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Sample records for philippsburg block ii

  1. Conformal Nets II: Conformal Blocks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bartels, Arthur; Douglas, Christopher L.; Henriques, André

    2017-03-01

    Conformal nets provide a mathematical formalism for conformal field theory. Associated to a conformal net with finite index, we give a construction of the `bundle of conformal blocks', a representation of the mapping class groupoid of closed topological surfaces into the category of finite-dimensional projective Hilbert spaces. We also construct infinite-dimensional spaces of conformal blocks for topological surfaces with smooth boundary. We prove that the conformal blocks satisfy a factorization formula for gluing surfaces along circles, and an analogous formula for gluing surfaces along intervals. We use this interval factorization property to give a new proof of the modularity of the category of representations of a conformal net.

  2. Criminal Justice Systems. Block I: Law Enforcement. Block II: The Courts. Block III: Corrections. Block IV: Community Relations. Block V: Proficiency Skills. Block VI: Criminalistics. Instructor Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Florida State Dept. of Education, Tallahassee. Div. of Vocational, Adult, and Community Education.

    This instructor guide together with a student guide comprise a set of curriculum materials on the criminal justice system. The instructor guide is a resource for planning and managing individualized, competency-based instruction in six major subject areas or blocks, which are further broken down into several units with some units having several…

  3. Criminal Justice Systems. Block I: Law Enforcement. Block II: The Courts. Block III: Corrections. Block IV: Community Relations. Block V: Proficiency Skills. Block VI: Criminalistics. Student Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Florida State Dept. of Education, Tallahassee. Div. of Vocational, Adult, and Community Education.

    This student guide together with an instructor guide comprise a set of curriculum materials on the criminal justice system. The student guide contains self-contained instructional material that students can study at their own pace most of the time. Six major subject areas or blocks, which are further broken down into several units, with some units…

  4. Apollo Block I Spacesuit Development and Apollo Block II Spacesuit Competition

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McBarron, Jim

    2013-01-01

    Jim McBarron has over 40 years of experience with the U.S. Air Force pressure suit and NASA spacesuit development and operations. As a result of his experience, he shared his significant knowledge about the requirements and modifications made to the Gemini spacesuit, which were necessary to support the Apollo Block I Program. In addition, he provided an overview of the Apollo Block II Spacesuit competition test program conducted by the NASA Manned Spacecraft Center. Topics covered included the program's chronology; competition test program ground rules, scoring details, and final test results; and the implementation of resulting modifications to the Apollo Spacesuit Program. He concluded his presentation by identifying noteworthy lessons learned.

  5. AIM-9X Block II Sidewinder (AIM-9X Blk II)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-12-01

    Selected Acquisition Report (SAR) RCS: DD-A&T(Q&A)823-442 AIM-9X Block II Sidewinder (AIM-9X Blk II) As of FY 2017 President’s Budget Defense...Program Office Estimate RDT&E - Research, Development, Test, and Evaluation SAR - Selected Acquisition Report SCP - Service Cost Position TBD - To Be... Selective Availability Anti-Spoofing Module sec - seconds STD - Standard TV - Technical View AIM-9X Blk II December 2015 SAR March 23, 2016 15:14:10

  6. AIM-9X Block II Sidewinder (AIM-9X Blk II)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-12-01

    Applicable O&S - Operating and Support Oth - Other PAUC - Program Acquisition Unit Cost PB - President’s Budget PE - Program Element Proc - Procurement...IATO - Interim Authorization to Operate IEA - Information Enterprise Architecture in - Inches IP - Internet Protocol IT - Information Technology ...Block II SAR. RDT&E Appn BA PE Navy 1319 07 0207161N Project Name 0457 Tactical Aim Missile (Shared) Air Force 3600 07 0207161F

  7. A Cephalometric Comparison of Twin Block and Bionator Appliances in Treatment of Class II Malocclusion

    PubMed Central

    Ahmadian-Babaki, Fatemeh; Araghbidi-Kashani, S. Mehdi

    2017-01-01

    Background Class II malocclusion is one of the most common orthodontic problems. In cases of class II malocclusion with mandibular deficiency, functional appliances often are used with the intent of stimulating mandibular growth. Bionator and twin block are two of the more popular functional appliances. The aim of this study was to compare the treatment outcomes of these two appliances using cephalometric radiographs. Material and Methods Cephalometric radiographs of 33 patients who had class II division I malocclusion, before and after treatment were digitalized. The mean changes in twin block and bionator groups were compared using independent t test. Results Twin block and bionator showed no statistically significant differences in cephalometric parameters except for ANB, NA-Pog, Basal and Ar-Go-Me angles. Conclusions There were no statistically significant differences in dentoalveolar and mandibular position between twin block and bionator (p>0.1). Twin block was more efficient in inhibition of forward movement of maxilla (p<0.1). Key words:Functional, Class II malocclusion, Cephalometrics, Twin block, Bionator, Treatment. PMID:28149473

  8. Action with Acceleration II: Euclidean Hamiltonian and Jordan Blocks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baaquie, Belal E.

    2013-10-01

    The Euclidean action with acceleration has been analyzed in Ref. 1, and referred to henceforth as Paper I, for its Hamiltonian and path integral. In this paper, the state space of the Hamiltonian is analyzed for the case when it is pseudo-Hermitian (equivalent to a Hermitian Hamiltonian), as well as the case when it is inequivalent. The propagator is computed using both creation and destruction operators as well as the path integral. A state space calculation of the propagator shows the crucial role played by the dual state vectors that yields a result impossible to obtain from a Hermitian Hamiltonian. When it is not pseudo-Hermitian, the Hamiltonian is shown to be a direct sum of Jordan blocks.

  9. Designed intramolecular blocking of the spin crossover of an Fe(ii) complex.

    PubMed

    Bartual-Murgui, C; Vela, S; Roubeau, O; Aromí, G

    2016-09-13

    A ligand derived from 1,3bpp (2-(pyrazol-1-yl)-6-(pyrazol-3-yl)-pyridine) has been prepared to prove that the spin crossover (SCO) of an Fe(ii) complex can be blocked by means of intramolecular interactions not related to the crystal field. Calculations show that the blocking is caused by the energy penalty incurred by the rotation of a phenyl ring, needed to avoid steric hindrance upon SCO.

  10. Phase Equilibria and Transition in Mixtures of a Homopolymer and a Block Copolymer. II.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1983-01-26

    AD-A124 929 PHASE EQUILIBRIA AND TRANSITION IN MIXTURES OF A In- NOMOPOLYMER AND’A BLOCK..(U) CINCINNATI UNJY ON DEPT OF MATERIALS SCIENCE AND...REPORT NO. 7 v2 L Phase Equilibria and Transition in Mixtures of a Homopolymer and a Block Copolymer II. The Phase Diagram by R. J. Roe and W. C. Zin...homopolymers as in our systems. The phase equilibria at temperatures above the "pseudo-triple point" BCD can be interpreted in terms of the free energy of

  11. Angiotensin-(1-7) blocks the angiotensin II-stimulated superoxide production.

    PubMed

    Polizio, Ariel Héctor; Gironacci, Mariela Mercedes; Tomaro, Maria Luján; Peña, Clara

    2007-07-01

    Angiotensin (Ang)-(1-7), a bioactive compound of the renin-angiotensin system, exerts effects leading to blood pressure reduction which counterbalance Ang II pressor actions. The present study was conducted to examine Ang-(1-7) and Ang II effects on superoxide anion production in rat aorta using the lucigenin chemiluminescence method. Ang II dose-dependently increased superoxide anion formation when compared to control levels; a maximal increase (2.5-fold) was observed with 1 x 10(-10)M peptide concentration. The Ang II-stimulated superoxide formation was blocked by 1 x 10(-10)M losartan, the specific AT(1) receptor antagonist, but not by 1 x 10(-10)M PD 123319, the AT(2) receptor antagonist, suggesting that the increased superoxide levels caused by Ang II are mediated through AT(1) receptors activation. The Ang II-stimulated superoxide production was not modified by 2 x 10(-8)M allopurinol or 1 x 10(-7)M indomethacin, but was completely abolished by NAD(P)H oxidase inhibitors: 1 x 10(-8)M diphenylene iodonium, or 2 x 10(-8)M apocynin, demonstrating that NAD(P)H oxidase participates in such response. In contrast to Ang II, Ang-(1-7) concentrations ranging 1 x 10(-12) to 1 x 10(-6)M did not modify superoxide anion levels, but prevented the Ang II-enhanced superoxide production. In conclusion, we demonstrated that Ang-(1-7) blocks the pro-oxidant effects of Ang II, thus reducing the superoxide anion production and delaying the hypertension development.

  12. IRF-4-mediated CIITA transcription is blocked by KSHV encoded LANA to inhibit MHC II presentation.

    PubMed

    Cai, Qiliang; Banerjee, Shuvomoy; Cervini, Amanda; Lu, Jie; Hislop, Andrew D; Dzeng, Richard; Robertson, Erle S

    2013-10-01

    Peptides presentation to T cells by MHC class II molecules is of importance in initiation of immune response to a pathogen. The level of MHC II expression directly influences T lymphocyte activation and is often targeted by various viruses. Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus (KSHV) encoded LANA is known to evade MHC class I peptide processing, however, the effect of LANA on MHC class II remains unclear. Here, we report that LANA down-regulates MHC II expression and presentation by inhibiting the transcription of MHC II transactivator (CIITA) promoter pIII and pIV in a dose-dependent manner. Strikingly, although LANA knockdown efficiently disrupts the inhibition of CIITA transcripts from its pIII and pIV promoter region, the expression of HLA-DQβ but no other MHC II molecules was significantly restored. Moreover, we revealed that the presentation of HLA-DQβ enhanced by LANA knockdown did not help LANA-specific CD4+ T cell recognition of PEL cells, and the inhibition of CIITA by LANA is independent of IL-4 or IFN-γ signaling but dependent on the direct interaction of LANA with IRF-4 (an activator of both the pIII and pIV CIITA promoters). This interaction dramatically blocked the DNA-binding ability of IRF-4 on both pIII and pIV promoters. Thus, our data implies that LANA can evade MHC II presentation and suppress CIITA transcription to provide a unique strategy of KSHV escape from immune surveillance by cytotoxic T cells.

  13. Early treatment outcomes of class II malocclusion with twin-block facial profile and cephalometric changes

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Mousumi Goswami; Vashisth, Pallavi; Chaudhary, Seema; Sinha, Ashish

    2012-01-01

    Esthetic improvement is highly valued by patients seeking orthodontic treatment. Subjects with a class II malocclusion are a good example of patients who seek treatment primarily for esthetic improvement. A young growing child with convex profile due to a small, retropositioned mandible, normal midface and lower tip trap is more suitable for functional appliance treatment. Functional appliances encourage adaptive skeletal growth by maintaining the mandible in a corrected forward position for a sufficient period of time to allow adaptive skeletal changes to occur in response to a functional stimulus. The aim of this article is to describe two cases of class II malocclusion in late mixed dentition period treated with twin-block. The cephalometric and facial profile changes have been discussed PMID:25756036

  14. Comparison of Activator-Headgear and Twin Block Treatment Approaches in Class II Division 1 Malocclusion

    PubMed Central

    Mroz Tranesen, Kate; Birkeland, Kari; Katic, Visnja; Pavlic, Andrej; Vandevska-Radunovic, Vaska

    2017-01-01

    The purpose was to compare the treatment effects of functional appliances activator-headgear (AH) and Twin Block (TB) on skeletal, dental, and soft-tissue structures in class II division 1 malocclusion with normal growth changes in untreated subjects. The sample included 50 subjects (56% females) aged 8–13 years with class II division 1 malocclusion treated with either AH (n = 25) or TB (n = 25) appliances. Pre- and posttreatment lateral cephalograms were evaluated and compared to 50 untreated class II division 1 cases matched by age, gender, ANB angle, and skeletal maturity. A paired sample, independent samples tests and discriminant analysis were performed for intra- and intergroup analysis. Treatment with both appliances resulted in significant reduction of skeletal and soft-tissue facial convexity, the overjet, and the prominence of the upper lip in comparison to untreated individuals (p < 0.001). Retroclination of maxillary incisors and proclination of mandibular incisors were seen, the latter being significantly more evident in the TB group (p < 0.05). Increase of effective mandibular length was more pronounced in the TB group. In conclusion, both AH and TB appliances contributed successfully to the correction of class II division 1 malocclusion when compared to the untreated subjects with predominantly dentoalveolar changes. PMID:28203569

  15. Cripto forms a complex with activin and type II activin receptors and can block activin signaling

    PubMed Central

    Gray, Peter C.; Harrison, Craig A.; Vale, Wylie

    2003-01-01

    Activin, nodal, Vg1, and growth and differentiation factor 1 are members of the transforming growth factor β superfamily and signal via the activin type II (ActRII/IIB) and type I (ALK4) serine/threonine kinase receptors. Unlike activins, however, signaling by nodal, Vg1, and growth and differentiation factor 1 requires a coreceptor from the epidermal growth factor-Cripto-FRL1-Cryptic protein family such as Cripto. Cripto has important roles during development and oncogenesis and binds nodal or related ligands and ALK4 to facilitate assembly of type I and type II receptor signaling complexes. Because Cripto mediates signaling via activin receptors and binds directly to ALK4, we tested whether transfection with Cripto would affect the ability of activin to signal and/or interact with its receptors. Here we show that Cripto can form a complex with activin and ActRII/IIB. We were unable to detect activin binding to Cripto in the absence of ActRII/IIB, indicating that unlike nodal, activin requires type II receptors to bind Cripto. If cotransfected with ActRII/IIB and ALK4, Cripto inhibited crosslinking of activin to ALK4 and the association of ALK4 with ActRII/IIB. In addition, Cripto blocked activin signaling when transfected into either HepG2 cells or 293T cells. We have also shown that under conditions in which Cripto facilitates nodal signaling, it antagonizes activin. Inhibition of activin signaling provides an additional example of a Cripto effect on the regulation of signaling by transforming growth factor-β superfamily members. Because activin is a potent inhibitor of cell growth in multiple cell types, these results provide a mechanism that may partially explain the oncogenic action of Cripto. PMID:12682303

  16. Block-circulant matrices with circulant blocks, Weil sums, and mutually unbiased bases. II. The prime power case

    SciTech Connect

    Combescure, Monique

    2009-03-15

    In our previous paper [Combescure, M., 'Circulant matrices, Gauss sums and the mutually unbiased bases. I. The prime number case', Cubo A Mathematical Journal (unpublished)] we have shown that the theory of circulant matrices allows to recover the result that there exists p+1 mutually unbiased bases in dimension p, p being an arbitrary prime number. Two orthonormal bases B, B{sup '} of C{sup d} are said mutually unbiased if for all b(set-membership sign)B, for all b{sup '}(set-membership sign)B{sup '} one has that |b{center_dot}b{sup '}|=1/{radical}(d) (b{center_dot}b{sup '} Hermitian scalar product in C{sup d}). In this paper we show that the theory of block-circulant matrices with circulant blocks allows to show very simply the known result that if d=p{sup n} (p a prime number and n any integer) there exists d+1 mutually unbiased bases in C{sup d}. Our result relies heavily on an idea of Klimov et al. [''Geometrical approach to the discrete Wigner function,'' J. Phys. A 39, 14471 (2006)]. As a subproduct we recover properties of quadratic Weil sums for p{>=}3, which generalizes the fact that in the prime case the quadratic Gauss sum properties follow from our results.

  17. Treatment effects of the R-appliance and twin block in Class II division 1 malocclusion.

    PubMed

    Jamilian, Abdolreza; Showkatbakhsh, Rahman; Amiri, Shabnam Sheikholeslam

    2011-08-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare the effects of a differently designed functional appliance (the R-appliance) with a twin-block (TB)-treated group. Thirty patients (18 girls and 12 boys) with a mean age of 10.5±0.7 years were treated with the R-appliance for 16.2±0.3 months and 25 (11 boys and 14 girls) with a mean age of 11.2±1.3 years with a TB for 16.1±1.4 months (control). All had a Class II division 1 malocclusion due to mandibular deficiency. Lateral cephalograms obtained at the beginning (T1) and end (T2) of the study were analysed. Paired t-tests showed that SNB significantly increased in both groups. The incisor mandibular plane angle (IMPA) was reduced in the R-appliance group by 1.9±4.9 degrees (P<0.04) but increased by 0.5±5.1 degrees (P<0.6) in the TB group. SNA in the R-appliance group showed an increase of 0.2±1.8 degrees (P<0.5), while it was decreased by 0.2±1.3 degrees (P<0.3) in the TB group. Both treatment modalities were successful in moving the mandible forward. However, with the R-appliance, this was achieved without retroclination of the lower incisors.

  18. Oxidative DNA Damage in Kidneys and Heart of Hypertensive Mice Is Prevented by Blocking Angiotensin II and Aldosterone Receptors

    PubMed Central

    Brand, Susanne; Amann, Kerstin; Mandel, Philipp; Zimnol, Anna; Schupp, Nicole

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Recently, we could show that angiotensin II, the reactive peptide of the blood pressure-regulating renin-angiotensin-aldosterone-system, causes the formation of reactive oxygen species and DNA damage in kidneys and hearts of hypertensive mice. To further investigate on the one hand the mechanism of DNA damage caused by angiotensin II, and on the other hand possible intervention strategies against end-organ damage, the effects of substances interfering with the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone-system on angiotensin II-induced genomic damage were studied. Methods In C57BL/6-mice, hypertension was induced by infusion of 600 ng/kg • min angiotensin II. The animals were additionally treated with the angiotensin II type 1 receptor blocker candesartan, the mineralocorticoid receptor blocker eplerenone and the antioxidant tempol. DNA damage and the activation of transcription factors were studied by immunohistochemistry and protein expression analysis. Results Administration of angiotensin II led to a significant increase of blood pressure, decreased only by candesartan. In kidneys and hearts of angiotensin II-treated animals, significant oxidative stress could be detected (1.5-fold over control). The redox-sensitive transcription factors Nrf2 and NF-κB were activated in the kidney by angiotensin II-treatment (4- and 3-fold over control, respectively) and reduced by all interventions. In kidneys and hearts an increase of DNA damage (3- and 2-fold over control, respectively) and of DNA repair (3-fold over control) was found. These effects were ameliorated by all interventions in both organs. Consistently, candesartan and tempol were more effective than eplerenone. Conclusion Angiotensin II-induced DNA damage is caused by angiotensin II type 1 receptor-mediated formation of oxidative stress in vivo. The angiotensin II-mediated physiological increase of aldosterone adds to the DNA-damaging effects. Blocking angiotensin II and mineralocorticoid receptors therefore

  19. Aeroelastic Tests of an Eight Percent Scale Saturn C-1 Block II

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1963-01-01

    Aeroelastic Tests of an Eight Percent Scale Saturn C-1 Block II. Buffet and flutter characteristics of Saturn Apollo mission were studied using a dynamically scaled model. The model was built around a central aluminum tube for scaled stiffness distribution and strength to resist loads imposed during testing. Styrofoam sections attached to the core provided the correct external contours. Lead weights were added for correct mass distribution. An electromagnetic shaker was used to excite the model in its flexible modes of vibration during portions of the test. The model was supported on a sting, mounted by leaf springs, cables and torsion bars. The support system provided for simulating the full scale rigid body pitch frequency with minimum restraint imposed on elastic deflections. Bending moments recorded by sensors on the aluminum tube. Several modified nose configurations were tested: The basic configuration was tested with and without a flow separator disk on the escape rocket motor, tests also were made with the escape tower and rocket motor removed completely. For the final test, the Apollo capsule was replaced with a Jupiter nose cone. The test program consisted of determining model response throughout the transonic speed range at angles of attack up to 6 degrees and measuring the aerodynamic damping over the same range for the basic model and the modified configurations. Signals from the model pickup were recorded on tape for later analysis. The data obtained were used to estimate bending moments that would be produced on the full-scale vehicle by aerodynamic forces due to buffeting. [Entire movie available on DVD from CASI as Doc ID 20070030987. Contact help@sti.nasa.gov

  20. HLA Class I and II Blocks Are Associated to Susceptibility, Clinical Subtypes and Autoantibodies in Mexican Systemic Sclerosis (SSc) Patients

    PubMed Central

    Rodriguez-Reyna, Tatiana S.; Mercado-Velázquez, Pamela; Yu, Neng; Alosco, Sharon; Ohashi, Marina; Lebedeva, Tatiana; Cruz-Lagunas, Alfredo; Núñez-Álvarez, Carlos; Vargas-Alarcón, Gilberto; Granados, Julio; Zúñiga, Joaquin; Yunis, Edmond

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Human leukocyte antigen (HLA) polymorphism studies in Systemic Sclerosis (SSc) have yielded variable results. These studies need to consider the genetic admixture of the studied population. Here we used our previously reported definition of genetic admixture of Mexicans using HLA class I and II DNA blocks to map genetic susceptibility to develop SSc and its complications. Methods We included 159 patients from a cohort of Mexican Mestizo SSc patients. We performed clinical evaluation, obtained SSc-associated antibodies, and determined HLA class I and class II alleles using sequence-based, high-resolution techniques to evaluate the contribution of these genes to SSc susceptibility, their correlation with the clinical and autoantibody profile and the prevalence of Amerindian, Caucasian and African alleles, blocks and haplotypes in this population. Results Our study revealed that class I block HLA-C*12:03-B*18:01 was important to map susceptibility to diffuse cutaneous (dc) SSc, HLA-C*07:01-B*08:01 block to map the susceptibility role of HLA-B*08:01 to develop SSc, and the C*07:02-B*39:05 and C*07:02-B*39:06 blocks to map the protective role of C*07:02 in SSc. We also confirmed previous associations of HLA-DRB1*11:04 and –DRB1*01 to susceptibility to develop SSc. Importantly, we mapped the protective role of DQB1*03:01 using three Amerindian blocks. We also found a significant association for the presence of anti-Topoisomerase I antibody with HLA-DQB1*04:02, present in an Amerindian block (DRB1*08:02-DQB1*04:02), and we found several alleles associated to internal organ damage. The admixture estimations revealed a lower proportion of the Amerindian genetic component among SSc patients. Conclusion This is the first report of the diversity of HLA class I and II alleles and haplotypes Mexican patients with SSc. Our findings suggest that HLA class I and class II genes contribute to the protection and susceptibility to develop SSc and its different clinical

  1. Reversible Calcium(II)-Ion Binding through an Apparent pKa Shift of Thermosensitive Block-Copolymer Micelles.

    PubMed

    Custers, Johannes P A; van Nispen, Sjoerd F G M; Can, Aydin; de La Rosa, Victor R; Maji, Samarendra; Schubert, Ulrich S; Keurentjes, Jos T F; Hoogenboom, Richard

    2015-11-16

    There is an increasing need for smart materials capable of removing multivalent ions from aqueous streams without the inconvenience of brine regeneration as in ion-exchange processes. Herein, we present a thermoresponsive micellar system consisting of polystyrene-poly(methoxy diethyleneglycol acrylate) block copolymer surfactants modified with carboxylic acid end groups (PS-PMDEGA-COOH) that can be used to switch between the adsorption and desorption of divalent calcium(II) cations by a mild temperature trigger, thus providing a new type of thermoregenerable ion-adsorbing materials. The switch of calcium(II)-binding capacity is demonstrated to result from a shift in the pKa value of the carboxylic acid groups by the collapse and redissolution of the PMDEGA block and the associated change in local polarity.

  2. Tricuspid valve endocarditis complicated by Mobitz type II heart block – a case report and literature review

    PubMed Central

    Agu, Chidozie Charles; Salhan, Divya; Bakhit, Ahmed; Basheer, Hiba; Basunia, Md; Bhattarai, Bikash; Oke, Vikram; Schmidt, Marie Frances; Dufresne, Alix

    2015-01-01

    We present a case of a middle-aged male who manifested with low-grade fever and lower back pain. MRI and bone scan of the spine were suggestive of vertebral osteomyelitis. Blood cultures were persistently positive for Enterococcus faecalis and echocardiogram revealed tricuspid valve endocarditis. There was no history of IV drug use and urine toxicology was negative. EKG showed Mobitz type II AV block and a transesophageal echocardiogram revealed no valve ring or septal abscesses. The heart block persisted despite antibiotic therapy and an epicardial pacemaker was placed. This is a rare presentation of high-grade AV block with tricuspid endocarditis in the absence of echocardiographic evidence of perivalvular extension of infection. Also, unique in this case is the finding of E. faecalis hematogenous vertebral osteomyelitis. PMID:26653699

  3. Role of Mas receptor antagonist (A779) in renal hemodynamics in condition of blocked angiotensin II receptors in rats.

    PubMed

    Mansoori, A; Oryan, S; Nematbakhsh, M

    2016-03-01

    The vasodilatory effect of angiotensin 1-7 (Ang 1-7) is exerted in the vascular bed via Mas receptor (MasR) gender dependently. However, the crosstalk between MasR and angiotensin II (Ang II) types 1 and 2 receptors (AT1R and AT2R) may change some actions of Ang 1-7 in renal circulation. In this study by blocking AT1R and AT2R, the role of MasR in kidney hemodynamics was described. In anaesthetized male and female Wistar rats, the effects of saline as vehicle and MasR blockade (A779) were tested on mean arterial pressure (MAP), renal perfusion pressure (RPP), renal blood flow (RBF), and renal vascular resistance (RVR) when both AT1R and AT2R were blocked by losartan and PD123319, respectively. In male rats, when AT1R and AT2R were blocked, there was a tendency for the increase in RBF/wet kidney tissue weight (RBF/KW) to be elevated by A779 as compared with the vehicle (P=0.08), and this was not the case in female rats. The impact of MasR on renal hemodynamics appears not to be sexual dimorphism either when Ang II receptors were blocked. It seems that co-blockade of all AT1R, AT2R, and MasR may alter RBF/ KW in male more than in female rats. These findings support a crosstalk between MasR and Ang II receptors in renal circulation.

  4. Use of Twin Block of Clark in management of Angle's Class II Division I malocclusion. Case report.

    PubMed

    Isiekwe, Gerald Ikenna; DaCosta, Oluranti Olatokunbo

    2013-11-01

    A case report on the orthodontic management of a 10-year-old female patient with Angle's Class II Division I malocclusion, 12 mm overjet, incompetent lips, a deep bite and a lower midline shift to the right using the Twin Block of Clark is presented. Treatment objectives included reduction of the overjet and overbite, obtaining a Class I molar and canine relationship, and improving the patient's profile. After a thorough patient assessment, a two-phase orthodontic treatment plan was chosen with myofunctional therapy using the Twin Block constituting the first phase of treatment. Second phase of treatment was to be carried out using a preadjusted edgewise appliance system. Active treatment with the Twin Block lasted for nine months. Patient's compliance with the appliance was good, and an overjet reduction to 4.5 mm was achieved with an improvement in facial profile after the first phase of treatment. The Twin Block of Clark is a very good treatment alternative in managing selected cases of Angle's Class II Division I malocclusion.

  5. Block Scheduled High School Achievement: Part II. Comparison of End-of-Course Test Scores for Blocked and Nonblocked High Schools (1993 through 1996). Evaluation Brief.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    North Carolina State Dept. of Public Instruction, Raleigh. Div. of Accountability Services/Research.

    Block scheduling has grown rapidly in recent years. In North Carolina, 77 schools started block scheduling in 1995-96, bringing the total number of blocked schools in the state to 207. A previous evaluation compared 1995 End-of-Course (EOC) Test scores for block-scheduled (blocked) and nonblocked schools. This report presents results of the…

  6. Assessment of groundwater quality from Bankura I and II Blocks, Bankura District, West Bengal, India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nag, S. K.; Das, Shreya

    2017-02-01

    Hydrochemical evaluation of groundwater has been conducted in Bankura I and II Blocks to analyze and determining groundwater quality in the area. Thirty-six groundwater samples were analyzed for their physical and chemical properties using standard laboratory methods. The constituents have the following ranges in the water: pH 6.4-8.6, electrical conductivity 80-1900 μS/cm, total hardness 30-730 mg/l, TDS 48-1001 mg/l, Ca2+ 4.2-222.6 mg/l, Na+ 2.33-103.33 mg/l, Mg2+ 1.56-115.36 mg/l, K+ 0.67-14 mg/l and Fe BDL-2.53 mg/l, HCO3^{ - } 48.8-1000.4 mg/l, Cl- 5.6-459.86 mg/l and SO4^{ = } BDL-99.03 mg/l. Results also show that bicarbonate ions ( HCO3^{ - } ) dominate the other anions (Cl- and SO4^{2 - } ). Sodium adsorption ratio (SAR), soluble sodium percentage (SSP), residual sodium carbonate (RSC), magnesium adsorption ratio (MAR), total hardness (TH), and permeability index (PI) were calculated as derived parameters, to investigate the ionic toxicity. Concerned chemical parameters when plotted in the U.S. Salinity diagram indicate that waters are of C1-S1, C2-S1 and C3-S1 types, i.e., low salinity and low sodium which is good for irrigation. The values of Sodium Adsorption Ratio indicate that the groundwater of the area falls under the category of low sodium hazard. So, there is neither salinity nor toxicity problem of irrigation water, and hence the ground water can safely be used for long-term irrigation. The chemical parameters when plotted in Piper's trilinear diagram are found to concentrate in the central and west central part of the diamond-shaped field. Based on the analytical results, groundwater in the area is found to be generally fresh and hard to very hard. The abundance of the major ions is as follows: HCO3 > Cl > SO4 and Ca > Na > Mg > K > Fe. Results also show that bicarbonate ions ( HCO3^{ - } ) dominate the other anions (Cl- and SO4^{2 - } ). According to Gibbs diagrams samples fall in the rock dominance field and the chemical quality of

  7. Dentoskeletal effects of Class II malocclusion treatment with the Twin Block appliance in a Brazilian sample: A prospective study

    PubMed Central

    Saikoski, Luciano Zilio; Cançado, Rodrigo Hermont; Valarelli, Fabrício Pinelli; de Freitas, Karina Maria Salvatore

    2014-01-01

    Objective The aim of this study was to assess the dentoskeletal effects of Class II malocclusion treatment performed with the Twin Block appliance. Methods The experimental group comprised 20 individuals with initial mean age of 11.76 years and was treated for a period of 1.13 years. The control group comprised 25 individuals with initial mean age of 11.39 years and a follow-up period of 1.07 years. Lateral cephalograms were taken at treatment onset and completion to assess treatment outcomes. Intergroup comparison was performed by means of the chi-square and independent t tests. Results The Twin Block appliance did not show significant effects on the maxillary component. The mandibular component showed a statistically significant increase in the effective mandibular length (Co-Gn) and significant improvement in the maxillomandibular relationship. The maxillary and mandibular dentoalveolar components presented a significant inclination of anterior teeth in both arches. The maxillary incisors were lingually tipped and retruded, while the mandibular incisors were labially tipped and protruded. Conclusions The Twin Block appliance has great effectiveness for correction of skeletal Class II malocclusion in individuals with growth potential. Most changes are of dentoalveolar nature with a large component of tooth inclination associated with a significant skeletal effect on the mandible. PMID:24713558

  8. Inhibition of Angiotensin Converting Enzyme, Angiotensin II Receptor Blocking, and Blood Pressure Lowering Bioactivity across Plant Families.

    PubMed

    Patten, Glen S; Abeywardena, Mahinda Y; Bennett, Louise E

    2016-01-01

    Hypertension is a major risk factor for coronary heart disease, kidney disease, and stroke. Interest in medicinal or nutraceutical plant bioactives to reduce hypertension has increased dramatically. The main biological regulation of mammalian blood pressure is via the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system. The key enzyme is angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) that converts angiotensin I into the powerful vasoconstrictor, angiotensin II. Angiotensin II binds to its receptors (AT1) on smooth muscle cells of the arteriole vasculature causing vasoconstriction and elevation of blood pressure. This review focuses on the in vitro and in vivo reports of plant-derived extracts that inhibit ACE activity, block angiotensin II receptor binding and demonstrate hypotensive activity in animal or human studies. We describe 74 families of plants that exhibited significant ACE inhibitory activity and 16 plant families with potential AT1 receptor blocking activity, according to in vitro studies. From 43 plant families including some of those with in vitro bioactivity, the extracts from 73 plant species lowered blood pressure in various normotensive or hypertensive in vivo models by the oral route. Of these, 19 species from 15 families lowered human BP when administered orally. Some of the active plant extracts, isolated bioactives and BP-lowering mechanisms are discussed.

  9. MiRNA-30a inhibits AECs-II apoptosis by blocking mitochondrial fission dependent on Drp-1.

    PubMed

    Mao, Cuiping; Zhang, Jinjin; Lin, Shengcui; Jing, Lili; Xiang, Jing; Wang, Meirong; Wang, Bingsi; Xu, Pan; Liu, Weili; Song, Xiaodong; Lv, Changjun

    2014-12-01

    Apoptosis of type II alveolar epithelial cells (AECs-II) is a key determinant of initiation and progression of lung fibrosis. However, the mechanism of miR-30a participation in the regulation of AECs-II apoptosis is ambiguous. In this study, we investigated whether miR-30a could block AECs-II apoptosis by repressing mitochondrial fission dependent on dynamin-related protein-1 (Drp-1). The levels of miR-30a in vivo and in vitro were determined through quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR). The inhibition of miR-30a in AECs-II apoptosis, mitochondrial fission and its dependence on Drp-1, and Drp-1 expression and translocation were detected using miR-30a mimic, inhibitor-transfection method (gain- and loss-of-function), or Drp-1 siRNA technology. Results showed that miR-30a decreased in lung fibrosis. Gain- and loss-of-function studies revealed that the up-regulation of miR-30a could decrease AECs-II apoptosis, inhibit mitochondrial fission, and reduce Drp-1 expression and translocation. MiR-30a mimic/inhibitor and Drp-1 siRNA co-transfection showed that miR-30a could inhibit the mitochondrial fission dependent on Drp-1. This study demonstrated that miR-30a inhibited AECs-II apoptosis by repressing the mitochondrial fission dependent on Drp-1, and could function as a novel therapeutic target for lung fibrosis.

