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Sample records for phidippides proves fatal

  1. Clothing for Sports: Part 1: Fashion Foils Phidippides, Proves Fatal At Finish

    PubMed Central

    Schamberger, Wolf

    1985-01-01

    The choice of clothing for any particular sport can be made on a reasonably scientific basis, taking into account hot, cold or wet conditions, effects on temperature regulating mechanism, ability to enhance athletic performance, safety and comfort. Part 1 of this two-part article discusses the selection of garments for any sports activity according to specific properties of certain fabrics and also covers safety gear, sports brassieres and shoes. ImagesFig. 4Fig. 1Fig. 2Fig. 3Fig. 5 and 6Fig. 7Fig. 8 PMID:21274113

  2. Innocuous cardiac gunshot that proved fatal: A bitter lesson learned.

    PubMed

    Mishra, Biplab; Joshi, Mohit Kumar; Kumar, Subodh; Kumar, Atin; Gupta, Amit; Rattan, Amulya; Sagar, Sushma; Singhal, Maneesh; Misra, Mahesh Chandra

    2017-03-01

    The management of hemodynamically normal patients with retained intra-pericardial foreign body remains a matter of conjecture. The available literature supports non-operative management of such innocuous foreign bodies. We report our experience of a hemodynamically normal patient with a retained intra-pericardial pellet from a firearm injury. He initially received successful non-operative management but developed fatal hemopericardium 21 days after injury. In this paper, we discussed the pitfalls in the management of such injuries in light of the available literature and summarized the clinical experience.

  3. FATAL EPISTAXIS

    PubMed Central

    Quinn, Francis Berchmans

    1961-01-01

    The instances in which nosebleed is potentially fatal are those in which there is a history of recent head injury, severe arteriosclerotic cardiovascular disease or an underlying vascular tumor in the nasal chambers. Fatal nasal bleeding has not been reported in children. An awareness on the part of the physician of the potentially fatal significance of his patient's nosebleed is the very best insurance against such an event. Intelligent history-taking, careful physical and x-ray examination, generous sedation, precise local cauterization and packing, estimation of hemoglobin mass and a search for bleeding and clotting disorders are the best weapons of the physician called to treat epistaxis. These procedures, coupled with adequate blood replacement and an informed attitude toward surgical interruption of the blood supply to the bleeding region should forestall death from fatal nosebleed. PMID:13738727

  4. On Mathematical Proving

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stefaneas, Petros; Vandoulakis, Ioannis M.

    2015-12-01

    This paper outlines a logical representation of certain aspects of the process of mathematical proving that are important from the point of view of Artificial Intelligence. Our starting-point is the concept of proof-event or proving, introduced by Goguen, instead of the traditional concept of mathematical proof. The reason behind this choice is that in contrast to the traditional static concept of mathematical proof, proof-events are understood as processes, which enables their use in Artificial Intelligence in such contexts, in which problem-solving procedures and strategies are studied. We represent proof-events as problem-centered spatio-temporal processes by means of the language of the calculus of events, which captures adequately certain temporal aspects of proof-events (i.e. that they have history and form sequences of proof-events evolving in time). Further, we suggest a "loose" semantics for the proof-events, by means of Kolmogorov's calculus of problems. Finally, we expose the intented interpretations for our logical model from the fields of automated theorem-proving and Web-based collective proving.

  5. [Fatal electrocution in prison].

    PubMed

    Grellner, Wolfgang

    2008-01-01

    The clarification of deaths from electric current can be difficult when electric skin marks are missing or overlooked. In the following, the fatal electric accident of a 21-year-old man in prison is reported with a scene which primarily seemed to be inconspicuous. The autopsy disclosed typical electric marks in the skin of the left thumb and the corresponding part of the left index finger. A second inspection of the jail room, which was large enough for three men, but occupied by the deceased alone, led to the finding of widely spread utensils (two forks with signs of corrosion and deformation of the prongs, radio cable with socket, water container) for the self-construction of a kind of "immersion heater" for the heating of water. The man must have suffered electrocution when touching the prongs of the forks. Death supposedly occurred due to disturbances of the cardiac rhythm after a longer interval of maintained ability to act. The case again proves the difficulties in the detection and examination of possible electric deaths in which unusual sources of electricity must be considered.

  6. Fatalities in Swedish skydiving.

    PubMed

    Westman, Anton; Björnstig, Ulf

    2005-11-01

    Exact risk patterns in skydiving fatalities are not well known, but incomplete world injury data indicate that many are preventable. A comprehensive national material for Sweden of 37 skydiving fatalities 1964-2003 were reviewed to identify risk factors. In relation to jump volume, the period 1994-2003 had a fatality rate 11 times lower than 1964-1973. Student skydivers had the highest risk of fatal outcome, often caused by instability in freefall leading to unstable parachute activation with subsequent line entanglement, or parachute activation failure. Unintentional water landings also contributed to student fatality, with life jacket malfunctions, neglect to use life jackets, and automatic reserve parachute activation devices activated by water as aggravating factors. One-third of all fatalities had an inflated and operational parachute at some point prior to injury. A drastic worldwide increase in fatal landing incidents with fast wing parachutes during the 1990s did not occur in Sweden. Every fourth fatality caused by rapid deceleration against ground or water survived impact and died during transports or in hospitals. Rescue units and health care providers can improve management of skydiving incidents from knowledge about the incident and injury mechanisms we have described, and the skydiving community can target risk factors in preventive safety work.

  7. Fatal big cat attacks.

    PubMed

    Cohle, S D; Harlan, C W; Harlan, G

    1990-09-01

    Two cases of fatal attacks by large cats are presented. In the first case, a 30-year-old female zoo worker was attacked by a jaguar that had escaped its cage. In the second case, a 2-year-old girl was fatally injured by her father's pet leopard. The pattern of injuries in these cases is nearly identical to those of these cats' prey in the wild.

  8. Is Proving a Visual Act?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mudaly, Vimolan

    2013-01-01

    This paper looks at the role of visualisation in the proving process. It considers the different functions of proof and then describes student responses when engaged in the process of discovering Viviani's Theorem. The findings show that learners can attain high levels of conviction when working in a dynamic geometry environment. In particular,…

  9. Understanding Fatal Child Abuse.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hicks, Ralph A.; Gaughan, Daniel C.

    1995-01-01

    Medical, social service, and coroner reports were reviewed for 14 cases of fatal child abuse and neglect identified at a children's hospital from 1988 to 1992. Median age was 6.5 months. Six families had prior protective service involvement (though four of these had involved a sibling). The cause of death in all cases was blunt impact head injury.…

  10. Proving Program Correctness. Volume V.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1981-11-01

    td&Ot’ ’i number) Programming Sy Stems S.. - nulation Pr~ogramming Languages Sche,!%L -g Algorithm Programming Grammars Logic Programming 9roving...able to prove that programs perform as they are specified than is currently possible. Task 3. Grammars of Programming (P.I.: E.F. Storm). This group is...is "An Algorithmic Solution for a Queueing Model of a Computer System with Interactive and Batch Jobs. Volume 4. Report from the Grammars of

  11. Proving Stabilization of Biological Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cook, Byron; Fisher, Jasmin; Krepska, Elzbieta; Piterman, Nir

    We describe an efficient procedure for proving stabilization of biological systems modeled as qualitative networks or genetic regulatory networks. For scalability, our procedure uses modular proof techniques, where state-space exploration is applied only locally to small pieces of the system rather than the entire system as a whole. Our procedure exploits the observation that, in practice, the form of modular proofs can be restricted to a very limited set. For completeness, our technique falls back on a non-compositional counterexample search. Using our new procedure, we have solved a number of challenging published examples, including: a 3-D model of the mammalian epidermis; a model of metabolic networks operating in type-2 diabetes; a model of fate determination of vulval precursor cells in the C. elegans worm; and a model of pair-rule regulation during segmentation in the Drosophila embryo. Our results show many orders of magnitude speedup in cases where previous stabilization proving techniques were known to succeed, and new results in cases where tools had previously failed.

  12. A fatal mongoose bite.

    PubMed

    Tumram, Nilesh Keshav; Bardale, Rajesh Vaijnathrao; Dixit, Pradeep Gangadhar; Deshmukh, Ashutosh Yashwant

    2012-11-19

    Animal bite is a bite wound from a pet, farm or wild animal. Dog bites make up 80-85% of all reported incidents. Cats amount for about 10% of reported bites and other animals such as rodents, rabbits, horses, raccoons, bats and monkeys amount to 5-10%. Bites by mongoose are uncommon. Here, we present a case of fatal mongoose bite to an elderly woman who died as a complication of streptococcal infection at the bite site.

  13. Immunohistochemical expression of fibronectin in the lungs of fire victims proves intravital reaction in fatal burns.

    PubMed

    Bohnert, Michael; Anderson, Jürina; Rothschild, Markus A; Böhm, Joachim

    2010-11-01

    Immunohistochemical studies about the presence of fibronectin in the lungs were performed in a group of 73 fire victims (63 cases of intravital and 10 cases of postmortem burn) as well as in an unselected control group of 55 individuals not exposed to fire before death. The cases of intravital burn showed a significantly stronger fibronectin expression than the control cases and the cases of postmortem burn. Fibronectin was mainly present in macrophages of the peribronchial lung parenchyma and, not associated with cells, in the matrix of peribronchial tissue. Our findings suggest that higher levels of fibronectin expression in the lung tissue of burn victims compared to fire-unrelated deaths may serve as an indicator of an early intravital inflammatory response to fire damage.

  14. Fatal crocodile attack.

    PubMed

    Chattopadhyay, Saurabh; Shee, Biplab; Sukul, Biswajit

    2013-11-01

    Attacks on human beings by various animals leading to varied types of injuries and even death in some cases are not uncommon. Crocodile attacks on humans have been reported from a number of countries across the globe. Deaths in such attacks are mostly due to mechanical injuries or drowning. Bites by the crocodiles often cause the limbs to be separated from the body. The present case refers to an incident of a fatal attack by a crocodile on a 35 years old female where only the mutilated head of the female was recovered. Multiple lacerated wounds over the face and scalp along with fracture of the cranial bones was detected on autopsy. Two distinct bite marks in the form of punched in holes were noted over the parietal and frontal bones. Injuries on the head with its traumatic amputation from the body were sufficient to cause death. However, the presence of other fatal injuries on the unrecovered body parts could not be ruled out.

  15. Air weapon fatalities.

    PubMed Central

    Milroy, C M; Clark, J C; Carter, N; Rutty, G; Rooney, N

    1998-01-01

    AIMS: To describe characteristics of a series of people accidentally and deliberately killed by air powered weapons. METHODS: Five cases of fatal airgun injury were identified by forensic pathologists and histopathologists. The circumstances surrounding the case, radiological examination, and pathological findings are described. The weapon characteristics are also reported. RESULTS: Three of the victims were adult men, one was a 16 year old boy, and one an eight year old child. Four of the airguns were .22 air rifles, the other a .177 air rifle. Two committed suicide, one person shooting himself in the head, the other in the chest. In both cases the guns were fired at contact range. Three of the cases were classified as accidents: in two the pellet penetrated into the head and in one the chest. CONCLUSIONS: One person each year dies from an air powered weapon injury in the United Kingdom. In addition there is considerable morbidity from airgun injuries. Fatalities and injuries are most commonly accidents, but deliberately inflicted injuries occur. Airguns are dangerous weapons when inappropriately handled and should not be considered as toys. Children should not play with airguns unsupervised. Images PMID:9797730

  16. A fatal leopard attack.

    PubMed

    Hejna, Petr

    2010-05-01

    A rare case of a big cat fatal attack is presented. A male leopard that had escaped from its unlocked cage attacked a 26-year-old male zoo worker. The man sustained penetrating injuries to the neck with consequent external bleeding. The man died while being transported to the hospital as a result of the injuries sustained. The wounds discovered on the victim's body corresponded with the known methods of leopard attacks and with findings on the carcasses of animals killed by leopards in the wild. The conclusion of the medicolegal investigation was that the underlying cause of death was a bite wound to the neck which lacerated the left internal jugular vein, the two main branches of the left external carotid artery, and the cervical spine. The cause of death was massive external bleeding. Special attention is paid to the general pattern of injuries sustained from big cat attacks.

  17. Fatal Rocky Mountain spotted fever.

    PubMed

    Hattwick, M A; Retailliau, H; O'Brien, R J; Slutzker, M; Fontaine, R E; Hanson, B

    1978-09-29

    Forty-four fatal cases of Rocky Mountain spotted fever (RMSF) occurring in 1974 were compared with 50 nonfatal cases of similar age, sex, date of onset, and place of occurrence. Diagnosis and initiation of treatment in fatal cases were substantially delayed compared with nonfatal cases. Several reasons for this delay were identified: (1) the rash appeared later in the course of illness in the fatal cases, often not until the patient was terminal, (2) a history of tick bite was less often obtained during life or obtained late in the clinical course in fatal cases, and (3) initial nonspecific symptoms or unexpected symptoms led to an initial diagnosis of more common diseases. Only two fatal cases were treated with either tetracycline or chloramphenicol before the sixth day of illness. Presumptive diagnosis of RMSF and initiation of tetracycline therapy before onset of rash may be necessary to reduce mortality.

  18. Fatal intoxication with methoxetamine.

    PubMed

    Adamowicz, Piotr; Zuba, Dariusz

    2015-01-01

    Methoxetamine (MXE) is a new synthetic drug of abuse structurally related to ketamine and phencyclidine. A case of a 29-year-old male with acute toxicity related to the analytically confirmed use of MXE is reported. The man was found dead at his residence. Biological material was analyzed using liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. The concentration of MXE in urine of the deceased was 85 μg/mL. Despite the vial containing the blood sample being destroyed during transportation and the blood leaking out into the cardboard packaging, the blood level of MXE was estimated. After determination of the cardboard grammage (approx. 400 g/m(3) ) and the mean mass of the blood obtained after drying (0.1785 ± 0.0173 g per 1 mL), the estimated blood concentration of MXE was found to be 5.8 μg/mL. The high concentration of MXE in blood and urine and the circumstances of the case indicate an unintentional, fatal intoxication with this substance.

  19. [Fatal rat bites].

    PubMed

    Yanai, O; Goldin, L; Hiss, J

    1999-04-15

    We present a rare case of infant death due to blood loss resulting from multiple rat bites. Domestic dogs and cats cause most animal bites. Bites of a house rat usually cause bacterial infection, successfully treated with antibiotics. There is little information about death due to house rat bites. Since the wounds they cause tend to occur post-mortem, they are usually wedged, clean and without subcutaneous bleeding. An 11-week-old, malnourished infant girl was bitten to death while sleeping in her mother's bed in a rat-infested home. The infant's clothing was covered with blood, parts of her face were missing and marks of gnawing were present on her neck and extremities. There was subcutaneous bleeding around the wounds indicating that they were inflicted while the child was alive. Autopsy findings revealed profound blood loss. We conclude that a combination of low socio-economic status, severe failure to thrive, and poor hygiene in a rat-infested environment contributed to the fatal outcome in this attack.

  20. Work-related maritime fatalities.

    PubMed

    O'Connor, Peter J; O'Connor, Nina

    2006-07-01

    All maritime fatalities investigated by Coroners that occurred in Australia from 1992 to 1998 inclusive have been collated, coded and recorded in the Australian Boating Injury Database: Fatal Injury (ABID:FI). This article focuses on the work-related maritime fatalities recorded in the database. Over the period 1992-1998 there were 74 fatalities involving people who were working for income at the time of the incident: 46 commercial fishermen, 12 seamen involved in the transport of cargo and 16 miscellaneous workers. The fatality rate of commercial fishermen has declined substantially in Australia over recent years. The main contributing factors were: hazardous conditions; an error of judgement; unsafe work practices; and failure to wear a personal flotation device (PFD) in circumstances where, in the opinion of the Coroners, it would have saved life. Hazardous conditions were much more of a factor in fishermen deaths than in other maritime deaths. Most vessels involved had an insufficient number of PFDs for the number of crew on board. The Australian fatal injury database should be updated with the details of recent fatalities in order to further monitor safety performance, causal factors and prevention measures in the maritime industry in Australia. Attention should be focused on reducing alcohol use and increasing PFD availability and usage. In order to continue to improve safety, it is essential that a constructive dialogue is maintained with industry sources, informed by independent research and up-to-date information.

  1. Global earthquake fatalities and population

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Holzer, Thomas L.; Savage, James C.

    2013-01-01

    Modern global earthquake fatalities can be separated into two components: (1) fatalities from an approximately constant annual background rate that is independent of world population growth and (2) fatalities caused by earthquakes with large human death tolls, the frequency of which is dependent on world population. Earthquakes with death tolls greater than 100,000 (and 50,000) have increased with world population and obey a nonstationary Poisson distribution with rate proportional to population. We predict that the number of earthquakes with death tolls greater than 100,000 (50,000) will increase in the 21st century to 8.7±3.3 (20.5±4.3) from 4 (7) observed in the 20th century if world population reaches 10.1 billion in 2100. Combining fatalities caused by the background rate with fatalities caused by catastrophic earthquakes (>100,000 fatalities) indicates global fatalities in the 21st century will be 2.57±0.64 million if the average post-1900 death toll for catastrophic earthquakes (193,000) is assumed.

  2. Proving allelopathy in crop-weed interactions

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Allelopathy (plant/plant chemical warfare) is difficult to prove, especially when competition for resources is the dominant component of plant/plant interference (interference = allelopathy +competition). This paper describes experimental approaches for proving allelopathy and points out common pit...

  3. Fatal and near-fatal animal bite injuries.

    PubMed

    Clark, M A; Sandusky, G E; Hawley, D A; Pless, J E; Fardal, P M; Tate, L R

    1991-07-01

    Fatal and near-fatal maulings of humans by pit bulls have recently become a topic of major public concern, resulting in the passage of laws in some jurisdictions that make the owner of a pit bull criminally liable for manslaughter if his or her pet causes a human death. The authors recently investigated two cases in which children were fatally injured by pet dogs. In the first case, a 17-day-old girl suffered fatal abdominal injuries when attacked by a pregnant Siberian husky. A 2-year-old girl expired from neck wounds inflicted by a pit bull or a rottweiler or both. Because no expert would testify as to which dog caused the fatal injury, the owner of the animals was not charged under a statute which specified criminality only if a pit bull caused the fatal injury. We also examined a 12-year-old boy who attempted to pet a circus tiger; the animal grabbed his arm with its claws and bit off the arm at the shoulder. The arm could not be reattached, but the child survived. These cases and the differentiation of animal bites from other injuries will be presented.

  4. Chernobyl Accident Fatalities and Causes

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1990-06-01

    TI FLE CY N Defense Nuclear Agency Alexandria, VA 22310-3398 SWES% Ot DNA-TR-89-45 Chernobyl Accident Fatalities and Causes A. Laupa G. H. Anno...0104 Chernobyl Accident Fatalities and Causes PE - 62715H PR - RM 6 AUTHOR(S) TA -RH A. Laupa: G. H. Anno WU - DH026130 7 PERFORMING ORGANIZATION NAME(S...vi 1 INTRODUCTION .......................................... 1I DATA SOURCES ON CHERNOBYL VICTIMS ............... 3 CHERNOBYL

  5. Diving fatality investigations: recent changes.

    PubMed

    Edmonds, Carl; Caruso, James

    2014-06-01

    Modifications to the investigation procedures in diving fatalities have been incorporated into the data acquisition by diving accident investigators. The most germane proposal for investigators assessing diving fatalities is to delay the drawing of conclusions until all relevant diving information is known. This includes: the accumulation and integration of the pathological data; the access to dive computer information; re-enactments of diving incidents; post-mortem CT scans and the interpretation of intravascular and tissue gas detected. These are all discussed, with reference to the established literature and recent publications.

  6. Batch Proving and Proof Scripting in PVS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Munoz, Cesar A.

    2007-01-01

    The batch execution modes of PVS are powerful, but highly technical, features of the system that are mostly accessible to expert users. This paper presents a PVS tool, called ProofLite, that extends the theorem prover interface with a batch proving utility and a proof scripting notation. ProofLite enables a semi-literate proving style where specification and proof scripts reside in the same file. The goal of ProofLite is to provide batch proving and proof scripting capabilities to regular, non-expert, users of PVS.

  7. Proving relations between modular graph functions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Basu, Anirban

    2016-12-01

    We consider modular graph functions that arise in the low energy expansion of the four graviton amplitude in type II string theory. The vertices of these graphs are the positions of insertions of vertex operators on the toroidal worldsheet, while the links are the scalar Green functions connecting the vertices. Graphs with four and five links satisfy several non-trivial relations, which have been proved recently. We prove these relations by using elementary properties of Green functions and the details of the graphs. We also prove a relation between modular graph functions with six links.

  8. Mitragynine concentrations in two fatalities.

    PubMed

    Domingo, Olwen; Roider, Gabriele; Stöver, Andreas; Graw, Matthias; Musshoff, Frank; Sachs, Hans; Bicker, Wolfgang

    2017-02-01

    Two cases of fatalities are reported of which the recreational use of Mitragyna speciosa ("kratom") could be confirmed. One of these cases presents with one of the highest postmortem mitragynine concentrations published to date. Our results show that even extremely high mitragynine blood concentrations following the consumption of kratom do not necessarily have to be the direct cause of death in such fatalities as a result of an acute overdose. The two cases are compared with regard to the differences in mitragynine concentrations detected and the role of mitragynine in the death of the subjects. Irrespective of the big differences in mitragynine concentrations in the postmortem blood samples, mitragynine was not the primary cause of death in either of the two cases reported here. Additionally, by rough estimation, a significant difference in ratio of mitragynine to its diastereomers in the blood and urine samples between the two cases could be seen.

  9. Fire fatalities in elderly people.

    PubMed

    Elder, A T; Squires, T; Busuttil, A

    1996-05-01

    Fatal dwelling-house fires account for 10% of all accidental deaths in the United Kingdom with one-quarter of the deaths being of elderly people. No study had described the characteristics of elderly individuals who die in fires. We report results from a retrospective review of all fatal dwelling-house fires in Scotland from 1980 to 1990. Of 1096 people dying in fires, 243 (23%) were aged over 75. When compared with patients under the age of 75, older patients were significantly less likely to be smokers. Significantly more fires killing elderly people were caused by faulty or misused electrical items in the house, particularly electric blankets. These differences between elderly and younger individuals dying in dwelling-house fires may suggest that preventive strategies for the elderly population require a different emphasis from those for younger people.

  10. Generic Example Proving Criteria for All

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yopp, David; Ely, Rob; Johnson­-Leung, Jennifer

    2015-01-01

    We review literature that discusses generic example proving and highlight ambiguities that pervade our research community's discourse about generic example arguments. We distinguish between pedagogical advice for choosing good examples that can serve as generic examples when teaching and advice for developing generic example arguments. We provide…

  11. Generic Proving: Reflections on Scope and Method

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leron, Uri; Zaslavsky, Orit

    2013-01-01

    We analyze the role of generic proofs in helping students access difficult proofs more easily and naturally. We present three examples of generic proving--an elementary one on numbers, a more advanced one on permutations, and yet more advanced one on groups--and consider the affordances and pitfalls of the method by reflecting on these examples. A…

  12. Type Theory, Computation and Interactive Theorem Proving

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-09-01

    Springer, Heidelberg, 61-76, 2014. [9] Jeremy Avigad and John Harrison , “Formally verified mathematics,” Communications of the ACM, 57(4):66-75, 2014. [10...inequalities," in Gerwin Klein and Ruben Gamboa, eds., Interactive Theorem Proving 2014, Springer, Heidelberg, 61-76, 2014. 9) Jeremy Avigad and John Harrison

  13. The Role of Abduction in Proving Processes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pedemonte, Bettina; Reid, David

    2011-01-01

    This paper offers a typology of forms and uses of abduction that can be exploited to better analyze abduction in proving processes. Based on the work of Peirce and Eco, we describe different kinds of abductions that occur in students' mathematical activity and extend Toulmin's model of an argument as a methodological tool to describe students'…

  14. Affect, Behavioural Schemas and the Proving Process

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Selden, Annie; McKee, Kerry; Selden, John

    2010-01-01

    In this largely theoretical article, we discuss the relation between a kind of affect, behavioural schemas and aspects of the proving process. We begin with affect as described in the mathematics education literature, but soon narrow our focus to a particular kind of affect--nonemotional cognitive feelings. We then mention the position of feelings…

  15. [Fatal child abuse in Japan and Germany. Comparative retrospective study].

    PubMed

    Ohtsuji, M; Ohshima, T; Kondo, T; Godoy, M R; Oehmichen, M

    1998-01-01

    In this study a record for comparative international epidemiological studies on autopsy cases of child abuse is introduced. The form was proved in a retrospective comparative survey of cases of fatal child abuse at the Department of Legal Medicine in Kanazawa (Japan) and Institute of Legal Medicine of Lübeck (Germany). A total of 33 cases were included. The following data were evaluated: age and gender of victims and assailants, relationship between victims and assailants, causes and methods of abuse, chief autopsy findings, and causes of death. The results were leading into two directions between Kanazawa and Lübeck: (1) In the years of 1981-1996 in Kanazawa 23 cases of fatal child abuse were autopsied while during the same period in Lübeck only 10 cases were registered. (2) While sexual abuse was not registered in Kanazawa, it was recorded twice in Lübeck.

  16. Theorem Proving In Higher Order Logics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carreno, Victor A. (Editor); Munoz, Cesar A.; Tahar, Sofiene

    2002-01-01

    The TPHOLs International Conference serves as a venue for the presentation of work in theorem proving in higher-order logics and related areas in deduction, formal specification, software and hardware verification, and other applications. Fourteen papers were submitted to Track B (Work in Progress), which are included in this volume. Authors of Track B papers gave short introductory talks that were followed by an open poster session. The FCM 2002 Workshop aimed to bring together researchers working on the formalisation of continuous mathematics in theorem proving systems with those needing such libraries for their applications. Many of the major higher order theorem proving systems now have a formalisation of the real numbers and various levels of real analysis support. This work is of interest in a number of application areas, such as formal methods development for hardware and software application and computer supported mathematics. The FCM 2002 consisted of three papers, presented by their authors at the workshop venue, and one invited talk.

  17. [Fatal exposure to Aconitum napellus].

    PubMed

    German Jørgensen, Jørgen Rahr; Andersen, Anne Elsborg

    2013-06-10

    Fatal exposure to poisonous plants in northern Europe is a rare condition. In this case report we describe an intended poisoning with Aconitum napellus (monkshood), which contains the toxin aconitine. The lethal dose in adults is 3-6 mg. The toxin affects excitable cells such as neurons and myocytes causing degrees of unconsciousness, hypotension and cardiac arrhythmias. There is no antidote and treatment is symptomatic. We describe a patient who had eaten monkshood. She was treated with infusion of lidocaine and survived. After 24 hours of treatment and monitoring she was discharged from the intensive care unit.

  18. [Fatal poisoning due to Indigofera].

    PubMed

    Labib, S; Berdai, M-A; Bendadi, A; Achour, S; Harandou, M

    2012-01-01

    Indigo, also known in Morocco as Nila, is a dye widely used in the coloring of Moroccan handicrafts. It is obtained from fermentation reactions on the leaves and branches of true indigo, Indigofera tinctoria, which is a widespread plant in tropical Africa and Asia. We report a case of fatal poisoning in a 3-year-old child after administration of indigo for therapeutic purposes. Death resulted from multiple organ failure. The toxicity of this compound is little known in the literature and deserves to be explored through toxicokinetic and toxicodynamic studies, in order to better determine the toxic constituents of the dye.

  19. Proving refinement transformations using extended denotational semantics

    SciTech Connect

    Winter, V.L.; Boyle, J.M.

    1996-04-01

    TAMPR is a fully automatic transformation system based on syntactic rewrites. Our approach in a correctness proof is to map the transformation into an axiomatized mathematical domain where formal (and automated) reasoning can be performed. This mapping is accomplished via an extended denotational semantic paradigm. In this approach, the abstract notion of a program state is distributed between an environment function and a store function. Such a distribution introduces properties that go beyond the abstract state that is being modeled. The reasoning framework needs to be aware of these properties in order to successfully complete a correctness proof. This paper discusses some of our experiences in proving the correctness of TAMPR transformations.

  20. Fatal neglect of the elderly.

    PubMed

    Ortmann, C; Fechner, G; Bajanowski, T; Brinkmann, B

    2001-01-01

    Maltreatment of the elderly is a common problem that affects more than 3% of the elderly. We report on two cases of fatal neglect. Risk factors of victims and caregivers were analysed in the context of the social history. In both cases, the victims had a dominant personality and the abusers (the sons) had been strictly controlled and formed by the parent. The victims showed typical risk factors such as living together with the abuser, isolation, dependence on care, income and money administration. Initially, the victims declined help from outside and self-neglect occurred. The unemployed perpetrators lived in social isolation and depended financially and mentally on the victims. In both cases no mental illness was present but there was a decrease of social competence. Legal medicine is predominantly involved in fatal cases in connection with external post-mortem examinations and autopsies. Also in the living, the medico-legal expert can assist in the identification of findings in elderly persons in cases of suspected abuse.

  1. [Biochemical diagnostics of fatal opium intoxication].

    PubMed

    Papyshev, I P; Astashkina, O G; Tuchik, E S; Nikolaev, B S; Cherniaev, A L

    2013-01-01

    Biochemical diagnostics of fatal opium intoxication remains a topical problem in forensic medical science and practice. We investigated materials obtained in the course of forensic medical expertise of the cases of fatal opium intoxication. The study revealed significant differences between myoglobin levels in blood, urine, myocardium, and skeletal muscles. The proposed approach to biochemical diagnostics of fatal opium intoxication enhances the accuracy and the level of evidence of expert conclusions.

  2. Heat fatalities in Pima County, Arizona.

    PubMed

    Keim, Samuel M; Mays, Mary Z; Parks, Bruce; Pytlak, Erik; Harris, Robin M; Kent, Michael A

    2007-03-01

    The most common cause of heat fatalities is environmental exposure during heat waves. Deserts of the southwestern USA are known for temperatures that exceed 32 degrees C for 30 days or more; yet, heat-related fatalities are rare among residents of the region. We compiled data from the National Weather Service and the Office of the Medical Examiner in order to determine the relationship between temperature and occurrence of heat fatalities in Pima County, AZ. Logistic regression indicated that for each degree of increase in temperature (degrees C), there was a 35% increase in the odds of a heat fatality occurring (p<0.001).

  3. Fatality estimator user’s guide

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Huso, Manuela M.; Som, Nicholas; Ladd, Lew

    2012-12-11

    Only carcasses judged to have been killed after the previous search should be included in the fatality data set submitted to this estimator software. This estimator already corrects for carcasses missed in previous searches, so carcasses judged to have been missed at least once should be considered “incidental” and not included in the fatality data set used to estimate fatality. Note: When observed carcass count is <5 (including 0 for species known to be at risk, but not observed), USGS Data Series 881 (http://pubs.usgs.gov/ds/0881/) is recommended for fatality estimation.

  4. [Autoerotic fatalities in Greater Dusseldorf].

    PubMed

    Hartung, Benno; Hellen, Florence; Borchard, Nora; Huckenbeck, Wolfgang

    2011-01-01

    Autoerotic fatalities in the Greater Dusseldorf area correspond to the relevant medicolegal literature. Our results included exclusively young to middle-aged, usually single men who were found dead in their city apartments. Clothing and devices used showed a great variety. Women's or fetish clothing and complex shackling or hanging devices were disproportionately frequent. In most cases, death occurred due to hanging or ligature strangulation. There was no increased incidence of underlying psychiatric disorders. In most of the deceased no or at least no remarkable alcohol intoxication was found. Occasionally, it may be difficult to reliably differentiate autoerotic accidents, accidents occurring in connection with practices of bondage & discipline, dominance & submission (BDSM) from natural death, suicide or homicide.

  5. a Test to Prove Cloud Whitening THEORY!

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buttram, J. W.

    2011-12-01

    Climate science researchers believe our planet can possibly tolerate twice the present carbon dioxide levels with no upwards temperature change, IF we could increase the amount of energy reflected back out into space by about 2.0%. (c)Cloudtec basically alters a blend of seawater and applies heat derived from magma to it at a temperature exceeding 2,000 degrees F. The interaction of seawater and magma displaces the oxygen, causing the volume of water to vaporize and expand over 4,000 times - transforming billions of tons of seawater into thousands of cubic miles of white, maritime, stratocumulus clouds to reflect the incident Sun's rays back out into space. A 6 month test to prove Cloud Whitening Theory will cost 6 million dollars. (No profit added.) This study will enable everyone on the planet with a computer the transparency to use satellite imagery and check out for themselves - if and when Cloud Whitening is occurring. If Cloud Whitening Theory is validated, (c)Cloudtec's innovation can strategically create the clouds we need to reflect the Sun's rays back out into space and help neutralize the projected 3.6 degrees F rise in temperature. Based on reasonable calculations of anthropogenic global warming: this one move alone would be comparable to slashing global carbon dioxide emissions by over 60% over the next 40 years.

  6. Proving Program Termination With Matrix Weighted Digraphs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dutle, Aaron

    2015-01-01

    Program termination analysis is an important task in logic and computer science. While determining if a program terminates is known to be undecidable in general, there has been a significant amount of attention given to finding sufficient and computationally practical conditions to prove termination. One such method takes a program and builds from it a matrix weighted digraph. These are directed graphs whose edges are labeled by square matrices with entries in {-1,0,1}, equipped with a nonstandard matrix multiplication. Certain properties of this digraph are known to imply the termination of the related program. In particular, termination of the program can be determined from the weights of the circuits in the digraph. In this talk, the motivation for addressing termination and how matrix weighted digraphs arise will be briefly discussed. The remainder of the talk will describe an efficient method for bounding the weights of a finite set of the circuits in a matrix weighted digraph, which allows termination of the related program to be deduced.

  7. Gasoline Prices and Motor Vehicle Fatalities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grabowski, David C.; Morrisey, Michael A.

    2004-01-01

    Fatal motor vehicle crashes per capita remained relatively stable over the 1990s, in spite of new traffic safety laws and vehicle innovations. One explanation for this stability is that the price of gasoline declined, which resulted in more vehicle miles traveled and potentially more fatalities. By using 1983-2000 monthly gasoline price and…

  8. Fatal diphenhydramine poisoning in a dog

    PubMed Central

    Buchweitz, John P.; Raverty, Stephen A.; Johnson, Margaret B.; Lehner, Andreas F.

    2014-01-01

    We report a fatal diphenhydramine poisoning of a 10-year-old, male poodle-cross dog with pre-existing conditions and suspected co-ingestion of ethanol. This case illustrates that diphenhydramine overdose can be fatal in certain circumstances and that analytical toxicology may play an important role in animal death investigations. PMID:25392554

  9. Fatal haemorrhage following male ritual circumcision.

    PubMed

    Hiss, J; Horowitz, A; Kahana, T

    2000-03-01

    Lethal complications following ritual circumcision are extremely rare, the most common being sepsis. We present here a case of fatal haemorrhage from a tiny incision of the glans, following a 'home' circumcision of a 6-week-old baby. The post-mortem examination disclosed idiopathic neonatal hepatitis. It is suggested that the previously undiagnosed hepatic condition was responsible for the fatal haemorrhage.

  10. Fatal intoxication with tianeptine (Stablon).

    PubMed

    Proença, Paula; Teixeira, Helena; Pinheiro, João; Monsanto, Paula V; Vieira, Duarte Nuno

    2007-08-06

    Tianeptine (Stablon), although structurally similar to tricyclic antidepressants, acts by enhancing the reuptake of serotonin. A fatal case is presented involving a 26-year-old man, found lying in bed with a "mushroom of foam" around his mouth. Empty blister packs of Stablon and a suicide note were found next to the body. A liquid-liquid extraction procedure with n-hexane: ethyl acetate and n-hexane: 2-propanol, followed by LC-DAD-MS analysis, using positive mode electrospray ionization was performed. The detection limit was 0.001 microg/mL. The toxicological results revealed the following tianeptine concentrations in the post-mortem samples: blood 5.1 microg/mL; urine 2.0 microg/mL; liver 23 microg/g; stomach contents 22 mg. Femoral blood analyses also revealed an ethanol concentration of 0.53 g/L. The present method was also developed and validated for the other post-mortem specimens, since no previous published data had confirmed the post-mortem distribution of tianeptine. The absence of other suitable direct causes of death (macroscopic or histological) and the positive results achieved with the toxicological analysis led the pathologist to rule that death was due to an intoxication caused by the suicidal ingestion of tianeptine in combination with alcohol.

  11. Lightning fatalities and injuries in Turkey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tilev-Tanriover, Ş.; Kahraman, A.; Kadioğlu, M.; Schultz, D. M.

    2015-08-01

    A database of lightning-related fatalities and injuries in Turkey was constructed by collecting data from the Turkish State Meteorological Service, newspaper archives, European Severe Weather Database, and the internet. The database covers January 1930 to June 2014. In total, 742 lightning incidents causing human fatalities and injuries were found. Within these 742 incidents, there were 895 fatalities, 149 serious injuries, and 535 other injuries. Most of the incidents (89 %) occurred during April through September, with a peak in May and June (26 and 28 %) followed by July (14 %). Lightning-related fatalities and injuries were most frequent in the afternoon. Most of the incidents (86 %) occurred in rural areas, with only 14 % in the urban areas. Approximately, two thirds of the victims with known gender were male. Because of the unrepresentativeness of the historical data, determining an average mortality rate over a long period is not possible. Nevertheless, there were 31 fatalities (0.42 per million) in 2012, 26 fatalities (0.35 per million) in 2013, and 25 fatalities (0.34 per million) in 2014 (as of June). There were 36 injuries (0.49 per million) in each of 2012 and 2013, and 62 injuries (0.84 per million) in 2014 (as of June).

  12. Lightning fatalities and injuries in Turkey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tilev-Tanriover, Ş.; Kahraman, A.; Kadioğlu, M.; Schultz, D. M.

    2015-03-01

    A database of lightning-related fatalities and injuries in Turkey was constructed by collecting data from the Turkish State Meteorological Service, newspaper archives, European Severe Weather Database, and the internet. The database covers January 1930 to June 2014. In total, 742 lightning incidents causing human fatalities and injuries were found. Within these 742 incidents, there were 895 fatalities, 149 serious injuries, and 535 other injuries. Most of the incidents (89%) occurred during April through September, with a peak in May and June (26 and 28 %) followed by July (14%). Lightning-related fatalities and injuries were most frequent in the afternoon. Most of the incidents (86%) occurred in the rural areas, with only 14% in the urban areas. Approximately, two thirds of the victims with known gender were male. Because of the unrepresentativeness of the historical data, determining an average mortality rate over a long period is not possible. Nevertheless, there were 31 fatalities (0.42 per million) in 2012, 26 fatalities (0.35 per million) in 2013, and 25 fatalities (0.34 per million) in 2014 (as of June). There were 36 injuries (0.49 per million) in each of 2012 and 2013, and 62 injuries (0.84 per million) in 2014 (as of June).

  13. Fatal falls among Hispanic construction workers.

    PubMed

    Dong, Xiuwen Sue; Fujimoto, Alissa; Ringen, Knut; Men, Yurong

    2009-09-01

    This study evaluated occupational deaths resulting from fall injuries among Hispanic construction workers using data from the Census of Fatal Occupational Injuries and the Current Population Survey. The demographics and characteristics of fatal falls among Hispanic workers were examined and compared with that of their white, non-Hispanic counterparts. The results show that fatal injuries among Hispanic construction workers were more likely to be caused by a fall than their white, non-Hispanic counterparts (OR=1.48, 95% CI: 1.05-2.10) after controlling for possible confounders. The rate of fatal falls for foreign-born Hispanic construction workers was 5.5 per 100,000 FTE, which is significantly higher than 4.1 per 100,000 FTE for Hispanic workers who were born in the U.S. (OR=1.36, 95% CI: 1.08-1.67). The disparities in fatal injuries from falls were found in age groups, job tenure, occupations, and types of construction projects. This study also found that about every two of three fatal falls in construction occurred in establishments with 10 or fewer employees. More prevention, intervention, and training measures must be applied to Hispanic workers, especially those who are new immigrants. OSHA enforcements should target small construction establishments in order to lower overall fatality rates, costs, and unnecessary losses of life.

  14. Rise in landing-related skydiving fatalities.

    PubMed

    Hart, Christian L; Griffith, James D

    2003-10-01

    The purpose was to assess whether adoption of potentially dangerous skydiving gear and skydiving practices has led to an increase in fatalities. Beginning in the early 1990s, civilian skydivers began to utilize high performance parachutes that fly much faster and are much more responsive than older style parachutes. Also, skydivers began to fly these parachutes in a more aggressive manner. An analysis of data from the 507 skydiving fatalities in the USA between 1986 and 2001 indicated that this shift toward high performance parachutes and aggressive flying techniques was temporally associated with an increase in parachute-landing deaths. During the same time period, the total number of fatalities remained fairly stable.

  15. Fatal lightning strikes in Malaysia.

    PubMed

    Murty, O P; Kian, Chong Kah; Ari Husin, Mohammed Husrul; Nanta Kumar, Ranjeev Kumar; Mohammed Yusuf, Wan Yuhana W

    2009-09-01

    Lightning strike is a natural phenomenon with potentially devastating effects and represents one of the important causes of deaths from environmental phenomena. Almost every organ system may be affected as lightning current passes through the human body taking the shortest pathways between the contact points. A 10 years retrospective study (1996-2005) was conducted at University Hospital Kuala Lumpur (20 cases) also including cases during last 3 years from Hospital Tengku Ampuan Rahimah, Klang (7 cases) from the autopsy reports at Forensic Pathology Units of these 2 hospitals. Both these hospitals are attached to University of Malaya. There were 27 fatal cases of lightning strike with male preponderance(92.59%) and male to female ratio of 12.5:1. Majority of victims of lightning strike were from the age group between 30 and 39 years old. Most of the victims were foreign workers. Indonesians workers contributed to 59.26% of overall cases. Majority of them were construction workers who attributed i.e.11 of 27 cases (40.74%). Most of the victims were brought in dead (37.04%). In majority of the cases the lightning incidence occurred in the evenings, with the frequency of 15 of 27 cases (62.5%). The month of December represented with the highest number of cases (5 cases of 23 cases); 2004 had the highest incidence of lightning strike which was 5 (19.23%). Lightning strike incidence occurred when victims had taken shelter (25.9%) under trees or shades. Lightning strike in open areas occurred in 10 of 27 cases (37.0%). Head and neck were the most commonly affected sites with the incidence of 77.78% and 74% respectively in all the victims. Only 29.63% of the cases presented with ear bleeding.

  16. State Occupational Injuries, Illnesses, and Fatalities

    MedlinePlus

    ... York City) - Archived CFOI State Tables New York City CFOI Darlene Kelley Phone: 646-632-6729 Fax: ... Research Unit 3017 North Stiles, Suite 100 Oklahoma City, OK 73105 Fatal occupational injuries (CFOI) data (Please ...

  17. Fatal acute Chagas Disease in a Chimpanzee

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-08-01

    Fatal Acute Chagas Disease in a Chimpanzee Yugendar R. Bommineni1, Edward J. Dick Jr.1, J. Scot Estep2, John L. Van de Berg1, and Gene B. Hubbard1...species and several insect vectors demonstrating a wide host distribution and low host specificity. Methods—A 23 year old male chimpanzee died acutely and... chimpanzee . Keywords Ape; nonhuman primate; protozoa; fatal case; Trypanosoma cruzi Introduction CD or American trypanosomiasis is caused by TC, a

  18. Fatal accidents due to train surfing in Berlin.

    PubMed

    Strauch, H; Wirth, I; Geserick, G

    1998-06-08

    This study was undertaken for the purpose of analysing under the aspect of legal medicine, fatal accidents due to train surfing in the local transport system of Berlin (S-Bahn and underground). The period of investigation was from 1989 through 1995, with 41 train surfing accidents, among them 18 with fatal outcome. Evaluation included those 14 deaths which were forensically autopsied. It was based on autopsy records of Berlin-based university institutes (Humboldt University and Free University) as well as the Brandenburg State Institute of Legal Medicine. Also used were data obtained from the Berlin Transport Police Record. The casualties were aged between 13 and 25 years, most of them between 16 and 20. The male-female gender ratio was 13:1. Accidents occurred above all in the warmer season of the year, most of them between 20:00 h and midnight. More than 50% of all cases were affected by alcohol, but centrally acting medicaments or other addictive drugs were not noticed at all. Most of the fatal accidents occurred to users of the Berlin S-Bahn network. Older train models were the preferred surfing objects due to their structural peculiarities. Collision with close-to-track obstacles and slipping from the train proved to be the major sources of danger. An analysis of injuries revealed polytraumatisation but for one exception, with craniocerebral injuries being the most common and severest events. The longest survival time amounted to 24 h. As the psychosocial causes of high-risk behaviour of adolescents will hardly be controllable, withdrawal of technical, that is structural design possibilities appears to be the most important approach to prevention of accidents in the future. This demand is met by the new series of the Berlin S-Bahn. The model of the old series, suitable for surfing, still accounts for about 10% of the rolling stock and is to be decommissioned in 1998.

  19. Highway Safety: Trends in Highway Fatalities 1975-1987

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1990-03-01

    pattern of fatalities as the overall trend. This pattern applies to many of the general fatality statis- tics we present, and, in all cases, it serves as a...Fatalities 1975-87 Appemfx IV Vehicle-Related Statistics Figure IV.17: Vehicle Fatalities by Direction of Principal Impacto NNNumber of PddUlsils lwam 0 1975

  20. Fatal measles infection in marmosets pathogenesis and prophylaxis.

    PubMed Central

    Albrecht, P; Lorenz, D; Klutch, M J; Vickers, J H; Ennis, F A

    1980-01-01

    Moustached marmosets (Saguinus mystax) were infected intranasally with either of two low-passaged, wildlike strains of measles virus, strain Edmonston or strain JM. The infection resulted in 25 and 100% mortality, respectively, 12 to 14 days after infection. Clinical signs, gross pathological findings, and histology lacked the characteristic features of measles in other primates. A deficient immune response and widespread gastroenterocolitis appeared to be the main causes for the fatal outcome. Fluorescent-antibody staining detected large amounts of measles antigen in lymphatic tissues, the gastrointestinal and respiratory tracts, the salivary glands, pancreas, liver, kidney, and other visceral tissues. Live attenuated or inactivated measles vaccine proved equally effective in preventing fatal measles in marmosets. Challenge with live virus of animals which were primed 1 year previously with inactivated alum-absorbed vaccine resulted in a precipitous response, with a 100- to 1,000-fold increase in antibody titers. This vigorous booster response suggests the existence of a primary deficiency in lymphocyte cooperation in marmosets, which upon adequate priming is followed by extensive clonal expansion and antibody synthesis. Marmosets appear to be the most susceptible primate species to measles infection. They are capable of distinguishing differences in virulence of virus strains with a level of sensitivity not available in other animals. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 PMID:6769812

  1. Fire fighter fatalities 1998–2001: overview with an emphasis on structure related traumatic fatalities

    PubMed Central

    Hodous, T; Pizatella, T; Braddee, R; Castillo, D

    2004-01-01

    Objective: To review the causes of all fire fighter line-of-duty-deaths from 1998 through 2001, and present recommendations for preventing fatalities within the specific subgroup of structure related events. Methods: Fire fighter fatality data from the United States Fire Administration were reviewed and classified into three main categories of injury. Investigations conducted through the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) Fire Fighter Fatality Investigation and Prevention Program provided the basis for the recommendations presented in this paper. Results: During the time period from 1998–2001, there were 410 line-of-duty deaths among fire fighters in the United States, excluding the 343 fire fighters who died at the World Trade Center on 11 September 2001. The 410 fatalities included 191 medical (non-traumatic) deaths (47%), 75 motor vehicle related fatalities (18%), and 144 other traumatic fatalities (35%). The latter group included 68 fatalities that were associated with structures which commonly involved structural collapse, rapid fire progression, and trapped fire fighters. Conclusions: Structural fires pose particular hazards to fire fighters. Additional efforts must be directed to more effectively use what we have learned through the NIOSH investigations and recommendations from published experts in the safety community, consensus standards, and national fire safety organizations to reduce fire fighter fatalities during structural fire fighting. PMID:15314049

  2. Fire fatality study: demographics of fire victims.

    PubMed

    Barillo, D J; Goode, R

    1996-03-01

    Injury or death caused by fire is frequent and largely preventable. This study was undertaken to define the populations, locations, times and behaviours associated with fatal fires. Seven hundred and twenty-seven fatalities occurring within the State of New Jersey, between the years 1985 and 1991, were examined retrospectively. Most deaths were attributed to a combination of smoke inhalation and burn injury. Five hundred and seventy-four fatalities occurred in residential fires. Smoking materials were the most common source of ignition for residential fires. More than half of the fatal residential fires started between the hours of 11 p.m. and 7 a.m. Children and the elderly represented a disproportionate percentage of fire victims. Victims under the age of 11 years or over the age of 70 years constituted 22.1 per cent of the state population but 39.5 per cent of all fire fatalities. Fire-prevention efforts should target home fire safety, and should concentrate on children and the elderly. The development of fire-safe smoking materials should be encouraged.

  3. Overcoming the Obstacle of Poor Knowledge in Proving Geometry Tasks

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Magajna, Zlatan

    2013-01-01

    Proving in school geometry is not just about validating the truth of a claim. In the school setting, the main function of the proof is to convince someone that a claim is true by providing an explanation. Students consider proving to be difficult; in fact, they find the very concept of proof demanding. Proving a claim in planar geometry involves…

  4. Fatal Spotted Fever Rickettsiosis, Minas Gerais, Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Dumler, J. Stephen; Mafra, Cláudio Lísias; Calic, Simone Berger; Chamone, Chequer Buffe; Filho, Gracco Cesarino; Olano, Juan Pablo; Walker, David H.

    2003-01-01

    The emergence and reemergence of a serious infectious disease are often associated with a high case-fatality rate because of misdiagnosis and inappropriate or delayed treatment. The current reemergence of spotted fever rickettsiosis caused by Rickettsia rickettsii in Brazil has resulted in a high proportion of fatal cases. We describe two familial clusters of Brazilian spotted fever in the state of Minas Gerais, involving six children 9 months to 15 years of age; five died. Immunohistochemical investigation of tissues obtained at necropsy of a child in each location, Novo Cruzeiro and Coronel Fabriciano municipalities, established the diagnosis by demonstration of disseminated endothelial infection with spotted fever group rickettsiae. The diagnosis in the two fatal cases from Coronel Fabriciano and the surviving patient from Novo Cruzeiro was further supported by immunofluorescence serologic tests. PMID:14718082

  5. ECONOMIC LOSSES AND FATALITIES DUE TO LANDSLIDES.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Schuster, Robert L.; Fleming, Robert W.

    1986-01-01

    Annual losses in the United States, Japan, Italy, and India have been estimated at 1 billion or more each. During the period 1971-74, nearly 600 people per year were killed by landslides worldwide; about 90 percent of these deaths occurred in the Circum-Pacific region. From 1967-82, 150 people per year died in Japan as a result of slope failures. In the United States, the number of landslide-related fatalities per year exceeds 25. Japan leads other nations in development of comprehensive programs to reduce economic losses and fatalities due to landslides. The United States recently has proposed a national landslide hazard reduction program.

  6. Forensic Nursing Provides Closure in Workplace Fatality.

    PubMed

    Harris, Colin

    The Workers' Compensation Board of British Columbia in Canada is the provincial agency mandated to investigate workplace injuries and fatalities. In 2012, the Fatal and Serious Injuries Investigation section of this organization initiated the integration of forensic nursing expertise into the investigation of workplace incidents. The goals were to improve investigative outcomes and aid in prevention initiatives by achieving a more accurate understanding of incident causation through the application of forensic nursing science. An unexpected outcome of the use of forensic nursing expertise was providing closure for families through a deeper understanding of their loved one's tragic workplace incident.

  7. Alcohol and drugs in fatally and non-fatally injured motor vehicle drivers in northern Sweden.

    PubMed

    Ahlm, Kristin; Björnstig, Ulf; Oström, Mats

    2009-01-01

    Alcohol and drugs are important risk factors for traffic injuries, a major health problem worldwide. This prospective study investigated the epidemiology and the presence of alcohol and drugs in fatally and hospitalized non-fatally injured drivers of motor vehicles in northern Sweden. During a 2-year study period, blood from fatally and hospitalized non-fatally injured drivers was tested for alcohol and drugs. The study subjects were recruited from well-defined geographical areas with known demographics. Autopsy reports, medical journals, police reports, and toxicological analyses were evaluated. Of the fatally injured, 38% tested positive for alcohol and of the non-fatally 21% tested positive; 7% and 13%, respectively, tested positive for pharmaceuticals with a warning for impaired driving; 9% and 4%, respectively, tested positive for illicit drugs. The most frequently detected pharmaceuticals were benzodiazepines, opiates, and antidepressants. Tetrahydrocannabinol was the most frequently detected illicit substance. No fatally injured women had illegal blood alcohol concentration. The relative proportion of positively tested drivers has increased and was higher than in a similar study 14 years earlier. This finding indicates that alcohol and drugs merit more attention in future traffic safety work.

  8. Estimating cost ratio distribution between fatal and non-fatal road accidents in Malaysia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hamdan, Nurhidayah; Daud, Noorizam

    2014-07-01

    Road traffic crashes are a global major problem, and should be treated as a shared responsibility. In Malaysia, road accident tragedies kill 6,917 people and injure or disable 17,522 people in year 2012, and government spent about RM9.3 billion in 2009 which cost the nation approximately 1 to 2 percent loss of gross domestic product (GDP) reported annually. The current cost ratio for fatal and non-fatal accident used by Ministry of Works Malaysia simply based on arbitrary value of 6:4 or equivalent 1.5:1 depends on the fact that there are six factors involved in the calculation accident cost for fatal accident while four factors for non-fatal accident. The simple indication used by the authority to calculate the cost ratio is doubted since there is lack of mathematical and conceptual evidence to explain how this ratio is determined. The main aim of this study is to determine the new accident cost ratio for fatal and non-fatal accident in Malaysia based on quantitative statistical approach. The cost ratio distributions will be estimated based on Weibull distribution. Due to the unavailability of official accident cost data, insurance claim data both for fatal and non-fatal accident have been used as proxy information for the actual accident cost. There are two types of parameter estimates used in this study, which are maximum likelihood (MLE) and robust estimation. The findings of this study reveal that accident cost ratio for fatal and non-fatal claim when using MLE is 1.33, while, for robust estimates, the cost ratio is slightly higher which is 1.51. This study will help the authority to determine a more accurate cost ratio between fatal and non-fatal accident as compared to the official ratio set by the government, since cost ratio is an important element to be used as a weightage in modeling road accident related data. Therefore, this study provides some guidance tips to revise the insurance claim set by the Malaysia road authority, hence the appropriate method

  9. Evaluation of farm tractor-related fatalities.

    PubMed

    Dogan, Kamil H; Demirci, Serafettin; Sunam, Guven S; Deniz, Idris; Gunaydin, Gursel

    2010-03-01

    Farm tractors are the major cause of occupational fatalities in agricultural regions. Fatalities typically result from being run over or crushed by the tractor, becoming entangled in the moving parts of the tractor, accidents on roadways, and tractor rollovers, which involve the tractor tipping sideways or backwards and crushing the operator. In this study, tractor-related fatalities in the Konya province of Turkey are retrospectively evaluated. Out of the 3940 cases on which a death examination and/or autopsy was performed between the years 2000 and 2007 at The Konya Branch of Forensic Medicine Council, 86 (2.2%) of the death cases were caused by tractor accidents and are included in this study. The ages of the victims varied between 3 and 80 years old with a mean age of 31.7 + or - 22.3. Sixty-eight (79.1%) of the cases involved males, while 18 (20.9%) of the cases involved females. In 32 (37.2%) of the cases, the deaths due to tractor accidents occurred when the tractor overturned. In 37 (43.0%) of the cases, the tractor-related fatalities involved the passengers and the drivers were involved in 34 (39.5%) of the cases. In conclusion, tractor accidents are preventable and deaths from tractor accidents can be significantly reduced if drivers are required to wear safety belts and helmets and frequent checks are implemented to enforce the ban on carrying passengers.

