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Sample records for phenylethyl isothiocyanate peitc

  1. Relationship between Chemical Structure and Antimicrobial Activities of Isothiocyanates from Cruciferous Vegetables against Oral Pathogens.

    PubMed

    Ko, Mi-Ok; Kim, Mi-Bo; Lim, Sang-Bin

    2016-12-28

    We evaluated the potentials of 10 isothiocyanates (ITCs) from cruciferous vegetables and radish root hydrolysate for inhibiting the growth of oral pathogens, with an emphasis on assessing any structure-function relationship. Structural differences in ITCs impacted their antimicrobial activities against oral pathogens differently. The indolyl ITC (indol-3-carbinol) was the most potent inhibitor of the growth of oral pathogens, followed by aromatic ITCs (benzyl ITC (BITC) and phenylethyl ITC (PEITC)) and aliphatic ITCs (erucin, iberin, and sulforaphene). Sulforaphene, which is similar in structure, but has one double bond, showed higher antimicrobial activity than sulforaphane. Erucin, which has a thiol group, showed higher antimicrobial activity than sulforaphane, which has a sulfinyl group. BITC and iberin with a short chain exhibited higher antimicrobial potential than PEITC and sulforaphane with a longer chain, respectively. ITCs have strong antimicrobial activities and may be useful in the prevention and management of dental caries.

  2. Natural isothiocyanates express antimicrobial activity against developing and mature biofilms of Pseudomonas aeruginosa.

    PubMed

    Kaiser, Stefan J; Mutters, Nico T; Blessing, Brigitte; Günther, Frank

    2017-06-01

    The antimicrobial properties of natural isothiocyanates (ITCs) found in plants such as nasturtium (Tropaeolum majus) and horseradish (Armoracia rusticana), and the need of new chemotherapeutic options for treatment of infections caused by multidrug-resistant and biofilm-forming Gram-negative bacteria such as Pseudomonas aeruginosa (Pa), led us to evaluate the effects of three major ITCs, allylisothiocyanate (AITC), benzylisothiocyanate (BITC), and phenylethyl-isothiocyanate (PEITC), and a mixture (ITCM) adapted to the ITC composition after release of active components out of natural sources. Out of 105Pa isolates 27 isolates with increased biofilm formation were selected for testing. The effects of ITCs on Pa were evaluated regarding (1) planktonic bacterial proliferation, (2) biofilm formation, (3) metabolic activity in mature biofilms, and (4) synergism of ITCs and antibiotics. (1) Each ITC had anti-Pa activity. Mean minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) were (μg/ml, mean±standard deviation): AITC 103±6.9; BITC, 2145±249; PEITC 29,423±1652; and ITCM, 140±5. (2) Treating bacteria with PEITC and ITCM in concentrations below the MIC significantly inhibited biofilm formation. Particularly, ITCM reduced biofilm mass and bacterial proliferation. (3) ITCs significantly inhibited metabolic activity in mature biofilms. (4) Combining ITCs with meropenem synergistically increased antimicrobial efficacy on Pa biofilms. ITCs represent a promising group of natural anti-infective compounds with activity against Pa biofilms. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Dietary phenethyl isothiocyanate inhibition of androgen-responsive LNCaP prostate cancer cell tumor growth correlates with decreased angiogenesis

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Phenethyl isothiocyanate (PEITC), found in certain cruciferous vegetables, has antitumor activity in several cancer models, including prostate cancer. In our xenograft model, dietary administration of PEITC (100-150 mg/kg/d) inhibited androgen-responsive LNCaP human prostate cancer cell tumor growth...

  4. Phenethyl Isothiocyanate: A comprehensive review of anti-cancer mechanisms

    PubMed Central

    Gupta, Parul; Wright, Stephen E.; Kim, Sung-Hoon; Srivastava, Sanjay K.

    2014-01-01

    The epidemiological evidence suggests a strong inverse relationship between dietary intake of cruciferous vegetables and the incidence of cancer. Among other constituents of cruciferous vegetables, isothiocyanates (ITC) are the main bioactive chemicals present. Phenethyl isothiocyanate (PEITC) is present as gluconasturtiin in many cruciferous vegetables with remarkable anti-cancer effects. PEITC is known to not only prevent the initiation phase of carcinogenesis process but also to inhibit the progression of tumorigenesis. PEITC targets multiple proteins to suppress various cancer-promoting mechanisms such as cell proliferation, progression and metastasis. Pre-clinical evidence suggests that combination of PEITC with conventional anti-cancer agents is also highly effective in improving overall efficacy. Based on accumulating evidence, PEITC appears to be a promising agent for cancer therapy and is already under clinical trials for leukemia and lung cancer. This is the first review which provides a comprehensive analysis of known targets and mechanisms along with a critical evaluation of PEITC as a future anti-cancer agent. PMID:25152445

  5. Dietary Phenethyl Isothiocyanate Protects Mice from Colitis Associated Colon Cancer.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yi; Dey, Moul

    2017-09-06

    We have previously reported alleviation of dextran sodium sulfate (DSS)-induced ulcerative colitis signs in phenethyl isothiocyanate (PEITC)-treated mice. Here we investigated chemoprotective activities of PEITC in mice with Azoxymethane-DSS induced colitis associated colon carcinogenesis. We also examined the molecular mediators associated with the PEITC effects using relevant cell lines. A 0.12% PEITC-enriched mouse-diet reduced mucosal and submucosal inflammation as well as glandular atypia by 12% and the frequency of adenocarcinoma by 17% with a concomitant improvement in overall disease activity indices compared to the diseased control group. Lipopolysaccharide-induced in vitro up-regulation of key mediators of inflammation, immune response, apoptosis, and cell proliferation were attenuated by 10 μM PEITC. Three of these mediators showed concentration-dependent reduction in respective mRNAs. Furthermore, PEITC inhibited Nuclear factor kappa B1 (NFκB1) proteins in a concentration-dependent manner. The NFκB1 mRNA expression inversely correlated ( r = −0.940, p = 0.013) with tri-methylation of lysine 27 on histone 3 near its promoter region in a time-dependent manner. These results indicate that PEITC may slow down the development of colon carcinogenesis in an inflammatory intestinal setting which is potentially associated with epigenetic modulation of NFκB1 signaling.

  6. Disposition and pharmacokinetics of phenethyl isothiocyanate and 6-phenylhexyl isothiocyanate in F344 rats.

    PubMed

    Conaway, C C; Jiao, D; Kohri, T; Liebes, L; Chung, F L

    1999-01-01

    Naturally occurring phenethyl isothiocyanate (PEITC) and its synthetic homolog 6-phenylhexyl isothiocyanate (PHITC) are both effective inhibitors of 4-(methylnitrosamino)-1-(3-pyridyl)-1-butanone-induced lung tumor development in A/J mice and F344 rats. To help explain why PHITC is considerably more efficacious than PEITC in chemopreventive potency, comparative disposition and pharmacokinetics data for male F344 rats were obtained after a single gavage dose of 50 micromol/kg (3.71 microCi/micromol) [14C]PEITC or 50 micromol/kg (6.59 microCi/micromol) [14C]PHITC in corn oil. After [14C]PEITC dosing, whole blood 14C peaked at 2.9 h, with an elimination half-life (T1/2e) of 21.7 h; blood 14C from [14C]PHITC-treated rats peaked at 8.9 h, with an T1/2e of 20.5 h. In lungs, the target organ, the T1/2e for [14C]PHITC and its labeled metabolites were more than twice that for [14C]PEITC and its labeled metabolites. The effective dose (area under the concentration-time curve) for 14C from PHITC was greater than 2.5 times the area under the concentration-time curve of 14C from PEITC in liver, lungs, and several other tissues. During 48 h, approximately 16.5% of the administered dose of [14C]PHITC was expired as [14C]CO2, more than 100 times the [14C]CO2 expired by rats treated with [14C]PEITC. In rats given [14C]PEITC, 88.7 +/- 2.2% and 9.9 +/- 1.9% of the dose appeared in the urine and feces, respectively, during 48 h; however, rats given [14C]PHITC excreted 7.2 +/- 0.8% of the dose of 14C in urine and 47.4 +/- 14.0% in the feces. Higher effective doses of PHITC in the lungs and other organs may be the basis, in part, for its greater potency as a chemopreventive agent.

  7. SaxA-Mediated Isothiocyanate Metabolism in Phytopathogenic Pectobacteria

    PubMed Central

    Rosengarten, Jamila F.; de Graaf, Rob M.; Jetten, Mike S. M.

    2016-01-01

    Pectobacteria are devastating plant pathogens that infect a large variety of crops, including members of the family Brassicaceae. To infect cabbage crops, these plant pathogens need to overcome the plant's antibacterial defense mechanisms, where isothiocyanates are liberated by hydrolysis of glucosinolates. Here, we found that a Pectobacterium isolate from the gut of cabbage root fly larvae was particularly resistant to isothiocyanate and even seemed to benefit from the abundant Brassica root metabolite 2-phenylethyl isothiocyanate as a nitrogen source in an ecosystem where nitrogen is scarce. The Pectobacterium isolate harbored a naturally occurring mobile plasmid that contained a sax operon. We hypothesized that SaxA was the enzyme responsible for the breakdown of 2-phenylethyl isothiocyanate. Subsequently, we heterologously produced and purified the SaxA protein and characterized the recombinant enzyme. It hydrolyzed 2-phenylethyl isothiocyanate to yield the products carbonyl sulfide and phenylethylamine. It was also active toward another aromatic isothiocyanate but hardly toward aliphatic isothiocyanates. It belongs to the class B metal-dependent beta-lactamase fold protein family but was not, however, able to hydrolyze beta-lactam antibiotics. We discovered that several copies of the saxA gene are widespread in full and draft Pectobacterium genomes and therefore hypothesize that SaxA might be a new pathogenicity factor of the genus Pectobacterium, possibly compromising food preservation strategies using isothiocyanates. PMID:26873319

  8. Chemopreventative Potential of the Cruciferous Vegetable Constituent Phenethyl Isothiocyanate in a Mouse Model of Prostate Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Powolny, Anna A.; Bommareddy, Ajay; Hahm, Eun-Ryeong; Normolle, Daniel P.; Beumer, Jan H.; Nelson, Joel B.

    2011-01-01

    Background This study was undertaken to determine the chemopreventative efficacy of phenethyl isothiocyanate (PEITC), a bioactive constituent of many edible cruciferous vegetables, in a mouse model of prostate cancer, and to identify potential biomarker(s) associated with PEITC response. Methods The chemopreventative activity of dietary PEITC was investigated in Transgenic Adenocarcinoma of Mouse Prostate mice that were fed a control diet or one containing 3 μmol PEITC/g (n = 21 mice per group) for 19 weeks. Dorsolateral prostate tissue sections were stained with hematoxylin and eosin for histopathologic evaluations and subjected to immunohistochemistry for analysis of cell proliferation (Ki-67 expression), autophagy (p62 and LC3 protein expression), and E-cadherin expression. Autophagosomes were visualized by transmission electron microscopy. Apoptotic bodies were detected by terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase–mediated dUTP nick-end labeling. Plasma proteomics was performed by two-dimensional gel electrophoresis followed by mass spectrometry to identify potential biomarkers of PEITC activity. All statistical tests were two-sided. Results Administration of PEITC (3 μmol/g diet) decreased incidence (PEITC diet vs control diet, mean = 21.65 vs 57.58%, difference = −35.93%, 95% confidence interval = −45.48% to −13.10%, P = .04) as well as burden (affected area) (PEITC diet vs control diet, mean = 18.53% vs 45.01%, difference = −26.48%, 95% confidence interval = −49.78% to −3.19%, P = .02) of poorly differentiated tumors in the dorsolateral prostate of transgenic mice compared with control mice, with no toxic effects. PEITC-mediated inhibition of prostate carcinogenesis was associated with induction of autophagy and overexpression of E-cadherin in the dorsolateral prostate. However, PEITC treatment was not associated with a decrease in cellular proliferation, apoptosis induction, or inhibition of neoangiogenesis. Plasma proteomics revealed distinct

  9. Iron depletion in HCT116 cells diminishes the upregulatory effect of phenethyl isothiocyanate on heme oxygenase-1

    SciTech Connect

    Bolloskis, Michael P.; Carvalho, Fabiana P.; Loo, George, E-mail: g_loo@uncg.edu

    Some of the health-promoting properties of cruciferous vegetables are thought to be partly attributed to isothiocyanates. These phytochemicals can upregulate the expression of certain cytoprotective stress genes, but it is unknown if a particular nutrient is involved. Herein, the objective was to ascertain if adequate iron is needed for enabling HCT116 cells to optimally express heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) when induced by phenethyl isothiocyanate (PEITC). PEITC increased HO-1 expression and also nuclear translocation of Nrf2, which is a transcription factor known to activate the HO-1 gene. However, in HCT116 cells that were made iron-deficient by depleting intracellular iron with deferoxamine (DFO),more » PEITC was less able to increase HO-1 expression and nuclear translocation of Nrf2. These suppressive effects of DFO were overcome by replenishing the iron-deficient cells with the missing iron. To elucidate these findings, it was found that PEITC-induced HO-1 upregulation can be inhibited with thiol antioxidants (glutathione and N-acetylcysteine). Furthermore, NADPH oxidase inhibitors (diphenyleneiodonium and apocynin) and a superoxide scavenger (Tiron) each inhibited PEITC-induced HO-1 upregulation. In doing so, diphenyleneiodonium was the most potent and also inhibited nuclear translocation of redox-sensitive Nrf2. Collectively, the results imply that the HO-1 upregulation by PEITC involves an iron-dependent, oxidant signaling pathway. Therefore, it is concluded that ample iron is required to enable PEITC to fully upregulate HO-1 expression in HCT116 cells. As such, it is conceivable that iron-deficient individuals may not reap the full health benefits of eating PEITC-containing cruciferous vegetables that via HO-1 may help protect against multiple chronic diseases. - Highlights: • PEITC increased HO-1 expression in HCT116 cells. • PEITC-induced HO-1 upregulation was impaired in iron-depleted HCT116 cells. • Impairment of PEITC-induced HO-1 upregulation was

  10. Phenethyl isothiocyanate alters the gene expression and the levels of protein associated with cell cycle regulation in human glioblastoma GBM 8401 cells.

    PubMed

    Chou, Yu-Cheng; Chang, Meng-Ya; Wang, Mei-Jen; Liu, Hsin-Chung; Chang, Shu-Jen; Harnod, Tomor; Hung, Chih-Huang; Lee, Hsu-Tung; Shen, Chiung-Chyi; Chung, Jing-Gung

    2017-01-01

    Glioblastoma is the most common and aggressive primary brain malignancy. Phenethyl isothiocyanate (PEITC), a member of the isothiocyanate family, can induce apoptosis in many human cancer cells. Our previous study disclosed that PEITC induces apoptosis through the extrinsic pathway, dysfunction of mitochondria, reactive oxygen species (ROS)-induced endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress, and intrinsic (mitochondrial) pathway in human brain glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) 8401 cells. To the best of our knowledge, we first investigated the effects of PEITC on the genetic levels of GBM 8401 cells in vitro. PEITC may induce G0/G1 cell-cycle arrest through affecting the proteins such as cdk2, cyclin E, and p21 in GBM 8401 cells. Many genes associated with cell-cycle regulation of GBM 8401 cells were changed after PEITC treatment: 48 genes were upregulated and 118 were downregulated. The cell-division cycle protein 20 (CDC20), Budding uninhibited by benzimidazole 1 homolog beta (BUB1B), and cyclin B1 were downregulated, and clusterin was upregulated in GBM 8401 cells treated with PEITC. These changes of gene expression can provide the effects of PEITC on the genetic levels and potential biomarkers for glioblastoma. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Environ Toxicol 32: 176-187, 2017. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  11. Phenethyl isothiocyanate inhibits growth of human chronic myeloid leukemia K562 cells via reactive oxygen species generation and caspases.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yating; Wei, Sixi; Wang, Jishi; Fang, Qin; Chai, Qixiang

    2014-07-01

    Phenethyl isothiocyanate (PEITC), a potential cancer chemopreventive constituent of cruciferous vegetables, including watercress, has been reported to inhibit cancer cell growth by arresting the cell cycle and inducing apoptosis in various human cancer cell models. However, the role of PEITC in the inhibition of human chronic myeloid leukemia (CML) K562 cell growth and its underlying mechanisms have yet to be elucidated. In the present study, PEITC was found to induce cell death through the induction of reactive oxygen species (ROS) stress and oxidative damage. Heme oxygenase‑1 (HO‑1), which participates in the development of numerous tumors and the sensitivity of these tumors to chemotherapeutic drugs, plays a protective role by modulating oxidative injury. Therefore, the present study assessed the inhibitory effect of PEITC on K562 cells and whether HO‑1 facilitated cell apoptosis and ROS generation. PEITC was found to suppress cell growth and cause apoptosis by promoting Fas and Fas ligand expression, increasing ROS generation and by the successive release of cytochrome c as well as the activation of caspase‑9 and caspase‑3. PEITC was also combined with the HO‑1 inhibitor zinc protoporphyrin IX and the inducer hemin to assess whether HO‑1 determines cell survival and ROS generation. The results of the present study suggest that PEITC may be a potential anti‑tumor compound for CML therapy, and that HO‑1 has a critical function in PEITC‑induced apoptosis and ROS generation.

  12. Phenethyl isothiocyanate triggers apoptosis in human malignant melanoma A375.S2 cells through reactive oxygen species and the mitochondria-dependent pathways.

    PubMed

    Huang, S-H; Hsu, M-H; Hsu, S-C; Yang, J-S; Huang, W-W; Huang, A-C; Hsiao, Y-P; Yu, C-C; Chung, J-G

    2014-03-01

    We have reported previously that phenethyl isothiocyanate (PEITC) induces apoptosis in human osteosarcoma U-2 OS cells. Cytotoxic activity of PEITC towards other cancer cells such as human malignant melanoma and skin cancer cells has not been reported. In this study, the anticancer activity of PEITC towards human malignant melanoma cancer A375.S2 cells was investigated. To determine the mechanisms of PEITC inhibition of cell growth, the following end points were determined in A375.S2 cells: cell morphological changes, cell cycle arrest, DNA damage and fragmentation assays and morphological assessment of nuclear change, reactive oxygen species (ROS) and Ca(2+) generations, mitochondrial membrane potential disruption, and nitric oxide and 10-N-nonyl acridine orange productions, expression and activation of caspase-3 and -9, B-cell lymphoma 2 (Bcl-2)-associated X protein (Bax), Bcl-2, poly (adenosine diphosphate-ribose) polymerase, and cytochrome c release, apoptosis-inducing factor and endonuclease G. PEITC induced morphological changes in time- and dose-dependent manner. PEITC induced G2/M phase arrest and induced apoptosis via endoplasmic reticulum stress-mediated mitochondria-dependent pathway. Western blot analysis showed that PEITC promoted Bax expression and inhibited Bcl-2 expression associated with the disintegration of the outer mitochondrial membrane causing cytochrome c release, and activation of caspase-9 and -3 cascade leading to apoptosis. We conclude that PEITC-triggered apoptotic death in A375.S2 cells occurs through ROS-mediated mitochondria-dependent pathways.

  13. The inactivation of human CYP2E1 by phenethyl isothiocyanate, a naturally occurring chemopreventive agent, and its oxidative bioactivation.

    PubMed

    Yoshigae, Yasushi; Sridar, Chitra; Kent, Ute M; Hollenberg, Paul F

    2013-04-01

    Phenethylisothiocyanate (PEITC), a naturally occurring isothiocyanate and potent cancer chemopreventive agent, works by multiple mechanisms, including the inhibition of cytochrome P450 (P450) enzymes, such as CYP2E1, that are involved in the bioactivation of carcinogens. PEITC has been reported to be a mechanism-based inactivator of some P450s. We describe here the possible mechanism for the inactivation of human CYP2E1 by PEITC, as well as the putative intermediate that might be involved in the bioactivation of PEITC. PEITC inactivated recombinant CYP2E1 with a partition ratio of 12, and the inactivation was not inhibited in the presence of glutathione (GSH) and not fully recovered by dialysis. The inactivation of CYP2E1 by PEITC is due to both heme destruction and protein modification, with the latter being the major pathway for inactivation. GSH-adducts of phenethyl isocyanate (PIC) and phenethylamine were detected during the metabolism by CYP2E1, indicating formation of PIC as a reactive intermediate following P450-catalyzed desulfurization of PEITC. Surprisingly, PIC bound covalently to CYP2E1 to form protein adducts but did not inactivate the enzyme. Liquid chromatography mass spectroscopy analysis of the inactivated CYP2E1 apo-protein suggests that a reactive sulfur atom generated during desulfurization of PEITC is involved in the inactivation of CYP2E1. Our data suggest that the metabolism of PEITC by CYP2E1 that results in the inactivation of CYP2E1 may occur by a mechanism similar to that observed with other sulfur-containing compounds, such as parathion. Digestion of the inactivated enzyme and analysis by SEQUEST showed that Cys 268 may be the residue modified by PIC.

  14. The Inactivation of Human CYP2E1 by Phenethyl Isothiocyanate, a Naturally Occurring Chemopreventive Agent, and Its Oxidative Bioactivation

    PubMed Central

    Yoshigae, Yasushi; Sridar, Chitra; Kent, Ute M.

    2013-01-01

    Phenethylisothiocyanate (PEITC), a naturally occurring isothiocyanate and potent cancer chemopreventive agent, works by multiple mechanisms, including the inhibition of cytochrome P450 (P450) enzymes, such as CYP2E1, that are involved in the bioactivation of carcinogens. PEITC has been reported to be a mechanism-based inactivator of some P450s. We describe here the possible mechanism for the inactivation of human CYP2E1 by PEITC, as well as the putative intermediate that might be involved in the bioactivation of PEITC. PEITC inactivated recombinant CYP2E1 with a partition ratio of 12, and the inactivation was not inhibited in the presence of glutathione (GSH) and not fully recovered by dialysis. The inactivation of CYP2E1 by PEITC is due to both heme destruction and protein modification, with the latter being the major pathway for inactivation. GSH-adducts of phenethyl isocyanate (PIC) and phenethylamine were detected during the metabolism by CYP2E1, indicating formation of PIC as a reactive intermediate following P450-catalyzed desulfurization of PEITC. Surprisingly, PIC bound covalently to CYP2E1 to form protein adducts but did not inactivate the enzyme. Liquid chromatography mass spectroscopy analysis of the inactivated CYP2E1 apo-protein suggests that a reactive sulfur atom generated during desulfurization of PEITC is involved in the inactivation of CYP2E1. Our data suggest that the metabolism of PEITC by CYP2E1 that results in the inactivation of CYP2E1 may occur by a mechanism similar to that observed with other sulfur-containing compounds, such as parathion. Digestion of the inactivated enzyme and analysis by SEQUEST showed that Cys 268 may be the residue modified by PIC. PMID:23371965

  15. Phenethyl Isothiocyanate Induces Apoptotic Cell Death Through the Mitochondria-dependent Pathway in Gefitinib-resistant NCI-H460 Human Lung Cancer Cells In Vitro.

    PubMed

    Hsia, Te-Chun; Huang, Yi-Ping; Jiang, Yi-Wen; Chen, Hsin-Yu; Cheng, Zheng-Yu; Hsiao, Yung-Ting; Chen, Cheng-Yen; Peng, Shu-Fen; Chueh, Fu-Shin; Chou, Yu-Cheng; Chung, Jing-Gung

    2018-04-01

    Some lung cancer patients treated with gefitinib develop resistance to this drug resulting in unsatisfactory treatment outcomes. Phenethyl isothiocyanate (PEITC), present in our common cruciferous vegetables, exhibits anticancer activities in many human cancer cell lines. Currently, there is no available information on the possible modification of gefitinib resistance of lung cancer in vitro by PEITC. Thus, the effects of PEITC on gefitinib resistant lung cancer NCI-H460 cells were investigated in vitro. The total cell viability, apoptotic cell death, production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and Ca 2+ , levels of mitochondria membrane potential (ΔΨ m ) and caspase-3, -8 and -9 activities were measured by flow cytometry assay. PEITC induced chromatin condensation was examined by DAPI staining. PEITC-induced cell morphological changes, decreased total viable cell number and induced apoptotic cell death in NCI-H460 and NCI-H460/G cells. PEITC decreased ROS production in NCI-H460 cells, but increased production in NCI-H460/G cells. PEITC increased Ca 2+ production, decreased the levels of ΔΨ m and increased caspase-3, -8 and -9 activities in both NCI-H460 and NCI-H460/G cells. Western blotting was used to examine the effect of apoptotic cell death associated protein expression in NCI-H460 NCI-H460/G cells after exposure to PEITC. Results showed that PEITC increased expression of cleaved caspase-3, PARP, GADD153, Endo G and pro-apoptotic protein Bax in NCI-H460/G cells. Based on these results, we suggest that PEITC induces apoptotic cell death via the caspase- and mitochondria-dependent pathway in NCI-H460/G cells. Copyright© 2018, International Institute of Anticancer Research (Dr. George J. Delinasios), All rights reserved.

  16. Proteasome-mediated degradation of cell division cycle 25C and cyclin-dependent kinase 1 in phenethyl isothiocyanate-induced G2-M-phase cell cycle arrest in PC-3 human prostate cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Xiao, Dong; Johnson, Candace S; Trump, Donald L; Singh, Shivendra V

    2004-05-01

    Phenethyl isothiocyanate (PEITC), a constituent of many cruciferous vegetables, offers significant protection against cancer in animals induced by a variety of carcinogens. The present study demonstrates that PEITC suppresses proliferation of PC-3 cells in a dose-dependent manner by causing G(2)-M-phase cell cycle arrest and apoptosis. Interestingly, phenyl isothiocyanate (PITC), which is a structural analogue of PEITC but lacks the -CH(2) spacers that link the aromatic ring to the -N=C=S group, neither inhibited PC-3 cell viability nor caused cell cycle arrest or apoptosis. These results indicated that even a subtle change in isothiocyanate (ITC) structure could have a significant impact on its biological activity. The PEITC-induced cell cycle arrest was associated with a >80% reduction in the protein levels of cyclin-dependent kinase 1 (Cdk1) and cell division cycle 25C (Cdc25C; 24 h after treatment with 10 micro M PEITC), which led to an accumulation of Tyr(15) phosphorylated (inactive) Cdk1. On the other hand, PITC treatment neither reduced protein levels of Cdk1 or Cdc25C nor affected Cdk1 phosphorylation. The PEITC-induced decline in Cdk1 and Cdc25C protein levels and cell cycle arrest were significantly blocked on pretreatment of PC-3 cells with proteasome inhibitor lactacystin. A 24 h exposure of PC-3 cells to 10 micro M PEITC, but not PITC, resulted in about 56% and 44% decrease in the levels of antiapoptotic proteins Bcl-2 and Bcl-X(L), respectively. However, ectopic expression of Bcl-2 failed to alter sensitivity of PC-3 cells to growth inhibition or apoptosis induction by PEITC. Treatment of cells with PEITC, but not PITC, also resulted in cleavage of procaspase-3, procaspase-9, and procaspase-8. Moreover, the PEITC-induced apoptosis was significantly attenuated in the presence of general caspase inhibitor and specific inhibitors of caspase-8 and caspase-9. In conclusion, our data indicate that PEITC-induced cell cycle arrest in PC-3 cells is likely due

  17. 2-Phenethyl Isothiocyanate, Glutathione S-transferase M1 and T1 Polymorphisms, and Detoxification of Volatile Organic Carcinogens and Toxicants in Tobacco Smoke.

    PubMed

    Yuan, Jian-Min; Murphy, Sharon E; Stepanov, Irina; Wang, Renwei; Carmella, Steven G; Nelson, Heather H; Hatsukami, Dorothy; Hecht, Stephen S

    2016-07-01

    Cigarette smoke contains relatively large quantities of volatile organic toxicants or carcinogens such as benzene, acrolein, and crotonaldehyde. Among their detoxification products are mercapturic acids formed from glutathione conjugation, catalyzed in part by glutathione S-transferases (GST). A randomized phase II clinical trial with a crossover design was conducted to evaluate the effect of 2-phenethyl isothiocyanate (PEITC), a natural product formed from gluconasturtiin in certain cruciferous vegetables, on the detoxification of benzene, acrolein, and crotonaldehyde in 82 cigarette smokers. Urinary mercapturic acids of benzene, acrolein, and crotonaldehyde at baseline and during treatment were quantified. Overall, oral PEITC supplementation increased the mercapturic acid formed from benzene by 24.6% (P = 0.002) and acrolein by 15.1% (P = 0.005), but had no effect on crotonaldehyde. A remarkably stronger effect was observed among subjects with the null genotype of both GSTM1 and GSTT1: in these individuals, PEITC increased the detoxification metabolite of benzene by 95.4% (P < 0.001), of acrolein by 32.7% (P = 0.034), and of crotonaldehyde by 29.8% (P = 0.006). In contrast, PEITC had no effect on these mercapturic acids in smokers possessing both genes. PEITC had no effect on the urinary oxidative stress biomarker 8-iso-prostaglandin F2α or the inflammation biomarker prostaglandin E2 metabolite. This trial demonstrates an important role of PEITC in detoxification of environmental carcinogens and toxicants which also occur in cigarette smoke. The selective effect of PEITC on detoxification in subjects lacking both GSTM1 and GSTT1 genes supports the epidemiologic findings of stronger protection by dietary isothiocyanates against the development of lung cancer in such individuals. Cancer Prev Res; 9(7); 598-606. ©2016 AACR. ©2016 American Association for Cancer Research.

  18. Combined treatment with cotylenin A and phenethyl isothiocyanate induces strong antitumor activity mainly through the induction of ferroptotic cell death in human pancreatic cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Kasukabe, Takashi; Honma, Yoshio; Okabe-Kado, Junko; Higuchi, Yusuke; Kato, Nobuo; Kumakura, Shunichi

    2016-08-01

    The treatment of pancreatic cancer, one of the most aggressive gastrointestinal tract malignancies, with current chemotherapeutic drugs has had limited success due to its chemoresistance and poor prognosis. Therefore, the development of new drugs or effective combination therapies is urgently needed. Cotylenin A (CN-A) (a plant growth regulator) is a potent inducer of differentiation in myeloid leukemia cells and exhibits potent antitumor activities in several cancer cell lines. In the present study, we demonstrated that CN-A and phenethyl isothiocyanate (PEITC), an inducer of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and a dietary anticarcinogenic compound, synergistically inhibited the proliferation of MIAPaCa-2, PANC-1 and gemcitabine-resistant PANC-1 cells. A combined treatment with CN-A and PEITC also effectively inhibited the anchorage-independent growth of these cancer cells. The combined treatment with CN-A and PEITC strongly induced cell death within 1 day at concentrations at which CN-A or PEITC alone did not affect cell viability. A combined treatment with synthetic CN-A derivatives (ISIR-005 and ISIR-042) or fusicoccin J (CN-A-related natural product) and PEITC did not have synergistic effects on cell death. The combined treatment with CN-A and PEITC synergistically induced the generation of ROS. Antioxidants (N-acetylcysteine and trolox), ferroptosis inhibitors (ferrostatin-1 and liproxstatin), and the lysosomal iron chelator deferoxamine canceled the synergistic cell death. Apoptosis inhibitors (Z-VAD-FMK and Q-VD-OPH) and the necrosis inhibitor necrostatin-1s did not inhibit synergistic cell death. Autophagy inhibitors (3-metyladenine and chloroquine) partially prevented cell death. These results show that synergistic cell death induced by the combined treatment with CN-A and PEITC is mainly due to the induction of ferroptosis. Therefore, the combination of CN-A and PEITC has potential as a novel therapeutic strategy against pancreatic cancer.

  19. Synergistic effect of combination of phenethyl isothiocyanate and sulforaphane or curcumin and sulforaphane in the inhibition of inflammation.

    PubMed

    Cheung, Ka Lung; Khor, Tin Oo; Kong, Ah-Ng

    2009-01-01

    Accumulating evidence from epidemiologic and clinical studies indicates that chronic inflammatory disorders harbor an increased risk of cancer development. Curcumin (CUR) has been strongly linked to the anti-inflammatory effect. On the other hand, isothiocyanates such as sulforaphane (SFN) and phenethyl isothiocyanate (PEITC) are strong phase-II detoxifying/antioxidant enzymes inducer. Therefore it is interesting to see if combination of these drugs can inhibit inflammation with higher combined efficacies. We used nitric oxide (NO) assay to assess the synergism of the different combinations of CUR, SFN and PEITC. The inflammatory markers, e.g. iNOS, COX-2, prostaglandin E2 (PGE2), tumor necrosis factor (TNF) and interleukin-1 (IL-1) levels were determined using RT-PCR, Western blot and ELISA assays. We report that combination of PEITC + SFN or CUR + SFN has a synergistic effect in down-regulating inflammation markers like TNF, IL-1, NO, PGE2. The synergism is probably due to the synergistic induction of phase II/antioxidant enzymes including heme-oxygenase1 (HO-1) and NAD(P)H:quinone oxidoreductase 1 (NQO-1). Our data suggest that CUR + SFN and PEITC + SFN combinations could be more effective than used alone in preventing inflammation and possibly its associated diseases including cancer.

  20. Isothiocyanates induce UGT1A1 in humanized UGT1 mice in a CAR dependent fashion that is highly dependent upon oxidative stress.

    PubMed

    Yoda, Emiko; Paszek, Miles; Konopnicki, Camille; Fujiwara, Ryoichi; Chen, Shujuan; Tukey, Robert H

    2017-04-19

    Isothiocyanates, such as phenethyl isothiocyanate (PEITC), are formed following the consumption of cruciferous vegetables and generate reactive oxygen species (ROS) that lead to the induction of cytoprotective genes such as the UDP-glucuronosyltransferases (UGTs). The induction of ROS activates the Nrf2-Keap 1 pathway leading to the induction of genes through antioxidant response elements (AREs). UGT1A1, the sole enzyme responsible for the metabolism of bilirubin, can be induced following activation of Nrf2. When neonatal humanized UGT1 (hUGT1) mice, which exhibit severe levels of total serum bilirubin (TSB) because of a developmental delay in expression of the UGT1A1 gene, were treated with PEITC, TSB levels were reduced. Liver and intestinal UGT1A1 were induced, along with murine CYP2B10, a consensus CAR target gene. In both neonatal and adult hUGT1/Car -/- mice, PEITC was unable to induce CYP2B10. A similar result was observed following analysis of UGT1A1 expression in liver. However, TSB levels were still reduced in hUGT1/Car -/- neonatal mice because of ROS induction of intestinal UGT1A1. When oxidative stress was blocked by exposing mice to N-acetylcysteine, induction of liver UGT1A1 and CYP2B10 by PEITC was prevented. Thus, new findings in this report link an important role in CAR activation that is dependent upon oxidative stress.

  1. TRIBUTYLTIN ISOTHIOCYANATE AND ISOCYANIDE,

    DTIC Science & Technology

    Infrared evidence was used to demonstrate that tributyltin isothiocyanate is formed when certain tributyltin compounds are reacted with inorganic...thiocyanates or thiourea. Molecular refraction data supporting this contention are also reported. The preparation of tributyltin isothiocyanate by several different methods and of tributyltin succinimide is described. (Author)

  2. 40 CFR 721.1350 - Benzene, (1-methylethyl)(2-phenylethyl)-.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Benzene, (1-methylethyl)(2-phenylethyl... Substances § 721.1350 Benzene, (1-methylethyl)(2-phenylethyl)-. (a) Chemical substances and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified as benzene, (1-methylethyl)(2...

  3. 40 CFR 721.1350 - Benzene, (1-methylethyl)(2-phenylethyl)-.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Benzene, (1-methylethyl)(2-phenylethyl... Substances § 721.1350 Benzene, (1-methylethyl)(2-phenylethyl)-. (a) Chemical substances and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified as benzene, (1-methylethyl)(2...

  4. 40 CFR 721.1350 - Benzene, (1-methylethyl)(2-phenylethyl)-.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Benzene, (1-methylethyl)(2-phenylethyl... Substances § 721.1350 Benzene, (1-methylethyl)(2-phenylethyl)-. (a) Chemical substances and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified as benzene, (1-methylethyl)(2...

  5. 40 CFR 721.1350 - Benzene, (1-methylethyl)(2-phenylethyl)-.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Benzene, (1-methylethyl)(2-phenylethyl... Substances § 721.1350 Benzene, (1-methylethyl)(2-phenylethyl)-. (a) Chemical substances and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified as benzene, (1-methylethyl)(2...

  6. 40 CFR 721.1350 - Benzene, (1-methylethyl)(2-phenylethyl)-.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Benzene, (1-methylethyl)(2-phenylethyl... Substances § 721.1350 Benzene, (1-methylethyl)(2-phenylethyl)-. (a) Chemical substances and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified as benzene, (1-methylethyl)(2...

  7. Diastereoselective syntheses of 3-aryl-5-(arylalkyl)-6-methyl-1-(1-phenylethyl)thioxotetrahydropyrimidin-4(1H)-ones: a stereochemical perspective from endo and exocyclic chiral centres.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Varun; Raghavaiah, Pallepogu; Mobin, Shaikh M; Nair, Vipin A

    2010-11-07

    Diastereoselective syntheses of 3-aryl-(S/R)-6-methyl-1-[(S/R)-1-phenylethyl)]-2-thioxotetrahydro pyrimidin-4(1H)-ones were achieved in good yields by the condensation of aryl isothiocyanates with ethyl 3-(1-phenylethylamino)butanoate in a one-pot reaction. Benzylation of these substrates illustrated that the orientations of the exocylic and endocylic groups determine the stereochemical outcome of the product formed.

  8. Chemoprevention of Prostate Cancer by Phenethyl Isothiocyanate

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-03-01

    AD cells were exposed to PEITC, protein synthesis inhibitor cycloheximide (CHX), or proteasome inhibitor MG-132 alone, or to the combination of...The results indicated that down-regulation of Sp1 may require protein synthesis for a proteasome activity, thereby enhancing Sp1 protein degradation...carcinogen N- methyl-N- nitrosourea (MNU) for the formation of prostate tumors. The experimental group of rats was provided with PEITC, to evaluate the

  9. Phenethyl Isothiocyanate in Breast Cancer Prevention

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2005-08-01

    life of about 2.2 hours (15). Therefore, in contrast to dietary components such as the flavonoids , oral clearance of these ITCs is low and...reported to have the lowest IC 50 among the dietary flavonoids tested in MCF-7 cells (25). While some studies have demonstrated similar cytotoxicity...pharmacokinetic profiles of total ITC have been examined using a HPLC -based cyclocondensation approach; PEITC, PEITC conjugates as well as other ITCs or

  10. Extraction and identification of isothiocyanates from broccolini seeds.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Bochao; Wang, Xiaoqin; Yang, Yanjing; Zhang, Xuewu

    2011-01-01

    Broccolini (Brassica oleracea Italica x Alboglabra) is a cross between broccoli and kai-lan (Chinese broccoli), which contains abundant glucosinolates. The intact glucosinolates are believed to be inactive, while their hydrolysis products, such as isothiocyanates (ITCs), are found to have bacteriocidal and anticarcinogenic activities. So far, no report is available about generation of ITCs during the process of glucosinolate hydrolysis in broccolini. In this study, the hydrolysis of broccolini seed glucosinolates was investigated under controlled conditions of pH, time and temperature, and the ITCs produced were determined. The results showed that an optimum hydrolysis of glucosinolates could be achieved at a temperature of 250C, at pH 7.0, and a reaction time of eight hours. Furthermore, GC-MS analysis indicated that the extracted ITCs primarily were: 3-BITC (3-benzyl-ITC) (10.8%), 4-methylpentyl-ITC (0.5%), 1-isothiocyanato-butane (26.8%), PEITC (phenethyl-ITC) (22.6%) and SFN (sulforaphane) (19.2%).

  11. Establishment of prostate cancer spheres from a prostate cancer cell line after phenethyl isothiocyanate treatment and discovery of androgen-dependent reversible differentiation between sphere and neuroendocrine cells.

    PubMed

    Chen, Yamei; Cang, Shundong; Han, Liying; Liu, Christina; Yang, Patrick; Solangi, Zeeshan; Lu, Quanyi; Liu, Delong; Chiao, J W

    2016-05-03

    Prostate cancer can transform from androgen-responsive to an androgen-independent phenotype. The mechanism responsible for the transformation remains unclear. We studied the effects of an epigenetic modulator, phenethyl isothiocyanate (PEITC), on the androgen-responsive LNCaP cells. After treatment with PEITC, floating spheres were formed with characteristics of prostate cancer stem cells (PCSC). These spheres were capable of self-renewal in media with and without androgen. They have been maintained in both types of media as long term cultures. Upon androgen deprivation, the adherent spheres differentiated to neuroendocrine cells (NEC) with decreased proliferation, expression of androgen receptor, and PSA. NEC reverse differentiated to spheres when androgen was replenished. The sphere cells expressed surface marker CD44 and had enhanced histone H3K4 acetylation, DNMT1 down-regulation and GSTP1 activation. We hypothesize that PEITC-mediated alteration in epigenomics of LNCaP cells may give rise to sphere cells, whereas reversible androgenomic alterations govern the shuttling between sphere PCSC and progeny NEC. Our findings identify unrecognized properties of prostate cancer sphere cells with multi-potential plasticity. This system will facilitate development of novel therapeutic agents and allow further exploration into epigenomics and androgenomics governing the transformation to hormone refractory prostate cancer.

  12. Photo-fragmentation spectroscopy of benzylium and 1-phenylethyl cations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Féraud, Géraldine; Dedonder-Lardeux, Claude; Soorkia, Satchin; Jouvet, Christophe

    2014-01-01

    The electronic spectra of cold benzylium (C6H5-CH2+) and 1-phenylethyl (C6H5-CH-CH3+) cations have been recorded via photofragment spectroscopy. Benzylium and 1-phenylethyl cations produced from electrosprayed benzylamine and phenylethylamine solutions, respectively, were stored in a cryogenically cooled quadrupole ion trap and photodissociated by an OPO laser, scanned in parts of the UV and visible regions (600-225 nm). The electronic states and active vibrational modes of the benzylium and 1-phenylethyl cations as well as those of their tropylium or methyl tropylium isomers have been calculated with ab initio methods for comparison with the spectra observed. Sharp vibrational progressions are observed in the visible region while the absorption features are much broader in the UV. The visible spectrum of the benzylium cation is similar to that obtained in an argon tagging experiment [V. Dryza, N. Chalyavi, J. A. Sanelli, and E. J. Bieske, J. Chem. Phys. 137, 204304 (2012)], with an additional splitting assigned to Fermi resonances. The visible spectrum of the 1-phenylethyl cation also shows vibrational progressions. For both cations, the second electronic transition is observed in the UV, around 33 000 cm-1 (4.1 eV) and shows a broadened vibrational progression. In both cases the S2 optimized geometry is non-planar. The third electronic transition observed around 40 000 cm-1 (5.0 eV) is even broader with no apparent vibrational structures, which is indicative of either a fast non-radiative process or a very large change in geometry between the excited and the ground states. The oscillator strengths calculated for tropylium and methyl tropylium are weak. Therefore, these isomeric structures are most likely not responsible for these absorption features. Finally, the fragmentation pattern changes in the second and third electronic states: C2H2 loss becomes predominant at higher excitation energies, for both cations.

  13. Neuroprotective 2-(2-phenylethyl)chromones of Imperata cylindrica.

    PubMed

    Yoon, Jeong Seon; Lee, Mi Kyeong; Sung, Sang Hyun; Kim, Young Choong

    2006-02-01

    Bioactivity-guided fractionation of the methanolic extract of the rhizomes of Imperata cylindrica afforded a new compound, 5-hydroxy-2-(2-phenylethyl)chromone (1), together with three known compounds, 5-hydroxy-2-[2-(2-hydroxyphenyl)ethyl]chromone (2), flidersiachromone (3), and 5-hydroxy-2-styrylchromone (4). Among these four compounds, 1 and 2 showed significant neuroprotective activity against glutamate-induced neurotoxicity in primary cultures of rat cortical cells.

  14. Photo-fragmentation spectroscopy of benzylium and 1-phenylethyl cations

    SciTech Connect

    Féraud, Géraldine; Dedonder-Lardeux, Claude; Jouvet, Christophe, E-mail: christophe.jouvet@univ-amu.fr

    The electronic spectra of cold benzylium (C{sub 6}H{sub 5}-CH{sub 2}{sup +}) and 1-phenylethyl (C{sub 6}H{sub 5}-CH-CH{sub 3}{sup +}) cations have been recorded via photofragment spectroscopy. Benzylium and 1-phenylethyl cations produced from electrosprayed benzylamine and phenylethylamine solutions, respectively, were stored in a cryogenically cooled quadrupole ion trap and photodissociated by an OPO laser, scanned in parts of the UV and visible regions (600–225 nm). The electronic states and active vibrational modes of the benzylium and 1-phenylethyl cations as well as those of their tropylium or methyl tropylium isomers have been calculated with ab initio methods for comparison with the spectra observed.more » Sharp vibrational progressions are observed in the visible region while the absorption features are much broader in the UV. The visible spectrum of the benzylium cation is similar to that obtained in an argon tagging experiment [V. Dryza, N. Chalyavi, J. A. Sanelli, and E. J. Bieske, J. Chem. Phys. 137, 204304 (2012)], with an additional splitting assigned to Fermi resonances. The visible spectrum of the 1-phenylethyl cation also shows vibrational progressions. For both cations, the second electronic transition is observed in the UV, around 33 000 cm{sup −1} (4.1 eV) and shows a broadened vibrational progression. In both cases the S{sub 2} optimized geometry is non-planar. The third electronic transition observed around 40 000 cm{sup −1} (5.0 eV) is even broader with no apparent vibrational structures, which is indicative of either a fast non-radiative process or a very large change in geometry between the excited and the ground states. The oscillator strengths calculated for tropylium and methyl tropylium are weak. Therefore, these isomeric structures are most likely not responsible for these absorption features. Finally, the fragmentation pattern changes in the second and third electronic states: C{sub 2}H{sub 2} loss becomes predominant at

  15. Identification of cancer chemopreventive isothiocyanates as direct inhibitors of the arylamine N-acetyltransferase-dependent acetylation and bioactivation of aromatic amine carcinogens.

    PubMed

    Duval, Romain; Xu, Ximing; Bui, Linh-Chi; Mathieu, Cécile; Petit, Emile; Cariou, Kevin; Dodd, Robert H; Dupret, Jean-Marie; Rodrigues-Lima, Fernando

    2016-02-23

    Aromatic amines (AAs) are chemicals of industrial, pharmacological and environmental relevance. Certain AAs, such as 4-aminobiphenyl (4-ABP), are human carcinogens that require enzymatic metabolic activation to reactive chemicals to form genotoxic DNA adducts. Arylamine N-acetyltransferases (NAT) are xenobiotic metabolizing enzymes (XME) that play a major role in this carcinogenic bioactivation process. Isothiocyanates (ITCs), including benzyl-ITC (BITC) and phenethyl-ITC (PEITC), are phytochemicals known to have chemopreventive activity against several aromatic carcinogens. In particular, ITCs have been shown to modify the bioactivation and subsequent mutagenicity of carcinogenic AA chemicals such as 4-ABP. However, the molecular and biochemical mechanisms by which these phytochemicals may modulate AA carcinogens bioactivation and AA-DNA damage remains poorly understood. This manuscript provides evidence indicating that ITCs can decrease the metabolic activation of carcinogenic AAs via the irreversible inhibition of NAT enzymes and subsequent alteration of the acetylation of AAs. We demonstrate that BITC and PEITC react with NAT1 and inhibit readily its acetyltransferase activity (k(i) = 200 M(-1).s(-1) and 66 M(-1).s(-1) for BITC and PEITC, respectively). Chemical labeling, docking approaches and substrate protection assays indicated that inhibition of the acetylation of AAs by NAT1 was due to the chemical modification of the enzyme active site cysteine. Moreover, analyses of AAs acetylation and DNA adducts in cells showed that BITC was able to modulate the endogenous acetylation and bioactivation of 4-ABP. In conclusion, we show that direct inhibition of NAT enzymes may be an important mechanism by which ITCs exert their chemopreventive activity towards AA chemicals.

  16. Correlation of quinone reductase activity and allyl isothiocyanate formation among different genotypes and grades of horseradish roots.

    PubMed

    Ku, Kang-Mo; Jeffery, Elizabeth H; Juvik, John A; Kushad, Mosbah M

    2015-03-25

    Horseradish (Armoracia rusticana) is a perennial crop and its ground root tissue is used in condiments because of the pungency of the glucosinolate (GS)-hydrolysis products allyl isothiocyanate (AITC) and phenethyl isothiocyanate (PEITC) derived from sinigrin and gluconasturtiin, respectively. Horseradish roots are sold in three grades: U.S. Fancy, U.S. No. 1, and U.S. No. 2 according to the USDA standards. These grading standards are primarily based on root diameter and length. There is little information on whether root grades vary in their phytochemical content or potential health promoting properties. This study measured GS, GS-hydrolysis products, potential anticancer activity (as quinone reductase inducing activity), total phenolic content, and antioxidant activities from different grades of horseradish accessions. U.S. Fancy showed significantly higher sinigrin and AITC concentrations than U.S. No. 1 ,whereas U.S. No. 1 showed significantly higher concentrations of 1-cyano 2,3-epithiopropane, the epithionitrile hydrolysis product of sinigrin, and significantly higher total phenolic concentrations than U.S. Fancy.

  17. Metabolic response of Candida albicans to phenylethyl alcohol under hyphae-inducing conditions.

    PubMed

    Han, Ting-Li; Tumanov, Sergey; Cannon, Richard D; Villas-Boas, Silas G

    2013-01-01

    Phenylethyl alcohol was one of the first quorum sensing molecules (QSMs) identified in C. albicans. This extracellular signalling molecule inhibits the hyphal formation of C. albicans at high cell density. Little is known, however, about the underlying mechanisms by which this QSM regulates the morphological switches of C. albicans. Therefore, we have applied metabolomics and isotope labelling experiments to investigate the metabolic changes that occur in C. albicans in response to phenylethyl alcohol under defined hyphae-inducing conditions. Our results showed a global upregulation of central carbon metabolism when hyphal development was suppressed by phenylethyl alcohol. By comparing the metabolic changes in response to phenylethyl alcohol to our previous metabolomic studies, we were able to short-list 7 metabolic pathways from central carbon metabolism that appear to be associated with C. albicans morphogenesis. Furthermore, isotope-labelling data showed that phenylethyl alcohol is indeed taken up and catabolised by yeast cells. Isotope-labelled carbon atoms were found in the majority of amino acids as well as in lactate and glyoxylate. However, isotope-labelled carbon atoms from phenylethyl alcohol accumulated mainly in the pyridine ring of NAD(+)/NADH and NADP(-/)NADPH molecules, showing that these nucleotides were the main products of phenylethyl alcohol catabolism. Interestingly, two metabolic pathways where these nucleotides play an important role, nitrogen metabolism and nicotinate/nicotinamide metabolism, were also short-listed through our previous metabolomics works as metabolic pathways likely to be closely associated with C. albicans morphogenesis.

  18. Targeting Colorectal Cancer Proliferation, Stemness and Metastatic Potential Using Brassicaceae Extracts Enriched in Isothiocyanates: A 3D Cell Model-Based Study

    PubMed Central

    Pereira, Lucília P.; Silva, Patrícia; Duarte, Marlene; Rodrigues, Liliana; Duarte, Catarina M. M.; Albuquerque, Cristina; Serra, Ana Teresa

    2017-01-01

    Colorectal cancer (CRC) recurrence is often attributable to circulating tumor cells and/or cancer stem cells (CSCs) that resist to conventional therapies and foster tumor progression. Isothiocyanates (ITCs) derived from Brassicaceae vegetables have demonstrated anticancer effects in CRC, however little is known about their effect in CSCs and tumor initiation properties. Here we examined the effect of ITCs-enriched Brassicaceae extracts derived from watercress and broccoli in cell proliferation, CSC phenotype and metastasis using a previously developed three-dimensional HT29 cell model with CSC-like traits. Both extracts were phytochemically characterized and their antiproliferative effect in HT29 monolayers was explored. Next, we performed cell proliferation assays and flow cytometry analysis in HT29 spheroids treated with watercress and broccoli extracts and respective main ITCs, phenethyl isothiocyanate (PEITC) and sulforaphane (SFN). Soft agar assays and relative quantitative expression analysis of stemness markers and Wnt/β-catenin signaling players were performed to evaluate the effect of these phytochemicals in stemness and metastasis. Our results showed that both Brassicaceae extracts and ITCs exert antiproliferative effects in HT29 spheroids, arresting cell cycle at G2/M, possibly due to ITC-induced DNA damage. Colony formation and expression of LGR5 and CD133 cancer stemness markers were significantly reduced. Only watercress extract and PEITC decreased ALDH1 activity in a dose-dependent manner, as well as β-catenin expression. Our research provides new insights on CRC therapy using ITC-enriched Brassicaceae extracts, specially watercress extract, to target CSCs and circulating tumor cells by impairing cell proliferation, ALDH1-mediated chemo-resistance, anoikis evasion, self-renewal and metastatic potential. PMID:28394276

  19. Targeting Colorectal Cancer Proliferation, Stemness and Metastatic Potential Using Brassicaceae Extracts Enriched in Isothiocyanates: A 3D Cell Model-Based Study.

    PubMed

    Pereira, Lucília P; Silva, Patrícia; Duarte, Marlene; Rodrigues, Liliana; Duarte, Catarina M M; Albuquerque, Cristina; Serra, Ana Teresa

    2017-04-10

    Colorectal cancer (CRC) recurrence is often attributable to circulating tumor cells and/or cancer stem cells (CSCs) that resist to conventional therapies and foster tumor progression. Isothiocyanates (ITCs) derived from Brassicaceae vegetables have demonstrated anticancer effects in CRC, however little is known about their effect in CSCs and tumor initiation properties. Here we examined the effect of ITCs-enriched Brassicaceae extracts derived from watercress and broccoli in cell proliferation, CSC phenotype and metastasis using a previously developed three-dimensional HT29 cell model with CSC-like traits. Both extracts were phytochemically characterized and their antiproliferative effect in HT29 monolayers was explored. Next, we performed cell proliferation assays and flow cytometry analysis in HT29 spheroids treated with watercress and broccoli extracts and respective main ITCs, phenethyl isothiocyanate (PEITC) and sulforaphane (SFN). Soft agar assays and relative quantitative expression analysis of stemness markers and Wnt/β-catenin signaling players were performed to evaluate the effect of these phytochemicals in stemness and metastasis. Our results showed that both Brassicaceae extracts and ITCs exert antiproliferative effects in HT29 spheroids, arresting cell cycle at G₂/M, possibly due to ITC-induced DNA damage. Colony formation and expression of LGR5 and CD133 cancer stemness markers were significantly reduced. Only watercress extract and PEITC decreased ALDH1 activity in a dose-dependent manner, as well as β-catenin expression. Our research provides new insights on CRC therapy using ITC-enriched Brassicaceae extracts, specially watercress extract, to target CSCs and circulating tumor cells by impairing cell proliferation, ALDH1-mediated chemo-resistance, anoikis evasion, self-renewal and metastatic potential.

  20. Isothiocyanates: mechanism of cancer chemopreventive action.

    PubMed

    Thornalley, Paul J

    2002-04-01

    Dietary and synthetic isothiocyanates have cancer chemopreventive activity. Dietary isothiocyanates are formed from glucosinolate precursors of ingested green vegetables. Isothiocyanates are absorbed across intestinal cell membranes by passive diffusion and bind reversibly to plasma protein thiols by thiocarbamoylation. Free isothiocyanate enters cells and is converted to the glutathione conjugate by glutathione S-transferases (GSTs). The glutathione conjugate is exported from cells by multidrug resistance proteins (MRPs), and metabolized in the mercapturic acid pathway to the corresponding mercapturic acid. The isothiocyanate is reformed by fragmentation of mercapturic acid pathway metabolites; it is inactivated by slow hydrolysis to the corresponding amine that is inactive in chemoprevention. Depletion of cellular glutathione and protein thiocarbamoylation activates signal transduction for cancer chemoprevention. Isothiocyanates inhibited and inactivated cytochrome P450 isoforms. They induced increased expression of GST, NADPH: quinone oxidoreductase, aldo-keto reductase and gamma-glutamylcysteine synthetase. These responses were coordinated at the transcription level by nuclear factor-erythroid 2 p45-related factor-2 acting through the antioxidant/electrophile enhancer response element and stimulated by the mitogen-activated protein kinase/extracellular signal-regulated kinase kinase kinase-1 and c-Jun N-terminal kinase-1 (JNK1) pathway. Isothiocyanates also induced apoptosis of pre-cancerous cells and tumor cells activated by caspase-8 and potentiated by JNK1. The chemopreventive activity of isothiocyanates is influenced by the isothiocyanate bioavailability-as is toxicity, GST polymorphism, protein thiocarbamoylation and probably also by MRP expression. These features of isothiocyanate metabolism and chemoprevention deserve further investigation.

  1. In Vitro-In Vivo Dose Response of Ursolic Acid, Sulforaphane, PEITC, and Curcumin in Cancer Prevention.

    PubMed

    Ramirez, Christina N; Li, Wenji; Zhang, Chengyue; Wu, Renyi; Su, Shan; Wang, Chao; Gao, Linbo; Yin, Ran; Kong, Ah-Ng

    2017-12-20

    According to the National Center of Health Statistics, cancer was the culprit of nearly 600,000 deaths in 2016 in the USA. It is by far one of the most heterogeneous diseases to treat. Treatment for metastasized cancers remains a challenge despite modern diagnostics and treatment regimens. For this reason, alternative approaches are needed. Chemoprevention using dietary phytochemicals such as triterpenoids, isothiocyanates, and curcumin in the prevention of initiation and/or progression of cancer poses a promising alternative strategy. However, significant challenges exist in the extrapolation of in vitro cell culture data to in vivo efficacy in animal models and to humans. In this review, the dose at which these phytochemicals elicit a response in vitro and in vivo of a multitude of cellular signaling pathways will be reviewed highlighting Nrf2-mediated antioxidative stress, anti-inflammation, epigenetics, cytoprotection, differentiation, and growth inhibition. The in vitro-in vivo dose response of phytochemicals can vary due, in part, to the cell line/animal model used, the assay system of the biomarker used for the readout, chemical structure of the functional analog of the phytochemical, and the source of compounds used for the treatment study. While the dose response varies across different experimental designs, the chemopreventive efficacy appears to remain and demonstrate the therapeutic potential of triterpenoids, isothiocyanates, and curcumin in cancer prevention and in health in general.

  2. Inhibitory effects of wasabi isothiocyanates on chemical mediator release in RBL-2H3 rat basophilic leukemia cells.

    PubMed

    Yamada-Kato, Tomoe; Nagai, Masashi; Ohnishi, Motoko; Yoshida, Kazutoshi

    2012-01-01

    Wasabi is a plant of Japanese origin. It belongs to the family Brassicaceae and produces various isothiocyanates (ITCs). To clarify the type I allergies inhibited by wasabi ITCs, we investigated the inhibitory effect on chemical mediator release from dinitrophenylated bovine serum albumin (DNP-BSA)-stimulated RBL-2H3 rat basophilic leukemia cells. Allyl ITC (AITC), sec-butyl ITC (s-BuITC), and 3-butenyl ITC (3-BuITC), which have 3 or 4 carbon chains, inhibited histamine release but did not inhibit the release of leukotriene B4 (LTB4) or cysteinyl LTs (CysLTs). 4-Pentenyl ITC (4-PeITC) and 5-hexenyl ITC (5-HeITC), which have 5 or 6 carbon chains and an unsaturated bond at the end, inhibited LTB4 release but did not inhibit the release of histamine or CysLTs. 6-Methylthiohexyl ITC (6-MTITC), 6-methylsulfinylhexyl ITC (6-MSITC), and 6-methylsulfonylhexyl ITC (6-MSFITC), which have a sulfur atom inserted at the end of a 6-carbon chain, inhibited the release of histamine, LTB4, and CysLTs and the elevation in intracellular Ca(2+). These results suggest that wasabi ITCs inhibited type I allergies by inhibiting chemical mediator release and that the inhibitory effects on each chemical mediator were due to differences in the side chain structure of the wasabi ITCs.

  3. Benzyl isothiocyanate induces protective autophagy in human lung cancer cells through an endoplasmic reticulum stress-mediated mechanism

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Qi-cheng; Pan, Zhen-hua; Liu, Bo-ning; Meng, Zhao-wei; Wu, Xiang; Zhou, Qing-hua; Xu, Ke

    2017-01-01

    Isothiocyanates, such as allyl isothiocya¬nate (AITC), benzyl isothiocyanate (BITC), phenethyl isothio¬cyanate (PEITC) and sulforaphane (SFN), are natural compounds abundant in cruciferous vegetables, which have substantial chemopreventive activities against various human malignancies. However, the mechanisms underlying the inhibition of tumor cell growth by isothiocyanates are not fully understood. Since autophagy has dual functions in cancer, in the present study we investigated the effects of BITC on autophagy induction in human lung cancer cells in vitro and in vivo. BITC (1–100 μmol/L) dose-dependently inhibited the growth of 3 different human lung cancer cell lines A549 (adenocarcinoma), H661 (large cell carcinoma) and SK-MES-1 (squamous cell carcinoma) with IC50 values of 30.7±0.14, 15.9±0.22 and 23.4±0.11 μmol/L, respectively. BITC (10–40 μmol/L) induced autophagy in the lung cancer cells, evidenced by the formation of acidic vesicular organelles (AVOs), the accumulation of LC3-II, the punctate pattern of LC3, and the expression of Atg5. Pretreatment with the autophagy inhibitor 3-MA (5 mmol/L) significantly enhanced the BITC-caused growth inhibition in the lung cancer cells. Furthermore, BITC (20–40 μmol/L) activated ER stress, as shown by the increased cytosolic Ca2+ level and the phosphorylation of the ER stress marker proteins PERK and eIF2α in the lung cancer cells. Pretreatment with the ER stress inhibitor 4-PBA (5 mmol/L) attenuated the autophagy induction and potentiated the BITC-induced cell growth inhibition. In nude mice bearing A549 xenografts, administration of BITC (100 mg·kg-1·d-1, ip) for 8 weeks markedly suppressed the lung tumor growth, and significantly enhanced both autophagy and ER stress in the tumor tissues. Our results demonstrate that BITC inhibits human lung cancer cell growth in vitro and in vivo. In addition, BITC induces autophagy in the lung cancer cells, which protects the cancer cells against the inhibitory

  4. Endophytic fungi from the roots of horseradish (Armoracia rusticana) and their interactions with the defensive metabolites of the glucosinolate - myrosinase - isothiocyanate system.

    PubMed

    Szűcs, Zsolt; Plaszkó, Tamás; Cziáky, Zoltán; Kiss-Szikszai, Attila; Emri, Tamás; Bertóti, Regina; Sinka, László Tamás; Vasas, Gábor; Gonda, Sándor

    2018-05-09

    The health of plants is heavily influenced by the intensively researched plant microbiome. The microbiome has to cope with the plant's defensive secondary metabolites to survive and develop, but studies that describe this interaction are rare. In the current study, we describe interactions of endophytic fungi with a widely researched chemical defense system, the glucosinolate - myrosinase - isothiocyanate system. The antifungal isothiocyanates are also of special interest because of their beneficial effects on human consumers. Seven endophytic fungi were isolated from horseradish roots (Armoracia rusticana), from the genera Fusarium, Macrophomina, Setophoma, Paraphoma and Oidiodendron. LC-ESI-MS analysis of the horseradish extract incubated with these fungi showed that six of seven strains could decompose different classes of glucosinolates. Aliphatic, aromatic, thiomethylalkyl and indolic glucosinolates were decomposed by different strains at different rates. SPME-GC-MS measurements showed that two strains released significant amounts of allyl isothiocyanate into the surrounding air, but allyl nitrile was not detected. The LC-ESI-MS analysis of many strains' media showed the presence of allyl isothiocyanate - glutathione conjugate during the decomposition of sinigrin. Four endophytic strains also accepted sinigrin as the sole carbon source. Isothiocyanates inhibited the growth of fungi at various concentrations, phenylethyl isothiocyanate was more potent than allyl isothiocyanate (mean IC 50 was 2.30-fold lower). As a control group, ten soil fungi from the same soil were used. They decomposed glucosinolates with lower overall efficiency: six of ten strains had insignificant or weak activities and only three could use sinigrin as a carbon source. The soil fungi also showed lower AITC tolerance in the growth inhibition assay: the median IC 50 values were 0.1925 mM for endophytes and 0.0899 mM for soil fungi. The host's glucosinolates can be used by the tested

  5. BAG3 down-modulation sensitizes HPV18(+) HeLa cells to PEITC-induced apoptosis and restores p53.

    PubMed

    Cotugno, Roberta; Basile, Anna; Romano, Elena; Gallotta, Dario; Belisario, Maria Antonietta

    2014-11-28

    BAG3 is a multi-functional component of tumor cell pro-survival machinery, and its biological functions have been largely associated to proteasome system. Here, we show that BAG3 down-modulation resulted in reduced cell viability and enhanced PEITC-induced apoptosis largely more extensively in HeLa (HPV18(+)) rather than in C33A (HPV(-)) cervical carcinoma cell lines. Moreover, we demonstrate that BAG3 suppression led to a decrease of viral E6 oncoprotein and a concomitant recovery of p53 tumor suppressor, the best recognized target of E6 for proteasome degradation. E6 and p53 expression were modulated at protein level, since their respective mRNAs were unaffected. Taken together our findings reveal a novel role for BAG3 as host protein contributing to HPV18 E6-activated pro-survival strategies, and suggest a possible relevance of its expression levels in drug/radiotherapy-resistance of HPV18-bearing cervical carcinomas. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Isothiocyanates: cholinesterase inhibiting, antioxidant, and anti-inflammatory activity.

    PubMed

    Burčul, Franko; Generalić Mekinić, Ivana; Radan, Mila; Rollin, Patrick; Blažević, Ivica

    2018-12-01

    Finding a new type of cholinesterase inhibitor that would overcome the brain availability and pharmacokinetic parameters or hepatotoxic liability has been a focus of investigations dealing with the treatment of Alzheimer's disease. Isothiocyanates have not been previously investigated as potential cholinesterase inhibitors. These compounds can be naturally produced from their glucosinolate precursors, secondary metabolites widely distributed in our daily Brassica vegetables. Among 11 tested compounds, phenyl isothiocyanate and its derivatives showed the most promising inhibitory activity. 2-Methoxyphenyl ITC showed best inhibition on acetylcholinesterase with IC 50 of 0.57 mM, while 3-methoxyphenyl ITC showed the best inhibition on butyrylcholinesterase having 49.2% at 1.14 mM. Assessment of the antioxidant efficacy using different methods led to a similar conclusion. The anti-inflammatory activity was also tested using human COX-2 enzyme, ranking phenyl isothiocyanate, and 3-methoxyphenyl isothiocyanate as most active, with ∼99% inhibition at 50 μM.

  7. Thermodynamic Properties of a First-Generation Carbosilane Dendrimer with Terminal Phenylethyl Groups

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sologubov, S. S.; Markin, A. V.; Smirnova, N. N.; Novozhilova, N. A.; Tatarinova, E. A.; Muzafarov, A. M.

    2018-02-01

    The heat capacity of a first-generation carbosilane dendrimer with terminal phenylethyl groups as a function of temperature in the range from 6 to 520 K is studied for the first time via precision adiabatic vacuum calorimetry and differential scanning calorimetry. Physical transformations, such as low-temperature structural anomaly and glass transition are detected in the above-mentioned range of temperatures, and their standard thermodynamic characteristics are determined and analyzed. The standard thermodynamic functions of the studied dendrimer in the range of T → 0 to 520 K are calculated from the experimental data, as is the standard entropy in the devitrified state at T = 298.15 K. The standard thermodynamic characteristics of the carbosilane dendrimers studied in this work and earlier are compared.

  8. Organic Isothiocyanates: Dietary Modulators of Doxorubicin Resistance in Breast Cancer

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2004-06-01

    al. (30) have dem- isothiocyanates: chemistry and mechanisms. Cancer Res. 54: onstrated the inhibition of renal clearance of colchicine by 1976s-1981s... Chemistry , Uni- possibility of flip-flop kinetics (absorption being slower versity at Buffalo) for his assistance in internal standard than elimination) in...Anticarcinogenic activities of organic sult fi’om interindividual variability and limited subject isothiocyanates: chemistry and mechanisms, Cancer Res. 54 (1994

  9. Peptide Reactivity of Isothiocyanates - Implications for Skin Allergy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karlsson, Isabella; Samuelsson, Kristin; Ponting, David J.; Törnqvist, Margareta; Ilag, Leopold L.; Nilsson, Ulrika

    2016-02-01

    Skin allergy is a chronic condition that affects about 20% of the population of the western world. This disease is caused by small reactive compounds, haptens, able to penetrate into the epidermis and modify endogenous proteins, thereby triggering an immunogenic reaction. Phenyl isothiocyanate (PITC) and ethyl isothiocyanate (EITC) have been suggested to be responsible for allergic skin reactions to chloroprene rubber, the main constituent of wetsuits, orthopedic braces, and many types of sports gear. In the present work we have studied the reactivity of the isothiocyanates PITC, EITC, and tetramethylrhodamine-6-isothiocyanate (6-TRITC) toward peptides under aqueous conditions at physiological pH to gain information about the types of immunogenic complexes these compounds may form in the skin. We found that all three compounds reacted quickly with cysteine moieties. For PITC and 6-TRITC the cysteine adducts decomposed over time, while stable adducts with lysine were formed. These experimental findings were verified by DFT calculations. Our results may suggest that the latter are responsible for allergic reactions to isothiocyanates. The initial adduct formation with cysteine residues may still be of great importance as it prevents hydrolysis and facilitates the transport of isothiocyanates into epidermis where they can form stable immunogenic complexes with lysine-containing proteins.

  10. Unequivocal Identification of 1-Phenylethyl Acetate in Clove Buds (syzygium aromaticum (L.) Merr. & L.M.Perry) and Clove Essential Oil.

    PubMed

    Gassenmeier, Klaus; Schwager, Hugo; Houben, Eric; Clery, Robin

    2017-06-27

    The natural occurrence of 1-phenylethyl acetate (styrallyl acetate) was confirmed in commercially available dried clove buds and also in the hydrodistilled oil from clove buds. This confirms previous reports and other anecdotal evidence for its occurrence in nature.

  11. [GLUTATHIONE SYSTEM ACTIVITY IN RAT TISSUES UNDER PHENYLETHYL BIGUANIDE ACTION ON THE BACKGROUND OF EXPERIMENTAL BRAIN ISCHEMIA/REPERFUSION DEVELOPMENT].

    PubMed

    Safonova, O A; Popova, T N; Kryl'skii, D V

    2016-01-01

    It was studied the total antioxidant activity, content of primary lipid peroxidation (LPO) products and reduced glutathione, and the activity of glutathione peroxidase, glutathione reductase, glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase, and NADP-isocitrate dehydrogenase in rat tissues under phenylethyl biguanide (phenfor- min) action on the background of experimental brain ischemia/reperfusion development. It is stablished the analyzed parameters, increasing under ischemia/reperfusion conditions in the brain and blood serum of animals, exhibit a decrease upon the introduction of this biguanide derivative. The obtained data can be explained by a decrease in degree of mobilization of the antioxidant system--in particular, of its glutathione chain--in the pathologic state. Hence, there is a need in NADPH supply for the system functioning compared with the pathology. Thus, phenylethyl biguanide demonstrates its antioxidant and protective properties under oxidative stress development that is accompanied by accumulation of the products of free radical oxidation of biomolecules during the ischemic brain injury.

  12. Mechanisms of Action of Isothiocyanates in Cancer Chemoprevention: An Update

    PubMed Central

    Navarro, Sandi L.; Li, Fei; Lampe, Johanna W.

    2011-01-01

    Isothiocyanates, derived from glucosinolates, are thought to be responsible for the chemoprotective actions conferred by higher cruciferous vegetable intake. Evidence suggests that isothiocyanates exert their effects through a variety of distinct but interconnected signaling pathways important for inhibiting carcinogenesis, including those involved in detoxification, inflammation, apoptosis, and cell cycle and epigenetic regulation, among others. This article provides an update on the latest research on isothiocyanates and these mechanisms, and points out remaining gaps in our understanding of these events. Given the variety of ITC produced from glucosinolates, and the diverse pathways on which these compounds act, a systems biology approach, in vivo, may help to better characterize their integrated role in cancer prevention. In addition, the effects of dose, duration of exposure, and specificity of different ITC should be considered. PMID:21935537

  13. RATES OF SOLVOLYSIS OF SOME DEUTERATED 2-PHENYLETHYL p-TOLUENESULFONATES

    SciTech Connect

    Saunders, W.H. Jr.; Asperger, S.; Edison, D.H.

    1958-05-20

    Rates of solvolysis of 2-phenylethyl (Ia), b 2/ (Ic) p-toluenesulfonates were determined in formic and in acetic acid. In formolysis Ia and Ic react at the same rate, but Ia reacts 17 plus or minus 2% faster than Ib. In acetolysis small effects are observed with both deuterated com. pounds: Ia is 3 plus or minus 1% faster than Ib and 4 plus or minus 3% faster than Ic. The formates and acetates produced in the solvolyses were converted to the corresponding 2phenylethanols II. Comparison of the infrared spectra of the products with those of synthetic mixture of IIb andmore » IIc revealed that ca. 45% phenyl migration had occurred in the formolysis and ca. 10% phenyl migration in acetolysis. These results suggest that phenyl participation predominates in formolysis, but is unimportant in acetolysis. The nature of the transition state in phenyl- participation reactions and the factors contributing to secondary deuterium isotope effects are discussed. (auth)« less

  14. Novel Route to Transition Metal Isothiocyanate Complexes Using Metal Powders and Thiourea

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Harris, Jerry D.; Eckles, William E.; Hepp, Aloysius F.; Duraj, Stan A.; Hehemann, David G.; Fanwick, Phillip E.; Richardson, John

    2003-01-01

    A new synthetic route to isothiocyanate-containing materials is presented. Eight isothiocyanate- 4-methylpyridine (y-picoline) compounds were prepared by refluxing metal powders (Mn, Fe, Co, Ni, and Cu) with thiourea in y-picoline. With the exception of compound 5,prepared with Co, the isothiocyanate ligand was generated in situ by the isomerization of thiourea to NH4+SCN- at reflux temperatures. The complexes were characterized by x-ray crystallography. Compounds 1,2, and 8 are the first isothiocyanate- 4-methylpyridine anionic compounds ever prepared and structurally characterized. Compounds 1 and 2 are isostructural with four equatorially bound isothiocyanate ligands and two axially bound y-picoline molecules. Compound 8 is a five-coordinate copper(II) molecule with a distorted square-pyramidal geometry. Coordinated picoline and two isothiocyanates form the basal plane and the remaining isothiocyanate is bound at the apex. Structural data are presented for all compounds.

  15. Antiplatelet and anticancer isothiocyanates in Japanese domestic horseradish, wasabi.

    PubMed

    Morimitsu, Y; Hayashi, K; Nakagawa, Y; Horio, F; Uchida, K; Osawa, T

    2000-01-01

    6-Methylsulfinylhexyl isothiocyanate (MS-ITC) was isolated from wasabi (Wasabia japonica, Japanese domestic horseradish) as a potential inhibitor of human platelet aggregation in vitro through our extensive screening of vegetables and fruits. In the course of another screening for the induction of glutathione S-transferase (GST) activity in RL34 cells. MS-ITC was inadvertently isolated from wasabi as a potential inducer of GST. MS-ITC administered to rats or mice also showed both activities in vivo. As a result from elucidation of the platelet aggregation inhibition and the GST induction mechanisms of MS-ITC, the isothiocyanate moiety of MS-ITC plays an important role for antiplatelet and anticancer activities because of its highly reactivity with sulfhydryl (-SH) groups in biomolecules (GSH, cysteine residue in a certain protein, etc.).

  16. Antiplatelet and anticancer isothiocyanates in Japanese domestic horseradish, Wasabi.

    PubMed

    Morimitsu, Y; Hayashi, K; Nakagawa, Y; Fujii, H; Horio, F; Uchida, K; Osawa, T

    2000-07-31

    6-Methylsulfinylhexyl isothiocyanate (MS-ITC) was isolated from wasabi (Wasabia japonica, Japanese domestic horseradish) as a potential inhibitor of human platelet aggregation in vitro through our extensive screening of vegetables and fruits. In the course of an another screening for the induction of glutathione S-transferase (GST) activity in RL34 cells, MS-ITC was inadvertently isolated from wasabi as a potential inducer of GST. MS-ITC administered to rats or mice also showed both activities in vivo. As a result from elucidation of the platelet aggregation inhibition and the GST induction mechanisms of MS-ITC, the isothiocyanate moiety of MS-ITC plays an important role for antiplatelet and anticancer activities because of its high reactivity with sulfhydryl (RSH) groups in biomolecules (GSH, cysteine residue in a certain protein, etc.).

  17. Antimicrobial isothiocyanates from the seeds of Moringa oleifera Lam.

    PubMed

    Padla, Eleanor P; Solis, Ludivina T; Levida, Ruel M; Shen, Chien-Chang; Ragasa, Consolacion Y

    2012-01-01

    4-(alpha-L-Rhamnosyloxy)benzyl isothiocyanate (1) and 4-(4'-O-acetyl-alpha-L-rhamnosyloxy)-benzyl isothiocyanate (2) isolated from Moringa oleifera seeds were screened for their antibacterial activities against Staphylococcus aureus, Staphylococcus epidermidis, Bacillus subtilis, Escherichia coli, Enterobacter aerogenes, Klebsiella pneumoniae, and Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and for their antifungal activities against Candida albicans, Trichophyton rubrum, and Epidermophyton floccosum using the disk diffusion method. Isothiocyanates 1 and 2 were found active at the lowest inhibitory concentration of 1 mg/ml against all Gram-positive bacteria tested (S. aureus, S. epidermidis, B. subtilis) and against the dermatophytic fungi E. floccosum and T. rubrum. Statistically significant differences were found between the mean inhibition zones (IZ) of 1 and 2 and the standard drugs, ofloxacin and clotrimazole. The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) values confirmed the good antimicrobial activity of 1 and 2 against S. aureus, good to moderate activity against S. epidermidis, moderate activity against B. subtilis, and weak activity against E. floccosum and T. rubrum. The in vitro bactericidal effect of 1 and 2 against the Gram-positive bacterial strains tested is suggested by MBC:MIC ratios of 2:1.

  18. Antimicrobial Activities of Isothiocyanates Against Campylobacter jejuni Isolates

    PubMed Central

    Dufour, Virginie; Alazzam, Bachar; Ermel, Gwennola; Thepaut, Marion; Rossero, Albert; Tresse, Odile; Baysse, Christine

    2012-01-01

    Food-borne human infection with Campylobacter jejuni is a medical concern in both industrialized and developing countries. Efficient eradication of C. jejuni reservoirs within live animals and processed foods is limited by the development of antimicrobial resistances and by practical problems related to the use of conventional antibiotics in food processes. We have investigated the bacteriostatic and bactericidal activities of two phytochemicals, allyl-isothiocyanate (AITC), and benzyl isothiocyanate (BITC), against 24 C. jejuni isolates from chicken feces, human infections, and contaminated foods, as well as two reference strains NCTC11168 and 81-176. AITC and BITC displayed a potent antibacterial activity against C. jejuni. BITC showed a higher overall antibacterial effect (MIC of 1.25–5 μg mL−1) compared to AITC (MIC of 50–200 μg mL−1). Both compounds are bactericidal rather than bacteriostatic. The sensitivity levels of C. jejuni isolates against isothiocyanates were neither correlated with the presence of a GGT (γ-Glutamyl Transpeptidase) encoding gene in the genome, with antibiotic resistance nor with the origin of the biological sample. However the ggt mutant of C. jejuni 81-176 displayed a decreased survival rate compared to wild-type when exposed to ITC. This work determined the MIC of two ITC against a panel of C. jejuni isolates, showed that both compounds are bactericidal rather than bacteriostatic, and highlighted the role of GGT enzyme in the survival rate of C. jejuni exposed to ITC. PMID:22919644

  19. Unequivocal Identification of 1-Phenylethyl Acetate in Clove Buds (syzygium aromaticum (L.) Merr. & L.M.Perry) and Clove Essential Oil

    PubMed Central

    Gassenmeier, Klaus; Schwager, Hugo; Houben, Eric; Clery, Robin

    2017-01-01

    The natural occurrence of 1-phenylethyl acetate (styrallyl acetate) was confirmed in commercially available dried clove buds and also in the hydrodistilled oil from clove buds. This confirms previous reports and other anecdotal evidence for its occurrence in nature. PMID:28653988

  20. Discovery and structural optimization of 1-phenyl-3-(1-phenylethyl)urea derivatives as novel inhibitors of CRAC channel.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Hai-zhen; Xu, Xiao-lan; Chen, Hua-yan; Ali, Sher; Wang, Dan; Yu, Jun-wei; Xu, Tao; Nan, Fa-jun

    2015-09-01

    Ca(2+)-release-activated Ca(2+) (CRAC) channel, a subfamily of store-operated channels, is formed by calcium release-activated calcium modulator 1 (ORAI1), and gated by stromal interaction molecule 1 (STIM1). CRAC channel may be a novel target for the treatment of immune disorders and allergy. The aim of this study was to identify novel small molecule CRAC channel inhibitors. HEK293 cells stably co-expressing both ORAI1 and STIM1 were used for high-throughput screening. A hit, 1-phenyl-3-(1-phenylethyl)urea, was identified that inhibited CRAC channels by targeting ORAI1. Five series of its derivatives were designed and synthesized, and their primary structure-activity relationships (SARs) were analyzed. All derivatives were assessed for their effects on Ca(2+) influx through CRAC channels on HEK293 cells, cytotoxicity in Jurkat cells, and IL-2 production in Jurkat cells expressing ORAI1-SS-eGFP. A total of 19 hits were discovered in libraries containing 32 000 compounds using the high-throughput screening. 1-Phenyl-3-(1-phenylethyl)urea inhibited Ca(2+) influx with IC50 of 3.25±0.17 μmol/L. SAR study on its derivatives showed that the alkyl substituent on the α-position of the left-side benzylic amine (R1) was essential for Ca(2+) influx inhibition and that the S-configuration was better than the R-configuration. The derivatives in which the right-side R3 was substituted by an electron-donating group showed more potent inhibitory activity than those that were substituted by electron-withdrawing groups. Furthermore, the free N-H of urea was not necessary to maintain the high potency of Ca(2+) influx inhibition. The N,N'-disubstituted or N'-substituted derivatives showed relatively low cytotoxicity but maintained the ability to inhibit IL-2 production. Among them, compound 5b showed an improved inhibition of IL-2 production and low cytotoxicity. 1-Phenyl-3-(1-phenylethyl)urea is a novel CRAC channel inhibitor that specifically targets ORAI1. This study provides a

  1. Metabolic Activity of Radish Sprouts Derived Isothiocyanates in Drosophila melanogaster

    PubMed Central

    Baenas, Nieves; Piegholdt, Stefanie; Schloesser, Anke; Moreno, Diego A.; García-Viguera, Cristina; Rimbach, Gerald; Wagner, Anika E.

