacobs, J. Richard; Chris; JamesHyman; Halma, Matthew; EricNolan; Coxon, Paul
2014-07-01
In reply to a Physics World infographic (part of which is given above) about a study showing that Euler's equation was deemed most beautiful by a group of mathematicians who had been hooked up to a functional magnetic-resonance image (fMRI) machine while viewing mathematical expressions (14 May, http://ow.ly/xHUFi).
Some reflections on clinical supervision: an existential-phenomenological paradigm.
Jones, A
1998-03-01
This paper reviews psychotherapy, counselling, and nursing literature related to ideas of clinical supervision and attempts to illuminate areas important to effective health related practice and specifically palliative care. Included are explorations of existentialism, phenomenology, existential phenomenology and psychoanalytical concepts. The phenomenological idea of lived experience is outlined and the Heideggerian notion of authenticity is explored in context. The paper also examines dynamic forces such as hope, trust and personal values that might influence clinical supervision design and so inform a framework for practice. An existential-phenomenological method of supervision is offered as one basis for professional practice. The central recommendation of this paper is, however, to identify relevant value and belief systems to direct clinical supervision. Nursing models might appropriately instruct approaches to supervision. The writer considers the phenomenological idea of the lived experiences as a means by which to at once capture the essence of palliative care nursing and guide the supervision towards the existential idea of authenticity.
Phenomenology and the life sciences: Clarifications and complementarities.
Sheets-Johnstone, Maxine
2015-12-01
This paper first clarifies phenomenology in ways essential to demonstrating its basic concern with Nature and its recognition of individual and cultural differences as well as commonalities. It furthermore clarifies phenomenological methodology in ways essential to understanding the methodology itself, its purpose, and its consequences. These clarifications show how phenomenology, by hewing to the dynamic realities of life itself and experiences of life itself, counters reductive thinking and "embodiments" of one kind and another. On the basis of these clarifications, the paper then turns to detailing conceptual complementarities between phenomenology and the life sciences, particularly highlighting studies in coordination dynamics. In doing so, it brings to light fundamental relationships such as those between mind and motion and between intrinsic dynamics and primal animation. It furthermore highlights the common concern with origins in both phenomenology and evolutionary biology: the history of how what is present is related to its inception in the past and to its transformations from past to present.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lu, Haibao; Huang, Wei Min
2013-11-01
We present a phenomenological approach to study the viscoelastic transition and working mechanism of the chemo-responsive shape memory effect (SME) in amorphous shape memory polymers (SMPs). Both the copolymerization viscosity model and Doolittle equation are initially applied to quantitatively identify the influential factors behind the chemo-responsive SME in the SMPs exposure to a right solvent. After this, the Williams-Landel-Ferry (WLF) equation is employed to couple the viscosity (η), time-temperature shift factor (ατ) and glass transition temperature (Tg) in amorphous polymers. By means of combining the WLF and Arrhenius equations together, the inductively decreased transition temperature is confirmed as the driving force for the chemo-responsive SME. Finally, a phenomenological viscoelastic model is proposed and then verified by the available experimental data reported in the literature and then compared with the simulation results of a semi-empirical model. This phenomenological model is expected to provide a powerful simulation tool for theoretical prediction and experimental substantiation of the chemo-responsive SME in amorphous SMPs by viscoelastic transition.
Automated adaptive inference of phenomenological dynamical models
Daniels, Bryan C.; Nemenman, Ilya
2015-01-01
Dynamics of complex systems is often driven by large and intricate networks of microscopic interactions, whose sheer size obfuscates understanding. With limited experimental data, many parameters of such dynamics are unknown, and thus detailed, mechanistic models risk overfitting and making faulty predictions. At the other extreme, simple ad hoc models often miss defining features of the underlying systems. Here we develop an approach that instead constructs phenomenological, coarse-grained models of network dynamics that automatically adapt their complexity to the available data. Such adaptive models produce accurate predictions even when microscopic details are unknown. The approach is computationally tractable, even for a relatively large number of dynamical variables. Using simulated data, it correctly infers the phase space structure for planetary motion, avoids overfitting in a biological signalling system and produces accurate predictions for yeast glycolysis with tens of data points and over half of the interacting species unobserved. PMID:26293508
Evaluation of Mesoscale Model Phenomenological Verification Techniques
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Lambert, Winifred
2006-01-01
Forecasters at the Spaceflight Meteorology Group, 45th Weather Squadron, and National Weather Service in Melbourne, FL use mesoscale numerical weather prediction model output in creating their operational forecasts. These models aid in forecasting weather phenomena that could compromise the safety of launch, landing, and daily ground operations and must produce reasonable weather forecasts in order for their output to be useful in operations. Considering the importance of model forecasts to operations, their accuracy in forecasting critical weather phenomena must be verified to determine their usefulness. The currently-used traditional verification techniques involve an objective point-by-point comparison of model output and observations valid at the same time and location. The resulting statistics can unfairly penalize high-resolution models that make realistic forecasts of a certain phenomena, but are offset from the observations in small time and/or space increments. Manual subjective verification can provide a more valid representation of model performance, but is time-consuming and prone to personal biases. An objective technique that verifies specific meteorological phenomena, much in the way a human would in a subjective evaluation, would likely produce a more realistic assessment of model performance. Such techniques are being developed in the research community. The Applied Meteorology Unit (AMU) was tasked to conduct a literature search to identify phenomenological verification techniques being developed, determine if any are ready to use operationally, and outline the steps needed to implement any operationally-ready techniques into the Advanced Weather Information Processing System (AWIPS). The AMU conducted a search of all literature on the topic of phenomenological-based mesoscale model verification techniques and found 10 different techniques in various stages of development. Six of the techniques were developed to verify precipitation forecasts, one
Warped Phenomenology of Higher-Derivative Gravity
Rizzo, T.
2004-12-06
We examine the phenomenological implications at colliders for the existence of higher-derivative gravity terms as extensions to the Randall-Sundrum model. Such terms are expected to arise on rather general grounds, e.g., from string theory. In 5-d, if we demand that the theory be unitary and ghost free, these new contributions to the bulk action are uniquely of the Gauss-Bonnet form. We demonstrate that the usual expectations for the production cross section and detailed properties of graviton Kaluza-Klein resonances and TeV-scale black holes can be substantially altered by existence of these additional contributions. It is shown that measurements at future colliders will be highly sensitive to the presence of such terms.
Automated adaptive inference of phenomenological dynamical models
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Daniels, Bryan C.; Nemenman, Ilya
2015-08-01
Dynamics of complex systems is often driven by large and intricate networks of microscopic interactions, whose sheer size obfuscates understanding. With limited experimental data, many parameters of such dynamics are unknown, and thus detailed, mechanistic models risk overfitting and making faulty predictions. At the other extreme, simple ad hoc models often miss defining features of the underlying systems. Here we develop an approach that instead constructs phenomenological, coarse-grained models of network dynamics that automatically adapt their complexity to the available data. Such adaptive models produce accurate predictions even when microscopic details are unknown. The approach is computationally tractable, even for a relatively large number of dynamical variables. Using simulated data, it correctly infers the phase space structure for planetary motion, avoids overfitting in a biological signalling system and produces accurate predictions for yeast glycolysis with tens of data points and over half of the interacting species unobserved.
JUNIOR JADE - containment phenomenology of decoupled events
Smith, C.W.
1995-02-01
With five 8 pound high-explosive experiments, the author has investigated aspects of the containment phenomenology of partially decoupled events. In three experiments he observed multiple fractures and little cavity growth. In the final two experiments there were no fractures and cavity volumes grew by factors of approximately two and three. With the five experiments a spectrum of results ranging from hydraulic fracture - like crack propagation through multiple fracture propagation to the no fracture, or fully contained, case, was observed. For the multiple fracture experiments a partial residual stress field may have controlled the release of the cavity pressure. Measurements of cavity pressure versus time provided containment diagnostics; post event mining allowed visual observation of the cavities and fractures.
Palatini actions and quantum gravity phenomenology
Olmo, Gonzalo J.
2011-10-01
We show that an invariant an universal length scale can be consistently introduced in a generally covariant theory through the gravitational sector using the Palatini approach. The resulting theory is able to capture different aspects of quantum gravity phenomenology in a single framework. In particular, it is found that in this theory field excitations propagating with different energy-densities perceive different background metrics, which is a fundamental characteristic of the DSR and Rainbow Gravity approaches. We illustrate these properties with a particular gravitational model and explicitly show how the soccer ball problem is avoided in this framework. The isotropic and anisotropic cosmologies of this model also avoid the big bang singularity by means of a big bounce.
Phenomenological calculations of shielding spallation neutron sources
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Fragopoulou, M.; Zamani, M.
2013-06-01
The high level of radiation generated by a spallation source requires the design of an appropriate shielding to surround the source in order to fulfill radiation protection standards. A calculation of the spallation neutron attenuation is presented for various shielding materials, using a phenomenological model, based on the Moyer model. In the first step of the calculation, the interaction length of neutrons for each neutron energy and shielding material was estimated using inelastic cross-sections. In the second step the calculation deals with the attenuation of the neutron flux applying the Moyer model, for each material and neutron energy region. The transmission factors were calculated and compared with experimental data collected from the "Gamma-2" and the "E+T" projects running in JINR (Dubna, Russia). The results of the present work were also compared to the data obtained by different Monte Carlo codes such as MORSE, MCNPX, MARS14 and LAHET.
Toward a phenomenology of inner speaking.
Hurlburt, Russell T; Heavey, Christopher L; Kelsey, Jason M
2013-12-01
Inner speaking is a common and widely discussed phenomenon of inner experience. Based on our studies of inner experience using Descriptive Experience Sampling (a qualitative method designed to produce high fidelity descriptions of randomly selected pristine inner experience), we advance an initial phenomenology of inner speaking. Inner speaking does occur in many, though certainly not all, moments of pristine inner experience. Most commonly it is experienced by the person as speaking in his or her own naturally inflected voice but with no sound being produced. In addition to prototypical instances of inner speaking, there are wide-ranging variations that fit the broad category of inner speaking and large individual differences in the frequency with which individuals experience inner speaking. Our observations are discrepant from what many have said about inner speaking, which we attribute to the characteristics of the methods different researchers have used to examine inner speaking.
Chief Nursing Officer Sustainment: A Phenomenological Inquiry.
Prestia, Angela S
2015-11-01
The study explored factors leading to chief nursing officer (CNO) sustainment in the professional practice of nurse executive leadership. CNOs are expected to lead adaptations in care delivery in this current era of healthcare reform, requiring a multitude of new leadership skills. Exploration is needed to understand barriers to longevity, which prevent consistency of leadership and execution of vision. Twenty CNOs were interviewed to determine the lived experience related to the phenomena of role sustainment. An interpretative phenomenological analysis approach was used. Six themes emerged describing sustainment. These are as follows: loving the profession, having a broader impact, reflecting on one's own work, learning to manage conflict, maintaining work/life balance, and working with supportive leaders. The desire and passion for nurse executive leadership must be enhanced through education and competencies that emerged in this study and include strategic processing, mindful reflection, and resiliency training.
On the geometric phenomenology of static friction
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ghosh, Shankar; Merin, A. P.; Nitsure, Nitin
2017-09-01
In this note we introduce a hierarchy of phase spaces for static friction, which give a graphical way to systematically quantify the directional dependence in static friction via subregions of the phase spaces. We experimentally plot these subregions to obtain phenomenological descriptions for static friction in various examples where the macroscopic shape of the object affects the frictional response. The phase spaces have the universal property that for any experiment in which a given object is put on a substrate fashioned from a chosen material with a specified nature of contact, the frictional behaviour can be read off from a uniquely determined classifying map on the control space of the experiment which takes values in the appropriate phase space.
Phenomenology of muon-induced neutron yield
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Malgin, A. S.
2017-07-01
The cosmogenic neutron yield Yn characterizes the ability of matter to produce neutrons under the effect of cosmic ray muons with spectrum and average energy corresponding to an observation depth. The yield is the basic characteristic of cosmogenic neutrons. The neutron production rate and neutron flux both are derivatives of the yield. The constancy of the exponents α and β in the known dependencies of the yield on energy Yn∝Eμα and the atomic weight Yn∝Aβ allows one to combine these dependencies in a single formula and to connect the yield with muon energy loss in matter. As a result, the phenomenological formulas for the yields of muon-induced charged pions and neutrons can be obtained. These expressions both are associated with nuclear loss of the ultrarelativistic muons, which provides the main contribution to the total neutron yield. The total yield can be described by a universal formula, which is the best fit of the experimental data.
Phenomenology of strangeness production at high energies
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Nasser Tawfik, Abdel; Yassin, Hayam; Abo Elyazeed, Eman R.; Maher, Muhammad; Magied Diab, Abdel; Abdel Wahab, Magda; Abou El Dahab, Eiman
2016-12-01
The strange-quark occupation factor (γ_s) is determined from the statistical fit of the multiplicity ratio {K}^+/π+ in a wide range of nucleon-nucleon center-of-mass energies (\\sqrt{sNN} ). From this single-strange-quark subsystem, γ_s(\\sqrt{sNN}) was parametrized as a damped trigonometric functionality and successfully implemented into the hadron resonance gas model, at chemical semi-equilibrium. Various particle ratios including {K}^-/ π- , Λ/π- , and \\barΛ/π- are well reproduced. The phenomenology of γ_s(\\sqrt{sNN}) suggests that the hadrons (γs rises) at \\sqrt{sNN} ≃ 7 \\text{GeV} seem to undergo a phase transition to a mixed phase (γs decreases), which is then derived into partons (γs remains unchanged with increasing \\sqrt{sNN} ), at \\sqrt{sNN} ≃ 20 \\text{GeV} .
[Phenomenology of multiculturalism and intercultural pluralism].
Hoyos, Guillermo
2012-01-01
Multiculturalism is defined as the combination, within a given territory, of a social unit and a cultural plurality by way of exchanges and communications among actors who use different categories of expression, analysis and interpretation. A multiculturalist project should not promote a society that is split up into closed groups; on the contrary, it should set forth policies based on communication and cooperation processes among the cultural communities. To understand this concept, we will present the ontological basis of this phenomenonin the search for a communicational solution, with our startpoint being a phenomenological description of the way in which multiculturalism manifests to us in life; to later deepen into the meaning of the phenomenon,and finally offer a pluralist solution to the problems and challenges cultural differences bring about.
Phenomenological evidence for two types of paranoia.
Chadwick, P D J; Trower, P; Juusti-Butler, T-M; Maguire, N
2005-01-01
Two types of paranoia have been identified, namely persecution (or 'Poor Me') paranoia, and punishment (or 'Bad Me') paranoia. This research tests predicted differences in phenomenology--specifically, in person evaluative beliefs, self-esteem, depression, anxiety, and anger. Fifty-three people with current paranoid beliefs were classified as Poor Me, Bad Me, or neither (classification was reliable). Key dependent variables were measured. All predictions were supported, except the one relating to anger, where the two groups did not differ. The Bad Me group had lower self-esteem, more negative self-evaluative thinking, lower negative evaluations about others, higher depression and anxiety. Importantly, the differences in self-esteem and self-evaluations were not fully accounted for by differences in depression. Data support the presence of two distinct topographies of paranoia. Future research is needed to explore the theory further and examine clinical implications. Copyright 2005 S. Karger AG, Basel
Δ(54) flavor phenomenology and strings
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Carballo-Pérez, Brenda; Peinado, Eduardo; Ramos-Sánchez, Saúl
2016-12-01
Δ(54) can serve as a flavor symmetry in particle physics, but remains almost unexplored. We show that in a classification of semi-realistic ℤ 3 × ℤ 3 heterotic string orbifolds, Δ(54) turns out to be the most natural flavor symmetry, providing additional motivation for its study. We revisit its phenomenological potential from a low-energy perspective and subject to the constraints of string models. We find a model with Δ(54) arising from heterotic orbifolds that leads to the Gatto-Sartori-Tonin relation for quarks and charged-leptons. Additionally, in the neutrino sector, it leads to a normal hierarchy for neutrino masses and a correlation between the reactor and the atmospheric mixing angles, the latter taking values in the second octant and being compatible at three sigmas with experimental data.
Nursing researchers' modifications of Ricoeur's hermeneutic phenomenology.
Singsuriya, Pagorn
2015-12-01
Paul Ricoeur's hermeneutic phenomenology has proved to be very helpful in guiding nursing researchers' qualitative analysis of interview transcripts. Modifying Ricoeur's philosophy, a number of nursing researchers have developed their own interpretive methods and shared them, along with their experience, with research community. Major contributors who published papers directly presenting their modifications of Ricoeur's theory include Rene Geanellos (2000), Lena Wiklund, Lisbet Lindholm and Unni Å. Lindström (2002), Anders Lindseth and Astrid Norberg (2004) and Pia Sander Dreyer and Birthe D Pedersen (2009). The aim of this article was to delineate differences among these methods. Descriptive presentation of each method side by side makes clear the differences among them. In addition, Ricoeur's hermeneutic theory is portrayed and compared with the modifications. It is believed that differences that are found can stimulate further thoughts on how to apply Ricoeur's theory in qualitative research in nursing. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Mid-wave infrared DIAL noise phenomenology
Magnotta, F., Morris, J.R., Neuman, W.A., Scharlemann, E.T.
1997-07-23
LLNL has utilized optical parametric oscillator technology to develop and field a rapidly-tunable mid-wave infrared (MWIR) DIAL system. The system can be tuned at up to 1 KHz over the 3.3-3.8 micron spectral region, where hydrogen-bond stretching modes provide spectroscopic signatures for a wide variety of chemicals. We have fielded the DIAL system on the LLNL site with targets at horizontal ranges of up to 2 km. We have collected data on noise levels and correlations and their dependences on range, turbulence, and receiver aperture size. In this paper we describe some of the implications of this data for MWIR DIAL phenomenology. In particular, the interplay of turbulence and speckle to produce the observed noise fluctuations at short ranges (<500 m) is presented.
The Phenomenology of Small-Scale Turbulence
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Sreenivasan, K. R.; Antonia, R. A.
I have sometimes thought that what makes a man's work classic is often just this multiplicity [of interpretations], which invites and at the same time resists our craving for a clear understanding. Wright (1982, p. 34), on Wittgenstein's philosophy Small-scale turbulence has been an area of especially active research in the recent past, and several useful research directions have been pursued. Here, we selectively review this work. The emphasis is on scaling phenomenology and kinematics of small-scale structure. After providing a brief introduction to the classical notions of universality due to Kolmogorov and others, we survey the existing work on intermittency, refined similarity hypotheses, anomalous scaling exponents, derivative statistics, intermittency models, and the structure and kinematics of small-scale structure - the latter aspect coming largely from the direct numerical simulation of homogeneous turbulence in a periodic box.
Differentiating between descriptive and interpretive phenomenological research approaches.
Matua, Gerald Amandu; Van Der Wal, Dirk Mostert
2015-07-01
To provide insight into how descriptive and interpretive phenomenological research approaches can guide nurse researchers during the generation and application of knowledge. Phenomenology is a discipline that investigates people's experiences to reveal what lies 'hidden' in them. It has become a major philosophy and research method in the humanities, human sciences and arts. Phenomenology has transitioned from descriptive phenomenology, which emphasises the 'pure' description of people's experiences, to the 'interpretation' of such experiences, as in hermeneutic phenomenology. However, nurse researchers are still challenged by the epistemological and methodological tenets of these two methods. The data came from relevant online databases and research books. A review of selected peer-reviewed research and discussion papers published between January 1990 and December 2013 was conducted using CINAHL, Science Direct, PubMed and Google Scholar databases. In addition, selected textbooks that addressed phenomenology as a philosophy and as a research methodology were used. Evidence from the literature indicates that most studies following the 'descriptive approach' to research are used to illuminate poorly understood aspects of experiences. In contrast, the 'interpretive/hermeneutic approach' is used to examine contextual features of an experience in relation to other influences such as culture, gender, employment or wellbeing of people or groups experiencing the phenomenon. This allows investigators to arrive at a deeper understanding of the experience, so that caregivers can derive requisite knowledge needed to address such clients' needs. Novice nurse researchers should endeavour to understand phenomenology both as a philosophy and research method. This is vitally important because in-depth understanding of phenomenology ensures that the most appropriate method is chosen to implement a study and to generate knowledge for nursing practice. This paper adds to the current
Self, Voices and Embodiment: A Phenomenological Analysis
Rosen, C; Jones, N; Chase, KA; Grossman, LS; Gin, H; Sharma, RP
2016-01-01
Objective The primary aim of this study was to examine first-person phenomenological descriptions of the relationship between the self and Auditory Verbal Hallucinations (AVHs). Complex AVHs are frequently described as entities with clear interpersonal characteristics. Strikingly, investigations of first-person (subjective) descriptions of the phenomenology of the relationship are virtually absent from the literature. Method Twenty participants with psychosis and actively experiencing AVHs were recruited from the University of Illinois at Chicago. A mixed-methods design involving qualitative and quantitative components was utilized. Following a priority-sequence model of complementarity, quantitative analyses were used to test elements of emergent qualitative themes. Results The qualitative analysis identified three foundational constructs in the relationship between self and voices: ‘understanding of origin,’ ‘distinct interpersonal identities,’ and ‘locus of control.’ Quantitative analyses further supported identified links of these constructs. Subjects experienced their AVHs as having identities distinct from self and actively engaged with their AVHs experienced a greater sense of autonomy and control over AVHs. Discussion Given the clinical importance of AVHs and emerging strategies targeting the relationship between the hearer and voices, our findings highlight the importance of these relational constructs in improvement and innovation of clinical interventions. Our analyses also underscore the value of detailed voice assessments such as those provided by the Maastricht Interview are needed in the evaluation process. Subjects narratives shows that the relational phenomena between hearer and AVH(s) is dynamic, and can be influenced and changed through the hearers’ engagement, conversation, and negotiation with their voices. PMID:27099869
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Vagle, Mark D.