  10. Can we reduce workplace fatalities by half?

    PubMed

    Koh, David Soo Quee

    2012-06-01

    Singapore, an island republic of over 5 million inhabitants, has 3.1 million workers. Most are employed in the service, finance and tourist/transport industry. Significant numbers work in manufacturing, construction and heavy industry. Following a series of construction and shipyard accidents with multiple deaths in 2004, the government announced its intention to reduce workplace fatalities from 4.9 to 2.5 per 100,000 by 2015. There was strong political will to achieve this target. The strategic approaches were to build workplace safety and health (WSH) capabilities; implement legislative changes with enforcement; promote benefits of WSH and recognize best practices, and enhance partnership with stakeholders. The anticipated outcomes were to reduce workplace fatality and injury rates; have WSH as an integral part of business; and establish a progressive and pervasive WSH culture. With these measures, the workplace fatality rate declined from 4.9/100,000 in 2004, to 2.2/100,000 in 2010. However, other confounding factors could also account for this decline, and have to be considered. The next target, announced by Singapore's Prime Minister in 2008, is to further reduce the workplace fatality rate to 1.8/100,000 by 2018, and to have "one of the best workplace safety records in the world".

  11. 49 CFR 219.207 - Fatality.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... authority (such as a coroner or medical examiner) of the fatality and the requirements of this subpart... telephone number of local authority contacted. (c) A coroner, medical examiner, pathologist, Aviation Medical Examiner, or other qualified professional is authorized to remove the required body fluid...

  12. 49 CFR 219.207 - Fatality.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... authority (such as a coroner or medical examiner) of the fatality and the requirements of this subpart... telephone number of local authority contacted. (c) A coroner, medical examiner, pathologist, Aviation Medical Examiner, or other qualified professional is authorized to remove the required body fluid...

  13. Can We Reduce Workplace Fatalities by Half?

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Singapore, an island republic of over 5 million inhabitants, has 3.1 million workers. Most are employed in the service, finance and tourist/transport industry. Significant numbers work in manufacturing, construction and heavy industry. Following a series of construction and shipyard accidents with multiple deaths in 2004, the government announced its intention to reduce workplace fatalities from 4.9 to 2.5 per 100,000 by 2015. There was strong political will to achieve this target. The strategic approaches were to build workplace safety and health (WSH) capabilities; implement legislative changes with enforcement; promote benefits of WSH and recognize best practices, and enhance partnership with stakeholders. The anticipated outcomes were to reduce workplace fatality and injury rates; have WSH as an integral part of business; and establish a progressive and pervasive WSH culture. With these measures, the workplace fatality rate declined from 4.9/100,000 in 2004, to 2.2/100,000 in 2010. However, other confounding factors could also account for this decline, and have to be considered. The next target, announced by Singapore's Prime Minister in 2008, is to further reduce the workplace fatality rate to 1.8/100,000 by 2018, and to have "one of the best workplace safety records in the world". PMID:22993714

  14. Non-Fatal Suicidal Behaviors in Adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Jena, S.; Sidhartha, T.

    2004-01-01

    In the USA, suicide ranked as the third leading cause of death for adolescents in 1999. Non-fatal suicidal behaviours are suicidal thought, specific suicidal plan and suicide attempt. Prospective studies have emphasized the high subsequent suicide rates in clinically presenting suicide attempters. This study was planned to critically review the existing international literature on this area, and compare, if possible, with the Indian data. Both electronic and manual search for published and unpublished works was done for the review of this area. Both international and Indian studies on prevalence, risk factors, management, and prevention of non-fatal suicidal behaviours in adolescents were collected, analysed and reviewed. The study concludes that professionals, like general practitioners, paediatricians, school teachers, school counselors, need to be trained in identifying non-fatal suicidal behaviours in adolescents, and know when to refer them to a mental health professional or mental health service for thorough assessment and effective management. Timely and efficient management of non-fatal suicidal behaviors can prevent future suicidal attempts and completed suicide in most of this highly vulnerable population. Indian studies are very few and without robust study design. Systematic studies in India on this important topic are required. PMID:21206789

  15. Systemic juvenile xanthogranuloma with fatal outcome.

    PubMed

    Azorín, Daniel; Torrelo, Antonio; Lassaletta, Alvaro; de Prada, Inmaculada; Colmenero, Isabel; Contra, Trinidad; González-Mediero, Imelda

    2009-01-01

    Juvenile xanthogranuloma is a benign and self-limited disease which usually appears in the skin of children. Visceral involvement has been rarely reported, as has fatal outcome in some affected individuals. We report a case of systemic juvenile xanthogranuloma in a female newborn with mainly skin, bone marrow, and liver involvement, leading to death at the age of 2 months.

  16. Fatal Case of Listeria innocua Bacteremia

    PubMed Central

    Perrin, Monique; Bemer, Michel; Delamare, Catherine

    2003-01-01

    Listeria innocua is widespread in the environment and in food. This species has to date never been described in association with human disease. We report a case of fatal bacteremia caused by L. innocua in a 62-year-old patient. PMID:14605191

  17. Fatal case of Listeria innocua bacteremia.

    PubMed

    Perrin, Monique; Bemer, Michel; Delamare, Catherine

    2003-11-01

    Listeria innocua is widespread in the environment and in food. This species has to date never been described in association with human disease. We report a case of fatal bacteremia caused by L. innocua in a 62-year-old patient.

  18. Fatal fat embolism during ritual initiation.

    PubMed Central

    Todd, N.

    1975-01-01

    A young Coast Salish Indian woman became fatally ill during ritual Initiation into the Native Winter Spirit Dancing Society. She died from massive fat emboli associated with subcutaneous bruises that appeared clinically unimportant and were not associated with fractures or other underlying injury. The liver showed extreme fatty metamorphosis. PMID:1139497

  19. Fatal Monocytic Ehrlichiosis in Woman, Mexico, 2013

    PubMed Central

    Sosa-Gutierrez, Carolina G.; Solorzano-Santos, Fortino; Walker, David H.; Torres, Javier; Serrano, Carlos A.

    2016-01-01

    Human monocytic ehrlichiosis is a febrile illness caused by Ehrlichia chaffeensis, an intracellular bacterium transmitted by ticks. In Mexico, a case of E. chaffeensis infection in an immunocompetent 31-year-old woman without recognized tick bite was fatal. This diagnosis should be considered for patients with fever, leukopenia, thrombocytopenia, and elevated liver enzyme levels. PMID:27088220

  20. 49 CFR 219.207 - Fatality.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... authority (such as a coroner or medical examiner) of the fatality and the requirements of this subpart... telephone number of local authority contacted. (c) A coroner, medical examiner, pathologist, Aviation Medical Examiner, or other qualified professional is authorized to remove the required body fluid...

  1. 49 CFR 219.207 - Fatality.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... authority (such as a coroner or medical examiner) of the fatality and the requirements of this subpart... telephone number of local authority contacted. (c) A coroner, medical examiner, pathologist, Aviation Medical Examiner, or other qualified professional is authorized to remove the required body fluid...

  2. Fatal Monocytic Ehrlichiosis in Woman, Mexico, 2013.

    PubMed

    Sosa-Gutierrez, Carolina G; Solorzano-Santos, Fortino; Walker, David H; Torres, Javier; Serrano, Carlos A; Gordillo-Perez, Guadalupe

    2016-05-01

    Human monocytic ehrlichiosis is a febrile illness caused by Ehrlichia chaffeensis, an intracellular bacterium transmitted by ticks. In Mexico, a case of E. chaffeensis infection in an immunocompetent 31-year-old woman without recognized tick bite was fatal. This diagnosis should be considered for patients with fever, leukopenia, thrombocytopenia, and elevated liver enzyme levels.

  3. Patterns of Drug Use in Fatal Crashes

    PubMed Central

    Romano, Eduardo; Pollini, Robin A.

    2013-01-01

    Aims To characterize drug prevalence among fatally injured drivers, identify significant associations (i.e., day of week, time of day, age, gender), and compare findings with those for alcohol. Design Descriptive and logistic mixed-model regression analyses of Fatality Analysis Reporting System data. Setting U.S. states with drug test results for >80% of fatally injured drivers, 1998-2010. Participants Drivers killed in single-vehicle crashes on public roads who died at the scene of the crash (N=16,942). Measurements Drug test results, blood alcohol concentration (BAC), gender, age, and day and time of crash. Findings Overall, 45.1% of fatally injured drivers tested positive for alcohol (39.9% BAC>0.08) and 25.9% for drugs. The most common drugs present were stimulants (7.2%) and cannabinols (7.1%), followed by “other” drugs (4.1%), multiple drugs (4.1%), narcotics (2.1%), and depressants (1.5%). Drug-involved crashes occurred with relative uniformity throughout the day while alcohol-involved crashes were more common at night (p<.01). The odds of testing positive for drugs varied depending upon drug class, driver characteristics, time of day, and the presence of alcohol. Conclusions Fatal single vehicle crashes involving drugs are less common than those involving alcohol and the characteristics of drug-involved crashes differ depending upon drug class and whether alcohol is present. Concerns about drug-impaired driving should not detract from the current law enforcement focus on alcohol-impaired driving. PMID:23600629

  4. [Concealed and simulated trauma fatalities(II)].

    PubMed

    Klotzbach, H; Püschel, K

    2001-12-01

    A careful investigation of fatal accidents is required due to the relevant financial consequences for the insured as well as for the insurance company. An evaluation of post-mortem cases handled by our institute from 1988 to 1998 showed that 16% of all fatal accidents were not initially classified as such; it was only possible to determine the cause by post-mortem and criminal investigation. The frequency of a relevant alcoholization varied with different types of accidents. Furthermore, of all fatal accidents, 3% were revealed to be deceptive. Those 42 cases in total, presenting themselves as fatal accidents at first glance, were later determined either to be natural deaths (n = 27), homicide (n = 11) or suicide (n = 4). In addition to this, autopsies showed 83 cases of death to be sequelae to accidents. Particularly in cases of a victim plunging out of the window or into water, it can be difficult to make the distinction between natural death--e.g. as a reason for falling--and suicide or homicide. Further difficulties can result from interpretations of the findings in cases of putrefaction, mauling by animals, defects caused by burning or severely deformed corpses. In these cases, the importance of patho-morphological findings from the autopsy must be emphasized. Indirect sequelae of accidents may be pulmonary embolism or pneumonia. The cause of death has to be classified as accidental if the chain of events is of traumatic origin. Mistakes can be avoided if the medical history is taken conscientiously. If no facts are available, the cause of death should be certificated as undetermined. Our evaluation only included autopsy cases from our institute. The concealed fatal accidents which were incorrectly certified as natural deaths or the cases dismissed by the police and the public prosecutor without performing an autopsy were not evaluated.

  5. 78 FR 38096 - Fatality Analysis Reporting System Information Collection

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-06-25

    ... National Highway Traffic Safety Administration Fatality Analysis Reporting System Information Collection... Reporting System (FARS) is a major system that acquires national fatality information directly from existing...: Request for public comment on proposed collection of information. SUMMARY: Before a Federal agency...

  6. Road traffic crashes with fatal and non-fatal injuries in Arkhangelsk, Russia in 2005-2010.

    PubMed

    Kudryavtsev, Alexander V; Nilssen, Odd; Lund, Johan; Grjibovski, Andrej M; Ytterstad, Børge

    2013-01-01

    The study investigated trends in traffic crashes with fatal and non-fatal injuries in Arkhangelsk, Russia in 2005-2010. Data were obtained from the road police. Negative binomial regression with time regressor was used to investigate trends in monthly incidence rates (IRs) of crashes, fatalities, and non-fatal injuries. During the six-year period, the police registered 4955 crashes with fatal and non-fatal injuries, which resulted in 217 fatalities and 5964 non-fatal injury cases. The IR of crashes with fatal and non-fatal injuries per total population showed no evident change, while the IR per increasing total number of motor vehicles decreased on average by 0.6% per month. Pedestrian crashes constituted 51.8% of studied crashes, and pedestrians constituted 54.6% of fatalities and 44.5% of non-fatal injuries. The IRs of pedestrian crashes and non-fatal pedestrian injuries per total population decreased on average by 0.3% per month, and these were the major trends in the data.

  7. The Status of Proving among US Secondary Mathematics Teachers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kotelawala, Usha

    2016-01-01

    This report examines teachers' self-espoused attitudes and beliefs on proving in the secondary mathematics classroom. Conclusions were based on a questionnaire of 78 US mathematics teachers who had completed at least 2 years of teaching mathematics at the secondary level. While these teachers placed importance on proving as a general mathematical…

  8. Cabri as a "Shared Workspace" within the Proving Process

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Olivero, Federica

    2003-01-01

    This paper will discuss some findings from a study investigating the development of the proving process in a dynamic geometry environment. Through a detailed analysis of students' processes when working with open geometry problems involving conjecturing and proving in Cabri, an analytical and explanatory framework has been developed. This paper…

  9. 20 CFR 219.23 - Evidence to prove death.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2013-04-01 2012-04-01 true Evidence to prove death. 219.23 Section 219.23... REQUIRED FOR PAYMENT Evidence of Age and Death § 219.23 Evidence to prove death. (a) Preferred evidence of death. The best evidence of a person's death is— (1) A certified copy of or extract from the...

  10. 20 CFR 219.23 - Evidence to prove death.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Evidence to prove death. 219.23 Section 219... EVIDENCE REQUIRED FOR PAYMENT Evidence of Age and Death § 219.23 Evidence to prove death. (a) Preferred evidence of death. The best evidence of a person's death is— (1) A certified copy of or extract from...

  11. 20 CFR 219.23 - Evidence to prove death.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Evidence to prove death. 219.23 Section 219... EVIDENCE REQUIRED FOR PAYMENT Evidence of Age and Death § 219.23 Evidence to prove death. (a) Preferred evidence of death. The best evidence of a person's death is— (1) A certified copy of or extract from...

  12. 20 CFR 219.23 - Evidence to prove death.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Evidence to prove death. 219.23 Section 219... EVIDENCE REQUIRED FOR PAYMENT Evidence of Age and Death § 219.23 Evidence to prove death. (a) Preferred evidence of death. The best evidence of a person's death is— (1) A certified copy of or extract from...

  13. 20 CFR 219.23 - Evidence to prove death.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2014-04-01 2012-04-01 true Evidence to prove death. 219.23 Section 219.23... REQUIRED FOR PAYMENT Evidence of Age and Death § 219.23 Evidence to prove death. (a) Preferred evidence of death. The best evidence of a person's death is— (1) A certified copy of or extract from the...

  14. Generating and Using Examples in the Proving Process

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sandefur, J.; Mason, J.; Stylianides, G. J.; Watson, A.

    2013-01-01

    We report on our analysis of data from a dataset of 26 videotapes of university students working in groups of 2 and 3 on different proving problems. Our aim is to understand the role of example generation in the proving process, focusing on deliberate changes in representation and symbol manipulation. We suggest and illustrate four aspects of…

  15. The Earth is Flat, and I Can Prove It!

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Klinger, Art

    1998-01-01

    Describes an educational program that asks students to attempt to prove that the earth is spherical and that it rotates. Presents tips to pique student interest and charts related to sensing the spin, nonrotation notions, flat earth fallacies, evidence that the earth is spherical and rotates, and the role of watersheds in proving that the earth…

  16. Preservice Mathematics Teachers' Metaphorical Perceptions towards Proof and Proving

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ersen, Zeynep Bahar

    2016-01-01

    Since mathematical proof and proving are in the center of mathematics; preservice mathematics teachers' perceptions against these concepts have a great importance. Therefore, the study aimed to determine preservice mathematics teachers' perceptions towards proof and proving through metaphors. The participants consisted of 192 preservice…

  17. 14 CFR 121.163 - Aircraft proving tests.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Aircraft proving tests. 121.163 Section 121... REQUIREMENTS: DOMESTIC, FLAG, AND SUPPLEMENTAL OPERATIONS Aircraft Requirements § 121.163 Aircraft proving...) Alterations to the aircraft or its components that materially affect flight characteristics. (e)...

  18. 14 CFR 121.163 - Aircraft proving tests.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Aircraft proving tests. 121.163 Section 121... REQUIREMENTS: DOMESTIC, FLAG, AND SUPPLEMENTAL OPERATIONS Aircraft Requirements § 121.163 Aircraft proving...) Alterations to the aircraft or its components that materially affect flight characteristics. (e)...

  19. 14 CFR 121.163 - Aircraft proving tests.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Aircraft proving tests. 121.163 Section 121... REQUIREMENTS: DOMESTIC, FLAG, AND SUPPLEMENTAL OPERATIONS Aircraft Requirements § 121.163 Aircraft proving...) Alterations to the aircraft or its components that materially affect flight characteristics. (e)...

  20. 14 CFR 91.1041 - Aircraft proving and validation tests.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Aircraft proving and validation tests. 91... Ownership Operations Program Management § 91.1041 Aircraft proving and validation tests. (a) No program manager may permit the operation of an aircraft, other than a turbojet aircraft, for which two pilots...

  1. 14 CFR 91.1041 - Aircraft proving and validation tests.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Aircraft proving and validation tests. 91... Ownership Operations Program Management § 91.1041 Aircraft proving and validation tests. (a) No program manager may permit the operation of an aircraft, other than a turbojet aircraft, for which two pilots...

  2. 14 CFR 121.163 - Aircraft proving tests.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Aircraft proving tests. 121.163 Section 121... REQUIREMENTS: DOMESTIC, FLAG, AND SUPPLEMENTAL OPERATIONS Aircraft Requirements § 121.163 Aircraft proving...) Alterations to the aircraft or its components that materially affect flight characteristics. (e)...

  3. 14 CFR 121.163 - Aircraft proving tests.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Aircraft proving tests. 121.163 Section 121... REQUIREMENTS: DOMESTIC, FLAG, AND SUPPLEMENTAL OPERATIONS Aircraft Requirements § 121.163 Aircraft proving...) Alterations to the aircraft or its components that materially affect flight characteristics. (e)...

  4. Reasoning-and-Proving in School Mathematics Textbooks

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stylianides, Gabriel J.

    2009-01-01

    Despite widespread agreement that the activity of "reasoning-and-proving" should be central to all students' mathematical experiences, many students face serious difficulties with this activity. Mathematics textbooks can play an important role in students' opportunities to engage in reasoning-and-proving: research suggests that many decisions that…

  5. Ehrlichia chaffeensis (Rickettsiales: Ehrlichieae) infection in Amblyomma americanum (Acari: Ixodidae) at Aberdeen Proving Ground, Maryland.

    PubMed

    Stromdahl, E Y; Randolph, M P; O'Brien, J J; Gutierrez, A G

    2000-05-01

    Human monocytic ehrlichiosis (HME) is a sometimes fatal, emerging tick-borne disease caused by the bacterium Ehrlichia chaffeensis. It is frequently misdiagnosed because its symptoms mimic those of the flu. Current evidence indicates that Amblyomma americanum (L.), the lone star tick, is the major vector of HME. To determine if E. chaffeensis is present in ticks at Aberdeen Proving Ground, MD, questing A. americanum ticks were collected from 33 sites. Nucleic acid was extracted from 34 adult and 81 nymphal pools. Sequences diagnostic for E. chaffeensis from three different loci (16S rRNA, 120-kDa protein, and a variable-length polymerase chain reaction [PCR] target, or VLPT) were targeted for amplification by the PCR. Fifty-two percent of the collection sites yielded pools infected with E. chaffeensis, confirming the presence and widespread distribution of E. chaffeensis at Aberdeen Proving Ground. Analysis with the both the 120-kDa protein primers and the VLPT primers showed that genetic variance exists. A novel combination of variance for the two loci was detected in two tick pools. The pathogenic implications of genetic variation in E. chaffeensis are as yet unknown.

  6. Bear attack--A unique fatality in Finland.

    PubMed

    De Giorgio, Fabio; Rainio, Juha; Pascali, Vincenzo; Lalu, Kaisa

    2007-11-15

    Fatalities due to animal bites, the vast majority of which are associated with dogs and big cats, are relatively uncommon and rarely described in the literature. Especially rare are fatal bear attacks on humans. We herein present a forensic investigation of a fatal assault, involving numerous bites on a 42-year-old man in Finland by an European brown bear (Ursus arctos arctos).

  7. A fatal case of peripartum cardiomyopathy.

    PubMed

    Cohen, Ronny; Mallet, Thierry; Mirrer, Brooks; Loarte, Pablo; Gale, Michael; Kastell, Paul

    2014-06-01

    Peripartum cardiomyopathy is a life-threatening cardiac condition affecting pregnant women either late in pregnancy or early in the post-partum period. The latest studies show a dramatic improvement in the mortality rates of women affected with this disorder, which has been correlated with advances in medical therapy for heart failure. However, patients continue to die of this condition. The following case report describes a typical patient with peripartum cardiomyopathy diagnosed on clinical grounds, along with echocardiogram findings of severe systolic dysfunction and global hypokinesis consistent with dilated cardiomyopathy. Emergency cesarean delivery had to be performed for fetal distress. There was significant improvement of the patient's condition with standard pharmacological management for heart failure at the time of discharge. However, five weeks after discharge, fatal cardiac arrest occurred. It is hoped that this article will raise awareness about this rare but potentially fatal condition and promote understanding of its main clinical features, diagnostic criteria, and conventional pharmacological management.

  8. Mobile computed tomography for mass fatality investigations.

    PubMed

    Rutty, Guy N; Robinson, Claire; Jeffery, Amanda; Morgan, Bruno

    2007-06-01

    The use of computed tomography (CT) has received growing interest within the forensic world. To date, most publications have been related to the use of clinical or institutional sited scanners with few publications reporting on the actual, as opposed to the theoretical, use of mobile CT scanners in forensic practice. This review paper considers the use of mobile CT scanning for forensic investigations. It reviews the literature and presents the experience gained from a 6-month trial undertaken by the Forensic Pathology Unit, at the University of Leicester, UK of the use of CT for mass fatality investigation. Protocols for the use of mobile CT are discussed to assist other centres contemplating the use of mobile CT for mass fatality investigations.

  9. Fatal methanol poisoning: features of liver histopathology.

    PubMed

    Akhgari, Maryam; Panahianpour, Mohammad Hadi; Bazmi, Elham; Etemadi-Aleagha, Afshar; Mahdavi, Amirhosein; Nazari, Saeed Hashemi

    2013-03-01

    Methanol poisoning has become a considerable problem in Iran. Liver can show some features of poisoning after methanol ingestion. Therefore, our concern was to examine liver tissue histopathology in fatal methanol poisoning cases in Iranian population. In this study, 44 cases of fatal methanol poisoning were identified in a year. The histological changes of the liver were reviewed. The most striking features of liver damage by light microscopy were micro-vesicular steatosis, macro-vesicular steatosis, focal hepatocyte necrosis, mild intra-hepatocyte bile stasis, feathery degeneration and hydropic degeneration. Blood and vitreous humor methanol concentrations were examined to confirm the proposed history of methanol poisoning. The majority of cases were men (86.36%). In conclusion, methanol poisoning can cause histological changes in liver tissues. Most importantly in cases with mean blood and vitreous humor methanol levels greater than 127 ± 38.9 mg/dL more than one pathologic features were detected.

  10. Fatal Israeli spotted fever in children.

    PubMed

    Yagupsky, P; Wolach, B

    1993-11-01

    We describe three Israeli children with fatal spotted fever. Clinical disease was characterized by irreversible shock, encephalopathy, renal failure, bleeding tendency, and death within 24 hours of admission. None of the patients had a history of tick bite, and no tache noire was noted. One child presented without rash, and the other two did not have antibodies to spotted-fever-group rickettsiae. The disease was confirmed by isolation of Rickettsia conorii from the patients' blood and tissues in cell cultures or from susceptible laboratory animals inoculated with human specimens. The present cases demonstrate the existence of a severe form of Israeli spotted fever in this population that resembles Rocky Mountain spotted fever. Because Israeli spotted fever may follow a quick, unpredictable, rapidly fatal clinical course, specific antimicrobial therapy should be promptly administered whenever the diagnosis is suspected.

  11. Fatal outbreak of botulism in Greenland.

    PubMed

    Hammer, Tóra Hedinsdottir; Jespersen, Sanne; Kanstrup, Jakob; Ballegaard, Vibe Cecilie; Kjerulf, Anne; Gelvan, Allan

    2015-03-01

    Botulism commonly occurs when the anaerobic, gram-positive bacterium Clostridium botulinum, under suitable conditions, produces botulinum neurotoxins. Named A-F, these toxins are the immediate causative agent of the clinical symptoms of symmetrical, descending neurological deficits, including respiratory muscle paralysis. We present five cases of foodborne botulism occurring in Greenland, two with fatal outcome, caused by ingestion of tradionally preserved eider fowl. In the cases of the survivors, antitoxin and supportive care, including mechanical ventilation, were administered. In these cases recovery was complete. Microbiological assays, including toxin neutralization bioassay, demonstrated the presence of neurotoxin E in two survivors. The third survivor was shown by PCR to have the BoNT type E gene in faeces. This is the first report of cases of fatal botulism in Greenland. It underscores the importance of prompt coordinated case management effort in a geographically isolated area such as Greenland.

  12. Fatal intracerebral hemorrhage during dental treatment.

    PubMed

    Massalha, R; Valdman, S; Farkash, P; Merkin, L; Herishanu, Y

    1996-09-01

    Although chronic arterial hypertension is the leading cause of intracranial hemorrhage, an abrupt rise in systemic arterial pressure in normotensive people may sometimes induce a hemorrhagic stroke. Dental treatment is rarely associated with such an event. We report here on two middle-aged women, apparently healthy, who suffered from a fatal intracerebral hemorrhage following a dental treatment. On admission, high levels of arterial hypertension were found. It seems that trigeminal manipulation during dental treatment as well as increased serum levels of induced epinephrine mainly by stress and pain, and the small amounts absorbed from the site of local anesthesia might produce abrupt elevation of blood pressure, subsequent increase in cerebral blood flow and severe, even fatal intracerebral hemorrhage. The addition of catecholamines to local anesthetics should be considered. We recommend the use of benzodiazepin as a premedication drug to reduce stress during dental treatment.

  13. Fatal disseminated toxoplasmosis during primary HIV infection.

    PubMed

    Signorini, Liana; Gulletta, Maurizio; Coppini, Davide; Donzelli, Carla; Stellini, Roberto; Manca, Nino; Carosi, Giampiero; Matteelli, Alberto

    2007-03-01

    Toxoplasmosis is a well recognized manifestation of AIDS, but the disseminated disease is a rare condition and it has not been associated to HIV seroconversion to our knowledge. We describe a fatal episode of disseminated T. gondii acute infection with massive organ involvement during primary HIV infection. The serological data demonstrate primary T. gondii infection. The avidity index for HIV antibodies supports recent HIV-1 infection.

  14. Cathelicidin Insufficiency in Patients with Fatal Leptospirosis

    PubMed Central

    Min, Jin-na; Mannam, Praveen; Srivastava, Anup; Yao, Yi; Hacker, Kathryn P.; Raddassi, Khadir; Montgomery, Ruth R.; Shaw, Albert C.; Araújo, Guilherme C.; Nery, Nivison; Relman, David A.; Reis, Mitermayer G.; Ko, Albert I.

    2016-01-01

    Leptospirosis causes significant morbidity and mortality worldwide; however, the role of the host immune response in disease progression and high case fatality (>10–50%) is poorly understood. We conducted a multi-parameter investigation of patients with acute leptospirosis to identify mechanisms associated with case fatality. Whole blood transcriptional profiling of 16 hospitalized Brazilian patients with acute leptospirosis (13 survivors, 3 deceased) revealed fatal cases had lower expression of the antimicrobial peptide, cathelicidin, and chemokines, but more abundant pro-inflammatory cytokine receptors. In contrast, survivors generated strong adaptive immune signatures, including transcripts relevant to antigen presentation and immunoglobulin production. In an independent cohort (23 survivors, 22 deceased), fatal cases had higher bacterial loads (P = 0.0004) and lower anti-Leptospira antibody titers (P = 0.02) at the time of hospitalization, independent of the duration of illness. Low serum cathelicidin and RANTES levels during acute illness were independent risk factors for higher bacterial loads (P = 0.005) and death (P = 0.04), respectively. To investigate the mechanism of cathelicidin in patients surviving acute disease, we administered LL-37, the active peptide of cathelicidin, in a hamster model of lethal leptospirosis and found it significantly decreased bacterial loads and increased survival. Our findings indicate that the host immune response plays a central role in severe leptospirosis disease progression. While drawn from a limited study size, significant conclusions include that poor clinical outcomes are associated with high systemic bacterial loads, and a decreased antibody response. Furthermore, our data identified a key role for the antimicrobial peptide, cathelicidin, in mounting an effective bactericidal response against the pathogen, which represents a valuable new therapeutic approach for leptospirosis. PMID:27812211

  15. Fatal meningoencephalitis due to Bacillus anthracis.

    PubMed

    Kwong, K L; Que, T L; Wong, S N; So, K T

    1997-12-01

    We report the first case of fatal anthrax meningoencephalitis in Hong Kong over the past 60 years. A 13 year-old boy presented with right lower quadrant pain, diarrhoea and progressive headache. Lumbar puncture yielded gram positive bacilli initially thought to be Bacillus cereus, a contaminant. He was treated with ampicillin and cefotaxime, but died 3 days after hospitalization. The organism isolated from blood and cerebrospinal fluid was later identified as Bacillus anthracis.

  16. Aluminum phosphide fatalities, new local experience.

    PubMed

    Abder-Rahman, H A; Battah, A H; Ibraheem, Y M; Shomaf, M S; el-Batainch, N

    2000-04-01

    Aluminum phosphide (AlP) pesticide is a highly toxic, low cost, and easily accessible rodenticidal agent. Its toxicity results from the liberation of phosphine gas upon exposure to moisture, which leads to multisystem involvement, resulting in serious consequences. The highly toxic parathion insecticide was a common cause of mortality in pesticide fatalities, prior to its banning. Its toxicity was familiar to the public as well as to physicians. Recently, ten fatalities due to AlP were encountered within a three-month period during spring, when it was used as a rodenticide in the vicinity of grain stores. The victims' ages ranged from 1-34 years. The circumstances of death were accidental in six cases, suicidal in two and possibly homicidal in two cases. Retrospectively, the clinical manifestations, scene investigation, autopsy, histological and toxicological findings supported the diagnosis of AlP intoxication. Immediate recognition was difficult due to unfamiliarity of the agent to the physicians. The occurrence of these fatalities might suggest changes of pattern in pesticide poisoning. This should raise the attention of the physician to the problem of AlP poisoning and also necessitates the awareness of the public to the hazards of this poison. Education, proper handling, strict observation and abiding by the regulations controlling this material are good protective measures against AlP poisoning.

  17. Graduated driver licensing and teen traffic fatalities.

    PubMed

    Dee, Thomas S; Grabowski, David C; Morrisey, Michael A

    2005-05-01

    Over the last 8 years, nearly every state has introduced graduated driver licensing (GDL) for teens. These new licensing procedures require teen drivers to advance through distinct stages where they are subject to a variety of restrictions (e.g., adult supervision, daytime driving, passenger limits). In this study, we present evidence on whether these restrictions have been effective in reducing traffic fatalities among teens. These evaluations are based on state-by-year panel data from 1992 to 2002. We assess the reliability of our basic inferences in several ways including an examination of contemporaneous data for older cohorts who were not directly affected by these policies. Our results indicate that GDL regulations reduced traffic fatalities among 15-17-year-olds by at least 5.6%. We also find that the life-saving benefits of these regulations were plausibly related to their restrictiveness. And we find no evidence that these benefits were attenuated by an increase in fatality risks during the full-licensure period available to older teens.

  18. Recent trends in cyclist fatalities in Australia.

    PubMed

    Boufous, Soufiane; Olivier, Jake

    2016-08-01

    The study examines trends in bicycling fatalities reported to the Australian police between 1991 and 2013. Trends were estimated using Poisson regression modelling. Overall, cycling fatalities decreased by 1.9% annually between 1991 and 2013. However, while deaths following multivehicle crashes decreased at a rate of 2.9% per annum (95% CI -4.0% to -1.8%), deaths from single vehicle crashes increased by 5.8% per annum (95% CI 4.1% to 7.5%). Over the study period, the average age of cyclists who died in single vehicle crashes (45.3 years, 95% CI 41.5 to 49.1) was significantly higher than cyclists who died in multivehicle crashes (36.2 years, 95% CI 34.7 to 37.7). The average age of deceased cyclists increased significantly for both types of crashes. The observed increase in single vehicle crashes need to be closely monitored in Australia and internationally. In-depth studies are needed to investigate the circumstances of fatal single bicycle crashes in order to develop appropriate countermeasures.

  19. Toxicological results in a fatal and two non-fatal cases of scopolamine-facilitated robberies.

    PubMed

    Lusthof, K J; Bosman, I J; Kubat, B; Vincenten-van Maanen, M J

    2017-02-04

    The use of scopolamine as an incapacitating drug, in sexual crimes and robberies, has been known for many decades. However, blood concentrations and doses of scopolamine in those cases are largely unknown. Here we present the toxicological results of one fatal and two non-fatal cases in a series of scopolamine-facilitated robberies. In the fatal case, the concentration of scopolamine in heart blood was 0.30mg/L, about 3000 times higher than the average therapeutic level of 0.0001mg/L (for one dermal patch). In femoral blood, the concentration of scopolamine was much lower (0.0048mg/L), but still 50 times higher than therapeutic levels. The scopolamine concentration in the stomach was very high (20mg/kg) as compared to the heart blood and femoral blood, which explains the very high concentration in heart blood by postmortem leakage from the stomach. In the non-fatal case, the scopolamine concentration in serum, obtained 23h after the incident, was 0.00035mg/L. The estimated concentration of scopolamine at the time of the incident is 0.0035mg/L. In the other non-fatal case, scopolamine was detected in urine and in hair.

  20. U.S. Crude Oil and Natural Gas Proved Reserves

    EIA Publications

    2016-01-01

    U.S. oil and natural gas proved reserves declined in 2015 due to lower prices. U.S. crude oil and lease condensate proved reserves declined 4.7 billion barrels (11.8%) from their year-end 2014 level to 35.2 billion barrels at year-end 2015, according to U.S. Crude Oil and Natural Gas Proved Reserves, Year-end 2015, released today by the U.S. Energy Information Administration. U.S natural gas proved reserves decreased 64.5 trillion cubic feet, a 16.6% decline, reducing the U.S. total to 324.3 Tcf at year-end 2015.

  1. 29 CFR 18.405 - Methods of proving character.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... proving character. (a) Reputation of opinion. In all cases in which evidence of character or a trait of... conduct. (b) Specific instances of conduct. In cases in which character or a trait of character of...

  2. 29 CFR 18.405 - Methods of proving character.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... proving character. (a) Reputation of opinion. In all cases in which evidence of character or a trait of... conduct. (b) Specific instances of conduct. In cases in which character or a trait of character of...

  3. 29 CFR 18.405 - Methods of proving character.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... proving character. (a) Reputation of opinion. In all cases in which evidence of character or a trait of... conduct. (b) Specific instances of conduct. In cases in which character or a trait of character of...

  4. 29 CFR 18.405 - Methods of proving character.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... proving character. (a) Reputation of opinion. In all cases in which evidence of character or a trait of... conduct. (b) Specific instances of conduct. In cases in which character or a trait of character of...

  5. 29 CFR 18.405 - Methods of proving character.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... proving character. (a) Reputation of opinion. In all cases in which evidence of character or a trait of... conduct. (b) Specific instances of conduct. In cases in which character or a trait of character of...

  6. An unusual and fatal case of upper gastrointestinal perforation and bleeding secondary to foreign body ingestion.

    PubMed

    Barranco, Rosario; Tacchella, Tiziana; Lo Pinto, Sara; Bonsignore, Alessandro; Ventura, Francesco

    2016-07-01

    We report a fatal case of gastrointestinal perforation and hemorrhage secondary to the ingestion of a foreign body. While engaged in an amateur futsal competition, an apparently healthy young man suddenly collapsed and his respiration ceased. Autopsy revealed a 3-mm circular perforation on the gastric wall fundus with a significant amount of clotted blood within the gastric lumen. On inspection, a foreign body consisting of a bristle-like hair, later identified via electron microscopy to be a cat vibrissa, i.e. a whisker, was found along the perforation margin. Thus, the inadvertent ingestion of fine, sharp objects (even a cat whisker) can lead to gastric perforation and bleeding, which might prove fatal under given circumstances.

  7. The Fatality Assessment and Control Evaluation program's role in the prevention of occupational fatalities

    PubMed Central

    Higgins, D; Casini, V; Bost, P; Johnson, W; Rautiainen, R

    2001-01-01

    Objectives—The objective of the Fatality Assessment and Control Evaluation (FACE) program is to prevent traumatic occupational fatalities in the United States by identifying and investigating work situations at high risk for injury and formulating and disseminating prevention strategies to those who can intervene in the workplace. Setting—The FACE program is a research program located in the Division of Safety Research, a division of the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH). NIOSH is an agency of the United States government and is part of the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. NIOSH is responsible for conducting research and making recommendations for prevention of work related illnesses and injuries. FACE investigators conduct traumatic occupational fatality investigations throughout the United States and provide technical assistance to 15 state health or labor departments who have cooperative agreements with NIOSH to conduct traumatic fatality surveillance, targeted investigations, and prevention activities at the state level. Methods—Investigations are conducted at the worksite using the FACE model, an approach derived from the research conducted by William Haddon Jr. This approach reflects the public health perspective that the etiology of injuries is multifactorial and largely preventable. FACE investigators gather information on multiple factors that may have contributed to traumatic occupational fatalities. Information on factors associated with the agent (energy exchange, for example, thermal energy, mechanical energy, electrical energy, chemical energy), host (worker who died), and the environment (the physical and social aspects of the workplace), during the pre-event, event, and post-event time phases of the fatal incident are collected and analyzed. Organizational, behavioral, and environmental factors contributing to the death are detailed and prevention recommendations formulated and disseminated to help

  8. Reported fatal and non-fatal incidents involving tourists in Thailand, July 1997-June 1999.

    PubMed

    Leggat, Peter A; Leggat, Frances W

    2003-05-01

    Objectives. To examine fatal and non-fatal incidents involving tourists in Thailand. Methods. Press records from a major English language newspaper for the period from July 1997 to June 1999 were examined for reports of fatal and non-fatal incidents involving tourists. Results. From July 1997 to June 1999, up to 233 deaths were reported and up to a further 216 were reported injured in incidents involving tourists. One hundred and one deaths and 45 injured were reported following one major domestic jet aircraft crash in southern Thailand, however, it was not stated what proportion of casualties were tourists. Approximately 90 people perished in a single hotel fire in southeast Thailand. Most of the victims were local travellers attending meetings of two Thai companies. Sixteen deaths and 86 injured resulted from five road accidents. The majority of deaths and injuries involved foreigners. Twelve deaths and at least 33 injured resulted from three ferry and tour boat accidents. Most victims were reported to be foreigners. Three deaths and 35 injured resulted from a single cable car accident in northern Thailand. Most of these were Thai tourists, however, four of the injured were foreigners. Eight deaths and six injured resulted from 11 muggings and other violent incidents. All were foreigners. Six deaths were reportedly connected to a scam at the airport in Bangkok involving unlicensed airport taxis. Three deaths and four injured were due to other reported incidents. Conclusions. Newspaper reports of fatal and non-fatal incidents involving tourists in Thailand were probably uncommon, particularly given the volume of tourists entering the Kingdom, although better reporting mechanisms are needed. With the exception of the unusual major incidents, most reported fatal and non-fatal incidents involving tourists were due to road trauma and other transportation accidents, muggings, and occasional water sports and other accidents, which could occur at any major tourist

  9. Fatal occupational injuries in a southern state.

    PubMed

    Loomis, D P; Richardson, D B; Wolf, S H; Runyan, C W; Butts, J D

    1997-06-15

    Fatal occupational injuries were studied using data from medical examiners' reports in North Carolina for the years 1977-1991. Cases were defined as deaths due to accidents or homicide at the workplace, and populations at risk were estimated from the 1980 and 1990 US Censuses. Mortality rate ratios and proportionate mortality ratios were used as measures of association, and the population attributable risk percentage was used as an indicator of the burden of injury. Standard weights for direct age-adjustment of rates were obtained from the total state workforce. There were 2,524 eligible deaths-83 percent from unintentional traumatic injuries, 14 percent from homicide, and the remainder from other causes. This report focuses on unintentional trauma deaths, which were strongly associated with the wood production, fishing, and transportation industries. Elderly, African-American, and self-employed workers had higher fatality rates than members of other groups. Among male workers, motor vehicle crashes were the principal cause of death on the job, followed by falling objects, machinery, and falls. The industries contributing the largest proportions of these deaths were construction, trucking, agriculture, and logging (population attributable risk percentages were 16.8%, 8.8%, 7.9%, and 6.9%, respectively). The fatality patterns of female workers were different: Numbers of deaths from homicide and unintentional trauma were equal, and 27% of the latter deaths occurred in one catastrophic fire. Decentralized and rural industries were the most hazardous, but many deaths were outside the current jurisdiction of occupational safety and health agencies. These patterns suggest that greater scrutiny of such industries, through both research and intervention, is warranted.

  10. Comparison of fatal poisonings by prescription opioids.

    PubMed

    Häkkinen, Margareeta; Launiainen, Terhi; Vuori, Erkki; Ojanperä, Ilkka

    2012-10-10

    There is a rising trend of fatal poisonings due to medicinal opioids in several countries. The present study evaluates the drug and alcohol findings as well as the cause and manner of death in opioid-related post-mortem cases in Finland from 2000 to 2008. During this period, fatal poisonings by prescription opioids (buprenorphine, codeine, dextropropoxyphene, fentanyl, methadone, oxycodone, tramadol) increased as a share of all drug poisonings from 9.5% to 32.4%, being 22.3% over the whole period. A detailed study including the most prevalent opioids was carried out for the age group of 14-44 years, which is the most susceptible age for drug abuse in Finland. Poisonings by the weak opioids, codeine and tramadol, were found to be associated with large, often suicidal overdoses resulting in high drug concentrations in blood. Methadone poisonings were associated with accidental overdoses with the drug concentration in blood remaining within a therapeutic range. The manner of death was accidental in 43%, 55% and 94% of cases in codeine, tramadol and methadone poisonings, respectively. The median concentration of codeine and the median codeine/morphine concentration ratio were higher in codeine poisonings (1.4 and 22.5 mg/l, respectively) than in other causes of death (0.09 and 5.9 mg/l, respectively). The median concentrations of tramadol and O-desmethyltramadol were higher in tramadol poisonings (5.3 and 0.8 mg/l, respectively) than in other causes of death (0.6 and 0.2 mg/l, respectively). In methadone poisonings, the median concentration of methadone (0.35 mg/l) was not different from that in other causes of death (0.30 mg/l). Sedative drugs and/or alcohol were very frequently found in fatal poisonings involving these prescription opioids.

  11. Caffeine fatalities--four case reports.

    PubMed

    Holmgren, Per; Nordén-Pettersson, Lotta; Ahlner, Johan

    2004-01-06

    Four cases of fatal intoxications with caffeine are described. Caffeine is widely available in beverages and in different OTC-products, in many of them in combinations with other drugs like ephedrine. Caffeine is not as harmless as one might believe. An overdose of caffeine alone, intentional or not, might be deadly. It seems to be warranted to include caffeine in the drug-screening of forensic autopsy cases. It is not motivated from a medical point of view to sell pure caffeine over the counter.

  12. Sporadic Fatal Insomnia in an Adolescent

    PubMed Central

    Blase, Jennifer L.; Cracco, Laura; Schonberger, Lawrence B.; Maddox, Ryan A.; Cohen, Yvonne; Cali, Ignazio

    2014-01-01

    The occurrence of sporadic prion disease among adolescents is extremely rare. A prion disease was confirmed in an adolescent with disease onset at 13 years of age. Genetic, neuropathologic, and biochemical analyses of the patient’s autopsy brain tissue were consistent with sporadic fatal insomnia, a type of sporadic prion disease. There was no evidence of an environmental source of infection, and this patient represents the youngest documented case of sporadic prion disease. Although rare, a prion disease diagnosis should not be discounted in adolescents exhibiting neurologic signs. Brain tissue testing is necessary for disease confirmation and is particularly beneficial in cases with an unusual clinical presentation. PMID:24488737

  13. Heroin fatality due to penile injection.

    PubMed

    Winek, C L; Wahba, W W; Rozin, L

    1999-03-01

    Death due to heroin overdose and/or rapid injection of heroin is a frequent occurrence among opioid addicts. We present an unusual case of heroin fatality due to the injection of the drug in the penis. Blood, urine, bile, and vitreous humor concentrations of morphine were 0.68, 0.49, 0.32 and 0.062 microg/ml, respectively. Ethanol was detected at concentrations of 104, 124, 106, and 94 mg/dl in the blood, urine, bile, and vitreous humor, respectively. The cause of death was determined to be due to heroin and ethanol intoxication.

  14. Surveillance of Traumatic Firefighter Fatalities: An Assessment of Four Systems

    PubMed Central

    Estes, Chris R.; Marsh, Suzanne M.; Castillo, Dawn N.

    2011-01-01

    Objectives Firefighters regularly respond to hazardous situations that put them at risk for fatal occupational injuries. Traumatic occupational fatality surveillance is a foundation for understanding the problem and developing prevention strategies. We assessed four surveillance systems for their utility in characterizing firefighter fatalities and informing prevention measures. Methods We examined three population-based systems (the Bureau of Labor Statistics' Census of Fatal Occupational Injuries and systems maintained by the United States Fire Administration and the National Fire Protection Association) and one case-based system (data collected through the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health Fire Fighter Fatality Investigation and Prevention Program). From each system, we selected traumatic fatalities among firefighters for 2003–2006. Then we compared case definitions, methods for case ascertainment, variables collected, and rate calculation methods. Results Overall magnitude of fatalities differed among systems. The population-based systems were effective in characterizing the circumstances of traumatic firefighter fatalities. The case-based surveillance system was effective in formulating detailed prevention recommendations, which could not be made based on the population-based data alone. Methods for estimating risk were disparate and limited fatality rate comparisons between firefighters and other workers. Conclusions The systems included in this study contribute toward a greater understanding of firefighter fatalities. Areas of improvement for these systems should continue to be identified as they are used to direct research and prevention efforts. PMID:21800748

  15. Learning-assisted theorem proving with millions of lemmas☆

    PubMed Central

    Kaliszyk, Cezary; Urban, Josef

    2015-01-01

    Large formal mathematical libraries consist of millions of atomic inference steps that give rise to a corresponding number of proved statements (lemmas). Analogously to the informal mathematical practice, only a tiny fraction of such statements is named and re-used in later proofs by formal mathematicians. In this work, we suggest and implement criteria defining the estimated usefulness of the HOL Light lemmas for proving further theorems. We use these criteria to mine the large inference graph of the lemmas in the HOL Light and Flyspeck libraries, adding up to millions of the best lemmas to the pool of statements that can be re-used in later proofs. We show that in combination with learning-based relevance filtering, such methods significantly strengthen automated theorem proving of new conjectures over large formal mathematical libraries such as Flyspeck. PMID:26525678

  16. The relationship of different socioeconomic variables and alcohol consumption with nighttime fatal traffic crashes in Spain: 1978-1993.

    PubMed

    González-Luque, J C; Rodríguez-Artalejo, F

    2000-01-01

    This paper identifies the variables associated with alcohol-related fatal traffic crashes (AFTC) in Spain. In addition, and for the first time in this country, these variables are used to describe the trend in AFTC, and to study the relationship between AFTC and alcohol consumption over the period 1976-1993. To this end, official data were obtained from the Traffic Department (Dirección General de Tráfico), the National Statistics Institute (Instituto Nacional de Estadística), and from international publications on trends in alcohol consumption. Nighttime fatal crashes (NFC) and male-driver single-vehicle nighttime fatal crashes (MNFC) were strongly associated with AFTC rates in Spain. A further finding was the decrease in NFC and MNFC rates during the period 1978-1993, though this decrease proved of a lower magnitude than that observed for daytime crashes. No relationship was observed between alcohol consumption at the population level and NFC or MNFC rates. The fatal crash rate, particularly the daytime rate, showed a rise with wealth level, as measured by gross domestic product and national private consumption, and an inverse relationship with the unemployment rate. The relationship between the fatal crash rate and economic variables was due, in most part, to changes in vehicle-km travelled.

  17. Proving the mechanical integrity of solution mined caverns

    SciTech Connect

    Van Fossan, N.E.

    1982-01-01

    The Safe Drinking Water Act of 1974 (Public Law 93-523) specifies an Underground Injection Control (UIC) program be promulgated to satisfy certain requirements of the act. Underground storage wells are covered by the act. The most crucial item in any UIC program is the requirement of proving the mechanical integrity of a storage system. This work enumerates the individual elements of a hydrocarbon underground storage system in domal salt, addresses the nature and magnitude of the maximum forces which may be exerted on each element, and proposes tests which will prove that each element is capable of resisting these forces. Appropriate safety factors also are proposed.

  18. Fatal and Near-Fatal Asthma in Children: the Critical Care Perspective

    PubMed Central

    Newth, Christopher J. L.; Meert, Kathleen L.; Clark, Amy E.; Moler, Frank W.; Zuppa, Athena F.; Berg, Robert A.; Pollack, Murray M.; Sward, Katherine A.; Berger, John T.; Wessel, David L.; Harrison, Rick E.; Reardon, Jean; Carcillo, Joseph A.; Shanley, Thomas P.; Holubkov, Richard; Dean, J. Michael; Doctor, Allan; Nicholson, Carol E.

    2012-01-01

    Objective To characterize the clinical course, therapies, and outcomes of children with fatal and near-fatal asthma admitted to the pediatric intensive care unit (PICU). Study design Retrospective chart abstraction across the eight tertiary-care PICUs in the Collaborative Pediatric Critical Care Research Network (CPCCRN). Inclusion criteria: children (1–18 years) admitted 2005 to 2009 (inclusive) for asthma receiving ventilation (near-fatal) or died (fatal). Data collected included medications, ventilator strategies, concomitant therapies, demographics and risk variables. Results Of 261 eligible children, 33 (13%) had no previous history of asthma, 218 (84%) survived with no known complications, and 32 (12%) had complications. Eleven (4%) died, 10 having had cardiac arrest before admission. Patients intubated outside the PICU had shorter ventilation (median 25 vs. 84 hours, p<0.001). African-Americans were disproportionately represented by numbers intubated and had shorter durations of intubation. Barotrauma occurred in 15 (6%) children before admission. Pharmacological therapies were highly variable with similar outcomes. Conclusions Of children ventilated in CPCCRN PICUs, 96% survived to hospital discharge. Most children who died experienced cardiac arrest prior to admission. Intubation outside the PICU was correlated with shorter ventilation duration. The complications of barotrauma and neuromyopathy were uncommon. Practice patterns varied widely between CPCCRN sites. PMID:22494876

  19. A fatality due to cyproheptadine and citalopram.

    PubMed

    Hargrove, Veronica; Molina, D Kimberley

    2009-10-01

    Cyproheptadine (Periactin) is a first-generation antihistamine available in over-the-counter cold medications and is used to treat allergic-type symptoms. Although antihistamines in general have long been known to cause serious side effects, especially when taken in overdose, few reports that specifically address cyproheptadine-related fatalities exist. A 42-year-old healthy female was found dead at her home with no anatomic cause of death and a recent history of suicidal ideations. Toxicology revealed cyproheptadine and citalopram in the femoral postmortem blood at concentrations of 0.49 and 2.3 mg/L, respectively. Vitreous, urine, and bile analysis were also performed, yielding concentrations of < 0.04 and 0.80 mg/L in the vitreous for cyproheptadine and citalopram, respectively; 0.23 and 8.2 mg/L in the urine; and 30.7 and 9.0 mg/L in the bile. The cause of death was determined to be cyproheptadine and citalopram intoxication, and the manner was ruled a suicide. Although cyproheptadine is widely available in the United States and Europe, there are only two published fatalities due to this antihistamine and only one that specifically cites blood and tissue concentrations. Therefore, this case study will be beneficial to the forensic toxicology community by providing additional information regarding postmortem interpretation.

  20. About morphological findings in fatal railway collisions.

    PubMed

    Driever, Frank; Schmidt, Peter; Madea, Burkhard

    2002-04-18

    The autopsy findings in fatal cases of railway collisions of the Bonn Institute of Legal Medicine in 1992-1999 were investigated and compared to the statements in the investigation files of the public prosecutor with regard to classification as accident or suicide as well as with regard to type and speed of collision. Of the 38 deaths, 10 were hit in an upright position, 11 fatal collisions affected persons lying outside the track and 13 were hit and overrun lying inside the track. According to the investigation classification 21 persons committed suicide (56%), while 10 died in an accident (26%). Our survey confirmed the leading role of being over-rolled in a lying position as an indication for suicides, while in accidents the upright hit was most important. With exception of the persons primarily affected between the rails in upright position and over-rolled consecutively an unequivocal assignment of injury patterns to the hit categories was possible. In cases of persons being primarily over-rolled in a lying position especially the criteria (i) opening of body cavities, (ii) organ injuries and (iii) loss of parts of the body allowed for careful conclusion on hit, respectively, overrunning speed.

  1. Fatal intoxication with hydrocarbons in deltamethrin preparation.

    PubMed

    Magdalan, Jan; Zawadzki, Marcin; Merwid-Lad, Anna

    2009-12-01

    Pyrethroid insecticides are very widely used in agriculture and household due to high effectiveness and low toxicity to humans. We have described a case of a fatal oral intoxication with decis, the insecticide containing pyrethroid (deltamethrin) in a hydrocarbon base. Pyrethroids, including deltamethrin, undergo rapid biotransformation by liver enzymes, which limit their systemic toxicity. Thus, we assume that in the presented case, fatal outcome of poisoning with decis was rather connected with toxic effects of hydrocarbon base (solvent naphtha) than with deltamethrin action. In the described case, detection of aromatic hydrocarbons in blood and lung tissue and their metabolites in urine confirms that these substances were absorbed from gastrointestinal tract to the systemic circulation. Predominant among the clinical outcomes in our patient was profound depression of CNS with apnea, which could be connected with narcotic action of organic solvents. The cardiac arrest was in mechanism of asystolia with prior non-responsive to catecholamines bradycardia and vascular collapse. We connect it with hydrocarbon-induced cardiotoxicity. It is worth remembering that many pyrethroid-containing insecticides are formulated in a hydrocarbon base. Intoxication with such preparations should always be considered not only as poisoning with pyrethroid alone but also as intoxication with hydrocarbons.

  2. Reported fatal and non-fatal incidents involving tourists in Hawaii Volcanoes National Park, 1992-2002.

    PubMed

    Heggie, Travis W

    2005-08-01

    Objectives. To examine fatal and non-fatal incidents involving tourists in Hawaii Volcanoes National Park. Methods. Official press releases from the public relations office at Hawaii Volcanoes National Park were examined for reports of fatal and non-fatal incidents involving tourists. Results. Between 1992 and 2002 there were 65 press releases reporting 40 fatalities, 45 serious injuries, 53 minor injuries, and 25 no injury events. Severity information was unavailable for four additional tourists. Aircraft and backcountry incidents each accounted for 30% of all incidents followed by road incidents (22%) and frontcountry incidents (17%). Aircraft incidents reported 17 fatalities, backcountry incidents accounted for 10 fatalities, frontcountry incidents reported seven fatalities, and road incidents totaled six fatalities. One fatality was classified as a suicide. Backcountry (23) and road (10) incidents had the highest number of serious incidents. Male tourists (62) were more frequently involved in incidents than female tourists (41) and tourists aged 20-29 years and 40-49 years accounted for the highest number of fatalities and total incidents. Conclusions. Helicopter tours, hiking in areas with active lava flows, falls into steam vents and earthcracks, and driving unfamiliar rental cars in unfamiliar locations are the major activities resulting in death and serious injury. Additional factors such as tourists ignoring warning signs, wandering off-trail or hiking at night, tourists misinformed by guidebooks and other tourists, and tourists with pre-existing heart and asthma conditions are contributing causes in many incidents. The findings of this study provide information that allows prospective tourists, tourism managers, and travel health providers make informed decisions that promote safe tourism and can aid future efforts in developing preventative strategies at tourist destinations with similar environments and activities. However, in order for preventative

  3. Learning to prove: from examples to general statements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abramovitz, Buma; Berezina, Miryam; Berman, Abraham

    2014-11-01

    In this paper we describe a method for teaching students to prove some mathematical statements independently, by using specially designed auxiliary assignments. The assignments are designed as homework problems and can be adapted for online learning. We illustrate our method using examples from calculus and differential equations.