    2016-01-01

    We used Drosophila melanogaster as a model system to study the absorption, metabolism and potential health benefits of plant bioactives derived from radish sprouts (Raphanus sativus cv. Rambo), a Brassicaceae species rich in glucosinolates and other phytochemicals. Flies were subjected to a diet supplemented with lyophilized radish sprouts (10.6 g/L) for 10 days, containing high amounts of glucoraphenin and glucoraphasatin, which can be hydrolyzed by myrosinase to the isothiocyanates sulforaphene and raphasatin, respectively. We demonstrate that Drosophila melanogaster takes up and metabolizes isothiocyanates from radish sprouts through the detection of the metabolite sulforaphane-cysteine in fly homogenates. Moreover, we report a decrease in the glucose content of flies, an upregulation of spargel expression, the Drosophila homolog of the mammalian PPARγ-coactivator 1 α, as well as the inhibition of α-amylase and α-glucosidase in vitro. Overall, we show that the consumption of radish sprouts affects energy metabolism in Drosophila melanogaster which is reflected by lower glucose levels and an increased expression of spargel, a central player in mitochondrial biogenesis. These processes are often affected in chronic diseases associated with aging, including type II diabetes mellitus. PMID:26901196

  2. Antitrypanosomal isothiocyanate and thiocarbamate glycosides from Moringa peregrina.

    PubMed

    Ayyari, Mahdi; Salehi, Peyman; Ebrahimi, Samad Nejad; Zimmermann, Stefanie; Portmann, Lena; Krauth-Siegel, R Luise; Kaiser, Marcel; Brun, Reto; Rezadoost, Hassan; Rezazadeh, Shamsali; Hamburger, Matthias

    2014-01-01

    O-Methyl (1), O-ethyl (2), and O-butyl (3) 4-[(α-L-rhamnosyloxy) benzyl] thiocarbamate (E), along with 4-(α-L-rhamnosyloxy) benzyl isothiocyanate (4) have been isolated from the aerial parts of Moringa peregrina. The compounds were tested for in vitro activity against Trypanosoma brucei rhodesiense and cytotoxicity in rat skeletal myoblasts (L6 cells). The most potent compound was 4 with an IC50 of 0.10 µM against T.b. rhodesiense and a selectivity index of 73, while the thiocarbamate glycosides 1, 2, and 3 showed only moderate activity. Intraperitoneal administration of 50 mg/kg body weight/day of 4 in the T.b. rhodesiense STIB 900 acute mouse model revealed significant in vivo toxicity. Administration of 10 mg/kg body weight/day resulted in a 95% reduction of parasitemia on day 7 postinfection, but did not cure the animals. Because of its high in vitro activity and its ability to irreversibly inhibit trypanothione reductase, an attractive parasite-specific target enzyme, 4-[(α-L-rhamnosyloxy) benzyl] isothiocyanate (4), can be considered as a lead structure for the development and characterization of novel antitrypanosomal drugs. Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  3. Myrosinase-dependent and –independent formation and control of isothiocyanate products of glucosinolate hydrolysis

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Brassicales contain a myrosinase enzyme that hydrolyzes glucosinolates to form toxic isothiocyanates, as a defense against bacteria, fungi, insects and herbivores including man. Low levels of isothiocyanates trigger a host defense system in mammals that protects them against chronic diseases. Becaus...

  4. Transcriptomic alterations in human prostate cancer cell LNCaP tumor xenograft modulated by dietary phenethyl isothiocyanate

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Temporal growth of tumor xenografts in mice on a control diet was compared to mice supplemented daily with 3 µmol/g of the cancer preventive compound phenethyl isothiocyanate. Phenethyl isothiocyanate decreased the rate of tumor growth. The effects of phenethyl isothiocyanate on tumor growth were ex...

  5. 40 CFR 721.5356 - Ethanol, 2,2′2″-nitrilotris-, compound with alpha-2,4,6-tris (1-phenylethyl)phenyl]-omega...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Ethanol, 2,2â²2â³-nitrilotris... Substances § 721.5356 Ethanol, 2,2′2″-nitrilotris-, compound with alpha-2,4,6-tris (1-phenylethyl)phenyl... subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified as ethanol, 2,2′2″-nitrilotris-, compound with...

  6. 40 CFR 721.5356 - Ethanol, 2,2′2″-nitrilotris-, compound with alpha-2,4,6-tris (1-phenylethyl)phenyl]-omega...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Ethanol, 2,2â²2â³-nitrilotris... Substances § 721.5356 Ethanol, 2,2′2″-nitrilotris-, compound with alpha-2,4,6-tris (1-phenylethyl)phenyl... subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified as ethanol, 2,2′2″-nitrilotris-, compound with...

  7. 40 CFR 721.5356 - Ethanol, 2,2′2″-nitrilotris-, compound with alpha-2,4,6-tris (1-phenylethyl)phenyl]-omega...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Ethanol, 2,2â²2â³-nitrilotris... Substances § 721.5356 Ethanol, 2,2′2″-nitrilotris-, compound with alpha-2,4,6-tris (1-phenylethyl)phenyl... subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified as ethanol, 2,2′2″-nitrilotris-, compound with...

  8. 40 CFR 721.5356 - Ethanol, 2,2′2″-nitrilotris-, compound with alpha-2,4,6-tris (1-phenylethyl)phenyl]-omega...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Ethanol, 2,2â²2â³-nitrilotris... Substances § 721.5356 Ethanol, 2,2′2″-nitrilotris-, compound with alpha-2,4,6-tris (1-phenylethyl)phenyl... subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified as ethanol, 2,2′2″-nitrilotris-, compound with...

  9. 40 CFR 721.5356 - Ethanol, 2,2′2″-nitrilotris-, compound with alpha-2,4,6-tris (1-phenylethyl)phenyl]-omega...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Ethanol, 2,2â²2â³-nitrilotris... Substances § 721.5356 Ethanol, 2,2′2″-nitrilotris-, compound with alpha-2,4,6-tris (1-phenylethyl)phenyl... subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified as ethanol, 2,2′2″-nitrilotris-, compound with...

  10. Cruciferous vegetables, isothiocyanates, and prevention of bladder cancer

    PubMed Central

    Veeranki, Omkara L.; Bhattacharya, Arup; Tang, Li; Marshall, James R.; Zhang, Yuesheng

    2015-01-01

    Approximately 80% of human bladder cancers (BC) are non-muscle invasive when first diagnosed and are usually treated by transurethral tumor resection. But 50–80% of patients experience cancer recurrence. Agents for prevention of primary BC have yet to be identified. Existing prophylactics against BC recurrence, e.g., Bacillus Calmette-Guerin (BCG), have limited efficacy and utility; they engender significant side effects and require urethral catheterization. Many cruciferous vegetables, rich sources of isothiocyanates (ITCs), are commonly consumed by humans. Many ITCs possess promising chemopreventive activities against BC and its recurrence. Moreover, orally ingested ITCs are selectively delivered to bladder via urinary excretion. This review is focused on urinary delivery of ITCs to the bladder, their cellular uptake, their chemopreventive activities in preclinical and epidemiological studies that are particularly relevant to prevention of BC recurrence and progression, and their chemopreventive mechanisms in BC cells and tissues. PMID:26273545

  11. Stable, water extractable isothiocyanates from Moringa oleifera leaves attenuate inflammation in vitro.

    PubMed

    Waterman, Carrie; Cheng, Diana M; Rojas-Silva, Patricio; Poulev, Alexander; Dreifus, Julia; Lila, Mary Ann; Raskin, Ilya

    2014-07-01

    Moringa (Moringa oleifera Lam.) is an edible plant used as both a food and medicine throughout the tropics. A moringa concentrate (MC), made by extracting fresh leaves with water, utilized naturally occurring myrosinase to convert four moringa glucosinolates into moringa isothiocyanates. Optimum conditions maximizing MC yield, 4-[(α-L-rhamnosyloxy)benzyl]isothiocyanate, and 4-[(4'-O-acetyl-α-L-rhamnosyloxy)benzyl]isothiocyanate content were established (1:5 fresh leaf weight to water ratio at room temperature). The optimized MC contained 1.66% isothiocyanates and 3.82% total polyphenols. 4-[(4'-O-acetyl-α-L-rhamnosyloxy)benzyl]isothiocyanate exhibited 80% stability at 37°C for 30 days. MC, and both of the isothiocyanates described above significantly decreased gene expression and production of inflammatory markers in RAW macrophages. Specifically, both attenuated expression of iNOS and IL-1β and production of nitric oxide and TNFα at 1 and 5 μM. These results suggest a potential for stable and concentrated moringa isothiocyanates, delivered in MC as a food-grade product, to alleviate low-grade inflammation associated with chronic diseases. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Glycogen synthase kinase-3β inhibition of 6-(methylsulfinyl)hexyl isothiocyanate derived from wasabi (Wasabia japonica Matsum).

    PubMed

    Yoshida, Jun; Nomura, Satomi; Nishizawa, Naoyuki; Ito, Yoshiaki; Kimura, Ken-ichi

    2011-01-01

    A new biological activity of 6-(methylsulfinyl)hexyl isothiocyanate derived from Wasabia japonica was discovered as an inhibitor of glycogen synthase kinase-3β. The most potent isothiocyanate, 9-(methylsulfinyl)hexyl isothiocyanate, inhibited glycogen synthase kinase-3β at a K(i) value of 10.5 µM and showed ATP competitive inhibition. The structure-activity relationship revealed an inhibitory potency of methylsulfinyl isothiocyanate dependent on the alkyl chain length and the sulfoxide, sulfone, and/or the isothiocyanate moiety.

  13. Occupational contact dermatitis caused by 1,3-benzenedimethanamine, N-(2-phenylethyl) derivatives in hardeners for epoxy paints and coatings.

    PubMed

    Pesonen, Maria; Kuuliala, Outi; Suomela, Sari; Aalto-Korte, Kristiina

    2016-12-01

    Amines in epoxy hardeners are significant causes of occupational allergic contact dermatitis among workers who use epoxy resin systems. To describe a novel group of contact allergens: N-(2-phenylethyl) derivatives of the reactive amine 1,3-benzenedimethanamine (1,3-BDMA). We describe the clinical examinations and exposure of 6 patients with occupational contact allergy to derivatives of 1,3-BDMA. Of the 6 patients, 4 were spray painters who used epoxy paints, 1 was a floor layer who handled a variety of epoxy coatings, and 1 was a worker in epoxy hardener manufacture. We were able to confirm exposure to epoxy hardeners that contained derivatives of 1,3-BDMA in 5 of the 6 sensitized patients. Despite the close structural resemblance between derivatives of 1,3-BDMA and m-xylylenediamine (MXDA), only 3 patients reacted positively to MXDA. Concomitant contact allergy to diglycidyl ether of bisphenol A resin was seen in 2 of the 6 patients. Because of the lack of a commercially available patch test substance, the diagnosis of contact allergy to derivatives of 1,3-BDMA requires patch testing with either the epoxy hardener product or a hardener ingredient that contains the derivatives of 1,3-BDMA. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  14. ABC Transporters and Isothiocyanates: Potential for Pharmacokinetic Diet–Drug Interactions

    PubMed Central

    Telang, Urvi; Ji, Yan; Morris, Marilyn E.

    2013-01-01

    Isothiocyanates, a class of anti-cancer agents, are derived from cruciferous vegetables such as broccoli, cabbage and watercress, and have demonstrated chemopreventive activity in a number of cancer models and epidemiologic studies. Due to public interest in cancer prevention and alternative therapies in cancer, the consumption of herbal supplements and vegetables containing these compounds is widespread and increasing. Isothiocyanates interact with ATP-binding cassette (ABC) efflux transporters such as P-glycoprotein, MRP1, MRP2 and BCRP, and may influence the pharmacokinetics of substrates of these transporters. This review discusses the pharmacokinetic properties of isothiocyanates, their interactions with ABC transporters, and presents some data describing the potential for isothiocyanate-mediated diet–drug interactions. PMID:19623673

  15. Allergic contact dermatitis from allyl isothiocyanate in a Danish cohort of 259 selected patients.

    PubMed

    Lerbaek, Anne; Rastogi, Suresh Chandra; Menné, Torkil

    2004-08-01

    Allyl isothiocyanate is present in many plants. Allergic contact dermatitis from allyl isothiocyanate is well known but infrequently reported. The aim of this study was to investigate the prevalence of contact allergy to allyl isothiocyanate in patients with suspected contact dermatitis from vegetables and food. 259 such patients were tested at the Department of Dermatology, Gentofte Hospital, Denmark, from 1994 to 2003. Only 2 patients (0.8%) had a positive reaction (+) to allyl isothiocyanate and 43 patients (16.6%) had a ?+ reaction. One of the patients with a positive reaction provided samples of margarine, salad cream, oil and mayonnaise. These were analysed with high-performance liquid chromatography, and a moderate concentration of allyl isothiocyanate (2.5 ppm) was detected in the sample of margarine. This patient was a professional sandwich maker presenting with fingertip dermatitis mimicking 'tulip fingers' or allergic contact dermatitis from garlic and onions. In conclusion, allergic contact dermatitis from allyl isothiocyanate occurs in only a limited number of cases, despite frequent exposure. The large number of ?+ reactions raises the question as to whether the recommended patch test concentration is too low.

  16. Allyl isothiocyanate enhances shelf life of minimally processed shredded cabbage.

    PubMed

    Banerjee, Aparajita; Penna, Suprasanna; Variyar, Prasad S

    2015-09-15

    The effect of allyl isothiocyanate (AITC), in combination with low temperature (10°C) storage on post harvest quality of minimally processed shredded cabbage was investigated. An optimum concentration of 0.05μL/mL AITC was found to be effective in maintaining the microbial and sensory quality of the product for a period of 12days. Inhibition of browning was shown to result from a down-regulation (1.4-fold) of phenylalanine ammonia lyase (PAL) gene expression and a consequent decrease in PAL enzyme activity and o-quinone content. In the untreated control samples, PAL activity increased following up-regulation in PAL gene expression that could be linearly correlated with enhanced o-quinone formation and browning. The efficacy of AITC in extending the shelf life of minimally processed shredded cabbage and its role in down-regulation of PAL gene expression resulting in browning inhibition in the product is reported here for the first time. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Urease from Helicobacter pylori is inactivated by sulforaphane and other isothiocyanates

    PubMed Central

    Fahey, Jed W.; Stephenson, Katherine K.; Wade, Kristina L.; Talalay, Paul

    2013-01-01

    Infections by Helicobacter pylori are very common, causing gastroduodenal inflammation including peptic ulcers, and increasing the risk of gastric neoplasia. The isothiocyanate (ITC) sulforaphane [SF; 1-isothiocyanato-4-(methylsulfinyl)butane] derived from edible crucifers such as broccoli is potently bactericidal against Helicobacter, including antibiotic-resistant strains, suggesting a possible dietary therapy. Gastric H. pylori infections express high urease activity which generates ammonia, neutralizes gastric acidity, and promotes inflammation. The finding that SF inhibits (inactivates) urease (jack bean and Helicobacter) raised the issue of whether these properties might be functionally related. The rates of inactivation of urease activity depend on enzyme and SF concentrations and show first order kinetics. Treatment with SF results in time-dependent increases in the ultraviolet absorption of partially purified Helicobacter urease in the 280–340 nm region. This provides direct spectroscopic evidence for the formation of dithiocarbamates between the ITC group of SF and cysteine thiols of urease. The potencies of inactivation of Helicobacter urease by isothiocyanates structurally related to SF were surprisingly variable. Natural isothiocyanates closely related to SF, previously shown to be bactericidal (berteroin, hirsutin, phenethyl isothiocyanate, alyssin, and erucin), did not inactivate urease activity. Furthermore, SF is bactericidal against both urease positive and negative H. pylori strains. In contrast, some isothiocyanates such as benzoyl-ITC, are very potent urease inactivators, but are not bactericidal. The bactericidal effects of SF and other ITC against Helicobacter are therefore not obligatorily linked to urease inactivation, but may reduce the inflammatory component of Helicobacter infections. PMID:23583386

  18. THE EFFECT OF PRESSURE ON THE OXIDATION STATE OF IRON, IV. THIOCYANATE AND ISOTHIOCYANATE LIGANDS*

    PubMed Central

    Fung, S. C.; Drickamer, H. G.

    1969-01-01

    The effect of pressure on the Mössbauer resonance spectra of Fe(III) with thiocyanate (M-SCN) and isothiocyanate (M-NCS) ligands has been studied. Fe(NCS)3·6H2O, which has the isothiocyanate structure, reduces with increasing pressure, reversibly, and with a pressure dependence for the conversion very similar to that shown by a wide variety of ionic ferric compounds. K3Fe(SCN)6 has the thiocyanate structure. At low pressures, it exhibits a significantly larger reduction than the Fe(NCS)3. With increasing pressure the thiocyanate complexes isomerize, each complex apparently exhibiting about the same degree of conversion at a given pressure. At 150 kb the isomerization is essentially complete. The reduction of the Fe(III) to Fe(II) is reversible but the isomerization is not, and the sample, when powdered and reloaded in the high-pressure cell, exhibits the isomer shift, quadrupole splitting, and Fe(III) to Fe(II) conversion characteristic of an isothiocyanate. Heating the thiocyanate to 110°C at 5 kb yields a mixture of thiocyanate and isothiocyanate that converts with pressure completely to the isothiocyanate. PMID:16591728

  19. Stable, water extractable isothiocyanates from Moringa oleifera leaves attenuate inflammation in vitro

    PubMed Central

    Waterman, Carrie; Cheng, Diana M.; Rojas-Silva, Patricio; Poulev, Alexander; Dreifus, Julia; Ann Lila, Mary; Raskin, Ilya

    2014-01-01

    Moringa (Moringa oleifera Lam.) is an edible plant used as food and medicine throughout the tropics. A moringa concentrate (MC) made by extracting fresh leaves with water utilized naturally occurring myrosinase to convert four moringa glucosinolates (1–4) into moringa isothiocyanates (5–8). Optimum conditions maximizing MC yield, compound 5 (4-[(α-L-rhamnosyloxy)benzyl]isothiocyanate), and compound 8 (4-[(4’-O-acetyl-α-L-rhamnosyloxy)benzyl]isothiocyanate) content were established (1:5 fresh leaf weight to water ratio at room temperature). The optimized MC contained 1.66% isothiocyanates and 3.82% total polyphenols. Compound 8 exhibited 80% stability at 37 °C for 30 days. MC, 5, and 8 significantly decreased gene expression and production of inflammatory markers in RAW macrophages. Specifically, 5 and 8 attenuated expression of iNOS and IL-1β and production of nitric oxide and TNFβ at 1 and 5 µM. Our results suggest a potential for stable and concentrated moringa isothiocyanates (5–8), delivered in MC as a food-grade product, to alleviate low-grade inflammation associated with chronic diseases. PMID:24731259

  20. Contact and fumigant toxicity of Armoracia rusticana essential oil, allyl isothiocyanate and related compounds to Dermatophagoides farinae.

    PubMed

    Yun, Yeon-Kyeong; Kim, Hyun-Kyung; Kim, Jun-Ran; Hwang, Kumnara; Ahn, Young-Joon

    2012-05-01

    The toxicity to adult Dermatophagoides farinae of allyl isothiocyanate identified in horseradish, Armoracia rusticana, oil and another 27 organic isothiocyanates was evaluated using contact + fumigant and vapour-phase mortality bioassays. Results were compared with those of two conventional acaricides, benzyl benzoate and dibutyl phthalate. Horseradish oil (24 h LC(50), 1.54 µg cm(-2)) and allyl isothiocyanate (2.52 µg cm(-2)) were highly toxic. Benzyl isothiocyanate (LC(50) , 0.62 µg cm(-2)) was the most toxic compound, followed by 4-chlorophenyl, 3-bromophenyl, 3,5-bis(trifluoromethyl)phenyl, cyclohexyl, 2-chlorophenyl, 4-bromophenyl and 2-bromophenyl isothiocyanates (0.93-1.41 µg cm(-2)). All were more effective than either benzyl benzoate (LC(50) , 4.58 µg cm(-2)) or dibutyl phthalate (24.49 µg cm(-2)). The structure-activity relationship indicates that types of functional group and chemical structure appear to play a role in determining the isothiocyanate toxicities to adult D. farinae. In the vapour-phase mortality bioassay, these isothiocyanates were consistently more toxic in closed versus open containers, indicating that their mode of delivery was, in part, a result of vapour action. In the light of global efforts to reduce the level of highly toxic synthetic acaricides in indoor environments, the horseradish oil-derived compounds and the isothiocyanates described herein merit further study as potential acaricides for the control of house dust mite populations as fumigants with contact action. Copyright © 2011 Society of Chemical Industry.

  1. A Quick and Simple Conversion of Carboxylic Acids into Their Anilides of Heating with Phenyl Isothiocyanate.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ram, Ram N.; And Others

    1983-01-01

    Converting carboxylic acids into their anilides, which usually involves preparation of acid chloride or mixed anhydride followed by treatment with aniline, is tedious and/or time-consuming. A quick and easier procedure, using phenyl isothiocyanate, is provided. Reactions involved and a summary table of results are included. (JN)

  2. Innovative application of metal-organic frameworks for encapsulation and controlled release of allyl isothiocyanate

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    This research investigated the technical feasibility of metal-organic frameworks (MOFs) as novel delivery systems for encapsulation and controlled release of volatile allyl isothiocyanate (AITC) molecules. We hypothesized that water vapor molecules could act as an external stimulus to trigger the re...

  3. Effects of benzyl isothiocyanate on the reproduction of Meloidogyne incognita on Glycine max and Capsicum annuum

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Reproduction of Meloidogyne incognita on Capsicum annuum or Glycine max was suppressed when infective juveniles (J2) were exposed to 0.03 millimolar benzyl isothiocyanate (BITC) for 2hr prior to inoculation of the host. Infectivity assessed by gall index was significantly reduced on both G. max (co...

  4. Approaches to N-Methylwelwitindolinone C Isothiocyanate: Facile Synthesis of the Tetracyclic Core

    PubMed Central

    Heidebrecht, Richard W.; Gulledge, Brian; Martin, Stephen F.

    2010-01-01

    The synthesis of a functionalized, tetracyclic core of N-methylwelwitindolinone C isothiocyanate is reported. The approach features a convergent coupling between an indole iminium ion and a highly functionalized vinylogous silyl ketene acetal followed by an intramolecular palladium-catalyzed cyclization that proceeds via an enolate arylation. PMID:20446675

  5. Pseudomonas sax genes overcome aliphatic isothiocyanate-mediated non-host resistance in Arabidopsis

    Treesearch

    Jun Fan; Casey Crooks; Gary Creissen; Lionel Hill; Shirley Fairhurst; Peter Doerner; Chris Lamb

    2011-01-01

    Most plant-microbe interactions do not result in disease; natural products restrict non-host pathogens. We found that sulforaphane (4-methylsulfinylbutyl isothiocyanate), a natural product derived from aliphatic glucosinolates, inhibits growth in Arabidopsis of non-host Pseudomonas bacteria in planta. Multiple sax genes (saxCAB/F/D/G) were identified in Pseudomonas...

  6. Microbial- and isothiocyanate-mediated control of Phytophthora and Pythium species

    Treesearch

    M.F. Cohen; E. Yamamoto; E. Condeso; B.L. Anacker; N. Rank; M. Mazzola

    2008-01-01

    Plant pathogens of the oomycete lineage share common susceptibilities to many biotic and abiotic stresses. We are investigating the potential of antagonistic bacteria, isothiocyanates, and mycophagous amoebae to control diseases caused by Phytophthora spp., including the etiologic agent of sudden oak death, Phytophthora ramorum (...

  7. Nuclear spatial delocalization silences electron density oscillations in 2-phenyl-ethyl-amine (PEA) and 2-phenylethyl-N,N-dimethylamine (PENNA) cations

    SciTech Connect

    Jenkins, Andrew J.; Vacher, Morgane; Bearpark, Michael J.

    2016-03-14

    We simulate electron dynamics following ionization in 2-phenyl-ethyl-amine and 2-phenylethyl-N,N-dimethylamine as examples of systems where 3 coupled cationic states are involved. We study two nuclear effects on electron dynamics: (i) coupled electron-nuclear motion and (ii) nuclear spatial delocalization as a result of the zero-point energy in the neutral molecule. Within the Ehrenfest approximation, our calculations show that the coherent electron dynamics in these molecules is not lost as a result of coupled electron-nuclear motion. In contrast, as a result of nuclear spatial delocalization, dephasing of the oscillations occurs on a time scale of only a few fs, long before anymore » significant nuclear motion can occur. The results have been rationalized using a semi-quantitative model based upon the gradients of the potential energy surfaces.« less

  8. Urease from Helicobacter pylori is inactivated by sulforaphane and other isothiocyanates.

    PubMed

    Fahey, Jed W; Stephenson, Katherine K; Wade, Kristina L; Talalay, Paul

    2013-05-24

    Infections by Helicobacter pylori are very common, causing gastroduodenal inflammation including peptic ulcers, and increasing the risk of gastric neoplasia. The isothiocyanate (ITC) sulforaphane [SF; 1-isothiocyanato-4-(methylsulfinyl)butane] derived from edible crucifers such as broccoli is potently bactericidal against Helicobacter, including antibiotic-resistant strains, suggesting a possible dietary therapy. Gastric H. pylori infections express high urease activity which generates ammonia, neutralizes gastric acidity, and promotes inflammation. The finding that SF inhibits (inactivates) urease (jack bean and Helicobacter) raised the issue of whether these properties might be functionally related. The rates of inactivation of urease activity depend on enzyme and SF concentrations and show first order kinetics. Treatment with SF results in time-dependent increases in the ultraviolet absorption of partially purified Helicobacter urease in the 260-320 nm region. This provides direct spectroscopic evidence for the formation of dithiocarbamates between the ITC group of SF and cysteine thiols of urease. The potencies of inactivation of Helicobacter urease by isothiocyanates structurally related to SF were surprisingly variable. Natural isothiocyanates closely related to SF, previously shown to be bactericidal (berteroin, hirsutin, phenethyl isothiocyanate, alyssin, and erucin), did not inactivate urease activity. Furthermore, SF is bactericidal against both urease positive and negative H. pylori strains. In contrast, some isothiocyanates such as benzoyl-ITC, are very potent urease inactivators, but are not bactericidal. The bactericidal effects of SF and other ITC against Helicobacter are therefore not obligatorily linked to urease inactivation, but may reduce the inflammatory component of Helicobacter infections. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Isothiocyanates from Wasabia japonica activate transient receptor potential ankyrin 1 channel.

    PubMed

    Uchida, Kunitoshi; Miura, Yosuke; Nagai, Masashi; Tominaga, Makoto

    2012-11-01

    6-(Methylsulfinyl)hexyl isothiocyanate (6-MSITC) and 6-(methylthio)hexyl isothiocyanate (6-MTITC) have low pungency and are responsible for the fresh flavor of wasabi (Wasabia japonica [Miq] Matsumura). In this study, we found that these two isothiocyanates activate transient receptor potential ankyrin 1 (TRPA1), and 6-MSITC activates transient receptor potential vanilloid 1 (TRPV1), but not other transient receptor potential channels expressed in sensory neurons. Both 6-MSITC and 6-MTITCinduced intracellular Ca(2+) increases in human embryonic kidney-derived 293 cells expressing mouse TRPA1 (mTRPA1) as measured by Ca(2+) imaging. In whole-cell patch-clamp recordings, 6-MSITC and 6-MTITC dose-dependently activated both mTRPA1 (EC(50) = 147±26 µM for 6-MSITC and 30±3 µM for 6-MTITC) and human TRPA1 (hTRPA1; EC(50) = 39±4 µM for 6-MSITC and 34±3 µM for 6-MTITC). In addition, TRPA1 N-terminal cysteines, which are reported to be important for channel activation by electrophilic ligands, were involved in 6-MSITC- and 6-MTITC-evoked TRPA1 activation. These isothiocyanates also activated endogenous TRPA1 expressed in mouse dorsal root ganglion neurons and intraplantar injection of 10-30 mM 6-MSITC-evoked pain-related behaviors in mice. These results indicate the following: 1) 6-MSITC and 6-MTITC activate both mTRPA1 and hTRPA1; 2) 6-MSITC activates mTRPV1; and 3) the pharmacological functions of these isothiocyanates could be derived from TRPA1 activation.

  10. Gas Phase Conformations and Methyl Internal Rotation for 2-PHENYLETHYL Methyl Ether and its Argon Van Der Waals Complex from Fourier Transform Microwave Spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gurusinghe, Ranil M.; Tubergen, Michael

    2015-06-01

    A mini-cavity microwave spectrometer was used to record the rotational spectra arising from 2-phenylethyl methyl ether and its weakly bonded argon complex in the frequency range of 10.5 - 22 GHz. Rotational spectra were found for two stable conformations of the monomer: anti-anti and gauche-anti, which are 1.4 kJ mol-1 apart in energy at wB97XD/6-311++G(d,p) level. Doubled rotational transitions, arising from internal motion of the methyl group, were observed for both conformers. The program XIAM was used to fit the rotational constants, centrifugal distortion constants, and barrier to internal rotation to the measured transition frequencies of the A and E internal rotation states. The best global fit values of the rotational constants for the anti-anti conformer are A= 3799.066(3) MHz, B= 577.95180(17) MHz, C= 544.7325(3) MHz and the A state rotational constants of the gauche-anti conformer are A= 2676.1202(7) MHz, B= 760.77250(2) MHz, C= 684.78901(2) MHz. The rotational spectrum of 2-phenylethyl methyl ether - argon complex is consistent with the geometry where argon atom lies above the plane of the benzene moiety of gauche-anti conformer. Tunneling splittings were too small to resolve within experimental accuracy, likely due to an increase in three fold potential barrier when the argon complex is formed. Fitted rotational constants are A= 1061.23373(16) MHz, B= 699.81754(7) MHz, C= 518.33553(7) MHz. The lowest energy solvated ether - water complex with strong intermolecular hydrogen bonding has been identified theoretically. Progress on the assignment of the water complex will also be presented.

  11. Paclitaxel sensitivity of breast cancer cells requires efficient mitotic arrest and disruption of Bcl-xL/Bak interaction.

    PubMed

    Flores, M Luz; Castilla, Carolina; Ávila, Rainiero; Ruiz-Borrego, Manuel; Sáez, Carmen; Japón, Miguel A

    2012-06-01

    Taxanes are being used for the treatment of breast cancer. However, cancer cells frequently develop resistance to these drugs with the subsequent recurrence of the tumor. MDA-MB-231 and T-47D breast cancer cell lines were used to assess the effect of paclitaxel treatment on apoptosis and cell cycle, the possible mechanisms of paclitaxel resistance as well as the enhancement of paclitaxel-induced apoptosis based on its combination with phenylethyl isothiocyanate (PEITC). T-47D cells undergo apoptosis in response to paclitaxel treatment. The induction of apoptosis was associated with a robust mitotic arrest and the disruption of Bcl-xL/Bak interaction. By contrary, MDA-MB-231 cells were insensitive to paclitaxel-induced apoptosis and this was associated with a high percentage of cells that slip out of paclitaxel-imposed mitotic arrest and also with the maintenance of Bcl-xL/Bak interaction. The sequential treatment of MDA-MB-231 cells with PEITC followed by paclitaxel inhibited the slippage induced by paclitaxel and increased the apoptosis induction achieved with any of the drugs alone. In breast cancer tissues, high Bcl-xL expression was correlated with a shorter time of disease-free survival in patients treated with a chemotherapeutic regimen that contains paclitaxel, in a statistically significant way. Thus, resistance to paclitaxel in MDA-MB-231 cells is related to the inability to disrupt the Bcl-xL/Bak interaction and increased slippage. In this context, the combination of a drug that induces a strong mitotic arrest, such as paclitaxel, with another that inhibits slippage, such as PEITC, translates into increased apoptotic induction.

  12. DETERMINATION OF ALIPHATIC AMINES IN WATER USING DERIVATIZATION WITH FLUORESCEIN ISOTHIOCYANATE AND CAPILLARY ELECTROPHORESIS/LASER-INDUCED FLUORESCENCE DETECTION.

    EPA Science Inventory

    Detection-oriented derivatization of aliphatic amines and amine functional groups in coumpounds of environmental interest was studied using fluorescein isothiocyanate (FITC) with separation/determination by capillary electrophoresis/laser-induced fluorescence. Determinative level...

  13. Immunochemical detection of food-derived isothiocyanate as a lysine conjugate.

    PubMed

    Nakamura, Toshiyuki; Kitamoto, Noritoshi; Osawa, Toshihiko; Kato, Yoji

    2010-01-01

    In a previous study we prepared monoclonal antibody against allyl isothiocyanate (AITC)-modified lysine (Lys), and found that AITC reacted with Lys under physiological conditions in vitro (T. Nakamura et al., Chem. Res. Toxicol., 22, 536-542 (2009)). In the present study, antibodies against benzyl isothiocyanate (ITC), 6-methylsulfinylhexyl ITC and phenethyl ITC modified protein were prepared, and the respective monoclonal antibodies, B6C9, 6MS3D10, and PE3A10 were obtained. These antibodies were applied to ITC detection in food using shredded Wasabia japonica (wasabi) and ground Carica papaya (papaya) seed by trapping ITC with biotin-labeled bovine serum albumin. ITC formation from the wasabi and papaya seed samples was confirmed using the antibodies in a dose-dependent manner. These antibodies might be applicable in identifying food-derived ITC.

  14. 6-Methylsulfinylhexyl isothiocyanate and its homologues as food-originated compounds with antibacterial activity against Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus.

    PubMed

    Ono, H; Tesaki, S; Tanabe, S; Watanabe, M

    1998-02-01

    Cruciferae plants, banana and coriander each showed antibacterial activity. The highest activity among the food-stuffs tested was found in the stems of wasabi. An ethereal extract from wasabi stems had potent antibacterial activity and we isolated the active compound from the extract. Instrumental analysis identified the compound as 6-methylsulfinylhexyl isothiocyanate. Some homologues of 6-methylsulfinylhexyl isothiocyanate were also active against Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus.

  15. Identification of 6-methylsulfinylhexyl isothiocyanate as an apoptosis-inducing component in wasabi.

    PubMed

    Watanabe, Makoto; Ohata, Masahiko; Hayakawa, Sumio; Isemura, Mamoru; Kumazawa, Shigenori; Nakayama, Tsutomu; Furugori, Michiyo; Kinae, Naohide

    2003-03-01

    The ethanol extract from Japanese horseradish wasabi was found to inhibit cell proliferation in human monoblastic leukemia U937 cells by inducing apoptotic cell death. Separation by methods including silica gel chromatography and preparative HPLC gave an active compound, which was identified as 6-methylsulfinylhexyl isothiocyanate (6-HITC). Several lines of evidence indicated that 6-HITC induced apoptosis in U937 cells and human stomach cancer MKN45 cells. Thus, 6-HITC is potentially useful as a natural anti-cancer agent.

  16. Dietary Broccoli Alters Rat Cecal Microbiota to Improve Glucoraphanin Hydrolysis to Bioactive Isothiocyanates.

    PubMed

    Liu, Xiaoji; Wang, Yanling; Hoeflinger, Jennifer L; Neme, Bárbara P; Jeffery, Elizabeth H; Miller, Michael J

    2017-03-10

    Broccoli consumption brings many health benefits, including reducing the risk of cancer and inflammatory diseases. The objectives of this study were to identify global alterations in the cecal microbiota composition using 16S rRNA sequencing analysis and glucoraphanin (GRP) hydrolysis to isothiocyanates ex vivo by the cecal microbiota, following different broccoli diets. Rats were randomized to consume AIN93G (control) or different broccoli diets; AIN93G plus cooked broccoli, a GRP-rich powder, raw broccoli, or myrosinase-treated cooked broccoli. Feeding raw or cooked broccoli for four days or longer both changed the cecal microbiota composition and caused a greater production of isothiocyanates ex vivo. A more than two-fold increase in NAD(P)H: quinone oxidoreductase 1 activity of the host colon mucosa after feeding cooked broccoli for seven days confirmed the positive health benefits. Further studies revealed that dietary GRP was specifically responsible for the increased microbial GRP hydrolysis ex vivo, whereas changes in the cecal microbial communities were attributed to other broccoli components. Interestingly, a three-day withdrawal from a raw broccoli diet reversed the increased microbial GRP hydrolysis ex vivo. Findings suggest that enhanced conversion of GRP to bioactive isothiocyanates by the cecal microbiota requires four or more days of broccoli consumption and is reversible.

  17. Inhibition of Bladder Cancer by Broccoli Isothiocyanates Sulforaphane and Erucin: Characterization, Metabolism and Interconversion

    PubMed Central

    Abbaoui, Besma; Riedl, Kenneth M; Ralston, Robin A; Thomas-Ahner, Jennifer M; Schwartz, Steven J; Clinton, Steven K; Mortazavi, Amir

    2013-01-01

    Epidemiologic evidence suggests diets rich in cruciferous vegetables, particularly broccoli, are associated with lower bladder cancer risk. Our objectives are to investigate these observations and determine the role of isothiocyanates in primary or secondary bladder cancer prevention. We initially investigate the mechanisms whereby broccoli and broccoli sprout extracts and pure isothiocyanates inhibit normal, non-invasive (RT4) and invasive (J82, UMUC3) human urothelial cell viability. Sulforaphane (IC50= 5.66±1.2μM) and erucin (IC50= 8.79±1.3μM) are found to be the most potent inhibitors and normal cells are least sensitive. This observation is associated with downregulation of survivin, EGFR and HER2/neu, G2/M cell cycle accumulation and apoptosis. In a murine UMUC3 xenograft model, we fed semipurified diets containing 4% broccoli sprouts, or 2% broccoli sprout isothiocyanate extract; or gavaged pure sulforaphane or erucin (each at 295 μmol/kg, similar to dietary exposure); and report tumor weight reduction of 42% (p=0.02), 42% (p=0.04), 33% (p=0.04) and 58% (p<0.0001), respectively. Sulforaphane and erucin metabolites are present in mouse plasma (micromolar range) and tumor tissue, with N-acetyl cysteine conjugates as the most abundant. Interconversion of sulforaphane and erucin metabolites was observed. This work supports development of fully characterized, novel food products for phase I/II human studies targeting bladder cancer prevention. PMID:23038615

  18. Effect of Wasabi Component 6-(Methylsulfinyl)hexyl Isothiocyanate and Derivatives on Human Pancreatic Cancer Cells

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Yu-Jen; Huang, Yu-Chuen; Tsai, Tung-Hu

    2014-01-01

    The naturally occurring compound 6-(methylsulfinyl)hexyl isothiocyanate (6-MITC) was isolated from Wasabia japonica (Wasabi), a pungent spice used in Japanese food worldwide. The synthetic derivatives 6-(methylsulfenyl)hexyl isothiocyanate (I7447) and 6-(methylsulfonyl)hexyl isothiocyanate (I7557) are small molecule compounds derived from 6-MITC. This study aimed to evaluate the effect of these compounds on human pancreatic cancer cells. Human pancreatic cancer cell lines PANC-1 and BxPC-3 were used to perform an MTT assay for cell viability and Liu's stain for morphological observation. The cell cycle was analyzed by DNA histogram. Aldehyde dehydrogenase (ALDH) activity was used as a marker for cancer stem cells (CSC). Western blotting was performed for the expression of proteins related to CSC signaling. The results showed that compounds 6-MITC and I7557, but not I7447, inhibited viability of both PANC-1 and BxPC-3 cells. Morphological observation showed mitotic arrest and apoptosis in 6-MITC- and I7557-treated cells. These two compounds induced G2/M phase arrest and hypoploid population. Percentages of ALDH-positive PANC-1 cells were markedly reduced by 6-MITC and I7557 treatment. The expression of CSC signaling molecule SOX2, but not NOTCH1, ABCG2, Sonic hedgehog, or OCT4, was inhibited by 6-MITC and I7557. In conclusion, wasabi compounds 6-MITC and I7557 may possess activity against the growth and CSC phenotypes of human pancreatic cancer cells. PMID:24575144

  19. Effect of Wasabi Component 6-(Methylsulfinyl)hexyl Isothiocyanate and Derivatives on Human Pancreatic Cancer Cells.

    PubMed

    Chen, Yu-Jen; Huang, Yu-Chuen; Tsai, Tung-Hu; Liao, Hui-Fen

    2014-01-01

    The naturally occurring compound 6-(methylsulfinyl)hexyl isothiocyanate (6-MITC) was isolated from Wasabia japonica (Wasabi), a pungent spice used in Japanese food worldwide. The synthetic derivatives 6-(methylsulfenyl)hexyl isothiocyanate (I7447) and 6-(methylsulfonyl)hexyl isothiocyanate (I7557) are small molecule compounds derived from 6-MITC. This study aimed to evaluate the effect of these compounds on human pancreatic cancer cells. Human pancreatic cancer cell lines PANC-1 and BxPC-3 were used to perform an MTT assay for cell viability and Liu's stain for morphological observation. The cell cycle was analyzed by DNA histogram. Aldehyde dehydrogenase (ALDH) activity was used as a marker for cancer stem cells (CSC). Western blotting was performed for the expression of proteins related to CSC signaling. The results showed that compounds 6-MITC and I7557, but not I7447, inhibited viability of both PANC-1 and BxPC-3 cells. Morphological observation showed mitotic arrest and apoptosis in 6-MITC- and I7557-treated cells. These two compounds induced G2/M phase arrest and hypoploid population. Percentages of ALDH-positive PANC-1 cells were markedly reduced by 6-MITC and I7557 treatment. The expression of CSC signaling molecule SOX2, but not NOTCH1, ABCG2, Sonic hedgehog, or OCT4, was inhibited by 6-MITC and I7557. In conclusion, wasabi compounds 6-MITC and I7557 may possess activity against the growth and CSC phenotypes of human pancreatic cancer cells.

  20. Direct and Indirect Antioxidant Activity of Polyphenol- and Isothiocyanate-Enriched Fractions from Moringa oleifera

    PubMed Central

    Boyunegmez Tumer, Tugba; Rojas-Silva, Patricio; Poulev, Alexander; Raskin, Ilya; Waterman, Carrie

    2016-01-01

    Moringa oleifera Lam. is a fast-growing, tropical tree with various edible parts used as nutritious food and traditional medicine. This study describes an efficient preparatory strategy to extract and fractionate moringa leaves by fast centrifugal partition chromatography (FCPC) to produce polyphenol and isothiocyanate (ITC) rich fractions. Characterization and further purification of these fractions showed that moringa polyphenols were potent direct antioxidants assayed by oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC), whereas moringa ITCs were effective indirect antioxidants assayed by induction of NAD(P)H quinone oxidoreductase 1 (NQO1) activity in Hepa1c1c7 cells. In addition, purified 4-[(α-l-rhamnosyloxy)benzyl]-isothiocyanate and 4-[(4′-O-acetyl-α-l-rhamnosyloxy)benzyl]isothiocyanate were further evaluated for their ORAC and NQO1 inducer potency in comparison with sulforaphane (SF). Both ITCs were as potent as SF in inducing NQO1 activity. These findings suggest that moringa leaves contain a potent mixture of direct and indirect antioxidants that can explain its various health-promoting effects. PMID:25605589

  1. Direct and indirect antioxidant activity of polyphenol- and isothiocyanate-enriched fractions from Moringa oleifera.

    PubMed

    Tumer, Tugba Boyunegmez; Rojas-Silva, Patricio; Poulev, Alexander; Raskin, Ilya; Waterman, Carrie

    2015-02-11

    Moringa oleifera Lam. is a fast-growing, tropical tree with various edible parts used as nutritious food and traditional medicine. This study describes an efficient preparatory strategy to extract and fractionate moringa leaves by fast centrifugal partition chromatography (FCPC) to produce polyphenol and isothiocyanate (ITC) rich fractions. Characterization and further purification of these fractions showed that moringa polyphenols were potent direct antioxidants assayed by oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC), whereas moringa ITCs were effective indirect antioxidants assayed by induction of NAD(P)H quinone oxidoreductase 1 (NQO1) activity in Hepa1c1c7 cells. In addition, purified 4-[(α-l-rhamnosyloxy)benzyl]isothiocyanate and 4-[(4'-O-acetyl-α-l-rhamnosyloxy)benzyl]isothiocyanate were further evaluated for their ORAC and NQO1 inducer potency in comparison with sulforaphane (SF). Both ITCs were as potent as SF in inducing NQO1 activity. These findings suggest that moringa leaves contain a potent mixture of direct and indirect antioxidants that can explain its various health-promoting effects.

  2. Identification and quantification of 5,6,7,8-tetrahydro-2-(2-phenylethyl)chromones in Chinese eaglewood by HPLC with diode array detection and MS.

    PubMed

    Li, Jun; Chen, Dong; Jiang, Yong; Zhang, Qian; Zhang, Liang; Tu, Peng-Fei

    2013-12-01

    A sensitive and reliable HPLC coupled with diode array detection and MS method was developed and validated for the first time to simultaneously identify and quantify eight characteristic 5,6,7,8-tetrahydro-2-(2-phenylethyl)chromones (THPECs) in Chinese eaglewood. Chromatographic separation was performed on a Zorbax SB C18 column with a gradient of acetonitrile/0.1% formic acid/water as the mobile phase. The MS fragmentation behavior of THPECs was characterized as the successive neutral loss of two molecules of H2 O ([M+H-18-18](+) ) and then two molecules of CO ([M+H-18-18-28-28](+) ), which could be used to differentiate Chinese eaglewood from counterfeits. Validation of the developed analytical method showed good linearity, satisfactory precision, and good recovery. The established method was successfully applied to the simultaneous determination of eight THPECs in ten batches of Chinese eaglewood, which could be used as a tool for the quality control of Chinese eaglewood. © 2013 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  3. Structure-Activity Relationship Study on Isothiocyanates: Comparison of TRPA1-Activating Ability between Allyl Isothiocyanate and Specific Flavor Components of Wasabi, Horseradish, and White Mustard.

    PubMed

    Terada, Yuko; Masuda, Hideki; Watanabe, Tatsuo

    2015-08-28

    Allyl isothiocyanate (ITC) (4) is the main pungent component in wasabi, and it generates an acrid sensation by activating TRPA1. The flavor and pungency of ITCs vary depending on the compound. However, the differences in activity to activate TRPA1 between ITCs are not known except for a few compounds. To investigate the effect of carbon chain length and substituents of ITCs, the TRPA1-activiting ability of 16 ITCs was measured. Since most of the ITCs showed nearly equal TRPA1-activiting potency, the ITC moiety is likely the predominant contributor to their TRPA1-activating abilities, and contributions of other functional groups to their activities to activate TRPA1 are comparatively small.

  4. Isothiocyanates Reduce Mercury Accumulation via an Nrf2-Dependent Mechanism during Exposure of Mice to Methylmercury

    PubMed Central

    Toyama, Takashi; Shinkai, Yasuhiro; Yasutake, Akira; Uchida, Koji; Yamamoto, Masayuki

    2011-01-01

    Background: Methylmercury (MeHg) exhibits neurotoxicity through accumulation in the brain. The transcription factor Nrf2 (nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2) plays an important role in reducing the cellular accumulation of MeHg. Objectives: We investigated the protective effect of isothiocyanates, which are known to activate Nrf2, on the accumulation of mercury after exposure to MeHg in vitro and in vivo. Methods: We used primary mouse hepatocytes in in vitro experiments and mice as an in vivo model. We used Western blotting, luciferase assays, atomic absorption spectrometry assays, and MTT [3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyl tetrazolium bromide] assays, and we identified toxicity in mice based on hind-limb flaccidity and mortality. Results: The isothiocyanates 6-methylsulfinylhexyl isothiocyanate (6-HITC) and sulforaphane (SFN) activated Nrf2 and up-regulated downstream proteins associated with MeHg excretion, such as glutamate-cysteine ligase, glutathione S-transferase, and multidrug resistance–associated protein, in primary mouse hepatocytes. Under these conditions, intracellular glutathione levels increased in wild-type but not Nrf2-deficient primary mouse hepatocytes. Pretreatment with 6-HITC and SFN before MeHg exposure suppressed cellular accumulation of mercury and cytotoxicity in wild-type but not Nrf2-deficient primary mouse hepatocytes. In comparison, in vivo administration of MeHg to Nrf2-deficient mice resulted in increased sensitivity to mercury concomitant with an increase in mercury accumulation in the brain and liver. Injection of SFN before administration of MeHg resulted in a decrease in mercury accumulation in the brain and liver of wild-type, but not Nrf2-deficient, mice. Conclusions: Through activation of Nrf2, 6-HITC and SFN can suppress mercury accumulation and intoxication caused by MeHg intake. PMID:21382770

  5. Allyl isothiocyanate-induced changes in the distribution of white blood cells in rats.

    PubMed

    Imaizumi, Kazuhiko; Sato, Shogo; Sakakibara, Yuko; Mori, Sayuri; Ohkuma, Masaki; Kawashima, Yu; Ban, Takamasa; Sasaki, Hiromi; Tachiyashiki, Kaoru

    2010-08-01

    The main pungent component of wasabi (Eutrema japonica) is known to be isothiocyanate and its derivatives, volatile substances. Allyl isothiocyanate (AITC) accounts for more than half of isothiocyanate derivatives. However, there is a little information on the effects of AITC on the immune system by analyzing the number of white blood cells (WBCs) over the course of days of AITC administration. In the present study, we studied the effects of AITC (dose=20 mg/kg body weight/day for 10 days, subcutaneous: s.c.) on the number of WBCs (total WBCs, lymphocytes, monocyte, neutrophil, basophil and eosinophil) and plasma corticosterone concentrations in adult male rats. Administration of AITC decreased significantly the number of total WBCs on days 1-4 post s.c. injection by 25-27%. Administration of AITC also decreased the number of lymphocytes on days 1-10 by 21-36% and monocyte on days 1-8 by 28-78%. However, administration of AITC increased the number of neutrophil on days 8-10 by 61-112%. AITC did not change the number of eosinophil and basophil. Plasma corticosterone concentrations during the experimental period were 4.7-8.4 times significantly higher in the AITC group than in the control group, indicating that AITC induced stress-responses. The relative weights of thymus and adrenals per body weight were significantly lower and clearly higher in the AITC group than in the control group, respectively. These results suggest that AITC-mediated stress-responses are at least in part attributable to changes in the number of circulating WBCs.

  6. In situ observation of the generation of isothiocyanates from sinigrin in horseradish and wasabi.

    PubMed

    Yu, E Y; Pickering, I J; George, G N; Prince, R C

    2001-08-15

    Sulfur K-edge X-ray absorption spectroscopy has been used to determine the chemical identity of the sulfur-containing species in horseradish (Armoracia lapthifolia) and wasabi (Wasabia japonica) in situ, before and after cell disruption. The major sulfur-containing species in the intact root is sinigrin (1-thio-beta-D-glucopyranose 1-N-(sulfoxy)-3-buteneimidate) and related congeners. Disrupting the cells by applying local pressure allowed the conversion of the sulfur moieties in sinigrin to isothiocyanates and sulfate in approximately equimolar amounts. In contrast to previous suggestions, no detectable thiocyanates were formed, but an unusual thio intermediate may have been identified for the first time.

  7. Comparative study between extraction techniques and column separation for the quantification of sinigrin and total isothiocyanates in mustard seed.

    PubMed

    Cools, Katherine; Terry, Leon A

    2012-07-15

    Glucosinolates are β-thioglycosides which are found naturally in Cruciferae including the genus Brassica. When enzymatically hydrolysed, glucosinolates yield isothiocyanates and give a pungent taste. Both glucosinolates and isothiocyanates have been linked with anticancer activity as well as antifungal and antibacterial properties and therefore the quantification of these compounds is scientifically important. A wide range of literature exists on glucosinolates, however the extraction and quantification procedures differ greatly resulting in discrepancies between studies. The aim of this study was therefore to compare the most popular extraction procedures to identify the most efficacious method and whether each extraction can also be used for the quantification of total isothiocyanates. Four extraction techniques were compared for the quantification of sinigrin from mustard cv. Centennial (Brassica juncea L.) seed; boiling water, boiling 50% (v/v) aqueous acetonitrile, boiling 100% methanol and 70% (v/v) aqueous methanol at 70 °C. Prior to injection into the HPLC, the extractions which involved solvents (acetonitrile or methanol) were freeze-dried and resuspended in water. To identify whether the same extract could be used to measure total isothiocyanates, a dichloromethane extraction was carried out on the sinigrin extracts. For the quantification of sinigrin alone, boiling 50% (v/v) acetonitrile was found to be the most efficacious extraction solvent of the four tested yielding 15% more sinigrin than the water extraction. However, the removal of the acetonitrile by freeze-drying had a negative impact on the isothiocyanate content. Quantification of both sinigrin and total isothiocyanates was possible when the sinigrin was extracted using boiling water. Two columns were compared for the quantification of sinigrin revealing the Zorbax Eclipse to be the best column using this particular method. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Synergistic effect of allyl isothiocyanate (AITC) on cisplatin efficacy in vitro and in vivo

    PubMed Central

    Ling, Xiang; Westover, David; Cao, Felicia; Cao, Shousong; He, Xiang; Kim, Hak-Ryul; Zhang, Yuesheng; Chan, Daniel CF; Li, Fengzhi

    2015-01-01

    Although in vitro studies have shown that isothiocyanates (ITCs) can synergistically sensitize cancer cells to cisplatin treatment, the underlying mechanisms have not been well defined, and there are no in vivo demonstrations of this synergy. Here, we report the in vitro and in vivo data for the combination of allyl isothiocyanate (AITC), one of the most common naturally occurring ITCs, with cisplatin. Our study revealed that cisplatin and AITC combination synergistically inhibits cancer cell growth and colony formation, and enhances apoptosis in association with the downregulation of antiapoptotic proteins Bcl-2 and survivin. Importantly, the in vivo combination treatment suppresses human tumor growth in animal models without observable increases in toxicity (body weight loss) in comparison with single agent treatment. Furthermore, our data revealed that addition of AITC to cisplatin treatment changes the profile of G2/M arrest (e.g. increase in M phase cell number) and significantly extends the duration of G2/M arrest in comparison with cisplatin treatment alone. To explore the underlying mechanism, we found that AITC treatment rapidly depletes b-tubulin. Combination of AITC and cisplatin inhibits the expression of G2/M checkpoint-relevant proteins including CDC2, cyclin B1 and CDC25. Together, our findings reveal a novel mechanism for AITC enhancing cisplatin efficacy and provides the first in vivo evidence to support ITCs as potential candidates for developing new regimens to overcome platinum resistance. PMID:26396928

  9. Alkyl isothiocyanates suppress epidermal growth factor receptor kinase activity but augment tyrosine kinase activity.

    PubMed

    Nomura, Takahiro; Uehara, Yoshimasa; Kawajiri, Hiroo; Ryoyama, Kazuo; Yamori, Takao; Fuke, Yoko

    2009-10-01

    We have reported the in vitro and in vivo anticancer activities of 6-(methylsulfinyl)hexyl isothiocyanate (6-MITC) derived from a Japanese spice, wasabi. In order to obtain some clues about the mechanism of the anticancer activity, we have studied the effect of alkyl isothiocyanates (MITCs) on protein kinase activities. The anti-autophosphorylation activity of MITCs with respect to the epidermal growth factor (EGF)-stimulated receptor kinase of A431 epidermoid carcinoma cells was examined by incorporation of radioactive ATP into an acid-insoluble fraction. Their anti-phosphorylation activity with respect to the non-receptor protein kinase was analyzed by a standard SDS-PAGE method. All the tested MITCs interfered with the EGF-stimulated receptor kinase activity in a dose-dependent manner, although their effects were less than 1/10 of that of erbstatin in microg/ml. On the other hand, the MITCs did not interfere with non-receptor kinases (kinase A, kinase C, tyrosine kinase and calmodulin dependent kinase III), but enhanced non-receptor tyrosine kinase. A possible anticancer mechanism of MITCs may involve the suppression of EGF receptor kinase activity and augmentation of non-receptor PTK.

  10. Alpha fetoprotein antagonises benzyl isothiocyanate inhibition of the malignant behaviors of hepatocellular carcinoma cells.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Mingyue; Li, Wei; Guo, Junli; Lu, Yan; Dong, Xu; Lin, Bo; Chen, Yi; Zhang, Xueer; Li, Mengsen

    2016-11-15

    Benzyl isothiocyanate (BITC) is a dietary isothiocyanate derived from cruciferous vegetables. Recent studies showed that BITC inhibited the growth of many cancer cells, including hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) cells. Alpha-fetoprotein (AFP) is a important molecule for promoting progression of HCC, in the present investigation, we explore the influence of AFP on the role of BITC in the malignant behaviours of HCC cells, and the potential underlying mechanisms. We found thatBITC inhibited viability, migration, invasion and induced apoptosis of human liver cancer cell lines, Bel 7402(AFP producer) and HLE(non-AFP producer) cells in vitro. The role of BITC involve in promoting actived-caspase-3 and PARP-1 expression, and enhancing caspase-3 activity but decreasing MMP-2/9, survivin and CXCR4 expression. AFP antagonized the effect of BITC. This study suggests that BITC induced significant reductions in the viability of HCC cell lines. BITC may activate caspase-3 signal and inhibit the expression of growth- and metastasis-related proteins; AFP is an pivotal molecule for the HCC chemo-resistance of BITC.

  11. Dietary isothiocyanates, glutathione S-transferase M1 (GSTM1), and lung cancer risk in African Americans and Caucasians from Los Angeles County, California.

    PubMed

    Carpenter, Catherine L; Yu, Mimi C; London, Stephanie J

    2009-01-01

    Isothiocyanates, found in cruciferous vegetables, are anticarcinogenic. Racial differences in smoking do not fully account for the African-American excess lung cancer incidence. African Americans consume more cruciferous vegetables than U.S. Whites. Impact on lung cancer risk is unknown. The glutathione S transferase M1 (GSTM1) gene promotes urinary isothiocyanate excretion. We evaluated dietary isothiocyanates and lung cancer using a population-based case-control study of 933 African Americans and Caucasians (non-Hispanic U.S. White) from Los Angeles County, California (311 cases; 622 controls). Broccoli, cauliflower, greens, and cabbage food-frequency variables represented isothiocyanates. Isothiocyanates were protective for lung cancer risk. Adjusted odds ratio (OR) for the uppermost quartile > 80 micro mol isothiocyanates/wk, compared to lowest, was 0.65 [95% confidence interval (CI) = 0.41-1.00, trend P = 0.02]. Association was stronger among subjects with homozygous deletion of GSTM1 (OR = 0.52, 95% CI = 0.31-0.86) than subjects with at least one GSTM1 copy (OR = 0.77, 95% CI = 0.49-1.21). The difference was not statistically significant (P = 0.16). Despite African Americans consuming more cruciferous vegetables, the isothiocyanate association did not vary by race (P = 0.52). Reduced lung cancer risk with higher isothiocyanate intake may be slightly stronger among subjects with deletion of GSTM1.

  12. Dietary Isothiocyanates, Glutathione S-Transferase M1 (GSTM1), and Lung Cancer Risk in African Americans and Caucasians from Los Angeles County, California

    PubMed Central

    Carpenter, Catherine L.; Yu, Mimi C.; London, Stephanie J.

    2013-01-01

    Isothiocyanates, found in cruciferous vegetables, are anti-carcinogenic. Racial differences in smoking do not fully account for the African American excess lung cancer incidence. African Americans consume more cruciferous vegetables than US Whites. Impact on lung cancer risk is unknown. Glutathione S transferase M1 (GSTM1) gene promotes urinary isothiocyanate excretion. We evaluated dietary isothiocyanates and lung cancer using a population-based case-control study of 933 African Americans and Caucasians (non-Hispanic US White) from Los Angeles County, California (311 cases; 622 controls). Broccoli, cauliflower, greens and cabbage food-frequency variables represented isothiocyanates. Isothiocyanates were protective for lung cancer risk. Adjusted odds ratio (OR) for the uppermost quartile, > 80 μMol isothiocyanates/week, compared to lowest, was 0.65 (95% confidence interval (CL) = 0.41 – 1.00, trend p = 0.02). Association was stronger among subjects with homozygous deletion of GSTM1 (OR=0.52; 95% CL = 0.31 – 0.86), than subjects with at least one GSTM1 copy (OR = 0.77; 95% CL = 0.49 – 1.21). Difference was not statistically significant (p = 0.16). Despite African Americans consuming more cruciferous vegetables, the isothiocyanate association did not vary by race (p=0.52). Reduced lung cancer risk with higher isothiocyanate intake may be slightly stronger among subjects with deletion of GSTM1. PMID:19838921

  13. Synthesis and biological characterization of (3R,4R)-4-(2-(benzhydryloxy)ethyl)-1-((R)-2-hydroxy-2-phenylethyl)-piperidin-3-ol and its stereoisomers for activity toward monoamine transporters.

    PubMed

    Kharkar, Prashant S; Batman, Angela M; Zhen, Juan; Beardsley, Patrick M; Reith, Maarten E A; Dutta, Aloke K

    2009-07-01

    A novel series of optically active molecules based on a 4-(2-(benzhydryloxy)ethyl)-1-((R)-2-hydroxy-2-phenylethyl)-piperidin-3-ol template were developed. Depending on stereochemistry, the compounds exhibit various degrees of affinity for three dopamine, serotonin, and norepinephrine transporters. These molecules have the potential for treating several neurological disorders such as drug abuse, depression, and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder.Herein we describe the synthesis and biological evaluation of a series of asymmetric 4-(2-(benzhydryloxy)ethyl)-1-((R)-2-hydroxy-2-phenylethyl)-piperidin-3-ol-based dihydroxy compounds in which the hydroxy groups are located on both the piperidine ring and the N-phenylethyl side chain. In vitro uptake inhibition data of these molecules indicate high affinity for the dopamine transporter (DAT) in addition to moderate to high affinity for the norepinephrine transporter (NET). Interestingly, compounds 9 b and 9 d exhibit affinities for all three monoamine transporters, with highest potency at DAT and NET, and moderate potency at the serotonin transporter (SERT) (K(i): 2.29, 78.4, and 155 nM for 9 b and 1.55, 14.1, and 259 nM for 9 d, respectively). Selected compounds 9 a, 9 d, and 9 d' were tested for their locomotor activity effects in mice and for their ability to occasion the cocaine-discriminative stimulus in rats. These test compounds generally exhibit a much longer duration of action than cocaine for elevating locomotor activity, and completely generalize the cocaine-discriminative stimulus in a dose-dependent manner.

  14. 40 CFR 180.1167 - Allyl isothiocyanate as a component of food grade oil of mustard; exemption from the requirement...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... used as a component of food grade oil of mustard, in or on all raw agricultural commodities, when... food grade oil of mustard; exemption from the requirement of a tolerance. 180.1167 Section 180.1167... EXEMPTIONS FOR PESTICIDE CHEMICAL RESIDUES IN FOOD Exemptions From Tolerances § 180.1167 Allyl isothiocyanate...

  15. Inactivation of Salmonella in tomato stem scars by organic acid wash and chitosan-allyl isothiocyanate coating

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The objective of this study was to evaluate inactivation of inoculated Salmonella enterica on tomato stem scars exploiting integrated treatment of organic acid wash (AW) followed by chitosan-allyl isothiocyanate (CT-AIT) coating. The treatment effect on microbial loads and fruit quality during 21 d...

  16. DNA Microarray Highlights Nrf2-Mediated Neuron Protection Targeted by Wasabi-Derived Isothiocyanates in IMR-32 Cells

    PubMed Central

    Trio, Phoebe Zapanta; Fujisaki, Satoru; Tanigawa, Shunsuke; Hisanaga, Ayami; Sakao, Kozue; Hou, De-Xing

    2016-01-01

    6-(Methylsulfinyl)hexyl isothiocyanate (6-MSITC), 6-(methylthio)hexyl isothiocyanate (6-MTITC), and 4-(methylsulfinyl)butyl isothiocyanate (4-MSITC) are isothiocyanate (ITC) bioactive compounds from Japanese Wasabi. Previous in vivo studies highlighted the neuroprotective potential of ITCs since ITCs enhance the production of antioxidant-related enzymes. Thus, in this present study, a genome-wide DNA microarray analysis was designed to profile gene expression changes in a neuron cell line, IMR-32, stimulated by these ITCs. Among these ITCs, 6-MSITC caused the expression changes of most genes (263), of which 100 genes were upregulated and 163 genes were downregulated. Gene categorization showed that most of the differentially expressed genes are involved in oxidative stress response, and pathway analysis further revealed that Nrf2-mediated oxidative stress pathway is the top of the ITC-modulated signaling pathway. Finally, real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and Western blotting confirmed the gene expression and protein products of the major targets by ITCs. Taken together, Wasabi-derived ITCs might target the Nrf2-mediated oxidative stress pathway to exert neuroprotective effects. PMID:27547033

  17. DNA Microarray Highlights Nrf2-Mediated Neuron Protection Targeted by Wasabi-Derived Isothiocyanates in IMR-32 Cells.

    PubMed

    Trio, Phoebe Zapanta; Fujisaki, Satoru; Tanigawa, Shunsuke; Hisanaga, Ayami; Sakao, Kozue; Hou, De-Xing

    2016-01-01

    6-(Methylsulfinyl)hexyl isothiocyanate (6-MSITC), 6-(methylthio)hexyl isothiocyanate (6-MTITC), and 4-(methylsulfinyl)butyl isothiocyanate (4-MSITC) are isothiocyanate (ITC) bioactive compounds from Japanese Wasabi. Previous in vivo studies highlighted the neuroprotective potential of ITCs since ITCs enhance the production of antioxidant-related enzymes. Thus, in this present study, a genome-wide DNA microarray analysis was designed to profile gene expression changes in a neuron cell line, IMR-32, stimulated by these ITCs. Among these ITCs, 6-MSITC caused the expression changes of most genes (263), of which 100 genes were upregulated and 163 genes were downregulated. Gene categorization showed that most of the differentially expressed genes are involved in oxidative stress response, and pathway analysis further revealed that Nrf2-mediated oxidative stress pathway is the top of the ITC-modulated signaling pathway. Finally, real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and Western blotting confirmed the gene expression and protein products of the major targets by ITCs. Taken together, Wasabi-derived ITCs might target the Nrf2-mediated oxidative stress pathway to exert neuroprotective effects.

  18. Methyl isothiocyanate and chloropicrin concentrations in bareroot forest nursery soils and above soil surface treatments following fumigation

    Treesearch

    Jennifer Juzwik

    2008-01-01

    Concentrations of methyl isothiocyanate (MITC) and chloropicrin (CP) in air spaces of nursery soil and in air at the soil surface following fumigation were determined in field trials in a Wisconsin and a Georgia nursery. MITC was measured in plots receiving either dazomet or co-application of metam sodium and chloropicrin; CP was measured in the latter plots. Soil...

  19. 40 CFR 180.1167 - Allyl isothiocyanate as a component of food grade oil of mustard; exemption from the requirement...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 23 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Allyl isothiocyanate as a component of food grade oil of mustard; exemption from the requirement of a tolerance. 180.1167 Section 180.1167 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) PESTICIDE PROGRAMS TOLERANCES AND EXEMPTIONS FOR PESTICIDE CHEMICAL RESIDUES I...

  20. Allyl isothiocyanate increases carbohydrate oxidation through enhancing insulin secretion by TRPV1.

    PubMed

    Mori, Noriyuki; Kurata, Manami; Yamazaki, Hanae; Matsumura, Shigenobu; Hashimoto, Takashi; Kanazawa, Kazuki; Nadamoto, Tomonori; Inoue, Kazuo; Fushiki, Tohru

    2018-04-01

    The transient receptor potential (TRP) V1 is a cation channel belonging to the TRP channel family and it has been reported to be involved in energy metabolism, especially glucose metabolism. While, we have previously shown that intragastric administration of allyl isothiocyanate (AITC) enhanced glucose metabolism via TRPV1, the underlying mechanism has not been elucidated. In this study, we examined the relationship between insulin secretion and the increase in carbohydrate oxidation due to AITC. Intragastric administration of AITC elevated blood insulin levels in mice and AITC directly enhanced insulin secretion from isolated islets. These observations were not reproduced in TRPV1 knockout mice. Furthermore, AITC did not increase carbohydrate oxidation in streptozotocin-treated mice. These results suggest that intragastric administration of AITC could induce insulin secretion from islets via TRPV1 and that enhancement of insulin secretion was related to the increased carbohydrate oxidation due to AITC.

  1. Chemical reactivation of fluorescein isothiocyanate immunofluorescence-labeled resin-embedded samples

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Longhui; Rao, Gong; Lv, Xiaohua; Chen, Ruixi; Cheng, Xiaofeng; Wang, Xiaojun; Zeng, Shaoqun; Liu, Xiuli

    2018-02-01

    Resin embedding is widely used and facilitates microscopic imaging of biological tissues. In contrast, quenching of fluorescence during embedding process hinders the application of resin embedding for imaging of fluorescence-labeled samples. For samples expressing fluorescent proteins, it has been demonstrated that the weakened fluorescence could be recovered by reactivating the fluorophore with alkaline buffer. We extended this idea to immunofluorescence-labeling technology. We showed that the fluorescence of pH-sensitive fluorescein isothiocyanate (FITC) was quenched after resin embedding but reactivated after treating by alkaline buffer. We observed 138.5% fluorescence preservation ratio of reactivated state, sixfold compared with the quenched state in embedding resin, which indicated its application for fluorescence imaging of high signal-to-background ratio. Furthermore, we analyzed the chemical reactivation mechanism of FITC fluorophore. This work would show a way for high-resolution imaging of immunofluorescence-labeled samples embedded in resin.

  2. Biochemical characterization and anti-inflammatory properties of an isothiocyanate-enriched moringa (Moringa oleifera) seed extract.

    PubMed

    Jaja-Chimedza, Asha; Graf, Brittany L; Simmler, Charlotte; Kim, Youjin; Kuhn, Peter; Pauli, Guido F; Raskin, Ilya

    2017-01-01

    Moringa oleifera Lam. is a tropical plant, used for centuries as food and traditional medicine. The aim of this study was to develop, validate and biochemically characterize an isothiocyanate-enriched moringa seed extract (MSE), and to compare the anti-inflammatory effects of MSE-containing moringa isothiocyanate-1 (MIC-1) with a curcuminoid-enriched turmeric extract (CTE), and a material further enriched in its primary phytochemical, curcumin (curcumin-enriched material; CEM). MSE was prepared by incubating ground moringa seeds with water to allow myrosinase-catalyzed enzymatic formation of bioactive MIC-1, the predominant isothiocyanate in moringa seeds. Optimization of the extraction process yielded an extract of 38.9% MIC-1. Phytochemical analysis of MSE revealed the presence of acetylated isothiocyanates, phenolic glycosides unique to moringa, flavonoids, fats and fatty acids, proteins and carbohydrates. MSE showed a reduction in the carrageenan-induced rat paw edema (33% at 500 mg/kg MIC-1) comparable to aspirin (27% at 300 mg/kg), whereas CTE did not have any significant effect. In vitro, MIC-1 at 1 μM significantly reduced the production of nitric oxide (NO) and at 5 μM, the gene expression of LPS-inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) and interleukins 1β and 6 (IL-1β and IL-6), whereas CEM did not show any significant activity at all concentrations tested. MIC-1 (10μM) was also more effective at upregulating the nuclear factor (erythroid-derived 2)-like 2 (Nrf2) target genes NAD(P)H:quinone oxidoreductase 1 (NQO1), glutathione S-transferase pi 1 (GSTP1), and heme oxygenase 1 (HO1) than the CEM. Thus, in contrast to CTE and CEM, MSE and its major isothiocyanate MIC-1 displayed strong anti-inflammatory and antioxidant properties in vivo and in vitro, making them promising botanical leads for the mitigation of inflammatory-mediated chronic disorders.

  3. Biochemical characterization and anti-inflammatory properties of an isothiocyanate-enriched moringa (Moringa oleifera) seed extract

    PubMed Central

    Simmler, Charlotte; Kim, Youjin; Kuhn, Peter; Pauli, Guido F.; Raskin, Ilya

    2017-01-01

    Moringa oleifera Lam. is a tropical plant, used for centuries as food and traditional medicine. The aim of this study was to develop, validate and biochemically characterize an isothiocyanate-enriched moringa seed extract (MSE), and to compare the anti-inflammatory effects of MSE-containing moringa isothiocyanate-1 (MIC-1) with a curcuminoid-enriched turmeric extract (CTE), and a material further enriched in its primary phytochemical, curcumin (curcumin-enriched material; CEM). MSE was prepared by incubating ground moringa seeds with water to allow myrosinase-catalyzed enzymatic formation of bioactive MIC-1, the predominant isothiocyanate in moringa seeds. Optimization of the extraction process yielded an extract of 38.9% MIC-1. Phytochemical analysis of MSE revealed the presence of acetylated isothiocyanates, phenolic glycosides unique to moringa, flavonoids, fats and fatty acids, proteins and carbohydrates. MSE showed a reduction in the carrageenan-induced rat paw edema (33% at 500 mg/kg MIC-1) comparable to aspirin (27% at 300 mg/kg), whereas CTE did not have any significant effect. In vitro, MIC-1 at 1 μM significantly reduced the production of nitric oxide (NO) and at 5 μM, the gene expression of LPS-inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) and interleukins 1β and 6 (IL-1β and IL-6), whereas CEM did not show any significant activity at all concentrations tested. MIC-1 (10μM) was also more effective at upregulating the nuclear factor (erythroid-derived 2)-like 2 (Nrf2) target genes NAD(P)H:quinone oxidoreductase 1 (NQO1), glutathione S-transferase pi 1 (GSTP1), and heme oxygenase 1 (HO1) than the CEM. Thus, in contrast to CTE and CEM, MSE and its major isothiocyanate MIC-1 displayed strong anti-inflammatory and antioxidant properties in vivo and in vitro, making them promising botanical leads for the mitigation of inflammatory-mediated chronic disorders. PMID:28792522

  4. Apoptotic role of natural isothiocyanate from broccoli (Brassica oleracea italica) in experimental chemical lung carcinogenesis.

    PubMed

    Kalpana Deepa Priya, D; Gayathri, R; Gunassekaran, G R; Murugan, S; Sakthisekaran, D

    2013-05-01

    Sulforaphane (SFN) [1-isothiocyanato-4-(methylsulfinyl)butane] is a naturally occurring isothiocyanate found in cruciferous vegetables such as broccoli [Brassica oleracea L. var. italica Plenck. (Brassicaceae)]. Since it is among the most potent bioactive components with antioxidant and antitumor properties, it has received intense attention in the recent years for its chemopreventive properties. The present work determined the rehabilitating role in alleviating the oxidative damage caused by benzo(a)pyrene [B(a)P] to biomolecules and the apoptotic cascade mediated by orally administered isothiocyanate-SFN (9 µmol/mouse/day) against B(a)P (100 mg/kg body weight, i.p.) induced pulmonary carcinogenesis in Swiss albino mice. Oxidative damage was assessed by measuring lipid peroxidation, 8-hydroxydeoxyguanosine, hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) production, glycoprotein components, protein carbonyl levels and DNA-protein crosslinks. DNA fragmentation by agarose gel electrophoresis and caspase-3 activity by ELISA proved apoptotic induction by SFN along with the protein expression of Bcl-2, Bax and Cyt c. SFN treatment was found to decrease the H2O2 production (p < 0.001) in cancer induced animals, proving its antioxidant potential. Apoptosis was induced by increasing the release of Cyt c (p < 0.001) from mitochondria, decreasing and increasing the expression of Bcl-2 (p < 0.01) and Bax (p < 0.001), respectively. Caspase-3 activity was also enhanced (p < 0.001) which leads to DNA fragmentation in SFN treated groups. Our results reflect the rehabilitating role of SFN in B(a)P induced lung carcinogenesis.

  5. Synthesis and biological characterization of (3R,4R)-4-(2-(benzhydryloxy)ethyl)-1-((R)-2-hydroxy-2-phenylethyl)-piperidin-3-ol and its stereoisomers for monoamine transporters

    PubMed Central

    Kharkar, Prashant S.; Batman, Angela M.; Zhen, Juan; Beardsley, Patrick M.; Reith, Maarten E. A.

    2012-01-01

    In this report we describe synthesis and biological evaluation of a series of asymmetric 4-(2-(benzhydryloxy)ethyl)-1-((R)-2-hydroxy-2-phenylethyl)-piperidin-3-ol based dihydroxy compounds where the hydroxy groups are located both on the piperidine ring and also on the N-phenylethyl side chain exo-cyclically. In vitro uptake inhibition data indicates high affinity of these molecules for the dopamine transporter (DAT) in addition to their moderate to high affinity for the norepinephrine transporter (NET). Interestingly, compounds 9b and 9d exhibited affinities for all three monoamine transporters with highest potency at DAT and NET and moderate potency at the serotonin transporter (SERT) (Ki 2.29, 78.4 and 155 nM for 9b and 1.55, 14.1 and 259 nM for 9d, respectively). Selected compounds, 9a, 9d and 9d’ were tested for their locomotor activity effects in mice, and for their ability to occasion the cocaine discriminative stimulus in rats. These test compounds generally exhibited a much longer duration of action than cocaine for elevating locomotor activity, and dose-dependently completely generalized the cocaine discriminative stimulus. PMID:19449323

  6. Optimizing isothiocyanate formation during enzymatic glucosinolate breakdown by adjusting pH value, temperature and dilution in Brassica vegetables and Arabidopsis thaliana

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hanschen, Franziska S.; Klopsch, Rebecca; Oliviero, Teresa; Schreiner, Monika; Verkerk, Ruud; Dekker, Matthijs

    2017-01-01

    Consumption of glucosinolate-rich Brassicales vegetables is associated with a decreased risk of cancer with enzymatic hydrolysis of glucosinolates playing a key role. However, formation of health-promoting isothiocyanates is inhibited by the epithiospecifier protein in favour of nitriles and epithionitriles. Domestic processing conditions, such as changes in pH value, temperature or dilution, might also affect isothiocyanate formation. Therefore, the influences of these three factors were evaluated in accessions of Brassica rapa, Brassica oleracea, and Arabidopsis thaliana. Mathematical modelling was performed to determine optimal isothiocyanate formation conditions and to obtain knowledge on the kinetics of the reactions. At 22 °C and endogenous plant pH, nearly all investigated plants formed nitriles and epithionitriles instead of health-promoting isothiocyanates. Response surface models, however, clearly demonstrated that upon change in pH to domestic acidic (pH 4) or basic pH values (pH 8), isothiocyanate formation considerably increases. While temperature also affects this process, the pH value has the greatest impact. Further, a kinetic model showed that isothiocyanate formation strongly increases due to dilution. Finally, the results show that isothiocyanate intake can be strongly increased by optimizing the conditions of preparation of Brassicales vegetables.

  7. Development of validated high-temperature reverse-phase UHPLC-PDA analytical method for simultaneous analysis of five natural isothiocyanates in cruciferous vegetables.

    PubMed

    Robin; Arora, Rohit; Arora, Saroj; Vig, Adarsh Pal

    2018-01-15

    In the present study reverse-phase UHPLC-PDA technique was developed at 60°C for simultaneous quantification of allyl, 3-butenyl, 4-(methylthio)butyl, benzyl and phenethyl isothiocyanates. The validation parameter showed a very good linearity, with a correlation coefficient of 1.00 for all detected standard analytes. Also, high precision and accuracy were observed with lowest obtained values of 1.39% and 99.1%, respectively. Different varieties of three plants, viz. Brassica rapa var. rapa L., Raphanus sativus L. var. oleiformis Pers. and Eruca sativa Mill., were analyzed with this method. After analysis, 4-(methylthio)butyl isothiocyanate was observed to be the major component in the varieties of arugula. Allyl, benzyl and phenethyl isothiocyanates were detected in turnip varieties and, in addition, 3-butenyl isothiocyanate was detected in radish varieties. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Sulphoraphane, a naturally occurring isothiocyanate induces apoptosis in breast cancer cells by targeting heat shock proteins

    SciTech Connect

    Sarkar, Ruma; Mukherjee, Sutapa; Biswas, Jaydip

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer HSPs (27, 70 and 90) and HSF1 are overexpressed in MCF-7 and MDA-MB-231 cells. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Sulphoraphane, a natural isothiocyanate inhibited HSPs and HSF1 expressions. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Inhibition of HSPs and HSF1 lead to regulation of apoptotic proteins. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Alteration of apoptotic proteins activate of caspases particularly caspase 3 and 9 leading to induction of apoptosis. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Alteration of apoptotic proteins induce caspases leading to induction of apoptosis. -- Abstract: Heat shock proteins (HSPs) are involved in protein folding, aggregation, transport and/or stabilization by acting as a molecular chaperone, leading to inhibition of apoptosis by both caspase dependent and/or independentmore » pathways. HSPs are overexpressed in a wide range of human cancers and are implicated in tumor cell proliferation, differentiation, invasion and metastasis. HSPs particularly 27, 70, 90 and the transcription factor heat shock factor1 (HSF1) play key roles in the etiology of breast cancer and can be considered as potential therapeutic target. The present study was designed to investigate the role of sulphoraphane, a natural isothiocyanate on HSPs (27, 70, 90) and HSF1 in two different breast cancer cell lines MCF-7 and MDA-MB-231 cells expressing wild type and mutated p53 respectively, vis-a-vis in normal breast epithelial cell line MCF-12F. It was furthermore investigated whether modulation of HSPs and HSF1 could induce apoptosis in these cells by altering the expressions of p53, p21 and some apoptotic proteins like Bcl-2, Bax, Bid, Bad, Apaf-1 and AIF. Sulphoraphane was found to down-regulate the expressions of HSP70, 90 and HSF1, though the effect on HSP27 was not pronounced. Consequences of HSP inhibition was upregulation of p21 irrespective of p53 status. Bax, Bad, Apaf-1, AIF were upregulated followed by down-regulation of Bcl-2 and this effect was

  9. Isothiocyanate-enriched moringa seed extract alleviates ulcerative colitis symptoms in mice

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Alex G.; Jaja-Chimedza, Asha; Graf, Brittany L.; Waterman, Carrie; Verzi, Michael P.; Raskin, Ilya

    2017-01-01

    Moringa (Moringa oleifera Lam.) seed extract (MSE) has anti-inflammatory and antioxidant activities. We investigated the effects of MSE enriched in moringa isothiocyanate-1 (MIC-1), its putative bioactive, on ulcerative colitis (UC) and its anti-inflammatory/antioxidant mechanism likely mediated through Nrf2-signaling pathway. Dextran sulfate sodium (DSS)-induced acute (n = 8/group; 3% DSS for 5 d) and chronic (n = 6/group; cyclic rotations of 2.5% DSS/water for 30 d) UC was induced in mice that were assigned to 4 experimental groups: healthy control (water/vehicle), disease control (DSS/vehicle), MSE treatment (DSS/MSE), or 5-aminosalicyic acid (5-ASA) treatment (positive control; DSS/5-ASA). Following UC induction, water (vehicle), 150 mg/kg MSE, or 50 mg/kg 5-ASA were orally administered for 1 or 2 wks. Disease activity index (DAI), spleen/colon sizes, and colonic histopathology were measured. From colon and/or fecal samples, pro-inflammatory biomarkers, tight-junction proteins, and Nrf2-mediated enzymes were analyzed at protein and/or gene expression levels. Compared to disease control, MSE decreased DAI scores, and showed an increase in colon lengths and decrease in colon weight/length ratios in both UC models. MSE also reduced colonic inflammation/damage and histopathological scores (modestly) in acute UC. MSE decreased colonic secretions of pro-inflammatory keratinocyte-derived cytokine (KC), tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α, nitric oxide (NO), and myeloperoxidase (MPO) in acute and chronic UC; reduced fecal lipocalin-2 in acute UC; downregulated gene expression of pro-inflammatory interleukin (IL)-1, IL-6, TNF-α, and inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) in acute UC; upregulated expression of claudin-1 and ZO-1 in acute and chronic UC; and upregulated GSTP1, an Nrf2-mediated phase II detoxifying enzyme, in chronic UC. MSE was effective in mitigating UC symptoms and reducing UC-induced colonic pathologies, likely by suppressing pro-inflammatory biomarkers

  10. Isothiocyanate-enriched moringa seed extract alleviates ulcerative colitis symptoms in mice.

    PubMed

    Kim, Youjin; Wu, Alex G; Jaja-Chimedza, Asha; Graf, Brittany L; Waterman, Carrie; Verzi, Michael P; Raskin, Ilya

    2017-01-01

    Moringa (Moringa oleifera Lam.) seed extract (MSE) has anti-inflammatory and antioxidant activities. We investigated the effects of MSE enriched in moringa isothiocyanate-1 (MIC-1), its putative bioactive, on ulcerative colitis (UC) and its anti-inflammatory/antioxidant mechanism likely mediated through Nrf2-signaling pathway. Dextran sulfate sodium (DSS)-induced acute (n = 8/group; 3% DSS for 5 d) and chronic (n = 6/group; cyclic rotations of 2.5% DSS/water for 30 d) UC was induced in mice that were assigned to 4 experimental groups: healthy control (water/vehicle), disease control (DSS/vehicle), MSE treatment (DSS/MSE), or 5-aminosalicyic acid (5-ASA) treatment (positive control; DSS/5-ASA). Following UC induction, water (vehicle), 150 mg/kg MSE, or 50 mg/kg 5-ASA were orally administered for 1 or 2 wks. Disease activity index (DAI), spleen/colon sizes, and colonic histopathology were measured. From colon and/or fecal samples, pro-inflammatory biomarkers, tight-junction proteins, and Nrf2-mediated enzymes were analyzed at protein and/or gene expression levels. Compared to disease control, MSE decreased DAI scores, and showed an increase in colon lengths and decrease in colon weight/length ratios in both UC models. MSE also reduced colonic inflammation/damage and histopathological scores (modestly) in acute UC. MSE decreased colonic secretions of pro-inflammatory keratinocyte-derived cytokine (KC), tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α, nitric oxide (NO), and myeloperoxidase (MPO) in acute and chronic UC; reduced fecal lipocalin-2 in acute UC; downregulated gene expression of pro-inflammatory interleukin (IL)-1, IL-6, TNF-α, and inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) in acute UC; upregulated expression of claudin-1 and ZO-1 in acute and chronic UC; and upregulated GSTP1, an Nrf2-mediated phase II detoxifying enzyme, in chronic UC. MSE was effective in mitigating UC symptoms and reducing UC-induced colonic pathologies, likely by suppressing pro-inflammatory biomarkers

  11. Molecular Mechanisms Underlying Anti-Inflammatory Actions of 6-(Methylsulfinyl)hexyl Isothiocyanate Derived from Wasabi (Wasabia japonica)

    PubMed Central

    Uto, Takuhiro; Hou, De-Xing; Morinaga, Osamu; Shoyama, Yukihiro

    2012-01-01

    6-(Methylsulfinyl)hexyl isothiocyanate (6-MSITC) is a major bioactive compound in wasabi (Wasabia japonica), which is a typical Japanese pungent spice. Recently, in vivo and in vitro studies demonstrated that 6-MSITC has several biological properties, including anti-inflammatory, antimicrobial, antiplatelet, and anticancer effects. We previously reported that 6-MSITC strongly suppresses cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2), inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), and cytokines, which are important factors that mediate inflammatory processes. Moreover, molecular analysis demonstrated that 6-MSITC blocks the expressions of these factors by suppressing multiple signal transduction pathways to attenuate the activation of transcriptional factors. Structure-activity relationships of 6-MSITC and its analogues containing an isothiocyanate group revealed that methylsulfinyl group and the length of alkyl chain of 6-MSITC might be related to high inhibitory potency. In this paper, we review the anti-inflammatory properties of 6-MSITC and discuss potential molecular mechanisms focusing on inflammatory responses by macrophages. PMID:22927840

  12. Molecular Mechanisms Underlying Anti-Inflammatory Actions of 6-(Methylsulfinyl)hexyl Isothiocyanate Derived from Wasabi (Wasabia japonica).