2015-01-01
In this article, I experiment along the edges and margins of the phenomenological notion of intentionality using the Deleuzoguattarian concepts of multiplicity and line of flight. Working from Pinar et al.'s anticipation that phenomenology would undergo discursive shifts tending towards the post-structural, I theorize curriculum as…
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Vagle, Mark D.
2015-01-01
In this article, I experiment along the edges and margins of the phenomenological notion of intentionality using the Deleuzoguattarian concepts of multiplicity and line of flight. Working from Pinar et al.'s anticipation that phenomenology would undergo discursive shifts tending towards the post-structural, I theorize curriculum as…
Score Equating and Item Response Theory: Some Practical Considerations.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Cook, Linda L.; Eignor, Daniel R.
The purposes of this paper are five-fold to discuss: (1) when item response theory (IRT) equating methods should provide better results than traditional methods; (2) which IRT model, the three-parameter logistic or the one-parameter logistic (Rasch), is the most reasonable to use; (3) what unique contributions IRT methods can offer the equating…
DOE R&D Accomplishments Database
1998-09-21
In the late 1950s to early 1960s Rudolph A. Marcus developed a theory for treating the rates of outer-sphere electron-transfer reactions. Outer-sphere reactions are reactions in which an electron is transferred from a donor to an acceptor without any chemical bonds being made or broken. (Electron-transfer reactions in which bonds are made or broken are referred to as inner-sphere reactions.) Marcus derived several very useful expressions, one of which has come to be known as the Marcus cross-relation or, more simply, as the Marcus equation. It is widely used for correlating and predicting electron-transfer rates. For his contributions to the understanding of electron-transfer reactions, Marcus received the 1992 Nobel Prize in Chemistry. This paper discusses the development and use of the Marcus equation. Topics include self-exchange reactions; net electron-transfer reactions; Marcus cross-relation; and proton, hydride, atom and group transfers.
Some exact solutions of a system of nonlinear Schroedinger equations in three-dimensional space
Moskalyuk, S.S.
1988-02-01
Interactions that break the symmetry of systems of nonrelativistic Schroedinger equations but preserve their symmetry with respect to one-parameter subgroups of the Schroedinger group are described. Ansatzes for invariant solutions and the corresponding systems of reduced equations in invariant variables for Galileo-invariant Schroedinger equations are found. Exact solutions for the system of nonlinear Schroedinger equations in three-dimensional space for the generalized Hubbard model are obtained.
Renormalization of tracer turbulence leading to fractional differential equations.
Sánchez, R; Carreras, B A; Newman, D E; Lynch, V E; van Milligen, B Ph
2006-07-01
For many years quasilinear renormalization has been applied to numerous problems in turbulent transport. This scheme relies on the localization hypothesis to derive a linear transport equation from a simplified stochastic description of the underlying microscopic dynamics. However, use of the localization hypothesis narrows the range of transport behaviors that can be captured by the renormalized equations. In this paper, we construct a renormalization procedure that manages to avoid the localization hypothesis completely and produces renormalized transport equations, expressed in terms of fractional differential operators, that exhibit much more of the transport phenomenology observed in nature. This technique provides a first step toward establishing a rigorous link between the microscopic physics of turbulence and the fractional transport models proposed phenomenologically for a wide variety of turbulent systems such as neutral fluids or plasmas.
On the phenomenology of empathy in nursing: empathy or sympathy?
Yegdich, T
1999-07-01
In her recent phenomenological study Baillie attempted to describe the essential structure of empathy in surgical nursing. The study is important in that it utilizes a qualitative research method to investigate the phenomena of empathy, in contrast to previous quantitative studies. Although the phenomenological approach is clearly identified and ascribed to Husserl as the founder of the phenomenological movement, as well as utilizing the peculiarly Husserlian notion of bracketing, or epoché, in an attempt to describe the essence (another Husserlian objective) of the phenomenon under investigation (empathy), the research method does not reflect Husserl's philosophy. The results reflect nurses' subjective views on empathy, an exercise consistent with the nurse-phenomenologists quoted, who without exception, all believe Husserlian phenomenology concerns itself with subjective experience. However, in seeking the essence of phenomena unclouded by subjective opinion, Husserl stands in contrast to nursing interpretations of phenomenology's famous catch phrase, 'back to the things themselves' (zu den Sachen selbst). Nurse-phenomenologists have misunderstood the intention of Husserlian phenomenology, and despite their opposition to traditional scientific methods, are still mired in the Kantian notion of science as a reality independent of mind. A theme consistent with the 'things-in-themselves', not the things themselves. As such, nursing's use of the phenomenological method is questionable, and therefore the research findings on the phenomenon of empathy need to be reformulated. Interestingly, the phenomenon of empathy challenges us to question such underlying assumptions on how we view the world.
Navier-Stokes symmetry in the phenomenological transport theory for bacterial chemotaxis
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Rosen, Gerald
1984-05-01
It is observed that the Navier-Stokes space-time dilatation invariance (x-->-->λx-->,t-->λ2t) implies that the random motility and chemotactic flux function take the forms observed experimentally for motile Escherichia coli attracted by low concentrations of oxygen; moreover, the rate function for E. coli consumption of dissolved oxygen is required to have the form (const) × (local oxygen concentration)2/3. It is also noteworthy that the Schrödinger-Bloch function for redistribution of chemotactic bacteria cells is invariant under the space-time dilatation transformations if and only if the chemotactic flux coefficient-random motility ratio equals 2, a value in the range 1.1 to 2.5 observed experimentally by Holz and Chen in the oxygen chemotaxis of motile E. coli. Suitably specialized governing equations for the phenomenological transport theory also admit a Galilean transformation invariance symmetry if and only if the chemotactic flux coefficient-critical substrate diffusivity ratio equals -2 and the consumption rate function is simply linear in the local oxygen concentration. Applicable to the regime of viscous incompressible flows with Reynolds numbers much less than unity, the Navier-Stokes superposition invariance may also give rise to a corresponding invariance symmetry in equivalent but linear phenomenological transport equations.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Rotstein, Horacio G.
2015-06-01
We present a novel phenomenological modeling approach to describe the growth of clusters as the result of the interaction between cluster coagulation and fragmentation. The cluster-size growth (CSG) model tracks the evolution of cluster-sizes rather than the concentrations of clusters with different sizes as in the Smoluchowski and Becker-Döring coagulation-fragmentation equations. Our modeling perspective allows for a description of cluster growth in realistic systems by using a significantly smaller number of differential equations to describe their dynamics. We used dynamical system tools (phase-plane analysis) and numerical simulations to investigate the CSG model dynamics and to understand how the model parameters describing the coagulation and fragmentation processes determine balances between these two processes that create non-zero stationary cluster size distributions.
A preliminary phenomenological study of being hypnotized and hypnotizing.
Woodard, Fredrick James
2005-10-01
This paper presents phenomenological research conducted following Woodard's phenomenological and perceptual research methodology for understanding hypnotic experiencing. The research emphasizes examining the internal experiencings of individuals involved in hypnotic experiencing. Examples are presented of Individual Situated Structures and the General Structures from both a group of 8 participants who hypnotized their clients and another group of 17 individuals who volunteered to be hypnotized. The explicated themes identified in hypnotic experiencing (the hypnotic relationship, phenomenology of trance, use of imagination, problem with psychic energy, a gestalt of experiencing, and linear-nonlinear experiencing) are discussed. The author discusses limitations of this study and suggestions for further work.
Multivariate Moran process with Lotka-Volterra phenomenology.
Noble, Andrew E; Hastings, Alan; Fagan, William F
2011-11-25
For a population with any given number of types, we construct a new multivariate Moran process with frequency-dependent selection and establish, analytically, a correspondence to equilibrium Lotka-Volterra phenomenology. This correspondence, on the one hand, allows us to infer the phenomenology of our Moran process based on much simpler Lokta-Volterra phenomenology and, on the other, allows us to study Lotka-Volterra dynamics within the finite populations of a Moran process. Applications to community ecology, population genetics, and evolutionary game theory are discussed.
The cruel and unusual phenomenology of solitary confinement.
Gallagher, Shaun
2014-01-01
What happens when subjects are deprived of intersubjective contact? This paper looks closely at the phenomenology and psychology of one example of that deprivation: solitary confinement. It also puts the phenomenology and psychology of solitary confinement to use in the legal context. Not only is there no consensus on whether solitary confinement is a "cruel and unusual punishment," there is no consensus on the definition of the term "cruel" in the use of that legal phrase. I argue that we can find a moral consensus on the meaning of "cruelty" by looking specifically at the phenomenology and psychology of solitary confinement.
The Phenomenological Circle and the Unity of Life and Thought.
Atwood, George E; Stolorow, Robert D
2016-06-01
This paper describes the important role of our deep immersions in philosophy in the development of our phenomenological-contextualist approach to psychoanalysis. Influenced most particularly by the phenomenological movement, our collaborative dialogue over more than four decades has led us to a shared commitment to reflection upon the philosophical underpinnings and constitutive contexts of origin of all our theoretical ideas. The growth of our thinking follows an endlessly recurring phenomenological circle joining theoretical perspectives with the inquirers from whose emotional worlds they arise.
Phenomenology tools on cloud infrastructures using OpenStack
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Campos, I.; Fernández-del-Castillo, E.; Heinemeyer, S.; Lopez-Garcia, A.; Pahlen, F.; Borges, G.
2013-04-01
We present a new environment for computations in particle physics phenomenology employing recent developments in cloud computing. On this environment users can create and manage "virtual" machines on which the phenomenology codes/tools can be deployed easily in an automated way. We analyze the performance of this environment based on "virtual" machines versus the utilization of physical hardware. In this way we provide a qualitative result for the influence of the host operating system on the performance of a representative set of applications for phenomenology calculations.
The cruel and unusual phenomenology of solitary confinement
Gallagher, Shaun
2014-01-01
What happens when subjects are deprived of intersubjective contact? This paper looks closely at the phenomenology and psychology of one example of that deprivation: solitary confinement. It also puts the phenomenology and psychology of solitary confinement to use in the legal context. Not only is there no consensus on whether solitary confinement is a “cruel and unusual punishment,” there is no consensus on the definition of the term “cruel” in the use of that legal phrase. I argue that we can find a moral consensus on the meaning of “cruelty” by looking specifically at the phenomenology and psychology of solitary confinement. PMID:24971072
Master equation analysis of deterministic chemical chaos
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wang, Hongli; Li, Qianshu
1998-05-01
The underlying microscopic dynamics of deterministic chemical chaos was investigated in this paper. We analyzed the master equation for the Williamowski-Rössler model by direct stochastic simulation as well as in the generating function representation. Simulation within an ensemble revealed that in the chaotic regime the deterministic mass action kinetics is related neither to the ensemble mean nor to the most probable value within the ensemble. Cumulant expansion analysis of the master equation also showed that the molecular fluctuations do not admit bounded values but increase linearly in time infinitely, indicating the meaninglessness of the chaotic trajectories predicted by the phenomenological equations. These results proposed that the macroscopic description is no longer useful in the chaotic regime and a more microscopic description is necessary in this circumstance.
The Phenomenology of Flipped SU(5)
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Abel, S. A.
1990-01-01
Available from UMI in association with The British Library. In this thesis, I examine the phenomenology of the supersymmetric flipped SU(5) model. Such a model has been derived as a low energy approximation to heterotic string theory, probably with a 'no-scale' supersymmetry breaking mechanism. It is found that a large region of the flipped SU(5) parameter space predicts a satisfactory breaking down to the standard model on renormalization down to low energies. In particular it contains a number of phenomenological advantages over other GUT schemes, such as a natural Higg's doublet-triplet mass splitting, and a neutrino see-saw mechanism. Analysis of the neutrino sector shows that this model may allow rapid decays of the heavy neutrinos into lighter electron-neutrinos. This is due to new flavour changing couplings in the superpotential, which are included in the neutrino mass matrix. Such fast decays may be able to evade certain cosmological bounds, based on the standard inflationary scenarios and the observation of the 3K background radiation. Thus it is possible that neutrinos could form a substantial proportion of the dark matter in the Universe. Rare processes may be significantly enhanced in the flipped SU(5) scenario, due to new couplings whose off diagonal Kobayashi-Maskawa matrix elements need not be small. In particular, the gaugino-fermion-sfermion coupling may give important new flavour changing diagrams, since, after supersymmetry is broken, the fermions and sfermions are no longer simultaneously diagonalizable. This leads to the possibility of decays such as Z to bs and muto egamma being detected in the near future. In addition to this there are significant new contributions to the electric dipole moment of the neutron which may be as high as the present day limit of | d_ n| < 10^{-25}ecm. Support for this model may come from neutralino contributions to the number of 'neutrino species' measured in Z decays. Finally, the anomalous magnetic moment of the
The phenomenology of maverick dark matter
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Krusberg, Zosia Anna Celina
Astrophysical observations from galactic to cosmological scales point to a substantial non-baryonic component to the universe's total matter density. Although very little is presently known about the physical properties of dark matter, its existence offers some of the most compelling evidence for physics beyond the standard model (BSM). In the weakly interacting massive particle (WIMP) scenario, the dark matter consists of particles that possess weak-scale interactions with the particles of the standard model, offering a compelling theoretical framework that allows us to understand the relic abundance of dark matter as a natural consequence of the thermal history of the early universe. From the perspective of particle physics phenomenology, the WIMP scenario is appealing for two additional reasons. First, many theories of BSM physics contain attractive WIMP candidates. Second, the weak-scale interactions between WIMPs and standard model particles imply the possibility of detecting scatterings between relic WIMPs and detector nuclei in direct detection experiments, products of WIMP annihilations at locations throughout the galaxy in indirect detection programs, and WIMP production signals at high-energy particle colliders. In this work, we use an effective field theory approach to study model-independent dark matter phenomenology in direct detection and collider experiments. The maverick dark matter scenario is defined by an effective field theory in which the WIMP is the only new particle within the energy range accessible to the Large Hadron Collider (LHC). Although certain assumptions are necessary to keep the problem tractable, we describe our WIMP candidate generically by specifying only its spin and dominant interaction form with standard model particles. Constraints are placed on the masses and coupling constants of the maverick WIMPs using the Wilkinson Microwave Anisotropy Probe (WMAP) relic density measurement and direct detection exclusion data from both
Phenomenological modelling of eclipsing binary stars
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Andronov, I. L.; Tkachenko, M. G.; Chinarova, L. L.
2016-03-01
We review the method NAV ("New Algol Variable") first introduced in (2012Ap.....55..536A) which uses the locally-dependent shapes of eclipses in an addition to the trigonometric polynomial of the second order (which typically describes the "out-of-eclipse" part of the light curve with effects of reflection, ellipticity and O'Connell). Eclipsing binary stars are believed to show distinct eclipses only if belonging to the EA (Algol) type. With a decreasing eclipse width, the statistically optimal value of the trigonometric polynomial s(2003ASPC..292..391A) drastically increases from ~2 for elliptic (EL) variables without eclipses, ~6-8 for EW and up to ~30-50 for some EA with narrow eclipses. In this case of large number of parameters, the smoothing curve becomes very noisy and apparent waves (the Gibbs phenomenon) may be seen. The NAV set of the parameters may be used for classification in the GCVS, VSX and similar catalogs. The maximal number of parameters is m=12, which corresponds to s=5, if correcting both the period and the initial epoch. We have applied the method to few stars, also in a case of multi-color photometry (2015JASS...32..127A), when it is possible to use the phenomenological parameters from the NAV fit to estimate physical parameters using statistical dependencies. For the one-color observations, one may estimate the ratio of the surface brightnesses of the components. We compiled a catalog of phenomenological characteristics based on published observations. We conclude that the NAV approximation is better than the TP one even for the case of EW-type stars with much wider eclipses. It may also be used to determine timings (see 2005ASPC..335...37A for a review of methods) or to determine parameters in the case of variable period, using a complete light curve modeling the phase variations. The method is illustrated on 2MASS J11080447-6143290 (EA-type), USNO-B1.0 1265-0306001 and USNO-B1.01266-0313413 (EW-type) and compared to various other methods
A phenomenological study of 5d supersymmetry
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bhattacharyya, Gautam; Sankar Ray, Tirtha
2010-05-01
Supersymmetry and extra dimension need not be mutually exclusive options of physics for the TeV scale and beyond. Intrinsically higher dimensional top-down scenarios, e.g. string models, often contain supersymmetry at the weak scale. In this paper, we envisage a more phenomenological scenario by embedding the 4d constrained minimal supersymmetric standard model in a flat 5d S 1/ Z 2 orbifold, with the inverse radius of compactification at the TeV scale. The gauge and Higgs supermultiplets are placed in the bulk. We assume that only the third generation matter multiplet accesses the bulk, while the first two generations are confined to a brane on an orbifold fixed point. From a 4d perspective, the bulk has N = 2 supersymmetry which entails a special non-renormalization theorem giving rise to a significant numerical impact on the renormalization group running of various parameters. The brane supersymmetry corresponds to N = 1 which we assume to be broken in an unspecified but phenomenologically acceptable way. Given this setup, we study how the gauge and Yukawa couplings and the N = 1 brane supersymmetry breaking soft masses run through the energy scale exciting the Kaluza-Klein states at regular interval. In the process, we ensure that electroweak symmetry does break radiatively. We confront our low energy parameters with the experimental measurements or limits of different observables, e.g. LEP lower limits on the lightest Higgs boson and the chargino, the ( g -2) of muon, the branching ratio of b → sγ, and the WMAP probe of relative dark matter abundance. We present our results by showing the allowed/disallowed zone in the plane of the common scalar mass ( m 0) and common gaugino mass ( M 1/2) for both positive and negative μ parameter. Our plots are the first 5d versions of the often displayed 4d m 0- M 1/2 plots, and we provide reasons behind the differences between the 4d and 5d plots.
2007-01-01
A b. Given an arbitrary relation→, we write →• for the total relation that extends→ by adding a pair a→• a for each a such that there is no b with a→ b...kind of a sort s is denoted by [s]. We write TΣ,k and TΣ,k(~x) to denote respectively the set of ground Σ-terms with kind k and of Σ-terms with kind k...variables. In membership equational logic, subsort relations and operator overloading are just a convenient way of writing corresponding Horn clauses
Autonomic energy conversion. I. The input relation: phenomenological and mechanistic considerations.
Caplan, S R
1968-10-01
The differences between completely and incompletely coupled linear energy converters are discussed using suitable electrochemical cells as examples. The output relation for the canonically simplest class of self-regulated incompletely coupled linear energy converters has been shown to be identical to the Hill force-velocity characteristic for muscle. The corresponding input relation (the "inverse" Hill equation) is now derived by two independent methods. The first method is a direct transformation of the output relation through the phenomenological equations of the converter; Onsager symmetry has no influence on the result. The second method makes use of a model system, a hydroelectric device with a regulator mechanism which depends only on the operational limits of the converter (an electro-osmosis cell operated in reverse) and on the load. The inverse Hill equation is shown to be the simplest solution of the regulator equation. An interesting and testable series of relations between input and output parameters arises from the two forms of the Hill equation. For optimal regulation the input should not be greatly different in the two limiting stationary states (level flow and static head). The output power will then be nearly maximal over a considerable range of load resistance, peak output being obtained at close to peak efficiency.
Harnessing psychoanalytical methods for a phenomenological neuroscience
Cusumano, Emma P.; Raz, Amir
2014-01-01
Psychoanalysis proffers a wealth of phenomenological tools to advance the study of consciousness. Techniques for elucidating the structures of subjective life are sorely lacking in the cognitive sciences; as such, experiential reporting techniques must rise to meet both complex theories of brain function and increasingly sophisticated neuroimaging technologies. Analysis may offer valuable methods for bridging the gap between first-person and third-person accounts of the mind. Using both systematic observational approaches alongside unstructured narrative interactions, psychoanalysts help patients articulate their experience and bring unconscious mental contents into awareness. Similar to seasoned meditators or phenomenologists, individuals who have undergone analysis are experts in discerning and describing their subjective experience, thus making them ideal candidates for neurophenomenology. Moreover, analytic techniques may provide a means of guiding untrained experimental participants to greater awareness of their mental continuum, as well as gathering subjective reports about fundamental yet elusive aspects of experience including selfhood, temporality, and inter-subjectivity. Mining psychoanalysis for its methodological innovations provides a fresh turn for the neuropsychoanalysis movement and cognitive science as a whole – showcasing the integrity of analysis alongside the irreducibility of human experience. PMID:24808869
Nucleon-nucleon theory and phenomenology
Signell, P.
1981-03-01
This project involves five inter-related subprojects: (1) derivation of the intermediate range nucleon-nucleon interaction using a new method that utilizes much shorter and simpler analytic continuation through the unphysical region that lies between the ..pi..N and ..pi pi.. physical regions of the N anti N ..-->.. ..pi pi.. amplitude (with significantly improved accuracy for the nucleon-nucleon interaction); (2) construction of a short range phenomenological potential that, with the theoretical part mentioned above, gives a precise fit to the nucleon-nucleon data and is parameterized for easy use in nucleon calculations; (3) phase shift analyses of the world data below 400 MeV, especially the large amount of very precise data below 20 MeV and the new data near 55 MeV that have never been analyzed properly; (4) the introduction of a K-matrix formulation of the Optimal Polynomial Expansion in order to accelerate convergence of the partial wave series at LAMPF energies; and (5) setting up of a cooperatively evaluated permanent nucleon-nucleon data bank in the 0-1200 MeV range that can be used by all nucleon-nucleon reseachers.