  4. Prove It! Putting Together the Evidence-Based Practice Puzzle

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Little, Hannah Byrd

    2015-01-01

    Why is it important to prove that school libraries add value to the school program? The National Center for Education Statistics reports that 20 percent of U.S. public schools lack a full or part-time certified librarian (NCES 2013). In California the ratio of certified school librarians to students is 1:7,374 (California Department of Education…

  5. Proof phenomenon as a function of the phenomenology of proving.

    PubMed

    Hipólito, Inês

    2015-12-01

    Kurt Gödel wrote (1964, p. 272), after he had read Husserl, that the notion of objectivity raises a question: "the question of the objective existence of the objects of mathematical intuition (which, incidentally, is an exact replica of the question of the objective existence of the outer world)". This "exact replica" brings to mind the close analogy Husserl saw between our intuition of essences in Wesensschau and of physical objects in perception. What is it like to experience a mathematical proving process? What is the ontological status of a mathematical proof? Can computer assisted provers output a proof? Taking a naturalized world account, I will assess the relationship between mathematics, the physical world and consciousness by introducing a significant conceptual distinction between proving and proof. I will propose that proving is a phenomenological conscious experience. This experience involves a combination of what Kurt Gödel called intuition, and what Husserl called intentionality. In contrast, proof is a function of that process - the mathematical phenomenon - that objectively self-presents a property in the world, and that results from a spatiotemporal unity being subject to the exact laws of nature. In this essay, I apply phenomenology to mathematical proving as a performance of consciousness, that is, a lived experience expressed and formalized in language, in which there is the possibility of formulating intersubjectively shareable meanings.

  6. Dutch Plural Inflection: The Exception that Proves the Analogy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Keuleers, Emmanuel; Sandra, Dominiek; Daelemans, Walter; Gillis, Steven; Durieux, Gert; Martens, Evelyn

    2007-01-01

    We develop the view that inflection is driven partly by non-phonological analogy and that non-phonological information is of particular importance to the inflection of non-canonical roots, which in the view of [Marcus, G. F., Brinkmann, U., Clahsen, H., Wiese, R., & Pinker, S. (1995). "German inflection: the exception that proves the rule."…

  7. 25 CFR 11.702 - Proving and admitting will.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... ORDER CODE Probate Proceedings § 11.702 Proving and admitting will. (a) Upon initiating the probate of... admitted to probate by filing an affidavit of an attesting witness which identifies such will as being the... probate, any person having an interest in the decedent's estate may contest the validity of such will....

  8. 25 CFR 11.702 - Proving and admitting will.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... ORDER CODE Probate Proceedings § 11.702 Proving and admitting will. (a) Upon initiating the probate of... admitted to probate by filing an affidavit of an attesting witness which identifies such will as being the... probate, any person having an interest in the decedent's estate may contest the validity of such will....

  9. 25 CFR 11.702 - Proving and admitting will.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... ORDER CODE Probate Proceedings § 11.702 Proving and admitting will. (a) Upon initiating the probate of... admitted to probate by filing an affidavit of an attesting witness which identifies such will as being the... probate, any person having an interest in the decedent's estate may contest the validity of such will....

  10. 25 CFR 11.702 - Proving and admitting will.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... ORDER CODE Probate Proceedings § 11.702 Proving and admitting will. (a) Upon initiating the probate of... admitted to probate by filing an affidavit of an attesting witness which identifies such will as being the... probate, any person having an interest in the decedent's estate may contest the validity of such will....

  11. 25 CFR 11.702 - Proving and admitting will.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... ORDER CODE Probate Proceedings § 11.702 Proving and admitting will. (a) Upon initiating the probate of... admitted to probate by filing an affidavit of an attesting witness which identifies such will as being the... probate, any person having an interest in the decedent's estate may contest the validity of such will....

  12. 14 CFR 91.1041 - Aircraft proving and validation tests.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... manager may permit the operation of an aircraft, other than a turbojet aircraft, for which two pilots are... the Administrator. (b) No program manager may permit the operation of a turbojet airplane if it has not previously proved a turbojet airplane in operations under this part in at least 25 hours...

  13. 14 CFR 135.145 - Aircraft proving and validation tests.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... operate an aircraft, other than a turbojet aircraft, for which two pilots are required by this chapter for... route airports as determined by the Administrator. (b) No certificate holder may operate a turbojet airplane if it has not previously proved a turbojet airplane in operations under this part in at least...

  14. 14 CFR 135.145 - Aircraft proving and validation tests.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... operate an aircraft, other than a turbojet aircraft, for which two pilots are required by this chapter for... route airports as determined by the Administrator. (b) No certificate holder may operate a turbojet airplane if it has not previously proved a turbojet airplane in operations under this part in at least...

  15. 14 CFR 91.1041 - Aircraft proving and validation tests.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... manager may permit the operation of an aircraft, other than a turbojet aircraft, for which two pilots are... the Administrator. (b) No program manager may permit the operation of a turbojet airplane if it has not previously proved a turbojet airplane in operations under this part in at least 25 hours...

  16. 14 CFR 135.145 - Aircraft proving and validation tests.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... operate an aircraft, other than a turbojet aircraft, for which two pilots are required by this chapter for... route airports as determined by the Administrator. (b) No certificate holder may operate a turbojet airplane if it has not previously proved a turbojet airplane in operations under this part in at least...

  17. 14 CFR 91.1041 - Aircraft proving and validation tests.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... manager may permit the operation of an aircraft, other than a turbojet aircraft, for which two pilots are... the Administrator. (b) No program manager may permit the operation of a turbojet airplane if it has not previously proved a turbojet airplane in operations under this part in at least 25 hours...

  18. 14 CFR 135.145 - Aircraft proving and validation tests.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... operate an aircraft, other than a turbojet aircraft, for which two pilots are required by this chapter for... route airports as determined by the Administrator. (b) No certificate holder may operate a turbojet airplane if it has not previously proved a turbojet airplane in operations under this part in at least...

  19. 14 CFR 135.145 - Aircraft proving and validation tests.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... operate an aircraft, other than a turbojet aircraft, for which two pilots are required by this chapter for... route airports as determined by the Administrator. (b) No certificate holder may operate a turbojet airplane if it has not previously proved a turbojet airplane in operations under this part in at least...

  20. Responsibility for proving and defining in abstract algebra class

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fukawa-Connelly, Timothy

    2016-07-01

    There is considerable variety in inquiry-oriented instruction, but what is common is that students assume roles in mathematical activity that in a traditional, lecture-based class are either assumed by the teacher (or text) or are not visible at all in traditional math classrooms. This paper is a case study of the teaching of an inquiry-based undergraduate abstract algebra course. In particular, gives a theoretical account of the defining and proving processes. The study examines the intellectual responsibility for the processes of defining and proving that the professor devolved to the students. While the professor wanted the students to engage in all aspects of defining and proving, he was only successful at devolving responsibility for certain aspects and much more successful at devolving responsibility for proving than conjecturing or defining. This study suggests that even a well-intentioned instructor may not be able to devolve responsibility to students for some aspects of mathematical practice without using a research-based curriculum or further professional development.

  1. Proving Invariants of I/O Automata with TAME

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2002-01-01

    Intelligence, 29(1–4):139–181. Archer, M. 2002. Proving correctness of the basic TESLA multicast stream authentication protocol with TAME. In Informal...introduction to requirements capture using PVS: Specification of a simple autopilot , NASA Technical Memorandum 110255, NASA Langley Research Center

  2. Between Affect and Cognition: Proving at University Level

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Furinghetti, Fulvia; Morselli, Francesca

    2004-01-01

    In this paper we report on a case study of a university student (third year of Mathematics course). She was engaged in proving a statement of elementary number theory. We asked her to write the thoughts that accompanied her solving process. She was collaborative and her protocol is suitable to study the interrelation between affect and cognition.…

  3. Tuberculosis treatment adherence and fatality in Spain

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    Background The adherence to long tuberculosis (TB) treatment is a key factor in TB control programs. Always some patients abandon the treatment or die. The objective of this study is to identify factors associated with defaulting from or dying during antituberculosis treatment. Methods Prospective study of a large cohort of TB cases diagnosed during 2006-2007 by 61 members of the Spanish Society of Pneumology and Thoracic Surgery (SEPAR). Predictive factors of completion outcome (cured plus completed treatment vs. defaulters plus lost to follow-up) and fatality (died vs. the rest of patients) were based on logistic regression, calculating odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI). Results Of the 1490 patients included, 29.7% were foreign-born. The treatment outcomes were: cured 792 (53.2%), completed treatment 540 (36.2%), failure 2 (0.1%), transfer-out 33 (2.2%), default 27 (1.8%), death 27 (1.8%), lost to follow-up 65 (4.4%), other 4 (0.3%). Completion outcome reached 93.5% and poor adherence was associated with: being an immigrant (OR = 2.03; CI:1.06-3.88), living alone (OR = 2.35; CI:1.05-5.26), residents of confined institutions (OR = 4.79; CI:1.74-13.14), previous treatment (OR = 2.93; CI:1.44-5.98), being an injecting drug user (IDU) (OR = 9.51; CI:2.70-33.47) and treatment comprehension difficulties (OR = 2.93; CI:1.44-5.98). Case fatality was 1.8% and it was associated with the following variables: age 50 or over (OR = 10.88; CI:1.12-105.01), retired (OR = 12.26;CI:1.74-86.04), HIV-infected (OR = 9.93; CI:1.48-66.34), comprehension difficulties (OR = 4.07; CI:1.24-13.29), IDU (OR = 23.59; CI:2.46-225.99) and Directly Observed Therapy (DOT) (OR = 3.54; CI:1.07-11.77). Conclusion Immigrants, those living alone, residents of confined institutions, patients treated previously, those with treatment comprehension difficulties, and IDU patients have poor adherence and should be targeted for DOT. To reduce fatality rates, stricter monitoring is required

  4. Lichtheimia ramosa: A Fatal Case of Mucormycosis

    PubMed Central

    Mouronte-Roibás, Cecilia; Leiro-Fernández, Virginia; Botana-Rial, Maribel; Ramos-Hernández, Cristina; Lago-Preciado, Guillermo; Fiaño-Valverde, Concepción; Fernández-Villar, Alberto

    2016-01-01

    Mucormycosis due to Lichtheimia ramosa is an infrequent opportunistic infection that can potentially be angioinvasive when affecting inmunocompromised hosts. We present a fatal case of mucormycosis, affecting a 56-year-old male with diabetes mellitus and siderosis, initially admitted to our hospital due to an H1N1 infection. The subject's clinical condition worsened and he finally died because of a necrotizing bilateral pneumonia with disseminated mycotic thromboses due to Lichtheimia ramosa, which is an emerging Mucoralean fungus. This is an infrequent case because of the extent to which it affected a subject without overt immunocompromise. This case underlines the importance of an early premortem diagnosis and treatment in order to prevent rapid progression of this disease, as well as the need of considering mucormycosis when facing subjects with multiple emboli and fever unresponsive to usual antimicrobials. PMID:27445521

  5. When attempts at robbing prey turn fatal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dejean, Alain; Corbara, Bruno; Azémar, Frédéric; Carpenter, James M.

    2012-07-01

    Because group-hunting arboreal ants spread-eagle insect prey for a long time before retrieving them, these prey can be coveted by predatory flying insects. Yet, attempting to rob these prey is risky if the ant species is also an effective predator. Here, we show that trying to rob prey from Azteca andreae workers is a fatal error as 268 out of 276 potential cleptobionts (97.1 %) were captured in turn. The ant workers hunt in a group and use the "Velcro®" principle to cling firmly to the leaves of their host tree, permitting them to capture very large prey. Exceptions were one social wasp, plus some Trigona spp. workers and flies that landed directly on the prey and were able to take off immediately when attacked. We conclude that in this situation, previously captured prey attract potential cleptobionts that are captured in turn in most of the cases.

  6. Fatal primary meningoencephalitis caused by Naegleria fowleri.

    PubMed

    Shariq, Ali; Afridi, Faisal Iqbal; Farooqi, Badar Jahan; Ahmed, Sumaira; Hussain, Arif

    2014-07-01

    Naegleria fowleri is a free living parasite which habitats in fresh water reservoirs. It causes a fatal nervous system infection known as primary amoebic meningoencephalitis by invading through cribriform plate of nose and gaining entry into brain. We report a case of primary amoebic meningoencephalitis caused by Naegleria fowleri in Karachi, Pakistan, in a 42 years old male poultry farm worker having no history of swimming. Clinical course was fulminant and death occurred within one week of hospital admission. Naegleria fowleri was detected by wet mount technique in the sample of cerebrospinal fluid collected by lumbar puncture of patient. This is a serious problem and requires immediate steps to prevent general population to get affected by this lethal neurological infection.

  7. Chronic fatal pneumocystosis in nude mice.

    PubMed

    Ueda, K; Goto, Y; Yamazaki, S; Fujiwara, K

    1977-12-01

    A chronic pulmonary disease was encountered in nude mice of a barrier sustained colony, and Pneumocystis carinii was identified as the causative agent histopathologically as well as on impression smear preparations in the affected lungs. Fatal infection was seen only in old nude mice aged more than 6 months, while focal pulmonary lesions were developed without clinical signs in young adult nudes 2 to 3 months of age. The lesions produced in aged nude mice were characterized by propagation of mononuclear cells with the presence of foamy masses of P. carinii. Heterozygous littermates were much less susceptible to the infection but pneumocystic lesions could be produced readily by multiple treatment with immunosuppressants. The infection could be transmitted without immunosuppressant to non-infected nudes but not to heterozygous littermates after intranasal inoculation of affected tissue emulsion or by cage mating with severely affected nudes.

  8. [Fatal outcome of an hydrogen sulfide poisoning].

    PubMed

    Querellou, E; Jaffrelot, M; Savary, D; Savry, C; Perfus, J-P

    2005-10-01

    We report a case of fatal outcome poisoning by massive exposure to hydrogen sulfide of a sewer worker. This rare event was associated with a moderate intoxication of two members of the rescue team. The death was due to asystole and massive lung oedema. Autopsy analysis showed diffuse necrotic lesions in lungs. Hydrogen sulfide is a direct and systemic poison, produced by organic matter decomposition. The direct toxicity mechanism is still unclear. The systemic toxicity is due to an acute toxicity by oxygen depletion at cellular level. It is highly diffusable and potentially very dangerous. At low concentration, rotten egg smell must trigger hydrogen sulfide suspicion since at higher concentration it is undetectable, making intoxication possible. In case of acute intoxication, there is an almost instantaneous cardiovascular failure and a rapid death. Hydrogen sulfide exposure requires prevention measures and more specifically the use of respiratory equipment for members of the rescue team.

  9. Two fatal tiger attacks in zoos.

    PubMed

    Tantius, Britta; Wittschieber, Daniel; Schmidt, Sven; Rothschild, Markus A; Banaschak, Sibylle

    2016-01-01

    Two captive tiger attacks are presented that took place in Cologne and Münster zoos. Both attacks occurred when the handlers, intent on cleaning the enclosures, entered whilst the tigers accidently retained access to the location, and thus defended their territory against the perceived intruders. Both victims suffered fatal neck injuries from the bites. At Münster, colleagues managed to lure the tiger away from its victim to enable treatment, whilst the Cologne zoo tiger had to be shot in order to allow access to be gained. Whilst it was judged that human error led to the deaths of the experienced zookeepers, the investigation in Münster was closed as no third party was found to be at fault, whereas the Cologne zoo director was initially charged with being negligent. These charges were subsequently dismissed as safety regulations were found to be up to date.

  10. [An unusual case of fatal airbag injury].

    PubMed

    Usumoto, Yosuke; Hikiji, Wakako; Kudo, Keiko; Tsuji, Akiko; Ikeda, Noriaki

    2008-11-01

    We report an unusual case of fatal airbag injury. A woman in her forties was driving a light car when it was involved in an accident. When the car was found, the left front wheel had dropped into the gutter, the front bumper was dented and the airbag had deployed. Forensic autopsy revealed that the right subclavian artery and the left vertebral artery were ruptured and 1,570 ml and 360 ml of blood with clots were observed in the left and the right thoracic cavity, respectively. It was considered that the unusual collision produced by deployment of the airbag had caused these ruptures and massive hemorrhaging. Although an airbag is an effective tool for ensuring the safety of a driver and the passengers, it may injure and occasionally kill the occupants if they do not remain in the appropriate and restrained seating position.

  11. Fatal dog maulings associated with infant swings.

    PubMed

    Chu, Albert Y; Ripple, Mary G; Allan, Carol H; Thogmartin, Jon R; Fowler, David R

    2006-03-01

    We present three cases of fatal dog maulings of infants placed in mobile infant swings, a phenomenon not previously described in the literature. In each case, the victim was left in a mobile swing, unsupervised by an adult, and the attacking dog was a family pet. Case 1 involved an 18-day-old male infant attacked by a pit bull; Case 2 involved a 3-month-old male infant attacked by a Chow Chow and/or a Dachshund, and Case 3 involved an 18-day-old female infant attacked by a Labrador-pit bull mix. These cases not only underscore the importance of not leaving young children unattended in the presence of pet dogs, but also raise the possibility that mobile swings may trigger a predatory response in dogs and thus may represent an additional risk factor for dog attack.

  12. Military parachute mishap fatalities: a retrospective study.

    PubMed

    Mellen, P F; Sohn, S S

    1990-12-01

    Military parachuting is relatively safe. Most injuries involve vertebral bodies or the lower extremity, and fatalities are rare. We studied 49 military parachute accident facilities occurring during 1964-1989. Causes of the accidents included accidental deployment of reserve parachute in aircraft, static line failures and entanglements, equipment (canopy) failures, in-air collisions, landing injuries, drowning, and dragging. Rarely, preexisting illness such as coronary artery disease caused or contributed to an accident. Pathologic findings revealed a high proportion of deceleration and blunt force injuries: cardiac, aortic and liver laceration, and skull, pelvic and extremity fractures. Isolated head injury, strangulation, and post traumatic pulmonary embolus were occasionally noted. Toxicological examination demonstrated contributing factors such as alcohol intoxication or antihistamine use in a small number of cases. Background investigations, scene inspections, autopsy and toxicology studies all yielded important data or pertinent negatives during investigations. We propose an investigation protocol.

  13. Two Fatal Intoxications Involving Butyryl Fentanyl.

    PubMed

    Poklis, Justin; Poklis, Alphonse; Wolf, Carl; Hathaway, Cindie; Arbefeville, Elise; Chrostowski, Leszek; Devers, Kelly; Hair, Laura; Mainland, Mary; Merves, Michele; Pearson, Julia

    2016-10-01

    We present the case histories, autopsy findings and toxicology findings of two fatal intoxications involving the designer drug, butyryl fentanyl. The quantitative analysis of butyryl fentanyl in postmortem fluids and tissues was performed by an ultrahigh-performance liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry method. In the first case, butyryl fentanyl was the only drug detected with concentrations of 99 ng/mL in peripheral blood, 220 ng/mL in heart blood, 32 ng/mL in vitreous humor, 590 ng/mL in gastric contents, 93 ng/g in brain, 41 ng/g in liver, 260 ng/mL in bile and 64 ng/mL in urine. The cause of death was ruled fatal intoxication by butyryl fentanyl. In the second case, butyryl fentanyl was detected along with acetyl fentanyl, alprazolam and ethanol. The butyryl fentanyl concentrations were 3.7 ng/mL in peripheral blood, 9.2 ng/mL in heart blood, 9.8 ng/mL in vitreous humor, 4,000 ng/mL in gastric contents, 63 ng/g in brain, 39 ng/g in liver, 49 ng/mL in bile and 2 ng/mL in urine. The acetyl fentanyl concentrations were 21 ng/mL in peripheral blood, 95 ng/mL in heart blood, 68 ng/mL in vitreous humor, 28,000 ng/mL in gastric contents, 200 ng/g in brain, 160 ng/g in liver, 330 ng/mL in bile and 8 ng/mL in urine. In addition, the alprazolam concentration was 40 ng/mL and the ethanol concentration was 0.11 g/dL, both measured in peripheral blood. The cause of death in the second case was ruled a mixed drug intoxication. In both cases, the manner of death was accident.

  14. Unexploded ordnance issues at Aberdeen Proving Ground: Background information

    SciTech Connect

    Rosenblatt, D.H.

    1996-11-01

    This document summarizes currently available information about the presence and significance of unexploded ordnance (UXO) in the two main areas of Aberdeen Proving Ground: Aberdeen Area and Edgewood Area. Known UXO in the land ranges of the Aberdeen Area consists entirely of conventional munitions. The Edgewood Area contains, in addition to conventional munitions, a significant quantity of chemical-munition UXO, which is reflected in the presence of chemical agent decomposition products in Edgewood Area ground-water samples. It may be concluded from current information that the UXO at Aberdeen Proving Ground has not adversely affected the environment through release of toxic substances to the public domain, especially not by water pathways, and is not likely to do so in the near future. Nevertheless, modest but periodic monitoring of groundwater and nearby surface waters would be a prudent policy.

  15. Measurement and dimension of road fatality in Brunei.

    PubMed

    Haque, Mohammed Ohidul

    2011-03-01

    In this article, we have investigated the pattern of road fatality in Brunei. It is seen from this analysis that road fatality in Brunei was one of the highest in the world in the early 1990s, but has been significantly reduced over the years, and is now one of the lowest in the world. Preliminary investigation shows that young male drivers are responsible for most road fatalities in Brunei. We have also fitted a linear regression model and found that road fatality is significantly positively related to people aged 18-24 years and new registered vehicles, both of which are expected to grow with the growth of population and economic development. Hence, road fatality in Brunei is also expected to grow unless additional effective road safety countermeasures are introduced and implemented to reduce road toll. Negative coefficient is observed for trend variable, indicating the reduction of road fatality due to the combined effects of improvements of vehicle safety, road design, medical facilities and road safety awareness among road user groups. However, short-term road fatality analysis based on monthly data indicates that the coefficient of the trend variable is positive, implying that in recent months road fatalities are increasing in Brunei, which is supported by media reports. We have compared Brunei's road fatality data with Australia, Singapore and Malaysia and found that Brunei's road fatality rate is lower than Singapore and Malaysia, but higher than Australia. This indicates that there are still opportunities to reduce road fatalities in Brunei if additional effective road safety strategies are implemented like in Australia without interfering in the economic and social development of Brunei.

  16. Implementing Metamathematics as an Approach to Automatic Theorem Proving

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1989-01-01

    set theory the disjoint union is usually defined from the ordinary union by providing a scheme for tagging elements (see [3]). For any type A, another...in preparing this document. 31 References (1] P. Aczel. The type theoretic interpretation of constructive set theory . In Logic Coo- quium 󈨑...Amsterdam:North-Holland, 1978. [2] W. Bledsoe and D. Loveland. Automated Theorem Proving: After 25 Years. American Math Soc., 1984. [3] N. Bourbaki . Theory

  17. Army Net Zero Prove Out. Net Zero Waster Best Practices

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-11-18

    sustainable water supply for years to come. This concept is of increasing importance because water scarcity is a serious and growing issue in many parts of...concept is of increasing importance because water scarcity is a serious and growing issue in many parts of the United States and around the world. Honorable Katherine Hammack ...ARMY NET ZERO PROVE OUT Final Net Zero Water Best Practices November 18, 2014 Distribution A Approved for public release

  18. Renewable Energy Opportunties at Dugway Proving Ground, Utah

    SciTech Connect

    Orrell, Alice C.; Kora, Angela R.; Russo, Bryan J.; Horner, Jacob A.; Williamson, Jennifer L.; Weimar, Mark R.; Gorrissen, Willy J.; Nesse, Ronald J.; Dixon, Douglas R.

    2010-05-31

    This document provides an overview of renewable resource potential at Dugway Proving Ground, based primarily upon analysis of secondary data sources supplemented with limited on-site evaluations. This effort focuses on grid-connected generation of electricity from renewable energy sources and ground source heat pumps (GSHPs). The effort was funded by the U.S. Army Installation Management Command (IMCOM) as follow-on to the 2005 Department of Defense (DoD) Renewables Assessment.

  19. Historic Properties Report: Yuma Proving Ground, Yuma, Arizona.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1984-07-01

    testing a new floating bridge on the Colorado River below Imperial Dam, several miles northwest of Camp Laguna. Tests were conducted by the Engineer ...between Building Technology Incorporated, Silver Spring, Maryland and the Historic American Building Survey/Historic American Engineering Record...American Engineering Record, National Park Service U.S. Department of the Interior EXECUTIVE SUMMARY The Yuma Proving Ground, part of the U.S. Army Test and

  20. Anthropometric comparison of painting portraits of beautiful women, femme fatales, and artists' mothers.

    PubMed

    Park, Ju Yong; Hwang, Se Won; Hwang, Kun

    2013-11-01

    The aim of this study was to compare the painting portraits of beautiful women, femme fatales, and artists' mothers using anthropometry.Portraits of each theme were selected in modern novels, essays and picture books, and categorized portraits. A total of 52 samples were collected, including 20 beautiful women, 20 femme fatales, and 12 artists' mothers. In 5 persons, 17 anthropometric ratios including the alae-alae/zygion-zygion ratio were compared in a 15-degree oblique view and in anteroposterior view photographs, and they were proved to not differ significantly. To distinguish oblique portraits less than 15 degrees, we measured the exocanthion-stomion-exocanthion (ESE) angle in photographs of 5 volunteers. The mean ± SD of the ESE angle was 64.52 ± 4.87 in the 15-degree angle view and 57.68 ± 54.09 in the 30-degree angle view. Thereafter, if the ESE angle was greater than 65 degrees, we considered the portrait to have less than a 15-degree angle and included it in the samples.The ratio did not differ significantly in 11 anthropometric proportions. However, the remaining 5 proportions were statistically significant. Beautiful women had wider noses (85% of the endocanthion-endocanthion width) than those of the femme fatale group (77%). Lips in the beautiful woman group are nicer and thicker (36% of lip's width) compared with the artists' mother group (27%). Femme fatales were relatively similar to beautiful women such as those women with nice and thick lips. However, the femme fatale group had an attractive midface ratio (36% of the total face height) that has been mentioned in the older literature, and the noses of the femme fatale group were narrower and sharper (77% of the endocanthion-endocanthion width) than those of the beautiful women (85%). The artists' mother group has a relatively narrower upper face (29% of the total face height) and thinner lips (27% of the lip width) compared with the other 2 groups (36%).Proportions from works of art are more

  1. Preparing for Mars: The Evolvable Mars Campaign 'Proving Ground' Approach

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bobskill, Marianne R.; Lupisella, Mark L.; Mueller, Rob P.; Sibille, Laurent; Vangen, Scott; Williams-Byrd, Julie

    2015-01-01

    As the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) prepares to extend human presence beyond Low Earth Orbit, we are in the early stages of planning missions within the framework of an Evolvable Mars Campaign. Initial missions would be conducted in near-Earth cis-lunar space and would eventually culminate in extended duration crewed missions on the surface of Mars. To enable such exploration missions, critical technologies and capabilities must be identified, developed, and tested. NASA has followed a principled approach to identify critical capabilities and a "Proving Ground" approach is emerging to address testing needs. The Proving Ground is a period subsequent to current International Space Station activities wherein exploration-enabling capabilities and technologies are developed and the foundation is laid for sustained human presence in space. The Proving Ground domain essentially includes missions beyond Low Earth Orbit that will provide increasing mission capability while reducing technical risks. Proving Ground missions also provide valuable experience with deep space operations and support the transition from "Earth-dependence" to "Earth-independence" required for sustainable space exploration. A Technology Development Assessment Team identified a suite of critical technologies needed to support the cadence of exploration missions. Discussions among mission planners, vehicle developers, subject-matter-experts, and technologists were used to identify a minimum but sufficient set of required technologies and capabilities. Within System Maturation Teams, known challenges were identified and expressed as specific performance gaps in critical capabilities, which were then refined and activities required to close these critical gaps were identified. Analysis was performed to identify test and demonstration opportunities for critical technical capabilities across the Proving Ground spectrum of missions. This suite of critical capabilities is expected to

  2. Fatal Child Maltreatment in England, 2005-2009

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sidebotham, Peter; Bailey, Sue; Belderson, Pippa; Brandon, Marian

    2011-01-01

    Objective: This paper presents comprehensive and up-to-date data covering 4 years of Serious Case Reviews into fatal child maltreatment in England. Methods: Information on all notified cases of fatal maltreatment between April 2005 and March 2009 was examined to obtain case characteristics related to a systemic classification of 5 broad groups of…

  3. Fatality Analysis Reporting System, General Estimates System: 2001 Data Summary.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    2003

    The Fatality Analysis Reporting System (FARS), which became operational in 1975, contains data on a census of fatal traffic crashes within the 50 states, the District of Columbia, and Puerto Rico. The General Estimates System (GES), which began in 1988, provides data from a nationally representative probability sample selected from all…

  4. Hispanic employees in the workplace: higher rate of fatalities.

    PubMed

    Johnson, Shelly; Ostendorf, Judith

    2010-01-01

    This article reviews the higher fatality and injury rates among the Hispanic population in the United States, whether legal immigrants, citizens, or illegal immigrants; reviews the current government and private industry regulations and safety programs; proposes additional legislation or programs; and describes the role of the occupational and environmental health nurse in reducing injuries and fatalities in this population.

  5. Child Abuse and Neglect Fatalities: Statistics and Interventions

    MedlinePlus

    ... interventions. Table of Contents Introduction How many children die each year from child abuse or neglect? What groups of children are most vulnerable? How do these deaths occur? Who are the perpetrators? How do communities respond to child fatalities? How can these fatalities be prevented? ...

  6. [Secondary prophylaxis of venous thromboembolism: analysis of 49 fatal cases].

    PubMed

    Wawrzyńska, L; Hajduk, B; Vertun-Baranowska, B; Kober, J; Filipecki, S

    1998-01-01

    The analysis of 49 fatal cases of venous thromboembolism--VTE (15% of total ambulatory patients number during long observation was performed. The advanced age of patients, multiple risk factors, underlying circulatory and respiratory tract diseases, malignancies, previous episodes of VTE especially with secondary pulmonary hypertension were the most important factors determining fatal prognoses in those patients.

  7. Has the great recession and its aftermath reduced traffic fatalities?

    PubMed

    Noland, Robert B; Zhou, Yuhan

    2017-01-01

    An analysis of state-level data from 1984 to 2014 provides evidence on the relationship between economic recessions and US traffic fatalities. While there are large reductions associated with decreases in household median income, other policy variables tend to have additional and in some cases, larger effects. An increase in the inequality of the income distribution, measured by the Gini index, has reduced traffic fatalities. Graduated licensing policies, cell phone laws, and motorcycle helmet requirements are all associated with reductions in fatalities. Other factors include a proxy for medical technology, and access to emergency medical services (based on the percent of vehicle miles traveled in rural areas); reductions in the latter accounted for a substantial reduction in fatalities and is likely another indicator of reduced economic activity. Changes in the road network, mainly increases in the percent of collector roads has increased fatalities. Population growth is associated with increased traffic fatalities and changes in age cohorts has a small negative effect. Overall, results suggest that there has been a beneficial impact on traffic fatalities from reduced economic activity, but various policies adopted by the states have also reduced traffic fatalities.

  8. Teenaged Drivers and Fatal Crash Responsibility. Preliminary Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williams, Allan F.; Karpf, Ronald S.

    According to data obtained for the year 1978 from the Fatal Accident Reporting System (FARS) and from state governments under contract to the National Highway Traffic Safety Administration, teenaged drivers (especially males) have much higher rates of fatal crash involvement than older drivers. In addition, teenaged drivers are more likely than…

  9. Fatal carbon monoxide intoxication after acetylene gas welding of pipes.

    PubMed

    Antonsson, Ann-Beth; Christensson, Bengt; Berge, Johan; Sjögren, Bengt

    2013-06-01

    Acetylene gas welding of district heating pipes can result in exposure to high concentrations of carbon monoxide. A fatal case due to intoxication is described. Measurements of carbon monoxide revealed high levels when gas welding a pipe with closed ends. This fatality and these measurements highlight a new hazard, which must be promptly prevented.

  10. Influence of Appalachian Fatalism on Adolescent Identity Processes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Phillips, Tommy M.

    2007-01-01

    The influences of the fatalism frequently associated with Appalachian culture on adolescent identity processes were explored. The sample consisted of 91 Appalachian adolescents and 87 non-Appalachian adolescents. Participants completed measures of fatalism (operationalized in terms of higher hopelessness and lower optimism/efficacy scores) and…

  11. Bordetella bronchiseptica and fatal pneumonia of dogs and cats

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Bordetella bronchiseptica frequently causes nonfatal tracheobronchitis, but its role in fatal pneumonia is less well-studied. The objectives of this study were to identify the frequency of Bordetella bronchiseptica infection in fatal cases of bronchopneumonia in dogs and cats and to compare the diag...

  12. NON-FATAL INFECTION OF MICE FOLLOWING INTRACEREBRAL INOCULATION OF YELLOW FEVER VIRUS

    PubMed Central

    Fox, John P.

    1943-01-01

    infections, thus, may be important to the accuracy of quantitative determinations of infectivity. Limited observations with virus of the French neurotropic and the pantropic Asibi strains revealed that non-fatal infections do occur, but only rarely. Somewhat more extensive observations with unmodified virus of strains isolated from Brazilian cases of jungle yellow fever, in contrast, revealed an occurrence of non-fatal infections much greater than that observed with the most productive 17D substrains. With these jungle strains, the demonstration of non-fatal infections proved indispensable to any measure of the level of infectivity of virus preparations. The demonstration of the proportional occurrence in mice of non-fatal infections with yellow fever virus provides an additional means by which different virus strains and substrains may be characterized. PMID:19871300

  13. American Academy of Pediatrics. Policy statement--child fatality review.

    PubMed

    2010-09-01

    Injury remains the leading cause of pediatric mortality and requires public health approaches to reduce preventable deaths. Child fatality review teams, first established to review suspicious child deaths involving abuse or neglect, have expanded toward a public health model of prevention of child fatality through systematic review of child deaths from birth through adolescence. Approximately half of all states report reviewing child deaths from all causes, and the process of fatality review has identified effective local and state prevention strategies for reducing child deaths. This expanded approach can be a powerful tool in understanding the epidemiology and preventability of child death locally, regionally, and nationally; improving accuracy of vital statistics data; and identifying public health and legislative strategies for reducing preventable child fatalities. The American Academy of Pediatrics supports the development of federal and state legislation to enhance the child fatality review process and recommends that pediatricians become involved in local and state child death reviews.

  14. Uber and Metropolitan Traffic Fatalities in the United States.

    PubMed

    Brazil, Noli; Kirk, David S

    2016-08-01

    Uber and similar rideshare services are rapidly dispersing in cities across the United States and beyond. Given the convenience and low cost, Uber has been characterized as a potential countermeasure for reducing the estimated 121 million episodes of drunk driving and the 10,000 resulting traffic fatalities that occur annually in the United States. We exploited differences in the timing of the deployment of Uber in US metropolitan counties from 2005 to 2014 to test the association between the availability of Uber's rideshare services and total, drunk driving-related, and weekend- and holiday-specific traffic fatalities in the 100 most populated metropolitan areas in the United States using negative binomial and Poisson regression models. We found that the deployment of Uber services in a given metropolitan county had no association with the number of subsequent traffic fatalities, whether measured in aggregate or specific to drunk-driving fatalities or fatalities during weekends and holidays.

  15. Toxic inhalation fatalities of US construction workers, 1990 to 1999.

    PubMed

    Dorevitch, Samuel; Forst, Linda; Conroy, Lorraine; Levy, Paul

    2002-07-01

    Construction workers account for a disproportionately large number of occupational fatalities. A small percentage of these deaths is attributable to poisoning. Risk factors for such deaths using national data have not been reported previously. Construction poisoning fatalities from 1990 to 1999 in the Occupational Safety and Health Administration Integrated Management and Information System data set were analyzed. Risk and risk factors were determined using Bureau of Labor Statistics and census data. Eighty-seven poisoning deaths of construction workers are characterized, all attributable to toxic inhalation. Cellular and simple asphyxiants accounted for the largest numbers of fatalities. The majority of these deaths occurred in confined spaces. Water, sewer, and utility line workers are at increased risk for poisoning fatality. Toxic inhalation fatalities in the construction industry are preventable. Extending the Occupational Safety and Health Administration's confined space standard could save lives, particularly among water, sewer, and utility line industry workers.

  16. Fatal train accidents on Europe's railways: 1980-2009.

    PubMed

    Evans, Andrew W

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents an analysis of fatal train accident rates and trends on Europe's main line railways from 1980 to 2009. The paper uses a new set of data for the European Union together with Norway and Switzerland, assembled partly under the auspices of the European Railway Agency and partly on the author's own account. The estimated overall trend in the number of fatal train collisions and derailments per train-kilometre is -6.3% per year from 1990 to 2009, with a 95% confidence interval of -8.7% to -3.9%. The estimated accident rate in 2009 is 1.35 fatal collisions or derailments per billion train-kilometres, giving an estimated mean number of fatal accidents in 2009 of 6.0. The overall number of fatalities per fatal accident in 1990-2009 is 4.10, with no apparent long term change over time, giving an estimated mean of 24.6 fatalities per year in train collisions and derailments in 2009. There are statistically significant differences in the fatal train accident rates and trends between the different European countries, although the estimates of the rates and trends for many individual countries have wide confidence limits. The distribution of broad causes of accidents appears to have remained unchanged over the long term, so that safety improvements appear to have been across the board, and not focused on any specific cause. The most frequent cause of fatal train collisions and derailments is signals passed at danger. In contrast to fatal train collisions and derailments, the rate per train-kilometre of serious accidents at level crossings remained unchanged in 1990-2009. The immediate causes of most of the serious level crossing accidents are errors or violations by road users.

  17. Work-related fatalities in the People's Republic of China.

    PubMed

    Jin, Kezhi; Courtney, Theodore K

    2009-07-01

    Over the past several decades, work-related fatal incident reporting in China has become faster, more publicly accessible and, hence, a potentially more valuable process in support of the decision-making and enforcement actions of the government and safety professionals. A study was conducted to examine the characteristics of work-related fatalities in the People's Republic of China (PRC) available from the State Work Accident Briefing (SWAB) system. Injury incident records related to industries other than coal mining were downloaded from the SWAB system (April 2001 to March 2003). The findings were compared with a previously published regional work fatality study in China, data from the U.S. Census of Fatal Occupational Injuries, and estimates from the International Labor Organization (ILO). During the 2-year period, 1538 work-related events (7046 worker fatalities) were recorded. Collisions (25.6%), drownings (14.6%), and structural collapses (12.5%) were the most frequently reported fatal events. Collisions (24.5%) and falls (14.5%) were the most frequent causes of cited fatal events. Transportation (105.87 per 100 000); mining industries other than coal mining and quarrying (73.28); and electricity, gas, and water supply (14.88) were the industries with the highest estimated fatality rates. Generally, regions with lower economic activity reported more fatalities. The fatal injury rate estimated from the SWAB system was 4.80 per 100,000 (U.S. rate 4.00). ILO estimates for 1994 and 2002 were substantially higher than the estimates derived from the SWAB system. SWAB system differences with other data sources analyzed herein indicate that there remains room for system refinement.

  18. An entry in the 1992 Overbeek theorem-proving contest

    SciTech Connect

    Lusk, E.L.; McCune, W.W.

    1992-11-01

    The Conference on Automated Deduction (CADE) has been for nearly twenty years a meeting where both theoreticians and system implementors present their work. Feeling perhaps that the conference was becoming dominated by the theoreticians, Ross Overbeek proposed at CADE-10 in 1990 a contest to stimulate work on the implementation and use of theorem-proving systems. The challenge was to prove a set of theorems, and do so with a uniform approach. That is, it was not allowed to set parameters in the system to specialize it for individual problems. There were actually two separate contests, one represented by a set of seven problems designed to test basic inference components, and the other represented by a set of ten problems designed to test equality-based systems. This paper describes our experiences in preparing to enter the contest with OTTER and Roo, two systems developed at Argonne National Laboratory. Roo is a parallel version of OTTER, but has such different behavior in some cases that we treat them as separate entries. We entered each of them in both contests. Some of the problems are difficult ones; and although many of the problems had been done before with OTTER, in each case we had set OTTER`S many input parameters in a way customized to the problem at hand, and chosen a set of support that appeared to us to be most natural. It was a challenge to come up with a uniform set of parameter settings and a information algorithm for picking the set of support that would allow OTTER to prove each of the theorems.

  19. An entry in the 1992 Overbeek theorem-proving contest

    SciTech Connect

    Lusk, E.L.; McCune, W.W.

    1992-11-01

    The Conference on Automated Deduction (CADE) has been for nearly twenty years a meeting where both theoreticians and system implementors present their work. Feeling perhaps that the conference was becoming dominated by the theoreticians, Ross Overbeek proposed at CADE-10 in 1990 a contest to stimulate work on the implementation and use of theorem-proving systems. The challenge was to prove a set of theorems, and do so with a uniform approach. That is, it was not allowed to set parameters in the system to specialize it for individual problems. There were actually two separate contests, one represented by a set of seven problems designed to test basic inference components, and the other represented by a set of ten problems designed to test equality-based systems. This paper describes our experiences in preparing to enter the contest with OTTER and Roo, two systems developed at Argonne National Laboratory. Roo is a parallel version of OTTER, but has such different behavior in some cases that we treat them as separate entries. We entered each of them in both contests. Some of the problems are difficult ones; and although many of the problems had been done before with OTTER, in each case we had set OTTER'S many input parameters in a way customized to the problem at hand, and chosen a set of support that appeared to us to be most natural. It was a challenge to come up with a uniform set of parameter settings and a information algorithm for picking the set of support that would allow OTTER to prove each of the theorems.

  20. Proving Causation With Epidemiological Evidence in Tobacco Lawsuits

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Recently, a series of lawsuits were filed in Korea claiming tort liability against tobacco companies. The Supreme Court has already issued decisions in some cases, while others are still pending. The primary issue in these cases is whether the epidemiological evidence submitted by the plaintiffs clearly proves the causal relationship between smoking and disease as required by civil law. Proving causation is difficult in tobacco lawsuits because factors other than smoking are involved in the development of a disease, and also because of the lapse of time between smoking and the manifestation of the disease. The Supreme Court (Supreme Court Decision, 2011Da22092, April 10, 2014) has imposed some limitations on using epidemiological evidence to prove causation in tobacco lawsuits filed by smokers and their family members, but these limitations should be reconsidered. First, the Court stated that a disease can be categorized as specific or non-specific, and for each disease type, causation can be proven by different types of evidence. However, the concept of specific diseases is not compatible with multifactor theory, which is generally accepted in the field of public health. Second, when the epidemiological association between the disease and the risk factor is proven to be significant, imposing additional burdens of proof on the plaintiff may considerably limit the plaintiff’s right to recovery, but the Court required the plaintiffs to provide additional information such as health condition and lifestyle. Third, the Supreme Court is not giving greater weight to the evidential value of epidemiological study results because the Court focuses on the fact that these studies were group-level, not individual-level. However, group-level studies could still offer valuable information about individual members of the group, e.g., probability of causation. PMID:27055545

  1. Ciprofloxacin Exposure Leading to Fatal Hepatotoxicity: An Unusual Correlation

    PubMed Central

    Unger, Carly; Al-Jashaami, Layth S.

    2016-01-01

    Patient: Female, 74 Final Diagnosis: Acute drug-induced liver failure Symptoms: Anorexia • fatigue • nausea • vomiting Medication: — Clinical Procedure: — Specialty: Gastroenterology and Hepatology Objective: Challenging differential diagnosis Background: Ciprofloxacin is a commonly used fluoroquinolone antibiotic. It is occasionally associated with benign elevations in liver enzymes. Few reports in the literature correlate ciprofloxacin with significant liver injury. We present a fatal case of ciprofloxacin-induced liver failure. Case Report: A 74-year-old female was successfully treated with ciprofloxacin for a urinary tract infection (UTI), but immediately began having new-onset symptoms, including fatigue and nausea. This continued for two months, at which time she presented to the hospital; she was found to have elevated liver enzymes and another UTI. She was treated with ciprofloxacin again for UTI and discharged three days later, following mild improvement. One week later, she returned to another hospital and was found to have more significantly elevated liver function tests and jaundice. Extensive viral and autoimmune panels were unremarkable. Liver biopsy showed cholestatic hepatitis of unclear etiology. The patient was discharged again following a mild decline in liver enzymes. Soon after, the patient was admitted to our institution with similar complaints. Serum transaminases remained elevated, with an increase in alkaline phosphatase and bilirubin. The Council for International Organizations of Medical Sciences/the Roussel Uclaf Causality Assessment Method (CIOMS/RUCAM) scale was found to be 8, outlining a high or definite probability that the ciprofloxacin was the cause of the patient’s hepatotoxicity. A one-week course of prednisone for possible hypersensitivity reaction was tried; however, it proved unsuccessful. Palliative care was consulted, and the patient passed away shortly thereafter. Conclusions: This case demonstrates the

  2. The ultimate challenge: prove B. F. Skinner wrong.

    PubMed

    Chance, Paul

    2007-01-01

    For much of his career, B. F. Skinner displayed the optimism that is often attributed to behaviorists. With time, however, he became less and less sanguine about the power of behavior science to solve the major problems facing humanity. Near the end of his life he concluded that a fair consideration of principles revealed by the scientific analysis of behavior leads to pessimism about our species. In this article I discuss the case for Skinner's pessimism and suggest that the ultimate challenge for behavior analysts today is to prove Skinner wrong.

  3. Reasoning by analogy as an aid to heuristic theorem proving.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kling, R. E.

    1972-01-01

    When heuristic problem-solving programs are faced with large data bases that contain numbers of facts far in excess of those needed to solve any particular problem, their performance rapidly deteriorates. In this paper, the correspondence between a new unsolved problem and a previously solved analogous problem is computed and invoked to tailor large data bases to manageable sizes. This paper outlines the design of an algorithm for generating and exploiting analogies between theorems posed to a resolution-logic system. These algorithms are believed to be the first computationally feasible development of reasoning by analogy to be applied to heuristic theorem proving.

  4. The Ultimate Challenge: Prove B. F. Skinner Wrong

    PubMed Central

    Chance, Paul

    2007-01-01

    For much of his career, B. F. Skinner displayed the optimism that is often attributed to behaviorists. With time, however, he became less and less sanguine about the power of behavior science to solve the major problems facing humanity. Near the end of his life he concluded that a fair consideration of principles revealed by the scientific analysis of behavior leads to pessimism about our species. In this article I discuss the case for Skinner's pessimism and suggest that the ultimate challenge for behavior analysts today is to prove Skinner wrong. PMID:22478494

  5. Research in advanced formal theorem-proving techniques

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rulifson, J. F.

    1971-01-01

    The present status is summarized of a continuing research program aimed at the design and implementation of a language for expressing problem-solving procedures in several areas of artificial intelligence, including program synthesis, robot planning, and theorem proving. Notations, concepts, and procedures common to the representation and solution of many of these problems were abstracted and incorporated as features into the language. The areas of research covered are described, and abstracts of six papers that contain extensive description and technical detail of the work are presented.

  6. Strategy-Enhanced Interactive Proving and Arithmetic Simplification for PVS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    diVito, Ben L.

    2003-01-01

    We describe an approach to strategy-based proving for improved interactive deduction in specialized domains. An experimental package of strategies (tactics) and support functions called Manip has been developed for PVS to reduce the tedium of arithmetic manipulation. Included are strategies aimed at algebraic simplification of real-valued expressions. A general deduction architecture is described in which domain-specific strategies, such as those for algebraic manipulation, are supported by more generic features, such as term-access techniques applicable in arbitrary settings. An extended expression language provides access to subterms within a sequent.

  7. Proving Nontrivial Topology of Pure Bismuth by Quantum Confinement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ito, S.; Feng, B.; Arita, M.; Takayama, A.; Liu, R.-Y.; Someya, T.; Chen, W.-C.; Iimori, T.; Namatame, H.; Taniguchi, M.; Cheng, C.-M.; Tang, S.-J.; Komori, F.; Kobayashi, K.; Chiang, T.-C.; Matsuda, I.

    2016-12-01

    The topology of pure Bi is controversial because of its very small (˜10 meV ) band gap. Here we perform high-resolution angle-resolved photoelectron spectroscopy measurements systematically on 14-202 bilayer Bi films. Using high-quality films, we succeed in observing quantized bulk bands with energy separations down to ˜10 meV . Detailed analyses on the phase shift of the confined wave functions precisely determine the surface and bulk electronic structures, which unambiguously show nontrivial topology. The present results not only prove the fundamental property of Bi but also introduce a capability of the quantum-confinement approach.

  8. The Missouri child fatality study: underreporting of maltreatment fatalities among children younger than five years of age, 1983 through 1986.

    PubMed

    Ewigman, B; Kivlahan, C; Land, G

    1993-02-01

    Estimates of the incidence of child maltreatment fatalities vary widely; most experts believe they are underreported. To investigate the suspicion that fatal maltreatment was underreported in Missouri preschool children, a statewide, population-based study was conducted using nine data sources. The study cases included the 384 children younger than age 5 who died from 1983 through 1986 and whose death certificates were coded with an external cause (injury) or whose deaths were substantiated as abuse or neglect fatalities by the Missouri Division of Family Services. Each fatality was categorized as one of the following: definite maltreatment, probable maltreatment, possible maltreatment, non-maltreatment, or inadequate information. Of the 121 cases classified as definite maltreatment, only 47.9% had codes consistent with maltreatment on their death certificates. The Division of Family Services had substantiated 79.3% of definite maltreatment cases as abuse or neglect fatalities. The Federal Bureau of Investigation Uniform Crime Reports database reported only 38.8% of these cases as homicides. In 37.2% of the cases, there was at least one criminal conviction. Child maltreatment fatalities are drastically underreported as such in Missouri because of inadequate investigations, lack of information-sharing between investigators and agencies, and reporting systems that fail to capture the contribution of maltreatment as a cause of death. Missouri has created a statewide system of child fatality review panels and a child fatality surveillance system to address the problems documented in this study.

  9. Fatal passenger vehicle crashes 1999 to 2004 with drivers under age 15: the impact in Texas and other southern and southwestern states.

    PubMed

    Frisch, Larry

    2007-03-01

    Texas has more fatal crashes involving unlicensed drivers under age 15 than does any other US state. Numbers and rates of such crashes are also above the national mean in many southern and Southwest states. Data on fatal passenger vehicle crashes from 1999 through 2004 were obtained from the online Fatality Analysis Reporting System (FARS). During the study period, there were 51 fatal passenger vehicle crashes in Texas in which drivers were under age 15. These crashes accounted for 12.3% of the US total. Nine southern states, including Texas, together accounted for 44% of all fatal crashes involving drivers under 15. Unlicensed crash rates per million inhabitants were higher in Texas than in other states with comparable populations but were much lower than those in other southern, southwest, and north central states. While Texas has recently improved its compliance with proposed graduated licensing models, state law explicitly prohibits police from stopping drivers based solely on age-related probable cause. This restriction may be a major barrier to effective detection and interdiction of under-age unlicensed driving. Because of the relatively high number of fatal crashes involving drivers under age 15 occurring in Texas, preventive efforts targeted to this state could modestly reduce the national burden of deaths due to very young unlicensed drivers. Expanding these efforts to other southern and southwest states could further reduce numbers and rates of such crashes. Expanded use of graduated licensing and increased public awareness are likely to prove effective tools in this public health effort.

  10. Polarization : Proving ground for methods in radiative transfer.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nagendra, K. N.; Anusha, L. S.; Sampoorna, M.

    Polarization of solar lines arises due to illumination of radiating atom by anisotropic (limb darkened/brightened) radiation. Modelling the polarized spectra of the Sun and stars requires solution of the line radiative transfer problem in which the relevant polarizing physical mechanisms are incorporated. The purpose of this paper is to describe in what different ways the polarization state of the radiation `complicates' the numerical methods originally designed for scalar radiative transfer. We present several interesting situations involving the solution of polarized line transfer to prove our point. They are (i) Comparison of the polarized approximate lambda iteration (PALI) methods with new approaches like Bi-conjugate gradient method that is faster, (ii) Polarized Hanle scattering line radiative transfer in random magnetic fields, (iii) Difficulties encountered in incorporating polarized partial frequency redistribution (PRD) matrices in line radiative transfer codes, (iv) Technical difficulties encountered in handling polarized specific intensity vector, some components of which are sign changing, (v) Proving that scattering polarization is indeed a boundary layer phenomenon. We provide credible benchmarks in each of the above studies. We show that any new numerical methods can be tested in the best possible way, when it is extended to include polarization state of the radiation field in line scattering.

  11. Proving Correctness for Pointer Programs in a Verifying Compiler

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kulczycki, Gregory; Singh, Amrinder

    2008-01-01

    This research describes a component-based approach to proving the correctness of programs involving pointer behavior. The approach supports modular reasoning and is designed to be used within the larger context of a verifying compiler. The approach consists of two parts. When a system component requires the direct manipulation of pointer operations in its implementation, we implement it using a built-in component specifically designed to capture the functional and performance behavior of pointers. When a system component requires pointer behavior via a linked data structure, we ensure that the complexities of the pointer operations are encapsulated within the data structure and are hidden to the client component. In this way, programs that rely on pointers can be verified modularly, without requiring special rules for pointers. The ultimate objective of a verifying compiler is to prove-with as little human intervention as possible-that proposed program code is correct with respect to a full behavioral specification. Full verification for software is especially important for an agency like NASA that is routinely involved in the development of mission critical systems.

  12. Work-related fatal motor vehicle traffic crashes: Matching of 2010 data from the Census of Fatal Occupational Injuries and the Fatality Analysis Reporting System.

    PubMed

    Byler, Christen; Kesy, Laura; Richardson, Scott; Pratt, Stephanie G; Rodríguez-Acosta, Rosa L

    2016-07-01

    Motor vehicle traffic crashes (MVTCs) remain the leading cause of work-related fatal injuries in the United States, with crashes on public roadways accounting for 25% of all work-related deaths in 2012. In the United States, the Bureau of Labor Statistics (BLS) Census of Fatal Occupational Injuries (CFOI) provides accurate counts of fatal work injuries based on confirmation of work relationship from multiple sources, while the National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (NHTSA) Fatality Analysis Reporting System (FARS) provides detailed data on fatal MVTCs based on police reports. Characterization of fatal work-related MVTCs is currently limited by data sources that lack either data on potential risk factors (CFOI) or work-relatedness confirmation and employment characteristics (FARS). BLS and the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) collaborated to analyze a merged data file created by BLS using CFOI and FARS data. A matching algorithm was created to link 2010 data from CFOI and FARS using date of incident and other case characteristics, allowing for flexibility in variables to address coding discrepancies. Using the matching algorithm, 953 of the 1044 CFOI "Highway" cases (91%) for 2010 were successfully linked to FARS. Further analysis revealed systematic differences between cases identified as work-related by both systems and by CFOI alone. Among cases identified as work-related by CFOI alone, the fatally-injured worker was considerably more likely to have been employed outside the transportation and warehousing industry or transportation-related occupations, and to have been the occupant of a vehicle other than a heavy truck. This study is the first step of a collaboration between BLS, NHTSA, and NIOSH to improve the completeness and quality of data on fatal work-related MVTCs. It has demonstrated the feasibility and value of matching data on fatal work-related traffic crashes from CFOI and FARS. The results will lead to

  13. More fatal all-terrain vehicle crashes occur on the roadway than off: increased risk-taking characterises roadway fatalities

    PubMed Central

    Denning, Gerene M; Harland, Karisa K; Ellis, David G; Jennissen, Charles A

    2013-01-01

    Background All-terrain vehicles (ATVs) have steadily increased in popularity, size and speed, characteristics that likely contribute to the alarming rise in ATV-related fatalities. One potentially high-risk activity is riding on the road. Objectives To compare fatal ATV crashes that occur on the roadway and off, to more fully understand factors that contribute to fatalities at each location. Methods Fatality data from the US Consumer Product Safety Commission (CPSC) were used for descriptive and comparative analyses. Multivariate logistic regression analysis was performed to determine relative risk. Results Over 60% of all fatalities (1985–2009) resulted from roadway crashes. After 1998, roadway fatalities increased at over twice the rate of off-road fatalities. Roadway crashes were more likely than off-road crashes to involve multiple fatalities, carrying passengers, alcohol use, collisions and head injuries. Roadway victims were less likely to be helmeted than off-road victims. Passengers and operators with passengers were also less likely to be helmeted than operators riding alone. Helmeted victims were half as likely to suffer a head injury. Conclusions Fatal roadway crashes were more likely than off-road crashes to involve risk-taking behaviours (eg, carrying passengers) that could exacerbate the inherent difficulty of operating ATVs on roadway surfaces. Higher crash forces from greater speed, and lower use of protective equipment, may also have contributed to higher roadway mortality rates. Eliminating non-essential ATV road use may be an effective way to reduce ATV-related fatalities. This will likely require a substantial investment in rider education and better enforcement of ATV road use restriction laws. PMID:23257569

  14. [Fatal methadone poisoning of a child].