    PubMed

    Uto, Takuhiro; Hou, De-Xing; Morinaga, Osamu; Shoyama, Yukihiro

    2012-01-01

    6-(Methylsulfinyl)hexyl isothiocyanate (6-MSITC) is a major bioactive compound in wasabi (Wasabia japonica), which is a typical Japanese pungent spice. Recently, in vivo and in vitro studies demonstrated that 6-MSITC has several biological properties, including anti-inflammatory, antimicrobial, antiplatelet, and anticancer effects. We previously reported that 6-MSITC strongly suppresses cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2), inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), and cytokines, which are important factors that mediate inflammatory processes. Moreover, molecular analysis demonstrated that 6-MSITC blocks the expressions of these factors by suppressing multiple signal transduction pathways to attenuate the activation of transcriptional factors. Structure-activity relationships of 6-MSITC and its analogues containing an isothiocyanate group revealed that methylsulfinyl group and the length of alkyl chain of 6-MSITC might be related to high inhibitory potency. In this paper, we review the anti-inflammatory properties of 6-MSITC and discuss potential molecular mechanisms focusing on inflammatory responses by macrophages.

  13. Isothiocyanates, Nitriles, and Epithionitriles from Glucosinolates Are Affected by Genotype and Developmental Stage in Brassica oleracea Varieties

    PubMed Central

    Hanschen, Franziska S.; Schreiner, Monika

    2017-01-01

    Vegetables of the Brassica oleracea group, such as broccoli, cauliflower, and cabbage, play an important role for glucosinolate consumption in the human diet. Upon maceration of the vegetable tissue, glucosinolates are degraded enzymatically to form volatile isothiocyanates, nitriles, and epithionitriles. However, only the uptake of isothiocyanates is linked to the cancer-preventive effects. Thus, it is of great interest to evaluate especially the isothiocyanate formation. Here, we studied the formation of glucosinolates and their respective hydrolysis products in sprouts and fully developed vegetable heads of different genotypes of the five B. oleracea varieties: broccoli, cauliflower as well as white, red, and savoy cabbages. Further, the effect of ontogeny (developmental stages) during the head development on the formation of glucosinolates and their respective hydrolysis products was evaluated at three different developmental stages (mini, fully developed, and over-mature head). Broccoli and red cabbage were mainly rich in 4-(methylsulfinyl)butyl glucosinolate (glucoraphanin), whereas cauliflower, savoy cabbage and white cabbage contained mainly 2-propenyl (sinigrin) and 3-(methylsulfinyl)propyl glucosinolate (glucoiberin). Upon hydrolysis, epithionitriles or nitriles were often observed to be the main hydrolysis products, with 1-cyano-2,3-epithiopropane being most abundant with up to 5.7 μmol/g fresh weight in white cabbage sprouts. Notably, sprouts often contained more than 10 times more glucosinolates or their hydrolysis products compared to fully developed vegetables. Moreover, during head development, both glucosinolate concentrations as well as hydrolysis product concentrations changed and mini heads contained the highest isothiocyanate concentrations. Thus, from a cancer-preventive point of view, consumption of mini heads of the B. oleracea varieties is recommended. PMID:28690627

  14. Isothiocyanates, Nitriles, and Epithionitriles from Glucosinolates Are Affected by Genotype and Developmental Stage in Brassica oleracea Varieties.

    PubMed

    Hanschen, Franziska S; Schreiner, Monika

    2017-01-01

    Vegetables of the Brassica oleracea group, such as broccoli, cauliflower, and cabbage, play an important role for glucosinolate consumption in the human diet. Upon maceration of the vegetable tissue, glucosinolates are degraded enzymatically to form volatile isothiocyanates, nitriles, and epithionitriles. However, only the uptake of isothiocyanates is linked to the cancer-preventive effects. Thus, it is of great interest to evaluate especially the isothiocyanate formation. Here, we studied the formation of glucosinolates and their respective hydrolysis products in sprouts and fully developed vegetable heads of different genotypes of the five B. oleracea varieties: broccoli, cauliflower as well as white, red, and savoy cabbages. Further, the effect of ontogeny (developmental stages) during the head development on the formation of glucosinolates and their respective hydrolysis products was evaluated at three different developmental stages (mini, fully developed, and over-mature head). Broccoli and red cabbage were mainly rich in 4-(methylsulfinyl)butyl glucosinolate (glucoraphanin), whereas cauliflower, savoy cabbage and white cabbage contained mainly 2-propenyl (sinigrin) and 3-(methylsulfinyl)propyl glucosinolate (glucoiberin). Upon hydrolysis, epithionitriles or nitriles were often observed to be the main hydrolysis products, with 1-cyano-2,3-epithiopropane being most abundant with up to 5.7 μmol/g fresh weight in white cabbage sprouts. Notably, sprouts often contained more than 10 times more glucosinolates or their hydrolysis products compared to fully developed vegetables. Moreover, during head development, both glucosinolate concentrations as well as hydrolysis product concentrations changed and mini heads contained the highest isothiocyanate concentrations. Thus, from a cancer-preventive point of view, consumption of mini heads of the B. oleracea varieties is recommended.

  15. Anabolic and Antiresorptive Modulation of Bone Homeostasis by the Epigenetic Modulator Sulforaphane, a Naturally Occurring Isothiocyanate*

    PubMed Central

    Thaler, Roman; Maurizi, Antonio; Roschger, Paul; Sturmlechner, Ines; Khani, Farzaneh; Spitzer, Silvia; Rumpler, Monika; Zwerina, Jochen; Karlic, Heidrun; Dudakovic, Amel; Klaushofer, Klaus; Teti, Anna; Rucci, Nadia; Varga, Franz; van Wijnen, Andre J.

    2016-01-01

    Bone degenerative pathologies like osteoporosis may be initiated by age-related shifts in anabolic and catabolic responses that control bone homeostasis. Here we show that sulforaphane (SFN), a naturally occurring isothiocyanate, promotes osteoblast differentiation by epigenetic mechanisms. SFN enhances active DNA demethylation via Tet1 and Tet2 and promotes preosteoblast differentiation by enhancing extracellular matrix mineralization and the expression of osteoblastic markers (Runx2, Col1a1, Bglap2, Sp7, Atf4, and Alpl). SFN decreases the expression of the osteoclast activator receptor activator of nuclear factor-κB ligand (RANKL) in osteocytes and mouse calvarial explants and preferentially induces apoptosis in preosteoclastic cells via up-regulation of the Tet1/Fas/Caspase 8 and Caspase 3/7 pathway. These mechanistic effects correlate with higher bone volume (∼20%) in both normal and ovariectomized mice treated with SFN for 5 weeks compared with untreated mice as determined by microcomputed tomography. This effect is due to a higher trabecular number in these mice. Importantly, no shifts in mineral density distribution are observed upon SFN treatment as measured by quantitative backscattered electron imaging. Our data indicate that the food-derived compound SFN epigenetically stimulates osteoblast activity and diminishes osteoclast bone resorption, shifting the balance of bone homeostasis and favoring bone acquisition and/or mitigation of bone resorption in vivo. Thus, SFN is a member of a new class of epigenetic compounds that could be considered for novel strategies to counteract osteoporosis. PMID:26757819

  16. Laboratory Measured Emission Losses of Methyl Isothiocyanate at Pacific Northwest Soil Surface Fumigation Temperatures.

    PubMed

    Lu, Zhou; Hebert, Vincent R; Miller, Glenn C

    2017-02-01

    Temperature is a major environmental factor influencing land surface volatilization at the time of agricultural field fumigation. Cooler fumigation soil temperatures relevant to Pacific Northwest (PNW) application practices with metam sodium/potassium should result in appreciably reduced methyl isothiocyanate (MITC) emission rates, thus minimizing off target movement and bystander inhalation exposure. Herein, a series of laboratory controlled flow-through soil column assessments were performed evaluating MITC emissions over the range of cooler temperatures (2-13°C). Assessments were also conducted at the maximum allowed label application temperature of 32°C. All assessments were conducted at registration label-specified field moisture capacity, and no more than 50% cumulative MITC loss was observed over the 2-day post-fumigation timeframe. Three-fold reductions in MITC peak fluxes at cooler PNW application temperatures were observed compared to the label maximum temperature. This study supports current EPA metam sodium/potassium label language that indicates surface fumigations during warmer soil conditions should be discouraged.

  17. Honey-Induced Protein Stabilization as Studied by Fluorescein Isothiocyanate Fluorescence

    PubMed Central

    Abdul Kadir, Habsah; Tayyab, Saad

    2013-01-01

    Protein stabilizing potential of honey was studied on a model protein, bovine serum albumin (BSA), using extrinsic fluorescence of fluorescein isothiocyanate (FITC) as the probe. BSA was labelled with FITC using chemical coupling, and urea and thermal denaturation studies were performed on FITC-labelled BSA (FITC-BSA) both in the absence and presence of 10% and 20% (w/v) honey using FITC fluorescence at 522 nm upon excitation at 495 nm. There was an increase in the FITC fluorescence intensity upon increasing urea concentration or temperature, suggesting protein denaturation. The results from urea and thermal denaturation studies showed increased stability of protein in the presence of honey as reflected from the shift in the transition curve along with the start point and the midpoint of the transition towards higher urea concentration/temperature. Furthermore, the increase in ΔG D H2O and ΔG D 25°C in presence of honey also suggested protein stabilization. PMID:24222758

  18. Involvement of the Electrophilic Isothiocyanate Sulforaphane in Arabidopsis Local Defense Responses1

    PubMed Central

    Andersson, Mats X.; Nilsson, Anders K.; Johansson, Oskar N.; Boztaş, Gülin; Adolfsson, Lisa E.; Pinosa, Francesco; Petit, Christel Garcia; Aronsson, Henrik; Mackey, David; Tör, Mahmut; Hamberg, Mats; Ellerström, Mats

    2015-01-01

    Plants defend themselves against microbial pathogens through a range of highly sophisticated and integrated molecular systems. Recognition of pathogen-secreted effector proteins often triggers the hypersensitive response (HR), a complex multicellular defense reaction where programmed cell death of cells surrounding the primary site of infection is a prominent feature. Even though the HR was described almost a century ago, cell-to-cell factors acting at the local level generating the full defense reaction have remained obscure. In this study, we sought to identify diffusible molecules produced during the HR that could induce cell death in naive tissue. We found that 4-methylsulfinylbutyl isothiocyanate (sulforaphane) is released by Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) leaf tissue undergoing the HR and that this compound induces cell death as well as primes defense in naive tissue. Two different mutants impaired in the pathogen-induced accumulation of sulforaphane displayed attenuated programmed cell death upon bacterial and oomycete effector recognition as well as decreased resistance to several isolates of the plant pathogen Hyaloperonospora arabidopsidis. Treatment with sulforaphane provided protection against a virulent H. arabidopsidis isolate. Glucosinolate breakdown products are recognized as antifeeding compounds toward insects and recently also as intracellular signaling and bacteriostatic molecules in Arabidopsis. The data presented here indicate that these compounds also trigger local defense responses in Arabidopsis tissue. PMID:25371552

  19. Suppression of LPS-induced transcription and cytokine secretion by the dietary isothiocyanate sulforaphane.

    PubMed

    Folkard, Danielle L; Melchini, Antonietta; Traka, Maria H; Al-Bakheit, Ala'a; Saha, Shikha; Mulholland, Francis; Watson, Andrew; Mithen, Richard F

    2014-12-01

    Diets rich in cruciferous vegetables are associated with lower levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines, which may contribute to potential health-promoting properties of these vegetables. We investigate whether sulforaphane (SF), an isothiocyanate (ITC) obtained from broccoli, could suppress LPS-induced transcription and subsequent pro-inflammatory cytokine secretion at a physiologically relevant concentration using in vitro models of chronic inflammation. We find that exposure of the LPS receptor Toll-like receptor-4 (TLR4) to physiologically appropriate concentrations of SF under non-reducing conditions results in covalent modification of cysteine residues 246 and 609. We further demonstrate that the changes in expression of 1210 genes (p ≤ 0.01) in THP-1 monocytes and the secretion of pro-inflammatory cytokines in both human peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) and THP-1 monocytes induced by LPS exposure can be completely suppressed through exposure with physiologically appropriate concentrations of SF. Finally, we show that in vivo exposure of human PBMCs to ITCs within human circulation reduces secretion of pro-inflammatory cytokines following subsequent ex vivo LPS challenge (p < 0.001). Covalent modification of TLR4 by ITCs and resultant suppression of LPS-induced cell signalling could lead to reductions in levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines in people with chronic diseases who consume diets rich in cruciferous vegetables. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  20. Pharmacokinetics, Tissue Distribution, and Anti-Lipogenic/Adipogenic Effects of Allyl-Isothiocyanate Metabolites

    PubMed Central

    Ahn, Jiyun; Chung, Woo-Jae; Jang, Young Jin; Seong, Ki-Seung; Moon, Jae-Hak; Ha, Tae Youl; Jung, Chang Hwa

    2015-01-01

    Allyl-isothiocyanate (AITC) is an organosulfur phytochemical found in abundance in common cruciferous vegetables such as mustard, wasabi, and cabbage. Although AITC is metabolized primarily through the mercapturic acid pathway, its exact pharmacokinetics remains undefined and the biological function of AITC metabolites is still largely unknown. In this study, we evaluated the inhibitory effects of AITC metabolites on lipid accumulation in vitro and elucidated the pharmacokinetics and tissue distribution of AITC metabolites in rats. We found that AITC metabolites generally conjugate with glutathione (GSH) or N-acetylcysteine (NAC) and are distributed in most organs and tissues. Pharmacokinetic analysis showed a rapid uptake and complete metabolism of AITC following oral administration to rats. Although AITC has been reported to exhibit anti-tumor activity in bladder cancer, the potential bioactivity of its metabolites has not been explored. We found that GSH-AITC and NAC-AITC effectively inhibit adipogenic differentiation of 3T3-L1 preadipocytes and suppress expression of PPAR-γ, C/EBPα, and FAS, which are up-regulated during adipogenesis. GSH-AITC and NAC-AITC also suppressed oleic acid-induced lipid accumulation and lipogenesis in hepatocytes. Our findings suggest that AITC is almost completely metabolized in the liver and rapidly excreted in urine through the mercapturic acid pathway following administration in rats. AITC metabolites may exert anti-obesity effects through suppression of adipogenesis or lipogenesis. PMID:26317351

  1. Pharmacokinetics, Tissue Distribution, and Anti-Lipogenic/Adipogenic Effects of Allyl-Isothiocyanate Metabolites.

    PubMed

    Kim, Yang-Ji; Lee, Da-Hye; Ahn, Jiyun; Chung, Woo-Jae; Jang, Young Jin; Seong, Ki-Seung; Moon, Jae-Hak; Ha, Tae Youl; Jung, Chang Hwa

    2015-01-01

    Allyl-isothiocyanate (AITC) is an organosulfur phytochemical found in abundance in common cruciferous vegetables such as mustard, wasabi, and cabbage. Although AITC is metabolized primarily through the mercapturic acid pathway, its exact pharmacokinetics remains undefined and the biological function of AITC metabolites is still largely unknown. In this study, we evaluated the inhibitory effects of AITC metabolites on lipid accumulation in vitro and elucidated the pharmacokinetics and tissue distribution of AITC metabolites in rats. We found that AITC metabolites generally conjugate with glutathione (GSH) or N-acetylcysteine (NAC) and are distributed in most organs and tissues. Pharmacokinetic analysis showed a rapid uptake and complete metabolism of AITC following oral administration to rats. Although AITC has been reported to exhibit anti-tumor activity in bladder cancer, the potential bioactivity of its metabolites has not been explored. We found that GSH-AITC and NAC-AITC effectively inhibit adipogenic differentiation of 3T3-L1 preadipocytes and suppress expression of PPAR-γ, C/EBPα, and FAS, which are up-regulated during adipogenesis. GSH-AITC and NAC-AITC also suppressed oleic acid-induced lipid accumulation and lipogenesis in hepatocytes. Our findings suggest that AITC is almost completely metabolized in the liver and rapidly excreted in urine through the mercapturic acid pathway following administration in rats. AITC metabolites may exert anti-obesity effects through suppression of adipogenesis or lipogenesis.

  2. 6-Methylsulfinylhexyl isothiocyanate modulates endothelial cell function and suppresses leukocyte adhesion.

    PubMed

    Okamoto, Takayuki; Akita, Nobuyuki; Nagai, Masashi; Hayashi, Tatsuya; Suzuki, Koji

    2014-01-01

    6-Methylsulfinylhexyl isothiocyanate (6-MSITC) is an active compound in wasabi (Wasabia japonica Matsum.), which is one of the most popular spices in Japan. 6-MSITC suppresses lipopolysaccharide-induced macrophage activation, arachidonic- or adenosine diphosphate-induced platelet activation, and tumor cell proliferation. These data indicate that 6-MSITC has several biological activities involving anti-inflammatory, anti-coagulant, and anti-apoptosis properties. Endothelial cells (ECs) maintain vascular homeostasis and play crucial roles in crosstalk between blood coagulation and vascular inflammation. In this study, we determined the anti-coagulant and anti-inflammatory effects of 6-MSITC on human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs). 6-MSITC slightly reduced tissue factor expression, but did not alter von Willebrand factor release in activated HUVECs. 6-MSITC modulated the generation of activated protein C, which is essential for negative regulation of blood coagulation, on normal ECs. In addition, 6-MSITC reduced tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α)-induced interleukin-6 and monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 expression. 6-MSITC markedly attenuated TNF-α-induced adhesion of human monoblast U937 cells to HUVECs and reduced vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 and E-selectin mRNA expression in activated ECs. These results showed that 6-MSITC modulates EC function and suppresses cell adhesion. This study provides new insight into the mechanism of the anti-inflammatory effect of 6-MSITC, suggesting that 6-MSITC has therapeutic potential as a treatment for vasculitis and vascular inflammation.

  3. Antimicrobial activity of isothiocyanates (ITCs) extracted from horseradish (Armoracia rusticana) root against oral microorganisms.

    PubMed

    Park, Ho-Won; Choi, Kyu-Duck; Shin, Il-Shik

    2013-01-01

    The antimicrobial activity of isothiocyanates (ITCs) extracted from horseradish root was investigated against oral microorganisms: 6 strains of facultative anaerobic bacteria, Streptococcus mutans, Streptococcus sobrinus, Lactobacillus casei, Staphylococcus aureus, Enterococcus faecalis and Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans; one strain of yeast, Candida albicans, and 3 strains of anaerobic bacteria, Fusobacterium nucleatum, Prevotella nigrescens, and Clostridium perfringens. The ITCs extracted from horseradish root showed antimicrobial activity against all oral microorganisms by the paper disk method. The minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC) of the ITCs extracted from horseradish root ranged from 1.25 to 5.00 mg/ml against 6 strains of facultative anaerobic bacteria and one strain of yeast, and 4.17 to 16.67 mg/ml against 3 strains of anaerobic bacteria. The ITCs extracted from horseradish root showed the strongest antimicrobial activity, with a MBC of 1.25 mg/ml, against C. albicans among facultative microorganisms, and 4.17 mg/ml against F. nucleatum among anaerobic bacteria. These results suggest that the ITCs extracted from horseradish root may be a candidate for use as an antimicrobial agent against oral microorganisms.

  4. Comparison of bioactive phytochemical content and release of isothiocyanates in selected brassica sprouts.

    PubMed

    De Nicola, Gina Rosalinda; Bagatta, Manuela; Pagnotta, Eleonora; Angelino, Donato; Gennari, Lorenzo; Ninfali, Paolino; Rollin, Patrick; Iori, Renato

    2013-11-01

    The consumption of brassica sprouts as raw vegetables provides a fair amount of glucosinolates (GLs) and active plant myrosinase, which enables the breakdown of GLs into health-promoting isothiocyanates (ITCs). This study reports the determination of the main constituents related to human health found in edible sprouts of two Brassica oleracea varieties, broccoli and Tuscan black kale, and two Raphanus sativus varieties, Daikon and Sango. Radish sprouts exhibited the highest ability to produce ITCs, with Daikon showing the greatest level of conversion of GLs into bioactive ITCs (96.5%), followed by Sango (90.0%). Tuscan black kale gave a value of 68.5%, whereas broccoli displayed the lowest with 18.7%. ITCs were not the exclusive GL breakdown products in the two B. oleracea varieties, since nitriles were also produced, thus accounting for the lower conversion observed. Measuring the release of plant ITCs is a valuable tool in predicting the potential level of exposure to these bioactive compounds after the consumption of raw brassica sprouts. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Lacosamide Isothiocyanate-based Agents: Novel Agents to Target and Identify Lacosamide Receptors

    PubMed Central

    Park, Ki Duk; Morieux, Pierre; Salomé, Christophe; Cotten, Steven W.; Reamtong, Onrapak; Eyers, Claire; Gaskell, Simon J.; Stables, James P.; Liu, Rihe; Kohn, Harold

    2009-01-01

    (R)-Lacosamide ((R)-2, (R)-N-benzyl 2-acetamido-3-methoxypropionamide), has recently gained regulatory approval for the treatment of partial-onset seizures in adults. Whole animal pharmacological studies have documented that (R)-2 function is unique. A robust strategy is advanced for the discovery of interacting proteins associated with function and toxicity of (R)-2 through the use of (R)-2 analogs, 3, that contain “affinity bait (AB)” and “chemical reporter (CR)” functional groups. In 3, covalent modification of the interacting proteins proceeds at the AB moiety, and detection or isolation of the selectively captured protein occurs through the bioorthogonal CR group upon reaction with an appropriate probe. We report the synthesis, pharmacological evaluation, and interrogation of the mouse soluble brain proteome using 3 where the AB group is an isothiocyanate moiety. One compound, (R)-N-(4-isothiocyanato)benzyl 2-acetamido-3-(prop-2-ynyloxy)propionamide ((R)-9), exhibited excellent seizure protection in mice and, like (R)-2, anticonvulsant activity principally resided in the (R)-stereoisomer. Several proteins were preferentially labeled by (R)-9 compared with (S)-9, including collapsin response mediator protein 2. PMID:19795888

  6. Nanoemulsions of cancer chemopreventive agent benzyl isothiocyanate display enhanced solubility, dissolution, and permeability.

    PubMed

    Qhattal, Hussaini Syed Sha; Wang, Shu; Salihima, Tri; Srivastava, Sanjay K; Liu, Xinli

    2011-12-14

    Benzyl isothiocyanate (BITC), a compound found in cruciferous vegetables, is an effective chemopreventive agent. The objective of this study was to develop nanoemulsion formulations for the oral delivery of BITC. Optimized oil-in-water BITC nanoemulsions were prepared by a spontaneous self-nanoemulsification method and a homogenization-sonication method. Both nanoemulsions entrapped high amounts of BITC (15-17 mg/mL), with low polydispersity and good colloidal stability. The BITC nanoemulsions showed enhanced solubility and dissolution compared to pure BITC. These formulations markedly increased the apical to basolateral transport of BITC in Caco-2 cell monolayers. The apparent permeability values were 3.6 × 10(-6) cm/s for pure BITC and (1.1-1.3) × 10(-5) cm/s for BITC nanoemulsions. The nanoemulsions were easily taken up by human cancer cells A549 and SKOV-3 and inhibited tumor growth in vitro. This work shows for the first time that BITC can be formulated into nanoemulsions and may show promise in enhancing absorption and bioavailability.

  7. Isothiocyanates from Broccolini seeds induce apoptosis in human colon cancer cells: proteomic and bioinformatic analyses.

    PubMed

    Yang, Yanjing; Yan, Huidan; Li, Yuqin; Yang, Shang-Tian; Zhang, Xuewu

    2011-05-01

    Isothiocyanates (ITCs) have been shown to possess antitumor activity in colon cancer, however, the detailed mechanism is still unclear. The objective of this study was to investigate apoptosis-inducing activity of ITCs from Broccolini seeds and proteomic changes in SW480 cells, and to identify the molecular pathways responsible for the anticancer action of ITCs. We found that ITCs induces SW480 cells apoptosis in a dose-dependent manner by using MTT assay, phase contrast microscope and flow cytometry, and the IC50 was calculated to be 77.72 microg/ml, superior to the chemotherapeutical drug 5-flurouracil. Subsequently, 15 altered proteins in ITCs treated SW480 cells were identified. Further bioinformatics analysis predicted the potential pathways for ITCs to induce apoptosis of SW480 cells. In conclusion, this is the first report to investigate anticancer activity of ITCs from Broccolini seeds and its mechanism of action by proteomics analysis. Our observations provide potential therapeutic targets for colon cancer inhibitor intervention and implicate the development of novel anti-cancer therapeutic strategies.

  8. Isothiocyanate-rich Moringa oleifera extract reduces weight gain, insulin resistance, and hepatic gluconeogenesis in mice.

    PubMed

    Waterman, Carrie; Rojas-Silva, Patricio; Tumer, Tugba Boyunegmez; Kuhn, Peter; Richard, Allison J; Wicks, Shawna; Stephens, Jacqueline M; Wang, Zhong; Mynatt, Randy; Cefalu, William; Raskin, Ilya

    2015-06-01

    Moringa oleifera (moringa) is tropical plant traditionally used as an antidiabetic food. It produces structurally unique and chemically stable moringa isothiocyanates (MICs) that were evaluated for their therapeutic use in vivo. C57BL/6L mice fed very high fat diet (VHFD) supplemented with 5% moringa concentrate (MC, delivering 66 mg/kg/d of MICs) accumulated fat mass, had improved glucose tolerance and insulin signaling, and did not develop fatty liver disease compared to VHFD-fed mice. MC-fed group also had reduced plasma insulin, leptin, resistin, cholesterol, IL-1β, TNFα, and lower hepatic glucose-6-phosphatase (G6P) expression. In hepatoma cells, MC and MICs at low micromolar concentrations inhibited gluconeogenesis and G6P expression. MICs and MC effects on lipolysis in vitro and on thermogenic and lipolytic genes in adipose tissue in vivo argued these are not likely primary targets for the anti-obesity and anti-diabetic effects observed. Data suggest that MICs are the main anti-obesity and anti-diabetic bioactives of MC, and that they exert their effects by inhibiting rate-limiting steps in liver gluconeogenesis resulting in direct or indirect increase in insulin signaling and sensitivity. These conclusions suggest that MC may be an effective dietary food for the prevention and treatment of obesity and type 2 diabetes. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  9. Fluorescein isothiocyanate-labeled human plasma fibronectin in extracellular matrix remodeling.

    PubMed

    Hoffmann, Celine; Leroy-Dudal, Johanne; Patel, Salima; Gallet, Olivier; Pauthe, Emmanuel

    2008-01-01

    Fluorescein isothiocyanate (FITC) is a well-known probe for labeling biologically relevant proteins. However, the impact of the labeling procedure on protein structure and biological activities remains unclear. In this work, FITC-labeled human plasma fibronectin (Fn) was developed to gain insight into the dynamic relationship between cells and Fn. The similarities and differences concerning the structure and function between Fn-FITC and standard Fn were evaluated using biochemical as well as cellular approaches. By varying the FITC/Fn ratio, we demonstrated that overlabeling (>10 FITC molecules/Fn molecule) induces probe fluorescence quenching, protein aggregation, and cell growth modifications. A correct balance between reliable fluorescence for detection and no significant modifications to structure and biological function compared with standard Fn was obtained with a final ratio of 3 FITC molecules per Fn molecule (Fn-FITC3). Fn-FITC3, similar to standard Fn, is correctly recruited into the cell matrix network. Also, Fn-FITC3 is proposed to be a powerful molecular tool to investigate Fn organization and cellular behavior concomitantly.

  10. Effects of Allyl Isothiocyanate, Acetaminophen, and Dipyrone in the Guinea-Pig Ileum.

    PubMed

    Donnerer, Josef; Liebmann, Ingrid

    2017-01-01

    Allyl isothiocyanate (AITC, mustard oil, 50-200 µmol/l), depending on specific dosages, inhibited the cholinergic twitch response in the longitudinal muscle-myenteric plexus (LMMP) strip of the guinea-pig ileum. AITC also induced short-lasting contractile responses, and decreases of the basal tone of the LMMP strip at low concentrations and increases at high concentrations. Hexamethonium, a blocker of nicotinic ganglionic transmission, was able to prevent the AITC-evoked inhibitory effect, an effect that was also observed with the opioid antagonist naloxone. The P2 purinoceptor antagonist pyridoxalphosphate-6-azophenyl-2'-4'-disulphonic acid and guanethidine had no significant influence on the inhibitory effect of AITC. Since AITC also reduced the electrical stimulation-induced myogenic smooth muscle contractions in the LMMP preparation, its contractile and relaxant actions can be regarded as neurogenic and myogenic in nature. The analgesics, acetaminophen (paracetamol, 100-500 µmol/l) and dipyrone (metamizole, 100-500 µmol/l), reduced both the cholinergic twitch and the myogenic contractions in the LMMP strip to the same extent; therefore, their action in the intestinal smooth muscle can be regarded as myogenic spasmolytic in nature. © 2016 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  11. Activity of Allyl Isothiocyanate and Its Synergy with Fluconazole against Candida albicans Biofilms.

    PubMed

    Raut, Jayant Shankar; Bansode, Bhagyashree Shridhar; Jadhav, Ashwini Khanderao; Karuppayil, Sankunny Mohan

    2017-04-28

    Candidiasis involving the biofilms of Candida albicans is a threat to immunocompromised patients. Candida biofilms are intrinsically resistant to the antifungal drugs and hence novel treatment strategies are desired. The study intended to evaluate the anti- Candida activity of allyl isothiocyanate (AITC) alone and with fluconazole (FLC), particularly against the biofilms. Results revealed the concentration-dependent activity of AITC against the planktonic growth and virulence factors of C. albicans . Significant ( p <0.05) inhibition of the biofilms was evident at < or =1 mg/ml concentrations of AITC. Notably, a combination of 0.004 mg/ml of FLC and 0.125 mg/ml of AITC prevented the biofilm formation. Similarly, the preformed biofilms were significantly ( p <0.05) inhibited by the AITC-FLC combination. The fractional inhibitory concentration indices ranging from 0.132 to 0.312 indicated the synergistic activity of AITC and FLC against the biofilm formation and the preformed biofilms. No hemolytic activity at the biofilm inhibitory concentrations of AITC and the AITC-FLC combination suggested the absence of cytotoxic effects. The recognizable synergy between AITC and FLC offers a potential therapeutic strategy against biofilm-associated Candida infections.

  12. Deuteration and fluorination of 1,3-bis(2-phenylethyl)pyrimidine-2,4,6(1H,3H,5H)-trione to improve its pharmacokinetic properties.

    PubMed

    Xia, Guoyao; Benmohamed, Radhia; Morimoto, Richard I; Kirsch, Donald R; Silverman, Richard B

    2014-11-01

    Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is a fatal neurodegenerative disease characterized by the progressive loss of motor neurons, leading to muscle weakness, paralysis, and death, most often from respiratory failure. Over 200 pyrimidine-2,4,6-trione (PYT) small molecules, which prevent aggregation and reduce the associated toxicity of mutant superoxide dismutase 1 (SOD1) found in patients with familial ALS, have been synthesized and tested. One of the compounds (1,3-bis(2-phenylethyl)pyrimidine-2,4,6(1H,3H,5H)-trione, (1) was previously found to have an excellent combination of potency efficacy, and some desirable pharmacokinetic properties. To improve the solubility and metabolic stability properties of this compound, deuterium and fluorine were introduced into 1. New analogs with better solubility, plasma stability, and human microsome stability were identified. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. 4-Isopropyl-2,6-bis(1-phenylethyl)aniline 1, an Analogue of KTH-13 Isolated from Cordyceps bassiana, Inhibits the NF-κB-Mediated Inflammatory Response

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Woo Seok; Ratan, Zubair Ahmed; Kim, Gihyeon; Lee, Yunmi; Kim, Mi-Yeon; Kim, Jong-Hoon; Cho, Jae Youl

    2015-01-01

    The Cordyceps species has been a good source of compounds with anticancer and anti-inflammatory activities. Recently, we reported a novel compound (4-isopropyl-2,6-bis(1-phenylethyl)phenol, KTH-13) with anticancer activity isolated from Cordyceps bassiana and created several derivatives to increase its pharmacological activity. In this study, we tested one of the KTH-013 derivatives, 4-isopropyl-2,6-bis(1-phenylethyl)aniline 1 (KTH-13-AD1), with regard to anti-inflammatory activity under macrophage-mediated inflammatory conditions. KTH-13-AD1 clearly suppressed the production of nitric oxide (NO) and reactive oxygen species (ROS) in lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and sodium nitroprusside- (SNP-) treated macrophage-like cells (RAW264.7 cells). Similarly, this compound also reduced mRNA expression of inducible NO synthase (iNOS) and tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), as analyzed by RT-PCR and real-time PCR. Interestingly, KTH-13-AD1 strongly diminished NF-κB-mediated luciferase activities and nuclear translocation of NF-κB family proteins. In accordance, KTH-13-AD1 suppressed the upstream signaling pathway of NF-κB activation, including IκBα, IKKα/β, AKT, p85/PI3K, and Src in a time- and dose-dependent manner. The autophosphorylation of Src and NF-κB observed during the overexpression of Src was also suppressed by KTH-13-AD1. These results strongly suggest that KTH-13-AD1 has strong anti-inflammatory features mediated by suppression of the Src/NF-κB regulatory loop. PMID:26819495

  14. Active packaging of cheese with allyl isothiocyanate, an alternative to modified atmosphere packaging.

    PubMed

    Winther, Mette; Nielsen, Per Vaeggemose

    2006-10-01

    The natural antimicrobial compound allyl isothiocyanate (AITC), found in mustard oil, is effective against cheese-related fungi both on laboratory media and cheese. Penicillium commune, Penicillium roqueforti, and Aspergillus flavus were more sensitive to AITC when it was added just after the spores had completed 100% germination and branching had started on Czapek yeast extract agar than were spores in the dormant phase. The use of 1 AITC label (Wasaouro interior labels, LD30D, 20 by 20 mm) in combination with atmospheric air in the packaging extended the shelf life of Danish Danbo cheese from 4 1/2 to 13 weeks. Two AITC labels extended the shelf life from 4 1/2 to 28 weeks. Both 1 and 2 labels in combination with modified atmosphere packaging extended the shelf life of the cheese from 18 to 28 weeks. This study showed that AITC was absorbed in the cheese, but it was not possible to detect any volatile breakdown products from AITC in the cheese. Cheese stored for up to 12 weeks with an AITC label had an unacceptable mustard flavor. The mustard flavor decreased to an acceptable level between weeks 12 and 28. Cheese stored in atmospheric air had a fresher taste without a CO2 off-flavor than did cheese stored in modified atmosphere packaging. AITC may be a good alternative to modified atmosphere packaging for cheese. The extended shelf life of cheese in the package is very desirable: the cheese can be transported longer distances, and the packaging can be used for the final maturing of the cheese. Furthermore, AITC can address problems such as pinholes and leaking seals in cheese packaging.

  15. A selective reaction of fructose bisphosphate aldolase with fluorescein isothiocyanate in chicken muscle extracts.

    PubMed

    Gehring, Andrew G; Ezzell, John L; Lebherz, Herbert G

    2008-01-01

    The present work describes the selective covalent modification of fructose bisphosphate aldolase in crude extracts of chicken breast muscle by fluorescein 5'-isothiocyanate (5'-FITC) at pH 7.0 and 35 degrees C. The modification was observed after 1 min while no other major soluble protein was labeled even after 30 min. We calculated that ca. one 5'-FITC molecule was incorporated into each aldolase tetramer after a 30 min reaction which resulted in a minimal loss of enzyme activity. The "native" structure of aldolase was required for the selective modification by 5'-FITC since high pH, high temperature, and ionic detergents either inhibited or prevented the reaction of 5'-FITC with aldolase. Certain metabolites (ATP, ADP, CTP, GTP, FBP) and erythrosin B also inhibited the 5'-FITC modification of aldolase. In contrast, F-6-P, AMP, NADH, and NAD(+) as well as free lysine and most importantly, the 6'-isomer of FITC exhibited no competition with 5'-FITC for the labeling of aldolase. Alone, the 6'-isomer of FITC did not exhibit preferential reaction when combined with aldolase. 5'-FITC-labeled and -unlabeled aldolases were not distinguished by their ability to bind to muscle myofibrils (MFs) or by their abilities to refold following reversible denaturation in urea. Structural analysis revealed that 5'-FITC-labeled a tryptic peptide corresponding to residues 112-134 in the primary structure of aldolase, a peptide that does not contain lysine, the amino acid believed to be the primary target of this reagent. Unlike chicken and rabbit muscle aldolases, chicken brain and liver aldolase isoforms along with several other aldolases derived from diverse biological sources did not exhibit this highly selective modification by 5'-FITC. 2008 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd

  16. Ternary Interactions and Energy Transfer between Fluorescein Isothiocyanate, Adenosine Triphosphate, and Graphene Oxide Nanocarriers.

    PubMed

    Ratajczak, Katarzyna; Stobiecka, Magdalena

    2017-07-20

    The interactions of fluorescent probes and biomolecules with nanocarriers are of key importance to the emerging targeted drug delivery systems. Graphene oxide nanosheets (GONs) as the nanocarriers offer biocompatibility and robust drug binding capacity. The interactions of GONs with fluorophores lead to strong fluorescence quenching, which may interfere with fluorescence bioimaging and biodetection. Herein, we report on the interactions and energy transfers in a model ternary system: GONs-FITC-ATP, where FITC is a model fluorophore (fluorescein isothiocyanate) and ATP is a common biomolecule (adenosine-5'-triphosphate). We have found that FITC fluorescence is considerably quenched by ATP (the quenching constant K SV = 113 ± 22 M -1 ). The temperature coefficient of K SV is positive (α T = 4.15 M -1 deg -1 ). The detailed analysis of a model for internal self-quenching of FITC indicates that the temperature dependence of the net quenching efficiency η for the FITC-ATP pair is dominated by FITC internal self-quenching modes with their contribution estimated at 79%. The quenching of FITC by GONs is much stronger (K SV = 598 ± 29 M -1 ) than that of FITC-ATP and is associated with the formation of supramolecular assemblies bound with hydrogen bonding and π-π stacking interactions. For the analysis of the complex behavior of the ternary system GONs-FITC-ATP, a model of chemisorption of ATP on GONs, with partial blocking of FITC quenching, has been developed. Our results indicate that ATP acts as a moderator for FITC quenching by GONs. The interactions between ATP, FITC, and GONs have been corroborated using molecular dynamics and quantum mechanical calculations.

  17. Comparison of isothiocyanate yield from wasabi rhizome tissues grown in soil or water.

    PubMed

    Sultana, Tamanna; Porter, N G; Savage, G P; McNeil, D L

    2003-06-04

    The isothiocyanate (ITC) yield of wasabi, the Japanese horseradish (Wasabi japonica), was measured on its release from glucosinolates in the rhizomes of plants grown in two traditional ways. Mature plants of 18 months old were harvested from two different commercial farms located in the South Island of New Zealand. At one farm, the plants were grown in raised soil beds, while the plants at the other farm were grown in gravel irrigated by river water. Following harvest, the rhizomes from each growth medium were divided into five size groups based on the weight and length of the rhizomes. The different sized rhizomes were also subdivided into proximal, medial, and distal portions of the rhizomes and each portion was further subdivided into epidermis plus cortex, and vascular plus pith. The individual and total ITC contents of each portion (proximal, medial, and distal) of the rhizomes were measured using dichloromethane extraction followed by the GC-FPD. The total ITC content of the rhizomes grown in soil increased (13 times) linearly from 6 to 114 g of rhizome weight, while the mean ITC content of the water-grown wasabi increased (10 times) nonlinearly for similar sized rhizomes. Water-grown rhizomes in the weight range from 18 to 45 g gave significantly (P = 0.030) higher total ITC (1-2 times) than similarly sized soil-grown rhizomes. Analysis of the tissues showed that the total and the individual ITCs were found in significantly higher levels (73 and 64%, respectively) in the skin and cortex tissue compared to the vascular and pith tissues. Analysis of the ITC content of the different locations of the wasabi rhizome showed that the distal portion of the rhizome contained significantly higher levels of both total and individual ITCs compared to the medial and proximal portions of the rhizome.

  18. Mechanisms of transient receptor potential vanilloid 1 activation and sensitization by allyl isothiocyanate.

    PubMed

    Gees, Maarten; Alpizar, Yeranddy A; Boonen, Brett; Sanchez, Alicia; Everaerts, Wouter; Segal, Andrei; Xue, Fenqin; Janssens, Annelies; Owsianik, Grzegorz; Nilius, Bernd; Voets, Thomas; Talavera, Karel

    2013-09-01

    Allyl isothiocyanate (AITC; aka, mustard oil) is a powerful irritant produced by Brassica plants as a defensive trait against herbivores and confers pungency to mustard and wasabi. AITC is widely used experimentally as an inducer of acute pain and neurogenic inflammation, which are largely mediated by the activation of nociceptive cation channels transient receptor potential ankyrin 1 and transient receptor potential vanilloid 1 (TRPV1). Although it is generally accepted that electrophilic agents activate these channels through covalent modification of cytosolic cysteine residues, the mechanism underlying TRPV1 activation by AITC remains unknown. Here we show that, surprisingly, AITC-induced activation of TRPV1 does not require interaction with cysteine residues, but is largely dependent on S513, a residue that is involved in capsaicin binding. Furthermore, AITC acts in a membrane-delimited manner and induces a shift of the voltage dependence of activation toward negative voltages, which is reminiscent of capsaicin effects. These data indicate that AITC acts through reversible interactions with the capsaicin binding site. In addition, we show that TRPV1 is a locus for cross-sensitization between AITC and acidosis in nociceptive neurons. Furthermore, we show that residue F660, which is known to determine the stimulation by low pH in human TRPV1, is also essential for the cross-sensitization of the effects of AITC and low pH. Taken together, these findings demonstrate that not all reactive electrophiles stimulate TRPV1 via cysteine modification and help understanding the molecular bases underlying the surprisingly large role of this channel as mediator of the algesic properties of AITC.

  19. Moringa isothiocyanate complexed with α-cyclodextrin: a new perspective in neuroblastoma treatment.

    PubMed

    Giacoppo, Sabrina; Iori, Renato; Rollin, Patrick; Bramanti, Placido; Mazzon, Emanuela

    2017-07-14

    Several lines of evidence suggest the consume of natural products for cancer prevention or treatment. In particular, isothiocyanates (ITCs) exerting anti-cancer properties, have received great interest as potential chemotherapeutic agents. This study was designed to assess the anti-proliferative activities of a new preparation of Moringa oleifera-derived 4-(α-L-rhamnopyranosyloxy)benzyl ITC (moringin) complexed with alpha-cyclodextrin (moringin + α-CD; MAC) on SH-SY5Y human neuroblastoma cells. This new formulation arises in the attempt to overcome the poor solubility and stability of moringin alone in aqueous media. SH-SY5Y cells were cultured and exposed to increasing concentrations of MAC (1.0, 2.5 and 5.0 μg). Cell proliferation was examined by MTT and cell count assays. The cytotoxic activity of the MAC complex was assessed by lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) assay and trypan blue exclusion test. In addition, western blotting analyses for the main apoptosis-related proteins were performed. Treatment of SH-SY5Y cells with the MAC complex reduced cell growth in concentration dependent manner. Specifically, MAC exhibited a potent action in inhibiting the PI3K/Akt/mTOR pathway, whose aberrant activation was found in many types of cancer. MAC was also found to induce the nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) p65 activation by phosphorylation and its translocation into the nucleus. Moreover, treatment with MAC was able to down-regulate MAPK pathway (results focused on JNK and p38 expression). Finally, MAC was found to trigger apoptotic death pathway (based on expression levels of cleaved-caspase 3, Bax/Bcl-2 balance, p53 and p21). These findings suggest that use of MAC complex may open novel perspectives to improve the poor prognosis of patients with neuroblastoma.

  20. Disintegration of microtubules in Arabidopsis thaliana and bladder cancer cells by isothiocyanates

    PubMed Central

    Øverby, Anders; Bævre, Mette S.; Thangstad, Ole P.; Bones, Atle M.

    2015-01-01

    Isothiocyanates (ITCs) from biodegradation of glucosinolates comprise a group of electrophiles associated with growth-inhibitory effects in plant- and mammalian cells. The underlying modes of action of this feature are not fully understood. Clarifying this has involved mammalian cancer cells due to ITCs' chemopreventive potential. The binding of ITCs to tubulins has been reported as a mechanism by which ITCs induce cell cycle arrest and apoptosis. In the present study we demonstrate that ITCs disrupt microtubules in Arabidopsis thaliana contributing to the observed inhibited growth phenotype. We also confirmed this in rat bladder cancer cells (AY-27) suggesting that cells from plant and animals share mechanisms by which ITCs affect growth. Exposure of A. thaliana to vapor-phase of allyl ITC (AITC) inhibited growth and induced a concurrent bleaching of leaves in a dose-dependent manner. Transcriptional analysis was used to show an upregulation of heat shock-genes upon AITC-treatment. Transgenic A. thaliana expressing GFP-marked α-tubulin was employed to show a time- and dose-dependent disintegration of microtubules by AITC. Treatment of AY-27 with ITCs resulted in a time- and dose-dependent decrease of cell proliferation and G2/M-arrest. AY-27 transiently transfected to express GFP-tagged α-tubulin were treated with ITCs resulting in a loss of microtubular filaments and the subsequent formation of apoptotic bodies. In conclusion, our data demonstrate an ITC-induced mechanism leading to growth inhibition in A. thaliana and rat bladder cancer cells, and expose clues to the mechanisms underlying the physiological role of glucosinolates in vivo. PMID:25657654

  1. Purinoceptor-mediated, capsaicin-resistant excitatory effect of allyl isothiocyanate on neurons of the guinea-pig small intestine.

    PubMed

    Bartho, Lorand; Nordtveit, Elin; Szombati, Veronika; Benko, Rita

    2013-08-01

    Allyl isothiocyanate (AITC; 200 μM) caused atropine- and tetrodotoxin-sensitive longitudinal muscle contraction on the guinea-pig small intestine. The response was not influenced by hexamethonium, a functional blockade of capsaicin-sensitive neurons or by antagonists acting at TRPV1 or TRPA1, but was abolished by the P2 purinoceptor antagonist PPADS (50 μM). It is concluded that cholinergic motoneurons are activated by a purinergic mechanism in the course of the AITC response, independently of capsaicin-sensitive processes or even TRPA1. © 2013 Nordic Pharmacological Society. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  2. The isothiocyanate class of bioactive nutrients covalently inhibit the MEKK1 protein kinase

    PubMed Central

    Cross, Janet V; Foss, Frank W; Rady, Joshua M; Macdonald, Timothy L; Templeton, Dennis J

    2007-01-01

    Background Dietary isothiocyanates (ITCs) are electrophilic compounds that have diverse biological activities including induction of apoptosis and effects on cell cycle. They protect against experimental carcinogenesis in animals, an activity believed to result from the transcriptional induction of "Phase 2" enzymes. The molecular mechanism of action of ITCs is unknown. Since ITCs are electrophiles capable of reacting with sulfhydryl groups on amino acids, we hypothesized that ITCs induce their biological effects through covalent modification of proteins, leading to changes in cell regulatory events. We previously demonstrated that stress-signaling kinase pathways are inhibited by other electrophilic compounds such as menadione. We therefore tested the effects of nutritional ITCs on MEKK1, an upstream regulator of the SAPK/JNK signal transduction pathway. Methods The activity of MEKK1 expressed in cells was monitored using in vitro kinase assays to measure changes in catalytic activity. The activity of endogenous MEKK1, immunopurified from ITC treated and untreated LnCAP cells was also measured by in vitro kinase assay. A novel labeling and affinity reagent for detection of protein modification by ITCs was synthesized and used in competition assays to monitor direct modification of MEKK1 by ITC. Finally, immunoblots with phospho-specific antibodies were used to measure the activity of MAPK protein kinases. Results ITCs inhibited the MEKK1 protein kinase in a manner dependent on a specific cysteine residue in the ATP binding pocket. Inhibition of MEKK1 catalytic activity was due to direct, covalent and irreversible modification of the MEKK1 protein itself. In addition, ITCs inhibited the catalytic activity of endogenous MEKK1. This correlated with inhibition of the downstream target of MEKK1 activity, i.e. the SAPK/JNK kinase. This inhibition was specific to SAPK, as parallel MAPK pathways were unaffected. Conclusion These results demonstrate that MEKK1 is directly

  3. Control of Salmonella enterica and Listeria monocytogenes in hummus using allyl isothiocyanate.

    PubMed

    Olaimat, Amin N; Al-Holy, Murad A; Abu Ghoush, Mahmoud; Al-Nabulsi, Anas A; Holley, Richard A

    2018-08-02

    Hummus (chickpea dip) is a ready-to-eat product which has been implicated in several foodborne outbreaks and food recalls. This study aimed to screen the antimicrobial activity of allyl isothiocyanate (AITC) against 5 strains of each of Salmonella enterica and Listeria monocytogenes using a disc diffusion method. Additionally, the antimicrobial activity of 0.1-1.5% (v/w) AITC against both pathogens and aerobic bacteria in hummus was also investigated. The inhibition zones of AITC were 8.5-15 and 7.0-8.5 mm against the S. enterica and L. monocytogenes strains, respectively, at 37 °C. S. enterica numbers were reduced by >6 log 10 CFU/g in hummus containing ≥0.5% AITC by 3 days at both 4 and 10 °C. While 0.1-0.25% AITC reduced S. enterica by 2.5-5.1 log 10 CFU/g at 4 °C or by 4.7-6.0 log 10 CFU/g at 10 °C by 10 days. Similarly, L. monocytogenes numbers decreased by >6 log 10 CFU/g in hummus with ≥0.5% or ≥1.0% AITC at 4 or 10 °C, respectively, by 3 days. Further, 0.25% AITC significantly reduced L. monocytogenes in hummus by 2.7 and 4.3 log 10 CFU/g at 4 and 10 °C, respectively. Moreover, 0.1% AITC reduced L. monocytogenes by 1.8 log 10 CFU/g in hummus at 10 °C and inhibited the growth at 4 °C for up to 10 days. The aerobic bacterial count also significantly decreased in un-inoculated hummus treated with 1.0-1.5% AITC at both 4 and 10 °C, while a concentration of 0.25-0.5% AITC inhibited their growth at 4 °C. AITC can be used to reduce the risk of salmonellosis or listeriosis in hummus and extend its shelf-life. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Isothiocyanate-Functionalized Bifunctional Chelates and fac-[M(I)(CO)3](+) (M = Re, (99m)Tc) Complexes for Targeting uPAR in Prostate Cancer.

    PubMed

    Kasten, Benjamin B; Ma, Xiaowei; Cheng, Kai; Bu, Lihong; Slocumb, Winston S; Hayes, Thomas R; Trabue, Steven; Cheng, Zhen; Benny, Paul D

    2016-01-20

    Developing new strategies to rapidly incorporate the fac-[M(I)(CO)3](+) (M = Re, (99m)Tc) core into biological targeting vectors in radiopharmaceuticals continues to expand as molecules become more complex and as efforts to minimize nonspecific binding increase. This work examines a novel isothiocyanate-functionalized bifunctional chelate based on 2,2'-dipicolylamine (DPA) specifically designed for complexing the fac-[M(I)(CO)3](+) core. Two strategies (postlabeling and prelabeling) were explored using the isothiocyanate-functionalized DPA to determine the effectiveness of assembly on the overall yield and purity of the complex with amine containing biomolecules. A model amino acid (lysine) examined (1) amine conjugation of isothiocyanate-functionalized DPA followed by complexation with fac-[M(I)(CO)3](+) (postlabeling) and (2) complexation of fac-[M(I)(CO)3](+) with isothiocyanate-functionalized DPA followed by amine conjugation (prelabeling). Conducted with stable Re and radioactive (99m)Tc analogs, both strategies formed the product in good to excellent yields under macroscopic and radiotracer concentrations. A synthetic peptide (AE105) which targets an emerging biomarker in CaP prognosis, urokinase-type plasminogen activator receptor (uPAR), was also explored using the isothiocyanate-functionalized DPA strategy. In vitro PC-3 (uPAR+) cell uptake assays with the (99m)Tc-labeled peptide (8a) showed 4.2 ± 0.5% uptake at 4 h. In a murine model bearing PC-3 tumor xenografts, in vivo biodistribution of 8a led to favorable tumor uptake (3.7 ± 0.7% ID/g) at 4 h p.i. with relatively low accumulation (<2% ID/g) in normal organs not associated with normal peptide excretion. These results illustrate the promise of the isothiocyanate-functionalized approach for labeling amine containing biological targeting vectors with fac-[M(I)(CO)3](+).

  5. Allyl isothiocyanate induces replication-associated DNA damage response in NSCLC cells and sensitizes to ionizing radiation.

    PubMed

    Tripathi, Kaushlendra; Hussein, Usama K; Anupalli, Roja; Barnett, Reagan; Bachaboina, Lavanya; Scalici, Jennifer; Rocconi, Rodney P; Owen, Laurie B; Piazza, Gary A; Palle, Komaraiah

    2015-03-10

    Allyl isothiocyanate (AITC), a constituent of many cruciferous vegetables exhibits significant anticancer activities in many cancer models. Our studies provide novel insights into AITC-induced anticancer mechanisms in human A549 and H1299 non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) cells. AITC exposure induced replication stress in NSCLC cells as evidenced by γH2AX and FANCD2 foci, ATM/ATR-mediated checkpoint responses and S and G2/M cell cycle arrest. Furthermore, AITC-induced FANCD2 foci displayed co-localization with BrdU foci, indicating stalled or collapsed replication forks in these cells. Although PITC (phenyl isothiocyanate) exhibited concentration-dependent cytotoxic effects, treatment was less effective compared to AITC. Previously, agents that induce cell cycle arrest in S and G2/M phases were shown to sensitize tumor cells to radiation. Similar to these observations, combination therapy involving AITC followed by radiation treatment exhibited increased DDR and cell killing in NSCLC cells compared to single agent treatment. Combination index (CI) analysis revealed synergistic effects at multiple doses of AITC and radiation, resulting in CI values of less than 0.7 at Fa of 0.5 (50% reduction in survival). Collectively, these studies identify an important anticancer mechanism displayed by AITC, and suggest that the combination of AITC and radiation could be an effective therapy for NSCLC.

  6. Neuroprotective and Anti-Inflammatory Activities of Allyl Isothiocyanate through Attenuation of JNK/NF-κB/TNF-α Signaling.

    PubMed

    Subedi, Lalita; Venkatesan, Ramu; Kim, Sun Yeou

    2017-07-03

    Allyl isothiocyanate (AITC), present in Wasabia japonica (wasabi), is an aliphatic isothiocyanate derived from the precursor sinigrin, which is a glucosinolate present in vegetables of the Brassica family. Traditionally, it has been used to treat rheumatic arthralgia, blood circulation, and pain. This study focuses on its anti-apoptotic activity through the regulation of lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced neuroinflammation. Furthermore, we assessed its neuroprotective efficacy, which it achieves through the upregulation of nerve growth factor (NGF) production. Pretreatment with AITC significantly inhibited inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) and cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) expression, decreased tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), interleukin-6 (IL-6), prostaglandin E2 (PGE2), and nitric oxide (NO) production in activated microglia, and increased the nerve growth factor (NGF) and neurite outgrowth in neuroblastoma cells. AITC inhibited the nuclear factor (NF-κB-mediated transcription by modulating mitogen activated protein kinase (MAPK) signaling, particularly downregulating c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) phosphorylation, which was followed by a reduction in the TNF-α expression in activated microglia. This promising effect of AITC in controlling JNK/NF-κB/TNF-α cross-linking maintains the Bcl-2 gene family and protects neuroblastoma cells from activated microglia-induced toxicity. These findings provide novel insights into the anti-neuroinflammatory effects of AITC on microglial cells, which may have clinical significance in neurodegeneration.

  7. Neuroprotective and Anti-Inflammatory Activities of Allyl Isothiocyanate through Attenuation of JNK/NF-κB/TNF-α Signaling

    PubMed Central

    Subedi, Lalita

    2017-01-01

    Allyl isothiocyanate (AITC), present in Wasabia japonica (wasabi), is an aliphatic isothiocyanate derived from the precursor sinigrin, which is a glucosinolate present in vegetables of the Brassica family. Traditionally, it has been used to treat rheumatic arthralgia, blood circulation, and pain. This study focuses on its anti-apoptotic activity through the regulation of lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced neuroinflammation. Furthermore, we assessed its neuroprotective efficacy, which it achieves through the upregulation of nerve growth factor (NGF) production. Pretreatment with AITC significantly inhibited inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) and cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) expression, decreased tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), interleukin-6 (IL-6), prostaglandin E2 (PGE2), and nitric oxide (NO) production in activated microglia, and increased the nerve growth factor (NGF) and neurite outgrowth in neuroblastoma cells. AITC inhibited the nuclear factor (NF-κB-mediated transcription by modulating mitogen activated protein kinase (MAPK) signaling, particularly downregulating c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) phosphorylation, which was followed by a reduction in the TNF-α expression in activated microglia. This promising effect of AITC in controlling JNK/NF-κB/TNF-α cross-linking maintains the Bcl-2 gene family and protects neuroblastoma cells from activated microglia-induced toxicity. These findings provide novel insights into the anti-neuroinflammatory effects of AITC on microglial cells, which may have clinical significance in neurodegeneration. PMID:28671636

  8. Flavor, glucosinolates, and isothiocyanates of nau (Cook's scurvy grass, Lepidium oleraceum) and other rare New Zealand Lepidium species.

    PubMed

    Sansom, Catherine E; Jones, Veronika S; Joyce, Nigel I; Smallfield, Bruce M; Perry, Nigel B; van Klink, John W

    2015-02-18

    The traditionally consumed New Zealand native plant nau, Cook's scurvy grass, Lepidium oleraceum, has a pungent wasabi-like taste, with potential for development as a flavor ingredient. The main glucosinolate in this Brassicaceae was identified by LC-MS and NMR spectroscopy as 3-butenyl glucosinolate (gluconapin, 7-22 mg/g DM in leaves). The leaves were treated to mimic chewing, and the headspace was analyzed by solid-phase microextraction and GC-MS. This showed that 3-butenyl isothiocyanate, with a wasabi-like flavor, was produced by the endogenous myrosinase. Different postharvest treatments were used to create leaf powders as potential flavor products, which were tasted and analyzed for gluconapin and release of 3-butenyl isothiocyanate. A high drying temperature (75 °C) did not give major glucosinolate degradation, but did largely inactivate the myrosinase, resulting in no wasabi-like flavor release. Drying at 45 °C produced more pungent flavor than freeze-drying. Seven other Lepidium species endemic to New Zealand were also analyzed to determine their flavor potential and also whether glucosinolates were taxonomic markers. Six contained mostly gluconapin, but the critically endangered Lepidium banksii had a distinct composition including isopropyl glucosinolate, not detected in the other species.

  9. Anti-carcinogenic activity of 6-methylsulfinylhexyl isothiocyanate-, an active anti-proliferative principal of wasabi (Eutrema wasabi Maxim.).

    PubMed

    Fuke, Y; Haga, Y; Ono, H; Nomura, T; Ryoyama, K

    1997-11-01

    Synthetic 4-methylsulfinylhexyl isothiocyanate (MITC)(a potent inducer of phase 2 detoxification enzymes from broccoli) and 6-MITC(a potent anti-proliferative principal from wasabi) slightly inhibited the induction of mouse skin tumor in a two-stage process of carcinogenesis (initiator, 9,10-dimethyl-1,2-benzanthracene; promotor,12-o-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate), but the effect was not significant. Both compounds, however, significantly inhibited the mutation of skin resulting from topical applications of the carcinogens. When a murine hepatoma cell line, Hepa 1c1c7, was treated with 2-,4-,6- and 8-MITCs, they augmented the induction of its quinone reductase, one of the phase 2 detoxification enzymes in a concentration dependent manner, and the 4- and 6-MITCs were much more potent on the reduction of the enzyme than the 2- and 8-MITCs. All 2-, 4-, 6- and 8-MITCs suppressed the growth of murine tumor cells, their suppressive activities being proportional to the length of their methyl residue. They were also cytotoxic to mouse peritoneal exudate macrophages which were not proliferating in vitro, indicating that the cellular targets of isothiocyanate may not be dependent upon the cell cycle. In addition, all the 2-, 4-, 6- and 8-MITCs inhibited the production of nitric oxide (a potent radical carcinogen) by peritoneal macrophages.

  10. Effect of allyl isothiocyanate on ultra-structure and the activities of four enzymes in adult Sitophilus zeamais.

    PubMed

    Wu, Hua; Liu, Xue-ru; Yu, Dong-dong; Zhang, Xing; Feng, Jun-tao

    2014-02-01

    Rarefaction and vacuolization of the mitochondrial matrix of AITC-treated (allyl isothiocyanate-treated) adult Sitophilus zeamais were evident according to the ultra-structural by TEM. Four important enzymes in adult S. zeamais were further studied after fumigation treatment with allyl isothiocyanate (AITC) extracted from Armoracia rusticana roots and shoots. The enzymes were glutathione S-transferase (GST), catalase (CAT), cytochrome c oxidase, and acetylcholinesterase (AChE). The results indicated that the activities of the four enzymes were strongly time and dose depended. With prolonged exposure time, treatment with 0.74μg/mL AITC inhibited the activities of cytochrome c oxidase, AChE, and CAT, but induced the activity of GST. The activities of cytochrome c oxidase, AChE, and CAT were remarkably induced at a low AITC dosage (0.25μg/mL), but were restrained with increased AITC dosage. The activity of GST was inhibited at a low AITC dosage (0.5μg/mL), but was induced at a high AITC dosage (1.5μg/mL). According to the results of TEM, toxic symptoms and enzymes activities, it suggested that mitochondrial maybe the one site of action of AITC against the adult S. zeamais and it also suggested that cytochrome c oxidase maybe one target protein of AITC against the adult S. zeamais, which need to further confirmed by protein function tested. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Fluorescence turn-on detection of iodide, iodate and total iodine using fluorescein-5-isothiocyanate-modified gold nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Chen, Yi-Ming; Cheng, Tian-Lu; Tseng, Wei-Lung

    2009-10-01

    Selective turn-on fluorescence detection of I(-) was accomplished using fluorescein isothiocyanate-decorated gold nanoparticles (FITC-AuNPs). FITC molecules, which fluoresce strongly in an alkaline solution, were severely quenched when they were attached to the surface of AuNPs through their isothiocyanate group. Upon the addition of I(-), FITC molecules were detached because of I(-) adsorption on the surface of AuNPs. As a result, released FITC molecules were restored to their original fluorescence intensity. Because I(-) has a higher binding affinity to the surface of Au than do Br(-), Cl(-), or F(-), the FITC-AuNPs obviously have a higher selectivity toward I(-) than toward these other anions. Meanwhile, after IO(3)(-) was reduced to I(-) with ascorbic acid, the detection of IO(3)(-) was successfully achieved using the FITC-AuNPs. Under an optimum pH and AuNP concentration, the lowest detectable concentrations of I(-) and IO(3)(-) using this probe were 10.0 and 50.0 nM, respectively. The FITC-AuNPs provide a number of advantages, including easy preparation, selectivity, sensitivity, and low cost. This unique probe was applied to an analysis of the total iodine in edible salt and seawater.

  12. 3-(Fur-2-yl)-10-(2-phenylethyl)-[1,2,4]triazino[4,3-a]benzimidazol-4(10H)-one, a novel adenosine receptor antagonist with A(2A)-mediated neuroprotective effects.

    PubMed

    Scatena, Alessia; Fornai, Francesco; Trincavelli, Maria Letizia; Taliani, Sabrina; Daniele, Simona; Pugliesi, Isabella; Cosconati, Sandro; Martini, Claudia; Da Settimo, Federico

    2011-09-21

    In this study, compound FTBI (3-(2-furyl)-10-(2-phenylethyl)[1,2,4]triazino[4,3-a]benzimidazol-4(10H)-one) was selected from a small library of triazinobenzimidazole derivatives as a potent A(2A) adenosine receptor (AR) antagonist and tested for its neuroprotective effects against two different kinds of dopaminergic neurotoxins, 1-methyl-4-phenylpyridinium (MPP+) and methamphetamine (METH), in rat PC12 and in human neuroblastoma SH-SY5Y cell lines. FTBI, in a concentration range corresponding to its affinity for A(2A) AR subtype, significantly increased the number of viable PC12 cells after their exposure to METH and, to a similar extent, to MPP+, as demonstrated in both trypan blue exclusion assay and in cytological staining. These neuroprotective effects were also observed with a classical A(2A) AR antagonist, ZM241385, and appeared to be completely counteracted by the AR agonist, NECA, supporting A(2A) ARs are directly involved in FTBI-mediated effects. Similarly, in human SH-SY5Y cells, FTBI was able to prevent cell toxicity induced by MPP+ and METH, showing that this A(2A) AR antagonist has a neuroprotective effect independently by the specific cell model. Altogether these results demonstrate that the A(2A) AR blockade mediates cell protection against neurotoxicity induced by dopaminergic neurotoxins in dopamine containing cells, supporting the potential use of A(2A) AR antagonists in dopaminergic degenerative diseases including Parkinson's disease.

  13. Isothiocyanate-functionalized bifunctional chelates and fac-[MI(CO)3]+ (M = Re, 99mTc) complexes for targeting uPAR in prostate cancer

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Developing strategies to rapidly incorporate the fac-[MI(CO)3]+ (M = Re, 99mTc) core into biological targeting vectors is a growing realm in radiopharmaceutical development. This work presents the preparation of a novel isothiocyanate-functionalized bifunctional chelate based on 2,2´-dipicolylamine ...

  14. Cancer chemoprevention by targeting the epigenome.

    PubMed

    Huang, Joseph; Plass, Christoph; Gerhauser, Clarissa

    2011-12-01

    The term "epigenetics" refers to modifications in gene expression caused by heritable, but potentially reversible, changes in DNA methylation and chromatin structure. Given the fact that epigenetic modifications occur early in carcinogenesis and represent potentially initiating events in cancer development, they have been identified as promising new targets for prevention strategies. The present review will give a comprehensive overview of the current literature on chemopreventive agents and their influence on major epigenetic mechanisms, that is DNA methylation, histone acetylation and methylation, and microRNAs, both in vitro and in rodent and human studies, taking into consideration specific mechanisms of action, target sites, concentrations, methods used for analysis, and outcome. Chemopreventive agents with reported mechanisms targeting the epigenome include micronutrients (folate, selenium, retinoic acid, Vit. E), butyrate, polyphenols (from green tea, apples, coffee, and other dietary sources), genistein and soy isoflavones, parthenolide, curcumin, ellagitannin, indol-3-carbinol (I3C) and diindolylmethane (DIM), mahanine, nordihydroguaiaretic acid (NDGA), lycopene, sulfur-containing compounds from Allium and cruciferous vegetables (sulforaphane, phenylethyl isothiocyanate (PEITC), phenylhexyl isothiocyanate (PHI), diallyldisulfide (DADS), allyl mercaptan (AM)), antibiotics (mithramycin A, apicidin), pharmacological agents (celecoxib, DFMO, 5-aza-2'-deoxycytidine and zebularine), compounds affecting sirtuin activity (resveratrol, dihydrocoumarin, cambinol), inhibitors of histone acetyl transferases (anacardic acid, garcinol, ursodeoxycholic acid), and relatively unexplored modulators of histone lysine methylation (chaetocin, polyamine analogues, n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids). Their effects on global DNA methylation, tumor suppressor genes silenced by promoter methylation, histone modifications, and miRNAs deregulated during carcinogenesis have potential

  15. Fluorescein isothiocyanate and rhodamine B dye encapsulated mesoporous SiO2 for applications of blue LED excited white LED

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Das, Sourav; Manam, J.

    2018-05-01

    In this work, the fluorescein isothiocyanate (FITC) and rhodamine B (RhB) dyes were encapsulated in mesoporous silica nanoparticles (MSNp). The MSNp-FITC-RhB nanohybrids phosphor showed a dichromatic PL emission at green region and orange region when excited at 460 nm. A Forster Resonance Energy Transfer (FRET) was observed from FITC to RhB. The materials were further characterized by XRD, FTIR, TEM, and temperature dependent photoluminescence. The CIE coordinates were tuned from greenish yellow to the orange region and quantum yield was reached 52.04% based on FRET. So by combining the MSNp-FITC-RhB nanohybrids phosphor with the blue LED chip, the white light emission with flexible Color Correlated Temperature and improved Color Rendering Index can be obtained.

  16. Comparative studies on mitochondrial electron transport chain complexes of Sitophilus zeamais treated with allyl isothiocyanate and calcium phosphide.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Chao; Wu, Hua; Zhao, Yuan; Ma, Zhiqing; Zhang, Xing

    2016-01-01

    With Sitophilus zeamais as the target organism, the present study for the first time attempted to elucidate the comparative effects between allyl isothiocyanate (AITC) and calcium phosphide (Ca3P2), exposure on mitochondrial electron transport chain (ETC.) complex I & IV and their downstream effects on enzymes relevant to reactive oxygen species (ROS). In vivo, both AITC and Ca3P2 inhibited complex I and IV with similar downstream effects. In contrast with Ca3P2, the inhibition of complex I caused by AITC was dependent on time and dose. In vitro, AITC inhibited complex IV more significantly than complex I. These results indicate that mitochondrial complex IV is the primary target of AITC, and that complex I is another potential target. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Degradation of Biofumigant Isothiocyanates and Allyl Glucosinolate in Soil and Their Effects on the Microbial Community Composition

    PubMed Central

    Hanschen, Franziska S.; Yim, Bunlong; Winkelmann, Traud; Smalla, Kornelia; Schreiner, Monika

    2015-01-01

    Brassicales species rich in glucosinolates are used for biofumigation, a process based on releasing enzymatically toxic isothiocyanates into the soil. These hydrolysis products are volatile and often reactive compounds. Moreover, glucosinolates can be degraded also without the presence of the hydrolytic enzyme myrosinase which might contribute to bioactive effects. Thus, in the present study the stability of Brassicaceae plant-derived and pure glucosinolates hydrolysis products was studied using three different soils (model biofumigation). In addition, the degradation of pure 2-propenyl glucosinolate was investigated with special regard to the formation of volatile breakdown products. Finally, the influence of pure glucosinolate degradation on the bacterial community composition was evaluated using denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis of 16S rRNA gene amplified from total community DNA. The model biofumigation study revealed that the structure of the hydrolysis products had a significant impact on their stability in the soil but not the soil type. Following the degradation of pure 2-propenyl glucosinolate in the soils, the nitrile as well as the isothiocyanate can be the main degradation products, depending on the soil type. Furthermore, the degradation was shown to be both chemically as well as biologically mediated as autoclaving reduced degradation. The nitrile was the major product of the chemical degradation and its formation increased with iron content of the soil. Additionally, the bacterial community composition was significantly affected by adding pure 2-propenyl glucosinolate, the effect being more pronounced than in treatments with myrosinase added to the glucosinolate. Therefore, glucosinolates can have a greater effect on soil bacterial community composition than their hydrolysis products. PMID:26186695

  18. Facile synthesis of a two-photon fluorescent probe based on pyrimidine 2-isothiocyanate and its application in bioimaging.

    PubMed

    Yang, Jie; Hu, Wei; Li, Huirong; Hou, Hanna; Tu, Yi; Liu, Bo

    2018-04-18

    Two-photon microscopy imaging has been widely applied in biological imaging, but the development of two-photon absorption probes is obviously lagging behind in the development of imaging technology. In this paper, a two-photon fluorescent probe (1) based on pyrimidine 2-isothiocyanate has been designed and synthesized through a simple method for two-photon biological imaging. Probe 1 was able to couple effectively with the amino groups on biomolecules. To verify the reactivity of the isothiocyanate group on probe 1 and the amine groups on the biomolecules, d-glucosamine was chosen as a model biomolecule to conjugate with probe 1. The result showed that probe 1 could effectively conjugate with d-glucosamine to synthesize probe 2, and the yield of probe 2 was 83%. After conjugating with d-glucosamine, linear absorption spectra, single-photon fluorescence spectra, and two-photon fluorescence spectra of probes 1 and 2 did not present significant changes. Probes 1 and 2 exhibited high fluorescence quantum yields (0.71-0.79) in toluene and chloroform. They also exhibited different photo-physical properties in solvents with different polarities. The two-photon absorption cross-section of probe 1 was 953 GM in toluene. In addition, probe 1 could be effectively conjugated with transferrin, and the conjugated probe (Tf-1) could be transported into Hep G2 cells through a receptor-mediated process for biological imaging. These results demonstrate that such probes are expected to have great potential applications in two-photon fluorescence bioimaging.

  19. Effect of (R)-2-(2-aminothiazol-4-yl)-4'-{2-[(2-hydroxy-2-phenylethyl)amino]ethyl} acetanilide (YM178), a novel selective beta3-adrenoceptor agonist, on bladder function.

    PubMed

    Takasu, Toshiyuki; Ukai, Masashi; Sato, Shuichi; Matsui, Tetsuo; Nagase, Itsuro; Maruyama, Tatsuya; Sasamata, Masao; Miyata, Keiji; Uchida, Hisashi; Yamaguchi, Osamu

    2007-05-01

    We evaluated the pharmacological characteristics of (R)-2-(2-aminothiazol-4-yl)-4'-{2-[(2-hydroxy-2-phenylethyl)amino]-ethyl} acetanilide (YM178). YM178 increased cyclic AMP accumulation in Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells expressing human beta3-adrenoceptor (AR). The half-maximal effective concentration (EC50) value was 22.4 nM. EC50 values of YM178 for human beta1- and beta2-ARs were 10,000 nM or more, respectively. The ratio of intrinsic activities of YM178 versus maximal response induced by isoproterenol (nonselective beta-AR agonist) was 0.8 for human beta3-ARs, 0.1 for human beta1-ARs, and 0.1 for human beta2-ARs. The relaxant effects of YM178 were evaluated in rats and humans bladder strips precontracted with carbachol (CCh) and compared with those of isoproterenol and 4-[3-[(1,1-dimethylethyl)amino]-2-hydroxypropoxy]-1,3-dihydro-2H-benzimidazol-2-one hydrochloride (CGP-12177A) (beta3-AR agonist). EC50 values of YM178 and isoproterenol in rat bladder strips precontracted with 10(-6) M CCh were 5.1 and 1.4 microM, respectively, whereas those in human bladder strips precontracted with 10(-7) M CCh were 0.78 and 0.28 microM, respectively. In in vivo study, YM178 at a dose of 3 mg/kg i.v. decreased the frequency of rhythmic bladder contraction induced by intravesical filling with saline without suppressing its amplitude in anesthetized rats. These findings suggest the suitability of YM178 as a therapeutic drug for the treatment of symptoms of overactive bladder such as urinary frequency, urgency, and urge incontinence.

  20. Benzyl isothiocyanate alters the gene expression with cell cycle regulation and cell death in human brain glioblastoma GBM 8401 cells.

    PubMed

    Tang, Nou-Ying; Chueh, Fu-Shin; Yu, Chien-Chih; Liao, Ching-Lung; Lin, Jen-Jyh; Hsia, Te-Chun; Wu, King-Chuen; Liu, Hsin-Chung; Lu, Kung-Wen; Chung, Jing-Gung

    2016-04-01

    Glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) is a highly malignant devastating brain tumor in adults. Benzyl isothiocyanate (BITC) is one of the isothiocyanates that have been shown to induce human cancer cell apoptosis and cell cycle arrest. Herein, the effect of BITC on cell viability and apoptotic cell death and the genetic levels of human brain glioblastoma GBM 8401 cells in vitro were investigated. We found that BITC induced cell morphological changes, decreased cell viability and the induction of cell apoptosis in GBM 8401 cells was time-dependent. cDNA microarray was used to examine the effects of BITC on GBM 8401 cells and we found that numerous genes associated with cell death and cell cycle regulation in GBM 8401 cells were altered after BITC treatment. The results show that expression of 317 genes was upregulated, and two genes were associated with DNA damage, the DNA-damage-inducible transcript 3 (DDIT3) was increased 3.66-fold and the growth arrest and DNA-damage-inducible α (GADD45A) was increased 2.34-fold. We also found that expression of 182 genes was downregulated and two genes were associated with receptor for cell responses to stimuli, the EGF containing fibulin-like extracellular matrix protein 1 (EFEMP1) was inhibited 2.01-fold and the TNF receptor-associated protein 1 (TRAP1) was inhibited 2.08-fold. BITC inhibited seven mitochondria ribosomal genes, the mitochondrial ribosomal protein; tumor protein D52 (MRPS28) was inhibited 2.06-fold, the mitochondria ribosomal protein S2 (MRPS2) decreased 2.07-fold, the mitochondria ribosomal protein L23 (MRPL23) decreased 2.08-fold, the mitochondria ribosomal protein S2 (MRPS2) decreased 2.07-fold, the mitochondria ribosomal protein S12 (MRPS12) decreased 2.08-fold, the mitochondria ribosomal protein L12 (MRPL12) decreased 2.25-fold and the mitochondria ribosomal protein S34 (MRPS34) was decreased 2.30-fold in GBM 8401 cells. These changes of gene expression can provide the effects of BITC on the genetic level and are

  1. Characterization of some amino acid derivatives of benzoyl isothiocyanate: Crystal structures and theoretical prediction of their reactivity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Odame, Felix; Hosten, Eric C.; Betz, Richard; Lobb, Kevin; Tshentu, Zenixole R.

    2015-11-01

    The reaction of benzoyl isothiocyanate with L-serine, L-proline, D-methionine and L-alanine gave 2-[(benzoylcarbamothioyl)amino]-3-hydroxypropanoic acid (I), 1-(benzoylcarbamothioyl)pyrrolidine-2-carboxylic acid (II), 2-[(benzoylcarbamothioyl)amino]-4-(methylsulfanyl)butanoic acid (III) and 2-[(benzoylcarbamothioyl)amino]propanoic acid (IV), respectively. The compounds have been characterized by IR, NMR, microanalyses and mass spectrometry. The crystal structures of all the compounds have also been discussed. Compound II showed rotamers in solution. DFT calculations of the frontier orbitals of the compounds have been carried out to ascertain the groups that contribute to the HOMO and LUMO, and to study their contribution to the reactivity of these compounds. The calculations indicated that the carboxylic acid group in these compounds is unreactive hence making the conversion to benzimidazoles via cyclization on the carboxylic acids impractical. This has been further confirmed by the reaction of compounds I-IV, respectively, with o-phenylene diamine which was unsuccessful but gave compound V.

  2. Antimicrobial activity of allyl isothiocyanate used to coat biodegradable composite films as affected by storage and handling conditions.

    PubMed

    Li, Weili; Liu, Linshu; Jin, Tony Z

    2012-12-01

    We evaluated the effects of storage and handling conditions on the antimicrobial activity of biodegradable composite films (polylactic acid and sugar beet pulp) coated with allyl isothiocyanate (AIT). Polylactic acid and chitosan were incorporated with AIT and used to coat one side of the film. The films were subjected to different storage conditions (storage time, storage temperature, and packed or unpacked) and handling conditions (washing, abrasion, and air blowing), and the antimicrobial activity of the films against Salmonella Stanley in tryptic soy broth was determined. The films (8.16 μl of AIT per cm(2) of surface area) significantly (P < 0.05) inhibited the growth of Salmonella during 24 h of incubation at 22°C, while the populations of Salmonella in controls increased from ca. 4 to over 8 log CFU/ml, indicating a minimum inactivation of 4 log CFU/ml on films in comparison to the growth on controls. Statistical analyses indicated that storage time, storage temperature, and surface abrasion affected the antimicrobial activity of the films significantly (P < 0.05). However, the differences in microbial reduction between those conditions were less than 0.5 log cycle. The results suggest that the films' antimicrobial properties are stable under practical storage and handling conditions and that these antimicrobial films have potential applications in food packaging.

  3. Induction of apoptosis in HT-29 cells by extracts from isothiocyanates-rich varieties of Brassica oleracea.

    PubMed

    Mas, Sergi; Crescenti, Anna; Gassó, Patricia; Deulofeu, Ramon; Molina, Rafael; Ballesta, Antonio; Kensler, Thomas W; Lafuente, Amalia

    2007-01-01

    Among the vegetables with anti-carcinogenic properties, members of the genus Brassica are the most effective at reducing the risk of cancer. This property may be explained by their principle bioactive compounds, isothiocyanates (ITCs). The aim of this study was to measure the amounts of ITCs in extracts from vegetables of the Brasssica genus and assay them for potency of induction of apoptosis in a colorectal cancer cell line (HT-29). ITCs were determined by the cyclocondensation assay with 1,2-benzenedithiol and induction of apoptosis by assessment of cell viability, caspase-3 activity and DNA fragmentation. Purple cabbage extract showed the highest ITC concentration per gram, fresh weight, followed by black cabbage and Romanesco cauliflower. At ITC concentrations of 7.08 microg/mL these extracts decreased cell viability and induced caspase-3 and DNA fragmentation at 48h. Brussels sprouts showed the strongest effects on cell viability and caspase-3 activity. Varieties of Brassica Oleracea are rich sources of ITCs that potently inhibit the growth of colon cancer cells by inducting apoptosis. All the extracts showed anticancer activity at ITC concentrations of between 3.54 to 7.08 mug/mL, which are achievable in vivo. Our results showed that ITC concentration and the chemopreventive responses of plant extracts vary among the varieties of Brassica Oleracea studied and among their cultivars.

  4. Isothiocyanate metabolism, distribution, and interconversion in mice following consumption of thermally processed broccoli sprouts or purified sulforaphane.

    PubMed

    Bricker, Gregory V; Riedl, Kenneth M; Ralston, Robin A; Tober, Kathleen L; Oberyszyn, Tatiana M; Schwartz, Steven J

    2014-10-01

    Broccoli sprouts are a rich source of glucosinolates, a group of phytochemicals that when hydrolyzed, are associated with cancer prevention. Our objectives were to investigate the metabolism, distribution, and interconversion of isothiocyanates (ITCs) in mice fed thermally processed broccoli sprout powders (BSPs) or the purified ITC sulforaphane. For 1 wk, mice were fed a control diet (n = 20) or one of four treatment diets (n = 10 each) containing nonheated BSP, 60°C mildly heated BSP, 5-min steamed BSP, or 3 mmol purified sulforaphane. Sulforaphane and erucin metabolite concentrations in skin, liver, kidney, bladder, lung, and plasma were quantified using HPLC-MS/MS. Thermal intensity of BSP processing had disparate effects on ITC metabolite concentrations upon consumption. Mild heating generally resulted in the greatest ITC metabolite concentrations in vivo, followed by the nonheated and steamed BSP diets. We observed interconversion between sulforaphane and erucin species or metabolites, and report that erucin is the favored form in liver, kidney, and bladder, even when only sulforaphane is consumed. ITC metabolites were distributed to all tissues analyzed, suggesting the potential for systemic benefits. We report for the first time tissue-dependent ratio of sulforaphane and erucin, though further investigation is warranted to assess biological activity of individual forms. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  5. Isothiocyanate metabolism, distribution, and interconversion in mice following consumption of thermally processed broccoli sprouts or purified sulforaphane

    PubMed Central

    Bricker, Gregory V.; Riedl, Kenneth M.; Ralston, Robin A.; Tober, Kathleen L.; Oberyszyn, Tatiana M.; Schwartz, Steven J.