‘Firewall’ phenomenology with astrophysical neutrinos
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Afshordi, Niayesh; Yazdi, Yasaman K.
2016-12-01
One of the most fundamental features of a black hole in general relativity is its event horizon: a boundary from which nothing can escape. There has been a recent surge of interest in the nature of these event horizons and their local neighbourhoods. In an attempt to resolve black hole information paradox(es), and more generally, to better understand the path towards quantum gravity, ‘firewalls’ have been proposed as an alternative to black hole event horizons. In this paper, we explore the phenomenological implications of black holes possessing a surface or ‘firewall’, and predict a potentially detectable signature of these firewalls in the form of a high energy astrophysical neutrino flux. We compute the spectrum of this neutrino flux in different models and show that it is a possible candidate for the source of the PeV neutrinos recently detected by IceCube. This opens up a new area of research, bridging the non-perturbative physics of quantum gravity with the observational black hole and high energy astrophysics.
Phenomenology of Dirac Neutralino Dark Matter
Buckley, Matthew R.; Hooper, Dan; Kumar, Jason
2013-09-01
In supersymmetric models with an unbroken R-symmetry (rather than only R-parity), the neutralinos are Dirac fermions rather than Majorana. In this article, we discuss the phenomenology of neutralino dark matter in such models, including the calculation of the thermal relic abundance, and constraints and prospects for direct and indirect searches. Due to the large elastic scattering cross sections with nuclei predicted in R-symmetric models, we are forced to consider a neutralino that is predominantly bino, with very little higgsino mixing. We find a large region of parameter space in which bino-like Dirac neutralinos with masses between 10 and 380 GeV can annihilate through slepton exchange to provide a thermal relic abundance in agreement with the observed cosmological density, without relying on coannihilations or resonant annihilations. The signatures for the indirect detection of Dirac neutralinos are very different than predicted in the Majorana case, with annihilations proceeding dominately to $\\tau^+ \\tau^-$, $\\mu^+ \\mu^-$ and $e^+ e^-$ final states, without the standard chirality suppression. And unlike Majorana dark matter candidates, Dirac neutralinos experience spin-independent scattering with nuclei through vector couplings (via $Z$ and squark exchange), leading to potentially large rates at direct detection experiments. These and other characteristics make Dirac neutralinos potentially interesting within the context of recent direct and indirect detection anomalies. We also discuss the case in which the introduction of a small Majorana mass term breaks the $R$-symmetry, splitting the Dirac neutralino into a pair of nearly degenerate Majorana states.
A phenomenological treatment of rotating turbulence
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Zhou, YE
1995-01-01
The strong similarity between the magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) turbulence and initially isotropic turbulence subject to rotation is noted. We then apply the MHD phenomenologies of Kraichnan and Matthaeus & Zhou to rotating turbulence. When the turbulence is subject to a strong rotation, the energy spectrum is found to scale as E(k) = C(sub Omega)(Omega(sub epsilon))(sup 1/2)k(sup -2), where Omega is the rotation rate, k is the wavenumber, and epsilon is the dissipation rate. This spectral form is consistent with a recent letter by Zeman. However, here the constant C(sub Omega) is found to be related to the Kolmogorov constant and is estimated in the range 1.22 - 1.87 for the typical values of the latter constant. A 'rule' that relates spectral transfer times to the eddy turnover time and the time scale for decay of the triple correlations is deduced. A hypothesis for the triple correlation decay rate leads to the spectral law which varies between the '-5/3' (without rotation) and '-2' laws (with strong rotation). For intermediate rotation rates, the spectrum varies according to the value of a dimensionless parameter that measures the strength of the rotation wavenumber k(sub Omega) = (Omega(sup 3)/epsiolon)(sup 1/2) relative to the wavenumber k. An eddy viscosity is derived with an explicit dependence on the rotation rate.
Phenomenology of Dirac neutralino dark matter
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Buckley, Matthew R.; Hooper, Dan; Kumar, Jason
2013-09-01
In supersymmetric models with an unbroken R symmetry (rather than only R parity), the neutralinos are Dirac fermions rather than Majorana. In this article, we discuss the phenomenology of neutralino dark matter in such models, including the calculation of the thermal relic abundance, and constraints and prospects for direct and indirect searches. Because of the large elastic scattering cross sections with nuclei predicted in R-symmetric models, we are forced to consider a neutralino that is predominantly bino, with very little Higgsino mixing. We find a large region of parameter space in which binolike Dirac neutralinos with masses between 10 and 380 GeV can annihilate through slepton exchange to provide a thermal relic abundance in agreement with the observed cosmological density, without relying on coannihilations or resonant annihilations. The signatures for the indirect detection of Dirac neutralinos are very different than predicted in the Majorana case, with annihilations proceeding dominantly to τ+τ-, μ+μ- and e+e- final states, without the standard chirality suppression. And unlike Majorana dark matter candidates, Dirac neutralinos experience spin-independent scattering with nuclei through vector couplings (via Z and squark exchange), leading to potentially large rates at direct detection experiments. These and other characteristics make Dirac neutralinos potentially interesting within the context of recent direct and indirect detection anomalies. We also discuss the case in which the introduction of a small Majorana mass term breaks the R symmetry, splitting the Dirac neutralino into a pair of nearly degenerate Majorana states.
Topics in TeV-scale phenomenology
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Krohn, David
With the LHC turning on, the Tevatron running better than ever, and dark matter direct detection experiments pushing to ever higher sensitivities, we are on the cusp of a new era in particle physics. Over the next decade, these experiments will likely discover the mechanism responsible for electroweak symmetry breaking, and may well uncover the identity of particle dark matter. This thesis addresses some topics in the phenomenology of TeV-scale physics which we may hope to probe at these experiments. Chapter 1 serves as an introduction, reviewing physics at this scale and motivating phenomenologists' excitement and expectations. Chapter 2 discusses ways to incorporate dark matter particles into a particular model of electroweak symmetry breaking, making sure that they remains stable against anomalous decays. Chapter 3 discusses an interesting class of dark matter models which would leave a striking signal at direct detection experiments. Chapter 4 discusses a new collider based probe of electroweak symmetry breaking, designed to look for models that approximate the Standard Model at the electroweak scale, but which deviate from it at higher energies. Chapter 5 discusses another collider based measurement, this one designed to measure the polarized tops one expects from the decay of certain new-physics states. Finally, chapters 6 and 7 present two new jet algorithms, useful for interpreting messy collider data and looking for signals of new physics. Chapter 8 contains the conclusions.
Solar Energetic Particle Events: Phenomenology and Prediction
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Gabriel, S. B.; Patrick, G. J.
2003-04-01
Solar energetic particle events can cause major disruptions to the operation of spacecraft in earth orbit and outside the earth's magnetosphere and have to be considered for EVA and other manned activities. They may also have an effect on radiation doses received by the crew flying in high altitude aircraft over the polar regions. The occurrence of these events has been assumed to be random, but there would appear to be some solar cycle dependency with a higher annual fluence occuring during a 7 year period, 2 years before and 4 years after the year of solar maximum. Little has been done to try to predict these events in real-time with nearly all of the work concentrating on statistical modelling. Currently our understanding of the causes of these events is not good. But what are the prospects for prediction? Can artificial intelligence techniques be used to predict them in the absence of a more complete understanding of the physics involved? The paper examines the phenomenology of the events, briefly reviews the results of neural network prediction techniques and discusses the conjecture that the underlying physical processes might be related to self-organised criticality and turblent MHD flows.
New Dimensions for Randall-Sundrum Phenomenology
Davoudiasl, Hooman; Rizzo, Thomas G.
2008-09-30
We consider a 6D extension of the Randall-Sundrum (RS) model, RS6, where the Standard Model (SM) gauge fields are allowed to propagate in an additional dimension, compactified on S{sup 1} or S{sup 1}/Z{sub 2}. In a minimal scenario, fermions propagate in the 5D RS subspace and their localization provides a model of flavor. New Kaluza-Klein (KK) states, corresponding to excitations of the gauge fields along the 6th dimension, appear near the TeV scale. The new gauge KK modes behave differently from those in the 5D warped models. These RS6 states have couplings with strong dependence on 5D field localization and, within the SM, only interact with heavy fermions and the Higgs sector, to a very good approximation. Thus, the collider phenomenology of the new gauge KK states sensitively depends on the 5D fermion geography. We briefly discuss inclusion of SM fermions in all 6 dimensions, as well as the possibility of going beyond 6D.
Phenomenological Theory of the Photoevaporation Front Instability
Ryutov, D D; Kane, J O; Mizuta, A; Pound, M W; Remington, B A
2006-04-10
The dynamics of photoevaporated molecular clouds is determined by the ablative pressure acting on the ionization front. An important step in the understanding of the ensuing motion is to develop the linear stability theory for the initially flat front. Despite the simplifications introduced by the linearization, the problem remains quite complex and still draws a lot of attention. The complexity is related to the large number of effects that have to be included in the analysis: acceleration of the front, possible temporal variation of the intensity of the ionizing radiation, the tilt of the radiation flux with respect to the normal to the surface, and partial absorption of the incident radiation in the ablated material. In this paper, we describe a model where all these effects can be taken into account simultaneously, and a relatively simple and universal dispersion relation can be obtained. The proposed phenomenological model may prove to be a helpful tool in assessing the feasibility of the laboratory experiments directed towards scaled modeling of astrophysical phenomena.
Constrained Sypersymmetric Flipped SU (5) GUT Phenomenology
Ellis, John; Mustafayev, Azar; Olive, Keith A.; /Minnesota U., Theor. Phys. Inst. /Minnesota U. /Stanford U., Phys. Dept. /SLAC
2011-08-12
We explore the phenomenology of the minimal supersymmetric flipped SU(5) GUT model (CFSU(5)), whose soft supersymmetry-breaking (SSB) mass parameters are constrained to be universal at some input scale, Min, above the GUT scale, M{sub GUT}. We analyze the parameter space of CFSU(5) assuming that the lightest supersymmetric particle (LSP) provides the cosmological cold dark matter, paying careful attention to the matching of parameters at the GUT scale. We first display some specific examples of the evolutions of the SSB parameters that exhibit some generic features. Specifically, we note that the relationship between the masses of the lightest neutralino {chi} and the lighter stau {tilde {tau}}{sub 1} is sensitive to M{sub in}, as is the relationship between m{sub {chi}} and the masses of the heavier Higgs bosons A,H. For these reasons, prominent features in generic (m{sub 1/2}, m{sub 0}) planes such as coannihilation strips and rapid-annihilation funnels are also sensitive to Min, as we illustrate for several cases with tan {beta} = 10 and 55. However, these features do not necessarily disappear at large Min, unlike the case in the minimal conventional SU(5) GUT. Our results are relatively insensitive to neutrino masses.
Phenomenology of flavon fields at the LHC
Tsumura, Koji; Velasco-Sevilla, Liliana
2010-02-01
We study low energy constraints from flavor violating processes, production, and decay at the LHC of a scalar field {phi} (flavon) associated to the breaking of a nonsupersymmetric Abelian family symmetry at the TeV scale. This symmetry is constrained to reproduce fermion masses and mixing, up to O(1) coefficients. The nonsupersymmetric gauged U(1) models considered are severely restricted by cancellation of anomalies and LEP bounds on contact interactions; consequently its phenomenology is out of the LHC reach. We therefore introduce an effective U(1) which is not gauged and is broken explicitly by a CP-odd term at the TeV scale. This helps us to explore flavor violating processes, production, and decay at the LHC for these kind of light scalars. In this context we first study the constraints on the flavon mass and its vacuum expectation value from low energy flavor changing processes such as {mu}{yields}e{gamma}. We find that a flavon of about m{sub {phi}}< or approx. 150 GeV could be experimentally allowed. These kinds of flavons could be significantly generated at the LHC via the gluon fusion mechanism and the single top production channel gu{yields}t{phi}. The produced flavons can have characteristic decay modes such as tc for m{sub {phi}}> or approx. m{sub t}, and {tau}{mu} for m{sub {phi}}< or approx. m{sub t}, which could be effectively useful to detect flavons.
A phenomenological view of language shift.
Tsitsipis, Lukas D
2004-01-01
Sociolinguistic studies of language shift have in their majority framed their research object in a horizon of theoretically received variables such as class, ethnicity, locality, attitudes etc. In spite of a limited usefulness of such conceptual variables, and of a recently emerging focus on agency, negotiation, and praxis the best results we obtain have not questioned in a coherent and theoretically sound manner the continuing hegemony of mechanistic-metaphorical models (language death, language suicide). In this paper I propose to examine language shift as a multifaceted phenomenon, joining in this respect work by other linguistic anthropologists researching similar areas. I specifically argue that by replacing vertical concepts such as age and generation, and dichotomous logics such as center and periphery with phenomenologically inspired concepts such as typifications, consociateship, contemporariness, and stream of consciousness we are in a better position to generalize about language shift dynamics. Data for this work is derived primarily from the Albanian speech communities of modern Greece, but also from other communities for comparative purposes.
Phenomenological model for light-projectile breakup
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kalbach, C.
2017-01-01
Background: Projectile breakup can make a large contribution to reactions induced by projectiles with mass numbers 2, 3, and 4, yet there is no global model for it and no clear agreement on the details of the reaction mechanism. Purpose: This project aims to develop a phenomenological model for light-projectile breakup that can guide the development of detailed theories and provide a useful tool for applied calculations. Method: An extensive database of double-differential cross sections for the breakup of deuterons, 3He ions, and α particles was assembled from the literature and analyzed in a consistent way. Results: Global systematics for the centroid energies, peak widths, and angular distributions of the breakup peaks have been extracted from the data. The dominant mechanism appears to be absorptive breakup, where the unobserved projectile fragment fuses with the target nucleus during the initial interaction. The global target-mass-number and incident-energy dependencies of the absorptive breakup cross section have also been determined, along with channel-specific normalization constants. Conclusions: Results from the model generally agree with the original data after subtraction of a reasonable underlying continuum. Absorptive breakup can account for as much as 50%-60% of the total reaction cross section.
Phenomenological model for H-mode
Ohyabu, N.
1985-08-01
A phenomenological model has been developed to clarify the role of the boundary configuration in the heat transport of the H-mode regime. We assume that the dominant mechanism of heat loss at the edge of the plasma is convection and that the diffusion coefficient (D/sub edge/) at the edge of the plasma increases rapidly with plasma pressure, but drops to a low value when the temperature exceeds a certain threshold value. When particle refueling takes place without time delay, as in the case of a limiter discharge, the unfavorable temperature dependence of the D/sub edge/ prohibits even a modest rise of the edge temperature. In a divertor discharge, the particles lost from the closed surface are kept away from the edge region for a time comparable to or longer than the energy transport time in the edge region. Thus, rapid increase in the heat flux allows an excursion of the edge temperature to a higher value thereby reaching the threshold value of the H-transition.
Experience of miscarriage: an interpretative phenomenological analysis
Meaney, S; Corcoran, P; Spillane, N; O'Donoghue, K
2017-01-01
Objective The objective of the study was to explore the experiences of those who have experienced miscarriage, focusing on men's and women's accounts of miscarriage. Design This was a qualitative study using a phenomenological framework. Following in-depth semistructured interviews, analysis was undertaken in order to identify superordinate themes relating to their experience of miscarriage. Setting A large tertiary-level maternity hospital in Ireland. Participants A purposive sample of 16 participants, comprising 10 women and 6 men, was recruited. Results 6 superordinate themes in relation to the participant's experience of miscarriage were identified: (1) acknowledgement of miscarriage as a valid loss; (2) misperceptions of miscarriage; (3) the hospital environment, management of miscarriage; (4) support and coping; (5) reproductive history; and (6) implications for future pregnancies. Conclusions One of the key findings illustrates a need for increased awareness in relation to miscarriage. The study also indicates that the experience of miscarriage has a considerable impact on men and women. This study highlights that a thorough investigation of the underlying causes of miscarriage and continuity of care in subsequent pregnancies are priorities for those who experience miscarriage. Consideration should be given to the manner in which women who have not experienced recurrent miscarriage but have other potential risk factors for miscarriage could be followed up in clinical practice. PMID:28348180
Living with hepatitis C: a phenomenological study.
Hill, Rebekah; Pfeil, Michael; Moore, Jenny; Richardson, Barbara
2015-02-01
To explore the experience of adults living with hepatitis C over time. Hepatitis C virus is a growing problem affecting thousands of people worldwide. The majority of individuals infected develop chronic liver disease, but treatment is not always successful, leaving many to live with the virus indefinitely. Experiences of living with hepatitis C are poorly understood yet essential to meet the needs of an increasing number of affected people. A qualitative study using a descriptive phenomenological methodology. Unstructured interviews were conducted with 23 hepatitis C-positive individuals in the East of England; participants were interviewed twice within a year. Data analysis revealed six themes of the experience of living with hepatitis C: hepatitis C and self; hepatitis C, self and others; self and handling hepatitis C; self and handling hepatitis C treatment issues; living with the consequences of hepatitis C; self, hepatitis C and thoughts of the future. Diagnosis of hepatitis C can disrupt people's sense of identity and trigger a life transition. A complex range of factors create uncertainty for people living with hepatitis C. Many struggle to make a healthy transition to life with the condition, instead living in a state of sustained uncertainty. Nurses working within a chronic care framework of ongoing advice and support can improve experiences for those living with hepatitis C. Practice aimed at reducing both the disruptive effect of the diagnosis and the uncertainties it creates can help facilitate a transition to life with the disease. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Constituent Quark Model Description of Charmonium Phenomenology
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Segovia, J.; Entem, D. R.; Fernandez, F.; Hernandez, E.
2013-10-01
We review how quark models are able to describe the phenomenology of the charm meson sector. The spectroscopy and decays of charmonium and open charm mesons are described in a particular quark model and compared with the data and the results of other existing models in the literature. A quite reasonable global description of the heavy meson spectra is reached. A new assignment of the ψ(4415) resonance as a 3D state leaving aside the 4S state to the X(4360) is tested through the analysis of the resonance structure in e+e- exclusive reactions around the ψ(4415) energy region. We make tentative assignments of some of the XYZ mesons. To elucidate the structure of the 1+cs states, i.e., Ds1(2460) and Ds1(2536), we study the strong decay properties of the Ds1(2536) meson. We also perform a calculation of the branching fractions for the semileptonic decays of B and Bs mesons into final states containing orbitally excited charmed and charmed-strange mesons, which have become a very important source of information about the structure of heavy mesons. Analysis of the nonleptonic B-meson decays into D(*)DsJ are also included.
Dante's inferno: phenomenology of a strange passion.
De Monticelli, R
2000-01-01
Dante's Inferno presents us with a spiritual adventure where the experience of wrath plays a crucial role. The infernal pilgrim's 'passage through wrath' is their only access to the lower part of Hell. Wrath - and the place where it is punished as a vice - occupy a very central position in the moral topography of Dante's Inferno: the Stygian Marsh, which defends the heart of Hell, its stronghold, and makes it inaccessible. Wrathfulness is situated at the borderline between 'carnal' and 'spiritual' sins, higher and lower Hell, weakness and wickedness of the will. What is the meaning of this situation? How is the sin of wrathfulness related to wrath as an expression of just indignation? How can the same passion have an angelical and an infernal face? What is anger's relation to reason? Does the trial gone through by the two pilgrims teach us something on the nature of this passion? Here are some questions which this paper tries to answer, thereby outlining a phenomenological theory of those passions which might be called 'dynamic'. Copyright 2000 S. Karger AG, Basel
Photochemical Phenomenology Model for the New Millenium
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Bishop, James; Evans, J. Scott
2000-01-01
This project tackles the problem of conversion of validated a priori physics-based modeling capabilities, specifically those relevant to the analysis and interpretation of planetary atmosphere observations, to application-oriented software for use in science and science-support activities. The software package under development, named the Photochemical Phenomenology Modeling Tool (PPMT), has particular focus on the atmospheric remote sensing data to be acquired by the CIRS instrument during the CASSINI Jupiter flyby and orbital tour of the Saturnian system. Overall, the project has followed the development outline given in the original proposal, and the Year 1 design and architecture goals have been met. Specific accomplishments and the difficulties encountered are summarized in this report. Most of the effort has gone into complete definition of the PPMT interfaces within the context of today's IT arena: adoption and adherence to the CORBA Component Model (CCM) has yielded a solid architecture basis, and CORBA-related issues (services, specification options, development plans, etc.) have been largely resolved. Implementation goals have been redirected somewhat so as to be more relevant to the upcoming CASSINI flyby of Jupiter, with focus now being more on data analysis and remote sensing retrieval applications.
Acute peritraumatic dissociation: in favor of a phenomenological inquiry.
Ataria, Yochai
2014-01-01
Fundamental aspects of trauma--among them dissociation during trauma, which is considered one of the strongest predictors of posttraumatic stress disorder-are not fully understood. This article argues that the application of the phenomenological structure of time and the phenomenological description of the self (minimal self, sense of ownership, sense of agency, sense of self) to dissociation during trauma can improve our understanding of this phenomenon-at its occurrence and during any possible ensuing symptoms. In addition, it is argued that the phenomenological approach, as a method that focuses on the bodily level of experience, in particular the body as it is experienced from within, enables us to penetrate the traumatic experience. Thus, by applying the phenomenological approach we may be able to improve our understanding of the traumatic experience and enable the development of better treatment.