    PubMed

    Klupp, N; Risser, D; Stichenwirth, M; Hönigschnabl, S; Stimpfl, T; Bauer, G

    2000-04-21

    The substance methadone is used for substitution therapy since the 1960s in the U.S. Mainly because of the endemic spread of HIV-1 infections among intravenous drug abusers methadone was made legally available through medical prescription in Austria in 1987. Legal authorities today also allow the patient to take home the necessary daily consumption for weekends or public holidays. The drug is distributed as a watery solution in tiny bottles, which are fitted with an ordinary screw cap. This kind of distribution may, however, have fatal consequences. This is demonstrated in the following case of accidental poisoning of an infant: A two-year-old girl whose parents were both participating in the substitution scheme was found dead in her bed in Vienna in 1997. Forensic autopsy revealed a methadone concentration in the liver tissue of 640 ng/g. The criminal investigation determined that the girl had opened a bottle of methadone solution and subsequently had taken the drug. Considering the circumstances of this accident, from the medical point of view safety devices for the screw caps of the methadone bottles should be required by law, in order to avoid future accidental poisoning.

  15. Fatal poisoning by alcohol and heroin.

    PubMed

    Sutlović, Davorka; Definis-Gojanović, Marija

    2007-09-01

    Drug abuse with alcohol consumption have been on the rise in Split-Dalmatian County for a while now. This article reports two separate cases with three deaths due to fatal combinations of heroin and alcohol. The first case of poisoning is related to a young couple, a 30-year-old man and a 28-year-old woman, who were found dead in a car, surrounded by cans of a variety alcoholic drinks. Two needles were found beside the bodies as well. The victims were registered drug abusers who had been in withdrawal programs. The second case was a 29-year-old man who was found dead in a house. Three fresh injection marks were visible on his right arm, and two needles were near his body. He was not known as a drug addict, but he had tried to commit suicide recently. Carboxyhaemoglobin was found in blood samples of both victims from the first case. The concentration was 25% and that could contribute to their death. In both described cases blood alcohol concentration was higher then 1.60 g kg(-1). Toxicology tests were positive for heroin, meconin, acetaminophen, 6-acetylmorphine, codeine, noscapine and papaverine. Ethanol, being a respiratory depressant, combined with morphine drastically increases the risk of rapid death due to respiration failure.

  16. Trusted Theorem Proving: A Case Study in SLD-Resolution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arkoudas, Konstantine; Shivers, Olin

    Prolog's implementation of SLD-resolution furnishes an efficient theorem-proving technique for the Horn-clause subset of first-order logic, and makes for a powerful addition to any automatic or semi-automatic verification system. However, due to the complexity of SLD-resolution, a naive incorporation of a Prolog engine into such a system would inordinately increase the overall trusted base. In this paper we show how to integrate this procedure in a disciplined, trusted manner, by making the Prolog engine justify its results with very simple natural deduction reasoning. In effect, instead of taking SLD-resolution as a primitive inference rule, we express it as a derived inference rule in terms of much simpler rules such as conditional elimination.

  17. Geophysical study of the Building 103 Dump, Aberdeen Proving Ground

    SciTech Connect

    McGinnis, L.D.; Miller, S.F.; Thompson, M.D.; McGinnis, M.G.

    1992-12-01

    The Building 103 Dump is one of ten potentially contaminated sites in the Canal Creek and Westwood areas of the Edgewood section of Aberdeen Proving Ground examined by a geophysical team from Argonne National Laboratory in April and May of 1992. Noninvasive geophysical surveys, including magnetics, resistivity, ground-penetrating radar, and seismic refraction, were conducted. These surveys indicate that much of the area is free of debris. However, prominent magnetic and resistivity anomalies occur along well-defined lineaments, suggestive of a dendritic stream pattern. Prior to the onset of dumping, the site was described as a ``sand pit,`` which suggests that headward erosion of Canal Creek tributaries cut into the surficial aquifer. Contaminants dumped into the landfill would have direct access to the surficial aquifer and thus to Canal Creek. Seismic refraction profiling indicates 6--12 ft of fill material now rests on the former land surface. Only the northern third of the former landfill was geophysically surveyed.

  18. Proving the Authenticity of Ancient DNA by Comparative Genomic Hybridization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hummel, S.; Herrmann, B.; Rameckers, J.; Müller, D.; Sperling, K.; Neitzel, H.; Tönnies, H.

    In PCR-supported amplification of ancient, degraded DNA, contamination with contemporary DNA can lead to false-positive results, which frequently give rise to discussions in which the mere existence of ancient DNA is doubted. Our confirmation of ancient DNA using comparative genome hybridization (CGH) eliminates these doubts. Unlike PCR methods, CGH requires no amplification of the DNA to be analyzed if adequate amounts of specimen DNA is used. Thus, false results traceable to contaminations are practically ruled out. The examples provided here prove the authenticity of ancient DNA for a 250-year-old and a 3000-year-old sample. At the same time, the CGH of ancient DNA offers the chance to gain insight into the pattern of DNA degradation and to monitor the preservation of certain chromosomal segments.

  19. Surface Observation Climatic Summaries for Dugway Proving Grounds, Utah

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1990-08-01

    NMICIAEL AAF, UT N 40 12 1 W 112 5-6 351 DPG I 69011 STATION LOCATION AND INSTRUMENTATION HISTORY Mob eI Typ At ThS LOCation I i ELev Above kSL OBS o f...WUiMER: 690110 STATIC%9 WARE: DUGAkY PROVING GROUNDS UT PERIOD OF RECRD: MAY 60 • APR 901 LST 0 UTC: + 7 MONTH: AUG HOURS: 21-23 CEILING VIS; BILI |Y IN...9.609 152S 0 30 160 0 0 1528 09-11 64.2 10.859 1524 0 1 798 99 0 1524 12-14 70.1 11.619 1460 0 1 1025 351 1 1460 15-1? 71.9 11.710 1101 0 0 812 325 3

  20. Methods for proving the equivalency of detonator performance

    SciTech Connect

    Munger, Alan C; Akinci, Adrian A; Thomas, Keith A; Clarke, Steve A; Martin, Eric S; Murphy, Michael J

    2009-01-01

    One of the challenges facing engineers is developing newer, safer detonators that are equivalent to devices currently in use. There is no clear consensus on an exact method for drawing equivalence of detonators. This paper summarizes our current efforts to develop diagnostics addressing various aspects of detonator design to better quantify and prove equivalency. We consider various optical techniques to quantify the output pressure and output wave shape. The development of a unique interpretation of streak camera breakouts, known as the apparent center of initiation, will be discussed as a metric for detonation wave shape. Specific examples apply these techniques to the comparison of a new laser-driven detonator with an existing exploding bridgewire (EBW) detonator. Successes and short-comings of the techniques will be discussed.

  1. Model Checking Failed Conjectures in Theorem Proving: A Case Study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pike, Lee; Miner, Paul; Torres-Pomales, Wilfredo

    2004-01-01

    Interactive mechanical theorem proving can provide high assurance of correct design, but it can also be a slow iterative process. Much time is spent determining why a proof of a conjecture is not forthcoming. In some cases, the conjecture is false and in others, the attempted proof is insufficient. In this case study, we use the SAL family of model checkers to generate a concrete counterexample to an unproven conjecture specified in the mechanical theorem prover, PVS. The focus of our case study is the ROBUS Interactive Consistency Protocol. We combine the use of a mechanical theorem prover and a model checker to expose a subtle flaw in the protocol that occurs under a particular scenario of faults and processor states. Uncovering the flaw allows us to mend the protocol and complete its general verification in PVS.

  2. Evaluation of depleted uranium in the environment at Aberdeen Proving Grounds, Maryland and Yuma Proving Grounds, Arizona. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Kennedy, P.L.; Clements, W.H.; Myers, O.B.; Bestgen, H.T.; Jenkins, D.G.

    1995-01-01

    This report represents an evaluation of depleted uranium (DU) introduced into the environment at the Aberdeen Proving Grounds (APG), Maryland and Yuma Proving Grounds (YPG) Arizona. This was a cooperative project between the Environmental Sciences and Statistical Analyses Groups at LANL and with the Department of Fishery and Wildlife Biology at Colorado State University. The project represents a unique approach to assessing the environmental impact of DU in two dissimilar ecosystems. Ecological exposure models were created for each ecosystem and sensitivity/uncertainty analyses were conducted to identify exposure pathways which were most influential in the fate and transport of DU in the environment. Research included field sampling, field exposure experiment, and laboratory experiments. The first section addresses DU at the APG site. Chapter topics include bioenergetics-based food web model; field exposure experiments; bioconcentration by phytoplankton and the toxicity of U to zooplankton; physical processes governing the desorption of uranium from sediment to water; transfer of uranium from sediment to benthic invertebrates; spead of adsorpion by benthic invertebrates; uptake of uranium by fish. The final section of the report addresses DU at the YPG site. Chapters include the following information: Du transport processes and pathway model; field studies of performance of exposure model; uptake and elimination rates for kangaroo rates; chemical toxicity in kangaroo rat kidneys.

  3. Eight cases of fatal and non-fatal poisoning with Taxus baccata.

    PubMed

    Grobosch, Thomas; Schwarze, Bernd; Felgenhauer, Norbert; Riesselmann, Benno; Roscher, Sonja; Binscheck, Torsten

    2013-04-10

    This paper describes two fatalities, three non-fatal intentional and three accidental oral ingestions of yew (Taxus baccata) leaves. In all cases the post-mortem external examinations showed no signs of violence. Internal examinations revealed small green, needle-like particles on the tongue, in the esophagus and in the stomach. Yew leaves were also identified in the stomach contents, whereas Taxus leaves were cut into small pieces and then ingested in one case. The analytical method used was based on a liquid-liquid-extraction under alkaline conditions followed by LC-MS/MS analysis (QTRAP 5500). Chromatographic separation was achieved by HPLC on a Kinetex C18 2.6u (100×3) mm. The analytical method allows the simultaneous identification and quantification of the commercially available yew alkaloids taxoids (m/z): paclitaxel (854.2→105.0/286.1), 10-deacetyltaxol (10-DAT: 812.2→105.0/286.1), baccatin III (BAC III: 604.0→105.0/327.0), 10-deacetylbaccatin III (10-DAB III: 562.1→105.0/327.0), cephalomannine [taxol B] (562.1→105.0/327.0) and of 3,5-dimethoxyphenol (3,5-DMP: 155.0→111.9/122.9) also encompassing the qualitative analysis of the alkaloidal diterpenoids (Q1→194.0/107.0); reference mass spectra obtained from a yew leaves extract: monoacetyltaxine (MAT: 568.4), taxine B (584.2), monohydroxydiacetyltaxine (MHDAT: 626.4), triacetyltaxine (TAT: 652.4), monohydroxytriacetyltaxine (MHTAT: 668.4). In both fatalities, paclitaxel, 10-DAT and cephalomannine were not identified in urine, cardiac and femoral blood but all taxoids and 3,5-DMP were present in stomach content and excreted into the bile. In urine, highest 3,5-DMP concentration was 7500 μg/L and 23,000 μg/L after enzymatic hydrolysis, respectively. In intentional and accidental poisonings, when electrocardiogram (ECG) examinations revealed ventricular tachycardia and/or prolonged QRS intervals, taxines were identified in plasma/serum, even after the ingestion of a few number of yew leaves

  4. [Fatal poisoning caused by aconite monk's hood (Aconitum napellus)].

    PubMed

    Feldkamp, A; Köster, B; Weber, H P

    1991-06-01

    Severe intoxications after ingestion of monk's hood are rare in childhood. We report a case of fatal intoxication in a 20 months old child. There is no specific therapy available. A review of the literature is added.

  5. Cold Water Fatalities: An Overview of Physiological Responses.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bernhartsen, J. C.; Schlenker, Richard

    1981-01-01

    Cold water fatalities are described and defined, including drownings, trauma, hydrocution and hypothermia. The levels of hypothermia are outlined, and symptoms and steps to stop and reverse hypothermia are described. (DS)

  6. Vehicle travel speeds and the incidence of fatal pedestrian crashes.

    PubMed

    Anderson, R W; McLean, A J; Farmer, M J; Lee, B H; Brooks, C G

    1997-09-01

    The aim of this study was to estimate the likely effect of reduced travel speeds on the incidence of pedestrian fatalities in Adelaide, Australia. The study was based on the results of detailed investigations of 176 fatal pedestrian crashes in the Adelaide area between 1983 and 1991. The method developed to estimate the effect of reduced travelling speed is described and supported by references to the published literature. A reduction in the speed limit from 60 to 50 km/h was one of four speed reduction scenarios considered. The smallest estimated reduction in fatal pedestrian collisions in the selection presented was 13%, for a scenario in which all drivers obeyed the existing speed limit. The largest estimated reduction was 48% for a scenario in which all drivers were travelling 10 km/h slower. The estimated reductions in fatalities obtained in this study are compared with those observed in places where the urban area speed limit has been lowered.

  7. Drug Might Help Some Babies with Rare, Fatal Disease

    MedlinePlus

    ... Might Help Some Babies With Rare, Fatal Disease Spinal muscular atrophy is typically lethal within 2 years, but new ... promise, researchers report. There is no treatment for spinal muscular atrophy type 1 (SMA-1), a degenerative neuromuscular disease ...

  8. The Effect of State Regulations on Truck-Crash Fatalities

    PubMed Central

    Richardson, Lilliard E.

    2009-01-01

    To improve traffic safety, states limit truck length and weight, and some set lower speed limits for trucks than for other vehicles. We examined the impact of truck-specific restrictions and general traffic-safety policies on fatality rates from crashes involving large trucks. We used state-level data from 1991 to 2005 with a cross-sectional time-series model that controlled for several policy measures. We found that higher speed limits for cars and trucks contributed to higher fatality rates, but differential speed limits by vehicle type had no significant impact. Truck-length limitations reduced fatalities in crashes involving large trucks. Our model estimates suggested that if all states had adopted a speed limit of 55 miles per hour for all vehicles in 2005, an additional 561 fatalities would have been averted. PMID:19150907

  9. INUNDATION PATTERNS AND FATALITY ANALYSIS ON LARGE-SCALE FLOOD

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ikeuchi, Koji; Ochi, Shigeo; Yasuda, Goro; Okamura, Jiro; Aono, Masashi

    In order to enhance the emergency preparedness for large-scale floods of the Ara River, we categorized the inundation patterns and calculated fatality estimates. We devised an effective continuous embankment elevation estimation method employing light detection and ranging data analysis. Drainage pump capabilities, in terms of operatable inundation depth and operatable duration limited by fuel supply logistics, were modeled from pump station data of eac h site along the rivers. Fatality reduction effects due to the enhancement of the drainage capabilities were calculated. We found proper operations of the drainage facilities can decrease the number of estimat ed fatalities considerably in some cases. We also estimated the difference of risk between floods with 200 years return period and those with 1000 years return period. In some of the 1000 years return period cases, we found the estimated fatalities jumped up whereas the populations in inundated areas changed only a little.

  10. Aerococcus urinae: Severe and Fatal Bloodstream Infections and Endocarditis▿

    PubMed Central

    de Jong, Margriet F. C.; Soetekouw, Robin; ten Kate, Reinier W.; Veenendaal, Dick

    2010-01-01

    Aerococcus urinae is a pathogen that rarely causes severe or fatal infections. We describe four cases of severe A. urinae bloodstream infections. All patients had underlying urologic conditions. Urine cultures, however, were negative. PMID:20660216

  11. Where Medical Pot Is Legal, Fatal Car Crashes Often Decline

    MedlinePlus

    ... 162675.html Where Medical Pot Is Legal, Fatal Car Crashes Often Decline It's possible that these state ... and Human Services. More Health News on: Marijuana Motor Vehicle Safety Recent Health News Related MedlinePlus Health ...

  12. Fatal Bacillus cereus bacteremia in a patient with diabetes.

    PubMed

    Orrett, F A

    2000-04-01

    This report describes a fatal case of Bacillus cereus septicemia in a patient with uncontrolled diabetes and re-emphasizes the potential seriousness of Bacillus infections in patients with compromised immune function.

  13. The GOES-R Proving Ground: 2012 Update

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gurka, J.; Goodman, S. J.; Schmit, T.; Demaria, M.; Mostek, A.; Siewert, C.; Reed, B.

    2011-12-01

    The Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellite (GOES)-R will provide a great leap forward in observing capabilities, but will also offer a significant challenge to ensure that users are ready to exploit the vast improvements in spatial, spectral, and temporal resolutions. To ensure user readiness, forecasters and other users must have access to prototype advanced products well before launch, and have the opportunity to provide feedback to product developers and computing and communications managers. The operational assessment is critical to ensure that the end products and NOAA's computing and communications systems truly meet their needs in a rapidly evolving environment. The GOES-R Proving Ground (PG) engages the National Weather Service (NWS) forecast, watch and warning community and other agency users in pre-operational demonstrations of select products with GOES-R attributes (enhanced spectral, spatial, and temporal resolution). In the PG, developers and forecasters test and apply algorithms for new GOES-R satellite data and products using proxy and simulated data sets, including observations from current and future satellite instruments (MODIS, AIRS, IASI, SEVIRI, NAST-I, NPP/VIIRS/CrIS, LIS), lightning networks, and computer simulated products. The complete list of products to be evaluated in 2012 will be determined after evaluating results from experiments in 2011 at the NWS' Storm Prediction Center, National Hurricane Center, Aviation Weather Center, Ocean Prediction Center, Hydrometeorological Prediction Center, and from the six NWS regions. In 2012 and beyond, the PG will test and validate data processing and distribution systems and the applications of these products in operational settings. Additionally developers and forecasters will test and apply display techniques and decision aid tools in operational environments. The PG is both a recipient and a source of training. Training materials are developed using various distance training tools in

  14. NASA SPoRT GOES-R Proving Ground Activities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stano, Geoffrey T.; Fuell, Kevin K.; Jedloec, Gary J.

    2010-01-01

    The NASA Short-term Prediction Research and Transition (SPoRT) program is a partner with the GOES-R Proving Ground (PG) helping prepare forecasters understand the unique products to come from the GOES-R instrument suite. SPoRT is working collaboratively with other members of the GOES-R PG team and Algorithm Working Group (AWG) scientists to develop and disseminate a suite of proxy products that address specific forecast problems for the WFOs, Regional and National Support Centers, and other NOAA users. These products draw on SPoRT s expertise with the transition and evaluation of products into operations from the MODIS instrument and the North Alabama Lightning Mapping Array (NALMA). The MODIS instrument serves as an excellent proxy for the Advanced Baseline Imager (ABI) that will be aboard GOES-R. SPoRT has transitioned and evaluated several multi-channel MODIS products. The true and false color products are being used in natural hazard detection by several SPoRT partners to provide better observation of land features, such as fires, smoke plumes, and snow cover. Additionally, many of SPoRT s partners are coastal offices and already benefit from the MODIS sea surface temperature composite. This, along with other surface feature observations will be developed into ABI proxy products for diagnostic use in the forecast process as well as assimilation into forecast models. In addition to the MODIS instrument, the NALMA has proven very valuable to WFOs with access to these total lightning data. These data provide situational awareness and enhanced warning decision making to improve lead times for severe thunderstorm and tornado warnings. One effort by SPoRT scientists includes a lightning threat product to create short-term model forecasts of lightning activity. Additionally, SPoRT is working with the AWG to create GLM proxy data from several of the ground based total lightning networks, such as the NALMA. The evaluation will focus on the vastly improved spatial

  15. Non-fatal acute fatty liver of pregnancy.

    PubMed Central

    Bernuau, J; Degott, C; Nouel, O; Rueff, B; Benhamou, J P

    1983-01-01

    Four patients are described, admitted during a three-year period, who recovered from acute fatty liver of pregnancy; vomiting and jaundice were the main manifestations of the disease; coma and anuria were absent. During the same period, we observed one patient who died of acute fatty liver of pregnancy. This experience suggests that the non-fatal form of the disorder may be much commoner than the fatal form. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 PMID:6832629

  16. The role of tourism in alcohol-related highway fatalities.

    PubMed

    Colón, I

    1985-04-01

    Tourism and fatal single motor vehicle accidents, an index of alcohol-related motor accidents, are examined in a cross-sectional analysis of the 50 states of the Union and the District of Columbia. A multiple regression model is employed in which average mileage driven, percent of metropolitan residents, and number of licensed drivers are statistically controlled. Tourism is found to be positively associated with the single motor vehicle fatality rate. Further research and policy implications are discussed.

  17. Fatal Dengue Myocarditis despite the Use of Extracorporeal Membrane Oxygenation

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Dengue is an important mosquitoes-borne viral disease which is endemic in tropics and subtropics region. Rapid spreading of disease to previously unaffected region was found in recent years. Atypical manifestations, such as myocarditis, were reported during large outbreak. There is a wide range of clinical manifestations of cardiac involvement in dengue, but rarely fatal. Here we reported a case of fulminant dengue myocarditis in fatal outcome despite cardiac mechanical support. PMID:28018687

  18. Potential Cislunar and Interplanetary Proving Ground Excursion Trajectory Concepts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McGuire, Melissa L.; Strange, Nathan J.; Burke, Laura M.; MacDonald, Mark A.; McElrath, Timothy P.; Landau, Damon F.; Lantoine, Gregory; Hack, Kurt J.; Lopez, Pedro

    2016-01-01

    NASA has been investigating potential translunar excursion concepts to take place in the 2020s that would be used to test and demonstrate long duration life support and other systems needed for eventual Mars missions in the 2030s. These potential trajectory concepts could be conducted in the proving ground, a region of cislunar and near-Earth interplanetary space where international space agencies could cooperate to develop the technologies needed for interplanetary spaceflight. Enabled by high power Solar Electric Propulsion (SEP) technologies, the excursion trajectory concepts studied are grouped into three classes of increasing distance from the Earth and increasing technical difficulty: the first class of excursion trajectory concepts would represent a 90-120 day round trip trajectory with abort to Earth options throughout the entire length, the second class would be a 180-210 day round trip trajectory with periods in which aborts would not be available, and the third would be a 300-400 day round trip trajectory without aborts for most of the length of the trip. This paper provides a top-level summary of the trajectory and mission design of representative example missions of these three classes of excursion trajectory concepts.

  19. Geophysics: Building E5375 decommissioning, Aberdeen Proving Ground

    SciTech Connect

    McGinnis, M.G.; McGinnis, L.D.; Miller, S.F.; Thompson, M.D.

    1992-08-01

    Building E5375 was one of ten potentially contaminated sites in the Canal Creek area of the Edgewood section of Aberdeen Proving Ground examined by a geophysical team from Argonne National Laboratory in April and May 1992. Noninvasive geophysical surveys, including magnetics, electrical resistivity, and ground-penetrating radar (GPR), were conducted around the perimeter of the building to guide a sampling program prior to decommissioning and dismantling. Several anomalies wear, noted: (1) An underground storage tank located 25 ft east of Building E5375 was identified with magnetic, resistivity, and GPR profiling. (2) A three-point resistivity anomaly, 12 ft east of the northeast comer of Building E5374 (which borders Building E5375) and 5 ft south of the area surveyed with the magnetometer, may be caused by another underground storage tank. (3) A 2,500-gamma magnetic anomaly near the northeast corner of the site has no equivalent resistivity anomaly, although disruption in GPR reflectors was observed. (4) A one-point magnetic anomaly was located at the northeast comer, but its source cannot be resolved. A chaotic reflective zone to the east represents the radar signature of Building E5375 construction fill.

  20. Geophysics: Building E5282 decommissioning, Aberdeen Proving Ground

    SciTech Connect

    Thompson, M.D.; McGinnis, M.G.; McGinnis, L.D.; Miller, S.F.

    1992-08-01

    This report discusses Building E5282 which was one of 10 potentially contaminated sites in the Canal Creek area of the Edgewood section of Aberdeen Proving Ground examined by a geophysical team from Argonne National Laboratory in April and May of 1992. Noninvasive geophysical surveys, including magnetics, electrical resistivity, and ground-penetrating radar (GPR), were conducted around the perimeter of the building to guide a sampling program prior to decommissioning and dismantling. Magnetic surveys identified small, complicated, multiple anomalies west, north, and northeast of the building that may be caused by construction fill. Two underground storage tanks, at the northeast and southeast corners, were identified. A large magnetic anomaly complex east of the building was caused by aboveground pipes and unexploded ordnance fragments scattered at the surface. Electrical resistivity profiling showed a broad, conductive terrain superimposed over magnetic anomalies on the north and west. A broad, high-resistivity, nonmagnetic area centered 25 ft east of the building has an unknown origin, but it may be due to nonconductive organic liquids, construction fill, or a buried concrete slab; GPR imaging showed this area as a highly reflective zone at a depth of about 5 ft. The GPR data also showed a small-diameter pipe oriented north-south located east of the building.

  1. Geophysics: Building E5476 decommissiong, Aberdeen Proving Ground

    SciTech Connect

    Miller, S.F.; Thompson, M.D.; McGinnis, M.G.; McGinnis, L.D.

    1992-11-01

    Building E5476 was one of ten potentially contaminated sites in the Canal Creek and Westwood areas of the Edgewood section of Aberdeen Proving Ground examined by a geophysical team from Argonne National Laboratory in April and May of 1992. Noninvasive geophysical surveys, including magnetics, electrical resistivity, and ground-penetrating radar, were conducted around the perimeter of the building to guide a sampling program prior to decommissioning and dismantling. The large number of magnetic sources surrounding the building are believed to be contained in construction fill. The smaller anomalies, for the most part, were not imaged with ground radar or by electrical profiling. Large magnetic anomalies near the southwest comer of the building are due to aboveground standpipes and steel-reinforced concrete. Two high-resistivity areas, one projecting northeast from the building and another south of the original structure, may indicate the presence of organic pore fluids in the subsurface. A conductive lineament protruding from the south wall that is enclosed by the southem, high-resistivity feature is not associated with an equivalent magnetic anomaly. Magnetic and electrical anomalies south of the old landfill boundary are probably not associated with the building. The boundary is marked by a band of magnetic anomalies and a conductive zone trending northwest to southeast. The cause of high resistivities in a semicircular area in the southwest comer, within the landfill area, is unexplained.

  2. Ecological effects of soil contamination at Aberdeen Proving Ground, Maryland

    SciTech Connect

    Kuperman, R.G.; Dunn, C.P. )

    1994-06-01

    Assessment of the ecological condition of contaminated soil was conducted in portions of the U.S. Army's Aberdeen Proving Ground, Maryland as part of an ecological risk assessment. This area is covered by open fields, woods and nontidal marshes. Chemicals disposed of in open burning pits included methylphosphonothioic acid, dichlorodiethyl sulfide, and titanium tetrachloride and sulfur trioxide/chlorosulfonic acid. Previous soil analysis showed extensive surface soil contamination with metals, nitrate, PCBs and pesticides. This assessment included characterizing soil biota, biologically-mediated processes in soil and aboveground biomass. Field surveys of the soil invertebrate communities showed significant reductions in the total abundance of animals, reductions in the abundance of several taxonomic and functional groups of soil invertebrates, and changes in the activity of epigeic arthropods in contaminated areas when compared with the local [open quotes]background[close quotes] area. Laboratory toxicity tests also demonstrated that microbial activity and success of egg hatching of ground beetle Harpalus pensylvanicus were reduced in contaminated soils. These results suggest that impacts to soil ecosystems should be explicitly considered in ecological risk assessment.

  3. Proving refinement transformations for deriving high-assurance software

    SciTech Connect

    Winter, V.L.; Boyle, J.M.

    1996-05-01

    The construction of a high-assurance system requires some evidence, ideally a proof, that the system as implemented will behave as required. Direct proofs of implementations do not scale up well as systems become more complex and therefore are of limited value. In recent years, refinement-based approaches have been investigated as a means to manage the complexity inherent in the verification process. In a refinement-based approach, a high-level specification is converted into an implementation through a number of refinement steps. The hope is that the proofs of the individual refinement steps will be easier than a direct proof of the implementation. However, if stepwise refinement is performed manually, the number of steps is severely limited, implying that the size of each step is large. If refinement steps are large, then proofs of their correctness will not be much easier than a direct proof of the implementation. The authors describe an approach to refinement-based software development that is based on automatic application of refinements, expressed as program transformations. This automation has the desirable effect that the refinement steps can be extremely small and, thus, easy to prove correct. They give an overview of the TAMPR transformation system that the use for automated refinement. They then focus on some aspects of the semantic framework that they have been developing to enable proofs that TAMPR transformations are correctness preserving. With this framework, proofs of correctness for transformations can be obtained with the assistance of an automated reasoning system.

  4. Environmental geophysics, offshore Bush River Peninsula, Aberdeen Proving Ground, Maryland

    SciTech Connect

    Miller, S.F.; Kuecher, G.J.; Davies, B.E.

    1995-11-01

    Geophysical studies in shallow waters adjacent to the Bush River Peninsula, Edgewood Area of Aberdeen Proving Ground, Maryland, have delineated the extent of waste disposal sites and established a hydrogeologic framework, which may control contaminant transport offshore. These studies indicate that during the Pleistocene Epoch, alternating stands of high and low sea levels resulted in a complex pattern of shallow channel-fill deposits around the Bush River Peninsula. Ground-penetrating radar studies reveal paleochannels greater than 50 ft deep. Some of the paleochannels are also imaged with marine seismic reflection. Conductivity highs measured with the EM-31 are also indicative of paleochannels. This paleochannel depositional system is environmentally significant because it may control the shallow groundwater flow regime beneath the peninsula. Magnetic, conductivity, and side-scan sonar anomalies outline anthropogenic anomalies in the study area. On the basis of geophysical data, underwater anthropogenic materials do exist in some isolated areas, but large-scale offshore dumping has not occurred in the area studied.

  5. Geophysics: Building E5190 decommissioning, Aberdeen Proving Ground

    SciTech Connect

    Miller, S.F.; Thompson, M.D.; McGinnis, M.G.; McGinnis, L.D.

    1992-07-01

    Building E5190 is one of ten potentially contaminated sites in the Canal Creek area of the Edgewood section of Aberdeen Proving Ground examined by a geophysical team from Argonne National Laboratory in April and May 1992. A noninvasive geophysical survey, including the complementary technologies of magnetics, electrical resistivity, and ground-penetrating radar, was conducted around the perimeter as a guide to developing a sampling and monitoring program prior to decommissioning and dismantling the building. The magnetics surveys indicated that multistation, positive magnetic sources are randomly distributed north and west of the building. Two linear trends were noted: one that may outline buried utility lines and another that is produced by a steel-covered trench. The resistivity profiling indicated three conductive zones: one due to increased moisture in a ditch, one associated with buried utility lines, and a third zone associated with the steel-covered trench. Ground-penetrating radar imaging detected two significant anomalies, which were correlated with small-amplitude magnetic anomalies. The objectives of the study -- to detect and locate objects and to characterize a located object were achieved.

  6. Environmental geophysics at Beach Point, Aberdeen Proving Ground, Maryland

    SciTech Connect

    McGinnis, L.D.; Daudt, C.R.; Thompson, M.D.; Miller, S.F.; Mandell, W.A.; Wrobel, J.

    1994-07-01

    Geophysical studies at Beach Point Peninsula, in the Edgewood area of Aberdeen Proving Ground, Maryland, provide diagnostic signatures of the hydrogeologic framework and possible contaminant pathways. These studies permit construction of the most reasonable scenario linking dense, nonaqueous-phase liquid contaminants introduced at the surface with their pathway through the surficial aquifer. Subsurface geology and contaminant presence were identified by drilling, outcrop mapping, and groundwater sampling and analyses. Suspected sources of near-surface contaminants were defined by magnetic and conductivity measurements. Negative conductivity anomalies may be associated with unlined trenches. Positive magnetic and conductivity anomalies outline suspected tanks and pipes. The anomalies of greatest concern are those spatially associated with a concrete slab that formerly supported a mobile clothing impregnating plant. Resistivity and conductivity profiling and depth soundings were used to identify an electrical anomaly extending through the surficial aquifer to the basal pleistocene unconformity, which was mapped by using seismic reflection methods. The anomaly may be representative of a contaminant plume connected to surficial sources. Major activities in the area included liquid rocket fuel tests, rocket fuel fire suppression tests, pyrotechnic material and smoke generator tests, and the use of solvents at a mobile clothing impregnating plant.

  7. Geophysics: Building E5440 decommissioning, Aberdeen Proving Ground

    SciTech Connect

    McGinnis, L.D.; Miller, S.F.; Thompson, M.D.; McGinnis, M.G.

    1992-11-01

    Building E5440 was one of ten potentially contaminated sites in the Canal Creek and Westwood areas of the Edgewood section of Aberdeen Proving Ground examined by a geophysical team from Argonne National Laboratory in April and May 1992. Noninvasive geophysical surveys, including magnetics, electrical resistivity, and ground-penetrating radar (GPR), were conducted around the perimeter of the building to guide a sampling program prior to decommissioning and dismantling. The results show several complex geophysical signatures. Isolated, one-point, magnetic anomalies surrounding the building may be associated with construction fill. A 10-ft-wide band of strongly magnetic positive anomalies bordering the north side of the building obliterates small magnetic sources that might otherwise be seen. A prominent magnetic nose'' extending northward from this band toward a standpipe at 100N,63E may be connected to an underground tank. The southeast corner of the site is underlain by a rectangular, magnetized source associated with strong radar images. A magnetic lineament extending south from the anomaly may be caused by a buried pipe; the anomaly itself may be caused by subsurface equipment associated with a manhole or utility access pit. A 2,500-gamma, positive magnetic anomaly centered at 0N,20E, which is also the location of a 12 [Omega]-m resistivity minimum, may be caused by a buried vault. It appears on radar imaging as a strong reflector.

  8. Geophysics: Building E5481 decommissioning, Aberdeen Proving Ground

    SciTech Connect

    Thompson, M.D.; McGinnis, M.G.; McGinnis, L.D.; Miller, S.F.

    1992-11-01

    Building E5481 is one of ten potentially contaminated sites in the Canal Creek and Westwood areas of the Edgewood section of Aberdeen Proving Ground examined by a geophysical team from Argonne National Laboratory in April and May of 1992. Noninvasive geophysical surveys, including magnetics, electrical resistivity, and ground-penetrating radar, were conducted around the perimeter of the building to guide a sampling program prior to decommissioning and dismantling. The building is located on the northern margin of a landfill that was sited in a wetland. The large number of magnetic sources surrounding the building are believed to be contained in construction fill that had been used to raise the grade. The smaller anomalies, for the most part, are not imaged with ground radar or by electrical profiling. A conductive zone trending northwest to southeast across the site is spatially related to an old roadbed. Higher resistivity areas in the northeast and east are probably representive of background values. Three high-amplitude, positive, rectangular magnetic anomalies have unknown sources. The features do not have equivalent electrical signatures, nor are they seen with radar imaging.

  9. Geophysics: Building E5032 decommissioning, Aberdeen Proving Ground

    SciTech Connect

    McGinnis, L.D.; Miller, S.F.

    1991-07-01

    integration of data from surveys using three geophysical technologies has provided information used to define the locations of buried utilities, tanks, vaults, and debris near building E5032 at the Aberdeen Proving Ground. Ground penetrating radar (GPR) profiles indicate the presence of buried pipes, tanks, reinforcement rods (rebar), and remnants of railroad tracks. A magnetic map constructed from a detailed magnetic survey on the north side of the building outlines buried iron-rich objects that are interpreted to be iron pipes, tank, and other debris of uncertain origin at relatively shallow depths. Horizontal electrical resistivity surveys and vertical electrical resistivity soundings essentially corroborated the findings obtained with the magnetometer and GPR. In addition, a highly resistance layer was observed on the east side of the building where a former railroad bed with a thick grave fill is believed to immediately underlie the lawn. The resistivity data show no evidence of a conductive leachate plume. Geophysical measurements from three techniques over a buried concrete slab approximately 130 ft north of Building E5032 give geophysical signatures interpreted to be due to the presence of a large iron tank or vault. An attempt was made to gather meaningful magnetic data on the east, west, and south sides of the building; however, the quality of subsurface interpretations in those areas was poor because of the influence of surficial iron lids, pipes, grates, and the effects of the corrugated iron building itself. 11 figs., 1 tab.

  10. Depleted uranium risk assessment at Aberdeen Proving Ground

    SciTech Connect

    Ebinger, M.H.; Myers, O.B.; Kennedy, P.L.; Clements, W.H.

    1993-03-01

    The Environmental Science Group at Los Alamos and the Test and Evaluation Command (TECOM) are assessing the risk of depleted uranium (DU) testing at Aberdeen Proving Ground (APG). Conceptual and mathematical models of DU transfer through the APG ecosystem have been developed in order to show the mechanisms by which DU migrates or remains unavailable to different flora and fauna and to humans. The models incorporate actual rates of DU transfer between different ecosystem components as much as possible. Availability of data on DU transport through different pathways is scarce and constrains some of the transfer rates that can be used. Estimates of transfer rates were derived from literature sources and used in the mass-transfer models when actual transfer rates were unavailable. Objectives for this risk assessment are (1) to assess if DU transports away from impact areas; (2) to estimate how much, if any, DU migrates into Chesapeake Bay; (3) to determine if there are appreciable risks to the ecosystems due to DU testing; (4) to estimate the risk to human health as a result of DU testing.

  11. Depleted uranium risk assessment at Aberdeen Proving Ground

    SciTech Connect

    Ebinger, M.H. ); Myers, O.B.; Kennedy, P.L.; Clements, W.H. . Dept. of Fishery and Wildlife Biology)

    1993-01-01

    The Environmental Science Group at Los Alamos and the Test and Evaluation Command (TECOM) are assessing the risk of depleted uranium (DU) testing at Aberdeen Proving Ground (APG). Conceptual and mathematical models of DU transfer through the APG ecosystem have been developed in order to show the mechanisms by which DU migrates or remains unavailable to different flora and fauna and to humans. The models incorporate actual rates of DU transfer between different ecosystem components as much as possible. Availability of data on DU transport through different pathways is scarce and constrains some of the transfer rates that can be used. Estimates of transfer rates were derived from literature sources and used in the mass-transfer models when actual transfer rates were unavailable. Objectives for this risk assessment are (1) to assess if DU transports away from impact areas; (2) to estimate how much, if any, DU migrates into Chesapeake Bay; (3) to determine if there are appreciable risks to the ecosystems due to DU testing; (4) to estimate the risk to human health as a result of DU testing.

  12. Estimating transport fatality risk from past accident data.

    PubMed

    Evans, Andrew W

    2003-07-01

    This paper examines the statistical properties of estimates of fatal accident rates, mean fatalities per accident, and fatality rates when these estimates are based on past accident data. The statistical properties are illustrated by two long-term transport fatal accident datasets from Great Britain, the principal one for railways and the other for roads, chosen to provide a statistical contrast. In both modes, the accident rates have fallen substantially over the long term. Two statistical estimates of current accident and fatality rates are presented for each dataset, one based only on recent data and the other based on estimates of long-term trends. The trend-based estimate is preferred for train accidents because this makes maximum use of the limited and variable data; the recent data are preferred for road accidents because this avoids unnecessary dependence on modelling the trends. For train accidents, the estimated fatality rate based on past accidents is compared with an estimate produced by the railway industry using a risk model. The statistical estimate is less than half the industry's estimate, and the paper concludes that the statistical estimate is to be preferred.

  13. An empirical model for global earthquake fatality estimation

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Jaiswal, Kishor; Wald, David

    2010-01-01

    We analyzed mortality rates of earthquakes worldwide and developed a country/region-specific empirical model for earthquake fatality estimation within the U. S. Geological Survey's Prompt Assessment of Global Earthquakes for Response (PAGER) system. The earthquake fatality rate is defined as total killed divided by total population exposed at specific shaking intensity level. The total fatalities for a given earthquake are estimated by multiplying the number of people exposed at each shaking intensity level by the fatality rates for that level and then summing them at all relevant shaking intensities. The fatality rate is expressed in terms of a two-parameter lognormal cumulative distribution function of shaking intensity. The parameters are obtained for each country or a region by minimizing the residual error in hindcasting the total shaking-related deaths from earthquakes recorded between 1973 and 2007. A new global regionalization scheme is used to combine the fatality data across different countries with similar vulnerability traits. [DOI: 10.1193/1.3480331

  14. Using speeding detections and numbers of fatalities to estimate relative risk of a fatality for motorcyclists and car drivers.

    PubMed

    Huggins, Richard

    2013-10-01

    Precise estimation of the relative risk of motorcyclists being involved in a fatal accident compared to car drivers is difficult. Simple estimates based on the proportions of licenced drivers or riders that are killed in a fatal accident are biased as they do not take into account the exposure to risk. However, exposure is difficult to quantify. Here we adapt the ideas behind the well known induced exposure methods and use available summary data on speeding detections and fatalities for motorcycle riders and car drivers to estimate the relative risk of a fatality for motorcyclists compared to car drivers under mild assumptions. The method is applied to data on motorcycle riders and car drivers in Victoria, Australia in 2010 and a small simulation study is conducted.

  15. Environmental geophysics at J-Field, Aberdeen Proving Ground, Maryland

    SciTech Connect

    Daudt, C.R.; McGinnis, L.D.; Miller, S.F.; Thompson, M.D.

    1994-11-01

    Geophysical data collected at J-Field, Aberdeen Proving Ground, Maryland, were used in the characterization of the natural hydrogeologic framework of the J-Field area and in the identification of buried disturbances (trenches and other evidences of contamination). Seismic refraction and reflection data and electrical resistivity data have aided in the characterization of the leaky confining unit at the base of the surficial aquifer (designated Unit B of the Tertiary Talbot Formation). Excellent reflectors have been observed for both upper and lower surfaces of Unit B that correspond to stratigraphic units observed in boreholes and on gamma logs. Elevation maps of both surfaces and an isopach map of Unit B, created from reflection data at the toxic burning pits site, show a thickening of Unit B to the east. Abnormally low seismic compressional-wave velocities suggest that Unit B consists of gassy sediments whose gases are not being flushed by upward or downward moving groundwater. The presence of gases suggests that Unit B serves as an efficient aquitard that should not be penetrated by drilling or other activities. Electromagnetic, total-intensity magnetic, and ground-penetrating radar surveys have aided in delineating the limits of two buried trenches, the VX burning pit and the liquid smoke disposal pit, both located at the toxic burning pits site. The techniques have also aided in determining the extent of several other disturbed areas where soils and materials were pushed out of disposal pits during trenching activities. Surveys conducted from the Prototype Building west to the Gunpowder River did not reveal any buried trenches.

  16. Automated Theorem Proving in High-Quality Software Design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schumann, Johann; Swanson, Keith (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    The amount and complexity of software developed during the last few years has increased tremendously. In particular, programs are being used more and more in embedded systems (from car-brakes to plant-control). Many of these applications are safety-relevant, i.e. a malfunction of hardware or software can cause severe damage or loss. Tremendous risks are typically present in the area of aviation, (nuclear) power plants or (chemical) plant control. Here, even small problems can lead to thousands of casualties and huge financial losses. Large financial risks also exist when computer systems are used in the area of telecommunication (telephone, electronic commerce) or space exploration. Computer applications in this area are not only subject to safety considerations, but also security issues are important. All these systems must be designed and developed to guarantee high quality with respect to safety and security. Even in an industrial setting which is (or at least should be) aware of the high requirements in Software Engineering, many incidents occur. For example, the Warshaw Airbus crash, was caused by an incomplete requirements specification. Uncontrolled reuse of an Ariane 4 software module was the reason for the Ariane 5 disaster. Some recent incidents in the telecommunication area, like illegal "cloning" of smart-cards of D2GSM handies, or the extraction of (secret) passwords from German T-online users show that also in this area serious flaws can happen. Due to the inherent complexity of computer systems, most authors claim that only a rigorous application of formal methods in all stages of the software life cycle can ensure high quality of the software and lead to real safe and secure systems. In this paper, we will have a look, in how far automated theorem proving can contribute to a more widespread application of formal methods and their tools, and what automated theorem provers (ATPs) must provide in order to be useful.

  17. Yuma proving grounds automatic UXO detection using biomorphic robots

    SciTech Connect

    Tilden, M.W.

    1996-07-01

    The current variety and dispersion of Unexploded Ordnance (UXO) is a daunting technological problem for current sensory and extraction techniques. The bottom line is that the only way to insure a live UXO has been found and removed is to step on it. As this is an upsetting proposition for biological organisms like animals, farmers, or Yuma field personnel, this paper details a non-biological approach to developing inexpensive, automatic machines that will find, tag, and may eventually remove UXO from a variety of terrains by several proposed methods. The Yuma proving grounds (Arizona) has been pelted with bombs, mines, missiles, and shells since the 1940s. The idea of automatic machines that can clean up after such testing is an old one but as yet unrealized because of the daunting cost, power and complexity requirements of capable robot mechanisms. A researcher at Los Alamos National Laboratory has invented and developed a new variety of living robots that are solar powered, legged, autonomous, adaptive to massive damage, and very inexpensive. This technology, called Nervous Networks (Nv), allows for the creation of capable walking mechanisms (known as Biomorphic robots, or Biomechs for short) that rather than work from task principles use instead a survival-based design philosophy. This allows Nv based machines to continue doing work even after multiple limbs and sensors have been removed or damaged, and to dynamically negotiate complex terrains as an emergent property of their operation (fighting to proceed, as it were). They are not programmed, and indeed, the twelve transistor Nv controller keeps their electronic cost well below that of most pocket radios. It is suspected that advanced forms of these machines in huge numbers may be an interesting, capable solution to the problem of general and specific UXO identification, tagging, and removal.

  18. Fatal and near-fatal autoerotic asphyxial episodes in women. Characteristic features based on a review of nine cases.

    PubMed

    Byard, R W; Hucker, S J; Hazelwood, R R

    1993-03-01

    As asphyxial episodes during autoerotic activity are rarely reported in women, a review of eight fatal cases and one near-fatal case was conducted to delineate more clearly the characteristics of this syndrome in women. Six cases involved characteristic fatal autoerotic asphyxial activity. The remaining two fatal cases were atypical in that the apparatus that was used for sexual purposes was not intended to cause asphyxia in one case and did not directly cause asphyxial death in the second case. The final case was not fatal. Significantly, the majority of women did not use unusual clothing, props, or devices to augment their activity, for example, five were completely naked and only one was found with elaborate clothing and extra ligatures. Six of the fatal cases had objective evidence of sexual activity, three had used neck padding to prevent chafing, and eight had failed self-rescue mechanisms. Of note, the initial impression in four cases (44%) was homicide (two), attempted suicide (one), and accidental death during sexual activity with a partner (one). These results support the assertion that the manifestations of female autoerotic asphyxial activity reported to date may be initially misleading to investigators. Our purpose in presenting these findings, therefore, is to increase awareness of the more subtle features of this syndrome in women in an attempt to reduce the potential for underdiagnosis or confusion with nonaccidental death in future cases.

  19. The fatal toll of driving to drink: the effect of minimum legal drinking age evasion on traffic fatalities.

    PubMed

    Lovenheim, Michael F; Slemrod, Joel

    2010-01-01

    There is a sizeable literature on the effect of minimum legal drinking age (MLDA) restrictions on teenage drunk driving. This paper adds to the literature by examining the effect of MLDA evasion across states with different alcohol restrictions. Using state-of-the-art GIS software and micro-data on fatal vehicle accidents from 1977 to 2002, we find that in counties within 25 miles of a lower-MLDA jurisdiction, a legal restriction on drinking does not reduce youth involvement in fatal accidents and, for 18 and 19-year-old drivers, fatal accident involvement actually increases. Farther from such a border, we find results consistent with the previous literature that MLDA restrictions are effective in reducing accident fatalities. The estimates imply that, of the total reduction in teenager-involved fatalities due to the equalization of state MLDAs at 21 in the 1970s and 1980s, for 18-year olds between a quarter and a third and for 19-year olds over 15 percent was due to equalization. Furthermore, the effect of changes in the MLDA is quite heterogeneous with respect to the fraction of a state's population that need not travel far to cross a border to evade its MLDA. Our results imply the effect of lowering the MLDA in select states, such as has been proposed in Vermont, could lead to sizeable increases in teenage involvement in fatal accidents due to evasion of local alcohol restrictions.

  20. Fatal Eurasian Brown Bear Attacks-Two Swedish Fatalities in Modern Times.

    PubMed

    Gustafsson, Torfinn; Eriksson, Anders

    2015-11-01

    Fatal bear attacks on humans are uncommon with only one reported case in Sweden since 1902. The bear population is, however, growing and the frequency of confrontations is likely to increase. Case I-A 40-year-old hunter and his dog were found dead near a bear's den. Autopsy showed that a large portion of the face, facial skeleton, and anterior portion of the brain was missing. Autopsy of the bear showed two nonfatal gunshot wounds. Case II-A 61-year-old man and his dog were found dead outside a hunting lodge. Autopsy revealed numerous wounds, including partial evisceration of the intestines. The victim's blood ethanol concentration was 0.27%. These cases confirm the presence of risk factors identified by the Scandinavian Brown Bear Research Project, that is, provocation by a dog, encountering an injured bear, and appearing close to its den. An additional possible factor in case II was ethanol intoxication.

  1. What makes a feline fatal in Toxoplasma gondii's fatal feline attraction? Infected rats choose wild cats.

    PubMed

    Kaushik, M; Knowles, S C L; Webster, J P

    2014-07-01

    Toxoplasma gondii is an indirectly transmitted protozoan parasite, of which members of the cat family (Felidae) are the only definitive hosts and small mammals such as rats serve as intermediate hosts. The innate aversion of rodents to cat odor provides an obstacle for the parasite against successful predation by the feline definitive host. Previous research has demonstrated that T. gondii appears to alter a rat's perception of the risk of being preyed upon by cats. Although uninfected rats display normal aversion to cat odor, infected rats show no avoidance and in some cases even show attraction to cat odor, which we originally termed the "Fatal Feline Attraction." In this study, we tested for the first time whether the "Fatal Feline Attraction" of T. gondii-infected rats differed according to the type of feline odor used, specifically whether it came from domestic cats (Felis silvestris catus) or wild cats-cheetahs (Acinonyx jubatus) or pumas (Felis concolor). In two-choice odor trials, where wild and domestic cat odors were competed against one another, consistent with previous findings we demonstrated that infected rats spent more time in feline odor zones compared with uninfected rats. However, we further demonstrated that all cat odors are not equal: infected rats had a stronger preference for wild cat odor over that of domestic cats, an effect that did not differ significantly according to the type of wild cat odor used (cheetah or puma). We discuss these results in terms of the potential mechanism of action and their implications for the current and evolutionary role of wild, in addition to domestic, cats in transmission of T. gondii.

  2. Depleted uranium human health risk assessment, Jefferson Proving Ground, Indiana

    SciTech Connect

    Ebinger, M.H.; Hansen, W.R.

    1994-04-29

    The risk to human health from fragments of depleted uranium (DU) at Jefferson Proving Ground (JPG) was estimated using two types of ecosystem pathway models. A steady-state, model of the JPG area was developed to examine the effects of DU in soils, water, and vegetation on deer that were hunted and consumed by humans. The RESRAD code was also used to estimate the effects of farming the impact area and consuming the products derived from the farm. The steady-state model showed that minimal doses to humans are expected from consumption of deer that inhabit the impact area. Median values for doses to humans range from about 1 mrem ({plus_minus}2.4) to 0.04 mrem ({plus_minus}0.13) and translate to less than 1 {times} 10{sup {minus}6} detriments (excess cancers) in the population. Monte Carlo simulation of the steady-state model was used to derive the probability distributions from which the median values were drawn. Sensitivity analyses of the steady-state model showed that the amount of DU in airborne dust and, therefore, the amount of DU on the vegetation surface, controlled the amount of DU ingested by deer and by humans. Human doses from the RESRAD estimates ranged from less than 1 mrem/y to about 6.5 mrem/y in a hunting scenario and subsistence fanning scenario, respectively. The human doses exceeded the 100 mrem/y dose limit when drinking water for the farming scenario was obtained from the on-site aquifer that was presumably contaminated with DU. The two farming scenarios were unrealistic land uses because the additional risk to humans due to unexploded ordnance in the impact area was not figured into the risk estimate. The doses estimated with RESRAD translated to less than 1 {times} 10{sup {minus}6} detriments to about 1 {times} 10{sup {minus}3} detriments. The higher risks were associated only with the farming scenario in which drinking water was obtained on-site.

  3. Cannabinoids in hair: strategy to prove marijuana/hashish consumption.

    PubMed

    Uhl, Michael; Sachs, Hans

    2004-10-29

    a THC outcome. The most appropriate strategy to prove cannabis consumption is immunochemical initial test followed by a GC/MS/MS confirmation of THCA.

  4. Brazilian Road Traffic Fatalities: A Spatial and Environmental Analysis

    PubMed Central

    de Andrade, Luciano; Vissoci, João Ricardo Nickenig; Rodrigues, Clarissa Garcia; Finato, Karen; Carvalho, Elias; Pietrobon, Ricardo; de Souza, Eniuce Menezes; Nihei, Oscar Kenji; Lynch, Catherine; de Barros Carvalho, Maria Dalva

    2014-01-01

    Background Road traffic injuries (RTI) are a major public health epidemic killing thousands of people daily. Low and middle-income countries, such as Brazil, have the highest annual rates of road traffic fatalities. In order to improve road safety, this study mapped road traffic fatalities on a Brazilian highway to determine the main environmental factors affecting road traffic fatalities. Methods and Findings Four techniques were utilized to identify and analyze RTI hotspots. We used spatial analysis by points by applying kernel density estimator, and wavelet analysis to identify the main hot regions. Additionally, built environment analysis, and principal component analysis were conducted to verify patterns contributing to crash occurrence in the hotspots. Between 2007 and 2009, 379 crashes were notified, with 466 fatalities on BR277. Higher incidence of crashes occurred on sections of highway with double lanes (ratio 2∶1). The hotspot analysis demonstrated that both the eastern and western regions had higher incidences of crashes when compared to the central region. Through the built environment analysis, we have identified five different patterns, demonstrating that specific environmental characteristics are associated with different types of fatal crashes. Patterns 2 and 4 are constituted mainly by predominantly urban characteristics and have frequent fatal pedestrian crashes. Patterns 1, 3 and 5 display mainly rural characteristics and have higher prevalence of vehicular collisions. In the built environment analysis, the variables length of road in urban area, limited lighting, double lanes roadways, and less auxiliary lanes were associated with a higher incidence of fatal crashes. Conclusions By combining different techniques of analyses, we have identified numerous hotspots and environmental characteristics, which governmental or regulatory agencies could make use to plan strategies to reduce RTI and support life-saving policies. PMID:24498051

  5. Clinical diagnosis versus autopsy findings in polytrauma fatalities

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Objectives The aim of the study was to determine if differences in clinical diagnosis versus autopsy findings concerning the cause of death in polytrauma fatalities would be detected in 19 cases of fatal polytrauma from a Level 1 trauma centre. Methods Clinical diagnoses determining the cause of death in 19 cases of fatal polytrauma (2007 - 2008) from a Level 1 trauma centre were correlated with autopsy findings. Results In 13 cases (68%), the clinical cause of death and the cause of death as determined by autopsy were congruent. Marginal differences occurred in three (16%) patients while obvious differences in interpreting the cause of death were found in another three (16%) cases. Five fatalities (three with obvious differences and two with marginal differences) were remarked as early death (1-4 h after trauma) and one fatality with marginal differences as late death (>1 week after trauma). Obvious and marginal discrepancies mostly occurred in the early phase of treatment, especially when severely injured patients were admitted to the emergency room undergoing continued cardiopulmonary resuscitation, i. e. limiting diagnostic procedures, and thus the clinical cause of death was essentially determined by basic emergency diagnostics. Conclusions Autopsy as golden standard to define the cause of death in fatal polytrauma varies from the clinical point of view, depending on the patient's pre-existing condition, mechanism of polytrauma, necessity of traumatic cardiopulmonary resuscitation, survival time, and thus the possibility to perform emergency diagnostics. An autopsy should be performed at least in cases of early fatal polytrauma to help establishing the definite cause of death. Moreover, autopsy data should be included in trauma registries as a quality assessment tool. PMID:20977732

  6. Natural hazard fatalities in Switzerland from 1946 to 2015

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Badoux, Alexandre; Andres, Norina; Techel, Frank; Hegg, Christoph

    2016-12-01

    A database of fatalities caused by natural hazard processes in Switzerland was compiled for the period between 1946 and 2015. Using information from the Swiss flood and landslide damage database and the Swiss destructive avalanche database, the data set was extended back in time and more hazard processes were added by conducting an in-depth search of newspaper reports. The new database now covers all natural hazards common in Switzerland, categorised into seven process types: flood, landslide, rockfall, lightning, windstorm, avalanche and other processes (e.g. ice avalanches, earthquakes). Included were all fatal accidents associated with natural hazard processes in which victims did not expose themselves to an important danger on purpose. The database contains information on 635 natural hazard events causing 1023 fatalities, which corresponds to a mean of 14.6 victims per year. The most common causes of death were snow avalanches (37 %), followed by lightning (16 %), floods (12 %), windstorms (10 %), rockfall (8 %), landslides (7 %) and other processes (9 %). About 50 % of all victims died in one of the 507 single-fatality events; the other half were killed in the 128 multi-fatality events. The number of natural hazard fatalities that occurred annually during our 70-year study period ranged from 2 to 112 and exhibited a distinct decrease over time. While the number of victims in the first three decades (until 1975) ranged from 191 to 269 per decade, it ranged from 47 to 109 in the four following decades. This overall decrease was mainly driven by a considerable decline in the number of avalanche and lightning fatalities. About 75 % of victims were males in all natural hazard events considered together, and this ratio was roughly maintained in all individual process categories except landslides (lower) and other processes (higher). The ratio of male to female victims was most likely to be balanced when deaths occurred at home (in or near a building), a situation

  7. Three Smoking Guns Prove Falsity of Green house Warming

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fong, P.