  10. DIOL Triterpenes Block Profibrotic Effects of Angiotensin II and Protect from Cardiac Hypertrophy

    PubMed Central

    Jurado-López, Raquel; Martínez-Martínez, Ernesto; Gómez-Hurtado, Nieves; Delgado, Carmen; Visitación Bartolomé, Maria; San Román, José Alberto; Cordova, Claudia; Lahera, Vicente; Nieto, Maria Luisa; Cachofeiro, Victoria

    2012-01-01

    Background The natural triterpenes, erythrodiol and uvaol, exert anti-inflammatory, vasorelaxing and anti-proliferative effects. Angiotensin II is a well-known profibrotic and proliferative agent that participates in the cardiac remodeling associated with different pathological situations through the stimulation and proliferation of cardiac fibroblasts. Therefore, the aim of the study was to investigate the preventive effects of the natural triterpenes erythrodiol and uvaol on the proliferation and collagen production induced by angiotensin II in cardiac myofibroblasts. Their actions on cardiac hypertrophy triggered by angiotensin II were also studied. Methodology/Principal Findings The effect of erythrodiol and uvaol on angiotensin II-induced proliferation was evaluated in cardiac myofibroblasts from adult rats in the presence or the absence of the inhibitors of PPAR-γ, GW9662 or JNK, SP600125. The effect on collagen levels induced by angiotensin II was evaluated in cardiac myofibroblasts and mouse heart. The presence of low doses of both triterpenes reduced the proliferation of cardiac myofibroblasts induced by angiotensin II. Pretreatment with GW9662 reversed the effect elicited by both triterpenes while SP600125 did not modify it. Both triterpenes at high doses produced an increase in annexing-V binding in the presence or absence of angiotensin II, which was reduced by either SP600125 or GW9662. Erythrodiol and uvaol decreased collagen I and galectin 3 levels induced by angiotensin II in cardiac myofribroblasts. Finally, cardiac hypertrophy, ventricular remodeling, fibrosis, and increases in myocyte area and brain natriuretic peptide levels observed in angiotensin II-infused mice were reduced in triterpene-treated animals. Conclusions/Significance Erythrodiol and uvaol reduce cardiac hypertrophy and left ventricle remodeling induced by angiotensin II in mice by diminishing fibrosis and myocyte area. They also modulate growth and survival of cardiac

  11. Nematogenic Aromatic Block Copolymers of Rigid and Flexible Units. II. Phase Equilibria.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1986-11-06

    Phase Equilibria 12 PERSONAL AUTHOR(S) -W_ R_ Krinhaum- 7- Shuf~in-. Prpdnn- A (’ifiarri anri r. rnnin 13a 1,TAPOF -EPORT 113b TIME COVERED 14. DATE...and Flexible Units. II. Phase Equilibria by W. R. Krigbaum, Z. Shufan, Jack Preston, A. Ciferri and G. Conio q Prepared for Publication in the

  12. Two unprecedented 1D coordination polymer chains based on tetranuclear copper(II) building blocks

    SciTech Connect

    Li Gaijuan; Xing Yan Song Shuyan; Xu Ning; Liu Xianchun; Su Zhongmin

    2008-09-15

    The reaction of copper(II) sulfate with pyridine in DMF or methanol yield two unprecedented Cu(II) coordination polymers {l_brace}[Cu{sub 4}({mu}{sub 4}-O)(py){sub 4}(SO{sub 4}){sub 4}][{mu}-Cu(py)(DMF){sub 2}]{r_brace}{sub n}(1) and {l_brace}[Cu{sub 4}({mu}{sub 4}-O)(py){sub 4}(SO{sub 4}){sub 4}][{mu}-Cu(py){sub 4}]{r_brace}{sub n}(2), respectively. Single-crystal X-ray diffraction indicated that compound 1 crystallizes in the monoclinic system, space group p2(1)/n, a=14.542(5) A, b=16.359(5) A, c=18.951(5) A, {beta}=92.047(5){sup o}, V=4505(2) A{sup 3}, Z=4 while 2 is monoclinic C2/c, a=23.078(5) A, b=10.214(5) A, c=23.142(5) A, {beta}=115.471(5){sup o}, V=4925(3) A{sup 3}, Z=4. Both of the two compounds consist of tetrahedral tetranuclear [Cu{sub 4}({mu}{sub 4}-O)(py){sub 4}(SO{sub 4}){sub 4}] clusters that are bridged by pentacoordinated Cu atom for 1 or hexacoordinated Cu atoms for 2 through the sulfate oxygen to form the infinite one-dimensional polymer chains. - Graphical abstract: Two unprecedented Cu(II) coordination polymers have been prepared by using solvothermal method; they consist of tetrahedral tetranuclear clusters that are bridged by unique Cu(II) atom through the sulfate oxygen to form the infinite one-dimensional polymer chains (a) for complex 1 and (b) for complex 2.

  13. A Cytostatic Ruthenium(II)-Platinum(II) Bis(terpyridyl) Anticancer Complex That Blocks Entry into S Phase by Up-regulating p27(KIP1).

    PubMed

    Ramu, Vadde; Gill, Martin R; Jarman, Paul J; Turton, David; Thomas, Jim A; Das, Amitava; Smythe, Carl

    2015-06-15

    Cytostatic agents that interfere with specific cellular components to prevent cancer cell growth offer an attractive alternative, or complement, to traditional cytotoxic chemotherapy. Here, we describe the synthesis and characterization of a new binuclear Ru(II) -Pt(II) complex [Ru(tpy)(tpypma)Pt(Cl)(DMSO)](3+) (tpy=2,2':6',2''-terpyridine and tpypma=4-([2,2':6',2''-terpyridine]-4'-yl)-N-(pyridin-2-ylmethyl)aniline), VR54, which employs the extended terpyridine tpypma ligand to link the two metal centres. In cell-free conditions, VR54 binds DNA by non-intercalative reversible mechanisms (Kb =1.3×10(5)  M(-1) ) and does not irreversibly bind guanosine. Cellular studies reveal that VR54 suppresses proliferation of A2780 ovarian cancer cells with no cross-resistance in the A2780CIS cisplatin-resistant cell line. Through the preparation of mononuclear Ru(II) and Pt(II) structural derivatives it was determined that both metal centres are required for this anti-proliferative activity. In stark contrast to cisplatin, VR54 neither activates the DNA-damage response network nor induces significant levels of cell death. Instead, VR54 is cytostatic and inhibits cell proliferation by up-regulating the cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor p27(KIP1) and inhibiting retinoblastoma protein phosphorylation, which blocks entry into S phase and results in G1 cell cycle arrest. Thus, VR54 inhibits cancer cell growth by a gain of function at the G1 restriction point. This is the first metal-coordination compound to demonstrate such activity.

  14. Combining a Ru(II) "Building Block" and Rapid Screening Approach to Identify DNA Structure-Selective "Light Switch" Compounds.

    PubMed

    Wachter, Erin; Moyá, Diego; Glazer, Edith C

    2017-02-13

    A chemically reactive Ru(II) "building block", able to undergo condensation reactions with substituted diamines, was utilized to create a small library of luminescent "light switch" dipyrido-[3,2-a:2',3'-c] phenazine (dppz) complexes. The impact of substituent identity, position, and the number of substituents on the light switch effect was investigated. An unbiased, parallel screening approach was used to evaluate the selectivity of the compounds for a variety of different biomolecules, including protein, nucleosides, single stranded DNA, duplex DNA, triplex DNA, and G-quadruplex DNA. Combining these two approaches allowed for the identification of hit molecules that showed different selectivities for biologically relevant DNA structures, particularly triplex and quadruplex DNA.

  15. Analysis of Sporulation Mutants II. Mutants Blocked in the Citric Acid Cycle

    PubMed Central

    Fortnagel, Peter; Freese, Ernst

    1968-01-01

    Sporulation mutants that were unable to incorporate uracil during the developmental period recovered this capacity with the addition of ribose and in most cases with the addition of glutamate. Of the mutants that responded to both ribose and glumate, all but three also responded to citrate, and all but five responded to acetate. One of the exceptional strains was deficient in aconitase and another one in aconitase and isocitrate dehydrogenase; both required glutamate for growth. For the mutants which did not respond to glutamate, the products made from 14C-glutamate were determined by thin-layer chromatography. Significant differences were found which enabled the identification of mutant blocks. The deficiency of the corresponding enzyme activity was verified. Several mutants were deficient in α-ketoglutarate dehydrogenase, and one lacked succinic dehydrogenase. These mutants could still grow on glucose as sole carbon source, but not on glutamate. The intact Krebs cycle is therefore not required for vegetative growth of aerobic Bacillis subtilis, but it is indispensable for sporulation. Images PMID:4967197

  16. An antibody blocking activin type II receptors induces strong skeletal muscle hypertrophy and protects from atrophy.

    PubMed

    Lach-Trifilieff, Estelle; Minetti, Giulia C; Sheppard, KellyAnn; Ibebunjo, Chikwendu; Feige, Jerome N; Hartmann, Steffen; Brachat, Sophie; Rivet, Helene; Koelbing, Claudia; Morvan, Frederic; Hatakeyama, Shinji; Glass, David J

    2014-02-01

    The myostatin/activin type II receptor (ActRII) pathway has been identified to be critical in regulating skeletal muscle size. Several other ligands, including GDF11 and the activins, signal through this pathway, suggesting that the ActRII receptors are major regulatory nodes in the regulation of muscle mass. We have developed a novel, human anti-ActRII antibody (bimagrumab, or BYM338) to prevent binding of ligands to the receptors and thus inhibit downstream signaling. BYM338 enhances differentiation of primary human skeletal myoblasts and counteracts the inhibition of differentiation induced by myostatin or activin A. BYM338 prevents myostatin- or activin A-induced atrophy through inhibition of Smad2/3 phosphorylation, thus sparing the myosin heavy chain from degradation. BYM338 dramatically increases skeletal muscle mass in mice, beyond sole inhibition of myostatin, detected by comparing the antibody with a myostatin inhibitor. A mouse version of the antibody induces enhanced muscle hypertrophy in myostatin mutant mice, further confirming a beneficial effect on muscle growth beyond myostatin inhibition alone through blockade of ActRII ligands. BYM338 protects muscles from glucocorticoid-induced atrophy and weakness via prevention of muscle and tetanic force losses. These data highlight the compelling therapeutic potential of BYM338 for the treatment of skeletal muscle atrophy and weakness in multiple settings.

  17. Inhibitory responses in Aplysia pleural sensory neurons act to block excitability, transmitter release, and PKC Apl II activation.

    PubMed

    Dunn, Tyler W; Farah, Carole A; Sossin, Wayne S

    2012-01-01

    Expression of the 5-HT(1Apl(a)) receptor in Aplysia pleural sensory neurons inhibited 5-HT-mediated translocation of the novel PKC Apl II in sensory neurons and prevented PKC-dependent synaptic facilitation at sensory to motoneuron synapses (Nagakura et al. 2010). We now demonstrate that the ability of inhibitory receptors to block PKC activation is a general feature of inhibitory receptors and is found after expression of the 5-HT(1Apl(b)) receptor and with activation of endogenous dopamine and FMRFamide receptors in sensory neurons. Pleural sensory neurons are heterogeneous for their inhibitory response to endogenous transmitters, with dopamine being the most prevalent, followed by FMRFamide, and only a small number of neurons with inhibitory responses to 5-HT. The inhibitory response is dominant, reduces membrane excitability and synaptic efficacy, and can reverse 5-HT facilitation at both naive and depressed synapses. Indeed, dopamine can reverse PKC translocation during the continued application of 5-HT. Reversal of translocation can also be seen after translocation mediated by an analog of diacylglycerol, suggesting inhibition is not through blockade of diacylglycerol production. The effects of inhibition on PKC translocation can be rescued by phosphatidic acid, consistent with the inhibitory response involving a reduction or block of production of this lipid. However, phosphatidic acid could not recover PKC-dependent synaptic facilitation due to an additional inhibitory effect on the non-L-type calcium flux linked to synaptic transmission. In summary, we find a novel mechanism downstream of inhibitory receptors linked to inhibition of PKC activation in Aplysia sensory neurons.

  18. Microstructural characterization and density change of 304 stainless steel reflector blocks after long-term irradiation in EBR-II

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Y.; Wiezorek, J. M. K.; Garner, F. A.; Freyer, P. D.; Okita, T.; Sagisaka, M.; Isobe, Y.; Allen, T. R.

    2015-10-01

    While thin reactor structural components such as cladding and ducts do not experience significant gradients in dpa rate, gamma heating rate, temperature or stress, thick components can develop strong local variations in void swelling and irradiation creep in response to gradients in these variables. In this study we conducted microstructural investigations by transmission electron microscopy of two 52 mm thick 304-type stainless steel hex-blocks irradiated for 12 years in the EBR-II reactor with accumulated doses ranging from ∼0.4 to 33 dpa. Spatial variations in the populations of voids, precipitates, Frank loops and dislocation lines have been determined for 304 stainless steel sections exposed to different temperatures, different dpa levels and at different dpa rates, demonstrating the existence of spatial gradients in the resulting void swelling. The microstructural measurements compare very well with complementary density change measurements regarding void swelling gradients in the 304 stainless steel hex-block components. The TEM studies revealed that the original cold-worked-state microstructure of the unirradiated blocks was completely erased by irradiation, replaced by high densities of interstitial Frank loops, voids and carbide precipitates at both the lowest and highest doses. At large dose levels the amount of volumetric void swelling correlated directly with the gamma heating gradient-related temperature increase (e.g. for 28 dpa, ∼2% swelling at 418 °C and ∼2.9% swelling at 448 °C). Under approximately iso-thermal local conditions, volumetric void swelling was found to increase with dose level (e.g. ∼0.2% swelling at 0.4 dpa, ∼0.5% swelling at 4 dpa and ∼2% swelling at 28 dpa). Carbide precipitate formation levels were found to be relatively independent of both dpa level and temperature and induced a measurable densification. Void swelling was dominant at the higher dose levels and caused measurable decreases in density. Void swelling

  19. Gentamicin Blocks the ACh-Induced BK Current in Guinea Pig Type II Vestibular Hair Cells by Competing with Ca2+ at the l-Type Calcium Channel

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Hong; Guo, Chang-Kai; Wang, Yi; Zhou, Tao; Kong, Wei-Jia

    2014-01-01

    Type II vestibular hair cells (VHCs II) contain big-conductance Ca2+-dependent K+ channels (BK) and l-type calcium channels. Our previous studies in guinea pig VHCs II indicated that acetylcholine (ACh) evoked the BK current by triggering the influx of Ca2+ ions through l-type Ca2+ channels, which was mediated by M2 muscarinic ACh receptor (mAChRs). Aminoglycoside antibiotics, such as gentamicin (GM), are known to have vestibulotoxicity, including damaging effects on the efferent nerve endings on VHCs II. This study used the whole-cell patch clamp technique to determine whether GM affects the vestibular efferent system at postsynaptic M2-mAChRs or the membrane ion channels. We found that GM could block the ACh-induced BK current and that inhibition was reversible, voltage-independent, and dose-dependent with an IC50 value of 36.3 ± 7.8 μM. Increasing the ACh concentration had little influence on GM blocking effect, but increasing the extracellular Ca2+ concentration ([Ca2+]o) could antagonize it. Moreover, 50 μM GM potently blocked Ca2+ currents activated by (−)-Bay-K8644, but did not block BK currents induced by NS1619. These observations indicate that GM most likely blocks the M2 mAChR-mediated response by competing with Ca2+ at the l-type calcium channel. These results provide insights into the vestibulotoxicity of aminoglycoside antibiotics on mammalian VHCs II. PMID:24758923

  20. Analogue simulation of pharyngeal airflow response to Twin Block treatment in growing patients with Class II1 and mandibular retrognathia

    PubMed Central

    Li, Liang; Wu, Wei; Yan, Guijun; Liu, Li; Liu, Hong; Li, Guojv; Li, Jing; Liu, Dongxu

    2016-01-01

    The flow dynamics of respiratory airflow is the basic factor that influences the ventilation function of the upper airway. This research aimed to investigate the pharyngeal flow field characteristics after Twin Block (TB) treatment in growing patients with Class II1 and mandibular retrognathia by computation fluid dynamics (CFD) simulation. Cone beam computed tomography (CBCT) scans of patients who have completed TB treatment (n = 30) and about to accept TB treatment (n = 30) were reconstructed. After CFD simulation, correlations between the pharyngeal pressure drop and morphological parameters were further analyzed. During inspiration, we found that the pressure minimum occurred in the hypopharynx, while the maximum pressure drop and velocity was located in the oropharynx. After TB treatment, the oropharynx and hypopharynx showed significant differences in airflow features, and the most obvious change was observed in the oropharynx. A significant correlation was discovered between the change amount of oropharyngeal pressure drop and volume (r = 0.694, p = 0.001), mean cross-sectional area (r = 0.859, p = 0.000), and ratio of the minimum and mean cross-sectional area (r = 0.898, p = 0.000) of the oropharynx. Our research suggested that the pharyngeal airflow characteristics response positively to mandibular advancement with the enlargement in volume, cross-sectional area and more uniform oropharyngeal area distribution. PMID:27188799

  1. Rational serendipity: "undirected" synthesis of a large {MnCu} complex from pre-formed Mn(II) building blocks.

    PubMed

    Frost, Jamie M; Kettles, Fraser J; Wilson, Claire; Murrie, Mark

    2016-11-15

    Use of an aminopolyalcohol-based Mn(II) complex in solvothermal Cu(II) chemistry leads to a rare example of a high nuclearity heterometallic {MnCu} system, in which four Cu(II)(H1Edte) units trap an inner {MnCu(II)} oxide core.

  2. HLA Class I and Class II Conserved Extended Haplotypes and Their Fragments or Blocks in Mexicans: Implications for the Study of Genetic Diversity in Admixed Populations

    PubMed Central

    Ohashi, Marina; Lebedeva, Tatiana; Acuña-Alonzo, Víctor; Yunis, María; Granados-Montiel, Julio; Cruz-Lagunas, Alfredo; Vargas-Alarcón, Gilberto; Rodríguez-Reyna, Tatiana S.; Fernandez-Viña, Marcelo; Granados, Julio; Yunis, Edmond J.

    2013-01-01

    Major histocompatibility complex (MHC) genes are highly polymorphic and informative in disease association, transplantation, and population genetics studies with particular importance in the understanding of human population diversity and evolution. The aim of this study was to describe the HLA diversity in Mexican admixed individuals. We studied the polymorphism of MHC class I (HLA-A, -B, -C), and class II (HLA-DRB1, -DQB1) genes using high-resolution sequence based typing (SBT) method and we structured the blocks and conserved extended haplotypes (CEHs) in 234 non-related admixed Mexican individuals (468 haplotypes) by a maximum likelihood method. We found that HLA blocks and CEHs are primarily from Amerindian and Caucasian origin, with smaller participation of African and recent Asian ancestry, demonstrating a great diversity of HLA blocks and CEHs in Mexicans from the central area of Mexico. We also analyzed the degree of admixture in this group using short tandem repeats (STRs) and HLA-B that correlated with the frequency of most probable ancestral HLA-C/−B and -DRB1/−DQB1 blocks and CEHs. Our results contribute to the analysis of the diversity and ancestral contribution of HLA class I and HLA class II alleles and haplotypes of Mexican admixed individuals from Mexico City. This work will help as a reference to improve future studies in Mexicans regarding allotransplantation, immune responses and disease associations. PMID:24086347

  3. Fire Protection Specialist, Blocks I, II, & III, 17-2. Military Curriculum Materials for Vocational and Technical Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ohio State Univ., Columbus. National Center for Research in Vocational Education.

    This military-developed text contains the first three blocks of a five-block course for use in training fire protection specialists. Covered in the individual volumes are the following topics: fire protection objectives and responsibilities (fire protection and occupational safety, extinguishing agents, principles and theory of combustion, natural…

  4. Amorphous phase separation in polypropylene block copolymers as revealed by thermostimulated depolarization measurements. II. Thermal sampling analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ronarc'h, D.; Audren, P.; Moura, J. L.

    1985-07-01

    We achieved a thermal sampling scanning of the β-relaxation region of polypropylene (PP) block copolymers together with the β process of isotactic polypropylene, high-density polyethylene, propylene-ethylene rubber, and part of the PP bloc copolymer soluble in xylene and insoluble in ether. The comparison of activation parameters determined in the above relaxations confirmed the hypotheses drawn from complex spectra studies concerning phase separation and the origin of dielectric relaxations in PP block copolymers. One of the dielectric relaxations of the part of PP block copolymer soluble in xylene and insoluble in ether could be attributed to polypropylene blocks. We related the preexponential factor of the relaxation time to chain environment. Then we discussed the compensation phenomenon in distributed relaxations and the relation between the compensation temperature and variation of thermal expansion coefficient through the compensating relaxation.

  5. Military Curricula for Vocational & Technical Education. Metals Processing Specialist, Blocks I and II, Classroom Course 13-5.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ohio State Univ., Columbus. National Center for Research in Vocational Education.

    These curriculum materials are the first section of a four-part, secondary-postsecondary-level course in metals processing. The course is one of a number of military-developed curriculum packages selected for adaptation to vocational instruction and curriculum development in a civilian setting. Block I, Introduction to Oxyacetylene Welding,…

  6. Environmental Support Specialist, Blocks I and II, 17-4. Military Curriculum Materials for Vocational and Technical Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ohio State Univ., Columbus. National Center for Research in Vocational Education.

    This military-developed text contains the first section of a four-part course to train environmental support specialists. Covered in the individual course blocks are basic mathematics necessary to the study of waste processing and water analysis as well as waste and waste processing and water and water analysis (basic chemistry, air forced water…

  7. NELF-mediated stalling of Pol II can enhance gene expression by blocking promoter-proximal nucleosome assembly

    PubMed Central

    Gilchrist, Daniel A.; Nechaev, Sergei; Lee, Chanhyo; Ghosh, Saikat Kumar B.; Collins, Jennifer B.; Li, Leping; Gilmour, David S.; Adelman, Karen

    2008-01-01

    The Negative Elongation Factor (NELF) is a transcription regulatory complex that induces stalling of RNA polymerase II (Pol II) during early transcription elongation and represses expression of several genes studied to date, including Drosophila Hsp70, mammalian proto-oncogene junB, and HIV RNA. To determine the full spectrum of NELF target genes in Drosophila, we performed a microarray analysis of S2 cells depleted of NELF and discovered that NELF RNAi affects many rapidly inducible genes involved in cellular responses to stimuli. Surprisingly, only one-third of NELF target genes were, like Hsp70, up-regulated by NELF-depletion, whereas the majority of target genes showed decreased expression levels upon NELF RNAi. Our data reveal that the presence of stalled Pol II at this latter group of genes enhances gene expression by maintaining a permissive chromatin architecture around the promoter-proximal region, and that loss of Pol II stalling at these promoters is accompanied by a significant increase in nucleosome occupancy and a decrease in histone H3 Lys 4 trimethylation. These findings identify a novel, positive role for stalled Pol II in regulating gene expression and suggest that there is a dynamic interplay between stalled Pol II and chromatin structure. PMID:18628398

  8. Rare earth ions block the ion pores generated by the class II fusion proteins of alphaviruses and allow analysis of the biological functions of these pores.

    PubMed

    Koschinski, Andreas; Wengler, Gerd; Wengler, Gisela; Repp, Holger

    2005-12-01

    Recently, class II fusion proteins have been identified on the surface of alpha- and flaviviruses. These proteins have two functions besides membrane fusion: they generate an isometric lattice on the viral surface and they form ion-permeable pores at low pH. An attempt was made to identify inhibitors for the ion pores generated by the fusion proteins of the alphaviruses Semliki Forest virus and Sindbis virus. These pores can be detected and analysed in three situations: (i) in the target membrane during virus entry, by performing patch-clamp measurements of membrane currents; (ii) in the virus particle, by studying the entry of propidium iodide; and (iii) in the plasma membrane of infected cells, by Fura-2 fluorescence imaging of Ca2+ entry into infected cells. It is shown here that, at a concentration of 0.1 mM, rare earth ions block the ion permeability of alphavirus ion pores in all three situations. Even at a concentration of 0.5 mM, these ions do not block formation of the viral fusion pore, as they do not inhibit entry or multiplication of alphaviruses. The data indicate that ions flow through the ion pores into the virus particle in the endosome and from the endosome into the cytoplasm after fusion of the viral envelope with the endosomal membrane. These ion flows, however, are not necessary for productive infection. The possibility that the ability of class II fusion proteins to form ion-permeable pores reflects their origin from protein toxins that form ion-permeable pores, and that entry via class II fusion proteins may resemble the entry of non-enveloped viruses, is discussed.

  9. Heterobimetallic MOFs containing tetrathiocyanometallate building blocks: pressure-induced spin crossover in the porous {Fe(II)(pz)[Pd(II)(SCN)4]} 3D coordination polymer.

    PubMed

    Muñoz-Lara, Francisco J; Arcís-Castillo, Zulema; Muñoz, M Carmen; Rodríguez-Velamazán, J Alberto; Gaspar, Ana B; Real, José A

    2012-10-15

    Here we describe the synthesis, structure, and magnetic properties of two related coordination polymers made up of self-assembling Fe(II) ions, pyrazine (pz), and the tetrathiocyanopalladate anion. Compound {Fe(MeOH)(2)[Pd(SCN)(4)]}·pz (1a) is a two-dimensional coordination polymer where the Fe(II) ions are equatorially coordinated by the nitrogen atoms of four [Pd(SCN)(4)](2-) anions, each of which connects four Fe(II) ions, forming corrugated layers {Fe[Pd(SCN)(4)]}(∞). The coordination sphere of Fe(II) is completed by the oxygen atoms of two CH(3)OH molecules. The layers stack one on top of each other in such a way that the included pz molecule establishes strong hydrogen bonds with the coordinated methanol molecules of adjacent layers. Compound {Fe(pz)[Pd(SCN)(4)]} (2) is a three-dimensional porous coordination polymer formed by flat {Fe[Pd(SCN)(4)]}(∞) layers pillared by the pz ligand. Thermal analysis of 1a shows a clear desorption of the two coordinated CH(3)OH molecules giving a rather stable phase (1b), which presumably is a polymorphic form of 2. The magnetic properties of the three derivatives are typical of the high-spin Fe(II) compounds. However, compounds 1b and 2, with coordination sphere [FeN(6)], show thermal spin crossover behavior at pressures higher than ambient pressure (10(5) MPa).

  10. Tunable PhoXonic Band Gap Materials from Self-Assembly of Block Copoliymers and Colloidal Nanocrystals (NBIT Phase II)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-05-06

    interaction with photons and phonons. Concerning this, we seek to develop methods and understanding to create both periodically structured materials ...this, we seek to develop methods and understanding to create both periodically structured materials (Bragg gap materials ) and non-periodically...Final Report for AOARD Grant 1014069 “Tunable PhoXonic Band Gap Materials from Self-Assembly of Block Copoliymers and Colloidal Nanocrystals

  11. Effect of Treatment with Twin-Block Appliances on Body Posture in Class II Malocclusion Subjects: A Prospective Clinical Study

    PubMed Central

    Smailienė, Dalia; Intienė, Aistė; Dobradziejutė, Irma; Kušleika, Gintaras

    2017-01-01

    Background There is strong evidence that malocclusion and body posture are interdependent. The relationship between improvement of nasopharyngeal airway, correction of malocclusion by orthodontic treatment or orthognathic surgery, and changes in body posture were evaluated in several studies. The purpose of the present study was to analyze the effect of the orthodontic treatment with Twin-block appliance on body posture. Material/Methods The study group consisted of 23 children (mean age 12.45 (1.06) years). They were orthopedically (back shape analysis) and orthodontically (cephalometric radiograph analysis) examined before the treatment with Twin-block appliance and 10–14 months after the beginning of treatment. Results Treatment with Twin-block appliance caused mandibular protrusion as SNB increased by 0.91°, distance Ar-B increased by 4.9 mm, ANB decreased by 0.15°; and increase of face height. Oropharynx airway increased by 1.54 mm and deep pharynx airway by 1.08 mm. The decrease in kyphotic, lordotic, craniocervical angles, upper thoracic, pelvic, and trunk inclinations was found to be statistically significant. When comparing orthopedic measurements between study and control groups, no differences were detected. The control group also showed reduction of all measured angles. Although the decrease of kyphotic angle, upper thoracic inclination, trunk inclination, and craniocervical angle were more pronounced in the study group, the differences were not significant. Conclusions Based on these results, the body posture changes during treatment with Twin-block appliance were an expression of the physiological growth, not a response to improvement in occlusion. PMID:28107314

  12. Which One Is Better? Jigsaw II versus Jigsaw IV on the Subject of the Building Blocks of Matter and Atom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Turkmen, Hakan; Buyukaltay, Didem

    2015-01-01

    In this study, the effect of using Jigsaw II and Jigsaw IV techniques on the subject of "Atoms-The Basic Unit of Matter" in science course of 6th grade on academic achievement was examined. Pre-test post-test control group research was used in the study. Study population is all secondary schools in Turgutlu district of Manisa province…

  13. Technology Insertion Engineering Services Process Characterization Task Order No. 1. (Block II). Database Documentation Book for OC-ALC MATPCA

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1989-09-11

    as possible, the Taguchi method of using fractional factorials in the form of orthogonal arrays is considered a method of choice. Two terms require...8217,-=- ,--, 11 I II .44 .44"I . 0 c p ANALYSIS OF EXPERIMENTAL FLOW TIME AVERAGES USING TAGUCHI METHOD (. TABLE40 EXPERIMENTAL FLOW TIME AVERAGES - EXP

  14. Tunable PhoXonic Band Gap Materials from Self-Assembly of Block Copolymers and Colloidal Nanocrystals (NBIT Phase II)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-12-12

    collection of information if it does not display a currently valid OMB control number. 1 . REPORT DATE 09 JAN 2014 2. REPORT TYPE Final 3. DATES COVERED...has been no previous report of the Flory-Huggins parameter between P2VP with binary mixtures of water and methanol, ethanol and 1 - propanol at various...gels, the P2VP block in the lamellar PS-P2VP shows significantly lower degrees of swelling in alcohol -water co-solvents due to restrictions imposed

  15. Molybdophosphonate clusters as building blocks in the oxomolybdate-organodiphosphonate/cobalt(II)-organoimine system: structural influences of secondary metal coordination preferences and diphosphonate tether lengths.

    PubMed

    Armatas, N Gabriel; Allis, Damian G; Prosvirin, Andrew; Carnutu, Gabriel; O'Connor, Charles J; Dunbar, Kim; Zubieta, Jon

    2008-02-04

    Hydrothermal conditions have been used in the preparation of a series of organic-inorganic hybrid materials of the cobalt-molybdophosphonate family. The reactions of MoO(3), cobalt(II) acetate or cobalt(II) acetylacetonate, tetra-2-pyridylpyrazine (tpyprz), and organodiphosphonic acids H(2)O(3)P(CH(2))nPO(3)H(2) (n = 1-5 and 9) of varying tether lengths yielded compounds of the general type {Co(2)(tpyprz)(H(2)O)(m)}4+/MoxOy{O(3)P(CH(2))(n)PO(3)}z. The recurring theme of the structural chemistry is the incorporation of {Mo(5)O(15)(O(3)PR)(2)}(4-) clusters as molecular building blocks observed in the structures of nine phases (compounds 2-9 and 11). The structural consequences of variations in reaction conditions are most apparent in the series with propylene diphosphonate, where four unique structures 4-7 are observed, including two distinct three-dimensional architectures for compounds 5 and 6 whose formulations differ only in the number of water molecules of crystallization. With pentyldiphosphonate, a second phase 10 is obtained which exhibits a unique cluster building block, the hexamolybdate [Mo(6)O(18){O(3)P(CH(2))(5)PO(3)}](4-). In the case of methylenediphosphonic acid, a third structural motif, the trinuclear {(Mo(3)O(8))(O(3)PCH(2)PO(3))}2- subunit, is observed in compound 1. The structural chemistry of compounds 1-11 of this study is quite distinct from that of the {Ni(2)(tpyprz)(H(2)O)(m)}(4+)/Mo(x)O(y){O(3)P(CH(2))(n)PO(3)}z family, as well as that of the copper-based family. The structural diversity of this general class of materials reflects the coordination preferences of the M(II) sites, the extent of aqua ligation to the M(II) sites, the participation of both phosphate oxygen atoms and molybdate oxo-groups in linking to the M(II) sites, and the variability in the number of attachment sites at the molybdophosphonate clusters. Since the charge densities at the peripheral oxygen atoms of the clusters are quite uniform, the attachment of {M(2)(tpyprz

  16. Types of Heart Block

    MedlinePlus

    ... is less serious than Mobitz type II. The animation below shows how your heart's electrical system works. ... block. Click the "start" button to play the animation. Written and spoken explanations are provided with each ...

  17. Surgical excision of the breast giant fibroadenoma under regional anesthesia by Pecs II and internal intercostal plane block: a case report and brief technical description: a case report

    PubMed Central

    Shim, Junho; Kim, Ikthae

    2017-01-01

    A 22-years-old female patient at 171 cm and 67 kg visited the Department of Breast Surgery of the hospital with a mass accompanied with pain on the left side breast as chief complaints. Since physical examination revealed a suspected huge mass, breast surgeon decided to perform surgical excision and requested anesthesia to our department. Surgery of breast tumor is often under local anesthesia. However, in case of big size tumor, surgery is usually performed under general anesthesia. The patient feared general anesthesia. Unlike abdominal surgery, there is no need to control visceral pain for breast and anterior thoracic wall surgery. Therefore, we decided to perform resection under regional anesthesia. Herein, we report a successful anesthetic and pain management of the patient undergoing excision of a huge breast fibroadenoma under regional anesthesia using Pecs II and internal intercostal plane block. PMID:28184271

  18. Surgical excision of the breast giant fibroadenoma under regional anesthesia by Pecs II and internal intercostal plane block: a case report and brief technical description: a case report.

    PubMed

    Kim, Hyungtae; Shim, Junho; Kim, Ikthae

    2017-02-01

    A 22-years-old female patient at 171 cm and 67 kg visited the Department of Breast Surgery of the hospital with a mass accompanied with pain on the left side breast as chief complaints. Since physical examination revealed a suspected huge mass, breast surgeon decided to perform surgical excision and requested anesthesia to our department. Surgery of breast tumor is often under local anesthesia. However, in case of big size tumor, surgery is usually performed under general anesthesia. The patient feared general anesthesia. Unlike abdominal surgery, there is no need to control visceral pain for breast and anterior thoracic wall surgery. Therefore, we decided to perform resection under regional anesthesia. Herein, we report a successful anesthetic and pain management of the patient undergoing excision of a huge breast fibroadenoma under regional anesthesia using Pecs II and internal intercostal plane block.

  19. Multi-pyridine decorated Fe(II) and Ru(II) complexes by Pd(0)-catalysed cross couplings: new building blocks for metallosupramolecular assemblies.

    PubMed

    Yang, Jiajia; Clegg, Jack K; Jiang, Qibai; Lui, Xiaoming; Yan, Hong; Zhong, Wei; Beves, Jonathon E

    2013-11-28

    Eight metal complexes of the type [M(tpy)2](2+) (tpy = 2,2':6',2''-terpyridine) featuring four pendant pyridine rings are reported and characterised by NMR, MS, absorption spectroscopy and electrochemical methods. Palladium-mediated Suzuki and Sonogashira cross-coupling reactions were performed on both free 4'-(3,5-dibromophenyl)-tpy and its Ru(II) complex in good yields. The ready N-alkylation of the pendant pyridyl units has significant influence on the absorption and electrochemical reduction of the complexes, processes which are localised on the periphery and leaves the [Ru(tpy)2](2+) core essentially unaffected. The binding of metal ions by the free pyridines is also demonstrated as means of assembling larger ordered non-covalent structures.

  20. Application of multivariate statistical analysis concepts for assessment of hydrogeochemistry of groundwater—a study in Suri I and II blocks of Birbhum District, West Bengal, India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Das, Shreya; Nag, S. K.