    2014-01-01

    Scope Broccoli sprouts are a rich source of glucosinolates, a group of phytochemicals that when hydrolyzed, are associated with cancer prevention. Our objectives were to investigate the metabolism, distribution, and interconversion of isothiocyanates (ITCs) in mice fed thermally processed broccoli sprout powders (BSPs) or the purified ITC sulforaphane. Methods and results For 1 wk, mice were fed a control diet (n = 20) or one of four treatment diets (n = 10 each) containing nonheated BSP, 60°C mildly heated BSP, 5-min steamed BSP, or 3 mmol purified sulforaphane. Sulforaphane and erucin metabolite concentrations in skin, liver, kidney, bladder, lung, and plasma were quantified using HPLC-MS/MS. Thermal intensity of BSP processing had disparate effects on ITC metabolite concentrations upon consumption. Mild heating generally resulted in the greatest ITC metabolite concentrations in vivo, followed by the nonheated and steamed BSP diets. We observed interconversion between sulforaphane and erucin species or metabolites, and report that erucin is the favored form in liver, kidney, and bladder, even when only sulforaphane is consumed. Conclusion ITC metabolites were distributed to all tissues analyzed, suggesting the potential for systemic benefits. We report for the first time tissue-dependent ratio of sulforaphane and erucin, though further investigation is warranted to assess biological activity of individual forms. PMID:24975513

  6. Allyl Isothiocyanate Arrests Cancer Cells in Mitosis, and Mitotic Arrest in Turn Leads to Apoptosis via Bcl-2 Protein Phosphorylation*

    PubMed Central

    Geng, Feng; Tang, Li; Li, Yun; Yang, Lu; Choi, Kyoung-Soo; Kazim, A. Latif; Zhang, Yuesheng

    2011-01-01

    Allyl isothiocyanate (AITC) occurs in many commonly consumed cruciferous vegetables and exhibits significant anti-cancer activities. Available data suggest that it is particularly promising for bladder cancer prevention and/or treatment. Here, we show that AITC arrests human bladder cancer cells in mitosis and also induces apoptosis. Mitotic arrest by AITC was associated with increased ubiquitination and degradation of α- and β-tubulin. AITC directly binds to multiple cysteine residues of the tubulins. AITC induced mitochondrion-mediated apoptosis, as shown by cytochrome c release from mitochondria to cytoplasm, activation of caspase-9 and caspase-3, and formation of TUNEL-positive cells. Inhibition of caspase-9 blocked AITC-induced apoptosis. Moreover, we found that apoptosis induction by AITC depended entirely on mitotic arrest and was mediated via Bcl-2 phosphorylation at Ser-70. Pre-arresting cells in G1 phase by hydroxyurea abrogated both AITC-induced mitotic arrest and Bcl-2 phosphorylation. Overexpression of a Bcl-2 mutant prevented AITC from inducing apoptosis. We further showed that AITC-induced Bcl-2 phosphorylation was caused by c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK), and AITC activates JNK. Taken together, this study has revealed a novel anticancer mechanism of a phytochemical that is commonly present in human diet. PMID:21778226

  7. Enhanced inhibition of urinary bladder cancer growth and muscle invasion by allyl isothiocyanate and celecoxib in combination

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Yuesheng

    2013-01-01

    Allyl isothiocyanate (AITC) occurs in cruciferous vegetables that are commonly consumed by humans and has been shown to inhibit urinary bladder cancer growth and progression in previous preclinical studies. However, AITC does not significantly modulate cyclooxygenase-2 (Cox-2), whose oncogenic activity has been well documented in bladder cancer and other cancers. Celecoxib is a selective Cox-2 inhibitor and has been widely used for treatment of several diseases. Celecoxib has also been evaluated in bladder cancer patients, but its efficacy against bladder cancer as a single agent remains unclear. In a syngeneic rat model of orthotopic bladder cancer, treatment of the animals with the combination of AITC and celecoxib at low dose levels (AITC at 1mg/kg and celecoxib at 10mg/kg) led to increased or perhaps synergistic inhibition of bladder cancer growth and muscle invasion, compared with each agent used alone. The combination regime was also more effective than each single agent in inhibiting microvessel formation and stimulating microvessel maturation in the tumor tissues. The anticancer efficacy of the combination regime was associated with depletion of prostaglandin E2, a key downstream signaling molecule of Cox-2, caspase activation and downregulation of vascular endothelial growth factor in the tumor tissues. These data show that AITC and celecoxib complement each other for inhibition of bladder cancer and provide a novel combination approach for potential use for prevention or treatment of human bladder cancer. PMID:23946495

  8. Glycyrrhizin and glycyrrhetinic acid inhibits alpha-naphthyl isothiocyanate-induced liver injury and bile acid cycle disruption.

    PubMed

    Wang, Haina; Fang, Zhong-Ze; Meng, Ran; Cao, Yun-Feng; Tanaka, Naoki; Krausz, Kristopher W; Gonzalez, Frank J

    2017-07-01

    Alpha-naphthyl isothiocyanate (ANIT) is a common hepatotoxicant experimentally used to reproduce the pathologies of drug-induced liver injury in humans, but the mechanism of its toxicity remains unclear. To determine the metabolic alterations following ANIT exposure, metabolomic analyses was performed by use of liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry. Partial least squares discriminant analysis (PLS-DA) of liver, serum, bile, ileum, and cecum of vehicle- and ANIT-treated mice revealed significant alterations of individual bile acids, including increased tauroursodeoxycholic acid, taurohydrodeoxycholic acid, taurochenodeoxycholic acid, and taurodeoxycholic acid, and decreased ω-, β- and tauro-α/β- murideoxycholic acid, cholic acid, and taurocholic acid in the ANIT-treated groups. In accordance with these changes, ANIT treatment altered the expression of mRNAs encoded by genes responsible for the metabolism and transport of bile acids and cholesterol. Pre-treatment of glycyrrhizin (GL) and glycyrrhetinic acid (GA) prevented ANIT-induced liver damage and reversed the alteration of bile acid metabolites and Cyp7a1, Npc1l1, Mttp, and Acat2 mRNAs encoding bile acid transport and metabolism proteins. These results suggested that GL/GA could prevent drug-induced liver injury and ensuing disruption of bile acid metabolism in humans. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  9. Combination of garlic essential oil, allyl isothiocyanate, and nisin Z as bio-preservatives in fresh sausage.

    PubMed

    Araújo, Monyque Kais; Gumiela, Aline Marzaleck; Bordin, Keliani; Luciano, Fernando Bittencourt; Macedo, Renata Ernlund Freitas de

    2018-09-01

    The effects of natural antimicrobial compounds (garlic essential oil [GO], allyl isothiocyanate [AITC], and nisin Z [NI]) on microbiological, physicochemical and sensory characteristics of fresh sausage were assessed. The minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) and the minimum bactericidal concentrations (MBCs) towards Escherichia coli O157:H7 and Lactobacillus plantarum were determined in vitro. Sausages inoculated with E. coli O157:H7, were treated with different combinations of antimicrobials and assessed for microbiological and physicochemical parameters during storage (6C for 20 d). Treatments that presented the greatest antimicrobial effects were subjected to sensory evaluation. Combinations of 20 mg/kg NI + 125 μL/kg GO + 62.5 μL/kg AITC or 20 mg/kg NI + 62.5 μL/kg GO + 125 μL/kg AITC were effective in reducing E. coli O157H7 and spoilage lactic acid bacteria, and maintained the physicochemical characteristics of fresh sausage. Combinations of NI, GO and AITC were effective to improve the safety and the shelf life of fresh sausage, with no impact on its sensory acceptance. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Microarray-based determination of anti-inflammatory genes targeted by 6-(methylsulfinyl)hexyl isothiocyanate in macrophages.

    PubMed

    Chen, Jihua; Uto, Takuhiro; Tanigawa, Shunsuke; Yamada-Kato, Tomeo; Fujii, Makoto; Hou, DE-Xing

    2010-01-01

    6-(Methylsulfinyl)hexyl isothiocyanate (6-MSITC) is a bioactive ingredient of wasabi [Wasabia japonica (Miq.) Matsumura], which is a popular pungent spice of Japan. To evaluate the anti-inflammatory function and underlying genes targeted by 6-MSITC, gene expression profiling through DNA microarray was performed in mouse macrophages. Among 22,050 oligonucleotides, the expression levels of 406 genes were increased by ≥3-fold in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-activated RAW264 cells, 238 gene signals of which were attenuated by 6-MSITC (≥2-fold). Expression levels of 717 genes were decreased by ≥3-fold in LPS-activated cells, of which 336 gene signals were restored by 6-MSITC (≥2-fold). Utilizing group analysis, 206 genes affected by 6-MSITC with a ≥2-fold change were classified into 35 categories relating to biological processes (81), molecular functions (108) and signaling pathways (17). The genes were further categorized as 'defense, inflammatory response, cytokine activities and receptor activities' and some were confirmed by real-time polymerase chain reaction. Ingenuity pathway analysis further revealed that wasabi 6-MSITC regulated the relevant networks of chemokines, interleukins and interferons to exert its anti-inflammatory function.

  11. Wasabi 6-(methylsulfinyl)hexyl isothiocyanate induces apoptosis in human colorectal cancer cells through p53-independent mitochondrial dysfunction pathway.

    PubMed

    Yano, Satoshi; Wu, Shusong; Sakao, Kozue; Hou, De-Xing

    2018-05-14

    6-(Methylsulfinyl)hexyl isothiocyanate (6-MSITC), a major bioactive compound in Wasabi [Wasabia japonica (Miq.) Matsum.], has revealed the inhibitory effect on colon carcinogenesis in rat cancer model although the underlying mechanism is unclear. In this study, we used two types of human colorectal cancer cells (HCT116 p53 +/+ and HCT116 p53 -/- ) to investigate the anticancer activity and molecular mechanisms of 6-MSITC. Interestingly, 6-MSITC inhibited the cell proliferation in both types of cells with similar IC 50 value although a light increase in the phosphorylation and accumulation of P53 protein was observed in HCT116 p53 +/+ cells at 24 h after treatment. In addition, 6-MSITC increased the ratio of proapoptotic cells in both types of cells with the same fashion in a p53-independent manner. The data from mitochondrial analysis revealed that 6-MSITC enhanced the ratio of proapoptotic B-cell lymphoma-2-associated X protein/antiapoptotic myeloid cell leukemia 1, and sequentially caused mitochondrial membrane potential (ΔΨ m ) loss, cytochrome c release, and caspase-3 activation in both types of cells. Taken together, Wasabi 6-MSITC induced apoptosis of human colorectal cancer cells in p53-independent mitochondrial dysfunction pathway. These findings suggest that 6-MSITC might be a potential agent for colon cancer chemoprevention although with p53 mutation. © 2018 BioFactors, 2018. © 2018 International Union of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology.

  12. Modulation of Nrf2/Keap1 system by Wasabi 6-methylthiohexyl isothiocyanate in ARE-mediated NQO1 expression.

    PubMed

    Korenori, Yoshimi; Tanigawa, Shunsuke; Kumamoto, Takuma; Qin, Si; Daikoku, Yosuke; Miyamori, Koji; Nagai, Masashi; Hou, De-Xing

    2013-05-01

    6-Methylthiohexyl isothiocyanate (6-MTITC), one of the major bioactive ingredients in Japanese Wasabi, has revealed cytoprotective and cancer chemopreventive effects. This study aims to clarify the molecular mechanisms how 6-MTITC modulates nuclear factor E2-related factor 2 (Nrf2)/Kelchlike ECH-associating protein 1 (Keap1) system in antioxidant-responsive element (ARE)-mediated nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADP): quinone oxidoreductase 1 (NQO1) expression. HepG2 cells were treated with 6-MTITC with varying time and dose. NQO1, Nrf2, and Keap1 proteins were detected by Western blotting. ARE transactivation was detected by electrophilic mobility shift assay and reporter gene assay. Nuclear localization of Nrf2 was determined by immunocytochemistry assay. Ubiquitination of Nrf2 and Keap1 was detected using immunoprecipitation after treatment with MG132. Small interfering RNA was used to knockdown Nrf2 or Keap1. The results revealed that 6-MTITC modulated Nrf2/ARE pathway by stimulating Keap1 modification, and inhibiting Nrf2 ubiquitination and protein turnover. These actions finally increased nuclear Nrf2 accumulation and ARE-binding activity. Moreover, silencing Nrf2 markedly reduced ARE-driven activity induced by 6-MTITC. 6-MTITC modulated ARE-driven NQO1 expression by stabilizing Nrf2 with enhanced Keap1 modification and decreased Nrf2 degradation. © 2013 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  13. Isothiocyanates Are Promising Compounds against Oxidative Stress, Neuroinflammation and Cell Death that May Benefit Neurodegeneration in Parkinson’s Disease

    PubMed Central

    Sita, Giulia; Hrelia, Patrizia; Tarozzi, Andrea; Morroni, Fabiana

    2016-01-01

    Parkinson’s disease (PD) is recognized as the second most common neurodegenerative disorder and is characterized by a slow and progressive degeneration of dopaminergic neurons in the substantia nigra. Despite intensive research, the mechanisms involved in neuronal loss are not completely understood yet; however, misfolded proteins, oxidative stress, excitotoxicity and inflammation play a pivotal role in the progression of the pathology. Neuroinflammation may have a greater function in PD pathogenesis than initially believed, taking part in the cascade of events that leads to neuronal death. To date, no efficient therapy, able to arrest or slow down PD, is available. In this context, the need to find novel strategies to counteract neurodegenerative progression by influencing diseases’ pathogenesis is becoming increasingly clear. Isothiocyanates (ITCs) have already shown interesting properties in detoxification, inflammation, apoptosis and cell cycle regulation through the induction of phase I and phase II enzyme systems. Moreover, ITCs may be able to modulate several key points in oxidative and inflammatory evolution. In view of these considerations, the aim of the present review is to describe ITCs as pleiotropic compounds capable of preventing and modulating the evolution of PD. PMID:27598127

  14. DNA Microarray Profiling Highlights Nrf2-Mediated Chemoprevention Targeted by Wasabi-Derived Isothiocyanates in HepG2 Cells.

    PubMed

    Trio, Phoebe Zapanta; Kawahara, Atsuyoshi; Tanigawa, Shunsuke; Sakao, Kozue; Hou, De-Xing

    2017-01-01

    6-MSITC and 6-MTITC are sulforaphane (SFN) analogs found in Japanese Wasabi. As we reported previously, Wasabi isothiocyanates (ITCs) are activators of Nrf2-antioxidant response element pathway, and also inhibitors of pro-inflammatory cyclooxygenase-2. This study is the first to assess the global changes in transcript levels by Wasabi ITCs, comparing with SFN, in HepG2 cells. We performed comparative gene expression profiling by treating HepG2 cells with ITCs, followed by DNA microarray analyses using HG-U133 plus 2.0 oligonucleotide array. Partial array data on selected gene products were confirmed by RT-PCR and Western blotting. Ingenuity Pathway Analysis (IPA) was used to identify functional subsets of genes and biologically significant network pathways. 6-MTITC showed the highest number of differentially altered (≥2 folds) gene expression, of which 114 genes were upregulated and 75 were downregulated. IPA revealed that Nrf2-mediated pathway, together with glutamate metabolism, is the common significantly modulated pathway across treatments. Interestingly, 6-MSITC exhibited the most potent effect toward Nrf2-mediated pathway. Our data suggest that 6-MSITC could exert chemopreventive role against cancer through its underlying antioxidant activity via the activation of Nrf2-mediated subsequent induction of cytoprotective genes.

  15. Allyl isothiocyanate that induces GST and UGT expression confers oxidative stress resistance on C. elegans, as demonstrated by nematode biosensor.

    PubMed

    Hasegawa, Koichi; Miwa, Satsuki; Tsutsumiuchi, Kaname; Miwa, Johji

    2010-02-17

    Electrophilic xenobiotics and endogenous products from oxidative stresses induce the glutathione S-transferases (GSTs), which form a large family within the phase II enzymes over both animal and plant kingdoms. The GSTs thus induced in turn detoxify these external as well as internal stresses. Because these stresses are often linked to ageing and damage to health, the induction of phase II enzymes without causing adverse effects would be beneficial in slowing down ageing and keeping healthy conditions. We have tested this hypothesis by choosing allyl isothiocyanate (AITC), a functional ingredient in wasabi, as a candidate food ingredient that induces GSTs without causing adverse effects on animals' lives. To monitor the GST induction, we constructed a gst::gfp fusion gene and used it to transform Caenorhabditis elegans for use as a nematode biosensor. With the nematode biosensor, we found that AITC induced GST expression and conferred tolerance on the nematode against various oxidative stresses. We also present evidence that the transcription factor SKN-1 is involved in regulating the GST expression induced by AITC. We show the applicability of the nematode biosensor for discovering and evaluating functional food substances and chemicals that would provide anti-ageing or healthful benefits.

  16. Neuroprotection by 6-(methylsulfinyl)hexyl isothiocyanate in a 6-hydroxydopamine mouse model of Parkinson׳s disease.

    PubMed

    Morroni, Fabiana; Sita, Giulia; Tarozzi, Andrea; Cantelli-Forti, Giorgio; Hrelia, Patrizia

    2014-11-17

    A number of pathogenic factors have been implicated in the progression of Parkinson׳s disease (PD), including oxidative stress, mitochondrial dysfunction, inflammation, excitotoxicity, and signals mediating apoptosis cascade. 6-(methylsulfinyl)hexyl isothiocyanate (6-MSITC) is a major component in wasabi, a very popular spice in Japan and a member of the Brassica family of vegetables. This study was designed to investigate the neuroprotective effects of 6-MSITC in a PD mouse model. Mice were treated with 6-MSITC (5mg/kg twice a week) for four weeks after the unilateral intrastriatal injection of 6-hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA). On the 28th day, 6-OHDA-injected mice showed behavioral impairments, a significant decrease in tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) and an increase in apoptosis. In addition, lesioned mice showed reduced glutathione levels and glutathione-S-transferase and glutathione reductase activities. Notably, 6-MSITC demonstrated neuroprotective effects in our experimental model strongly related to the preservation of functional nigral dopaminergic neurons, which contributed to the reduction of motor dysfunction induced by 6-OHDA. Furthermore, this study provides evidence that the beneficial effects of 6-MSITC could be attributed to the decrease of apoptotic cell death and to the activation of glutathione-dependent antioxidant systems. These findings may render 6-MSITC as a promising molecule for further pharmacological studies on the investigation for disease-modifying treatment in PD. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Microarray-based determination of anti-inflammatory genes targeted by 6-(methylsulfinyl)hexyl isothiocyanate in macrophages

    PubMed Central

    CHEN, JIHUA; UTO, TAKUHIRO; TANIGAWA, SHUNSUKE; YAMADA-KATO, TOMEO; FUJII, MAKOTO; HOU, DE-XING

    2010-01-01

    6-(Methylsulfinyl)hexyl isothiocyanate (6-MSITC) is a bioactive ingredient of wasabi [Wasabia japonica (Miq.) Matsumura], which is a popular pungent spice of Japan. To evaluate the anti-inflammatory function and underlying genes targeted by 6-MSITC, gene expression profiling through DNA microarray was performed in mouse macrophages. Among 22,050 oligonucleotides, the expression levels of 406 genes were increased by ≥3-fold in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-activated RAW264 cells, 238 gene signals of which were attenuated by 6-MSITC (≥2-fold). Expression levels of 717 genes were decreased by ≥3-fold in LPS-activated cells, of which 336 gene signals were restored by 6-MSITC (≥2-fold). Utilizing group analysis, 206 genes affected by 6-MSITC with a ≥2-fold change were classified into 35 categories relating to biological processes (81), molecular functions (108) and signaling pathways (17). The genes were further categorized as ‘defense, inflammatory response, cytokine activities and receptor activities’ and some were confirmed by real-time polymerase chain reaction. Ingenuity pathway analysis further revealed that wasabi 6-MSITC regulated the relevant networks of chemokines, interleukins and interferons to exert its anti-inflammatory function. PMID:23136589

  18. Determination of Trace Deoxyribonucleic Acid by Using Fluorescein Isothiocyanate-Phenosafranine as a Double-Luminescent Phosphorescence Probe

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Xiao-Mei; Liu, Zhen-Bo; Li, Fei-Ming; Lin, Li-Ping; Wang, Xin-Xing; Lin, Chang-Qing; Huang, Ya-Hong; Li, Zhi-Ming; Lin, Shao-Qin

    2010-01-01

    Using Pb2+ as ion perturber, phenosafranine (PF) and fluorescein isothiocyanate (FITC) could emit strong and stable room temperature phosphorescence (RTP) signal on the filter paper, respectively. When they were mixed, the phenomenon that the RTP signal of PF and FITC enhanced significantly was found. And 1.12 ag DNA spot−1 (sample volume was 0.40 μL, corresponding concentration was 2.8 × 10–15 g mL–1) could cause the RTP signal of both PF and FITC to enhance sharply. The content of DNA was proportional to the ΔIp of PF and FITC in the system at 634 and 659 nm. Thus, a new solid substrate room temperature phosphorimetry (SSRTP) for the determination of trace DNA was established by using FITC-PF as double-luminescent phosphorescence probe. The detection limit (LD) of this method calculated by 3Sb/k was 14 zg DNA spot–1 for PF and 18 zg DNA spot–1 for FITC, respectively, showing high sensitivity. It has been applied to the determination of trace DNA in practical samples and the analysis results were in accordance with those of fluorescence probe. The reaction mechanism of SSRTP for the determination of trace DNA was also discussed. PMID:20665096

  19. Influence of the antimicrobial compound allyl isothiocyanate against the Aspergillus parasiticus growth and its aflatoxins production in pizza crust.

    PubMed

    Quiles, Juan M; Manyes, Lara; Luciano, Fernando; Mañes, Jordi; Meca, Giuseppe

    2015-09-01

    Aflatoxins (AFs) are secondary metabolites produced by different species of Aspergillus, such as Aspergillus flavus and Aspergillus parasiticus, which possess mutagenic, teratogenic and carcinogenic activities in humans. In this study, active packaging devices containing allyl isothiocyanate (AITC) or oriental mustard flour (OMF) + water were tested to inhibit the growth of A. parasiticus and AFs production in fresh pizza crust after 30 d. The antimicrobial and anti-aflatoxin activities were compared to a control group (no antimicrobial treatment) and to a group added with commercial preservatives (sorbic acid + sodium propionate). A. parasiticus growth was only inhibited after 30 d by AITC in filter paper at 5 μL/L and 10 μL/L, AITC sachet at 5 μL/L and 10 μL/L and OMF sachet at 850 mg + 850 μL of water. However, AFs production was inhibited by all antimicrobial treatments in a dose-dependent manner. More importantly, AITC in a filter paper at 10 μL/L, AITC sachet at 10 μL/L, OMF sachet at 850 mg + 850 μL of water and sorbic acid + sodium propionate at 0.5-2.0 g/Kg completely inhibited AFs formation. The use of AITC in active packaging devices could be a natural alternative to avoid the growth of mycotoxinogenic fungi in refrigerated bakery products in substitution of common commercial preservatives. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Labelling of histone H5 and its interaction with DNA. 1. Histone H5 labelling with fluorescein isothiocyanate.

    PubMed

    Favazza, M; Lerho, M; Houssier, C

    1990-06-01

    Histone H5 has been labelled with fluorescein isothiocyanate (FITC) with particular attention to the reaction conditions (pH, reaction time and input FITC/H5 molar ratio) and to the complete elimination of non-covalently bound dye. We preferred to use reaction conditions which yielded non-specific uniform labelling rather than specific alpha-NH2 terminal labelling, in order to obtain higher sensitivity in further studies dealing with the detection of perturbation at the binding sites of H5 on DNA. FITC-labelled H5 was further characterized by absorption and circular dichroism spectroscopy, and the fluorescein probe titrated in the 4-8 pH range. The structural integrity of H5 was found to be preserved after labelling. The positive electrostatic potential of the environment in which the FITC probe is embedded in the arginine/lysine-rich tails of H5 is believed to be responsible for the drop of pK of 1 unit found for H5-FITC as compared to free FITC. For the globular part of H5, the pK of covalently-bound FITC was only slightly lowered; this is a consequence of the much lower content in positively-charged amino-acid side chains in this region.

  1. In Vitro/In Vivo Evaluation of Radiolabeled [(99m)Tc(CO)3](+)-Hydroxyurea and Fluorescein Isothiocyanate-Hydroxyurea.

    PubMed

    Yilmaz, Baris; Teksoz, Serap; Kilcar, Ayfer Yurt; Ucar, Eser; Ichedef, Cigdem; Medine, Emin Ilker; Ari, Kadir

    2016-02-01

    The aim of current study is to examine hydroxyurea (HU), which is an antineoplastic drug used for the treatment of leukemia, sickle-cell disease, HIV, psoriasis, thrombocythemia, and various neoplastic diseases in two aspects. The active ingredient hydroxyurea was obtained by purification of the capsule form drug, commercially named as HYDREA. Then, [(99m)Tc(CO)3](+)core radiolabeling with HU was performed as first aspect. Quality control studies of (99m)Tc(CO)3-HU complex were performed by thin-layer radiochromatography and high-performance liquid radiochromatography methods. The results demonstrated that the radiolabeling yield was quite high (98.43% ± 2.29%). Also, (99m)Tc(CO)3-HU complex has good stability during the 24-hour period. Biological behavior of (99m)Tc(CO)3-HU complex is evaluated by biodistribution studies on Wistar Albino rats. Fluorescein isothiocyanate (FITC) labeling of HU was performed as second aspect. Fluorometric evaluation of binding efficacy and fluorescence imaging studies on MCF7 and Hela cell lines were carried out. It was thought that the knowledge achieved in this study would contribute to using (99m)Tc(CO)3-HU complex as an imaging agent, which inhibits the DNA synthesis selectively, by inhibiting ribonucleotide reductase enzyme. It was observed that FITC-HU has noteworthy incorporation on both cell lines.

  2. Intracolonic Administration of the TRPA1 Agonist Allyl Isothiocyanate Stimulates Colonic Motility and Defecation in Conscious Dogs.

    PubMed

    Someya, Soutoku; Nagao, Munenori; Shibata, Chikashi; Tanaka, Naoki; Sasaki, Hiroyuki; Kikuchi, Daisuke; Miyachi, Tomohiro; Naitoh, Takeshi; Unno, Michiaki

    2015-07-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the effects of the intracolonic transient receptor potential (TRP) A1 agonist allyl isothiocyanate (AITC) on colonic motility and defecation. The effects of AITC administered into the proximal colonic lumen on colonic motility and defecation were studied in neurally intact dogs equipped with strain-gauge force transducers on the colon, with or without various antagonists. Effects of intracolonic AITC were also studied in dogs with either transection/re-anastomosis (T/R) between the proximal and middle colon and complete extrinsic denervation of an ileocolonic segment. AITC increased colonic motility and induced giant migrating contractions (GMCs) with defecations in 75% of experiments in neurally intact dogs. These effects were inhibited by atropine, hexamethonium, ondansetron, and HC-030031 but unaltered by capsazepine. In dogs with T/R, the increase in colonic motility was inhibited in the middle-distal colon. In dogs with extrinsic denervation, the increase in colonic motility in the distal colon was decreased. Intracolonic AITC stimulates colonic motility and defecation via cholinergic, serotonergic, and TRPA1 pathways. Continuity of colonic enteric neurons plays an essential role in the intracolonic AITC-induced colonic motor response, while extrinsic nerves are important in occurrence and propagation of GMCs.

  3. A long lifetime chemical sensor: study on fluorescence property of fluorescein isothiocyanate and preparation of pH chemical sensor.

    PubMed

    Ma, Li Ying; Wang, Huai You; Xie, Hui; Xu, Li Xiao

    2004-07-01

    The fluorescence property of fluorescein isothiocyanate (FITC) in acid-alkaline medium was studied by spectrofluorimetry. The characteristic of FITC response to hydrogen ion has been examined in acid-alkaline solution. A novel pH chemical sensor was prepared based on the relationship between the relative fluorescence intensity of FITC and pH. The measurement of relative fluorescence intensity was carried out at 362 nm with excitation at 250 nm. The excellent linear relationship was obtained between relative fluorescence intensity and pH in the range of pH 1-5. The linear regression equation of the calibration graph is F = 66.871 + 6.605 pH (F is relative fluorescence intensity), with a correlation coefficient of linear regression of 0.9995. Effects of temperature, concentration of FITC on the response to hydrogen ion had been examined. It was important that this chemical sensor was long lifetime, and the property of response to hydrogen ion was stable for at least 70 days. This pH sensor can be used for measuring pH value in water solution. The accuracy is 0.01 pH unit. The results obtained by the pH sensor agreed with those by the pH meter. Obviously, this pH sensor is potential for determining pH change real time in biological system.

  4. A long lifetime chemical sensor: study on fluorescence property of fluorescein isothiocyanate and preparation of pH chemical sensor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ma, Li Ying; Wang, Huai You; Xie, Hui; Xu, Li Xiao

    2004-07-01

    The fluorescence property of fluorescein isothiocyanate (FITC) in acid-alkaline medium was studied by spectrofluorimetry. The characteristic of FITC response to hydrogen ion has been examined in acid-alkaline solution. A novel pH chemical sensor was prepared based on the relationship between the relative fluorescence intensity of FITC and pH. The measurement of relative fluorescence intensity was carried out at 362 nm with excitation at 250 nm. The excellent linear relationship was obtained between relative fluorescence intensity and pH in the range of pH 1-5. The linear regression equation of the calibration graph is F=66.871+6.605 pH ( F is relative fluorescence intensity), with a correlation coefficient of linear regression of 0.9995. Effects of temperature, concentration of FITC on the response to hydrogen ion had been examined. It was important that this chemical sensor was long lifetime, and the property of response to hydrogen ion was stable for at least 70 days. This pH sensor can be used for measuring pH value in water solution. The accuracy is 0.01 pH unit. The results obtained by the pH sensor agreed with those by the pH meter. Obviously, this pH sensor is potential for determining pH change real time in biological system.

  5. [Inhibition of Growth of Seed-Borne Fungi and Aflatoxin Production on Stored Peanuts by Allyl Isothiocyanate Vapor].

    PubMed

    Okano, Kiyoshi; Nishioka, Chikako; Iida, Tetsuya; Ozu, Yuzi; Kaneko, Misao; Watanabe, Yuko; Mizukami, Yuichi; Ichinoe, Masakatsu

    2018-01-01

    Aspergillus parasiticus contamination of peanuts results in the production of highly toxic metabolites, such as aflatoxin B 1 , B 2 , G 1 and G 2 , and its incidence in imported peanuts is reported to be increasing. Here, we examined whether the antifungal compound allyl isothiocyanate (AIT), which is present in mustard seed, could inhibit the growth of seed-borne fungi and aflatoxin-producing fungi. Peanuts produced in China and Japan were inoculated with A. parasiticus and exposed to AIT vapor released by a commercial mustard seed extract in closed containers under controlled conditions of temperature and humidity. AIT in the inoculated peanut samples reached its highest concentration of 44.8 ng/mL at 3 hr and decreased to 5.6 ng/mL after 9 weeks. Although AIT decreased the growth of the seed-borne fungi during the test period, the inoculated fungi survived. All tested peanuts samples were analyzed for aflatoxin using the HPLC method. There was a correlation between the number of aflatoxin-producing fungi and the total amount of aflatoxin production in the inoculated peanut samples. Our results indicate that AIT was effective in inhibiting the growth of seed-borne fungi and aflatoxin-producing fungi.

  6. Brown seaweed (Saccharina japonica) as an edible natural delivery matrix for allyl isothiocyanate inhibiting food-borne bacteria.

    PubMed

    Siahaan, Evi Amelia; Pendleton, Phillip; Woo, Hee-Chul; Chun, Byung-Soo

    2014-01-01

    The edible, brown seaweed Saccharina japonica was prepared as powder in the size range 500-900 μm for the desorption release of allyl isothiocyanate (AITC). Powders were used as raw (containing lipids) and as de-oiled, where the lipid was removed. In general, de-oiled powders adsorbed larger masses of AITC after vapour or solution contact. Mass adsorbed due to solution contact exceeded vapour contact. Larger particles adsorbed more than smaller particles. No chemical bonding between AITC and the powder surface occurred. Release from vapour deposited particles reached 70-85% available within 72 h; solution deposited reached 70-90% available at 192 h. The larger amounts of AITC adsorbed via solution deposition resulted in greater vapour-phase concentrations at 72 h for antimicrobial activity studies. No loss of activity was detected against Escherichia coli, Salmonella Typhimurium or Bacillus cereus. Only a nominal activity against Staphylococcus aureus was demonstrated. S. japonica powder could be used as an edible, natural vehicle for AITC delivery. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Serotonin or the Mucosa Do Not Mediate the Motor Effect of Allyl Isothiocyanate in the Guinea-Pig Small Intestine.

    PubMed

    Sandor, Zsolt I; Bencsik, Timea; Dekany, Andras; Bartho, Lorand

    2016-01-01

    Serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine, 5-HT), originating from the enterochromaffin cells has been reported to mediate the contractile effect of the sensory stimulant and TRPA1 activator allyl isothiocyanate (AITC) in the guinea-pig small intestine [Nozawa et al: Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 2009;106:3408-3413]. In the present experiments, the nerve-mediated contraction of this preparation due to AITC was not inhibited by a combination of methysergide (broad-spectrum 5-HT antagonist; 0.3 µmol/l), Y 25130 (azasetron, 5-HT3 receptor antagonist; 1 µmol/l) and SB 204070 (5-HT4 receptor antagonist; 2 µmol/l) or by 5-HT receptor desensitization, that is, pretreatments that practically abolished contractions of similar size in response to exogenous 5-HT, without causing nonspecific effects. AITC also contracted longitudinal muscle-myenteric plexus preparations, an effect also fully resistant to the combination of 5-HT receptor antagonists. The pharmacology of AITC in strip preparations matched that in the whole ileum. Key Messages: It is concluded that neither endogenous 5-HT nor the gut mucosa contributes to the excitatory effect of AITC in the guinea-pig small intestine. The combination of 5-HT antagonists elaborated is suitable for studying the possible involvement of 5-HT in motor responses of the guinea-pig intestine. © 2016 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  8. Allyl isothiocyanate, a constituent of cruciferous vegetables, inhibits growth of PC-3 human prostate cancer xenografts in vivo.

    PubMed

    Srivastava, Sanjay K; Xiao, Dong; Lew, Karen L; Hershberger, Pamela; Kokkinakis, Demetrius M; Johnson, Candace S; Trump, Donald L; Singh, Shivendra V

    2003-10-01

    We have shown previously that allyl isothiocyanate (AITC), a constituent of cruciferous vegetables, significantly inhibits survival of PC-3 and LNCaP human prostate cancer cells in culture, whereas proliferation of a normal prostate epithelial cell line is minimally affected by AITC even at concentrations that are highly cytotoxic to the prostate cancer cells. The present studies were designed to test the hypothesis that AITC administration may retard growth of human prostate cancer xenografts in vivo. Bolus i.p. injection of 10 micromol AITC, three times per week (Monday, Wednesday and Friday) beginning the day of tumor cell implantation, significantly inhibited the growth of PC-3 xenograft (P < 0.05 by two-way ANOVA). For example, 26 days after tumor cell implantation, the average tumor volume in control mice (1025 +/- 205 mm3) was approximately 1.7-fold higher compared with AITC-treated mice. Histological analysis of tumors excised at the termination of the experiment revealed a statistically significant increase in number of apoptotic bodies with a concomitant decrease in cells undergoing mitosis in the tumors of AITC-treated mice compared with that of control mice. Western blot analysis indicated an approximately 70% reduction in the levels of anti-apoptotic protein Bcl-2 in the tumor lysate of AITC-treated mice compared with that of control mice. Moreover, the tumors from AITC-treated mice, but not control mice, exhibited cleavage of BID, which is known to promote apoptosis. Statistically significant reduction in the expression of several proteins that regulate G2/M progression, including cyclin B1, cell division cycle (Cdc)25B and Cdc25C (44, 45 and 90% reduction, respectively, compared with control), was also observed in the tumors of AITC-treated mice relative to control tumors. In conclusion, the results of the present study indicate that AITC administration inhibits growth of PC-3 xenografts in vivo by inducing apoptosis and reducing mitotic activity.

  9. Taste detection of the non-volatile isothiocyanate moringin results in deterrence to glucosinolate-adapted insect larvae.

    PubMed

    Müller, Caroline; van Loon, Joop; Ruschioni, Sara; De Nicola, Gina Rosalinda; Olsen, Carl Erik; Iori, Renato; Agerbirk, Niels

    2015-10-01

    Isothiocyanates (ITCs), released from Brassicales plants after hydrolysis of glucosinolates, are known for their negative effects on herbivores but mechanisms have been elusive. The ITCs are initially present in dissolved form at the site of herbivore feeding, but volatile ITCs may subsequently enter the gas phase and all ITCs may react with matrix components. Deterrence to herbivores resulting from topically applied volatile ITCs in artificial feeding assays may hence lead to ambiguous conclusions. In the present study, the non-volatile ITC moringin (4-(α-L-rhamnopyranosyloxy)benzyl ITC) and its glucosinolate precursor glucomoringin were examined for effects on behaviour and taste physiology of specialist insect herbivores of Brassicales. In feeding bioassays, glucomoringin was not deterrent to larvae of Pieris napi (Lepidoptera: Pieridae) and Athalia rosae (Hymenoptera: Tenthredinidae), which are adapted to glucosinolates. Glucomoringin stimulated feeding of larvae of the related Pieris brassicae (Lepidoptera: Pieridae) and also elicited electrophysiological activity from a glucosinolate-sensitive gustatory neuron in the lateral maxillary taste sensilla. In contrast, the ITC moringin was deterrent to P. napi and P. brassicae at high levels and to A. rosae at both high and low levels when topically applied to cabbage leaf discs (either 12, 120 or 1200 nmol moringin per leaf disc of 1cm diameter). Survival of A. rosae was also significantly reduced when larvae were kept on leaves treated with moringin for several days. Furthermore, moringin elicited electrophysiological activity in a deterrent-sensitive neuron in the medial maxillary taste sensillum of P. brassicae, providing a sensory mechanism for the deterrence and the first known ITC taste response of an insect. In simulated feeding assays, recovery of moringin was high, in accordance with its non-volatile nature. Our results demonstrate taste-mediated deterrence of a non-volatile, natural ITC to glucosinolate

  10. Photoprotective Properties of Isothiocyanate and Nitrile Glucosinolate Derivatives From Meadowfoam (Limnanthes alba) Against UVB Irradiation in Human Skin Equivalent

    PubMed Central

    Carpenter, Evan L.; Le, Mai N.; Miranda, Cristobal L.; Reed, Ralph L.; Stevens, Jan F.; Indra, Arup K.; Ganguli-Indra, Gitali

    2018-01-01

    Exposure to ultraviolet B (UVB) irradiation of the skin leads to numerous dermatological concerns including skin cancer and accelerated aging. Natural product glucosinolate derivatives, like sulforaphane, have been shown to exhibit chemopreventive and photoprotective properties. In this study, we examined meadowfoam (Limnanthes alba) glucosinolate derivatives, 3-methoxybenzyl isothiocyanate (MBITC) and 3-methoxyphenyl acetonitrile (MPACN), for their activity in protecting against the consequences of UV exposure. To that end, we have exposed human primary epidermal keratinocytes (HPEKs) and 3D human skin reconstructed in vitro (EpiDermTM FT-400) to UVB insult and investigated whether MBITC and MPACN treatment ameliorated the harmful effects of UVB damage. Activity was determined by the compounds’ efficacy in counteracting UVB-induced DNA damage, matrix-metalloproteinase (MMP) expression, and proliferation. We found that in monolayer cultures of HPEK, MBITC and MPACN did not protect against a UVB-induced loss in proliferation and MBITC itself inhibited cell proliferation. However, in human reconstructed skin-equivalents, MBITC and MPACN decrease epidermal cyclobutane pyrimidine dimers (CPDs) and significantly reduce total phosphorylated γH2A.X levels. Both MBITC and MPACN inhibit UVB-induced MMP-1 and MMP-3 expression indicating their role to prevent photoaging. Both compounds, and MPACN in particular, showed activity against UVB-induced proliferation as indicated by fewer epidermal PCNA+ cells and prevented UVB-induced hyperplasia as determined by a reduction in reconstructed skin epidermal thickness (ET). These data demonstrate that MBITC and MPACN exhibit promising anti-photocarcinogenic and anti-photoaging properties in the skin microenvironment and could be used for therapeutic interventions. PMID:29867483

  11. Photoprotective Properties of Isothiocyanate and Nitrile Glucosinolate Derivatives From Meadowfoam (Limnanthes alba) Against UVB Irradiation in Human Skin Equivalent.

    PubMed

    Carpenter, Evan L; Le, Mai N; Miranda, Cristobal L; Reed, Ralph L; Stevens, Jan F; Indra, Arup K; Ganguli-Indra, Gitali

    2018-01-01

    Exposure to ultraviolet B (UVB) irradiation of the skin leads to numerous dermatological concerns including skin cancer and accelerated aging. Natural product glucosinolate derivatives, like sulforaphane, have been shown to exhibit chemopreventive and photoprotective properties. In this study, we examined meadowfoam ( Limnanthes alba ) glucosinolate derivatives, 3-methoxybenzyl isothiocyanate (MBITC) and 3-methoxyphenyl acetonitrile (MPACN), for their activity in protecting against the consequences of UV exposure. To that end, we have exposed human primary epidermal keratinocytes (HPEKs) and 3D human skin reconstructed in vitro (EpiDerm TM FT-400) to UVB insult and investigated whether MBITC and MPACN treatment ameliorated the harmful effects of UVB damage. Activity was determined by the compounds' efficacy in counteracting UVB-induced DNA damage, matrix-metalloproteinase (MMP) expression, and proliferation. We found that in monolayer cultures of HPEK, MBITC and MPACN did not protect against a UVB-induced loss in proliferation and MBITC itself inhibited cell proliferation. However, in human reconstructed skin-equivalents, MBITC and MPACN decrease epidermal cyclobutane pyrimidine dimers (CPDs) and significantly reduce total phosphorylated γH2A.X levels. Both MBITC and MPACN inhibit UVB-induced MMP-1 and MMP-3 expression indicating their role to prevent photoaging. Both compounds, and MPACN in particular, showed activity against UVB-induced proliferation as indicated by fewer epidermal PCNA+ cells and prevented UVB-induced hyperplasia as determined by a reduction in reconstructed skin epidermal thickness (ET). These data demonstrate that MBITC and MPACN exhibit promising anti-photocarcinogenic and anti-photoaging properties in the skin microenvironment and could be used for therapeutic interventions.

  12. Isothiocyanate from Moringa oleifera seeds mitigates hydrogen peroxide-induced cytotoxicity and preserved morphological features of human neuronal cells

    PubMed Central

    Shaari, Khozirah; Rosli, Rozita

    2018-01-01

    Reactive oxygen species are well known for induction of oxidative stress conditions through oxidation of vital biomarkers leading to cellular death via apoptosis and other process, thereby causing devastative effects on the host organs. This effect is believed to be linked with pathological alterations seen in several neurodegenerative disease conditions. Many phytochemical compounds proved to have robust antioxidant activities that deterred cells against cytotoxic stress environment, thus protect apoptotic cell death. In view of that we studied the potential of glucomoringin-isothiocyanate (GMG-ITC) or moringin to mitigate the process that lead to neurodegeneration in various ways. Neuroprotective effect of GMG-ITC was performed on retinoic acid (RA) induced differentiated neuroblastoma cells (SHSY5Y) via cell viability assay, flow cytometry analysis and fluorescence microscopy by means of acridine orange and propidium iodide double staining, to evaluate the anti-apoptotic activity and morphology conservation ability of the compound. Additionally, neurite surface integrity and ultrastructural analysis were carried out by means of scanning and transmission electron microscopy to assess the orientation of surface and internal features of the treated neuronal cells. GMG-ITC pre-treated neuron cells showed significant resistance to H2O2-induced apoptotic cell death, revealing high level of protection by the compound. Increase of intracellular oxidative stress induced by H2O2 was mitigated by GMG-ITC. Thus, pre-treatment with the compound conferred significant protection to cytoskeleton and cytoplasmic inclusion coupled with conservation of surface morphological features and general integrity of neuronal cells. Therefore, the collective findings in the presence study indicated the potentials of GMG-ITC to protect the integrity of neuron cells against induced oxidative-stress related cytotoxic processes, the hallmark of neurodegenerative diseases. PMID:29723199

  13. Isothiocyanate from Moringa oleifera seeds mitigates hydrogen peroxide-induced cytotoxicity and preserved morphological features of human neuronal cells.

    PubMed

    Jaafaru, Mohammed Sani; Nordin, Norshariza; Shaari, Khozirah; Rosli, Rozita; Abdull Razis, Ahmad Faizal

    2018-01-01

    Reactive oxygen species are well known for induction of oxidative stress conditions through oxidation of vital biomarkers leading to cellular death via apoptosis and other process, thereby causing devastative effects on the host organs. This effect is believed to be linked with pathological alterations seen in several neurodegenerative disease conditions. Many phytochemical compounds proved to have robust antioxidant activities that deterred cells against cytotoxic stress environment, thus protect apoptotic cell death. In view of that we studied the potential of glucomoringin-isothiocyanate (GMG-ITC) or moringin to mitigate the process that lead to neurodegeneration in various ways. Neuroprotective effect of GMG-ITC was performed on retinoic acid (RA) induced differentiated neuroblastoma cells (SHSY5Y) via cell viability assay, flow cytometry analysis and fluorescence microscopy by means of acridine orange and propidium iodide double staining, to evaluate the anti-apoptotic activity and morphology conservation ability of the compound. Additionally, neurite surface integrity and ultrastructural analysis were carried out by means of scanning and transmission electron microscopy to assess the orientation of surface and internal features of the treated neuronal cells. GMG-ITC pre-treated neuron cells showed significant resistance to H2O2-induced apoptotic cell death, revealing high level of protection by the compound. Increase of intracellular oxidative stress induced by H2O2 was mitigated by GMG-ITC. Thus, pre-treatment with the compound conferred significant protection to cytoskeleton and cytoplasmic inclusion coupled with conservation of surface morphological features and general integrity of neuronal cells. Therefore, the collective findings in the presence study indicated the potentials of GMG-ITC to protect the integrity of neuron cells against induced oxidative-stress related cytotoxic processes, the hallmark of neurodegenerative diseases.

  14. Comparative analysis of allyl isothiocyanate (AITC)-induced carbohydrate oxidation changes via TRPV1 between mice and chickens.

    PubMed

    Kawabata, Fuminori; Kawabata, Yuko; Liang, Ruojun; Nishimura, Shotaro; Tabata, Shoji

    2017-01-01

    Postprandial hyperglycemia is a risk factor for cardiovascular diseases. It has been reported that intragastric administration of allyl isothiocyanate (AITC), which is one of the pungent ingredients of wasabi and horseradish but it is not included in hot chili pepper, increased carbohydrate oxidation and reduced postprandial increase of blood glucose via transient receptor potential vanilloid 1 (TRPV1)in mice. However, the action site of AITC on TRPV1 for increasing carbohydrate oxidation is unclear. Both mammalian and chicken TRPV1 (cTRPV1) are activated by heat and acid, but unlike its mammalian counterpart, cTRPV1 is only faintly activated by capsaicin. This difference is due to the 8 chicken-specific amino acid residues around transmembrane 3, which is the main site of capsaicin-binding in rat TRPV1. Moreover, AITC-induced activation of mouse TRPV1 (mTRPV1) is largely dependent on S513, a residue that is involved in capsaicin-binding. Thus, we hypothesized that the increase of carbohydrate oxidation by AITC in mammals is induced by the binding of AITC to the capsaicin-binding site of TRPV1. In this study, we performed a comparative study using chickens and mice, since chickens are thought to partly lack the capsaicin-binding site of TRPV1. We examined the effects of AITC on the respiratory quotient (RQ), the index of carbohydrate oxidation and fat oxidation, in chickens and mice. Respiratory gas analysis revealed that AITC does not increase the RQ in chickens, and Ca 2+ imaging methods and a whole cell-patch clamp analysis showed that AITC does not activate cTRPV1. These results implied that the capsaicin-binding site is an important region for increasing carbohydrate oxidation by AITC administration in animals.

  15. 7 Methyl indole ethyl isothiocyanate causes ROS mediated apoptosis and cell cycle arrest in endometrial cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Kristjansdottir, Katrin; Kim, Kyukwang; Choi, Joong Sub; Horan, Timothy C; Brard, Laurent; Moore, Richard G; Singh, Rakesh K

    2012-08-01

    Chemotherapy options for advanced endometrial cancer are limited and newer therapeutic agents are urgently needed. This study describes the therapeutic potential of 7 Methyl-indole ethyl isothiocyanate (7Me-IEITC) in endometrial cancer cell lines. 7Me-IEITC was synthesized in our laboratory. The cell viability of 7Me-IEITC treated ECC-1 and KLE endometrial cancer cell was determined by MTS assay. Morphology and apoptosis were further confirmed by DAPI-staining and TUNEL assay. The measurement of reactive oxygen species (ROS), mitochondrial transmembrane depolarization potential (ΔΨm) and cell cycle phase was determined by FACS analysis. Expression of proteins involved in apoptosis, survival and cell-cycle progression was analyzed by Western blotting. 7Me-IEITC reduced the viability of the ECC-1 and KLE cancer cell-lines (IC(50)~2.5-10 μM) in a dose dependent fashion. 7Me-IEITC treatment caused mitochondrial transmembrane potential reduction, elevated the production of ROS, leading to activation of apoptosis in endometrial cancer KLE and ECC-1 cells. 7Me-IEITC treatment activated Bad, suppressed Bcl2 phosphorylation followed by PARP-1 deactivation and caspase 3 and 7 activation. 7Me-IEITC treatment arrested the progression of KLE cells in S-phase and caused CDC25 and cyclin-D1 downregulation. Pre-treatment with ascorbic acid abrogated 7Me-IEITC induced apoptosis in ECC-1 and KLE cells, suggesting that 7Me-IEITC mediated cytotoxicity is primarily through ROS production. 7Me-IEITC demonstrated promising cytotoxic effects in endometrial cancer cell line model. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Identification and analysis of a mercapturic acid conjugate of indole-3-methyl isothiocyanate in the urine of humans who consumed cruciferous vegetables.

    PubMed

    Upadhyaya, Pramod; Zarth, Adam T; Fujioka, Naomi; Fritz, Vincent A; Hecht, Stephen S

    2018-01-01

    Glucobrassicin, a quantitatively significant constituent of Brassica vegetables, gives rise to indole-3-carbinol (I3C) and its dimer di-indolylmethane (DIM) when the vegetables are chewed. I3C and DIM have been extensively studied with respect to their anti-carcinogenic properties. However, the presumed intermediate isothiocyanate in their formation, indole-3-methyl isothiocyanate (IMITC), has to our knowledge never been observed, despite the fact that isothiocyanates derived from cruciferous vegetables are known to have anti-carcinogenic properties. Therefore, we investigated the formation and presence in human urine of IMITC by analyzing for its N-acetylcysteine conjugate, IMITC-NAC, in order to gain a more complete understanding of the biochemical pathways leading to formation of I3C and DIM upon consumption of vegetables rich in glucobrassicin. Standard IMITC-NAC was synthesized and its structure confirmed by NMR and MS. IMITC-NAC was identified in extracts of Brussels sprouts chopped in the presence of N-acetylcysteine. An LC-ESI-MS/MS-SRM method for analysis of IMITC-NAC, with [ 13 C, 15 N]IMITC-NAC as internal standard, was developed and validated. Then, ten subjects (7 females) consumed a salad of Brussels sprouts and cabbage (containing 100-500μmol glucobrassicin) once daily for 3days. Urine was collected at intervals up to 24h after vegetable consumption. Levels of IMITC-NAC in the urine of these 10 subjects ranged from 0.2 to 30.2pmol/mL urine. These results provide the first evidence for the presumed intermediacy of IMITC in the formation of I3C and DIM in humans who consumed Brussels sprouts and cabbage as a source of glucobrassicin. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Effects of natural and synthetic isothiocyanate-based H2S-releasers against chemotherapy-induced neuropathic pain: Role of Kv7 potassium channels.

    PubMed

    Di Cesare Mannelli, Lorenzo; Lucarini, Elena; Micheli, Laura; Mosca, Ilaria; Ambrosino, Paolo; Soldovieri, Maria Virginia; Martelli, Alma; Testai, Lara; Taglialatela, Maurizio; Calderone, Vincenzo; Ghelardini, Carla

    2017-07-15

    Hydrogen sulfide (H 2 S) is a crucial signaling molecule involved in several physiological and pathological processes. Nonetheless, the role of this gasotransmitter in the pathogenesis and treatment of neuropathic pain is controversial. The aim of the present study was to investigate the pain relieving profile of a series of slow releasing H 2 S donors (the natural allyl-isothiocyanate and the synthetics phenyl- and carboxyphenyl-isothiocyanate) in animal models of neuropathic pain induced by paclitaxel or oxaliplatin, anticancer drugs characterized by a dose-limiting neurotoxicity. The potential contribution of Kv7 potassium channels modulation was also studied. Mice were treated with paclitaxel (2.0 mg kg -1 ) i.p. on days 1, 3, 5 and 7; oxaliplatin (2.4 mg kg -1 ) was administered i.p. on days 1-2, 5-9, 12-14. Behavioral tests were performed on day 15. In both models, single subcutaneous administrations of H 2 S donors (1.33, 4.43, 13.31 μmol kg -1 ) reduced the hypersensitivity to cold non-noxious stimuli (allodynia-related measurement). The prototypical H 2 S donor NaHS was also effective. Activity was maintained after i.c.v. administrations. On the contrary, the S-lacking molecule allyl-isocyanate did not increase pain threshold; the H 2 S-binding molecule hemoglobin abolished the pain-relieving effects of isothiocyanates and NaHS. The anti-neuropathic properties of H 2 S donors were reverted by the Kv7 potassium channel blocker XE991. Currents carried by Kv7.2 homomers and Kv7.2/Kv7.3 heteromers expressed in CHO cells were potentiated by H 2 S donors. Sistemically- or centrally-administered isothiocyanates reduced chemotherapy-induced neuropathic pain by releasing H 2 S. Activation of Kv7 channels largely mediate the anti-neuropathic effect. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Inhibition of Listeria monocytogenes on cooked cured chicken breasts by acidified coating containing allyl isothiocyanate or deodorized Oriental mustard extract.

    PubMed

    Olaimat, Amin N; Holley, Richard A

    2016-08-01

    Ready-to-eat meats are considered foods at high risk to cause life-threatening Listeria monocytogenes infections. This study screened 5 L. monocytogenes strains for their ability to hydrolyze sinigrin (a glucosinolate in Oriental mustard), which formed allyl isothiocyanate (AITC) and reduced L. monocytogenes viability on inoculated vacuum-packed, cooked, cured roast chicken slices at 4 °C. Tests involved incorporation of 25-50 μl/g AITC directly or 100-250 mg/g Oriental mustard extract in 0.5% (w/v) κ-carrageenan/2% (w/v) chitosan-based coatings prepared using 1.5% malic or acetic acid. L. monocytogenes strains hydrolyzed 33.6%-48.4% pure sinigrin in MH broth by 21 d at 25 °C. Acidified κ-carrageenan/chitosan coatings containing 25-50 μl/g AITC or 100-250 mg/g mustard reduced the viability of L. monocytogenes and aerobic bacteria on cooked, cured roast chicken slices by 4.1 to >7.0 log10 CFU/g compared to uncoated chicken stored at 4 °C for 70 d. Coatings containing malic acid were significantly more antimicrobial than those with acetic acid. During storage for 70 d, acidified κ-carrageenan/chitosan coatings containing 25-50 μl/g AITC or 250 mg/g mustard extract reduced lactic acid bacteria (LAB) numbers 3.8 to 5.4 log10 CFU/g on chicken slices compared to uncoated samples. Acidified κ-carrageenan/chitosan-based coatings containing either AITC or Oriental mustard extract at the concentrations tested had the ability to control L. monocytogenes viability and delay growth of potential spoilage bacteria on refrigerated, vacuum-packed cured roast chicken. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  19. Characterization of the swelling-induced alkalinization of endocytotic vesicles in fluorescein isothiocyanate-dextran-loaded rat hepatocytes.

    PubMed Central

    Schreiber, R; Häussinger, D

    1995-01-01

    Short-term cultivated rat hepatocytes were allowed to endocytose fluorescein isothiocyanate (FITC)-coupled dextran and the apparent vesicular pH (pHves) was measured by single-cell fluorescence. After 2 h of exposure to FITC-dextran, the apparent pH in the vesicular compartments accessible to endocytosed FITC-dextran was 6.01 +/- 0.05 (n = 39) in normo-osmotic media. Hypo-osmotic exposure increased, whereas hyper-osmotic exposure decreased apparent pHves. by 0.18 +/- 0.02 (n = 26) and 0.12 +/- 0.01 (n = 23) respectively. Incubation of the cells with unlabelled dextran for 2h before a 2-h FITC-dextran exposure had no effect on apparent pHves and its osmosensitivity. When, however, hepatocytes were exposed to unlabelled dextran for 5 h after a 2 h exposure to FITC-dextran, in order to allow transport of endocytosed FITC-dextran to late endocytotic/lysosomal compartments, apparent pHves. decreased to 5.38 +/- 0.04 (n = 12) and the apparent pH in the vesicular compartment containing the dye was no longer sensitive to aniso-osmotic exposure. These findings indicate that the osomosensitivity of pHves. is apparently restricted to early endocytotic compartments. Aniso-osmotic regulation of apparent pHves. in freshly FITC-loaded hepatocytes was not accompanied by aniso-osmolarity-induced changes of the cytosolic free calcium concentration, and neither vasopressin nor extracellular ATP, which provoked a marked Ca2+ signal, affected apparent pHves. Dibutyryl-cyclic AMP (cAMP) or vanadate (0.5 mmol/l) were without effect on apparent pHves. and its osmosensitivity. However, pertussis toxin-treatment or genistein (but not daidzein) or the erbstatin analogue methyl 2,5-dihydroxycinnamate fully abolished the osmo-sensitivity of apparent pHves., but did not affect apparent pHves. It is concluded that regulation of pHves. by cell volume occurs in early endocytotic compartments, but probably not in lysosomes, and is mediated by a G-protein and tyrosine kinase-dependent, but Ca2+- and

  20. Toxic effects of a horseradish extract and allyl isothiocyanate in the urinary bladder after 13-week administration in drinking water to F344 rats.

    PubMed

    Hasumura, Mai; Imai, Toshio; Cho, Young-Man; Ueda, Makoto; Hirose, Masao; Nishikawa, Akiyoshi; Ogawa, Kumiko

    2011-01-01

    Subchronic toxicity of a horseradish extract (HRE), consisting mainly of a mixture of allyl isothiocyanate (AITC) and other isothiocyanates, was investigated with administration at concentrations of 0, 0.0125, 0.025 and 0.05% of HRE in drinking water for 13 weeks to male and female F344 rats. For comparison, treatment with 0.0425% of AITC was similarly performed. Body weight gain was reduced in the 0.05% HRE and AITC males as compared to the 0% controls, and the cause was considered at least partly related to decreased water consumption due to the acrid smell of the test substance and decreased food consumption. Serum biochemistry demonstrated increased urea nitrogen in 0.025 and 0.05% HRE and AITC males and 0.0125-0.05% HRE and AITC females, along with decreased total cholesterol in 0.0125-0.05% HRE females. On histopathological assessment, papillary/nodular hyperplasia of bladder mucosa was observed in 0.05% HRE and AITC males and females, in addition to simple mucosal hyperplasia found in all treated groups. Based on the above findings, no-observed-adverse-effect levels (NOAELs) were estimated to be below 0.0125% of HRE for both males and females, corresponding to 9.4 and 8.0 mg/kg body weight/day, respectively, and there appeared to be comparable toxicological properties of HRE to AITC, such as the inductive effect of significant proliferative lesions in the urinary bladder.

  1. Comparison of effects of Wasabia japonica and allyl isothiocyanate on the growth of four strains of Vibrio parahaemolyticus in lean and fatty tuna meat suspensions.

    PubMed

    Hasegawa, N; Matsumoto, Y; Hoshino, A; Iwashita, K

    1999-08-01

    Lean tuna meat suspensions (LEAN), with a fat content of 0.006%, and fatty tuna meat suspension (FATTY), with a fat content of 3.0% were inoculated with four strains of Vibrio parahaemolyticus and wasabi (Wasabia japonica Matsumura) or allyl isothiocyanate (AIT) was added before incubation at 37 degrees C. During the incubation, viable Vibrio counts were determined on TCBS agar plates. Both LEAN and FATTY suspensions were inoculated with V. parahaemolyticus AOTO-81, (1.28+/-0.20) x 10(2) CFU/ml, followed by addition of 20 mg wasabi/ml, and incubation for 8 h. The viable Vibrio counts were (7.76+/-5.93) x 10(5) CFU/ml in LEAN and (3.50+/-2.65) x 10(1) CFU/ml in FATTY. When the same strain, at (1.18+/-0.22) x 10(2) CFU/ml, was incubated for 8 h with 50.9 microg AIT/ml, viable Vibrio counts were (4.79+/-1.78) x 10(4) CFU/ml in LEAN and (1.80+/-1.30) x 10(1) CFU/ml in FATTY. Growth of the other three strains with wasabi or AIT was shown to be less in FATTY than in LEAN. These results indicate that growth of V. parahaemolyticus is inhibited more in FATTY than in LEAN by wasabi and allyl isothiocyanate.

  2. Spasmolytic, antimicrobial and cytotoxic activities of 5-phenylpentyl isothiocyanate, a new glucosinolate autolysis product from horseradish (Armoracia rusticana P. Gaertn., B. Mey. & Scherb., Brassicaceae).

    PubMed

    Dekić, Milan S; Radulović, Niko S; Stojanović, Nikola M; Randjelović, Pavle J; Stojanović-Radić, Zorica Z; Najman, Stevo; Stojanović, Sanja

    2017-10-01

    Detailed analyses of horseradish autolysates led to the identification of a new natural product, 5-phenylpentyl isothiocyanate (PhPeITC). The structural assignment was corroborated by synthesis, and the identity unequivocally established by spectral means. The occurrence of PhPeITC is the first direct proof of the existence of a 5-phenylpentyl glucosinolate in the aerial parts of this species as one of the possible "mustard oil" precursors. To verify its possible contribution to the horseradish functional food status, horseradish above- and underground autolysates, together with five ω-phenylalkyl isothiocyanates were tested for their spasmolytic, cytotoxic and antimicrobial activities. Specifically, the cytotoxic effect on Caco-2, HeLa (cancer) and MDCK (non-cancer) cell lines was established. Additionally, the five tested ITCs exerted significant spasmolytic activity (on rat distal colon), with PhPeITC being almost 100 times more potent than papaverine. A non-selective antimicrobial activity of all ITCs was revealed in the case of 6 bacterial and 2 fungal strains. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Extraction of allyl isothiocyanate from horseradish (Armoracia rusticana) and its fumigant insecticidal activity on four stored-product pests of paddy.

    PubMed

    Wu, Hua; Zhang, Guo-An; Zeng, Shuiyun; Lin, Kai-chun

    2009-09-01

    Isothiocyanates (ITCs) extracted from Armoracia rusticana Gaertn., May & Scherb. have been shown previously to have insecticidal activity. Allyl isothiocyanate (AITC), a major component of ITCs with high volatility, was therefore extracted using different methods and tested as a fumigant against four major pest species of stored products, maize weevil Sitophilus zeamais (Motsch.), lesser grain borer Rhizopertha dominica (F.), Tribolium ferrugineum (F.) and book louse Liposcelis entomophila (Enderlein). Whereas there was no significant difference between hydrodistillation and supercritical carbon dioxide fluid extraction in extraction rate for AITC from A. rusticana, both methods resulted in higher extraction efficiency than water extraction. AITC fumigation showed strong toxicity to the four species of stored-product pests. Adult mortality of 100% of all four pest species, recorded after 72 h exposure to AITC fumes at an atmospheric concentration of 3 microg mL(-1), showed no significant difference from that of insects exposed to phosphine at 5 microg mL(-1), the recommended dose for phosphine. The results suggest good insecticidal efficacy of AITC against the four stored-product pests, with non-gaseous residuals on stored products. AITC obtained from A. rusticana may be an alternative to phosphine and methyl bromide against the four pest species. Copyright 2009 Society of Chemical Industry.

  4. Transcriptional regulation of nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate: quinone oxidoreductase in murine hepatoma cells by 6-(methylsufinyl)hexyl isothiocyanate, an active principle of wasabi (Eutrema wasabi Maxim).

    PubMed

    Hou, D X; Fukuda, M; Fujii, M; Fuke, Y

    2000-12-20

    Wasabi is a very popular pungent spice in Japan. This study examined the ability of 6-(methylsufinyl)hexyl isothiocyanate (6-MITC), an active principle of wasabi, to induce the cellular expression of nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate: quinone oxidoreductase (QR) in Hepa 1c1c7 cells. The cells were treated with various concentrations of 6-MITC, and were then assessed for cell growth, QR activity and QR mRNA expression. The induction of QR activity and QR mRNA expression was time- and dose-responsive over a narrow range of 0.1-5 microM, with declining induction at higher concentrations due to cell toxicity. Furthermore, transfection studies demonstrated that the induction of transcription of the QR gene by 6-MITC involved an antioxidant/electrophile-responsive element (ARE/EpRE) activation. Our results suggest a novel mechanism by which dietary wasabi 6-MITC may be implicated in cancer chemoprevention.

  5. The effect of 6-methylthiohexyl isothiocyanate isolated from Wasabia japonica (wasabi) on 4-(methylnitrosamino)-1-(3-pyridyl)-1-buatnone-induced lung tumorigenesis in mice.

    PubMed

    Yano, T; Yajima, S; Virgona, N; Yano, Y; Otani, S; Kumagai, H; Sakurai, H; Kishimoto, M; Ichikawa, T

    2000-07-31

    The present study was undertaken to estimate the effect of 6-methylthiohexyl isothiocyanate (6MHITC) isolated from Wasabia japonica (wasabi) pretreatment on 4-(methylnitrosamino)-1-(3-pyridyl)-1-butanone(NNK)-induced lung tumorigenesis in mice. Pretreatment with 6MHITC for 4 consecutive days at a daily dose of 5 micromol significantly inhibited NNK-induced O(6)-methylguanine formation in lungs at 4 h after the injection. In conjugation with this inhibitory effect, 6MHITC suppressed the increase in proliferating nuclear cell antigen level as well as ornithine decarboxylase activity at a promotion stage of NNK-induced lung tumorigenesis. Finally, this treatment of 6MHITC suppressed the NNK-induced lung tumorigenesis in mice. These results suggest that 6MHITC inhibits the development of lung tumors in mice treated with NNK, due to the suppression of initiation stage.

  6. Enhancement Of Glucosinolate and Isothiocyanate Profiles in Brassicaceae Crops: Addressing Challenges in Breeding for Cultivation, Storage, and Consumer-Related Traits.

    PubMed

    Bell, Luke; Wagstaff, Carol

    2017-11-01

    Glucosinolates (GSLs) and isothiocyanates (ITCs) produced by Brassicaceae plants are popular targets for analysis due to the health benefits associated with them. Breeders aim to increase the concentrations in commercial varieties; however, there are few examples of this. The most well-known is Beneforté broccoli, which has increased glucoraphanin/sulforaphane concentrations compared to those of conventional varieties. It was developed through traditional breeding methods with considerations for processing, consumption, and health made throughout this process. Many studies presented in the literature do not take a holistic approach, and key points about breeding, cultivation methods, postharvest storage, sensory attributes, and consumer preferences are not properly taken into account. In this review, we draw together data for multiple species and address how such factors can influence GSL profiles. We encourage researchers and institutions to engage with industry and consumers to produce research that can be utilized in the improvement of Brassicaceae crops.

  7. Role of isothiocyanate conjugate of pterostilbene on the inhibition of MCF-7 cell proliferation and tumor growth in Ehrlich ascitic cell induced tumor bearing mice

    SciTech Connect

    Nikhil, Kumar; Sharan, Shruti; Chakraborty, Ajanta

    2014-01-15

    Naturally occurring pterostilbene (PTER) and isothiocyanate (ITC) attract great attention due to their wide range of biological properties, including anti-cancer, anti-leukemic, anti-bacterial and anti-inflammatory activities. A novel class of hybrid compound synthesized by introducing an ITC moiety on PTER backbone was evaluated for its anti-cancer efficacy in hormone-dependent breast cancer cell line (MCF-7) in vitro and Ehrlich ascitic tumor bearing mice model in vivo. The novel hybrid molecule showed significant in vitro anti-cancer activity (IC{sub 50}=25±0.38) when compared to reference compound PTER (IC{sub 50}=65±0.42). The conjugate molecule induced both S and G2/M phase cell cycle arrest as indicated by flowmore » cytometry analysis. In addition, the conjugate induced cell death was characterized by changes in cell morphology, DNA fragmentation, activation of caspase-9, release of cytochrome-c into cytosol and increased Bax: Bcl-2 ratio. The conjugate also suppressed the phosphorylation of Akt and ERK. The conjugate induced cell death was significantly increased in presence of A6730 (a potent Akt1/2 kinase inhibitor) and PD98059 (a specific ERK inhibitor). Moreover, the conjugated PTER inhibited tumor growth in Ehrlich ascitic cell induced tumor bearing mice as observed by reduction in tumor volume compared to untreated animals. Collectively, the pro-apoptotic effect of conjugate is mediated through the activation of caspases, and is correlated with the blockade of the Akt and ERK signaling pathways in MCF-7 cells. - Highlights: • Conjugate was prepared by appending isothiocyanate moiety on pterostilbene backbone. • Conjugate showed anticancer effects at comparatively lower dose than pterostilbene. • Conjugate caused blockage of the Akt and ERK signaling pathways in MCF-7 cells. • Conjugate significantly reduced solid tumor volume as compared to pterostilbene.« less

  8. The α-cyclodextrin complex of the Moringa isothiocyanate suppresses lipopolysaccharide-induced inflammation in RAW 264.7 macrophage cells through Akt and p38 inhibition.

    PubMed

    Giacoppo, Sabrina; Rajan, Thangavelu Soundara; Iori, Renato; Rollin, Patrick; Bramanti, Placido; Mazzon, Emanuela

    2017-06-01

    In the last decades, a growing need to discover new compounds for the prevention and treatment of inflammatory diseases has led researchers to consider drugs derived from natural products as a valid option in the treatment of inflammation-associated disorders. The purpose of the present study was to investigate the anti-inflammatory effects of a new formulation of Moringa oleifera-derived 4-(α-L-rhamnopyranosyloxy)benzyl isothiocyanate as a complex with alpha-cyclodextrin (moringin + α-CD) on lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated RAW 264.7 macrophage cells, a common model used for inflammation studies. In buffered/aqueous solution, the moringin + α-CD complex has enhanced the water solubility and stability of this isothiocyanate by forming a stable inclusion system. Our results showed that moringin + α-CD inhibits the production of inflammatory mediators in LPS-stimulated macrophages by down-regulation of pro-inflammatory cytokines (TNF-α and IL-1β), by preventing IκB-α phosphorylation, translocation of the nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB), and also via the suppression of Akt and p38 phosphorylation. In addition, as a consequence of upstream inhibition of the inflammatory pathway following treatment with moringin + α-CD, the modulation of the oxidative stress (results focused on the expression of iNOS and nitrotyrosine) and apoptotic pathway (Bax and Bcl-2) was demonstrated. Therefore, moringin + α-CD appears to be a new relevant helpful tool to use in clinical practice for inflammation-associated disorders.

  9. Benzyl isothiocyanate (BITC) induces apoptosis of GBM 8401 human brain glioblastoma multiforms cells via activation of caspase-8/Bid and the reactive oxygen species-dependent mitochondrial pathway.

    PubMed

    Shang, Hung-Sheng; Shih, Yung-Luen; Lu, Tai-Jung; Lee, Ching-Hsiao; Hsueh, Shu-Ching; Chou, Yu-Cheng; Lu, Hsu-Feng; Liao, Nien-Chieh; Chung, Jing-Gung

    2016-12-01

    Benzyl isothiocyanate (BITC) is one of member of the isothiocyanate family which has been shown to induce cancer cell apoptosis in many human cancer cells. In the present study, we investigated the effects of BITC on the growth of GBM 8401 human brain glioblastoma multiforms cells. Results indicated that BITC-induced cell morphological changes decreased in the percentage of viable GBM8401 cells and these effects are dose-dependent manners. Results from flow cytometric assay indicated that BITC induced sub-G1 phase and induction of apoptosis of GBM 8401 cells. Furthermore, results also showed that BITC promoted the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and Ca 2+ release, but decreased the mitochondrial membrane potential (ΔΨ m ) and promoted caspase-8, -9, and -3 activates. After cells were pretreated with Z-IETD-FMK, Z-LEHD-FMK, and Z-DEVD-FMK (caspase-8, -9, and -3 inhibitors, respectively) led to decrease in the activities of caspase-8, -9, and -3 and increased the percentage of viable GBM 8401 cells that indicated which BITC induced cell apoptosis through caspase-dependent pathways. Western blotting indicated that BITC induced Fas, Fas-L, FADD, caspase-8, caspase -3, and pro-apoptotic protein (Bax, Bid, and Bak), but inhibited the ant-apoptotic proteins (Bcl-2 and Bcl-x) in GBM 8401 cells. Furthermore, BITC increased the release of cytochrome c, AIF, and Endo G from mitochondria that led to cell apoptosis. Results also showed that BITC increased GADD153, GRP 78, XBP-1, and ATF-6β, IRE-1α, IRE-1β, Calpain 1 and 2 in GBM 8401 cells, which is associated with ER stress. Based on these observations, we may suggest that BITC-induced apoptosis might be through Fas receptor, ROS induced ER stress, caspase-3, and mitochondrial signaling pathways. Taken together, these molecular alterations and signaling pathways offer an insight into BITC-caused growth inhibition and induced apoptotic cell death of GBM 8401 cells. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Environ

  10. CdS/TiO2-fluorescein isothiocyanate nanoparticles as fluorescence resonance energy transfer probe for the determination of trace alkaline phosphatase based on affinity adsorption assay.

    PubMed

    Liu, Jia-Ming; Lin, Li-ping; Jiao, Li; Cui, Ma-Lin; Wang, Xin-Xing; Zhang, Li-Hong; Zheng, Zhi-Yong

    2012-08-30

    The CdS/TiO(2)-fluorescein isothiocyanate (FITC) luminescent nanoparticles (CdS/TiO(2)-FITC) with the particle size of 20 nm have been synthesized by sol-gel method. CdS/TiO(2)-FITC could emit the fluorescence of both FITC and CdS/TiO(2). The fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET) occurred between the donor CdS/TiO(2) and the acceptor FITC in the CdS/TiO(2)-FITC. Taking advantages of the excellent characteristics of FRET, a new CdS/TiO(2)-FITC FRET labeling reagent and a CdS/TiO(2)-FITC-wheat germ agglutinin (CdS/TiO(2)-FITC-WGA) fluorescent probe have been developed. The FRET occurring between the donor CdS/TiO(2) and the acceptor FITC in the labelled product CdS/TiO(2)-FITC-WGA-AP, formed in the affinity adsorption reaction between the WGA in this CdS/TiO(2)-FITC-WGA fluorescent probe and alkaline phosphatase (AP), sharply enhanced the fluorescence signal of FITC and quench the fluorescence signal of CdS/TiO(2). Moreover, the ΔF (the change of the fluorescence signal) of FITC and CdS/TiO(2) were proportional to the content of AP, respectively. Thus, a new method that CdS/TiO(2)-fluorescein isothiocyanate nanoparticles for the determination of trace AP based on FRET-affinity adsorption assay has been established. The limit of quantification (LOQ) of the method was 1.3×10(-17) g AP mL(-1) for CdS/TiO(2) and 1.1×10(-17) g AP mL(-1) for FITC, respectively. This sensitive, rapid, high selective and precise method has been applied to the determination of AP in human serum and the prediction of human disease with the results agreed well with enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) in Zhangzhou Municipal Hospital of Fujian Province. Simultaneously, the reaction mechanism for the determination of AP was also discussed. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Inhibition of lipopolysaccharide-induced cyclooxygenase-2 expression and inducible nitric oxide synthase by 4-[(2′-O-acetyl-α-l-rhamnosyloxy)benzyl]isothiocyanate from Moringa oleifera

    PubMed Central

    Park, Eun-Jung; Cheenpracha, Sarot; Chang, Leng Chee; Kondratyuk, Tamara P.; Pezzuto, John M.

    2011-01-01

    Moringa oleifera Lamarack is commonly consumed for nutritional or medicinal properties. We recently reported the isolation and structure elucidation of novel bioactive phenolic glycosides, including 4-[(2′-O-acetyl-α-l-rhamnosyloxy)benzyl]isothiocyanate (RBITC), which was found to suppress inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) expression and nitric oxide production in lipopolysaccharide-stimulated RAW 264.7 mouse macrophage cells. Inhibitors of proteins such as cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) and iNOS are potential anti-inflammatory and cancer chemopreventive agents. The inhibitory activity of RBITC on NO production (IC50 = 0.96 ± 0.23 µM) was greater than that mediated by other well-known isothiocyanates such as sulforaphane (IC50 = 2.86 ± 0.39 µM) and benzyl isothiocyanate (IC50 = 2.08 ± 0.28 µM). RBITC inhibited expression of COX-2 and iNOS at both the protein and mRNA levels. Major upstream signaling pathways involved mitogen-activated protein kinases and nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB). RBITC inhibited phosphorylation of extracellular signal regulated kinase and stress-activated protein kinase, as well as ubiquitin-dependent degradation of inhibitor κBα (IκBα). In accordance with IκBα degradation, nuclear accumulation of NF-κB, and subsequent binding to NF-κB cis-acting element, was attenuated by treatment with RBITC. These data suggest RBITC should be included in the dietary armamentarium of isothiocyanates potentially capable of mediating anti-inflammatory or cancer chemopreventive activity. PMID:21774591

  12. The major glucosinolate hydrolysis product in rocket (Eruca sativa L.), sativin, is 1,3-thiazepane-2-thione: Elucidation of structure, bioactivity, and stability compared to other rocket isothiocyanates.

    PubMed

    Fechner, Jana; Kaufmann, Martin; Herz, Corinna; Eisenschmidt, Daniela; Lamy, Evelyn; Kroh, Lothar W; Hanschen, Franziska S

    2018-09-30

    Rocket is rich in glucosinolates and valued for its hot and spicy taste. Here we report the structure elucidation, bioactivity, and stability of the mainly formed glucosinolate hydrolysis product, namely sativin, which was formerly thought to be 4-mercaptobutyl isothiocyanate. However, by NMR characterization we revealed that sativin is in fact 1,3-thiazepane-2-thione, a tautomer of 4-mercaptobutyl isothiocyanate with 7-membered ring structure and so far unknown. This finding was further substantiated by conformation sampling using molecular modeling and total enthalpy calculation with density functional theory. During aqueous heat treatment sativin in general was quite stable, while the isothiocyanates erucin and sulforaphane were labile, having half-lives of 132 min and 56 min (pH 5, 100 °C), respectively. Moreover, using a WST-1 assay, we found that sativin did not reduce cell viability of HepG2 cells in a range of 0.3-30 µM, and, therefore, exhibited no cytotoxic effects in this cell line. Copyright © 2018 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  13. Evaluation of allyl isothiocyanate as a soil fumigant against soil-borne diseases in commercial tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill.) production in China.

    PubMed

    Ren, Zongjie; Li, Yuan; Fang, Wensheng; Yan, Dongdong; Huang, Bin; Zhu, Jiahong; Wang, Xiaoning; Wang, Xianli; Wang, Qiuxia; Guo, Meixia; Cao, Aocheng

    2018-03-12

    Root-knot nematodes (Meloidogyne spp.), soil-borne diseases and weeds seriously reduce the commercial yield of tomatoes grown under protected cultivation in China. Allyl isothiocyanate (AITC), a natural product obtained from damaged Brassica tissues, was evaluated as a potential replacement for the fumigant methyl bromide (MB) for use in the greenhouse production of tomatoes in China. The dose-response assay indicates that AITC has high biological activity against major bacterial and fungal pathogens (EC 50 of 0.225-4.199 mg L -1 ). The bioassay results indicate that AITC has good efficacy against root-knot nematodes (LC 50 of 18.046 mg kg -1 ), and moderate efficacy against fungal pathogens (LC 50 of 27.999-29.497 mg kg -1 ) and weeds (LC 50 of 17.300-47.660 mg kg -1 ). The potting test indicates that AITC significantly improved plant vigor. Field trials indicate that AITC showed good efficacy against Meloidogyne spp. and Fusarium spp. (both ∼ 80%) as well as Phytophthora spp. and Pythium spp. (both ∼ 70%), and improved plant vigor and marketable yield. AITC used as a soil fumigant (30-50 g m -2 ) effectively controlled major bacterial and fungal pathogens, root-knot nematode, weeds and increased plant vigor, yield and farmers' income in tomato cultivated under protected agriculture in China. © 2018 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2018 Society of Chemical Industry.

  14. Preparation and Characterization of Ternary Antimicrobial Films of β-Cyclodextrin/Allyl Isothiocyanate/Polylactic Acid for the Enhancement of Long-Term Controlled Release

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Jinpeng; Qiu, Chao; Narsimhan, Ganesan; Jin, Zhengyu

    2017-01-01

    Allyl isothiocyanate (AITC) are natural essential oil components that have outstanding antimicrobial activities. However, low water solubility, high volatility, and easy degradation by heat, restricting their application in food packing industry. Development of the inclusion complex of β-cyclodextrin/AITC (β-CD/AITC) is a promising solution. Furthermore, the incorporation of β-CD/AITC complex into polylactic acid (PLA) films would be an attractive method to develop food antimicrobial materials. The aim of this study was to evaluate the enhancement in physicochemical properties, antimicrobial activities, and controlled release of β-CD/AITC from such films. The addition of β-CD/AITC significantly increased the flexibility and thermal stability of films. The Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) results revealed that the interactions between β-CD/AITC and PLA films occurred. The controlled release of AITC encapsulated in β-CD was significantly affected by relative humidity and temperature. The PLA films containing β-CD/AITC can be applied as an effective antimicrobial packing material for food and non-food applications. PMID:29053573

  15. Isothiocyanate concentrations and interconversion of sulforaphane to erucin in human subjects after consumption of commercial frozen broccoli compared to fresh broccoli.

    PubMed

    Saha, Shikha; Hollands, Wendy; Teucher, Birgit; Needs, Paul W; Narbad, Arjan; Ortori, Catharine A; Barrett, David A; Rossiter, John T; Mithen, Richard F; Kroon, Paul A

    2012-12-01

    Sulforaphane (a potent anticarcinogenic isothiocyanate derived from glucoraphanin) is widely considered responsible for the protective effects of broccoli consumption. Broccoli is typically purchased fresh or frozen and cooked before consumption. We compared the bioavailability and metabolism of sulforaphane from portions of lightly cooked fresh or frozen broccoli, and investigated the bioconversion of sulforaphane to erucin. Eighteen healthy volunteers consumed broccoli soups produced from fresh or frozen broccoli florets that had been lightly cooked and sulforaphane thio-conjugates quantified in plasma and urine. Sulforaphane bioavailability was about tenfold higher for the soups made from fresh compared to frozen broccoli, and the reduction was shown to be due to destruction of myrosinase activity by the commercial blanching-freezing process. Sulforaphane appeared in plasma and urine in its free form and as several thio-conjugates forms. Erucin N-acetyl-cysteine conjugate was a significant urinary metabolite, and it was shown that human gut microflora can produce sulforaphane, erucin, and their nitriles from glucoraphanin. The short period of blanching used to produce commercial frozen broccoli destroys myrosinase and substantially reduces sulforaphane bioavailability. Sulforaphane was converted to erucin and excreted in urine, and it was shown that human colonic flora were capable of this conversion. © 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  16. Breast cancer risk in premenopausal women is inversely associated with consumption of broccoli, a source of isothiocyanates, but is not modified by GST genotype.

    PubMed

    Ambrosone, Christine B; McCann, Susan E; Freudenheim, Jo L; Marshall, James R; Zhang, Yueshang; Shields, Peter G

    2004-05-01

    The role of vegetable consumption in relation to breast cancer risk is controversial. Anticarcinogenic compounds may be present only in specific vegetables, thereby attenuating findings for total vegetable intake. Cruciferous vegetables contain precursors of isothiocyanates (ITCs), which may be chemopreventive through potent inhibition of phase I, and induction of phase II enzymes, such as glutathione S-transferases (GSTs). We investigated associations between consumption of cruciferous vegetables, sources of ITCs, and breast cancer risk, and potential modification of relations by GSTM1 and GSTT1 genotypes. Cases (n = 740) were Caucasian women with incident breast cancer identified from all major hospitals in Erie and Niagara counties. Community controls (n = 810) were frequency matched to cases by age and county. An in-depth interview including a validated FFQ was administered in person. Odds ratios (ORs) and 95% CIs were used to estimate relative risks. Consumption of cruciferous vegetables, particularly broccoli, was marginally inversely associated with breast cancer risk in premenopausal women [4th quartile OR = 0.6, 95% CI (0.40-1.01), P = 0.058]. Associations were weaker or null among postmenopausal women. No significant effects of GST genotype on risk were observed in either menopausal group. These data indicate that cruciferous vegetables may play an important role in decreasing the risk of premenopausal breast cancer.