    2001-12-01

    Three observed facts: 1, the cloud coverage increased 4.1% in 50 years; 2. the precipitation increased 7.8% in 100 years; 3. the two rates are the same. {Interpretation}. 1, By the increased albedo of the clouds heat dissipation is increased 3.98 W/m2 by 2XCO2 time, canceling out greenhouse warming of 4 W/m{2}. Thus no global warming. 2, The precipitation increase show the increased release of latent heat of vaporization, which turns out to be equal to that absorbed by ocean due to increased evaporation by the greenhouse forcing. This all greenhouse heat is used up in evaporation and the warming of the earth is zero. 3, The identity of the two rates double-checked the two independent proofs. Therefore experimentally no greenhouse warming is triply proved. A new branch of science Pleistocene Climatology is developed to study the theoretical origin of no greenhouse warming. Climatology, like mechanics of a large number of particles, is of course complex and unwieldy. If totally order-less then there is no hope. However, if some regularity appears, then a systematic treatment can be done to simplify the complexity. The rigid bodies are subjected to a special simplifying condition (the distances between all particles are constant) and only 6 degrees of freedom are significant, all others are sidetracked. To study the spinning top there is no need to study the dynamics of every particle of the top by Newton's laws through super-computer. It only needs to solve the Euler equations without computer. In climate study the use of super-computer to study all degrees of freedom of the climate is as untenable as the study of the spinning top by super-computer. Yet in spite of the complexity there is strict regularity as seen in the ice ages, which works as the simplifying conditions to establish a new science Pleistocene climatology. See my book Greenhouse Warming and Nuclear Hazards just published (www.PeterFongBook.com). This time the special condition is the presence of a

  8. Characteristics of schools in which fatal shootings occur.

    PubMed

    de Apodaca, Roberto Flores; Brighton, Lauren M; Perkins, Ashley N; Jackson, Kiana N; Steege, Jessica R

    2012-04-01

    School-based violence, and fatal school shootings in particular, have gained increased attention in the media and psychological literature. Most reports have focused on the characteristics of perpetrators, but there is a growing awareness that school-related factors may also influence the occurrence of fatal school shootings. The current study examined several key characteristics of all schools where random (38) and targeted (96) fatal shootings occurred in the United States between 1966 and 2009. These were compared with a group (138) of schools randomly selected to represent the population of all schools in the United States. The size of a school's enrollment, urban or suburban locale, public funding, and predominantly non-white enrollment were positively associated with fatal shootings. Universities and colleges were disproportionately associated with random shootings and high schools with targeted ones. It was proposed that characteristics of schools that allow feelings of anonymity or alienation among students may help create environmental conditions associated with fatal school shootings. Implications for future research and interventions are considered.

  9. Unintentional fatal injuries arising from unpaid work at home

    PubMed Central

    Driscoll, T; Mitchell, R; Hendrie, A; Healey, S; Mandryk, J; Hull, B

    2003-01-01

    Objective: Unpaid work in and around the home is a common and potentially high risk activity, yet there is limited information about the circumstances surrounding resulting injuries. This study aimed to describe circumstances surrounding fatal injuries resulting from home duties activities, in order to identify and prioritise areas for prevention. Design and setting: Coroners' reports on all unintentional deaths in Australia from 1989–92 inclusive were inspected to identify deaths of interest. Rates were calculated using population data and incorporating measures of time engaged in particular home duties activities. Results: There were 296 home duties deaths over the four year period. Most (83%) deaths were of males, and males had 10 times the risk of fatal injury compared with females. The most common activities resulting in fatal injuries were home repairs, gardening, and car care. The highest risk activities (deaths per million persons per year per hour of activity) were home repairs (49), car care (20), home improvements (18), and gardening (16). Being hit by inadequately braced vehicles during car maintenance, falls from inadequately braced ladders, contact with fire and flames while cooking, and contact with electricity during maintenance were the most common injury scenarios. Conclusions: Fatal injury of persons engaged in unpaid domestic work activities is a significant cause of death. Use of activity specific denominator data allows appropriate assessment of the degree of risk associated with each activity. The recurrence of similar circumstances surrounding many independent fatal incidents indicates areas where preventative interventions might be usefully targeted. PMID:12642552

  10. Motor vehicle fatalities among oil and gas extraction workers.

    PubMed

    Retzer, Kyla D; Hill, Ryan D; Pratt, Stephanie G

    2013-03-01

    Motor vehicle crashes are the leading cause of work-related fatality in the U.S. as well as in the oil and gas extraction industry. This study describes the characteristics of motor vehicle-related fatalities in the oil and gas extraction industry using data from the U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics' Census of Fatal Occupational Injuries. It compares the risk of dying in a motor vehicle crash in this industry to other major industries and among different types and sizes of oil and gas extraction companies. There were 202 oil and gas extraction workers who died in a work-related motor vehicle crash from 2003 to 2009. The motor vehicle fatality rate for workers in this industry was 8.5 times that of all private wage and salary workers (7.6 vs. 0.9, p<.0001). Workers from small oil and gas establishments (<20 workers) and workers from well-servicing companies were at greatest risk of dying in a motor vehicle crash. Pick-up trucks were the most frequent type of vehicle occupied by the fatally injured worker (n=104, 51.5%). Safety belt non-use was identified in 38.1% (n=77) of the cases. Increased focus on motor vehicle safety in this industry is needed, in particular among small establishments. Extraction workers who drive light duty vehicles need to be a specific focus.

  11. Fatal occupational injuries among electric power company workers.

    PubMed

    Loomis, D; Dufort, V; Kleckner, R C; Savitz, D A

    1999-03-01

    Surveillance data suggest high rates of electrocutions and fatal falls among workers in electric utility companies, who may be exposed to electric current, heights, flammable agents, and frequent motor vehicle travel. To characterize the occurrence of fatal injuries among electric utility workers, we studied workers in five electric power companies in the United States. A cohort of 127,129 men hired between 1950 and 1986 was followed through 1988. Injuries at work were identified through manual review of death certificates. The occurrence of occupational injuries was analyzed with directly adjusted rates and Poisson regression. The overall rate of fatal occupational injuries was 13.20 per 100,000 person-years (n = 192), with 76% due to electric current, homicide, and falls from heights. Deaths were concentrated in a few groups with elevated injury rates, notably linemen (rate ratio (RR) 3.33), electricians (RR 2.79), and painters (RR 3.27). Occupations requiring daily work on elevations or frequent, direct contact with energized electrical equipment experienced markedly higher rates of fatal injury from falls and electrocutions with rate ratios of 21.8 (95% confidence interval (CI) 11.4-41.5) and 16.7 (95% CI 6.6-42.6), respectively, independent of worker age and seniority. Although fatal injury rates in this industry have declined in recent decades, significant numbers of deaths still occur. Based on the premise that all injuries are preventable, a need for continued vigilance and efforts at prevention is indicated.

  12. Fatal diving accidents in western Norway 1983-2007.

    PubMed

    Ramnefjell, M P; Morild, I; Mørk, S J; Lilleng, P K

    2012-11-30

    Despite efforts to reduce their number, fatal diving accidents still occur. The circumstances and post-mortem findings in 40 fatal diving accidents in western Norway from 1983 through 2007 were investigated. Diving experience, medical history and toxicology reports were retrieved. The material consisted of recreational divers, professional saturation divers and professional divers without experience with saturation. In 33 cases the diving equipment was examined as part of the forensic investigation. In 27 cases defects in the diving equipment were found. For six divers such defects were responsible for the fatal accidents. Eighteen divers died on the surface or less than 10 m below surface. Five divers reached below 100 msw, and two of them died at this depth. The fatalities were not season-dependent. However, wave-height and strength of currents were influential factors in some cases. Twelve divers were diving alone. Twenty divers had one buddy, 9 of these divers were alone at the time of death. The cause of death was drowning in 31 out of 40 divers; one of them had a high blood-ethanol concentration, in two other divers ethanol was found in the urine, indicating previous ethanol consumption. Nine divers died from sudden decompression, pulmonary barotraumas, underwater trauma and natural causes. The study shows that most of the fatal diving accidents could be avoided if adequate diving safety procedures had been followed.

  13. Evaluation of meteorological and epidemiological characteristics of fatal pulmonary embolism

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Törő, Klára; Pongrácz, Rita; Bartholy, Judit; Váradi-T, Aletta; Marcsa, Boglárka; Szilágyi, Brigitta; Lovas, Attila; Dunay, György; Sótonyi, Péter

    2016-03-01

    The objective of the present study was to identify risk factors among epidemiological factors and meteorological conditions in connection with fatal pulmonary embolism. Information was collected from forensic autopsy records in sudden unexpected death cases where pulmonary embolism was the exact cause of death between 2001 and 2010 in Budapest. Meteorological parameters were detected during the investigated period. Gender, age, manner of death, cause of death, place of death, post-mortem pathomorphological changes and daily meteorological conditions (i.e. daily mean temperature and atmospheric pressure) were examined. We detected that the number of registered pulmonary embolism (No 467, 211 male) follows power law in time regardless of the manner of death. We first described that the number of registered fatal pulmonary embolism up to the nth day can be expressed as Y( n) = α ṡ n β where Y denotes the number of fatal pulmonary embolisms up to the nth day and α > 0 and β > 1 are model parameters. We found that there is a definite link between the cold temperature and the increasing incidence of fatal pulmonary embolism. Cold temperature and the change of air pressure appear to be predisposing factors for fatal pulmonary embolism. Meteorological parameters should have provided additional information about the predisposing factors of thromboembolism.

  14. Fatal accidents in the Icelandic fishing fleet 1980-2005.

    PubMed

    Petursdottir, Gudrun; Hjoervar, Tryggvi; Snorrason, Hilmar

    2007-01-01

    The paper describes how the Icelandic fleet increased from 1980 to 2005, as well as the number of fishermen employed in the various sections of the fleet. All categories of the fleet have increased considerably in tonnage, while the number of fishermen has declined. At the same time the catch per man-year at sea has increased, rendering the Icelandic fisheries among the most efficient in the world in terms of catch and value per manpower. The number of fatalities in the Icelandic fisheries has declined steadily in this period. In absolute numbers these accidents are most common on decked vessels under 45m, but when weighed against man-years, fishermen on open boats are in greatest danger of losing their lives. The most common cause of fatalities is foundering of the vessel, which may cause multiple fatalities, then is man-over-board, followed by drowning in harbour and miscellaneous accidents. The reduction in the number of fatal accidents at sea may have several reasons. Mandatory safety and survival training of all fishermen, improved working conditions at sea, better telecommunications, constant VMS surveillance and a 24hr availability of airborne rescue teams have all helped to reduce fatalities in the Icelandic fishing fleet from 1980 until 2005.

  15. Killer crashes: fatal road traffic accidents in the UK.

    PubMed

    Clarke, David D; Ward, Patrick; Bartle, Craig; Truman, Wendy

    2010-03-01

    Road traffic accidents are responsible for over 3000 deaths per year in the UK, according to Department for Transport (2004a) figures. Although progress is being made in a number of areas, vehicle occupant fatalities have not been falling in line with casualty reduction targets for the year 2010. A sample of 1185 fatal vehicle occupant cases was considered, from ten UK police forces, from the years 1994-2005 inclusive. The main findings were: (1) over 65% of the accidents examined involved driving at excessive speed, a driver in excess of the legal alcohol limit, or the failure to wear a seat belt by a fatality, or some combination of these. (2) Young drivers have the great majority of their accidents by losing control on bends or curves, typically at night in rural areas and/or while driving for 'leisure' purposes. These accidents show high levels of speeding, alcohol involvement and recklessness. (3) Older drivers had fewer accidents, but those fatalities they were involved in tended to involve misjudgement and perceptual errors in 'right of way' collisions, typically in the daytime on rural rather than urban roads. Blameworthy right of way errors were notably high for drivers aged over 65 years, as a proportion of total fatal accidents in that age group.

  16. Fatal Occupational Injuries among Non-governmental Employees in Malaysia

    PubMed Central

    Abas, Adinegara bin Lutfi; Mohd Said, Datuk Abd. Razzak B.; Aziz Mohammed, Mohammed Azman B.; Sathiakumar, Nalini

    2012-01-01

    Background In Malaysia, surveillance of fatal occupational injuries is fragmented. We therefore analyzed an alternative data source from Malaysia’s Social Security organization, the PERKESO. Methods We conducted a secondary data analysis of the PERKESO database comprised of 7 million employees from 2002 to 2006. Results Overall, the average annual incidence was 9.2 fatal occupational injuries per 100,000 workers. During the five-year period, there was a decrease in the absolute number of fatal injuries by 16% and the incidence by 34%. The transportation sector reported the highest incidence of fatal injuries (35.1/100,000), followed by agriculture (30.5/100,000) and construction (19.3/100,000) sectors. Persons of Indian ethnicity were more likely to sustain fatal injuries compared to other ethnic groups. Conclusions Government and industry should develop rigorous strategies to detect hazards in the workplace, especially in sectors that continuously record high injury rates. Targeted interventions emphasizing worker empowerment coupled with systematic monitoring and evaluation is critical to ensure success in prevention and control measures. PMID:22544443

  17. Patterns of death among avalanche fatalities: a 21-year review

    PubMed Central

    Boyd, Jeff; Haegeli, Pascal; Abu-Laban, Riyad B.; Shuster, Michael; Butt, John C.

    2009-01-01

    Background Avalanches are a significant cause of winter recreational fatalities in mountain regions. The purpose of this study was to determine the relative contributions of trauma and asphyxia to avalanche deaths. Methods We reviewed all avalanche fatalities between 1984 and 2005 that had been investigated by the offices of the British Columbia Coroners Service and the Chief Medical Examiner of Alberta. In addition, we searched the database of the Canadian Avalanche Centre for fatal avalanche details. We calculated injury severity scores for all victims who underwent autopsy. Results There were 204 avalanche fatalities with mortality information over the 21-year study period. Of these, 117 victims underwent autopsy, and 87 underwent forensic external examination. Asphyxia caused 154 (75%) deaths. Trauma caused 48 (24%) deaths, with the rate of death from trauma ranging from 9% (4/44) for snowmobilers to 42% (5/12) for ice climbers. In addition, 13% (12/92) of the asphyxia victims who underwent autopsy had major trauma, defined as an injury severity score of greater than 15. Only 48% (23/48) of victims for whom trauma was the primary cause of death had been completely buried. Interpretation Asphyxia and severe trauma caused most avalanche fatalities in western Canada. The relative rates differed between snowmobilers and those engaged in other mountain activities. Our findings should guide recommendations for safety devices, safety measures and resuscitation. PMID:19213801

  18. 2009 H1N1 fatalities: the New Mexico experience.

    PubMed

    Brooks, Erin G; Bryce, Clare H; Avery, Catherine; Smelser, Chad; Thompson, Deborah; Nolte, Kurt B

    2012-11-01

    Histopathologic features of New Mexico 2009 H1N1 fatalities have not been representative of those reported nationwide. We retrospectively reviewed medical records of all New Mexico 2009 pandemic influenza A (pH1N1) fatalities (n = 50). In cases in which autopsy was performed (n = 12), histologic sections and culture results were examined. In contrast to previously published studies, the majority of our fatalities did not have diffuse alveolar damage (DAD) (2/12; 16.7%). Common findings included pulmonary interstitial inflammation and edema, tracheobronchitis, and pneumonia. Two cases had significant extra-pulmonary manifestations: myocarditis and cerebral edema with herniation. The majority had a rapid disease course: range from 1 to 12 days (median, 2 days), and Native Americans were disproportionately represented among fatalities. These findings suggest that New Mexico H1N1 fatalities generally did not survive long enough to develop the classic picture of DAD. Pathologists should be aware that H1N1 may cause extra-pulmonary pathology and perform postmortem cultures and histologic sampling accordingly.

  19. Blast overpressure after tire explosion: a fatal case.

    PubMed

    Pomara, Cristoforo; D'Errico, Stefano; Riezzo, Irene; Perilli, Gabriela; Volpe, Umberto; Fineschi, Vittorio

    2013-12-01

    Fatal blast injuries are generally reported in literature as a consequence of the detonation of explosives in war settings. The pattern of lesion depends on the position of the victim in relation to the explosion, on whether the blast tracks through air or water, and whether it happens in the open air or within an enclosed space and the distance from the explosion. Tire explosion-related injuries are rarely reported in literature. This study presents a fatal case of blast overpressure due to the accidental explosion of a truck tire occurring in a tire repair shop. A multidisciplinary approach to the fatality involving forensic pathologists and engineers revealed that the accidental explosion, which caused a series of primary and tertiary blast wave injuries, was due to tire deterioration.

  20. The role of mobile computed tomography in mass fatality incidents.

    PubMed

    Rutty, Guy N; Robinson, Claire E; BouHaidar, Ralph; Jeffery, Amanda J; Morgan, Bruno

    2007-11-01

    Mobile multi-detector computed tomography (MDCT) scanners are potentially available to temporary mortuaries and can be operational within 20 min of arrival. We describe, to our knowledge, the first use of mobile MDCT for a mass fatality incident. A mobile MDCT scanner attended the disaster mortuary after a five vehicle road traffic incident. Five out of six bodies were successfully imaged by MDCT in c. 15 min per body. Subsequent full radiological analysis took c. 1 h per case. The results were compared to the autopsy examinations. We discuss the advantages and disadvantages of imaging with mobile MDCT in relation to mass fatality work, illustrating the body pathway process, and its role in the identification of the pathology, personal effects, and health and safety hazards. We propose that the adoption of a single modality of mobile MDCT could replace the current use of multiple radiological sources within a mass fatality mortuary.

  1. Risk of fatal pulmonary embolism with oral contraceptives.

    PubMed

    Poulter, N R

    2000-06-17

    This commentary addresses the New Zealand study (case report) of a fatal pulmonary embolism (PE) associated with oral contraceptive (OC) use by L. Parkin and colleagues. The study significantly adds to the knowledge on the relationship between fatal PE and OC use, because most of the evidence up to now has related to nonfatal venous thromboembolic events (VTE). Several areas of the study, however, are criticized. These include the method used, definition, and the adjustment of data. However, these criticisms have been offered explanations in this commentary. It is noted that data from the study indicated that OCs containing desogestrel or gestodene are associated with higher risks of fatal PE than are those containing levonorgestrel. This is consistent with most previous studies comparing the effects of second-generation progestogens on VTE. Overall, data support previous pragmatic recommendations that second-generation pills, which contain levonorgestrel, are the combined OCs of choice.

  2. Fatal occupational injuries of women, Texas 1975-84.

    PubMed

    Davis, H; Honchar, P A; Suarez, L

    1987-12-01

    A review of Texas death certificates for 1975-84 identified 348 cases of fatal occupational injuries of civilian females. Homicides accounted for 53 per cent and motor vehicle-related injuries accounted for 26 per cent of the deaths. Injuries from firearms caused 70 per cent of the homicides. One hundred thirty-three deaths occurred to women employed in the retail trade industry; of these, 77 per cent resulted from homicide. Women workers in gasoline service stations, food-bakery-and-dairy stores, and eating-and-drinking places had especially high risks of homicide. Texas female heavy-truck drivers had the highest fatal-injury rate, with motor-vehicle-related injuries causing 89 per cent of their deaths. These results indicate that effective strategies to prevent fatal occupational injuries of Texas women will need to address the problems of workplace violence and the hazards posed by motor vehicles.

  3. Drug and Alcohol Involvement in Four Types of Fatal Crashes*

    PubMed Central

    Romano, Eduardo; Voas, Robert B.

    2011-01-01

    Objective: The aim of this study was to explore the relationship of drunk and drugged driving to the occurrence of fatal crashes associated with speeding, failure to obey/yield, inattention, and seat belt nonuse. Method: We examined data for fatally injured drivers involved in single-vehicle crashes killed in states in which more than 79% of the drivers were tested for drugs other than alcohol and had a known result. Results: About 25% of the drivers tested positive for drugs, a figure almost double that estimated by the 2007 National Roadside Survey. Cannabinoids and stimulants each contributed to about 23% of the drug-positive results (6% among all fatally injured single-vehicle drivers). Stimulants more than cannabinoids were found to be associated with the four types of crashes under study. Some drugs showed a protective effect over the four crash types under study. Significant interactions between drugs and alcohol were observed. Stimulants contributed to the different types of fatal crashes irrespective of the levels of alcohol consumed by the drivers. Conclusions: This study provides further evidence of a link between drug consumption and fatal crashes. It also opens the door to some interesting and sometimes unexpected questions regarding the way drugs contribute to crashes, which we found varies depending on the type of crash considered, the class of drug, and the presence of alcohol. Research is also needed on drugs that could have a protective effect on the occurrence of fatal crashes. These findings could be highly relevant to the design of drug-related traffic laws and programs targeted at curbing drugged driving. PMID:21683038

  4. Fatal child neglect: characteristics, causation, and strategies for prevention.

    PubMed

    Welch, Ginger L; Bonner, Barbara L

    2013-10-01

    Research in child fatalities because of abuse and neglect has continued to increase, yet the mechanisms of the death incident and risk factors for these deaths remain unclear. The purpose of this study was to systematically examine the types of neglect that resulted in children's deaths as determined by child welfare and a child death review board. This case review study reviewed 22 years of data (n=372) of child fatalities attributed solely to neglect taken from a larger sample (N=754) of abuse and neglect death cases spanning the years 1987-2008. The file information reviewed was provided by the Oklahoma Child Death Review Board (CDRB) and the Oklahoma Department of Human Services (DHS) Division of Children and Family Services. Variables of interest were child age, ethnicity, and birth order; parental age and ethnicity; cause of death as determined by child protective services (CPS); and involvement with DHS at the time of the fatal event. Three categories of fatal neglect--supervisory neglect, deprivation of needs, and medical neglect--were identified and analyzed. Results found an overwhelming presence of supervisory neglect in child neglect fatalities and indicated no significant differences between children living in rural and urban settings. Young children and male children comprised the majority of fatalities, and African American and Native American children were over-represented in the sample when compared to the state population. This study underscores the critical need for prevention and educational programming related to appropriate adult supervision and adequate safety measures to prevent a child's death because of neglect.

  5. Hypertransaminasemia and fatal lung disease: a case report

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Glycogenosis type II (Pompe disease) is a rare autosomal recessive genetic disorder caused by mutations in the gene encoding the lysosomal enzyme acid α-glucosidase. The classic form is characterized by severe cardiac involvement, generalized hypotonia and exitus early in life. Presenting symptoms and signs of the disease may be neglected or underestimated, thus delaying the diagnosis. Respiratory manifestations mainly occur because of respiratory muscle weakness. However, additional mechanisms can favor the development of pulmonary complications that result in fatal respiratory failure. We herein describe a case of an infant with glycogenosis type II presenting with hepatomegaly and hypertransaminasemia, who rapidly developed fatal lung disease. PMID:23391190

  6. Epidemiology of Child Motor Vehicle Crash Injuries and Fatalities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arbogast, Kristy B.; Durbin, Dennis R.

    Although children represent only 10-15 % of the overall traffic fatality burden in the United States, motor vehicle crashes (MVCs) remain the leading cause of death and disability for children and young adults; and, close to half of all unintentional injury deaths to children and adolescents (Centers for Disease Control and Prevention National Center for Injury Prevention and Control, Web-based Injury Statistics Query and Reporting System [CDC NCIPC WISQARS] 2010). Moreover, their exposure to motor vehicle risk is significant because they travel by motor vehicles nearly as much as adults. Prevention of the fatalities, injuries and disability associated with MVC must be a priority for ensuring our children's overall health.

  7. Influence of civil defense on strategic countervalue fatalities

    SciTech Connect

    Harvey, T.F.

    1982-04-28

    Two modeling studies were conducted to simulate the effect of fallout shelters on the outcome of a massive countervalue nuclear exchange between the Soviet Union and the United States. One was to determine the number of nuclear weapons required to mount an effective fallout attack against a country with dispersed population; the other was to determine the number of expected US fatalities resulting from a countervalue attack against US urban population centers. The results of these studies indicate that the number of weapons required to mount such an attack depends on the adequacy of the shelter system and that the evacuation of urban populations can substantially reduce expected fatality levels.

  8. Projecting Fatalities in Crashes Involving Older Drivers, 2000-2025

    SciTech Connect

    Hu, P.S.

    2001-03-23

    As part of this research effort, we developed a new methodology for projecting elderly traffic crash fatalities. This methodology separates exposure to crashes from crash risk per se, and further divides exposure into two components, the number of miles driven and the likelihood of being a driver. This component structure permits conceptually different determinants of traffic fatalities to be projected separately and has thorough motivation in behavioral theory. It also permits finer targeting of particular aspects of projections that need improvement and closer linking of projections to possible policy instruments for influencing them.

  9. Fatal Complications after Pediatric Surgical Interventions: Lessons Learned

    PubMed Central

    Klein, Willemijn M.; Van der Putten, Mayke E.; Kusters, Benno; Verhoeven, Bas H.

    2017-01-01

    Placement of catheters, drains, shunts, and tubes in children can lead to serious or even fatal complications at the moment of placement, such as hemorrhage at insertion, or in the longterm, such as infections and migration into adjacent organs. The clinician should always be aware of these potential complications, especially if the child is unwell. For postmortem diagnostic evaluation, either with a computed tomography scan or an invasive autopsy, all tubes, drains, shunts, and/or catheters should be left in situ. We present three cases with fatal complications after the placement of a chest drain, ventriculoperitoneal shunt, and gastrostomy tube. PMID:28344917

  10. Incidence of paediatric fatal and non-fatal low speed vehicle run over events in Queensland, Australia: eleven year analysis

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background The purpose of this study was to estimate the incidence of fatal and non-fatal Low Speed Vehicle Run Over (LSVRO) events among children aged 0–15 years in Queensland, Australia, at a population level. Methods Fatal and non-fatal LSVRO events that occurred in children resident in Queensland over eleven calendar years (1999-2009) were identified using ICD codes, text description, word searches and medical notes clarification, obtained from five health related data bases across the continuum of care (pre-hospital to fatality). Data were manually linked. Population data provided by the Australian Bureau of Statistics were used to calculate crude incidence rates for fatal and non-fatal LSVRO events. Results There were 1611 LSVROs between 1999–2009 (IR = 16.87/100,000/annum). Incidence of non-fatal events (IR = 16.60/100,000/annum) was 61.5 times higher than fatal events (IR = 0.27/100,000/annum). LSVRO events were more common in boys (IR = 20.97/100,000/annum) than girls (IR = 12.55/100,000/annum), and among younger children aged 0–4 years (IR = 21.45/100000/annum; 39% or all events) than older children (5–9 years: IR = 16.47/100,000/annum; 10–15 years IR = 13.59/100,000/annum). A total of 896 (56.8%) children were admitted to hospital for 24 hours of more following an LSVRO event (IR = 9.38/100,000/annum). Total LSVROs increased from 1999 (IR = 14.79/100,000) to 2009 (IR = 18.56/100,000), but not significantly. Over the 11 year period, there was a slight (non –significant) increase in fatalities (IR = 0.37-0.42/100,000/annum); a significant decrease in admissions (IR = 12.39–5.36/100,000/annum), and significant increase in non-admissions (IR = 2.02-12.77/100,000/annum). Trends over time differed by age, gender and severity. Conclusion This is the most comprehensive, population-based epidemiological study on fatal and non-fatal LSVRO events to date. Results from this study indicate

  11. Long-term trends in flood fatalities in the United State

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sharif, Hatim; Chaturvedi, Smita

    2015-04-01

    This presentation reviews flood-related fatalities in the United States between 1959 and 2013. Information on flood fatality victims and the flood-causing events was obtained from the National Climatic Data Center. The data collected included the date, time, location, and weather conditions and the gender and age of the flood victims. Long term trends in the numbers of fatalities and fatality rates were analyzed. For most of the states fatalities were largely caused by single catastrophic events. The analysis indicates that the standardized annual flood fatality rates are decreasing significantly for all states. Vehicle related fatalities represent more than 50% of flood fatalities for most of the states and can be as high as 77%. A combination of improved hydrometeorological forecasting, educational programs aimed at enhancing public awareness of flood risk and the seriousness of flood warnings, and timely and appropriate action by local emergency and safety authorities will help further reduce flood fatalities in Texas.

  12. Geophysics Fatally Flawed by False Fundamental Philosophy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Myers, L. S.

    2004-05-01

    For two centuries scientists have failed to realize Laplace's nebular hypothesis \\(1796\\) of Earth's creation is false. As a consequence, geophysicists today are misinterpreting and miscalculating many fundamental aspects of the Earth and Solar System. Why scientists have deluded themselves for so long is a mystery. The greatest error is the assumption Earth was created 4.6 billion years ago as a molten protoplanet in its present size, shape and composition. This assumption ignores daily accretion of more than 200 tons/day of meteorites and dust, plus unknown volumes of solar insolation that created coal beds and other biomass that increased Earth's mass and diameter over time! Although the volume added daily is minuscule compared with Earth's total mass, logic and simple addition mandates an increase in mass, diameter and gravity. Increased diameter from accretion is proved by Grand Canyon stratigraphy that shows a one kilometer increase in depth and planetary radius at a rate exceeding three meters \\(10 ft\\) per Ma from start of the Cambrian \\(540 Ma\\) to end of the Permian \\(245 Ma\\)-each layer deposited onto Earth's surface. This is unequivocal evidence of passive external growth by accretion, part of a dual growth and expansion process called "Accreation" \\(creation by accretion\\). Dynamic internal core expansion, the second stage of Accreation, did not commence until the protoplanet reached spherical shape at 500-600 km diameter. At that point, gravity-powered compressive heating initiated core melting and internal expansion. Expansion quickly surpassed the external accretion growth rate and produced surface volcanoes to relieve explosive internal tectonic pressure and transfer excess mass (magma)to the surface. Then, 200-250 Ma, expansion triggered Pangaea's breakup, first sundering Asia and Australia to form the Pacific Ocean, followed by North and South America to form the Atlantic Ocean, by the mechanism of midocean ridges, linear underwater

  13. Benzocaine Induced Methemoglobinemia: A Potentially Fatal Complication of Transesophageal Echocardiography

    PubMed Central

    Chander, Keshav; Lavie, Carl J.; Ventura, Hector O.; Milani, Richard V.

    2003-01-01

    Transesophageal echocardiography (TEE) is a relatively safe procedure with complications including bleeding, esophageal perforation, and respiratory failure being rare. One of our patients recently developed severe cyanosis despite pulse oximetry of 85% following TEE. This directs our attention to a rare, easily treatable, but potentially fatal complication of this procedure. PMID:22826681

  14. Critical factors in fatal collisions of adult cyclists with automobiles.

    PubMed

    Bíl, Michal; Bílová, Martina; Müller, Ivo

    2010-11-01

    This article evaluates, by means of multivariate regression, critical factors influencing the collisions of motor vehicles with adult (over 17 years) cyclists that result in fatal injury of cyclists. The analysis is based on the database of the Traffic Police of Czech Republic from the time period 1995-2007. The results suggest that the most consequential categories of factors under study are: inappropriate driving speed of automobile; the head-on crash; and night-time traffic in places without streetlights. The cyclists' faults are of most serious consequence on crossroads when cyclists deny the right of way. Males are more likely to suffer a fatal injury due to a collision with a car than females. The most vulnerable age group are cyclists above 65 years. A fatal injury of a cyclist is more often driver's fault than cyclist's (598 vs. 370). In order to reduce the fatal risk, it is recommended to separate the road traffic of motor vehicles from bicyclists in critical road-sections; or, at least, to reduce speed limits there.

  15. Excess Fatality from Desipramine in Children and Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Amitai, Yona; Frischer, Henri

    2006-01-01

    Objective: To compare the case fatality rate (CFR) from desipramine ingestion in children and adolescents with that of other tricyclic antidepressants. Method: All mentions of desipramine, amitriptyline, imipramine, nortriptyline, and doxepin in children and adolescents recorded in the American Association of Poison Control Centers Toxic Exposure…

  16. 21 CFR 640.73 - Reporting of fatal donor reactions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 7 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Reporting of fatal donor reactions. 640.73 Section 640.73 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) BIOLOGICS ADDITIONAL STANDARDS FOR HUMAN BLOOD AND BLOOD PRODUCTS Source Plasma § 640.73 Reporting of...

  17. 21 CFR 640.73 - Reporting of fatal donor reactions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 7 2011-04-01 2010-04-01 true Reporting of fatal donor reactions. 640.73 Section 640.73 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) BIOLOGICS ADDITIONAL STANDARDS FOR HUMAN BLOOD AND BLOOD PRODUCTS Source Plasma § 640.73 Reporting of...

  18. 21 CFR 640.73 - Reporting of fatal donor reactions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 7 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Reporting of fatal donor reactions. 640.73 Section 640.73 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) BIOLOGICS ADDITIONAL STANDARDS FOR HUMAN BLOOD AND BLOOD PRODUCTS Source Plasma § 640.73 Reporting of...

  19. 21 CFR 640.73 - Reporting of fatal donor reactions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 7 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Reporting of fatal donor reactions. 640.73 Section 640.73 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) BIOLOGICS ADDITIONAL STANDARDS FOR HUMAN BLOOD AND BLOOD PRODUCTS Source Plasma § 640.73 Reporting of...

  20. 21 CFR 640.73 - Reporting of fatal donor reactions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 7 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Reporting of fatal donor reactions. 640.73 Section 640.73 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) BIOLOGICS ADDITIONAL STANDARDS FOR HUMAN BLOOD AND BLOOD PRODUCTS Source Plasma § 640.73 Reporting of...

  1. Fatal Emmonsia sp. Infection and Fungemia after Orthotopic Liver Transplantation

    PubMed Central

    Adams, Jason Y.; Luo, Robert; Banaei, Niaz; Concepcion, Waldo; Ho, Dora Y.

    2017-01-01

    We report a fatal case of disseminated Emmonsia sp. infection in a 55-year-old man who received an orthotopic liver transplant. The patient had pneumonia and fungemia, and multisystem organ failure developed. As human habitats and the number of immunocompromised patients increase, physicians must be aware of this emerging fungal infection. PMID:28098544

  2. A case of fatal necrotizing fasciitis arising from chronic lymphedema.

    PubMed

    Jun, Young Joon; Kang, In Sook; Lee, Jung Ho; Kim, Sue Min; Kim, Young Jin

    2013-12-01

    Chronic lymphedema and lymphangitis are common adverse effects following treatment for gynecological cancer. Because the early symptoms of necrotizing fasciitis are similar to those of lymphangitis, fatal outcome can occur if patients or physicians underestimate this condition. Here, we present a case of necrotizing fasciitis in a patient with chronic lymphedema.

  3. Factors Related to Sibling Removal after a Child Maltreatment Fatality

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Damashek, Amy; Bonner, Barbara L.

    2010-01-01

    Objectives: Many children who die from abuse or neglect are survived by siblings. However, little data are available about what happens to these siblings after the victim's death, such as whether they are removed from their home. Even less is known about how decisions are made regarding sibling removal following a child fatality. This study…

  4. Identification of new molecular alterations in Fatal Familial Insomnia.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Fatal familial insomnia (FFI) is an autosomal dominant prion disease caused by a D178N mutation in PRNP in combination with methionine (Met) at codon 129 in the mutated allele of the same gene (D178N-129M haplotype). The present study analyzes pathological and molecular features in seven FFI cases c...

  5. Identification of new molecular alterations in Fatal Familial Insomnia

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Fatal Familial Insomnia (FFI) is a rare disease caused by a D178N mutation in combination with methionine (Met) at codon 129 in the mutated allele of PRNP (D178N-129M haplotype). FFI is manifested by sleep disturbances with insomnia, autonomic disorders, hallucinations, delirium, and spontaneous and...

  6. Blastomyces gilchristii as Cause of Fatal Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome.

    PubMed

    Dalcin, Daniel; Rothstein, Aaron; Spinato, Joanna; Escott, Nicholas; Kus, Julianne V

    2016-02-01

    Since the 2013 description of Blastomyces gilchristii, research describing the virulence or clinical outcome of B. gilchristii infection has been lacking. We report molecular evidence of B. gilchristii as an etiologic agent of fatal acute respiratory distress syndrome. B. gilchristii infection was confirmed by PCR and sequence analysis.

  7. Blastomyces gilchristii as Cause of Fatal Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Rothstein, Aaron; Spinato, Joanna; Escott, Nicholas; Kus, Julianne V.

    2016-01-01

    Since the 2013 description of Blastomyces gilchristii, research describing the virulence or clinical outcome of B. gilchristii infection has been lacking. We report molecular evidence of B. gilchristii as an etiologic agent of fatal acute respiratory distress syndrome. B. gilchristii infection was confirmed by PCR and sequence analysis. PMID:26812599

  8. [Fatal electric arc accidents due to high voltage].

    PubMed

    Strauch, Hansjürg; Wirth, Ingo

    2004-01-01

    The frequency of electric arc accidents has been successfully reduced owing to preventive measures taken by the professional association. However, the risk of accidents has continued to exist in private setting. Three fatal electric arc accidents caused by high voltage are reported with reference to the autopsy findings.

  9. Child Fatality Review Teams: A Content Analysis of Social Policy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Douglas, Emily M.; McCarthy, Sean C.

    2011-01-01

    Child fatality review teams (CFRTs) have existed since the 1970s; yet, a comprehensive understanding of their procedures, practices, and outcomes is lacking. This article addresses that gap in this study of CFRT state statutes. Findings indicate CFRT laws address nine areas of practice, from team composition, to purpose, to outcomes. Results also…

  10. Fatal hyperammonaemia due to late-onset ornithine transcarbamylase deficiency.

    PubMed

    Bijvoet, G P; van der Sijs-Bos, C J M; Wielders, J P M; Groot, O A

    2016-01-01

    In this case report we describe a 67-year-old male, admitted to the ICU with pneumonia who unexpectedly developed a fatal coma due to hyperammonaemia. At postmortem the diagnosis late-onset ornithine transcarbamylase deficiency was made. The non-specific clinical presentation, the rapid deterioration and incidentally the fatal outcome all underline the importance of recognition and knowledge of this genetic disorder. Several measures to treat and prevent potentially fatal episodes of hyperammonaemia are available, if only the disorder is recognised in time. In retrospect, several clues to the diagnosis were available in this fatal case, such as voluntary protein avoidance, as well as several male family members who died at a young age of an unknown cause. After his death, two daughters were discovered to be carriers of an OTC gene mutation, as well as his infant grandson. We emphasise the importance of obtaining ammonia levels in all patients with unexplained coma, seizures or cerebral oedema, irrespective of their age, especially in patients in the ICU or in an otherwise catabolic state.

  11. Ornithine transcarbamylase deficiency of a male newborn with fatal outcome.

    PubMed

    Hartung, Benno; Temme, Oliver; Neuen-Jacob, Eva; Ritz-Timme, Stefanie; Hinderhofer, Katrin; Daldrup, Thomas

    2016-05-01

    Ornithine transcarbamylase deficiency (OTCD) is the most common malfunction of ureagenesis. The case of a male newborn who died at the age of 2 days for clinically unclear reasons is presented. The post-mortem routine and esoteric testing methods that finally led to the diagnosis of a fatal case of OTCD are outlined here.

  12. Fatal motorcycle crashes: a growing public health problem in Cambodia.

    PubMed

    Roehler, Douglas R; Ear, Chariya; Parker, Erin M; Sem, Panhavuth; Ballesteros, Michael F

    2015-01-01

    This study examines the risk characteristics of fatal motorcycle crashes in Cambodia over a 5-year period (2007-2011). Secondary data analyses were conducted using the Cambodia Road Crash and Victim Information System, the only comprehensive and integrated road crash surveillance system in the country. Researchers from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention and Handicap International found that (1) males are dying in motorcycle crashes roughly seven times more frequently than females; (2) motorcyclist fatalities increased by about 30% from 2007 to 2011; (3) the motorcyclist death rates per 100,000 population increased from 7.4 to 8.7 deaths from 2007 to 2011; and (4) speed-related crashes and not wearing motorcycle helmet were commonly reported for motorcyclist fatalities at approximately 50% and over 80% through the study years, respectively. Additionally, this study highlights that Cambodia has the highest motorcycle death rate in South-East Asia, far surpassing Thailand, Malaysia, and Myanmar. By recognising the patterns of fatal motorcycle crashes in Cambodia, local road-safety champions and stakeholders can design targeted interventions and preventative measures to improve road safety among motorcyclists.

  13. Postmortem computed tomography lung findings in fatal of hypothermia.

    PubMed

    Hyodoh, Hideki; Watanabe, Satoshi; Katada, Ryuichi; Hyodoh, Kazusa; Matsumoto, Hiroshi

    2013-09-10

    To identify lung findings specific to fatal hypothermia on postmortem computed tomography (CT) imaging. Whole body CT scans were performed followed by full autopsy to investigate causes of death. There were 13 fatal hypothermia cases (group A) and 118 with other causes of death (group B). The chest cavity (CC), dead space including fluid/pneumothorax (DS), aerated lung volume (ALV), percentage aerated lung (%ALV), and tracheal aerated volume (ATV) were measured. Autopsy findings of groups A and B were compared. Receiver operating characteristics (ROC) curves were used to identify factors specific to fatal hypothermia. There were no differences in age, sex, number with emphysema, or time from death to CT examination between the 2 groups. CC, DS, ALV, %ALV, and ATV were 2601.0±247.4 (mL), 281.1±136.5 (mL), 1564.5±281.1 (mL), 62.1±6.2(%), and 21.8±2.7 (mL) in group A and 2339.2±67.7 (mL), 241.1±38.0 (mL), 739.9±67.0 (mL), 31.4±2.3(%), and 15.9±0.8 (mL) in group B, respectively. There were statistically significant differences between groups A and B in ALV, %ALV and ATV. The multiple comparison procedure revealed that ALV and %ALV differed significantly between fatal hypothermia and other causes of death (p<0.05). Using ROC evaluation, %ALV had the largest area under the curve (0.819). This study demonstrates that the %ALV is greater in fatal hypothermia cases than in those with other causes of death on postmortem CT chest imaging. Based on CT, hypothermia is very likely to be the cause of death if the %ALV is >70%.

  14. Fatal Passenger Vehicle Crashes with At Least 1 Driver Younger than 15 Years: A Fatality Analysis Reporting System Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Frisch, Larry; Plessinger, Alexander

    2007-01-01

    Context: A small number of fatalities continue to occur due to motor vehicle crashes on highways in which at least 1 passenger vehicle (automobile, van, or small truck) is driven by a child younger than 15 years. Purpose: The purpose of this study was to extend previous work suggesting that such crashes occur frequently in the Southern states and…

  15. Fatality rate of pedestrians and fatal crash involvement rate of drivers in pedestrian crashes: a case study of Iran.

    PubMed

    Kashani, Ali Tavakoli; Besharati, Mohammad Mehdi

    2016-04-20

    The aim of this study was to uncover patterns of pedestrian crashes. In the first stage, 34,178 pedestrian-involved crashes occurred in Iran during a four-year period were grouped into homogeneous clusters using a clustering analysis. Next, some in-cluster and inter-cluster crash patterns were analysed. The clustering analysis yielded six pedestrian crash groups. Car/van/pickup crashes on rural roads as well as heavy vehicle crashes were found to be less frequent but more likely to be fatal compared to other crash clusters. In addition, after controlling for crash frequency in each cluster, it was found that the fatality rate of each pedestrian age group as well as the fatal crash involvement rate of each driver age group varies across the six clusters. Results of present study has some policy implications including, promoting pedestrian safety training sessions for heavy vehicle drivers, imposing limitations over elderly heavy vehicle drivers, reinforcing penalties toward under 19 drivers and motorcyclists. In addition, road safety campaigns in rural areas may be promoted to inform people about the higher fatality rate of pedestrians on rural roads. The crash patterns uncovered in this study might also be useful for prioritizing future pedestrian safety research areas.

  16. A summary of U.S. skydiving fatalities: 1993-1999.

    PubMed

    Griffith, James D; Hart, Christian L

    2002-06-01

    Between 1993 and 1999, 241 people died while participating in civilian recreational skydives in the United States. A taxonomy of skydiving fatalities was developed and used to categorize the fatalities.

  17. The Mathematical Nature of Reasoning-and-Proving Opportunities in Geometry Textbooks

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Otten, Samuel; Gilbertson, Nicholas J.; Males, Lorraine M.; Clark, D. Lee

    2014-01-01

    International calls have been made for reasoning-and-proving to permeate school mathematics. It is important that efforts to heed this call are grounded in an understanding of the opportunities to reason-and-prove that already exist, especially in secondary-level geometry where reasoning-and-proving opportunities are prevalent but not thoroughly…

  18. 20 CFR 219.21 - Types of evidence to prove age.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Types of evidence to prove age. 219.21... EVIDENCE REQUIRED FOR PAYMENT Evidence of Age and Death § 219.21 Types of evidence to prove age. (a) Preferred evidence. The best type of evidence to prove a claimant's age is— (1) A birth certificate...

  19. 20 CFR 219.21 - Types of evidence to prove age.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2014-04-01 2012-04-01 true Types of evidence to prove age. 219.21 Section... EVIDENCE REQUIRED FOR PAYMENT Evidence of Age and Death § 219.21 Types of evidence to prove age. (a) Preferred evidence. The best type of evidence to prove a claimant's age is— (1) A birth certificate...

  20. 20 CFR 219.21 - Types of evidence to prove age.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Types of evidence to prove age. 219.21... EVIDENCE REQUIRED FOR PAYMENT Evidence of Age and Death § 219.21 Types of evidence to prove age. (a) Preferred evidence. The best type of evidence to prove a claimant's age is— (1) A birth certificate...

  1. 20 CFR 219.21 - Types of evidence to prove age.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2013-04-01 2012-04-01 true Types of evidence to prove age. 219.21 Section... EVIDENCE REQUIRED FOR PAYMENT Evidence of Age and Death § 219.21 Types of evidence to prove age. (a) Preferred evidence. The best type of evidence to prove a claimant's age is— (1) A birth certificate...

  2. 20 CFR 219.21 - Types of evidence to prove age.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Types of evidence to prove age. 219.21... EVIDENCE REQUIRED FOR PAYMENT Evidence of Age and Death § 219.21 Types of evidence to prove age. (a) Preferred evidence. The best type of evidence to prove a claimant's age is— (1) A birth certificate...

  3. Islamic Fatalism and the Clash of Civilizations: An Appraisal of a Contentious and Dubious Theory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Acevedo, Gabriel A.

    2008-01-01

    This paper will address the question of Islamic fatalism. Survey data will be used to assess Samuel P. Huntington's controversial "Clash of Civilizations" thesis and its emphasis on fatalism as an inherent characteristic of Islamic religion. The concept of fatalism is expanded and theorized as a function of both structural and…

  4. Revisiting the Role of the Urban Environment in Substance Use: The Case of Analgesic Overdose Fatalities

    PubMed Central

    Ransome, Yusuf; Keyes, Katherine M.; Koenen, Karestan C.; Tardiff, Kenneth; Vlahov, David; Galea, Sandro

    2013-01-01

    Objectives. We examined whether neighborhood social characteristics (income distribution and family fragmentation) and physical characteristics (clean sidewalks and dilapidated housing) were associated with the risk of fatalities caused by analgesic overdose. Methods. In a case-control study, we compared 447 unintentional analgesic opioid overdose fatalities (cases) with 3436 unintentional nonoverdose fatalities and 2530 heroin overdose fatalities (controls) occurring in 59 New York City neighborhoods between 2000 and 2006. Results. Analgesic overdose fatalities were less likely than nonoverdose unintentional fatalities to have occurred in higher-income neighborhoods (odds ratio [OR] = 0.82; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 0.70, 0.96) and more likely to have occurred in fragmented neighborhoods (OR = 1.35; 95% CI = 1.05, 1.72). They were more likely than heroin overdose fatalities to have occurred in higher-income (OR = 1.31; 95% CI = 1.12, 1.54) and less fragmented (OR = 0.71; 95% CI = 0.55, 0.92) neighborhoods. Conclusions. Analgesic overdose fatalities exhibit spatial patterns that are distinct from those of heroin and nonoverdose unintentional fatalities. Whereas analgesic fatalities typically occur in lower-income, more fragmented neighborhoods than nonoverdose fatalities, they tend to occur in higher-income, less unequal, and less fragmented neighborhoods than heroin fatalities. PMID:24134362

  5. A nested case-control study of fatal work related injuries among Brazilian steel workers.

    PubMed Central

    Barreto, S M; Swerdlow, A J; Smith, P G; Higgins, C D

    1997-01-01

    highest risks were for men exposed to all four environmental hazards (odds ratio (OR) 19.4; 95% confidence interval (95% CI) 1.1 to 352.1) and those working in the energy supply area (OR 18.0; 1.6 to 198.1). CONCLUSIONS: The study identified parts of the steelworks and types of hazard associated with greatly increased risk of fatal accident. Research and measures to prevent accidents need to concentrate on these areas and the people working in them. The use of a hazard score was successful in identifying high risk, and similar scoring might prove useful in other industrial situations. PMID:9326164

  6. Afatinib-Induced Acute Fatal Pneumonitis in Metastatic Lung Adenocarcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Yoo, Sang Hoon; Ryu, Jin Ah; Kim, Seo Ree; Oh, Su Yun; Jung, Gu Sung; Lee, Dong Jae; Kwak, Bong Gyu; Nam, Yu Hyun; Kim, Kyung Hyun

    2016-01-01

    Afatinib is an oral tyrosine kinase inhibitor (TKI) that inhibit Endothelial Growth Factor Receptor (EGFR), Human Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor 2 (HER2), and HER4. The common side effects of EGFR TKI are rash, acne, diarrhea, stomatitis, pruritus, nausea, and loss of appetite. Drug induced pneumonitis is the less common adverse effects of EGFR TKI. Afatinib, 2nd generation EGFR TKI is anticipated to overcome drug resistance from 1st generation EGFR TKI according to preclinical study, and several studies are being conducted to compare clinical efficacy between 1st and 2nd EGFR TKI. Several cases of rug induced acute fatal pneumonitis were reported after use of erlotinib or gefitinib. However, a case of acute fatal pneumonitis associated with afatinib was note reported except drug induced pneumonitis in other clinical study. Here, we present a cases of acute severe pneumonitis related with afatinib in metastatic lung adenocarcinoma with literature review. PMID:27900074

  7. A fatal case of anaphylactic shock during paragliding.

    PubMed

    Feltracco, Paolo; Barbieri, Stefania; Galligioni, Helmut; Pasin, Laura; Gaudio, Rosa Maria; Tommasi, Aurelio; Zucchetto, Alessandro; Trevisiol, Paride; Ori, Carlo; Avato, Francesco Maria

    2012-11-01

    The growth in popularity of flying ultralight aircraft and paragliding has been associated with an increased involvement of Emergency Medical Services because of various types of trauma suffered from both inexperienced and skilled individuals. This case presentation reports on a paraglider pilot, who was seen spinning "unusually" rapidly toward the ground, without visible attempts to regain control of the aircraft. Besides the bilateral mydriasis and the absence of any ECG activity, there was a significant swelling of face, lips, neck, and tongue. Upon opening the mouth, a dead bee was found over the tongue, underneath the palate. A fatal anaphylactic shock was the likely cause of death of the pilot while still "in mid-air." This case is certainly different from the commonly reported accidents during paragliding. An updated review of the medical literature shows no reported cases of fatal anaphylactic shock during the practice of paragliding.

  8. Disposition of tilidine in a fatal poisoning in man.

    PubMed

    Cordonnier, J; Van den Heede, M; Heyndrickx, A; Wennig, R

    1987-01-01

    A fatal intoxication due to the ingestion of tilidine, a narcotic analgesic, in conjunction with ethanol, is described. Tilidine and its two active metabolites, nortilidine and bisnortilidine, were identified and quantitated in the biological fluids and tissues by thin-layer chromatography (TLC), gas-liquid chromatography with sensitive nitrogen-phosphorus detection (GLC/NPD) and gas-liquid chromatography with mass spectrometric detection (GC/MS). The toxicological results are compared with previously reported 14C-tilidine tissue distributions in rats following oral administration and limited tissue data in a previously reported human fatality. In the present case, the death was attributed to the combined central nervous system-depressing effects of ethanol and tilidine.

  9. Jurisdictional spillover effects of sprawl on injuries and fatalities.

    PubMed

    Mohamed, Rayman; Vom Hofe, Rainer; Mazumder, Sangida

    2014-11-01

    There is a considerable literature on the relationship between sprawl and accidents. However, these studies do not account for the spatially correlated effects of sprawl on accidents. In our analysis of 122 jurisdictions in Southeast Michigan, we use a Bayesian spatial autoregressive model to estimate how injuries and fatalities in one jurisdiction are associated with sprawl in that jurisdiction and sprawl in neighboring jurisdictions; we also correct for heteroskedasticity in the data. Using principal component analysis, we create a sprawl index from five underlying land use characteristics. Our results show that the number of injuries and fatalities in a jurisdiction increases with the magnitude of sprawl in neighboring jurisdictions. We believe that this is because more drivers per capita in sprawled jurisdictions traverse similarly sprawled neighboring jurisdictions for daily activities. Furthermore, driving habits attuned to less defensive driving in sprawled jurisdiction are transferred to similarly designed neighboring jurisdictions, contributing to accidents in the latter.

  10. [Psychiatric drugs as risk factor in fatal heat stroke].

    PubMed

    Fijnheer, R; van de Ven, P J; Erkelens, D W

    1995-07-08

    Two men aged 33 and 31 years suffered a fatal heat stroke on a warm summer day. One of them used pimozide and clomipramine, the other zuclopenthixol, dexetimide, droperidol, promethazine and propranolol as psychiatric medication. Both of them had a body temperature > 42.3 degrees C, without perspiring. At first only a comatose situation with practically normal laboratory values existed; this was rapidly followed by massive liver damage, disseminated intravascular coagulation, anaemia, thrombopenia and acute renal failure. In spite of adequate and rapid treatment these complications were fatal. Both patients used medication with an antidopaminergic and anticholinergic (side) effect. The set point of the temperature regulation centre can be elevated by the antidopaminergic activity of antipsychotics. Use of anticholinergic medication can disturb the thermoregulation via inhibition of the parasympathicomimetically mediated sweat secretion. It is recommended to point out the danger of unusually high outdoor temperatures to patients using this medication.