    2015-06-01

    Multivariate statistical techniques, cluster and principal component analysis were applied to the data on groundwater quality of Suri I and II Blocks of Birbhum District, West Bengal, India, to extract principal factors corresponding to the different sources of variation in the hydrochemistry as well as the main controls on the hydrochemistry. For this, bore well water samples have been collected in two phases, during Post-monsoon (November 2012) and Pre-monsoon (April 2013) from 26 sampling locations spread homogeneously over the two blocks. Excess fluoride in groundwater has been reported at two locations both in post- and in pre-monsoon sessions, with a rise observed in pre-monsoon. Localized presence of excess iron has also been observed during both sessions. The water is found to be mildly alkaline in post-monsoon but slightly acidic at some locations during pre-monsoon. Correlation and cluster analysis studies demonstrate that fluoride shares a moderately positive correlation with pH in post-monsoon and a very strong one with carbonate in pre-monsoon indicating dominance of rock water interaction and ion exchange activity in the study area. Certain locations in the study area have been reported with less than 0.6 mg/l fluoride in groundwater, leading to possibility of occurrence of severe dental caries especially in children. Low values of sulfate and phosphate in water indicate a meager chance of contamination of groundwater due to anthropogenic factors.

  1. A novel heteroditopic terpyridine-pincer ligand as building block for mono- and heterometallic Pd(II) and Ru(II) complexes.

    PubMed

    Gagliardo, Marcella; Rodríguez, Gema; Dam, Henk H; Lutz, Martin; Spek, Anthony L; Havenith, Remco W A; Coppo, Paolo; De Cola, Luisa; Hartl, Frantisek; van Klink, Gerard P M; van Koten, Gerard

    2006-03-06

    A palladium-catalyzed Stille coupling reaction was employed as a versatile method for the synthesis of a novel terpyridine-pincer (3, TPBr) bridging ligand, 4'-{4-BrC6H2(CH2NMe2)2-3,5}-2,2':6',2' '-terpyridine. Mononuclear species [PdX(TP)] (X = Br, Cl), [Ru(TPBr)(tpy)](PF6)2, and [Ru(TPBr)2](PF6)2, synthesized by selective metalation of the NCNBr-pincer moiety or complexation of the terpyridine of the bifunctional ligand TPBr, were used as building blocks for the preparation of heterodi- and trimetallic complexes [Ru(TPPdCl)(tpy)](PF6)2 (7) and [Ru(TPPdCl)2](PF6)2 (8). The molecular structures in the solid state of [PdBr(TP)] (4a) and [Ru(TPBr)2](PF6)2 (6) have been determined by single-crystal X-ray analysis. Electrochemical behavior and photophysical properties of the mono- and heterometallic complexes are described. All the above di- and trimetallic Ru complexes exhibit absorption bands attributable to (1)MLCT (Ru --> tpy) transitions. For the heteroleptic complexes, the transitions involving the unsubstituted tpy ligand are at a lower energy than the tpy moiety of the TPBr ligand. The absorption bands observed in the electronic spectra for TPBr and [PdCl(TP)] have been assigned with the aid of TD-DFT calculations. All complexes display weak emission both at room temperature and in a butyronitrile glass at 77 K. The considerable red shift of the emission maxima relative to the signal of the reference compound [Ru(tpy)2]2+ indicates stabilization of the luminescent 3MLCT state. For the mono- and heterometallic complexes, electrochemical and spectroscopic studies (electronic absorption and emission spectra and luminescence lifetimes recorded at room temperature and 77 K in nitrile solvents), together with the information gained from IR spectroelectrochemical studies of the dimetallic complex [Ru(TPPdSCN)(tpy)](PF6)2, are indicative of charge redistribution through the bridging ligand TPBr. The results are in line with a weak coupling between the {Ru(tpy)2

  2. Cephalometric evaluation of the effects of the Twin Block appliance in subjects with Class II, Division 1 malocclusion amongst different cervical vertebral maturation stages

    PubMed Central

    Khoja, Aisha; Fida, Mubassar; Shaikh, Attiya

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Objectives: To evaluate the cephalometric changes in skeletal, dentoalveolar and soft tissue variables induced by Clark's Twin Block (CTB) in Class II, Division 1 malocclusion patients and to compare these changes in different cervical vertebral maturation stages. Methods: Pre- and post-treatment/observation lateral cephalograms of 53 Class II, Division 1 malocclusion patients and 60 controls were compared to evaluate skeletal, dentoalveolar and soft tissue changes. Skeletal maturity was assessed according to cervical vertebral maturation stages. Pre- and post-treatment/observation mean changes and differences (T2-T1) were compared by means of Wilcoxon sign rank and Mann-Whitney U-tests, respectively. Intergroup comparisons between different cervical stages were performed by means of Kruskal-Wallis test and Mann-Whitney U-test (p ≤ 0.05) . Results: When compared with controls, there was a significant reduction in ANB angle (p < 0.001), which was due to a change in SNB angle in CS-2 and CS-3 (p < 0.001), and in SNA (p < 0.001) and SNB (p = 0.016) angles in the CS-4 group. There was significant increase in the GoGn-SN angle in CS-2 (p = 0.007) and CS-4 (p = 0.024), and increase in Co-Gn and Go-Gn amongst all cervical stages (p < 0.05). There was significant decrease in U1-SN and increase in IMPA amongst all cervical stages (p < 0.05). There was significant retraction of the upper lip in CS-3 (p = 0.001), protrusion of the lower lip in CS-2 (p = 0.005), increase in nasolabial angle in CS-4 (p = 0.006) and Z-angle in CS-3 (p = 0.016), reduction in H-angle in CS-2 (p = 0.013) and CS-3 (p = 0.002) groups. When pre- and post-treatment mean differences were compared between different cervical stages, significant differences were found for SNA, SNB and UI-SN angles and overjet. . Conclusions: The Twin-Block along with the normal craniofacial growth improves facial esthetics in Class II, Division 1 malocclusion by changes in underlying skeletal and dentoalveolar

  3. Geochemical appraisal of fluoride-laden groundwater in Suri I and II blocks, Birbhum district, West Bengal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Das, Shreya; Nag, S. K.

    2016-08-01

    The present study has been carried out covering two blocks—Suri I and II in Birbhum district, West Bengal, India. The evaluation focuses on occurrence, distribution and geochemistry in 26 water samples collected from borewells spread across the entire study area homogeneously. Quantitative chemical analysis of groundwater samples collected from the present study area has shown that samples from two locations—Gangta and Dhalla contain fluoride greater than the permissible limit prescribed by WHO during both post-monsoon and pre-monsoon sampling sessions. Significant factor controlling geochemistry of groundwater has been identified to be rock-water interaction processes during both sampling sessions based on the results of Gibb's diagrams. Geochemical modeling studies have revealed that fluorite (CaF2) is, indeed, present as a significant fluoride-bearing mineral in the groundwaters of this study area. Calcite or CaCO3 is one of the most common minerals with which fluorite remains associated, and saturation index calculations have revealed that the calcite-fluorite geochemistry is the dominant factor controlling fluoride concentration in this area during both post- and pre-monsoon. High fluoride waters have also been found to be of `bicarbonate' type showing increase of sodium in water with decrease of calcium.

  4. Pentasubstituted ferrocene and dirhodium(II) tetracarboxylate as building blocks for discrete fullerene-like and extended supramolecular structures.

    PubMed

    Tong, Lok H; Guénée, Laure; Williams, Alan F

    2011-03-21

    The synthesis of a penta(1-methylpyrazole)ferrocenyl phosphine oxide ligand (1) [Fe(C(5)(C(3)H(2)N(2)CH(3))(5))(C(5)H(4)PO(t-C(4)H(9))(2))] is reported together with its X-ray crystal structure. Its self-assembly behavior with a dirhodium(II) tetraoctanoate linker (2) [Rh(2)(O(2)CC(7)H(15))(4)] was investigated for construction of fullerene-like assemblies of composition [(ligand)(12)(linker)(30)]. Reaction between 1 and 2 in acetonitrile resulted in the formation of a light purple precipitate (3). Evidence for the ligand-to-linker ratio of 1:2.5 expected for a fullerene-like structure [Fe(C(5)(C(3)H(2)N(2)CH(3))(5))(C(5)H(4)PO(t-C(4)H(9))(2))](12)[Rh(2)(O(2)CC(7)H(15))(4)](30) was obtained from (1)H NMR and elemental analysis. IR and Raman studies confirmed the diaxially bound coordination environment of the dirhodium linker by comparing the stretching frequencies of the carboxylate group and the rhodium-rhodium bond with those in model compound (5), [Rh(2)(O(2)CC(7)H(15))(4)](C(3)H(3)N(2)CH(3))(2), the bis-adduct of linker 2 with 1-methylpyrazole. X-ray powder diffraction and molecular modeling studies provide additional support for the formation of a spherical molecule topologically identical to fullerene with a diameter of approximately 38 Å and a molecular formula of [(1)(12)(2)(30)]. Dissolution of 3 in tetrahydrofuran (THF) followed by layering with acetonitrile afforded purple crystals of [(1)(2)(2)](∞) (6) [Fe(C(5)(C(3)H(2)N(2)CH(3))(5))(C(5)H(4)PO(t-C(4)H(9))(2))][Rh(2)(O(2)CC(7)H(15))(4)](2) with a two-dimensional polymeric structure determined by X-ray crystallography. The dirhodium linkers link ferrocenyl units by coordination to the pyrazoles but only four of the five pyrazole moieties of the pentapyrazole ligand are coordinated. The ligand-to-linker ratio of 1:2 in 6 was confirmed by (1)H NMR spectroscopy and elemental analysis, while results from IR and Raman are in agreement with the diaxially coordinated environment of the linker observed in

  5. Zinc(II) and lead(II) metal-organic networks driven by a multifunctional pyridine-carboxylate building block: Hydrothermal synthesis, structural and topological features, and luminescence properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Ling; Li, Yu; You, Ao; Jiang, Juan; Zou, Xun-Zhong; Chen, Jin-Wei; Gu, Jin-Zhong; Kirillov, Alexander M.

    2016-09-01

    4-(5-Carboxypyridin-2-yl)isophthalic acid (H3L) was applied as a flexible, multifunctional N,O-building block for the hydrothermal self-assembly synthesis of two novel coordination compounds, namely 2D [Zn(μ3-HL)(H2O)]n·nH2O (1) and 3D [Pb2(μ5-HL)(μ6-HL)]n (2) coordination polymers (CPs). These compounds were obtained in aqueous medium from a mixture containing zinc(II) or lead(II) nitrate, H3L, and sodium hydroxide. The products were isolated as stable crystalline solids and were characterized by IR spectroscopy, elemental, thermogravimetric (TGA), powder (PXRD) and single-crystal X-ray diffraction analyses. Compound 1 possesses a 2D metal-organic layer with the fes topology, which is further extended into a 3D supramolecular framework via hydrogen bonds. In contrast, compound 2 features a very complex network structure, which was topologically classified as a binodal 5,6-connected net with the unique topology defined by the point symbol of (47.63)(49.66). Compounds 1 and 2 disclose an intense blue or green luminescent emission at room temperature.

  6. Treatment of adolescent patients with class II division 1 malocclusion using Eruption guidance appliance: A comparative study with Twin-block and Activator-Headgear appliances.

    PubMed

    Nilsson, Jenny Jiayan Luo; Shu, Xiaochen; Magnusson, Britt Hedenberg; Burt, Idil Alatli

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the compliance and short-term effects of eruption guidance appliance (EGA) in adolescents with class II division 1 malocclusion in comparison with twin-block appliance (TBA) and activator-headgear appliance (A-HG). Dental records of 1886 patients were viewed in this retrospective study 129 patients treated with one of these three functional appliances were identified. 123 fulfilled the inclusion criteria and data were extracted from the dental records. Gender, age, compliance, overjet change at every visit, number of appliance breakages and number of emergency visits apart from appliance breakage were studied. The data were analyzed with Chi-square test, General Linear Model and Fisher scoring test. Results showed that 47 patients were treated with EGA, 38 patients with TBA and 38 patients with A-HG. Mean ages starting the treatment were slightly lower with EGA (11.5 years) than with TBA (12.3 years) and A-HG (11.8 years). Non-compliance was higher in the EGA group (31.9%) than TBA group (26.3%) and A-HG group (23.7%). Mean overjet reduction per month was 0.6 mm for EGA which was lower than TBA group (0.7 mm) and A-HG groups (0.7 mm).The number of emergency visits and appliance breakage were lower in EGA group. However, there was no statistically significant difference between the 3 groups regarding ages,compliance, mean overjet reduction, emergency visits and appliance breakage aspects. In conclusion, this study indicates that EGA is an alternative choice in the treatment of adolescent patients with class II division 1 malocclusion. However, long-term follow-up and cephalometric prospective study should be performed to continue our understanding more about the mechanisms of EGA and more definite conclusions can be made.

  7. Heart Block

    MedlinePlus

    ... not used to treat first-degree heart block. All types of heart block may increase your risk for other arrhythmias, such as atrial fibrillation (A-tre-al fih-brih-LA-shun). Talk with your doctor ...

  8. Population Blocks.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Martin H.

    1992-01-01

    Describes an educational game called "Population Blocks" that is designed to illustrate the concept of exponential growth of the human population and some potential effects of overpopulation. The game material consists of wooden blocks; 18 blocks are painted green (representing land), 7 are painted blue (representing water); and the remaining…

  9. Ionic Blocks

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sevcik, Richard S.; Gamble, Rex; Martinez, Elizabet; Schultz, Linda D.; Alexander, Susan V.

    2008-01-01

    "Ionic Blocks" is a teaching tool designed to help middle school students visualize the concepts of ions, ionic compounds, and stoichiometry. It can also assist high school students in reviewing their subject mastery. Three dimensional blocks are used to represent cations and anions, with color indicating charge (positive or negative) and size…

  10. Deciphering groundwater quality for irrigation and domestic purposes - a case study in Suri I and II blocks, Birbhum District, West Bengal, India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Das, Shreya; Nag, S. K.

    2015-07-01

    Assessment of the hydrochemical characteristics of water and aquifer hydraulic properties is important for groundwater planning and management in the study area. It is not only the basic need for human existence but also a vital input for all development activities. The present hydro-geochemical study of groundwater samples from the Suri I and II blocks of Birbhum district, West Bengal (23.76 ∘-23.99 ∘N; 87.42 ∘-87.64 ∘E) was carried out to assess their suitability for agricultural, domestic and drinking purposes. For this study, samples were collected from 26 locations during the post-monsoon and pre-monsoon sessions spanning over 2012 and 2013. Groundwater samples were analyzed for their physical and chemical properties using standard laboratory methods. Physical and chemical parameters of groundwater such as pH, electrical conductivity, total dissolved solids, Na, K, Ca, Mg, Fe, Cl, HCO3, SO4 and F were determined. Various water quality indices like SAR, SSP, PI, RSC, MAR and KR have been calculated for each water sample to identify the irrigational suitability standard. According to most of these parameters, the groundwater has been found to be well to moderately suitable for irrigation. In the post-monsoon session exceptionally high RSC values for around 80% samples indicate an alkaline hazard to the soil. The ion balance histogram for post-monsoon indicates undesirable ion balance values according to fresh water standards whereas in pre-monsoon, the samples show good ion balance in water. For determination of the drinking suitability standard of groundwater, three parameters have been considered - total hardness (TH), Piper's trilinear diagram and water quality index study. Groundwater of the present study area has been found to be moderately-hard to hard during both sampling sessions and hence poses no health risk which could arise due to excess consumption of calcium or magnesium. Hydrogeochemical facies in the form of Piper's trilinear diagram plot

  11. Altitude Test Chamber Investigation of Performance of a 28-inch Ram-jet Engine II : Effects of Gutter Width and Blocked Area on Operating Range and Combustion Efficiency

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shillito, T B; Jones, W L; Kahn, R W

    1950-01-01

    Altitude-test-chamber investigation of effects of flame-holder blocked area and gutter width on performance of 28-inch diameter ram jet at simulated flight Mach number of 2.0 for altitudes from 40,000 to 55,000 feet was conducted at NACA Lewis laboratory. Ten flame holders investigated covered gutter widths from 1.00 to 2.50 inches and blocked areas from 40.5 to 62.0 percent of combustion-chamber area. Gutter width did not appreciably affect combustion efficiency. Increase in blocked area from 40 to 62 percent resulted in 5- to 10-percent increase in combustion efficiency. Increasing gutter width resulted in improvement in fuel-air-ratio operating range.

  12. Neuromuscular block

    PubMed Central

    Bowman, W C

    2006-01-01

    Descriptions of the South American arrow poisons known as curares were reported by explorers in the 16th century, and their site of action in producing neuromuscular block was determined by Claude Bernard in the mid-19th century. Tubocurarine, the most important curare alkaloid, played a large part in experiments to determine the role of acetylcholine in neuromuscular transmission, but it was not until after 1943 that neuromuscular blocking drugs became established as muscle relaxants for use during surgical anaesthesia. Tubocurarine causes a number of unwanted effects, and there have been many attempts to replace it. The available drugs fall into two main categories: the depolarising blocking drugs and the nondepolarising blocking drugs. The former act by complex mixed actions and are now obsolete with the exception of suxamethonium, the rapid onset and brief duration of action of which remain useful for intubation at the start of surgical anaesthesia. The nondepolarising blocking drugs are reversible acetylcholine receptor antagonists. The main ones are the atracurium group, which possess a built-in self-destruct mechanism that makes them especially useful in kidney or liver failure, and the vecuronium group, which are especially free from unwanted side effects. Of this latter group, the compound rocuronium is of especial interest because its rapid onset of action allows it to be used for intubation, and there is promise that its duration of action may be rapidly terminated by a novel antagonist, a particular cyclodextrin, that chelates the drug, thereby removing it from the acetylcholine receptors. PMID:16402115

  13. Neuromuscular block.

    PubMed

    Bowman, W C

    2006-01-01

    Descriptions of the South American arrow poisons known as curares were reported by explorers in the 16th century, and their site of action in producing neuromuscular block was determined by Claude Bernard in the mid-19th century. Tubocurarine, the most important curare alkaloid, played a large part in experiments to determine the role of acetylcholine in neuromuscular transmission, but it was not until after 1943 that neuromuscular blocking drugs became established as muscle relaxants for use during surgical anaesthesia. Tubocurarine causes a number of unwanted effects, and there have been many attempts to replace it. The available drugs fall into two main categories: the depolarising blocking drugs and the nondepolarising blocking drugs. The former act by complex mixed actions and are now obsolete with the exception of suxamethonium, the rapid onset and brief duration of action of which remain useful for intubation at the start of surgical anaesthesia. The nondepolarising blocking drugs are reversible acetylcholine receptor antagonists. The main ones are the atracurium group, which possess a built-in self-destruct mechanism that makes them specially useful in kidney or liver failure, and the vecuronium group, which are specially free from unwanted side effects. Of this latter group, the compound rocuronium is of special interest because its rapid onset of action allows it to be used for intubation, and there is promise that its duration of action may be rapidly terminated by a novel antagonist, a particular cyclodextrin, that chelates the drug, thereby removing it from the acetylcholine receptors.

  14. Forensic intelligence framework. Part II: Study of the main generic building blocks and challenges through the examples of illicit drugs and false identity documents monitoring.

    PubMed

    Baechler, Simon; Morelato, Marie; Ribaux, Olivier; Beavis, Alison; Tahtouh, Mark; Kirkbride, K Paul; Esseiva, Pierre; Margot, Pierre; Roux, Claude

    2015-05-01

    The development of forensic intelligence relies on the expression of suitable models that better represent the contribution of forensic intelligence in relation to the criminal justice system, policing and security. Such models assist in comparing and evaluating methods and new technologies, provide transparency and foster the development of new applications. Interestingly, strong similarities between two separate projects focusing on specific forensic science areas were recently observed. These observations have led to the induction of a general model (Part I) that could guide the use of any forensic science case data in an intelligence perspective. The present article builds upon this general approach by focusing on decisional and organisational issues. The article investigates the comparison process and evaluation system that lay at the heart of the forensic intelligence framework, advocating scientific decision criteria and a structured but flexible and dynamic architecture. These building blocks are crucial and clearly lay within the expertise of forensic scientists. However, it is only part of the problem. Forensic intelligence includes other blocks with their respective interactions, decision points and tensions (e.g. regarding how to guide detection and how to integrate forensic information with other information). Formalising these blocks identifies many questions and potential answers. Addressing these questions is essential for the progress of the discipline. Such a process requires clarifying the role and place of the forensic scientist within the whole process and their relationship to other stakeholders.

  15. Natural acquired inhibitory antibodies to Plasmodium vivax Duffy binding protein (PvDBP-II) equally block erythrocyte binding of homologous and heterologous expressed PvDBP-II on the surface of COS-7 cells.

    PubMed

    Valizadeh, Vahideh; Zakeri, Sedigheh; Mehrizi, Akram A; Mirkazemi, Sedigheh; Djadid, Navid D

    2016-02-01

    The binding domain of Plasmodium vivax Duffy binding protein (PvDBP-II) is a promising blood-stage vaccine candidate for vivax malaria. For the development of a successful vivax malaria vaccine based on DBP-II, the antigenic diversity and also naturally occurring functional antibodies to different PvDBP-II variant types in the various populations must be determined. However, similar to other blood-stage antigens, allelic variation within the PvDBP-II is a fundamental challenge for the development of a broadly efficient vaccine. The present study was performed to define whether the polymorphisms in PvDBP-II influence the nature of functional inhibitory activity of naturally acquired or induced anti-DBP-II antibodies in mice. In this investigation, five genetically distinct variants of PvDBP-II were transiently expressed on the COS-7 cell surface. Erythrocyte-binding inhibition assay (EBIA) was performed using human sera infected with corresponding and non-corresponding P. vivax variants as well as by the use of mice sera immunized with different expressed recombinant PvDBP-IIs. EBIA results showed that the inhibitory percentage varied between 50 and 63 % by using sera from infected individuals, and in case of mouse antisera, inhibition was in the range of 76-86 %. Interestingly, no significant difference was detected in red blood cell binding inhibition when different PvDBP-II variants on the COS-7 cell surfaces were incubated with heterologous and homologous sera infected with PvDBP-II variants. This suggests that the detected polymorphisms in all five forms of PvDBP-II may not affect functional activity of anti-DBP-II antibodies. In conclusion, our results revealed that there are functional cross-reactive antibody responses to heterologous PvDBP-II variants that might provide a broader inhibitory response against all, or at least the majority of strains compared to single allele of this protein that should be considered in development of PvDBP-II-based vaccine.

  16. Characterizing the inverses of block tridiagonal, block Toeplitz matrices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boffi, Nicholas M.; Hill, Judith C.; Reuter, Matthew G.

    2015-01-01

    We consider the inversion of block tridiagonal, block Toeplitz matrices and comment on the behaviour of these inverses as one moves away from the diagonal. Using matrix Möbius transformations, we first present an O(1) representation (with respect to the number of block rows and block columns) for the inverse matrix and subsequently use this representation to characterize the inverse matrix. There are four symmetry-distinct cases where the blocks of the inverse matrix (i) decay to zero on both sides of the diagonal, (ii) oscillate on both sides, (iii) decay on one side and oscillate on the other and (iv) decay on one side and grow on the other. This characterization exposes the necessary conditions for the inverse matrix to be numerically banded and may also aid in the design of preconditioners and fast algorithms. Finally, we present numerical examples of these matrix types.

  17. A theory of stationary long waves. I - A simple theory of blocking. II - Resonant Rossby waves in the presence of realistic vertical shears

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tung, K. K.; Lindzen, R. S.

    1979-01-01

    A theory of stationary long waves in the atmosphere is developed, with attention given to the blocking phenomenon caused by the resonant amplification of large-scale planetary waves in a uniform zonal flow and to resonant Rossby waves in an atmosphere with winds varying with height. A simple model is presented to illustrate the temporal behavior of Rossby waves forced by topography and differential heating of the land and the sea, using a beta-plane approximation and assuming a spatially uniform zonal wind which may vary in time, and quasi-geostrophic disturbances. Results are then extended to the case of resonant Rossby waves in the presence of realistic vertical shears. Numerical experiments in which the wind profiles are varied in a number of physically possible manners reveal the most favorable wind configurations for resonance.

  18. New dicyano cyclometalated compounds containing Pd(II)-Tl(I) bonds as building blocks in 2D extended structures: synthesis, structure, and luminescence studies.

    PubMed

    Sicilia, Violeta; Forniés, Juan; Fuertes, Sara; Martín, Antonio

    2012-10-15

    New mixed metal complexes [PdTl(C^N)(CN)(2)] [C^N = 7,8-benzoquinolinate (bzq, 3); 2-phenylpyridinate (ppy, 4)] have been synthesized by reaction of their corresponding precursors (NBu(4))[Pd(C^N)(CN)(2)] [C^N = bzq (1), ppy (2)] with TlPF(6). Compounds 3 and 4 were studied by X-ray diffraction, showing the not-so-common Pd(II)-Tl(I) bonds. Both crystal structures exhibit 2-D extended networks fashioned by organometallic "PdTl(C^N)(CN)(2)" units, each one containing a donor-acceptor Pd(II)-Tl(I) bond, which are connected through additional Tl···N≡C contacts and weak Tl···π (bzq) contacts in the case of 3. Solid state emissions are red-shifted compared with those of the precursors and have been assigned to metal-metal'-to-ligand charge transfer (MM'LCT [d/s σ*(Pd,Tl) → π*(C^N)]) mixed with some intraligand ((3)IL[π(C^N) → π*(C^N)]) character. In diluted solution either at room temperature or 77 K, the Pd-Tl bond is no longer retained as confirmed by mass spectrometry, NMR, and UV-vis spectroscopic techniques.

  19. Novel biodegradable aliphatic poly(butylene succinate-co-cyclic carbonate)s bearing functionalizable carbonate building blocks: II. Enzymatic biodegradation and in vitro biocompatibility assay.

    PubMed

    Yang, Jing; Tian, Weisheng; Li, Qiaobo; Li, Yang; Cao, Amin

    2004-01-01

    In a previous study, we have reported chemical synthesis of novel aliphatic poly(butylene succinate-co-cyclic carbonate) P(BS-co-CC)s bearing various functionalizable carbonate building blocks, and this work will continue to present our new studies on their enzymatic degradation and in vitro cell biocompatibility assay. First, enzymatic degradation of the novel P(BS-co-CC) film samples was investigated with two enzymes of lipase B Candida Antartic (Novozyme 435) and lipase Porcine Pancreas PPL, and it was revealed that copolymerizing linear poly(butylene succinate) PBS with a functionalizable carbonate building block could remarkably accelerate the enzymatic degradation of a synthesized product P(BS-co-CC), and its biodegradation behavior was found to strongly depend on the overall impacts of several important factors as the cyclic carbonate (CC) comonomer structure and molar content, molar mass, thermal characteristics, morphology, the enzyme-substrate specificity, and so forth. Further, the biodegraded residual film samples and water-soluble enzymatic degradation products were allowed to be analyzed by means of proton nuclear magnetic resonance (1H NMR), gel permeation chromatograph (GPC), differential scanning calorimeter (DSC), attenuated total reflection FTIR (ATR-FTIR), scanning electron microscope (SEM), and liquid chromatograph-mass spectrometry (LC-MS). On the experimental evidences, an exo-type mechanism of enzymatic chain hydrolysis preferentially occurring in the noncrystalline domains was suggested for the synthesized new P(BS-co-CC) film samples. With regard to their cell biocompatibilities, an assay with NIH 3T3 mouse fibroblast cell was conducted using the novel synthesized P(BS-co-CC) films as substrates with respect to the cell adhesion and proliferation, and these new biodegradable P(BS-co-CC) samples were found to exhibit as low cell toxicity as the PLLA control, particularly the two samples of poly(butylene succinate-co-18.7 mol % dimethyl

  20. Biomimetic design of platelet adhesion inhibitors to block integrin α2β1-collagen interactions: II. Inhibitor library, screening, and experimental validation.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Lin; Zhang, Chao; Sun, Yan

    2014-04-29

    Platelet adhesion on collagen mediated by integrin α2β1 has been proven important in arterial thrombus formation, leading to an exigent demand on development of potent inhibitors for the integrin α2β1-collagen binding. In the present study, a biomimetic design strategy of platelet adhesion inhibitors was established, based on the affinity binding model of integrin proposed in part I. First, a heptapeptide library containing 8000 candidates was designed to functionally mimic the binding motif of integrin α2β1. Then, each heptapeptide in the library was docked onto a collagen molecule for the assessment of its affinity, followed by a screening based on its structure similarity to the original structure in the affinity binding model. Eight candidates were then selected for further screening by molecular dynamics (MD) simulations. Thereafter, three candidates chosen from MD simulations were separately added into the physiological saline containing separated integrin and collagen, to check their abilities for blocking the integrin-collagen interaction using MD simulations. Of these three candidates, significant inhibition was observed in the presence of LWWNSYY. Finally, the binding affinity of LWWNSYY for collagen was demonstrated by isothermal titration calorimetry. Moreover, significant inhibition of platelet adhesion in the presence of LWWNSYY has been experimentally validated. This work has thus developed an effective strategy for the biomimetic design of peptide-based platelet adhesion inhibitors.

  1. Synthesis, characterization, and stereochemistry of S-bridged Co(III)MCo(III)(M = Pd(II), Pt(II)) trinuclear complexes containing two non-bridging thiolato groups: building blocks for the construction of chiral heterometallic aggregates.

    PubMed

    Chikamoto, Yu; Hirotsu, Masakazu; Yamaguchi, Tadashi; Yoshimura, Takashi; Konno, Takumi

    2004-11-07

    The reaction of fac(S)-[Co(aet)(3)](aet = aminoethanethiolate) with [PdCl(4)](2-) in a 2:1 ratio in water gave an S-bridged Co(III)Pd(II)Co(III) trinuclear complex composed of two mer(S)-[Co(aet)(3)] units, [Pd[Co(aet)(3)](2)](2+)([1](2+)). In [1](2+), each of the two mer(S)-[Co(aet)(3)] units is bound to a square-planar Pd(II) ion through two of three thiolato groups, leaving two non-bridging thiolato groups at the terminal. Of two geometrical forms, syn and anti, possible for [Pd[Co(aet)(3)](2)](2+), which arise from the difference in arrangement of two terminal non-bridging thiolato groups, [1](2+) afforded only the syn form. A similar reaction of fac(S)-[Co(aet)(3)] with [PtCl(4)](2-) or trans-[PtCl(2)(NH(3))(2)] produced an analogous Co(III)Pt(II)Co(III) trinuclear complex, [Pt[Co(aet)(3)](2)](2+)([2](2+)), but both the syn and anti forms were formed for [2](2+). Complexes [1](2+) and syn- and anti-[2](2+), which exclusively exist as a racemic(DeltaDelta/LambdaLambda) form, were successfully optically resolved with use of [Sb(2)(R,R-tartrato)(2)](2-) as the resolving agent. The reaction of syn-[2](2+) with [AuCl[S(CH(2)CH(2)OH)(2)

  2. Inhibition of 11β-Hydroxysteroid Dehydrogenase Type II Suppresses Lung Carcinogenesis by Blocking Tumor COX-2 Expression as Well as the ERK and mTOR Signaling Pathways

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Shilin; Yao, Bing; Zhang, Bixiang; Chen, Xiaoping; Pozzi, Ambra; Zhang, Ming-Zhi

    2015-01-01

    Lung cancer is by far the leading cause of cancer death. Early diagnosis and prevention remain the best approach to reduce the overall morbidity and mortality. Experimental and clinical evidence have shown that cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) derived prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) contributes to lung tumorigenesis. COX-2 inhibitors suppress the development and progression of lung cancer. However, increased cardiovascular risks of COX-2 inhibitors limit their use in chemoprevention of lung cancers. Glucocorticoids are endogenous and potent COX-2 inhibitors, and their local actions are down-regulated by 11β–hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type II (11ßHSD2)-mediated metabolism. We found that 11βHSD2 expression was increased in human lung cancers and experimental lung tumors. Inhibition of 11βHSD2 activity enhanced glucocorticoid-mediated COX-2 inhibition in human lung carcinoma cells. Furthermore, 11βHSD2 inhibition suppressed lung tumor growth and invasion in association with increased tissue active glucocorticoid levels, decreased COX-2 expression, inhibition of ERK and mTOR signaling pathways, increased tumor endoplasmic reticulum stress as well as increased lifespan. Therefore, 11βHSD2 inhibition represents a novel approach for lung cancer chemoprevention and therapy by increasing tumor glucocorticoid activity, which in turn selectively blocks local COX-2 activity and/or inhibits the ERK and mTOR signaling pathways. PMID:26011146

  3. Block by Block: Neighborhoods and Public Policy on Chicago's West Side. Historical Studies of Urban America

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Seligman, Amanda I.

    2005-01-01

    In the decades following World War II, cities across the United States saw an influx of African American families into otherwise homogeneously white areas. This racial transformation of urban neighborhoods led many whites to migrate to the suburbs, producing the phenomenon commonly known as white flight. In "Block by Block," Amanda I.…

  4. Testing block subdivision algorithms on block designs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wiseman, Natalie; Patterson, Zachary

    2016-01-01

    Integrated land use-transportation models predict future transportation demand taking into account how households and firms arrange themselves partly as a function of the transportation system. Recent integrated models require parcels as inputs and produce household and employment predictions at the parcel scale. Block subdivision algorithms automatically generate parcel patterns within blocks. Evaluating block subdivision algorithms is done by way of generating parcels and comparing them to those in a parcel database. Three block subdivision algorithms are evaluated on how closely they reproduce parcels of different block types found in a parcel database from Montreal, Canada. While the authors who developed each of the algorithms have evaluated them, they have used their own metrics and block types to evaluate their own algorithms. This makes it difficult to compare their strengths and weaknesses. The contribution of this paper is in resolving this difficulty with the aim of finding a better algorithm suited to subdividing each block type. The proposed hypothesis is that given the different approaches that block subdivision algorithms take, it's likely that different algorithms are better adapted to subdividing different block types. To test this, a standardized block type classification is used that consists of mutually exclusive and comprehensive categories. A statistical method is used for finding a better algorithm and the probability it will perform well for a given block type. Results suggest the oriented bounding box algorithm performs better for warped non-uniform sites, as well as gridiron and fragmented uniform sites. It also produces more similar parcel areas and widths. The Generalized Parcel Divider 1 algorithm performs better for gridiron non-uniform sites. The Straight Skeleton algorithm performs better for loop and lollipop networks as well as fragmented non-uniform and warped uniform sites. It also produces more similar parcel shapes and patterns.

  5. Block That Pain!

    MedlinePlus

    ... 314. This combination produces a unique effect, blocking pain-sensing neurons without impairing signals from other cells. In contrast, most pain relievers used for surgical procedures block activity in ...

  6. Blocked Tear Duct

    MedlinePlus

    Blocked tear duct Overview By Mayo Clinic Staff When you have a blocked tear duct, your tears can't drain normally, leaving you ... in the tear drainage system. A blocked tear duct is common in newborns. The condition usually gets ...