  17. Ratiometric, visual, dual-signal fluorescent sensing and imaging of pH/copper ions in real samples based on carbon dots-fluorescein isothiocyanate composites.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Xinxin; Jin, Hui; Gao, Cuili; Gui, Rijun; Wang, Zonghua

    2017-01-01

    In this article, a facile aqueous synthesis of carbon dots (CDs) was developed by using natural kelp as a new carbon source. Through hydrothermal carbonization of kelp juice, fluorescent CDs were prepared and the CDs' surface was modified with polyethylenimine (PEI). The PEI-modified CDs were conjugated with fluorescein isothiocyanate (FITC) to fabricate CDs-FITC composites. To exploit broad applications, the CDs-FITC composites were developed as fluorescent sensing or imaging platforms of pH and Cu 2+ . Analytical performances of the composites-based fluorescence (FL) sensors were evaluated, including visual FL imaging of pH in glass bottle, ratiometric FL sensing of pH in yogurt samples, visual FL latent fingerprint and leaf imaging detection of [Cu 2+ ], dual-signal FL sensing of [Cu 2+ ] in yogurt and human serum samples. Experimental results from ratiometric, visual, dual-signal FL sensing and imaging applications confirmed the high feasibility, accuracy, stabilization and simplicity of CDs-FITC composites-based FL sensors for the detection of pH and Cu 2+ ions in real samples. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Preventive effect of oral administration of 6-(methylsulfinyl)hexyl isothiocyanate derived from wasabi (Wasabia japonica Matsum) against pulmonary metastasis of B16-BL6 mouse melanoma cells.

    PubMed

    Fuke, Yoko; Shinoda, Shoko; Nagata, Ikuko; Sawaki, Saeko; Murata, Mituyoshi; Ryoyama, Kazuo; Koizumi, Keiichi; Saiki, Ikuo; Nomura, Takahiro

    2006-01-01

    Effect of oral administration of 6-(methylsulfinyl)hexyl isothiocyanate (6-MITC) or a 6-MITC-containing T-wasabi fraction from wasabi root (Wasabia japonica Matsum) to inhibit the macroscopic pulmonary metastasis was studied with a murine B16-BL6 melanoma model. Two administration routes, subcutaneous or intravenous, and two administration times, prior to or concomitant with tumor inoculation, of 6-MITC or T-wasabi against the metastatic foci formation in C57BL/6J mouse lungs were compared. The number of metastasized foci per lung in either subcutaneous or intravenous injection was significantly reduced by intake of 6-MITC or a T-wasabi fraction. The maximum reduction by a T-wasabi fraction reached to 82%. Fifty-six percent of foci formation was inhibited by a 2 week-prior administration of 6-MITC (200 microM), whereas only 27% inhibition was obtained by a concomitant administration with tumor inoculation. Neither 6-MITC nor T-wasabi at tested concentrations showed any toxic effects. Together with our previous results, a component of the Japanese pungent spice, wasabi appears to inhibit not only tumor cell growth but also tumor metastasis. Therefore, 6-MITC from wasabi is apparently a useful dietary candidate for controlling tumor progression.

  19. Fullerol-fluorescein isothiocyanate-concanavalin agglutinin phosphorescent sensor for the detection of alpha-fetoprotein and forecast of human diseases

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Jia-ming; Lin, Li-ping; Jiang, Shu-Lian; Cui, Ma Lin; Jiao, Li; Zhang, Xiao Yang; Zhang, Li-hong; Zheng, Zhi Yong; Lin, Xuan; Lin, Shao-qin

    2013-11-01

    Based on the reaction of the active -OH group in fullerol (F) with the dissociated -COOH group in fluorescein isothiocyanate (FITC) to form an F-FITC and the enhanced effect of N, N-dimethylaniline (DMA) on phosphorescence signal of F-FITC, a new phosphorescent labeling reagent (DMA-F-FITC) was developed. What's more, a phosphorescent sensor for the determination of alpha-fetoprotein variant (AFP-V) has been designed via the coupling technique of the high sensitivity for affinity adsorption-solid substrate-room temperature phosphorimetry (AA-SS-RTP) with the strong specificity reaction between DMA-F-FITC-Con A and AFP-V. The DMA-F-FITC increased the number of luminescent molecules in the biological target which improved the sensitivity of phosphorescent sensor. The proposed sensor was responsive, simple, selective and sensitive, and it has been applied to the determination of trace AFP-V in human serum and the forecast of human diseases using phosphorescence emission wavelength of F or FITC, with the results agreed well with those obtained by enzyme-linked immunoassay (ELISA). Meanwhile, the mechanisms for the labeling reaction and the sensing detection of AFP-V were discussed.

  20. Identification of an Isothiocyanate on the HypEF Complex Suggests a Route for Efficient Cyanyl–Group Channeling during [NiFe]–Hydrogenase Cofactor Generation

    PubMed Central

    Stripp, Sven T.; Lindenstrauss, Ute; Sawers, R. Gary; Soboh, Basem

    2015-01-01

    [NiFe]–hydrogenases catalyze uptake and evolution of H2 in a wide range of microorganisms. The enzyme is characterized by an inorganic nickel/ iron cofactor, the latter of which carries carbon monoxide and cyanide ligands. In vivo generation of these ligands requires a number of auxiliary proteins, the so–called Hyp family. Initially, HypF binds and activates the precursor metabolite carbamoyl phosphate. HypF catalyzes removal of phosphate and transfers the carbamate group to HypE. In an ATP–dependent condensation reaction, the C–terminal cysteinyl residue of HypE is modified to what has been interpreted as thiocyanate. This group is the direct precursor of the cyanide ligands of the [NiFe]–hydrogenase active site cofactor. We present a FT–IR analysis of HypE and HypF as isolated from E. coli. We follow the HypF–catalyzed cyanation of HypE in vitro and screen for the influence of carbamoyl phosphate and ATP. To elucidate on the differences between HypE and the HypEF complex, spectro–electrochemistry was used to map the vibrational Stark effect of naturally cyanated HypE. The IR signature of HypE could ultimately be assigned to isothiocyanate (–N=C=S) rather than thiocyanate (–S–C≡N). This has important implications for cyanyl–group channeling during [NiFe]–hydrogenase cofactor generation. PMID:26186649

  1. Optimizing Fluorescein Isothiocyanate Dextran Measurement As a Biomarker in a 24-h Feed Restriction Model to Induce Gut Permeability in Broiler Chickens

    PubMed Central

    Baxter, Mikayla F. A.; Merino-Guzman, Ruben; Latorre, Juan D.; Mahaffey, Brittany D.; Yang, Yichao; Teague, Kyle D.; Graham, Lucas E.; Wolfenden, Amanda D.; Hernandez-Velasco, Xochitl; Bielke, Lisa R.; Hargis, Billy M.; Tellez, Guillermo

    2017-01-01

    Fluorescein isothiocyanate dextran (FITC-d) is a 3–5 kDa marker used to measure tight junction permeability. We have previously shown that intestinal barrier function can be adversely affected by stress, poorly digested diets, or feed restriction (FR), resulting in increased intestinal inflammation-associated permeability. However, further optimization adjustments of the current FITC-d methodology are possible to enhance precision and efficacy of results in future. The objective of the present study was to optimize our current model to obtain a larger difference between control and treated groups, by optimizing the FITC-d measurement as a biomarker in a 24-h FR model to induce gut permeability in broiler chickens. One in vitro and four in vivo independent experiments were conducted. The results of the present study suggest that by increasing the dose of FITC-d (8.32 versus 4.16 mg/kg); shortening the collection time of blood samples (1 versus 2.5 h); using a pool of non-FITC-d serum as a blank, compared to previously used PBS; adding a standard curve to set a limit of detection and modifying the software’s optimal sensitivity value, it was possible to obtain more consistent and reliable results. PMID:28470003

  2. Exploitation of phosphorescent labelling reagent of fullerol-fluorescein isothiocyanate and new method for the determination of trace alkaline phosphatase as well as forecast of human diseases.

    PubMed

    Liu, Jia-Ming; Huang, Xiao-Mei; Liu, Zhen-Bo; Lin, Shao-Qin; Li, Fei-Ming; Gao, Fei; Li, Zhi-Ming; Zeng, Li-Qing; Li, Lian-Ying; Ouyang, Ying

    2009-08-26

    A new phosphorescent labelling reagent consisting of fullerol, fluorescein isothiocyanate and N,N-dimethylaniline (F-ol-(FITC)(n)-DMA) was developed. The mode of action is based on the reactivity of the active -OH group in F-ol with the -COOH group of FITC to form an F-ol-(FITC)(n)-DMA complex containing several FITC molecules. F-ol-(FITC)(n)-DMA increased the number of luminescent molecules in the biological target of WGA-AP-WGA-F-ol-(FITC)(n)-DMA (WGA and AP are wheat germ agglutinin and alkaline phosphatase, respectively) which improved the sensitivity using solid substrate room temperature phosphorimetry (SSRTP) detection. The proposed method provided high sensitivity and strong specificity for WGA-AP. The limit of detection (LD) was 0.15 ag AP spot(-1) for F-ol and 0.097 ag AP spot(-1) for FITC in F-ol-(FITC)(n)-DMA, which was lower than the method using single luminescent molecules of F-ol-DMA and FITC-DMA to label WGA (0.20 ag AP spot(-1) for F-ol-DMA and 0.22 ag AP spot(-1) for FITC-DMA). Results for the determination of AP in human serum were in good agreement with those obtained by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. The mechanism of F-ol-(FITC)(n)-DMA labelling of WGA was discussed.

  3. Photoaffinity labelling of the cardiac calcium channel. (-)-[3H]azidopine labels a 165 kDa polypeptide, and evidence against a [3H]-1,4-dihydropyridine-isothiocyanate being a calcium-channel-specific affinity ligand.

    PubMed

    Ferry, D R; Goll, A; Glossmann, H

    1987-04-01

    The arylazide 1,4-dihydropyridine (-)-[3H]azidopine binds to a saturable population of sites in guinea-pig heart membranes with a dissociation constant (KD) of 30 +/- 7 pM and a density (Bmax.) of 670 +/- 97 fmol/mg of protein. This high-affinity binding site is assumed to reside on voltage-operated calcium channels because reversible binding is blocked stereoselectively by 1,4-dihydropyridine channel blockers and by the enantiomers of Bay K 8644. A low-affinity (KD 25 +/- 7 nM) high-capacity (Bmax. 21.6 +/- 9 pmol/mg of protein) site does not bind (-)- or (+)-Bay K 8644, but is blocked by high concentrations (greater than 500 nM) of dihydro-2,6-dimethyl-4-(2-isothiocyanatophenyl)-3,5-pyridinedicarboxy lic acid dimethyl ester (1,4-DHP-isothiocyanate) or, e.g., (+/-)-nicardipine. (-)-[3H]Azidopine was photoincorporated covalently into bands of 165 +/- 8, 39 +/- 2 and 35 +/- 3 kDa, as determined by SDS/polyacrylamide-gel electrophoresis. Labelling of the 165 kDa band is protected stereoselectively by 1,4-dihydropyridine enantiomers at low (nM) concentrations and by (-)- and (+)-Bay K 8644, whereas the lower-Mr bands are not. Thus, only the 165 kDa band is the calcium-channel-linked 1,4-dihydropyridine receptor. Photolabelling of the 39 or 35 kDa bands was only blocked by 10 microM-1,4-DHP-isothiocyanate or 50 microM-(+/-)-nicardipine but not by 10 microM-(-)-Bay K 8644. [3H]-1,4-DHP-isothiocyanate binds to guinea-pig heart membranes with a KD of 0.35 nM and dissociates with a k-1 of 0.2 min-1 at 30 degrees C. [3H]-1,4 DHP-isothiocyanate irreversibly labels bands of 39 and 35 kDa which are protected by greater than 10 microM-(+/-)-nicardipine or unlabelled ligand but not by 10 microM-(-)-Bay K 8644. Thus, [3H]-1,4-DHP-isothiocyanate is not an affinity probe for the calcium channel.

  4. In vitro and in vivo characterization of JNJ-31020028 (N-(4-{4-[2-(diethylamino)-2-oxo-1-phenylethyl]piperazin-1-yl}-3-fluorophenyl)-2-pyridin-3-ylbenzamide), a selective brain penetrant small molecule antagonist of the neuropeptide Y Y(2) receptor.

    PubMed

    Shoblock, James R; Welty, Natalie; Nepomuceno, Diane; Lord, Brian; Aluisio, Leah; Fraser, Ian; Motley, S Timothy; Sutton, Steve W; Morton, Kirsten; Galici, Ruggero; Atack, John R; Dvorak, Lisa; Swanson, Devin M; Carruthers, Nicholas I; Dvorak, Curt; Lovenberg, Timothy W; Bonaventure, Pascal

    2010-02-01

    The lack of potent, selective, brain penetrant Y(2) receptor antagonists has hampered in vivo functional studies of this receptor. Here, we report the in vitro and in vivo characterization of JNJ-31020028 (N-(4-{4-[2-(diethylamino)-2-oxo-1-phenylethyl]piperazin-1-yl}-3-fluorophenyl)-2-pyridin-3-ylbenzamide), a novel Y(2) receptor antagonist. The affinity of JNJ-31020028 was determined by inhibition of the PYY binding to human Y(2) receptors in KAN-Ts cells and rat Y(2) receptors in rat hippocampus. The functional activity was determined by inhibition of PYY-stimulated calcium responses in KAN-Ts cells expressing a chimeric G protein Gqi5 and in the rat vas deferens (a prototypical Y(2) bioassay). Ex vivo receptor occupancy was revealed by receptor autoradiography. JNJ-31020028 was tested in vivo with microdialysis, in anxiety models, and on corticosterone release. JNJ-31020028 bound with high affinity (pIC(50) = 8.07 +/- 0.05, human, and pIC(50) = 8.22 +/- 0.06, rat) and was >100-fold selective versus human Y(1), Y(4), and Y(5) receptors. JNJ-31020028 was demonstrated to be an antagonist (pK(B) = 8.04 +/- 0.13) in functional assays. JNJ-31020028 occupied Y(2) receptor binding sites (approximately 90% at 10 mg/kg) after subcutaneous administration in rats. JNJ-31020028 increased norepinephrine release in the hypothalamus, consistent with the colocalization of norepinephrine and neuropeptide Y. In a variety of anxiety models, JNJ-31020028 was found to be ineffective, although it did block stress-induced elevations in plasma corticosterone, without altering basal levels, and normalized food intake in stressed animals without affecting basal food intake. These results suggest that Y(2) receptors may not be critical for acute behaviors in rodents but may serve modulatory roles that can only be elucidated under specific situational conditions.

  5. Control of off-gassing rates of methyl isothiocyanate from the application of metam-sodium by chemigation and shank injection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sullivan, D. A.; Holdsworth, M. T.; Hlinka, D. J.

    Fumigants are used to enhance the yield and quality of agricultural produce, which is critical to the maintenance of the production levels of carrots, potatoes, tomatoes, strawberries, melons, and many other crops grown in the US and throughout much of the world. With the worldwide phase-out of methyl bromide in progress, the continued availability of the remaining alternatives, such as metam-sodium, 1,3-dichloropropene, and chloropicrin, is becoming increasingly important. Metam-sodium has been used for over 40 years and is the second most widely used fumigant in the United States. Reduction in off-gassing rates of fumigants can promote health and safety benefits and an increased dose in the treatment zone, thereby increasing the potential efficacy of these products. On this basis, there is a need to evaluate off-gassing rates as a function of application and sealing methods. This paper summarizes recent research into the volatilization of the principal transformation product of metam-sodium, i.e., methyl isothiocyanate (MITC), into the atmosphere as a function of application and sealing methods. Seven field studies were conducted from 1999-2001 to evaluate the off-gassing rates of MITC from applications of metam-sodium by shank injection and chemigation using two different water sealing methods, i.e., standard water sealing and intermittent water sealing. MITC is slightly soluble in water. Irrigation of a field following an application helps to retain the compound in the soil, minimizing off-gassing while increasing the dose to the target pests. Intermittent water sealing involves applying water on an intermittent basis to minimize off-gassing rates during nighttime periods when relatively poor atmospheric dispersion conditions often occur. Research conducted by the Metam-Sodium TASK Force indicates that intermittent water sealing significantly reduces off-gassing rates both for shank injection and chemigation applications when compared with standard water

  6. Sulforaphane, a Natural Isothiocyanate Compound, Improves Cardiac Function and Remodeling by Inhibiting Oxidative Stress and Inflammation in a Rabbit Model of Chronic Heart Failure.

    PubMed

    Ma, Tongliang; Zhu, Decai; Chen, Duoxue; Zhang, Qiaoyun; Dong, Huifang; Wu, Wenwu; Lu, Huihe; Wu, Guangfu

    2018-03-12

    BACKGROUND The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of sulforaphane (SFN), a natural isothiocyanate compound, in a rabbit ascending aortic cerclage model of chronic heart failure (CHF). MATERIAL AND METHODS Thirty New Zealand White rabbits were divided into the sham operation group (n=10), the CHF group (n=10), and the CHF + SFN group (n=10) treated with subcutaneous SFN (0.5 mg/kg) for five days per week for 12 weeks. After 12 weeks, echocardiography and biometric analysis were performed, followed by the examination of the rabbit hearts. Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and Western blot were used to detect levels of inflammatory cytokines, superoxide dismutase (SOD), and malondialdehyde (MDA). RESULTS In the CHF group, compared with the sham operation group, there was an increase in the heart weight to body weight ratio (HW/BW), the left ventricular weight to body weight ratio (LVW/BW), the left ventricular end diastolic diameter (LVEDD), the left ventricular end systolic diameter (LVESD), plasma brain natriuretic peptide (BNP) and atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP) levels, the cardiac collagen volume fraction (CVF), apoptotic index, expression levels of collagen I, collagen III, tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), interleukin-6 (IL-6) and malondialdehyde (MDA) in the myocardial tissue, and a decrease in the left ventricular shortening fraction (LVFS) and left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF), and cardiac superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity. These changes were corrected in the SFN-treated group. CONCLUSIONS In a rabbit model of CHF, treatment with SFN improved cardiac function and remodeling by inhibiting oxidative stress and inflammation.

  7. A 14-day repeated-dose oral toxicological evaluation of an isothiocyanate-enriched hydro-alcoholic extract from Moringa oleifera Lam. seeds in rats.

    PubMed

    Kim, Youjin; Jaja-Chimedza, Asha; Merrill, Daniel; Mendes, Odete; Raskin, Ilya

    2018-01-01

    A 14-d short-term oral toxicity study in rats evaluated the safety of moringa isothiocyanate-1 (MIC-1)-enriched hydro-alcoholic moringa seeds extract (MSE). Rats (5 males/5 females per group) were gavaged daily for 14 d with the vehicle control or MSE, at 78 (low), 257 (mid-low), 772 (mid-high), or 2571 (high) mg/kg bw/d, standardized to MIC-1 (30, 100, 300, or 1000 mg/kg bw/d, respectively). Toxicological endpoints included body weight and weight gain, food consumption and feed efficiency, clinical observations, hematology, gross necropsy and histopathology, and relative organ weights. Mortality was only observed in the high dose group animals, both male and female, representing decreases in body weight/weight gain and food consumption/feed efficiency. Irregular respiratory patterns and piloerection were major clinical observations found primarily in the mid-high and high dose group animals. In the high dose group, gastrointestinal distention and stomach discoloration were observed in non-surviving males and females, and degeneration and necrosis of the testicular germinal cells and epididymal cells were also observed in a non-surviving male. Increased liver weights were found in females in the mid-high and high dose groups. Animals in the low and mid-low groups did not exhibit adverse effects of MSE (100 mg/kg bw/d MIC-1). A no observed adverse effect level (NOAEL) of the standardized MSE was determined as 257 mg/kg bw/d providing 100 mg/kg bw/d MIC-1.

  8. Chemoprevention of 1,2-dimethylhydrazine-induced colonic preneoplastic lesions in Fischer rats by 6-methylsulfinylhexyl isothiocyanate, a wasabi derivative

    PubMed Central

    KUNO, TOSHIYA; HIROSE, YOSHINOBU; YAMADA, YASUHIRO; IMAIDA, KATSUMI; TATEMATSU, KENJIRO; MORI, YUKIO; MORI, HIDEKI

    2010-01-01

    The preventive effects of dietary exposure to a wasabi derivative 6-methylsulfinylhexyl isothiocyanate (6-MSITC) during the initiation and post-initiation phases on the development of 1,2-dimethylhydrazine (DMH)-induced colonic aberrant crypt foci (ACF), and β-catenin-accumulated crypts (BCAC) were investigated in male F344 rats. To induce ACF and BCAC, rats were given four weekly subcutaneous injections of DMH (40 mg/kg body weight). The rats also received diets containing 200 or 400 ppm 6-MSITC during the initiation or post-initiation phases. The experiment was terminated 12 weeks after the start. DMH exposure produced a substantial number of ACF (323.8±69.7/colon) and BCAC (3.80±1.05/cm2) at the end of the study. Dietary administration of 6-MSITC at a dose of 400 ppm during the initiation phase caused a significant reduction in the total number of ACF (52% reduction, P<0.0001), larger ACF (4 or more crypt ACF) (58% reduction, P<0.001) and BCAC (76% reduction, P<0.00001). The dietary exposure to 6-MSITC significantly reduced the size (crypt multiplicity) of BCAC during both initiation and post-initiation treatment when compared to group 1 treated with DMH alone. Immunohistochemically, 6-MSITC administration lowered the proliferating cell nuclear antigen labeling index in ACF and BCAC. In addition, protein levels of hepatic cytochrome P-450 isozymes at 24 h after 6-MSITC exposure were significantly suppressed (P<0.01). The results indicated that 6-MSITC exerted chemopreventive effects in the present short-term colon carcinogenesis bioassay, through alterations in cell proliferation activity and drug metabolizing enzyme levels. PMID:22966293

  9. Selective sensitivity to wasabi-derived 6-(methylsulfinyl)hexyl isothiocyanate of human breast cancer and melanoma cell lines studied in vitro.

    PubMed

    Nomura, Takahiro; Shinoda, Shoko; Yamori, Takao; Sawaki, Saeko; Nagata, Ikuko; Ryoyama, Kazuo; Fuke, Yoko

    2005-01-01

    Recently, attention has focused on the anticancer properties of an aromatic component 6-(methylsulfinyl)hexyl isothiocyanate (6-MITC) in a typical Japanese spice, wasabi. In this paper, anticancer activity of 6-MITC in vitro was studied by using a human cancer cell (HCC) panel. 6-MITC directly affected the cells in the HCC panel and inhibited their growth in culture. The mean concentration required to inhibit 50% of control cell growth was 3.9 microM, which is a sufficiently low dosage for practical use. The suppression influenced not only the cell growth, but also the survival of these cells. The mean concentration to suppress cells to a 50% survival was 43.7 microM. The reduction activity of 6-MITC was differential, and it suppressed specific cells. These severely suppressed cell lines included breast cancer and melanoma cell lines. For example, one melanoma line was seriously damaged at a concentration of 0.3 microM of 6-MITC. Compared with other MITCs (2-MITC, 4-MITC and 8-MITC), 6-MITC showed the most effective suppression and with the most specific manner of the cells mentioned above. A "COMPARE" analysis using a computerized algorithm, which was based on the HCC database, suggested that the suppression mechanism of 6-MITC is unique and may be different from that of other known chemicals. The actual mechanism may not a simple one but may involve multiple pathways. On account of its sufficiently small size, 6-MITC is a new possible candidate for controlling cancer cells.

  10. Chemoprevention of 1,2-dimethylhydrazine-induced colonic preneoplastic lesions in Fischer rats by 6-methylsulfinylhexyl isothiocyanate, a wasabi derivative.

    PubMed

    Kuno, Toshiya; Hirose, Yoshinobu; Yamada, Yasuhiro; Imaida, Katsumi; Tatematsu, Kenjiro; Mori, Yukio; Mori, Hideki

    2010-03-01

    The preventive effects of dietary exposure to a wasabi derivative 6-methylsulfinylhexyl isothiocyanate (6-MSITC) during the initiation and post-initiation phases on the development of 1,2-dimethylhydrazine (DMH)-induced colonic aberrant crypt foci (ACF), and β-catenin-accumulated crypts (BCAC) were investigated in male F344 rats. To induce ACF and BCAC, rats were given four weekly subcutaneous injections of DMH (40 mg/kg body weight). The rats also received diets containing 200 or 400 ppm 6-MSITC during the initiation or post-initiation phases. The experiment was terminated 12 weeks after the start. DMH exposure produced a substantial number of ACF (323.8±69.7/colon) and BCAC (3.80±1.05/cm(2)) at the end of the study. Dietary administration of 6-MSITC at a dose of 400 ppm during the initiation phase caused a significant reduction in the total number of ACF (52% reduction, P<0.0001), larger ACF (4 or more crypt ACF) (58% reduction, P<0.001) and BCAC (76% reduction, P<0.00001). The dietary exposure to 6-MSITC significantly reduced the size (crypt multiplicity) of BCAC during both initiation and post-initiation treatment when compared to group 1 treated with DMH alone. Immunohistochemically, 6-MSITC administration lowered the proliferating cell nuclear antigen labeling index in ACF and BCAC. In addition, protein levels of hepatic cytochrome P-450 isozymes at 24 h after 6-MSITC exposure were significantly suppressed (P<0.01). The results indicated that 6-MSITC exerted chemopreventive effects in the present short-term colon carcinogenesis bioassay, through alterations in cell proliferation activity and drug metabolizing enzyme levels.

  11. Wasabi-derived 6-(methylsulfinyl)hexyl isothiocyanate induces apoptosis in human breast cancer by possible involvement of the NF-κB pathways.

    PubMed

    Fuke, Yoko; Hishinuma, Madoka; Namikawa, Mayumi; Oishi, Yoshie; Matsuzaki, Takeshi

    2014-01-01

    6-(methylsulfinyl)hexyl isothiocyanate (6-MSITC) is a bioactive ingredient of wasabi (Wasabia japonica), which is a popular spice in Japan. 6-MSITC has been reported to inhibit the proliferation of breast cancer and melanoma cell lines. We inoculated 30 female Balb-nu/nu mice with MDA-MB-231 or -453 cells, and orally administered varying concentrations of 6-MSITC for 12 days following tumor growth. The tumor volumes and tumor weights from mice inoculated with MDA-MB-231 cells, and the tumor volumes of MDA-MB-453 cells were significantly inhibited by 6-MSITC on Days 9 and 11 after drug administration. DNA fragmentation, DNA ladder, and caspase 3/7 activity performed in vitro revealed that 6-MSITC induced apoptosis of MDA-MB-231, MDA-MB-453, and MCF-7 cells. Furthermore, nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) expression in the nuclei and phosphorylation of inhibitor κBα (IκBα) was downregulated by 6-MSITC in a concentration-dependent manner; however, this activity was not observed in MCF-7 cells. Moreover, this downregulation of phosphorylated IκBα by 6-MSITC in MDA-MB-231 and -453 cells supports its inhibitory effects on NF-κB activity. The expression of phosphorylated AKT (pAKT) reduced by 6-MSITC was confirmed in MDA-MB-231 cells. Thus, we conclude that 6-MITC promotes apoptosis of breast cancer cells by inhibiting NF-kB and therefore releasing its control of the PI3K/AKT pathway.

  12. Dynamics of Nrf2 and Keap1 in ARE-mediated NQO1 expression by wasabi 6-(methylsulfinyl)hexyl isothiocyanate.

    PubMed

    Hou, De-Xing; Korenori, Yoshimi; Tanigawa, Shunsuke; Yamada-Kato, Tomoe; Nagai, Masashi; He, Xi; He, Jianhua

    2011-11-23

    6-(Methylsulfinyl)hexyl isothiocyanate (6-MSITC) is a bioactive ingredient present in wasabi, a popular pungent spice in Japan. Previous studies have revealed the cytoprotective and cancer chemopreventive effects of 6-MSITC. This study aims to clarify the molecular mechanisms by investigating the action of 6-MSITC on the Nrf2/Keap1 system. 6-MSITC up-regulated the expression of NAD(P)H:quinone oxidoreductase 1 (NQO1) by increasing the Nrf2 level. Treatment with 6-MSITC extended the half-life (t(1/2)) of Nrf2 protein from 11.5 to 35.2 min, approximately three times longer. Moreover, 6-MSITC suppressed the ubiquitination of Nrf2 but not Keap1. Alternatively, a modified Keap1 was observed in 6-MSITC-treated cells accompanying reduction of normal Keap1 protein. The results from cellular fractionation and immunocytochemistry assay revealed that Nrf2 was primarily accumulated in nucleus. EMSA and the reporter gene assay further demonstrated that 6-MSITC augmented Nrf2-ARE binding and transcription activity. Silencing Nrf2 using Nrf2 siRNA markedly reduced the Nrf2 level and ARE-driven activity under both baseline and 6-MSITC-induced conditions. Our data revealed that 6-MSITC enhanced Nrf2/ARE-driven NQO1 expression by stabilizing Nrf2 that was accomplished by modifying Keap1 with consequent inhibition of the ubiquitination and proteasomal turnover of Nrf2. The findings provide an insight into the mechanisms underlying 6-MSITC in cytoprotection and cancer chemoprevention.

  13. Control of Salmonella on fresh chicken breasts by κ-carrageenan/chitosan-based coatings containing allyl isothiocyanate or deodorized Oriental mustard extract plus EDTA.

    PubMed

    Olaimat, Amin N; Holley, Richard A

    2015-06-01

    Control of Salmonella in poultry is a public health concern as salmonellosis is one of the most common foodborne diseases worldwide. This study aimed to screen the ability of 5 Salmonella serovars to degrade the mustard glucosinolate, sinigrin (by bacterial myrosinase) in Mueller-Hinton broth at 25 °C for 21 d and to reduce Salmonella on fresh chicken breasts by developing an edible 0.2% (w/v) κ-carrageenan/2% (w/v) chitosan-based coating containing Oriental mustard extract, allyl isothiocyanate (AITC), EDTA or their combinations. Individual Salmonella serovars degraded 50.2%-55.9% of the sinigrin present in 21 d. κ-Carrageenan/chitosan-based coatings containing 250 mg Oriental mustard extract/g or 50 μl AITC/g reduced the numbers of Salmonella on chicken breasts 2.3 log10 CFU/g at 21 d at 4 °C. However, when either mustard extract or AITC was combined with 15 mg/g EDTA in κ-carrageenan/chitosan-based coatings, Salmonella numbers were reduced 2.3 log10 CFU/g at 5 d and 3.0 log10 CFU/g at 21 d. Moreover, these treatments reduced numbers of lactic acid bacteria and aerobic bacteria by 2.5-3.3 log10 CFU/g at 21 d. κ-Carrageenan/chitosan coatings containing either 50 μl AITC/g or 250 mg Oriental mustard extract/g plus 15 mg EDTA/g have the potential to reduce Salmonella on raw chicken. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Effects of application methods of metam sodium and plastic covers on horizontal and vertical distributions of methyl isothiocyanate in bedded field plots.

    PubMed

    Ou, Li-Tse; Thomas, John E; Allen, L Hartwell; Vu, Joseph C; Dickson, Donald W

    2006-08-01

    This study was conducted to examine the effects of three application methods of metam sodium (broadcast, single irrigation drip tape delivery, and double irrigation drip tape delivery) and two plastic covers (polyethylene film and virtually impermeable film) on volatilization and on horizontal and vertical distributions of the biologically active product of metam sodium, methyl isothiocyanate (MITC), in field plots in a Florida sandy soil. Volatilization of MITC from field beds lasted for about 20 hours after completion of metam sodium application regardless of application methods. Virtually impermeable film (VIF) was a better barrier to reduce volatilization loss than polyethylene film (PE). Since water was not applied during broadcast application, MITC was mainly retained in the shallow soil layer (0- to 20-cm depth) and downward movement of MITC was limited to about 30 cm. Large values of standard deviation indicated that initial spatial distribution of MITC in the root zone (10- and 20-cm depths) of the two broadcast applied beds covered with PE or VIF was variable. Twice more water was delivered through the single drip tape than through individual tapes of double drip tape treatments during drip application of metam sodium. More water from the single drip tape likely facilitated downward movement of MITC to at least 60-cm depth, but MITC did not penetrate to this depth in the double drip tape beds. On the other hand, horizontal distribution of MITC in the root zone (10- and 20-cm depths) in the double drip tape beds was more uniform than in the single drip tape beds. More MITC was retained in the subsurface of the VIF-covered beds regardless of application methods than in the PE-covered beds.

  15. Transient receptor potential ankyrin 1 activation enhances hapten sensitization in a T-helper type 2-driven fluorescein isothiocyanate-induced contact hypersensitivity mouse model

    SciTech Connect

    Shiba, Takahiro; Tamai, Takuma; Sahara, Yurina

    2012-11-01

    Some chemicals contribute to the development of allergies by increasing the immunogenicity of other allergens. We have demonstrated that several phthalate esters, including dibutyl phthalate (DBP), enhance skin sensitization to fluorescein isothiocyanate (FITC) in a mouse contact hypersensitivity model, in which the T-helper type 2 (Th2) response is essential. On the other hand, some phthalate esters were found to activate transient receptor potential ankyrin 1 (TRPA1) cation channels on sensory neurons. We then found a positive correlation between the enhancing effects of several types of phthalate esters on skin sensitization to FITC and their ability to activate TRPA1. Here wemore » examined the involvement of TRPA1 in sensitization to FITC by using TRPA1 agonists other than phthalate esters. During skin sensitization to FITC, the TRPA1 agonists (menthol, carvacrol, cinnamaldehyde and DBP) augmented the ear-swelling response as well as trafficking of FITC-presenting dendritic cells to draining lymph nodes. We confirmed that these TRPA1 agonists induced calcium influx into TRPA1-expressing Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells. We also found that TRPA1 antagonist HC-030031 inhibited DBP-induced calcium influx into TRPA1-expressing CHO cells. After pretreatment with this antagonist upon skin sensitization to FITC, the enhancing effect of DBP on sensitization was suppressed. These results suggest that TRPA1 activation will become a useful marker to find chemicals that facilitate sensitization in combination with other immunogenic haptens. -- Highlights: ► Role of TRPA1 activation was revealed in a mouse model of skin sensitization to FITC. ► TRPA1 agonists enhanced skin sensitization as well as dendritic cell trafficking. ► Dibutyl phthalate (DBP) has been shown to enhance skin sensitization to FITC. ► TRPA1 activation by DBP was inhibited by a selective antagonist, HC-030031. ► HC-030031 inhibited the enhancing effect of DBP on skin sensitization to FITC.« less

  16. Dose-response study of topical allyl isothiocyanate (mustard oil) as a human surrogate model of pain, hyperalgesia, and neurogenic inflammation.

    PubMed

    Andersen, Hjalte H; Lo Vecchio, Silvia; Gazerani, Parisa; Arendt-Nielsen, Lars

    2017-09-01

    Despite being a ubiquitous animal pain model, the natural TRPA1-agonist allyl isothiocyanate (AITC, also known as "mustard oil") has only been sparsely investigated as a potential human surrogate model of pain, sensitization, and neurogenic inflammation. Its dose-response as an algogenic, sensitizing irritant remains to be elucidated in human skin. Three concentrations of AITC (10%, 50%, and 90%) and vehicle (paraffin) were applied for 5 minutes to 3 × 3 cm areas on the volar forearms in 14 healthy volunteers, and evoked pain intensity (visual analog scale 0-100 mm) and pain quality were assessed. In addition, a comprehensive battery of quantitative sensory tests was conducted, including assessment of mechanical and thermal sensitivity. Neurogenic inflammation was quantified using full-field laser perfusion imaging. Erythema and hyperpigmentation were assessed before, immediately after, and ≈64 hours after AITC exposure. AITC induced significant dose-dependent, moderate-to-severe spontaneous burning pain, mechanical and heat hyperalgesia, and dynamic mechanical allodynia (P < 0.05). No significant differences in induced pain hypersensitivity were observed between the 50% and 90% AITC concentrations. Acute and prolonged inflammation was evoked by all concentrations, and assessments by full-field laser perfusion imaging demonstrated a significant dose-dependent increase with a ceiling effect from 50% to 90%. Topical AITC application produces pain and somatosensory sensitization in a dose-dependent manner with optimal concentrations recommended to be >10% and ≤50%. The model is translatable to humans and could be useful in pharmacological proof-of-concept studies of TRPA1-antagonists, analgesics, and anti-inflammatory compounds or for exploratory clinical purposes, eg, loss- or gain-of-function in peripheral neuropathies.

  17. Noxious heat threshold temperature and pronociceptive effects of allyl isothiocyanate (mustard oil) in TRPV1 or TRPA1 gene-deleted mice.

    PubMed

    Tékus, Valéria; Horváth, Ádám; Hajna, Zsófia; Borbély, Éva; Bölcskei, Kata; Boros, Melinda; Pintér, Erika; Helyes, Zsuzsanna; Pethő, Gábor; Szolcsányi, János

    2016-06-01

    To investigate the roles of TRPV1 and TRPA1 channels in baseline and allyl isothiocyanate (AITC)-evoked nociceptive responses by comparing wild-type and gene-deficient mice. In contrast to conventional methods of thermonociception measuring reflex latencies, we used our novel methods to determine the noxious heat threshold. It was revealed that the heat threshold of the tail measured by an increasing-temperature water bath is significantly higher in TRPV1(-/-), but not TRPA1(-/-), mice compared to respective wild-types. There was no difference between the noxious heat thresholds of the hind paw as measured by an increasing-temperature hot plate in TRPV1(-/-), TRPA1(-/-) and the corresponding wild-type mice. The withdrawal latency of the tail from 0°C water was prolonged in TRPA1(-/-), but not TRPV1(-/-), mice compared to respective wild-types. In wild-type animals, dipping the tail or paw into 1% AITC induced an 8-14°C drop of the noxious heat threshold (heat allodynia) of both the tail and paw, and 40-50% drop of the mechanonociceptive threshold (mechanical allodynia) of the paw measured by dynamic plantar esthesiometry. These AITC-evoked responses were diminished in TRPV1(-/-), but not TRPA1(-/-), mice. Tail withdrawal latency to 1% AITC was significantly prolonged in both gene-deleted strains. Different heat sensors determine the noxious heat threshold in distinct areas: a pivotal role for TRPV1 on the tail is contrasted with no involvement of either TRPV1 or TRPA1 on the hind paw. Noxious heat threshold measurement appears appropriate for preclinical screening of TRP channel ligands as novel analgesics. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. The High-Resolution Far-Infrared Spectra of Sulfur Di-Cyanide S(CN)2 and the Pursuit of that of Cyanogen Iso-Thiocyanate Ncncs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Winnewisser, Manfred; Winnewisser, Brenda P.; De Lucia, Frank C.; Tokaryk, Dennis W.; Forthomme, Damien; Ross, Sephen C.; Billinghurst, Brant E.

    2012-06-01

    There are only pellet low resolution infrared spectra reported in the literature for sulfur di-cyanide S(CN){_2}, and none at all for cyanogen iso-thiocyanate, NCNCS. These two molecules are linked by a thermal isomerization reaction: NCSCN plus heat yields mainly NCNCS. Despite its difficult synthesis and its short kinetic life time, NCNCS is the best example so far of a quasi-linear molecule which clearly exhibits the distinctive monodromy-induced} dislocation of the ro-vibrational energy levels. The momentum maps (monodromy plots) of various physical quantities, such as effective rotational constants, ro-vibrational energies, dipole moment components etc. for NCNCS show at the top of the punt of the two-dimensional champaign-bottle potential energy function all the effects of quantum monodromy and exited state quantum phase transitions. For that reason it would be highly interesting to observe for NCNCS the high-resolution FIR bands of the lowest quasi-linear bending vibration. At the Canadian Light Source in May-June 2011 we first had to obtain the far-infrared spectrum of the precursor molecule S(CN)2 with the IFS125HR Bruker Fourier transform spectrometer. Six of the fundamental vibrational modes of this molecule have been observed and measured with the maximum resolution of 0.00096 cm-1. The analysis of the measured and assigned band systems is presently being carried out and will be reported in this contribution. The experimental strategy for synthesizing NCNCS and observing its FIR bands in a flow system through a multi-pass infrared absorption cell will also be discussed. B. P. Winnewisser, M. Winnewisser, I. R. Medvedev, F. C. De Lucia, S. C. Ross and J. Koput, Phys. Chem. Chem. Phys., 2010, 12, 8158-8189. D. Larese and F. Iachello, J. Mol. Struct., 1006 (2011) 611-628

  19. Approaches to chemoprevention of lung cancer based on carcinogens in tobacco smoke.

    PubMed Central

    Hecht, S S

    1997-01-01

    Chemoprevention may be one way to prevent lung cancer in smokers who are motivated to quit but cannot stop. The approach to chemoprevention of lung cancer described in this article is based on an understanding of the lung carcinogens present in tobacco smoke. The available data indicate that the compounds in cigarette smoke most likely involved in the induction of lung cancer in humans are the complex of polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons typified by benzo[a]pyrene (B[a]P) and the tobacco-specific nitrosamine 4-(methylnitrosamino)-1-(3-pyridyl)-1-butanone (NNK). A large number of compounds are now available that inhibit lung tumorigenesis by B[a]P or NNK in rodents. Inhibition of NNK-induced lung carcinogenesis by phenethyl isothiocyanate (PEITC) and inhibition of B[a]P-induced lung carcinogenesis by benzyl isothiocyanate (BITC) are discussed as examples. Studies with PEITC in rodents clearly demonstrate that it inhibits NNK-induced lung tumorigenesis by inhibiting the metabolic activation of NNK. Similar changes appear to occur in humans according to data generated in smokers who ate watercress, a source of PEITC. It is likely that mixtures of chemopreventive agents with activity against carcinogens in tobacco smoke, such as NNK and B[a]P, will be useful in chemoprevention of lung cancer in smokers. Furthermore, there is a need to develop suppressing agents for lung cancer that might be applicable in both smokers and ex-smokers. PMID:9255587

  20. Protective Effect of Glucosinolates Hydrolytic Products in Neurodegenerative Diseases (NDDs).

    PubMed

    Jaafaru, Mohammed Sani; Abd Karim, Nurul Ashikin; Enas, Mohamad Eliaser; Rollin, Patrick; Mazzon, Emanuela; Abdull Razis, Ahmad Faizal

    2018-05-08

    Crucifer vegetables, Brassicaceae and other species of the order Brassicales, e.g., Moringaceae that are commonly consumed as spice and food, have been reported to have potential benefits for the treatment and prevention of several health disorders. Though epidemiologically inconclusive, investigations have shown that consumption of those vegetables may result in reducing and preventing the risks associated with neurodegenerative disease development and may also exert other biological protections in humans. The neuroprotective effects of these vegetables have been ascribed to their secondary metabolites, glucosinolates (GLs), and their related hydrolytic products, isothiocyanates (ITCs) that are largely investigated for their various medicinal effects. Extensive pre-clinical studies have revealed more than a few molecular mechanisms of action elucidating multiple biological effects of GLs hydrolytic products. This review summarizes the most significant and up-to-date in vitro and in vivo neuroprotective actions of sulforaphane (SFN), moringin (MG), phenethyl isothiocyanate (PEITC), 6-(methylsulfinyl) hexyl isothiocyanate (6-MSITC) and erucin (ER) in neurodegenerative diseases.

  1. Antinociceptive, anti-inflammatory and toxicological evaluation of semi-synthetic molecules obtained from a benzyl-isothiocyanate isolated from Moringa oleifera Lam. in a temporomandibular joint inflammatory hypernociception model in rats.

    PubMed

    Dos Santos, Alain Oliveira; do Val, Danielle Rocha; da Silveira, Felipe Dantas; Gomes, Francisco Isaac Fernandes; Freitas, Hermany Capistrano; de Assis, Ellen Lima; de Almeida, Diana Kelly Castro; da Silva, Igor Iuco Castro; Barbosa, Francisco Geraldo; Mafezoli, Jair; da Silva, Marcos Reinaldo; de Castro Brito, Gerly Anne; Clemente-Napimoga, Juliana Trindade; de Paulo Teixera Pinto, Vicente de Paulo Teixeira; Filho, Gerardo Cristino; Bezerra, Mirna Marques; Chaves, Hellíada Vasconcelos

    2018-02-01

    Inflammation is a key component of many clinical conditions that affect the temporomandibular joint (TMJ) and Moringa oleifera Lam. has been used to treat inflammatory diseases. Here, we evaluated the toxicological effects on mice of a naturally-occurring isothiocyanate from M. oleifera and its seven analogue molecules. Further, the anti-nociceptive and anti-inflammatory effects on a rat model of TMJ inflammatory hypernociception were assessed. The systemic toxicological profile was determined in mice over a 14-day period: MC-1 1 μg/kg; MC-D1 1 μg/kg, MC-D3 100 μg/kg, MC-D6 1 μg/kg, MC-D7 1 μg/kg, MC-D8 1 μg/kg, MC-D9 10 μg/kg, and MC-H 1 μg/kg. The safest molecules were assayed for anti-nociceptive efficacy in the formalin (1.5%, 50 μL) and serotonin (255 mg) induced TMJ inflammatory hypernociception tests. The anti-inflammatory effect was evaluated through the vascular permeability assay using Evans blue. Further, the rota-rod test evaluated any motor impairment. Among the tested molecules, MC-D7, MC-D9, and MC-H were not toxic at the survival rate test, biochemical, and hystological analysis. They reduced the formalin-induced TMJ inflammatory hypernociception, but only MC-H decreased the serotonin-induced TMJ inflammation, suggesting an adrenergic receptor-dependent effect. They diminished the plasmatic extravasation, showing anti-inflammatory activity. At the rota-rod test, no difference was observed in comparison with control groups, reinforcing the hypothesis of anti-nociceptive effetc without motor impairment in animals. The analogues MC-D7, MC-D9, and MC-H were safe at the tested doses and efficient in reducing the formalin-induced TMJ hypernociception in rats. Our next steps include determining their mechanisms of anti-nociceptive action. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  2. Glutathione protects Candida albicans against horseradish volatile oil.

    PubMed

    Bertóti, Regina; Vasas, Gábor; Gonda, Sándor; Nguyen, Nhat Minh; Szőke, Éva; Jakab, Ágnes; Pócsi, István; Emri, Tamás

    2016-10-01

    Horseradish essential oil (HREO; a natural mixture of different isothiocyanates) had strong fungicide effect against Candida albicans both in volatile and liquid phase. In liquid phase this antifungal effect was more significant than those of its main components allyl, and 2-phenylethyl isothiocyanate. HREO, at sublethal concentration, induced oxidative stress which was characterized with elevated superoxide content and up-regulated specific glutathione reductase, glutathione peroxidase, catalase and superoxide dismutase activities. Induction of specific glutathione S-transferase activities as marker of glutathione (GSH) dependent detoxification was also observed. At higher concentration, HREO depleted the GSH pool, increased heavily the superoxide production and killed the cells rapidly. HREO and the GSH pool depleting agent, 1-chlore-2,4-dinitrobenzene showed strong synergism when they were applied together to kill C. albicans cells. Based on all these, we assume that GSH metabolism protects fungi against isothiocyanates. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  3. Dose-dependent effects of R-sulforaphane isothiocyanate on the biology of human mesenchymal stem cells, at dietary amounts, it promotes cell proliferation and reduces senescence and apoptosis, while at anti-cancer drug doses, it has a cytotoxic effect.

    PubMed

    Zanichelli, Fulvia; Capasso, Stefania; Cipollaro, Marilena; Pagnotta, Eleonora; Cartenì, Maria; Casale, Fiorina; Iori, Renato; Galderisi, Umberto

    2012-04-01

    Brassica vegetables are attracting a great deal of attention as healthy foods because of the fact that they contain substantial amounts of secondary metabolite glucosinolates that are converted into isothiocyanates, such as sulforaphane [(-)1-isothiocyanato-4R-(methylsulfinyl)-butane] (R-SFN), through the actions of chopping or chewing the vegetables. Several studies have analyzed the biological and molecular mechanisms of the anti-cancer activity of synthetic R,S-sulforaphane, which is thought to be a result of its antioxidant properties and its ability to inhibit histone deacetylase enzymes (HDAC). Few studies have addressed the possible antioxidant effects of R-SFN, which could protect cells from the free radical damage that strongly contribute to aging. Moreover, little is known about the effect of R-SFN on stem cells whose longevity is implicated in human aging. We evaluated the effects of R-SFN on the biology on human mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs), which, in addition to their ability to differentiate into mesenchymal tissues, support hematopoiesis, and contribute to the homeostatic maintenance of many organs and tissues. Our investigation found evidence that low doses of R-SFN promote MSCs proliferation and protect them from apoptosis and senescence, while higher doses have a cytotoxic effect, leading to the induction of cell cycle arrest, programmed cell death and senescence. The beneficial effects of R-SFN may be ascribed to its antioxidant properties, which were observed when MSC cultures were incubated with low doses of R-SFN. Its cytotoxic effects, which were observed after treating MSCs with high doses of R-SFN, could be attributed to its HDAC inhibitory activity. In summary, we found that R-SFN, like many other dietary supplements, exhibits a hormetic behavior; it is able to induce biologically opposite effects at different doses.

  4. Inhibition of cancer growth in vitro and in vivo by a novel ROS-modulating agent with ability to eliminate stem-like cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jiankang; Luo, Bingling; Li, Xiaobing; Lu, Wenhua; Yang, Jing; Hu, Yumin; Huang, Peng; Wen, Shijun

    2017-06-22

    Reactive oxygen species (ROS) have a crucial role in cell signaling and cellular functions. Mounting evidences suggest that abnormal increase of ROS is often observed in cancer cells and that this biochemical feature can be exploited for selective killing of the malignant cells. A naturally occurring compound phenethyl isothiocyanate (PEITC) has been shown to have promising anticancer activity by modulating intracellular ROS. Here we report a novel synthetic analog of PEITC with superior in vitro and in vivo antitumor effects. Mechanistic study showed that LBL21 induced a rapid depletion of intracellular glutathione (GSH), leading to abnormal ROS accumulation and mitochondrial dysfunction, evident by a decrease in mitochondrial respiration and transmembrane potential. Importantly, LBL21 exhibited the ability to abrogate stem cell-like cancer side population (SP) cells in non-small cell lung cancer A549 cells associated with a downregulation of stem cell markers including OCT4, ABCG2, SOX2 and CD133. Functionally, LBL21 inhibited the ability of cancer cells to form colonies in vitro and develop tumor in vivo. The therapeutic efficacy of LBL21 was further demonstrated in mice bearing A549 lung cancer xenografts. Our study suggests that the novel ROS-modulating agent LBL21 has promising anticancer activity with an advantage of elimination of stem-like cancer cells. This compound merits further study to evaluate its potential for use in cancer treatment.

  5. Response ofMeteorus leviventris, (Hymenoptera: Braconidae) to mustard oils in field trapping experiments.

    PubMed

    Pivnick, K A

    1993-09-01

    Trapping experiments were carried out near Saskatoon, Canada, from May through August 1990 to assess the response of the braconid wasp,Meteorus leviventris, to four selected mustard oils or isothiocyanates (IC) at a release rate of 4 mg/day, and for allyl IC only, at 40 mg/day. Only allyl IC at 4 mg/day was significantly attractive when trap captures were compared to the captures in the control traps. The others (n-propyl IC, 2-phenylethyl IC., and ethyl IC) were not attractive, nor was allyl IC at the higher dose, although trap captures with the latter bait were the second highest.

  6. Disruption of host-seeking behaviour by the salmon louse, Lepeophtheirus salmonis, using botanically derived repellents.

    PubMed

    O'Shea, B; Wadsworth, S; Pino Marambio, J; Birkett, M A; Pickett, J A; Mordue Luntz, A J

    2017-04-01

    The potential for developing botanically derived natural products as novel feed-through repellents for disrupting settlement of the salmon louse, Lepeophtheirus salmonis (Caligidae) upon farmed Atlantic salmon, Salmo salar, was investigated using an established laboratory vertical Y-tube behavioural bioassay for assessing copepodid behaviour. Responses to artificial sea water conditioned with the odour of salmon, or to the known salmon-derived kairomone component, α-isophorone, in admixture with selected botanical materials previously known to interfere with invertebrate arthropod host location were recorded. Materials included oils extracted from garlic, Allium sativum (Amaryllidaceae), rosemary, Rosmarinus officinalis (Lamiaceae), lavender, Lavandula angustifolia (Lamiaceae), and bog myrtle, Myrica gale (Myricaceae), and individual components (diallyl sulphide and diallyl disulphide from garlic; allyl, propyl, butyl, 4-pentenyl and 2-phenylethyl isothiocyanate from plants in the Brassica genus). Removal of attraction to salmon-conditioned water (SCW) or α-isophorone was observed when listed materials were presented at extremely low parts per trillion (ppt), that is picograms per litre or 10 -12 level. Significant masking of attraction to SCW was observed at a level of 10 ppt for diallyl disulphide and diallyl sulphide, and allyl isothiocyanate and butyl isothiocyanate. The potential of very low concentrations of masking compounds to disrupt Le. salmonis copepodid settlement on a host fish has been demonstrated in vitro. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  7. Oxidative stress and dietary phytochemicals: Role in cancer chemoprevention and treatment.

    PubMed

    Chikara, Shireen; Nagaprashantha, Lokesh Dalasanur; Singhal, Jyotsana; Horne, David; Awasthi, Sanjay; Singhal, Sharad S

    2018-01-28

    Several epidemiological observations have shown an inverse relation between consumption of plant-based foods, rich in phytochemicals, and incidence of cancer. Phytochemicals, secondary plant metabolites, via their antioxidant property play a key role in cancer chemoprevention by suppressing oxidative stress-induced DNA damage. In addition, they modulate several oxidative stress-mediated signaling pathways through their anti-oxidant effects, and ultimately protect cells from undergoing molecular changes that trigger carcinogenesis. In several instances, however, the pro-oxidant property of these phytochemicals has been observed with respect to cancer treatment. Further, in vitro and in vivo studies show that several phytochemicals potentiate the efficacy of chemotherapeutic agents by exacerbating oxidative stress in cancer cells. Therefore, we reviewed multiple studies investigating the role of dietary phytochemicals such as, curcumin (turmeric), epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG; green tea), resveratrol (grapes), phenethyl isothiocyanate (PEITC), sulforaphane (cruciferous vegetables), hesperidin, quercetin and 2'-hydroxyflavanone (2HF; citrus fruits) in regulating oxidative stress and associated signaling pathways in the context of cancer chemoprevention and treatment. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Methyl Jasmonate and 1-Methylcyclopropene Treatment Effects on Quinone Reductase Inducing Activity and Post-Harvest Quality of Broccoli

    PubMed Central

    Ku, Kang Mo; Choi, Jeong Hee; Kim, Hyoung Seok; Kushad, Mosbah M.; Jeffery, Elizabeth H.; Juvik, John A.

    2013-01-01

    Effect of pre-harvest methyl jasmonate (MeJA) and post-harvest 1-methylcyclopropene (1-MCP) treatments on broccoli floret glucosinolate (GS) concentrations and quinone reductase (QR, an in vitro anti-cancer biomarker) inducing activity were evaluated two days prior to harvest, at harvest and at 10, 20, and 30 days of post-harvest storage at 4 °C. MeJA treatments four days prior to harvest of broccoli heads was observed to significantly increase floret ethylene biosynthesis resulting in chlorophyll catabolism during post-harvest storage and reduced product quality. Post-harvest treatment with 1-methylcyclopropene (1-MCP), which competitively binds to protein ethylene receptors, maintained post-harvest floret chlorophyll concentrations and product visual quality in both control and MeJA-treated broccoli. Transcript abundance of BoPPH, a gene which is responsible for the synthesis of pheophytinase, the primary enzyme associated with chlorophyll catabolism in broccoli, was reduced by 1-MCP treatment and showed a significant, negative correlation with floret chlorophyll concentrations. The GS, glucobrassicin, neoglucobrassicin, and gluconasturtiin were significantly increased by MeJA treatments. The products of some of the GS from endogenous myrosinase hydrolysis [sulforaphane (SF), neoascorbigen (NeoASG), N-methoxyindole-3-carbinol (NI3C), and phenethyl isothiocyanate (PEITC)] were also quantified and found to be significantly correlated with QR. Sulforaphane, the isothiocyanate hydrolysis product of the GS glucoraphanin, was found to be the most potent QR induction agent. Increased sulforaphane formation from the hydrolysis of glucoraphanin was associated with up-regulated gene expression of myrosinase (BoMyo) and the myrosinase enzyme co-factor gene, epithiospecifier modifier1 (BoESM1). This study demonstrates the combined treatment of MeJA and 1-MCP increased QR activity without post-harvest quality loss. PMID:24146962

  9. Fluorescein isothiocyanate (FITC)-Dextran Extravasation as a Measure of Blood-Brain Barrier Permeability

    PubMed Central

    Natarajan, Reka; Northrop, Nicole

    2017-01-01

    The blood-brain barrier (BBB) is formed in part by vascular endothelial cells that constitute the capillaries and microvessels of the brain. The function of this barrier is to maintain homeostasis within the brain microenvironment and buffer the brain from changes in the periphery. A dysfunction of the BBB would permit circulating molecules and pathogens typically restricted to the periphery to enter the brain and interfere with normal brain function. As increased permeability of the BBB is associated with several neuropathologies, it is important to have a reliable and sensitive method that determines BBB permeability and the degree of BBB disruption. A detailed protocol is presented for assessing the integrity of the BBB by transcardial perfusion of a 10,000 Da FITC labeled dextran molecule and its visualization to determine the degree of extravasation from brain microvessels. PMID:28398646

  10. Assessment of DNA Damage and Repair in Adults Consuming AllylIsothiocyanate or Brassica Vegetables

    PubMed Central

    Charron, Craig S.; Clevidence, Beverly A.; Albaugh, George A.; Kramer, Matthew H.; Vinyard, Bryan T.; Milner, John A.; Novotny, Janet A.

    2012-01-01

    Allylisothiocyanate (AITC) is a dietary component with possible anti-cancer effects, though much information about AITC and cancer has been obtained from cell studies. To investigate the effect of AITC on DNA integrity in vivo, a crossover study was conducted. Adults (n=46) consumed AITC, AITC-rich vegetables (mustard and cabbage), or a control treatment with a controlled diet for 10 days each. On day 11, volunteers provided blood and urine before and after consuming treatments. Volunteers were characterized for genotype for GSTM1 and GSTT1 (glutathione S-transferases) and XPD (DNA repair). DNA integrity in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) was assessed by single cell gel electrophoresis. Urine was analyzed for 8-oxo-7,8-dihydro-2’-deoxyguanosine (8-oxodG) and creatinine. Ten day intake of neither AITC nor mustard/cabbage(M/C) resulted in statistically significant differences in DNA strand breaks (LS mean % DNA in tail ± SEM: 4.8 ± 0.6 for control, 5.7 ± 0.7 for AITC, 5.3 ± 0.6 for M/C) or urinary 8-oxodG (LS mean µg 8-oxodG/g creatinine ± SEM: 2.95 ± 0.09 for control, 2.88 ± 0.09 for AITC, 3.06 ± 0.09 for M/C). Both AITC and M/C increased DNA strand breaks 3h post-consumption (LS mean % DNA in tail ± SEM: 3.2 ± 0.7 for control, 8.3 ± 1.7 for AITC, 8.0 ± 1.7 for M/C), and this difference disappeared at 6h (4.2 ± 0.9 for control, 5.7 ± 1.2 for AITC, 5.5 ± 1.2 for M/C). Genotypes for GSTM1, GSTT1, and XPD were not associated with treatment effects. In summary, DNA damage appeared to be induced in the short term by AITC and AITC-rich products, but that damage disappeared quickly, and neither AITC nor AITC-rich products affected DNA base excision repair. PMID:22902324

  11. Impact of Nrf2 on tumour growth and drug sensitivity in oncogenic K-ras-transformed cells in vitro and in vivo.

    PubMed

    Shao, Jiajia; Glorieux, Christophe; Liao, Jianwei; Chen, Ping; Lu, Wenhua; Liang, Zhenhao; Wen, Shijun; Hu, Yumin; Huang, Peng

    2018-06-01

    K-ras is one of the most common oncogenes in human cancers, and its aberrant activation may lead to malignant transformation associated with oxidative stress and activation of the transcription factor Nrf2 that regulates multiple detoxification enzymes. The purpose of this research was to use gene editing technology to evaluate the role of Nrf2 in affecting tumour growth and drug sensitivity of K-ras G12V -transformed cells. We showed that induction of K-ras G12V caused a significant activation of Nrf2 associated with increased expression of its target genes NAD(P)H:quinone oxidoreductase 1 (NQO1) and haem oxygenase-1 (HO-1). Interestingly, knock-out of Nrf2 by CRISPR/Cas9 in K-ras G12V -expressing cells only impacted the expression of NQO1 but not HO-1. We also found that Nrf2 knock-out caused high reactive oxygen species (ROS) stress, suppression of cell proliferation, increased apoptosis in vitro, and a decrease of tumour growth in vivo. Furthermore, abrogation of Nrf2 significantly increased the sensitivity of K-ras G12V cells to multiple anticancer agents including phenethyl isothiocyanate (PEITC), doxorubicin, etoposide, and cisplatin. These results show that genetic abrogation of Nrf2 impairs the malignant phenotype of K-Ras G12V -transformed cells in vitro and in vivo, and demonstrates the critical role of Nrf2 in promoting cell survival and drug resistance in cells harbouring oncogenic K-ras. As such, inhibition of Nrf2 would be an attractive strategy to increase the therapeutic effect and overcome drug resistance in cancer with oncogenic K-ras activation.

  12. Atmospheric emissions of methyl isothiocyanate and chloropicrin following soil fumigation and surface containment treatment in bare-root forest nurseries

    Treesearch

    D. Wang; J. Juzwik; Stephen W. Fraedrich; K. Spokas; Y. Zhang; W.C. Koskinen

    2005-01-01

    Methylisothiocyanate (MITC) and chloropicrin (CP) are alternatives to methyl bromide for soil fumigation. However, surface transport of MITC emission has been cited as the cause for seedling damage in adjacent fields at several bare-root forest-tree nurseries. Field experiments were conducted at nurseries in Wisconsin and Georgia to measure air emissions of MITC and CP...

  13. Atmospheric emissions of methyl isothiocyanate and chloropicrin following soil fumigation and surface containment treatment in bare-root forest nurseries

    Treesearch

    D. Wang; J. Juzwik; S.W. Fraedrich; K. Spokas; Y. Zhang; W.C. Koskinen

    2005-01-01

    Methylisothiocyanate (MITC) and chloropicrin (CP) are alternatives to methyl bromide for soil fumigation. However, surface transport of MITC emission has been cited as the cause for seedling damage in adjacent fields at several bare-root forest-tree nurseries. Field experiments were conducted at nurseries to measure air emissions of MITC and CP after fumigation....

  14. (S)-N-[1-(5-Benzyl-sulfan-yl-1,3,4-oxa-diazol-2-yl)-2-phenyl-eth-yl]-4-methyl-benzene-sulfonamide.

    PubMed

    Syed, Tayyaba; Hameed, Shahid; Jones, Peter G

    2011-11-01

    The title compound, C(24)H(23)N(3)O(3)S(2), crystallizes with two independent mol-ecules in the asymmetric unit. They differ essentially in the orientation of the tolyl rings, between which there is π-π stacking (centroid-centroid distance = 3.01 Å). The absolute configuration was confirmed by the determination of the Flack parameter [x = 0.008 (9)]. In the crystal, mol-ecules are connected by two classical N-H⋯N hydrogen bonds and two weak but very short C-H⋯O(sulfon-yl) inter-actions, forming layers lying parallel to the bc plane.

  15. Surface disinfection procedure and in vitro regeneration of grapevine (Vitis vinifera L.) axillary buds.

    PubMed

    Lazo-Javalera, M F; Troncoso-Rojas, R; Tiznado-Hernández, M E; Martínez-Tellez, M A; Vargas-Arispuro, I; Islas-Osuna, M A; Rivera-Domínguez, M

    2016-01-01

    Establishment of an efficient explants surface disinfection protocol is essential for in vitro cell and tissue culture as well as germplasm conservation, such as the case of Grapevine (Vitis spp.) culture. In this research, different procedures for disinfection and regeneration of field-grown grapevine cv. 'Flame seedless' axillary buds were evaluated. The buds were disinfected using either NaOCl or allyl, benzyl, phenyl and 2-phenylethyl isothiocyanates. Two different media for shooting and four media for rooting were tested. Shoot and root development per buds were registered. The best disinfection procedure with 90 % of tissue survival involved shaking for 60 min in a solution containing 20 % Clorox with 50 drops/L Triton(®) X-100. These tissues showed the potential to regenerate a complete plant. Plant regeneration was conducted using full strength Murashigue and Skoog (MS) medium supplemented with 8 µM benzyl aminopurine for shoot induction and multiplication, whereas rooting was obtained on half strength MS supplemented with 2 mg L(-1) of indole-3-butyric acid and 200 mg L(-1) of activated charcoal. In this work, it was designed the protocols for obtaining sterile field-grown grapevine buds and in vitro plant development. This methodology showed potential to produce vigorous and healthy plants in 5 weeks for clonal grapevine propagation. Regenerated plants were successfully established in soil.

  16. Aberrant activation of M phase proteins by cell proliferation-evoking carcinogens after 28-day administration in rats.

    PubMed

    Yafune, Atsunori; Taniai, Eriko; Morita, Reiko; Hayashi, Hitomi; Suzuki, Kazuhiko; Mitsumori, Kunitoshi; Shibutani, Makoto

    2013-06-07

    We have previously reported that hepatocarcinogens increase liver cells expressing p21(Cip1), a G1 checkpoint protein and M phase proteins after 28-day treatment in rats. This study aimed to identify early prediction markers of carcinogens available in many target organs after 28-day treatment in rats. Immunohistochemical analysis was performed on Ki-67, p21(Cip1) and M phase proteins [nuclear Cdc2, phospho-Histone H3 (p-Histone H3), Aurora B and heterochromatin protein 1α (HP1α)] with carcinogens targeting different organs. Carcinogens targeting thyroid (sulfadimethoxine; SDM), urinary bladder (phenylethyl isothiocyanate), forestomach (butylated hydroxyanisole; BHA), glandular stomach (catechol; CC), and colon (2-amino-1-methyl-6-phenylimidazo[4,5-b]pyridine and chenodeoxycholic acid) were examined using a non-carcinogenic toxicant (caprolactam) and carcinogens targeting other organs as negative controls. All carcinogens increased Ki-67(+), nuclear Cdc2(+), p-Histone H3(+) or Aurora B(+) carcinogenic target cells, except for both colon carcinogens, which did not increase cell proliferation. On the other hand, p21(Cip1+) cells increased with SDM and CC. HP1α responded only to BHA. Results revealed carcinogens evoking cell proliferation concurrently induced cell cycle arrest at M phase or showing chromosomal instability reflecting aberration in cell cycle regulation, irrespective of target organs, after 28-day treatment. Therefore, M phase proteins may be early prediction markers of carcinogens evoking cell proliferation in many target organs. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Investigation of total phenolic, total flavonoid, antioxidant and allyl isothiocyanate content in the different organs of Wasabi japonica grown in an organic system.

    PubMed

    Shin, Seong Woo; Ghimeray, Amal Kumar; Park, Cheol Ho

    2014-01-01

    This study was carried out to investigate the total polyphenol (TP), total flavonoid (TF), antioxidative effect and allyl isothyocyanate (ITC) content in different organs of wasabi plant grown in an organic system. Invitro study of methanol and boiled water extracts of wasabi were conducted by analyzing the 1-1-diphenyl-2-picryl hydrozyl (DPPH) radial scavenging activity, metal chelating activity and total antioxidant capacity in a comparative manner. The result revealed that methanol extract showed higher TP in flower (3644 mg TAE/100 g dw), leaf (3201 mg TAE/100 g dw) and fruit (3025 mg TAE/100 g dw) as compared to the boiled water extract. Similarly, TF content was also higher in methanol extracts of flower (1152 mg QE/100 g dw) and leaf (325 mg QE/100 g dw), however, the other parts showed ignorable value. Results of antioxidant activity were found at different magnitude of potency. The methanol extract of different parts of wasabi exhibited higher activity in total antioxidant capacity and DPPH radical scavenging assay as compared to water extract. In metal chelating assay, the boiled water extracts of leaf showed higher (76.9%) activity, followed by fruit (68.8%) and flower (62.8%). Ally ITC detected by gas chromatography was present in all of the tissues of wasabi plant but the content was found to be varied in different tissues. Overall, this study will allow consumers and processors to understand the possibility for medical application of wasabi plant by knowing the level of total polyphenol distribution, Ally ITC content and antioxidant property distributed in different parts and tissues.Key words: Allyl ITC, antioxidant, flavonoid, polyphenol, Wasabi japonica.

  18. In Pursuit of the Far-Infrared Spectrum of Cyanogen Iso-Thiocyanate Ncncs, Under the Influence of the Energy Level Dislocation due to Quantum Monodromy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Winnewisser, Manfred; Winnewisser, Brenda P.; Medvedev, Ivan R.; De Lucia, Frank, C.; Ross, Stephen C.; Koput, Jacek

    2010-06-01

    Quantum Monodromy has a strong impact on the ro-vibrational energy levels of chain molecules whose bending potential energy function has the form of the bottom of a champagne bottle (i.e. with a hump or punt) around the linear configuration. NCNCS is a particularly good example of such a molecule and clearly exhibits a distinctive monodromy-induced dislocation of the energy level pattern at the top of the potential energy hump. The generalized semi-rigid bender (GSRB) wave functions are used to show that the expectation values of any physical quantity which varies with the large amplitude bending coordinate will also have monodromy-induced dislocations. This includes the electric dipole moment components. High level ab initio calculations not only provided the molecular equilibrium structure of NCNCS, but also the electric dipole moment components μa and μb as functions of the large-amplitude bending coordinate. The calculated expectation values of these quantities indicate large ro-vibrational transition moments that will be discussed in pursuit of possible far-infrared bands. To our knowledge there is no NCNCS infrared spectrum reported in the literature. B. P. Winnewisser, M. Winnewisser, I. R. Medvedev, F. C. De Lucia, S. C. Ross and J. Koput, Phys. Chem. Chem. Phys., 2010, DOI:10.1039/B922023B.

  19. Preservation of acidified cucumbers with a natural preservative combination of fumaric acid and allyl isothiocyanate that target lactic acid bacteria and yeasts

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Without the addition of preservative compounds cucumbers acidified with 150 mM acetic acid with pH adjusted to 3.5 typically undergo fermentation by lactic acid bacteria. Fumaric acid (20 mM) inhibited growth of Lactobacillus plantarum and the lactic acid bacteria present on fresh cucumbers, but sp...

  20. Aberrant activation of ubiquitin D at G2 phase and apoptosis by carcinogens that evoke cell proliferation after 28-day administration in rats.

    PubMed

    Taniai, Eriko; Yafune, Atsunori; Hayashi, Hitomi; Itahashi, Megu; Hara-Kudo, Yukiko; Suzuki, Kazuhiko; Mitsumori, Kunitoshi; Shibutani, Makoto

    2012-01-01

    We have previously reported that renal carcinogens examined in rats increase tubular cell proliferation and topoisomerase (Topo) IIα(+) cells. The present study was aimed at identifying early prediction markers of carcinogens after 28-day treatment in rats. Following gene expression screening by microarrays in renal tubules with renal carcinogens, immunohistochemical analysis and TUNEL-assay were performed with carcinogens targeting different organs. All renal carcinogens tested (ferric nitrilotriacetic acid, ochratoxin A (OTA), monuron, tris(2-chloroethyl) phosphate, and potassium bromate) increased tubular cells immunoreactive for minichromosome maintenance 3 (Mcm3) or ubiquitin D (Ubd) or those showing apoptosis, compared with untreated controls or non-carcinogenic renal toxicants. Carcinogens targeting the liver (thioacetamide (TAA), fenbendazole, piperonyl butoxide (PBO) and methyleugenol), thyroid (sulfadimethoxine), urinary bladder (phenylethyl isothiocyanate), forestomach (butylated hydroxyanisole), glandular stomach (catechol), and colon (chenodeoxycholic acid and 2-amino-1-methyl-6-phenylimidazo[4,5-b]pyridine) were examined for induction of Mcm3, Ubd, Topo IIα, Ki-67 and apoptosis using non-carcinogenic toxicants as negative controls. All carcinogens increased Mcm3(+), Ubd(+), Topo IIα(+), Ki-67(+) or TUNEL(+) cells, except for hepatocarcinogen PBO and both colon carcinogens, which did not increase cell proliferation. Ubd(+) cells co-expressing Topo IIα was increased without changing phospho-Histone H3-co-expressing cell population as examined with OTA and TAA. Results revealed cooperative responses of Topo IIα, Ubd and apoptosis by carcinogens inducing high proliferation activity, irrespective of target organs, examined here after a 28-day administration. Aberrant expression of Ubd at G(2) phase and increased apoptosis reflecting aberrant cell cycle regulation may be the common feature of these carcinogens.

  1. The impact of biofumigation and chemical fumigation methods on the structure and function of the soil microbial community.

    PubMed

    Omirou, Michalis; Rousidou, Constantina; Bekris, Fotios; Papadopoulou, Kalliope K; Menkissoglou-Spiroudi, Urania; Ehaliotis, Constantinos; Karpouzas, Dimitrios G

    2011-01-01

    Biofumigation (BIOF) is carried out mainly by the incorporation of brassica plant parts into the soil, and this fumigation activity has been linked to their high glucosinolate (GSL) content. GSLs are hydrolyzed by the endogenous enzyme myrosinase to release isothiocyanates (ITCs). A microcosm study was conducted to investigate the effects induced on the soil microbial community by the incorporation of broccoli residues into soil either with (BM) or without (B) added myrosinase and of chemical fumigation, either as soil application of 2-phenylethyl ITC (PITC) or metham sodium (MS). Soil microbial activity was evaluated by measuring fluorescein diacetate hydrolysis and soil respiration. Effects on the structure of the total microbial community were assessed by phospholipid fatty acid analysis, while the impact on important fungal (ascomycetes (ASC)) and bacterial (ammonia-oxidizing bacteria (AOB)) guilds was evaluated by denaturating gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE). Overall, B, and to a lesser extent BM, stimulated microbial activity and biomass. The diminished effect of BM compared to B was particularly evident in fungi and Gram-negative bacteria and was attributed to rapid ITC release following the myrosinase treatment. PITC did not have a significant effect, whereas an inhibitory effect was observed in the MS-treated soil. DGGE analysis showed that the ASC community was temporarily altered by BIOF treatments and more persistently by the MS treatment, while the structure of the AOB community was not affected by the treatments. Cloning of the ASC community showed that MS application had a deleterious effect on potential plant pathogens like Fusarium, Nectria, and Cladosporium compared to BIOF treatments which did not appear to inhibit them. Our findings indicate that BIOF induces changes on the structure and function of the soil microbial community that are mostly related to microbial substrate availability changes derived from the soil amendment with fresh

  2. An expedient synthesis of N-(1-(5-mercapto-4-((substituted benzylidene)amino)-4H-1,2,4-triazol-3-yl)-2-phenylethyl)benzamides as jack bean urease inhibitors and free radical scavengers: Kinetic mechanism and molecular docking studies.

    PubMed

    Saeed, Aamer; Larik, Fayaz Ali; Channar, Pervaiz Ali; Mehfooz, Haroon; Ashraf, Mohammad Haseeb; Abbas, Qamar; Hassan, Mubashir; Seo, Sung-Yum

    2017-11-01

    In this study, some new azomethine-triazole hybrids 5a-5l derived from N-benzoyl-L-phenylalanine were synthesized and characterized. The synthesized compounds showed first-rate, urease inhibition, and compounds 5c and 5e were found to be most effective inhibitors with 0.0137 ± 0.00082 μm and 0.0183 ± 0.00068 μm, respectively (thiourea 15.151 ± 1.27 μm). The kinetic mechanism of urease inhibition revealed the compounds 5c and 5e to be non-competitive inhibitors, whereas compounds 5d and 5j were found to be of mixed-type inhibitors. Docking studies also indicated better interaction patterns with urease enzyme. The results of enzyme inhibition, kinetic mechanism and molecular docking suggest that these compounds can serve as lead compounds in the design of more effective urease inhibitors. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  3. Triphenylethanamine Derivatives as Cholesteryl Ester Transfer Protein Inhibitors: Discovery of N-[(1R)-1-(3-Cyclopropoxy-4-fluorophenyl)-1-[3-fluoro-5-(1,1,2,2-tetrafluoroethoxy)phenyl]-2-phenylethyl]-4-fluoro-3-(trifluoromethyl)benzamide (BMS-795311).

    PubMed

    Qiao, Jennifer X; Wang, Tammy C; Adam, Leonard P; Chen, Alice Ye A; Taylor, David S; Yang, Richard Z; Zhuang, Shaobin; Sleph, Paul G; Li, Julia P; Li, Danshi; Yin, Xiaohong; Chang, Ming; Chen, Xue-Qing; Shen, Hong; Li, Jianqing; Smith, Daniel; Wu, Dauh-Rurng; Leith, Leslie; Harikrishnan, Lalgudi S; Kamau, Muthoni G; Miller, Michael M; Bilder, Donna; Rampulla, Richard; Li, Yi-Xin; Xu, Carrie; Lawrence, R Michael; Poss, Michael A; Levesque, Paul; Gordon, David A; Huang, Christine S; Finlay, Heather J; Wexler, Ruth R; Salvati, Mark E

    2015-11-25

    Cholesteryl ester transfer protein (CETP) inhibitors raise HDL-C in animals and humans and may be antiatherosclerotic by enhancing reverse cholesterol transport (RCT). In this article, we describe the lead optimization efforts resulting in the discovery of a series of triphenylethanamine (TPE) ureas and amides as potent and orally available CETP inhibitors. Compound 10g is a potent CETP inhibitor that maximally inhibited cholesteryl ester (CE) transfer activity at an oral dose of 1 mg/kg in human CETP/apoB-100 dual transgenic mice and increased HDL cholesterol content and size comparable to torcetrapib (1) in moderately-fat fed hamsters. In contrast to the off-target liabilities with 1, no blood pressure increase was observed with 10g in rat telemetry studies and no increase of aldosterone synthase (CYP11B2) was detected in H295R cells. On the basis of its preclinical profile, compound 10g was advanced into preclinical safety studies.

  4. Dietary Glucosinolates Sulforaphane, Phenethyl Isothiocyanate, Indole-3-Carbinol/3,3'-Diindolylmethane: Anti-Oxidative Stress/Inflammation, Nrf2, Epigenetics/Epigenomics and In Vivo Cancer Chemopreventive Efficacy.

    PubMed

    Fuentes, Francisco; Paredes-Gonzalez, Ximena; Kong, Ah-Ng Tony

    2015-05-01

    Glucosinolates are a group of sulfur-containing glycosides found in many plant species, including cruciferous vegetables such as broccoli, cabbage, brussels sprouts, and cauliflower. Accumulating evidence increasingly supports the beneficial effects of dietary glucosinolates on overall health, including as potential anti-cancer agents, because of their role in the prevention of the initiation of carcinogenesis via the induction of cellular defense detoxifying/antioxidant enzymes and their epigenetic mechanisms, including modification of the CpG methylation of cancer-related genes, histone modification regulation and changes in the expression of miRNAs. In this context, the defense mechanism mediated by Nrf2-antioxidative stress and anti-inflammatory signaling pathways can contribute to cellular protection against oxidative stress and reactive metabolites of carcinogens. In this review, we summarize the cancer chemopreventive role of naturally occurring glucosinolate derivatives as inhibitors of carcinogenesis, with particular emphasis on specific molecular targets and epigenetic alterations in in vitro and in vivo human cancer animal models.

  5. Phytochemicals (image)

    MedlinePlus

    Plants provide many beneficial nutrients (phytochemicals) which may protect against cancer. Isothiocyanates (found in broccoli, cauliflower and brussel sprouts) may suppress tumor growth and hormone production. Flavonoids ( ...

  6. Alternative Differential Identification Approaches for 2 Similar Bacilli Commonly Studied in Microbiology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Benathen, Isaiah A.

    1991-01-01

    Alternatives to the traditional unknown tests that permit a clear and unequivocal differential identification decision between Bacillus subtilis and Bacillus megaterium are presented. Plates of Phenylethyl Alcohol agar with Blood (PEAB), slants of Bile Esculin agar and plates of DNA agar are used. The materials, methods, results, and conclusions…

  7. Chemiluminescence of Secondary Peroxyesters.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1980-11-14

    phenylethylperoxybenzoates was investiqlated. Thermolysis in benzene gives acetophenone and the corresponding carboxYlic acid . The study of the reactiol...these compounds undergo unimolecular thermolysis to qenerate the appropriate carboxylic acid add carbonyl compound; eq. 2. We estimated, using...prepared by reaction of 1 -phenylethyl hydroperoxide with the appropriate activated acid precursor. We prepared the hydroperoxide by two different routes

  8. Potential anti-inflammatory phenolic glycosides from the medicinal plant Moringa oleifera fruits

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Bioassay-guided isolation and purification of the ethyl acetate extract of Moringa oleifera fruits yielded three new phenolic glycosides; 4-[(2'-O-acetyl-a-L-rhamnosyloxy) benzyl]isothiocyanate (1), 4-[(3'-O-acetyl-a-L-rhamnosyloxy)benzyl]isothiocyanate (2), and S-methyl-N-{4-[(a-L-rhamnosyloxy)benz...

  9. Glucosinolate metabolism, functionality and breeding for the improvement of Brassicaceae vegetables

    PubMed Central

    Ishida, Masahiko; Hara, Masakazu; Fukino, Nobuko; Kakizaki, Tomohiro; Morimitsu, Yasujiro

    2014-01-01

    Unique secondary metabolites, glucosinolates (S-glucopyranosyl thiohydroximates), are naturally occurring S-linked glucosides found mainly in Brassicaceae plants. They are enzymatically hydrolyzed to produce sulfate ions, D-glucose, and characteristic degradation products such as isothiocyanates. The functions of glucosinolates in the plants remain unclear, but isothiocyanates possessing a pungent or irritating taste and odor might be associated with plant defense from microbes. Isothiocyanates have been studied extensively in experimental in vitro and in vivo carcinogenesis models for their cancer chemopreventive properties. The beneficial isothiocyanates, glucosinolates that are functional for supporting human health, have received attention from many scientists studying plant breeding, plant physiology, plant genetics, and food functionality. This review presents a summary of recent topics related with glucosinolates in the Brassica family, along with a summary of the chemicals, metabolism, and genes of glucosinolates in Brassicaceae. The bioavailabilities of isothiocyanates from certain functional glucosinolates and the importance of breeding will be described with emphasis on glucosinolates. PMID:24987290

  10. Chemopreventive efficacy of anethole trithione, N-acetyl-L-cysteine, miconazole and phenethylisothiocyanate in the DMBA-induced rat mammary cancer model.

    PubMed

    Lubet, R A; Steele, V E; Eto, I; Juliana, M M; Kelloff, G J; Grubbs, C J

    1997-07-03

    The chemopreventive efficacy of N-acetyl-L-cysteine (NAC), anethole trithione, miconazole and phenethylisothiocyanate (PEITC), each of which would be expected to alter carcinogen metabolism, was examined in the dimethylbenzanthracene (DMBA) mammary carcinogenesis model. In this protocol, animals were exposed to non-toxic doses of the chemopreventives in the diet beginning 7 days prior to DMBA administration and then continuously throughout the duration of the assay (100 days post carcinogen). Miconazole, an antifungal agent with relatively broad inhibitory activity toward a variety of cytochromes P450, increased mammary tumor latency, decreased tumor incidence at the highest dose and decreased tumor multiplicity up to 60%. Anethole trithione, a substituted dithiolthione and an analog of the relatively broad-spectrum chemopreventive oltipraz, was administered in the diet and significantly inhibited mammary cancer multiplicity but not cancer incidence. NAC, an antimucolytic agent, failed to inhibit DMBA-induced mammary tumorigenesis. Surprisingly, treatment with DMBA plus PEITC, a potent inhibitor of cytochrome P450 2E1, actually increased the multiplicity of tumors relative to that observed with DMBA alone.

  11. Attraction of Coffee Bean Weevil, Araecerus fasciculatus, to Volatiles from the Industrial Yeast Kluyveromyces lactis.