  11. Fatal mastitis of dairy cows: a retrospective study.

    PubMed Central

    Hazlett, M J; Little, P B; Maxie, M G; Barnum, D A

    1984-01-01

    The necropsy records of dairy cows with mastitis were reviewed from the provincial veterinary laboratory in Guelph (44 cases of mastitis in nine years) and from the Ontario Veterinary College (168 cases in 14 years). Mastitis was considered to be the primary cause of death in 167 of 212 cows (79%). Of these 167 cases of mastitis, Escherichia coli was involved in 107 (64%), Klebsiella sp. in 12 (7%) and Staphylococcus aureus in 11 (7%). Bacteriology was not reported in 22 cases. Coliform mastitis, the most commonly identified type of fatal mastitis, was characterized histologically by the presence of infarcted areas in affected glands and by the lack of demonstrable bacteria, and was thus easily identified from fatal mastitis caused by S. aureus. Images Fig. 1. Fig. 2. Fig. 3. PMID:6722641

  12. The relationship between fatalism, dissociation, and trauma symptoms in Latinos.

    PubMed

    Greenwell, Ashley N; Cosden, Merith

    2009-01-01

    Numerous studies have documented an overrepresentation of posttraumatic stress disorder in the Latino population. However, the contributing factors to trauma symptomatology among Latinos are not fully understood. The present study examined 112 low-income, Latino outpatients in a mental health clinic to identify culturally relevant variables that predict trauma symptomatology. Fatalism, peritraumatic dissociation, acculturation, and demographic variables were analyzed. Peritraumatic dissociation was found to account for a significant percentage of the variance in trauma symptoms (21%) as measured by the Peritraumatic Dissociative Experiences Questionnaire-Modified and the Trauma Symptom Inventory. Fatalism measured by the Multiphasic Assessment of Cultural Constructs was not found to be significantly associated with symptom severity. Also, acculturation variables did not predict peritraumatic dissociation. Implications of the findings for trauma research and practice are discussed.

  13. Pedestrian worker fatalities in workplace locations, Australia, 2000-2010.

    PubMed

    Kitching, Fiona; Jones, Christopher B; Ibrahim, Joseph E; Ozanne-Smith, Joan

    2014-01-01

    Pedestrian deaths of workers in Australian workplaces (1 July 2000-31 December 2010) are described using coronial and safety authority fatality databases. One hundred and fifteen deaths were identified, with the majority male (93%) and aged over 50 years (59%). Four industries predominated (85% of deaths): Agriculture, Forestry and Fishing (31%), Construction (29%), Transport, Postal and Warehousing (16%) and Manufacturing (10%). Similarly, three occupations dominated: Farmers (28%), Labourers (27%) and Machinery Operators and Drivers (25%). Common circumstantial factors (reversing machines or vehicles, driver also the pedestrian, driver's vision impeded and working accompanied) occurred in the Construction, Transport and Manufacturing industries, providing collaborative opportunities for prevention. Deaths occurring in the Agriculture industry showed different circumstantial factors, likely needing different solutions. While some effective countermeasures are known, workplace pedestrian fatalities continue to occur. Prevention strategies are needed to share known information across industries and to produce data enhancements and new knowledge.

  14. Esophageal foreign bodies as child abuse. Potential fatal mechanisms.

    PubMed

    Nolte, K B

    1993-12-01

    Foreign bodies being forced into the esophagus as a form of fatal child abuse is rare. A 4.5-month-old female infant presented to clinicians with respiratory distress. Several coins were recovered from the esophagus. One month later, she was found dead in her crib. At autopsy, there were three coins in the esophagus. In addition, there were cutaneous contusions of various ages, acute and partially healed fractures of the extremities, old aspirated foreign material in the lungs, and pulmonary fat emboli. Although the fat emboli may have contributed to the death, several potentially fatal mechanisms from the esophageal foreign bodies deserve consideration. These include vagal stimulation from esophageal distention, aspiration of swallowed fluids after esophageal obstruction, compression of the trachea or the heart by the coins, and cardiac compression or airway occlusion by the introducing finger.

  15. Reporting of drug induced depression and fatal and non-fatal suicidal behaviour in the UK from 1998 to 2011

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Psychiatric adverse drug reactions (ADRs) are distressing for patients and have important public health implications. We identified the drugs with the most frequent spontaneous reports of depression, and fatal and non-fatal suicidal behaviour to the UK’s Yellow Card Scheme from 1998 to 2011. Methods We obtained Yellow Card data from the Medicines and Healthcare products Regulatory Agency for the drugs with the most frequent spontaneous reports of depression and suicidal behaviour from 1964 onwards. Prescribing data were obtained from the NHS Information Centre and the Department of Health. We examined the frequency of reports for drugs and estimated rates of reporting of psychiatric ADRs using prescribing data as proxy denominators from 1998 to 2011, as prescribing data were not available prior to 1998. Results There were 110 different drugs with ≥ 20 reports of depression, 58 with ≥10 reports of non-fatal suicidal behaviour and 33 with ≥5 reports of fatal suicidal behaviour in the time period. The top five drugs with the most frequent reports of depression were the smoking cessation medicines varenicline and bupropion, followed by paroxetine (a selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor), isotretinoin (used in acne treatment) and rimonabant (a weight loss drug). Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors, varenicline and the antipsychotic medicine clozapine were included in the top five medicines with the most frequent reports of fatal and non-fatal suicidal behaviour. Medicines with the highest reliably measured reporting rates of psychiatric ADRs per million prescriptions dispensed in the community included rimonabant, isotretinoin, mefloquine (an antimalarial), varenicline and bupropion. Robust denominators for community prescribing were not available for two drugs with five or more suicide reports, efavirenz (an antiretroviral medicine) and clozapine. Conclusions Depression and suicide-related ADRs are reported for many nervous system and non

  16. Fatal Peripheral Candidal Suppurative Thrombophlebitis in a Postoperative Patient

    PubMed Central

    Hong, Suk-Kyung; Nam, So-Hyun

    2008-01-01

    We report a case of fatal fungal peripheral suppurative thrombophlebitis, caused by Candida albicans, which was disseminated to the blood, lungs, eyes, and spine. Clinical suspicion and aggressive management are important in managing fungal peripheral suppurative thrombophlebitis. Early clinical suspicion is important in managing fungal peripheral suppurative thrombophlebitis, and radical excision of the affected veins, recognition of metastatic foci, and use of systemic antifungal agents are essential to avoid septic shock and death. PMID:19119456

  17. A fatal case of urosepsis due to Corynebacterium riegelii.

    PubMed

    Aygun, Gokhan; Midilli, Kenan; Cilingir, Hatice; Yilmaz, Mesut; Kutukcu, Aysegul; Eker, Engin

    2013-01-01

    Corynebacterium species other than Corynebacterium diphtheriae rarely cause infections in human but rather reside in flora, however they have been reported to cause opportunistic infections in both immunocompromised and immunecompetent patients. Here we report for the first time a case of an elderly female patient presenting with a fatal urosepsis caused by a recently defined pathogen, Corynebacterium riegelii, identified on second day after patient hospitalization leading to a progressive worsening and death of the patient on 6th day.

  18. Pathological findings of a fatal leopard seal attack.

    PubMed

    Rutty, Guy N

    2007-03-01

    A unique case of a fatal leopard seal attack against an adult human female is presented. The death occurred in Rothera, Antarctica when the female was snorkeling while undertaking scientific research. The principle injuries occurred, during life, to the facial areas prior to the act of drowning. The method of attack of leopard seals against their natural prey is discussed and related to the findings on the deceased.

  19. First Human Case of Fatal Halicephalobus gingivalis Meningoencephalitis in Australia

    PubMed Central

    Crawford, April; Moore, Casey V.; Gasser, Robin B.; Nelson, Renjy; Koehler, Anson V.; Bradbury, Richard S.; Speare, Rick; Dhatrak, Deepak; Weldhagen, Gerhard F.

    2015-01-01

    Halicephalobus gingivalis (previously Micronema deletrix) is a free-living nematode known to cause opportunistic infections, mainly in horses. Human infections are very rare, but all cases described to date involved fatal meningoencephalitis. Here we report the first case of H. gingivalis infection in an Australian human patient, confirmed by nematode morphology and sequencing of ribosomal DNA. The implications of this case are discussed, particularly, the need to evaluate real-time PCR as a diagnostic tool. PMID:25694532

  20. Fatal-mixed cutaneous zygomycosis-aspergillosis: a case report.

    PubMed

    Cateau, Estelle; Randriamalala, Edouard; Elsendoorn, Antoine; Giot, Jean-Philippe; du Sorbier, Christophe Monegier; Rodier, Marie-Helene

    2013-12-01

    Mucorales and Aspergillus are molds responsible for infections in immunocompromised patients. In this report, we describe a case of a rare extensively mixed cutaneous infection caused by Lichtheimia ramosa, Aspergillus fumigatus and Aspergillus terreus in a neutropenic patient suffering from an acute leukemia. The fatal outcome of this patient can be attributed to its hematologic malignancy, the extensive nature of the lesions and the resistance of the strains to antifungals.

  1. Traffic Fatality Reductions: United States Compared With 25 Other Countries

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Objectives. I compared US traffic fatality trends with those in 25 other countries. Methods. I have introduced a new measure for comparing safety in different countries: traffic deaths in a specific year relative to largest annual number recorded. I used only data from the International Road Traffic Accident Database. Results. The United States is a unique outlier. Fatalities in all 25 other countries declined further after reaching their maximum values. For example, the United States and the Netherlands both reached maximum values in 1972. From 1972 to 2011 US deaths declined by 41%, whereas those in the Netherlands declined by 81%. If US fatalities had declined by 81% there would have been 22 000 fewer US road deaths in 2011. If the United States matched percentage declines of 6 additional countries, US deaths would have declined by more than 20 000. Conclusions. If US traffic deaths had declined by the same percentage as in any 1 of 7 other countries, more than 20 000 fewer Americans would have been killed in 2011. PMID:24922136

  2. FATAL FOETAL ABNORMALITY, IRISH CONSTITUTIONAL LAW, AND MELLET v IRELAND.

    PubMed

    de Londras, Fiona

    2016-12-27

    Under the Irish Constitution abortion is allowed only where the life of the pregnant woman is at risk. The provision in question, Article 40.3.3 (or the 8th Amendment) has long been criticised for failing to respect women's autonomy, and in Mellet v Ireland, the UN Human Rights Committee found that Amanda Jane Mellet, who travelled to Liverpool to access abortion following a finding that her foetus suffered a fatal abnormality, had suffered a violation of her rights under the International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights (ICCPR). In this commentary I demonstrate the value of Mellet when compared to the possible legal findings in such circumstances under both the Constitution and the European Convention on Human Rights, and argue that the findings are not restricted to cases of fatal foetal abnormality. Rather, the Committee's decision illustrates the suffering that all women in Ireland who travel to access abortion experience, arguably constituting a violation of their right to be free from cruel, inhuman, and degrading treatment. On that reading, Mellet signifies the need to implement a comprehensive rethink of Irish abortion law including, but going beyond, access to abortion in cases of fatal foetal abnormality.

  3. Fatal dog attacks in Canada, 1990-2007.

    PubMed

    Raghavan, Malathi

    2008-06-01

    In Canada, public debates on dog attacks are dominated by studies from the United States. An electronic search of media reports in the Canadian Newsstand database, for the years 1990 to 2007, identified 28 fatalities from dog-bite injuries. Predominant factors in this case series were owned, known dogs; residential location; children's unsupervised access to area with dogs; and rural/remote areas, including aboriginal reserves in the prairies. A higher proportion of sled dogs and, possibly, mixed-breed dogs in Canada than in the United States caused fatalities, as did multiple dogs rather than single dogs. Free-roaming dog packs, reported only from rural communities, caused most on-reserve fatalities. Future studies are needed to assess if this rural/urban divide is observed in nonfatal attacks and if the breeds that bite in Canada are different from the breeds that killed. Breed representation in this paper and, perhaps, multiple-dog overrepresentation should be understood in the context of the overall Canadian dog population.

  4. Mortuary operations following mass fatality natural disasters: a review.

    PubMed

    Anderson, Madelyn; Leditschke, Jodie; Bassed, Richard; Cordner, Stephen M; Drummer, Olaf H

    2017-03-01

    This is a critical review to discuss the best practice approaches to mortuary operations in preparation for and the response to natural, mass fatality, disaster events, as identified by a review of published articles. The Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analysis Protocols (PRISMA-P) Statement guided the identification of potential articles to use in this critical review. Subsequent searches were also conducted to identify articles relating to heat wave, and flood mortality. All identified peer-reviewed studies published in English which discussed the preparation and response of mortuaries to mass fatality natural disasters occurring in developed countries were included. Using the PRISMA-P method of identifying articles, 18 articles were selected for inclusion in this review. Although there are numerous articles which describe the mortuary response to mass fatality incidents, few articles analyzed the response, or discussed the roles which supported and enabled the organization to undertake the task of identifying disaster victims. It is thus difficult to determine objectively if the actions and activities outlined in the articles represent best-practice.

  5. Fatal aviation accidents in Lower Saxony from 1979 to 1996.

    PubMed

    Ast, F W; Kernbach-Wighton, G; Kampmann, H; Koops, E; Püschel, K; Tröger, H D; Kleemann, W J

    2001-06-01

    So far no national or regional studies have been published in Germany regarding the number of fatal aviation accidents and results of autopsy findings. Therefore, we evaluated all fatal aviation accidents occurring in Lower Saxony from 1979 to 1996. A total of 96 aviation accidents occurred in this period involving 73 aeroplanes. The crashes resulted in the death of 154 people ranging in age from 19 to 68 years. The greatest number of victims in a single crash of an aircraft was (n=7). Other types of fatal accidents were crashes of aircraft and helicopter while on the ground (n=5), hot-air balloons (n=2), parachutes (n=10), hang glider accidents (n=5) and the striking of a bystander by a model airplane. Autopsies were performed on 68 of the 154 victims (44.2%), including 39 of the 73 pilots (53.4%). Some of the autopsies yielded findings relevant to the cause of the accident: gunshot wounds, the presence of alcohol or drugs in blood and preexisting diseases. Our findings emphasize the need for autopsy on all aviation accident victims, especially pilots, as this is the only reliable method to uncover all factors contributing to an accident.

  6. Factors associated with West Nile virus disease fatalities in horses.

    PubMed

    Epp, Tasha; Waldner, Cheryl; West, Keith; Townsend, Hugh

    2007-11-01

    In 2003, the occurrence and location of horses with clinical signs of West Nile virus infection were identified in the southern portion of Saskatchewan with the help of veterinarians, owners, and the regional laboratory. A total of 133 clinical cases were reported between July 30 and September 19, 2003; however, postseason surveillance suggests that the number of cases was underestimated. The case fatality rate was 43.8% (95% CI 35.2, 52.4). Factors associated with fatality in clinical cases included sex, week of onset of clinical signs, and coat color. Reported clinical cases clustered within regional health authority districts, suggesting regional differences in geographic factors, potentially including climate and mosquito control, that could contribute to the risk of disease. However, most of the variation in the risk of fatality in clinical cases is explained at the individual level rather than the Regional Health Authority level, which suggests the outcome of clinical disease is primarily determined by characteristics of, or management factors affecting, the individual horse.

  7. An analysis of U.S. parachuting fatalities: 2000-2004.

    PubMed

    Hart, Christian L; Griffith, James D; Randell, Joe A

    2006-12-01

    Between 2000 and 2004, 125 recreational parachuting fatalities were reported in the USA. Each was categorized using a previously reported taxonomy. While patterns of skydiving fatality were largely unchanged since the last such analysis of fatalities from 1993-1999, some variations were noted. As in previous analyses, most of the recent skydiving fatalities were the direct result of human error. Some examples of commonplace human error fatalities were turning low to the ground resulting in a hard landing, accidentally colliding with other skydivers resulting in entangled parachutes, and failure to deploy the reserve parachute correctly in the event of malfunctioning main parachute.

  8. Ten-year fatal and non-fatal myocardial infarction incidence in elderly populations in Spain: the EPICARDIAN cohort study

    PubMed Central

    Gabriel, Rafael; Alonso, Margarita; Reviriego, Blanca; Muñiz, Javier; Vega, Saturio; López, Isidro; Novella, Blanca; Suárez, Carmen; Rodríguez-Salvanés, Francisco

    2009-01-01

    Background In Spain, more than 85% of coronary heart disease deaths occur in adults older than 65 years. However, coronary heart disease incidence and mortality in the Spanish elderly have been poorly described. The aim of this study is to estimate the ten-year incidence and mortality rates of myocardial infarction in a population-based large cohort of Spanish elders. Methods A population-based cohort of 3729 people older than 64 years old, free of previous myocardial infarction, was established in 1995 in three geographical areas of Spain. Any case of fatal and non-fatal myocardial infarction was investigated until December 2004 using the "cold pursuit method", previously used and validated by the the WHO-MONICA project. Results Men showed a significantly (p < 0.001) higher cumulative incidence of myocardial infarction (7.2%; 95%CI: 5.94-8.54) than women (3.8%; 95%CI: 3.06-4.74). Although cumulative incidence increased with age (p < 0.05), gender-differences tended to narrow. Adjusted incidence rates were higher in men (957 per 100 000 person-years) than in women (546 per 100 000 person-years) (p < 0.001) and increased with age (p < 0.001). The increase was progressive in women but not in men. Adjusted mortality rates were also higher in men than in women (p < 0.001), being three times higher in the age group of ≥ 85 years old than in the age group of 65-74 years old (p < 0.001). Conclusion Incidence of fatal and non-fatal myocardial infarction is high in the Spanish elderly population. Men show higher rates than women, but gender differences diminish with age. PMID:19778417

  9. Revisiting exposure: fatal and non-fatal traffic injury risk across different populations of travelers in Wisconsin, 2001-2009.

    PubMed

    McAndrews, Carolyn; Beyer, Kirsten; Guse, Clare E; Layde, Peter

    2013-11-01

    Comparing the injury risk of different travel modes requires using a travel-based measure of exposure. In this study we quantify injury risk by travel mode, age, race/ethnicity, sex, and injury severity using three different travel-based exposure measures (person-trips, person-minutes of travel, and person-miles of travel) to learn how these metrics affect the characterization of risk across populations. We used a linked database of hospital and police records to identify non-fatal injuries (2001-2009), the Fatality Analysis Reporting System for fatalities (2001-2009), and the 2001 Wisconsin Add-On to the National Household Travel Survey for exposure measures. In Wisconsin, bicyclists and pedestrians have a moderately higher injury risk compared to motor vehicle occupants (adjusting for demographic factors), but the risk is much higher when exposure is measured in distance. Although the analysis did not control for socio-economic status (a likely confounder) it showed that American Indian and Black travelers in Wisconsin face higher transportation injury risk than White travelers (adjusting for sex and travel mode), across all three measures of exposure. Working with multiple metrics to form comprehensive injury risk profiles such as this one can inform decision making about how to prioritize investments in transportation injury prevention.

  10. Heat-induced immunoreactivity of tau protein in neocortical neurons of fire fatalities.

    PubMed

    Kibayashi, Kazuhiko; Shojo, Hideki

    2003-10-01

    Tau protein is the main component of neurofibrillary tangles of Alzheimer's disease (AD). Immunohistochemistry of tau protein is useful in the diagnosis of AD but produces diffuse staining of neocortical neurons in fire fatalities. To learn the cause of this phenomenon, we examined the temporal neocortex of 13 fire fatalities and 9 fatalities unrelated to fire. The diffuse tau immunoreactive neurons were observed in 10 fire fatalities with heat coagulation of the cerebrum. Diffuse staining was not found in the three fire fatalities without heat coagulation of the cerebrum or in fatalities unrelated to fire. The immunoreactivity progressively increased as a function of the degree of cerebral heat coagulation. These results demonstrate that diffuse tau immunoreactivity of neocortical neurons is a post-mortem phenomenon caused by prolonged exposure of the head to intense heat. Forensic pathologists should consider this phenomenon when they diagnose AD in fire fatalities.

  11. Urban Sprawl as a Risk Factor in Motor Vehicle Occupant and Pedestrian Fatalities

    PubMed Central

    Ewing, Reid; Schieber, Richard A.; Zegeer, Charles V.

    2003-01-01

    Objectives. We sought to determine the association between urban sprawl and traffic fatalities. Methods. We created a sprawl index by applying principal components analysis to data for 448 US counties in the largest 101 metropolitan areas. Regression analysis was used to determine associations between the index and traffic fatalities. Results. For every 1% increase in the index (i.e., more compact, less sprawl), all-mode traffic fatality rates fell by 1.49% (P < .001) and pedestrian fatality rates fell by 1.47% to 3.56%, after adjustment for pedestrian exposure (P < .001). Conclusions. Urban sprawl was directly related to traffic fatalities and pedestrian fatalities. Subsequent studies should investigate relationships at a finer geographic scale and should strive to improve on the measure of exposure used to adjust pedestrian fatality rates. PMID:12948977

  12. The economic value of fatal and non-fatal occupational risks in Mexico City using actuarial- and perceived-risk estimates.

    PubMed

    Hammitt, James K; Ibarrarán, María Eugenia

    2006-12-01

    Compensating wage differentials are used to estimate marginal rates of substitution between income and both fatal and non-fatal occupational-injury risks in the Mexico City metropolitan area. Data are obtained by in-person survey of almost 600 workers and include workers' perceived risks of fatal and non-fatal occupational injury supplemented by actuarial-risk estimates from government statistics. Results using both actuarial- and perceived-risk estimates are reasonably consistent. Estimates of the value per statistical life are between 235,000 US dollars and 325,000 US dollars and estimates of the value per statistical non-fatal injury are between 3500 US dollars and 11,000 US dollars (2002 US dollars). These values are much smaller than corresponding estimates for higher-income countries but are compatible with the small number of prior estimates for lower-income countries.

  13. Reporting Iraqi civilian fatalities in a time of war

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    Background In February, 2007, the Associated Press (AP) conducted a poll of 1,002 adults in the United States about their attitudes towards the war in Iraq. Respondents were remarkably accurate estimating the current death toll of US soldiers, yet were grossly inaccurate in estimating the current death toll of Iraqi civilians. We conducted a search of newspapers reports to determine the extent of the discrepancy between reporting Coalition and Iraqi civilian deaths, hypothesizing that there would be an over-representation of Coalition deaths compared to Iraqi civilian deaths. Methods We examined 11 U.S. newspapers and 5 non-U.S. newspapers using electronic databases or newspaper web-archives, to record any reports between March 2003 and March 2008 of Coalition and Iraqi deaths that included a numeric indicator. Reports were described as "events" where they described a specific occurrence involving fatalities and "tallies" when they mentioned the number of deaths over a period of time. We recorded the number of events and tallies related to Coalition deaths, Iraqi civilian deaths, and Iraqi combatant deaths Results U.S. newspapers report more events and tallies related to Coalition deaths than Iraqi civilian deaths, although there are substantially different proportions amongst the different U.S. newspapers. In four of the five non-US newspapers, the pattern was reversed. Conclusion This difference in reporting trends may partly explain the discrepancy in how well people are informed about U.S. and Iraqi civilian fatalities in Iraq. Furthermore, this calls into question the role of the media in reporting and sustaining armed conflict, and the extent to which newspaper and other media reports can be used as data to assess fatalities or trends in the time of war. PMID:19895676

  14. Causes of bat fatalities at wind turbines: Hypotheses and predictions

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cryan, P.M.; Barclay, R.M.R.

    2009-01-01

    Thousands of industrial-scale wind turbines are being built across the world each year to meet the growing demand for sustainable energy. Bats of certain species are dying at wind turbines in unprecedented numbers. Species of bats consistently affected by turbines tend to be those that rely on trees as roosts and most migrate long distances. Although considerable progress has been made in recent years toward better understanding the problem, the causes of bat fatalities at turbines remain unclear. In this synthesis, we review hypothesized causes of bat fatalities at turbines. Hypotheses of cause fall into 2 general categoriesproximate and ultimate. Proximate causes explain the direct means by which bats die at turbines and include collision with towers and rotating blades, and barotrauma. Ultimate causes explain why bats come close to turbines and include 3 general types: random collisions, coincidental collisions, and collisions that result from attraction of bats to turbines. The random collision hypothesis posits that interactions between bats and turbines are random events and that fatalities are representative of the bats present at a site. Coincidental hypotheses posit that certain aspects of bat distribution or behavior put them at risk of collision and include aggregation during migration and seasonal increases in flight activity associated with feeding or mating. A surprising number of attraction hypotheses suggest that bats might be attracted to turbines out of curiosity, misperception, or as potential feeding, roosting, flocking, and mating opportunities. Identifying, prioritizing, and testing hypothesized causes of bat collisions with wind turbines are vital steps toward developing practical solutions to the problem. ?? 2009 American Society of Mammalogists.

  15. Patterns of injury in a fatal BASE jumping accident.

    PubMed

    Wolf, Barbara C; Harding, Brett E

    2008-12-01

    Skydiving is a popular and relatively safe sport. The patterns of injury and mechanisms of death in the rare fatalities resulting from skydiving accidents have been well-documented. In contrast, BASE jumping, that is, jumping from a fixed object using a parachute, is a more dangerous and unregulated sport practiced by few individuals. There are no reports in forensic literature documenting the injuries found in deaths occurring in the practice of BASE jumping. We report the case of the death of an experienced BASE jumper who died after jumping from the antenna of a radio broadcast tower in southwest Florida to illustrate the unique hazards inherent in this sport.

  16. Fatal poisoning from ingestion of Datura stramonium seeds.

    PubMed

    Boumba, Vassiliki A; Mitselou, Antigony; Vougiouklakis, Theodore

    2004-04-01

    A 19-y old male who intentionally ingested an unknown quantity of Datura stramonium seeds to experience its hallucinogenic effects was found dead. Hyoscyamine and scopolamine were detected in postmortem blood and urine. Blood concentrations of hyoscyamine and scopolamine were 1.1 and 0.2 microg/mL, respectively; in urine only hyoscyamine at 14.2 microg/mL was found. This fatality presents the highest blood concentrations ever reported and confirms that death was due to Datura Stramonium seed ingestion.

  17. Fatal acute spontaneous endometritis resulting from Clostridium sordelli.

    PubMed

    Hogan, S F; Ireland, K

    1989-01-01

    Intrauterine clostridial infections have historically been associated with puerperal sepsis, often subsequent to instrumented abortions. Isolated reports have been associated with a malignant neoplasm or degenerating leiomyoma, most often after instrumentation, radiation therapy, or chemotherapy. In these cases, well-known risk factors or obvious niduses for growth and causation of disease were identified. The authors report a case of fatal spontaneous endometritis resulting from Clostridum sordellii, which, to their knowledge, has not been previously reported in the literature. Characteristics of this rare virulent human pathogen are discussed.

  18. [Fatal explosion injuries from blasting a cigarette machine].

    PubMed

    Madea, Burkhard; Ridwan, Hani; Längin, Volker; Doberentz, Elke

    2016-01-01

    In the last few years, a growing number of cases have been reported in Germany in which vending machines have been blasted by criminals to get at the money. Thus, it was only a question of time for the first fatalities to occur as a consequence of such careless explosions. We report on the death of a 16-year-old boy who died after triggering an explosion by spraying a deodorant into the coin slot of a cigarette machine. Death was caused by severe craniocerebral trauma due to tertiary blast-related injuries when the front plate of the machine hit the victim's cerebral and facial skull.

  19. [Fatal acute silicosis caused by voluntary inhalation of scouring powder].

    PubMed

    Vincent, M; Arthaud, Y; Crettet, G; Gerard, F; Laennec, E; Peyrol, S; Pouchelle, C; Loire, R

    1995-01-01

    We report a case of acute fatal fibrosing silico-proteinosis occurring in nine months in a young woman who had voluntarily inhaled scouring powder. We recall the reports in the literature of the subacute or chronic forms associated with systemic diseases occurring after such inhalational practices. We recall the need for specific questioning and to complete the study, the need for microscopy and electron-microscopy associated with X-ray defraction, either on the alveolar lavage fluid or on a lung biopsy.

  20. Risk Factors for Fatal and Nonfatal Road Crashes in Iran

    PubMed Central

    Mehmandar, Mohammadreza; Soori, Hamid; Amiri, Mosa; Norouzirad, Reza; Khabzkhoob, Mehdi

    2014-01-01

    Background: Road traffic injuries are among the leading causes of death in the world and Iran. Objectives: The aim of this study was to assess the role of age, sex, education, and time of accident on human casualties and mortalities of road crashes in Iran. Materials and Methods: This study was based on data gathered by Iranian Police Department from the records of road crashes from April 4, 2008 through April 4, 2009. Road crashes are categorized into three types: with no human casualties, with injuries, and with human mortalities. Results: The largest rate of human causalities was observed in people aged between 25 to 34 years (P < 0.001). Illiterate people had 81% smaller odds of causality in road crashes (P < 0.001) in comparison with those with a kind of academic education. Overall, 73.4% of crashes had happened during the last ten days of a month were with human casualties (P < 0.001) and human casualties rate was slightly higher in crashes happened between 1 AM to 5 AM Fatality rate was slightly higher in the females (OR = 2.6, P = 0.068). The smallest odds of fatality were found in the people aged between 18 to 24 years and the highest odds were seen in people ≥ 55 years of age (P < 0.001). In people with a university education, 61.9% of crashes were with fatality (P = 0.026). In addition, 82.8% of crashes during winter, 60.2% of crashes during autumn, and 35.8% of crashes during summer were with mortalities. Overall, 78.3% of crashes with human casualties that had happened during 1 AM to 5 AM led to mortalities. There was also a significant association between injury and its intensity with fastening seatbelts. Conclusions: Older age, university degrees, female sex, wintertime, and the time of accident seem to be the most important risk factors in road crashes that lead to fatalities in Iran. Drivers in Iran should be informed and trained regarding these risk factors, which have direct effect on casualties and mortalities in road crashes. PMID:25389468

  1. Dynamic Red Queen Explains Patterns in Fatal Insurgent Attacks

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-03-01

    www.nytimes.com/2008/10/15/world/asia/15afghanistan.html http://www.independent.co.uk/news/world/asia/remember-afghanistan-insurgents-bring- suicide ...average and variance for R n( ) after n steps. Our notation for the change in R n( ) at step is . Hence the change between step 0 and is...the Red Queen’s walk over the n fatal days of the conflict (i.e. steps) increases as nb where b = 0.5. Using the more general notation of

  2. Occult invasive pituitary adenoma predisposing to fatal bacterial meningitis.

    PubMed

    Laszewski, M J; Moore, S A

    1990-01-01

    Pituitary adenomata are benign neoplasms which usually grow slowly and present with manifestations relating to an associated endocrinopathy or visual disturbance. Rarely these neoplasms will demonstrate a more aggressive behavior with extracranial extension and symptoms of upper airway obstruction or anosmia. Several reported cases suggest that although these neoplasms behave aggressively the overall survival and prognosis for these patients remains good. We present the clinical and postmortem findings of an occult invasive pituitary adenoma leading to the development of bacterial meningitis, coma and death. This communication stresses the necessity for the early diagnosis and treatment of the invasive adenomata to prevent the development of potentially fatal infectious sequelae.

  3. Fatal anaphylactic shock due to a dental impression material.

    PubMed

    Gangemi, Sebastiano; Spagnolo, Elvira Ventura; Cardia, Giulio; Minciullo, Paola L

    2009-01-01

    Materials used for dental impressions are usually safe. This study describes a case of fatal anaphylaxis that appeared immediately after the oral mucosa came into contact with an alginate paste used for dental impressions. The cadaveric examination and the postmortem toxicology report confirmed that the cause of death was anaphylactic shock. The patient was affected by both cardiovascular and lung diseases that worsened the condition and forbade the use of epinephrine. To the authors' knowledge, dental impression materials, and alginate in particular, have not been reported previously as being a cause of anaphylaxis.

  4. Fatal rhinocerebral mucormycosis under the shade of hepatic encephalopathy.

    PubMed

    Ataseven, Hilmi; Yüksel, Ilhami; Gültuna, Selcan; Köklü, Seyfettin; Uysal, Serkan; Basar, Omer; Sasmaz, Nurgül

    2010-01-01

    Mucormycosis is an acutely fatal infection that occurs in immuncompromised patients. Cirrhosis is an acquired immune deficiency state and those patients are more prone to develop opportunistic infections. A 42-years-old cirrhotic man was admitted to our gastroenterology clinic with hepatic encephalopathy. Although he recovered from encephalopathy with supportive measurements, he developed paresthesia on the face. He was diagnosed with rhinocerebral mucormycosis and antifungal therapy was administered. Surgical treatment couldn.t be performed because of his bleeding diathesis and poor general condition. He succumbed on the 12th day of his admission.

  5. Risk of fatal amebic meningoencephalitis from waterborne Naegleria fowleri

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hallenbeck, William H.; Brenniman, Gary R.

    1989-03-01

    Primary amebic meningoencephalitis (PAM) is a fatal disease of the central nervous system caused primarily by the free-living ameba, Naegleria fowleri. PAM is primarily associated with swimming in various types of fresh water. World literature was reviewed in order to derive a risk analysis model that would be helpful in the management of PAM. The management of PAM risk is difficult, and the prevention of PAM is almost impossible. However, it is reassuring that the cases and risks estimated by the risk model are usually small, with individual annual risk on the order of 10-6.

  6. Misuse and modification of fireworks with fatal injury.

    PubMed

    Fulcher, James; Luttrell, Harrison; Harvey, Whit; Ward, Michael

    2015-06-01

    Fireworks deaths are a rare event in the United States with minor injuries comprising most adverse events. We report the case of misuse and modification of a large "mortar" firework with fatal results. In this case, the firework charge was modified with additional fuses and placed into the launcher upside down. The decedent then held the mortar base closely to his chest and lit the modified fuse. The resulting explosion caused severe blunt force trauma with significant hydrostatic shock damage to the heart and liver. This cause highlights the dangers of fireworks, particularly when misused.

  7. Fatal Traffic Crashes Involving Drinking Drivers: What have we Learned?

    PubMed Central

    Fell, James C.; Tippetts, A. Scott; Voas, Robert B.

    2009-01-01

    Alcohol involvement in fatal crashes (any driver with a blood alcohol concentration [BAC] = .01g/dL or greater) in 2007 was more than three times higher at night (6 p.m.–6 a.m.) than during the day (6 a.m.–6 p.m.) (62% versus 19%). Alcohol involvement was 35% during weekdays compared to 54% on weekends. Nearly one in four drivers (23%) of personal vehicles (e.g., passenger cars or light trucks) and more than one in four motorcyclists (27%) in fatal crashes were intoxicated (i.e., had a BAC equal to or greater than the .08 g/dL illegal limit in the United States). In contrast, only 1% of the commercial drivers of heavy trucks had BACs equal to .08 g/dL or higher. More than a quarter (26%) of the drivers with high BACs (≥.15 g/dL) did not have valid licenses. The 21- to 24-age group had the highest proportion (35%) of drivers with BACs≥.08 g/dL, followed by the 25- to 34-age group (29%). The oldest and the youngest drivers had the lowest percentages of BACs≥ .08 g/dL: those aged 75 or older were at 4%, and those aged 16 to 20 were at 17%. Utah had the lowest rate of intoxicated drivers in fatal crashes at one in every eight drivers (12%), followed by Kentucky, Indiana, Iowa, New Hampshire, and Kansas, all at 17%. Montana (31%), South Carolina (31%), and North Dakota (39%) all had more than 3 in 10 drivers in fatal crashes who were intoxicated in 2007. The United States enjoyed a remarkable downward trend in alcohol-related crashes between 1982 and 1995, which has since leveled off. That trend coincided with a period during which per capita national alcohol consumption declined, the number of young drivers decreased, and the proportion of female drivers increased. Those factors alone, however, did not appear to account for the overall reduction. This provides further evidence that impaired-driving laws and safety program activity may have been responsible for at least some of the decline. However, there was a general worldwide decline in alcohol

  8. Fatal bilateral pneumothoraces complicating dyskeratosis congenita: a case report

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    Introduction Dyskeratosis congenita is a rare genodermatosis, characterized by a triad of reticular skin pigmentation, nail dystrophy and leukoplakia of mucous membranes. It is also associated with a variety of non-cutaneous abnormalities such as bone marrow failure, malignancy and pulmonary complications. Among its wide range of clinical manifestations, fatal pneumothorax has rarely been reported. Case presentation We report the case of a 31-year-old Lebanese woman with dyskeratosis congenita who succumbed to devastating bilateral pneumothoraces. Conclusion Careful surveillance of patients with dyskeratosis congenita is required as incipient respiratory failure due to pneumothorax may be successfully treated if detected at an early stage. PMID:19830116

  9. Unusual fatal dog attack in Dunedin, New Zealand.

    PubMed

    Healey, D L; Kieser, J A

    2005-12-01

    A case of a fatal dog attack on a middle aged woman is presented. The offending dog was her own Bull-mastiff, which had previously shown signs of aggression towards her. Most of the injuries were found on the victim's face, neck and skull. A noteworthy feature of this attack was that the victim was known to suffer from Huntington disease. It is postulated that the involuntary movements, progressive dementia and increased moodiness characteristic of the disease may have had a significant role in triggering the attack.

  10. Fatal Chromobacterium violaceum septicemia in a South Indian adult.

    PubMed

    Karthik, Rajiv; Pancharatnam, Padmaja; Balaji, Veeraraghavan

    2012-10-19

    Chromobacterium violaceum is a rare human pathogen that causes potentially fatal infections especially in the tropical regions. Limited awareness about this pathogen and inappropriate antibiotic therapy are some of the factors contributing to the high mortality rate. To date there have been only eight cases reported from India of which only one is an adult. To the best of our knowledge, we report here the first case of a 40-year-old man from South India with septicemic C. Violaceum infection and septic arthritis.

  11. Chronic follicular bronchiolitis requires antigen-specific regulatory T cell control to prevent fatal disease progression

    PubMed Central

    Schmitt, Erica G.; Haribhai, Dipica; Jeschke, Jonathan C.; Co, Dominic O.; Ziegelbauer, Jennifer; Yan, Ke; Iwakura, Yoichiro; Mishra, Manoj K.; Simpson, Pippa; Salzman, Nita H.; Williams, Calvin B.

    2014-01-01

    In order to study regulatory T (Treg) cell control of chronic autoimmunity in a lymphoreplete host, we created and characterized a new model of autoimmune lung inflammation that targets the medium and small airways. We generated transgenic mice that express a chimeric membrane protein consisting of hen egg lysozyme (mHEL) and a hemoglobin (Hb) epitope tag under the control of the Clara cell secretory protein (CCSP) promoter, which largely limited transgene expression to the respiratory bronchioles. When CCSP-mHEL/Hb transgenic mice were crossed to N3.L2 TCR transgenic mice that recognize the Hb epitope, the bigenic progeny developed dense, pseudo-follicular lymphocytic peribronchiolar infiltrates that resembled the histological pattern of follicular bronchiolitis. Aggregates of activated IFN-γ- and IL-17A-secreting CD4+ T cells as well as B cells surrounded the airways. Lung pathology was similar in Ifng−/− and Il17a−/− mice, indicating that either cytokine is sufficient to establish chronic disease. A large number of antigen-specific Treg cells accumulated in the lesions and Treg cell-depletion in the affected mice led to an interstitial spread of the disease that ultimately proved fatal. Thus Treg cells act to restrain autoimmune responses, resulting in an organized and controlled chronic pathological process rather than a progressive disease. PMID:24163409

  12. Hair 32P measurement for body dose mapping in non-fatal exposures to fast neutrons.

    PubMed

    Mianji, Fereidoun A; Jafari, Sheyda; Zaryouni, Saiedeh; Hajizadeh, Bardia

    2015-03-01

    Dosimetry bioassay methods are the backbone of a personal dosimetry in criticality accidents. Although methods like hair dosimetry and the use of activation foils (e.g., (32)S) have been employed for decades, capabilities of different techniques, effects of hair type and neutron spectrum on the dose response, sensitivity and uncertainties of different techniques, etc., need more investigations. For this reason, the use of the (32)S(n,p)(32)P reaction and hair samples for estimating non-fatal doses from fast neutrons was studied. The experiments were carried out with the hair samples attached on a RANDO phantom in a Cf-252 neutron field, in the dose range of about 0.05-1.15 Gy. In addition, the adequate post-accident preparation for hair samples including optimum conditioning and timing were investigated. Experimental results prove the good sensitivity and merit of the method for neutron quantification in the mentioned dose range for which other bioassay methods are of poor resolution and sensitivity. A rough estimation of the dose-response curve for Iranian hair was also derived.

  13. Learning to Prove in Geometry: Learning from Heuristic Examples and How It Can Be Supported

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hilbert, Tatjana S.; Renkl, Alexander; Kessler, Stephan; Reiss, Kristina

    2008-01-01

    This field experiment tested whether a special type of worked-out examples (i.e., heuristic examples) helps learners develop better conceptual knowledge about mathematical proving and proving skills than a control condition focussing on mathematical contents. Additionally, we analysed the benefits of self-explanation prompts and completion…

  14. Commognitive Analysis of Undergraduate Mathematics Students' Responses in Proving Subgroup's Non-Emptiness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ioannou, Marios

    2016-01-01

    Proving that a given set is indeed a subgroup, one needs to show that it is non-empty, and closed under operation and inverses. This study focuses on the first condition, analysing students' responses to this task. Results suggest that there are three distinct problematic responses: the total absence of proving this condition, the problematic…

  15. 20 CFR 219.51 - Evidence to prove “living with”.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Evidence to prove âliving withâ. 219.51... EVIDENCE REQUIRED FOR PAYMENT Other Evidence Requirements § 219.51 Evidence to prove “living with”. The... employee died. (c) If the employee and spouse, widow or widower were temporarily living apart, a...

  16. 20 CFR 219.51 - Evidence to prove “living with”.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2014-04-01 2012-04-01 true Evidence to prove âliving withâ. 219.51... EVIDENCE REQUIRED FOR PAYMENT Other Evidence Requirements § 219.51 Evidence to prove “living with”. The... employee died. (c) If the employee and spouse, widow or widower were temporarily living apart, a...

  17. 20 CFR 219.51 - Evidence to prove “living with”.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2013-04-01 2012-04-01 true Evidence to prove âliving withâ. 219.51... EVIDENCE REQUIRED FOR PAYMENT Other Evidence Requirements § 219.51 Evidence to prove “living with”. The... employee died. (c) If the employee and spouse, widow or widower were temporarily living apart, a...

  18. 20 CFR 219.51 - Evidence to prove “living with”.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Evidence to prove âliving withâ. 219.51... EVIDENCE REQUIRED FOR PAYMENT Other Evidence Requirements § 219.51 Evidence to prove “living with”. The... employee died. (c) If the employee and spouse, widow or widower were temporarily living apart, a...

  19. 20 CFR 219.51 - Evidence to prove “living with”.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Evidence to prove âliving withâ. 219.51... EVIDENCE REQUIRED FOR PAYMENT Other Evidence Requirements § 219.51 Evidence to prove “living with”. The... employee died. (c) If the employee and spouse, widow or widower were temporarily living apart, a...

  20. Fatal and non-fatal injuries due to intentional explosions in Nepal, 2008-2011: analysis of surveillance data

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Nepal is one of the post-conflict countries affected by violence from explosive devices. We undertook this study to assess the magnitude of injuries due to intentional explosions in Nepal during 2008-2011 and to describe time trends and epidemiologic patterns for these events. Methods We analyzed surveillance data on fatal and non-fatal injuries due to intentional explosions in Nepal that occurred between 1 January 2008 and 31 December 2011. The case definition included casualties injured or killed by explosive devices knowingly activated by an individual or a group of individuals with the intent to harm, hurt or terrorize. Data were collected through media-based and active community-based surveillance. Results Analysis included 437 casualties injured or killed in 131 intentional explosion incidents. A decrease in the number of incidents and casualties between January 2008 and June 2009 was followed by a pronounced increase between July 2010 and June 2011. Eighty-four (19.2%) casualties were among females and 40 (9.2%) were among children under 18 years of age. Fifty-nine (45.3%) incidents involved one casualty, 47 (35.9%) involved 2 to 4 casualties, and 6 involved more than 10 casualties. The overall case-fatality ratio was 7.8%. The highest numbers of incidents occurred in streets or at crossroads, in victims’ homes, and in shops or markets. Incidents on buses and near stadiums claimed the highest numbers of casualties per incident. Socket, sutali, and pressure cooker bombs caused the highest numbers of incidents. Conclusions Intentional explosion incidents still pose a threat to the civilian population of Nepal. Most incidents are caused by small homemade explosive devices and occur in public places, and males aged 20 to 39 account for a plurality of casualties. Stakeholders addressing the explosive device problem in Nepal should continue to use surveillance data to plan interventions. PMID:23514664

  1. Investigation of Burkholderia cepacia nosocomial outbreak with high fatality in patients suffering from diseases other than cystic fibrosis.

    PubMed

    Shehabi, Asem A; Abu-Al-Soud, Waleed; Mahafzah, Azmi; Khuri-Bulos, Najwa; Abu Khader, Ilham; Ouis, Ibn-Sina; Wadström, Torkel

    2004-01-01

    Over a 1-y period, 26 inpatients at the Jordan University Hospital in Amman were detected with bacteraemia (23 cases) or respiratory tract colonized with B. cepacia (3 cases). A combination of genetic identification and molecular typing has proved that all cases were caused by a single epidemic strain of B. cepacia genomovar IIIa. Nosocomial infections could be documented in 21/26 (81%) patients, mostly with severe underlying or malignant diseases other than cystic fibrosis, but the source of infection was undetected. The overall mortality related to infection with B. cepacia was 42%. All B. cepacia isolates were resistant to ampicillin, amikacin, carbenicillin and gentamicin; and mostly susceptible to piperacillin, chloramphenicol, cotri-moxazole, tetracycline, ceftazidime, and tazocin (62-88%). This study demonstrates the nosocomial and high fatality of B. cepacia genomovar IIIa in Jordanian patients suffering from diseases other than cystic fibrosis.

  2. Neuropathology of a fatal case of posterior reversible encephalopathy syndrome.

    PubMed

    Kheir, John N; Lawlor, Michael W; Ahn, Edward S; Lehmann, Leslie; Riviello, James J; Silvera, V Michelle; McManus, Michael; Folkerth, Rebecca D

    2010-01-01

    The pathology of posterior reversible encephalopathy syndrome (PRES) is undefined, since it is rarely fatal and is biopsied in only exceptional circumstances. We describe rapidly progressive PRES following stem cell transplant for acute lymphoblastic leukemia. After development of altered mental status, this 8-year-old girl had T2 prolongation of the white matter in a posterior-dominant distribution, eventually developing cerebellar edema, hemorrhage, hydrocephalus, and herniation. Despite surgical and medical management, she died 36 hours later. At autopsy, the occipital and cerebellar white matter and focal occipital cortical gray matter showed a spectrum of microvascular changes, including dilated perivascular spaces containing proteinaceous exudates and macrophages, as well as fibrinoid necrosis and acute hemorrhage, in a distribution corresponding to the neuroimaging abnormalities and reminiscent of those seen in patients with acute hypertensive encephalopathy. Of note, similar microvascular changes were not seen in the kidney or other systemic sites. Thus, the findings indicate a brain-specific microvascular compromise as the substrate of PRES, at least in the rare instance of cases progressing to fatal outcome.

  3. Firearm fatalities. A preliminary study report from Iran.

    PubMed

    Amiri, A; Sanaei-Zadeh, H; Towfighi Zavarei, H; Rezvani Ardestani, F; Savoji, N

    2003-09-01

    During the one-year period from March 2002 to March 2003 there were 89 firearm fatalities investigated by the Legal Medicine Organization of Iran in Tehran. We determined the characteristics of these 89 firearm deaths which comprised 0.83% of all postmortem examinations. Of these, 60.7% were homicides, 30.3% suicides, 4.5% accidental, and 4.5% unclassifiable. Most victims were young male. Military rifles were responsible for almost all suicides, whereas in homicide handguns were the preferred weapons. The most common site of entrance wounds in suicides were the under the chin (37%) and chest (25.9%). In homicide group, 42.6% of entrance wounds were located in the head. The suicidal gunshots were fired from contact/near contact range in 84.6% while this was the case in only two cases of the homicides. All but one of the suicides were committed at the garrisons or police stations. The unique pattern of suicide that was found in this series was not similar to that reported in earlier studies. We believe our pattern of firearm fatalities must be in great part due to the Iran's strict gun control regulations and cultural background.

  4. Fatal thrombocytopenia: A rare case with possible explanation

    PubMed Central

    Barik, Ramachandra; Patnaik, A. N.; Gulati, A. S.

    2012-01-01

    A 22 year old male presented with breathlessness on exertion, ecchymosis, jaundice and features of worsening right heart failure for the last fifteen days. On physical examination, he had a mid diastolic murmur in the tricuspid area and an ejection systolic murmur in the pulmonary area. Bone marrow histopathology report showed an increased in megakaryocytes count. Routine investigations reports were normal. Echocardiography and computerized tomography (CT) revealed a single mobile large intra cardiac mass originating from the right atrium and causing dynamic obstruction of the right ventricular inflow and outflow tract. Associated fatal thrombocytopenia did not respond to intravenous steroids or platelet transfusion. Patient could not be operated because of very low platelet count, and died during hospital stay before excision biopsy could be done. Pathological autopsy was not done. This is a rare case, as the fatal thrombocytopenia observed here was the result of mechanical effects like frictional and shear force, which can be attributed to the physical presence of a large intra cardiac mass resulting in obstruction to flow. PMID:22629036

  5. The road against fatalities: infrastructure spending vs. regulation??

    PubMed

    Albalate, Daniel; Fernández, Laura; Yarygina, Anastasiya

    2013-10-01

    The road safety literature is typified by a high degree of compartmentalization between studies that focus on infrastructure and traffic conditions and those devoted to the evaluation of public policies and regulations. As a result, few studies adopt a unified empirical framework in their attempts at evaluating the road safety performance of public interventions, thus limiting our understanding of successful strategies in this regard. This paper considers both types of determinants in an analysis of a European country that has enjoyed considerable success in reducing road fatalities. After constructing a panel data set with road safety outcomes for all Spanish provinces between 1990 and 2009, we evaluate the role of the technical characteristics of infrastructure and recent infrastructure spending together with the main regulatory changes introduced. Our results show the importance of considering both types of determinants in a unified framework. Moreover, we highlight the importance of maintenance spending given its effectiveness in reducing fatalities and casualties in the current economic context of austerity that is having such a marked impact on investment efforts in Spain.

  6. Fatality in Kikuchi-Fujimoto disease: A rare phenomenon

    PubMed Central

    Barbat, Bianca; Jhaj, Ruby; Khurram, Daniyeh

    2017-01-01

    Kikuchi-Fujimoto disease (KFD), also known as histiocytic necrotizing lymphadenitis, is an uncommon condition, typically characterized by lymphadenopathy and fevers. It usually has a benign course; however, it may progress to fatality in extremely rare occasions. The diagnosis is made via lymph node biopsy and histopathology. Our patient was a young female who presented with shortness of breath, fever, and malaise. Physical examination revealed significant cervical and axillary lymphadenopathy. Chest X-ray displayed multilobar pneumonia. She required intubation and mechanical ventilation for progressive respiratory distress. Histopathology of lymph nodes demonstrated variable involvement of patchy areas of necrosis within the paracortex composed of karyorrhectic debris with abundant histiocytes consistent with KFD. After initial stabilization, the patient’s condition quickly deteriorated with acute anemia, thrombocytopenia and elevated prothrombin time, partial prothrombin time, and D-dimer levels. Disseminated intravascular coagulopathy (DIC) ensued resulting in the patient’s fatality. DIC in KFD is not well understood, but it is an important cause of mortality in patients with aggressive disease. PMID:28255545

  7. Electrocution fatalities in military personnel in Ankara, Turkey

    PubMed Central

    Tugcu, Harun; Ozsoy, Sait; Balandiz, Huseyin

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: To investigate various cases of death caused by electrical injuries among Turkish military personnel. Methods: We retrospectively reviewed fatality cases of military personnel between 1994 and 2013 at the Department of Forensic Medicine, Gulhane Military Medical Academy, School of Medicine, Ankara, Turkey, the only forensic medicine center for the Turkish Armed Forces. Medical records and autopsy reports of cases of electrical fatalities were reviewed and analyzed in terms of age and gender-specific incidence, voltage, contact details, body region distribution, location, and season of incident, site, and severity of injuries sustained, and histopathological and toxicological findings. Results: Sixteen (3.5%) out of the 450 autopsy cases involved electrocution. All deaths were accidental and most frequently occurred outdoors (75%). Eight (50%) died due to high voltage while 6 (37.5%) died due to low voltage. The entry and exit lesions were determined most frequently in cases with high voltage injury. The low voltage deaths commonly occurred at the scene of the event (66.6%), while almost all high voltage deaths occurred in the hospital (87.5%, p=0.03). Electrical burns were most commonly detected in the upper extremities (32.6%, n=14). Conclusion: The present study shows that deaths due to high voltage electrocution are more frequent than low voltage electrocution among military personnel. PMID:25630009

  8. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and fatal ischemic heart disease

    SciTech Connect

    Burstyn, I.; Kromhout, H.; Partanen, T.; Svane, O.; Langard, S.; Ahrens, W.; Kauppinen, T.; Stucker, I.; Shaham, J.; Heederik, D.; Ferro, G.; Heikkila, P.; Hooiveld, M.; Johansen, C.; Randem, B.G.; Boffetta, P.

    2005-11-01

    Several toxicologic and epidemiologic studies have produced evidence that occupational exposure to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) is a risk factor for ischemic heart disease (IHD). However, a clear exposure-response relation has not been demonstrated. We studied a relation between exposure to PAH and mortality from IHD (418 cases) in a cohort of 12,367 male asphalt workers from Denmark, Finland, France, Germany, Israel, The Netherlands and Norway. Exposures to benzo(a)pyrene were assessed quantitatively using measurement-driven exposure models. Exposure to coal tar was assessed in a semiquantitative manner on the basis of information supplied by company representatives. We carried out sensitivity analyses to assess potential confounding by tobacco smoking. Both cumulative and average exposure indices for benzo(a)pyrene were positively associated with mortality from IHD. The highest relative risk for fatal IHD was observed for average benzo(a)pyrene exposures of 273 ng/m{sup 3} or higher, for which the relative risk was 1.64(95% confidence interval = 1.13-2.38). Similar results were obtained for coal tar exposure. Sensitivity analysis indicated that even in a realistic scenario of confounding by smoking, we would observe approximately 20% to 40% excess risk in IHD in the highest PAH-exposure categories. Our results lend support to the hypothesis that occupational PAH exposure causes fatal IHD and demonstrate a consistent exposure-response relation for this association.

  9. Fatal attraction: Explaining Russia's sensitive nuclear transfers to Iran

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuchinsky, Leah R.

    This paper explores Russia's sensitive nuclear assistance to Iran in an effort to determine why a supplier state might proliferate against its own apparent security interests. The goal is to help readers understand the supply-side dynamics of nuclear proliferation. Through careful reconstruction of the historical narrative, using open source data, this study tests the plausibility of a "fatalistic calculus" explanation, identified by Stephen Sestanovich as a possible driver for Russia's behavior. According to the hypothesis, Russia has cooperated with Iran as a way both to stay in the good graces of a neighbor that is suspected of developing nuclear weapons and to win short-term influence and profits. The paper also examines the role of other factors advanced in the existing supply-side literature, such as economic motives identified by physicist and nonproliferation scholar David Albright. The findings show that bureaucratic, economic and fatalistic factors have each played a role in motivating Russia's cooperation with Iran, with their relative importance shifting over time. Fatalism begets a strategy of Russian "minimaxing," in the lexicon of Russia scholar Robert Freedman, wherein Russia attempts to minimize damage to its relationship with the U.S. while maximizing influence in Iran via nuclear cooperation. Fatalism, as actualized by minimaxing, best explains Russia's behavior after former Russian president Vladmir Putin came to power, when the bureaucratic and economic arguments become less cogent.

  10. [Fatal alveolar haemorrhage following a "bang" of cannabis].