Conditions that Create Therapeutic Connection: A Phenomenological Study
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Dollarhide, Colette T.; Shavers, Marjorie C.; Baker, Caroline A.; Dagg, David R.; Taylor, Demetra T.
2012-01-01
In this phenomenological study, counselor and client participants (N = 14) described the conditions that fostered meaningful therapeutic connections. Among all participants, consistent descriptors appeared that were rigorously synthesized into a detailed depiction of therapeutic contact. (Contains 2 figures.)
Conditions that Create Therapeutic Connection: A Phenomenological Study
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Dollarhide, Colette T.; Shavers, Marjorie C.; Baker, Caroline A.; Dagg, David R.; Taylor, Demetra T.
2012-01-01
In this phenomenological study, counselor and client participants (N = 14) described the conditions that fostered meaningful therapeutic connections. Among all participants, consistent descriptors appeared that were rigorously synthesized into a detailed depiction of therapeutic contact. (Contains 2 figures.)
Final Report String Phenomenology 2011: The Tenth Annual Meeting on String Phenomenology
Shiu, Gary; Everett, Lisa
2011-08-26
The Tenth Annual International String Phenomenology Conference was held at the University of Wisconsin, Madison on August 22-26, 2011. The Conference was organized by Profs. Gary Shiu and Lisa Everett, with the help of two postdoctoral fellows Heng-Yu Chen and Jiajun Xu. The scientific subjects of the talks and discussions were chosen to be widely interdisciplinary, reflecting the scope and maturity of the field. The conference brought together researchers of diverse subfields in physics and mathematics to present and discuss recent developments in connecting observable particle physics and cosmology with the domain of fundamental theory. This report summarizes the outcome of this conference.
Scaling analysis of the conservation growth equation with temporally correlated noise
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zhang, Li-Ping; Tang, Gang; Xia, Hui; Hao, Da-Peng; Chen, Hua
2004-07-01
The effects of temporally correlated noise on the conservation growth are studied via the Flory-type approach introduced by Hentschel and Family (Phys. Rev. Lett. 66, (1991) 1982). This phenomenological equation contains the Kardar-Parisi-Zhang, Sun-Guo-Grant, and molecular-beam epitaxy growth equations as special cases and allows for a unified investigation of growth equations. The scaling exponents obtained here can be in good agreement with the corresponding results derived by previous scaling approach.
Sport Sciences and the Promise of Phenomenology: Philosophy, Method, and Insight.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Kerry, Daniel S.; Armour, Kathleen M.
2000-01-01
Examines how phenomenology might make a more significant contribution to knowledge and understanding within sport-related research. The paper discusses the philosophical roots of phenomenology; highlights the key contributions of and differences between Husserl and Heidegger; examines phenomenology as philosophy and phenomenology as method; and…
Sport Sciences and the Promise of Phenomenology: Philosophy, Method, and Insight.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Kerry, Daniel S.; Armour, Kathleen M.
2000-01-01
Examines how phenomenology might make a more significant contribution to knowledge and understanding within sport-related research. The paper discusses the philosophical roots of phenomenology; highlights the key contributions of and differences between Husserl and Heidegger; examines phenomenology as philosophy and phenomenology as method; and…
From Husserl to van Manen. A review of different phenomenological approaches.
Dowling, Maura
2007-01-01
This paper traces the development of phenomenology as a philosophy originating from the writings of Husserl to its use in phenomenological research and theory development in nursing. The key issues of phenomenological reduction and bracketing are also discussed as they play a pivotal role in the how phenomenological research studies are approached. What has become to be known as "new" phenomenology is also explored and the key differences between it and "traditional" phenomenology are discussed. van Manen's phenomenology is also considered in light of its contemporary popularity among nurse researchers.
Stroke rehabilitation and the phenomenological reconstitution of the self.
Banja, John D
2011-01-01
This commentary will apply the notions of constitution and "phenomenological introspection" developed by phenomenology's founder Edmund Husserl to certain themes in Sharon Kaufman's 1988 essay, "Toward a Phenomenology of Boundaries in Medicine: Chronic Illness Experience in the Case of Stroke." The article will discuss how phenomenological analysis can provide important therapeutic insights about the lived experiences of stroke patients and their caregivers, especially as that experience is shaped in the immediate aftermath of a serious stroke. This article will also argue that phenomenology in and by itself is woefully inadequate for producing the kind of self-knowledge and political will needed to produce a socioeconomic environment that reasonably accommodates the needs of stroke patients. The article will end with a brief discussion of how an Eastern, particularly Buddhist, conception of the self is considerably more disability friendly than the one Westerners (phenomenologically) "constitute" and how the former's more realistic understanding of the trajectory of human functioning and its inevitable decline over a lifespan offers a superior platform for developing disability policy and care than its Western counterpart.
Supporting hemodialysis patients: A phenomenological study
Shahgholian, Nahid; Yousefi, Hojatollah
2015-01-01
Background: Chronic renal disease and hemodialysis cause numerous psychological, social, cultural, and spiritual challenges for both patients and their families. Overcoming these challenges is possible only through providing holistic support for the patients. Today, despite the support provided by family and professional caregivers for the patients, patients still express dissatisfaction with the support provided and believe it to be inadequate. In fact, patients and family caregivers and healthcare practitioners seem to have different understandings of the notion of support. Thus, the researcher decided to examine the concept of support from the viewpoint of hemodialysis patients. Materials and Methods: This descriptive phenomenological research was conducted on 17 patients with end-stage renal disease (ESRD) who were undergoing hemodialysis. Purposive sampling was performed and continued until data saturation. Data were collected through 30–60 min unstructured interviews and analyzed using Colaizzi's method. Results: From the analysis of data, 4 themes (psychological support, accompaniment, social support, and spiritual support) and 11 sub-themes were obtained. Psychological support consisted of two sub-themes of psychological support by healthcare practitioners and emotional support by family and relatives. Accompaniment included three sub-themes of assistance in transportation, providing and using medicine, and daily activities. Social support was identified with four sub-themes of promotion of the society's understanding of the patients’ condition, improvement of communication with others, the need for employment, and independence. Spiritual support was identified with two sub-themes of the need for faith and trust in God or Imams and the need to resolve spiritual contradictions. Conclusion: The results showed that from the viewpoint of the participants, the concept of support consisted of psychological support, social support, accompanying the patient
Rogue waves in Lugiato-Lefever equation with variable coefficients
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kol, Guy; Kingni, Sifeu; Woafo, Paul
2014-11-01
In this paper, we theoretically investigate the generation of optical rogue waves from a Lugiato-Lefever equation with variable coefficients by using the nonlinear Schrödinger equation-based constructive method. Exact explicit rogue-wave solutions of the Lugiato-Lefever equation with constant dispersion, detuning and dissipation are derived and presented. The bright rogue wave, intermediate rogue wave and the dark rogue wave are obtained by changing the value of one parameter in the exact explicit solutions corresponding to the external pump power of a continuous-wave laser.
A phenomenological model for intergranular failure by r-type and wedge-type cavitation
Lee, S.B.; Miller, A.K.
1995-07-01
Equations to predict local intergranular failure (by r-type and wedge-type cavitation and the coupling between them) have been developed. The derivation has utilized physically based concepts such as thermal activation of the controlling processes, wedge cracking driven by grain boundary sliding, and cavity growth driven by diffusion. It has also been based upon phenomenological observations such as the variation in the steady-state creep rate with stress and temperature, incomplete healing of cavities under compression, and differences in life under slow-fast and fast-slow cycling. The model has been tested against data on the low-cycle fatigue life of 304 stainless steel under unequal ramp rates. The new equations simulate, for example, the differences in life produced by slow-fast, fast-slow, and equal ramp rate cycling in terms of their effects on internal cavitation. Together with the new equations` ability to treat monotonic creep rupture, these comparisons demonstrate that the intergranular failure equations are capable of simulating a number of phenomena of importance in life prediction for high-temperature structures.
Phenomenological analysis of the clotting curve.
De Cristofaro, R; Di Cera, E
1991-10-01
A model-independent (phenomenological) characterization of the clotting curve is proposed. Three parameters are used to encapsulate the main features of the increase in absorbance observed at 350 nm due to the reaction of thrombin with fibrinogen that leads to clot formation: (1) the maximum increase in absorbance per unit time, delta Am, at the inflection point of the clotting curve; (2) the time needed to reach the maximum increase in absorbance, tm; and (3) the clotting time, tc, obtained from extrapolation of the slope at tm to the zero absorbance baseline. Clotting curves at low fibrinogen concentrations (0.125 divided by 0.250 microM), well below the Km, where thrombin amidase activity is rate-limiting with respect to the subsequent aggregation process, have been measured under a wide variety of experimental conditions, (i.e., as a function of thrombin concentration, pH and temperature) in order to explore the basic response of each parameter to changes in solution conditions. Under all conditions examined in this study we have observed that tm and tc are linked through a linear relationship that appears to be an important invariant property of the clotting curve, regardless of experimental conditions. No such clear relationship exists between delta Am and tc, with tc being associated with several possible values of delta Am and vice versa, depending upon solution conditions. It is proposed that tc is strictly dependent on thrombin amidase activity, while delta Am reflects properties of the aggregation process leading to clot formation. The clotting time shows a pH and temperature dependence that closely resembles that of Km/Vm for synthetic amide substrates. Furthermore, tc changes linearly with either the inverse thrombin concentration and the concentration of competitive inhibitors of fibrinogen binding to thrombin, as expected for the ratio Km/Vm. We show how the analysis of clotting curves obtained at different thrombin and inhibitor concentrations
Nonlinear Generalized Hydrodynamic Wave Equations in Strongly Coupled Dusty Plasmas
Veeresha, B. M.; Sen, A.; Kaw, P. K.
2008-09-07
A set of nonlinear equations for the study of low frequency waves in a strongly coupled dusty plasma medium is derived using the phenomenological generalized hydrodynamic (GH) model and is used to study the modulational stability of dust acoustic waves to parallel perturbations. Dust compressibility contributions arising from strong Coulomb coupling effects are found to introduce significant modifications in the threshold and range of the instability domain.
Shore, B.W.
1981-01-30
The equations of motion are discussed which describe time dependent population flows in an N-level system, reviewing the relationship between incoherent (rate) equations, coherent (Schrodinger) equations, and more general partially coherent (Bloch) equations. Approximations are discussed which replace the elaborate Bloch equations by simpler rate equations whose coefficients incorporate long-time consequences of coherence.
Rigour in phenomenological research: reflections of a novice nurse researcher.
Pereira, Helder Rocha
2012-01-01
This paper is intended to explore conflicts and doubts that novice researchers face when using phenomenological research methods, especially with regard to methodological rigour. There is an increasing interest in different qualitative approaches. The best way to evaluate the quality of qualitative studies has been debated intensively. The great theoretical and methodological diversity of qualitative approaches suggests that a single set of criteria may not be appropriate for all types of research. This is a methodological paper that discusses a personal experience of addressing rigour in a phenomenological study, supported by literature on the topic. Generic qualitative criteria may not be the most adequate to ensure rigour in phenomenological research. The different poles of discussion about the best way to ensure validity of phenomenological research puzzle novice nurse researchers. Focusing on integrative validity that addresses experiential and methodological concerns ensures that researchers will respect the philosophical assumptions underlying a method and allows them to recognise study soundness in the findings and the research process. Phenomenological research must demonstrate methodological congruence and provide meaningful results about lived experiences in a balanced way. Novice researchers need support to understand the articulation between philosophical and methodological foundations that guide the methods they use.
Ginzburg, Pavel; Zayats, Anatoly V
2013-05-28
Nonlocal optical response of materials, important at the nanometric scale, influences numerous optical phenomena, such as electromagnetic field confinement and spectral characteristics of plasmonic resonances. Here, we present a general phenomenological approach to account for nonlocal material polarizabilities in nanoscale metal particles. The problem of nonlocal plasmonic resonances is formulated by an integro-differential equation in a space domain and solved by adopting its weak form, implemented in the finite element method, thus, dispensing with the requirements on additional boundary conditions. As an example, nonlocal smearing effects in plasmonic nanorods of various cross sections and nanotubes have been considered. Clear signature of nonlocality manifests itself in the interference fringes in the potential profile and a significant frequency shift of the localized surface plasmon resonances. These effects are especially important for nanoparticles with geometrical features comparable to the de Broglie wavelengths of electrons participating in the light-matter interactions. The proposed method provides a universal tool for phenomenological account of nonlocalities of any kind with the only requirement of linearity in system's response.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Farabi, E.; Zarei-Hanzaki, A.; Abedi, H. R.
2015-01-01
Characterizing the high temperature flow behavior of a lead bearing duplex brass in a wide range of forming temperatures (673-1073 K) and strain rates (0.001-0.1 s-1) has been conducted in the present work. In order to establish the constitutive equations, two major modeling procedures, phenomenological (the Original Johnson-Cook and the Arrhenius-type) and physically based (the modified Zerilli-Armstrong) models, have been employed. The capability and accuracy of each model has been assessed via standard statistical parameters such as average absolute relative error and correlation coefficient. The comparative and comprehensive study of the flow behavior indicated that the accuracy of the phenomenological models was strongly dependent on the range of the testing temperatures and the corresponding mechanism which operate under the specified deformation conditions. It has been indicated that by limiting the temperature range a more precise Q-value is reached, which positively influences the accuracy of the Arrhenius-type model. In contrast, the modified Zerilli-Armstrong model was capable to overcome these limitations and properly considers the physical characteristics including dislocation dynamics and thermal activation to develop the materials constants.
Collider Phenomenology with Split-UED
Kong, Kyoungchul; Park, Seong Chan; Rizzo, Thomas G.; /SLAC
2011-12-15
We investigate the collider implications of Split Universal Extra Dimensions. The non-vanishing fermion mass in the bulk, which is consistent with the KK-parity, largely modifies the phenomenology of Minimal Universal Extra Dimensions. We scrutinize the behavior of couplings and study the discovery reach of the Tevatron and the LHC for level-2 Kaluza-Klein modes in the dilepton channel, which would indicates the presence of the extra dimensions. Observation of large event rates for dilepton resonances can result from a nontrivial fermion mass profile along the extra dimensions, which, in turn, may corroborate extra dimensional explanation for the observation of the positron excess in cosmic rays. The Minimal Universal Extra Dimensions scenario has received great attention. Recently non-vanishing bulk fermion masses have been introduced without spoiling the virtue of KK-parity. The fermion profiles are no longer simple sine/cosine functions and depend upon the specific values of bulk parameters. The profiles of fermions are split along the extra dimensions while the wave functions of the bosons remain the same as in UED. A simple introduction of a KK-parity conserving bulk fermion mass has significant influences on collider aspects as well as astrophysical implications of UED. For instance, the DM annihilation fraction into certain SM fermion pairs is either enhanced or reduced (compared to the MUED case) so that one can perhaps explain the PAMELA positron excess while suppressing the anti-proton flux. In this paper, we have concentrated on collider phenomenology of Split Universal Extra Dimensions. We have revisited the KK decomposition in detail and analyzed wave function overlaps to compute relevant couplings for collider studies. We have discussed general collider implication for level-1 KK modes and level-2 KK with non-zero bulk mass and have computed LHC reach for the EW level-2 KK bosons, {gamma}{sub 2} and Z{sub 2}, in the dilepton channel. The LHC should
From Boltzmann equations to steady wall velocities
Konstandin, Thomas; Nardini, Germano; Rues, Ingo E-mail: germano.nardini@desy.de
2014-09-01
By means of a relativistic microscopic approach we calculate the expansion velocity of bubbles generated during a first-order electroweak phase transition. In particular, we use the gradient expansion of the Kadanoff-Baym equations to set up the fluid system. This turns out to be equivalent to the one found in the semi-classical approach in the non-relativistic limit. Finally, by including hydrodynamic deflagration effects and solving the Higgs equations of motion in the fluid, we determine velocity and thickness of the bubble walls. Our findings are compared with phenomenological models of wall velocities. As illustrative examples, we apply these results to three theories providing first-order phase transitions with a particle content in the thermal plasma that resembles the Standard Model.
Herschlag, Gregory J; Mitran, Sorin; Lin, Guang
2015-06-21
We develop a hierarchy of approximations to the master equation for systems that exhibit translational invariance and finite-range spatial correlation. Each approximation within the hierarchy is a set of ordinary differential equations that considers spatial correlations of varying lattice distance; the assumption is that the full system will have finite spatial correlations and thus the behavior of the models within the hierarchy will approach that of the full system. We provide evidence of this convergence in the context of one- and two-dimensional numerical examples. Lower levels within the hierarchy that consider shorter spatial correlations are shown to be up to three orders of magnitude faster than traditional kinetic Monte Carlo methods (KMC) for one-dimensional systems, while predicting similar system dynamics and steady states as KMC methods. We then test the hierarchy on a two-dimensional model for the oxidation of CO on RuO2(110), showing that low-order truncations of the hierarchy efficiently capture the essential system dynamics. By considering sequences of models in the hierarchy that account for longer spatial correlations, successive model predictions may be used to establish empirical approximation of error estimates. The hierarchy may be thought of as a class of generalized phenomenological kinetic models since each element of the hierarchy approximates the master equation and the lowest level in the hierarchy is identical to a simple existing phenomenological kinetic models.
The varieties of ecstasy experience: a phenomenological ethnography.
Leneghan, Sean
2013-01-01
Ecstasy (MDMA) has attracted widespread attention with its association as a "recreational substance" that is concentrated in club and rave settings. This paper outlines a phenomenologically grounded ethnographic study of the experiences of ecstasy users in the Sydney, Australia, area. I espouse phenomenology as a framework for describing and understanding these experiences. A number of excerpts are presented from my primary corpus of ethnographic material. For the purposes of this paper I assemble user's reports into nine thematic areas: (1) initial reactions and peaking; (2) the rush; (3) plateau; (4) coming down/scattering; (5) love; (6) peace, love, understanding, and respect; (7) connections on ecstasy; (8) unificatory experiences; (9) returning to baseline. The typical experiences presented in these reports confirm and extend interdisciplinary approaches to understanding ecstasy. I suggest that a context-specific approach that is phenomenologically attuned to user's experiences with ecstasy can contribute to the growing body of literature undertaken in the Australian and international research community.
Phenomenological characteristics of autobiographical memory in Korsakoff's syndrome.
El Haj, Mohamad; Nandrino, Jean-Louis
2017-10-01
A body of research suggests compromise of autobiographical memory in Korsakoff's syndrome (KS). The present paper extends this literature by investigating the subjective experience of autobiographical recall in the syndrome. Patients with KS and controls were asked to retrieve autobiographical memories. After memory retrieval, participants were asked to rate phenomenological characteristics of their memories (i.e., reliving, back in time, remembering, realness, visual imagery, auditory imagery, language, emotion, rehearsal, importance, spatial recall and temporal recall). Analysis showed lower "Mean Phenomenological Experience" in the Korsakoff patients than in controls. However, the Korsakoff patients attributed relatively high emotional value and importance to their memories. Although our findings suggest compromised phenomenological reliving of autobiographical memory in patients with KS, affective characteristics such as emotion and importance are likely to play a main role in the subjective experience of the past in these patients. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Vantage perspective during encoding: The effects on phenomenological memory characteristics.
Mooren, Nora; Krans, Julie; Näring, Gérard W B; Moulds, Michelle L; van Minnen, Agnes
2016-05-01
The vantage perspective from which a memory is retrieved influences the memory's emotional impact, intrusiveness, and phenomenological characteristics. This study tested whether similar effects are observed when participants were instructed to imagine the events from a specific perspective. Fifty student participants listened to a verbal report of car-accidents and visualized the scenery from either a field or observer perspective. There were no between-condition differences in emotionality of memories and the number of intrusions, but imagery experienced from a relative observer perspective was rated as less self-relevant. In contrast to earlier studies on memory retrieval, vantage perspective influenced phenomenological memory characteristics of the memory representation such as sensory details, and ratings of vividness and distancing of the memory. However, vantage perspective is most likely not a stable phenomenological characteristic itself. Implications and suggestions for future research are discussed.
Coupled power equations for lossy fibers.
Marcuse, D
1978-10-15
Coupled power equations for multimode fibers were originally derived by neglecting mode losses, loss was later introduced by adding a phenomenological loss factor to the equation system. In this paper the time independent coupled power equations are derived taking mode losses into account from the beginning. The form of the equations so obtained is identical to the well known coupled power equations, but the coupling coefficients are different. The mode losses alter the analytical expressions for the coupling coefficients and cause the matrix of coupling coefficients to be asymmetrical. Some consequences of the coupled power theory incorporating mode losses are discussed for the specific example of a fiber supporting only two guided modes. Finally, we compare the steady-state losses of a fiber with two randomly coupled modes with the corresponding case of a fiber resonator and find that the resonator losses are equal to the steady-state losses of randomly coupled modes in the limit of very low and very high differential mode losses, for all other cases the resonator losses are much higher than the losses of randomly coupled modes.
Situated phenomenology and biological systems: Eastern and Western synthesis.