  7. Total Spinal Block after Thoracic Paravertebral Block

    PubMed Central

    Beyaz, Serbülent Gökhan; Özocak, Hande; Ergönenç, Tolga; Erdem, Ali Fuat; Palabıyık, Onur

    2014-01-01

    Thoracic paravertebral block (TPVB) can be performed with or without general anaesthesia for various surgical procedures. TPVB is a popular anaesthetic technique due to its low side effect profile and high analgesic potency. We used 20 mL of 0.5% levobupivacaine for a single injection of unilateral TPVB at the T7 level with neurostimulator in a 63 year old patient with co-morbid disease who underwent cholecystectomy. Following the application patient lost consciousness, and was intubated. Haemodynamic instability was normalised with rapid volume replacement and vasopressors. Anaesthetic drugs were stopped at the end of the surgery and muscle relaxant was antagonised. Return of mucle strenght was shown with neuromuscular block monitoring. Approximately three hours after TPVB, spontaneous breathing started and consciousness returned. A total spinal block is a rare and life-threatening complication. A total spinal block is a complication of spinal anaesthesia, and it can also occur after peripheral blocks. Clinical presentation is characterised by hypotension, bradicardia, apnea, and cardiac arrest. An early diagnosis and appropriate treatment is life saving. In this case report, we want to present total spinal block after TPVB. PMID:27366387

  8. The Space Block

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1984-01-01

    Ciba-Geigy Corporation's "Space Block," technically known as TDT-177-51 Ren Shape epoxy model block, is a two-foot by two-foot by five- inch plastic block from which master models of the Space Shuttle protective tiles are cut by NC machines. Space Block is made of epoxy resin with low viscosity and slow curing time, enabling the large block to cure uniformly without cracking. Rockwell International uses master models of Shuttle tiles to check accuracy of NC machines accurately by comparing model dimensions with specifications. New epoxy resins are attracting broad interest as a replacement for traditional materials used in modeling auto, aerospace or other parts.

  9. Congenital complete heart block.

    PubMed Central

    Agarwala, B.; Sheikh, Z.; Cibils, L. A.

    1996-01-01

    Congenital complete heart block in utero has become diagnosed more frequently with the clinical use of fetal echocardiography. The fetus with complete heart block may remain asymptomatic or may develop congestive heart failure. Congenital complete heart block is more frequently seen in infants of mothers with systemic lupus erythematosus, both clinically manifested and subclinical systemic lupus erythematosus with positive antibodies (SS-A and SS-B antibodies). At birth, the neonate with complete heart block may remain asymptomatic and may not require a pacemaker to increase the heart rate. The indications for a pacemaker in neonates with complete heart block have been discussed. Both in-utero and neonatal management of congenital complete heart block are discussed to manage congestive heart failure in a fetus. Four patients with congenital complete heart block are presented covering a broad spectrum of clinical presentation, diagnosis, and management both in the fetal and neonatal period. Images Figure 1 PMID:8961692

  10. A study of circumferentially-heated and block-heated heat pipes. I - Experimental analysis and generalized analytical prediction of capillary limits. II - Three-dimensional numerical modeling as a conjugate problem

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schmalhofer, Joseph; Faghri, Amir

    1993-01-01

    The wall and centerline vapor temperatures and heat output are determined experimentally for a low-temperature copper-water heat pipe under uniform circumferential heating and block heating. The time required to reach a vapor temperature of 60 C from an initial ambient temperature of 21 C is determined for both modes of heating. The experimental capillary limit of the heat pipe is compared to the generalized capillary limits for block-heated pipes over a range of vapor temperatures. A three-dimensional numerical model is then developed for determining the temperature, pressure, and velocity distributions in the entire domain of a circumferentially heated and a block-heated pipe. The problem is formulated as a conjugate problem, without the assumption of a uniform vapor temperature. The predictions of the model are found to be in good agreement with the experimental data.

  11. Measurement of the Magnet Blocks for SSRF Insertion Devices

    SciTech Connect

    He Yongzhou; Zhang Jidong; Zhou Qiaogen; Qian Zhenmei; Li Yang

    2010-06-23

    Two in-vacuum undulators IVU25s and one elliptically polarized undulator EPU100 have been developed for SSRF. Two IVU25s with the same hybrid design contain about 640 Sm{sub 2}Co{sub 17} magnet blocks and the dimension of blocks is 65 Wx25 Hx9 D. The EPU100 of the APPLE-II type contains about 690 NdFeB magnet blocks with the dimension of 35 Wx35 Hx25 D. This paper describes the magnetic measurements of these magnet blocks with the Helmholtz coil measurement system for IVU25 magnet blocks and the Hall probe measurement system for EPU100 magnet blocks. The measured maximum magnetic moment deviation and the maximum angle deviation are less than {+-}1.0% and 1.1 deg. respectively both for Sm{sub 2}Co{sub 17} blocks and NdFeB blocks and satisfy the specifications of undulators.

  12. Protein based Block Copolymers

    PubMed Central

    Rabotyagova, Olena S.; Cebe, Peggy; Kaplan, David L.

    2011-01-01

    Advances in genetic engineering have led to the synthesis of protein-based block copolymers with control of chemistry and molecular weight, resulting in unique physical and biological properties. The benefits from incorporating peptide blocks into copolymer designs arise from the fundamental properties of proteins to adopt ordered conformations and to undergo self-assembly, providing control over structure formation at various length scales when compared to conventional block copolymers. This review covers the synthesis, structure, assembly, properties, and applications of protein-based block copolymers. PMID:21235251

  13. Thermally actuated wedge block

    DOEpatents

    Queen, Jr., Charles C.

    1980-01-01

    This invention relates to an automatically-operating wedge block for maintaining intimate structural contact over wide temperature ranges, including cryogenic use. The wedging action depends on the relative thermal expansion of two materials having very different coefficients of thermal expansion. The wedge block expands in thickness when cooled to cryogenic temperatures and contracts in thickness when returned to room temperature.

  14. Blocks of Archean material in the structure of the Uralian Platinum Belt: insights from in situ U-Pb (SHRIMP-II) data on zircon from the Nizhny Tagil clinopyroxenite-dunite complex

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Malitch, K. N.; Efimov, A. A.; Ronkin, Yu. L.

    2009-04-01

    The Nizhny Tagil massif forms part of the 900-km-long Uralian Platinum Belt (UPB) and represents an undisputable example of a zoned Uralian-type clinopyroxenite-dunite complex (Efimov 1998; Auge et al. 2005). The 47 km2 Nizhny Tagil massif is almond-shape, shear bounded and enclosed by Riphean and Devonian metasediments to the west and late Paleozoic to Mesozoic predominantly mafic igneous rocks to the east. It consists of a platiniferrous dunite core (Fo92-90), surrounded by a clinopyroxenite rim. Recently obtained U-Pb and Sm-Nd isotope ages defined the range for UPB complexes between 540 and 425 Ma. Geochronological data for dunite remains scarce being restricted to the Kytlym dunite block (Bea et al. 2001). To fill this gap, we present the first results of uranium-lead ages for 10 grains of zircon, which were extracted by conventional techniques from course-grained dunite sampled at Alexandrovsky Log in the central part of the Nizhny Tagil massif. Most of zircons are subeuhedral, prismatic (80-170 microns long), with an elongation between 1.3 and 1.6, and oscillatory zoning characteristic of igneous rocks. Majority of zircons yield secondary inclusions; some grains show tracers of subdivision and recrystallization, whereas several grains are characterized by curved external counters pointing to specific condition of their evolution. U-Pb analyses were performed with secondary ion mass spectrometer SHRIMP II at VSEGEI, following the procedure described by Williams (1998). Concentrations of U vary from 34 to 520 ppm, Th from 18 to 358 ppm. Three age clusters have been determined. Two subordinate groups are characterized by concordant ages of 585±29 Ma (MSWD=1.07, probability (P) =0.30) and 1608±56 Ma (MSWD=0.07, P=0.79), whereas the main data set cluster around 2781±56 Ma. We assume, therefore, that the Late Archean age testifies the timing of dunite generation in subcontinental mantle, whereas the "youngest" U-Pb age might be linked with timing of formation

  15. Superalloy Lattice Block Structures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nathal, M. V.; Whittenberger, J. D.; Hebsur, M. G.; Kantzos, P. T.; Krause, D. L.

    2004-01-01

    Initial investigations of investment cast superalloy lattice block suggest that this technology will yield a low cost approach to utilize the high temperature strength and environmental resistance of superalloys in lightweight, damage tolerant structural configurations. Work to date has demonstrated that relatively large superalloy lattice block panels can be successfully investment cast from both IN-718 and Mar-M247. These castings exhibited mechanical properties consistent with the strength of the same superalloys measured from more conventional castings. The lattice block structure also accommodates significant deformation without failure, and is defect tolerant in fatigue. The potential of lattice block structures opens new opportunities for the use of superalloys in future generations of aircraft applications that demand strength and environmental resistance at elevated temperatures along with low weight.

  16. What Causes Heart Block?

    MedlinePlus

    ... of congenital heart block occurs in babies whose mothers have autoimmune diseases, such as lupus. People who have these diseases make proteins called antibodies that attack and damage the body's tissues or ...

  17. Blocked tear duct

    MedlinePlus

    ... your baby may have an eye infection called conjunctivitis . ... increase the chance of other infections, such as conjunctivitis. ... be prevented. Proper treatment of nasal infections and conjunctivitis may reduce the risk of having a blocked ...

  18. Resolving writer's block.

    PubMed Central

    Huston, P.

    1998-01-01

    PROBLEM BEING ADDRESSED: Writer's block, or a distinctly uncomfortable inability to write, can interfere with professional productivity. OBJECTIVE OF PROGRAM: To identify writer's block and to outline suggestions for its early diagnosis, treatment, and prevention. MAIN COMPONENTS OF PROGRAM: Once the diagnosis has been established, a stepwise approach to care is recommended. Mild blockage can be resolved by evaluating and revising expectations, conducting a task analysis, and giving oneself positive feedback. Moderate blockage can be addressed by creative exercises, such as brainstorming and role-playing. Recalcitrant blockage can be resolved with therapy. Writer's block can be prevented by taking opportunities to write at the beginning of projects, working with a supportive group of people, and cultivating an ongoing interest in writing. CONCLUSIONS: Writer's block is a highly treatable condition. A systematic approach can help to alleviate anxiety, build confidence, and give people the information they need to work productively. PMID:9481467

  19. Mid-Career Block.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Payne, Richard A.

    1984-01-01

    Considers typical reactions of midcareer employees to blocked opportunity; reasons for correcting these attitudes; ways of motivating these employees; methods of rekindling midcareer employees' interest in their jobs; encouraging competition; job switching; self-development programs; and supervisory attitudes. (CT)

  20. Block copolymer battery separator

    SciTech Connect

    Wong, David; Balsara, Nitash Pervez

    2016-04-26

    The invention herein described is the use of a block copolymer/homopolymer blend for creating nanoporous materials for transport applications. Specifically, this is demonstrated by using the block copolymer poly(styrene-block-ethylene-block-styrene) (SES) and blending it with homopolymer polystyrene (PS). After blending the polymers, a film is cast, and the film is submerged in tetrahydrofuran, which removes the PS. This creates a nanoporous polymer film, whereby the holes are lined with PS. Control of morphology of the system is achieved by manipulating the amount of PS added and the relative size of the PS added. The porous nature of these films was demonstrated by measuring the ionic conductivity in a traditional battery electrolyte, 1M LiPF.sub.6 in EC/DEC (1:1 v/v) using AC impedance spectroscopy and comparing these results to commercially available battery separators.

  1. View of cell block eight (left), cell block seven, and ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    View of cell block eight (left), cell block seven, and southwest guard tower, looking from cell block eight roof - Eastern State Penitentiary, 2125 Fairmount Avenue, Philadelphia, Philadelphia County, PA

  2. Cell block eleven (left) and cell block fifteen, looking from ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Cell block eleven (left) and cell block fifteen, looking from cell block two into the "Death Row" exercise yard - Eastern State Penitentiary, 2125 Fairmount Avenue, Philadelphia, Philadelphia County, PA

  3. Superalloy Lattice Block Structures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Whittenberger, J. D.; Nathal, M. V.; Hebsur, M. G.; Kraus, D. L.

    2003-01-01

    In their simplest form, lattice block panels are produced by direct casting and result in lightweight, fully triangulated truss-like configurations which provide strength and stiffness [2]. The earliest realizations of lattice block were made from A1 and steels, primarily under funding from the US Navy [3]. This work also showed that the mechanical efficiency (eg., specific stiffness) of lattice block structures approached that of honeycomb structures [2]. The lattice architectures are also less anisotropic, and the investment casting route should provide a large advantage in cost and temperature capability over honeycombs which are limited to alloys that can be processed into foils. Based on this early work, a program was initiated to determine the feasibility of extending the high temperature superalloy lattice block [3]. The objective of this effort was to provide an alternative to intermetallics and composites in achieving a lightweight high temperature structure without sacrificing the damage tolerance and moderate cost inherent in superalloys. To establish the feasibility of the superalloy lattice block concept, work was performed in conjunction with JAMCORP, Inc. Billerica, MA, to produce a number of lattice block panels from both IN71 8 and Mar-M247.

  4. CAFS: A Cesium Atomic Frequency Standard for GPS block IIR

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wisnia, Jeffry A.

    1993-01-01

    Kernco, Inc. was selected to design the Cesium Atomic Frequency Standards (CAFS) for the GPS Block IIR NAVSTAR satellites. These spacecraft are scheduled to be launched in the mid-1990's to replenish and upgrade the existing constellation of Global Positioning System satellites. The Block IIR CAFS output frequency is 13.4003378 MHz, the 686th submultiple of the cesium atomic resonance frequency. Using an integer submultiple simplifies the design of the atomic frequency standard's rf multiplier circuits, eliminating the secondary frequency synthesizer needed in previous designs. The GPS Block IIR CAFS design, particularly the improvements made on our earlier Block II design is described. Test results are included.

  5. Poly(cyclohexylethylene)-block-poly(ethylene oxide) block polymers for metal oxide templating

    SciTech Connect

    Schulze, Morgan W.; Sinturel, Christophe

    2015-09-01

    A series of poly(cyclohexylethylene)-block-poly(ethylene oxide) (CEO) diblock copolymers were synthesized through tandem anionic polymerizations and heterogeneous catalytic hydrogenation. Solvent-annealed CEO diblock films were used to template dense arrays of inorganic oxide nanodots via simple spin coating of an inorganic precursor solution atop the ordered film. The substantial chemical dissimilarity of the two blocks enables (i) selective inclusion of the inorganic precursor within the PEO domain and (ii) the formation of exceptionally small feature sizes due to a relatively large interaction parameter estimated from mean-field analysis of the order–disorder transition temperatures of compositionally symmetric samples. UV/ozone treatment following incorporation produces an ordered arrangement of oxide nanodots and simultaneously removes the block polymer template. However, we report the smallest particles (6 ± 1 nm) templated from a selective precursor insertion method to date using a block polymer scaffold.

  6. Poly(cyclohexylethylene)-block-poly(ethylene oxide) block polymers for metal oxide templating

    DOE PAGES

    Schulze, Morgan W.; Sinturel, Christophe; Hillmyer, Marc A.

    2015-09-01

    A series of poly(cyclohexylethylene)-block-poly(ethylene oxide) (CEO) diblock copolymers were synthesized through tandem anionic polymerizations and heterogeneous catalytic hydrogenation. Solvent-annealed CEO diblock films were used to template dense arrays of inorganic oxide nanodots via simple spin coating of an inorganic precursor solution atop the ordered film. The substantial chemical dissimilarity of the two blocks enables (i) selective inclusion of the inorganic precursor within the PEO domain and (ii) the formation of exceptionally small feature sizes due to a relatively large interaction parameter estimated from mean-field analysis of the order–disorder transition temperatures of compositionally symmetric samples. UV/ozone treatment following incorporation produces anmore » ordered arrangement of oxide nanodots and simultaneously removes the block polymer template. However, we report the smallest particles (6 ± 1 nm) templated from a selective precursor insertion method to date using a block polymer scaffold.« less

  7. Risk of advanced heart block during extradural anaesthesia in patients with right bundle branch block and left anterior hemiblock.

    PubMed

    Coriat, P; Harari, A; Ducardonet, A; Tarot, J P; Viars, P

    1981-05-01

    Electrocardiographic recording by Holter monitoring demonstrated the absence of any modification, however minimal, of the intranodal conduction during surgical procedures under extradural anaesthesia in 20 patients with right bundle branch block (RBBB) and left anterior hemiblock (LAHB) but without symptoms. These data suggest that extradural anaesthesia can be used safely in patients with asymptomatic chronic RBBB and LAHB without prophylactic insertion of pacemakers. However, patients having experienced either syncope or transient Mobitz II second degree AV block are likely to have a trifascicular block and increased risk of advanced heart block during extradural anaesthesia.

  8. Impression block with orientator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brilin, V. I.; Ulyanova, O. S.

    2015-02-01

    Tool review, namely the impression block, applied to check the shape and size of the top of fish as well as to determine the appropriate tool for fishing operation was realized. For multiple application and obtaining of the impress depth of 3 cm and more, the standard volumetric impression blocks with fix rods are used. However, the registered impress of fish is not oriented in space and the rods during fishing are in the extended position. This leads to rods deformation and sinking due to accidental impacts of impression block over the borehole irregularity and finally results in faulty detection of the top end of fishing object in hole. The impression blocks with copy rods and fixed magnetic needle allow estimating the object configuration and fix the position of magnetic needle determining the position of the top end of object in hole. However, the magnetic needle fixation is realized in staged and the rods are in extended position during fishing operations as well as it is in standard design. The most efficient tool is the impression block with copy rods which directs the examined object in the borehole during readings of magnetic needles data from azimuth plate and averaging of readings. This significantly increases the accuracy of fishing toll direction. The rods during fishing are located in the body and extended only when they reach the top of fishing object.

  9. Lateral approach for supraclavicular brachial plexus block

    PubMed Central

    Sahu, DK; Sahu, Anjana

    2010-01-01

    A lateral approach described by Volker Hempel and Dr. Dilip Kotharihas been further studied, evaluated and described in detail in the present study. The aim of this study was to evaluate lateral approach of supraclavicular brachial plexus block, mainly in terms of successes rate and complication rate. The study was conducted in secondary level hospital and tertiary level hospital from 2004 to 2008. It was a prospective nonrandomized open-level study. Eighty-two patients of both sexes, aged between 18 and 65 years with ASA Grade I and II scheduled to undergo elective major surgery of the upper limb below the midarm, were selected for this new lateral approach of brachial plexus block. The onset and duration of sensory and motor block, any complications and need for supplement anaesthesia were observed. Success and complication rate were calculated in percentage. Average onset and duration of sensory and motor block was calculated as mean ± SD and percentage. Out of 82 patients, 75 (92%) have got successful block with no significant complication in any case. PMID:20885867

  10. A Place for Block Play.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moore, Gary T.

    1997-01-01

    Discusses the importance of block play--including its contributions to perceptual, fine motor, and cognitive development--and components of a good preschool block play area. Recommends unit blocks complemented by stacking blocks, toys, beads, cubes, and Brio wooden toys. Makes recommendations for space, size, locations and connections to other…

  11. Flattening basic blocks.

    SciTech Connect

    Utke, J.; Mathematics and Computer Science

    2006-01-01

    The application of cross country elimination strategies requires access to the computational graph or at least subgraphs for certain scopes, e.g. a basic block. Under the presence of aliased variables the construction of these (sub)graphs encounters ambiguities. We propose an algorithm to construct ambiguity free subgraphs.

  12. Spice Blocks Melanoma Growth

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Science Teacher, 2005

    2005-01-01

    Curcumin, the pungent yellow spice found in both turmeric and curry powders, blocks a key biological pathway needed for development of melanoma and other cancers, according to a study that appears in the journal Cancer. Researchers from The University of Texas M. D. Anderson Cancer Center demonstrate how curcumin stops laboratory strains of…

  13. Ischemic Nerve Block.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williams, Ian D.

    This experiment investigated the capability for movement and muscle spindle function at successive stages during the development of ischemic nerve block (INB) by pressure cuff. Two male subjects were observed under six randomly ordered conditions. The duration of index finger oscillation to exhaustion, paced at 1.2Hz., was observed on separate…

  14. Hawaii Census 2000 Blocks

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This data layer represents Census 2000 demographic data derived from the PL94-171 redistricting files and SF3. Census geographic entities include blocks, blockgroups and tracts. Tiger line files are the source of the geometry representing the Census blocks. Attributes include total population counts, racial/ethnic, and poverty/income information. Racial/ethnic classifications are represented in units of blocks, blockgroups and tracts. Poverty and income data are represented in units of blockgroups and tracts. Percentages of each racial/ethnic group have been calculated from the population counts. Total Minority counts and percentages were compiled from each racial/ethnic non-white category. Categories compiled to create the Total Minority count includes the following: African American, Asian, American Indian, Pacific Islander, White Hispanic, Other and all mixed race categories. The percentage poverty attribute represents the percent of the population living at or below poverty level. The per capita income attribute represents the sum of all income within the geographic entity, divided by the total population of that entity. Special fields designed to be used for EJ analysis have been derived from the PL data and include the following: Percentage difference of block, blockgroup and total minority from the state and county averages, percentile rank for each percent total minority within state and county entitie

  15. Concrete Block Pavements

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1983-03-01

    1967, Cedergren 1974, Federal Highway .’,U .. V,47 -’":: 37 Administration 1980). Block pavements have essentially the same prob- lems with moisture...Vicksburg, Miss. Cedergren , H. R. 1974. Drainage of Highway and Airfield Pavements, John Wiley and Sons, New VOk. I Cement and Concrete Association

  16. Signal Unification Block,

    DTIC Science & Technology

    A multichannel device is described for unifying the signals of thermocouples, tachometer generators and tensometers used in conducting tests on...various machines and mechanisms. The device is built on semiconductor instruments and has a block construction, permitting the easy alteration of the number of varieties of the signals being unified.

  17. Feature-accelerated block matching

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tao, Bo; Orchard, Michael T.

    1998-01-01

    We study the relationship between local features and block matching in this paper. We show that the use of many features can greatly improve the block matching results by introducing several fast block matching algorithms. The first algorithm is pixel decimation-based. We show that pixels with larger gradient magnitude have larger motion compensation error. Therefore for pixel decimation-based fast block matching, it benefits to subsample the block by selecting pixels with the largest gradient magnitude. Such a gradient-assisted adaptive pixel selection strategy greatly outperforms two other subsampling procedures proposed in previous literature. Fast block matching can achieve the optimal performance obtained using full search. We present a family of such fast block matching algorithm using various local features, such as block mean and variance. Our algorithm reduces more than 80 percent computation, while achieving the same performance as the full search. This present a brand new approach toward fast block matching algorithm design.

  18. Recovery from blocking between outcomes.

    PubMed

    Wheeler, Daniel S; Miller, Ralph R

    2005-10-01

    Contemporary associative learning research largely focuses on cue competition phenomena that occur when 2 cues are paired with a common outcome. Little research has been conducted to investigate similar phenomena occurring when a single cue is trained with 2 outcomes. Three conditioned lick suppression experiments with rats assessed whether treatments known to alleviate blocking between cues would also attenuate blocking between outcomes. In Experiment 1, conditioned responding recovered from blocking between outcomes when a long retention interval was interposed between training and testing. Experiment 2 obtained recovery from blocking between outcomes when the blocking outcome was extinguished after the blocking treatment. In Experiment 3, a recovery from blocking between outcomes occurred when a reminder stimulus was presented in a novel context prior to testing. Collectively, these studies demonstrate that blocking of outcomes, like blocking of cues, appears to be caused by a deficit in the expression of an acquired association.

  19. NCCN Evidence Blocks.

    PubMed

    Carlson, Robert W; Jonasch, Eric

    2016-05-01

    NCCN has developed a series of Evidence Blocks: graphics that provide ratings for each recommended treatment regimen in terms of efficacy, toxicity, quality and consistency of the supporting data, and affordability. The NCCN Evidence Blocks are currently available in 10 tumor types within the NCCN Clinical Practice Guidelines in Oncology (NCCN Guidelines). At a glance, patients and providers can understand how a given treatment was assessed by the NCCN Guidelines Panel and get a sense of how a given treatment may match individual needs and preferences. Robert W. Carlson, MD, CEO of NCCN, described the reasoning behind this new feature and how the tool is used, and Eric Jonasch, MD, Professor of Genitourinary Medical Oncology at The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, and Vice Chair of the NCCN Kidney Cancer Panel, described its applicability in the management of metastatic renal cell carcinoma.

  20. Thermal blocking of preheating

    SciTech Connect

    Lerner, Rose; Tranberg, Anders E-mail: anders.tranberg@uis.no

    2015-04-01

    The parametric resonance responsible for preheating after inflation will end when self-interactions of the resonating field and interactions of this field with secondary degrees of freedom become important. In many cases, the effect may be quantified in terms of an effective mass and the resulting shifting out of the spectrum of the strongest resonance band. In certain curvaton models, such thermal blocking can even occur before preheating has begun, delaying or even preventing the decay of the curvaton. We investigate numerically to what extent this thermal blocking is realised in a specific scenario, and whether the effective mass is well approximated by the perturbative leading order thermal mass. We find that the qualitative behaviour is well reproduced in this approximation, and that the end of preheating can be confidently estimated.

  1. Location of Varying Hydrophobicity Zinc(II) Phthalocyanine-Type Photosensitizers in Methoxy Poly(ethylene oxide) and Poly(l-lactide) Block Copolymer Micelles Using (1)H NMR and XPS Techniques.

    PubMed

    Lamch, Łukasz; Tylus, Włodzimierz; Jewgiński, Michał; Latajka, Rafał; Wilk, Kazimiera A

    2016-12-15

    Hydrophobic zinc(II) phthalocyanine-type derivatives, solubilized in polymeric micelles (PMs), provide a befitting group of so-called nanophotosensitizers, suitable for a variety of photodynamic therapy (PDT) protocols. The factors that influence the success of such products in PDT are the location of the active cargo in the PMs and the nanocarrier-enhanced ability to safely interact with biological systems and fulfill their therapeutic functions. Therefore, the aim of this work was to determine the solubilization loci of three phthalocyanines of varying hydrophobicity, i.e., zinc(II) phthalocyanine (ZnPc), along with its tetrasulfonic acid (ZnPc-sulfo4) and perfluorinated (ZnPcF16) derivatives, loaded in polymeric micelles of methoxy poly(ethylene oxide)-b-poly(l-lactide) (mPEG-b-PLLA), by means of (1)H nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) combined with ion sputtering. Furthermore, the microenvironment influence upon the chemical and physical status of the solubilized cargo in PMs, expressed by photobleaching and reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation comparing to the same properties of native cargoes in solution, was also evaluated and discussed in regards to the probing location data. The studied phthalocyanine-loaded PMs exhibited good physical stability, high drug-loading efficiency, and a size of less than ca. 150 nm with low polydispersity indices. The formation of polymeric micelles and the solubilization locus were investigated by (1)H NMR and XPS. ZnPc localized within the PM core, whereas both ZnPcF16 and ZnPc-sulfo4 - in the corona of PMs. We proved that the cargo locus is crucial for the photochemical properties of the studied phthalocyanines; the increase in photostability and ability to generate ROS in micellar solution compared to free photosensitizer was most significant for the photosensitizer in the PM core. Our results indicate the role of the cargo location in the PM microenvironment and demonstrate that

  2. Liquid blocking check valve

    DOEpatents

    Merrill, John T.

    1984-01-01

    A liquid blocking check valve useful particularly in a pneumatic system utilizing a pressurized liquid fill chamber. The valve includes a floatable ball disposed within a housing defining a chamber. The housing is provided with an inlet aperture disposed in the top of said chamber, and an outlet aperture disposed in the bottom of said chamber in an offset relation to said inlet aperture and in communication with a cutaway side wall section of said housing.

  3. Intraocular radiation blocking

    SciTech Connect

    Finger, P.T.; Ho, T.K.; Fastenberg, D.M.; Hyman, R.A.; Stroh, E.M.; Packer, S.; Perry, H.D. )

    1990-09-01

    Iodine-based liquid radiographic contrast agents were placed in normal and tumor-bearing (Greene strain) rabbit eyes to evaluate their ability to block iodine-125 radiation. This experiment required the procedures of tumor implantation, vitrectomy, air-fluid exchange, and 125I plaque and thermoluminescent dosimetry (TLD) chip implantation. The authors quantified the amount of radiation attenuation provided by intraocularly placed contrast agents with in vivo dosimetry. After intraocular insertion of a blocking agent or sham blocker (saline) insertion, episcleral 125I plaques were placed across the eye from episcleral TLD dosimeters. This showed that radiation attenuation occurred after blocker insertion compared with the saline controls. Then computed tomographic imaging techniques were used to describe the relatively rapid transit time of the aqueous-based iohexol compared with the slow transit time of the oil-like iophendylate. Lastly, seven nontumor-bearing eyes were primarily examined for blocking agent-related ocular toxicity. Although it was noted that iophendylate induced intraocular inflammation and retinal degeneration, all iohexol-treated eyes were similar to the control eyes at 7 and 31 days of follow-up. Although our study suggests that intraocular radiopaque materials can be used to shield normal ocular structures during 125I plaque irradiation, a mechanism to keep these materials from exiting the eye must be devised before clinical application.

  4. A novel power block for CSP systems

    SciTech Connect

    Mittelman, Gur; Epstein, Michael

    2010-10-15

    Concentrating Solar Thermal Power (CSP) and in particular parabolic trough, is a proven large-scale solar power technology. However, CSP cost is not yet competitive with conventional alternatives unless subsidized. Current CSP plants typically include a condensing steam cycle power block which was preferably designed for a continuous operation and higher operating conditions and therefore, limits the overall plant cost effectiveness and deployment. The drawbacks of this power block are as follows: (i) no power generation during low insolation periods (ii) expensive, large condenser (typically water cooled) due to the poor extracted steam properties (high specific volume, sub-atmospheric pressure) and (iii) high installation and operation costs. In the current study, a different power block scheme is proposed to eliminate these obstacles. This power block includes a top Rankine cycle with a back pressure steam turbine and a bottoming Kalina cycle comprising another back pressure turbine and using ammonia-water mixture as a working fluid. The bottoming (moderate temperature) cycle allows power production during low insolation periods. Because of the superior ammonia-water vapor properties, the condensing system requirements are much less demanding and the operation costs are lowered. Accordingly, air cooled condensers can be used with lower economical penalty. Another advantage is that back pressure steam turbines have a less complex design than condensing steam turbines which make their costs lower. All of these improvements could make the combined cycle unit more cost effective. This unit can be applicable in both parabolic trough and central receiver (solar tower) plants. The potential advantage of the new power block is illustrated by a detailed techno-economical analysis of two 50 MW parabolic trough power plants, comparing between the standard and the novel power block. The results indicate that the proposed plant suggests a 4-11% electricity cost saving

  5. View southeast of caps for blocks for JFK; blocks are ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    View southeast of caps for blocks for JFK; blocks are used to support ship when it is repositioned to paint inaccessible areas masked by original support blocks. - Naval Base Philadelphia-Philadelphia Naval Shipyard, Carpentry Shop, League Island, Philadelphia, Philadelphia County, PA

  6. Theory of post-block 2 VLBI observable extraction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lowe, Stephen T.

    1992-01-01

    The algorithms used in the post-Block II fringe-fitting software called 'Fit' are described. The steps needed to derive the very long baseline interferometry (VLBI) charged-particle corrected group delay, phase delay rate, and phase delay (the latter without resolving cycle ambiguities) are presented beginning with the set of complex fringe phasors as a function of observation frequency and time. The set of complex phasors is obtained from the JPL/CIT Block II correlator. The output of Fit is the set of charged-particle corrected observables (along with ancillary information) in a form amenable to the software program 'Modest.'

  7. Modified Occlusal Settling Appliance in Twin Block Therapy.

    PubMed

    Singh, Harpreet; Maurya, Rajkumar; Kapoor, Pranav; Sharma, Poonam

    2016-09-01

    Early treatment with the Twin-block appliance is effective in reducing overjet and severity of malocclusion in Class II division 1 malocclusions with functional mandibular retrusion. Appearance of bilateral severe posterior open bite in some cases subsequent to completion of active phase of Twin block therapy poses a challenge to an orthodontist. Closure of posterior open bites of large magnitude is difficult to achieve with conventional upper anterior inclined plane used during support phase of Twin-block therapy. A simple yet effective modification of upper anterior inclined plane is proposed, which is an effective and invaluable adjunctive aid in correction of posterior open bite.

  8. Modified Occlusal Settling Appliance in Twin Block Therapy

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Harpreet; Kapoor, Pranav; Sharma, Poonam

    2016-01-01

    Early treatment with the Twin-block appliance is effective in reducing overjet and severity of malocclusion in Class II division 1 malocclusions with functional mandibular retrusion. Appearance of bilateral severe posterior open bite in some cases subsequent to completion of active phase of Twin block therapy poses a challenge to an orthodontist. Closure of posterior open bites of large magnitude is difficult to achieve with conventional upper anterior inclined plane used during support phase of Twin-block therapy. A simple yet effective modification of upper anterior inclined plane is proposed, which is an effective and invaluable adjunctive aid in correction of posterior open bite. PMID:27790600

  9. New functionalized block copolymers for bonding copper to epoxy

    SciTech Connect

    Kent, M.; Saunders, R.; Emerson, J.; Hurst, M.

    1995-11-01

    The authors are exploring the use of functionalized block copolymers for bonding copper to epoxy in printed wiring boards. The program involves four key elements: (i) synthesis of suitable functionalized block copolymers; (ii) characterization of the conformation of the copolymers at the relevant interfaces by neutron reflectivity; (iii) spectroscopic measurements of chemical bonding, and (iv) measurement of the mechanical properties of the interfaces. The copolymers are synthesized by living, ring-opening metathesis polymerization. This relatively new technique allows great flexibility for synthesis of functionalized block copolymers in that the initiators are relatively insensitive to a wide range of functional groups. Significant adhesion enhancement has been observed in lap shear tests.

  10. Ear - blocked at high altitudes

    MedlinePlus

    ... and blocked ears; Flying and blocked ears; Eustachian tube dysfunction - high altitude ... The eustachian tube is a connection between the middle ear (the space deep to the eardrum) and the back of the ...

  11. Fermion-scalar conformal blocks

    SciTech Connect

    Iliesiu, Luca; Kos, Filip; Poland, David; Pufu, Silviu S.; Simmons-Duffin, David; Yacoby, Ran

    2016-04-13

    In this study, we compute the conformal blocks associated with scalar-scalar-fermionfermion 4-point functions in 3D CFTs. Together with the known scalar conformal blocks, our result completes the task of determining the so-called ‘seed blocks’ in three dimensions. In addition, conformal blocks associated with 4-point functions of operators with arbitrary spins can now be determined from these seed blocks by using known differential operators.

  12. Porous block nanofiber composite filters

    SciTech Connect

    Ginley, David S.; Curtis, Calvin J.; Miedaner, Alexander; Weiss, Alan J.; Paddock, Arnold

    2016-08-09

    Porous block nano-fiber composite (110), a filtration system (10) and methods of using the same are disclosed. An exemplary porous block nano-fiber composite (110) includes a porous block (100) having one or more pores (200). The porous block nano-fiber composite (110) also includes a plurality of inorganic nano-fibers (211) formed within at least one of the pores (200).

  13. CORE SATURATION BLOCKING OSCILLATOR

    DOEpatents

    Spinrad, R.J.