    PubMed

    Grassin, F; André, M; Rallec, B; Combes, E; Vinsonneau, U; Paleiron, N

    2011-09-01

    The new methods of cannabis consumption (home made water pipe or "bang") may be responsible for fatal respiratory complications. We present a case, with fatal outcome, of a man of 19 years with no previous history other than an addiction to cannabis using "bang". He was admitted to intensive care with acute dyspnoea. A CT scan showed bilateral, diffuse alveolar shadowing. He was anaemic with an Hb of 9.3g/l. Bronchoalveolar lavage revealed massive alveolar haemorrhage. Investigations for infection and immunological disorder were negative and toxicology was negative except for cannabis. Antibiotic treatment was given and favourable progress allowed early discharge. Death occurred 15 days later due to alveolar haemorrhage following a further "bang" of cannabis. Autopsy showed toxic alveolar haemorrhage. The probable mechanism is pulmonary damage due to acid anhydrides released by the incomplete combustion of cannabis in contact with plastic. These acids have a double effect on the lungs: a direct toxicity with severe inflammation of the mucosa leading to alveolar haemorrhage and subsequently the acid anhydrides may lead to the syndrome of intra-alveolar haemorrhage and anaemia described in occupational lung diseases by Herbert in Oxford in 1979. It manifests itself by haemoptysis and intravascular haemolysis. We draw attention to the extremely serious potential consequences of new methods of using cannabis, particularly the use of "bang" in homemade plastic materials.

  11. Can child fatalities in house fires be prevented?

    PubMed Central

    Squires, T.; Busuttil, A.

    1996-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To analyse all child deaths in house fires in Scotland between 1980 and 1990. METHODS: Retrospective study of all child house fire fatalities based on the 'sudden death' investigation instigated by the procurator fiscal in whose jurisdiction the death occurred. The necropsy, toxicology, police, and fire brigade reports were examined in each case. RESULTS: There were 168 child deaths occurring in 118 house fires. In the 0-5 years age group 40% of deaths occurred in fires started as a direct result of the actions of children. The careless disposal of smoking materials was the most frequent cause of fatal fires killing older children. Upholstery and bedding were common materials of first ignition, accounting for over half the incidents. The majority of children were dead before the arrival of the emergency services and most died as a result of the inhalation of smoke. CONCLUSIONS: This survey emphasises the importance of 'self escape' which, particularly in the case of young children, requires the assistance of adult carers. The number of fires started as a result of children playing with sources of ignition raises important questions of supervision and the provision of a safe environment. There is, we contend, a need to highlight the importance of individual behaviour and responsibility while recognising the need to develop measures that are relevant to, and effective in, a particular socioeconomic context. PMID:9346071

  12. Electrical fatalities among U.S. construction workers.

    PubMed

    Ore, T; Casini, V

    1996-06-01

    Over 2000 electrocution deaths were identified among U.S. construction workers from 1980 to 1991, with the highest mean annual crude mortality rate (2.5 per 100,000 people), and second highest mean age-adjusted rate (2.7 per 100,000 people) of all industries. Although the crude fatality rates showed a downward trend, construction workers are still about four times more likely to be electrocuted at work than are workers in all industries combined. Nearly 40% of the 5083 fatal electrocutions in all industries combined occurred in construction, and 80% were associated with industrial wiring, appliances, and transmission lines. Electrocutions ranked as the second leading cause of death among construction workers, accounting for an average of 15% of traumatic deaths in the industry from 1980 to 1991. The study indicates that the workers most at risk of electrical injury are male, young, nonwhite, and electricians, structural metal workers, and laborers. The most likely time of injury is 11 a.m. to 3 p.m. from June to August. Focusing prevention on these populations and characteristics through better methods of worker and supervisor electrical safety training, use of adequate protective clothing, and compliance with established procedures could minimize the average annual loss of 168 U.S. construction workers.

  13. Fatal Canid herpesvirus 1 infection in an adult dog.

    PubMed

    Gadsden, Barbie J; Maes, Roger K; Wise, Annabel G; Kiupel, Matti; Langohr, Ingeborg M

    2012-05-01

    Canid herpesvirus 1 (CaHV-1) is a well-known cause of fatal hepatic and renal necrosis in neonatal puppies. In adult dogs infected with CaHV-1, papulovesicular genital lesions may be observed. CaHV-1 infection during pregnancy can lead to embryonic resorption, abortion, and stillbirth. In high-density dog populations, CaHV-1 can also contribute to kennel cough. Furthermore, recent literature has clearly documented that CaHV-1 can induce ocular disease in immature and adult dogs. The current study describes a case of fatal CaHV-1 infection in a 9-year-old spayed female Bichon Frise dog. Following a history of vomiting and diarrhea, the dog deteriorated and subsequently died. The main lesions were multifocal areas of necrosis with intranuclear inclusion bodies in the liver, adrenal gland, and small intestine, similar to the lesions observed in CaHV-1-infected puppies. Infection with CaHV-1 was confirmed on samples of liver by polymerase chain reaction, immunohistochemistry, and in situ hybridization. There was no indication of immunosuppression in this dog. Based on the results presented herein, CaHV-1 should be included in the list of differential diagnoses of hepatic necrosis in adult dogs.

  14. [Fatal methadone poisoning: observations at the CHU of Liege].

    PubMed

    Denooz, R; Charlier, C

    2006-01-01

    All methadone-associated deaths from October 2002 to April 2005 are analysed. A regular increase in these fatal intoxications has been recorded, in Belgium as in other countries, due, in particular, to an intensified prescription of this product, of which illicit use as street dope becomes problematic. Over the 30 months period covered by the study, 26 deaths related to methadone were listed, of which 3 occurred in accidental circumstances. In the other 23 cases, methadone can be found, yet always associated with psychotropic substances, mainly benzodiazepines (18 cases), narcotics (15 cases) and finally alcohol (5 cases). Based upon the nature of the products combined with methadone, records have been divided in two groups: In the first group (17 observations), xenobiotics at (infra)therapeutic levels are detected. In the other group (6 observations), xenobiotics at high and toxic levels are detected. Blood methadone concentrations are not so different between the 2 groups of individuals since the median values and the extreme values are worth respectively 308, and 110-11300 microg/L, for the first group and 776 and 93-2080 microg/L for the second group. There is thus an important overlap between the therapeutic blood methadone concentrations (150-400 microg/L) and blood concentrations observed in fatalities.Thus, it is necessary that all information and post-mortem results must be examined in a critical way to identify and justify cause of the death.

  15. Presumed Air by Vitrectomy Embolisation (PAVE) a potentially fatal syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Morris, Robert E; Sapp, Mathew R; Oltmanns, Matthew H; Kuhn, Ferenc

    2014-01-01

    Background Since first being reported in the ophthalmology literature in 2010, three cases (one fatal) of suspected venous air embolism (VAE) during vitrectomy have received little notice, and the vitrectomy/VAE connection has been described as unproven. We investigated the ability of air to exit the eye through vortex veins after accidental suprachoroidal air infusion. Methods Vitrectomy was performed on four donor eyes. Unsutured cannulas were partially withdrawn during air fluid exchange, producing choroidal detachments that emulated accidental suprachoroidal air infusion from a slipping cannula. Eyes with and without clamping of the vortex vein stumps were partially submerged in a water bath. Results Extensive choroidal detachment was created in all eyes during air infusion. All eyes with open vortex veins demonstrated rapid air extravasation/bubbling. An eye with clamped vortex vein stumps showed no air extravasation until the clamps were removed. Conclusions When combined with existing clinical reports of suspected VAE in the eyes of living patients during ocular air fluid exchange, this experiment justifies recognition of presumed air by vitrectomy embolisation (PAVE) as a rare but potentially fatal vitrectomy complication. Simple surgical precautions can change PAVE from a ‘rare event’ to a ‘never event’, beginning with acknowledgment of its existence. PMID:23793850

  16. Influenza A virus infection complicated by fatal myocarditis.

    PubMed

    Nolte, K B; Alakija, P; Oty, G; Shaw, M W; Subbarao, K; Guarner, J; Shieh, W J; Dawson, J E; Morken, T; Cox, N J; Zaki, S R

    2000-12-01

    Influenza virus typically causes a febrile respiratory illness, but it can present with a variety of other clinical manifestations. We report a fatal case of myocarditis associated with influenza A infection. A previously healthy 11-year-old girl had malaise and fever for approximately 1 week before a sudden, witnessed fatal collapse at home. Autopsy revealed a pericardial effusion, a mixed lymphocytic and neutrophilic myocarditis, a mild lymphocytic interstitial pneumonia, focal bronchial/bronchiolar mucosal necrosis, and histologic changes consistent with asthma. Infection with influenza A (H3N2) was confirmed by virus isolation from a postmortem nasopharyngeal swab. Attempts to isolate virus from heart and lung tissue were unsuccessful. Immunohistochemical tests directed against influenza A antigens and in situ hybridization for influenza A genetic material demonstrated positive staining in bronchial epithelial cells, whereas heart sections were negative. Sudden death is a rare complication of influenza and may be caused by myocarditis. Forensic pathologists should be aware that postmortem nasopharyngeal swabs for viral culture and immunohistochemical or in situ hybridization procedures on lung tissue might be necessary to achieve a diagnosis. Because neither culturable virus nor influenza viral antigen could be identified in heart tissue, the pathogenesis of influenza myocarditis in this case is unlikely to be the result of direct infection of myocardium by the virus. The risk factors for developing myocarditis during an influenza infection are unknown.

  17. Language, income, education, and alcohol-related fatal motor vehicle crashes.

    PubMed

    Romano, Eduardo O; Tippetts, A Scott; Voas, Robert B

    2006-01-01

    This paper investigates the role of race/ethnicity, language skills (a proxy for acculturation among Hispanics in Arizona, California, New Mexico, and Texas), income, and education level on alcohol-related fatal motor vehicle crashes. Using the Fatality Analysis Reporting System (FARS), we confirmed previous state-based studies showing that high income and education levels have a protective influence on alcohol-related fatal motor vehicle crashes. We also confirmed that language proficiency/acculturation tends to increase the vulnerability of Hispanic women to alcohol-related fatalities. Differences in alcohol-related fatality rates across Hispanic subgroups are observed. Future reductions in alcohol-related traffic fatalities may require prevention policies that take into account existent variations in acculturation, income, and education among racial/ethnic groups and subgroups.

  18. Impact of texting laws on motor vehicular fatalities in the United States.

    PubMed

    Ferdinand, Alva O; Menachemi, Nir; Sen, Bisakha; Blackburn, Justin L; Morrisey, Michael; Nelson, Leonard

    2014-08-01

    Using a panel study design, we examined the effects of different types of texting bans on motor vehicular fatalities. We used the Fatality Analysis Reporting System and a difference-in-differences approach to examine the incidence of fatal crashes in 2000 through 2010 in 48 US states with and without texting bans. Age cohorts were constructed to examine the impact of these bans on age-specific traffic fatalities. Primarily enforced laws banning all drivers from texting were significantly associated with a 3% reduction in traffic fatalities in all age groups, and those banning only young drivers from texting had the greatest impact on reducing deaths among those aged 15 to 21 years. Secondarily enforced restrictions were not associated with traffic fatality reductions in any of our analyses.

  19. Impact of Texting Laws on Motor Vehicular Fatalities in the United States

    PubMed Central

    Ferdinand, Alva O.; Blackburn, Justin L.; Morrisey, Michael; Nelson, Leonard

    2014-01-01

    Using a panel study design, we examined the effects of different types of texting bans on motor vehicular fatalities. We used the Fatality Analysis Reporting System and a difference-in-differences approach to examine the incidence of fatal crashes in 2000 through 2010 in 48 US states with and without texting bans. Age cohorts were constructed to examine the impact of these bans on age-specific traffic fatalities. Primarily enforced laws banning all drivers from texting were significantly associated with a 3% reduction in traffic fatalities in all age groups, and those banning only young drivers from texting had the greatest impact on reducing deaths among those aged 15 to 21 years. Secondarily enforced restrictions were not associated with traffic fatality reductions in any of our analyses. PMID:24922151

  20. Lemierre's syndrome presenting to the ED: rapidly fatal sepsis caused by methicillin-susceptible Staphylococcus aureus Staphylococcus protein A type t044.

    PubMed

    Pitsiou, Georgia; Kachrimanidou, Melina; Papa, Anna; Kioumis, Ioannis; Paspala, Asimina; Boutou, Afroditi; Vlachou, Stamatina; Tsorlini, Eleni; Argyropoulou-Pataka, Paraskevi

    2013-01-01

    We describe the case of a fatal septic illness in a previously healthy young man caused by community-acquired methicillin-susceptible Staphylococcus aureus of Staphylococcus protein A (spa) type t044. The patient developed a devastating Lemierre-like syndrome with extensive thrombosis of inferior vena cava and iliac veins with multiple metastatic septic emboli of the lungs. He presented to the emergency department with rapidly progressing sepsis followed by multiple organ dysfunction syndrome. Recognition of such virulent community-acquired strains is of great importance because they could prove to be emerging pathogens for life-threatening diseases.

  1. Safe management of mass fatalities following chemical, biological, and radiological incidents.

    PubMed

    Baker, David J; Jones, Kelly A; Mobbs, Shelly F; Sepai, Ovnair; Morgan, Dilys; Murray, Virginia S G

    2009-01-01

    Contaminated mass fatalities following the release of chemical, biological, or radiological agents pose a potential major health hazard. A United Kingdom government investigation has identified a number of areas of risk. This paper presents an outline of the findings of the study and describes specific pathways for the management of contaminated and non-contaminated fatalities. Factors determining the choice between cremation and burial are discussed. Effective decontamination remains a neglected area of study for both fatalities and casualties.

  2. Work-related pilot fatalities in agriculture--United States, 1992-2001.

    PubMed

    2004-04-23

    Aircraft often are used in agriculture to apply pesticides, herbicides, or fertilizers. During 1992-2001, a total of 141 persons died in agriculture-related plane crashes. To characterize aviation fatalities in agriculture, CDC analyzed data on fatal injuries to pilots working in U.S. agriculture during 1992-2001. This report summarizes the results of that analysis, which indicated that agricultural pilots are at increased risk for fatal injury compared with pilots in all other industries. The agriculture aviation profession continues to work to reduce fatalities by recommending continual skill development and by offering training to aerial application pilots.

  3. The turning point in the number of traffic fatalities: two hypotheses about changes in underlying trends.

    PubMed

    Brüde, Ulf; Elvik, Rune

    2015-01-01

    The number of traffic fatalities reached a peak in many highly motorised countries around 1970. Some previous studies have suggested that the turning point in the number of traffic fatalities was inevitable and did not reflect a change in the underlying trends influencing the number of traffic fatalities. Other studies suggest that trends in traffic growth and fatality rate changed from before to after the turning point. This paper proposes two hypotheses about the turning point in the number of traffic fatalities. One hypothesis is that the long-term trends in traffic growth and fatality rate were the same before and after the turning point. The other hypothesis is that the long-term trends in traffic growth and fatality rate were different before and after the turning point was reached, in particular that the annual percentage decline in fatality rate became greater after the turning point than before. Such a change would suggest that road safety policy became more effective. Analysis of data for six countries (Denmark, Great Britain, Netherlands, Norway, Sweden, United States) lends stronger support to the latter hypothesis than to the former. The lesson for policy makers, in particular in countries where the number of traffic fatalities is still growing, is that they should not expect a turning point to be reached without policy interventions.

  4. Trends in Fatalities From Distracted Driving in the United States, 1999 to 2008

    PubMed Central

    Stimpson, Jim P.

    2010-01-01

    Objectives. We examined trends in distracted driving fatalities and their relation to cell phone use and texting volume. Methods. The Fatality Analysis Reporting System (FARS) records data on all road fatalities that occurred on public roads in the United States from 1999 to 2008. We studied trends in distracted driving fatalities, driver and crash characteristics, and trends in cell phone use and texting volume. We used multivariate regression analysis to estimate the relation between state-level distracted driving fatalities and texting volumes. Results. After declining from 1999 to 2005, fatalities from distracted driving increased 28% after 2005, rising from 4572 fatalities to 5870 in 2008. Crashes increasingly involved male drivers driving alone in collisions with roadside obstructions in urban areas. By use of multivariate analyses, we predicted that increasing texting volumes resulted in more than 16 000 additional road fatalities from 2001 to 2007. Conclusions. Distracted driving is a growing public safety hazard. Specifically, the dramatic rise in texting volume since 2005 appeared to be contributing to an alarming rise in distracted driving fatalities. Legislation enacting texting bans should be paired with effective enforcement to deter drivers from using cell phones while driving. PMID:20864709

  5. Results from the Hawaii domestic violence fatality review, 2000-2009

    PubMed Central

    Pobutsky, Ann; Brown, Melissa; Nakao, Lisa; Reyes-Salvail, Florentina

    2014-01-01

    Abstract: Background: Patterns of domestic violence fatalities and agency responses in Hawaii have not been explicated. Methods: Retrospective reviews of events leading up to domestic violence related fatalities in Hawaii were assessed from 45 adjudicated cases that resulted in 62 fatalities for the ten year period from 2000-2009. Results: Almost one-half of the fatalities were homicide/suicide combinations. Females were disproportionately more likely to be fatal victims of domestic violence relative to their proportion in the population. Those aged 21-40 years and those over 80 years were more likely to be fatal victims of domestic violence, relative to their proportion in the population. Filipinas and ‘Other” ethnic groups are disproportionately more likely to be fatal victims of domestic violence while Native Hawaiians and Japanese are less likely to be fatal victims, relative to their proportions in the population. In more than two-thirds of the cases, the victim had made some attempt to leave the relationship prior to the fatality. Conclusions: In the majority of cases there was agency involvement in some form: either the victim alone or the perpetrator alone, or both. However, less than one-third (31.1%) of the cases over the past ten years had documentation of prior violence from medical reports, so this may be an area to further document and address domestic violence. PMID:24292165

  6. Fatal accidents at railway level crossings in Great Britain 1946-2009.

    PubMed

    Evans, Andrew W

    2011-09-01

    This paper investigates fatal accidents and fatalities at level crossings in Great Britain over the 64-year period 1946-2009. The numbers of fatal accidents and fatalities per year fell by about 65% in the first half of that period, but since then have remained more or less constant at about 11 fatal accidents and 12 fatalities per year. At the same time other types of railway fatalities have fallen, so level crossings represent a growing proportion of the total. Nevertheless, Britain's level crossing safety performance remains good by international standards. The paper classifies level crossings into three types: railway-controlled, automatic, and passive. The safety performance of the three types of crossings has been very different. Railway-controlled crossings are the best-performing crossing type, with falling fatal accident rates. Automatic crossings have higher accident rates per crossing than railway controlled or passive crossings, and the accident rates have not decreased. Passive crossings are by far the most numerous, but many have low usage by road users. Their fatal accident rate has remained remarkably constant over the whole period at about 0.9 fatal accidents per 1000 crossings per year. A principal reason why fatal accidents and fatalities have not fallen in the second half of the period as they did in the first half is the increase in the number of automatic crossings, replacing the safer railway controlled crossings on some public roads. However, it does not follow that this replacement was a mistake, because automatic crossings have advantages over controlled crossings in reducing delays to road users and in not needing staff. Based on the trends for each type of crossing and for pedestrian and non-pedestrian accidents separately, in 2009 a mean of about 5% of fatal accidents were at railway controlled crossings, 52% were at automatic crossings, and 43% were at passive crossings. Fatalities had similar proportions. About 60% of fatalities were

  7. Motor vehicle crash fatalities by race/ethnicity in Arizona, 1990–96

    PubMed Central

    Campos-Outcalt, D; Bay, C; Dellapena, A; Cota, M

    2003-01-01

    Objective: To compare rates of motor vehicle crash (MVC) fatalities among different race/ethnic groups in urban and rural Arizona. Method: Using the Fatality Analysis Reporting System and the National Center for Health Statistics Multiple Cause of Death file, MVC fatalities in Arizona from 1990–96 inclusive were classified by gender, race/ethnicity, and urban or rural residence. Age adjusted rates of total, occupant, pedestrian, and alcohol related fatalities were calculated. The total MVC fatality rate for each race/ethnic group was then adjusted for proportion of rural residence. Results: Compared with non-Hispanic whites (NHWs), American Indians had raised relative risks for MVC fatality in all gender and residence subgroups. Hispanic females and rural Hispanic males had lower relative risks, as did rural African-American men. Raised relative risks for American Indian men and women included all subgroups: total, occupant, pedestrian, and alcohol related. Hispanic and African-American men both had raised relative risks of pedestrian related fatalities, and Hispanic men had a slightly higher relative risk while Hispanic women had a lower relative risks, for alcohol related fatality. Hispanic men and women and African-American men had lower occupant fatality rates. Close to half (45%) of the excess MVC fatality among American Indians can be attributed to residence in rural areas, where MVC fatality rates are higher. There were 1.85 occupants in crashes involving NHW deaths compared with 2.51 for Hispanics and 2.71 for American Indians (p<0.001). The proportion of occupants not using a seatbelt was higher in Hispanics and American Indians in both urban and rural areas. Conclusion: The major disparity in MVC fatality in Arizona is among American Indians. The higher MVC fatality rates among American Indians occur in all age groups, in both urban and rural areas, and among occupants and pedestrians. Rural residence, lower rates of seatbelt use, higher rates of

  8. Gasoline Prices and Their Relationship to Rising Motorcycle Fatalities, 1990–2007

    PubMed Central

    Stimpson, Jim P.; Hilsenrath, Peter E.

    2009-01-01

    Motor vehicle accidents are the leading cause of death among young adults. Although automobile fatalities have declined in recent years, motorcycle fatalities are rapidly increasing. The purpose of our research was to quantify the relationship between changing fuel prices and motorcycle fatalities. Our findings suggest that people increasingly rely on motorcycles to reduce their fuel costs in response to rising gasoline prices. We estimate that use of motorcycles and scooters instead of 4-wheeled vehicles results in over 1500 additional motorcycle fatalities annually for each dollar increase in gas prices. Motorcycle safety should receive more attention as a leading public health issue. PMID:19696374

  9. Fatalism and health promoting behaviors in Chinese and Korean immigrants and Caucasians.

    PubMed

    Heiniger, Louise E; Sherman, Kerry A; Shaw, Laura-Kate E; Costa, Daniel

    2015-02-01

    Fatalism has been associated with non-adherence to health behavior in the past. This study compared fatalism of Chinese and Korean immigrants with native-born Caucasians (N = 309) and examined whether the relationship between fatalism and exercise, nutrition and medical screening would be moderated by ethnicity. Chinese reported higher fatalism than Caucasians and Koreans. Higher fatalism was associated with greater exercise among Chinese and Koreans, but less reported exercise among Caucasians. Caucasian participants had higher scores for nutrition and medical screening compared with Chinese and Korean immigrants. These findings indicate that fatalism is more prevalent among Chinese immigrants; however, there is no evidence of a detrimental effect of fatalism on exercise, nutrition or medical screening among the Asian immigrants. Caucasians with higher fatalism may be at greater risk of future illnesses, given the association between fatalism and sedentary behavior in this group. Differences between cultural groups in the adoption of health behavior justify the development and assessment of targeted interventions to optimize health promoting behaviors.

  10. Unique fatality due to claw injuries in a tiger attack: a case report.

    PubMed

    Pathak, Hrishikesh; Dixit, Pradeep; Dhawane, Shailendra; Meshram, Satin; Shrigiriwar, Manish; Dingre, Niraj

    2014-11-01

    This paper describes a unique case of a fatal tiger attack in the wild. In the present case, a tiger fatally mauled a 34-year-old female with its claws, instead of the usual mechanism of killing by the bite injury to the neck. The autopsy revealed multiple fatal and non-fatal injuries caused by the tiger claws. The characteristic injuries due to the tooth impacts were absent as the teeth of the offending tiger were either fallen or non-functional. To the best of our knowledge, probably this rare case would be the first reported human fatality due to the tiger claw injuries in the world. The purpose of the present article is to highlight the fatal injuries due to the tiger claws, as the claw-induced fatal injuries in a tiger attack are not reported in the medico-legal literature. Moreover, this report would be an illustrative one for differentiation between the fatal injuries due to the claws and tooth impacts in a tiger attack. Furthermore, the present report establishes the importance of the tiger claws as a source of fatal injuries in a tiger attack.

  11. United States pedestrian fatality rates by vehicle type

    PubMed Central

    Paulozzi, L

    2005-01-01

    Objective: To describe the relation between motor vehicle type and the risk of fatally injuring a pedestrian. Design: The risk of killing a pedestrian was measured as the number of pedestrian fatalities per billion miles of vehicle travel by each vehicle type in the US in 2002 as reported by the National Highway Traffic Safety Administration's Fatality Analysis Reporting System. Interventions: None. Main outcome measures: Rates for each vehicle type by sex, age, and rural/urban roadway type and rate comparisons using relative risks (RR) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs). Results: Passenger cars and light trucks (vans, pickups, and sport utility vehicles) accounted for 46.1% and 39.1%, respectively, of the 4875 deaths, with the remainder split among motorcycles, buses, and heavy trucks. Compared with cars, the RR of killing a pedestrian per vehicle mile was 7.97 (95% CI 6.33 to 10.04) for buses; 1.93 (95% CI 1.30 to 2.86) for motorcycles; 1.45 (95% CI 1.37 to 1.55) for light trucks, and 0.96 (95% CI 0.79 to 1.18) for heavy trucks. Compared with cars, buses were 11.85 times (95% CI 6.07 to 23.12) and motorcycles were 3.77 times (95% CI 1.40 to 10.20) more likely per mile to kill children 0–14 years old. Buses were 16.70 times (95% CI 7.30 to 38.19) more likely to kill adults age 85 or older than were cars. The risk of killing a pedestrian per vehicle mile traveled in an urban area was 1.57 times (95% CI 1.47 to 1.67) the risk in a rural area. Conclusions: Outcomes reflect the ways in which a vehicle's characteristics (mass, front end design, and visibility) and its degree of interaction with pedestrians affect its risk per mile. Modifications in vehicle design might reduce pedestrian injury. The greatest impact on overall US pedestrian mortality will result from reducing the risk from the light truck category. PMID:16081753

  12. Fatal case of ectopic enterobiasis: Enterobius vermicularis in the kidneys.

    PubMed

    Serpytis, Mindaugas; Seinin, Dmitrij

    2012-02-01

    Enterobius vermicularis is one of the most common intestinal parasites found in humans. They commonly infest the terminal ileum and large intestine, and are usually considered an innocuous parasite that can be easily eradicated with proper treatment. However, extraintestinal migration of worms, although very rare, may lead to severe health disorders or even death. This article, reports the first fatal case of ectopic enterobiasis known to the authors, which developed in an adult patient with E. vermicularis infection, causing perforation of the large intestine and generalized bacterial peritonitis. Despite emergency laparotomy, the patient died from septic shock on the day after surgery. During pathological examination, worms were found not only in the large intestine, but also in the renal parenchyma; worm eggs were found deposited in the lungs as well.

  13. [Fatal haemorrhagic rift valley fever: a case at Madagascar].

    PubMed

    Raveloson, N E; Ramorasata, J C; Rasolofohanitrininosy, R; Rakotoarivony, S T; Andrianjatovo, J J; Sztark, F

    2010-04-01

    Rift valley fever (RVF) is a viral zoonosis that can also infect humans. Haemorrhagic RVF is a severe potentially fatal form of the disease. Although haemorrhagic RVF accounts for only 1% of all infections, death occurs in up to 5% of cases. The purpose of this report is describe a severe case of haemorrhagic RVF observed in a 22-year-old cattle breeder admitted to the intensive care units of the Joseph Raseta Befelatanana University Hospitals in Antananarivo. The disease presented as an infectious syndrome but hemorrhagic manifestations developed early (day 2). They consisted of diffuse haemorrhage events (haemorrhagic vomit, gingival haemorrhage, skin haemorrhage, urinary haemorrhage, and haemorrhage on the venous puncture site). In spite of intensive care, haemorrhagic complications lead to death on day 4 of clinical evolution. Laboratory findings demonstrated alteration in liver function and coagulation disturbances. Multiple organ failure was also observed.

  14. A case of fatal aconitine poisoning by Monkshood ingestion.

    PubMed

    Pullela, Ravi; Young, Lorraine; Gallagher, Barry; Avis, Simon P; Randell, Edward W

    2008-03-01

    Accidental aconitine poisoning is extremely rare in North America. This report describes the confirmation of a case of accidental aconitine poisoning using a liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) method. The case involved a 25-year-old man who died suddenly following a recreational outing with friends where he consumed a number of wild berries and plants including one that was later identified as Monkshood (Aconitum napellus). Postmortem blood and urine samples were available for analysis. All routine urine and blood toxicology screens were negative. The LC-MS/MS method allowed sensitive quantification of aconitine, the main toxin in A. napellus, and showed 3.6 and 149 microg/L in blood and urine, respectively. These concentrations were similar to that reported in other aconitine-related deaths. This case illustrates the dangers of consuming unidentified plants, and documents concentrations of aconitine in blood and urine in a fatal case of A. napallus-related poisoning.

  15. Fatal Toxoplasma gondii infection in the giant panda

    PubMed Central

    Ma, Hongyu; Wang, Zedong; Wang, Chengdong; Li, Caiwu; Wei, Feng; Liu, Quan

    2015-01-01

    Toxoplasma gondii can infect nearly all warm-blooded animals. We report an acute fatal T. gondii infection in the endangered giant panda (Ailuropoda melanoleuca) in a zoo in China, characterized by acute gastroenteritis and respiratory symptoms. T. gondii infection was confirmed by immunological and molecular methods. Multilocus nested PCR-RFLP revealed clonal type I at the SAG1 and c29-2 loci, clonal type II at the SAG2, BTUB, GRA6, c22-8, and L358 loci, and clonal type III at the alternative SAG2 and SAG3 loci, thus, a potential new genotype of T. gondii in the giant panda. Other possible pathogens were not detected. To our knowledge, this is the first report of clinical toxoplasmosis in a giant panda. PMID:26514595

  16. Fatal winter dysentery with severe anemia in an adult cow.

    PubMed

    Natsuaki, Sumiko; Goto, Keiichi; Nakamura, Kikuyasu; Yamada, Manabu; Ueo, Hiroshi; Komori, Toshihiro; Shirakawa, Hitomi; Uchinuno, Yukinori

    2007-09-01

    An adult dairy cow fatally affected with winter dysentery was investigated pathologically and virologically. The cow had severe anemia and diarrhea with massive blood. Pathologically, the loss of surface epithelial cells and necrosis of crypt epithelial cells in the large intestine were observed. Bovine coronavirus (BCV) antigen was observed in necrotic crypt epithelial cells of the large intestine. Virus particles were found in the necrotic epithelial cells of the large intestine. Virologically, BCV was isolated from the feces of the dead cow. The dead cow had no serum antibody against BCV although the co-habitants did. These suggest that severe infection of BCV in the cow without the BCV antibody accompanied by severe hemorrhagic anemia resulted in the cow's death.

  17. Smallpox virus plaque phenotypes: genetic, geographical and case fatality relationships.

    PubMed

    Olson, Victoria A; Karem, Kevin L; Smith, Scott K; Hughes, Christine M; Damon, Inger K

    2009-04-01

    Smallpox (infection with Orthopoxvirus variola) remains a feared illness more than 25 years after its eradication. Historically, case-fatality rates (CFRs) varied between outbreaks (<1 to approximately 40 %), the reasons for which are incompletely understood. The extracellular enveloped virus (EEV) form of orthopoxvirus progeny is hypothesized to disseminate infection. Investigations with the closely related Orthopoxvirus vaccinia have associated increased comet formation (EEV production) with increased mouse mortality (pathogenicity). Other vaccinia virus genetic manipulations which affect EEV production inconsistently support this association. However, antisera against vaccinia virus envelope protect mice from lethal challenge, further supporting a critical role for EEV in pathogenicity. Here, we show that the increased comet formation phenotypes of a diverse collection of variola viruses associate with strain phylogeny and geographical origin, but not with increased outbreak-related CFRs; within clades, there may be an association of plaque size with CFR. The mechanisms for variola virus pathogenicity probably involves multiple host and pathogen factors.

  18. Reducing Fatal Opioid Overdose: Prevention, Treatment and Harm Reduction Strategies.

    PubMed

    Hawk, Kathryn F; Vaca, Federico E; D'Onofrio, Gail

    2015-09-01

    The opioid overdose epidemic is a major threat to the public's health, resulting in the development and implementation of a variety of strategies to reduce fatal overdose. Many strategies are focused on primary prevention and increased access to effective treatment, although the past decade has seen an exponential increase in harm reduction initiatives. To maximize identification of opportunities for intervention, initiatives focusing on prevention, access to effective treatment, and harm reduction are examined independently, although considerable overlap exists. Particular attention is given to harm reduction approaches, as increased public and political will have facilitated widespread implementation of several initiatives, including increased distribution of naloxone and policy changes designed to increase bystander assistance during a witnessed overdose.

  19. Fatal necrotizing fasciitis due to Streptococcus pneumoniae: a case report.

    PubMed

    Park, So-Youn; Park, So Young; Moon, Soo-Youn; Son, Jun Seong; Lee, Mi Suk

    2011-01-01

    Necrotizing fasciitis is known to be a highly lethal infection of deep-seated subcutaneous tissue and superficial fascia. Reports of necrotizing fasciitis due to Streptococcus pneumoniae are exceedingly rare. We report a case of necrotizing fasciitis in a 62-yr-old man with liver cirrhosis and diabetes mellitus. He presented with painful swelling of left leg and right hand. On the day of admission, compartment syndrome was aggravated and the patient underwent surgical exploration. Intra-operative findings revealed necrotizing fasciitis and cultures of two blood samples and wound aspirates showed S. pneumoniae. The patient died despite debridement and proper antimicrobial treatment. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first case of fatal necrotizing fasciitis with meningitis reported in Korea. We also review and discuss the literature on pneumococcal necrotizing fasciitis.

  20. [Postoperative necrotizing fasciitis: a rare and fatal complication].

    PubMed

    Ghezala, Hassen Ben; Feriani, Najla

    2016-01-01

    Postoperative parietal complications can be exceptionally severe and serious threatening vital prognosis. Necrotizing fasciitis is a rare infection of the skin and deep subcutaneous tissues, spreading along fascia and adipose tissue. It is mainly caused by group A streptococcus (streptococcus pyogenes) but also by other bacteria such as Vibrio vulnificus, Clostridium perfringens or Bacteroides fragilis. Necrotizing fasciitis is a real surgical and medical emergency. We report, in this study, a very rare case of abdominal parietal gangrene occurring in a 75-year-old woman on the fifth day after surgery for an ovarian cyst. Evolution was marked by occurrence of a refractory septic shock with a rapidly fatal course on the third day of management.

  1. Disseminated fusariosis secondary to neuroblastoma with fatal outcome.

    PubMed

    Silva, Gleiciere Maia; Silveira, Alice Rangel Cristiane; Betânia, Claudia Abreu Rodrigues; Macêdo, Danielle Patrícia Cerqueira; Neves, Rejane Pereira

    2013-10-01

    Disseminated fusariosis is an uncommon clinical condition in immunocompromised patients. We report a fatal case of disseminated fusariosis secondary to neuroblastoma in a male patient, 15 years old, who underwent a bone marrow transplant. The patient was admitted to the pediatric intensive care unit (PICU) of a public hospital in Recife-PE, Brazil, presenting bone marrow aplasia, severe leukopenia, and thrombocytopenia. After 15 days, the patient developed right knee effusion. Synovial fluid and blood samples were analyzed at the Medical Mycology Laboratory of the Federal University of Pernambuco. Mycological diagnosis was based on the presence of hyaline septate hyphae on direct examination and the isolation of Fusarium oxysporum in culture, confirming the case of disseminated fusariosis. In vitro, the isolate showed fluconazole resistance and sensitivity to amphotericin B, anidulafungin, and voriconazole. Therapy with voriconazole in combination with liposomal amphotericin B led to an improved clinical response; however, due to underlying disease complications, the patient progressed to death.

  2. Fatal pyoderma gangrenosum with pathergy after coronary artery bypass grafting.

    PubMed

    Bryan, Charles S

    2012-01-01

    Surgeons and others who perform invasive procedures should be aware of the possibility of pyoderma gangrenosum and the risk of pathergy in patients who have a history of unexplained skin ulcers or poor wound-healing. We report the case of a 70-year-old man in whom diffuse erythema over the anterior chest wall and marked leukocytosis developed after coronary artery bypass grafting. This prompted débridement and opening of the sternotomy wound. The cause of the erythema was pyoderma gangrenosum that expressed the pathergy phenomenon. The pyoderma gangrenosum subsequently involved the saphenous vein harvest site, a chest-tube site, and a previously healed abdominal scar. The patient died when an exposed saphenous vein graft was perforated. To our knowledge, this is the 9th reported case of pathergy due to pyoderma gangrenosum after coronary artery bypass grafting and the first with a fatal outcome.

  3. Fatal subacute liver failure after repeated administration of sevoflurane anaesthesia.

    PubMed

    Zizek, David; Ribnikar, Marija; Zizek, Bogomir; Ferlan-Marolt, Vera

    2010-01-01

    Sevoflurane is a widely used halogenated inhalation anaesthetic. In comparison with other similar anaesthetics, it is not metabolized to potentially hepatotoxic trifluoroacetylated proteins. In this case report, we present a 66-year-old woman with breast carcinoma, who underwent sevoflurane general anaesthesia twice in 25 days. Soon after the second elective surgical procedure, jaundice and marked elevations in serum transaminases developed. The patient died 66 days thereafter. Autopsy results denied evidence of major cardiovascular abnormality, and histological examination confirmed massive liver cell necrosis with no feature of chronic liver injury. Sevoflurane anaesthesia was imputed as the cause after exclusion of other possible aetiological agents. Besides, coexistent malignant tumours found in the patient could have modulated the immunological response to the applied anaesthetic followed by fatal consequences.

  4. Fatal Pulmonary Embolus After Uterine Artery Fibroid Embolisation

    SciTech Connect

    Hamoda, Haitham; Tait, P.; Edmonds, D. K.

    2009-09-15

    We report a 44-year-old woman who developed a fatal pulmonary embolus after uterine artery fibroid embolisation (UAE). Bilateral UAE was carried out through a single right-femoral artery puncture. The largest fibroid in the anterior fundal wall measured 4.5 cm, and the largest fibroid in the posterior fundal wall measured 6 cm. The appearances after UAE were satisfactory, and the procedure was apparently uneventful. No immediate complications were noted. The patient developed sudden-onset shortness of breath and went into cardiac arrest 19 h after the procedure. Postmortem autopsy confirmed that the cause of a death was a pulmonary embolism. To our knowledge this is the first reported case in the United Kingdom in which death occurred from a pulmonary embolus after UAE.

  5. Reducing Fatal Opioid Overdose: Prevention, Treatment and Harm Reduction Strategies

    PubMed Central

    Hawk, Kathryn F.; Vaca, Federico E.; D’Onofrio, Gail

    2015-01-01

    The opioid overdose epidemic is a major threat to the public’s health, resulting in the development and implementation of a variety of strategies to reduce fatal overdose [1-3]. Many strategies are focused on primary prevention and increased access to effective treatment, although the past decade has seen an exponential increase in harm reduction initiatives. To maximize identification of opportunities for intervention, initiatives focusing on prevention, access to effective treatment, and harm reduction are examined independently, although considerable overlap exists. Particular attention is given to harm reduction approaches, as increased public and political will have facilitated widespread implementation of several initiatives, including increased distribution of naloxone and policy changes designed to increase bystander assistance during a witnessed overdose [4-7]. PMID:26339206

  6. Fatal anaphylactic reaction to iron sucrose in pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Mishra, Ajay; Dave, Nikhil; Viradiya, Kishor

    2013-01-01

    Iron-deficiency anemia in pregnancy can have serious deleterious effects for both mother and fetus. Parenteral iron therapy in iron-deficiency anemia is recommended in patients where oral iron therapy is ineffective due to malabsorption states and non-compliance. Compared to oral iron therapy, intravenous iron results in much more rapid resolution of iron-deficiency anemia with minimal adverse reactions. Iron sucrose has a favorable safety profile and is an alternative to other forms of parenteral iron therapy in correction of iron stores depletion. Immune mechanisms and iron agent releasing bioactive, partially unbound iron into the circulation, resulting in oxidative stress appears to cause severe adverse reactions. Although iron sucrose has a favorable safety profile in comparison to other parenteral iron preparations, this report highlights a fatal anaphylactic shock to iron sucrose in a pregnant woman with severe iron deficiency non-compliant to oral iron therapy.

  7. A brief history of fatal child maltreatment and neglect.

    PubMed

    Ross, Ann H; Juarez, Chelsey A

    2014-09-01

    Child abuse encompasses four major forms of abuse: physical abuse, sexual abuse, psychological abuse, and neglect. The United States retains one of the worst records of child abuse in the industrialized world. It has also been determined that a large portion of these cases are missed and go undocumented in state and federal reporting agencies. In addition, disparate risk factors have been identified for physical abuse and neglect cases, but substance abuse has been found to be a significant factor in all forms of abuse. Fatal child maltreatment and neglect investigations require a multi-pronged and multidisciplinary approach requiring the coordination and information gathering from various agencies. A major difficulty in determining the accidental or non-accidental nature of these cases is that the account surrounding the events of the death of child is acquired from the caretaker. In this review, we outline common diagnostic characteristics and patterns of non-accidental injuries and neglect as a result of nutritional deprivation.

  8. Case report of a fatal intoxication by Nucynta.

    PubMed

    Franco, Dori M; Ali, Zabiullah; Levine, Barry; Middleberg, Robert A; Fowler, David R

    2014-12-01

    Tapentadol (Nucynta) is a centrally acting opioid analgesic prescribed for the treatment of moderate to severe acute pain. Its efficacy is believed to be due to μ-opioid receptor agonist activity and inhibition of norepinephrine reuptake resulting in increased norepinephrine concentrations. There is only one other case in the literature relating to the toxicity of this agent or report of a fatality. This case report documents a case in which tapentadol was identified as the cause of death. The tapentadol concentration found in the heart blood submitted in this case was more than 20 times the upper limit of the therapeutic range. Possible mechanisms of death include respiratory depression, central nervous system depression, and serotonin syndrome. Based on the scene investigation and autopsy findings in this case, the medical examiner determined that the cause of death was narcotic (Nucynta) intoxication and the manner of death was undetermined.

  9. Fatal water intoxication during olanzapine treatment: a case report.

    PubMed

    Nagasawa, Sayaka; Yajima, Daisuke; Torimitsu, Suguru; Abe, Hiroko; Iwase, Hirotaro

    2014-03-01

    A man in his twenties was diagnosed with schizophrenia in his late teens. The night before his death, his family reported he drank a large amount of water, vomited, collapsed, and snored loudly while sleeping, but they did not view the event seriously as he did it routinely. The following morning, he was found dead. Autopsy revealed hyponatremia by water intoxication as the cause of death. Water intoxication has various causes. In this case, 610 ng/mL olanzapine was detected in serum samples. Although this concentration is not as high as the fatal concentrations reported in past studies, it might have caused some adverse effects. Furthermore, the observation that excessive drinking behavior started after the dose of olanzapine was increased suggests a possibility that olanzapine aggravated water intoxication.

  10. Fatal Toxoplasma gondii infection in the giant panda.

    PubMed

    Ma, Hongyu; Wang, Zedong; Wang, Chengdong; Li, Caiwu; Wei, Feng; Liu, Quan

    2015-01-01

    Toxoplasma gondii can infect nearly all warm-blooded animals. We report an acute fatal T. gondii infection in the endangered giant panda (Ailuropoda melanoleuca) in a zoo in China, characterized by acute gastroenteritis and respiratory symptoms. T. gondii infection was confirmed by immunological and molecular methods. Multilocus nested PCR-RFLP revealed clonal type I at the SAG1 and c29-2 loci, clonal type II at the SAG2, BTUB, GRA6, c22-8, and L358 loci, and clonal type III at the alternative SAG2 and SAG3 loci, thus, a potential new genotype of T. gondii in the giant panda. Other possible pathogens were not detected. To our knowledge, this is the first report of clinical toxoplasmosis in a giant panda.

  11. Fatal West Nile virus encephalitis in a renal transplant recipient.

    PubMed

    Cushing, Melissa M; Brat, Daniel J; Mosunjac, Mario I; Hennigar, Randolph A; Jernigan, Daniel B; Lanciotti, Robert; Petersen, Lyle R; Goldsmith, Cynthia; Rollin, Pierre E; Shieh, Wun-Ju; Guarner, Jeannette; Zaki, Sherif R

    2004-01-01

    West Nile virus (WNV), a mosquito-transmitted single-stranded RNA flavivirus, causes human disease of variable severity. We report clinical and pathologic findings of fatal encephalitis from the transmission of WNV from an organ donor to a kidney transplant recipient. The patient developed a febrile illness 18 days after transplantation, which progressed to encephalitis. Postmortem examination demonstrated extensive viral encephalopathic changes. Immunohistochemical studies highlighted WNV antigens within neurons, especially in the cerebellum and brainstem. Flavivirus virions were detected ultrastructurally within the cerebellum, and WNV was isolated from the brain and the brainstem. Thus, this case demonstrates the first death in the first solid organ transplant-associated transmission of WNV. Immunosuppression of the transplant recipient might have been responsible for the fulminant viral effects. The pathologic diagnosis helped guide subsequent epidemiologic and laboratory studies.

  12. Pheniramine Maleate-Induced Rhabdomyolysis and Aki: Is it Fatal?

    PubMed Central

    Venugopal, K; Reddy, M Mallikarjun; Bharathraj, M.Y; Jaligidad, Kadappa; Kushal, D.P

    2014-01-01

    Pheniramine maleate is an easily accessible, over-the-counterantihistaminic, which is frequently involved in overdoses. Pheniramine has antimuscarinic effect causing tachycardia, dilated pupils, urinary retention, and dry flushed skin, and decreased bowel sounds, confusion, mild increase in body temperature, cardiac arrhythmias, and seizures at lethal doses. It has not been implicated as an important cause of rhabdomyolysis and acute kidney injury (AKI). Rhabdomyolysis causing AKI is rarely reported in the literature. This case report emphasizes the occurrence of nontraumatic rhabdomyolysis in pheniramine maleate overdose which required hemodialysis. Since there is a lack of a specific antidote, treatment is mainly symptomatic and supportive. We report a fatal case of a young male with a very high dose of consumption of pheniramine maleate (4.077 g), which was complicated by seizures, respiratory depression, nontraumatic rhabdomyolysis, and AKI. Despite hemodialysis, ventilator support, and other intensive supportive care, patient could not survive and death ensued due to multiorgan dysfunction syndrome. PMID:25948974

  13. Fatal Neonatal Herpes Simplex Infection Likely from Unrecognized Breast Lesions.

    PubMed

    Field, Scott S

    2016-02-01

    Type 1 herpes simplex virus (HSV-1) is very prevalent yet in rare circumstances can lead to fatal neonatal disease. Genital acquisition of type 2 HSV is the usual mode for neonatal herpes, but HSV-1 transmission by genital or extragenital means may result in greater mortality rates. A very rare scenario is presented in which the mode of transmission was likely through breast lesions. The lesions were seen by nurses as well as the lactation consultant and obstetrician in the hospital after delivery of the affected baby but not recognized as possibly being caused by herpes. The baby died 9 days after birth with hepatic failure and disseminated intravascular coagulation. Peripartum health care workers need to be aware of potential nongenital (including from the breast[s]) neonatal herpes acquisition, which can be lethal.

  14. Fatal subarachnoid hemorrhage following ischemia in vertebrobasilar dolichoectasia

    PubMed Central

    Sokolov, Arseny A.; Husain, Shakir; Sztajzel, Roman; Croquelois, Alexandre; Lobrinus, Johannes A.; Thaler, David; Städler, Claudio; Hungerbühler, Hansjörg; Caso, Valeria; Rinkel, Gabriel J.; Michel, Patrik

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Vertebrobasilar dolichoectasia (VBD) is a chronic disorder with various cerebrovascular and compressive manifestations, involving subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH). Occurrence of SAH shortly after worsening of clinical VBD symptoms has occasionally been reported. The goal of the study was to examine this association, in particular its pathophysiology, clinical precursor signs, time course, and outcome. To this end, in a retrospective multicenter study, we analyzed 20 patients with VBD and SAH in regard to preceding clinical symptoms, presence of vertebrobasilar thrombosis and ischemia, outcome and neuropathological correlates. Median age of the 7 female and 13 male patients was 70 years (interquartile range [IQR] 18.3 years). Fourteen patients (70%) presented with new or acutely worsening posterior fossa signs at a median of 3 days prior to SAH (IQR 2, range 0.5–14). A thrombus within the VBD was detected in 12 patients (60%). Thrombus formation was associated with clinical deterioration (χ2 = 4.38, P = 0.04) and ponto-cerebellar ischemia (χ2 = 8.09, P = 0.005). During follow-up after SAH, 13 patients (65%) died, after a median survival time of 24 hours (IQR 66.2, range 2–264 hours), with a significant association between proven ponto-cerebellar ischemia and case fatality (χ2 = 6.24, P = 0.01). The data establish an association between clinical deterioration in patients with VBD, vertebrobasilar ischemia, and subsequent SAH. Antithrombotic treatment after deterioration appears controversial and SAH outcome is frequently fatal. Our data also indicate a short window of 3 days that may allow for evaluating interventional treatment, preferably within randomized trials. PMID:27399083

  15. Two fatal intoxication cases with imidacloprid: LC/MS analysis.

    PubMed

    Proença, Paula; Teixeira, Helena; Castanheira, Fernando; Pinheiro, João; Monsanto, Paula V; Marques, Estela P; Vieira, Duarte Nuno

    2005-10-04

    Imidacloprid [1-(6-chloro-3pyridylmethyl)-N-nitroimidazolidin-2-ylideneamine] is a new and potent nitromethylene insecticide with high insecticidal activity at very low application rates. It is the first highly effective insecticide that, like nicotine, acts on the nervous system, causing blockage of postsynaptic nicotinergic acetylcholine receptors. Two fatal cases with this insecticide in two male individuals, of 33 and 66 years old, are presented. An LC/MS with electrospray method for measuring imidacloprid and its metabolites in post-mortem samples is described. In the chromatographic separation, a reverse-phase column XTerra MS C18 (2.1mm i.d.x 150 mm, 5 microm) was used and the mobile phase composed with acetonitrile and 0.1% formic acid (15:85), at a 0.25 mL/min flow rate. Samples were prepared with a liquid-liquid extraction procedure with dichloromethane. Calibration curves for imidacloprid in blood and urine samples were linear from 0.2 to 15 microg/mL. The mean recovery was 86% with a coefficient of variation of +/-5.9%. The detection limit was 0.002 microg/mL. Quantitative results were obtained for all post-mortem matrices available of the two fatal cases: blood, urine, stomach contents, lung, liver and kidney. The imidacloprid blood concentrations found in two-cases were 12.5 and 2.05 microg/mL. The authors validated a method to detect and quantify imidacloprid in post-mortem samples, and to our knowledge for the first time a post-mortem tissue distribution was performed on various samples for this insecticide.

  16. The Role of Spatial Disorientation in Fatal General Aviation Accidents

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Scheuring, RIchard

    2005-01-01

    In-flight Spatial Disorientation (SD) in pilots is a serious threat to aviation safety. Indeed, SD may play a much larger role in aviation accidents than the approximate 6-8% reported by the National Transportation Safety Board (NTSB) each year, because some accidents coded by the NTSB as aircraft control-not maintained (ACNM) may actually result from SD. The purpose of this study is to determine whether SD is underestimated as a cause of fatal general aviation (GA) accidents in the NTSB database. Fatal GA airplane accidents occurring between January 1995 and December 1999 were reviewed from the NTSB aviation accident database. Cases coded as ACNM or SD as the probable cause were selected for review by a panel of aerospace medicine specialists. Using a rating scale, each rater was instructed to determine if SD was the probable cause of the accident. Agreement between the raters and agreement between the raters and the NTSB were evaluated by Kappa statistics. The raters agreed that 11 out of 20 (55%) accidents coded by the NTSB as ACNM were probably caused by SD (p less than 0.05). Agreement between the raters and the NTSB did not reach significance (p greater than 0.05). The 95% C.I. for the sampling population estimated that between 33-77% of cases that the NTSB identified as ACNM could be identified by aerospace medicine experts as SD. Aerospace medicine specialists agreed that some cases coded by the NTSB as ACNM were probably caused by SD. Consequently, a larger number of accidents may be caused by the pilot succumbing to SD than indicated in the NTSB database. This new information should encourage regulating agencies to insure that pilots receive SD recognition training, enabling them to take appropriate corrective actions during flight. This could lead to new training standards, ultimately saving lives among GA airplane pilots.

  17. Characteristics of methadone-related fatalities in Norway.

    PubMed

    Bernard, Jean-Paul; Khiabani, Hassan Z; Hilberg, Thor; Karinen, Ritva; Slørdal, Lars; Waal, Helge; Mørland, Jørg

    2015-11-01

    There are currently over 7000 patients enrolled in opioid maintenance treatment (OMT) programs in Norway. A rise in methadone-related deaths proportional to increasing methadone sales over the period 2000-2006 has been observed, but the causative factors for these fatalities have been elusive. In the present study, individual characteristics, methadone concentrations and additional toxicological findings were analyzed. Methadone intoxication deaths (n = 264) were divided into 3 groups according to toxicological findings in whole blood: group 1 - methadone detected alone, or together with one additional drug at low or therapeutic levels, or a low concentration of ethanol (<1 g/L) (n = 21); group 2 - multiple additional drugs/substances detected below lethal levels (n = 175); group 3 - one or more additional drugs/substances detected at lethal levels, or ethanol >3 g/L (n = 55). Methadone blood concentrations in decedents who had been enrolled in OMT were higher than for decedents not in treatment, in all groups. Blood methadone concentrations around 1 mg/L were present in fatal multi-drug intoxications in OMT patients. Results suggest that some patients may be at risk of dying when combining therapeutic concentrations of methadone with other psychoactive substances. Somatic disease was a common finding among deceased OMT patients. Concentrations in methadone users not enrolled in OMT were predominantly between 0.3 and 0.4 mg/L and were not related to the presence of other drugs. However, methadone concentrations below 0.1 mg/L may be associated with intoxication following methadone use, both alone and in combination with other drugs. Younger male users (mean age 34 years) seemed to have a higher susceptibility to methadone intoxication.

  18. Fatal and non-fatal child maltreatment in the US: an analysis of child, caregiver, and service utilization with the National Child Abuse and Neglect Data Set.

    PubMed

    Douglas, Emily M; Mohn, Brandy L

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare children who are fatally and non-fatally maltreated in the United States. In this first national-comparison study, we used the Child Abuse and Neglect Data Set of children and families who encounter/receive support from child welfare services. We found that children who were fatally maltreated were younger, were more likely to live with both their parents, and that their families experienced more financial and housing instability compared to non-fatally maltreated children. Overall, families in which children die use/receive fewer social services, as compared to families in which children live. We discuss the results with regard to child welfare practice and research.

  19. Forty-Eighth Annual Survey of Football Fatalities 1931-1979.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blyth, Carl S.; Schindler, Richard D.

    Statistics on football fatalities from 1931 to 1979 are presented. The report shows that the number of direct fatalities has progressively decreased. This decrease is attributed to changes in the rules of football, improvement of equipment, and more careful monitoring of the activity by coaches and others in positions of responsibility. A…

  20. Fatal Injuries Associated with Alcohol Use Among Youth and Adults: 1990-1998

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones-Webb, Rhonda; Fabian, Lindsey E. A.; Harwood, Eileen M.; Toomey, Traci L.; Wagenaar, Alexander C.

    2004-01-01

    The major objective of this study was to compare trends in three types of fatal injuries associated with alcohol use among youth under the legal drinking age and among adults of legal drinking age from 1990-1998. The fatal injuries investigated included homicide, suicide, and motor vehicle-traffic deaths. Results were: (1) motor vehicle-traffic…

  1. Fatal Aortic Rupture Complicating Stent Plasty in a Case of Aortoarteritis

    SciTech Connect

    Deshmukh, Hemant L.; Rathod, Krantikumar R. Sheth, Rahul J.; Garg, Ashwin

    2003-09-15

    Endovascular stenting has emerged as an effective alternative for unsuccessful angioplasty of the aorta in aortoarteritis. This is a single case report of fatal aortic rupture following balloon angioplasty of post-patch aortoplasty restenosis in aortoarteritis. We report a fatal aortic rupture during angioplasty of the primarily stented stenotic segment of the aorta in a case of aortoarteritis.