Schroeder, Marcin J; Vallverdú, Jordi
2015-12-01
Phenomenology was born with the mission to give foundations for science of experience and to open consciousness to scientific study. The influence of phenomenology initiated in the works of Husserl and continued in a wide range of works of others was immense, but mainly within the confines of philosophy and the humanities. The actual attempts to develop a scientific discipline of the study of consciousness and to carry out research on cognition and consciousness were always based on the methods of traditional science in which elimination of the subjective has been always a primary tenet. Thus, focus was mainly on neurological correlates of conscious phenomena. The present paper is an attempt to initiate an extension and revision of phenomenological methodology with the use of philosophical and scientific experience and knowledge accumulated in a century of inquiry and research in relevant disciplines. The question which disciplines are relevant is crucial and our answer is innovative. The range of disciplines involved here is from information science and studies of computation, up to cultural psychology and the studies of philosophical traditions of the East. Concepts related to information and computation studies provide a general conceptual framework free from the limitations of particular languages and of linguistic analysis. This conceptual framework is extending the original perspective of phenomenology to issues of modern technology and science. Cultural psychology gives us tools to root out what in phenomenology was considered universal for humanity, but was a result of European ethnocentrism. Most important here is the contrast between individualistic and collectivistic cultural determinants of consciousness. Finally, philosophical tradition of the East gives alternatives in seeking solutions for fundamental problems. This general outline of the research methodology is illustrated by an example of its use when phenomenology is studied within the conceptual
Adventures in high energy theory and phenomenology
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Robinson, Dean Jonathan
Various studies of high energy theory and phenomenology are presented. We first present a mechanism that naturally produces light Dirac neutrinos. The central idea is that the right-handed neutrinos are composite. Any realistic composite model must involve 'hidden flavor' chiral symmetries. In general some of these symmetries may survive confinement, and in particular, if a U(1) survives it must imply an exact B -- L symmetry at low energies. Dirac neutrinos are therefore produced, which are naturally light due to compositeness. In general, elementary keV sterile Dirac neutrinos can be a natural ingredient of this composite neutrino scenario. For a certain class of composite neutrino theories, these sterile neutrinos naturally have the appropriate mixing angles to be resonantly produced warm dark matter (WDM). Alternatively, we show these sterile neutrinos can be WDM produced by an entropy-diluted thermal freeze-out, with the necessary entropy production arising not from an out-of-equilibrium decay, but rather from the confinement of the composite neutrino sector, provided there is sufficient supercooling. We next present a formalism for the flavor oscillation of unstable particles that relies only upon the analytic structure of the time Fourier-transformed two-point function. We derive exact oscillation probability and integrated oscillation probability formulae, and verify that our results reproduce the known results for both neutrino and neutral meson oscillation in the expected regimes of parameter space. The generality of our approach permits us to investigate flavor oscillation in exotic parameter regimes, and present the corresponding oscillation formulae. Kinematic edges in cascade decays provide a probe of the masses of new particles. In some new physics scenarios the decay chain involves intermediate particles of different flavors that can mix and oscillate. We discuss the implication of such oscillation, and in particular its interplay with the non
Phenomenology of Particle Production during Ination
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Namba, Ryo
This thesis is devoted to the study on particle production during the era of primordial inflation and its phenomenological impacts. The simplest models of inflation typically assume only one dynamical degree of freedom, inflaton, that is responsible for all the inflationary dynamics and predictions. Yet, it is a natural expectation that the inflaton should be coupled to some other fields, in need of successful reheating of the universe after inflation. We first consider the models in which the inflaton is coupled to a U(1) gauge field. For a pseudo-scalar inflaton, its natural coupling induces tachyonic growth of the gauge quanta, which then inverse-decay to the inflaton perturbations. This imprints non-Gaussianity in the cosmic microwave background (CMB) anisotropies. This non-Gaussianity has a nearly equilateral shape, and the fact that we have not observed it with Planck provides a bound on the axion decay constant, which is in the range naturally obtained in UV completed theories. The produced gauge quanta also source gravitational waves (GWs). Future GW interferometer experiments can improve over the CMB non-Gaussianity limits. We then study a different model characterized by a scalar inflaton coupled to gauge fields via a dilation-like interaction. This coupling can result in a nearly scale-invariant spectrum for the gauge field. Also in this case, the produced gauge quanta source inflaton perturbations, but the resulting non-Gaussianity now has a shape peaked for squeezed triangles, and which exhibits a peculiar angular dependence, that, if detected, would be a smoking gun of the higher-spin fields involved. In the above two models, the GW signals are always subdominant at the CMB scales, due to the non-Gaussianity bounds from the scalar perturbations (namely, from the perturbations generated by the inflaton quanta produced by the gauge fields). We study the radically different situation in which some field other than the inflaton produces the gauge quanta
Design and phenomenology of the FEBSTAT study.
Hesdorffer, Dale C; Shinnar, Shlomo; Lewis, Darrell V; Moshé, Solomon L; Nordli, Douglas R; Pellock, John M; MacFall, James; Shinnar, Ruth C; Masur, David; Frank, L Matthew; Epstein, Leon G; Litherland, Claire; Seinfeld, Syndi; Bello, Jacqueline A; Chan, Stephen; Bagiella, Emilia; Sun, Shumei
2012-09-01
Febrile status epilepticus (FSE) has been associated with hippocampal injury and subsequent hippocampal sclerosis (HS) and temporal lobe epilepsy. The FEBSTAT study was designed to prospectively examine the association between prolonged febrile seizures and development of HS and associated temporal lobe epilepsy, one of the most controversial issues in epilepsy. We report on the baseline phenomenology of the final cohorts as well as detailed aims and methodology. The "Consequences of Prolonged Febrile Seizures in Childhood" (FEBSTAT) study is a prospective, multicenter study. Enrolled are children, aged 1 month to 6 years of age, presenting with a febrile seizure lasting 30 min or longer based on ambulance, emergency department, and hospital records, and parental interview. At baseline, procedures included a magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) study and electroencephalography (EEG) recording done within 72 h of FSE, and a detailed history and neurologic examination. Baseline development and behavior are assessed at 1 month. The baseline assessment is repeated, with age-appropriate developmental testing at 1 and 5 years after enrollment as well as at the development of epilepsy and 1 year after that. Telephone calls every 3 months document additional seizures. Two other groups of children are included: a "control" group consisting of children with a first febrile seizure ascertained at Columbia University and with almost identical baseline and 1-year follow-up examinations and a pilot cohort of FSE from Duke University. The FEBSTAT cohort consists of 199 children with a median age at baseline of 16.0 months (interquartile range [IQR] 12.0-24.0) and a median duration of FSE of 70.0 min (IQR 47.0-110.0). Seizures were continuous in 57.3% and behaviorally intermittent (without recovery in between) in 31.2%; most were partial (2.0%) or secondary generalized (65.8%), and almost all (98.0%) culminated in a generalized tonic-clonic seizure. Of the 199 children, 86.4% had
A Phenomenological Model for Tool Wear in Friction Stir Welding of Metal Matrix Composites
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Prater, Tracie J.; Strauss, Alvin M.; Cook, George E.; Gibson, Brian T.; Cox, Chase D.
2013-08-01
Friction stir welding (FSW) of metal matrix composites (MMCs) is advantageous because the solid-state nature of the process precludes formation of deleterious intermetallic phases which accompany melting. FSW of MMCs is complicated by rapid and severe wear of the welding tool, a consequence of contact between the tool and the much harder abrasive reinforcement which gives the workpiece material its enhanced strength. The current article demonstrates that Nunes's rotating plug model of material flow in FSW, which has been successfully applied in many other contexts, can also help us understand wear in FSW of MMCs. An equation for predicting the amount of wear in this application is developed and compared with experimental data. This phenomenological model explains the relationship between wear and FSW process parameters documented in previous studies.
Phenomenological consequences of enhanced bulk viscosity near the QCD critical point
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Monnai, Akihiko; Mukherjee, Swagato; Yin, Yi
2017-03-01
In the proximity of the QCD critical point the bulk viscosity of quark-gluon matter is expected to be proportional to nearly the third power of the critical correlation length, and become significantly enhanced. This work is the first attempt to study the phenomenological consequences of enhanced bulk viscosity near the QCD critical point. For this purpose, we implement the expected critical behavior of the bulk viscosity within a non-boost-invariant, longitudinally expanding 1 +1 dimensional causal relativistic hydrodynamical evolution at nonzero baryon density. We demonstrate that the critically enhanced bulk viscosity induces a substantial nonequilibrium pressure, effectively softening the equation of state, and leads to sizable effects in the flow velocity and single-particle distributions at the freeze-out. The observable effects that may arise due to the enhanced bulk viscosity in the vicinity of the QCD critical point can be used as complementary information to facilitate searches for the QCD critical point.
Phenomenology of the left-right twin Higgs model
Goh, Hock-Seng; Goh, Hock-Seng; Su, Shufang
2006-11-02
The twin Higgs mechanism was proposed recently to solve the little hierarchy problem. We study the implementation of the twin Higgs mechanism in left-right models. At the TeV scale, heavy quark and gauge bosonsappear, with rich collider phenomenology. In addition, there are extra Higgs bosons, some of which couple to both the standard model fermion sector and the gauge sector, while others couple to the gauge bosons only. We present the particle spectrum and study the general features of the collider phenomenology of this class of model at the Large Hadron Collider.
Aging and identity-in-the-world: a phenomenological analysis.
Ainlay, S C; Redfoot, D L
This paper uses a criticism of "objectivistic" approaches to aging and identity as a vehicle for a phenomenological rethinking of those topics. This phenomenological approach to "identity-in-the-world" as it is experienced in everyday life leads necessarily to a theory of the temporal limits of that experience in the aging process; that is, a theory of identity, properly understood, is already a theory of aging. It is concluded that this approach overcomes the parallel problems of objectivism versus subjectivism and biologism versus sociologism, demanding a rethinking of conceptions of human nature that have predominated in social science.
Plant intentionality and the phenomenological framework of plant intelligence
Marder, Michael
2012-01-01
This article aims to bridge phenomenology and the study of plant intelligence with the view to enriching both disciplines. Besides considering the world from the perspective of sessile organisms, it would be necessary, in keeping with the phenomenological framework, to rethink (1) the meaning of being-sessile and being-in-a-place; (2) the concepts of sentience and attention; (3) how aboveground and underground environments appear to plants; (4) the significance of modular development for our understanding of intelligence; and (5) the concept of communication within and between plants and plant tissues. What emerges from these discussions is the image of a mind embodied in plant life. PMID:22951403
Phenomenological description of semi-soft nematic elastomers
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wen-Wen, Diao; Qing-Tian, Meng; Fang-Fu, Ye
2016-06-01
Nematic elastomers are new materials that have many remarkable properties. In this article, we study how nonlinear elasticity of semi-soft nematic elastomers can be described phenomenologically. We start with a theory based on strain tensor only, and then continue to develop a phenomenological description with the liquid crystal order tensor included explicitly. Such a description has the virtue of being able to treat the strain tensor and the liquid crystal order tensor equally and thus making the complicated symmetries of nematic elastomers easier to understand.
Phenomenologically viable Lorentz-violating quantum gravity.
Sotiriou, Thomas P; Visser, Matt; Weinfurtner, Silke
2009-06-26
Horava's "Lifschitz point gravity" has many desirable features, but in its original incarnation one is forced to accept a nonzero cosmological constant of the wrong sign to be compatible with observation. We develop an extension of Horava's model that abandons "detailed balance" and regains parity invariance, and in 3+1 dimensions exhibit all five marginal (renormalizable) and four relevant (super-renormalizable) operators, as determined by power counting. We also consider the classical limit of this theory, evaluate the Hamiltonian and supermomentum constraints, and extract the classical equations of motion in a form similar to the Arnowitt-Deser-Misner formulation of general relativity. This puts the model in a framework amenable to developing detailed precision tests.
Phenomenological approaches of inflation and their equivalence
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Boubekeur, Lotfi; Giusarma, Elena; Mena, Olga; Ramírez, Héctor
2015-04-01
In this work, we analyze two possible alternative and model-independent approaches to describe the inflationary period. The first one assumes a general equation of state during inflation due to Mukhanov, while the second one is based on the slow-roll hierarchy suggested by Hoffman and Turner. We find that, remarkably, the two approaches are equivalent from the observational viewpoint, as they single out the same areas in the parameter space, and agree with the inflationary attractors where successful inflation occurs. Rephrased in terms of the familiar picture of a slowly rolling, canonically normalized scalar field, the resulting inflaton excursions in these two approaches are almost identical. Furthermore, once the Galactic dust polarization data from Planck are included in the numerical fits, inflaton excursions can safely take sub-Planckian values.
Boettger, Soenke; Breitbart, William
2011-06-01
The purpose of this study was to examine the differences in phenomenology between hypoactive and hyperactive subtypes of delirium, and specifically to determine the comparative prevalence of perceptual disturbances (e.g., hallucinations) and delusions in these two subtypes of delirium. We conducted an analysis of Memorial Delirium Assessment Scale (MDAS) items in a set of 100 delirium cases evaluated and treated at Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center (MSKCC) utilizing an MSKCC Institutional Review Board (IRB) approved Clinical Delirium Database. Individual MDAS items, reflecting the phenomenology of delirium, were compared in delirious patients classified as to motoric subtype (hypoactive versus hyperactive based on MDAS item no. 9, psychomotor activity). Particular attention was paid to differences between subtypes as to the prevalence of perceptual disturbances (MDAS item no. 7) and delusions (MDAS item no. 8). Significant differences were found between hyperactive and hypoactive subtypes of delirium for the presence and severity of perceptual disturbances and delusions; with perceptual disturbances (e.g., hallucinations) and delusions being significantly more prevalent in hyperactive than in hypoactive delirium. The prevalence of perceptual disturbances was 50.9% and the prevalence of delusions was 43.4% in patients with hypoactive delirium. In patients with hyperactive delirium, the prevalence of perceptual disturbances was 70.2% and the prevalence of delusions was 78.7%. The prevalence of perceptual disturbances and delusions in both subtypes of delirium was significantly correlated with the presence of moderate-to-severe disturbance of consciousness/arousal (MDAS item no. 1) and attention impairment (MDAS item no. 5), but was not correlated with the presence of moderate-to-severe cognitive impairment (MDAS item nos. 2-4). Contrary to earlier studies, which indicated extremely low prevalence rates of perceptual disturbances (e.g., hallucinations) and
Equating Error in Observed-Score Equating
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
van der Linden, Wim J.
2006-01-01
Traditionally, error in equating observed scores on two versions of a test is defined as the difference between the transformations that equate the quantiles of their distributions in the sample and population of test takers. But it is argued that if the goal of equating is to adjust the scores of test takers on one version of the test to make…
The Phenomenology of Research: The Construction of Meaning in Composition Research.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Davis, Kevin
1995-01-01
Describes the philosophical phenomenology of Edmund Husserl and argues that his insights can greatly inform contemporary composition theory. Discusses how phenomenology affects both design and analysis in composition research. (HB)
The Phenomenology of Research: The Construction of Meaning in Composition Research.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Davis, Kevin
1995-01-01
Describes the philosophical phenomenology of Edmund Husserl and argues that his insights can greatly inform contemporary composition theory. Discusses how phenomenology affects both design and analysis in composition research. (HB)
Experiencing nursing education research: narrative inquiry and interpretive phenomenology.
Lindsay, Gail M
2006-01-01
Narrative inquiry is emerging from higher education curriculum studies into nursing, and interpretive phenomenology is established in nursing education research. These two research methods are compared by subject matter, agent, method, data and outcome, using examples from nursing education research. This comparison facilitates a researcher's choice of method by showing what is revealed by each type of inquiry and how they differ.
A Phenomenological Exploration of Faculty Experiences Using Lecture Capture Systems
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Vande Voort, Pamela S.
2013-01-01
The purpose of this qualitative, phenomenological study was to describe the perceived experiences of faculty who use lecture capture systems in face-to-face class meetings at small and medium-sized, four-year, highly residential, undergraduate colleges and universities with enrollments between 1,000 and 9,999 students. Through audio-recorded…
Phenomenology for Introductory Architectural Analysis Courses: The Pentagon Methodological Approach
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Pombo, Fátima; Bervoets, Wouter; De Smet, Henk
2015-01-01
As a consequence of fruitful discussions about joining theory and practice both in design research and educational design programmes, this article aims to explore phenomenological parameters in the framework of an exercise for Engineer-architecture students from the University of Leuven in Belgium. Relying upon the arguments of recognised…
The Pleasures of Learning at Work: Foucault and Phenomenology Compared
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Hughes, Christina
2007-01-01
This paper provides a comparative account of two conceptualisations of pleasure. The first draws on Foucault's analysis of bio-power. The second provides a phenomenological account where pleasure is viewed as an aspect of our immediate consciousness. These conceptualisations are illuminated through an analysis of employees' accounts of learning at…
How to Protect Children from Internet Predators: A Phenomenological Study
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Alexander, Rodney T.
2012-01-01
Teenage Internet users are the fastest growing segment in the Internet user population. These teenagers are at risk of sexual assault from Internet predators. This phenomenological study explored teacher and counselors' perceptions of how to prevent this sexual assault. Twenty-five teacher and counselor participants were interviewed. A…
Educator-on-Educator Workplace Bullying: A Phenomenological Study
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
de Wet, N. C.
2011-01-01
Husserlian phenomenology was used as the philosophical underpinning for this study, since its purpose is to describe human experience as it is lived by educators who have experienced workplace bullying. In-depth interviews were conducted with participants identified by means of the snowball sampling technique. Colaizzi's method for descriptive…
Social Anxiety and Close Relationships: A Hermeneutic Phenomenological Study
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Nielsen, Kate E. J.; Cairns, Sharon L.
2009-01-01
While only a few quantitative studies have looked at social anxiety and close relationships, this study uses the qualitative approach of hermeneutic phenomenology to explore the meaning of being in a close relationship for eight individuals with social anxiety. Participants completed a written questionnaire with open-ended questions about their…
Inquiring into the Real: A Realist Phenomenological Approach
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Budd, John M.; Hill, Heather; Shannon, Brooke
2010-01-01
The need for postpositivist or antipositivist methods in the social sciences, including library and information science, is well documented. A promising alternative synthesizes critical realism and phenomenology. This method embraces ontological reality in all things, including human and social action. The ontology underlying the realist…
Phenomenological Study of Special Education Teachers Using an Emergency License
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Alborn-Yilek, Susan
2010-01-01
The shortage of special education teachers is critical. One means used to increase the supply of available teachers is to issue an emergency license to teachers not fully certified in special education. This is a phenomenological study of four general education teachers practicing special education using an emergency license. Their experience is…
Challenging Normative Assumptions Regarding Disengaged Youth: A Phenomenological Perspective
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Lewthwaite, Brian; Wilson, Kimberley; Wallace, Valda; McGinty, Sue; Swain, Luke
2017-01-01
This paper explores the experiences of 12 young people, all teenagers, who have chosen to attend alternative schools known as flexible learning options within the Australian context. Using a phenomenological approach, the study seeks to understand their experiences outside the normalised public discourse that they had "disengaged" from…
Challenging Normative Assumptions Regarding Disengaged Youth: A Phenomenological Perspective
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Lewthwaite, Brian; Wilson, Kimberley; Wallace, Valda; McGinty, Sue; Swain, Luke
2017-01-01
This paper explores the experiences of 12 young people, all teenagers, who have chosen to attend alternative schools known as flexible learning options within the Australian context. Using a phenomenological approach, the study seeks to understand their experiences outside the normalised public discourse that they had "disengaged" from…
The Adolescent Female Changing Voice: A Phenomenological Investigation
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Sweet, Bridget
2015-01-01
The purpose of this phenomenological study was to investigate the experience of female voice change from the perspective of female middle and high school choral students. The study was guided by two questions: How do adolescent female choir students experience voice change? What is the essence of the experience of voice change for middle school…
How Student Affairs Professionals Learn to Advocate: A Phenomenological Study
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Harrison, Laura M.
2014-01-01
This phenomenological study examined how student affairs professionals learn advocacy skills and what they learn in their education on this topic. Findings based on 22 interviews show participants felt underprepared by their graduate programs for the myriad challenges involved with advocating for students. Findings indicate participants found…
Phenomenology of Models with Non-universal Sfermion Masses
Sakurai, Kazuki
2008-11-23
We propose some special type of non-universal sfermion mass spectrum inspired from naturalness of electroweak symmetry breaking and supersymmetric flavor problem. We discuss phenomenology of the models, lepton flavor violation, CP asymmetry of rare B decays, and LHC signature are investigated.
Relationships Always Matter: Findings from a Phenomenological Research Inquiry
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Giles, David L.
2011-01-01
This paper reports on findings from a hermeneutic phenomenological research inquiry which explored the nature of relational experiences in teacher education. Stories of the lived experience of relationships in an educational context were hermeneutically interpreted against the philosophical writings of Heidegger, Gadamer, Levinas, and Buber. The…
How Student Affairs Professionals Learn to Advocate: A Phenomenological Study
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Harrison, Laura M.
2014-01-01
This phenomenological study examined how student affairs professionals learn advocacy skills and what they learn in their education on this topic. Findings based on 22 interviews show participants felt underprepared by their graduate programs for the myriad challenges involved with advocating for students. Findings indicate participants found…
A Phenomenological Analysis of College Students' Spiritual Struggles
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Rockenbach, Alyssa Bryant; Walker, Coretta Roseboro; Luzader, Jordan
2012-01-01
Through in-depth interviews with ten diverse participants, this phenomenological study explored the meaning, dimensions, and processes of spiritual struggle in college students' lives. The findings revealed that encountering contrast was the unifying dimension underlying students' spiritual struggle narratives. Contrast was apparent in students'…
Social Engagement in a Diversifying Campus: A Phenomenological Exploration
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Min, Yang; Chau, Albert
2012-01-01
With more non-local (Mainland China and overseas) students admitted into the universities of Hong Kong, the student population on campus is becoming much more diversified. This study was a phenomenological inquiry into the social engagement experiences of local and non-local Chinese students in their first year at a university in Hong Kong.…
A Phenomenological Study of Falling out of Romantic Love
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Sailor, Joanni L.