    1961-10-17

    A blocking oscillator which relies on core saturation regulation to control the output pulse width is described. In this arrangement an external magnetic loop is provided in which a saturable portion forms the core of a feedback transformer used with the thermionic or semi-conductor active element. A first stationary magnetic loop establishes a level of flux through the saturation portion of the loop. A second adjustable magnet moves the flux level to select a saturation point giving the desired output pulse width. (AEC)

  14. Building Curriculum during Block Play

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Andrews, Nicole

    2015-01-01

    Blocks are not just for play! In this article, Nicole Andrews describes observing the interactions of three young boys enthusiastically engaged in the kindergarten block center of their classroom, using blocks in a building project that displayed their ability to use critical thinking skills, physics exploration, and the development of language…

  15. Eikonalization of conformal blocks

    SciTech Connect

    Fitzpatrick, A. Liam; Kaplan, Jared; Walters, Matthew T.; Wang, Junpu

    2015-09-03

    Classical field configurations such as the Coulomb potential and Schwarzschild solution are built from the t-channel exchange of many light degrees of freedom. We study the CFT analog of this phenomenon, which we term the 'eikonalization' of conformal blocks. We show that when an operator T appears in the OPE Ο(x)Ο(0), then the large spin Fock space states [TT···T] also appear in this OPE with a computable coefficient. The sum over the exchange of these Fock space states in an correlator build the classical 'T field' in the dual AdS description. In some limits the sum of all Fock space exchanges can be represented as the exponential of a single T exchange in the 4-pt correlator of O. Our results should be useful for systematizing 1/ℓ perturbation theory in general CFTs and simplifying the computation of large spin OPE coefficients. As examples we obtain the leading log ℓ dependence of Fock space conformal block coefficients, and we directly compute the OPE coefficients of the simplest ‘triple-trace’ operators.

  16. Eikonalization of conformal blocks

    DOE PAGES

    Fitzpatrick, A. Liam; Kaplan, Jared; Walters, Matthew T.; ...

    2015-09-03

    Classical field configurations such as the Coulomb potential and Schwarzschild solution are built from the t-channel exchange of many light degrees of freedom. We study the CFT analog of this phenomenon, which we term the 'eikonalization' of conformal blocks. We show that when an operator T appears in the OPE Ο(x)Ο(0), then the large spin Fock space states [TT···T]ℓ also appear in this OPE with a computable coefficient. The sum over the exchange of these Fock space states in an correlator build the classical 'T field' in the dual AdS description. In some limits the sum of all Fock spacemore » exchanges can be represented as the exponential of a single T exchange in the 4-pt correlator of O. Our results should be useful for systematizing 1/ℓ perturbation theory in general CFTs and simplifying the computation of large spin OPE coefficients. As examples we obtain the leading log ℓ dependence of Fock space conformal block coefficients, and we directly compute the OPE coefficients of the simplest ‘triple-trace’ operators.« less

  17. Solar power building block

    SciTech Connect

    Charlton, W.T.

    1982-04-20

    A building unit for exterior walls and the like comprising a molded block of glass having a recess in the side face which is to face the exterior, the recess having a side wall and an open outer end on which a fresnel lens is disposed, the inner end of the recess having a solar cell disposed therein so that sunlight passing through the fresnel lens impinges on the solar cell for the generation of electric power together with a battery disposed within a cavity molded in the block connected by a circuit to the solar cell for storing the generated electric power for subsequent use as needed in a residence or the like. A further embodiment has attached to the interior wall a black painted duct containing vertical radiant fins. This unit contains a ''window'' through which the concentrated radiation is directed by the lens arrangement of the side walls and front lens to create a highly energetic radiant impingement upon the black duct heating it. Air flowing vertically in the duct is used for heating of interior air or removal of superheated interior air by using the force of the rising air for an '' air cooling'' effect.

  18. Treatment timing for Twin-block therapy.

    PubMed

    Baccetti, T; Franchi, L; Toth, L R; McNamara, J A

    2000-08-01

    This cephalometric study evaluated skeletal and dentoalveolar changes induced by the Twin-block appliance in 2 groups of subjects with Class II malocclusion treated at different skeletal maturation stages in order to define the optimal timing for this type of therapy. Skeletal maturity in individual patients was assessed on the basis of the stages of cervical vertebrae maturation. The early-treated group was composed of 21 subjects (11 females and 10 males). Mean age of these subjects at time 1 (immediately before treatment) was 9 years +/- 11 months, and at time 2 (immediately after discontinuation of the Twin-block appliance) was 10 years 2 months +/- 11 months. According to the cervical vertebrae maturation staging at times 1 and 2, the peak in growth velocity was not included in the treatment period for any of the subjects in the early group. The late-treated group consisted of 15 subjects (6 females and 9 males). Mean age of this group was 12 years 11 months +/- 1 year 2 months at time 1 and 14 years 4 months +/- 1 year 3 months at time 2. In the late group, treatment was performed during or slightly after the onset of the pubertal growth spurt. Both treated samples were compared with control samples consisting of subjects with untreated Class II malocclusions also selected on the basis of the stage in cervical vertebrae maturation. A modification of Pancherz's cephalometric analysis was applied to the lateral cephalograms of all examined groups at both time periods. Linear and angular measurements for mandibular dimensions, cranial base angulation, and vertical relationships were added to the original analysis. Annualized differences for all the variables from time 1 to time 2 were calculated for both treated groups and contrasted to the annualized differences in the corresponding untreated groups by means of nonparametric statistics. The findings of this short-term cephalometric study indicate that optimal timing for Twin-block therapy of Class II disharmony

  19. Nerve blocks for chronic pain.

    PubMed

    Hayek, Salim M; Shah, Atit

    2014-10-01

    Nerve blocks are often performed as therapeutic or palliative interventions for pain relief. However, they are often performed for diagnostic or prognostic purposes. When considering nerve blocks for chronic pain, clinicians must always consider the indications, risks, benefits, and proper technique. Nerve blocks encompass a wide variety of interventional procedures. The most common nerve blocks for chronic pain and that may be applicable to the neurosurgical patient population are reviewed in this article. This article is an introduction and brief synopsis of the different available blocks that can be offered to a patient.

  20. Humanoid by ROBO-BLOCK

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Niimi, Hirofumi; Koike, Minoru; Takeuchi, Seiichi; Douhara, Noriyoshi

    2007-12-01

    Humanoid by ROBO-BLOCK (robot block system) and the rational formula of robots were proposed. ROBO-BLOCK is composed of servo motors, the parts for servomotor rotor, the brackets for servomotor fixation, the board parts and the controllers. A robot can be assembled easily by ROBO-BLOCK. Meanwhile, it is convenient when the structure of the robot can be described easily as a character. The whole structure of the robot is expressed as rational formula of the robot to show molecule structure in chemistry. ROBO-BLOCK can be useful for not only the research but also the education. Creative student experiment was done in the college of industrial technology.

  1. Block loss for ATM video

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chan, Sze K.; Leon-Garcia, Alberto

    1993-10-01

    In BISDN, the asynchronous transfer mode (ATM) requires all information to be represented as a sequence of standard data units called cells. Cell los is inherent in ATM networks due to the cell header corruption and buffer overflow in the network. Several studies have shown that cell losses are bursty for an ATM network. In this work, we encoded real video sequences with a variable bit-rate (VBR) version of the H.261 video encoder in order for us to determine the relationship between blocks in a video frame and the number of ATM cells generated. We then considered the impact of bursty cell losses on image block loss probability. Block loss distributions are given at different codec and channel parameters. We also obtained block loss results using a cell loss correction scheme. Three sequences were analyzed to obtain the cumulative block loss probability distribution. Similar maximum and minimum block loss probability values were obtained for each sequence. The block loss probability distribution varies according to the amount and type of motion present in each sequence. We show that the block loss is confined to one group of blocks (GOB). The maximum block loss probability can be two orders of magnitude larger than the channel cell loss probability. By using the cell loss correction scheme, block loss was reduced to a level equivalent to reducing cell loss probability by five orders of magnitude.

  2. Radiation Blocking Lenses

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1993-01-01

    The Biomedical Optical Company of America's Eagle 475 lens absorbs 100 percent of all photowavelengths considered hazardous to eye tissue, including ultraviolet and blue light, which are considered contributors to cataract and age-related macular degeneration. The lens absorbs hazardous wavelengths, but allows a higher percentage of visually useful areas of the spectrum to pass through. Polarization blocks out irritating glint and glare and heightens visual acuity. The Eagle 475 sunglasses are the latest in a series of spinoffs that originated at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory where two scientists developed a protective, welding curtain that filtered out harmful irradiance. The result was a commercial curtain that absorbs filters and scatters light, providing protection for personnel in welding areas. Further research focused on protective industrial glasses and later on consumer products.

  3. Atomic Basic Blocks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scheler, Fabian; Mitzlaff, Martin; Schröder-Preikschat, Wolfgang

    Die Entscheidung, einen zeit- bzw. ereignisgesteuerten Ansatz für ein Echtzeitsystem zu verwenden, ist schwierig und sehr weitreichend. Weitreichend vor allem deshalb, weil diese beiden Ansätze mit äußerst unterschiedlichen Kontrollflussabstraktionen verknüpft sind, die eine spätere Migration zum anderen Paradigma sehr schwer oder gar unmöglich machen. Wir schlagen daher die Verwendung einer Zwischendarstellung vor, die unabhängig von der jeweils verwendeten Kontrollflussabstraktion ist. Für diesen Zweck verwenden wir auf Basisblöcken basierende Atomic Basic Blocks (ABB) und bauen darauf ein Werkzeug, den Real-Time Systems Compiler (RTSC) auf, der die Migration zwischen zeit- und ereignisgesteuerten Systemen unterstützt.

  4. Baroplastic Block copolymers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hewlett, Sheldon A.

    2005-03-01

    Block copolymers with rubbery and glassy components have been observed to have pressure induced miscibility. These microphase-separated materials, termed baroplastics, were able to flow and be processed at temperatures below the Tg of the glassy component by simple compression molding and extrusion. Diblock and triblock copolymers of polystyrene and poly(butyl acrylate) or poly(2-ethyl hexyl acrylate) were synthesized by atom transfer radical polymerization (ATRP) and processed at room temperature into well defined transparent objects. SAXS and SANS measurements demonstrated partial mixing between components as a result of pressure during processing. DSC results also show the presence of distinct domains even after several processing cycles. Their mechanical properties after processing were tested and compared with commercial thermoplastic elastomers.

  5. 31 CFR 593.201 - Prohibited transactions involving blocked property.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... CHARLES TAYLOR SANCTIONS REGULATIONS Prohibitions § 593.201 Prohibited transactions involving blocked... Charles Taylor; (ii) To have been a senior official of the former Liberian regime headed by Charles Taylor or otherwise to have been or be a close ally or associate of Charles Taylor or the former...

  6. Large Block Test Final Report

    SciTech Connect

    Lin, W

    2001-12-01

    This report documents the Large-Block Test (LBT) conducted at Fran Ridge near Yucca Mountain, Nevada. The LBT was a thermal test conducted on an exposed block of middle non-lithophysal Topopah Spring tuff (Tptpmn) and was designed to assist in understanding the thermal-hydrological-mechanical-chemical (THMC) processes associated with heating and then cooling a partially saturated fractured rock mass. The LBT was unique in that it was a large (3 x 3 x 4.5 m) block with top and sides exposed. Because the block was exposed at the surface, boundary conditions on five of the six sides of the block were relatively well known and controlled, making this test both easier to model and easier to monitor. This report presents a detailed description of the test as well as analyses of the data and conclusions drawn from the test. The rock block that was tested during the LBT was exposed by excavation and removal of the surrounding rock. The block was characterized and instrumented, and the sides were sealed and insulated to inhibit moisture and heat loss. Temperature on the top of the block was also controlled. The block was heated for 13 months, during which time temperature, moisture distribution, and deformation were monitored. After the test was completed and the block cooled down, a series of boreholes were drilled, and one of the heater holes was over-cored to collect samples for post-test characterization of mineralogy and mechanical properties. Section 2 provides background on the test. Section 3 lists the test objectives and describes the block site, the site configuration, and measurements made during the test. Section 3 also presents a chronology of events associated with the LBT, characterization of the block, and the pre-heat analyses of the test. Section 4 describes the fracture network contained in the block. Section 5 describes the heating/cooling system used to control the temperature in the block and presents the thermal history of the block during the test

  7. Improved ultrasonic standard reference blocks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Eitzen, D. G.; Sushinsky, G. F.; Chwirut, D. J.; Bechtoldt, C. J.; Ruff, A. W.

    1976-01-01

    A program to improve the quality, reproducibility and reliability of nondestructive testing through the development of improved ASTM-type ultrasonic reference standards is described. Reference blocks of aluminum, steel, and titanium alloys are to be considered. Equipment representing the state-of-the-art in laboratory and field ultrasonic equipment was obtained and evaluated. RF and spectral data on ten sets of ultrasonic reference blocks have been taken as part of a task to quantify the variability in response from nominally identical blocks. Techniques for residual stress, preferred orientation, and micro-structural measurements were refined and are applied to a reference block rejected by the manufacturer during fabrication in order to evaluate the effect of metallurgical condition on block response. New fabrication techniques for reference blocks are discussed and ASTM activities are summarized.

  8. Mod II engine performance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Richey, Albert E.; Huang, Shyan-Cherng

    1987-01-01

    The testing of a prototype of an automotive Stirling engine, the Mod II, is discussed. The Mod II is a one-piece cast block with a V-4 single-crankshaft configuration and an annular regenerator/cooler design. The initial testing of Mod II concentrated on the basic engine, with auxiliaries driven by power sources external to the engine. The performance of the engine was tested at 720 C set temperature and 820 C tube temperature. At 720 C, it is observed that the power deficiency is speed dependent and linear, with a weak pressure dependency, and at 820 C, the power deficiency is speed and pressure dependent. The effects of buoyancy and nozzle spray pattern on the heater temperature spread are investigated. The characterization of the oil pump and the operating cycle and temperature spread tests are proposed for further evaluation of the engine.

  9. Block 2 Solid Rocket Motor (SRM) conceptual design study. Volume 1: Appendices

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1986-01-01

    The design studies task implements the primary objective of developing a Block II Solid Rocket Motor (SRM) design offering improved flight safety and reliability. The SRM literature was reviewed. The Preliminary Development and Validation Plan is presented.

  10. 31 CFR 510.301 - Blocked account; blocked property.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Blocked account; blocked property. 510.301 Section 510.301 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE OF FOREIGN ASSETS CONTROL, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY NORTH KOREA SANCTIONS REGULATIONS...

  11. 31 CFR 510.301 - Blocked account; blocked property.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Blocked account; blocked property. 510.301 Section 510.301 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE OF FOREIGN ASSETS CONTROL, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY NORTH KOREA SANCTIONS REGULATIONS...

  12. 31 CFR 510.301 - Blocked account; blocked property.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Blocked account; blocked property. 510.301 Section 510.301 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE OF FOREIGN ASSETS CONTROL, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY NORTH KOREA SANCTIONS REGULATIONS...

  13. 31 CFR 510.301 - Blocked account; blocked property.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Blocked account; blocked property. 510.301 Section 510.301 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE OF FOREIGN ASSETS CONTROL, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY NORTH KOREA SANCTIONS REGULATIONS...

  14. 31 CFR 586.301 - Blocked account; blocked property.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Blocked account; blocked property. 586.301 Section 586.301 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE OF FOREIGN ASSETS CONTROL, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY FEDERAL REPUBLIC OF...

  15. 31 CFR 587.301 - Blocked account; blocked property.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Blocked account; blocked property. 587.301 Section 587.301 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE OF FOREIGN ASSETS CONTROL, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY FEDERAL REPUBLIC OF...

  16. 31 CFR 558.301 - Blocked account; blocked property.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Blocked account; blocked property. 558.301 Section 558.301 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE OF FOREIGN ASSETS CONTROL, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY SOUTH SUDAN SANCTIONS REGULATIONS...

  17. 31 CFR 552.301 - Blocked account; blocked property.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Blocked account; blocked property. 552.301 Section 552.301 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE OF FOREIGN ASSETS CONTROL, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY YEMEN SANCTIONS REGULATIONS...

  18. 31 CFR 552.301 - Blocked account; blocked property.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Blocked account; blocked property. 552.301 Section 552.301 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE OF FOREIGN ASSETS CONTROL, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY YEMEN SANCTIONS REGULATIONS...

  19. 31 CFR 543.302 - Blocked account; blocked property.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Blocked account; blocked property. 543.302 Section 543.302 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE OF FOREIGN ASSETS CONTROL, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY CôTE D'IVOIRE SANCTIONS...

  20. 31 CFR 542.301 - Blocked account; blocked property.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Blocked account; blocked property. 542.301 Section 542.301 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE OF FOREIGN ASSETS CONTROL, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY SYRIAN SANCTIONS REGULATIONS...

  1. 31 CFR 542.301 - Blocked account; blocked property.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Blocked account; blocked property. 542.301 Section 542.301 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE OF FOREIGN ASSETS CONTROL, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY SYRIAN SANCTIONS REGULATIONS...

  2. 31 CFR 542.301 - Blocked account; blocked property.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Blocked account; blocked property. 542.301 Section 542.301 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE OF FOREIGN ASSETS CONTROL, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY SYRIAN SANCTIONS REGULATIONS...

  3. 31 CFR 542.301 - Blocked account; blocked property.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Blocked account; blocked property. 542.301 Section 542.301 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE OF FOREIGN ASSETS CONTROL, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY SYRIAN SANCTIONS REGULATIONS...

  4. 31 CFR 542.301 - Blocked account; blocked property.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Blocked account; blocked property. 542.301 Section 542.301 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE OF FOREIGN ASSETS CONTROL, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY SYRIAN SANCTIONS REGULATIONS...

  5. Block 3. Central view of Block 3 observed from the ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Block 3. Central view of Block 3 observed from the west to the east. This photograph reveals the alignment of trees within the central path of the park. In addition, this photograph exposes broken bricks aligning tree beds - Skyline Park, 1500-1800 Arapaho Street, Denver, Denver County, CO

  6. 31 CFR 548.301 - Blocked account; blocked property.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Blocked account; blocked property. 548.301 Section 548.301 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE OF FOREIGN ASSETS CONTROL, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY BELARUS SANCTIONS REGULATIONS...

  7. 31 CFR 548.301 - Blocked account; blocked property.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Blocked account; blocked property. 548.301 Section 548.301 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE OF FOREIGN ASSETS CONTROL, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY BELARUS SANCTIONS REGULATIONS...

  8. 31 CFR 548.301 - Blocked account; blocked property.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Blocked account; blocked property. 548.301 Section 548.301 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE OF FOREIGN ASSETS CONTROL, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY BELARUS SANCTIONS...

  9. 31 CFR 548.301 - Blocked account; blocked property.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Blocked account; blocked property. 548.301 Section 548.301 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE OF FOREIGN ASSETS CONTROL, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY BELARUS SANCTIONS REGULATIONS...

  10. 31 CFR 548.301 - Blocked account; blocked property.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Blocked account; blocked property. 548.301 Section 548.301 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE OF FOREIGN ASSETS CONTROL, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY BELARUS SANCTIONS REGULATIONS...

  11. 31 CFR 562.301 - Blocked account; blocked property.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Blocked account; blocked property. 562.301 Section 562.301 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE OF FOREIGN ASSETS CONTROL, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY IRANIAN HUMAN RIGHTS ABUSES...

  12. 31 CFR 562.301 - Blocked account; blocked property.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Blocked account; blocked property. 562.301 Section 562.301 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE OF FOREIGN ASSETS CONTROL, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY IRANIAN HUMAN RIGHTS ABUSES...

  13. 31 CFR 562.301 - Blocked account; blocked property.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Blocked account; blocked property. 562.301 Section 562.301 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE OF FOREIGN ASSETS CONTROL, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY IRANIAN HUMAN RIGHTS ABUSES...

  14. 31 CFR 562.301 - Blocked account; blocked property.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Blocked account; blocked property. 562.301 Section 562.301 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE OF FOREIGN ASSETS CONTROL, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY IRANIAN HUMAN RIGHTS ABUSES...

  15. 31 CFR 545.301 - Blocked account; blocked property.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Blocked account; blocked property. 545.301 Section 545.301 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE OF FOREIGN ASSETS CONTROL, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY TALIBAN (AFGHANISTAN)...

  16. 31 CFR 551.301 - Blocked account; blocked property.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Blocked account; blocked property. 551.301 Section 551.301 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE OF FOREIGN ASSETS CONTROL, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY SOMALIA SANCTIONS...

  17. 31 CFR 551.301 - Blocked account; blocked property.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Blocked account; blocked property. 551.301 Section 551.301 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE OF FOREIGN ASSETS CONTROL, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY SOMALIA SANCTIONS REGULATIONS...

  18. 31 CFR 551.301 - Blocked account; blocked property.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Blocked account; blocked property. 551.301 Section 551.301 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE OF FOREIGN ASSETS CONTROL, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY SOMALIA SANCTIONS REGULATIONS...

  19. 31 CFR 551.301 - Blocked account; blocked property.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Blocked account; blocked property. 551.301 Section 551.301 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE OF FOREIGN ASSETS CONTROL, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY SOMALIA SANCTIONS REGULATIONS...

  20. 31 CFR 551.301 - Blocked account; blocked property.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Blocked account; blocked property. 551.301 Section 551.301 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE OF FOREIGN ASSETS CONTROL, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY SOMALIA SANCTIONS REGULATIONS...

  1. A Shifted Block Lanczos Algorithm 1: The Block Recurrence

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Grimes, Roger G.; Lewis, John G.; Simon, Horst D.

    1990-01-01

    In this paper we describe a block Lanczos algorithm that is used as the key building block of a software package for the extraction of eigenvalues and eigenvectors of large sparse symmetric generalized eigenproblems. The software package comprises: a version of the block Lanczos algorithm specialized for spectrally transformed eigenproblems; an adaptive strategy for choosing shifts, and efficient codes for factoring large sparse symmetric indefinite matrices. This paper describes the algorithmic details of our block Lanczos recurrence. This uses a novel combination of block generalizations of several features that have only been investigated independently in the past. In particular new forms of partial reorthogonalization, selective reorthogonalization and local reorthogonalization are used, as is a new algorithm for obtaining the M-orthogonal factorization of a matrix. The heuristic shifting strategy, the integration with sparse linear equation solvers and numerical experience with the code are described in a companion paper.

  2. Complete atrioventricular block due to overdose of pregabalin.

    PubMed

    Aksakal, Enbiya; Bakirci, Eftal Murat; Emet, Mucahit; Uzkeser, Mustafa

    2012-11-01

    Pregabalin, a synthetic derivate of the inhibitory neurotransmitter γ-aminobutyric acid, shows antiepileptic, analgesic, anticonvulsant, anxiolytic, and sleep-modulating activities. The major advantage of pregabalin is its relative reliability, easy use, high tolerance, and lack of negative interaction with other drugs. A 65-year-old woman with medical histories of diabetes mellitus, lumbar spondylosis, diabetic nephropathy, chronic renal failure, and anemia of chronic disease was admitted with the complaint of dizziness and syncope. She had been taking pregabalin 300 mg daily for 8 months. Electrocardiogram revealed complete atrioventricular (AV) block and right bundle-brunch block with a heart rate of 39 per minute. Her creatinine was 1.8 mg/dL, and creatinine clearance was 50 mL/min. Pregabalin treatment was discontinued. Four days later, the complete AV block resolved spontaneously to Mobitz type II block and to sinus rhythm with right bundle-brunch block on the seventh day. To our knowledge, this is the first case of complete AV block associated with pregabalin. We believe that AV block occurred as a result of pregabalin's effect on L-type Ca++ channels in the heart. Pregabalin's different effects on electrocardiogram and on the heart in different individuals may have an association with the patterns of distribution of the L-type calcium channels in myocardium.

  3. Masquerading bundle branch block: a variety of right bundle branch block with left anterior fascicular block.

    PubMed

    Elizari, Marcelo V; Baranchuk, Adrian; Chiale, Pablo A

    2013-01-01

    The so-called 'masquerading' type of right bundle branch block is caused by the simultaneous presence of a high-degree left anterior fascicular block often accompanied with severe left ventricular enlargement and/or fibrotic block in the anterolateral wall of the left ventricle. These conditions tend to reorient the terminal electrical forces of the QRS complex towards the left and upwards, in such a way that the characteristic slurred S wave in lead I becomes smaller or even disappears. In many cases of standard masquerading right bundle branch block, a small Q wave in lead I is present due to the initial forces of the left anterior fascicular block, which are oriented rightwards and inferiorly. However, in some cases, the Q wave in lead I also vanishes, and the mimicking of a left bundle branch block becomes perfect in standard leads. This is commonly associated with an inferior myocardial infarction or severe inferior fibrosis in cardiomyopathies. The typical QRS changes of right bundle branch block may eventually be concealed even in the right precordial leads; under such circumstances, the ECG diagnosis may be mistaken and the right bundle branch block totally missed. The masquerading right bundle branch block carries a poor prognosis, since it always implies the presence of a severe underlying heart disease.

  4. Block Transfer Agreement Evaluation Project

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bastedo, Helena

    2010-01-01

    The objective of this project is to evaluate for the British Columbia Council on Admissions and Transfer (BCCAT) the effectiveness of block transfer agreements (BTAs) in the BC Transfer System and recommend steps to be taken to improve their effectiveness. Findings of this study revealed that institutions want to expand block credit transfer;…

  5. MISR Center Block Time Tool

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2013-04-01

      MISR Center Block Time Tool The misr_time tool calculates the block center times for MISR Level 1B2 files. This is ... version of the IDL package or by using the IDL Virtual Machine application. The IDL Virtual Machine is bundled with IDL and is ...

  6. Building Minds by Block Building.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Montopoli, Linda

    Noting that the process of playing with blocks supports the groundwork for learning in every area of a child's growth, this paper discusses specific uses of building blocks in the early childhood curriculum to develop a child's physical, social, emotional, artistic, language, scientific and mathematics growth. The paper outlines the contributions…

  7. Foreign Language on the Block.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    North Carolina State Dept. of Public Instruction, Raleigh.

    The guide is designed to address concerns of North Carolina second/foreign language teachers and school administrators as they plan and implement block class scheduling. The first section outlines the rationale and special considerations for block scheduling, and offers some typical schedule options. North Carolina's instructional time…

  8. Improved ultrasonic standard reference blocks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Eitzen, D. G.

    1975-01-01

    A program to improve the quality, reproducibility and reliability of nondestructive testing through the development of improved ASTM-type ultrasonic reference standards is described. Reference blocks of aluminum, steel, and titanium alloys were considered. Equipment representing the state-of-the-art in laboratory and field ultrasonic equipment was obtained and evaluated. Some RF and spectral data on ten sets of ultrasonic reference blocks were taken as part of a task to quantify the variability in response from nominally identical blocks. Techniques for residual stress, preferred orientation, and microstructural measurements were refined and are applied to a reference block rejected by the manufacturer during fabrication in order to evaluate the effect of metallurgical condition on block response.

  9. 31 CFR 570.301 - Blocked account; blocked property.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... Government of Libya or any other person whose property and interests in property are blocked pursuant to § 570.201, or in which the Government of Libya or such person has an interest, and with respect to...

  10. 31 CFR 570.301 - Blocked account; blocked property.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... Government of Libya or any other person whose property and interests in property are blocked pursuant to § 570.201, or in which the Government of Libya or such person has an interest, and with respect to...

  11. 31 CFR 570.301 - Blocked account; blocked property.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... Government of Libya or any other person whose property and interests in property are blocked pursuant to § 570.201, or in which the Government of Libya or such person has an interest, and with respect to...

  12. 31 CFR 570.301 - Blocked account; blocked property.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... Government of Libya or any other person whose property and interests in property are blocked pursuant to § 570.201, or in which the Government of Libya or such person has an interest, and with respect to...

  13. 31 CFR 560.322 - Blocked account; blocked property.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... name of the Government of Iran, any Iranian financial institution, or any other person whose property and interests in property are blocked pursuant to § 560.211, or in which the Government of Iran,...

  14. 31 CFR 560.322 - Blocked account; blocked property.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... name of the Government of Iran, any Iranian financial institution, or any other person whose property and interests in property are blocked pursuant to § 560.211, or in which the Government of Iran,...

  15. Photobilirubin II.

    PubMed Central

    Bonnett, R; Buckley, D G; Hamzetash, D; Hawkes, G E; Ioannou, S; Stoll, M S

    1984-01-01

    An improved preparation of photobilirubin II in ammoniacal methanol is described. Evidence is presented which distinguishes between the two structures proposed earlier for photobilirubin II in favour of the cycloheptadienyl structure. Nuclear-Overhauser-enhancement measurements with bilirubin IX alpha and photobilirubin II in dimethyl sulphoxide are complicated by the occurrence of negative and zero effects. The partition coefficient of photobilirubin II between chloroform and phosphate buffer (pH 7.4) is 0.67. PMID:6743241

  16. Identifying a Small Molecule Blocking Antigen Presentation in Autoimmune Thyroiditis*

    PubMed Central

    Li, Cheuk Wun; Menconi, Francesca; Osman, Roman; Mezei, Mihaly; Jacobson, Eric M.; Concepcion, Erlinda; David, Chella S.; Kastrinsky, David B.; Ohlmeyer, Michael; Tomer, Yaron

    2016-01-01

    We previously showed that an HLA-DR variant containing arginine at position 74 of the DRβ1 chain (DRβ1-Arg74) is the specific HLA class II variant conferring risk for autoimmune thyroid diseases (AITD). We also identified 5 thyroglobulin (Tg) peptides that bound to DRβ1-Arg74. We hypothesized that blocking the binding of these peptides to DRβ1-Arg74 could block the continuous T-cell activation in thyroiditis needed to maintain the autoimmune response to the thyroid. The aim of the current study was to identify small molecules that can block T-cell activation by Tg peptides presented within DRβ1-Arg74 pockets. We screened a large and diverse library of compounds and identified one compound, cepharanthine that was able to block peptide binding to DRβ1-Arg74. We then showed that Tg.2098 is the dominant peptide when inducing experimental autoimmune thyroiditis (EAT) in NOD mice expressing human DRβ1-Arg74. Furthermore, cepharanthine blocked T-cell activation by thyroglobulin peptides, in particular Tg.2098 in mice that were induced with EAT. For the first time we identified a small molecule that can block Tg peptide binding and presentation to T-cells in autoimmune thyroiditis. If confirmed cepharanthine could potentially have a role in treating human AITD. PMID:26703475

  17. Identifying a Small Molecule Blocking Antigen Presentation in Autoimmune Thyroiditis.

    PubMed

    Li, Cheuk Wun; Menconi, Francesca; Osman, Roman; Mezei, Mihaly; Jacobson, Eric M; Concepcion, Erlinda; David, Chella S; Kastrinsky, David B; Ohlmeyer, Michael; Tomer, Yaron

    2016-02-19

    We previously showed that an HLA-DR variant containing arginine at position 74 of the DRβ1 chain (DRβ1-Arg74) is the specific HLA class II variant conferring risk for autoimmune thyroid diseases (AITD). We also identified 5 thyroglobulin (Tg) peptides that bound to DRβ1-Arg74. We hypothesized that blocking the binding of these peptides to DRβ1-Arg74 could block the continuous T-cell activation in thyroiditis needed to maintain the autoimmune response to the thyroid. The aim of the current study was to identify small molecules that can block T-cell activation by Tg peptides presented within DRβ1-Arg74 pockets. We screened a large and diverse library of compounds and identified one compound, cepharanthine that was able to block peptide binding to DRβ1-Arg74. We then showed that Tg.2098 is the dominant peptide when inducing experimental autoimmune thyroiditis (EAT) in NOD mice expressing human DRβ1-Arg74. Furthermore, cepharanthine blocked T-cell activation by thyroglobulin peptides, in particular Tg.2098 in mice that were induced with EAT. For the first time we identified a small molecule that can block Tg peptide binding and presentation to T-cells in autoimmune thyroiditis. If confirmed cepharanthine could potentially have a role in treating human AITD.

  18. Carbon-carbon cylinder block

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ransone, Philip O. (Inventor)

    1998-01-01

    A lightweight cylinder block composed of carbon-carbon is disclosed. The use of carbon-carbon over conventional materials, such as cast iron or aluminum, reduces the weight of the cylinder block and improves thermal efficiency of the internal combustion reciprocating engine. Due to the negligible coefficient of thermal expansion and unique strength at elevated temperatures of carbon-carbon, the piston-to-cylinder wall clearance can be small, especially when the carbon-carbon cylinder block is used in conjunction with a carbon-carbon piston. Use of the carbon-carbon cylinder block has the effect of reducing the weight of other reciprocating engine components allowing the piston to run at higher speeds and improving specific engine performance.

  19. Atrioventricular block during fetal life

    PubMed Central

    Hunter, Lindsey E.; Simpson, John M.

    2014-01-01

    Congenital complete atrioventricular (AV) block occurs in approximately 1 in 20,000 live births and is known to result in significant mortality and morbidity both during fetal life and postnatally. Complete AV block can occur as a result of an immune or a non-immune mediated process. Immune mediated AV block is a multifactorial disease, but is associated with the trans-placental passage of maternal autoantibodies (anti-Ro/SSA and/or anti-La/SSB). These autoantibodies attach to and subsequently damage the cardiomyocytes and conduction tissue in susceptible fetuses. In this report, we examine the evidence in reference to means of assessment, pathophysiology, and potential prenatal therapy of atrioventricular block. PMID:26136631

  20. The Building Blocks of Geology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gibson, Betty O.

    2001-01-01

    Discusses teaching techniques for teaching about rocks, minerals, and the differences between them. Presents a model-building activity that uses plastic building blocks to build crystal and rock models. (YDS)

  1. Controlling Structure in Sulfonated Block Copolymer Membranes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Truong, Phuc; Stein, Gila; Strzalka, Joe

    2015-03-01

    In many ionic block copolymer systems, the strong incompatibility between ionic and non-ionic segments will trap non-equilibrium structures in the film, making it difficult to engineer the optimal domain sizes and transport pathways. The goal of this work is to establish a framework for controlling the solid-state structure of sulfonated pentablock copolymer membranes. They have ABCBA block sequence, where A is poly(t-butyl styrene), B is poly(hydrogenated isoprene), and C is poly(styrene sulfonate). To process into films, the polymer is dissolved in toluene/n-propanol solvent mixtures, where the solvent proportions and the polymer loading were both varied. Solution-state structure was measured with small angle X-ray scattering (SAXS). We detected micelles with radii that depend on the solvent composition and polymer loading. Film structure was measured with grazing-incidence SAXS, which shows (i) domain periodicity is constant throughout film thickness; (ii) domain periodicity depends on solvent composition and polymer loading, and approximately matches the micelle radii in solutions. The solid-state packing is consistent with a hard sphere structure factor. Results suggest that solid-state structure can be tuned by manipulating the solution-state self-assembly.

  2. Block Matching for Object Tracking

    SciTech Connect

    Gyaourova, A; Kamath, C; Cheung, S

    2003-10-13

    Models which describe road traffic patterns can be helpful in detection and/or prevention of uncommon and dangerous situations. Such models can be built by the use of motion detection algorithms applied to video data. Block matching is a standard technique for encoding motion in video compression algorithms. We explored the capabilities of the block matching algorithm when applied for object tracking. The goal of our experiments is two-fold: (1) to explore the abilities of the block matching algorithm on low resolution and low frame rate video and (2) to improve the motion detection performance by the use of different search techniques during the process of block matching. Our experiments showed that the block matching algorithm yields good object tracking results and can be used with high success on low resolution and low frame rate video data. We observed that different searching methods have small effect on the final results. In addition, we proposed a technique based on frame history, which successfully overcame false motion caused by small camera movements.