  2. Seeking Information after the 2010 Haiti Earthquake: A Case Study in Mass-Fatality Management

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gupta, Kailash

    2013-01-01

    The 2010 earthquake in Haiti, which killed an estimated 316,000 people, offered many lessons in mass-fatality management (MFM). The dissertation defined MFM in seeking information and in recovery, preservation, identification, and disposition of human remains. Specifically, it examined how mass fatalities were managed in Haiti, how affected…

  3. Analysis of Construction Fatalities - The OSHA Data Base 1985-1989

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1990-11-01

    This report presents the results of an analysis of the 3,496 construction fatalities investigated by the Occupational Safety and Health...accidents. Statistics from the OSHA data base are compared with construction fatality data from the Bureau of Labor Statistics, the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health and the National Safety Council.

  4. Do Blue Laws Save Lives? The Effect of Sunday Alcohol Sales Bans on Fatal Vehicle Accidents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lovenheim, Michael F.; Steefel, Daniel P.

    2011-01-01

    This paper analyzes the effect of state-level Sunday alcohol sales restrictions ("blue laws") on fatal vehicle accidents, which is an important parameter in assessing the desirability of these laws. Using a panel data set of all fatal vehicle accidents in the U.S. between 1990 and 2009 combined with 15 state repeals of blue laws, we show that…

  5. Breast cancer fatalism: The role of women's perceptions of the health care system

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Cancer fatalism, which can be understood as the belief that cancer is a death sentence, has been found to be a deterrent to preventive cancer screening participation. This study examines factors associated with breast cancer fatalism among women. We analyzed data from a 2003 survey of women 40 years...

  6. Roles of Fatalism and Parental Support in the Relationship between Bullying Victimization and Bystander Behaviors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Li, Yiqiong; Chen, Peter Y.; Chen, Fu-Li; Wu, Wen-Chi

    2015-01-01

    This article examines how past bullied victims engage two types of bystander behaviors (defender and outsider) when they witness bullying situations.We also investigate if fatalism mediates the relationship between past victimization and two bystander behaviors. Finally, we test if parental support moderates the relationship between fatalism and…

  7. 76 FR 31613 - NIOSH Fire Fighter Fatality Investigation and Prevention Program (FFFIPP)

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-01

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention NIOSH Fire Fighter Fatality Investigation and... progress and future directions of the NIOSH Fire Fighter Fatality Investigation and Prevention Program... and expectations of the U.S. fire service, and to identify ways in which the program can be...

  8. Cilia-associated bacteria in fatal Bordetella bronchiseptica pneumonia of dogs and cats

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Bordetella bronchiseptica frequently causes nonfatal tracheobronchitis, but its role in fatal pneumonia is less well-studied. The objectives of this study were to identify the frequency of Bordetella bronchiseptica infection in fatal cases of bronchopneumonia in dogs and cats and to compare the diag...

  9. Characterization of Foreign-Born vs. Native-Born Worker Fatalities in Kentucky, 2001-2014.

    PubMed

    Cruz, Yailet; Bunn, Terry Lee; Hanner, Nancy; Slavova, Svetla

    2017-02-15

    Information on foreign-born worker (FBW) and native-born worker (NBW) fatal injuries is scarce. The Kentucky Fatality Assessment and Control Evaluation program analyzed 2001-2014 worker fatality data. The Kentucky FBW fatality rate was double the US FBW and NBW rates, and 50% higher than the Kentucky NBW fatality rate. FBW average age at death was 38 years; NBW age was 47 years. FBW deaths occurred in construction (26%) and services (22%) industries, and transportation [28% (54% due to semi truck crashes)] and construction [26%(48% due to roofing, scaffolding, and ladder-related falls)] occupations; in contrast, NBW deaths occurred in services (22%), and transportation (18%) industries, and transportation (25%) and management (20%) occupations, and were due to exposures to inanimate mechanical forces (38%), and transport accidents (30%). Enhanced FBW cultural competent interventions and policies are needed to prevent FBW occupational injuries, and improve FBW workplace safety and health.

  10. Occupational fatalities in the construction sector: A medico-legal viewpoint.

    PubMed

    Das, Siddhartha

    2015-06-01

    Occupational fatalities are those that occur during the course of a person's occupation. They can occur in any industry or sector. Studies have shown that the construction sector is more dangerous for workers than the industrial sector, and there are more deaths both in the developed and developing countries. The construction sector has seen a boom in countries like India over the past few years and with it an increase in the number of occupational fatalities. Three different types of occupational fatalities pertaining to construction sector are presented here to increase awareness of the different types of occupational fatalities that may occur. The circumstances leading to them are discussed from a medico-legal viewpoint. Specific acts of negligence have been highlighted and suggestions offered with a view to decreasing fatalities.

  11. Challenge problems focusing on equality and combinatory logic: Evaluating automated theorem-proving programs

    SciTech Connect

    Wos, L.; McCune, W.

    1988-01-01

    In this paper, we offer a set of problems for evaluating the power of automated theorem-proving programs and the potential of new ideas. Since the problems published in the proceedings of the first CADE conference proved to be so useful, and since researchers are now far more disposed to implementing and testing their ideas, a new set of problems to complement those that have been widely studied is in order. In general, the new problems provide a far greater challenge for an automated theorem-proving program than those in the first set do. Indeed, to our knowledge, five of the six problems we propose for study have never been proved with a theorem-proving program. For each problem, we give a set of statements that can easily be translated into a standard set of clauses. We also state each problem in its mathematical and logical form. In many cases, we also provide a proof of the theorem from which a problem is taken so that one can measure a program's progress in its attempt to solve the problem. Two of the theorems we discuss are of especial interest in that they answer questions that had been open concerning the constructibility of two types of combinator. We also include a brief description of a new strategy for restricting the application of paramodulation. All of the problems we propose for study emphasize the role of equality. This paper is tutorial in nature.

  12. Research Objectives for Human Missions in the Proving Ground of Cis-Lunar Space

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Niles, P. B.; Eppler, D. B.; Kennedy, K. J.; Lewis, R.; Spann, J. F.; Sullivan, T. A.

    2016-01-01

    Beginning in as early as 2023, crewed missions beyond low Earth orbit will begin enabled by the new capabilities of the SLS and Orion vehicles. This will initiate the "Proving Ground" phase of human exploration with Mars as an ultimate destination. The primary goal of the Proving Ground is to demonstrate the capability of suitably long duration spaceflight without need of continuous support from Earth, i.e. become Earth Independent. A major component of the Proving Ground phase is to conduct research activities aimed at accomplishing major objectives selected from a wide variety of disciplines including but not limited to: Astronomy, Heliophysics, Fundamental Physics, Planetary Science, Earth Science, Human Systems, Fundamental Space Biology, Microgravity, and In A major component of the Proving Ground phase is to conduct research activities aimed at accomplishing major objectives selected from a wide variety of disciplines including but not limited to: Astronomy, Heliophysics, Fundamental Physics, Planetary Science, Earth Science, Human Systems, Fundamental Space Biology, Microgravity, and In Situ Resource Utilization. Mapping and prioritizing the most important objectives from these disciplines will provide a strong foundation for establishing the architecture to be utilized in the Proving Ground.

  13. Fatality risk and the presence of rib fractures.

    PubMed

    Kent, Richard; Woods, William; Bostrom, Ola

    2008-10-01

    Rib fractures may be dismissed as clinically insignificant, or of secondary importance in a patient presenting with other serious injuries, especially if the patient is young. This study assesses the effect of concomitant rib injuries on fatality risk following a car crash, and compares the effect as a function of patient age. The National Trauma Databank was sampled to identify 181,331 adults that were in motor vehicle crashes and had complete data available. Characteristics among several populations were compared, including the association between rib fractures and fatality risk in two age groups (18 to 45 years old and over 64 years old). Descriptive statistics were compiled to contrast the injury patterns and outcomes. Propensity scores were then generated using logistic regression, where the "treatment group" was those patients with rib fractures of at least an abbreviated injury scale (AIS) 3. Covariates for generating the propensity score included gender and the presence or absence of AIS 3, 4 or greater injuries to the head, abdomen or pelvis. Matching was performed using calipers on the propensity scores for all patients within the two age groups. Odds ratios for the outcome death were calculated for the matched datasets and compared between the two age groups. The probability that an adult with automotive blunt trauma had a rib injury as the maximum AIS (MAIS) increased significantly (p<0.001) with age. Furthermore, the probability of the patient having an MAIS defined by rib fractures increased significantly with age for adults who died with a thoracic MAIS: from 30.4% at age 21 to 51.3% at age 65. Rib fractures defined the MAIS for 55.9% of all patients over age 60 who died with a thoracic MAIS. In other words, over 55% of patients over 60 who died of a chest injury had no injury worse than rib injuries. The odds ratio for death for younger patients (aged 18-45) was 1.4 (95% CI 1.3-1.6) if rib fractures of at least AIS 3 or greater were present. For

  14. OTTER (Organized Techniques for Theorem-proving and Effective Research) 2. 0 users guide

    SciTech Connect

    McCune, W.W.

    1990-03-01

    OTTER (Organized Techniques for Theorem-proving and Effective Research) is a resolution-style theorem-proving program for first- order logic with equality. OTTER includes the inference rules binary resolution, hyperresolution, UR-resolution, and binary paramodulation. Some of its other abilities are conversion from first-order formulas to clauses, forward and back subsumption, factoring, weighting, answer literals, term ordering, forward and back demodulation, evaluable functions and predicates, and Knuth-Bendix completion. OTTER is coded in C, it is free, and it is portable to many different kinds of company. 16 refs., 2 tabs.

  15. Decline of North Atlantic eels: a fatal synergy?

    PubMed Central

    Wirth, Thierry; Bernatchez, Louis

    2003-01-01

    Panmictic species pose particular problems for conservation because their welfare can be addressed effectively only on a global scale. We recently documented by means of microsatellite analysis that the European eel (Anguilla anguilla) is not panmictic but instead shows genetic isolation by distance. In this study, we extended the analysis to the American eel (A. rostrata) by applying identical analytical procedures and statistical power. Results obtained for the American eel were in sharp contrast with those obtained for the European eel: the null hypothesis of panmixia could not be rejected, and no isolation by distance was detected. This implies that the species must be managed as a single population. Using Bayesian statistics, we also found that the effective population sizes for both species were surprisingly low and that the populations had undergone severe contractions, most probably during the Wisconsinan glaciation. The apparent sensitivity of eels to climatic changes affecting the strength and position of the Gulf Stream 20,000 years ago is particularly worrying, given the effects of the ongoing global warming on the North Atlantic climate. Moreover, additional short-term stresses such as surging glass eel prizes, overfishing and lethal parasitic infections negatively affect eel population size. The fascinating transatlantic migration and life cycle of Atlantic eels is also their Achilles' heel as these negative short- and long-term effects will probably culminate in a fatal synergy if drastic conservation measures are not implemented to protect these international biological resources. PMID:12713741

  16. Congestion, air pollution, and road fatalities in urban areas.

    PubMed

    Shefer, D

    1994-08-01

    The continuous rapid growth in vehicle miles travelled coupled with the rapid increase in traffic congestion on highways of virtually every large urban area, explain a major portion of the observed deterioration of urban air quality. To halt this deterioration and to secure safe and healthy environments and improve the quality of life in our cities, it is useful to initiate and implement programs that treat jointly traffic congestion, air quality, and road safety. Market-based strategies, driven by price mechanisms, have been proposed as the best and most efficient way to decrease traffic congestion and to reduce vehicle emission. Congestion pricing, emission fees, reducing emissions of high-polluting vehicles, and introducing more efficient vehicle and/or fuel technologies are not mutually exclusive strategies and therefore they can be employed jointly within an overall strategy. In view of the conflicting objectives that may exist between improving urban air quality and reducing road fatalities and traffic congestion, it is of great importance to investigate thoroughly these functional relationships. The results of such studies will help decision makers identify the "socially optimal level of congestion" that will yield the highest net social benefit.

  17. Fatal Vertebral Artery Injury in Penetrating Cervical Spine Trauma.

    PubMed

    Tannoury, Chadi; Degiacomo, Anthony

    2015-01-01

    Study Design. This case illustrates complications to a vertebral artery injury (VAI) resulting from penetrating cervical spine trauma. Objectives. To discuss the management of both VAI and cervical spine trauma after penetrating gunshot wound to the neck. Summary of Background Data. Vertebral artery injury following cervical spine trauma is infrequent, and a unilateral VAI often occurs without neurologic sequela. Nevertheless, devastating complications of stroke and death do occur. Methods. A gunshot wound to the neck resulted in a C6 vertebral body fracture and C5-C7 transverse foramina fractures. Neck CT angiogram identified a left vertebral artery occlusion. A cerebral angiography confirmed occlusion of the left extracranial vertebral artery and patency of the remaining cerebrovascular system. Following anterior cervical corpectomy and stabilization, brainstem infarction occurred and resulted in death. Results. A fatal outcome resulted from vertebral artery thrombus propagation with occlusion of the basilar artery triggering basilar ischemia and subsequent brainstem and cerebellar infarction. Conclusions. Vertebral artery injury secondary to cervical spine trauma can lead to potentially devastating neurologic sequela. Early surgical stabilization, along with anticoagulation therapy, contributes towards managing the combination of injuries. Unfortunately, despite efforts, a poor outcome is sometimes inevitable when cervical spine trauma is coupled with a VAI.

  18. Fatal Vertebral Artery Injury in Penetrating Cervical Spine Trauma

    PubMed Central

    Tannoury, Chadi; Degiacomo, Anthony

    2015-01-01

    Study Design. This case illustrates complications to a vertebral artery injury (VAI) resulting from penetrating cervical spine trauma. Objectives. To discuss the management of both VAI and cervical spine trauma after penetrating gunshot wound to the neck. Summary of Background Data. Vertebral artery injury following cervical spine trauma is infrequent, and a unilateral VAI often occurs without neurologic sequela. Nevertheless, devastating complications of stroke and death do occur. Methods. A gunshot wound to the neck resulted in a C6 vertebral body fracture and C5–C7 transverse foramina fractures. Neck CT angiogram identified a left vertebral artery occlusion. A cerebral angiography confirmed occlusion of the left extracranial vertebral artery and patency of the remaining cerebrovascular system. Following anterior cervical corpectomy and stabilization, brainstem infarction occurred and resulted in death. Results. A fatal outcome resulted from vertebral artery thrombus propagation with occlusion of the basilar artery triggering basilar ischemia and subsequent brainstem and cerebellar infarction. Conclusions. Vertebral artery injury secondary to cervical spine trauma can lead to potentially devastating neurologic sequela. Early surgical stabilization, along with anticoagulation therapy, contributes towards managing the combination of injuries. Unfortunately, despite efforts, a poor outcome is sometimes inevitable when cervical spine trauma is coupled with a VAI. PMID:26640731

  19. Fatal intoxications associated with the designer opioid AH-7921.

    PubMed

    Kronstrand, R; Thelander, G; Lindstedt, D; Roman, M; Kugelberg, F C

    2014-10-01

    AH-7921 (3,4-dichloro-N-[(1-dimethylamino)cyclohexylmethyl]benzamide) is a designer opioid with ∼80% of morphine's µ-agonist activity. Over a 6-month period, we encountered nine deaths where AH-7921 was involved and detected in blood from the deceased. Shortly after the last death, on August 1 2013, AH-7921 was scheduled as a narcotic and largely disappeared from the illicit market in Sweden. AH-7921 was measured by a selective liquid chromatography-MS-MS method and the concentrations of AH-7921 ranged from 0.03 to 0.99 µg/g blood. Six of our cases had other drugs of abuse on board and most had other medications such as benzodiazepines, antidepressants and analgesics. However, the other medicinal drugs encountered were present in postmortem therapeutic concentrations and unlikely to have contributed to death. In addition to the parent compound, we identified six possible metabolites where two N-demethylated dominated and four mono-hydroxylated were found in trace amounts in the blood. In conclusion, deaths with AH-7921 seem to occur both at low and high concentrations, probably a result of different tolerance to the drug. Hence, it is reasonable to assume that no sharp dividing line exists between lethal and non-lethal concentrations. Further, poly-drug use did not seem to be a major contributing factor for the fatal outcome.

  20. Forensic issues in cases of water birth fatalities.

    PubMed

    Byard, Roger W; Zuccollo, Jane M

    2010-09-01

    Birth under water has become a widely disseminated technique that is promoted to improve the quality of labor. The case of a 42-week gestation male infant is reported who died of respiratory and multiorgan failure secondary to florid pneumonia and sepsis due Pseudomonas aeruginosa following a water birth. Other infants who have been delivered underwater have drowned or have had near-drowning episodes with significant hyponatremia and water intoxication. Local and disseminated sepsis has been reported, with respiratory distress, fevers, hypoxic brain damage, and seizures. There have also been episodes of cord rupture with hemorrhage. The postmortem investigation of such cases requires a complete autopsy of the infant, with examination of the placenta. Full details of the pregnancy and delivery and inspection of the birthing unit are also needed. A septic workup of the infant and placenta should be undertaken along with sampling of water from the birthing unit and microbiological swabbing of the equipment. Vitreous sodium levels may reveal electrolyte disturbances. While fatal cases appear rare, this may change if water births gain in popularity.

  1. Fatal proventricular dilatation disease in captive native psittacines in Brazil.

    PubMed

    Donatti, Rogério Venâncio; Resende, Maurício; Ferreira, Francisco Carlos Júnior; Marques, Marcus Vinícius Romero; Ecco, Roselene; Shivaprasad, H L; de Resende, José Sérgio; Martins, Nelson Rodrigo da Silva

    2014-03-01

    An outbreak of proventricular dilatation disease (PDD), a fatal inflammatory disease of psittacines (Aves: Psittaciformes), is described in native Brazilian psittacines. Twenty captive psittacines that died of suspected PDD were necropsied and 10 were submitted to histopathology, reverse transcriptase PCR (RT-PCR), and immunohistochemistry (IHC) for avian bornavirus (ABV). Examined species were one pileated parrot (Pionopsitta pileata), three vinaceous-breasted parrots (Amazona vinacea), two blue-winged macaws (Primolius maracana), one scarlet macaw (Ara macao), one chestnut-fronted macaw (Ara severa), one scaly-headed parrot (Pionus maximiliani), and one red-browed Amazon parrot (Amazona rhodocorytha). Gross examination and histopathology revealed typical PDD lesions in all birds. The presence of ABV was confirmed in four psittacines including one red-browed Amazon parrot, one blue-winged macaw, one scarlet macaw, and one chestnut-fronted macaw. In the red-browed Amazon parrot and in one blue-winged macaw, IHC demonstrated ABV antigens in the nucleus and cytoplasm of cells in various organs. This is the first description of PDD by ABV in Brazilian psittacines and indicates the necessity for adopting a strategic control plan for reducing its impact in native birds.

  2. Fatal aconitine intoxication or thyroid storm? A case report.

    PubMed

    Arlt, E M; Keller, T; Wittmann, H; Monticelli, F

    2012-05-01

    The case of a female in the latter half of her teens found dead in her father's apartment is reported. A glass containing liquid and plant remnants was found at the death scene. There were no indications of any intervention or the application of force by a third party. Autopsy showed unremarkable findings. Toxicological investigations revealed lethal doses of aconitine, a highly poisonous alkaloid and the major active compound of Aconitum napellus, in all specimens. Plant remnants were identified as A. napellus leaves by a botanist and toxicological examination of the liquid in the glass on site showed extremely high concentrations of aconitine. Additionally, laboratory results revealed that the young female was suffering from thyrotoxicosis factitia, an uncommon form of hyperthyroidism caused by misuse or overdosing of thyroid hormones in order to loose weight. A rare but serious and often fatal complication of hyperthyroidism is thyroid storm. Eventually the condition of thyroid storm due to thyrotoxicosis factitia could have contributed to the woman's death from aconitine poisoning.

  3. A novel alphaherpesvirus associated with fatal diseases in banded Penguins.

    PubMed

    Pfaff, Florian; Schulze, Christoph; König, Patricia; Franzke, Kati; Bock, Sabine; Hlinak, Andreas; Kämmerling, Jens; Ochs, Andreas; Schüle, André; Mettenleiter, Thomas C; Höper, Dirk; Beer, Martin

    2017-01-01

    A novel avian alphaherpesvirus, preliminarily designated sphenicid alphaherpesvirus 1 (SpAHV-1), has been independently isolated from juvenile Humboldt and African penguins (Spheniscus humboldti and Spheniscus demersus) kept in German zoos suffering from diphtheroid oropharyngitis/laryngotracheitis and necrotizing enteritis (collectively designated as penguin-diphtheria-like disease). High-throughput sequencing was used to determine the complete genome sequences of the first two SpAHV-1 isolates. SpAHV-1 comprises a class D genome with a length of about 164 kbp, a G+C content of 45.6 mol% and encodes 86 predicted ORFs. Taxonomic association of SpAHV-1 to the genus Mardivirus was supported by gene content clustering and phylogenetic analysis of herpesvirus core genes. The presented results imply that SpAHV-1 could be the primary causative agent of penguin-diphtheria-like fatal diseases in banded penguins. These results may serve as a basis for the development of diagnostic tools in order to investigate similar cases of penguin diphtheria in wild and captive penguins.

  4. First reported fatalities associated with the 'research chemical' 2-methoxydiphenidine.

    PubMed

    Elliott, Simon P; Brandt, Simon D; Wallach, Jason; Morris, Hamilton; Kavanagh, Pierce V

    2015-05-01

    2-Methoxydiphenidine, i.e. 1-[1-(2-methoxyphenyl)-2-phenylethyl]piperidine, also known as 'MXP' or '2-MeO-diphenidine' (or 2-MXP), has been available as a 'research chemical' since 2013 as a purported alternative to the 'dissociative anesthetics' methoxetamine and ketamine. Three deaths which involved the detection of 2-MXP in post-mortem blood and urine were encountered in forensic casework. The 2-, 3- and 4-methoxyphenyl positional isomers were synthesized to confirm the identity and concentration of 2-MXP. The 2-MXP femoral blood concentrations in the cases were found to be 24.0, 2.0 and 1.36 mg/L (the latter with an alternative cause of death). Some additional prescription drugs were encountered at therapeutic concentrations in all three cases. Analysis of the biofluids allowed the detection and characterization of various metabolites, including the suggested presence of hydroxy-2-MXP as the main metabolite with the hydroxyl group located on the piperidine rather than the phenyl or benzyl moiety. Additional metabolites included O-desmethyl-2-MXP and hydroxylated O-desmethyl-2-MXP. Diphenidine and hydroxy-diphenidine, also showing the presence of the hydroxyl group on the piperidine ring, were also detected. It was not possible to identify whether these arose from 2-MXP biotransformation or whether they represented the presence of diphenidine as a separate substance. These are the first published fatalities involving 2-MXP and presents analytical data to assist analytical toxicologists with future casework.

  5. Adrenal gland hemorrhage in patients with fatal bacterial infections.

    PubMed

    Guarner, Jeannette; Paddock, Christopher D; Bartlett, Jeanine; Zaki, Sherif R

    2008-09-01

    A wide spectrum of adrenal gland pathology is seen during bacterial infections. Hemorrhage is particularly associated with meningococcemia, while abscesses have been described with several neonatal infections. We studied adrenal gland histopathology of 65 patients with bacterial infections documented in a variety of tissues by using immunohistochemistry. The infections diagnosed included Neisseria meningitidies, group A streptococcus, Rickettsia rickettsii, Streptococcus pneumoniae, Staphylococcus aureus, Ehrlichia sp., Bacillus anthracis, Leptospira sp., Clostridium sp., Klebsiella sp., Legionella sp., Yersinia pestis, and Treponema pallidum. Bacteria were detected in the adrenal of 40 (61%) cases. Adrenal hemorrhage was present in 39 (60%) cases. Bacteria or bacterial antigens were observed in 31 (79%) of the cases with adrenal hemorrhage including 14 with N. meningitidis, four with R. rickettsii, four with S. pneumoniae, three with group A streptococcus, two with S. aureus, two with B. anthracis, one with T. pallidum, and one with Legionella sp. Bacterial antigens were observed in nine of 26 non-hemorrhagic adrenal glands that showed inflammatory foci (four cases), edema (two cases), congestion (two cases), or necrosis (one case). Hemorrhage is the most frequent adrenal gland pathology observed in fatal bacterial infections. Bacteria and bacterial antigens are frequently seen in adrenal glands with hemorrhage and may play a pathogenic role. Although N. meningitidis is the most frequent bacteria associated with adrenal gland pathology, a broad collection of bacteria can also cause adrenal lesions.

  6. Safety restraint injuries in fatal motor vehicle collisions.

    PubMed

    Chase, J; Donaldson, L; Duflou, J; Gorrie, C

    2007-12-01

    The presence of an apparent seat belt mark (SBM) on a car crash occupant is often used as evidence for use of a seat belt at the time of the crash and, conversely, the lack of a SBM is used as an indication that no seat belt was used. This study examined whether there are clear indications of seat belt use to be found at autopsy and evaluated the sensitivity and specificity of apparent SBM and whether the use of a seat belt and seating location affects the type and severity of injuries sustained. Information on the type of injuries sustained and seatbelt use was retrieved from autopsy reports and police reports, respectively, for cases of fatal motor vehicle collisions occurring in Sydney, Australia over a 5-year period. In this study, a SBM was only found on restrained occupants. The proportion of restrained occupants with evidence of a SBM was 36% (sensitivity), whilst unrestrained occupants showed no evidence of a SBM (100% specificity). A SBM was also found to reliably reflect the seating position of the occupant. We conclude that restrained occupants can be expected to show evidence of the seat belt in just over one third of cases and that the absence of a SBM is not necessarily an indication that no seat belt was used. Spurious SBM is very unlikely to be present if the occupant was unrestrained.

  7. Fatal Insulin Overdoses: Case Report and Update on Testing Methodology.

    PubMed

    Sunderland, Nick; Wong, Sophia; Lee, Carol K

    2016-01-01

    Suicidal insulin overdoses are an under-recognized and uncommon cause of death, often relying on scene and nonspecific autopsy findings. Here, we present a case report of a fatal exogenous insulin overdose in a patient with type 1 diabetes. In our case, there were no contributory autopsy findings; however, serum analog aspart insulin levels were c. 10× the predicted therapeutic upper limit (4000, reference 6.6-55 uU/mL), which correlated with scene findings. This was specifically determined by a newly developed immunocapture liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry assay, able to discriminate between various synthetic insulin analogs. Total insulin levels by immunoassay were highly elevated on the Siemens Advia Centaur, but not the Roche platforms (4741 vs. 5.2 uU/mL, respectively), showing variable sensitivity of detection within the same analog depending on assay. We discuss the prevalence and features to look for at autopsy in these types of cases. Additionally, analytical options for testing insulin levels, including new methodologies, guidance on collection of samples, as well as an outline of available historical reference range data are discussed.

  8. Hiker Fatality From Severe Hyponatremia in Grand Canyon National Park.

    PubMed

    Myers, Thomas M; Hoffman, Martin D

    2015-09-01

    We present the case of a hiker who died of severe hyponatremia at Grand Canyon National Park. The woman collapsed on the rim shortly after finishing a 5-hour hike into the Canyon during which she was reported to have consumed large quantities of water. First responders transported her to the nearest hospital. En route, she became unresponsive, and subsequent treatment included intravenous normal saline. Imaging and laboratory data at the hospital confirmed hypervolemic hyponatremia with encephalopathy. She never regained consciousness and died of severe cerebral edema less than 24 hours later. We believe this is the first report of a fatality due to acute hyponatremia associated with hiking in a wilderness setting. This case demonstrates the typical pathophysiology, which includes overconsumption of fluids, and demonstrates the challenges of diagnosis and the importance of appropriate acute management. Current treatment guidelines indicate that symptomatic exercise-associated hyponatremia should be acutely managed with hypertonic saline and can be done so without concern over central pontine myelinolysis, whereas treatment with high volumes of isotonic fluids may delay recovery and has even resulted in deaths.

  9. Pembrolizumab-induced myasthenia gravis: A fatal case report.

    PubMed

    March, Katherine L; Samarin, Michael J; Sodhi, Amik; Owens, Ryan E

    2017-01-01

    Purpose Pembrolizumab, a monoclonal antibody which inhibits the programmed cell death 1 receptor, has been shown to efficaciously enhance pre-existing immune responses to malignancies. However, safety concerns must also be considered as pembrolizumab use has been associated with several life-threatening immune-related adverse events (irAEs). We report a fatal case of pembrolizumab-induced myasthenia gravis in a patient with no prior myasthenia gravis history. Case report A 63-year-old male presented with right eyelid drooping, puffiness, blurred vision, and shortness of breath two weeks after an initial infusion of pembrolizumab. He was subsequently diagnosed with new onset acetylcholine-receptor positive myasthenia gravis. Despite aggressive treatment with corticosteroids, pyridostigmine, intravenous immunoglobulin, and plasmapheresis, the patient clinically deteriorated and ultimately expired from acute respiratory failure after a 12-day hospitalization. Discussion Current package labeling for pembrolizumab warns against various irAEs associated with its use including pneumonitis, colitis, and endocrinopathies. To date, only one case of new onset myasthenia gravis and two case reports of myasthenia gravis exacerbation have been identified. This case further highlights the mortality risk associated with development of irAEs. Conclusion While rare, evidence for the development of MG associated with pembrolizumab is growing. Prompt recognition of symptoms and discontinuation of pembrolizumab is necessary to help improve prognosis.

  10. Ciprofloxacin and Clozapine: A Potentially Fatal but Underappreciated Interaction

    PubMed Central

    Proctor, George; Cummings, Michael A.; Dardashti, Laura J.; Stahl, Stephen M.

    2016-01-01

    Objective. Clozapine provides a 50%–60% response rate in refractory schizophrenia but has a narrow therapeutic index and is susceptible to pharmacokinetic interactions, particularly with strong inhibitors or inducers of cytochrome P450 (CYP) 1A2. Case Report. We report the case of a 28-year-old nonsmoking female with intellectual disability who was maintained for 3 years on clozapine 100 mg orally twice daily. The patient was treated for presumptive urinary tract infection with ciprofloxacin 500 mg orally twice daily and two days later collapsed and died despite resuscitation efforts. The postmortem femoral clozapine plasma level was dramatically elevated at 2900 ng/mL, and the cause of death was listed as acute clozapine toxicity. Conclusion. Given the potentially fatal pharmacokinetic interaction between clozapine and ciprofloxacin, clinicians are advised to monitor baseline clozapine levels prior to adding strong CYP450 1A2 inhibitors, reduce the clozapine dose by at least two-thirds if adding a 1A2 inhibitor such as ciprofloxacin, check subsequent steady state clozapine levels, and adjust the clozapine dose to maintain levels close to those obtained at baseline. PMID:27872784

  11. Fatal hemorrhage from legal abortion in the United States.

    PubMed

    Grimes, D A; Kafrissen, M E; O'Reilly, K R; Binkin, N J

    1983-11-01

    Deaths from hemorrhage associated with legal induced abortion should not occur. Yet hemorrhage was the third most frequent cause of death from legal abortion in the United States between 1972 and 1979. This study was undertaken to document the scope of the problem, to identify risk factors for fatal hemorrhage and to recommend ways of preventing these deaths. Deaths were identified through the CDC's nationwide surveillance of deaths from abortions; information on numbers and characteristics of women having legal abortions was obtained from CDC and the Alan Guttmacher Institute. Twenty-four women died from hemorrhage after legal abortion in the United States from 1972 to 1979, for a death-to-case rate of 0.3 deaths per 100,000 abortions (95 per cent confidence interval 0.2 to 0.5). Women who died from hemorrhage were significantly older than those who died from other causes (27.6 versus 24.4 years; p less than 0.05). Documented uterine perforation or rupture was far more frequent among women who died from hemorrhage than those who died from other causes (71 versus 8 per cent; p less than 0.001). Women who sustained uterine perforation or rupture were over 1,000 times more likely to die from hemorrhage than those who did not. Deaths from hemorrhage can be eliminated by preventing uterine trauma during abortion and by rapidly diagnosing and treating hemorrhage if it occurs.

  12. Extensive fatal intracoronary thrombosis during percutaneous coronary intervention with bivalirudin.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Sanjiv; Patel, Shirish; Behl, Ashok; Singh, Sarabjeet; Sandhu, Rasham; Bhambi, Neil; Sharma, Rohan; Bhambi, Brijesh

    2014-01-01

    The authors describe 2 cases of extensive intracoronary thrombus formation leading to acute closure of the left main where bivalirudin (Angiomax) was used as the anticoagulant during percutaneous coronary intervention leading to mortality. Both cases had similarity in the cascade of complications of coronary dissection leading to slow flow and prolonged procedure time with compromise of antegrade flow in the coronary artery and a final catastrophic development of extensive intracoronary thrombosis extending into the left main and nonintervened vessel (left anterior descending or circumflex) followed by ventricular fibrillation and death. Bivalirudin has reversible anticoagulant pharmacodynamics because the bivalirudin molecule is cleaved by the thrombin molecule. In situations when the antegrade flow is compromised, delivery of fresh circulating bivalirudin to replenish the catalysis of bivalirudin by thrombin is diminished, allowing thrombin activity to regenerate, thereby creating a prothrombotic milieu in these coronary segments. This can lead to extensive intracoronary thrombus formation in situations of slow flow precipitated by coronary dissection and prolonged dwell time with intracoronary hardware (wires, balloons, and stents). Interventionalists should be aware of the potential risk of this fatal complication and should be proactive in recognizing the scenarios where this is likely to occur. In such anticipated circumstances, the interventionalist may judiciously switch the anticoagulant to heparin and/or use additional glycoprotein IIb/IIIa inhibitor because freshly formed intracoronary thrombus is susceptible to lysis by glycoprotein IIb/IIIa inhibitors.

  13. Fatalities due to indigenous and exotic species in Florida.

    PubMed

    Wolf, Barbara C; Harding, Brett E

    2014-01-01

    Florida's climate is suitable for many potentially hazardous animals, including both indigenous and exotic species, which are frequently kept as in zoos or as pets. This has resulted in many unforeseen fatal encounters between animals and the ever expanding human population. While the literature and knowledge pool for more common types of deaths referred to medical examiner/coroner's offices is abundant, the appreciation of wildlife and exotic pet-related deaths is far less widespread. We report seven animal attack-related deaths that occurred in Florida. The inflicted injuries included blunt and sharp force injuries, asphyxia, drowning, and envenomation. The underlying cause of death, however, was always a result of the human/animal interaction and in many cases related to human error and failure to appreciate the potentially dangerous behavior of nondomesticated species. These cases illustrate the varied circumstances and pathophysiologies associated with deaths due to indigenous and exotic species and the importance of the multidisciplinary approach in the medicolegal investigation of these cases.

  14. A Fatal Case of Pentedrone and α-Pyrrolidinovalerophenone Poisoning.

    PubMed

    Sykutera, Marzena; Cychowska, Magdalena; Bloch-Boguslawska, Elżbieta

    2015-05-01

    We report a fatal case of combined α-pyrrolidinovalerophenone (α-PVP) and 2-(methylamino)-1-phenylpentan-1-one (pentedrone) poisoning. A 28-year-old man was taken to hospital in asystole. Despite resuscitation efforts over 30 min, he died. The forensic autopsy showed pulmonary edema and moderately advanced atherosclerotic lesions of the arteries. Microscopic observation revealed chronic changes in the heart. Confirmation of the presence of pentedrone, α-PVP, and its metabolite 1-phenyl-2-(pyrrolidin-1-yl)pentan-1-ol (OH-α-PVP) in tissues and fluids were achieved using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry analysis after liquid-liquid extraction. A quantitative validated liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry method was used to determine the concentrations of the above designer drugs in postmortem samples. Pentedrone, α-PVP, and OH-α-PVP concentrations were 8,794, 901 and 185 ng/mL in whole blood, respectively; 100,044, 2,610 and 2,264 ng/g in the liver, respectively; 22,102, 462 and 294 ng/g in the kidney, respectively; 13,248, 120 and 91 ng/g in the brain, respectively and 500,534, 4,190 and 47 ng/g in the stomach contents, respectively. This is the first known reported death attributed to the combined use of α-PVP and pentedrone. Additionally, this article is the first to report the distribution of pentedrone in postmortem human samples.

  15. Fatal Intoxication with α-PVP, a Synthetic Cathinone Derivative.

    PubMed

    Potocka-Banaś, Barbara; Janus, Tomasz; Majdanik, Sławomir; Banaś, Tomasz; Dembińska, Teresa; Borowiak, Krzysztof

    2016-12-28

    This study presents the fatal case of a young man who was admitted to the ICAU due to sudden cardiac arrest. An interview revealed that the patient had taken some unspecified crystals. From the moment of admission, his condition deteriorated dramatically as a result of increasing circulatory insufficiency. After a few hours, sudden cardiac arrest occurred again and the patient was pronounced dead. In the course of a medicolegal autopsy, samples of biological material were preserved for toxicology tests and histopathological examination. The analysis of samples using the LC-MS/MS technique revealed the presence of α-PVP in the following concentrations: blood-174 ng/mL, urine-401 ng/mL, brain-292 ng/g, liver-190 ng/g, kidney-122 ng/g, gastric contents-606 ng/g. The study also presents findings from the parallel histopathological examination. Based on these findings, cardiac arrest secondary to intoxication with alpha-PVP was determined as the direct cause of the patient's death.

  16. Decline of North Atlantic eels: a fatal synergy?

    PubMed

    Wirth, Thierry; Bernatchez, Louis

    2003-04-07

    Panmictic species pose particular problems for conservation because their welfare can be addressed effectively only on a global scale. We recently documented by means of microsatellite analysis that the European eel (Anguilla anguilla) is not panmictic but instead shows genetic isolation by distance. In this study, we extended the analysis to the American eel (A. rostrata) by applying identical analytical procedures and statistical power. Results obtained for the American eel were in sharp contrast with those obtained for the European eel: the null hypothesis of panmixia could not be rejected, and no isolation by distance was detected. This implies that the species must be managed as a single population. Using Bayesian statistics, we also found that the effective population sizes for both species were surprisingly low and that the populations had undergone severe contractions, most probably during the Wisconsinan glaciation. The apparent sensitivity of eels to climatic changes affecting the strength and position of the Gulf Stream 20,000 years ago is particularly worrying, given the effects of the ongoing global warming on the North Atlantic climate. Moreover, additional short-term stresses such as surging glass eel prizes, overfishing and lethal parasitic infections negatively affect eel population size. The fascinating transatlantic migration and life cycle of Atlantic eels is also their Achilles' heel as these negative short- and long-term effects will probably culminate in a fatal synergy if drastic conservation measures are not implemented to protect these international biological resources.

  17. Fatal cerebral mycoses caused by the ascomycete Chaetomium strumarium.

    PubMed Central

    Abbott, S P; Sigler, L; McAleer, R; McGough, D A; Rinaldi, M G; Mizell, G

    1995-01-01

    Three cases of fatal cerebral mycosis in males with prior histories of intravenous drug use from the United States and Australia are reported. Infection in each case was limited to brain abscess; no other sites of infection were observed. The fungus seen by histopathology and isolated from the brain tissue in each case was identified as Chaetomium strumarium. This is the first report of human infection by this species, and C. strumarium is the second species of Chaetomium known to cause primary brain infection. Chaetomium strumarium is unusual among members of the genus Chaetomium in forming ascocarps covered with pale, thin-walled, flexuous hairs, a feature leading to its original placement in the genus Achaetomium. Presence of pinkish exudate droplets and/or crystals associated with hyphae or ascocarps, sometimes accompanied by a pinkish diffusible pigment; good growth at 42 degrees C; and production of small conidia further distinguish this species. The brain abscess isolates were compared with isolates from prior cases of cerebral infection which had been identified as either Chaetomium atrobrunneum or Chaetomium globosum. With reidentification of one isolate originally identified as C. globosum to C. atrobrunneum, only C. strumarium and C. atrobrunneum have been confirmed to cause infection involving the brain. PMID:8567907

  18. Mathematical Understanding and Proving Abilities: Experiment with Undergraduate Student by Using Modified Moore Learning Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maya, Rippi; Sumarmo, Utari

    2011-01-01

    This paper reports findings of a post test experimental control group design conducted to investigate the role of modified Moore learning approach on improving students' mathematical understanding and proving abilities. Subjects of study were 56 undergraduate students of one state university in Bandung, who took advanced abstract algebra course.…

  19. Proof and Proving: Logic, Impasses, and the Relationship to Problem Solving

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Savic, Milos

    2012-01-01

    Becoming a skillful prover is critical for success in advanced undergraduate and graduate mathematics courses. In this dissertation, I report my investigations of proof and the proving process in three separate studies. In the first study, I examined the amount of logic used in student-constructed proofs to help in the design of…

  20. Community Colleges, Eager to Prove Their Worth, Develop Voluntary Standards of Performance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Basken, Paul

    2008-01-01

    The federal government's recent focus on making institutions prove their academic quality has left community colleges feeling vulnerable, uncertain about how to demonstrate their value to students and worried about losing crucial taxpayer support as their enrollments rise in a sagging economy. This article reports that community-college leaders…

  1. A Gas Chromatography Experiment for Proving the Application of Quantum Symmetry Restrictions in Homonuclear Diatomic Molecules.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dosiere, M.

    1985-01-01

    Background information, procedures used, and typical results obtained are provided for an experiment in which gas chromatography is used to prove the application of quantum symmetry restrictions in homonuclear diatomic molecules. Comparisons between experimental results and theoretical computed values show good agreement, within one to two…

  2. 76 FR 30319 - Real Property Master Plan Programmatic Environmental Impact Statement, at Yuma Proving Ground...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-05-25

    ... the installation. Resource areas that may be impacted include air quality, airspace, traffic, noise... Programmatic Environmental Impact Statement, at Yuma Proving Ground, Arizona AGENCY: Department of the Army, Do... Environmental Impact Statement (PEIS) to analyze the environmental impacts resulting from adoption...

  3. 43 CFR 30.228 - Is testimony required for self-proved wills, codicils, or revocations?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Is testimony required for self-proved wills, codicils, or revocations? 30.228 Section 30.228 Public Lands: Interior Office of the Secretary of the Interior INDIAN PROBATE HEARINGS PROCEDURES Formal Probate Proceedings Hearings § 30.228...

  4. 43 CFR 30.228 - Is testimony required for self-proved wills, codicils, or revocations?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Is testimony required for self-proved wills, codicils, or revocations? 30.228 Section 30.228 Public Lands: Interior Office of the Secretary of the Interior INDIAN PROBATE HEARINGS PROCEDURES Formal Probate Proceedings Hearings § 30.228...

  5. 43 CFR 30.228 - Is testimony required for self-proved wills, codicils, or revocations?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Is testimony required for self-proved wills, codicils, or revocations? 30.228 Section 30.228 Public Lands: Interior Office of the Secretary of the Interior INDIAN PROBATE HEARINGS PROCEDURES Formal Probate Proceedings Hearings § 30.228...

  6. 43 CFR 30.228 - Is testimony required for self-proved wills, codicils, or revocations?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Is testimony required for self-proved wills, codicils, or revocations? 30.228 Section 30.228 Public Lands: Interior Office of the Secretary of the Interior INDIAN PROBATE HEARINGS PROCEDURES Formal Probate Proceedings Hearings § 30.228...

  7. 43 CFR 30.228 - Is testimony required for self-proved wills, codicils, or revocations?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2012-10-01 2011-10-01 true Is testimony required for self-proved wills, codicils, or revocations? 30.228 Section 30.228 Public Lands: Interior Office of the Secretary of the Interior INDIAN PROBATE HEARINGS PROCEDURES Formal Probate Proceedings Hearings § 30.228 Is...

  8. Enacting Reasoning-and-Proving in Secondary Mathematics Classrooms through Tasks

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Switala, Michelle S.

    2013-01-01

    Proof is the mathematical way of convincing oneself and others of the truth of a claim for all cases in the domain under consideration. As such, reasoning-and-proving is a crucial, formative practice for all students in kindergarten through twelfth grade, which is reflected in the Common Core State Standards in Mathematics. However, students and…

  9. Operation UPSHOT-KNOTHOLE. Operational Summary, Nevada Proving Grounds, 1 March - 9 June 1953

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1982-08-01

    atd Hr. Robert Lefaron attended. Atomic Enrgy Comissioners Dr. Bar D. Sqth, W. Thomas R. Murray and 11r. Eugene M. Zuckert visited the Proving...pertaining tot safe combinations, security practices within the DOD Area (A), classified trash tipoual atd termination procedures. S7 Makes periodic

  10. 33 CFR 334.140 - Chesapeake Bay; U.S. Army Proving Ground Reservation, Aberdeen, Md.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ..., the patrol boat may operate a distinctive rotating blue and red light, public address system, sound a..., eel pot, crab pot, and all other types of nets fastened by means of poles, stakes, weights, or anchors. Permits to fish and crab within the restricted waters of Aberdeen Proving Ground may be obtained...

  11. 33 CFR 334.140 - Chesapeake Bay; U.S. Army Proving Ground Reservation, Aberdeen, Md.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ..., the patrol boat may operate a distinctive rotating blue and red light, public address system, sound a..., eel pot, crab pot, and all other types of nets fastened by means of poles, stakes, weights, or anchors. Permits to fish and crab within the restricted waters of Aberdeen Proving Ground may be obtained...

  12. Enhancing an Intellectual Need for Defining and Proving: A Case of Impossible Objects

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Koichu, Boris

    2012-01-01

    Identifying mathematical and didactical conditions under which mathematics learners can encounter an intellectual need for defining and proving is recognized as a challenging research enterprise. This paper presents a particular configuration of conditions under which a group of pre-service mathematics teachers successfully constructed a…

  13. Toward proving a new identity for Green's functions in N = 1 supersymmetric electrodynamics

    SciTech Connect

    Stepanyantz, K. V.

    2009-01-15

    A method that may underlie an attempt at proving the previously proposed new identity for Green's functions is described for N = 1 supersymmetric massless electrodynamics regularized by higher derivatives. With the aid of this method, it is shown that some contributions to the identity in question do indeed vanish.

  14. The prevalence of spirituality, optimism, depression, and fatalism in a bi-ethnic stroke population.

    PubMed

    Skolarus, Lesli E; Lisabeth, Lynda D; Sánchez, Brisa N; Smith, Melinda A; Garcia, Nelda M; Risser, Jan M H; Morgenstern, Lewis B

    2012-12-01

    To provide insight into the reduced post-stroke all-cause mortality among Mexican Americans, we explored ethnic differences in the pre-stroke prevalence of (1) spirituality, (2) optimism, (3) depression, and (4) fatalism in a Mexican American and non-Hispanic white stroke population. The Brain Attack Surveillance in Corpus Christi (BASIC) project is a population-based stroke surveillance study in Nueces County, Texas. Seven hundred ten stroke patients were queried. For fatalism, optimism, and depression scales, unadjusted ethnic comparisons were made using linear regression models. Regression models were also used to explore how age and gender modify the ethnic associations after adjustment for education. For the categorical spirituality variables, ethnic comparisons were made using Fisher's exact tests. Mexican Americans reported significantly more spirituality than non-Hispanic whites. Among women, age modified the ethnic associations with pre-stroke depression and fatalism but not optimism. Mexican American women had more optimism than non-Hispanic white women. With age, Mexican American women had less depression and fatalism, while non-Hispanic white women had more fatalism and similar depression. Among men, after adjustment for education and age, there was no ethnic association with fatalism, depression, and optimism. Spirituality requires further study as a potential mediator of increased survival following stroke among Mexican Americans. Among women, evaluation of the role of optimism, depression, and fatalism as they relate to ethnic differences in post-stroke mortality should be explored.

  15. The Prevalence of Spirituality, Optimism, Depression, and Fatalism in a Bi-ethnic Stroke Population

    PubMed Central

    Lisabeth, Lynda D.; Sánchez, Brisa N.; Smith, Melinda A.; Garcia, Nelda M.; Risser, Jan M. H.; Morgenstern, Lewis B.

    2011-01-01

    To provide insight into the reduced post-stroke all-cause mortality among Mexican Americans, we explored ethnic differences in the pre-stroke prevalence of (1) spirituality, (2) optimism, (3) depression, and (4) fatalism in a Mexican American and non-Hispanic white stroke population. The Brain Attack Surveillance in Corpus Christi (BASIC) project is a population-based stroke surveillance study in Nueces County, Texas. Seven hundred ten stroke patients were queried. For fatalism, optimism, and depression scales, unadjusted ethnic comparisons were made using linear regression models. Regression models were also used to explore how age and gender modify the ethnic associations after adjustment for education. For the categorical spirituality variables, ethnic comparisons were made using Fisher's exact tests. Mexican Americans reported significantly more spirituality than non-Hispanic whites. Among women, age modified the ethnic associations with pre-stroke depression and fatalism but not optimism. Mexican American women had more optimism than non-Hispanic white women. With age, Mexican American women had less depression and fatalism, while non-Hispanic white women had more fatalism and similar depression. Among men, after adjustment for education and age, there was no ethnic association with fatalism, depression, and optimism. Spirituality requires further study as a potential mediator of increased survival following stroke among Mexican Americans. Among women, evaluation of the role of optimism, depression, and fatalism as they relate to ethnic differences in post-stroke mortality should be explored. PMID:21184281

  16. Trends in rates of occupational fatal injuries in the United States (1983-92)

    PubMed Central

    Bailer, A. J.; Stayner, L. T.; Stout, N. A.; Reed, L. D.; Gilbert, S. J.

    1998-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: An updated version of a national surveillance system of traumatic occupational fatalities was used to explore adjusted and unadjusted trends in rates of fatal injury. METHODS: Data from the national traumatic occupational fatalities surveillance system were combined with data on employment from the United States Bureau of Labor Statistics. Poisson regression was then used to examine trends in rates of occupational fatality injuries while controlling for demographic and workplace characteristics. RESULTS: Adjusted annual changes in rates of fatal injuries ranged from a decline of 6.2% for workers in technical and administrative support occupations--for example, health, science, and engineering technicians, pilots, computer programmers--to an increase of 1.6% in machine operators, assemblers, and inspectors. For industries, annual changes ranged from a decline of 5.3% for workers in public administration--for example, justice, public order, and safety workers--to an increase of 2.6% for workers in the wholesale trade. By comparison, the annual decline over all industries and occupations was 3.1%. In many industries and occupations, an effect modification of annual trends by the age of the worker was also found with the oldest workers experiencing either no decline or a significant increase in rates of fatal injuries. CONCLUSIONS: This general pattern of decline, adjusted for the effects of demographic characteristics of the worker population, is encouraging; however, increases in rates of fatal injuries found in particular industries and occupations, suggest appropriate targets for increased injury prevention efforts.   PMID:9816383

  17. Searching for fixed point combinators by using automated theorem proving: A preliminary report

    SciTech Connect

    Wos, L.; McCune, W.

    1988-09-01

    In this report, we establish that the use of an automated theorem- proving program to study deep questions from mathematics and logic is indeed an excellent move. Among such problems, we focus mainly on that concerning the construction of fixed point combinators---a problem considered by logicians to be significant and difficult to solve, and often computationally intensive and arduous. To be a fixed point combinator, THETA must satisfy the equation THETAx = x(THETAx) for all combinators x. The specific questions on which we focus most heavily ask, for each chosen set of combinators, whether a fixed point combinator can be constructed from the members of that set. For answering questions of this type, we present a new, sound, and efficient method, called the kernel method, which can be applied quite easily by hand and very easily by an automated theorem-proving program. For the application of the kernel method by a theorem-proving program, we illustrate the vital role that is played by both paramodulation and demodulation---two of the powerful features frequently offered by an automated theorem-proving program for treating equality as if it is ''understood.'' We also state a conjecture that, if proved, establishes the completeness of the kernel method. From what we can ascertain, this method---which relies on the introduced concepts of kernel and superkernel---offers the first systematic approach for searching for fixed point combinators. We successfully apply the new kernel method to various sets of combinators and, for the set consisting of the combinators B and W, construct an infinite set of fixed point combinators such that no two of the combinators are equal even in the presence of extensionality---a law that asserts that two combinators are equal if they behave the same. 18 refs.

  18. Proving Ground Potential Mission and Flight Test Objectives and Near Term Architectures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, R. Marshall; Craig, Douglas A.; Lopez, Pedro Jr.

    2016-01-01

    NASA is developing a Pioneering Space Strategy to expand human and robotic presence further into the solar system, not just to explore and visit, but to stay. NASA's strategy is designed to meet technical and non-technical challenges, leverage current and near-term activities, and lead to a future where humans can work, learn, operate, and thrive safely in space for an extended, and eventually indefinite, period of time. An important aspect of this strategy is the implementation of proving ground activities needed to ensure confidence in both Mars systems and deep space operations prior to embarking on the journey to the Mars. As part of the proving ground development, NASA is assessing potential mission concepts that could validate the required capabilities needed to expand human presence into the solar system. The first step identified in the proving ground is to establish human presence in the cis-lunar vicinity to enable development and testing of systems and operations required to land humans on Mars and to reach other deep space destinations. These capabilities may also be leveraged to support potential commercial and international objectives for Lunar Surface missions. This paper will discuss a series of potential proving ground mission and flight test objectives that support NASA's journey to Mars and can be leveraged for commercial and international goals. The paper will discuss how early missions will begin to satisfy these objectives, including extensibility and applicability to Mars. The initial capability provided by the launch vehicle will be described as well as planned upgrades required to support longer and more complex missions. Potential architectures and mission concepts will be examined as options to satisfy proving ground objectives. In addition, these architectures will be assessed on commercial and international participation opportunities and on how well they develop capabilities and operations applicable to Mars vicinity missions.

  19. Pedestrian casualties and fatalities in road traffic crashes in a South African municipality.

    PubMed

    Olukoga, I A

    2003-12-01

    A study of the pedestrian casualties and fatalities in road traffic crashes in Durban, a South African municipality, for 1999 was undertaken using official road traffic accident data. The pedestrians age 25 to 44, although only 23.9% of the population, were 39.3% of the casualties and 48.2% of the fatalities. The most vulnerable pedestrians were those 30 to 34 years old who were 6.1% of the population, 11.7% of the casualties, and 14.6% of the fatalities; 35- to 39-year-olds who were 6% of the population, 8.8% of the casualties, and 13.5% of the fatalities; and the 40- to 44-year-olds who were 4.9% of the population, 7.5% of the casualties, and 10.2% of the fatalities. Cars were involved in 52% of the vehicle-pedestrian crashes but had fewer crashes than minibuses and buses, and fewer casualties and fatalities than minibuses, buses, and motorcycles. Minibuses recorded the most crashes at 1,037 per 100 million km, the highest casualty rate of 268 per 100 million km, and highest fatality rate of 17 per 100 million km. Buses, which were involved in 3% of the vehicle-pedestrian crashes, had 951 crashes per 100 million km, 182 casualties per 100 million km, and 11 fatalities per 100 million km. Motorcycles were involved in 1% of the vehicle-pedestrian crashes and had per 100 million km 508 crashes, 192 casualties, and 7 fatalities. There was no statistically significant difference in the monthly distribution of the road traffic crashes.

  20. Modeling the effect of operator and passenger characteristics on the fatality risk of motorcycle crashes

    PubMed Central

    Tavakoli Kashani, Ali; Rabieyan, Rahim; Besharati, Mohammad Mehdi

    2016-01-01

    Abstract: Background: In Iran more than 25% of crash fatalities belong to motorcycle operators and passengers in the recent years, from which about 20% are related to passenger fatalities. Methods: The aim of this study was to investigate the motorcycle operator and passenger characteristics as well as other contributory factors that may affect the fatality risk of motorcyclists involved in traffic crashes. To this end, motorcycle crash data between 2009 and 2012 was extracted from Iran traffic crash database and a logistic regression analysis was performed to obtain odds ratio estimates for each of the study variables. Results: The fatality risk of motorcyclists has a direct relationship with the number of pillion passengers carried. Results also indicate that the amount of increase in the likelihood of having a fatality in a motorcycles crash is considerably higher when the operator is accompanied by a male passenger of the same age. Furthermore, results showed that if the crash is occurred in the darkness, on curves, in rural areas and on highways, then the crash would be more likely to be fatal. Moreover, the head-on collisions, older operators, unlicensed operators and not using a safety helmet were found to increase the likelihood of a fatality in a motorcycle crash. Conclusions: Preventative measures such as, imposing stricter rules regarding safety helmet usage and confining the number of pillion passengers to one, might be implemented to reduce the fatality risk in motorcycle crashes. In addition, more appropriate infrastructures for penalizing offending motorcyclists could also reduce the frequency of law violations such as not wearing helmet or riding without motorcycle license, which in turn, would result into a reduction in the fatality risk of motorcycle crashes. PMID:26420217