    PubMed

    Yang, Shuai; Mei, Xiang-Dong; Zhang, Xiao-Fang; Li, Yao-Fa; She, Dongmei; Zhang, Tao; Ning, Jun

    2017-02-01

    The coffee bean weevil (CBW), Araecerus fasciculatus (De Geer, 1775) (Coleoptera: Anthribidae) is an important pest of stored products such as grains, coffee beans, cassava, and traditional Chinese medicine materials. In China, CBW causes large losses of Daqu, a traditional Chinese liquor fermentation starter, and, unfortunately, the use of conventional insecticides against CBW is not suitable in Daqu storage. We found CBW to be highly attracted to fermenting yeast cultures, such as Kluyveromyces lactis. Eight volatile compounds, produced by fermenting cultures and not by sterile samples, were identified by gas chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry. Five of these substances elicited significant responses in Y-tube behavioral bioassays. Field trapping experiments revealed 2-phenylethanol and 2-phenylethyl acetate to be crucial for attraction of CBW. Results show that yeast volatiles play an important role in host location, and that 2-phenylethanol and 2-phenylethyl acetate could be utilized as potential attractants in monitoring and control systems against this important pest.

  12. Synthesis of 6-Substituted-2,4-Diamino-5,6,7,8-Tetrahydropyrimido(4-5-d)Pyrimidines.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1979-10-01

    triaminopyrihidifle with substituted Andines 2, 1. Anilines 2 2. 0-Arylhydroxylami nes 3 3. Benzylamines 4 4. O-Benzyl hydroxylamines 4 5. PhenylethylamineS 5 6...by hydrazinolysis of the phthaliinide intermediate. 5. Phenylethylamines The reaction of 2,4,6-triaminopyrimidine with phenylethyl- amines and...5,6,7,8-tetrahydropyrimido L!,5-d_1 pyrimidines were excellent. These products were summarized in Table 1. The phenylethylamines were usually prepared

  13. Characterization of an In Vitro Human Breast Epithelial Organoid System

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1999-08-01

    Sulindac, curcumin and phenylethyl-3-methylcaffeate have also been shown to induce apoptosis in rat colon tumors.30 The non-steroidal anti-inflammatory...drug such as aspirin and Sulindac have been found to reduce colon cancer.31-32 The chemo- preventive action of these compounds and curcumin may be...of psyllium (a soluble fiber that suppresses P3-glucuronidase) and wheat bran (an insoluble fiber that traps estrogen) produced the strongest

  14. [The biotransformation of fenetylline].

    PubMed

    Rücker, G; Neugebauer, M; Heiden, P G

    1988-04-01

    After oral administration of 3,7-dihydro-1,3-dimethyl-7-2 [(1-methyl-2-phenylethyl)-amino-ethyl]-1H-purine-2,6-dione (fenetylline, Captagon), 7 new metabolites could be detected in urine besides 4 known substances. The metabolites were identified by gas chromatography (GC) and by comparison of the mass spectra (MS) of metabolites with those of authentic reference compounds using a combined GC/MS method.

  15. Effect of Brassicaceae seed meals with different glucosinolate profiles on Rhizoctonia root rot of wheat

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Tissues of plants in the family Brassicaceae contain glucosinolates, compounds whose hydrolysis results in the release of various bioactive products including isothiocyanates. The broad spectrum of biological activity of these glucosinolate hydrolysis products has led to the promotion of brassicace...

  16. CRYPTOSPORIDIUM OOCYST RECOVERY IN WATER BY EPA METHOD 1623: EVALUATION OF A MODIFIED IMS DISSOCIATION

    EPA Science Inventory

    EPA Methods 1622 and 1623 are the benchmarks for detection of Cryptosporidium spp. oocysts in water. These methods consist of filtration, elution, purification by immunomagnetic separation (IMS), and microscopic analysis after staining with a fluorescein isothiocyanate conjugate...

  17. EVALUATION OF CRYPTOSPORIDIUM OOCYST RECOVERY IN WATER BY EPA METHOD 1623 WITH A MODIFIED IMS DISSOCIATION PROCEDURE.

    EPA Science Inventory

    EPA Methods 1622 and 1623 are the benchmarks for detection of Cryptosporidium spp. oocysts in water. 5-7 These methods consist of filtration, elution, purification by immunomagnetic separation (IMS), and microscopic analysis after staining with a fluorescein isothiocyanate conju...

  18. IMPROVED METHODS FOR HEPATITIS A VIRUS AND ROTAVIRUS CONCENTRATION AND DETECTION IN RECREATIONAL, RAW POTABLE, AND FINISHED WATERS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report contains procedures for detecting rotaviruses based upon an immunofluorescence test using a monoclonal antibody and fluorescein-isothiocyanate-conjugated antibody staining method to visualize virus-infected cells. Also contained in the report are test methods for detec...

  19. 21 CFR 310.545 - Drug products containing certain active ingredients offered over-the-counter (OTC) for certain uses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... products. Aspirin Chloral hydrate Chlorobutanol Cyclomethycaine sulfate Eugenol Hexylresorcinol... isothiocyanate Aspirin Bismuth sodium tartrate Camphor (exceeding 3 percent) Capsaicin Capsicum Capsicum... oxide (vii) Poison ivy, poison oak, and poison sumac drug products. Alcohol Aspirin Benzethonium...

  20. 21 CFR 310.545 - Drug products containing certain active ingredients offered over-the-counter (OTC) for certain uses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... products. Aspirin Chloral hydrate Chlorobutanol Cyclomethycaine sulfate Eugenol Hexylresorcinol... isothiocyanate Aspirin Bismuth sodium tartrate Camphor (exceeding 3 percent) Capsaicin Capsicum Capsicum... oxide (vii) Poison ivy, poison oak, and poison sumac drug products. Alcohol Aspirin Benzethonium...

  1. 21 CFR 310.545 - Drug products containing certain active ingredients offered over-the-counter (OTC) for certain uses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... products. Aspirin Chloral hydrate Chlorobutanol Cyclomethycaine sulfate Eugenol Hexylresorcinol... isothiocyanate Aspirin Bismuth sodium tartrate Camphor (exceeding 3 percent) Capsaicin Capsicum Capsicum... oxide (vii) Poison ivy, poison oak, and poison sumac drug products. Alcohol Aspirin Benzethonium...

  2. The potential of papaya leaf extract in controlling Ganoderma boninense

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tay, Z. H.; Chong, K. P.

    2016-06-01

    Basal Stem Rot (BSR) disease causes significant losses to the oil palm industry. Numerous controls have been applied in managing the disease but no conclusive result was reported. This study investigated the antifungal potential of papaya leaf extracts against Ganoderma boninense, the causal pathogen of BSR. Among the five different solvents tested in extraction of compounds from papaya leaf, methanol and acetone gave the highest yield. In vitro antifungal activity of the methanol and acetone extracts were evaluated against G. boninense using agar dilution at four concentrations: 5 mg mL-1, 15 mg mL-1, 30 mg mL-1and 45 mg mL-1. The results indicated a positive correlation between the concentration of leaf extracts and the inhibition of G. boninense. ED50 of methanol and acetone crude extracts were determined to be 32.016 mg mL-1and 65.268 mg mL-1, respectively. The extracts were later semi-purified using solid phase extraction (SPE) and the nine bioactive compounds were identified: decanoic acid, 2-methyl-, Z,Z-10-12-Hexadecadien-1-ol acetate, dinonanoin monocaprylin, 2-chloroethyl oleate, phenol,4-(1-phenylethyl)-, phenol,2,4-bis(1-phenylethyl)-, phenol-2-(1-phenylethyl)-, ethyl iso-allocholate and 1- monolinoleoylglycerol trimethylsilyl ether. The findings suggest that papaya leaf extracts have the ability to inhibit the growth of G. boninense, where a higher concentration of the extract exhibits better inhibition effects.

  3. Effect of yeast assimilable nitrogen on the synthesis of phenolic aroma compounds by Hanseniaspora vineae strains.

    PubMed

    Martin, Valentina; Boido, Eduardo; Giorello, Facundo; Mas, Albert; Dellacassa, Eduardo; Carrau, Francisco

    2016-07-01

    In several grape varieties, the dominating aryl alkyl alcohols found are the volatile group of phenylpropanoid-related compounds, such as glycosylated benzyl and 2-phenylethyl alcohol, which contribute to wine with floral and fruity aromas after being hydrolysed during fermentation. Saccharomyces cerevisiae is largely recognized as the main agent in grape must fermentation, but yeast strains belonging to other genera, including Hanseniaspora, are known to predominate during the first stages of alcoholic fermentation. Although non-Saccharomyces yeast strains have a well-recognized genetic diversity, understanding of their impact on wine flavour richness is still emerging. In this study, 11 Hansenisapora vineae strains were used to ferment a chemically defined simil-grape fermentation medium, resembling the nutrient composition of grape juice but devoid of grape-derived secondary metabolites. GC-MS analysis was performed to determine volatile compounds in the produced wines. Our results showed that benzyl alcohol, benzyl acetate and 2-phenylethyl acetate are significantly synthesized by H. vineae strains. Levels of these compounds found in fermentations with 11 H. vineae different strains were one or two orders of magnitude higher than those measured in fermentations with a known S. cerevisiae wine strain. The implications for winemaking in response to the negative correlation of benzyl alcohol, benzyl acetate and 2-phenylethyl acetate production with yeast assimilable nitrogen concentrations are discussed. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  4. No oral-cavity-only discrimination of purely olfactory odorants.

    PubMed

    Stephenson, Dejaimenay; Halpern, Bruce P

    2009-02-01

    The purely olfactory odorants coumarin, octanoic acid, phenylethyl alcohol, and vanillin had been found to be consistently identified when presented retronasally but could not be identified when presented oral-cavity only (OCO). However, OCO discrimination of these odorants was not tested. Consequently, it remained possible that the oral cavity trigeminal system might provide sufficient information to differentiate these purely olfactory odorants. To evaluate this, 20 participants attempted to discriminate vapor-phase coumarin, octanoic acid, phenylethyl alcohol, and vanillin and, as a control, the trigeminal stimulus peppermint extract, from their glycerin solvent, all presented OCO. None of the purely olfactory odorants could be discriminated OCO, but, as expected, peppermint extract was consistently discriminated. This inability to discriminate clarifies and expands the previous report of lack of OCO identification of purely olfactory odorants. Taken together with prior data, these results suggest that the oral cavity trigeminal system is fully unresponsive to these odorants in vapor phase and that coumarin, octanoic acid, phenylethyl alcohol, and vanillin are indeed purely olfactory stimuli. The OCO discrimination of peppermint extract demonstrated that the absence of discrimination for the purely olfactory odorants was odorant dependent and confirmed that the oral cavity trigeminal system will provide differential response information to some vapor-phase stimuli.

  5. Raman spectroscopy, electronic microscopy and SPME-GC-MS to elucidate the mode of action of a new antimicrobial food packaging material.

    PubMed

    Clemente, Isabel; Aznar, Margarita; Salafranca, Jesús; Nerín, Cristina

    2017-02-01

    One critical challenge when developing a new antimicrobial packaging material is to demonstrate the mode of action of the antimicrobials incorporated into the packaging. For this task, several analytical techniques as well as microbiology are required. In this work, the antimicrobial properties of benzyl isothiocyanate, allyl isothiocyanate and essential oils of cinnamon and oregano against several moulds and bacteria have been evaluated. Benzyl isothiocyanate showed the highest antimicrobial activity and it was selected for developing the new active packaging material. Scanning electron microscopy and Raman spectroscopy were successfully used to demonstrate the mode of action of benzyl isothiocyanate on Escherichia coli. Bacteria exhibited external modifications such as oval shape and the presence of septum surface, but they did not show any disruption or membrane damage. To provide data on the in vitro action of benzyl isothiocyanate and the presence of inhibition halos, the transfer mechanism to the cells was assessed using solid-phase microextraction-gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Based on the transfer system, action mechanism and its stronger antimicrobial activity, benzyl isothiocyanate was incorporated to two kinds of antimicrobial labels. The labels were stable and active for 140 days against two mould producers of ochratoxin A; Penicillium verrucosum is more sensitive than Aspergillus ochraceus. Details about the analytical techniques and the results obtained are shown and discussed. Graphical Abstract Antimicrobial evaluation of pure compounds, incorporation in the packaging and study for mode of action on S. coli by Raman, SEM and SPME-GC-MS.

  6. Effect of storage, processing and cooking on glucosinolate content of Brassica vegetables.

    PubMed

    Song, Lijiang; Thornalley, Paul J

    2007-02-01

    Epidemiological studies have shown that consumption of Brassica vegetables decrease the risk of cancer. These associations are linked to dietary intake of glucosinolates and their metabolism to cancer preventive isothiocyanates. Bioavailability of glucosinolates and related isothiocyanates are influenced by storage and culinary processing of Brassica vegetables. In this work, the content of the 7 major glucosinolates in broccoli, Brussels sprouts, cauliflower and green cabbage and their stability under different storage and cooking conditions is examined. Glucosinolates and isothiocyanates were quantified by liquid chromatography with tandem mass spectrometric detection (LC-MS/MS). Isothiocyanates were detected with high sensitivity as the corresponding thiourea derivatives. Storage at ambient temperature and in a domestic refrigerator showed no significant difference and a minor loss (9-26%) of glucosinolate levels over 7 days. Vegetables shredded finely showed a marked decline of glucosinolate level with post-shredding dwell time - up to 75% over 6h. Glucosinolate losses were detected partly as isothiocyanates. Cooking by steaming, microwaving and stir-fry did not produce significant loss of glucosinolates whereas boiling showed significant losses by leaching into cooking water. Most of the loss of the glucosinolates (approximately 90%) was detected in the cooking water. Increased bioavailability of dietary isothiocyanates may be achieved by avoiding boiling of vegetables.

  7. Can crayfish take the heat? Procambarus clarkii show nociceptive behaviour to high temperature stimuli, but not low temperature or chemical stimuli

    PubMed Central

    Puri, Sakshi; Faulkes, Zen

    2015-01-01

    Nociceptors are sensory neurons that are tuned to tissue damage. In many species, nociceptors are often stimulated by noxious extreme temperatures and by chemical agonists that do not damage tissue (e.g., capsaicin and isothiocyanate). We test whether crustaceans have nociceptors by examining nociceptive behaviours and neurophysiological responses to extreme temperatures and potentially nocigenic chemicals. Crayfish (Procambarus clarkii) respond quickly and strongly to high temperatures, and neurons in the antenna show increased responses to transient high temperature stimuli. Crayfish showed no difference in behavioural response to low temperature stimuli. Crayfish also showed no significant changes in behaviour when stimulated with capsaicin or isothiocyanate compared to controls, and neurons in the antenna did not change their firing rate following application of capsaicin or isothiocyanate. Noxious high temperatures appear to be a potentially ecologically relevant noxious stimulus for crayfish that can be detected by sensory neurons, which may be specialized nociceptors. PMID:25819841

  8. The leaf volatile constituents of Isatis tinctoria by Solid-Phase Microextraction and Gas chromatography/Mass Spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Condurso, Cettina; Verzera, Antonella; Romeo, Vincenza; Ziino, Marisa; Trozzi, Alessandra; Ragusa, Salvatore

    2006-08-01

    The leaf volatile constituents of Isatis tinctoria L. (Brassicaceae) have been studied by Solid-Phase Microextraction and Gas chromatography/Mass Spectrometry (SPME/GC-MS). Seventy components were fully characterized by mass spectra, linear retention indices, and injection of standards; the average composition (ppm) as single components and classes of substances is reported. Aliphatic hydrocarbons, acids, alcohols, aldehydes and esters, aromatic aldehydes, esters and ethers, furans, isothiocyanates and thiocyanates, sulfurated compounds, nitriles, terpenes and sesquiterpenes were identified. Leaf volatiles in Isatis tinctoria L. were characterized by a high amount of isothiocyanates which accounted for about 40 % of the total volatile fraction. Isothiocyanates are important and characteristic flavour compounds in Brassica vegetables and the cancer chemo-protective attributes are recently responsible for their growing interest.

  9. Ligands of low electronegativity in the vsepr model: molecular pseudohalides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Glidewell, Christopher; Holden, H. Diane

    Equilibrium structures and force constants at linearity, for the skeletal bending mode δ(RNX) have been calculated in the MNDO approximation for 67 isocyanates, isothio-cyanates and azides, RNXY (XY = CO, CS or N 2) and the corresponding structures and force constants, δ(RCN), for 12 fulminates RCNO. Fulminates all have linear skeletons, but for RNXY the molecular skeleton is linear at atom X only if it is linear at N also ; otherwise the skeleton RNXY has a trans planar structure. Bending force constants are large and negative for all azides studied, negative for methyl and substituted methyl isocyanates and isothiocyanates and very small and positive for silyl and substituted silyl isothiocyanates: for silyl and substituted silyl isocyanales, the force constant is small and positive when the R group has effective C2v symmetry, but small and negative when the R group has only effective Cs symmetry.

  10. Comparative Study of the Volatile Components of Fresh and Fermented Flowers of Alnus sieboldiana (Betulaceae).

    PubMed

    Ab Ghani, Nurunajah; Ismail, Nor Hadiani; Asakawa, Yoshinori

    2016-02-01

    Analysis of the volatile components present in the fresh male and female flowers and young leaves shows that 2-phenylethanol is the major component in all these three organs, which play a significant role in the strong resinous aromatic odor. The male flowers contained styrene as a second major compound. The level of styrene does not affect the male flowers odor concentration. The level of β-phenylethyl cinnamate and trans-methyl cinnamate in the fermented male flowers decreased as the fermentation time increased. This was due to the Penicillium enzymatic action on the fermented male flowers.

  11. Synthesis, characterization and biological screening of sulfonamides derived form 2-phenylethylamine.

    PubMed

    Rehman, Aziz-ur; Afroz, Sumbel; Abbasi, Muhammad Athar; Tanveer, Wajeeha; Khan, Khalid Mohammed; Ashraf, Muhammad; Ahmad, Irshad; Afzal, Iftikhar; Ambreen, Nida

    2012-10-01

    In the present study, a series of N-substituted derivatives of 2-phenylethylamine has been synthesized. The reaction of 2-phenylethylamine (1) with benzene sulfonyl chloride (2) yielded N-(2-phenylethyl) benzenesulfonamide (3), which further on treatment with alkyl/acyl halides (4a-i) in the presence of sodium hydride furnished into N-substituted sulfonamides (5a-i). These derivatives were characterized by IR, (1)H-NMR and EI-MS and then screened against acetyl cholinesterase (AChE), butyryl cholinesterase (BChE) and lipoxygenase enzyme (LOX) and were found to be potent inhibitors of butyryl cholinesterase only.

  12. Chiral recognition by formation of paramagnetic diastereomeric complexes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scheffler, K.; Höfler, U.; Schuler, P.; Stegmann, H. B.

    The chiral 4-(α-hydroxy-benzyl)-2,6-di-tert. butyl-phenoxyl has been examined in its racemic form in toluene and carbontetrachloride. On adding of chiral auxiliaries (R)-resp. (S)-N,N-dimethyl-1-phenylethylamine or (S)-phenylethyl-amine two different couplings of the β-proton are recorded by ENDOR spectroscopy. The experimental results are interpreted by a ternary equilibrium between radical, solvent and auxiliary. A model for the suggested association processes is given and equilibrium constants and corresponding enthalpies are calculated.

  13. New Cerebroside and Nucleoside Derivatives from a Red Sea Strain of the Marine Cyanobacterium Moorea producens.

    PubMed

    Youssef, Diaa T A; Ibrahim, Sabrin R M; Shaala, Lamiaa A; Mohamed, Gamal A; Banjar, Zainy M

    2016-03-09

    In the course of our ongoing efforts to identify marine-derived bioactive compounds, the marine cyanobacterium Moorea producens was investigated. The organic extract of the Red Sea cyanobacterium afforded one new cerebroside, mooreaside A (1), two new nucleoside derivatives, 3-acetyl-2'-deoxyuridine (2) and 3-phenylethyl-2'-deoxyuridine (3), along with the previously reported compounds thymidine (4) and 2,3-dihydroxypropyl heptacosanoate (5). The structures of the compounds were determined by different spectroscopic studies (UV, IR, 1D, 2D NMR, and HRESIMS), as well as comparison with the literature data. Compounds 1-5 showed variable cytotoxic activity against three cancer cell lines.

  14. Natural zinniol derivatives from Alternaria tagetica. Isolation, synthesis, and structure-activity correlation.

    PubMed

    Gamboa-Angulo, M Marcela; Escalante-Erosa, Fabiola; García-Sosa, Karlina; Alejos-González, Fátima; Delgado-Lamas, Guillermo; Peña-Rodríguez, Luis M

    2002-02-27

    Two novel phytotoxins, 8-zinniol methyl ether (5) and 8-zinniol acetate (6), in addition to 6-(3',3'-dimethylallyloxy)-4-methoxy-5-methylphthalide (2), 5-(3',3'-dimethylallyloxy)-7-methoxy-6-methylphthalide (3), and the novel metabolites 8-zinniol 2-(phenyl)ethyl ether (4) and 7-zinniol acetate (7) have been identified as natural zinniol derivatives from the organic crude extract of Alternaria tagetica culture filtrates. Using zinniol as the starting material, phytotoxin 5 was synthesized, together with a number of synthetic intermediates (8-13). Both natural and synthetic zinniol derivatives were evaluated in the leaf-spot bioassay against marigold leaves (Tagetes erecta).

  15. Volatile components of ethanolic extract from broccolini leaves.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xiaoqin; Zhang, Bochao; Wang, Bingfang; Zhang, Xuewu

    2012-01-01

    Broccolini (Brassica oleracea Italica × Alboglabra) is a hybrid of broccoli and kai-lan, Chinese broccoli. To date, no study has been reported on the chemical composition of the volatile fractions of this raw material. In this study, the volatile constituents from the ethanolic extract of broccolini leaves were analysed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). Sixteen compounds were identified. The major components include 5-phenyl-undecane (11%), n-hexadecanoic acid (9.34%), octadecanoic acid (6.39%), 1,1,3-trimethyl-3-phenyl-indan (4.0%), 3-(2-phenylethyl)benzonitrile (3.48%) and phytol (3.37%).

  16. [Studies on the chemical constituents of the volatiles of Clerodendron bungei].

    PubMed

    Yu, Ai-nong

    2004-02-01

    To analyse chemical constituents of the volatiles of Clerodendron bungei. The volatiles of C. bungei were extracted through steam distillation, and then the constituents were separated by GC and identified by MS. 33 Compounds were identified. The principal chemical constituents of the volatiles of C. bungei are ethanol, acetone, 1-penten-3-ol,2-pentanol, (Z)-2-penten-1-ol, 3-furaldehyde, 3-hexen-1-ol, 4-hexen-1-ol, 1-hexanol, 1-octen-3-ol, 3-octanol, benzenemethanol, linal-ool oxide, trans-Linalool oxide, linalool,2,5-dimethylcyclohexanol, phenylethyl alcohol, etc.

  17. Synthesis of stereodefined piperidines from aziridines and their transformation into conformationally constrained amino acids, amino alcohols and 2,7-diazabicyclo[3.3.1]nonanes.

    PubMed

    Vervisch, Karel; D'hooghe, Matthias; Törnroos, Karl W; De Kimpe, Norbert

    2010-11-19

    2-(2-Cyano-2-phenylethyl)aziridines were converted into novel cis- and trans-2-chloromethyl-4-phenylpiperidine-4-carbonitriles via alkylation with 1-bromo-2-chloroethane followed by microwave-assisted 6-exo-tet cyclization and regiospecific ring opening. The latter piperidines were used as eligible substrates for the synthesis of stereodefined 2-chloromethyl-, 2-hydroxymethyl-, and 2-carboxymethyl-4-phenylpiperidine-4-carboxylic acids, 2-hydroxymethyl-4-phenylpiperidine-4-carbonitriles, 3-hydroxy-5-phenylazepane-5-carbonitriles, and 5-phenyl-2,7-diazabicyclo[3.3.1]nonanes.

  18. SciTech Connect

    Trott, Donna M.; LePage, Jane; Hebert, Vincent

    A regional air assessment was performed to characterize volatile natural isothiocyanate (NITC) compounds in air during soil incorporation of mustard cover crops in Washington State. Field air sampling and analytical methods were developed specific to three NITCs known to be present in air at appreciable concentrations during/after field incorporation. The maximum observed concentrations in air for the allyl, benzyl, and phenethyl isothiocyanates were respectively 188, 6.1, and 0.7 lg m-3 during mustard incorporation. Based on limited inhalation toxicity information, airborne NITC concentrations did not appear to pose an acute human inhalation exposure concern to field operators and bystanders.

  19. Structural studies of 4-aminoantipyrine derivatives

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cunha, Silvio; Oliveira, Shana M.; Rodrigues, Manoel T.; Bastos, Rodrigo M.; Ferrari, Jailton; de Oliveira, Cecília M. A.; Kato, Lucília; Napolitano, Hamilton B.; Vencato, Ivo; Lariucci, Carlito

    2005-10-01

    Reaction of 4-aminoantipyrine with acetylacetone, ethyl acetoacetate, benzoyl isothiocyanate, phenyl isothiocyanate, maleic anhydride and methoxymethylene Meldrum's acid afforded a series of new antipyrine derivatives. The antibacterial activity of the synthesized compounds against Micrococcus luteus ATCC 9341, Staphilococcus aureus ATCC 29737, and Escherichia coli ATCC 8739 was evaluated and the minimal inhibitory concentration determined. Modest activity was found only to the maleamic acid obtained from the reaction of 4-aminoantipyrine and maleic anhydride. 1H NMR investigation of this maleamic acid showed that it is slowly converted to the corresponding toxic maleimide. The structures of three derivatives were determined by X-ray diffraction analysis.

  20. Quorum sensing inhibitors from marine bacteria Oceanobacillus sp. XC22919.

    PubMed

    Chen, Xiaochun; Chen, Jianwei; Yan, Yinchun; Chen, Su; Xu, Xuewei; Zhang, Huawei; Wang, Hong

    2018-02-12

    In this study, three active compounds isolated from Oceanobacillus sp. XC22919 were identified as 2-methyl-N-(2'-phenylethyl) butyramide (1), 3-methyl-N-(2'-phenylethyl)-butyramide (2) and benzyl benzoate (3), and were first reported to exhibit the apparent quorum sensing inhibitory activities against C. violaceum 026 and P. aeruginosa. Compounds 1-3 inhibited violacein production of C. violaceum 026 by 10.5-55.7, 11.2-55.7, and 27.2%-95.7%, respectively, and inhibited pyocyanin production of P. aeruginosa by 1.7-50.8, 39.1-90.7, and 57.2%-98.7%, respectively. The azocasein-degrading proteolytic rates of P. aeruginosa were observed by 13.4-31.5, 13.4-28.8, and 11.3%-21.1%, respectively. With respect to elastase, the range of inhibition of activity of compounds 1-3 was 2.1-30.3, 4.2-18.2, and 8.9%-15.7%, respectively. Compounds 1 and 3 also showed a concentration-dependent attenuation in biofilm formation, with the maximum of 50.6% inhibition, and 37.7% inhibition at 100 μg/mL, respectively.

  1. Fentanyl-related designer drugs W-18 and W-15 lack appreciable opioid activity in vitro and in vivo.

    PubMed

    Huang, Xi-Ping; Che, Tao; Mangano, Thomas J; Le Rouzic, Valerie; Pan, Ying-Xian; Majumdar, Susruta; Cameron, Michael D; Baumann, Michael H; Pasternak, Gavril W; Roth, Bryan L

    2017-11-16

    W-18 (4-chloro-N-[1-[2-(4-nitrophenyl)ethyl]-2-piperidinylidene]-benzenesulfonamide) and W-15 (4-chloro-N-[1-(2-phenylethyl)-2-piperidinylidene]-benzenesulfonamide) represent two emerging drugs of abuse chemically related to the potent opioid agonist fentanyl (N-(1-(2-phenylethyl)-4-piperidinyl)-N-phenylpropanamide). Here, we describe the comprehensive pharmacological profiles of W-18 and W-15, as examination of their structural features predicted that they might lack opioid activity. We found W-18 and W-15 to be without detectible activity at μ, δ, κ, and nociception opioid receptors in a variety of assays. We also tested W-18 and W-15 for activity as allosteric modulators at opioid receptors and found them devoid of significant positive or negative allosteric modulatory activity. Comprehensive profiling at essentially all the druggable GPCRs in the human genome using the PRESTO-Tango platform revealed no significant activity. Weak activity at the sigma receptors and the peripheral benzodiazepine receptor was found for W-18 (Ki = 271 nM). W-18 showed no activity in either the radiant heat tail-flick or the writhing assays and also did not induce classical opioid behaviors. W-18 is extensively metabolized, but its metabolites also lack opioid activity. Thus, although W-18 and W-15 have been suggested to be potent opioid agonists, our results reveal no significant activity at these or other known targets for psychoactive drugs.

  2. A novel non-dairy beverage from durian pulp fermented with selected probiotics and yeast.

    PubMed

    Lu, Yuyun; Putra, Satya Dwi; Liu, Shao-Quan

    2018-01-16

    This study investigated the effects of sequential inoculation (Seq-I) of Bifidobacterium animalis subsp. lactis or Lactobacillus casei with yeast Williopsis saturnus on durian pulp fermentation. Seq-I of W. saturnus following B. animalis subsp. lactis did not bring about any significant differences compared to the B. animalis subsp. lactis monoculture due to the sharp early death of W. saturnus soon after inoculation. However, Seq-I of W. saturnus significantly enhanced the survival of L. casei and improved the utilization of fructose and glucose compared to L. casei monoculture. In addition, there were significant differences in the metabolism of organic acids especially for lactic acid and succinic acid. Furthermore, Seq-I produced significantly higher levels of volatile compounds including alcohols (ethanol and 2-phenylethyl alcohol) and acetate esters (2-phenylethyl acetate, isoamyl acetate and ethyl acetate), which would positively contribute to the flavour notes. Although the initial volatile sulphur compounds were reduced to trace levels after fermentation, but the durian odour still remained. This study suggests that the use of probiotics and W. saturnus to ferment durian pulp could act as a potential avenue to develop a novel non-dairy durian-based functional beverage to deliver probiotics. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Crystallographic and theoretical studies of an inclusion complex of β-cyclodextrin with fentanyl.

    PubMed

    Ogawa, Noriko; Nagase, Hiromasa; Loftsson, Thorsteinn; Endo, Tomohiro; Takahashi, Chisato; Kawashima, Yoshiaki; Ueda, Haruhisa; Yamamoto, Hiromitsu

    2017-10-15

    The crystal structure of an inclusion complex of β-cyclodextrin (β-CD) with fentanyl was determined by single crystal X-ray diffraction analysis. The crystal belongs to the triclinic space group P1 and the complex comprises one fentanyl, two β-CD, and several water molecules. β-CD and fentanyl form a host-guest inclusion complex at a ratio of 2:1 and the asymmetric unit of the complex contains two host molecules (β-CDs) in a head-to-head arrangement that form dimers through hydrogen bonds between the secondary hydroxyl groups of β-CD and one guest molecule. Fentanyl is totally contained within the β-CD cavity and the structure of the phenylethyl part of fentanyl inside the dimeric cavity of the complex is disordered. Furthermore, theoretical molecular conformational calculations were conducted to clarify the mobility of the guest molecule in the β-CD cavity using CONFLEX software. Crystal optimization and crystal energy calculations were also conducted. The results of the theoretical calculations confirmed that the conformation of disorder part 1, which was high in occupancy by crystal structure analysis, was more stable. The phenylethyl part of fentanyl existed in several stable conformations. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Nutrient limitation leads to penetrative growth into agar and affects aroma formation in Pichia fabianii, P. kudriavzevii and Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    PubMed

    van Rijswijck, Irma M H; Dijksterhuis, Jan; Wolkers-Rooijackers, Judith C M; Abee, Tjakko; Smid, Eddy J

    2015-01-01

    Among fermentative yeast species, Saccharomyces cerevisiae is most frequently used as a model organism, although other yeast species may have special features that make them interesting candidates to apply in food-fermentation processes. In this study, we used three yeast species isolated from fermented masau (Ziziphus mauritiana) fruit, S. cerevisiae 131, Pichia fabianii 65 and Pichia kudriavzevii 129, and determined the impact of nitrogen and/or glucose limitation on surface growth mode and the production of volatile organic compounds (VOCs). All three species displayed significant changes in growth mode in all nutrient-limited conditions, signified by the formation of metafilaments or pseudohyphae. The timing of the transition was found to be species-specific. Transition in growth mode is suggested to be linked to the production of certain fusel alcohols, such as phenylethyl alcohol, which serve as quorum-sensing molecules. Interestingly, we did not observe concomitant increased production of phenylethyl alcohol and filamentous growth. Notably, a broader range of esters was found only for the Pichia spp. grown on nitrogen-limited agar for 21 days compared to nutrient-rich agar, and when grown on glucose- and glucose- plus nitrogen-limited agar. Our data suggest that for the Pichia spp., the formation of esters may play an important role in the switch in growth mode upon nitrogen limitation. Further biological or ecological implications of ester formation are discussed. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  5. Volatile Ester Formation in Roses. Identification of an Acetyl-Coenzyme A. Geraniol/Citronellol Acetyltransferase in Developing Rose Petals1

    PubMed Central

    Shalit, Moshe; Guterman, Inna; Volpin, Hanne; Bar, Einat; Tamari, Tal; Menda, Naama; Adam, Zach; Zamir, Dani; Vainstein, Alexander; Weiss, David; Pichersky, Eran; Lewinsohn, Efraim

    2003-01-01

    The aroma of roses (Rosa hybrida) is due to more than 400 volatile compounds including terpenes, esters, and phenolic derivatives. 2-Phenylethyl acetate, cis-3-hexenyl acetate, geranyl acetate, and citronellyl acetate were identified as the main volatile esters emitted by the flowers of the scented rose var. “Fragrant Cloud.” Cell-free extracts of petals acetylated several alcohols, utilizing acetyl-coenzyme A, to produce the corresponding acetate esters. Screening for genes similar to known plant alcohol acetyltransferases in a rose expressed sequence tag database yielded a cDNA (RhAAT1) encoding a protein with high similarity to several members of the BAHD family of acyltransferases. This cDNA was functionally expressed in Escherichia coli, and its gene product displayed acetyl-coenzyme A:geraniol acetyltransferase enzymatic activity in vitro. The RhAAT1 protein accepted other alcohols such as citronellol and 1-octanol as substrates, but 2-phenylethyl alcohol and cis-3-hexen-1-ol were poor substrates, suggesting that additional acetyltransferases are present in rose petals. The RhAAT1 protein is a polypeptide of 458 amino acids, with a calculated molecular mass of 51.8 kD, pI of 5.45, and is active as a monomer. The RhAAT1 gene was expressed exclusively in floral tissue with maximum transcript levels occurring at stage 4 of flower development, where scent emission is at its peak. PMID:12692346

  6. [Determination of flavor compounds in foxtail millet wine by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry coupled with headspace solid phase microextraction].

    PubMed

    Liu, Jingke; Zhang, Aixia; Li, Shaohui; Zhao, Wei; Zhang, Yuzong; Xing, Guosheng

    2017-11-08

    To comprehensively understand flavor compounds and aroma characteristics of foxtail millet wine, extraction conditions were optimized with 85 μm polyacrylate (PA), 100 μm polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS), 75 μm carboxen (CAR)/PDMS and 50/30 μm divinylbenzene (DVB)/CAR/PDMS fibers. The flavor compounds in foxtail millet wine were investigated by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) coupled with headspace solid phase microextraction (HS-SPME), and the odor characteristics and intensity were analyzed by odor active values (OAVs). The samples of 8 mL were placed in headspace vials with 1.5 g NaCl, then the headspace vials were heated at 60℃ for 40 min. Using HS-SPME with different fibers, a total of 55 flavor compounds were identified from the samples, including alcohols, esters, benzene derivatives, hydrocarbons, acids, aldehydes, ketones, terpenes, phenols and heterocycle compounds. The main flavor compounds were alcohols compounds. According to their OAVs, phenylethyl alcohol, styrene, 1-methyl-naphthalene, 2-methyl-naphthalene, benzaldehyde, benzeneacetaldehyde and 2-methoxy-phenol were established to be odor-active compounds. Phenylethyl alcohol and benzeneacetaldehyde were the most prominent odor-active compounds. PA and PDMS fibers had good extraction effect for polar and nonpolar compounds, respectively. CAR/PDMS and DVB/CAR/PDMS provided a similar compounds profile for moderate polar compounds. This research comprehensively determined flavor compounds of foxtail millet wine, and provided theoretical basis for product development and quality control.

  7. Identification and biosynthesis of novel male specific esters in the wings of the tropical butterfly, Bicyclus martius sanaos.

    PubMed

    Wang, Hong-Lei; Brattström, Oskar; Brakefield, Paul M; Francke, Wittko; Löfstedt, Christer

    2014-06-01

    Representatives of the highly speciose tropical butterfly genus Bicyclus (Lepidoptera: Nymphalidae) are characterized by morphological differences in the male androconia, a set of scales and hair pencils located on the surface of the wings. These androconia are assumed to be associated with the release of courtship pheromones. In the present study, we report the identification and biosynthetic pathways of several novel esters from the wings of male B. martius sanaos. We found that the volatile compounds in this male butterfly were similar to female-produced moth sex pheromones. Components associated with the male wing androconial areas were identified as ethyl, isobutyl and 2-phenylethyl hexadecanoates and (11Z)-11-hexadecenoates, among which the latter are novel natural products. By topical application of deuterium-labelled fatty acid and amino acid precursors, we found these pheromone candidates to be produced in patches located on the forewings of the males. Deuterium labels from hexadecanoic acid were incorporated into (11Z)-11-hexadecenoic acid, providing experimental evidence of a Δ11-desaturase being active in butterflies. This unusual desaturase was found previously to be involved in the biosynthesis of female-produced sex pheromones of moths. In the male butterflies, both hexadecanoic acid and (11Z)-11-hexadecenoic acid were then enzymatically esterified to form the ethyl, isobutyl and 2-phenylethyl esters, incorporating ethanol, isobutanol, and 2-phenylethanol, derived from the corresponding amino acids L-alanine, L-valine, and L-phenylalanine.

  8. Chemical Compositions and Aroma Evaluation of Volatile Oil from the Industrial Cultivation Medium of Enterococcus faecalis.

    PubMed

    Ono, Toshirou; Usami, Atsushi; Nakaya, Satoshi; Maeba, Keisuke; Yonejima, Yasunori; Toyoda, Masanori; Ikeda, Atsushi; Miyazawa, Mitsuo

    2015-01-01

    Enterococcus faecalis is one of the major lactic acid bacterium (LAB) species colonizing the intestines of animals and humans. The characteristic odor of the volatile oils obtained from both the liquid medium after incubation (MAI) and liquid medium before incubation (MBI) in the cultivation process of E. faecalis was investigated to determine the utility of the liquid medium. In total, fifty-six and thirty-two compounds were detected in the volatile oils from the MAI (MAI oil) and MBI (MBI oil), respectively. The principle components of MAI oil were 2,5-dimethylpyrazine (19.3%), phenylacetaldehyde (19.3%), and phenylethyl alcohol (9.3%). The aroma extract dilution analysis (AEDA) method was performed using gas chromatography-olfactometry (GC-O). The total number of aroma-active compounds identified in the volatile oil from MBI and MAI was thirteen compounds; in particular, 5-methyl-2-furanmethanol, phenylacetaldehyde, and phenylethyl alcohol were the most primary aroma-active compounds in MAI oil. These results imply that the industrial cultivation medium after incubation of E. faecalis may be utilized as a source of volatile oils.

  9. Gas-chromatographic resolution of enantiomeric secondary alcohols. Stereoselective reductive metabolism of ketones in rabbit-liver cytosol.

    PubMed

    Gal, J; DeVito, D; Harper, T W

    1981-01-01

    Chiral secondary alcohols were treated with (S)-(-)-1-phenylethyl isocyanate. For each racemic alcohol, the resulting diastereomeric urethane derivatives were resolved on flexible fused-silica capillary GLC columns with retention times of 15 min or less. Derivatization of individual enantiomers showed that the urethane derivatives of (R)-(-)-2-octanol, (R)-(+)-1-phenylethyl alcohol, and (S)-(+)-2,2,2-trifluoro-1-phenylethanol are eluted before the corresponding diastereomers. The procedure is simple and rapid, and is suitable for the determination of the enantiomeric composition of chiral alcohols extracted from biological media. A series of aliphatic alcohols, aryl alkyl carbinols, and arylalkyl alkyl carbinols were resolved with the procedure, and the degree of resolution varied from good to excellent. Eight achiral ketones were incubated, individually, with rabbit-liver 90,000 g supernatant fractions, and the enantiomeric composition of the alcohol metabolites was determined with the GLC procedure. The reductions proceeded with high stereoselectivity to give alcohol products of 90% or greater enantiomeric purity. The reduction of 2-octanone and acetophenone gave predominant alcohols of (S)-configuration, in agreement with the Baumann-Prelog rule. The configuration of the predominant alcohols arising in the reduction of the remainder of the ketones could not be firmly established, but the evidence suggests that they are also of the (S)-configuration. Fluorine or methyl substitution in the ortho position of acetophenone produced an increase in the stereoselectivity, and the alcohol produced from ortho-methylacetophenone was enantiomerically greater than 99% pure.

  10. ORGANOPHOSPHORUS HYDROLASE-BASED ASSAY FOR ORGANOPHOSPHATE PESTICIDES

    EPA Science Inventory

    We report a rapid and versatile Organophosphorus hydrolase (OPH)-based method for measurement of organophosphates. This assay is based on a substrate-dependent change in pH at the local vicinity of the enzyme. The pH change is monitored using fluorescein isothiocyanate (FITC), ...

  11. Prostate Cancer Prevention by Sulforaphane, a Novel Dietary Histone Deacetylase Inhibitor

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-01-01

    found in cruciferous vegetables and is especially high in broccoli and broccoli sprouts. SFN is an effective chemoprotective agent in carcinogen-induced...following dietary consumption of broccoli sprouts. We have recruited the subjects and conducted the study. The samples are under the analysis...Sulforaphane (SFN) is an isothiocyanate derived from cruciferous vegetables that is particularly abundant in broccoli and broccoli sprouts. Epidemiological

  12. Feasibility Study of a Novel Diet-Based Intervention for Prostate Cancer

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-09-01

    broccoli and cabbage. Isothiocyanates induce expression of cytoprotective phase 2 enzymes in multiple prostate tumor cell lines (26, 31) promote...83-90. 29. Caruso AJ, Yegnasubramanian S, Lin X, Kesler TW, Nelson WG. Hot water extracts from broccoli sprouts trigger induction of carcinogen

  13. Feasibility Study of a Novel Diet-Based Intervention for Prostate Cancer

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-09-01

    Vegetables Cruciferous vegetables include broccoli , broccoli sprouts, cauliflower, radishes, cabbage, brussels sprouts, kale, collard greens, and... broccoli sprout extract containing isothiocyanates increases phase 2 enzyme activity in the prostate. [28] Interestingly, a recent study indicated...that rats fed a combination tomato and broccoli diet had greater suppression of prostate tumors than rats fed either tomato or broccoli alone

  14. Surface binding properties of aged and fresh (recently excreted) Toxoplasma gondii oocysts

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The surface properties of aged (stored for 10 years) and fresh (recently excreted) oocysts of Toxoplasma gondii were investigated using monoclonal antibody (mAb) and lectin-binding assays. Fresh oocysts bound a wall-specific mAb labeled with fluorescein isothiocyanate while aged oocysts did not. In ...

  15. Sulforaphane plays common and different roles in tumorigenic and nontumorigenic colon cell growth

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Sulforaphane (SFN) is a naturally occurring member of the isothiocyanate family of chemopreventive agents and the induction of cell cycle arrest and apoptosis is a key mechanism by which SFN exerts its colon cancer prevention. However, little is known about the differential effects of SFN on colon c...

  16. Reactive Astrocytes: Phenotypic and Functional Characteristics and Astrocytes as Neural Stem Cells

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-01-01

    of sulforaphane , an isothiocyanate, attenuated AQP4 loss in the injury core and further increased AQP4 levels in the penumbra region compared with...glutamate transporters in traumatic brain injury. Neurochem Int 48:394-403. Zhao J, Moore AN, Clifton GL, Dash PK. 2005. Sulforaphane enhances

  17. Prolonged sulforaphane treatment activates survival signaling in nontumorigenic NCM460 colon cells but apoptotic signaling in tumorigenic HCT116 colon cells

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Sulforaphane (SFN) is a naturally occurring member of the isothiocyanate family of chemopreventive agents and the induction of cell cycle arrest and apoptosis is a key mechanism by which SFN exerts its colon cancer prevention. However, little is known about the differential effects of SFN on colon c...

  18. Prolonged Sulforaphane Treatment Activates Extracellular-Regulated Kinase 1/2 Signaling in Nontumorigenic Colon Cells but not Colon Cancer Cells

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Sulforaphane (SFN) is a naturally occurring member of the isothiocyanate family of chemopreventive agents and the induction of cell cycle arrest and apoptosis is a key mechanism by which SFN exerts its colon cancer prevention. However, little is known about the differential effects of SFN on colon c...

  19. Antimicrobial edible coatings and films from micro-emulsions and their food applications

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    This study focused on the use of antimicrobial edible coatings and films from micro-emulsions to reduce populations of foodborne pathogens in foods. Corn-Bio-fiber gum (C-BFG) was used as an emulsifier with chitosan. Allyl isothiocyanate (AIT) and lauric arginate ester (LAE) served as antimicrobials...

  20. Molecular Docking of Potential Inhibitors of Broccoli Myrosinase.

    PubMed

    Román, J; Castillo, A; Mahn, A

    2018-05-30

    Glucosinolates are secondary metabolites occurring in Brassicaceae plants whose hydrolysis may yield isothiocyanates, widely recognized as health-promoting compounds. Myrosinase catalyzes this conversion. The chemical mechanism involves an unstable intermediary (thiohydroxamate- O -sulfonate) that spontaneously decomposes into isothiocyanates or other non-bioactive compounds depending on pH and cofactors. At acidic pH, non-bioactive compounds such as nitriles and thiocyanates are formed, while at neutral pH isothiocyanates are obtained. Broccoli myrosinase has been poorly studied so far. Recently, its amino acidic sequence was elucidated, and a structural model was built. The aim of this work was to study the molecular interaction of broccoli myrosinase with different ligands at acidic pH to propose possible inhibitors that prevent formation of undesirable compounds at acidic pH, and that at neutral pH dissociate from the enzyme, allowing formation of isothiocyanates. The interaction between broccoli myrosinase and 40 ligands was studied by molecular docking simulations. Both the enzyme and each inhibitor were set at pH 3.0. Amygdaline and arbutin showed the highest affinity to broccoli myrosinase in this condition. The residues that stabilize the complexes agree with those that stabilize the substrate (Gln207, Glu429, Tyr352, and Ser433). Accordingly, amygdaline and arbutin would perform as competitive inhibitors of myrosinase at pH 3.0.

  1. Fumigant distribution in forest nursery soil under water seal and plastic film after application of dazomet, metam-sodium and chloropicrin

    Treesearch

    Dong Wang; Stephen W. Fraedrich; Jennifer Juzwik; Kurt Spokas; Yi Zhang; William C. Koskinen

    2006-01-01

    Adequate concentration, exposure time and distribution uniformity of activated fumigant gases are prerequisites for successful soil fumigation. Field experiments were conducted to evaluate gas phase distributions of methyl isothiocyanate (MITC) and chloropicrin (CP) in two forest-tree nurseries. Concentrations of MITC and CP in soil air were measured from replicated...

  2. Fumigant distribution in forest nursery soils

    Treesearch

    Dong Wang; Stephen W. Fraedrich; Jennifer Juzwik; Kurt Spokas; Yi Zhang; William C. Koskinen

    2006-01-01

    Adequate concentration, exposure time and distribution uniformity of activated fumigant gases are prerequisites for successful soil fumigation. Field experiments were conducted to evaluate gas phase distributions of methyl isothiocyanate (MITC) and chloropicrin (CP) in two forest-tree nurseries. Concentrations of MITC and CP in soil air were measured from replicated...

  3. Evaluation of changes in serum chemistry in association with feed withdrawal or high dose oral gavage with Dextran Sodium Sulfate (DSS) induced gut leakage in broiler chickens

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Dextran sodium sulfate (DSS) has been shown to be effective at inducing enteric inflammation in broiler chickens, resulting in increased leakage of orally administered fluorescein isothiocyanate dextran to circulation. In a previous study, two doses of DSS (0.45g/dose) administered as oral gavage re...

  4. FITC-modified PPy nanotubes embedded in nanoporous AAO membrane can detect trace PCB20 via fluorescence ratiometric measurement.

    PubMed

    Wang, Meiling; Meng, Guowen; Huang, Qing; Xu, Qiaoling; Chu, Zhaoqin; Zhu, Chuhong

    2011-04-07

    A highly sensitive and selective fluorescence ratiometric sensor membrane for 2,3,3'-trichlorobiphenyl has been achieved, via depositing polypyrrole nanotubes (PPyNTs, the fluorescence indicator) in nano-porous anodic aluminium oxide (NPAAO) template and subsequently immobilizing fluorescein isothiocyanate (as an internal reference) onto the inner walls of the PPyNTs embedded in the NPAAO.

  5. Antibacterial poly(lactic acid) (PLA) films grafting electrospun PLA/Ally isothioscyanate (AITC) fibers for food packaging

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Poly(lactic acid) (PLA) fibers of submicron sizes encapsulating allyl isothiocyanate (AITC) (PfA) were made and electrospun onto the surfaces of PLA films (PfA-g-film). SEM examination confirmed that the fibers were grafted to the PLA film after the (PfA-g-film) underwent air blowing and water washi...

  6. Imaging Prostate Cancer Microenvironment by Collagen Hybridization

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-10-01

    be able to strongly chelate the In-111 in vivo over the relatively long 96 hour uptake period. Next, a p-benzyl-isothiocyanate bridged DOTA conjugate...portion of both DTPA and DOTA -chelated radioindium complex, which is also suggested by the radio TLC data. 7    Labeling with radioiodine, however

  7. Nutrition Frontiers - Winter 2018 | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Cancer.gov

    Dear Colleague, The winter issue of Nutrition Frontiers showcases the chemopreventive activity of sulforaphane, how a high fat, high cholesterol diet may impact hepatocellular carcinoma, and p53 activation from benzyl isothiocyanate. Meet our spotlight investigator, Dr. John Groopman, and his research on detoxication of air pollutants with a broccoli supplement. Learn about

  8. Identifying rates of meadowfoam (Limnanthes alba) seed meal needed for suppression of Meloidogyne hapla and Pythium irregulare in soil

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Meadowfoam (Limnanthes alba) is a commercial oilseed crop grown in Oregon. After extracting oil from seed, the remaining seed meal is rich in the secondary plant metabolite glucolimnanthin, which can be converted into pesticidal compounds such as 3-methoxybenzyl isothiocyanate (ITC) and 3-methoxyphe...

  9. Factors affecting emission of AITC and subsequent disease control efficacy of Brassica juncea seed meal soil amendment

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Soil physical conditions demonstrably affected allyl isothiocyanate (AITC) emitted from Brassica juncea cv Pacific Gold seed meal (SM) amended soil. The AITC concentration detected increased with an increase in temperature from 10 oC to 30 oC. AITC concentration also increased with an increase in so...

  10. Particle size affects Brassica seed meal-induced pathogen suppression of Rhizoctonia solani AG-5

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    R. solani AG-5 is a component of the pathogen complex that incites apple replant disease, and is suppressed via multiple mechanisms in response to B. juncea seed meal (SM) amendment. Allyl isothiocyanate (AITC) functions in suppression of this pathogen during the initial 24 h period post-seed meal a...

  11. Glucocorticoid Regulation of Rat Renal Sodium Potassium Adenosine Triphosphatase

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1990-03-29

    sequences; restriction enzymes fluorescein isothiocyanate glomerular filtration rate Horseradish Peroxidase immunoglobulin G kllodalton Magnesium...studies were conducted, in this project , to determine whether the observed changes in NaK-ATPase activity occurred after, and possibly as the result of...excitable tissue required for nerve impulse transmission and 6 muscle contraction (Skou, 1957), the functioning of hepatic amino acid and bile acid

  12. Regulation of microRNA using promising dietary phytochemicals: Possible preventive and treatment option of malignant mesothelioma.

    PubMed

    Sayeed, Md Abu; Bracci, Massimo; Lucarini, Guendalina; Lazzarini, Raffaella; Di Primio, Roberto; Santarelli, Lory

    2017-10-01

    Malignant mesothelioma (MM) is a very aggressive, lethal cancer, and its incidence is increasing worldwide. Development of multi-drug resistance, therapy related side-effects, and disease recurrence after therapy are the major problems for the successful treatment of MM. Emerging evidence indicates that dietary phytochemicals can exert anti-cancer activities by regulating microRNA expression. Until now, only one dietary phytochemical (ursolic acid) has been reported to have MM microRNA regulatory ability. A large number of dietary phytochemicals still remain to be tested. In this paper, we have introduced some dietary phytochemicals (curcumin, epigallocatechin gallate, quercetin, genistein, pterostilbene, resveratrol, capsaicin, ellagic acid, benzyl isothiocyanate, phenethyl isothiocyanate, sulforaphane, indole-3-carbinol, 3,3'-diindolylmethane, diallyl disulphide, betulinic acid, and oleanolic acid) which have shown microRNA regulatory activities in various cancers and could regulate MM microRNAs. In addition to microRNA regulatory activities, curcumin, epigallocatechin gallate, quercetin, genistein, resveratrol, phenethyl isothiocyanate, and sulforaphane have anti-mesothelioma potentials, and pterostilbene, capsaicin, ellagic acid, benzyl isothiocyanate, indole-3-carbinol, 3,3'-diindolylmethane, diallyl disulphide, betulinic acid, and oleanolic acid have potentials to inhibit cancer by regulating the expression of various genes which are also known to be aberrant in MM. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  13. BAG3 protects bovine papillomavirus type 1-transformed equine fibroblasts against pro-death signals.

    PubMed

    Cotugno, Roberta; Gallotta, Dario; d'Avenia, Morena; Corteggio, Annunziata; Altamura, Gennaro; Roperto, Franco; Belisario, Maria Antonietta; Borzacchiello, Giuseppe

    2013-07-22

    In human cancer cells, BAG3 protein is known to sustain cell survival. Here, for the first time, we demonstrate the expression of BAG3 protein both in equine sarcoids in vivo and in EqS04b cells, a sarcoid-derived fully transformed cell line harbouring bovine papilloma virus (BPV)-1 genome. Evidence of a possible involvement of BAG3 in equine sarcoid carcinogenesis was obtained by immunohistochemistry analysis of tumour samples. We found that most tumour samples stained positive for BAG3, even though to a different grade, while normal dermal fibroblasts from healthy horses displayed very weak staining pattern for BAG3 expression. By siRNA technology, we demonstrate in EqS04b the role of BAG3 in counteracting basal as well as chemical-triggered pro-death signals. BAG3 down-modulation was indeed shown to promote cell death and cell cycle arrest in G0/G1. In addition, we found that BAG3 silencing sensitized EqS04b cells to phenethylisothiocyanate (PEITC), a promising cancer chemopreventive/chemotherapeutic agent present in edible cruciferous vegetables. Notably, such a pro-survival role of BAG3 was less marked in E. Derm cells, an equine BPV-negative fibroblast cell line taken as a normal counterpart. Altogether our findings might suggest a mutual cooperation between BAG3 and viral oncoproteins to sustain cell survival.

  14. BAG3 protects Bovine Papillomavirus type 1-transformed equine fibroblasts against pro-death signals

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    In human cancer cells, BAG3 protein is known to sustain cell survival. Here, for the first time, we demonstrate the expression of BAG3 protein both in equine sarcoids in vivo and in EqS04b cells, a sarcoid-derived fully transformed cell line harbouring bovine papilloma virus (BPV)-1 genome. Evidence of a possible involvement of BAG3 in equine sarcoid carcinogenesis was obtained by immunohistochemistry analysis of tumour samples. We found that most tumour samples stained positive for BAG3, even though to a different grade, while normal dermal fibroblasts from healthy horses displayed very weak staining pattern for BAG3 expression. By siRNA technology, we demonstrate in EqS04b the role of BAG3 in counteracting basal as well as chemical-triggered pro-death signals. BAG3 down-modulation was indeed shown to promote cell death and cell cycle arrest in G0/G1. In addition, we found that BAG3 silencing sensitized EqS04b cells to phenethylisothiocyanate (PEITC), a promising cancer chemopreventive/chemotherapeutic agent present in edible cruciferous vegetables. Notably, such a pro-survival role of BAG3 was less marked in E. Derm cells, an equine BPV-negative fibroblast cell line taken as a normal counterpart. Altogether our findings might suggest a mutual cooperation between BAG3 and viral oncoproteins to sustain cell survival. PMID:23876161

  15. Spectral and thermal studies with anti-fungal aspects of some organotin(IV) complexes with nitrogen and sulphur donor ligands derived from 2-phenylethylamine.

    PubMed

    Singh, Rajeev; Kaushik, N K

    2008-11-15

    Some complexes of 2-phenylethyl dithiocarbamate, thiohydrazides and thiodiamines with dibenzyltin(IV) chloride, tribenzyltin(IV) chloride and di(para-chlorobenzyl)tin(IV) dichloride have been synthesized and investigated in 1:2 and 1:1 molar ratio. The dithiocarbamate ligand act as monoanionic bidentate and thiohydrazide, thiodiamines act as neutral bidentate ligand. The synthesized complexes have been characterized by elemental analysis and molecular weight determination studies and their bonding pattern suggested on the basis of electronic, infrared, 1H and 13C NMR spectroscopy. Using thermogravimetric (TG) and differential thermal analysis (DTA) various thermodynamic and kinetic parameters viz. reaction order (n), apparent activation energy (Ea), apparent activation entropy (S#) and heat of reaction (DeltaH) have been calculated and correlated with the structural aspects for solid-state decomposition of complexes. The ligands and their tin complexes have also been screened for their fungitoxicity activity against Rhizoctonia solanii and Sclerotium rolfsii and their ED50 values calculated.

  16. Evaluation of the volatile profile of Tuber liyuanum by HS-SPME with GC-MS.

    PubMed

    Liu, Changjiao; Li, Yu

    2017-04-01

    The volatile components of Tuber liyuanum were determined by HS-SPME with GC-MS for the first time. The effects of different fibre coating, extraction time, extraction temperature and sample amount were studied to get optimal extraction conditions. The optimal conditions were SPME fibre of Carboxen/PDMS, extraction time of 40 min, extraction temperature of 80 °C, sample amount of 2 g. Under these conditions 57 compounds in volatile of T. liyuanum were detected with a resemblance percentage above 80%. Aldehydes and aromatics were the main chemical families identified. The contribution of 3-Octanone(11.67%), phenylethyl alcohol (10.60%), isopentana (9.29%) and methylbutana (8.06%) for the total volatile profile were more significant in T. liyuanum than other compounds.

  17. Characterization of aroma compounds in apple cider using solvent-assisted flavor evaporation and headspace solid-phase microextraction.

    PubMed

    Xu, Yan; Fan, Wenlai; Qian, Michael C

    2007-04-18

    The aroma-active compounds in two apple ciders were identified using gas chromatography-olfactometry (GC-O) and GC-mass spectrometry (MS) techniques. The volatile compounds were extracted using solvent-assisted flavor evaporation (SAFE) and headspace solid-phase microextraction (HS-SPME). On the basis of odor intensity, the most important aroma compounds in the two apple cider samples were 2-phenylethanol, butanoic acid, octanoic acid, 2-methylbutanoic acid, 2-phenylethyl acetate, ethyl 2-methylbutanoate, ethyl butanoate, ethyl hexanoate, 4-ethylguaiacol, eugenol, and 4-vinylphenol. Sulfur-containing compounds, terpene derivatives, and lactones were also detected in ciders. Although most of the aroma compounds were common in both ciders, the aroma intensities were different. Comparison of extraction techniques showed that the SAFE technique had a higher recovery for acids and hydroxy-containing compounds, whereas the HS-SPME technique had a higher recovery for esters and highly volatile compounds.

  18. Development of dynamic kinetic resolution on large scale for (±)-1-phenylethylamine.

    PubMed

    Thalén, Lisa K; Bäckvall, Jan-E

    2010-09-13

    Candida antarctica lipase B (CALB) and racemization catalyst 4 were combined in the dynamic kinetic resolution (DKR) of (±)-1-phenylethylamine (1). Several reaction parameters have been investigated to modify the method for application on multigram scale. A comparison of isopropyl acetate and alkyl methoxyacetates as acyl donors was carried out. It was found that lower catalyst loadings could be used to obtain (R)-2-methoxy-N-(1-phenylethyl)acetamide (3) in good yield and high ee when alkyl methoxyacetates were used as acyl donors compared to when isopropyl acetate was used as the acyl donor. The catalyst loading could be decreased to 1.25 mol % Ru-catalyst 4 and 10 mg CALB per mmol 1 when alkyl methoxyacetates were used as the acyl donor.

  19. Steric control of the asymmetric synthesis of N-substituted 2-methyl-4-piperidones

    SciTech Connect

    Grishina, G.V.; Potapov, V.M.; Abdulganeeva, S.A.

    Transmission of the iodomethylate of 1,2-dimethyl-4-piperidone by (S)-sec-butylamine gives 1-(S-sec-butyl)-2S-methyl-4-piperidone in 33% optical yield while transamination by (S)-1-methyl-2-phenylethylamine gives a 1:1 diastereomeric mixture of 1-(1-methyl-2-phenylethyl)-2-methyl-4-piperidone. The decrease in the optical yield is related to the facile opening of the piperidone ring at the C-N bond with subsequent recyclization. The /sup 13/C NMR data indicate that all the diastereomers of the 4-piperidones obtained are in the chain conformation with predominantly equatorial orientation of the methyl group at C/sub (2)/. The chiral optical properties were studied and the absolution configurations of the 4-piperidones obtained were established.

  20. Spectral and thermal studies with anti-fungal aspects of some organotin(IV) complexes with nitrogen and sulphur donor ligands derived from 2-phenylethylamine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singh, Rajeev; Kaushik, N. K.

    2008-11-01

    Some complexes of 2-phenylethyl dithiocarbamate, thiohydrazides and thiodiamines with dibenzyltin(IV) chloride, tribenzyltin(IV) chloride and di( para-chlorobenzyl)tin(IV) dichloride have been synthesized and investigated in 1:2 and 1:1 molar ratio. The dithiocarbamate ligand act as monoanionic bidentate and thiohydrazide, thiodiamines act as neutral bidentate ligand. The synthesized complexes have been characterized by elemental analysis and molecular weight determination studies and their bonding pattern suggested on the basis of electronic, infrared, 1H and 13C NMR spectroscopy. Using thermogravimetric (TG) and differential thermal analysis (DTA) various thermodynamic and kinetic parameters viz. reaction order ( n), apparent activation energy ( Ea), apparent activation entropy ( S#) and heat of reaction (Δ H) have been calculated and correlated with the structural aspects for solid-state decomposition of complexes. The ligands and their tin complexes have also been screened for their fungitoxicity activity against Rhizoctonia solanii and Sclerotium rolfsii and their ED 50 values calculated.

  1. Chemosensory characteristics of regional Vidal icewines from China and Canada.

    PubMed

    Huang, Ling; Ma, Yue; Tian, Xin; Li, Ji-Ming; Li, Lan-Xiao; Tang, Ke; Xu, Yan

    2018-09-30

    This work aimed to compare the flavor characteristics of Vidal icewines from China and Canada and to establish relationships between sensory descriptors and chemical composition. Descriptive analysis was performed with a trained panel to obtain the sensory profiles. Thirty important aroma-active compounds were quantified by four different methodologies. Partial least squares discriminant analysis was used to identify candidate compounds, which were unique to certain sensory descriptors. The sensory profiles of icewines from China were characterized by nut and honey aromas, while icewines from Canada expressed caramel and rose aromas. Nut and honey aromas had a close correlation with 1-hexanol, isoamyl acetate, phenethyl acetate and phenylethyl alcohol. Caramel aroma was correlated with ethyl esters and lactones and rose aroma was correlated with terpenes. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Volatile flavour profile of reduced alcohol wines fermented with the non-conventional yeast species Metschnikowia pulcherrima and Saccharomyces uvarum.

    PubMed

    Varela, C; Sengler, F; Solomon, M; Curtin, C

    2016-10-15

    Production of quality wines with decreased alcohol concentration continues to be one of the major challenges facing wine producers. Therefore, there is considerable interest in the isolation or generation of wine yeasts less efficient at transforming grape sugars into ethanol. We recently demonstrated that Metschnikowia pulcherrima AWRI1149 and Saccharomyces uvarum AWRI2846 were both able to produce reduced alcohol wine when used in sequential inoculation with Saccharomyces cerevisiae. This effect is additive when both strains are co-inoculated in grape must. Here we describe the volatile flavour profile of Chardonnay and Shiraz wines produced with these two strains. Wines fermented with M. pulcherrima showed concentrations of ethyl acetate likely to affect negatively wine aroma. Wines fermented with S. uvarum and with a combination of M. pulcherrima and S. uvarum were characterised by increased concentrations of 2-phenyl ethanol and 2-phenylethyl acetate, both associated with positive sensory attributes. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. A Hydrazone-Based Covalent Organic Framework as an Efficient and Reusable Photocatalyst for the Cross-Dehydrogenative Coupling Reaction of N-Aryltetrahydroisoquinolines.

    PubMed

    Liu, Wanting; Su, Qing; Ju, Pengyao; Guo, Bixuan; Zhou, Hui; Li, Guanghua; Wu, Qiaolin

    2017-02-22

    A hydrazone-based covalent organic framework (COF) was synthesized by condensation of 2,5-dimethoxyterephthalohydrazide with 1,3,5-triformylbenzene under solvothermal conditions. The COF material exhibits excellent porosity with a BET surface area of up to 1501 m 2  g -1 , high crystallinity, and good thermal and chemical stability. Moreover, it showed efficient photocatalytic activity towards cross-dehydrogenative coupling (CDC) reactions between tetrahydroisoquinolines and nucleophiles such as nitromethane, acetone, and phenylethyl ketone. The metal-free catalytic system also offers attractive advantages including simplicity of operation, wide substrate adaptability, ambient reaction conditions, and robust recycling capability of the catalyst, thus providing a promising platform for highly efficient and reusable photocatalysts. © 2017 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  4. Controlled Sol-Gel Transitions of a Thermoresponsive Polymer in a Photoswitchable Azobenzene Ionic Liquid as a Molecular Trigger.

    PubMed

    Wang, Caihong; Hashimoto, Kei; Tamate, Ryota; Kokubo, Hisashi; Watanabe, Masayoshi

    2018-01-02

    Producing ionic liquids (ILs) that function as molecular trigger for macroscopic change is a challenging issue. Photoisomerization of an azobenzene IL at the molecular level evokes a macroscopic response (light-controlled mechanical sol-gel transitions) for ABA triblock copolymer solutions. The A endblocks, poly(2-phenylethyl methacrylate), show a lower critical solution temperature in the IL mixture containing azobenzene, while the B midblock, poly(methyl methacrylate), is compatible with the mixture. In a concentrated polymer solution, different gelation temperatures were observed in it under dark and UV conditions. Light-controlled sol-gel transitions were achieved by a photoresponsive solubility change of the A endblocks upon photoisomerization of the azobenzene IL. Therefore, an azobenzene IL as a molecular switch can tune the self-assembly of a thermoresponsive polymer, leading to macroscopic light-controlled sol-gel transitions. © 2018 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  5. Rational selection of non-Saccharomyces wine yeasts for mixed starters based on ester formation and enological traits.

    PubMed

    Viana, Fernando; Gil, José V; Genovés, Salvador; Vallés, Salvador; Manzanares, Paloma

    2008-09-01

    Thirty-eight yeast strains belonging to the genera Candida, Hanseniaspora, Pichia, Torulaspora and Zygosaccharomyces were screened for ester formation on synthetic microbiological medium. The genera Hanseniaspora and Pichia stood out as the best acetate ester producers. Based on the ester profile Hanseniaspora guilliermondii 11027 and 11102, Hanseniaspora osmophila 1471 and Pichia membranifaciens 10113 and 10550 were selected for further characterization of enological traits. When growing on must H. osmophila 1471, which displayed a glucophilic nature and was able to consume more than 90% of initial must sugars, produced levels of acetic acid, medium chain fatty acids and ethyl acetate, within the ranges described for wine. On the other hand, it was found to be a strong producer of 2-phenylethyl acetate. Our data suggest that H. osmophila 1471 is a good candidate for mixed starters, although the possible interactions with S. cerevisiae deserve further research.

  6. 2.2 Å resolution cryo-EM structure of β-galactosidase in complex with a cell-permeant inhibitor.

    PubMed

    Bartesaghi, Alberto; Merk, Alan; Banerjee, Soojay; Matthies, Doreen; Wu, Xiongwu; Milne, Jacqueline L S; Subramaniam, Sriram

    2015-06-05

    Cryo-electron microscopy (cryo-EM) is rapidly emerging as a powerful tool for protein structure determination at high resolution. Here we report the structure of a complex between Escherichia coli β-galactosidase and the cell-permeant inhibitor phenylethyl β-D-thiogalactopyranoside (PETG), determined by cryo-EM at an average resolution of ~2.2 angstroms (Å). Besides the PETG ligand, we identified densities in the map for ~800 water molecules and for magnesium and sodium ions. Although it is likely that continued advances in detector technology may further enhance resolution, our findings demonstrate that preparation of specimens of adequate quality and intrinsic protein flexibility, rather than imaging or image-processing technologies, now represent the major bottlenecks to routinely achieving resolutions close to 2 Å using single-particle cryo-EM. Copyright © 2015, American Association for the Advancement of Science.

  7. Polyimides Derived from Novel Asymmetric Benzophenone Dianhydrides

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chuang, Chun-Hua (Inventor)

    2015-01-01

    This invention relates to the composition and processes for preparing thermoset polyimides derived from an asymmetric dianhydride, namely 2,3,3',4'-benzophenone dianhydride (a-BTDA) with at least one diamine, and a monofunctional terminal endcaps. The monofunctional terminating groups include 4-phenylethynylphthalic anhydride ester-acid derivatives, phenylethyl trimellitic anhydride (PETA) and its ester derivatives as well as 3-phenylethynylaniline. The process of polyimide composite comprises impregnating monomer reactants of dianhydride or its ester-acid derivatives, diamine and with monofunctional reactive endcaps into glass, carbon, quartz or synthetic fibers and fabrics, and then stack up into laminates and subsequently heated to between 150-375.degree. C. either at atmosphere or under pressure to promote the curing and crosslinking of the reactive endcaps to form a network of thermoset polyimides.

  8. Floral scent compounds of Amazonian Annonaceae species pollinated by small beetles and thrips.

    PubMed

    Jürgens, A; Webber, A C; Gottsberger, G

    2000-11-01

    Chemical analysis (GC-MS) yielded a total of 58 volatile compounds in the floral scents of six species of Annonaceae distributed in four genera (Xylopia, Anaxagorea, Duguetia, and Rollinia), Xylopia aromatica is pollinated principally by Thysanoptera and secondarily by small beetles (Nitidulidae and Staphylinidae), whereas the five other species were pollinated by Nitidulidae and Staphylinidae only. Although the six Annonaceae species attract a similar array of pollinator groups, the major constituents of their floral scents are of different biochemical origin. The fragrances of flowers of Anaxagorea brevipes and Anaxagorea dolichocarpa were dominated by esters of aliphatic acids (ethyl 2-methylbutanoate, ethyl 3-methylbutanoate), which were not detected in the other species. Monoterpenes (limonene, p-cymene, alpha-pinene) were the main scent compounds of Duguetia asterotricha, and naphthalene prevailed in the scent of Rollinia insignis flowers. The odors of X. aromatica and Xylopia benthamii flowers were dominated by high amounts of benzenoids (methylbenzoate, 2-phenylethyl alcohol).

  9. Identification of aroma-active volatiles in banana Terra spirit using multidimensional gas chromatography with simultaneous mass spectrometry and olfactometry detection.

    PubMed

    Capobiango, Michely; Mastello, Raíssa Bittar; Chin, Sung-Tong; Oliveira, Evelyn de Souza; Cardeal, Zenilda de Lourdes; Marriott, Philip John

    2015-04-03

    Fruit spirits have been produced and consumed throughout the world for centuries. However, the aroma composition of banana spirits is still poorly characterised. We have investigated the aroma-impact compounds of the banana Terra spirit for the first time, using multidimensional gas chromatography (MDGC and GC × GC) in a multi-hyphenated system - i.e., coupled to flame ionisation detection (FID), mass spectrometry (MS), and olfactometry (O). Solid-phase microextraction (SPME) was used to isolate the headspace aroma compounds of the banana spirit. The detection frequency (DF) technique was applied and aroma regions, detected in the first column separation at >60% Nasal Impact Frequency (NIF), were screened as target potent odour regions in the sample. Using a polar/non-polar phase column set, the potent odour regions were further subjected to MDGC separation with simultaneous O and MS detection for correlation of the aroma perception with MS data for individual resolved aroma-impact compounds. GC-O analysis enabled 18 aroma-impact regions to be located as providing volatiles of interest for further study; for example, those comprising perceptions of flower, whisky, green, amongst others. Compounds were tentatively identified through MS data matching and retention indices in both first and second dimensions. The principal volatile compounds identified in this work, which are responsible for the characteristic aroma of the banana spirit, are 3-methylbutan-1-ol, 3-methylbutan-1-ol acetate, 2-phenylethyl acetate and phenylethyl alcohol. This is the first such study to reveal the major aroma compounds that contribute to banana spirit aroma. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Cloning of β-Primeverosidase from Tea Leaves, a Key Enzyme in Tea Aroma Formation1

    PubMed Central

    Mizutani, Masaharu; Nakanishi, Hidemitsu; Ema, Jun-ichi; Ma, Seung-Jin; Noguchi, Etsuko; Inohara-Ochiai, Misa; Fukuchi-Mizutani, Masako; Nakao, Masahiro; Sakata, Kanzo

    2002-01-01

    A β-primeverosidase from tea (Camellia sinensis) plants is a unique disaccharide-specific glycosidase, which hydrolyzes aroma precursors of β-primeverosides (6-O-β-d-xylopyranosyl-β-d-glucopyranosides) to liberate various aroma compounds, and the enzyme is deeply concerned with the floral aroma formation in oolong tea and black tea during the manufacturing process. The β-primeverosidase was purified from fresh leaves of a cultivar for green tea (C. sinensis var sinensis cv Yabukita), and its partial amino acid sequences were determined. The β-primeverosidase cDNA has been isolated from a cDNA library of cv Yabukita using degenerate oligonucleotide primers. The cDNA insert encodes a polypeptide consisting of an N-terminal signal peptide of 28 amino acid residues and a 479-amino acid mature protein. The β-primeverosidase protein sequence was 50% to 60% identical to β-glucosidases from various plants and was classified in a family 1 glycosyl hydrolase. The mature form of the β-primeverosidase expressed in Escherichia coli was able to hydrolyze β-primeverosides to liberate a primeverose unit and aglycons, but did not act on 2-phenylethyl β-d-glucopyranoside. These results indicate that the β-primeverosidase selectively recognizes the β-primeverosides as substrates and specifically hydrolyzes the β-glycosidic bond between the disaccharide and the aglycons. The stereochemistry for enzymatic hydrolysis of 2-phenylethyl β-primeveroside by the β-primeverosidase was followed by 1H-nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy, revealing that the enzyme hydrolyzes the β-primeveroside by a retaining mechanism. The roles of the β-primeverosidase in the defense mechanism in tea plants and the floral aroma formation during tea manufacturing process are also discussed. PMID:12481100

  11. Nutraceutical or Pharmacological Potential of Moringa oleifera Lam.

    PubMed Central

    Kou, Xianjuan; Li, Biao; Olayanju, Julia B.; Drake, Justin M.

    2018-01-01

    Moringa oleifera Lam. (M. oleifera), which belongs to the Moringaceae family, is a perennial deciduous tropical tree, and native to the south of the Himalayan Mountains in northern India. M. oleifera is rich in proteins, vitamin A, minerals, essential amino acids, antioxidants, and flavonoids, as well as isothiocyanates. The extracts from M. oleifera exhibit multiple nutraceutical or pharmacological functions including anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, anti-cancer, hepatoprotective, neuroprotective, hypoglycemic, and blood lipid-reducing functions. The beneficial functions of M. oleifera are strongly associated with its phytochemicals such as flavonoids or isothiocyanates with bioactivity. In this review, we summarize the research progress related to the bioactivity and pharmacological mechanisms of M. oleifera in the prevention and treatment of a series of chronic diseases—including inflammatory diseases, neuro-dysfunctional diseases, diabetes, and cancers—which will provide a reference for its potential application in the prevention and treatment of chronic diseases or health promotion. PMID:29534518

  12. Nutraceutical or Pharmacological Potential of Moringa oleifera Lam.

    PubMed

    Kou, Xianjuan; Li, Biao; Olayanju, Julia B; Drake, Justin M; Chen, Ning

    2018-03-12

    Moringa oleifera Lam. ( M. oleifera ), which belongs to the Moringaceae family, is a perennial deciduous tropical tree, and native to the south of the Himalayan Mountains in northern India. M. oleifera is rich in proteins, vitamin A, minerals, essential amino acids, antioxidants, and flavonoids, as well as isothiocyanates. The extracts from M. oleifera exhibit multiple nutraceutical or pharmacological functions including anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, anti-cancer, hepatoprotective, neuroprotective, hypoglycemic, and blood lipid-reducing functions. The beneficial functions of M. oleifera are strongly associated with its phytochemicals such as flavonoids or isothiocyanates with bioactivity. In this review, we summarize the research progress related to the bioactivity and pharmacological mechanisms of M. oleifera in the prevention and treatment of a series of chronic diseases-including inflammatory diseases, neuro-dysfunctional diseases, diabetes, and cancers-which will provide a reference for its potential application in the prevention and treatment of chronic diseases or health promotion.

  13. Multistep divergent synthesis of benzimidazole linked benzoxazole/benzothiazole via copper catalyzed domino annulation.

    PubMed

    Liao, Jen-Yu; Selvaraju, Manikandan; Chen, Chih-Hau; Sun, Chung-Ming

    2013-04-21

    An efficient, facile synthesis of structurally diverse benzimidazole integrated benzoxazole and benzothiazoles has been developed. In a multi-step synthetic sequence, 4-fluoro-3-nitrobenzoic acid was converted into benzimidazole bis-heterocycles, via the intermediacy of benzimidazole linked ortho-chloro amines. The amphiphilic reactivity of this intermediate was designed to achieve the title compounds by the reaction of various acid chlorides and isothiocyanates in a single step through the in situ formation of ortho-chloro anilides and thioureas under microwave irradiation. A versatile one pot domino annulation reaction was developed to involve the reaction of benzimidazole linked ortho-chloro amines with acid chlorides and isothiocyanates. The initial acylation and urea formation followed by copper catalyzed intramolecular C-O and C-S cross coupling reactions furnished the angularly oriented bis-heterocycles which bear a close resemblance to the streptomyces antibiotic UK-1.

  14. Phytochemical profiling of five medicinally active constituents across 14 Eutrema species.

    PubMed

    Hao, Guoqian; Wang, Qian; Liu, Bingbing; Liu, Jianquan

    2016-04-01

    Wasabi or Japanese horseradish (Eutrema japonicum) is both a traditional condiment and a medicinally important plant with diverse uses. Its medicinally active constituents appear to include five isothiocyanates, but their spatial variations in naturally occurring congeners are unknown. Thus, in this study we measured concentrations of these five active constituents in 20 populations of 14 species of Eutrema and one related species, Yinshania sinuata. Three to five of these constituents were detected in each of the examined species, at concentrations that varied greatly between sampled species and populations of the same species. However, two species, Eutrema tenue and Eutrema deltoideum, had higher total concentrations of the five isothiocyanates and substantially higher concentrations of one or two, than the widely cultivated E. japonicum. Thus, both of these species could be important wild resources for artificial cultivation, in addition to the currently widely cultivated E. japonicum. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. InP/ZnS quantum-dot-dispersed nematic liquid crystal illustrating characteristic birefringence and enhanced electro-optical parameters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roy, Aradhana; Pathak, Govind; Herman, Jakub; Inamdar, Sanjeev R.; Srivastava, Atul; Manohar, Rajiv

    2018-03-01

    The present study investigates the influence of InP/ZnS core/shell QDs on various parameters of Nematic LC sample 1832A, based on 4-(4-alkyl-cyclohexyl)benzene isothiocyanates and 4-(4-alkyl-cyclohexyl)biphenyl isothiocyanates. Observations recorded consist of distinguished functioning of birefringence phenomenon along with characteristic response time measurement. Further study of rotational viscosity and splay elastic constant portrays stupendous behavior strengthening the appositeness of the composites for low-charge consumable devices. The addition of 0.2 ml of core/shell QDs producing more than two times faster response and enhanced birefringence at low-temperature range can be employed in development of thermostable photonic devices. In addition, dielectric properties comprising of relative permittivity and conductivity have been reported supporting the outcome of the investigation in applicative LC-based technologies.

  16. A comparative study of three different synthesis routes for hydrophilic fluorophore-doped silica nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shahabi, Shakiba; Treccani, Laura; Rezwan, Kurosch

    2016-01-01

    The synthesis of fluorophore-doped silica nanoparticles (FDS NPs) with two conventional approaches, Stöber and microemulsion, as well as a novel amino acid-catalyzed seeds regrowth technique (ACSRT) is presented. The efficiency of each applied synthesis route toward incorporation of selected hydrophilic fluorophores, including rhodamine B isothiocyanate and fluorescein isothiocyanate, without and with an amine-containing crosslinker, into silica matrix was systematically studied. Our results clearly highlight the advantages of ACSRT to obtain FDS NPs with a remarkable encapsulation efficiency, high quantum yield, and enhanced stability against bleaching and dye leaking due to efficient embedding of the dyes inside silica network even without the amine-containing silane reagent. Moreover, evaluation of photostability of FDNPs internalized in human bone cells demonstrates the merits of ACSRT.

  17. Eradication of bacterial species via photosensitization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Golding, Paul S.; Maddocks, L.; King, Terence A.; Drucker, D. B.

    1999-02-01

    Photosensitization and inactivation efficacy of three bacterial species: Prevotella nigrescens, Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli have been investigated. Samples of Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli were treated with the triphenylmethane dye malachite green isothiocyanate and exposed to light from a variety of continuous and pulsed light sauces at a wavelength of approximately 630 nm. Inactivation of the Gram-positive species Staphylococcus aureus was found to increase with radiation dose, whilst Gram-negative Escherichia coli was resistant to such treatment. Samples of the pigmented species Prevotella nigrescens were found to be inactivated by exposure to light alone. The mechanism of photosensitization and inactivation of Staphylococcus aureus with malachite green isothiocyanate is addressed. The possible roles of the excited triplet state of the photosensitizer, the involvement of molecular oxygen, and the bacterial cell wall are discussed. Photosensitization may provide a way of eliminating naturally pigmented species responsible for a variety of infections, including oral diseases such as gingivitis and periodontitis.

  18. Biocatalytic response of multi-layer assembled collagen/hyaluronic acid nanoengineered capsules.

    PubMed

    Sousa, Fernanda; Kreft, Oliver; Sukhorukov, Gleb B; Möhwald, Helmuth; Kokol, Vanja

    2014-01-01

    Biodegradable hollow capsules filled with fluorescently labelled bovine serum albumin (BSA) as a model drug were prepared via layer-by-layer (LbL) self-assembly of type-I collagen (COL) and hyaluronic acid (HA) using calcium carbonate micro-particles and co-precipitation method. Capsules loaded with fluorescein isothiocyanate (FITC)-BSA, tetramethylrhodamin isothiocyanate (TRITC)-BSA or Alex-Fluor-488-BSA, respectively, were characterised before and after core removal using Confocal Laser Scanning Microscopy (CLSM), whilst the morphologies of individual hollow capsules were assessed using Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM). The sustained release of the encapsulated FITC-BSA protein was attained using enzymatic degradation of the capsule shells by collagenase. The released profile of the fluorescently-labelled BSA indicated that it could be successfully controlled by modulating the number of layers and/or by collagen crosslinking either before or after the capsule's assembly.

  19. Multi-trait analysis of post-harvest storage in rocket salad (Diplotaxis tenuifolia) links sensorial, volatile and nutritional data.