  3. Unusual composition dependence of magnetic relaxation for Co(II)(1-x)Ni(II)(x) chain-based metal-organic frameworks.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yan-Qin; Cheng, Ai-Ling; Liu, Pei-Pei; Gao, En-Qing

    2013-08-11

    A series of isomorphous 3D Co(II)(1-x)Ni(II)(x) MOFs based on ferromagnetic chains show SCM-type slow relaxation and the Co-rich system can exhibit a higher blocking temperature than both Co(II) and Ni(II) parent materials.

  4. Contrasting reduced overshadowing and blocking.

    PubMed

    Wheeler, Daniel S; Miller, Ralph R

    2007-07-01

    Preexposure of a cue without an outcome (X-) prior to compound pairings with the outcome (XZ-->O) can reduce overshadowing of a target cue (Z). Moreover, pairing a cue with an outcome (X-->O) before compound training can enhance its ability to compete with another cue (i.e., blocking). Four experiments were conducted in a conditioned bar-press suppression preparation with rats to determine whether spacing of the X- or X-->O trials would differentially affect reduced overshadowing and blocking. Experiment 1a showed that reduced overshadowing was larger with massed trials than with spaced trials. Experiment 1b found that blocking was larger with spaced trials than with massed trials. Experiments 2a and 2b indicated that these effects of trial spacing were both mediated by the associative status of the context at test. The results are interpreted in the framework of contemporary learning theories.

  5. To block or not to block - what is the impact?

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Proper design of biological experiments involves significant advance thought, attention, and planning of the following items: • A block design should be employed in any circumstance in which the researcher expects some level of spatial or temporal variation among observations. • The most informed ch...

  6. Building blocks of the Milky Way's accreted spheroid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van Oirschot, Pim; Starkenburg, Else; Helmi, Amina; Nelemans, Gijs

    2017-01-01

    In the Λcold dark matter model of structure formation, a stellar spheroid grows by the assembly of smaller galaxies, the so-called building blocks. Combining the Munich-Groningen semi-analytical model of galaxy formation with the high-resolution Aquarius simulations of dark matter haloes, we study the assembly history of the stellar spheroids of six Milky Way-mass galaxies, focusing on building block properties such as mass, age and metallicity. These properties are compared to those of the surviving satellites in the same models. We find that the building blocks have higher star formation rates on average, and this is especially the case for the more massive objects. At high redshift, these dominate in star formation over the satellites, whose star formation time-scales are longer on average. These differences ought to result in a larger α-element enhancement from Type II supernovae in the building blocks (compared to the satellites) by the time Type Ia supernovae would start to enrich them in iron, explaining the observational trends. Interestingly, there are some variations in the star formation time-scales of the building blocks amongst the simulated haloes, indicating that [α/Fe] abundances in spheroids of other galaxies might differ from those in our own Milky Way.

  7. Teaching Numeracy, Language, and Literacy with Blocks

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Newburger, Abigail; Vaughan, Elizabeth

    2006-01-01

    By enhancing the block play in classrooms, teachers can help children acquire the emerging skills they need--with numbers, vocabulary, and reading--for kindergarten readiness. Newburger and Vaughan provide a theoretical foundation describing why and how to use blocks, and give guidance on selecting blocks and block safety. With chapters on the…

  8. Building Blocks for Personal Brands

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thomas, Lisa Carlucci

    2011-01-01

    In this article, the author discusses the four essential building blocks for personal brands: (1) name; (2) message; (3) channels; and (4) bridges. However, outstanding building materials can only take a person so far. The author emphasizes that vision, determination, faith, a sense of humor, and humility are also required.

  9. Hawaii Census 2000 Block Groups

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This data layer represents Census 2000 demographic data derived from the PL94-171 redistricting files and SF3. Census geographic entities include blocks, blockgroups and tracts. Tiger line files are the source of the geometry representing the Census blocks. Attributes include total population counts, racial/ethnic, and poverty/income information. Racial/ethnic classifications are represented in units of blocks, blockgroups and tracts. Poverty and income data are represented in units of blockgroups and tracts. Percentages of each racial/ethnic group have been calculated from the population counts. Total Minority counts and percentages were compiled from each racial/ethnic non-white category. Categories compiled to create the Total Minority count includes the following: African American, Asian, American Indian, Pacific Islander, White Hispanic, Other and all mixed race categories. The percentage poverty attribute represents the percent of the population living at or below poverty level. The per capita income attribute represents the sum of all income within the geographic entity, divided by the total population of that entity. Special fields designed to be used for EJ analysis have been derived from the PL data and include the following: Percentage difference of block, blockgroup and total minority from the state and county averages, percentile rank for each percent total minority within state and county entitie

  10. Pourfour Du Petit syndrome after interscalene block

    PubMed Central

    Santhosh, Mysore Chandramouli Basappji; Pai, Rohini B.; Rao, Raghavendra P.

    2013-01-01

    Interscalene block is commonly associated with reversible ipsilateral phrenic nerve block, recurrent laryngeal nerve block, and cervical sympathetic plexus block, presenting as Horner's syndrome. We report a very rare Pourfour Du Petit syndrome which has a clinical presentation opposite to that of Horner's syndrome in a 24-year-old male who was given interscalene block for open reduction and internal fixation of fracture upper third shaft of left humerus. PMID:23956726

  11. Pourfour Du Petit syndrome after interscalene block.

    PubMed

    Santhosh, Mysore Chandramouli Basappji; Pai, Rohini B; Rao, Raghavendra P

    2013-04-01

    Interscalene block is commonly associated with reversible ipsilateral phrenic nerve block, recurrent laryngeal nerve block, and cervical sympathetic plexus block, presenting as Horner's syndrome. We report a very rare Pourfour Du Petit syndrome which has a clinical presentation opposite to that of Horner's syndrome in a 24-year-old male who was given interscalene block for open reduction and internal fixation of fracture upper third shaft of left humerus.

  12. Investigation of the GPS Block IIR Time Keeping System (TKS) Anomalies Caused by the Voltage-Controlled Crystal Oscillator (VCXO)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1999-12-01

    91st Annual Precise Time and Time Interval (PTTI) Meeting INVESTIGATION OF THE GPS BLOCK IIR TIME KEEPING SYSTEM (TKS) ANOMALIES CAUSED BY THE...1999 2. REPORT TYPE 3. DATES COVERED 00-00-1999 to 00-00-1999 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Investigation of the GPS Block IIR Time Keeping System (TKS...II-R Time Keeping System ;’ Proceeding of the 30* Annual PTI’I Meeting, Reston, Virginia, USA. 121 A. Baker, “ GPS Block IIR Time Standard Assembly

  13. Photosystem II

    ScienceCinema

    James Barber

    2016-07-12

    James Barber, Ernst Chain Professor of Biochemistry at Imperial College, London, gives a BSA Distinguished Lecture titled, "The Structure and Function of Photosystem II: The Water-Splitting Enzyme of Photosynthesis."

  14. On multilevel block modulation codes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kasami, Tadao; Takata, Toyoo; Fujiwara, Toru; Lin, Shu

    1991-01-01

    The multilevel (ML) technique for combining block coding and modulation is investigated. A general formulation is presented for ML modulation codes in terms of component codes with appropriate distance measures. A specific method for constructing ML block modulation codes (MLBMCs) with interdependency among component codes is proposed. Given an MLBMC C with no interdependency among the binary component codes, the proposed method gives an MLBC C-prime that has the same rate as C, a minimum squared Euclidean distance not less than that of C, a trellis diagram with the same number of states as that of C, and a smaller number of nearest-neighbor codewords than that of C. Finally, a technique is presented for analyzing the error performance of MLBMCs for an additive white Gaussian noise channel based on soft-decision maximum-likelihood decoding.

  15. Gauge Blocks - A Zombie Technology.

    PubMed

    Doiron, Ted

    2008-01-01

    Gauge blocks have been the primary method for disseminating length traceability for over 100 years. Their longevity was based on two things: the relatively low cost of delivering very high accuracy to users, and the technical limitation that the range of high precision gauging systems was very small. While the first reason is still true, the second factor is being displaced by changes in measurement technology since the 1980s. New long range sensors do not require master gauges that are nearly the same length as the part being inspected, and thus one of the primary attributes of gauge blocks, wringing stacks to match the part, is no longer needed. Relaxing the requirement that gauges wring presents an opportunity to develop new types of end standards that would increase the accuracy and usefulness of gauging systems.

  16. Liquid-blocking check valve

    DOEpatents

    Merrill, J.T.

    1982-09-27

    A liquid blocking check valve useful particularly in a pneumatic system utilizing a pressurized liquid fill chamber. The valve includes a floatable ball disposed within a housing defining a chamber. The housing is provided with an inlet aperture disposed in the top of said chamber, and an outlet aperture disposed in the bottom of said chamber in an offset relation to said inlet aperture and in communication with a cutaway side wall section of said housing.

  17. Uav Photogrammetry: Block Triangulation Comparisons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gini, R.; Pagliari, D.; Passoni, D.; Pinto, L.; Sona, G.; Dosso, P.

    2013-08-01

    UAVs systems represent a flexible technology able to collect a big amount of high resolution information, both for metric and interpretation uses. In the frame of experimental tests carried out at Dept. ICA of Politecnico di Milano to validate vector-sensor systems and to assess metric accuracies of images acquired by UAVs, a block of photos taken by a fixed wing system is triangulated with several software. The test field is a rural area included in an Italian Park ("Parco Adda Nord"), useful to study flight and imagery performances on buildings, roads, cultivated and uncultivated vegetation. The UAV SenseFly, equipped with a camera Canon Ixus 220HS, flew autonomously over the area at a height of 130 m yielding a block of 49 images divided in 5 strips. Sixteen pre-signalized Ground Control Points, surveyed in the area through GPS (NRTK survey), allowed the referencing of the block and accuracy analyses. Approximate values for exterior orientation parameters (positions and attitudes) were recorded by the flight control system. The block was processed with several software: Erdas-LPS, EyeDEA (Univ. of Parma), Agisoft Photoscan, Pix4UAV, in assisted or automatic way. Results comparisons are given in terms of differences among digital surface models, differences in orientation parameters and accuracies, when available. Moreover, image and ground point coordinates obtained by the various software were independently used as initial values in a comparative adjustment made by scientific in-house software, which can apply constraints to evaluate the effectiveness of different methods of point extraction and accuracies on ground check points.

  18. Compact planar microwave blocking filters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    U-Yen, Kongpop (Inventor); Wollack, Edward J. (Inventor)

    2012-01-01

    A compact planar microwave blocking filter includes a dielectric substrate and a plurality of filter unit elements disposed on the substrate. The filter unit elements are interconnected in a symmetrical series cascade with filter unit elements being organized in the series based on physical size. In the filter, a first filter unit element of the plurality of filter unit elements includes a low impedance open-ended line configured to reduce the shunt capacitance of the filter.

  19. In Vivo Probe of Lipid II-Interacting Proteins.

    PubMed

    Sarkar, Sourav; Libby, Elizabeth A; Pidgeon, Sean E; Dworkin, Jonathan; Pires, Marcos M

    2016-07-11

    β-Lactams represent one of the most important classes of antibiotics discovered to date. These agents block Lipid II processing and cell wall biosynthesis through inactivation of penicillin-binding proteins (PBPs). PBPs enzymatically load cell wall building blocks from Lipid II carrier molecules onto the growing cell wall scaffold during growth and division. Lipid II, a bottleneck in cell wall biosynthesis, is the target of some of the most potent antibiotics in clinical use. Despite the immense therapeutic value of this biosynthetic pathway, the PBP-Lipid II association has not been established in live cells. To determine this key interaction, we designed an unnatural d-amino acid dipeptide that is metabolically incorporated into Lipid II molecules. By hijacking the peptidoglycan biosynthetic machinery, photoaffinity probes were installed in combination with click partners within Lipid II, thereby allowing, for the first time, demonstration of PBP interactions in vivo with Lipid II.

  20. Plumbing Specialist II & III, 3-22. Military Curriculum Materials for Vocational and Technical Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ohio State Univ., Columbus. National Center for Research in Vocational Education.

    These military-developed curriculum materials consist of a course description, course chart, plan of instruction, lesson plans, study guides, and workbooks for use in training plumbing specialists II and III. Covered in the course blocks are building waste systems and exterior and interior supply systems. Course block II, on building waste…

  1. Properties of concrete blocks prepared with low grade recycled aggregates.

    PubMed

    Poon, Chi-Sun; Kou, Shi-cong; Wan, Hui-wen; Etxeberria, Miren

    2009-08-01

    Low grade recycled aggregates obtained from a construction waste sorting facility were tested to assess the feasibility of using these in the production of concrete blocks. The characteristics of the sorted construction waste are significantly different from that of crushed concrete rubbles that are mostly derived from demolition waste streams. This is due to the presence of higher percentages of non-concrete components (e.g. >10% soil, brick, tiles etc.) in the sorted construction waste. In the study reported in this paper, three series of concrete block mixtures were prepared by using the low grade recycled aggregates to replace (i) natural coarse granite (10mm), and (ii) 0, 25, 50, 75 and 100% replacement levels of crushed stone fine (crushed natural granite <5mm) in the concrete blocks. Test results on properties such as density, compressive strength, transverse strength and drying shrinkage as well as strength reduction after exposure to 800 degrees C are presented below. The results show that the soil content in the recycled fine aggregate was an important factor in affecting the properties of the blocks produced and the mechanical strength deceased with increasing low grade recycled fine aggregate content. But the higher soil content in the recycled aggregates reduced the reduction of compressive strength of the blocks after exposure to high temperature due probably to the formation of a new crystalline phase. The results show that the low grade recycled aggregates obtained from the construction waste sorting facility has potential to be used as aggregates for making non-structural pre-cast concrete blocks.

  2. Ii Chain Controls the Transport of Major Histocompatibility Complex Class II Molecules to and from Lysosomes

    PubMed Central

    Brachet, Valérie; Raposo, Graça; Amigorena, Sebastian; Mellman, Ira

    1997-01-01

    Major histocompatibility complex class II molecules are synthesized as a nonameric complex consisting of three αβ dimers associated with a trimer of invariant (Ii) chains. After exiting the TGN, a targeting signal in the Ii chain cytoplasmic domain directs the complex to endosomes where Ii chain is proteolytically processed and removed, allowing class II molecules to bind antigenic peptides before reaching the cell surface. Ii chain dissociation and peptide binding are thought to occur in one or more postendosomal sites related either to endosomes (designated CIIV) or to lysosomes (designated MIIC). We now find that in addition to initially targeting αβ dimers to endosomes, Ii chain regulates the subsequent transport of class II molecules. Under normal conditions, murine A20 B cells transport all of their newly synthesized class II I-Ab αβ dimers to the plasma membrane with little if any reaching lysosomal compartments. Inhibition of Ii processing by the cysteine/serine protease inhibitor leupeptin, however, blocked transport to the cell surface and caused a dramatic but selective accumulation of I-Ab class II molecules in lysosomes. In leupeptin, I-Ab dimers formed stable complexes with a 10-kD NH2-terminal Ii chain fragment (Ii-p10), normally a transient intermediate in Ii chain processing. Upon removal of leupeptin, Ii-p10 was degraded and released, I-Ab dimers bound antigenic peptides, and the peptide-loaded dimers were transported slowly from lysosomes to the plasma membrane. Our results suggest that alterations in the rate or efficiency of Ii chain processing can alter the postendosomal sorting of class II molecules, resulting in the increased accumulation of αβ dimers in lysosome-like MIIC. Thus, simple differences in Ii chain processing may account for the highly variable amounts of class II found in lysosomal compartments of different cell types or at different developmental stages. PMID:9105036

  3. Hillslope-derived blocks retard river incision

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shobe, Charles M.; Tucker, Gregory E.; Anderson, Robert S.

    2016-05-01

    The most common detachment-limited river incision models ignore the effects of sediment on fluvial erosion, yet steep reaches of mountain rivers often host clusters of large (>1 m) blocks. We argue that this distribution of blocks is a manifestation of an autogenic negative feedback in which fast vertical river incision steepens adjacent hillslopes, which deliver blocks to the channel. Blocks inhibit incision by shielding the bed and enhancing form drag. We explore this feedback with a 1-D channel-reach model in which block delivery by hillslopes depends on the river incision rate. Results indicate that incision-dependent block delivery can explain the block distribution in Boulder Creek, Colorado. The proposed negative feedback may significantly slow knickpoint retreat, channel adjustment, and landscape response compared to rates predicted by current theory. The influence of hillslope-derived blocks may complicate efforts to extract base level histories from river profiles.

  4. Angiotensin II receptor heterogeneity

    SciTech Connect

    Herblin, W.F.; Chiu, A.T.; McCall, D.E.; Ardecky, R.J.; Carini, D.J.; Duncia, J.V.; Pease, L.J.; Wong, P.C.; Wexler, R.R.; Johnson, A.L. )

    1991-04-01

    The possibility of receptor heterogeneity in the angiotensin II (AII) system has been suggested previously, based on differences in Kd values or sensitivity to thiol reagents. One of the authors earliest indications was the frequent observation of incomplete inhibition of the binding of AII to adrenal cortical membranes. Autoradiographic studies demonstrated that all of the labeling of the rat adrenal was blocked by unlabeled AII or saralasin, but not by DuP 753. The predominant receptor in the rat adrenal cortex (80%) is sensitive to dithiothreitol (DTT) and DuP 753, and is designated AII-1. The residual sites in the adrenal cortex and almost all of the sites in the rat adrenal medulla are insensitive to both DTT and DuP 753, but were blocked by EXP655. These sites have been confirmed by ligand binding studies and are designated AII-2. The rabbit adrenal cortex is unique in yielding a nonuniform distribution of AII-2 sites around the outer layer of glomerulosa cells. In the rabbit kidney, the sites on the glomeruli are AII-1, but the sites on the kidney capsule are AII-2. Angiotensin III appears to have a higher affinity for AII-2 sites since it inhibits the binding to the rabbit kidney capsule but not the glomeruli. Elucidation of the distribution and function of these diverse sites should permit the development of more selective and specific therapeutic strategies.

  5. Method for making block siloxane copolymers

    DOEpatents

    Butler, N.L.; Jessop, E.S.; Kolb, J.R.

    1981-02-25

    A method for synthesizing block polysiloxane copolymers is disclosed. Diorganoscyclosiloxanes and an end-blocking compound are interacted in the presence of a ring opening polymerization catalyst, producing a blocked prepolymer. The prepolymer is then interacted with a silanediol, resulting in condensation polymerization of the prepolymers. A second end-blocking compound is subsequently introduced to end-cap the polymers and copolymers formed from the condensation polymerization.

  6. Method for making block siloxane copolymers

    DOEpatents

    Butler, Nora; Jessop, Edward S.; Kolb, John R.

    1982-01-01

    A method for synthesizing block polysiloxane copolymers. Diorganoscyclosiloxanes and an end-blocking compound are interacted in the presence of a ring opening polymerization catalyst, producing a blocked prepolymer. The prepolymer is then interacted with a silanediol, resulting in condensation polymerization of the prepolymers. A second end-blocking compound is subsequently introduced to end-cap the polymers and copolymers formed from the condensation polymerization.

  7. Slickenside developed in chert block

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ando, J.; Hayasaka, Y.; Nishiwaki, T.

    2011-12-01

    We observe the microstructures of slickenside developed in chert block mainly with a TEM, in order to clarify generation mechanism of the slickenside. This chert block occurs in the Jurassic accretionary complex in eastern Yamaguchi Prefecture, Japan. The complex, chaotic sediment, is composed of allochthonous blocks, mainly of chert, limestone, sandstone and mudstone in the argillaceous matrix. The color of the undeformed chert is pale blue to white, while the surface of slickenside is black. The stereo microscopy indicates the top surface of slickenside is covered with a transparent material, whose composition is mainly Si, measured by EPMA. The striation is well developed on the transparent-Si-material. We made thin sections, parallel and perpendicular to striation and slickenside, respectively. On the thin sections, the elongated quartz grains are oriented obliquely to the slickenside with 20-30 degree. Many fluid inclusions, which represent healed microcracks, are observed within the quartz grains. These quartz grains show strong undulose extinction and bulging-recrystallization. Apatite grains are also observed as a main constituent mineral. We made TEM foils from the above thin section by FIB. TEM observation indicates the amorphous layer with several ten nanometers in width distributes along the slickenside. (We speculate the most part of the amorphous layer are taken away during polishing of the thin section, because the strength of the amorphous layer is weak. Therefore we now make thin section again with care.) The tangled dislocations are developed within the quartz grains. They make subgrains with ca. 1 micrometer in size. These results suggest the slickenside was generated by the frictional melting of quartz grains on slip plane under very high stress condition, same as pseudotachylyte.

  8. Suboptimum decoding of block codes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lin, Shu; Kasami, Tadao

    1991-01-01

    This paper investigates a class of decomposable codes, their distance and structural properties. it is shown that this class includes several classes of well known and efficient codes as subclasses. Several methods for constructing decomposable codes or decomposing codes are presented. A two-stage soft decision decoding scheme for decomposable codes, their translates or unions of translates is devised. This two-stage soft-decision decoding is suboptimum, and provides an excellent trade-off between the error performance and decoding complexity for codes of moderate and long block length.

  9. Large block test status report

    SciTech Connect

    Wilder, D.G.; Lin, W.; Blair, S.C.

    1997-08-26

    This report is intended to serve as a status report, which essentially transmits the data that have been collected to date on the Large Block Test (LBT). The analyses of data will be performed during FY98, and then a complete report will be prepared. This status report includes introductory material that is not needed merely to transmit data but is available at this time and therefore included. As such, this status report will serve as the template for the future report, and the information is thus preserved.

  10. Blocking in the spatial domain.

    PubMed

    Rodrigo, T; Chamizo, V D; McLaren, I P; Mackintosh, N J

    1997-01-01

    An initial series of experiments with rats in a swimming pool established that they could find a hidden platform the location of which was defined in terms of 3 or 4 landmarks and that, when trained with all 4, any subset of 3 (or even, after a sufficient number of swimming trials, 2) landmarks was sufficient to produce accurate performance. When only one landmark was present during testing, however, performance fell to chance. Two additional experiments demonstrated a significant blocking effect: If rats were first trained to locate the platform with 3 landmarks, they did not learn to use a 4th landmark added to their initial set of 3.

  11. Block Oriented Simulation System (BOSS)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ratcliffe, Jaimie

    1988-01-01

    Computer simulation is assuming greater importance as a flexible and expedient approach to modeling system and subsystem behavior. Simulation has played a key role in the growth of complex, multiple access space communications such as those used by the space shuttle and the TRW-built Tracking and Data Relay Satellites (TDRS). A powerful new simulator for use in designing and modeling the communication system of NASA's planned Space Station is being developed. Progress to date on the Block (Diagram) Oriented Simulation System (BOSS) is described.

  12. MARINE BOTTOM COMMUNITIES OF BLOCK ISLAND WATERS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The sea has long been an integral part of Block Island's natural history, beginning when the rising sea surrounded the high spot on a Pleistocene terminal moraine that became Block Island. The southern New England continental shelf, which lies around Block Island, and the Great S...

  13. Naming Block Structures: A Multimodal Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cohen, Lynn; Uhry, Joanna

    2011-01-01

    This study describes symbolic representation in block play in a culturally diverse suburban preschool classroom. Block play is "multimodal" and can allow children to experiment with materials to represent the world in many forms of literacy. Combined qualitative and quantitative data from seventy-seven block structures were collected and analyzed.…

  14. Block Play: Practical Suggestions for Common Dilemmas

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tunks, Karyn Wellhousen

    2009-01-01

    Learning materials and teaching methods used in early childhood classrooms have fluctuated greatly over the past century. However, one learning tool has stood the test of time: Wood building blocks, often called unit blocks, continue to be a source of pleasure and learning for young children at play. Wood blocks have the unique capacity to engage…

  15. Basalt-Block Heat-Storage Plant

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sullivan, Thomas A.

    1992-01-01

    Concept for storage of solar heat for later use based on use of basalt, cast into blocks and stacked in inflatable gas-tight enclosure serving as heat-storage chamber. Heat flows to blocks from solar collector during day and from blocks to heat engine at night.

  16. Encoders for block-circulant LDPC codes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Divsalar, Dariush (Inventor); Abbasfar, Aliazam (Inventor); Jones, Christopher R. (Inventor); Dolinar, Samuel J. (Inventor); Thorpe, Jeremy C. (Inventor); Andrews, Kenneth S. (Inventor); Yao, Kung (Inventor)

    2009-01-01

    Methods and apparatus to encode message input symbols in accordance with an accumulate-repeat-accumulate code with repetition three or four are disclosed. Block circulant matrices are used. A first method and apparatus make use of the block-circulant structure of the parity check matrix. A second method and apparatus use block-circulant generator matrices.

  17. 43 CFR 8.4 - Blocking out.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2012-10-01 2011-10-01 true Blocking out. 8.4 Section 8.4 Public Lands: Interior Office of the Secretary of the Interior JOINT POLICIES OF THE DEPARTMENTS OF THE INTERIOR AND OF THE ARMY RELATIVE TO RESERVOIR PROJECT LANDS § 8.4 Blocking out. Blocking out will be accomplished...

  18. 43 CFR 8.4 - Blocking out.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Blocking out. 8.4 Section 8.4 Public Lands: Interior Office of the Secretary of the Interior JOINT POLICIES OF THE DEPARTMENTS OF THE INTERIOR AND OF THE ARMY RELATIVE TO RESERVOIR PROJECT LANDS § 8.4 Blocking out. Blocking out will be accomplished...

  19. 43 CFR 8.4 - Blocking out.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Blocking out. 8.4 Section 8.4 Public Lands: Interior Office of the Secretary of the Interior JOINT POLICIES OF THE DEPARTMENTS OF THE INTERIOR AND OF THE ARMY RELATIVE TO RESERVOIR PROJECT LANDS § 8.4 Blocking out. Blocking out will be accomplished...

  20. 43 CFR 8.4 - Blocking out.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Blocking out. 8.4 Section 8.4 Public Lands: Interior Office of the Secretary of the Interior JOINT POLICIES OF THE DEPARTMENTS OF THE INTERIOR AND OF THE ARMY RELATIVE TO RESERVOIR PROJECT LANDS § 8.4 Blocking out. Blocking out will be accomplished...

  1. 43 CFR 8.4 - Blocking out.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Blocking out. 8.4 Section 8.4 Public Lands: Interior Office of the Secretary of the Interior JOINT POLICIES OF THE DEPARTMENTS OF THE INTERIOR AND OF THE ARMY RELATIVE TO RESERVOIR PROJECT LANDS § 8.4 Blocking out. Blocking out will be accomplished...

  2. Bullet-Block Science Video Puzzle

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shakur, Asif

    2015-01-01

    A science video blog, which has gone viral, shows a wooden block shot by a vertically aimed rifle. The video shows that the block hit dead center goes exactly as high as the one shot off-center. (Fig. 1). The puzzle is that the block shot off-center carries rotational kinetic energy in addition to the gravitational potential energy. This leads a…

  3. Imide/arylene ether block copolymers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jensen, B. J.; Hergenrother, P. M.; Bass, R. G.

    1991-01-01

    Two series of imide/arylene either block copolymers were prepared using an arylene ether block and either an amorphous or semi-crystalline imide block. The resulting copolymers were characterized and selected physical and mechanical properties were determined. These results, as well as comparisons to the homopolymer properties, are discussed.

  4. FAQs II

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kezar, Adrianna; Frank, Vikki; Lester, Jaime; Yang, Hannah

    2008-01-01

    In their paper entitled "Why should postsecondary institutions consider partnering to offer (Individual Development Accounts (IDAs)?" the authors reviewed frequently asked questions they encountered from higher education professionals about IDAs, but as their research continued so did the questions. FAQ II has more in-depth questions and…

  5. SAGE II

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2016-02-16

    ... of stratospheric aerosols, ozone, nitrogen dioxide, water vapor and cloud occurrence by mapping vertical profiles and calculating ... (i.e. MLS and SAGE III versus HALOE) Fixed various bugs Details are in the  SAGE II V7.00 Release Notes .   ...

  6. Gamma II

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barker, Thurburn; Castelaz, M.; Cline, J.; Owen, L.; Boehme, J.; Rottler, L.; Whitworth, C.; Clavier, D.

    2011-05-01

    GAMMA II is the Guide Star Automatic Measuring MAchine relocated from STScI to the Astronomical Photographic Data Archive (APDA) at the Pisgah Astronomical Research Institute (PARI). GAMMA II is a multi-channel laser-scanning microdensitometer that was used to measure POSS and SERC plates to create the Guide Star Catalog and the Digital Sky Survey. The microdensitometer is designed with submicron accuracy in x and y measurements using a HP 5507 laser interferometer, 15 micron sampling, and the capability to measure plates as large as 0.5-m across. GAMMA II is a vital instrument for the success of digitizing the direct, objective prism, and spectra photographic plate collections in APDA for research. We plan several targeted projects. One is a collaboration with Drs. P.D. Hemenway and R. L. Duncombe who plan to scan 1000 plates of 34 minor planets to identify systematic errors in the Fundamental System of celestial coordinates. Another is a collaboration with Dr. R. Hudec (Astronomical Institute, Academy of Sciences of the Czech Republic) who is working within the Gaia Variability Unit CU7 to digitize objective prism spectra on the Henize plates and Burrell-Schmidt plates located in APDA. These low dispersion spectral plates provide optical counterparts of celestial high-energy sources and cataclysmic variables enabling the simulation of Gaia BP/RP outputs. The astronomical community is invited to explore the more than 140,000 plates from 20 observatories now archived in APDA, and use GAMMA II. The process of relocating GAMMA to APDA, re-commissioning, and starting up the production scan programs will be described. Also, we will present planned research and future upgrades to GAMMA II.

  7. A Theorem on Trend-Free Block Designs.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1981-02-01

    AD-A09b 575 FLORIDA STATE UNIV TALLAHASSEE DEPT OF STATIST ICS F/A 12/I A THEOREM ON TREND-FREE BLOCK DESIGNS. (U) FEB 81 C YEH R A BRADLEY N0001-80... C -0093 UNCLASSIFIED FSU-STATISTICS-M569 NL.’ II/////I/ *fl4 Low DTIC ELECTE MAR 2 0 1961 E The Florida State University Department of Statistics...1 ) n = hb9 ±, were bisthe b-dimensional colun vector with unit elements and B 9 C is the Kronecker product of B and C . Bradley and Yell (1980

  8. [Total atrioventricular block following a tick bite].

    PubMed

    Verbunt, R J A M; Visser, R F

    2007-09-01

    A 40-year-old man was referred to the cardiology outpatient clinic with dizziness, palpitations and shortness of breath. He remembered being bitten by a tick two to three years previously, but had not noticed a characteristic skin rash. The ECG showed a prominent first degree atrioventricular (AV) block and ambulatory electrocardiographic monitoring showed an intermittent complete AV block. A definitive pacemaker was implanted. Antibodies to Borrelia were found. The patient was treated with ceftriaxone. In the weeks and months following implantation, the AV block disappeared completely. The reversibility of the AV block secured the diagnosis 'Lyme carditis with secondary AV block', and the pacemaker was explanted.

  9. BLOCKING OSCILLATOR DOUBLE PULSE GENERATOR CIRCUIT

    DOEpatents

    Haase, J.A.

    1961-01-24

    A double-pulse generator, particuiarly a double-pulse generator comprising a blocking oscillator utilizing a feedback circuit to provide means for producing a second pulse within the recovery time of the blocking oscillator, is described. The invention utilized a passive network which permits adjustment of the spacing between the original pulses derived from the blocking oscillator and further utilizes the original pulses to trigger a circuit from which other pulses are initiated. These other pulses are delayed and then applied to the input of the blocking oscillator, with the result that the output from the oscillator circuit contains twice the number of pulses originally initiated by the blocking oscillator itself.

  10. Active angular alignment of gauge block in system for contactless gauge block calibration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buchta, Zdeněk.; Šarbort, Martin; Řeřucha, Šimon; Hucl, Václav; Čížek, Martin; Lazar, Josef; Číp, Ondřej

    2014-05-01

    This paper presents a method for active angular alignment of gauge block implemented in a system for automatic contactless calibration of gauge blocks designed at ISI ASCR. The system combines low-coherence interferometry and laser interferometry, where the first identifies the gauge block sides position and the second one measures the gauge block length itself. A crucial part of the system is the algorithm for gauge block alignment to the measuring beam which is able to compensate the gauge block lateral and longitudinal tilt up to 0.141 mrad. The algorithm is also important for the gauge block position monitoring during its length measurement.

  11. The FTB (Flores Twin Block): a new fixed functional appliance.

    PubMed

    Rodriguez Flores, José Maria

    2010-01-01

    Functional Orthopaedics, Functionalism and their appliances have as their objective to correct the skeletal dysplasia that underlies many malocclusions, taking advantage of the potential of the stomatognathic system's strength. The range of functional appliances is very extensive and there is a great variety thereof. Basically, functional appliances can be: removable functional appliances and fixed functional appliances. In this article, we are going to present a new design for fixed functional appliances for the treatment of Class II, basing ourselves on the biomechanical principles of the Twin Block. We believe this new design, compared with other fixed functional appliances currently in use, improves patient comfort, providing a more effective response and helps us to treat our Class II cases with total success.

  12. PORT II

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Muniz, Beau

    2009-01-01

    One unique project that the Prototype lab worked on was PORT I (Post-landing Orion Recovery Test). PORT is designed to test and develop the system and components needed to recover the Orion capsule once it splashes down in the ocean. PORT II is designated as a follow up to PORT I that will utilize a mock up pressure vessel that is spatially compar able to the final Orion capsule.

  13. Blocking for Sequential Political Experiments.

    PubMed

    Moore, Ryan T; Moore, Sally A

    2013-10-01

    In typical political experiments, researchers randomize a set of households, precincts, or individuals to treatments all at once, and characteristics of all units are known at the time of randomization. However, in many other experiments, subjects "trickle in" to be randomized to treatment conditions, usually via complete randomization. To take advantage of the rich background data that researchers often have (but underutilize) in these experiments, we develop methods that use continuous covariates to assign treatments sequentially. We build on biased coin and minimization procedures for discrete covariates and demonstrate that our methods outperform complete randomization, producing better covariate balance in simulated data. We then describe how we selected and deployed a sequential blocking method in a clinical trial and demonstrate the advantages of our having done so. Further, we show how that method would have performed in two larger sequential political trials. Finally, we compare causal effect estimates from differences in means, augmented inverse propensity weighted estimators, and randomization test inversion.

  14. LARGE BLOCK TEST STATUS REPORT

    SciTech Connect

    Wilder, D. G.; Blair, S. C.; Buscheck, T.; Carloson, R. C.; Lee, K.; Meike, A.; Ramirez, J. L.; Sevougian, D.