2013-01-01
Romantic love is considered a necessary ingredient in marriage. In this study, the experience of falling out of romantic love with one's spouse was examined. Eight individuals who had fallen out of romantic love with their spouse were interviewed. By using Moustakas' Transcendental Phenomenological method, several themes emerged which provided a…
Retention in Special Education Teachers in Georgia: A Phenomenological Approach
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Jackson, Arndra N.
2012-01-01
The purpose of this qualitative study using a phenomenological approach was to identify and examine factors influencing the retention rate of special education teachers in rural and urban schools in middle Georgia. Provided in this study are factors that are related to retention in special education teachers. Semistructured interviews were used to…
After Dark in the Antipodes: Pedagogy, Place and Queer Phenomenology
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Crowley, Vicki; Rasmussen, Mary Lou
2010-01-01
This paper pursues issues of pedagogy, place and queer phenomenology in the context of what might be meant by the term "after-queer" or "what falls outside queer" as we currently theorise, practice and locate queer. Inspired by Sara Ahmed's account of how bodies become oriented by the ways in which they take up time and space,…
Exploring the Experiences of Administrative Interns: A Phenomenological Approach
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Jamison, Kimberly R.
2014-01-01
This phenomenological investigation explores the experiences of administrative interns throughout their administrative internship to discover how they perceive and make meaning of their internship experiences--their thoughts, feelings, concerns, and aspirations. All thirteen participants were students in one university administrator preparation…
Gifted Dropouts: Phenomenological Case Studies of Rural Gifted Students
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Zabloski, Jim; Milacci, Fred
2012-01-01
In this qualitative phenomenological study, we sought to explore the life experiences of 7 rural gifted individuals who dropped out of school. In addition, we investigated whether participants shared commonalities that might have led to the phenomenon of dropping out. The problem was that a paucity of research exists about gifted dropouts;…
American Apprenticeship as a Transformative Learning Experience: A Phenomenology
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Howze, Pamela Bolton
2015-01-01
"American Apprenticeship as a Transformative Learning Experience: A Phenomenology" is an in-depth investigation into the phenomenon of a transformative learning experience for three American high school students who were given a traditional apprenticeship opportunity, including a community college degree, in lieu of going away to a…
A Phenomenological Study of Parents' Involvement in Mathematics Instruction
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Delbridge, Natalie H.
2013-01-01
Many areas of support are needed when educating children and youth in mathematics education. One of the untapped areas is that of parental support and involvement. The purpose of this phenomenological study is to describe the "lived" experiences of parental involvement in their children's mathematics home instruction through individual…
Inquiring into the Real: A Realist Phenomenological Approach
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Budd, John M.; Hill, Heather; Shannon, Brooke
2010-01-01
The need for postpositivist or antipositivist methods in the social sciences, including library and information science, is well documented. A promising alternative synthesizes critical realism and phenomenology. This method embraces ontological reality in all things, including human and social action. The ontology underlying the realist…
Retention in Special Education Teachers in Georgia: A Phenomenological Approach
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Jackson, Arndra N.
2012-01-01
The purpose of this qualitative study using a phenomenological approach was to identify and examine factors influencing the retention rate of special education teachers in rural and urban schools in middle Georgia. Provided in this study are factors that are related to retention in special education teachers. Semistructured interviews were used to…
A Phenomenological Study of Parents' Involvement in Mathematics Instruction
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Delbridge, Natalie H.
2013-01-01
Many areas of support are needed when educating children and youth in mathematics education. One of the untapped areas is that of parental support and involvement. The purpose of this phenomenological study is to describe the "lived" experiences of parental involvement in their children's mathematics home instruction through individual…
A Phenomenological Narrative Study: Elementary Charter School Principals' Managerial Roles
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Cetinkaya, Ahmet
2016-01-01
This study was a phenomenological narrative research investigating the managerial roles of elementary charter school principals. Managerial leadership practices were investigated under three categories personnel management, student management, and finance management. Elementary charter school principals provided positive feedback for having small…
The Prevalence and Phenomenology of Repetitive Behavior in Genetic Syndromes
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Moss, Joanna; Oliver, Chris; Arron, Kate; Burbidge, Cheryl; Berg, Katy
2009-01-01
We investigated the prevalence and phenomenology of repetitive behavior in genetic syndromes to detail profiles of behavior. The Repetitive Behaviour Questionnaire (RBQ) provides fine-grained identification of repetitive behaviors. The RBQ was employed to examine repetitive behavior in Angelman (N = 104), Cornelia de Lange (N = 101), Cri-du-Chat…
Educators' Perspectives on Having Been Cyber Harassed: A Phenomenological Study
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Davenport, Paula M.
2014-01-01
The abuse of individuals through electronic means, typically of students by other students, has been researched extensively. The electronic abuse of other individuals through electronic means has received a dearth of research attention. The purpose of this qualitative transcendental phenomenological study was to explore, describe, and expand the…
A Phenomenological Narrative Study: Elementary Charter School Principals' Managerial Roles
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Cetinkaya, Ahmet
2016-01-01
This study was a phenomenological narrative research investigating the managerial roles of elementary charter school principals. Managerial leadership practices were investigated under three categories personnel management, student management, and finance management. Elementary charter school principals provided positive feedback for having small…
Standardized Patients in Art Therapy Education: A Phenomenological Study
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Johnson, Jeffrey; Salisbury, Helen; Deaver, Sarah; Johansson, Mark; Calisch, Abby
2013-01-01
Simulation is used widely in medical and health professions educational programs. Standardized patients (SPs) are individuals who are trained to simulate specific symptoms or conditions as part of a structured learning experience with students. In this qualitative, phenomenological study the researcher interviewed 8 first-year graduate art therapy…
Cyberbullying Victimization among College Students: An Interpretive Phenomenological Analysis
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Rivituso, Jack
2014-01-01
This interpretive phenomenological analysis explored the lived experiences and the psychological impact of victimization from cyberbullying among college students. Two theories, Bandura's Theory of Triadic Reciprocal Determinism and the General Strain Theory, guided the primary research questions used for this exploration. Each of these…
Recent Progress in Weakly-Coupled Heterotic String Phenomenology
Wu, Yi-Yen
1997-07-28
Some recent developments in the weakly-coupled heterotic string phenomenology are reviewed. We discuss several important issues such as dilaton/moduli stabilization, supersymmetry breaking (by hidden-sector gaugino condensation), gauge coupling unification (or the Newton's constant), the QCD axion, as well as cosmological problems involving the dilaton/moduli and the axion.
Phenomenological Aspects of Psychosocial Maturity in Adolescence. Report No. 198.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Josselson, Ruthellen; And Others
Forty-one subjects who score at the high and low extremes of the Psychosocial Maturity (PSM) Inventory were intensively interviewed. These interview data were analyzed to contrast the phenomenological and psychodynamic forces in the lives of these subjects that influence their current state of psychosocial maturity. Case material is presented.…
Community College Administrators as Educational Partnership Champions: Phenomenological Perspectives
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Boodrookas, George J.
2013-01-01
This study explored, through the use of phenomenological research methods, the experiences of community college administrators in the development and implementation of educational partnerships. The study focused on the actions of these administrators who serve as partnership "champions" in ventures related to community, economic and…
Principals' Experiences of Being Evaluated: A Phenomenological Study
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Parylo, Oksana; Zepeda, Sally J.; Bengtson, Ed
2012-01-01
This phenomenological study sought to understand principals' lived experiences of being evaluated with reliance on the principles of developmental supervision and adult learning theory. Analysis of interview data from 16 principals revealed 3 major constructs in principal evaluation: evaluation is a complex, constantly changing system; principal…
The Adolescent Female Changing Voice: A Phenomenological Investigation
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Sweet, Bridget
2015-01-01
The purpose of this phenomenological study was to investigate the experience of female voice change from the perspective of female middle and high school choral students. The study was guided by two questions: How do adolescent female choir students experience voice change? What is the essence of the experience of voice change for middle school…
After Dark in the Antipodes: Pedagogy, Place and Queer Phenomenology
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Crowley, Vicki; Rasmussen, Mary Lou
2010-01-01
This paper pursues issues of pedagogy, place and queer phenomenology in the context of what might be meant by the term "after-queer" or "what falls outside queer" as we currently theorise, practice and locate queer. Inspired by Sara Ahmed's account of how bodies become oriented by the ways in which they take up time and space,…
How to Protect Children from Internet Predators: A Phenomenological Study
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Alexander, Rodney T.
2012-01-01
Teenage Internet users are the fastest growing segment in the Internet user population. These teenagers are at risk of sexual assault from Internet predators. This phenomenological study explored teacher and counselors' perceptions of how to prevent this sexual assault. Twenty-five teacher and counselor participants were interviewed. A…
Perceptual anomalies in schizophrenia: integrating phenomenology and cognitive neuroscience.
Uhlhaas, Peter J; Mishara, Aaron L
2007-01-01
From phenomenological and experimental perspectives, research in schizophrenia has emphasized deficits in "higher" cognitive functions, including attention, executive function, as well as memory. In contrast, general consensus has viewed dysfunctions in basic perceptual processes to be relatively unimportant in the explanation of more complex aspects of the disorder, including changes in self-experience and the development of symptoms such as delusions. We present evidence from phenomenology and cognitive neuroscience that changes in the perceptual field in schizophrenia may represent a core impairment. After introducing the phenomenological approach to perception (Husserl, the Gestalt School), we discuss the views of Paul Matussek, Klaus Conrad, Ludwig Binswanger, and Wolfgang Blankenburg on perception in schizophrenia. These 4 psychiatrists describe changes in perception and automatic processes that are related to the altered experience of self. The altered self-experience, in turn, may be responsible for the emergence of delusions. The phenomenological data are compatible with current research that conceptualizes dysfunctions in perceptual processing as a deficit in the ability to combine stimulus elements into coherent object representations. Relationships of deficits in perceptual organization to cognitive and social dysfunction as well as the possible neurobiological mechanisms are discussed.
Defining Campus Violence: A Phenomenological Analysis of Community Stakeholder Perspectives
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Mayhew, Matthew J.; Caldwell, Rebecca J.; Goldman, Emily Grey
2011-01-01
The purpose of this study was to derive an empirically based understanding of campus violence. Grounded in a communication paradigm offered by sociolinguistic scholars, we adopted a phenomenological approach for conducting and analyzing 23 interviews from campus community stakeholders, including students, staff, faculty, administrators, and…
The Relationship between EFL Reading and Existential-Phenomenology
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Tercanlioglu, Leyla; Akarsu, Oktay
2012-01-01
This study reviews an overall theoretical framework of two major phenomena: reading and existential-phenomenology. Nine different predominant theories in reading education, their attributes, effective reading techniques and educational studies of learners' experiences towards effective reading will be examined with some basic issues to grasp the…
The Prevalence and Phenomenology of Repetitive Behavior in Genetic Syndromes
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Moss, Joanna; Oliver, Chris; Arron, Kate; Burbidge, Cheryl; Berg, Katy
2009-01-01
We investigated the prevalence and phenomenology of repetitive behavior in genetic syndromes to detail profiles of behavior. The Repetitive Behaviour Questionnaire (RBQ) provides fine-grained identification of repetitive behaviors. The RBQ was employed to examine repetitive behavior in Angelman (N = 104), Cornelia de Lange (N = 101), Cri-du-Chat…
How to develop a phenomenological model of disability.
Martiny, Kristian Moltke
2015-11-01
During recent decades various researchers from health and social sciences have been debating what it means for a person to be disabled. A rather overlooked approach has developed alongside this debate, primarily inspired by the philosophical tradition called phenomenology. This paper develops a phenomenological model of disability by arguing for a different methodological and conceptual framework from that used by the existing phenomenological approach. The existing approach is developed from the phenomenology of illness, but the paper illustrates how the case of congenital disabilities, looking at the congenital disorder called cerebral palsy (CP), presents a fundamental problem for the approach. In order to understand such congenital cases as CP, the experience of disability is described as being gradually different from, rather than a disruption of, the experience of being abled, and it is argued that the experience of disability is complex and dynamically influenced by both intrinsic and extrinsic factors. Different experiential aspects of disability- pre-reflective, attuned and reflective aspects-are described, demonstrating that the experience of disability comes in different degrees. Overall, this paper contributes to the debates about disability by further describing the personal aspects and experience of persons living with disabilities.
Caring Teacher-Pupil Relationship: Feminist or Phenomenological?
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Morrison, Harriet B.
Nel Noddings'"Caring: A Feminine Approach to Ethics and Moral Education" (1984) represents a feminist view of the caring teacher-pupil relationship, focusing on the personal and social setting and speaking directly about the relationship. The works of Maurice Merleau-Ponty contribute a phenomenological perspective which is universal and…
[The world of the epileptic: anthropo-phenomenological considerations].
Simone, F; Felici, F
1976-01-01
After pointing out that in literature studies concerning the anthropo-phenomenologic aspects of the existence of subjects suffering from epilepsy are very scanty, the Authors dwell upon the opportunity of deepening this study which may allow a better knowledge of the complex problems of the patient. These problems should be neglected if only the biologic side of the disease was taken into consideration.
Perceptual Anomalies in Schizophrenia: Integrating Phenomenology and Cognitive Neuroscience
Uhlhaas, Peter J.; Mishara, Aaron L.
2007-01-01
From phenomenological and experimental perspectives, research in schizophrenia has emphasized deficits in “higher” cognitive functions, including attention, executive function, as well as memory. In contrast, general consensus has viewed dysfunctions in basic perceptual processes to be relatively unimportant in the explanation of more complex aspects of the disorder, including changes in self-experience and the development of symptoms such as delusions. We present evidence from phenomenology and cognitive neuroscience that changes in the perceptual field in schizophrenia may represent a core impairment. After introducing the phenomenological approach to perception (Husserl, the Gestalt School), we discuss the views of Paul Matussek, Klaus Conrad, Ludwig Binswanger, and Wolfgang Blankenburg on perception in schizophrenia. These 4 psychiatrists describe changes in perception and automatic processes that are related to the altered experience of self. The altered self-experience, in turn, may be responsible for the emergence of delusions. The phenomenological data are compatible with current research that conceptualizes dysfunctions in perceptual processing as a deficit in the ability to combine stimulus elements into coherent object representations. Relationships of deficits in perceptual organization to cognitive and social dysfunction as well as the possible neurobiological mechanisms are discussed. PMID:17118973
Educators' Perspectives on Having Been Cyber Harassed: A Phenomenological Study
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Davenport, Paula M.
2014-01-01
The abuse of individuals through electronic means, typically of students by other students, has been researched extensively. The electronic abuse of other individuals through electronic means has received a dearth of research attention. The purpose of this qualitative transcendental phenomenological study was to explore, describe, and expand the…
Gifted Dropouts: Phenomenological Case Studies of Rural Gifted Students
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Zabloski, Jim; Milacci, Fred
2012-01-01
In this qualitative phenomenological study, we sought to explore the life experiences of 7 rural gifted individuals who dropped out of school. In addition, we investigated whether participants shared commonalities that might have led to the phenomenon of dropping out. The problem was that a paucity of research exists about gifted dropouts;…
Phenomenological Analysis of Rationale for School Transfer Credit Policies
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Melton, Amye M.
2012-01-01
Students face challenges when attempting to transfer college credits; sometimes, the process results in having to retake classes already completed at another institution. A qualitative phenomenological study, grounded in an advocacy/participatory worldview, was used to explore how leaders of higher learning institutions determined reasons academic…
Getting There: A Phenomenology of the Contexts of Car Buying.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Aanstoos, Christopher M.; Barrell, James J.
The importance of understanding the manner in which the desire to buy arises in buyers has been neglected in the study of consumer psychology. This report identifies those few research projects which have studied the origins of consumer motivation and describes a phenomenologically-guided investigation which studied individuals' desires to…
Doing Phenomenology in Science Education: A Research Review
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
OStergaard, Edvin; Dahlin, Bo; Hugo, Aksel
2008-01-01
This article is a review of applications of phenomenology, as a philosophy of knowledge and qualitative research approach, to the field of science education (SE). The purpose is to give an overview of work that has been done as well as to assess it and discuss its possibilities of future development. We ask: what attempts for connecting…
Building the Professional Identity of Research Assistants: A Phenomenological Research
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Büyükgöze, Hilal; Gün, Feyza
2017-01-01
This research aims to investigate the determining factors in how research assistants build their professional identity. In the study, which is a qualitative research method patterned on phenomenology, data was collected using a semi-structured interview form. Structured interviews were conducted with seven research assistants selected from a…
Lived Experience of Women Suffering from Vitiligo: A Phenomenological Study
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Borimnejad, Leili; Yekta, Zohreh Parsa; Nasrabadi, Alireza Nikbakht
2006-01-01
Vitiligo is a chronic skin disease, which through change of appearance and body image, exerts a devastating effect on people, especially women. The objective of this study is to explore lived experience of women with Vitiligo by the hermeneutic phenomenology method. The purposive sample consisted of 16 Iranian women. Data analysis followed…
Phenomenology and Correlates of Complicated Grief in Children and Adolescents
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Melhem, Nadine M.; Moritz, Grace; Walker, Monica; Shear, M. Katherine; Brent, David
2007-01-01
Objective: To describe the phenomenology of complicated grief (CG) in parentally bereaved children and adolescents and to examine its correlates. Method: This is a preliminary report from an ongoing 5-year, population-based, longitudinal study of the impact of parental loss on family members. Analyses of cross-sectional data at intake are…
Toward an Understanding of Jewish Identity: A Phenomenological Study
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Friedman, Michelle L.; Friedlander, Myrna L.; Blustein, David L.
2005-01-01
To begin mapping the landscape of contemporary Jewish identity from a phenomenological perspective, the authors conducted a qualitative analysis of semistructured interviews of 10 Jewish adults in the northeastern United States. Coding resulted in 6 universal themes (dynamic nature of self-identification, early formative experiences, desire to…
Undergraduate Female Science-Related Career Choices: A Phenomenological Study
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Curry, Kathy S.
2010-01-01
This qualitative phenomenological study used a modified Groenewald's five steps method with semi-structured, recorded, and transcribed interviews to focus on the underrepresentation of females in science-related careers. The study explored the lived experiences of a purposive sample of 25 senior female college students attending a college in…
Undergraduate Female Science-Related Career Choices: A Phenomenological Study
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Curry, Kathy S.
2010-01-01
This qualitative phenomenological study used a modified Groenewald's five steps method with semi-structured, recorded, and transcribed interviews to focus on the underrepresentation of females in science-related careers. The study explored the lived experiences of a purposive sample of 25 senior female college students attending a college in…
Educator-on-Educator Workplace Bullying: A Phenomenological Study
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
de Wet, N. C.
2011-01-01
Husserlian phenomenology was used as the philosophical underpinning for this study, since its purpose is to describe human experience as it is lived by educators who have experienced workplace bullying. In-depth interviews were conducted with participants identified by means of the snowball sampling technique. Colaizzi's method for descriptive…
E-Learning: A Student's Perspective a Phenomenological Investigation
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Antoine, Julia E.
2011-01-01
This phenomenological investigation focused on the exploration of the lived experiences of students who had dropped out of traditional four year colleges and returned to complete their degree by e-Learning. The goal of this investigation was to gain a new understanding of the psychological, motivational, and ethical aspects of continuing a four…
Christian School Leaders and Spirituality: A Phenomenological Study
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Banke, Susan; Maldonado, Nancy; Lacey, Candace H.
2011-01-01
This phenomenological study examined the spiritual experiences of Christian school leaders who are the spiritual leaders of their schools. A purposeful, nominated sample of 12 Christian school leaders was selected. In-depth, open-ended interviews were conducted, audio taped, and then transcribed verbatim. Data analysis was based on Rudestam and…
Coping with a Child Who Stutters: A Phenomenological Analysis
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Plexico, Laura W.; Burrus, Embry
2012-01-01
Qualitative methods were used in the form of a phenomenological analysis to explore how families cope with having a child who stutters. Twelve participants, 2 men and 10 women, who have children who stutter participated in this study. The participants were asked to consider their experiences with being the parent of a child who stutters. Analysis…
Doing Phenomenology in Science Education: A Research Review
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
OStergaard, Edvin; Dahlin, Bo; Hugo, Aksel
2008-01-01
This article is a review of applications of phenomenology, as a philosophy of knowledge and qualitative research approach, to the field of science education (SE). The purpose is to give an overview of work that has been done as well as to assess it and discuss its possibilities of future development. We ask: what attempts for connecting…
Exploring the Experiences of Administrative Interns: A Phenomenological Approach
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Jamison, Kimberly R.
2014-01-01
This phenomenological investigation explores the experiences of administrative interns throughout their administrative internship to discover how they perceive and make meaning of their internship experiences--their thoughts, feelings, concerns, and aspirations. All thirteen participants were students in one university administrator preparation…
A Phenomenological Analysis of College Students' Spiritual Struggles
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Rockenbach, Alyssa Bryant; Walker, Coretta Roseboro; Luzader, Jordan
2012-01-01
Through in-depth interviews with ten diverse participants, this phenomenological study explored the meaning, dimensions, and processes of spiritual struggle in college students' lives. The findings revealed that encountering contrast was the unifying dimension underlying students' spiritual struggle narratives. Contrast was apparent in students'…
Aging and Identity-In-The-World: A Phenomenological Analysis.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Ainlay, Stephen C.; Redfoot, Donald L.