    PubMed

    Spadafora, Natasha D; Amaro, Ana L; Pereira, Maria J; Müller, Carsten T; Pintado, Manuela; Rogers, Hilary J

    2016-11-15

    Rocket salad (Diplotaxis tenuifolia; wild rocket) is an important component of ready to eat salads providing a distinct peppery flavour and containing nutritionally relevant compounds. Quality deteriorates during post-harvest, in relation to time and storage temperature amongst other factors. Volatile organic compounds (VOCs) are easily measurable from rocket leaves and may provide useful quality indicators for e.g. changes in isothiocyanates derived from nutritionally important glucosinolates. VOC profiles discriminated storage temperatures (0, 5 and 10°C) and times (over 14days). More specifically, concentrations of aldehydes and isothiocyanates decreased with time paralleling a fall in vitamin C and a reduction in sensorial quality at the two higher temperatures. Sulphur containing compounds rise at later time-points and at higher temperatures coincident with an increase in microbial titre, mirroring a further drop in sensorial quality thus indicating their contribution to off-odours. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  20. Cruciferous Vegetables and Human Cancer Risk: Epidemiologic Evidence and Mechanistic Basis

    PubMed Central

    Higdon, Jane V.; Delage, Barbara; Williams, David E.; Dashwood, Roderick H.

    2009-01-01

    Cruciferous vegetables are a rich source of glucosinolates and their hydrolysis products, including indoles and isothiocyanates, and high intake of cruciferous vegetables has been associated with lower risk of lung and colorectal cancer in some epidemiological studies. Glucosinolate hydrolysis products alter the metabolism or activity of sex hormones in ways that could inhibit the development of hormone-sensitive cancers, but evidence of an inverse association between cruciferous vegetable intake and breast or prostate cancer in humans is limited and inconsistent. Organizations such as the National Cancer Institute recommend the consumption of 5–9 servings of fruits and vegetables daily, but separate recommendations for cruciferous vegetables have not been established. Isothiocyanates and indoles derived from the hydrolysis of glucosinolates, such as sulforaphane and indole-3-carbinol (I3C), have been implicated in a variety of anticarcinogenic mechanisms, but deleterious effects also have been reported in some experimental protocols, including tumor promotion over prolonged periods of exposure. Epidemiological studies indicate that human exposure to isothiocyanates and indoles through cruciferous vegetable consumption may decrease cancer risk, but the protective effects may be influenced by individual genetic variation (polymorphisms) in the metabolism and elimination of isothiocyanates from the body. Cooking procedures also affect the bioavailability and intake of glucosinolates and their derivatives. Supplementation with I3C or the related dimer 3,3′-diindolylmethane (DIM) alters urinary estrogen metabolite profiles in women, but the effects of I3C and DIM on breast cancer risk are not known. Small preliminary trials in humans suggest that I3C supplementation may be beneficial in treating conditions related to human papilloma virus infection, such as cervical intraepithelial neoplasia and recurrent respiratory papillomatosis, but larger randomized controlled

  1. Prostate Cancer Prevention Through Induction of Phase 2 Enzymes

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1999-10-01

    hypothesis. We have identified sulforaphane , a dietary isothiocyanate found in cucifers, as the most potent phase 2 enzyme inducing agent in human prostate...cancer cell lines compared to over 50 other compounds screened in our laboratory. Sulforaphane readily induced increased expression of quinone...characterizing global changes in mRNA expression for nearly 10,000 genes simultaneously using cDNA microarrays after treatment of prostate cells with sulforaphane

  2. STUDIES ON FLUORESCENT ANTIBODY STAINING

    PubMed Central

    Goldstein, Gerald; Slizys, Irene S.; Chase, Merrill W.

    1961-01-01

    1. A study has been made of the non-specific fluorescent staining of splenic imprints treated with fluorescent sheep antibody globulins. 2. In tissue imprints made with the spleens of antigen-stimulated animals, no morphological distinction was evident between areas showing non-specific fluorescence and specific fluorescence. 3. Elimination of non-specific fluorescence was not achieved by any one, or any combination of the following: (a) conjugating only gamma globulins with fluorescein isothiocyanate; (b) removal of dialyzable fluorescent products on sephadex, followed by concentration through the use of pressure dialysis; (c) use of crystalline preparations of fluorescein isothiocyanate. 4. Individual preparations of fluorescent antibodies were separated by gradient elution chromatography on diethylaminoethyl (DEAE) cellulose into fractions possessing different numbers of fluorescein radicals per molecule of globulin. 5. The coupling ratio of 50 mg fluorescein isothiocyanate (FITC) per gm of protein, as commonly advocated, can not be recommended for the precise localization of antibody globulin in tissues owing to the capacity of the coupled products to give non-specific fluorescent staining. When crystalline preparations of FITC are used instead of the amorphous product at 50 mg/gm protein, far too high non-specific fluorescence results. 6. A fraction with bright specific fluorescence and no or negligible nonspecific fluorescence was obtained from each fluorescent antibody that was prepared by using 6 to 8 mg of crystalline fluorescein isothiocyanate per gm of globulin and was then subjected to DEAE-cellulose chromatography and gradient elution to eliminate the most highly coupled molecules. PMID:13706641

  3. A Partnership Training Program: Studying Targeted Drug Delivery Using Nanoparticles In Breast Cancer Diagnosis and Therapy

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-10-01

    REPORT DATE : TYPE OF REPORT: Annual PREPARED FOR: U.S. Army Medical Research and Materiel Command...DO NOT RETURN YOUR FORM TO THE ABOVE ADDRESS. 1. REPORT DATE (DD-MM-YYYY) 2. REPORT TYPE 3. DATES COVERED (From - To) 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE 5a...We have also developed transferrin attached protein nanospheres with silicon coating, doped with rare earth oxide and rhodamine B isothiocyanate

  4. The pilosebaceous unit—a phthalate-induced pathway to skin sensitization

    SciTech Connect

    Simonsson, Carl, E-mail: carl.simonsson@chem.gu.se; Stenfeldt, Anna-Lena; Karlberg, Ann-Therese

    2012-10-01

    Allergic contact dermatitis (ACD) is caused by low-molecular weight compounds called haptens. It has been shown that the potency of haptens can depend on the formulation in which they are applied on the skin. Specifically the sensitization potency of isothiocyanates, a group of haptens which can be released from e.g. adhesive tapes and neoprene materials, increases with the presence of phthalates; however, the underlying mechanisms are not clear. A better understanding of the mechanisms governing the potency of haptens is important, e.g. to improve the risk assessment and the formulation of chemicals in consumer products. In this study we havemore » explored phthalate-induced effects on the sensitization potency, skin distribution, and reactivity of fluorescent model isothiocyanate haptens using non-invasive two-photon microscopy to provide new insights regarding vehicle effects in ACD. The data presented in this paper indicate that the sensitization potency of isothiocyanates increases when applied in combination with dibutylphthalate due to a specific uptake via the pilosebaceous units. The results highlight the importance of shunt pathways when evaluating the bioavailability of skin sensitizers. The findings also indicate that vehicle-dependent hapten reactivity towards stratum corneum proteins regulates the bioavailability, and thus the potency, of skin sensitizers. -- Highlights: ► Vehicle effects on sensitization potency were investigated in the LLNA. ► In vivo cutaneous absorption of contact sensitizers was visualized using TPM. ► Sensitizing potency of isothiocyanates depends on the presence of a phthalate. ► Phthalate induced cutaneous absorption via the pilosebaceous units. ► Vehicle-dependent reactivity regulates sensitization potency.« less

  5. Acid-base properties of 2-phenethyldithiocarbamoylacetic acid, an antitumor agent

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Novozhilova, N. E.; Kutina, N. N.; Petukhova, O. A.; Kharitonov, Yu. Ya.

    2013-07-01

    The acid-base properties of the 2-phenethyldithiocarbamoylacetic acid (PET) substance belonging to the class of isothiocyanates and capable of inhibiting the development of tumors on many experimental models were studied. The acidity and hydrolysis constants of the PET substance in ethanol, acetone, aqueous ethanol, and aqueous acetone solutions were determined from the data of potentiometric (pH-metric) titration of ethanol and acetone solutions of PET with aqueous solidum hydroxide at room temperature.

  6. Thiocarbonyl induced heterocumulenic Pauson-Khand type reaction: expedient synthetic method for thieno[2,3-b]indol-2-ones.

    PubMed

    Saito, Takao; Nihei, Hiroshi; Otani, Takashi; Suyama, Toshiyuki; Furukawa, Naoki; Saito, Masatoshi

    2008-01-14

    The first examples of C[double bond, length as m-dash]S induced Pauson-Khand type reactions are described; 2-alkynylphenyl isothiocyanates were converted to 3-substituted-2H-thieno[2,3-b]indol-2-ones in the presence of a stoichiometric amount of Mo(CO)(6) or Co(2)(CO)(8), or a catalytic amount of Rh catalyst under an atmospheric pressure of carbon monoxide.

  7. Monitoring methanol-induced protein unfolding by fluorescence anisotropy measurements of covalently labelled rhodamine probe*

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Soleilhac, Antonin; Bertorelle, Franck; Dugourd, Philippe; Girod, Marion; Antoine, Rodolphe

    2017-06-01

    We describe the use of an extrinsic fluorophore (rhodamine B isothiocyanate) as a versatile probe to measure rotational motions of proteins. To illustrate the usefulness of this probe, we describe the fluorescence anisotropy values of this fluorophore covalently linked to myoglobin protein measured in aqueous solutions of increased methanol content. Methanol-induced unfolding is revealed by the transition from constrained to free rotation of the covalently attached rhodamine B fluorophore.

  8. Regioselective synthesis of novel 3-allyl-2-(substituted imino)-4-phenyl-3H-thiazole and 2,2‧-(1,3-phenylene)bis(3-substituted-2-imino-4-phenyl-3H-thiazole) derivatives as antibacterial agents

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abbasi Shiran, Jafar; Yahyazadeh, Asieh; Mamaghani, Manouchehr; Rassa, Mehdi

    2013-05-01

    Several novel 3-allyl-2-(substituted imino)-4-phenyl-3H-thiazole derivatives were synthesized by the reaction of allyl-thioureas and 2-bromoacetophenone. We also report the synthesis of bis-allyl-3H thiazoles using the reaction of various isothiocyanates and 1,3-phenylenediamine. The structures of all compounds were characterized by spectral and elemental analysis. Most of the synthesized compounds exhibited efficient antibacterial activities against Salmonella enterica, Micrococcus luteus, Bacillus subtilis and Pseudomonas aeruginosa.

  9. Electrophilic tuning of the chemoprotective natural product sulforaphane

    PubMed Central

    Ahn, Young-Hoon; Hwang, Yousang; Liu, Hua; Wang, Xiu Jun; Zhang, Ying; Stephenson, Katherine K.; Boronina, Tatiana N.; Cole, Robert N.; Dinkova-Kostova, Albena T.; Talalay, Paul; Cole, Philip A.

    2010-01-01

    Sulforaphane [1-isothiocyanato-4-(methylsulfinyl)butane], a naturally occurring isothiocyanate derived from cruciferous vegetables, is a highly potent inducer of phase 2 cytoprotective enzymes and can protect against electrophiles including carcinogens, oxidative stress, and inflammation. The mechanism of action of sulforaphane is believed to involve modifications of critical cysteine residues of Keap1, which lead to stabilization of Nrf2 to activate the antioxidant response element of phase 2 enzymes. However, the dithiocarbamate functional group formed by a reversible reaction between isothiocyanate of sulforaphane and sulfhydryl nucleophiles of Keap1 is kinetically labile, and such modification in intact cells has not yet been demonstrated. Here we designed sulforaphane analogs with replacement of the reactive isothiocyanate by the more gentle electrophilic sulfoxythiocarbamate group that also selectively targets cysteine residues in proteins but forms stable thiocarbamate adducts. Twenty-four sulfoxythiocarbamate analogs were synthesized that retain the structural features important for high potency in sulforaphane analogs: the sulfoxide or keto group and its appropriate distance to electrophilic functional group. Evaluation in various cell lines including hepatoma cells, retinal pigment epithelial cells, and keratinocytes as well as in mouse skin shows that these analogs maintain high potency and efficacy for phase 2 enzyme induction as well as the inhibitory effect on lipopolysaccharide-induced nitric oxide formation like sulforaphane. We further show in living cells that a sulfoxythiocarbamate analog can label Keap1 on several key cysteine residues as well as other cellular proteins offering new insights into the mechanism of chemoprotection. PMID:20439747

  10. Electrophilic tuning of the chemoprotective natural product sulforaphane.

    PubMed

    Ahn, Young-Hoon; Hwang, Yousang; Liu, Hua; Wang, Xiu Jun; Zhang, Ying; Stephenson, Katherine K; Boronina, Tatiana N; Cole, Robert N; Dinkova-Kostova, Albena T; Talalay, Paul; Cole, Philip A

    2010-05-25

    Sulforaphane [1-isothiocyanato-4-(methylsulfinyl)butane], a naturally occurring isothiocyanate derived from cruciferous vegetables, is a highly potent inducer of phase 2 cytoprotective enzymes and can protect against electrophiles including carcinogens, oxidative stress, and inflammation. The mechanism of action of sulforaphane is believed to involve modifications of critical cysteine residues of Keap1, which lead to stabilization of Nrf2 to activate the antioxidant response element of phase 2 enzymes. However, the dithiocarbamate functional group formed by a reversible reaction between isothiocyanate of sulforaphane and sulfhydryl nucleophiles of Keap1 is kinetically labile, and such modification in intact cells has not yet been demonstrated. Here we designed sulforaphane analogs with replacement of the reactive isothiocyanate by the more gentle electrophilic sulfoxythiocarbamate group that also selectively targets cysteine residues in proteins but forms stable thiocarbamate adducts. Twenty-four sulfoxythiocarbamate analogs were synthesized that retain the structural features important for high potency in sulforaphane analogs: the sulfoxide or keto group and its appropriate distance to electrophilic functional group. Evaluation in various cell lines including hepatoma cells, retinal pigment epithelial cells, and keratinocytes as well as in mouse skin shows that these analogs maintain high potency and efficacy for phase 2 enzyme induction as well as the inhibitory effect on lipopolysaccharide-induced nitric oxide formation like sulforaphane. We further show in living cells that a sulfoxythiocarbamate analog can label Keap1 on several key cysteine residues as well as other cellular proteins offering new insights into the mechanism of chemoprotection.

  11. Stimulation of phagocytosis by sulforaphane.

    PubMed

    Suganuma, Hiroyuki; Fahey, Jed W; Bryan, Kelley E; Healy, Zachary R; Talalay, Paul

    2011-02-04

    Sulforaphane, a major isothiocyanate derived from cruciferous vegetables, protects living systems against electrophile toxicity, oxidative stress, inflammation, and radiation. A major protective mechanism is the induction of a network of endogenous cytoprotective (phase 2) genes that are regulated by transcription factor Nrf2. To obtain a more detailed understanding of the anti-inflammatory and immunomodulatory effects of sulforaphane, we evaluated its effect on the phagocytosis activity of RAW 264.7 murine macrophage-like cells by measuring the uptake of 2-μm diameter polystyrene beads. Sulforaphane raised the phagocytosis activity of RAW 264.7 cells but only in the absence or presence of low concentrations (1%) of fetal bovine serum. Higher serum concentrations depressed phagocytosis and abolished its stimulation by sulforaphane. This stimulation did not depend on the induction of Nrf2-regulated genes since it occurred in peritoneal macrophages of nrf2(-/-) mice. Moreover, a potent triterpenoid inducer of Nrf2-dependent genes did not stimulate phagocytosis, whereas sulforaphane and another isothiocyanate (benzyl isothiocyanate) had comparable inducer potencies. It has been shown recently that sulforaphane is a potent and direct inactivator of macrophage migration inhibitory factor (MIF), an inflammatory cytokine. Moreover, the addition of recombinant MIF to RAW 264.7 cells attenuated phagocytosis, but sulforaphane-inactivated MIF did not affect phagocytosis. The inactivation of MIF may therefore be involved in the phagocytosis-enhancing activity of sulforaphane. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Consumption of raw cruciferous vegetables is inversely associated with bladder cancer risk.

    PubMed

    Tang, Li; Zirpoli, Gary R; Guru, Khurshid; Moysich, Kirsten B; Zhang, Yuesheng; Ambrosone, Christine B; McCann, Susan E

    2008-04-01

    Cruciferous vegetables contain isothiocyanates, which show potent chemopreventive activity against bladder cancer in both in vitro and in vivo studies. However, previous epidemiologic studies investigating cruciferous vegetable intake and bladder cancer risk have been inconsistent. Cooking can substantially reduce or destroy isothiocyanates, and could account for study inconsistencies. In this hospital-based case-control study involving 275 individuals with incident, primary bladder cancer and 825 individuals without cancer, we examined the usual prediagnostic intake of raw and cooked cruciferous vegetables in relation to bladder cancer risk. Odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) were estimated with unconditional logistic regression, adjusting for smoking and other bladder cancer risk factors. We observed a strong and statistically significant inverse association between bladder cancer risk and raw cruciferous vegetable intake (adjusted OR for highest versus lowest category = 0.64; 95% CI, 0.42-0.97), with a significant trend (P = 0.003); there were no significant associations for fruit, total vegetables, or total cruciferous vegetables. The associations observed for total raw crucifers were also observed for individual raw crucifers. The inverse association remained significant among current and heavy smokers with three or more servings per month of raw cruciferous vegetables (adjusted ORs, 0.46 and 0.60; 95% CI, 0.23-0.93 and 0.38-0.93, respectively). These data suggest that cruciferous vegetables, when consumed raw, may reduce the risk of bladder cancer, an effect consistent with the role of dietary isothiocyanates as chemopreventive agents against bladder cancer.

  13. Sulforaphane homologues: Enantiodivergent synthesis of both enantiomers, activation of the Nrf2 transcription factor and selective cytotoxic activity.

    PubMed

    Elhalem, Eleonora; Recio, Rocío; Werner, Sabine; Lieder, Franziska; Calderón-Montaño, José Manuel; López-Lázaro, Miguel; Fernández, Inmaculada; Khiar, Noureddine

    2014-11-24

    Reported is an enantiodivergent approach for the synthesis of both enantiomers of sulforaphane (SFN) homologues with different chain lengths between the sulfinyl sulfur and the isothiocyanate groups and different substituents on the sulfinyl sulfur. The homologues were designed in order to unravel the effect of all the diversity elements included in sulforaphane's structure. The key step of the approach is the diastereoselective synthesis of both sulfinate ester epimers at sulfur, using as single chiral auxiliary the sugar derived diacetone-d-glucose. The approach allows the first synthesis of both enantiomers of 5-methylsulfinylpentyl isothiocyanate, and the biologically important 6-methylsulfinylhexyl isothiocyanate (6-HITC) found in Japanese horseradish, wasabi (Wasabia japonica). The ability of the synthesized compounds as inductors of phase II detoxifying enzymes has been studied by determining their ability to activate the cytoprotective transcription factor Nrf2. The cytotoxic activity of all the synthesized compounds against human lung adenocarcinoma (A549) and foetal lung fibroblasts (MRC-5) is also reported. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  14. Involvement of a glucosinolate (sinigrin) in the regulation of water transport in Brassica oleracea grown under salt stress.

    PubMed

    Martínez-Ballesta, Maria del Carmen; Muries, Beatriz; Moreno, Diego Ángel; Dominguez-Perles, Raúl; García-Viguera, Cristina; Carvajal, Micaela

    2014-02-01

    Members of the Brassicaceae are known for their contents of nutrients and health-promoting phytochemicals, including glucosinolates. The concentrations of these chemopreventive compounds (glucosinolate-degradation products, the bioactive isothiocyanates) may be modified under salinity. In this work, the effect of the aliphatic glucosinolate sinigrin (2-propenyl-glucosinolate) on plant water balance, involving aquaporins, was explored under salt stress. For this purpose, water uptake and its transport through the plasma membrane were determined in plants after NaCl addition, when sinigrin was also supplied. We found higher hydraulic conductance (L0 ) and water permeability (Pf ) and increased abundance of PIP2 aquaporins after the direct administration of sinigrin, showing the ability of the roots to promote cellular water transport across the plasma membrane in spite of the stress conditions imposed. The higher content of the allyl-isothiocyanate and the absence of sinigrin in the plant tissues suggest that the isothiocyanate is related to water balance; in fact, a direct effect of this nitro-sulphate compound on water uptake is proposed. This work provides the first evidence that the addition of a glucosinolate can regulate aquaporins and water transport: this effect and the mechanism(s) involved merit further investigation. © 2013 Scandinavian Plant Physiology Society.

  15. The Brassica epithionitrile 1-cyano-2,3-epithiopropane triggers cell death in human liver cancer cells in vitro.

    PubMed

    Hanschen, Franziska S; Herz, Corinna; Schlotz, Nina; Kupke, Franziska; Bartolomé Rodríguez, María M; Schreiner, Monika; Rohn, Sascha; Lamy, Evelyn

    2015-11-01

    Glucosinolates are secondary metabolites present in Brassica vegetables. Alkenyl glucosinolates are enzymatically degraded forming nitriles or isothiocyanates, but in the presence of epithiospecifier protein, epithionitriles are released. However, studies on the occurrence of epithionitriles in Brassica food and knowledge about their biological effects are scarce. Epithionitrile formation from glucosinolates of seven Brassica vegetables was analyzed using GC-MS and HPLC-DAD. Bioactivity of synthetic and plant-derived 1-cyano-2,3-epithiopropane (CETP) - the predominant epithionitrile in Brassica vegetables - in three human hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) cell lines and primary murine hepatocytes was also evaluated. The majority of the Brassica vegetables were producers of nitriles or epithionitriles as hydrolysis products and not of isothiocyanates. For example, Brussels sprouts and savoy cabbage contained up to 0.8 μmol CETP/g vegetable. Using formazan dye assays, concentrations of 380-1500 nM CETP were observed to inhibit the mitochondrial dehydrogenase activity of human HCC cells without impairment of cell growth. At 100-fold higher CETP concentrations, cell death was observed. Presence of plant matrix increased CETP-based toxicity. These in vitro data provide no indication that epithionitriles will severely affect human health by Brassica consumption. In contrast to isothiocyanates, no evidence of selective toxicity against HCC cells was found. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  16. An investigation of paper based microfluidic devices for size based separation and extraction applications.

    PubMed

    Zhong, Z W; Wu, R G; Wang, Z P; Tan, H L

    2015-09-01

    Conventional microfluidic devices are typically complex and expensive. The devices require the use of pneumatic control systems or highly precise pumps to control the flow in the devices. This work investigates an alternative method using paper based microfluidic devices to replace conventional microfluidic devices. Size based separation and extraction experiments conducted were able to separate free dye from a mixed protein and dye solution. Experimental results showed that pure fluorescein isothiocyanate could be separated from a solution of mixed fluorescein isothiocyanate and fluorescein isothiocyanate labeled bovine serum albumin. The analysis readings obtained from a spectrophotometer clearly show that the extracted tartrazine sample did not contain any amount of Blue-BSA, because its absorbance value was 0.000 measured at a wavelength of 590nm, which correlated to Blue-BSA. These demonstrate that paper based microfluidic devices, which are inexpensive and easy to implement, can potentially replace their conventional counterparts by the use of simple geometry designs and the capillary action. These findings will potentially help in future developments of paper based microfluidic devices. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Cytotoxic and genotoxic potential of food-borne nitriles in a liver in vitro model

    PubMed Central

    Kupke, Franziska; Herz, Corinna; Hanschen, Franziska S.; Platz, Stefanie; Odongo, Grace A.; Helmig, Simone; Bartolomé Rodríguez, María M.; Schreiner, Monika; Rohn, Sascha; Lamy, Evelyn

    2016-01-01

    Isothiocyanates are the most intensively studied breakdown products of glucosinolates from Brassica plants and well recognized for their pleiotropic effects against cancer but also for their genotoxic potential. However, knowledge about the bioactivity of glucosinolate-borne nitriles in foods is very poor. As determined by GC-MS, broccoli glucosinolates mainly degrade to nitriles as breakdown products. The cytotoxicity of nitriles in human HepG2 cells and primary murine hepatocytes was marginal as compared to isothiocyanates. Toxicity of nitriles was not enhanced in CYP2E1-overexpressing HepG2 cells. In contrast, the genotoxic potential of nitriles was found to be comparable to isothiocyanates. DNA damage was persistent over a certain time period and CYP2E1-overexpression further increased the genotoxic potential of the nitriles. Based on actual in vitro data, no indications are given that food-borne nitriles could be relevant for cancer prevention, but could pose a certain genotoxic risk under conditions relevant for food consumption. PMID:27883018

  18. Amine-reactive forms of a luminescent diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid chelate of terbium and europium: attachment to DNA and energy transfer measurements.

    PubMed

    Li, M; Selvin, P R

    1997-01-01

    An isothiocyanate form of a lanthanide chelate which is highly luminescent when bound to terbium or europium has been synthesized. The chelate consists of diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid (DTPA) covalently joined to a chromophore, 7-amino-4-methyl-2(1H)-quinolinone (cs124), and to L-p-aminophenylalanine, in which the aromatic amine was further converted to an isothiocyanate group. Ethylenediamine was also used in place of aminophenylalanine, but the isothiocyanate formed from the aliphatic amine was significantly less reactive. Site-specific attachments to triglycine and to the 5' ends of amine-modified DNA oligomers have been made. In addition, as an alternative method of coupling to macromolecules, DTPA anhydride-cs124 can be used to react specifically with a 5' amine group on base-deprotected synthetic DNA oligomers. Synthesis and purification is relatively straightforward in both cases, and luminescent properties are favorable for several applications, including as nonisotopic labels, as long-lifetime alternatives to fluorophores in imaging and diagnostics and particularly as donors in luminescence resonance energy transfer. Energy transfer measurements are consistent with previously reported measurements using different attachment mechanisms.

  19. Health Promoting Effects of Brassica-Derived Phytochemicals: From Chemopreventive and Anti-Inflammatory Activities to Epigenetic Regulation

    PubMed Central

    Wagner, Anika Eva; Terschluesen, Anna Maria; Rimbach, Gerald

    2013-01-01

    A high intake of brassica vegetables may be associated with a decreased chronic disease risk. Health promoting effects of Brassicaceae have been partly attributed to glucosinolates and in particular to their hydrolyzation products including isothiocyanates. In vitro and in vivo studies suggest a chemopreventive activity of isothiocyanates through the redox-sensitive transcription factor Nrf2. Furthermore, studies in cultured cells, in laboratory rodents, and also in humans support an anti-inflammatory effect of brassica-derived phytochemicals. However, the underlying mechanisms of how these compounds mediate their health promoting effects are yet not fully understood. Recent findings suggest that brassica-derived compounds are regulators of epigenetic mechanisms. It has been shown that isothiocyanates may inhibit histone deacetylase transferases and DNA-methyltransferases in cultured cells. Only a few papers have dealt with the effect of brassica-derived compounds on epigenetic mechanisms in laboratory animals, whereas data in humans are currently lacking. The present review aims to summarize the current knowledge regarding the biological activities of brassica-derived phytochemicals regarding chemopreventive, anti-inflammatory, and epigenetic pathways. PMID:24454992

  20. Cruciferous Vegetables Have Variable Effects on Biomarkers of Systemic Inflammation in a Randomized Controlled Trial in Healthy Young Adults12

    PubMed Central

    Navarro, Sandi L.; Schwarz, Yvonne; Song, Xiaoling; Wang, Ching-Yun; Chen, Chu; Trudo, Sabrina P.; Kristal, Alan R.; Kratz, Mario; Eaton, David L.; Lampe, Johanna W.

    2014-01-01

    Background: Isothiocyanates in cruciferous vegetables modulate signaling pathways critical to carcinogenesis, including nuclear factor kappa-light-chain-enhancer of activated B cells (NF-κB), a central regulator of inflammation. Glutathione S-transferase (GST) M1 and GSTT1 metabolize isothiocyanates; genetic variants may result in differences in biologic response. Objective: The objective of this study was to test whether consumption of cruciferous or cruciferous plus apiaceous vegetables altered serum concentrations of interleukin (IL)-6, IL-8, C-reactive protein (CRP), tumor necrosis factor (TNF) α, and soluble TNF receptor (sTNFR) I and II, and whether this response was GSTM1/GSTT1 genotype dependent. Methods: In a randomized crossover trial, healthy men (n = 32) and women (n = 31) aged 20–40 y consumed 4 14-d controlled diets: basal (vegetable-free), single-dose cruciferous (1xC) [7 g vegetables/kg body weight (BW)], double-dose cruciferous (2xC) (14 g/kg BW), and cruciferous plus apiaceous (carrot family) (1xC+A) vegetables (7 and 4 g/kg BW, respectively), with a 21-d washout period between each intervention. Urinary isothiocyanate excretion was also evaluated as a marker of systemic isothiocyanate exposure. Fasting morning blood and urine samples were collected on days 0 and 14 and analyzed. Results: IL-6 concentrations were significantly lower on day 14 of the 2xC and 1xC+A diets than with the basal diet [−19% (95% CI: −30%, −0.1%) and −20% (95% CI: −31%, -0.7%), respectively]. IL-8 concentrations were higher after the 1xC+A diet (+16%; 95% CI: 4.2%, 35.2%) than after the basal diet. There were no effects of diet on CRP, TNF-α, or sTNFRI or II. There were significant differences between GSTM1-null/GSTT1+ individuals for several biomarkers in response to 1xC+A compared with basal diets (CRP: −37.8%; 95% CI: −58.0%, −7.4%; IL-6: −48.6%; 95% CI: −49.6%, −12.0%; IL-8: 16.3%; 95% CI: 6.7%, 57.7%) and with the 2xC diet compared with the

  1. Effect of Increased Yeast Alcohol Acetyltransferase Activity on Flavor Profiles of Wine and Distillates

    PubMed Central

    Lilly, M.; Lambrechts, M. G.; Pretorius, I. S.

    2000-01-01

    The distinctive flavor of wine, brandy, and other grape-derived alcoholic beverages is affected by many compounds, including esters produced during alcoholic fermentation. The characteristic fruity odors of the fermentation bouquet are primarily due to a mixture of hexyl acetate, ethyl caproate (apple-like aroma), iso-amyl acetate (banana-like aroma), ethyl caprylate (apple-like aroma), and 2-phenylethyl acetate (fruity, flowery flavor with a honey note). The objective of this study was to investigate the feasibility of improving the aroma of wine and distillates by overexpressing one of the endogenous yeast genes that controls acetate ester production during fermentation. The synthesis of acetate esters by the wine yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae during fermentation is ascribed to at least three acetyltransferase activities, namely, alcohol acetyltransferase (AAT), ethanol acetyltransferase, and iso-amyl AAT. To investigate the effect of increased AAT activity on the sensory quality of Chenin blanc wines and distillates from Colombar base wines, we have overexpressed the alcohol acetyltransferase gene (ATF1) of S. cerevisiae. The ATF1 gene, located on chromosome XV, was cloned from a widely used commercial wine yeast strain of S. cerevisiae, VIN13, and placed under the control of the constitutive yeast phosphoglycerate kinase gene (PGK1) promoter and terminator. Chromoblot analysis confirmed the integration of the modified copy of ATF1 into the genome of three commercial wine yeast strains (VIN7, VIN13, and WE228). Northern blot analysis indicated constitutive expression of ATF1 at high levels in these yeast transformants. The levels of ethyl acetate, iso-amyl acetate, and 2-phenylethyl acetate increased 3- to 10-fold, 3.8- to 12-fold, and 2- to 10-fold, respectively, depending on the fermentation temperature, cultivar, and yeast strain used. The concentrations of ethyl caprate, ethyl caprylate, and hexyl acetate only showed minor changes, whereas the acetic acid

  2. Glucosinolate profile and distribution among plant tissues and phenological stages of field-grown horseradish.

    PubMed

    Agneta, Rosa; Lelario, Filomena; De Maria, Susanna; Möllers, Christian; Bufo, Sabino Aurelio; Rivelli, Anna Rita

    2014-10-01

    Profile and distribution of glucosinolates (GLS) were detected in plant tissues of horseradish at different developmental stages: beginning of vegetative re-growth, flowering and silique formation. The GLS profile varied widely in the different tissues: we identified 17 GLS in roots and sprouts, one of which was not previously characterized in horseradish, i.e. the 2(S)-hydroxy-2-phenylethyl-GLS (glucobarbarin) and/or 2(R)-hydroxy-2-phenylethyl-GLS (epiglucobarbarin), 11 already found in the roots, including the putative 2-methylsulfonyl-oxo-ethyl-GLS, and 5 previously recognized only in the sprouts. Fifteen of those GLS were also identified in young and cauline leaves, 12 in the mature leaves and 13 in the inflorescences. No difference in GLS profile was observed in plant among the phenological stages. Differences in concentrations of GLS, quantified as desulfated, were found in plant. At the beginning of vegetative re-growth, sprouts while showing the same profile of the roots were much richer in GLS having the highest total GLS concentrations (117.5 and 7.7μmolg(-1) dry weight in sprouts and roots, respectively). During flowering and silique forming stages, the roots still maintained lower amount of total GLS (7.4μmolg(-1) of dry weight, on average) with respect to the epigeous tissues, in which mature and young leaves showed the highest total concentrations (70.5 and 73.8μmolg(-1) of dry weight on average, respectively). Regardless of the phenological stages, the aliphatic GLS were always predominant in all tissues (95%) followed by indolic (2.6%) and benzenic (2.4%) GLS. Sinigrin contributed more than 90% of the total GLS concentration. Aliphatic GLS concentrations were much higher in the epigeous tissues, particularly in the mature and young leaves, while benzenic and indolic GLS concentrations were higher in the roots. Through the phenological stages, GLS concentration increased in young and mature leaves and decreased in cauline leaves and inflorescences

  3. Toll-like Receptors as a Target of Food-derived Anti-inflammatory Compounds*

    PubMed Central

    Shibata, Takahiro; Nakashima, Fumie; Honda, Kazuya; Lu, Yu-Jhang; Kondo, Tatsuhiko; Ushida, Yusuke; Aizawa, Koichi; Suganuma, Hiroyuki; Oe, Sho; Tanaka, Hiroshi; Takahashi, Takashi; Uchida, Koji

    2014-01-01

    Toll-like receptors (TLRs) play a key role in linking pathogen recognition with the induction of innate immunity. They have been implicated in the pathogenesis of chronic inflammatory diseases, representing potential targets for prevention/treatment. Vegetable-rich diets are associated with the reduced risk of several inflammatory disorders. In the present study, based on an extensive screening of vegetable extracts for TLR-inhibiting activity in HEK293 cells co-expressing TLR with the NF-κB reporter gene, we found cabbage and onion extracts to be the richest sources of a TLR signaling inhibitor. To identify the active substances, we performed activity-guiding separation of the principal inhibitors and identified 3-methylsulfinylpropyl isothiocyanate (iberin) from the cabbage and quercetin and quercetin 4′-O-β-glucoside from the onion, among which iberin showed the most potent inhibitory effect. It was revealed that iberin specifically acted on the dimerization step of TLRs in the TLR signaling pathway. To gain insight into the inhibitory mechanism of TLR dimerization, we developed a novel probe combining an isothiocyanate-reactive group and an alkyne functionality for click chemistry and detected the probe bound to the TLRs in living cells, suggesting that iberin disrupts dimerization of the TLRs via covalent binding. Furthermore, we designed a variety of iberin analogues and found that the inhibition potency was influenced by the oxidation state of the sulfur. Modeling studies of the iberin analogues showed that the oxidation state of sulfur might influence the global shape of the isothiocyanates. These findings establish the TLR dimerization step as a target of food-derived anti-inflammatory compounds. PMID:25294874

  4. Broccoli sprouts: An exceptionally rich source of inducers of enzymes that protect against chemical carcinogens

    PubMed Central

    Fahey, Jed W.; Zhang, Yuesheng; Talalay, Paul

    1997-01-01

    Induction of phase 2 detoxication enzymes [e.g., glutathione transferases, epoxide hydrolase, NAD(P)H: quinone reductase, and glucuronosyltransferases] is a powerful strategy for achieving protection against carcinogenesis, mutagenesis, and other forms of toxicity of electrophiles and reactive forms of oxygen. Since consumption of large quantities of fruit and vegetables is associated with a striking reduction in the risk of developing a variety of malignancies, it is of interest that a number of edible plants contain substantial quantities of compounds that regulate mammalian enzymes of xenobiotic metabolism. Thus, edible plants belonging to the family Cruciferae and genus Brassica (e.g., broccoli and cauliflower) contain substantial quantities of isothiocyanates (mostly in the form of their glucosinolate precursors) some of which (e.g., sulforaphane or 4-methylsulfinylbutyl isothiocyanate) are very potent inducers of phase 2 enzymes. Unexpectedly, 3-day-old sprouts of cultivars of certain crucifers including broccoli and cauliflower contain 10–100 times higher levels of glucoraphanin (the glucosinolate of sulforaphane) than do the corresponding mature plants. Glucosinolates and isothiocyanates can be efficiently extracted from plants, without hydrolysis of glucosinolates by myrosinase, by homogenization in a mixture of equal volumes of dimethyl sulfoxide, dimethylformamide, and acetonitrile at −50°C. Extracts of 3-day-old broccoli sprouts (containing either glucoraphanin or sulforaphane as the principal enzyme inducer) were highly effective in reducing the incidence, multiplicity, and rate of development of mammary tumors in dimethylbenz(a)anthracene-treated rats. Notably, sprouts of many broccoli cultivars contain negligible quantities of indole glucosinolates, which predominate in the mature vegetable and may give rise to degradation products (e.g., indole-3-carbinol) that can enhance tumorigenesis. Hence, small quantities of crucifer sprouts may protect

  5. Stimulation of phagocytosis by sulforaphane

    SciTech Connect

    Suganuma, Hiroyuki, E-mail: hsuganu1@jhmi.edu; Fahey, Jed W., E-mail: jfahey@jhmi.edu; Bryan, Kelley E., E-mail: kbryanm1@jhmi.edu

    2011-02-04

    Research highlights: {yields} Sulforaphane stimulates the phagocytosis of RAW 264.7 macrophages under conditions of serum deprivation. {yields} This effect does not require Nrf2-dependent induction of phase 2 genes. {yields} Inactivation of macrophage migration inhibitory factor (MIF) by sulforaphane may be involved in stimulation of phagocytosis by sulforaphane. -- Abstract: Sulforaphane, a major isothiocyanate derived from cruciferous vegetables, protects living systems against electrophile toxicity, oxidative stress, inflammation, and radiation. A major protective mechanism is the induction of a network of endogenous cytoprotective (phase 2) genes that are regulated by transcription factor Nrf2. To obtain a more detailed understanding of the anti-inflammatorymore » and immunomodulatory effects of sulforaphane, we evaluated its effect on the phagocytosis activity of RAW 264.7 murine macrophage-like cells by measuring the uptake of 2-{mu}m diameter polystyrene beads. Sulforaphane raised the phagocytosis activity of RAW 264.7 cells but only in the absence or presence of low concentrations (1%) of fetal bovine serum. Higher serum concentrations depressed phagocytosis and abolished its stimulation by sulforaphane. This stimulation did not depend on the induction of Nrf2-regulated genes since it occurred in peritoneal macrophages of nrf2{sup -/-} mice. Moreover, a potent triterpenoid inducer of Nrf2-dependent genes did not stimulate phagocytosis, whereas sulforaphane and another isothiocyanate (benzyl isothiocyanate) had comparable inducer potencies. It has been shown recently that sulforaphane is a potent and direct inactivator of macrophage migration inhibitory factor (MIF), an inflammatory cytokine. Moreover, the addition of recombinant MIF to RAW 264.7 cells attenuated phagocytosis, but sulforaphane-inactivated MIF did not affect phagocytosis. The inactivation of MIF may therefore be involved in the phagocytosis-enhancing activity of sulforaphane.« less

  6. Inactivation of tautomerase activity of macrophage migration inhibitory factor by sulforaphane: a potential biomarker for anti-inflammatory intervention.

    PubMed

    Healy, Zachary R; Liu, Hua; Holtzclaw, W David; Talalay, Paul

    2011-07-01

    Macrophage migration inhibitory factor (MIF), a proinflammatory cytokine with keto-enol tautomerase activity, rises rapidly in response to inflammation and is elevated in many chronic diseases. Isothiocyanates, such as sulforaphane from broccoli, are very potent inactivators of MIF tautomerase activity. A simple rapid method for determining this activity in tissues and body fluids may therefore be valuable for assessing severity of inflammation and efficacy of intervention. Existing spectrophotometric assays of MIF, based on conversion of methyl L-dopachrome to methyl 5,6-dihydroxyindole-2-carboxylate and associated loss of absorption at 475 nm, lack sensitivity. Assay sensitivity and efficiency were markedly improved by reducing the nonenzymatic rate, by lowering pH to 6.2, replacing phosphate (which catalyzes the reaction) with Bis-Tris buffer, and converting to a microtiter plate format. A structure-potency study of MIF tautomerase inactivation by isothiocyanates showed that sulforaphane, benzyl, n-hexyl, and phenethyl isothiocyanates were especially potent. MIF tautomerase could be readily quantified in human urine concentrated by ultrafiltration. This activity comprised: (i) a heat-labile, sulforaphane-inactivated macromolecular fraction (presumably MIF) that was concentrated during ultrafiltration; (ii) a flow-through fraction, with constant activity during filtration, that was heat stable and insensitive to sulforaphane. Administration of the sulforaphane precursor glucoraphanin to human volunteers almost completely abolished urinary tautomerase activity, which recovered over many hours. A simple, rapid, quantitative MIF tautomerase assay has been developed as a potential biomarker for assessing inflammatory severity and effectiveness of intervention. An improved assay for measuring MIF tautomerase activity and its applications are described. ©2011 AACR

  7. Inactivation of Tautomerase Activity of Macrophage Migration Inhibitory Factor by Sulforaphane: A Potential Biomarker for Anti-inflammatory Intervention

    PubMed Central

    Healy, Zachary R.; Liu, Hua; Holtzclaw, W. David; Talalay, Paul

    2011-01-01

    Background Macrophage migration inhibitory factor (MIF), a proinflammatory cytokine with keto-enol tautomerase activity, rises rapidly in response to inflammation, and is elevated in many chronic diseases. Isothiocyanates, such as sulforaphane from broccoli, are very potent inactivators of MIF tautomerase activity. A simple rapid method for determining this activity in tissues and body fluids may therefore be valuable for assessing severity of inflammation and efficacy of intervention. Methods Existing spectrophotometric assays of MIF, based on conversion of methyl L-dopachrome to methyl 5,6-dihydroxyindole-2-carboxylate and associated loss of absorption at 475 nm, lack sensitivity. Assay sensitivity and efficiency were markedly improved by reducing the nonenzymatic rate, by lowering pH to 6.2, replacing phosphate (which catalyzes the reaction) with Bis-Tris buffer, and converting to a microtiter plate format. Results A structure-potency study of MIF tautomerase inactivation by isothiocyanates showed that sulforaphane, benzyl, n-hexyl, and phenethyl isothiocyanates were especially potent. MIF tautomerase could be readily quantified in human urine concentrated by ultrafiltration. This activity comprised: (i) a heat-labile, sulforaphane-inactivated macromolecular fraction (presumably MIF) that was concentrated during ultrafiltration; (ii) a flow-through fraction, with constant activity during filtration, that was heat-stable, and insensitive to sulforaphane. Administration of the sulforaphane precursor glucoraphanin to human volunteers almost completely abolished urinary tautomerase activity, which was recovered over many hours. Conclusions A simple, rapid, quantitative MIF tautomerase assay has been developed as a potential biomarker for assessing inflammatory severity and effectiveness of intervention. Impact An improved assay for measuring MIF tautomerase activity and its applications are described. PMID:21602309

  8. A sulforaphane analogue that potently activates the Nrf2-dependent detoxification pathway.

    PubMed

    Morimitsu, Yasujiro; Nakagawa, Yoko; Hayashi, Kazuhiro; Fujii, Hiroyuki; Kumagai, Takeshi; Nakamura, Yoshimasa; Osawa, Toshihiko; Horio, Fumihiko; Itoh, Ken; Iida, Katsuyuki; Yamamoto, Masayuki; Uchida, Koji

    2002-02-01

    Exposure of cells to a wide variety of chemoprotective compounds confers resistance to a broad set of carcinogens. For a subset of the chemoprotective compounds, protection is generated by an increase in the abundance of the protective phase II detoxification enzymes, such as glutathione S-transferase (GST). We have recently developed a cell culture system, using rat liver epithelial RL 34 cells, that potently responds to the phenolic antioxidants resulting in the induction of GST activity (Kawamoto, Y., Nakamura, Y., Naito, Y., Torii, Y., Kumagai, T., Osawa, T., Ohigashi, H., Satoh, K., Imagawa, M., and Uchida, K. (2000) J. Biol. Chem. 275, 11291-11299.) In the present study, we investigated the phase II-inducing potency of an isothiocyanate compound in vitro and in vivo and examined a possible induction mechanism. Based on an extensive screening of vegetable extracts for GST inducer activity in RL34 cells, we found Japanese horseradish, wasabi (Wasabia japonica, syn. Eutrema wasabi), as the richest source and identified 6-methylsulfinylhexyl isothiocyanate (6-HITC), an analogue of sulforaphane (4-methylsulfinylbutyl isothiocyanate) isolated from broccoli, as the major GST inducer in wasabi. 6-HITC potently induced both class alpha GSTA1 and class pi GSTP1 isozymes in RL34 cells. In animal experiments, we found that 6-MSHI was rapidly absorbed into the body and induced hepatic phase II detoxification enzymes more potently than sulforaphane. The observations that (i) 6-HITC activated the antioxidant response element (ARE), (ii) 6-HITC induced nuclear localization of the transcription factor Nrf2 that binds to ARE, and (iii) the induction of phase II enzyme genes by 6-HITC was completely abrogated in the nrf2-deficient mice, suggest that 6-HITC is a potential activator of the Nrf2/ARE-dependent detoxification pathway.

  9. Trifunctional Agents as a Design Strategy for Tailoring Ligand Properties: Irreversible Inhibitors of A1 Adenosine Receptors†

    PubMed Central

    Boring, Daniel L.; Ji, Xiao-Duo; Zimmet, Jeff; Taylor, Kirk E.; Stiles, Gary L.

    2012-01-01

    The 1,3-phenylene diisothiocyanate conjugate of XAC (8-[4-[[[[(2-aminoethyl)amino]carbonyl]methyl]-oxy]phenyl]-l,3-dipropylxanthine, a potent A1 selective adenosine antagonist) has been characterized as an irreversible inhibitor of A1 adenosine receptors. To further extend this work, a series of analogues were prepared containing a third substituent in the phenyl isothiocyanate ring, incorporated to modify the physiochemical or spectroscopic properties of the conjugate. Symmetrical trifunctional cross-linking reagents bearing two isothiocyanate groups were prepared as general intermediates for cross-linking functionalized congeners and receptors. Xanthine isothiocyanate derivatives containing hydrophilic, fluorescent, or reactive substituents, linked via an amide, thiourea, or methylene group in the 5-position, were synthesized and found to be irreversible inhibitors of A1 adenosine receptors. The effects of the 5-substituent on water solubility and on the A1/A2 selectivity ratio derived from binding assays in rat brain membranes were examined. Inhibition of binding of [3H]-N6-(2-phenylisopropyl)-adenosine and [3H]CGS21680 (2-[[2-[4-(2-carboxyethyl)phenyl]ethyl]amino]adenosine-5′-N-ethylcarboxamide) at central A1 and A2 adenosine receptors, respectively, was measured. A conjugate of XAC and 1,3,5-triisothiocyanatobenzene was 894-fold selective for A1 receptors. Reporter groups, such as fluorescent dyes and a spin-label, were included as chain substituents in the irreversibly binding analogues, which were designed for spectroscopic assays, histochemical characterization, and biochemical characterization of the receptor protein. PMID:1868116

  10. Nanoparticles increase the efficacy of cancer chemopreventive agents in cells exposed to cigarette smoke condensate.

    PubMed

    Pulliero, Alessandra; Wu, Yun; Fenoglio, Daniela; Parodi, Alessia; Romani, Massimo; Soares, Christiane P; Filaci, Gilberto; Lee, James L; Sinkam, Patrick N; Izzotti, Alberto

    2015-03-01

    Lung cancer is a leading cause of death in developed countries. Although smoking cessation is a primary strategy for preventing lung cancer, former smokers remain at high risk of cancer. Accordingly, there is a need to increase the efficacy of lung cancer prevention. Poor bioavailability is the main factor limiting the efficacy of chemopreventive agents. The aim of this study was to increase the efficacy of cancer chemopreventive agents by using lipid nanoparticles (NPs) as a carrier. This study evaluated the ability of lipid NPs to modify the pharmacodynamics of chemopreventive agents including N-acetyl-L-cysteine, phenethyl isothiocyanate and resveratrol (RES). The chemopreventive efficacy of these drugs was determined by evaluating their abilities to counteract cytotoxic damage (DNA fragmentation) induced by cigarette smoke condensate (CSC) and to activate protective apoptosis (annexin-V cytofluorimetric staining) in bronchial epithelial cells both in vitro and in ex vivo experiment in mice. NPs decreased the toxicity of RES and increased its ability to counteract CSC cytotoxicity. NPs significantly increased the ability of phenethyl isothiocyanate to attenuate CSC-induced DNA fragmentation at the highest tested dose. In contrast, this potentiating effect was observed at all tested doses of RES, NPs dramatically increasing RES-induced apoptosis in CSC-treated cells. These results provide evidence that NPs are highly effective at increasing the efficacy of lipophilic drugs (RES) but are not effective towards hydrophilic agents (N-acetyl-L-cysteine), which already possess remarkable bioavailability. Intermediate effects were observed for phenethyl isothiocyanate. These findings are relevant to the identification of cancer chemopreventive agents that would benefit from lipid NP delivery. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  11. Novel Micro/Nano Approaches for Glucose Measurement Using pH-Sensitive Hydrogels

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2005-06-01

    hydrochloride ) (PAH) (polycation). A total of three bilayers of GOx/PAH were assembled, and enzyme activity was confirmed by colorimetric assay...D- glucosamine residues in chitosan can be conjugated with amine-reactive dyes, such as succinimidyl esters (Alexa Fluor 647TM, CY5®), isothiocyanates...were found to be: A 4 94 nm=0.153276 MW=161 [D- glucosamine ]=0.77g/L Sdye=68000cm-M-1 DOL=4.71 x 10-’ Therefore, the labeling ratio of FITC:chitosan

  12. Synthesis and characterization of bis-thiourea having amino acid derivatives

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fakhar, Imran; Yamin, Bohari M.; Hasbullah, Siti Aishah

    2016-11-01

    In this article four new symmetric bis-thiourea derivatives having amino acid linkers were reported with good yield. Isophthaloyl dichloride was used as spacer and L-alanine, L-aspartic acid, L-phenylalanine and L-glutamic acid were used as linkers. Bis-thiourea derivatives were prepared from relatively stable isophthaloyl isothiocyanate intermediate. Newly synthesized bis-thiourea derivatives were characterized by FTIR, H-NMR, 13C-NMR and CHNS-O elemental analysis techniques. Characterization data was in good agreement with the expected derivatives, hence confirmed the synthesis of four new derivatives of bis-thiourea having amino acids.

  13. A proof-of-concept clinical study examining the NRF2 activator sulforaphane against neutrophilic airway inflammation.

    PubMed

    Duran, Charity G; Burbank, Allison J; Mills, Katherine H; Duckworth, Heather R; Aleman, Maria M; Kesic, Matthew J; Peden, David B; Pan, Yinghao; Zhou, Haibo; Hernandez, Michelle L

    2016-07-22

    Sulforaphane (SFN), a naturally occurring isothiocyanate found in cruciferous vegetables, is implicated as a possible therapy for airway inflammation via induction of the transcription factor NF-E2-related factor 2 (NRF2). In this proof-of-concept clinical study, we show that supplementation of SFN with broccoli sprout homogenate in healthy human subjects did not induce expression of antioxidant genes or protect against neutrophilic airway inflammation in an ozone-exposure model. Therefore, dietary sulforaphane supplementation is not a promising candidate for larger scale clinical trials targeting airway inflammation. NCT01625130 . Registered 19 June, 2012.

  14. A one-pot synthesis of bis(phenylimino)thiazolidines from ketene N,S-acetals and [Formula: see text],[Formula: see text]-diphenyloxalimidoyl dichloride.

    PubMed

    Yavari, Issa; Zahedi, Nooshin; Baoosi, Leila; Skoulika, Stavroula

    2018-02-01

    A synthesis of functionalized 4,5-bis(phenylimino)-1,3-thiazolidine-2-ylidenes via a simple reaction between ketene [Formula: see text]-acetals (derived from isothiocyanates and acetonitrile derivatives) with N,[Formula: see text]-diphenyloxalimidoyl dichloride in the presence of KOH in DMF is described. When CS[Formula: see text] was used as the heterocumulene component, the reaction led to the formation of 4,5-bis(phenylimino)-1,3-dithiolan-2-ylidene derivatives, in moderate to good yields.

  15. Antimicrobial Packaging for Extending the Shelf Life of Bread-A Review.

    PubMed

    Jideani, V A; Vogt, K

    2016-06-10

    Antimicrobial packaging is an important form of active packaging that can release antimicrobial substances for enhancing the quality and safety of food during extended storage. It is in response to consumers demand for preservative-free food as well as more natural, disposable, biodegradable, and recyclable food-packaging materials. The potential of a combination of allyl isothiocyanate and potassium sorbate incorporated into polymers in providing the needed natural antimicrobial protection for bread products is discussed. The role of double extrusion process as a means for obtaining a homogeneous mix of the sorbate into the polymer (polyethylene or ethylenevinyalcohol), is highlighted.

  16. Progression and Metastasis of Mammary Carcinomas: Potential Role of the Muc1 Glycoprotein

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1998-09-01

    polyclonal antibody to the cytoplasmic tail of Mucl or antibody previously blocked with 5mg/ml of synthetic peptide (diluted 1:50) for 1 hr at 25°C...Following three 5 minute washes with PBS pH 7.4, the sections were incubated with fluorescein isothiocyanate-conjugated swine anti-rabbit antibody ...stained with Ab-3 murine monoclonal antibody that recognizes the neu oncogene (Oncogene Science,Uniondale, NY; diluted 1:100), for 1 hr at 25°C

  17. Palladium-catalyzed cyclization reactions of 2-vinylthiiranes with heterocumulenes. Regioselective and enantioselective formation of thiazolidine, oxathiolane, and dithiolane derivatives.

    PubMed

    Larksarp, C; Sellier, O; Alper, H

    2001-05-18

    The first palladium-catalyzed ring-expansion reaction of 2-vinylthiiranes with heterocumulenes to form sulfur-containing five-membered-ring heterocycles is described. This regioselective reaction requires 5 mol % of Pd(2)(dba)(3).CHCl(3) and 10 mol % of bidendate phosphine ligand (dppp, BINAP), at 50-80 degrees C, in THF. The reaction of 2-vinylthiiranes with carbodiimides, isocyanates, and ketenimines affords 1,3-thiazolidine derivatives, whereas the reaction with diphenylketene or isothiocyanates results in the formation of 1,3-oxathiolane or 1,3-dithiolane compounds in good to excellent isolated yields and in up to 78% ee.

  18. A review of syntheses of 1,5-disubstituted tetrazole derivatives.

    PubMed

    Sarvary, Afshin; Maleki, Ali

    2015-02-01

    This report provides a brief overview of the various representative literature procedures for the synthesis of 1,5-disubstituted tetrazoles (1,5-DSTs) and fused 1,5-disubstituted tetrazoles with more than 120 references. Most of the published methods for the synthesis of 1,5-DSTs include the use of nitriles, amides, thioamides, imidoyl chlorides, heterocumulenes, isocyanates, isothiocyanates, carbodiimides, ketenimines, ketones, amines, and alkenes as the starting materials. The transformation of 1- and 5-substituted tetrazoles into 1,5-DSTs is also covered in this report.

  19. Injection by hydrostatic pressure in conjunction with electrokinetic force on a microfluidic chip.

    PubMed

    Gai, Hongwei; Yu, Linfen; Dai, Zhongpeng; Ma, Yinfa; Lin, Bingcheng

    2004-06-01

    A simple method was developed for injecting a sample on a cross-form microfluidic chip by means of hydrostatic pressure combined with electrokinetic forces. The hydrostatic pressure was generated simply by adjusting the liquid level in different reservoirs without any additional driven equipment such as a pump. Two dispensing strategies using a floating injection and a gated injection, coupled with hydrostatic pressure loading, were tested. The fluorescence observation verified the feasibility of hydrostatic pressure loading in the separation of a mixture of fluorescein sodium salt and fluorescein isothiocyanate. This method was proved to be effective in leading cells to a separation channel for single cell analysis.

  20. Lectin Ulex europaeus agglutinin I specifically labels a subset of primary afferent fibers which project selectively to the superficial dorsal horn of the spinal cord.

    PubMed

    Mori, K

    1986-02-19

    To examine differential carbohydrate expression among different subsets of primary afferent fibers, several fluorescein-isothiocyanate conjugated lectins were used in a histochemical study of the dorsal root ganglion (DRG) and spinal cord of the rabbit. The lectin Ulex europaeus agglutinin I specifically labeled a subset of DRG cells and primary afferent fibers which projected to the superficial laminae of the dorsal horn. These results suggest that specific carbohydrates containing L-fucosyl residue is expressed selectively in small diameter primary afferent fibers which subserve nociception or thermoception.

  1. Enhancement in ex vivo phagocytic capacity of peritoneal leukocytes in mice by oral delivery of various lactic-acid-producing bacteria.

    PubMed

    Lee, Yeonhee; Lee, Taik-Soo

    2005-01-01

    Lactic-acid-producing bacteria (LABs) are known to have immunomodulating activity. In the current study, various LABs were tested for their immunity-enhancing activity, especially the phagocytic activity of leukocytes. Viable but not heat-killed cells of Weissella kimchii strain PL9001, Lactobacillus fermentum strain PL9005, and L. plantarum strain PL9011 significantly increased the ex vivo phagocytic capacity of mouse peritoneal leukocytes to ingest fluorescein isothiocyanate (FITC)-labeled Escherichia coli in a strain-dependent manner. Results of this and previous studies suggest these LABs as candidates for new probiotics. This is the first report of the enhancement of peritoneal leukocyte activity of these species.

  2. Protein sorption on polymer surfaces measured by fluorescence labels.

    PubMed

    Brynda, E; Drobník, J; Vacík, J; Kálal, J

    1978-01-01

    Fluorescence labeling can be used in studying protein sorption on various surfaces with a sensitivity of about 10(-8) g/cm2, commensurate with radioactive labeling. Fluorescamine proved to be the most suitable compound for studying protein sorption on hydrophilic gels, because, unlike fluoresceine isothiocyanate and dansylchloride, free fluorochrome does not interfere with measurements. Sorption properties of labeled serum albumin were tested on poly(2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate), on the copolymer of 2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate with methyl methacrylate, and on polyethylene. Labeling does not cause aggregation of the protein, but, as expected, it shifts and somewhat broadens its electrophoretic band while at the same time slightly raising its affinity toward hydrophobic surfaces.

  3. Laser inactivation of periodontal bacteria using photosensitizing dyes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Golding, Paul S.; Maddocks, L.; King, Terence A.; Drucker, D. B.

    1996-12-01

    We demonstrate the killing of the oral bacteria Prevotella nigrescens using a photosensitizer and light from a 10 Hz, frequency doubled, Q-switched Nd:YAG pumped dye laser, with modified oscillator to increase output power. This system produced light at wavelengths close to 620 nm, the absorption maximum of the photosensitizing agent, malachite green isothiocyanate, a wavelength that is not significantly absorbed by tissue. A bacterial reduction of 97.5 percent was achieved at an energy density of 0.67 J/cm2 and exposure times of 300 seconds.

  4. Influence of carbon and nitrogen source on production of volatile fragrance and flavour metabolites by the yeast Kluyveromyces marxianus.

    PubMed

    Gethins, Loughlin; Guneser, Onur; Demirkol, Aslı; Rea, Mary C; Stanton, Catherine; Ross, R Paul; Yuceer, Yonca; Morrissey, John P

    2015-01-01

    The yeast Kluyveromyces marxianus produces a range of volatile molecules with applications as fragrances or flavours. The purpose of this study was to establish how nutritional conditions influence the production of these metabolites. Four strains were grown on synthetic media, using a variety of carbon and nitrogen sources and volatile metabolites analysed using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). The nitrogen source had pronounced effects on metabolite production: levels of the fusel alcohols 2-phenylethanol and isoamyl alcohol were highest when yeast extract was the nitrogen source, and ammonium had a strong repressing effect on production of 2-phenylethyl acetate. In contrast, the nitrogen source did not affect production of isoamyl acetate or ethyl acetate, indicating that more than one alcohol acetyl transferase activity is present in K. marxianus. Production of all acetate esters was low when cells were growing on lactose (as opposed to glucose or fructose), with a lower intracellular pool of acetyl CoA being one explanation for this observation. Bioinformatic and phylogenetic analysis of the known yeast alcohol acetyl transferases ATF1 and ATF2 suggests that the ancestral protein Atf2p may not be involved in synthesis of volatile acetate esters in K. marxianus, and raises interesting questions as to what other genes encode this activity in non-Saccharomyces yeasts. Identification of all the genes involved in ester synthesis will be important for development of the K. marxianus platform for flavour and fragrance production. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  5. Skin corrosion test: a comparison between reconstructed human epidermis and full thickness skin models.

    PubMed

    Catarino, Carolina Motter; do Nascimento Pedrosa, Tatiana; Pennacchi, Paula Comune; de Assis, Silvia Romano; Gimenes, Fabrícia; Consolaro, Márcia Edilaine Lopes; de Moraes Barros, Silvia Berlanga; Maria-Engler, Silvya Stuchi

    2018-04-01

    Currently, there is a strong global trend towards the development of in vitro models to replace the use of animals in safety evaluation tests. Reconstructed Human Epidermis (RHE) models have been employed as an alternative method to animal testing of skin corrosion and irritation potential of chemical compounds. However, the consequences of an absence of the dermal compartment in these models should be considered since the cross-talk between fibroblasts and keratinocytes is fundamental for promoting proper epidermal stratification, homeostasis, inflammatory response and wound healing. In this study, we compare in-house developed models of Reconstructed Human Epidermis (i.e. USP-RHE) and full thickness skin (i.e. USP-FTS) regarding their response when submitted to skin corrosion assays, based on Guideline 431 (OECD). The results show that both models correctly classified the four substances tested (2-phenylethyl bromide, benzylacetone, lactic acid, octanoic acid) as corrosive or non-corrosive. Furthermore, we have demonstrated higher cell viability of the USP-FTS model compared to the USP-RHE model, a sign of its improved barrier function, following the exposure to the substances test on the corrosion assay. This emphasizes the importance of employing in vitro models that are more physiologically relevant and that better mimic the in vivo situation for the toxicological screening of substances. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. HS-SPME GC/MS characterization of volatiles in raw and dry-roasted almonds (Prunus dulcis).

    PubMed

    Xiao, Lu; Lee, Jihyun; Zhang, Gong; Ebeler, Susan E; Wickramasinghe, Niramani; Seiber, James; Mitchell, Alyson E

    2014-05-15

    A robust HS-SPME and GC/MS method was developed for analyzing the composition of volatiles in raw and dry-roasted almonds. Almonds were analyzed directly as ground almonds extracted at room temperature. In total, 58 volatiles were identified in raw and roasted almonds. Straight chain aldehydes and alcohols demonstrated significant but minimal increases, while the levels of branch-chain aldehydes, alcohols, heterocyclic and sulfur containing compounds increased significantly (500-fold) in response to roasting (p<0.05). Benzaldehyde decreased from 2934.6±272.5 ng/g (raw almonds) to 315.8±70.0 ng/g (averaged across the roasting treatments evaluated i.e. 28, 33 and 38 min at 138 °C) after roasting. Pyrazines were detected in only the roasted almonds, with the exception of 2,5-dimethylpyrazine, which was also found in raw almonds. The concentration of most alcohols increased in the roasted samples with the exception of 2-methyl-1-propanol, 3-methyl-1-butanol and 2-phenylethyl alcohol, which decreased 68%, 80%, and 86%, respectively. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. [The compounds from n-butanol fraction of Alpinia oxyphylla].

    PubMed

    Xie, Bin-Bin; Hou, Lei; Guo, Bao-Lin; Huang, Wen-Hua; Yu, Jing-Guang

    2014-11-01

    Nine compounds were isolated from the n-butanol fraction of 95% ethanol extract of the fruit of Alpinia oxyphylla Miq. with a combination of various chromatographic approaches, including MDS resin, silica gel, reverse phase C18 and preparative HPLC. On the basis of spectroscopic data analysis, they were elucidated as (1R, 4R, 10R)-1β, 4α-dihydroxy-11, 12, 13-trinor-5, 6-eudesmen-7-one (1), 1β, 4β-dihydroxy-11, 12, 13-trinor-8, 9-eudesmen-7-one (2), oxyphyllenone A (3), oxyphyllenone B (4), rhamnocitrin (5), staphylionoside D (6), benzyl-1-O-β-D-glucopyranoside (7), 2-O-β-D-glucopyranosyl-(1S)-phenylethylene glycol (8), and (S)-1-phenylethyl-β-D-glucopyranoside (9). Among them, compound 1 is a new sesquiterpene, named as oxyphyllenone C; compounds 8 and 9 are new natural products; compounds 2 and 6 were isolated from the genus Alpinia for the first time, and compound 7 was isolated from A. oxyphylla for the first time.

  8. SANS study on the solvated structure and molecular interactions of a thermo-responsive polymer in a room temperature ionic liquid

    DOE PAGES

    Hirosawa, Kazu; Fujii, Kenta; Ueki, Takeshi; ...

    2016-06-17

    Here, we utilized small-angle neutron scattering (SANS) to quantitatively characterize the LCST-type phase behavior of the poly(benzyl methacrylate) (PBnMA) derivative poly(2-phenylethyl methacrylate) (PPhEtMA) in the deuterated ionic liquid (IL) d 8-1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium bis(trifluoromethanesulfonyl)amide (d 8-[C 2mIm +][TFSA -]). The SANS curves showed a discontinuous change from those characteristics of dispersed polymer chains to those of large aggregates of PPhEtMA chains suspended in the IL solution, indicating that phase separation occurs discontinuously at T c. We also evaluated the enthalpic and entropic contributions to the effective interaction parameter χ eff of PPhEtMA in [C 2mIm +][TFSA -] and compared them with thosemore » of PBnMA. The absolute value of the enthalpic contribution observed for PPhEtMA was smaller than that for PBnMA. This difference in the enthalpic term can be attributed to the unfavorable interaction between the IL and the alkyl group in the side chain of PPhEtMA. In addition, the temperature dependence of χ eff was smaller than the previously reported value for a thermo-responsive polymer in an aqueous system. Finally, it was found out that the strong dependence of T c on the chemical structure in IL systems originated from the relatively smaller temperature dependence of χ eff.« less

  9. Yeast ratio is a critical factor for sequential fermentation of papaya wine by Williopsis saturnus and Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    PubMed

    Lee, Pin-Rou; Kho, Stephanie Hui Chern; Yu, Bin; Curran, Philip; Liu, Shao-Quan

    2013-07-01

    The growth kinetics and fermentation performance of Williopsis saturnus and Saccharomyces cerevisiae at ratios of 10:1, 1:1 and 1:10 (W.:S.) were studied in papaya juice with initial 7-day fermentation by W.saturnus, followed by S. cerevisiae. The growth kinetics of W. saturnus were similar at all ratios, but its maximum cell count decreased as the proportion of S. cerevisiae was increased. Conversely, there was an early death of S. cerevisiae at the ratio of 10:1. Williopsis saturnus was the dominant yeast at 10:1 ratio that produced papaya wine with elevated concentrations of acetate esters. On the other hand, 1:1 and 1:10 ratios allowed the coexistence of both yeasts which enabled the flavour-enhancing potential of W.saturnus as well as the ethyl ester and alcohol-producing abilities of S. cerevisiae. In particular, 1:1 and 1:10 ratios resulted in production of more ethyl esters, alcohols and 2-phenylethyl acetate. However, the persistence of both yeasts at 1:1 and 1:10 ratios led to formation of high levels of acetic acid. The findings suggest that yeast ratio is a critical factor for sequential fermentation of papaya wine by W.saturnus and S. cerevisiae as a strategy to modulate papaya wine flavour. © 2012 The Authors. Microbial Biotechnology published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd and Society for Applied Microbiology.

  10. Outlining a future for non-Saccharomyces yeasts: selection of putative spoilage wine strains to be used in association with Saccharomyces cerevisiae for grape juice fermentation.

    PubMed

    Domizio, Paola; Romani, Cristina; Lencioni, Livio; Comitini, Francesca; Gobbi, Mirko; Mannazzu, Ilaria; Ciani, Maurizio

    2011-06-30

    The use of non-Saccharomyces yeasts that are generally considered as spoilage yeasts, in association with Saccharomyces cerevisiae for grape must fermentation was here evaluated. Analysis of the main oenological characteristics of pure cultures of 55 yeasts belonging to the genera Hanseniaspora, Pichia, Saccharomycodes and Zygosaccharomyces revealed wide biodiversity within each genus. Moreover, many of these non-Saccharomyces strains had interesting oenological properties in terms of fermentation purity, and ethanol and secondary metabolite production. The use of four non-Saccharomyces yeasts (one per genus) in mixed cultures with a commercial S. cerevisiae strain at different S. cerevisiae/non-Saccharomyces inoculum ratios was investigated. This revealed that most of the compounds normally produced at high concentrations by pure cultures of non-Saccharomyces, and which are considered detrimental to wine quality, do not reach threshold taste levels in these mixed fermentations. On the other hand, the analytical profiles of the wines produced by these mixed cultures indicated that depending on the yeast species and the S. cerevisiae/non-Saccharomyces inoculum ratio, these non-Saccharomyces yeasts can be used to increase production of polysaccharides and to modulate the final concentrations of acetic acid and volatile compounds, such as ethyl acetate, phenyl-ethyl acetate, 2-phenyl ethanol, and 2-methyl 1-butanol. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Ionic Liquid Droplet Microreactor for Catalysis Reactions Not at Equilibrium.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Ming; Ettelaie, Rammile; Yan, Tao; Zhang, Suojiang; Cheng, Fangqin; Binks, Bernard P; Yang, Hengquan

    2017-12-06

    We develop a novel strategy to more effectively and controllably process continuous enzymatic or homogeneous catalysis reactions based on nonaqueous Pickering emulsions. A key element of this strategy is "bottom-up" construction of a macroscale continuous flow reaction system through packing catalyst-containing micron-sized ionic liquid (IL) droplet in oil in a column reactor. Due to the continuous influx of reactants into the droplet microreactors and the continuous release of products from the droplet microreactors, catalysis reactions in such a system can take place without limitations arising from establishment of the reaction equilibrium and catalyst separation, inherent in conventional batch reactions. As proof of the concept, enzymatic enantioselective trans-esterification and CuI-catalyzed cycloaddition reactions using this IL droplet-based flow system both exhibit 8 to 25-fold enhancement in catalysis efficiency compared to their batch counterparts, and a durability of at least 4000 h for the enantioselective trans-esterification of 1-phenylethyl alcohol, otherwise unattainable in their batch counterparts. We further establish a theoretical model for such a catalysis system working under nonequilibrium conditions, which not only supports the experimental results but also helps to predict reaction progress at a microscale level. Being operationally simple, efficient, and adaptive, this strategy provides an unprecedented platform for practical applications of enzymes and homogeneous catalysts even at a controllable level.

  12. 1,4,2-Benzo/pyridodithiazine 1,1-dioxides structurally related to the ATP-sensitive potassium channel openers 1,2,4-Benzo/pyridothiadiazine 1,1-dioxides exert a myorelaxant activity linked to a distinct mechanism of action.

    PubMed

    Pirotte, Bernard; de Tullio, Pascal; Florence, Xavier; Goffin, Eric; Somers, Fabian; Boverie, Stéphane; Lebrun, Philippe

    2013-04-25

    The synthesis of diversely substituted 3-alkyl/aralkyl/arylamino-1,4,2-benzodithiazine 1,1-dioxides and 3-alkylaminopyrido[4,3-e]-1,4,2-dithiazine 1,1-dioxides is described. Their biological activities on pancreatic β-cells and on smooth muscle cells were compared to those of the reference ATP-sensitive potassium channel (KATP channel) openers diazoxide and 7-chloro-3-isopropylamino-4H-1,2,4-benzothiadiazine 1,1-dioxide. The aim was to assess the impact on biological activities of the replacement of the 1,2,4-thiadiazine ring by an isosteric 1,4,2-dithiazine ring. Most of the dithiazine analogues were found to be inactive on the pancreatic tissue, although some compounds bearing a 1-phenylethylamino side chain at the 3-position exerted a marked myorelaxant activity. Such an effect did not appear to be related to the opening of KATP channels but rather reflected a mechanism of action similar to that of calcium channel blockers. Tightly related 3-(1-phenylethyl)sulfanyl-4H-1,2,4-benzothiadiazine 1,1-dioxides were also found to exert a pronounced myorelaxant activity, resulting from both a KATP channel activation and a calcium channel blocker mechanism. The present work highlights the critical importance of an intracyclic NH group at the 4-position, as well as an exocyclic NH group linked to the 3-position of the benzo- and pyridothiadiazine dioxides, for activity on KATP channels.

  13. Composition and Chemical Variability of the Needle Oil from Pinus halepensis growing in Corsica.

    PubMed

    Nam, Anne-Marie; Tomi, Félix; Gibernau, Marc; Casanova, Joseph; Bighelli, Ange

    2016-02-25

    The composition of oil samples isolated from needles of Pinus halepensis growing in three locations in Corsica (Saleccia, Capo di Feno and Tre Padule) has been investigated by combination of chromatographic (GC with retention indices) and spectroscopic (MS, 13 C-NMR) techniques. In total, 35 compounds that accounted for 77-100% of the whole composition have been identified. α-Pinene, myrcene and (E)-β-caryophyllene were the major component followed by α-humulene and 2-phenylethyl isovalerate. Various diterpenes have been identified as minor components. Forty seven oil samples isolated from pine needles have been analyzed and were differentiated in two groups. Oil samples of the first group (15 samples) contained myrcene (M= 28.1g/100g; SD = 10.6) and (E)-β-caryophyllene (M = 19.0g/100g; SD = 2.2) as major components and diterpenes were absent. All these oil samples were isolated from pine needles harvested in Saleccia. Oil samples of the second group (32 samples) contained mostly (E)-β-caryophyllene (M = 28.7g/100g; SD = 7.9), α-pinene (M = 12.3g/100g; SD = 3.6) and myrcene (M = 11.7g/100g; SD = 7.3). All these oil samples were isolated from pine needles harvested in Capo di Feno and Tre Padule. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  14. Composition and Chemical Variability of the Needle Oil from Pinus halepensis growing in Corsica.

    PubMed

    Nam, Anne-Marie; Tomi, Félix; Gibernau, Marc; Casanova, Joseph; Bighelli, Ange

    2016-04-01

    The composition of oil samples isolated from needles of Pinus halepensis growing in three locations in Corsica (Saleccia, Capo di Feno, and Tre Padule) has been investigated by combination of chromatographic (GC with retention indices) and spectroscopic (MS and (13)C-NMR) techniques. In total, 35 compounds that accounted for 77 - 100% of the whole composition have been identified. α-Pinene, myrcene, and (E)-β-caryophyllene were the major component followed by α-humulene and 2-phenylethyl isovalerate. Various diterpenes have been identified as minor components. 47 Oil samples isolated from pine needles have been analyzed and were differentiated in two groups. Oil samples of the first group (15 samples) contained myrcene (M = 28.1 g/100 g; SD = 10.6) and (E)-β-caryophyllene (M = 19.0 g/100 g; SD = 2.2) as major components and diterpenes were absent. All these oil samples were isolated from pine needles harvested in Saleccia. Oil samples of the second group (32 samples) contained mostly (E)-β-caryophyllene (M = 28.7 g/100 g; SD = 7.9), α-pinene (M = 12.3 g/100 g; SD = 3.6), and myrcene (M = 11.7 g/100 g; SD = 7.3). All these oil samples were isolated from pine needles harvested in Capo di Feno and Tre Padule. © 2016 Verlag Helvetica Chimica Acta AG, Zürich.

  15. Surfactants, Aromatic and Isoprenoid Compounds, and Fatty Acid Biosynthesis Inhibitors Suppress Staphylococcus aureus Production of Toxic Shock Syndrome Toxin 1▿

    PubMed Central

    McNamara, Peter J.; Syverson, Rae Ellen; Milligan-Myhre, Kathy; Frolova, Olga; Schroeder, Sarah; Kidder, Joshua; Hoang, Thanh; Proctor, Richard A.

    2009-01-01

    Menstrual toxic shock syndrome is a rare but potentially life-threatening illness manifest through the actions of Staphylococcus aureus toxic shock syndrome toxin 1 (TSST-1). Previous studies have shown that tampon additives can influence staphylococcal TSST-1 production. We report here on the TSST-1-suppressing activity of 34 compounds that are commonly used additives in the pharmaceutical, food, and perfume industries. Many of the tested chemicals had a minimal impact on the growth of S. aureus and yet were potent inhibitors of TSST-1 production. The TSST-1-reducing compounds included surfactants with an ether, amide, or amine linkage to their fatty acid moiety (e.g., myreth-3-myristate, Laureth-3, disodium lauroamphodiacetate, disodium lauramido monoethanolamido, sodium lauriminodipropionic acid, and triethanolamine laureth sulfate); aromatic compounds (e.g. phenylethyl and benzyl alcohols); and several isoprenoids and related compounds (e.g., terpineol and menthol). The membrane-targeting and -altering effects of the TSST-1-suppressing compounds led us to assess the activity of molecules that are known to inhibit fatty acid biosynthesis (e.g., cerulenin, triclosan, and hexachlorophene). These compounds also reduced S. aureus TSST-1 production. This study suggests that more additives than previously recognized inhibit the production of TSST-1. PMID:19223628

  16. Comparative study of charge division in substituted benzene cations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Kang Taek; Sung, Jiha; Lee, Kwang Jun; Kim, Hyung Min; Han, Kyu Young; Park, Young Dong; Kim, Seong Keun

    2007-06-01

    A recently proposed phenomenon of charge division in a molecular cation [K. T. Lee et al., J. Am. Chem. Soc. 129, 2588 (2007)] was examined in a number of molecules by experiment and theory. We investigated the spatial distribution of electrostatic charge in the cation of the following benzene derivatives: n-propylbenzene (PB), 3-phenylpropionic acid (PPA), 2-phenylethyl alcohol (PEAL), and 2-phenylethylamine (PEA). A density functional theory calculation indicated that the positive charge was divided into two cationic charge cores in both conformers of PEA+, while it is localized mainly on the phenyl group in PB+, PPA+, and PEAL+. This finding was experimentally verified by the characteristic range of electronic transition of these species reflected in the fragmentation pattern of the mass spectra. The degree of charge division in PEA+ was slightly less than in the cationic conformers of L-phenylalanine in its subgroup II. The charge distribution in a phenyl-containing cation is suggested to depend on whether there exists a functional group that can act as a competing charge core against the phenyl ring.

  17. Effects of Using Tricaine Methanesulfonate and Metomidate before Euthanasia on the Contractile Properties of Rainbow Trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) Myocardium

    PubMed Central

    Roberts, Jordan C; Syme, Douglas A

    2016-01-01

    Because many anesthetics work through depressing cell excitability, unanesthetized euthanasia has become common for research involving excitable tissues (for example muscle and nerve) to avoid these depressive effects. However, anesthetic use during euthanasia may be indicated for studies involving isolated tissues if the potential depressive effects of brief anesthetic exposure dissipate after subsequent tissue isolation, washout, and saline perfusion. We explore this here by measuring whether, when applied prior to euthanasia, standard immersion doses of 2 fish anesthetics, tricaine methanesulfonate (TMS; 100 mg/L, n = 6) and methyl 1-(1-phenylethyl)-1H-imidazole-5-carboxylate (metomidate, 10 mg/L, n = 6), have residual effects on the contractile properties (force and work output) of isolated and saline-perfused ventricular compact myocardium from rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss). Results suggest that direct exposure of muscle to immersion doses of TMS—but not metomidate—impairs muscle contractile performance. However, brief exposure (2 to 3 min) to either anesthetic during euthanasia only—providing that the agent is washed out prior to tissue experimentation—does not have an effect on the contractile properties of the myocardium. Therefore, the use of TMS, metomidate, and perhaps other anesthetics that depress cell excitability during euthanasia may be indicated when conducting research on isolated and rinsed tissues. PMID:27657711

  18. Effects of Using Tricaine Methanesulfonate and Metomidate before Euthanasia on the Contractile Properties of Rainbow Trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) Myocardium.

    PubMed

    Roberts, Jordan C; Syme, Douglas A

    2016-01-01

    Because many anesthetics work through depressing cell excitability, unanesthetized euthanasia has become common for research involving excitable tissues (for example muscle and nerve) to avoid these depressive effects. However, anesthetic use during euthanasia may be indicated for studies involving isolated tissues if the potential depressive effects of brief anesthetic exposure dissipate after subsequent tissue isolation, washout, and saline perfusion. We explore this here by measuring whether, when applied prior to euthanasia, standard immersion doses of 2 fish anesthetics, tricaine methanesulfonate (TMS; 100 mg/L, n = 6) and methyl 1-(1-phenylethyl)-1H-imidazole-5-carboxylate (metomidate, 10 mg/L, n = 6), have residual effects on the contractile properties (force and work output) of isolated and saline-perfused ventricular compact myocardium from rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss). Results suggest that direct exposure of muscle to immersion doses of TMS-but not metomidate-impairs muscle contractile performance. However, brief exposure (2 to 3 min) to either anesthetic during euthanasia only-providing that the agent is washed out prior to tissue experimentation-does not have an effect on the contractile properties of the myocardium. Therefore, the use of TMS, metomidate, and perhaps other anesthetics that depress cell excitability during euthanasia may be indicated when conducting research on isolated and rinsed tissues.

  19. Volatile fingerprint of Brazilian defective coffee seeds: corroboration of potential marker compounds and identification of new low quality indicators.

    PubMed

    Toci, Aline T; Farah, Adriana

    2014-06-15

    In the present work, the volatile profiles of green and roasted Brazilian defective coffee seeds and their controls were characterised, totalling 159 compounds. Overall, defective seeds showed higher number and concentration of volatile compounds compared to those of control seeds, especially pyrazines, pyrroles and phenols. Corroborating our previous results, butyrolactone and hexanoic acid, previously considered as potential defective seeds' markers, were observed only in raw and roasted defective seeds, respectively, and not in control seeds. New compounds were suggested as potential defective seeds' markers: hexanoic acid (for raw and roasted defective seeds in general), butyrolactone (for raw defective seeds in general), and 3-ethyl-2-methyl-1,3-hexadiene (for raw black seeds); β-linalool and 2-butyl-3,5-dimethylpyrazine (for roasted defective seeds in general), and 2-pentylfuran (for roasted black seeds). Additional compounds suggested as low quality indicators were 2,3,5,6-tetramethylpyrazine,2,3-butanediol and 4-ethylguaiacol, β-linalool, 2-,3-dimethylbutyl butanoate, 2-phenylethyl acetate, 2,3-butanedione, hexanedioic acid, guaiacol, 2,3-dihydro-2-methyl-1H-benzopyrrol, 3-methylpiperidine, 2-pentylpiperidine, 3-octen-2-one, 2-octenal, 2-pentylfuran and 2-butyl-3-methylpyrazine. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  20. Olfactory source localization in the open field using one or both nostrils.

    PubMed

    Welge-Lussen, A; Looser, G L; Westermann, B; Hummel, T

    2014-03-01

    This study aims to examine humans ́ abilities to localize odorants within the open field. Young participants were tested on a localization task using a relatively selective olfactory stimulus (2-phenylethyl-alcohol, PEA) and cineol, an odorant with a strong trigeminal component. Participants were blindfolded and had to localize an odorant source at 2 m distance (far-field condition) and a 0.4 m distance (near-field condition) with either two nostrils open or only one open nostril. For the odorant with trigeminal properties, the number of correct trials did not differ when one or both nostrils were used, while more PEA localization trials were correctly completed with both rather than one nostril. In the near-field condition, correct localization was possible in 72-80% of the trials, irrespective of the odorant and the number of nostrils used. Localization accuracy, measured as spatial deviation from the olfactory source, was significantly higher in the near-field compared to the far-field condition, but independent of the odorant being localized. Odorant localization within the open field is difficult, but possible. In contrast to the general view, humans seem to be able to exploit the two-nostril advantage with increasing task difficulty.