    1997-08-26

    This report is intended to serve as a status report, which essentially transmits the data that have been collected to date on the Large Block Test (LBT). The analyses of data will be performed during FY98, and then a complete report will be prepared. This status report includes introductory material that is not needed merely to transmit data but is available at this time and therefore included. As such, this status report will serve as the template for the future report, and the information is thus preserved. The United States Department of Energy (DOE) is investigatinq the suitability of Yucca Mountain (YM) as a potential site for the nation's first high-level nuclear waste repository. As shown in Fig. 1-1, the site is located about 120 km northwest of Las Vegas, Nevada, in an area of uninhabited desert.

  15. Dynamic Covalent Nanoparticle Building Blocks

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Rational and generalisable methods for engineering surface functionality will be crucial to realising the technological potential of nanomaterials. Nanoparticle‐bound dynamic covalent exchange combines the error‐correcting and environment‐responsive features of equilibrium processes with the stability, structural precision, and vast diversity of covalent chemistry, defining a new and powerful approach for manipulating structure, function and properties at nanomaterial surfaces. Dynamic covalent nanoparticle (DCNP) building blocks thus present a whole host of possibilities for constructing adaptive systems, devices and materials that incorporate both nanoscale and molecular functional components. At the same time, DCNPs have the potential to reveal fundamental insights regarding dynamic and complex chemical systems confined to nanoscale interfaces. PMID:27312526

  16. [Ultrasound for peripheral neural block].

    PubMed

    Kefalianakis, F

    2005-03-01

    Ultrasound is well established in medicine. Unfortunately, ultrasound is still rarely used in the area of anesthesia. The purpose of the article is to illustrate the possibilities and limitations of ultrasound in regional anesthesia. The basic principles of ultrasound are the piezoelectric effect and the behaviour of acoustic waveforms in human tissue. Ultrasound imaging in medicine uses high frequency pulses of sound waves (2.5-10 MHz). The following images are built up from the reflected sounds. The ultrasound devices used in regional anesthesia (commonly by 10 MHz) deliver a two-dimensional view. The main step for a successful regional anaesthesia is to identify the exact position of the nerve. In addition, specific surface landmarks and the use of peripheral nerve stimulator help to detect the correct position of the needle. Nerves are demonstrated as an composition of hyperechogenic (white) and hypoechogenic (black) areas. The surrounding hyperechogenic parts are epi- and perineurium, the dark hypoechogenic part is the neural tissue. The composition of peripheral nerves are always similar, but the quantities of each part, of surrounding perineurium and nerval structures, differ. Further the imaging of nerves is significantly influenced by the angle of beam to the nerve and the surrounding anatomic structures. Only experience and correct interpretation make the ultrasound a valid method in clinical practice. Correct interpretation has to be learned by standardized education. Three examples of peripheral nerve blocks are described. The detection of nerves and the visualization of the correct spread of local anesthetics to the nerves are the main principles of effective ultrasound-guided regional anesthesia, whereas closest proximity of the needle to the target nerve is not necessary. The described examples of ultrasound guidance for nerval block illustrates the specific procedures with reduced probability of nerval irritation, high success and low rate of

  17. s-Block Elements. Independent Learning Project for Advanced Chemistry (ILPAC). Unit I1.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Inner London Education Authority (England).

    This unit is one of 10 first year units produced by the Independent Learning Project for Advanced Chemistry (ILPAC). The unit, which consists of two sections and an appendix, focuses on the elements and compounds of Groups I and II (the s-block) of the periodic table. The groups are treated concurrently to note comparisons between groups and to…

  18. [Fe(bipy)(CN)(4)](-) as a versatile building block for the design of heterometallic systems: synthesis, crystal structure, and magnetic properties of PPh(4)[Fe(III)(bipy)(CN)(4)] x H(2)O, [[Fe(III)(bipy)(CN)(4)](2)M(II)(H(2)O)(4)] x 4H(2)O, and [[Fe(III)(bipy)(CN)(4)](2)Zn(II)] x 2H(2)O [bipy = 2,2'-Bipyridine; M = Mn and Zn].

    PubMed

    Lescouëzec, Rodrigue; Lloret, Francesc; Julve, Miguel; Vaissermann, Jacqueline; Verdaguer, Michel

    2002-02-25

    The new cyano complexes of formulas PPh(4)[Fe(III)(bipy)(CN)(4)] x H(2)O (1), [[Fe(III)(bipy)(CN)(4)](2)M(II)(H(2)O)(4)] x 4H(2)O with M = Mn (2) and Zn (3), and [[Fe(III)(bipy)(CN)(4)](2)Zn(II)] x 2H(2)O (4) [bipy = 2,2'-bipyridine and PPh(4) = tetraphenylphosphonium cation] have been synthesized and structurally characterized. The structure of complex 1 is made up of mononuclear [Fe(bipy)(CN)(4)](-) anions, tetraphenyphosphonium cations, and water molecules of crystallization. The iron(III) is hexacoordinated with two nitrogen atoms of a chelating bipy and four carbon atoms of four terminal cyanide groups, building a distorted octahedron around the metal atom. The structure of complexes 2 and 3 consists of neutral centrosymmetric [[Fe(III)(bipy)(CN)(4)](2)M(II)(H(2)O)(4)] heterotrinuclear units and crystallization water molecules. The [Fe(bipy)(CN)(4)](-) entity of 1 is present in 2 and 3 acting as a monodentate ligand toward M(H(2)O)(4) units [M = Mn(II) (2) and Zn(II) (3)] through one cyanide group, the other three cyanides remaining terminal. Four water molecules and two cyanide nitrogen atoms from two [Fe(bipy)(CN)(4)](-) units in trans positions build a distorted octahedron surrounding Mn(II) (2) and Zn(II) (3). The structure of the [Fe(phen)(CN)(4)](-) complex ligand in 2 and 3 is close to that of the one in 1. The intramolecular Fe-M distances are 5.126(1) and 5.018(1) A in 2 and 3, respectively. 4 exhibits a neutral one-dimensional polymeric structure containing two types of [Fe(bipy)(CN)(4)](-) units acting as bismonodentate (Fe(1)) and trismonodentate (Fe(2)) ligands versus the divalent zinc cations through two cis-cyanide (Fe(1)) and three fac-cyanide (Fe(2)) groups. The environment of the iron atoms in 4 is distorted octahedral as in 1-3, whereas the zinc atom is pentacoordinated with five cyanide nitrogen atoms, describing a very distorted square pyramid. The iron-zinc separations across the single bridging cyanides are 5.013(1) and 5.142(1) A at Fe

  19. PESTICINS II. I and II

    PubMed Central

    Brubaker, Robert R.; Surgalla, Michael J.

    1962-01-01

    Brubaker, Robert R. (Fort Detrick, Frederick, Md.) and Michael J. Surgalla. Pesticins. II. Production of pesticin I and II. J. Bacteriol. 84:539–545. 1962.—Pesticin I was separated from pesticin I inhibitor by ion-exchange chromatography of cell-free culture supernatant fluids and by acid precipitation of soluble preparations obtained from mechanically disrupted cells. The latter procedure resulted in formation of an insoluble pesticin I complex which, upon removal by centrifugation and subsequent dissolution in neutral buffer, exhibited a 100- to 1,000-fold increase in antibacterial activity over that originally observed. However, activity returned to the former level upon addition of the acid-soluble fraction, which contained pesticin I inhibitor. Since the presence of pesticin I inhibitor leads to serious errors in the determination of pesticin I, an assay medium containing ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid in excess Ca++ was developed; this medium eliminated the effect of the inhibitor. By use of the above medium, sufficient pesticin I was found to be contained within 500 nonirradiated cells to inhibit growth of a suitable indicator strain; at least 107 cells were required to effect a corresponding inhibition by pesticin II. Although both pesticins are located primarily within the cell during growth, pesticin I may arise extracellularly during storage of static cells. Slightly higher activity of pesticin I inhibitor was found in culture supernatant fluids than occurred in corresponding cell extracts of equal volume. The differences and similarities between pesticin I and some known bacteriocins are discussed. PMID:14016110

  20. Morbillivirus V Proteins Exhibit Multiple Mechanisms to Block Type 1 and Type 2 Interferon Signalling Pathways

    PubMed Central

    Chinnakannan, Senthil K.; Nanda, Sambit K.; Baron, Michael D.

    2013-01-01

    Morbilliviruses form a closely related group of pathogenic viruses which encode three non-structural proteins V, W and C in their P gene. Previous studies with rinderpest virus (RPV) and measles virus (MeV) have demonstrated that these non-structural proteins play a crucial role in blocking type I (IFNα/β) and type II (IFNγ) interferon action, and various mechanisms have been proposed for these effects. We have directly compared four important morbilliviruses, rinderpest (RPV), measles virus (MeV), peste des petits ruminants virus (PPRV) and canine distemper virus (CDV). These viruses and their V proteins could all block type I IFN action. However, the viruses and their V proteins had varying abilities to block type II IFN action. The ability to block type II IFN-induced gene transcription correlated with co-precipitation of STAT1 with the respective V protein, but there was no correlation between co-precipitation of either STAT1 or STAT2 and the abilities of the V proteins to block type I IFN-induced gene transcription or the creation of the antiviral state. Further study revealed that the V proteins of RPV, MeV, PPRV and CDV could all interfere with phosphorylation of the interferon-receptor-associated kinase Tyk2, and the V protein of highly virulent RPV could also block the phosphorylation of another such kinase, Jak1. Co-precipitation studies showed that morbillivirus V proteins all form a complex containing Tyk2 and Jak1. This study highlights the ability of morbillivirus V proteins to target multiple components of the IFN signalling pathways to control both type I and type II IFN action. PMID:23431397

  1. Block truncation signature coding for hyperspectral analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chakravarty, Sumit; Chang, Chein-I.

    2008-08-01

    This paper introduces a new signature coding which is designed based on the well-known Block Truncation Coding (BTC). It comprises of bit-maps of the signature blocks generated by different threshold criteria. Two new BTC-based algorithms are developed for signature coding, to be called Block Truncation Signature Coding (BTSC) and 2-level BTSC (2BTSC). In order to compare the developed BTC based algorithms with current binary signature coding schemes such as Spectral Program Analysis Manager (SPAM) developed by Mazer et al. and Spectral Feature-based Binary Coding (SFBC) by Qian et al., three different thresholding functions, local block mean, local block gradient, local block correlation are derived to improve the BTSC performance where the combined bit-maps generated by these thresholds can provide better spectral signature characterization. Experimental results reveal that the new BTC-based signature coding performs more effectively in characterizing spectral variations than currently available binary signature coding methods.

  2. Advanced heart block in acute rheumatic fever.

    PubMed

    Hubail, Zakariya; Ebrahim, Ishaq M

    2016-04-01

    First degree heart block is considered a minor criterion for the diagnosis of this condition. The cases presented here demonstrate that higher degrees of heart block do occur in rheumatic fever. Children presenting with acquired heart block should be worked-up for rheumatic fever. Likewise, it is imperative to serially follow the electrocardiogram in patients already diagnosed with acute rheumatic fever, as the conduction abnormalities can change during the course of the disease.

  3. Block Lanczos tridiagonalization of complex symmetric matrices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qiao, Sanzheng; Liu, Guohong; Xu, Wei

    2005-08-01

    The classic Lanczos method is an effective method for tridiagonalizing real symmetric matrices. Its block algorithm can significantly improve performance by exploiting memory hierarchies. In this paper, we present a block Lanczos method for tridiagonalizing complex symmetric matrices. Also, we propose a novel componentwise technique for detecting the loss of orthogonality to stablize the block Lanczos algorithm. Our experiments have shown our componentwise technique can reduce the number of orthogonalizations.

  4. [A new bite block for laryngeal mask].

    PubMed

    Ohe, Y; Ota, M; Tachibana, C; Aoyama, Y

    2001-05-01

    We devised a new bite block made of a used connector of anesthesia machine (ACOMA medical industry CO., LTD.) for laryngeal mask. Fitness for laryngeal mask and strength against patient's biting are the key for its use. Cutting lengthwise the connector (the outside diameter 22 mm, inside diameter 15-19 mm, 55 mm in length) we made a bite block for laryngeal mask. We studied the strength of a new bite block experimentally and recognized its ability to bear the human biting. We conclude a new bite block for laryngeal mask is clinically useful and can be used during anesthesia for its fitness and safety.

  5. Blocking Losses on an Optical Communications Link

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moision, Bruce; Piazzolla, Sabino

    2011-01-01

    Many photon-counting photo-detectors have the property that they become inoperative for some time after detection event. We say the detector is blocked during this time.Blocking produces losses when using the detector as a photon-counter to detect a communications signal. In this paper, we characterize blocking losses for single detectors and for arrays of detectors. For arrays, we discuss conditions under which the output may be approximated as a Poisson point process, and provide a simple approximation to the blocking loss. We show how to extend the analysis to arrays of non-uniformly illuminated arrays.

  6. Effect of Addition of Fentanyl to Xylocaine Hydrochloride in Brachial Plexus Block by Supraclavicular Approach

    PubMed Central

    Paluvadi, Venkata Raghavendra; Manne, Venkata Sesha Sai Krishna

    2017-01-01

    Aim: This study was designed to quantitatively compare the effects of 1.5% xylocaine with 1.5% xylocaine and fentanyl (1 μg/kg) mixture for supraclavicular brachial plexus block. Materials and Methods: Sixty patients between the age group of 20–60 and scheduled for upper limb surgery were divided into two groups (xylocaine group and xylocaine plus fentanyl group). After performing supraclavicular brachial plexus block, an assessment was made for onset of analgesia, duration and degree of analgesia, block intensity, and for any other side effects. Results: Mean duration of analgesia is Group I is 2.1 h and in Group II is 8.1 h; a four-fold increase in duration of analgesia. Conclusion: Addition of fentanyl to xylocaine for supraclavicular brachial plexus block has no significant effect on onset or quality of analgesia, but duration of analgesia is significantly prolonged. PMID:28298769

  7. PACS photometer calibration block analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moór, A.; Müller, T. G.; Kiss, C.; Balog, Z.; Billot, N.; Marton, G.

    2014-07-01

    The absolute stability of the PACS bolometer response over the entire mission lifetime without applying any corrections is about 0.5 % (standard deviation) or about 8 % peak-to-peak. This fantastic stability allows us to calibrate all scientific measurements by a fixed and time-independent response file, without using any information from the PACS internal calibration sources. However, the analysis of calibration block observations revealed clear correlations of the internal source signals with the evaporator temperature and a signal drift during the first half hour after the cooler recycling. These effects are small, but can be seen in repeated measurements of standard stars. From our analysis we established corrections for both effects which push the stability of the PACS bolometer response to about 0.2 % (stdev) or 2 % in the blue, 3 % in the green and 5 % in the red channel (peak-to-peak). After both corrections we still see a correlation of the signals with PACS FPU temperatures, possibly caused by parasitic heat influences via the Kevlar wires which connect the bolometers with the PACS Focal Plane Unit. No aging effect or degradation of the photometric system during the mission lifetime has been found.

  8. Optimization of Blocked Designs in fMRI Studies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maus, Barbel; van Breukelen, Gerard J. P.; Goebel, Rainer; Berger, Martijn P. F.

    2010-01-01

    Blocked designs in functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) are useful to localize functional brain areas. A blocked design consists of different blocks of trials of the same stimulus type and is characterized by three factors: the length of blocks, i.e., number of trials per blocks, the ordering of task and rest blocks, and the time between…

  9. Ionization of amphiphilic acidic block copolymers.

    PubMed

    Colombani, Olivier; Lejeune, Elise; Charbonneau, Céline; Chassenieux, Christophe; Nicolai, Taco

    2012-06-28

    The ionization behavior of an amphiphilic diblock copolymer poly(n-butyl acrylate(50%)-stat-acrylic acid(50%))(100)-block-poly(acrylic acid)(100) (P(nBA(50%)-stat-AA(50%))(100)-b-PAA(100), DH50) and of its equivalent triblock copolymer P(nBA(50%)-stat-AA(50%))(100)-b-PAA(200)-b-P(nBA(50%)-stat-AA(50%))(100) (TH50) were studied by potentiometric titration either in pure water or in 0.5 M NaCl. These polymers consist of a hydrophilic acidic block (PAA) connected to a hydrophobic block, P(nBA(50%)-stat-AA(50%))(100), whose hydrophobic character has been mitigated by copolymerization with hydrophilic units. We show that all AA units, even those in the hydrophobic block could be ionized. However, the AA units within the hydrophobic block were less acidic than those in the hydrophilic block, resulting in the preferential ionization of the latter block. The preferential ionization of PAA over that of P(nBA(50%)-stat-AA(50%))(100) was stronger at higher ionic strength. Remarkably, the covalent bonds between the PAA and P(nBA(50%)-stat-AA(50%))(100) blocks in the diblock or the triblock did not affect the ionization of each block, although the self-association of the block copolymers into spherical aggregates modified the environment of the PAA blocks compared to when PAA was molecularly dispersed.

  10. Nanostructured particles from multi scale building blocks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hampsey, J. Eric

    Nanotechnology has emerged as one of the most exciting new and developing fields in science today. New nanoscale materials and devices such as nanoparticles, nanocomposites, nanowires, and nanosensors could revolutionize the 21st century in the same way that the transistor and Internet led to the information age. One key component in developing these new technologies is to assemble individual atomic and molecular building blocks into larger structures with fundamentally new properties and functions. Nature is very efficient at assembling multi scale building blocks such as proteins, lipids, and minerals into nanostructured materials such as bone, teeth, diatoms, eggshells, seashells, cell membranes, and DNA. Surfactant and colloidal building block can also be assembled into different nanoscale materials and devices by utilizing hydrophobic/hydrophilic and other surface interactions. Using these concepts, this dissertation focuses on the syntheses and applications of nanostructured particles assembled from multi scale building blocks. Important factors in the synthesis of the particles include particle size, particle morphology, pore size and pore structure. Five different types of nanostructured particles assembled from different multi scale building blocks are demonstrated in this work: (1) Spherical metal/silica mesoporous particles with high surface areas and controllable pore sizes, pore structures, and metal content are synthesized from surfactant, silicate, and metal building blocks for catalytic applications; (2) Mesoporous hollow spheres with controllable pore sizes and pore structures are synthesized from surfactant, silica, and polystyrene building blocks; (3) Spherical mesoporous carbon particles with controllable pore sizes and pore structures are templated from silica particles assembled from silica and surfactant building blocks; (4) Spherical mesoporous, microporous, and bimodal carbon particles are synthesized from sucrose and silica building blocks

  11. The efficacy of combined regional nerve blocks in awake orotracheal fiberoptic intubation

    PubMed Central

    Chatrath, Veena; Sharan, Radhe; Jain, Payal; Bala, Anju; Ranjana; Sudha

    2016-01-01

    Aims of Study: To evaluate the efficacy, hemodynamic changes, and patient comfort during awake fiberoptic intubation done under combined regional blocks. Materials and Methods: In the present observational study, 50 patients of American Society of Anesthesiologists ( ASA) Grade I–II, Mallampati Grade I–IV were given nerve blocks - bilateral glossopharyngeal nerve block, bilateral superior laryngeal nerve block, and recurrent laryngeal nerve block before awake fiberoptic intubation using 2% lidocaine. Results: Procedure was associated with minimal increases in hemodynamic parameters during the procedure and until 3 min after it. Most of the intubations were being carried out within 3 min. Patient comfort was satisfactory with 90% of patients having favorable grades. Discussion: The most common cause of mortality and serious morbidity due to anesthesia is from airway problems. One-third of all anesthetic deaths are due to failure to intubate and ventilate. Awake flexible fiberoptic intubation under local anesthesia is now an accepted technique for managing such situations. In awake patient's anatomy, muscle tone, airway protection, and ventilation are preserved, but it is essential to sufficiently anesthetize the upper airway before the performance of awake fiberoptic bronchoscope-guided intubation to ensure patient comfort and cooperation for which in our study we used the nerve block technique. Conclusion: A properly performed technique of awake fiberoptic intubation done under combined regional nerve blocks provides good intubating conditions, patient comfort and safety and results in minimal hemodynamic changes. PMID:27212757

  12. Continuous Ilioinguinal-iliohypogastric Nerve Block for Groin Pain in a Breast-feeding Patient after Cesarean Delivery

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Eun Soo; Baik, Ji Seok; Ji, Young Tae

    2016-01-01

    Ilioinguinal and iliohypogastric (II/IH) nerve injury is one of the most common nerve injuries following pelvic surgery, especially with the Pfannenstiel incision. We present a case of intractable groin pain, successfully treated with a continuous II/IH nerve block. A 33-year-old woman, following emergency cesarean section due to cephalopelvic disproportion, presented numbness in left inguinal area and severe pain on the labia on the second postoperative day. The pain was burning, lancinating, and exacerbated by standing or movement. However, she didn't want to take additional medicine because of breast-feeding. A diagnostic II/IH nerve block produced a substantial decrease in pain. She underwent a continuous II/IH nerve block with a complete resolution of pain within 3 days. A continuous II/IH nerve block might be a goodoption for II/IH neuropathy with intractable groin pain in breast-feeding mothers without adverse drug reactions in their infants. PMID:27413486

  13. Erosion patterns on dissolving blocks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Courrech du Pont, Sylvain; Cohen, Caroline; Derr, Julien; Berhanu, Michael

    2016-04-01

    Patterns in nature are shaped under water flows and wind action, and the understanding of their morphodynamics goes through the identification of the physical mechanisms at play. When a dissoluble body is exposed to a water flow, typical patterns with scallop-like shapes may appear [1,2]. These shapes are observed on the walls of underground rivers or icebergs. We experimentally study the erosion of dissolving bodies made of salt, caramel or ice into water solutions without external flow. The dissolving mixture, which is created at the solid/liquid interface, undergoes a buoyancy-driven instability comparable to a Rayleigh-Bénard instability so that the dissolving front destabilizes into filaments. This mechanism yields to spatial variations of solute concentration and to differential dissolution of the dissolving block. We first observe longitudinal stripes with a well defined wavelength, which evolve towards chevrons and scallops that interact and move again the dissolving current. Thanks to a careful analysis of the competing physical mechanisms, we propose scaling laws, which account for the characteristic lengths and times of the early regime in experiments. The long-term evolution of patterns is understood qualitatively. A close related mechanism has been proposed to explain structures observed on the basal boundary of ice cover on brakish lakes [3] and we suggest that our experiments are analogous and explain the scallop-like patterns on iceberg walls. [1] P. Meakin and B. Jamtveit, Geological pattern formation by growth and dissolution in aqueous systems, Proc. R. Soc. A 466, 659-694 (2010). [2] P.N. Blumberg and R.L. Curl, Experimental and theoretical studies of dissolution roughness, J. Fluid Mech. 65, 735-751 (1974). [3] L. Solari and G. Parker, Morphodynamic modelling of the basal boundary of ice cover on brakish lakes, J.G.R. 118, 1432-1442 (2013).

  14. Biopolymers Containing Unnatural Building Blocks

    SciTech Connect

    Schultz, Peter G.

    2013-06-30

    Although the main chain structure of polymers has a profound effect on their materials properties, the side groups can also have dramatic effects on their properties including conductivity, liquid crystallinity, hydrophobicity, elasticity and biodegradability. Unfortunately control over the side chain structure of polymers remains a challenge – it is difficult to control the sequence of chain elongation when mixtures of monomers are polymerized, and postpolymerization side chain modification is made difficult by polymer effects on side chain reactivity. In contrast, the mRNA templated synthesis of polypeptides on the ribosome affords absolute control over the primary sequence of the twenty amino acid monomers. Moreover, the length of the biopolymer is precisely controlled as are sites of crosslinking. However, whereas synthetic polymers can be synthesized from monomers with a wide range of chemically defined structures, ribosomal biosynthesis is largely limited to the 20 canonical amino acids. For many applications in material sciences, additional building blocks would be desirable, for example, amino acids containing metallocene, photoactive, and halogenated side chains. To overcome this natural constraint we have developed a method that allows unnatural amino acids, beyond the common twenty, to be genetically encoded in response to nonsense or frameshift codons in bacteria, yeast and mammalian cells with high fidelity and good yields. Here we have developed methods that allow identical or distinct noncanonical amino acids to be incorporated at multiple sites in a polypeptide chain, potentially leading to a new class of templated biopolymers. We have also developed improved methods for genetically encoding unnatural amino acids. In addition, we have genetically encoded new amino acids with novel physical and chemical properties that allow selective modification of proteins with synthetic agents. Finally, we have evolved new metal-ion binding sites in proteins

  15. GPS Block IIF Atomic Frequency Standard Analysis

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-11-01

    Frequency stability of GPS constellation for October 2010 (NGA products). REFERENCES [1] “ Rubidium Atomic Frequency Standard (RAFS) GPS...Block IIR Rubidium Atomic Frequency Standard Life Test,” in Proceedings of the 30 th Annual Precise Time and Time Interval (PTTI) Applications and...42 nd Annual Precise Time and Time Interval (PTTI) Meeting 181 GPS BLOCK IIF ATOMIC FREQUENCY STANDARD ANALYSIS

  16. Earthquake Resistant Submarine Drydock Block System Design

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1988-05-01

    acceleration time history. It Is observed that the block on block surfaces for this system had been painted. According to Rabinowicz (1987) [13J, a...Maryland, 1982, p. 272. 166 13. Rabinowicz , Ernest, Lecture, "Tribology", M.I.T., Course 2.800, Fall 1987. 14. Telephone conversation between Tingley

  17. Light extraction block with curved surface

    DOEpatents

    Levermore, Peter; Krall, Emory; Silvernail, Jeffrey; Rajan, Kamala; Brown, Julia J.

    2016-03-22

    Light extraction blocks, and OLED lighting panels using light extraction blocks, are described, in which the light extraction blocks include various curved shapes that provide improved light extraction properties compared to parallel emissive surface, and a thinner form factor and better light extraction than a hemisphere. Lighting systems described herein may include a light source with an OLED panel. A light extraction block with a three-dimensional light emitting surface may be optically coupled to the light source. The three-dimensional light emitting surface of the block may includes a substantially curved surface, with further characteristics related to the curvature of the surface at given points. A first radius of curvature corresponding to a maximum principal curvature k.sub.1 at a point p on the substantially curved surface may be greater than a maximum height of the light extraction block. A maximum height of the light extraction block may be less than 50% of a maximum width of the light extraction block. Surfaces with cross sections made up of line segments and inflection points may also be fit to approximated curves for calculating the radius of curvature.

  18. 21 CFR 882.5070 - Bite block.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Bite block. 882.5070 Section 882.5070 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES NEUROLOGICAL DEVICES Neurological Therapeutic Devices § 882.5070 Bite block. (a) Identification. A bite...

  19. Chiral Block Copolymer Structures for Metamaterial Applications

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-01-27

    Final 3. DATES COVERED (From - To) 25-August-2011 to 24-August-2014 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Chiral Block Copolymer Structures for...researchers focused o synthesis and processing, morphology and physical characterization of chiral block copolymer (BCP) materials. Such materials a...valuable for both their optical and mechanical properties, particularly for their potential as chiral metamaterials and lightweig energy absorbing

  20. LJ Teaching Award 2007: Rick J. Block

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berry, John N., III

    2008-01-01

    This article profiles Rick J. Block, the recipient of the 2008 "LJ Teaching Award." Despite his "day job" and a heavy schedule of classroom teaching, Block finds time and intense energy to be the mentor, internship supervisor, and individual advisor to the students who fill every available seat in his classes at two LIS…

  1. Young Children's Block Play and Mathematical Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Park, Boyoung; Chae, Jeong-Lim; Boyd, Barbara Foulks

    2008-01-01

    This qualitative study investigated young children's mathematical engagement in play with wooden unit blocks. Two boys, ages 6 and 7, were independently observed completing the task of filling outlined regions with the various sets of blocks. Three major mathematical actions were observed: categorizing geometric shapes, composing a larger shape…

  2. Block Grants: Federal Data Collection Provisions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    General Accounting Office, Washington, DC. Div. of Human Resources.

    This fact sheet compares statutory data collection and reporting provisions of the federal education block grant (chapter 2 of the Education Consolidation and Improvement Act of 1981) with the nine other block grant programs funded in fiscal year 1986; data on statutory administrative cost limits are also provided. Each grant's legislation was…

  3. Efficient Distribution of Triggered Synchronous Block Diagrams

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-10-21

    called a trigger. At a given synchronous step, if the trigger is true , the block fires normally; otherwise, the block stutters , that is, keeps its...trigger is false, no updates are made and the values written at the outputs are the same as in the previous step (i.e., the process “ stutters ”). All

  4. To Block-Schedule or Not?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mowen, Gregg G.; Mowen, Carol

    2004-01-01

    In this article, the authors discuss the advantages of block scheduling and how it can be an effective educational tool when faced with educational challenges. Block schedules can ease the transition from the homelike atmosphere of the elementary school to the departmentalized environment of the high school by reducing the need for constant class…

  5. Synthesis and Characterization of Block Copolymers.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1987-07-01

    Polyether-Polyimide Block Copolymers; Three series of Polyether-Polyimide (PEPI) block copolymers were synthesized. Soft segments were poly( propylene ... glycol ) (PPO) Mn = 2,000 and 4,000. Hard segments were pyromellitic dianhydride (PMDA) and di-(2-hydroxyethyl)-dimethylhydantoin (H). The hard

  6. The Block Grant Record: Lessons from Experience.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hastings, Anne H.

    1982-01-01

    Evaluates the performance of federal block grants in health, law enforcement, peoplepower training, community development, and Social Security programs, to help forecast the effects of such grants in education. Finds that block grants did not improve local control, accountability, citizen participation, efficiency, targeting of funds, or program…

  7. Precision aligned split V-block

    DOEpatents

    George, Irwin S.

    1984-01-01

    A precision aligned split V-block for holding a workpiece during a milling operation having an expandable frame for allowing various sized workpieces to be accommodated, is easily secured directly to the mill table and having key lugs in one base of the split V-block that assures constant alignment.

  8. The link between atmospheric blockings and Central European flood events - A case study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lenggenhager, Sina; Martius, Olivia; Brönnimann, Stefan; Croci-Maspoli, Mischa

    2016-04-01

    Flood events are among the most devastating weather-related events in Europe and can lead to large economic losses and even fatalities. Several processes, such as heavy precipitation or snow melt, can be involved in the triggering of flood events. Here we focus on precipitation only. Important characteristics of the flood triggering precipitation events are their intensity and their duration, which in return depend on the intensity and the stationarity of the associated weather system. Atmospheric blockings, due to their longevity and stationarity can influence flood related precipitation event in several ways: i) The progression of the upstream weather systems is slowed and thereby the precipitation period over a catchment can be prolonged. ii) The cumulative effect of recurrent precipitation events occurring up- or downstream of a block can result in a flood event. The interaction between blockings and flood triggering weather events potentially works in both directions. Cloud diabatic processes can be central to the establishment and maintenance of blocking anticyclones. The precipitation responsible for the flood could hence potentially extend the lifetime and strength of a blocking anticyclone located downstream of the flooded area. Here we illustrate the different interactions based on a flood event of a major lake in southern Switzerland in October 2000. During the flood event and in the month before blockings were present downstream, over Scandinavia as well as upstream, over the North-Atlantic. Three extreme precipitation episodes occured in southern Switzerland in September and October 2000. The first one took place on 20 September and was associated with an atmospheric blocking over the north Atlantic. This blocking together with a downstream anticyclone led to the formation of a PV streamer over western Europe that was responsible for the heavy precipitation. The two anticyclonic systems then merged and formed a persistent blocking over the northern

  9. A Nonlinear Multi-Scale Interaction Model for Atmospheric Blocking: The Eddy-Blocking Matching Mechanism

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luo, Dehai; Cha, Jing; Zhong, Linhao; Dai, Aiguo

    2014-05-01

    In this paper, a nonlinear multi-scale interaction (NMI) model is used to propose an eddy-blocking matching (EBM) mechanism to account for how synoptic eddies reinforce or suppress a blocking flow. It is shown that the spatial structure of the eddy vorticity forcing (EVF) arising from upstream synoptic eddies determines whether an incipient block can grow into a meandering blocking flow through its interaction with the transient synoptic eddies from the west. Under certain conditions, the EVF exhibits a low-frequency oscillation on timescales of 2-3 weeks. During the EVF phase with a negative-over- positive dipole structure, a blocking event can be resonantly excited through the transport of eddy energy into the incipient block by the EVF. As the EVF changes into an opposite phase, the blocking decays. The NMI model produces life cycles of blocking events that resemble observations. Moreover, it is shown that the eddy north-south straining is a response of the eddies to a dipole- or Ω-type block. In our model, as in observations, two synoptic anticyclones (cyclones) can attract and merge with one another as the blocking intensifies, but only when the feedback of the blocking on the eddies is included. Thus, we attribute the eddy straining and associated vortex interaction to the feedback of the intensified blocking on synoptic eddies. The results illustrate the concomitant nature of the eddy deformation, whose role as a PV source for the blocking flow becomes important only during the mature stage of a block. Our EBM mechanism suggests that an incipient block flow is amplified (or suppressed) under certain conditions by the EVF coming from the upstream of the blocking region.

  10. Commotio Cordis and complete heart block: Where is the block level?

    PubMed

    Ali, Hussam; Furlanello, Francesco; Lupo, Pierpaolo; Foresti, Sara; De Ambroggi, Guido; Epicoco, Gianluca; Fundaliotis, Angelica; Cappato, Riccardo

    Ventricular fibrillation is typically the initial arrhythmia in commotio cordis following precordium impacts that occur within an electrically vulnerable period of the cardiac cycle. Conversely, complete heart block is very rare in this context, and its mechanism and temporal course are poorly understood. The presented case concerns a 12-year-old boy, athletic skier, who developed a transient complete heart block following commotio cordis. The electrocardiographic features, the proposed block level and mechanisms of complete heart block following commotio cordis are discussed.

  11. Comparison of block characteristics of spinal anesthesia following intravenous dexmedetomidine and clonidine

    PubMed Central

    Agrawal, Akansha; Agrawal, Sanjay; Payal, Yashwant S

    2016-01-01

    Background and Aims: Different routes of administration of α2 adrenergic receptor agonists have been found to prolong the duration of spinal block. Material and Methods: One hundred and twenty patients, aged 18-60 years, of ASA physical status I or II posted for elective fixation of fractures of lower limb under spinal anesthesia were selected. Spinal anesthesia was administered with 2.5 ml of 0.5% bupivacaine mixed with 10 μg fentanyl. The patients were randomized to receive intravenous (IV) dexmedetomidine 1 μg/kg/h for 15 min followed by infusion of 0.3 μg/kg/h (Group I), IV Clonidine 2 μg/kg/h for 15 min followed by infusion of 0.5 μg kg/h (Group II) or 15 ml of normal saline for 15 min followed by infusion at 50 ml/h (Group III). Motor and sensory blockade was evaluated using bromage score and pin prick method respectively. Results: The median block height in all groups was T8. Time to achieve block height was fastest in Group I. Time of regression of sensory block to T12/L1 dermatome was 230.75 ± 21.25 min (Group I), 196.25 ± 20.27 min (Group II) and 163.88 ± 15.46 min (Group III) respectively. Regression of motor blocks to Bromage 0/1 was 274 ± 21.25 min, 234.25 ± 32.41 min and 130.12 ± 20.70 min in Groups I, II and III respectively. Bradycardia was seen in one patient in Group I and two patients in Group II. Hypotension was seen in five patients in Group I and seven patients in Group II. First requirement for postoperative analgesic was after 353.13 ± 39.60 min, 314.38 ± 30.64 min and 193.25 ± 17.74 min in Groups I, II and III respectively. Conclusion: IV α2 agonists are useful adjuvants for prolongation of the duration of spinal block. IV dexmedetomidine produces a better clinical profile compared to clonidine. PMID:27625482

  12. Syncope and Idiopathic (Paroxysmal) AV Block.

    PubMed

    Brignole, Michele; Deharo, Jean-Claude; Guieu, Regis

    2015-08-01

    Syncope due to idiopathic AV block is characterized by: 1) ECG documentation (usually by means of prolonged ECG monitoring) of paroxysmal complete AV block with one or multiple consecutive pauses, without P-P cycle lengthening or PR interval prolongation, not triggered by atrial or ventricular premature beats nor by rate variations; 2) long history of recurrent syncope without prodromes; 3) absence of cardiac and ECG abnormalities; 4) absence of progression to persistent forms of AV block; 5) efficacy of cardiac pacing therapy. The patients affected by idiopathic AV block have low baseline adenosine plasma level values and show an increased susceptibility to exogenous adenosine. The APL value of the patients with idiopathic AV block is much lower than patients affected by vasovagal syncope who have high adenosine values.