1982-01-01
Uses a criticism of "objectivistic" approaches to aging and identity as a vehicle for a phenomenological rethinking of those topics. Suggests a theory of identity, properly understood, is already a theory of aging. Concludes that this approach overcomes the parallel problems of objectivism versus subjectivism and biologism versus…
Phenomenological Study of Empowering Women Senior Leaders in Higher Education
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Cselenszky, Mila P.
2012-01-01
The number of women in senior administrative and leadership roles in higher education is minimal compared to the number of women in higher education jobs in general. This phenomenological study explored pathways women took to advance in their careers and barriers that prevent more women from gaining senior administrative and leadership roles.…
A Phenomenological Approach to the Analysis of Film Viewing.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Woodruff, Saundra Kay
This investigation, based on the phenomenological philosophy of Alfred Schutz, was an attempt to determine how people view films by determining the meaning that the action has for them. Twenty college freshmen and sophomores and two seniors viewed the film "Tilt," a production of the National Film Board of Canada. All subjects were asked…
Lived Experience of Women Suffering from Vitiligo: A Phenomenological Study
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Borimnejad, Leili; Yekta, Zohreh Parsa; Nasrabadi, Alireza Nikbakht
2006-01-01
Vitiligo is a chronic skin disease, which through change of appearance and body image, exerts a devastating effect on people, especially women. The objective of this study is to explore lived experience of women with Vitiligo by the hermeneutic phenomenology method. The purposive sample consisted of 16 Iranian women. Data analysis followed…
Insights on raft behavior from minimal phenomenological models
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Garbès Putzel, G.; Schick, M.
2011-07-01
We construct a simple phenomenological theory of phase separation in ternary mixtures of cholesterol and saturated and unsaturated lipids. Such separation is relevant to the formation of 'rafts' in the plasma membrane. We also show how simple cross-linking of proteins which prefer one form of lipid to the other can trigger raft-formation, the first step in a signaling pathway.
Phenomenological Study of Empowering Women Senior Leaders in Higher Education
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Cselenszky, Mila P.
2012-01-01
The number of women in senior administrative and leadership roles in higher education is minimal compared to the number of women in higher education jobs in general. This phenomenological study explored pathways women took to advance in their careers and barriers that prevent more women from gaining senior administrative and leadership roles.…
A Phenomenology of Transfer: Students' Experiences at a Receiving Institution
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Nuñez, Anne-Marie; Yoshimi, Jeffrey
2017-01-01
This study advances a conceptual framework to examine how students who had transferred into a four-year institution described their transition experiences. We used phenomenology as a source of theoretical constructs to interpret their experiences and as a research method. Key themes included the importance of online resources in facilitating the…
Mexican Immigrant Families Crossing the Education Border: A Phenomenological Study
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Plata-Potter, Sandra Ixa; de Guzman, Maria Rosario T.
2012-01-01
This phenomenological study examines Mexican immigrant parents' experiences of helping their children navigate and succeed in school and their perceptions regarding differences between the U.S. and Mexican educational systems. Findings highlight parents' challenges in helping their children succeed in a new and unfamiliar school system and the…
A Phenomenological Exploration of Multiracial Populations in Higher Education
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Morris, Patricia Laverne Downes
2013-01-01
The purpose of this qualitative phenomenological explorative study was to explore the perceptions, views, opinions, and feelings of multiracial college students about being multiracial and adopting a multiracial race category on documentation. By allowing them, the opportunity to tell their stories in a non-threatening environment to someone who…
Cyberbullying Victimization among College Students: An Interpretive Phenomenological Analysis
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Rivituso, Jack
2014-01-01
This interpretive phenomenological analysis explored the lived experiences and the psychological impact of victimization from cyberbullying among college students. Two theories, Bandura's Theory of Triadic Reciprocal Determinism and the General Strain Theory, guided the primary research questions used for this exploration. Each of these…
Social Engagement in a Diversifying Campus: A Phenomenological Exploration
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Min, Yang; Chau, Albert
2012-01-01
With more non-local (Mainland China and overseas) students admitted into the universities of Hong Kong, the student population on campus is becoming much more diversified. This study was a phenomenological inquiry into the social engagement experiences of local and non-local Chinese students in their first year at a university in Hong Kong.…
Parental Involvement in Elementary Children's Religious Education: A Phenomenological Approach
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Bunnell, Peter Wayne
2016-01-01
The issue of parental involvement in religious education is an important one for the family, the church, the Christian school, and society. The purpose of this phenomenological study was to describe parents' concepts and practices of involvement in their children's religious education as evangelical Christian parents in Midwestern communities.…
Phenomenological Study of Special Education Teachers Using an Emergency License
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Alborn-Yilek, Susan
2010-01-01
The shortage of special education teachers is critical. One means used to increase the supply of available teachers is to issue an emergency license to teachers not fully certified in special education. This is a phenomenological study of four general education teachers practicing special education using an emergency license. Their experience is…
E-Learning: A Student's Perspective a Phenomenological Investigation
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Antoine, Julia E.
2011-01-01
This phenomenological investigation focused on the exploration of the lived experiences of students who had dropped out of traditional four year colleges and returned to complete their degree by e-Learning. The goal of this investigation was to gain a new understanding of the psychological, motivational, and ethical aspects of continuing a four…
The Essence of the Principal Internship: A Phenomenological Study
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Bush, Shawnta M.
2013-01-01
This paper presents a phenomenological investigation of principals' experience as they reflect on the essence of the administration internship, an integral part of school administration preparation programs. Five principals, all within the initial year or two of their first public school principal job, revealed the essence of their internship…
Authentically Engaged Learning through Live Supervision: A Phenomenological Study
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Moody, Steven; Kostohryz, Katie; Vereen, Linwood
2014-01-01
This phenomenological study explored the experiential learning of 5 master's-level counseling students undergoing live supervision in a group techniques course. Multiple themes were identified to provide a textural-structural description of how students authentically engaged in the learning process. Implications for counselor education and…
A Phenomenological Investigation of Counseling Doctoral Students Becoming Mothers
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Holm, Jessica M.; Prosek, Elizabeth A.; Godwin Weisberger, Andrea C.
2015-01-01
Women often face challenges when balancing academic and familial responsibilities (Gilbert, 2008); Trepal & Stinchfield, 2012). This phenomenological study explored women's (N = 10) experiences of becoming mothers during a doctoral program in counseling. The results highlight the importance of mentorship and other protective factors associated…
A Phenomenological Study: Perceptions of Student Voice on Academic Success
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Marberry, Tammie
2013-01-01
The purpose of this qualitative, phenomenological study was to explore rural high school graduates', teachers', and administrators' perceptions of student voice on academic success. This study was designed to examine the following three questions: What were the common beliefs regarding opportunities for input, or student voice, on the educational…
Brain microstructure of subclinical apathy phenomenology in healthy individuals.
Spalletta, Gianfranco; Fagioli, Sabrina; Caltagirone, Carlo; Piras, Fabrizio
2013-12-01
Although apathy has been extensively studied in relation to neuropsychiatric disorders, it is still unclear whether, in healthy people, it should be considered as a physiological phenomenon or whether it is a risk factor for progression to clinical disturbances. Here, we investigated subclinical apathy phenomenology and its brain microstructural correlates in healthy individuals. We submitted 72 participants to a comprehensive clinical assessment, a high-resolution structural MRI and a diffusion tensor imaging scan protocol. Data of individual microstructural (mean diffusivity and fractional anisotropy) variations were processed across genders in relation to the Apathy Rating Scale score. In females, subclinical apathy phenomenology was associated with microstructural variation of the bilateral thalami, the anterior thalamic radiation, the forceps major, and the corona radiate. These are white matter areas mostly connecting the thalami to the frontal and occipital cortices, regions that are known to be implicated in the expression of apathy in clinical samples. No significant relationship with brain microstructure was found in males who showed a positive correlation between subclinical apathy and somatic phenomenology of depression. In conclusion, our results show that in healthy individuals subclinical apathy phenomenology is associated with different mechanisms across genders, and raise the issue about whether brain microstructural changes associated with subclinical apathy in healthy females could be a precocious marker useful in the prediction of progression to more severe apathetic conditions.
Social Anxiety and Close Relationships: A Hermeneutic Phenomenological Study
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Nielsen, Kate E. J.; Cairns, Sharon L.
2009-01-01
While only a few quantitative studies have looked at social anxiety and close relationships, this study uses the qualitative approach of hermeneutic phenomenology to explore the meaning of being in a close relationship for eight individuals with social anxiety. Participants completed a written questionnaire with open-ended questions about their…
Exploring the Experiences of Women Adjunct Faculty: A Phenomenology
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Cross, Emily L.
2013-01-01
This qualitative phenomenological study was designed to give an in-depth understanding of the lived experiences of women adjunct faculty working at a mid-sized community college in California. A review of literature surrounding adjunct faculty, community colleges, and women in higher education found a gap in the exploration and discussion of…
Phenomenology of Light Sterile Neutrinos: a Brief Review
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Palazzo, Antonio
2013-03-01
An increasing number of anomalous experimental results are emerging, which cannot be described within the standard three-neutrino framework. We present a concise discussion of the most popular phenomenological interpretation of such findings, based on a hypothetical flavor conversion phenomenon of the ordinary "active" neutrinos into new light "sterile" species having mass m ˜{O}(1) eV.
Exploring the Experiences of Women Adjunct Faculty: A Phenomenology
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Cross, Emily L.
2013-01-01
This qualitative phenomenological study was designed to give an in-depth understanding of the lived experiences of women adjunct faculty working at a mid-sized community college in California. A review of literature surrounding adjunct faculty, community colleges, and women in higher education found a gap in the exploration and discussion of…
Phenomenology from SIDIS and e+e- multiplicities: multiplicities and phenomenology - part I
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bacchetta, Alessandro; Echevarria, Miguel G.; Radici, Marco; Signori, Andrea
2015-01-01
This study is part of a project to investigate the transverse momentum dependence in parton distribution and fragmentation functions, analyzing (semi-)inclusive high-energy processes within a proper QCD framework. We calculate the transverse-momentum-dependent (TMD) multiplicities for e+e- annihilation into two hadrons (considering different combinations of pions and kaons) aiming to investigate the impact of intrinsic and radiative partonic transverse momentum and their mixing with flavor. Different descriptions of the non-perturbative evolution kernel (see, e.g., Refs. [1-5]) are available on the market and there are 200 sets of flavor configurations for the unpolarized TMD fragmentation functions (FFs) resulting from a Monte Carlo fit of Semi-Inclusive Deep-Inelastic Scattering (SIDIS) data at Hermes (see Ref. [6]). We build our predictions of e+e- multiplicities relying on this rich phenomenology. The comparison of these calculations with future experimental data (from Belle and BaBar collaborations) will shed light on non-perturbative aspects of hadron structure, opening important insights into the physics of spin, flavor and momentum structure of hadrons.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Hamrock, B. J.; Dowson, D.
1981-01-01
Lubricants, usually Newtonian fluids, are assumed to experience laminar flow. The basic equations used to describe the flow are the Navier-Stokes equation of motion. The study of hydrodynamic lubrication is, from a mathematical standpoint, the application of a reduced form of these Navier-Stokes equations in association with the continuity equation. The Reynolds equation can also be derived from first principles, provided of course that the same basic assumptions are adopted in each case. Both methods are used in deriving the Reynolds equation, and the assumptions inherent in reducing the Navier-Stokes equations are specified. Because the Reynolds equation contains viscosity and density terms and these properties depend on temperature and pressure, it is often necessary to couple the Reynolds with energy equation. The lubricant properties and the energy equation are presented. Film thickness, a parameter of the Reynolds equation, is a function of the elastic behavior of the bearing surface. The governing elasticity equation is therefore presented.
Derivation of the Landau-Lifshitz-Bloch equation from continuum thermodynamics
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Berti, Alessia; Giorgi, Claudio
2016-11-01
Within the continuum thermodynamic framework, we derive the evolution equation for the magnetization vector in a ferromagnetic body. This procedure leads to an evolution equation that generalizes the well-known Landau-Lifshitz model for magnetically saturated bodies and looks very similar to the Landau-Lifshitz-Bloch equation which was obtained by Garanin in 1997 from statistical mechanics. As a byproduct, we also obtain a generalization of the Gilbert equation when the magnetic field is far from saturation. By virtue of a suitable choice of the Gibbs free energy, this phenomenological model is able to describe the phase transition occurring from the paramagnetic to the ferromagnetic regime in anisotropic ferromagnets.
Tip-of-the-tongue phenomena: an introductory phenomenological analysis.
Brown, S R
2000-12-01
The issue of meaningful yet unexpressed background-to language and to our experiences of the body-is one whose exploration is still in its infancy. There are various aspects of "invisible," implicit, or background experiences which have been investigated from the viewpoints of phenomenology, cognitive psychology, and linguistics. I will argue that James's concept of the phenomenon of fringes, as explicated by Gurwitsch, provides a structural framework from which to investigate and better understand ideas and concepts that are indeterminate, particularly those experienced in the sense of being sought-after. Johnson's conception of the image-schematic gestalt (ISG) provides an approach to bridging the descriptive gap between phenomenology and cognitive psychology. Starting from an analysis of the fringes, I will turn to a consideration of the tip-of-tongue (TOT) state, as a kind of feeling-of-knowing (FOK) state, from a variety of approaches, focusing mainly on cognitive psychology and phenomenology. I will then integrate a phenomenological analysis of these experiences, from the James/Gurwitsch structural viewpoint, with a cognitive/phenomenological analysis in terms of ISGs, and further integrate that with a cognitive/functional analysis of the relation between consciousness and retrieval, employing Anderson et al's theory of inhibitory mechanisms in cognition. This synthesis of these viewpoints will be employed to explore the thesis that the TOT state and similar experiences may relate to the gestalt nature of schemas, and that figure/ground and other contrast-enhancing structures may be both explanatory and descriptive characterizations of the field of consciousness. Copyright 2000 Academic Press.
Variational Derivation of Dissipative Equations
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Sogo, Kiyoshi
2017-03-01
A new variational principle is formulated to derive various dissipative equations. Model equations considered are the damping equation, Bloch equation, diffusion equation, Fokker-Planck equation, Kramers equation and Smoluchowski equation. Each equation and its time reversal equation are simultaneously obtained in our variational principle.
Constitutive equations for meeting elevated-temperature-design needs
Pugh, C.E.; Robinson, D.N.
1981-01-01
Constitutive equations for representing the inelastic behavior of structural alloys at temperatures in the creep regime are discussed from the viewpoint of advances made over the past decade. An emphasis is placed on the progress that has been made in meeting the needs of the program whose design process is based in part on a design-by-inelastic-analysis approach. In particular, the constitutive equations that have been put into place for current use in design analyses are discussed along with some material behavior background information. Equations representing short-term plastic and long-term creep behaviors are considered. Trends towards establishing improved equations for use in the future are also described. Progress relating to fundamentals of continuum mechanics, physical modeling, phenomenological modeling, and implementation is addressed.
Lost in Space? Located in Place: Geo-Phenomenological Exploration and School
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Hung, Ruyu; Stables, Andrew
2011-01-01
This paper aims at revealing the various meanings of schools as more than built physical environments from a geographical-phenomenological (or "geo-phenomenological") perspective. This paper consists of five sections: the first explicates the meaning of "geo-phenomenology"; the second reveals the meaning of "environment" and a dialectics of…
The Audience Performs: A Phenomenological Model for Criticism of Oral Interpretation Performance.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Langellier, Kristin M.
Richard Lanigan's phenomenology of human communication is applicable to the development of a model for critiquing oral interpretation performance. This phenomenological model takes conscious experience of the relationship of a person and the lived-world as its data base, and assumes a phenomenology of performance which creates text in the triadic…
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Aagaard, Jesper
2017-01-01
In time, phenomenology has become a viable approach to conducting qualitative studies in education. Popular and well-established methods include descriptive and hermeneutic phenomenology. Based on critiques of the essentialism and receptivity of these two methods, however, this article offers a third variation of empirical phenomenology:…
Lost in Space? Located in Place: Geo-Phenomenological Exploration and School
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Hung, Ruyu; Stables, Andrew
2011-01-01
This paper aims at revealing the various meanings of schools as more than built physical environments from a geographical-phenomenological (or "geo-phenomenological") perspective. This paper consists of five sections: the first explicates the meaning of "geo-phenomenology"; the second reveals the meaning of "environment" and a dialectics of…
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Stone, Frank Andrews
This paper presents phenomenology as an alternative approach in conducting educational research. The aim of phenomenological research is the exploration of the fundamental consciousness of the person or people being studied so that their perceptions can be identified and interpreted. Today's phenomenology comes from the work of a group of European…
Looks Good on Paper: A Phenomenological Study of Reflective High School Teaching
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Skemp, Charles John
2010-01-01
This study is a phenomenology of the practice of high school teaching. It is an examination of the day-to-day lived experience of high school teachers. The research is grounded in Heidegger's (1962) theory of hermeneutic phenomenology, as well as Polanyi's (1961) theory of tacit knowing. The study uses a phenomenological research design influenced…
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Dimakis, Aristophanes; Müller-Hoissen, Folkert
2015-06-01
It is shown that higher Bruhat orders admit a decomposition into a higher Tamari order, the corresponding dual Tamari order, and a ''mixed order''. We describe simplex equations (including the Yang-Baxter equation) as realizations of higher Bruhat orders. Correspondingly, a family of ''polygon equations'' realizes higher Tamari orders. They generalize the well-known pentagon equation. The structure of simplex and polygon equations is visualized in terms of deformations of maximal chains in posets forming 1-skeletons of polyhedra. The decomposition of higher Bruhat orders induces a reduction of the N-simplex equation to the (N+1)-gon equation, its dual, and a compatibility equation.
Undular bore theory for the Gardner equation.
Kamchatnov, A M; Kuo, Y-H; Lin, T-C; Horng, T-L; Gou, S-C; Clift, R; El, G A; Grimshaw, R H J
2012-09-01
We develop modulation theory for undular bores (dispersive shock waves) in the framework of the Gardner, or extended Korteweg-de Vries (KdV), equation, which is a generic mathematical model for weakly nonlinear and weakly dispersive wave propagation, when effects of higher order nonlinearity become important. Using a reduced version of the finite-gap integration method we derive the Gardner-Whitham modulation system in a Riemann invariant form and show that it can be mapped onto the well-known modulation system for the Korteweg-de Vries equation. The transformation between the two counterpart modulation systems is, however, not invertible. As a result, the study of the resolution of an initial discontinuity for the Gardner equation reveals a rich phenomenology of solutions which, along with the KdV-type simple undular bores, include nonlinear trigonometric bores, solibores, rarefaction waves, and composite solutions representing various combinations of the above structures. We construct full parametric maps of such solutions for both signs of the cubic nonlinear term in the Gardner equation. Our classification is supported by numerical simulations.
The Constitutive Equation for Membrane Tether Extraction
Chen, Yong; Yao, Da-Kang; Shao, Jin-Yu
2010-01-01
Membrane tethers or nanotubes play a critical role in a variety of cellular and subcellular processes such as leukocyte rolling and intercellular mass transport. The current constitutive equations that describe the relationship between the pulling force and the tether velocity during tether extraction have serious limitations. Here we propose a new phenomenological constitutive equation that captures all known characteristics of nanotube formation, including nonlinearity, nonzero threshold force, and possible negative tether velocity. We used tether extraction from endothelial cells as a prototype to illustrate how to obtain the material constants in the constitutive equation. With the micropipette aspiration technique, we measured tether pulling forces at both positive and negative tether velocities. We also determined the threshold force of 55 pN experimentally for the first time. This new constitutive equation unites two established ones and provides us a unified platform to better understand not only the physiological role of tether extraction during leukocyte rolling and intercellular or intracellular transport, but also the physics of membrane tether growth or retraction. PMID:20614242
Lipschitz Regularity for Elliptic Equations with Random Coefficients
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Armstrong, Scott N.; Mourrat, Jean-Christophe
2016-01-01
We develop a higher regularity theory for general quasilinear elliptic equations and systems in divergence form with random coefficients. The main result is a large-scale L ∞-type estimate for the gradient of a solution. The estimate is proved with optimal stochastic integrability under a one-parameter family of mixing assumptions, allowing for very weak mixing with non-integrable correlations to very strong mixing (for example finite range of dependence). We also prove a quenched L 2 estimate for the error in homogenization of Dirichlet problems. The approach is based on subadditive arguments which rely on a variational formulation of general quasilinear divergence-form equations.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Tokuyama, Michio
2017-01-01
The renormalized simplified model is proposed to investigate indirectly how the static structure factor plays an important role in renormalizing a quadratic nonlinear term in the ideal mode-coupling memory function near the glass transition. The renormalized simplified recursion equation is then derived based on the time-convolutionless mode-coupling theory (TMCT) proposed recently by the present author. This phenomenological approach is successfully applied to check from a unified point of view how strong liquids are different from fragile liquids. The simulation results for those two types of liquids are analyzed consistently by the numerical solutions of the recursion equation. Then, the control parameter dependence of the renormalized nonlinear exponent in both types of liquids is fully investigated. Thus, it is shown that there exists a novel difference between the universal behavior in strong liquids and that in fragile liquids not only for their transport coefficients but also for their dynamics.
Is there nursing phenomenology after Paley? Essay on rigorous reading.