  1. Feasibility of brewing makgeolli using Pichia anomala Y197-13, a non-Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    PubMed

    Kim, Hye Ryun; Kim, Jae-Ho; Bai, Dong-Hoon; Ahn, ByungHak

    2012-12-01

    Makgeolli is a traditional rice wine favored by the general public in Korea. This study investigated the fermentation and sensory characteristics of using wild yeast strains for brewing makgeolli. A non-Saccharomyces cerevisiae strain was isolated from nuruk and termed Y197-13. It showed 98% similarity to Pichia anomala and had an optimal growth temperature of 25 degrees C. Makgeolli was manufactured using koji, jinju nuruk, and improved nuruk as fermentation agents. Y197-13 makgeolli brewed with koji had alcohol and solids contents of 11.1% and 13.9%, respectively. Sweet sensory characteristics were attributed to residual sugars in makgeolli with 6% alcohol. The makgeolli had a fresh sour taste and carbonated taste. Volatile component analysis showed the isoamyl alcohol, phenylethyl alcohol, isoamyl acetate, and fatty acid, including ethyl oleate and ethyl linoleate, relative peak area was higher in Y197-13 makgeolli than in makgeolli with Saccharomyces cerevisiae. These results suggest the wild yeast, Y197-13, as a candidate for brewing makgeolli.

  2. Atomic Resolution Cryo-EM Structure of β-Galactosidase.

    PubMed

    Bartesaghi, Alberto; Aguerrebere, Cecilia; Falconieri, Veronica; Banerjee, Soojay; Earl, Lesley A; Zhu, Xing; Grigorieff, Nikolaus; Milne, Jacqueline L S; Sapiro, Guillermo; Wu, Xiongwu; Subramaniam, Sriram

    2018-05-10

    The advent of direct electron detectors has enabled the routine use of single-particle cryo-electron microscopy (EM) approaches to determine structures of a variety of protein complexes at near-atomic resolution. Here, we report the development of methods to account for local variations in defocus and beam-induced drift, and the implementation of a data-driven dose compensation scheme that significantly improves the extraction of high-resolution information recorded during exposure of the specimen to the electron beam. These advances enable determination of a cryo-EM density map for β-galactosidase bound to the inhibitor phenylethyl β-D-thiogalactopyranoside where the ordered regions are resolved at a level of detail seen in X-ray maps at ∼ 1.5 Å resolution. Using this density map in conjunction with constrained molecular dynamics simulations provides a measure of the local flexibility of the non-covalently bound inhibitor and offers further opportunities for structure-guided inhibitor design. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  3. Adaptive evolution of the lager brewing yeast Saccharomyces pastorianus for improved growth under hyperosmotic conditions and its influence on fermentation performance.

    PubMed

    Ekberg, Jukka; Rautio, Jari; Mattinen, Laura; Vidgren, Virve; Londesborough, John; Gibson, Brian R

    2013-05-01

    An adaptive evolution method to obtain stable Saccharomyces pastorianus brewing yeast variants with improved fermentation capacity is described. The procedure involved selection for rapid growth resumption at high osmotic strength. It was applied to a lager strain and to a previously isolated ethanol-tolerant strain. Fermentation performance of strains was compared at 15 °P wort strength. A selected osmotolerant variant of the ethanol-tolerant strain showed significantly shorter fermentation time than the parent strain, producing 6.45% alcohol by volume beer in 4-5 days with mostly similar organoleptic properties to the original strain. Diacetyl and pentanedione contents were 50-75% and 3-methylbutyl acetate and 2-phenylethyl acetate 50% higher than with the original strain, leading to a small flavour change. The variant contained significantly less intracellular trehalose and glycogen than the parent. Transcriptional analysis of selected genes at 24 h revealed reduced transcription of hexose transport genes and increased transcription of the MALx1 and MALx2 genes, responsible for α-glucoside uptake and metabolism. It is suggested that an attenuated stress response contributes to the improved fermentation performance. Results show that sequential selection for both ethanol tolerance and rapid growth at high osmotic strength can provide strains with enhanced fermentation speed with acceptable product quality. © 2013 Federation of European Microbiological Societies. Published by Blackwell Publishing Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Olfactory imprinting is correlated with changes in gene expression in the olfactory epithelia of the zebrafish.

    PubMed

    Harden, Maegan V; Newton, Lucy A; Lloyd, Russell C; Whitlock, Kathleen E

    2006-11-01

    Odors experienced as juveniles can have significant effects on the behavior of mature organisms. A dramatic example of this occurs in salmon, where the odors experienced by developing fish determine the river to which they return as adults. Further examples of olfactory memories are found in many animals including vertebrates and invertebrates. Yet, the cellular and molecular bases underlying the formation of olfactory memory are poorly understood. We have devised a series of experiments to determine whether zebrafish can form olfactory memories much like those observed in salmonids. Here we show for the first time that zebrafish form and retain olfactory memories of an artificial odorant, phenylethyl alcohol (PEA), experienced as juveniles. Furthermore, we demonstrate that exposure to PEA results in changes in gene expression within the olfactory sensory system. These changes are evident by in situ hybridization in the olfactory epithelium of the developing zebrafish. Strikingly, our analysis by in situ hybridization demonstrates that the transcription factor, otx2, is up regulated in the olfactory sensory epithelia in response to PEA. This increase is evident at 2-3 days postfertilization and is maintained in the adult animals. We propose that the changes in otx2 gene expression are manifest as an increase in the number of neuronal precursors in the cells olfactory epithelium of the odor-exposed fish. Thus, our results reveal a role for the environment in controlling gene expression in the developing peripheral nervous system. Copyright 2006 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  5. Aroma characterization of chinese rice wine by gas chromatography-olfactometry, chemical quantitative analysis, and aroma reconstitution.

    PubMed

    Chen, Shuang; Xu, Yan; Qian, Michael C

    2013-11-27

    The aroma profile of Chinese rice wine was investigated in this study. The volatile compounds in a traditional Chinese rice wine were extracted using Lichrolut EN and further separated by silica gel normal phase chromatography. Seventy-three aroma-active compounds were identified by gas chromatography-olfactometry (GC-O) and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). In addition to acids, esters, and alcohols, benzaldehyde, vanillin, geosmin, and γ-nonalactone were identified to be potentially important to Chinse rice wine. The concentration of these aroma-active compounds in the Chinese rice wine was further quantitated by combination of four different methods, including headsapce-gas chromatography, solid phase microextraction-gas chromatography (SPME)-GC-MS, solid-phase extraction-GC-MS, and SPME-GC-pulsed flame photometric detection (PFPD). Quantitative results showed that 34 aroma compounds were at concentrations higher than their corresponding odor thresholds. On the basis of the odor activity values (OAVs), vanillin, dimethyl trisulfide, β-phenylethyl alcohol, guaiacol, geosmin, and benzaldehyde could be responsible for the unique aroma of Chinese rice wine. An aroma reconstitution model prepared by mixing 34 aroma compounds with OAVs > 1 in an odorless Chinese rice wine matrix showed a good similarity to the aroma of the original Chinese rice wine.

  6. Yeast ratio is a critical factor for sequential fermentation of papaya wine by Williopsis saturnus and Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Pin-Rou; Kho, Stephanie Hui Chern; Yu, Bin; Curran, Philip; Liu, Shao-Quan

    2013-01-01

    Summary The growth kinetics and fermentation performance of Williopsis saturnus and Saccharomyces cerevisiae at ratios of 10:1, 1:1 and 1:10 (W.:S.) were studied in papaya juice with initial 7-day fermentation by W. saturnus, followed by S. cerevisiae. The growth kinetics of W. saturnus were similar at all ratios, but its maximum cell count decreased as the proportion of S. cerevisiae was increased. Conversely, there was an early death of S. cerevisiae at the ratio of 10:1. Williopsis saturnus was the dominant yeast at 10:1 ratio that produced papaya wine with elevated concentrations of acetate esters. On the other hand, 1:1 and 1:10 ratios allowed the coexistence of both yeasts which enabled the flavour-enhancing potential of W. saturnus as well as the ethyl ester and alcohol-producing abilities of S. cerevisiae. In particular, 1:1 and 1:10 ratios resulted in production of more ethyl esters, alcohols and 2-phenylethyl acetate. However, the persistence of both yeasts at 1:1 and 1:10 ratios led to formation of high levels of acetic acid. The findings suggest that yeast ratio is a critical factor for sequential fermentation of papaya wine by W. saturnus and S. cerevisiae as a strategy to modulate papaya wine flavour. PMID:23171032

  7. Comparative assessment of software for non-targeted data analysis in the study of volatile fingerprint changes during storage of a strawberry beverage.

    PubMed

    Morales, M L; Callejón, R M; Ordóñez, J L; Troncoso, A M; García-Parrilla, M C

    2017-11-03

    Five free software packages were compared to assess their utility for the non-targeted study of changes in the volatile profile during the storage of a novel strawberry beverage. AMDIS coupled to Gavin software turned out to be easy to use, required the minimum handling for subsequent data treatment and its results were the most similar to those obtained by manual integration. However, AMDIS coupled to SpectConnect software provided more information for the study of volatile profile changes during the storage of strawberry beverage. During storage, volatile profile changed producing the differentiation among the strawberry beverage stored at different temperatures, and this difference increases as time passes; these results were also supported by PCA. As expected, it seems that cold temperature is the best way of preservation for this product during long time storage. Variable Importance in the Projection (VIP) and correlation scores pointed out four volatile compounds as potential markers for shelf-life of our strawberry beverage: 2-phenylethyl acetate, decanoic acid, γ-decalactone and furfural. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Neurotensin-metabolizing peptidases in rat fundus plasma membranes.

    PubMed

    Checler, F; Barelli, H; Kwan, C Y; Kitabgi, P; Vincent, J P

    1987-08-01

    The mechanisms by which neurotensin (NT) was inactivated by rat fundus plasma membranes were characterized. Primary inactivating cleavages occurred at the Arg8-Arg9, Pro10-Tyr11, and Ile12-Leu13 peptidyl bonds. Hydrolysis at the Arg8-Arg9 bond was fully abolished by the use of N-[1(R,S)-carboxy-2-phenylethyl]-alanyl-alanyl-phenylalanine-p- aminobenzoate, a result indicating the involvement at this site of a recently purified soluble metallopeptidase. Hydrolysis of the Pro10-Tyr11 bond was totally resistant to N-benzyloxycarbonyl-prolyl-prolinal and thiorphan, an observation suggesting that the peptidase responsible for this cleavage was different from proline endopeptidase and endopeptidase 24.11 and might correspond to a NT-degrading neutral metallopeptidase recently isolated from rat brain synaptic membranes. The enzyme acting at the Ile12-Leu13 bond has not yet been identified. Secondary cleavages occurring on NT degradation products were mainly generated by bestatin-sensitive aminopeptidases and post-proline dipeptidyl aminopeptidase. The content in NT-metabolizing peptidases present in rat fundus plasma membranes is compared with that previously established for purified rat brain synaptic membranes.

  9. From Macromolecular to Small-Molecular Triggers: Facile Method toward Photoinduced LCST Phase Behavior of Thermoresponsive Polymers in Mixed Ionic Liquids Containing an Azobenzene Moiety.

    PubMed

    Wang, Caihong; Ma, Xiaofeng; Kitazawa, Yuzo; Kobayashi, Yumi; Zhang, Shiguo; Kokubo, Hisashi; Watanabe, Masayoshi

    2016-12-01

    Instead of the reported photoinduced lower critical solution temperature (LCST) phase transition behavior in ionic liquids (ILs) achieved by photofunctional polymers, this study reports the facile photoinduced LCST phase behavior of nonfunctionalized polymers (poly(benzyl methacrylate) (PBnMA) and poly(2-phenylethyl methacrylate) (PPhEtMA)) in mixed ILs (1,3-dimethylimidazolium bis(trifluoromethanesulfonyl)amide; [C 1 mim][NTf 2 ] and a newly designed functionalized IL containing an azobenzene moiety (1-butyl-3-(4-phenylazobenzyl)imidazolium bis(trifluoromethanesulfonyl)amide; [Azo][NTf 2 ])) as a small-molecular photo trigger. Interestingly, the length of the alkyl spacer between the ester and aryl groups, which is the only structural difference between the two polymers, leads to two different photoresponsive LCST phase transition behaviors. On the basis of spectroscopic studies, the different phase transition behaviors of PBnMA and PPhEtMA may attribute to the different cooperative interactions between the polymers and [C 1 mim][NTf 2 ]. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  10. DB-02, a C-6-Cyclohexylmethyl Substituted Pyrimidinone HIV-1 Reverse Transcriptase Inhibitor with Nanomolar Activity, Displays an Improved Sensitivity against K103N or Y181C Than S-DABOs

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Xing-Jie; Lu, Li-He; Wang, Rui-Rui; Wang, Yue-Ping; Luo, Rong-Hua; Cong Lai, Christopher; Yang, Liu-Meng; He, Yan-Ping; Zheng, Yong-Tang

    2013-01-01

    6-(cyclohexylmethyl)-5-ethyl-2-((2-oxo-2-phenylethyl)thio)pyrimidin-4(3H)-one (DB-02) is a member of the newly reported synthetic anti-HIV-1 compounds dihydro-aryl/alkylsulfanyl-cyclohexylmethyl-oxopyrimidines, S-DACOs. In vitro anti-HIV-1 activity and resistance profile studies have suggested that DB-02 has very low cytotoxicity (CC50>1mM) to cell lines and peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs). It displays potent anti-HIV-1 activity against laboratory adapted strains and primary isolated strains including different subtypes and tropism strains (EC50s range from 2.40 to 41.8 nM). Studies on site-directed mutagenesis, genotypic resistance profiles revealed that V106A was the major resistance contributor for the compound. Molecular docking analysis showed that DB-02 located in the hydrophobic pocket with interactions of Lys101, Val106, Leu234, His235. DB-02 also showed non-antagonistic effects to four approved antiretroviral drugs. All studies indicated that DB-02 would be a potential NNRTI with low cytotoxicity and improved activity. PMID:24282600

  11. D2 dopaminergic and 5-HT1A serotonergic activity of 2-(1-naphthyl)ethyl- and 2-(2-naphthyl)ethyl amines.

    PubMed

    Šukalović, V; Roglić, G; Husinec, S; Kostić-Rajaćić, S; Andrić, D; Šoškić, Vukić

    2003-11-01

    Several tertiary 2-phenylethyl, 2-(1-naphthyl)ethyl and 2-(2-naphthyl)ethyl amines were synthesized and their binding affinities for dopamine D(1), D(2) and serotonin 5-HT(1A) receptors evaluated in radioligand binding assays. All compounds were inactive in D(1) dopamine radioligand binding assay. The 2-(1-naphthyl)ethyl analogues expressed a low but significant binding affinity for the D(2) and moderate one for the 5-HT(1A) receptor subtypes. Most of the remaining compounds expressed binding affinity at the 5-HT(1A) receptor subtype but were inactive in D(2) receptor binding assay. Based on these results and considering the chemical characteristics of the compounds synthesized and evaluated for dopaminergic and serotonergic activity throughout the present study it can be concluded that hydrophobic type of interaction (stacking or edge-to-face) plays a significant role in the formation of receptor-ligand complexes of 2-(1-naphthyl)ethyl amines. This structural motive can be applied to design and synthesize new, more potent dopaminergic/serotonergic ligands by slight chemical modifications.

  12. Effectiveness of Liquid-Liquid Extraction, Solid Phase Extraction, and Headspace Technique for Determination of Some Volatile Water-Soluble Compounds of Rose Aromatic Water

    PubMed Central

    2017-01-01

    Steam distillation is used to isolate scent of rose flowers. Rose aromatic water is commonly used in European cuisine and aromatherapy besides its use in cosmetic industry for its lovely scent. In this study, three different sampling techniques, liquid-liquid extraction (LLE), headspace technique (HS), and solid phase extraction (SPE), were compared for the analysis of volatile water-soluble compounds in commercial rose aromatic water. Some volatile water-soluble compounds of rose aromatic water were also analyzed by gas chromatography mass spectrometry (GCMS). In any case, it was concluded that one of the solid phase extraction methods led to higher recoveries for 2-phenylethyl alcohol (PEA) in the rose aromatic water than the liquid-liquid extraction and headspace technique. Liquid-liquid extraction method provided higher recovery ratios for citronellol, nerol, and geraniol than others. Ideal linear correlation coefficient values were observed by GCMS for quantitative analysis of volatile compounds (r2 ≥ 0.999). Optimized methods showed acceptable repeatability (RSDs < 5%) and excellent recovery (>95%). For compounds such as α-pinene, linalool, β-caryophyllene, α-humulene, methyl eugenol, and eugenol, the best recovery values were obtained with LLE and SPE. PMID:28791049

  13. Characterization of the Key Aroma Compounds in Proso Millet Wine Using Headspace Solid-Phase Microextraction and Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Liu, Jingke; Zhao, Wei; Li, Shaohui; Zhang, Aixia; Zhang, Yuzong; Liu, Songyan

    2018-02-20

    The volatile compounds in proso millet wine were extracted by headspace solid-phase microextraction (85 μm polyacrylate (PA), 100 μm polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS), 75 μm Carboxen (CAR)/PDMS, and 50/30 μm divinylbenzene (DVB)/CAR/PDMS fibers), and analyzed using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry; the odor characteristics and intensities were analyzed by the odor activity value (OAV). Different sample preparation factors were used to optimize this method: sample amount, extraction time, extraction temperature, and content of NaCl. A total of 64 volatile compounds were identified from the wine sample, including 14 esters, seven alcohols, five aldehydes, five ketones, 12 benzene derivatives, 12 hydrocarbons, two terpenes, three phenols, two acids, and two heterocycles. Ethyl benzeneacetate, phenylethyl alcohol, and benzaldehyde were the main volatile compounds found in the samples. According to their OAVs, 14 volatile compounds were determined to be odor-active compounds (OAV > 1), and benzaldehyde, benzeneacetaldehyde, 1-methyl-naphthalene, 2-methyl-naphthalene, and biphenyl were the prominent odor-active compounds (OAV > 50), having a high OAV. Principal component analysis (PCA) showed the difference of distribution of the 64 volatile compounds and 14 odor-active compounds with four solid-phase microextraction (SPME) fibers.

  14. Chemical ecology of obligate pollination mutualisms: testing the 'private channel' hypothesis in the Breynia-Epicephala association.

    PubMed

    Svensson, Glenn P; Okamoto, Tomoko; Kawakita, Atsushi; Goto, Ryutaro; Kato, Makoto

    2010-06-01

    *Obligate mutualisms involving actively pollinating seed predators are among the most remarkable insect-plant relationships known, yet almost nothing is known about the chemistry of pollinator attraction in these systems. The extreme species specificity observed in these mutualisms may be maintained by specific chemical compounds through 'private channels'. Here, we tested this hypothesis using the monoecious Breynia vitis-idaea and its host-specific Epicephala pollinator as a model. *Headspace samples were collected from both male and female flowers of the host. Gas chromatography with electroantennographic detection (GC-EAD), coupled gas chromatography-mass spectrometry, and olfactometer bioassays were used to identify the floral compounds acting as the pollinator attractant. *Male and female flowers of B. vitis-idaea produced similar sets of general floral compounds, but in different ratios, and male flowers emitted significantly more scent than female flowers. A mixture of 2-phenylethyl alcohol and 2-phenylacetonitrile, the two most abundant compounds in male flowers, was as attractive to female moths as the male flower sample, although the individual compounds were slightly less attractive when tested separately. *Data on the floral scent signals mediating obligate mutualisms involving active pollination are still very limited. We show that system-specific chemistry is not necessary for efficient host location by exclusive pollinators in these tightly coevolved mutualisms.

  15. Saccharomyces kudriavzevii and Saccharomyces uvarum differ from Saccharomyces cerevisiae during the production of aroma-active higher alcohols and acetate esters using their amino acidic precursors.

    PubMed

    Stribny, Jiri; Gamero, Amparo; Pérez-Torrado, Roberto; Querol, Amparo

    2015-07-16

    Higher alcohols and acetate esters are important flavour and aroma components in the food industry. In alcoholic beverages these compounds are produced by yeast during fermentation. Although Saccharomyces cerevisiae is one of the most extensively used species, other species of the Saccharomyces genus have become common in fermentation processes. This study analyses and compares the production of higher alcohols and acetate esters from their amino acidic precursors in three Saccharomyces species: Saccharomyces kudriavzevii, Saccharomyces uvarum and S. cerevisiae. The global volatile compound analysis revealed that S. kudriavzevii produced large amounts of higher alcohols, whereas S. uvarum excelled in the production of acetate esters. Particularly from phenylalanine, S. uvarum produced the largest amounts of 2-phenylethyl acetate, while S. kudriavzevii obtained the greatest 2-phenylethanol formation from this precursor. The present data indicate differences in the amino acid metabolism and subsequent production of flavour-active higher alcohols and acetate esters among the closely related Saccharomyces species. This knowledge will prove useful for developing new enhanced processes in fragrance, flavour, and food industries. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  16. Electrospun polylactic acid and polyvinyl alcohol fibers as efficient and stable nanomaterials for immobilization of lipases.

    PubMed

    Sóti, Péter Lajos; Weiser, Diana; Vigh, Tamás; Nagy, Zsombor Kristóf; Poppe, László; Marosi, György

    2016-03-01

    Electrospinning was applied to create easy-to-handle and high-surface-area membranes from continuous nanofibers of polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) or polylactic acid (PLA). Lipase PS from Burkholderia cepacia and Lipase B from Candida antarctica (CaLB) could be immobilized effectively by adsorption onto the fibrous material as well as by entrapment within the electrospun nanofibers. The biocatalytic performance of the resulting membrane biocatalysts was evaluated in the kinetic resolution of racemic 1-phenylethanol (rac-1) and 1-phenylethyl acetate (rac-2). Fine dispersion of the enzymes in the polymer matrix and large surface area of the nanofibers resulted in an enormous increase in the activity of the membrane biocatalyst compared to the non-immobilized crude powder forms of the lipases. PLA as fiber-forming polymer for lipase immobilization performed better than PVA in all aspects. Recycling studies with the various forms of electrospun membrane biocatalysts in ten cycles of the acylation and hydrolysis reactions indicated excellent stability of this forms of immobilized lipases. PLA-entrapped lipases could preserve lipase activity and enantiomer selectivity much better than the PVA-entrapped forms. The electrospun membrane forms of CaLB showed high mechanical stability in the repeated acylations and hydrolyses than commercial forms of CaLB immobilized on polyacrylamide beads (Novozyme 435 and IMMCALB-T2-150).

  17. Identification of odors from overripe mango that attract vinegar flies, Drosophila melanogaster.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Junwei; Park, Kye-Chung; Baker, Thomas C

    2003-04-01

    Bioassays with a variety of overripe fruits, including mango, plum, pear, and grape, and their extracts showed that odors from overripe mango were most attractive to adult vinegar flies, Drosophila melanogaster. Combined gas chromatography-electroantennographic detection (GC-EAD) analyses of solid-phase microextraction (SPME) and Tenax extracts of overripe mango odors showed that several volatile compounds, including ethanol, acetic acid, amyl acetate, 2-phenylethanol, and phenylethyl acetate elicited significant EAG responses from antennae of female flies. Most of the volatile compounds in the extracts were identified by mass spectral and retention index comparisons with synthetic standards. In cage bioassays, lures with a blend of ethanol, acetic acid, and 2-phenylethanol in a ratio of 1:22:5 attracted six times more flies than any single EAG-active compound. This blend also attracted four times more flies than traps baited with overripe mango or unripe mango. However, in field trials, the blend was not as attractive as suggested by the laboratory bioassay.

  18. Antimicrobial activity of endophytic fungi from olive tree leaves.

    PubMed

    Malhadas, Cynthia; Malheiro, Ricardo; Pereira, José Alberto; de Pinho, Paula Guedes; Baptista, Paula

    2017-03-01

    In this study, the antimicrobial potential of three fungal endophytes from leaves of Olea europaea L. was evaluated and the host plant extract effect in the antimicrobial activity was examined. The volatile compounds produced by endophytes were identified by GC/MS and further correlated with the antimicrobial activity. In potato dextrose agar, both Penicillium commune and Penicillium canescens were the most effective inhibiting Gram-positive and -negative bacteria (up to 2.7-fold compared to 30 µg/mL chloramphenicol), whereas Alternaria alternata was most effective inhibiting yeasts (up to 8.0-fold compared to 25 μg/mL fluconazole). The presence of aqueous leaf extract in culture medium showed to induce or repress the antimicrobial activity, depending on the endophytic species. In the next step, various organic extracts from both A. alternata mycelium and cultured broth were prepared; being ethyl acetate extracts displayed the widest spectrum of anti-microorganisms at a minimum inhibitory concentration ≤0.095 mg/mL. The volatile composition of the fungi that displayed the highest (A. alternata) and the lowest (P. canescens) antimicrobial activity against yeasts revealed the presence of six volatiles, being the most abundant components (3-methyl-1-butanol and phenylethyl alcohol) ascribed with antimicrobial potentialities. Overall the results highlighted for the first time the antimicrobial potential of endophytic fungi from O. europaea and the possibility to be exploited for their antimicrobial agents.

  19. Simultaneous determination of Fluticasone propionate and Azelastine hydrochloride in the presence of pharmaceutical dosage form additives

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Merey, Hanan A.; El-Mosallamy, Sally S.; Hassan, Nagiba Y.; El-Zeany, Badr A.

    2016-05-01

    Fluticasone propionate (FLU) and Azelastine hydrochloride (AZE) are co-formulated with phenylethyl alcohol (PEA) and Benzalkonium chloride (BENZ) (as preservatives) in pharmaceutical dosage form for treatment of seasonal allergies. Different spectrophotometric methods were used for the simultaneous determination of cited drugs in the dosage form. Direct spectrophotometric method was used for determining of AZE, while Derivative of double divisor of ratio spectra (DD-RS), Ratio subtraction coupled with ratio difference method (RS-RD) and Mean centering of the ratio spectra (MCR) are used for the determination of FLU. The linearity of the proposed methods was investigated in the range of 5.00-40.00 and 5.00-80.00 μg/mL for FLU and AZE, respectively. The specificity of the developed methods was investigated by analyzing laboratory prepared mixtures containing different ratios of cited drugs in addition to PEA and their pharmaceutical dosage form. The validity of the proposed methods was assessed using the standard addition technique. The obtained results were statistically compared with those obtained by official or the reported method for FLU or AZE, respectively showing no significant difference with respect to accuracy and precision at p = 0.05.

  20. Effects of irrigation regimes on fatty acid composition, antioxidant and antifungal properties of volatiles from fruits of Koroneiki cultivar grown under Tunisian conditions.

    PubMed

    Brahmi, Faten; Chehab, Hechmi; Flamini, Guido; Dhibi, Madiha; Issaoui, Manel; Mastouri, Maha; Hammami, Mohamed

    2013-11-15

    The olive tree is generally grown under rain-fed conditions. However, since the yield response to irrigation is great, even with low amounts of water, there is increasing interest in irrigated agriculture. The main goal of this study was, therefore, to investigate the effect of irrigation regimes on olive (Olea europaea L., cv. Koroneiki) obtained from an intensively-managed orchard in a semi-arid area with a Mediterranean climate in Tunisia. Different irrigation treatments 50% ETc, 75% ETc and 100% ETc were applied to the olive orchard. Accordingly, the effects of three irrigation regimes on volatile compounds, fatty acid composition and biological activities of Koroneiki cultivar were studied. The total profile of the volatile constituents of all samples revealed the predominance of 3-ethenylpyridine (from 14.9-19.6%), phenylethyl alcool (from 7.8-19.2%) and benzaldehyde (from 9.0 to 13.8%). During watering level treatments studied, the major fatty acids were oleic, palmitic and linoleic. Antioxidant activity of the fresh fruit volatiles cultivated at a watering level of 100% ETc was higher than that obtained under 50 and 75% Etc. The results of antifungal activity showed that the fruits volatiles of the three irrigation treatments had varying degrees of growth inhibition against the microorganisms tested.

  1. Influence of aeration during propagation of pitching yeast on fermentation and beer flavor.

    PubMed

    Cheong, Chul; Wackerbauer, Karl; Kang, Soon Ah

    2007-02-01

    The effect of yeast propagated at different aeration conditions on yeast physiology, fermentation ability, and beer quality was investigated using three strains of Saccharomyces cerevisiae. It was shown that yeast cells grown under continuous aeration conditions during propagation were almost two times higher as compared with discontinuous aeration conditions. The maximum of cell growth of all samples reached between 36 h and 48 h. The concentration of trehalose was increased under continuous aerated yeasts, whereas glycogen was decreased. It was also observed that the concentration of glycogen and trehalose in yeast cells had no direct effect on subsequent fermentation ability. The effect of yeast propagated under different aeration conditions on subsequent fermentation ability was different from yeast strains, in which the influence will be most pronounced at the first fermentation. Later, the yeasts might regain its original characteristics in the following fermentations. Generally, continuously propagated yeast had a positive effect on beer quality in subsequent fermentation. Hence, the concentration of aroma compounds obtained with yeast propagated under 6 1/h for 48 h aeration was lower than those grown under other aeration conditions in the bottom yeasts; in particular, the amounts of phenylethyl alcohol, ester, and fatty acids were decreased.

  2. SANS study on the solvated structure and molecular interactions of a thermo-responsive polymer in a room temperature ionic liquid

    SciTech Connect

    Hirosawa, Kazu; Fujii, Kenta; Ueki, Takeshi

    Here, we utilized small-angle neutron scattering (SANS) to quantitatively characterize the LCST-type phase behavior of the poly(benzyl methacrylate) (PBnMA) derivative poly(2-phenylethyl methacrylate) (PPhEtMA) in the deuterated ionic liquid (IL) d 8-1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium bis(trifluoromethanesulfonyl)amide (d 8-[C 2mIm +][TFSA -]). The SANS curves showed a discontinuous change from those characteristics of dispersed polymer chains to those of large aggregates of PPhEtMA chains suspended in the IL solution, indicating that phase separation occurs discontinuously at T c. We also evaluated the enthalpic and entropic contributions to the effective interaction parameter χ eff of PPhEtMA in [C 2mIm +][TFSA -] and compared them with thosemore » of PBnMA. The absolute value of the enthalpic contribution observed for PPhEtMA was smaller than that for PBnMA. This difference in the enthalpic term can be attributed to the unfavorable interaction between the IL and the alkyl group in the side chain of PPhEtMA. In addition, the temperature dependence of χ eff was smaller than the previously reported value for a thermo-responsive polymer in an aqueous system. Finally, it was found out that the strong dependence of T c on the chemical structure in IL systems originated from the relatively smaller temperature dependence of χ eff.« less

  3. Identification of new phytoconstituents and antimicrobial activity in stem bark of Mangifera indica (L.).

    PubMed

    Singh, Ruchi; Singh, S K; Maharia, R S; Garg, A N

    2015-02-01

    Mangifera indica, commonly called mango or amra belonging to a family of Anacardiaceae, is an important medicinal plant widely used in a variety of Ayurvedic preparations. Extract of its bark, leaves, flowers and kernels are being extensively used for curing various chronic diseases. Mango wood is used in yagya as base fire through which medicated smoke is generated. Three new compounds have been isolated from methanolic and hexane extracts of stem bark: 1,2-benzenedicarboxylic acid, mono(2-ethylhexyl)ester and 9,12-tetradecadiene-1-ol-acetate from the hexane extract and 3-chloro-N-(2-phenylethyl) propanamide from the methanolic extract. These were first separated by thin layer chromatography and later in a silica gel column and identified by characteristic infrared bands corresponding to respective functional groups. The compounds were further confirmed on the basis of GC-MS fragmentation pattern after comparing the data with NIST mass spectral database. All three compounds exhibited antimicrobial activity due to triterpenoids and flavonoids. Elemental analyses by INAA show it to be enriched in essential nutrient elements such as Ca, Fe, K, Mn and Zn which all play an important role in enzymatic processes. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Cyclohex-1-ene carboxylic acids: synthesis and biological evaluation of novel inhibitors of human 5 alpha reductase.

    PubMed

    Baston, Eckhard; Salem, Ola I A; Hartmann, Rolf W

    2003-03-01

    In search of novel nonsteroidal mimics of steroidal inhibitors of 5 alpha reductase, 4-(2-phenylethyl)cyclohex-1-ene carboxylic acids 1-5 were synthesized with different substituents in para position of the phenyl ring (1: N, N-diisopropylcarbamoyl, 2: phenyl, 3: phenoxy, 4: benzoyl, and 5: benzyl). The principal synthetic approach for the desired compounds consisted of a Wittig olefination between 1, 4-dioxaspiro [4.5]-decane-8-carbaldehyde (4g and the appropriate phosphonium salts. The compounds were tested for inhibition of human 5 alpha reductase isozymes 1 and 2 using DU 145 cells and preparations from prostatic tissue, respectively. They turned out to be good inhibitors of the prostatic isozyme 2 with compound 1 being the most potent one (IC(50) = 760 nM). Isozyme 1 was only slightly inhibited. It is concluded that the novel structures are appropriate for being further optimized, aiming at the development of a novel drug for the treatment of benign prostatic hyperplasia.

  5. Metal-assisted in situ formation of a tridentate acetylacetone ligand for complexation of fac-Re(CO)3+ for radiopharmaceutical applications.

    PubMed

    Benny, Paul D; Fugate, Glenn A; Barden, Adam O; Morley, Jennifer E; Silva-Lopez, Elsa; Twamley, Brendan

    2008-04-07

    Reaction of [NEt4]2[ReBr3(CO)3] with 2,4-pentanedione (acac) yields a complex of the type fac-Re(acac)(OH2)(CO)3 (1) under aqueous conditions. 1 was further reacted with a monodentate ligand (pyridine) to yield a fac-Re(acac)(pyridine)(CO)3 complex (2). Complex 1 was found to react with primary amines to generate a Schiff base (imine) in aqueous solutions. When a mixed-nitrogen donor bidentate ligand, 2-(2-aminoethyl)pyridine, that has different coordination affinities for fac-Re(acac)(OH2)(CO)3 was utilized, a unique tridentate ligand was formed in situ utilizing a metal-assisted Schiff base formation to yield a complex fac-Re(CO)3(3[(2-phenylethyl)imino]-2-pentanone) (3). Tridentate ligand formation was found to occur only with the Re-coordinated acac ligand. Reactions of acac with fac-Re(CO)3Br(2-(2-aminoethyl)pyridine) (4) or a mixture of [NEt4]2[ReBr3(CO)3], acac, and 2-(2-aminoethyl)pyridine did not yield the formation of complex 3 in water.

  6. Difference in the volatile composition of pine-mushrooms (Tricholoma matsutake Sing.) according to their grades.

    PubMed

    Cho, In Hee; Choi, Hyung-Kyoon; Kim, Young-Suk

    2006-06-28

    The differences in volatile components of pine-mushrooms (Tricholoma matsutake Sing.) according to their grades were observed by applying multivariate statistical methods to GC-MS data sets. A total of 35 and 37 volatile components were identified in raw and cooked pine-mushrooms, respectively. The volatile components in pine-mushrooms were primarily composed of C8 species, such as 3-octanol, 1-octen-3-ol, 1-octanol, (E)-2-octen-1-ol, 3-octanone, 1-octen-3-one, (E)-2-octenal, and octanoic acid. The levels of ethyl octanoate, junipene, and 3-methyl-3-buten-2-one were much higher in raw pine-mushroom of higher grades, whereas the reverse was true for C8 components. On the other hand, furfuryl alcohol, benzyl alcohol, phenylethyl alcohol, dihydro-5-methyl-2(3H)-furanone, 2(5H)-furanone, (E)-2-methyl-2-butenal, furfural, phenylacetaldehyde, benzoic acid methyl ester, camphene, and beta-pinene were the major components of cooked mushrooms. These volatile components formed by various thermal reactions could be mainly responsible for the difference in volatile components of cooked pine-mushrooms according to their grades.

  7. Differentiation of aroma characteristics of pine-mushrooms (Tricholoma matsutake Sing.) of different grades using gas chromatography-olfactometry and sensory analysis.

    PubMed

    Cho, In Hee; Lee, Soh Min; Kim, Se Young; Choi, Hyung-Kyoon; Kim, Kwang-Ok; Kim, Young-Suk

    2007-03-21

    Two independent approaches, gas chromatography-olfactometry and sensory analysis, were used to evaluate and compare the aroma characteristics of pine-mushrooms (Tricholoma matsutake Sing.) of four different grades. The aroma-active compounds responsible for the sensory attributes of pine- mushrooms were investigated based on the correlation between instrumental and sensory analyses through partial least-square regression. Piny, meaty, and floral attributes were strongly correlated with each other and were the most important descriptors for defining the pine-mushrooms of the highest grade, and they decreased as the grade decreased. Among 23 aroma-active compounds, (E)-2-decenal, alpha-terpineol, phenylethyl alcohol, and 2-methylbutanoic acid ethyl ester contributed most to these attributes. On the other hand, the major aroma characteristics of the pine-mushrooms of the lowest grade were wet soil-like, alcohol, metallic, moldy, and fermented, and they decreased as the grade increased. These aroma characteristics were strongly associated with 1-octen-3-one, 1-octen-3-ol, 3-octanol, 3-octanone, (E)-2-octen-1-ol, and methional.

  8. Early Parkinson's disease patients on rasagiline present with better odor discrimination.

    PubMed

    Haehner, Antje; Habersack, Angela; Wienecke, Miriam; Storch, Alexander; Reichmann, Heinz; Hummel, Thomas

    2015-11-01

    The effects of rasagiline on olfaction in animal studies are convincing. However, apart from various anecdotal patient reports, they could not be reproduced in prospective studies in humans. Cross-sectional data of large patient groups are still missing. The aim of this study was therefore to determine the olfactory function in a broad heterogeneous Parkinson's disease (PD) population with and without rasagiline intake. In this single-center, cross-sectional study 224 PD patients with and without rasagiline (1 mg/day) participated. Seventy-four of them received rasagiline as mono, or adjunct therapy. One-hundred fifty patients were untreated or received PD medication other than rasagiline. Comprehensive olfactory testing was performed for phenyl-ethyl alcohol odor thresholds, odor discrimination, and odor identification. Olfactory function did not differ between the two treatment groups with disease duration up to 29 years. Rasagiline-treated patients with disease duration of less than 8 years, however, presented with significant better odor discrimination abilities compared to PD patients without rasagiline treatment. This effect was no longer evident in patients with longer disease duration and proofed to be independent of age, sex, and medication. Our results may suggest that rasagiline treatment has a positive effect on the processing of olfactory information in early PD.

  9. Odorant responsiveness of embryonic mouse olfactory sensory neurons expressing the odorant receptors S1 or MOR23.

    PubMed

    Lam, Rebecca S; Mombaerts, Peter

    2013-07-01

    The mammalian olfactory system has developed some functionality by the time of birth. There is behavioral and limited electrophysiological evidence for prenatal olfaction in various mammalian species. However, there have been no reports, in any mammalian species, of recordings from prenatal olfactory sensory neurons (OSNs) that express a given odorant receptor (OR) gene. Here we have performed patch-clamp recordings from mouse OSNs that express the OR gene S1 or MOR23, using the odorous ligands 2-phenylethyl alcohol or lyral, respectively. We found that, out of a combined total of 20 OSNs from embryos of these two strains at embryonic day (E)16.5 or later, all responded to a cognate odorous ligand. By contrast, none of six OSNs responded to the ligand at E14.5 or E15.5. The kinetics of the odorant-evoked electrophysiological responses of prenatal OSNs are similar to those of postnatal OSNs. The S1 and MOR23 glomeruli in the olfactory bulb are formed postnatally, but the axon terminals of OSNs expressing these OR genes may be synaptically active in the olfactory bulb at embryonic stages. The upper limit of the acquisition of odorant responsiveness for S1 and MOR23 OSNs at E16.5 is consistent with the developmental expression patterns of components of the olfactory signaling pathway. © 2013 Federation of European Neuroscience Societies and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  10. Phytochemistry and biological activities of Phlomis species.

    PubMed

    Limem-Ben Amor, Ilef; Boubaker, Jihed; Ben Sgaier, Mohamed; Skandrani, Ines; Bhouri, Wissem; Neffati, Aicha; Kilani, Soumaya; Bouhlel, Ines; Ghedira, Kamel; Chekir-Ghedira, Leila

    2009-09-07

    The genus Phlomis L. belongs to the Lamiaceae family and encompasses 100 species native to Turkey, North Africa, Europe and Asia. It is a popular herbal tea enjoyed for its taste and aroma. Phlomis species are used to treat various conditions such as diabetes, gastric ulcer, hemorrhoids, inflammation, and wounds. This review aims to summarize recent research on the phytochemistry and pharmacological properties of the genus Phlomis, with particular emphasis on its ethnobotanical uses. The essential oil of Phomis is composed of four chemotypes dominated by monoterpenes (alpha-pinene, limonene and linalool), sesquiterpenes (germacrene D and beta-caryophyllene), aliphalic compounds (9,12,15-octadecatrienoic acid methyl ester), fatty acids (hexadecanoic acid) and other components (trans-phytol, 9,12,15-octadecatrien-1-ol). Flavonoids, iridoids and phenylethyl alcohol constitute the main compounds isolated from Phlomis extracts. The pharmacological activities of some Phlomis species have been investigated. They are described according to antidiabetic, antinociceptive, antiulcerogenic, protection of the vascular system, anti-inflammatory, antiallergic, anticancer, antimicrobial and antioxidant properties.

  11. Metabolic profiling of glucosinolates and their hydrolysis products in a germplasm collection of Brassica rapa turnips.

    PubMed

    Klopsch, Rebecca; Witzel, Katja; Börner, Andreas; Schreiner, Monika; Hanschen, Franziska S

    2017-10-01

    About 10% of the world's vegetable production is generated from Brassicaceae, wherein Brassica rapa is a dominating species. There is growing evidence that glucosinolates (GLSs), main plant secondary metabolites in Brassicales, play an important role in promoting human health. Natural genetic diversity of B. rapa can be explored for vegetable improvement. We analyzed leaves and tubers of 16 B. rapa turnips for their GLS composition by UHPLC-DAD and the corresponding hydrolysis products by GC-MS. Thirteen GLSs were identified, 8 aliphatic, 4 indolic and one aromatic. 3-Butenyl GLS was prevailing in both plant organs while in tubers 2-hydroxy-3-butenyl GLS and 2-phenylethyl GLS occurred in high amounts. A total of 24 GLS breakdown products were detected in tubers and 16 in leaves. Epithionitriles were the main hydrolysis products in both plant organs with 4,5-epithiopentanenitrile and 3-hydroxy-4,5-epithiopentanenitrile being the main compounds. When comparing leaves and tubers, an accumulation of GLSs and their breakdown products was observed in tubers compared to leaves. Our analysis achieved the comprehensive profiling of all GLS metabolites in a collection of B. rapa turnips, underlining the natural variation not only of intact GLS, but also of their breakdown products. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Hit optimization studies of 3-hydroxy-indolin-2-one analogs as potential anti-HIV-1 agents.

    PubMed

    Chander, Subhash; Tang, Cheng-Run; Penta, Ashok; Wang, Ping; Bhagwat, Deepak P; Vanthuyne, Nicolas; Albalat, Muriel; Patel, Payal; Sankpal, Sanskruti; Zheng, Yong-Tang; Sankaranarayanan, Murugesan

    2018-09-01

    In the current study, twenty-two compounds based upon 3-hydroxy-3-(2-oxo-2-phenylethyl)indolin-2-one nucleus were designed, synthesized and in vitro evaluated for HIV-1 RT inhibition and anti-HIV-1 activity. Compounds 3d, 5c and 5e demonstrated encouraging potency against RT enzyme as well as HIV-1 in low micromolar to nanomolar concentration with good to excellent safety index. Structure activity relationship studies revealed that halogens such as bromo or chloro at 5th the position of oxindole ring remarkably enhanced the potency against RT. Moreover, methoxy or chloro groups at the ortho position of phenyl ring also significantly favored RT inhibition activity. Seven compounds (3b, 3c, 3d, 3e, 5b, 5c and 5e) with better anti-HIV-1 potency were tested against the mutant HIV-1 K103N strain . The putative binding mode, as well as interaction patterns of the best active compound 5c with wild HIV-1 RT were studied via docking studies. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. EOBII, a Gene Encoding a Flower-Specific Regulator of Phenylpropanoid Volatiles' Biosynthesis in Petunia[C][W

    PubMed Central

    Spitzer-Rimon, Ben; Marhevka, Elena; Barkai, Oren; Marton, Ira; Edelbaum, Orit; Masci, Tania; Prathapani, Naveen-Kumar; Shklarman, Elena; Ovadis, Marianna; Vainstein, Alexander

    2010-01-01

    Floral scent, which is determined by a complex mixture of low molecular weight volatile molecules, plays a major role in the plant's life cycle. Phenylpropanoid volatiles are the main determinants of floral scent in petunia (Petunia hybrida). A screen using virus-induced gene silencing for regulators of scent production in petunia flowers yielded a novel R2R3-MYB–like regulatory factor of phenylpropanoid volatile biosynthesis, EMISSION OF BENZENOIDS II (EOBII). This factor was localized to the nucleus and its expression was found to be flower specific and temporally and spatially associated with scent production/emission. Suppression of EOBII expression led to significant reduction in the levels of volatiles accumulating in and emitted by flowers, such as benzaldehyde, phenylethyl alcohol, benzylbenzoate, and isoeugenol. Up/downregulation of EOBII affected transcript levels of several biosynthetic floral scent-related genes encoding enzymes from the phenylpropanoid pathway that are directly involved in the production of these volatiles and enzymes from the shikimate pathway that determine substrate availability. Due to its coordinated wide-ranging effect on the production of floral volatiles, and its lack of effect on anthocyanin production, a central regulatory role is proposed for EOBII in the biosynthesis of phenylpropanoid volatiles. PMID:20543029

  14. Optimization of Postharvest Conditions To Produce Chocolate Aroma from Jackfruit Seeds.

    PubMed

    Spada, Fernanda Papa; Zerbeto, Lais Masson; Ragazi, Gabriel Bernardes Cabreira; Gutierrez, Érika Maria Roel; Souza, Miriam Coelho; Parker, Jane K; Canniatti-Brazaca, Solange Guidolin

    2017-02-15

    Jackfruit seeds are an underutilized waste in many tropical countries. This work demonstrates the potential of roasted jackfruit seeds to develop chocolate aroma. Twenty-seven different roasted jackfruit seed flours were produced from local jackfruit by acidifying or fermenting the seeds prior to drying and then roasting under different time/temperature combinations. The chocolate aroma of groups of four flours were ranked by a sensory panel (n = 162), and response surface methodology was used to identify optimum conditions. The results indicated a significant and positive influence of fermentation and acidification on the production of chocolate aroma. SPME/GC-MS of the flours showed that important aroma compounds such as 2,3-diethyl-5-methylpyrazine and 2-phenylethyl acetate were substantially higher in the fermented product and that the more severe roasting conditions produced 2-3 times more 2,3-diethyl-5-methylpyrazine, but less 3-methylbutanal. Moisture, a w , pH, luminosity, and color were also monitored to ensure that these properties were similar to those of cocoa powder or cocoa substitutes.

  15. Copper mediates auxin signalling to control cell differentiation in the copper moss Scopelophila cataractae

    PubMed Central

    Nomura, Toshihisa; Itouga, Misao; Kojima, Mikiko; Kato, Yukari; Sakakibara, Hitoshi; Hasezawa, Seiichiro

    2015-01-01

    The copper (Cu) moss Scopelophila cataractae (Mitt.) Broth. is often found in Cu-enriched environments, but it cannot flourish under normal conditions in nature. Excess Cu is toxic to almost all plants, and therefore how this moss species thrives in regions with high Cu concentration remains unknown. In this study, we investigated the effect of Cu on gemma germination and protonemal development in S. cataractae. A high concentration of Cu (up to 800 µM) did not affect gemma germination. In the protonemal stage, a low concentration of Cu promoted protonemal gemma formation, which is the main strategy adopted by S. cataractae to expand its habitat to new locations. Cu-rich conditions promoted auxin accumulation and induced differentiation of chloronema into caulonema cells, whereas it repressed protonemal gemma formation. Under low-Cu conditions, auxin treatment mimicked the effects of high-Cu conditions. Furthermore, Cu-induced caulonema differentiation was severely inhibited in the presence of the auxin antagonist α-(phenylethyl-2-one)-indole-3-acetic acid, or the auxin biosynthesis inhibitor l-kynurenine. These results suggest that S. cataractae flourishes in Cu-rich environments via auxin-regulated cell differentiation. The copper moss might have acquired this mechanism during the evolutionary process to benefit from its advantageous Cu-tolerance ability. PMID:25428998

  16. Hierarchical Sol-Gel Transition Induced by Thermosensitive Self-Assembly of an ABC Triblock Polymer in an Ionic Liquid

    SciTech Connect

    Kitazawa, Yuzo; Ueki, Takeshi; McIntosh, Lucas D.

    2016-04-29

    Here we investigate a hierarchical morphology change and accompanying sol–gel transition using a doubly thermosensitive ABC-triblock copolymer in an ionic liquid (IL). The triblock copolymer contains two different lower critical solution temperature (LCST) thermosensitive polymers, poly(benzyl methacrylate) (PBnMA) and poly(2-phenylethyl methacrylate) (PPhEtMA), as the end blocks and poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) as the middle block (PBnMA-b-PMMA-b-PPhEtMA: BMP). BMP undergoes a hierarchical phase transition corresponding to the self-assembly of each of the thermosensitive blocks in the IL, and a sol–gel transition was observed in concentrated, above 10 wt %, polymer solutions. The gelation behavior was affected by polymer concentration, and at 20more » wt %, the BMP/IL composite showed a phase transition, with increasing temperature, from solution through a jammed micelle suspension to a physically cross-linked gel. For each phase was formed reversibly and rapidly over the corresponding temperature range. Finally, the jammed micelle and cross-linked gel states were characterized using viscoelastic measurements and small-angle X-ray scattering (SAXS).« less

  17. Antagonistic activity of fungi of Olea europaea L. against Colletotrichum acutatum.

    PubMed

    Landum, Miguel C; Félix, Maria do Rosário; Alho, Joana; Garcia, Raquel; Cabrita, Maria João; Rei, Fernando; Varanda, Carla M R

    2016-02-01

    Fungi naturally present in olive trees were identified and tested for their antagonistic potential against Colletotrichum acutatum. A total of 14 isolates were identified, 12 belonged to genera Alternaria, Epicoccum, Fusarium, Aspergillus, Anthrinium, Chaetomium, Diaporthe, Nigrospora, one to family Xylariaceae and one was unclassified. All fungal isolates showed some inhibitory action over the growth of C. acutatum during dual culture growth, however, when agar-diffusible tests were performed only five fungal isolates caused C. acutatum growth inhibition: Alternaria sp. isolate 2 (26.8%), the fungus from Xylariaceae family (14.3%), Alternaria sp. isolate 1 (10.7%); Diaporthe sp. (10.7%), Nigrospora oryzae (3.5%). Volatile substances produced by these isolates were identified through gas-chromatography techniques, as phenylethyl alcohol, 4-methylquinazoline, benzothiazole, benzyl alcohol, lilial, galaxolide, among others. These inhibitory volatiles could play a significant role in reduction of C. acutatum expansion in olive and their study as potential biocontrol agents should be further explored. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  18. Sulforaphane Modifies Histone H3, Unpacks Chromatin, and Primes Defense.

    PubMed

    Schillheim, Britta; Jansen, Irina; Baum, Stephani; Beesley, Alexander; Bolm, Carsten; Conrath, Uwe

    2018-03-01

    Modern crop production calls for agrochemicals that prime plants for enhanced defense. Reliable test systems for spotting priming-inducing chemistry, however, are rare. We developed an assay for the high-throughput search for compounds that prime microbial pattern-induced secretion of antimicrobial furanocoumarins (phytoalexins) in cultured parsley cells. The screen produced 1-isothiocyanato-4-methylsulfinylbutane (sulforaphane; SFN), a secondary metabolite in many crucifers, as a novel defense priming compound. While elucidating SFN's mode of action in defense priming, we found that in Arabidopsis ( Arabidopsis thaliana ) the isothiocyanate provokes covalent modification (K4me3, K9ac) of histone H3 in the promoter and promoter-proximal region of defense genes WRKY6 and PDF1 2 , but not PR1 SFN-triggered H3K4me3 and H3K9ac coincide with chromatin unpacking in the WRKY6 and PDF1 2 regulatory regions, primed WRKY6 expression, unprimed PDF1 2 activation, and reduced susceptibility to downy mildew disease ( Hyaloperonospora arabidopsidis ). Because SFN also directly inhibits H arabidopsidis and other plant pathogens, the isothiocyanate is promising for the development of a plant protectant with a dual mode of action. © 2018 American Society of Plant Biologists. All Rights Reserved.

  19. Broccoli and watercress suppress matrix metalloproteinase-9 activity and invasiveness of human MDA-MB-231 breast cancer cells

    SciTech Connect

    Rose, Peter; Huang, Qing; Ong, Choon Nam

    A high dietary intake of cruciferous vegetables has been associated with a reduction in numerous human pathologies particularly cancer. In the current study, we examined the inhibitory effects of broccoli (Brassica oleracea var. italica) and watercress (Rorripa nasturtium aquaticum) extracts on 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate (TPA)-induced cancer cell invasion and matrix metalloproteinase-9 activity using human MDA-MB-231 breast cancer cells. Aberrant overexpression of matrix metalloproteinases, including metalloproteinase-9, is associated with increased invasive potential in cancer cell lines. Our results demonstrate that extracts of broccoli and Rorripa suppressed TPA-induced MMP-9 activity and invasiveness in a concentration dependant manner as determined by zymographic analysis. Furthermore, fractionationmore » of individual extracts followed by liquid chromatography mass spectroscopy analysis (LC-MS) revealed that the inhibitory effects of each vegetable were associated with the presence of 4-methysulfinylbutyl (sulforaphane) and 7-methylsulphinylheptyl isothiocyanates. Taken together, our data indicate that isothiocyanates derived form broccoli and Rorripa inhibit metalloproteinase 9 activities and also suppress the invasive potential of human MDA-MB-231 breast cancer cells in vitro. The inhibitory effects observed in the current study may contribute to the suppression of carcinogenesis by diets high in cruciferous vegetables.« less

  20. Design and in vivo evaluation of a patch system based on thiolated polymers.

    PubMed

    Hoyer, Herbert; Greindl, Melanie; Bernkop-Schnürch, Andreas

    2009-02-01

    A new oral patch delivery system has been designed to increase the overall oral bioavailability of drugs within the gastrointestinal tract. The patch system consists of four layered films: a mucoadhesive matrix layer, a water insoluble backing layer, a middle layer and an enteric surface layer. The separation layer between the two matrix layers contained lactose, starch and confectioners' sugar. The matrix layer, exhibiting a diameter of 2.5 mm and a weight of 5 mg, comprised Polycarbophil-cysteine conjugate (49%), fluoresceine isothiocyanate-dextran (26%), glutathione (5%), and mannitol (20%). A standard tablet formulation consisting of the same matrix served as control. Entire fluoresceine isothiocyanate-dextran (FD(4)) was released from the delivery system within 2 h. For in vivo studies patch systems were administered orally to male Sprague-Dawley rats. Maximum FD(4) concentration in blood of the patch system was 46.1 +/- 8.9 ng/mL and was reached 3 h after administration. In contrast c(max) of control tablets displayed 50.5 +/- 14.9 ng/mL after 2 h and the absorption of FD(4) after administration in oral solution was negligible. The absolute bioavailability of orally administered patch systems and control tablets was 0.54% and 0.32% respectively. Results of this study indicate that a prolonged and higher oral bioavailability of FD(4) is obtained with patches than with tablets.

  1. Lysozyme as a recognition element for monitoring of bacterial population.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Laibao; Wan, Yi; Yu, Liangmin; Zhang, Dun

    2016-01-01

    Bacterial infections remain a significant challenge in biomedicine and environment safety. Increasing worldwide demand for point-of-care techniques and increasing concern on their safe development and use, require a simple and sensitive bioanalysis for pathogen detection. However, this goal is not yet achieved. A design for fluorescein isothiocyanate-labeled lysozyme (FITC-LYZ), which provides quantitative binding information for gram-positive bacteria, Micrococcus luteus, and detects pathogen concentration, is presented. The functional lysozyme is used not only as the pathogenic detection platform, but also as a tracking reagent for microbial population in antibacterial tests. A nonlinear relationship between the system response and the logarithm of the bacterial concentration was observed in the range of 1.2×10(2)-1.2×10(5) cfu mL(-1). The system has a potential for further applications and provides a facile and simple method for detection of pathogenic bacteria. Meanwhile, the fluorescein isothiocyanate -labeled lysozyme is also employed as the tracking agent for antibacterial dynamic assay, which show a similar dynamic curve compared with UV-vis test. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Characterization, in vitro cytotoxicity assessment, and in vivo visualization of multimodal, RITC-labeled, silica-coated magnetic nanoparticles for labeling human cord blood-derived mesenchymal stem cells.

    PubMed

    Park, Ki-Soo; Tae, Jinsung; Choi, Bongkum; Kim, Young-Seok; Moon, Cheol; Kim, Sa-Hyun; Lee, Han-Sin; Kim, Jinhyun; Kim, Junsung; Park, Jaeberm; Lee, Jung-Hee; Lee, Jong Eun; Joh, Jae-Won; Kim, Sungjoo

    2010-04-01

    Live imaging is a powerful technique that can be used to characterize the fate and location of stem cells in animal models. Here we investigated the characteristics and in vitro cytotoxicity of human mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) labeled with silica-coated magnetic nanoparticles incorporating rhodamine B isothiocyanate, MNPs@SiO2(RITC). We also conducted various in vivo-uptake tests with nanoparticle-labeled human MSCs. MNPs@SiO2(RITC) showed photostability against ultraviolet light exposure and were nontoxic to human MSCs, based on the MTT, apoptosis, and cell cycle arrest assays. In addition, MNPs@SiO2(RITC) did not affect the surface phenotype or morphology of human MSCs. We also demonstrated that MNPs@SiO2(RITC) have stable retention properties in MSCs in vitro. Furthermore, using optical and magnetic resonance imaging, we successfully detected a visible signal from labeled human MSCs that were transplanted into NOD.CB17-Prkdc(SCID) (NOD-SCID) mice. These results demonstrate that MNPs@SiO2(RITC) are biocompatible and useful tools for human MSC labeling and bioimaging. The characteristics and in vitro cytotoxicity of human mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) labeled with silica-coated magnetic nanoparticles incorporating rhodamine B isothiocyanate, RITC were investigated in this study. RITC showed photostability against ultraviolet light exposure and was nontoxic to human MSCs. Using both optical and magnetic resonance imaging, successful detection of signal from labeled human MSCs transplanted into mice is demonstrated. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Research of the fluorescence detection apparatus for nutrients

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Yu; Yan, Huimin; Ni, Xuxiang; Xu, Xiaoyi; Chen, Shibing

    2015-10-01

    The research of the multifunctional analyzer of Clinical Nutrition, which integrates the absorbance, luminescence, fluorescence and other optical detection methods, can overcome the functional limitations of a single technology on human nutrition analysis, and realize a rapid and accurate analysis of the nutrients. This article focuses on the design of fluorescence detection module that uses a photomultiplier tube(PMT) to detect weak fluorescence, and utilizes the single photon counting method to measure the fluorescence intensity, and then according to the relationship between the fluorescent marker and fluorescence intensity, the concentration of the analyte can be derived. Using fluorescein isothiocyanate(FITC, the most widely used fluorescein currently)to mark antibodies in the experiment, therefore, according to the maximum absorption wavelength and the maximum emission wavelength of the fluorescein isothiocyanate, to select the appropriate filters to set up the optical path. In addition, the fluorescence detection apparatus proposed in this paper uses an aspherical lens with large numerical aperture, in order to improve the capacity of signal acquisition more effectively, and the selective adoption of flexible optical fiber can realize a compact opto-mechanical structure, which is also conducive to the miniaturization of the device. The experimental results show that this apparatus has a high sensitivity, can be used for the detection and analysis of human nutrition.

  4. Sulforaphane for the chemoprevention of bladder cancer: molecular mechanism targeted approach

    PubMed Central

    Leone, Andrew; Diorio, Gregory; Sexton, Wade; Schell, Michael; Alexandrow, Mark; Fahey, Jed W.; Kumar, Nagi B.

    2017-01-01

    The clinical course for both early and late stage Bladder Cancer (BC) continues to be characterized by significant patient burden due to numerous occurrences and recurrences requiring frequent surveillance strategies, intravesical drug therapies, and even more aggressive treatments in patients with locally advanced or metastatic disease. For these reasons, BC is also the most expensive cancer to treat. Fortunately, BC offers an excellent platform for chemoprevention interventions with potential to optimize the systemic and local exposure of promising agents to the bladder mucosa. However, other than smoking cessation, there is a paucity of research that systematically examines agents for chemoprevention of bladder cancers. Adopting a systematic, molecular-mechanism based approach, the goal of this review is to summarize epidemiological, in vitro, and preclinical studies, including data regarding the safety, bioavailability, and efficacy of agents evaluated for bladder cancer chemoprevention. Based on the available studies, phytochemicals, specifically isothiocyanates such as sulforaphane, present in Brassicaceae or “cruciferous” vegetables in the precursor form of glucoraphanin are: (a) available in standardized formulations; (b) bioavailable- both systemically and in the bladder; (c) observed to be potent inhibitors of BC carcinogenesis through multiple mechanisms; and (d) without toxicities at these doses. Based on available evidence from epidemiological, in vitro, preclinical, and early phase trials, phytochemicals, specifically isothiocyanates (ITCs) such as sulforaphane (SFN) represent a promising potential chemopreventitive agent in bladder cancer. PMID:28423681

  5. The Role of Sulforaphane in Epigenetic Mechanisms, Including Interdependence between Histone Modification and DNA Methylation

    PubMed Central

    Kaufman-Szymczyk, Agnieszka; Majewski, Grzegorz; Lubecka-Pietruszewska, Katarzyna; Fabianowska-Majewska, Krystyna

    2015-01-01

    Carcinogenesis as well as cancer progression result from genetic and epigenetic changes of the genome that leads to dysregulation of transcriptional activity of genes. Epigenetic mechanisms in cancer cells comprise (i) post-translation histone modification (i.e., deacetylation and methylation); (ii) DNA global hypomethylation; (iii) promoter hypermethylation of tumour suppressor genes and genes important for cell cycle regulation, cell differentiation and apoptosis; and (iv) posttranscriptional regulation of gene expression by noncoding microRNA. These epigenetic aberrations can be readily reversible and responsive to both synthetic agents and natural components of diet. A source of one of such diet components are cruciferous vegetables, which contain high levels of a number of glucosinolates and deliver, after enzymatic hydrolysis, sulforaphane and other bioactive isothiocyanates, that are involved in effective up-regulation of transcriptional activity of certain genes and also in restoration of active chromatin structure. Thus a consumption of cruciferous vegetables, treated as a source of isothiocyanates, seems to be potentially useful as an effective cancer preventive factor or as a source of nutrients improving efficacy of standard chemotherapies. In this review an attempt is made to elucidate the role of sulforaphane in regulation of gene promoter activity through a direct down-regulation of histone deacetylase activity and alteration of gene promoter methylation in indirect ways, but the sulforaphane influence on non-coding micro-RNA will not be a subject of this review. PMID:26703571

  6. Protective effect of sulforaphane against oxidative stress: recent advances.

    PubMed

    Guerrero-Beltrán, Carlos Enrique; Calderón-Oliver, Mariel; Pedraza-Chaverri, José; Chirino, Yolanda Irasema

    2012-07-01

    Sulforaphane [1-isothiocyanate-(4R)-(methylsulfinyl)butane] is a natural dietary isothiocyanate produced by the enzymatic action of the myrosinase on glucopharanin, a 4-methylsulfinylbutyl glucosinolate contained in cruciferous vegetables of the genus Brassica such as broccoli, brussel sprouts, and cabbage. Studies on this compound is increasing because its anticarcinogenic and cytoprotective properties in several in vivo experimental paradigms associated with oxidative stress such as focal cerebral ischemia, brain inflammation, intracerebral hemorrhage, ischemia and reperfusion induced acute renal failure, cisplatin induced-nephrotoxicity, streptozotocin-induced diabetes, carbon tetrachloride-induced hepatotoxicity and cardiac ischemia and reperfusion. This protective effect also has been observed in in vitro studies in different cell lines such as human neuroblastoma SH-SY5Y, renal epithelial proximal tubule LLC-PK1 cells and aortic smooth muscle A10 cells. Sulforaphane is considered an indirect antioxidant; this compound is able to induce many cytoprotective proteins, including antioxidant enzymes, through the Nrf2-antioxidant response element pathway. Heme oxygenase-1, NAD(P)H: quinone oxidoreductase, glutathione-S-transferase, gamma-glutamyl cysteine ligase, and glutathione reductase are among the cytoprotective proteins induced by sulforaphane. In conclusion, sulforaphane is a promising antioxidant agent that is effective to attenuate oxidative stress and tissue/cell damage in different in vivo and in vitro experimental paradigms. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  7. Sulforaphane Modifies Histone H3, Unpacks Chromatin, and Primes Defense[OPEN

    PubMed Central

    Jansen, Irina; Baum, Stephani; Beesley, Alexander; Bolm, Carsten

    2018-01-01

    Modern crop production calls for agrochemicals that prime plants for enhanced defense. Reliable test systems for spotting priming-inducing chemistry, however, are rare. We developed an assay for the high-throughput search for compounds that prime microbial pattern-induced secretion of antimicrobial furanocoumarins (phytoalexins) in cultured parsley cells. The screen produced 1-isothiocyanato-4-methylsulfinylbutane (sulforaphane; SFN), a secondary metabolite in many crucifers, as a novel defense priming compound. While elucidating SFN’s mode of action in defense priming, we found that in Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) the isothiocyanate provokes covalent modification (K4me3, K9ac) of histone H3 in the promoter and promoter-proximal region of defense genes WRKY6 and PDF1.2, but not PR1. SFN-triggered H3K4me3 and H3K9ac coincide with chromatin unpacking in the WRKY6 and PDF1.2 regulatory regions, primed WRKY6 expression, unprimed PDF1.2 activation, and reduced susceptibility to downy mildew disease (Hyaloperonospora arabidopsidis). Because SFN also directly inhibits H. arabidopsidis and other plant pathogens, the isothiocyanate is promising for the development of a plant protectant with a dual mode of action. PMID:29288231

  8. Metal-doped inorganic nanoparticles for multiplex detection of biomarkers by a sandwich-type ICP-MS immunoassay.

    PubMed

    Ko, Jung Aa; Lim, H B

    2016-09-28

    Metal-doped inorganic nanoparticles were synthesized for the multiplex detection of biomarkers by a sandwich-type inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) immunoassay. The synthesized Cs-doped multicore magnetic nanoparticles (MMNPs) were used not only for magnetic extraction of targets but also for ratiometric measurement in ICP-MS. In addition, three different metal/dye-doped silica nanoparticles (SNPs) were synthesized as probes for multiplex detection: Y/RhBITC (rhodamine B isothiocyanate)-doped SNPs for CRP (cardiovascular disease), Cd/RhBITC-doped SNPs for AFP (tumor), and Au/5(6)-XRITC (X-rhodamine-5-(and-6)-isothiocyanate)-doped SNPs for NSE (heart disease). For quantification, the doped metals of SNPs were measured by ICP-MS and then the signal ratio to Cs of MMNPs was plotted with respect to the concentration of targets by a ratiometry. Limits of detection (LOD) of 0.35 ng/mL to 77 ng mL(-1) and recoveries of 83%-125% were obtained for serum samples spiked with the biomarkers. Since no sample treatment was necessary prior to the extraction, the proposed method provided short analysis time and convenience for the multiplex determination of biomarkers, which will be valuable for clinical application. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Brassica vegetables as sources of epithionitriles: Novel secondary products formed during cooking.

    PubMed

    Hanschen, Franziska S; Kaufmann, Martin; Kupke, Franziska; Hackl, Thomas; Kroh, Lothar W; Rohn, Sascha; Schreiner, Monika

    2018-04-15

    The epithionitriles, 1-cyano-2,3-epithiopropane, in particular, and 1-cyano-3,4-epithiobutane, are important, but yet underestimated glucosinolate hydrolysis products that are released instead of the cancer preventative isothiocyanates in Brassica vegetables, such as cabbage, broccoli, or pak choi. Here, we characterized the reactivity of 1-cyano-2,3-epithiopropane under aqueous heat treatment conditions and compared our findings to those of the related epithionitriles 1-cyano-3,4-epithiobutane and 1-cyano-4,5-epithiopentane. In contrast to the other epithionitriles, 1-cyano-2,3-epithiopropane is highly reactive. As a result, 2-aminothiophene and dimeric 1,4-dithiane-2,5-diacetonitrile were identified as main products and a reaction mechanism is proposed. Formation of 2-aminothiophene was also observed in cooked white cabbage samples. Moreover, three novel compounds were identified as derivatives of the related epithionitriles. The results imply that apart from isothiocyanates, process-derived compounds should be considered in regards to cancer preventative Brassica vegetable related bioactivity. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Development of a miRNA surface-enhanced Raman scattering assay using benchtop and handheld Raman systems.

    PubMed

    Schechinger, Monika; Marks, Haley; Locke, Andrea; Choudhury, Mahua; Cote, Gerard

    2018-01-01

    DNA-functionalized nanoparticles, when paired with surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS), can rapidly detect microRNA. However, widespread use of this approach is hindered by drawbacks associated with large and expensive benchtop Raman microscopes. MicroRNA-17 (miRNA-17) has emerged as a potential epigenetic indicator of preeclampsia, a condition that occurs during pregnancy. Biomarker detection using an SERS point-of-care device could enable prompt diagnosis and prevention as early as the first trimester. Recently, strides have been made in developing portable Raman systems for field applications. An SERS assay for miRNA-17 was assessed and translated from traditional benchtop Raman microscopes to a handheld system. Three different photoactive molecules were compared as potential Raman reporter molecules: a chromophore, malachite green isothiocyanate (MGITC), a fluorophore, tetramethylrhodamine isothiocyanate, and a polarizable small molecule 5,5-dithio-bis-(2-nitrobenzoic acid) (DTNB). For the benchtop Raman microscope, the DTNB-labeled assay yielded the greatest sensitivity under 532-nm laser excitation, but the MGITC-labeled assay prevailed at 785 nm. Conversely, DTNB was preferable for the miniaturized 785-nm Raman system. This comparison showed significant SERS enhancement variation in response to 1-nM miRNA-17, implying that the sensitivity of the assay may be more heavily dependent on the excitation wavelength, instrumentation, and Raman reporter chosen than on the plasmonic coupling from DNA/miRNA-mediated nanoparticle assemblies. (2018) COPYRIGHT Society of Photo-Optical Instrumentation Engineers (SPIE).

  11. A reduced graphene oxide-based fluorescence resonance energy transfer sensor for highly sensitive detection of matrix metalloproteinase 2

    PubMed Central

    Xi, Gaina; Wang, Xiaoping; Chen, Tongsheng

    2016-01-01

    A novel fluorescence nanoprobe (reduced nano-graphene oxide [nrGO]/fluorescein isothiocyanate-labeled peptide [Pep-FITC]) for ultrasensitive detection of matrix metalloproteinase 2 (MMP2) has been developed by engineering the Pep-FITC comprising the specific MMP2 substrate domain (PLGVR) onto the surface of nrGO particles through non-covalent linkage. The nrGO was obtained by water bathing nano-graphene oxide under 90°C for 4 hours. After mixing the nrGO and Pep-FITC for 30 seconds, the fluorescence from Pep-FITC was almost completely quenched due to the fluorescence resonance energy transfer between fluorescein isothiocyanate (FITC) and nrGO. Upon cleavage of the amide bond between Leu and Gly in the Pep-FITC by protease-MMP2, the FITC bound to nrGO was separated from nrGO surface, disrupting the fluorescence resonance energy transfer process and resulting in fluorescence recovery of FITC. Under optimal conditions, the fluorescence recovery of nrGO/Pep-FITC was found to be directly proportional to the concentration of MMP2 within 0.02–0.1 nM. The detection limit of the nrGO/Pep-FITC was determined to be 3 pM, which is approximately tenfold lower than that of the unreduced carboxylated nano-graphene oxide/Pep-FITC probe. PMID:27143876

  12. Purification of active myrosinase from plants by aqueous two-phase counter-current chromatography.

    PubMed

    Wade, Kristina L; Ito, Yoichiro; Ramarathnam, Aarthi; Holtzclaw, W David; Fahey, Jed W

    2015-01-01

    Myrosinase (thioglucoside glucohydrolase; E.C. 3.2.1.147), is a plant enzyme of increasing interest and importance to the biomedical community. Myrosinase catalyses the formation of isothiocyanates such as sulforaphane (from broccoli) and 4-(α-l-rhamnopyranosyloxy)benzyl isothiocyanate (from moringa), which are potent inducers of the cytoprotective phase-2 response in humans, by hydrolysis of their abundant glucosinolate (β-thioglucoside N-hydroxysulphate) precursors. To develop an aqueous two-phase counter-current chromatography (CCC) system for the rapid, three-step purification of catalytically active myrosinase. A high-concentration potassium phosphate and polyethylene glycol biphasic aqueous two-phase system (ATPS) is used with a newly developed CCC configuration that utilises spiral-wound, flat-twisted tubing (with an ovoid cross-section). Making the initial crude plant extract directly in the ATPS and injecting only the lower phase permitted highly selective partitioning of the myrosinase complex before a short chromatography on a spiral disk CCC. Optimum phase retention and separation of myrosinase from other plant proteins afforded a 60-fold purification. Catalytically active myrosinase is purified from 3-day broccoli sprouts, 7-day daikon sprouts, mustard seeds and the leaves of field-grown moringa trees, in a CCC system that is predictably scalable. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  13. Multicolor microcontact printing of proteins on nanoporous surface for patterned immunoassay

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ng, Elaine; Gopal, Ashwini; Hoshino, Kazunori; Zhang, Xiaojing

    2011-07-01

    The large scale patterning of therapeutic proteins is a key to the efficient design, characterization, and production of biologics for cost effective, high throughput, and point-of-care detection and analysis system. We demonstrate an efficient method for protein deposition and adsorption on nanoporous silica substrates in specific patterns using a method called "micro-contact printing". Multiple color-tagged proteins can be printed through sequential application of such micro-patterning technique. Two groups of experiments were performed. In the first group, the protein stamp was aligned precisely with the printing sites, where the stamp was applied multiple times. Optimal conditions were identified for protein transfer and adsorption using the pore size of 4 nm and thickness of 30 nm porous silica thin film. In the second group, we demonstrate the patterning of two-color rabbit immunoglobin labeled with fluorescein isothiocyanate and tetramethyl rhodamine iso-thiocyanate on porous silica substrates that have a pore size 4 nm, porosity 57% and thickness of the porous layer 30 nm. A pair of protein stamps, with corresponding alignment markings and coupled patterns, were aligned and used to produce a two-colored stamp pattern of proteins on porous silica. Different colored proteins can be applied to exemplify the diverse protein composition within a sample. This method of multicolor microcontact printing can be used to perform a fluorescence-based patterned enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay to detect the presence of various proteins within a sample.

  14. Pungent products from garlic activate the sensory ion channel TRPA1

    PubMed Central

    Bautista, Diana M.; Movahed, Pouya; Hinman, Andrew; Axelsson, Helena E.; Sterner, Olov; Högestätt, Edward D.; Julius, David; Jordt, Sven-Eric; Zygmunt, Peter M.

    2005-01-01

    Garlic belongs to the Allium family of plants that produce organosulfur compounds, such as allicin and diallyl disulfide (DADS), which account for their pungency and spicy aroma. Many health benefits have been ascribed to Allium extracts, including hypotensive and vasorelaxant activities. However, the molecular mechanisms underlying these effects remain unknown. Intriguingly, allicin and DADS share structural similarities with allyl isothiocyanate, the pungent ingredient in wasabi and other mustard plants that induces pain and inflammation by activating TRPA1, an excitatory ion channel on primary sensory neurons of the pain pathway. Here we show that allicin and DADS excite an allyl isothiocyanate-sensitive subpopulation of sensory neurons and induce vasodilation by activating capsaicin-sensitive perivascular sensory nerve endings. Moreover, allicin and DADS activate the cloned TRPA1 channel when expressed in heterologous systems. These and other results suggest that garlic excites sensory neurons primarily through activation of TRPA1. Thus different plant genera, including Allium and Brassica, have developed evolutionary convergent strategies that target TRPA1 channels on sensory nerve endings to achieve chemical deterrence. PMID:16103371

  15. Response of Drosophila to wasabi is mediated by painless, the fly homolog of mammalian TRPA1/ANKTM1.

    PubMed

    Al-Anzi, Bader; Tracey, W Daniel; Benzer, Seymour

    2006-05-23

    A number of repellent compounds produced by plants elicit a spicy or pungent sensation in mammals . In several cases, this has been found to occur through activation of ion channels in the transient receptor potential (TRP) family . We report that isothiocyanate (ITC), the pungent ingredient of wasabi, is a repellent to the insect Drosophila melanogaster, and that the painless gene, previously known to be required for larval nociception, is required for this avoidance behavior. A painless reporter gene is expressed in gustatory receptor neurons of the labial palpus, tarsus, and wing anterior margin, but not in olfactory receptor neurons, suggesting a gustatory role. Indeed, painless expression overlaps with a variety of gustatory-receptor gene reporters. Some, such as Gr66a, are known to be expressed in neurons that mediate gustatory repulsion . painless mutants are not taste blind; they show normal aversive gustatory behavior with salt and quinine and attractive responses to sugars and capsaicin. The painless gene is an evolutionary homolog of the mammalian "wasabi receptor" TRPA1/ANKTM1 , also thought to be involved in nociception. Our results suggest that the stinging sensation of isothiocyanate is caused by activation of an evolutionarily conserved molecular pathway that is also used for nociception.

  16. Neutrophil phagocytosis following inoculation of Salmonella choleraesuis into swine.

    PubMed

    Stabel, T J; Fedorka-Cray, P J; Gray, J T

    2002-02-01

    Neutrophils are an important mediator of host defence, especially in early stages of infection. A major function of neutrophils is the uptake and killing of invading microbes. Little is known about the effect of neutrophil activity on the pathogenesis and development of the carrier state in swine following infection with Salmonella choleraesuis. A human whole-blood microassay using flow cytometry was modified to measure the effect of S. choleraesuis infection in vivo on the rate of ingestion, or rate of uptake, of homologous bacteria by porcine neutrophils. Pigs were inoculated intranasally with 5-8 x 10(8) CFU S. choleraesuis and blood was collected in heparinized tubes at -5, 0, 1, 2, 3 and 4 days post inoculation (PI). Heat-killed S. choleraesuis were labelled with fluorescein isothiocyanate and incubated for various times with diluted whole blood. Red blood cells were lysed, external non-phagocytized bacteria were quenched with a commercially available lysing solution, and fluorescence from internalized bacteria labelled with fluorescein isothiocyanate was detected by flow cytometry. The rate of uptake by neutrophils did not increase until 2 days PI and then remained elevated to 4 days PI. The minimal uptake of S. choleraesuis early after exposure to these organisms may provide an opportunity for the pathogen to colonize and/or replicate to levels that facilitate establishment of a carrier state or clinical infection in swine.

  17. Surface modification of poly(dimethylsiloxane) (PDMS) microchannels with DNA capture-probes for potential use in microfluidic DNA analysis systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khodakov, Dmitriy A.; Thredgold, Leigh D.; Lenehan, Claire E.; Andersson, Gunther A.; Kobus, Hilton; Ellis, Amanda V.

    2011-12-01

    Poly(dimethylsiloxane) (PDMS) is an elastomeric material used for microfluidic devices and is especially suited to medical and forensic applications. This is due to its relatively low cost, ease of fabrication, excellent optical transmission characteristics and its ability to support electroosmotic flow, required during electrophoretic separations. These aspects combined with its large range of surface modification chemistries, make PDMS an attractive substrate in microfluidic devices for, in particular, DNA separation. Here, we report the successful wet chemical surface modification of PDMS microchannels using a simple three step method to produce an isothiocyanate-terminated surface. Initially, PDMS was oxygen plasma treated to produce a silanol-terminated surface, this was then reacted with 3-aminopropyltriethoxysilane with subsequent reaction of the now amine-terminated surface with p-phenylenediisothiocyanate. Water contact angle measurements both before and after modification showed a reduction in hydrophobicity from 101o for native PDMS to 94o for the isothiocyante-terminated PDMS. The isothiocyanate-terminated surface was then coupled with an amineterminated single-stranded DNA (ssDNA) oligonucleotide capture probe via a thiourea linkage. Confirmation of capture probe attachment was observed using fluorescent microscopy after hybridization of the capture probes with fluorescently labeled complimentary ssDNA oligonucleotides.

  18. Affinity monolith-integrated poly(methyl methacrylate) microchips for on-line protein extraction and capillary electrophoresis.

    PubMed

    Sun, Xiuhua; Yang, Weichun; Pan, Tao; Woolley, Adam T

    2008-07-01

    Immunoaffinity monolith pretreatment columns have been coupled with capillary electrophoresis separation in poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) microchips. Microdevices were designed with eight reservoirs to enable the electrically controlled transport of selected analytes and solutions to carry out integrated immunoaffinity extraction and electrophoretic separation. The PMMA microdevices were fabricated reproducibly and with high fidelity by solvent imprinting and thermal bonding methods. Monoliths with epoxy groups for antibody immobilization were prepared by direct in situ photopolymerization of glycidyl methacrylate and ethylene glycol dimethacrylate in a porogenic solvent consisting of 70% 1-dodecanol and 30% cyclohexanol. Antifluorescein isothiocyanate was utilized as a model affinity group in the monoliths, and the immobilization process was optimized. A mean elution efficiency of 92% was achieved for the monolith-based extraction of fluorescein isothiocyanate (FITC)-tagged human serum albumin. FITC-tagged proteins were purified from a contaminant protein and then separated electrophoretically using these devices. The developed immunoaffinity column/capillary electrophoresis microdevices show great promise for combining sample pretreatment and separation in biomolecular analysis.

  19. A fluorometric lateral flow assay for visual detection of nucleic acids using a digital camera readout.

    PubMed

    Magiati, Maria; Sevastou, Areti; Kalogianni, Despina P

    2018-06-04

    A fluorometric lateral flow assay has been developed for the detection of nucleic acids. The fluorophores phycoerythrin (PE) and fluorescein isothiocyanate (FITC) were used as labels, while a common digital camera and a colored vinyl-sheet, acting as a cut-off optical filter, are used for fluorescence imaging. After DNA amplification by polymerase chain reaction (PCR), the biotinylated PCR product is hybridized to its complementary probe that carries a poly(dA) tail at 3΄ edge and then applied to the lateral flow strip. The hybrids are captured to the test zone of the strip by immobilized poly(dT) sequences and detected by streptavidin-fluorescein and streptavidin-phycoerythrin conjugates, through streptavidin-biotin interaction. The assay is widely applicable, simple, cost-effective, and offers a large multiplexing potential. Its performance is comparable to assays based on the use of streptavidin-gold nanoparticles conjugates. As low as 7.8 fmol of a ssDNA and 12.5 fmol of an amplified dsDNA target were detectable. Graphical abstract Schematic presentation of a fluorometric lateral flow assay based on fluorescein and phycoerythrin fluorescent labels for the detection of single-stranded (ssDNA) and double-stranded DNA (dsDNA) sequences and using a digital camera readout. SA: streptavidin, BSA: Bovine Serum Albumin, B: biotin, FITC: fluorescein isothiocyanate, PE: phycoerythrin, TZ: test zone, CZ: control zone.

  20. A reduced graphene oxide-based fluorescence resonance energy transfer sensor for highly sensitive detection of matrix metalloproteinase 2.

    PubMed

    Xi, Gaina; Wang, Xiaoping; Chen, Tongsheng

    2016-01-01

    A novel fluorescence nanoprobe (reduced nano-graphene oxide [nrGO]/fluorescein isothiocyanate-labeled peptide [Pep-FITC]) for ultrasensitive detection of matrix metalloproteinase 2 (MMP2) has been developed by engineering the Pep-FITC comprising the specific MMP2 substrate domain (PLGVR) onto the surface of nrGO particles through non-covalent linkage. The nrGO was obtained by water bathing nano-graphene oxide under 90°C for 4 hours. After mixing the nrGO and Pep-FITC for 30 seconds, the fluorescence from Pep-FITC was almost completely quenched due to the fluorescence resonance energy transfer between fluorescein isothiocyanate (FITC) and nrGO. Upon cleavage of the amide bond between Leu and Gly in the Pep-FITC by protease-MMP2, the FITC bound to nrGO was separated from nrGO surface, disrupting the fluorescence resonance energy transfer process and resulting in fluorescence recovery of FITC. Under optimal conditions, the fluorescence recovery of nrGO/Pep-FITC was found to be directly proportional to the concentration of MMP2 within 0.02-0.1 nM. The detection limit of the nrGO/Pep-FITC was determined to be 3 pM, which is approximately tenfold lower than that of the unreduced carboxylated nano-graphene oxide/Pep-FITC probe.