Petrovskaya, Olga
2014-01-01
At the bedside, nurses are expected to be precise when they read indications on screens and on the bodies of patients and decide on the meaning of words framed by the context of acute care. In academia, although there is no incident report to fill when we misread or misrepresent complex philosophical ideas, the consequences of inaccurate reading include misplaced epistemological claims and poor scholarship. A long and broad convention of nursing phenomenological research, in its various forms, claims a philosophical grounding in the ideas of Husserl, Heidegger, and other thinkers. But for nearly two decades, nurse phenomenologists' knowledge claims have been challenged by well-informed criticisms, most notably by John Paley. At the heart of criticism lies an observation that Continental phenomenological thought is misrepresented in many nursing sources and that nursing phenomenology, both descriptive and interpretive, cannot appeal to the authority of either Husserl or Heidegger. Taking these criticisms seriously, I am asking, Is phenomenology after Paley possible? If misreading seems to be an issue, how can - or should - we read rigorously? My thinking through these questions is influenced by the ideas of Jacques Derrida. Under a condition of a play of language, of Derridian différance, when meaning is never self-identical and never fully arrives, I suggest that one has to negotiate meanings through reading for differences. I develop this idea in relation to the methodological conventions of phenomenological nursing research and argue for a careful rereading of the whole field of phenomenological nursing research. Such rereading presupposes and necessitates interdisciplinary engagement between nursing and the humanities and interpretive social sciences. Greater familiarity with research practices of those disciplines that stress theoretical and writing rigour might make visible the limits of nursing research approaches and their quality criteria. An understanding
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Blakley, G. R.
1982-01-01
Reviews mathematical techniques for solving systems of homogeneous linear equations and demonstrates that the algebraic method of balancing chemical equations is a matter of solving a system of homogeneous linear equations. FORTRAN programs using this matrix method to chemical equation balancing are available from the author. (JN)
Kinetic energy equations for the average-passage equation system
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Johnson, Richard W.; Adamczyk, John J.
1989-01-01
Important kinetic energy equations derived from the average-passage equation sets are documented, with a view to their interrelationships. These kinetic equations may be used for closing the average-passage equations. The turbulent kinetic energy transport equation used is formed by subtracting the mean kinetic energy equation from the averaged total instantaneous kinetic energy equation. The aperiodic kinetic energy equation, averaged steady kinetic energy equation, averaged unsteady kinetic energy equation, and periodic kinetic energy equation, are also treated.
Chowell, Gerardo; Hincapie-Palacio, Doracelly; Ospina, Juan; Pell, Bruce; Tariq, Amna; Dahal, Sushma; Moghadas, Seyed; Smirnova, Alexandra; Simonsen, Lone; Viboud, Cécile
2016-01-01
Background: The World Health Organization declared the ongoing Zika virus (ZIKV) epidemic in the Americas a Public Health Emergency of International Concern on February 1, 2016. ZIKV disease in humans is characterized by a “dengue-like” syndrome including febrile illness and rash. However, ZIKV infection in early pregnancy has been associated with severe birth defects, including microcephaly and other developmental issues. Mechanistic models of disease transmission can be used to forecast trajectories and likely disease burden but are currently hampered by substantial uncertainty on the epidemiology of the disease (e.g., the role of asymptomatic transmission, generation interval, incubation period, and key drivers). When insight is limited, phenomenological models provide a starting point for estimation of key transmission parameters, such as the reproduction number, and forecasts of epidemic impact. Methods: We obtained daily counts of suspected Zika cases by date of symptoms onset from the Secretary of Health of Antioquia, Colombia during January-April 2016. We calibrated the generalized Richards model, a phenomenological model that accommodates a variety of early exponential and sub-exponential growth kinetics, against the early epidemic trajectory and generated predictions of epidemic size. The reproduction number was estimated by applying the renewal equation to incident cases simulated from the fitted generalized-growth model and assuming gamma or exponentially-distributed generation intervals derived from the literature. We estimated the reproduction number for an increasing duration of the epidemic growth phase. Results: The reproduction number rapidly declined from 10.3 (95% CI: 8.3, 12.4) in the first disease generation to 2.2 (95% CI: 1.9, 2.8) in the second disease generation, assuming a gamma-distributed generation interval with the mean of 14 days and standard deviation of 2 days. The generalized-Richards model outperformed the logistic growth
How I remember my parents' divorce: a phenomenological investigation.
Stambaugh, Suzanne E; Hector, Mark A; Carr, Austin R
2011-01-01
In order to examine the experience of parental divorce for adult women, a phenomenological method was used. Ten women were interviewed and the interviews were transcribed verbatim and thematized. The themes that came from the texts of the interviews transcripts and the researchers' reflections on the phenomenological research group analysis were: Before the Divorce, During the Divorce, and After the Divorce. These themes were centered on a contextual ground of Time Frame of the Divorce. The results of this study can provide individuals with a context for understanding their own experiences of parental divorce. These results could also be helpful for mental health clinicians in anticipating the themes that clients will discuss relative to the stages of their parents' divorce.
Attraction to cannabis among men with schizophrenia: a phenomenological study.
Francoeur, Nathalie; Baker, Cynthia
2010-03-01
Cannabis use is common among persons with schizophrenia, particularly among men with this long-term chronic illness.A phenomenological study was undertaken to describe the perceptions of persons with schizophrenia regarding their attraction to cannabis. A sample of 8 men with schizophrenia who were living in the community and who had a history of current or past cannabis use were recruited by health professionals. Data were collected through in-depth interviewing and a sociodemographic questionnaire. Colaizzi's phenomenological method was used to analyze the interview data.The findings indicate that cannabis is used as a means of satisfying the schizophrenia-related need for relaxation, sense of self-worth, and distraction.The findings may be useful for nurses working with persons who have schizophrenia, a population that is frequently stigmatized and unheard.
A modest proposal for another phenomenological approach to psychopathology.
Mullen, Paul E
2007-01-01
In 1912, Karl Jaspers published an article entitled "The Phenomenological Approach to Psychopathology." This and his subsequent text, General Psychopathology, was to exert a profound influence on the development of psychiatry in general and psychiatric nosology in particular. The current Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders and International Classification of Diseases both reflect, at least in part, that legacy. This article will argue that the descriptive psychopathology of Jaspers has been gradually transformed into a caricature which has substituted authority for enquiry and simplification for subtlety. We have been left with classificatory systems which impose reified categories increasingly at variance with clinical reality and increasingly divorced from the data generated by scientific enquiry. Returning to the phenomenological method, despite its contradictions, may open the way to clinical and research approaches which free us from the current straight jacket of orthodoxy which is impending our progress.
[Dealing with the phenomenological interview with prostitutes: experience report].
Moreira, Isabel Cristina Cavalcante Carvalho; Monteiro, Claudete Ferreira de Souza
2009-01-01
This article aims at describing our experience in obtaining statements using the phenomenological interview. Eleven prostitutes were interviewed in Teresina, PI. Along this journey we have had several remarkable moments such as: the strategy of approaching the interviewee, the site of the interviews and the own emotional narration of the prostitutes. This process has showed us that one needs to be familiar and empathic with the research subjects. We have also learned that there is not a specific formula of conducting the interview, but it is the role of the researcher to identify the difficulties and propose strategies to obtain the statements. Thus, the empathic relationship that we have experienced in obtaining the statements from these women through the phenomenological interview was essential to understand the contact with violence throughout the prostitution daily life.
Descriptive psychopathology, phenomenology, and the legacy of Karl Jaspers.
Häfner, Heinz
2015-03-01
With his early publications (1910-1913), Karl Jaspers created a comprehensive methodological arsenal for psychiatry, thus laying the foundation for descriptive psychopathology. Following Edmund Husserl, the founder of philosophical phenomenology, Jaspers introduced phenomenology into psychopathology as "static understanding," ie, the unprejudiced intuitive reproduction (Vergegenwärtigung) and description of conscious phenomena. In a longitudinal perspective, "genetic understanding" based on empathy reveals how mental phenomena arise from mental phenomena. Severance in understanding of, or alienation from, meaningful connections is seen as indicating illness or transition of a natural development into a somatic process. Jaspers opted for philosophy early. After three terms of law, he switched to studying medicine, came to psychopathology after very little training in psychiatry; to psychology without ever studying psychology; and to a chair in philosophy without ever studying philosophy. In the fourth and subsequent editions of his General Psychopathology, imbued by his existential philosophy, Jaspers partly abandoned the descriptive method.
Descriptive psychopathology, phenomenology, and the legacy of Karl Jaspers
Häfner, Heinz
2015-01-01
With his early publications (1910-1913), Karl Jaspers created a comprehensive methodological arsenal for psychiatry, thus laying the foundation for descriptive psychopathology. Following Edmund Husserl, the founder of philosophical phenomenology, Jaspers introduced phenomenology into psychopathology as “static understanding,” ie, the unprejudiced intuitive reproduction (Vergegenwärtigung) and description of conscious phenomena. In a longitudinal perspective, “genetic understanding” based on empathy reveals how mental phenomena arise from mental phenomena. Severance in understanding of, or alienation from, meaningful connections is seen as indicating illness or transition of a natural development into a somatic process. Jaspers opted for philosophy early. After three terms of law, he switched to studying medicine, came to psychopathology after very little training in psychiatry; to psychology without ever studying psychology; and to a chair in philosophy without ever studying philosophy. In the fourth and subsequent editions of his General Psychopathology, imbued by his existential philosophy, Jaspers partly abandoned the descriptive method. PMID:25987860
The anatomy of sorrow: a spiritual, phenomenological, and neurological perspective
Pies, Ronald
2008-01-01
There is considerable controversy, both within and outside the field of psychiatry, regarding the boundaries of normal sadness and clinical depression. Furthermore, while there are frequent calls for a "pluralistic", comprehensive approach to understanding depression, few writers have tried to integrate insights from the spiritual, philosophical, and neurobiological literature. The author proposes that such a synthesis is possible, and that our understanding of ordinary sorrow and clinical depression is enriched by drawing from these disparate sources. In particular, a phenomenological analysis of sorrow and depression reveals two overlapping but distinct "lifeworlds". These differ in the relational, temporal, dialectical, and intentional realms. Recent brain imaging studies are also beginning to reveal the neurobiological correlates of sorrow and depression. As we come to understand the neurobiology of these states, we may be able to correlate specific alterations in "neurocircuitry" with their phenomenological expressions. PMID:18559111
Phenomenological study of binding in optically trapped photonic crystals
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Maystre, D.; Vincent, P.
2007-08-01
We describe a phenomenological theory of the phenomenon of binding observed both experimentally and numerically when particles are trapped by an interference system in order to make a structure close to a photonic crystal. This theory leads to a very simple conclusion, which links the binding phenomenon to the bottom of the lowest bandgap of the trapped crystal in a given direction. The phenomenological theory allows one to calculate the period of the trapped crystal by using numerical tools on dispersion diagrams of photonic crystals. It emerges that the agreement of our theory with our rigorous numerical results given in a previous paper [J. Opt A8, 1059 (2006)] is better than 2% on the crystal period. Furthermore, it is shown that in two-dimensional problems and s polarization, all the optical forces derive from a scalar potential.
Phenomenological construction of new dictionaries for holographic conductors
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hoshino, Hironori; Nakamura, Shin
2017-09-01
We propose new dictionaries for holographic conductors that enable us to compute carrier densities and mean velocities of charge carriers in the system. The carrier density, which differs from the charge density, is the total number density of both the positive and the negative charge carriers. The mean velocity is the mean value of the velocities of all charge carriers. These quantities are not conjugate to the sources that are given by boundary values of bulk fields, and we cannot compute them by using the conventional method in holography. In the present work, we introduce a phenomenological model of charge transport, and we establish the dictionary by comparing the results of the phenomenological model and those from the holography. We show that the mean velocity agrees with the velocity of an analog black hole on the worldvolume of the probe D-brane, and it can be read from the spectrum of the fluctuations.
Baryonium with a phenomenological Skyrmion-type potential
Yan Mulin; Li Si; Wu Bin; Ma Boqiang
2005-08-01
In this paper, we investigate the nucleon-antinucleon static energies in the Skyrme model with the product Anzatz. The calculation shows that, in the ungroomed SS (Skyrmion and anti-Skyrmion) channel which leads to rapid annihilation, there exists a quasistable bound state which may give a natural explanation for the near-threshold enhancement in the proton-antiproton (pp) mass spectrum reported by the BES Collaboration and the Belle Collaboration. Similar to the phenomenological well potential of the deuteron, we construct a phenomenological Skyrmion-type potential to study this narrow pp-resonance in J/{psi}{yields}{gamma}pp. By this potential model, a pp baryonium with small binding energies is suggested and the decay width of this state is calculated by WKB approximation. In this picture the decay is attributed to quantum tunneling and pp annihilation. Prediction on the decay mode from the baryonium annihilation at rest is also pointed out.
A Modest Proposal for Another Phenomenological Approach to Psychopathology
Mullen, Paul E.
2007-01-01
In 1912, Karl Jaspers published an article entitled “The Phenomenological Approach to Psychopathology.” This and his subsequent text, General Psychopathology, was to exert a profound influence on the development of psychiatry in general and psychiatric nosology in particular. The current Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders and International Classification of Diseases both reflect, at least in part, that legacy. This article will argue that the descriptive psychopathology of Jaspers has been gradually transformed into a caricature which has substituted authority for enquiry and simplification for subtlety. We have been left with classificatory systems which impose reified categories increasingly at variance with clinical reality and increasingly divorced from the data generated by scientific enquiry. Returning to the phenomenological method, despite its contradictions, may open the way to clinical and research approaches which free us from the current straightjacket of orthodoxy which is impending our progress. PMID:17023563
The Logic of Appearance: Dennett, Phenomenology and Psychoanalysis
Feyaerts, Jasper; Vanheule, Stijn
2017-01-01
In the present essay, we aim to develop and contrast three different positions toward Sellars’ distinction between the manifest and scientific images of man: Dennett’s philosophical reconstruction of neurocognitive science, contemporary phenomenology and psychoanalysis. We will suggest that these respective traditions and the substantial differences between them can be understood in terms of a ‘logic of appearance.’ Related to this are differing ideas about the rights and limits of the first-person perspective, the relation between conscious experience and belief, and the issue of naturalization. In the final part, we will try to specify, on the basis of a detailed reading of the disagreement between Dennett and phenomenology, in what way psychoanalytic theory could respond to these different issues. PMID:28878725
Parameter Estimation for the Phenomenological Model of Hysteresis Using Efficient Genetic Algorithm
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Xiaomin, Xue; Ling, Zhang; Qing, Sun
2010-05-01
Magnetorheological (MR) dampers provide an ideal candidate for diverse applications including structural vibration suppression as well as shock absorption and vibration control in vehicle systems in recent years. To understand the dynamic characteristics of MR damper, many researchers have utilized some useful models to illustrate the behavior of the MR damper, which are Bingham model, polynomial curve-fitting model using sigmoid function, Bouc-Wen phenomenological model, etc. The Bouc-Wen differential model is one of the most widely accepted phenomenological models due to its capability to capture a range of shapes of hysteretic cycles which can match the behavior of a MR damper. As a result, it is the tendency of this model being used to describe hysteretic phenomena. However, this model has an obvious shortcoming, its complicated equation expression, which seems to be a big problem for multi-parameter estimation simultaneously. With the development of the computer technology, a powerful multi-processing algorithm is found out possible to solve these complicated problems efficiently. Thus, this paper devotes to the use of an efficient Genetic Algorithm (GA) to estimate the multi-parameter of the Bouc-Wen model efficiently. A modified GA is adopted and improved by effective methods including adaptive genetic operators and appropriate termination criteria. The modified GA has greatly improved the performance of the traditional GA. Finally, experimental data of the MR damper are used to verify the proposed approaches with satisfactory parameter estimation results and highly efficient computational capability. Meanwhile, the algorithm and the results proposed herein also throw light on development and characterization of other novel smart dampers.
Characteristic function method for classification of equations of hydrodynamics of a perfect fluid
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Abd-El-Malek, M. B.; Helal, M. M.
2005-10-01
The characteristic function method has been employed to determine and investigate certain classes of solution of a system of first-order nonlinear hydrodynamical equations of a perfect fluid with respect to different Coriolis parameters. The application of a one-parameter group of infinitesimal transformations reduces the number of independent variables by one, and consequently, the system of partial differential equations in two independent variables reduces to a system of ordinary differential equations. The resulting differential equations are solved analytically for some special cases.
Inductive approach towards a phenomenologically more satisfactory unififed field theory
Rayski, J.; Rayski J.M. Jnr.
1985-11-01
A unified field theory constituting a fusion of the ideas of supersymmetries with general relativity and gauge theory is investigated. A Lagrangian formalism is constructed step by step; the last step consists in a marriage with Kaluza's idea of a multidimensional space-time. Our aim is not to achieve a full local supersymmetry in eleven dimensions, but rather to attain a compromise with the symmetries of the fundamental interactions either known phenomenologically, or only suspected to exist in nature.
Irreducible tensor phenomenology for pd→3Heπ+π-
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ramachandran, G.; Deepak, P. N.
2000-03-01
A phenomenology based on the irreducible tensor formalism is developed for the reaction pdicons/Journals/Common/to" ALT="to" ALIGN="TOP"/> 3 Heicons/Journals/Common/pi" ALT="pi" ALIGN="TOP"/> + icons/Journals/Common/pi" ALT="pi" ALIGN="TOP"/> - , to study incisively the P-wave dominance noticed in the recent kinematically complete experiment at c.m. excess energy of 70 MeV at the MOMO facility.
Research into patients' perspectives: relevance and usefulness of phenomenological sociology.
Edwards, Carol; Titchen, Angie
2003-12-01
The dominant epistemology underpinning much inquiry in the field of patient evaluation of health care is positivist, with categorization and quantification being high priorities, despite the highly personal and dynamic nature of people's responses to their health care experiences. The mis-match between underpinning theoretical assumptions and the nature of the subject under investigation has led to ineffectiveness in much current inquiry into patients' perspectives. More needs to be learnt about patients' processes of evaluation prior to any summary assessment of the quality of their care. This paper documents the search for a close fit between a study's research questions and a theoretical perspective with which to underpin the research. It describes the benefits of identifying a specifically relevant perspective, in this case phenomenological sociology, and discusses the potential of that particular perspective to underpin research within health care. Research questions relating to patients' processes of evaluation were established. The possible contribution of a range of interpretative methodologies was considered. While all were relevant to some degree, phenomenological sociology was identified as having considerable specific potential to illuminate the patient's process of evaluation. The particular strengths of phenomenological sociology relevant to the investigation of patients' processes of reflection are in highlighting the importance of subjectivity; its insistence on a clear link from theoretical development right back to the raw data; its wealth of evocative ideas and concepts that support the investigation of the development of interpretation; and the relatively accessible language and style of its texts. Time spent evaluating the potential contribution of different theoretical perspectives to a study is worthwhile, as a good choice can not only support but also enhance the quality of the research. Phenomenological sociology has much potential to
Theory and phenomenology of coherent neutrino-nucleus scattering
McLaughlin, Gail
2015-07-15
We review the theory and phenomenology of coherent elastic neutrino-nucleus scattering (CEνNS). After a brief introduction, we summarize the places where CEνNS is already in use and then turn to future physics opportunities from CEνNS. CEνNS has been proposed as a way to limit or discover beyond the standard model physics, measure the nuclear-neutron radius and constrain the Weinberg angle.
TOPICAL REVIEW: θ13: phenomenology, present status and prospect
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Mezzetto, Mauro; Schwetz, Thomas
2010-10-01
The leptonic mixing angle θ13 is currently a high-priority topic in the field of neutrino physics, with five experiments under way, searching for neutrino oscillations induced by this angle. We review the phenomenology of θ13 and discuss the information from the present global oscillation data. A description of the upcoming reactor and accelerator experiments searching for a non-zero value of θ13 is given, and we evaluate the sensitivity reach within the next few years.
Overcoming parallelism: Naturalizing phenomenology with goldstein and Merleau-Ponty.
Whitehead, Patrick M
2015-12-01
This paper examines two related problems that stand in the way of the development of an interdisciplinary project that spans biology and phenomenology. To be sure, each of these disciplines is interested in the body, but there are two ways through which the body may be understood. Biology examines the corporeal or living body (Kӧrper); phenomenology examines the body of lived experience (Leib). Both problems discussed in this paper stem from this two-fold nature of the body. The first concerns the anti-naturalist position taken by Husserl - a position that emphasizes the lived body and rejects any consideration of the corporeal body. Following Roy et al. (1999), I maintain that Husserl's anti-naturalism is no longer necessary. Kurt Goldstein (1934/1995) is used as an example that demonstrates a biological investigation of the corporeal body that is consonant with a phenomenological perspective, a quality which may also be seen in the many references it receives from Merleau-Ponty (1942/1963, 1945/1962). The second problem is that of parallelism - also called the body-body problem (Thompson, 2004). A parallelist collaboration between biology and phenomenology maintains the assumption that there are two bodies that must receive special attention. The problem of parallelism is viewed within the research program of neurophenomenology (Varela, 1996). It is argued that this problem dissolves when it is recognized that there are not two bodies - Kӧrper and Leib - but that these are two ways of recognizing one and the same body. Once again, Goldstein and Merleau-Ponty are used to help describe a two-fold investigation of the body that avoids parallelism and promotes the collaboration which this Special Issue seeks.
Living with migraine headache: a phenomenological study of women's experiences.
Ramsey, Anthony R
2012-01-01
This qualitative study explored the lived experience of women who had migraine headache. The guiding framework was phenomenological inquiry and story theory. The transcripts of audiotaped stories gathered from 8 women living with migraine headache were analyzed. Seven interrelated themes comprised the findings of the study. Implications for holistic nursing practice emphasizing assessment of lived time, lived body, lived space, and lived relations in the context of the findings of the study are discussed.