  13. Painful peripheral states and sympathetic blocks.

    PubMed Central

    Loh, L; Nathan, P W

    1978-01-01

    In various chronic painful states, the sympathetic nerve supply was blocked either by injecting the sympathetic chain and ganglia with local anaesthesia or by the injection of guanethidine during occlusion of the circulation. There was a striking relation between the presence of hyperpathia and the relief of pain by the blocks. The sympathetic block was unlikely to relieve the pain unless hyperpathia accompanied the pain; when hyperpathia was present, a sympathetic block relieved both the constant pain and the hyperpathia. The effectiveness of the guanethidine blocks shows that the pain and the hyperpathia are maintained by the emission of noradrenaline in the periphery. The facts related to the sympathetic system and sensibility are discussed. PMID:690645

  14. Block copolymer structures in nano-pores

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pinna, Marco; Guo, Xiaohu; Zvelindovsky, Andrei

    2010-03-01

    We present results of coarse-grained computer modelling of block copolymer systems in cylindrical and spherical nanopores on Cell Dynamics Simulation. We study both cylindrical and spherical pores and systematically investigate structures formed by lamellar, cylinders and spherical block copolymer systems for various pore radii and affinity of block copolymer blocks to the pore walls. The obtained structures include: standing lamellae and cylinders, ``onions,'' cylinder ``knitting balls,'' ``golf-ball,'' layered spherical, ``virus''-like and mixed morphologies with T-junctions and U-type defects [1]. Kinetics of the structure formation and the differences with planar films are discussed. Our simulations suggest that novel porous nano-containers can be formed by confining block copolymers in pores of different geometries [1,2]. [4pt] [1] M. Pinna, X. Guo, A.V. Zvelindovsky, Polymer 49, 2797 (2008).[0pt] [2] M. Pinna, X. Guo, A.V. Zvelindovsky, J. Chem. Phys. 131, 214902 (2009).

  15. A Parent's Guide to Imaginative Block Play: Why Blocks Are Still One of America's Favorite Toys.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    T.C. Timber/Habermaass Corp., Skaneateles, NY.

    This brochure, developed by a manufacturer of wooden blocks and trains, offers advice on the selection and use of toy blocks with children. The guide asserts that blocks, while often thought of as the most simple of toys, have great strength as creativity builders. Topics discussed in the brochure include: "Why We Want Our Children to…

  16. Efficacy of Transversus Abdominis Plane Block and Rectus Sheath Block in Laparoscopic Inguinal Hernia Surgery

    PubMed Central

    Takebayashi, Katsushi; Matsumura, Masakata; Kawai, Yasuhiro; Hoashi, Takahiko; Katsura, Nagato; Fukuda, Seijun; Shimizu, Kenji; Inada, Takuji; Sato, Masugi

    2015-01-01

    We aimed to assess the efficacy of transversus abdominis plane (TAP) block and rectus sheath (RS) block in patients undergoing laparoscopic inguinal hernia surgery. Few studies have addressed the efficacy and safety associated with TAP block and RS block for laparoscopic surgery. Thirty-two patients underwent laparoscopic inguinal hernia surgery, either with TAP and RS block (Block+ group, n = 18) or without peripheral nerve block (Block− group, n = 14). Preoperatively, TAP and RS block were performed through ultrasound guidance. We evaluated postoperative pain control and patient outcomes. The mean postoperative hospital stays were 1.56 days (Block+ group) and 2.07 days (Block− group; range, 1–3 days in both groups; P = 0.0038). A total of 11 patients and 1 patient underwent day surgery in the Block+ and Block− groups, respectively (P = 0.0012). Good postoperative pain control was more commonly observed in the Block+ group than in the Block− group (P = 0.011). TAP and RS block was effective in reducing postoperative pain and was associated with a fast recovery in patients undergoing laparoscopic inguinal hernia surgery. PMID:25875548

  17. Tectonic blocks and molecular clocks

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Evolutionary timescales have mainly used fossils for calibrating molecular clocks, though fossils only really provide minimum clade age constraints. In their place, phylogenetic trees can be calibrated by precisely dated geological events that have shaped biogeography. However, tectonic episodes are protracted, their role in vicariance is rarely justified, the biogeography of living clades and their antecedents may differ, and the impact of such events is contingent on ecology. Biogeographic calibrations are no panacea for the shortcomings of fossil calibrations, but their associated uncertainties can be accommodated. We provide examples of how biogeographic calibrations based on geological data can be established for the fragmentation of the Pangaean supercontinent: (i) for the uplift of the Isthmus of Panama, (ii) the separation of New Zealand from Gondwana, and (iii) for the opening of the Atlantic Ocean. Biogeographic and fossil calibrations are complementary, not competing, approaches to constraining molecular clock analyses, providing alternative constraints on the age of clades that are vital to avoiding circularity in investigating the role of biogeographic mechanisms in shaping modern biodiversity. This article is part of the themed issue ‘Dating species divergences using rocks and clocks’. PMID:27325840

  18. Paravertebral Block Plus Thoracic Wall Block versus Paravertebral Block Alone for Analgesia of Modified Radical Mastectomy: A Retrospective Cohort Study

    PubMed Central

    Li, Nai-Liang; Yu, Ben-Long; Hung, Chen-Fang

    2016-01-01

    Background and Objectives Paravertebral block placement was the main anesthetic technique for modified radical mastectomy in our hospital until February 2014, when its combination with blocks targeting the pectoral musculature was initiated. We compared the analgesic effects of paravertebral blocks with or without blocks targeting the pectoral musculature for modified radical mastectomy. Methods We retrospectively collected data from a single surgeon and anesthesiologist from June 1, 2012, to May 31, 2015. Intraoperative sedatives and analgesic requirements, time to the first analgesic request, postoperative analgesic doses, patient satisfaction, and complications were compared. Results Fifty-four patients received a paravertebral block alone (PECS 0), and 46 received a paravertebral block combined with blocks targeting the pectoral musculature (PECS 1). The highest intraoperative effect–site concentration of propofol was significantly lower in the PECS 1 group than in the PECS 0 group [2.3 (1.5, 2.8) vs 2.5 (1.5, 4) μg/mL, p = 0.0014]. The intraoperative rescue analgesic dose was significantly lower in the PECS 1 group [0 (0, 25) vs 0 (0, 75) mg of ketamine, p = 0.0384]. Furthermore, the PECS 1 group had a significantly longer time to the first analgesic request [636.5 (15, 720) vs 182.5 (14, 720) min, p = 0.0001]. After further adjustment for age, body mass index, American Society of Anesthesiologists Physical Status classification, chronic pain history, incidence of a superficial cervical plexus block placement, and operation duration, blocks targeting the pectoral musculature were determined to be the only significant factor (hazard ratio, 0.36; 95% confidence interval, 0.23–0.58; p < 0.0001). Very few patients used potent analgesics including morphine and ketorolac; the cumulative use of morphine or ketorolac was similar in the study groups. However, the incidence of all analgesic use, namely morphine, ketorolac, acetaminophen, and celecoxib, was

  19. Atmospheric Blocking in the Northern Hemisphere.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Knox, John Lewis

    Blocking is generally understood as the obstruction on a large scale of the normal west - to - east motion of mid-latitude pressure systems. It is a persistent phenomenon lasting from one to several weeks and the resulting prolonged weather regimes may have serious economic and social consequences. The recent Northern Hemisphere winters, starting with 1976 -77, featured unusually large circulation anomalies, many of which can be directly related to prolonged episodes of large scale blocking. The intent of this study is to investigate the statistics and certain diagnostics of blocking in the Northern Hemisphere. The first of the three primary objectives is to present and interpret the spatial and temporal distribution of blocking during the past 33 years. We develop objective identification criteria, adaptable to machine processing methods, by relating the blocking anticyclone to its associated positive anomaly of 5-day mean 500MB height. Anomalies meeting the criteria are called 'blocking signatures.' We present the seasonal frequency of occurrence of these signatures by longitude and by area. The results are in good agreement with published studies for the oceans, but they also reveal a high frequency of blocking signatures over the Northeastern Canadian Archipelago. This result, dubbed the 'Baffin Island Paradox' is further investigated and rationalized. A catalogue has been prepared which identifies the date, centre location and magnitude of every blocking signature which occurred from January 1, 1946 to December 31, 1978. A supplementary Catalogue identifies sequences of these signatures corresponding to actual blocking episodes. The second objective is to investigate whether regions with high incidence of blocking, in either the developing or the mature stage, features non-Gaussian distributions of 5-day mean geopotential. During winter, fields of significantly low kurtosis are found in certain mid-latitude regions where the genesis and amplification of

  20. LipidII: Just Another Brick in the Wall?

    PubMed Central

    Scheffers, Dirk-Jan; Tol, Menno B.

    2015-01-01

    Nearly all bacteria contain a peptidoglycan cell wall. The peptidoglycan precursor molecule is LipidII, containing the basic peptidoglycan building block attached to a lipid. Although the suitability of LipidII as an antibacterial target has long been recognized, progress on elucidating the role(s) of LipidII in bacterial cell biology has been slow. The focus of this review is on exciting new developments, both with respect to antibacterials targeting LipidII as well as the emerging role of LipidII in organizing the membrane and cell wall synthesis. It appears that on both sides of the membrane, LipidII plays crucial roles in organizing cytoskeletal proteins and peptidoglycan synthesis machineries. Finally, the recent discovery of no less than three different categories of LipidII flippases will be discussed. PMID:26679002

  1. Vibration sensation as an indicator of surgical anesthesia following brachial plexus block

    PubMed Central

    Jindal, Seema; Sidhu, Gurkaran Kaur; Sood, Dinesh; Grewal, Anju

    2016-01-01

    Background: Local anesthetic instillation in close vicinity to nerves anywhere in body blocks sensations in the same order as in central neuraxial blockade. The main purpose of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of vibration sense as criteria to determine the onset of surgical anesthesia following brachial plexus block and its correlation with loss of sensory and motor power. Materials and Methods: This prospective study included fifty patients of American Society of Anaesthesiologist physical status I and II, aged between 18 and 45 years, undergoing elective upper limb surgery under brachial plexus block by supraclavicular approach. The baseline values of vibration sense perception using 128 Hz Rydel–Seiffer tuning fork, motor power using formal motor power of wrist flexion and wrist extension, and sensory score by pinprick method were recorded preoperatively and every 5 min after giving block till the onset of complete surgical anesthesia. Results: The mean ± standard deviation of time (in minutes) for sensory, motor, and vibration block was 13.33 ± 3.26, 21.10 ± 3.26, and 25.50 ± 2.02, respectively (P < 0.05). Although all the patients achieved complete sensory and motor block after 25 min, 14% of the patients still had vibration sensations intact and 100% of the patients achieved complete sensory, motor, and vibration block after 30 min. Conclusions: Vibration sense serves as a reliable indicator for the onset of surgical anesthesia following brachial plexus block. Vibration sense testing with 128 Hz Rydel–Seiffer tuning fork along with motor power assessment should be used as an objective tool to assess the onset of surgical anesthesia following brachial plexus block. PMID:27833488

  2. Development of Alkali Activated Geopolymer Masonry Blocks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Venugopal, K.; Radhakrishna; Sasalatti, Vinod

    2016-09-01

    Cement masonry units are not considered as sustainable since their production involves consumption of fuel, cement and natural resources and therefore it is essential to find alternatives. This paper reports on making of geopolymer solid & hollow blocks and masonry prisms using non conventional materials like fly ash, ground granulated blast furnace slag (GGBFS) and manufactured sand and curing at ambient temperature. They were tested for water absorption, initial rate of water absorption, dry density, dimensionality, compressive, flexural and bond-strength which were tested for bond strength with and without lateral confinement, modulus of elasticity, alternative drying & wetting and masonry efficiency. The properties of geopolymer blocks were found superior to traditional masonry blocks and the masonry efficiency was found to increase with decrease in thickness of cement mortar joints. There was marginal difference in strength between rendered and unrendered geopolymer masonry blocks. The percentage weight gain after 7 cycles was less than 6% and the percentage reduction in strength of geopolymer solid blocks and hollow blocks were 26% and 28% respectively. Since the properties of geopolymer blocks are comparatively better than the traditional masonry they can be strongly recommended for structural masonry.

  3. Inferior alveolar nerve block: Alternative technique

    PubMed Central

    Thangavelu, K.; Kannan, R.; Kumar, N. Senthil

    2012-01-01

    Background: Inferior alveolar nerve block (IANB) is a technique of dental anesthesia, used to produce anesthesia of the mandibular teeth, gingivae of the mandible and lower lip. The conventional IANB is the most commonly used the nerve block technique for achieving local anesthesia for mandibular surgical procedures. In certain cases, however, this nerve block fails, even when performed by the most experienced clinician. Therefore, it would be advantageous to find an alternative simple technique. Aim and Objective: The objective of this study is to find an alternative inferior alveolar nerve block that has a higher success rate than other routine techniques. To this purpose, a simple painless inferior alveolar nerve block was designed to anesthetize the inferior alveolar nerve. Materials and Methods: This study was conducted in Oral surgery department of Vinayaka Mission's dental college Salem from May 2009 to May 2011. Five hundred patients between the age of 20 years and 65 years who required extraction of teeth in mandible were included in the study. Out of 500 patients 270 were males and 230 were females. The effectiveness of the IANB was evaluated by using a sharp dental explorer in the regions innervated by the inferior alveolar, lingual, and buccal nerves after 3, 5, and 7 min, respectively. Conclusion: This study concludes that inferior alveolar nerve block is an appropriate alternative nerve block to anesthetize inferior alveolar nerve due to its several advantages. PMID:25885503

  4. DNA methyltransferase inhibitor CDA-II inhibits myogenic differentiation

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, Zirong; Jin, Guorong; Lin, Shuibin; Lin, Xiumei; Gu, Yumei; Zhu, Yujuan; Hu, Chengbin; Zhang, Qingjiong; Wu, Lizi; Shen, Huangxuan

    2012-06-08

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer CDA-II inhibits myogenic differentiation in a dose-dependent manner. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer CDA-II repressed expression of muscle transcription factors and structural proteins. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer CDA-II inhibited proliferation and migration of C2C12 myoblasts. -- Abstract: CDA-II (cell differentiation agent II), isolated from healthy human urine, is a DNA methyltransferase inhibitor. Previous studies indicated that CDA-II played important roles in the regulation of cell growth and certain differentiation processes. However, it has not been determined whether CDA-II affects skeletal myogenesis. In this study, we investigated effects of CDA-II treatment on skeletal muscle progenitor cell differentiation, migration and proliferation. We found that CDA-II blocked differentiation of murine myoblasts C2C12 in a dose-dependent manner. CDA-II repressed expression of muscle transcription factors, such as Myogenin and Mef2c, and structural proteins, such as myosin heavy chain (Myh3), light chain (Mylpf) and MCK. Moreover, CDA-II inhibited C1C12 cell migration and proliferation. Thus, our data provide the first evidence that CDA-II inhibits growth and differentiation of muscle progenitor cells, suggesting that the use of CDA-II might affect skeletal muscle functions.

  5. Intracellular magnesium blocks sodium outward currents in a voltage- and dose-dependent manner.

    PubMed Central

    Pusch, M; Conti, F; Stühmer, W

    1989-01-01

    Tail currents through Na+ channels have been measured in inside-out patches from Xenopus laevis oocytes injected with cDNA-derived mRNA coding for the rat brain type II Na+ channel. It is shown that intracellular Mg2+ blocks outward currents in a voltage- and dose-dependent manner with a half blocking concentration between 3 and 4 mM at 0 mV and a voltage dependence of e-fold per 49 mV. PMID:2548634

  6. An introduction to blocked impurity band detectors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Geist, Jon

    1988-01-01

    Blocked impurity band detectors fabricated using standard silicon technologies offer the possibility of combining high sensitivity and high accuracy in a single detector operating in a low background environment. The solid state photomultiplier described by Petroff et al., which is a new type of blocked impurity band detector, offers even higher sensitivity as well as operation in the visible spectral region. The principle of operation and possible application of blocked impurity band detectors for stellar seismology and the search for extra-solar planets are described.

  7. Block Copolymer Membranes for Biofuel Purification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Evren Ozcam, Ali; Balsara, Nitash

    2012-02-01

    Purification of biofuels such as ethanol is a matter of considerable concern as they are produced in complex multicomponent fermentation broths. Our objective is to design pervaporation membranes for concentrating ethanol from dilute aqueous mixtures. Polystyrene-b-polydimethylsiloxane-b-polystyrene block copolymers were synthesized by anionic polymerization. The polydimethylsiloxane domains provide ethanol-transporting pathways, while the polystyrene domains provide structural integrity for the membrane. The morphology of the membranes is governed by the composition of the block copolymer while the size of the domains is governed by the molecular weight of the block copolymer. Pervaporation data as a function of these two parameters will be presented.

  8. Encoders for block-circulant LDPC codes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Andrews, Kenneth; Dolinar, Sam; Thorpe, Jeremy

    2005-01-01

    In this paper, we present two encoding methods for block-circulant LDPC codes. The first is an iterative encoding method based on the erasure decoding algorithm, and the computations required are well organized due to the block-circulant structure of the parity check matrix. The second method uses block-circulant generator matrices, and the encoders are very similar to those for recursive convolutional codes. Some encoders of the second type have been implemented in a small Field Programmable Gate Array (FPGA) and operate at 100 Msymbols/second.

  9. Mixing thermodynamics of block-random copolymers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beckingham, Bryan Scott

    Random copolymerization of A and B monomers represents a versatile method to tune interaction strengths between polymers, as ArB random copolymers will exhibit a smaller effective Flory interaction parameter chi; (or interaction energy density X) upon mixing with A or B homopolymers than upon mixing A and B homopolymers with each other, and the ArB composition can be tuned continuously. Thus, the incorporation of a random copolymer block into the classical block copolymer architecture to yield "block-random" copolymers introduces an additional tuning mechanism for the control of structure-property relationships, as the interblock interactions and physical properties can be tuned continuously through the random block's composition. However, typical living or controlled polymerizations produce compositional gradients along the "random" block, which can in turn influence the phase behavior. This dissertation demonstrates a method by which narrow-distribution copolymers of styrene and isoprene of any desired composition, with no measurable down-chain gradient, are synthesized. This synthetic method is then utilized to incorporate random copolymers of styrene and isoprene as blocks into block-random copolymers in order to examine the resulting interblock mixing thermodynamics. A series of well-defined near-symmetric block and block-random copolymers (S-I, Bd-S, I-SrI, S-SrI and Bd-S rI diblocks, where S is polystyrene, I is polyisoprene and Bd is polybutadiene), with varying molecular weight and random-block composition are synthesized and the mixing thermodynamics---via comparison of their interaction energy densities, X---of their hydrogenated derivatives is examined through measurement of the order-disorder transition (ODT) temperature. Hydrogenated derivatives of I-SrI and S-SrI block-random copolymers, both wherein the styrene aromaticity is retained and derivatives wherein the styrene units are saturated to vinylcyclohexane (VCH), are found to hew closely to the

  10. Ubiquitination by March-I prevents MHC class II recycling and promotes MHC class II turnover in antigen-presenting cells.

    PubMed

    Cho, Kyung-Jin; Walseng, Even; Ishido, Satoshi; Roche, Paul A

    2015-08-18

    MHC class II (MHC-II)-dependent antigen presentation by antigen-presenting cells (APCs) is carefully controlled to achieve specificity of immune responses; the regulated assembly and degradation of antigenic peptide-MHC-II complexes (pMHC-II) is one aspect of such control. In this study, we have examined the role of ubiquitination in regulating pMHC-II biosynthesis, endocytosis, recycling, and turnover in APCs. By using APCs obtained from MHC-II ubiquitination mutant mice, we find that whereas ubiquitination does not affect pMHC-II formation in dendritic cells (DCs), it does promote the subsequent degradation of newly synthesized pMHC-II. Acute activation of DCs or B cells terminates expression of the MHC-II E3 ubiquitin ligase March-I and prevents pMHC-II ubiquitination. Most importantly, this change results in very efficient pMHC-II recycling from the surface of DCs and B cells, thereby preventing targeting of internalized pMHC-II to lysosomes for degradation. Biochemical and functional assays confirmed that pMHC-II turnover is suppressed in MHC-II ubiquitin mutant DCs or by acute activation of wild-type DCs. These studies demonstrate that acute APC activation blocks the ubiquitin-dependent turnover of pMHC-II by promoting efficient pMHC-II recycling and preventing lysosomal targeting of internalized pMHC-II, thereby enhancing pMHC-II stability for efficient antigen presentation to CD4 T cells.

  11. Postoperative Analgesia Using Psoas Sheath Block Versus Three-in-One Block in Anterior Cruciate Ligament Reconstruction

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1999-10-01

    were blocked and two cases where all nerves were blocked. Key Words: Regional Anesthesia; Lumbar Plexus Block, Postoperative Pain Management; Pre...and sciatic(Lumbar4-Sacral3). A "psoas sheath block" and a "three-in-one block" are two techniques used to block the lumbar plexus from which the...nerve blockade Operational definition. A regional anesthetic technique used to block transmission of the nerves of the lumbar plexus including the

  12. Synthesis and crystal structure of a dinuclear, monomeric Mn(II) p-semiquinonato complex.

    PubMed

    Nakamori, Harutaka; Matsumoto, Takahiro; Yatabe, Takeshi; Yoon, Ki-Seok; Nakai, Hidetaka; Ogo, Seiji

    2014-11-07

    Herein, we report the first crystal structure of a monomeric p-semiquinonato d-block complex and its reactivity toward dioxygen, closely associated with a biological system of an oxygen evolving centre of photosystem II.

  13. Synteny Portal: a web-based application portal for synteny block analysis

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Jongin; Hong, Woon-young; Cho, Minah; Sim, Mikang; Lee, Daehwan; Ko, Younhee; Kim, Jaebum

    2016-01-01

    Recent advances in next-generation sequencing technologies and genome assembly algorithms have enabled the accumulation of a huge volume of genome sequences from various species. This has provided new opportunities for large-scale comparative genomics studies. Identifying and utilizing synteny blocks, which are genomic regions conserved among multiple species, is key to understanding genomic architecture and the evolutionary history of genomes. However, the construction and visualization of such synteny blocks from multiple species are very challenging, especially for biologists with a lack of computational skills. Here, we present Synteny Portal, a versatile web-based application portal for constructing, visualizing and browsing synteny blocks. With Synteny Portal, users can easily (i) construct synteny blocks among multiple species by using prebuilt alignments in the UCSC genome browser database, (ii) visualize and download syntenic relationships as high-quality images, (iii) browse synteny blocks with genetic information and (iv) download the details of synteny blocks to be used as input for downstream synteny-based analyses, all in an intuitive and easy-to-use web-based interface. We believe that Synteny Portal will serve as a highly valuable tool that will enable biologists to easily perform comparative genomics studies by compensating limitations of existing tools. Synteny Portal is freely available at http://bioinfo.konkuk.ac.kr/synteny_portal. PMID:27154270

  14. Atmospheric blocking and Atlantic multidecadal ocean variability.

    PubMed

    Häkkinen, Sirpa; Rhines, Peter B; Worthen, Denise L

    2011-11-04

    Atmospheric blocking over the northern North Atlantic, which involves isolation of large regions of air from the westerly circulation for 5 days or more, influences fundamentally the ocean circulation and upper ocean properties by affecting wind patterns. Winters with clusters of more frequent blocking between Greenland and western Europe correspond to a warmer, more saline subpolar ocean. The correspondence between blocked westerly winds and warm ocean holds in recent decadal episodes (especially 1996 to 2010). It also describes much longer time scale Atlantic multidecadal ocean variability (AMV), including the extreme pre-greenhouse-gas northern warming of the 1930s to 1960s. The space-time structure of the wind forcing associated with a blocked regime leads to weaker ocean gyres and weaker heat exchange, both of which contribute to the warm phase of AMV.

  15. Electrostatic control of block copolymer morphology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sing, Charles E.; Zwanikken, Jos W.; Olvera de La Cruz, Monica

    2014-07-01

    Energy storage is at present one of the foremost issues society faces. However, material challenges now serve as bottlenecks in technological progress. Lithium-ion batteries are the current gold standard to meet energy storage needs; however, they are limited owing to the inherent instability of liquid electrolytes. Block copolymers can self-assemble into nanostructures that simultaneously facilitate ion transport and provide mechanical stability. The ions themselves have a profound, yet previously unpredictable, effect on how these nanostructures assemble and thus the efficiency of ion transport. Here we demonstrate that varying the charge of a block copolymer is a powerful mechanism to predictably tune nanostructures. In particular, we demonstrate that highly asymmetric charge cohesion effects can induce the formation of nanostructures that are inaccessible to conventional uncharged block copolymers, including percolated phases desired for ion transport. This vastly expands the design space for block copolymer materials and is informative for the versatile design of battery electrolyte materials.

  16. Ultrasound guided nerve block for breast surgery.

    PubMed

    Diéguez, P; Casas, P; López, S; Fajardo, M

    2016-03-01

    The breast surgery has undergone changes in recent years, encouraging new initiatives for the anaesthetic management of these patients in order to achieve maximum quality and rapid recovery. The fundamental tool that has allowed a significant improvement in the progress of regional anaesthesia for breast disease has been ultrasound, boosting the description and introduction into clinical practice of interfascial chest wall blocks, although the reference standard is still the paravertebral block. It is very likely that these blocks will change the protocols in the coming years. A review is presented of the anatomy of the breast region, description of nerve blocks and techniques, as well as their indications, all according to published articles and the opinion of the authors based on their experience.

  17. Formation of Anisotropic Block Copolymer Gels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liaw, Chya Yan; Shull, Kenneth; Henderson, Kevin; Joester, Derk

    2011-03-01

    Anisotropic, fibrillar gels are important in a variety of processes. Biomineralization is one example, where the mineralization process often occurs within a matrix of collagen or chitin fibers that trap the mineral precursors and direct the mineralization process. We wish to replicate this type of behavior within block copolymer gels. Particularly, we are interested in employing gels composed of cylindrical micelles, which are anisotropic and closely mimic biological fibers. Micelle geometry is controlled in our system by manipulating the ratio of molecular weights of the two blocks and by controlling the detailed thermal processing history of the copolymer solutions. Small-Angle X-ray Scattering and Dynamic Light Scattering are used to determine the temperature dependence of the gel formation process. Initial experiments are based on a thermally-reversible alcohol-soluble system, that can be subsequently converted to a water soluble system by hydrolysis of a poly(t-butyl methacrylate) block to a poly (methacrylic acid) block. MRSEC.

  18. Atmospheric Blocking and Atlantic Multidecadal Ocean Variability

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hakkinen, Sirpa; Rhines, Peter B.; Worthen, Denise L.

    2011-01-01

    Atmospheric blocking over the northern North Atlantic, which involves isolation of large regions of air from the westerly circulation for 5 days or more, influences fundamentally the ocean circulation and upper ocean properties by affecting wind patterns. Winters with clusters of more frequent blocking between Greenland and western Europe correspond to a warmer, more saline subpolar ocean. The correspondence between blocked westerly winds and warm ocean holds in recent decadal episodes (especially 1996 to 2010). It also describes much longer time scale Atlantic multidecadal ocean variability (AMV), including the extreme pre-greenhouse-gas northern warming of the 1930s to 1960s. The space-time structure of the wind forcing associated with a blocked regime leads to weaker ocean gyres and weaker heat exchange, both of which contribute to the warm phase of AMV.

  19. Epoxy coatings over latex block fillers

    SciTech Connect

    Vincent, L.D.

    1997-12-01

    Failures of polymerized epoxy coatings applied over latex/acrylic block fillers continue to plague owners of commercial buildings, particularly those with high architectural content such as condominiums, high rise offices, etc. Water treatment facilities in paper mills are especially prone to this problem. The types of failures include delamination of the topcoats, blisters in both the block fillers and the topcoats and disintegration of the block filler itself. While the problem is well known, the approach to a solution is not. A study of several coatings manufacturer`s Product Data Sheets shows a wide variance in the recommendations for what are purportedly generically equivalent block fillers. While one manufacturer might take an essentially architectural approach, another will take a heavy-duty industrial approach. To the specifying architect or engineer who has little training in the complexities of protective coating systems, this presents a dilemma. Who does he believe? What does he specify? To whom can he turn for independent advice?

  20. Dynamic code block size for JPEG 2000

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsai, Ping-Sing; LeCornec, Yann

    2008-02-01

    Since the standardization of the JPEG 2000, it has found its way into many different applications such as DICOM (digital imaging and communication in medicine), satellite photography, military surveillance, digital cinema initiative, professional video cameras, and so on. The unified framework of the JPEG 2000 architecture makes practical high quality real-time compression possible even in video mode, i.e. motion JPEG 2000. In this paper, we present a study of the compression impact using dynamic code block size instead of fixed code block size as specified in the JPEG 2000 standard. The simulation results show that there is no significant impact on compression if dynamic code block sizes are used. In this study, we also unveil the advantages of using dynamic code block sizes.

  1. Block 5 documentation and solar modules

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1985-01-01

    Design and fabrication of Spire Corporation's Block 5 photovoltaic flat plate module is reviewed. These modules exhibited power of about 70 watts under standard test conditions. Results of performance and environmental testing are provided.

  2. Case History of an 8-Block Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clemons, Molly J.

    1997-01-01

    Offers a brief overview of the process undertaken by one school district in Missouri to explore and then implement a schedule change (in particular a block program)--a process involving parents, teachers, administrators, school board members, and students. (SR)

  3. Ophthalmic regional blocks: management, challenges, and solutions

    PubMed Central

    Palte, Howard D

    2015-01-01

    In the past decade ophthalmic anesthesia has witnessed a major transformation. The sun has set on the landscape of ophthalmic procedures performed under general anesthesia at in-hospital settings. In its place a new dawn has ushered in the panorama of eye surgeries conducted under regional and topical anesthesia at specialty eye care centers. The impact of the burgeoning geriatric population is that an increasing number of elderly patients will present for eye surgery. In order to accommodate increased patient volumes and simultaneously satisfy administrative initiatives directed at economic frugality, administrators will seek assistance from anesthesia providers in adopting measures that enhance operating room efficiency. The performance of eye blocks in a holding suite meets many of these objectives. Unfortunately, most practicing anesthesiologists resist performing ophthalmic regional blocks because they lack formal training. In future, anesthesiologists will need to block eyes and manage common medical conditions because economic pressures will eliminate routine preoperative testing. This review addresses a variety of topical issues in ophthalmic anesthesia with special emphasis on cannula and needle-based blocks and the new-generation antithrombotic agents. In a constantly evolving arena, the sub-Tenon’s block has gained popularity while the deep angulated intraconal (retrobulbar) block has been largely superseded by the shallower extraconal (peribulbar) approach. Improvements in surgical technique have also impacted anesthetic practice. For example, phacoemulsification techniques facilitate the conduct of cataract surgery under topical anesthesia, and suture-free vitrectomy ports may cause venous air embolism during air/fluid exchange. Hyaluronidase is a useful adjuvant because it promotes local anesthetic diffusion and hastens block onset time but it is allergenic. Ultrasound-guided eye blocks afford real-time visualization of needle position and local

  4. Ophthalmic regional blocks: management, challenges, and solutions.

    PubMed

    Palte, Howard D

    2015-01-01

    In the past decade ophthalmic anesthesia has witnessed a major transformation. The sun has set on the landscape of ophthalmic procedures performed under general anesthesia at in-hospital settings. In its place a new dawn has ushered in the panorama of eye surgeries conducted under regional and topical anesthesia at specialty eye care centers. The impact of the burgeoning geriatric population is that an increasing number of elderly patients will present for eye surgery. In order to accommodate increased patient volumes and simultaneously satisfy administrative initiatives directed at economic frugality, administrators will seek assistance from anesthesia providers in adopting measures that enhance operating room efficiency. The performance of eye blocks in a holding suite meets many of these objectives. Unfortunately, most practicing anesthesiologists resist performing ophthalmic regional blocks because they lack formal training. In future, anesthesiologists will need to block eyes and manage common medical conditions because economic pressures will eliminate routine preoperative testing. This review addresses a variety of topical issues in ophthalmic anesthesia with special emphasis on cannula and needle-based blocks and the new-generation antithrombotic agents. In a constantly evolving arena, the sub-Tenon's block has gained popularity while the deep angulated intraconal (retrobulbar) block has been largely superseded by the shallower extraconal (peribulbar) approach. Improvements in surgical technique have also impacted anesthetic practice. For example, phacoemulsification techniques facilitate the conduct of cataract surgery under topical anesthesia, and suture-free vitrectomy ports may cause venous air embolism during air/fluid exchange. Hyaluronidase is a useful adjuvant because it promotes local anesthetic diffusion and hastens block onset time but it is allergenic. Ultrasound-guided eye blocks afford real-time visualization of needle position and local

  5. Capacitor blocks for linear transformer driver stages.

    PubMed

    Kovalchuk, B M; Kharlov, A V; Kumpyak, E V; Smorudov, G V; Zherlitsyn, A A

    2014-01-01

    In the Linear Transformer Driver (LTD) technology, the low inductance energy storage components and switches are directly incorporated into the individual cavities (named stages) to generate a fast output voltage pulse, which is added along a vacuum coaxial line like in an inductive voltage adder. LTD stages with air insulation were recently developed, where air is used both as insulation in a primary side of the stages and as working gas in the LTD spark gap switches. A custom designed unit, referred to as a capacitor block, was developed for use as a main structural element of the transformer stages. The capacitor block incorporates two capacitors GA 35426 (40 nF, 100 kV) and multichannel multigap gas switch. Several modifications of the capacitor blocks were developed and tested on the life time and self breakdown probability. Blocks were tested both as separate units and in an assembly of capacitive module, consisting of five capacitor blocks. This paper presents detailed design of capacitor blocks, description of operation regimes, numerical simulation of electric field in the switches, and test results.

  6. Improving massive experiments with threshold blocking

    PubMed Central

    Higgins, Michael J.; Sekhon, Jasjeet S.

    2016-01-01

    Inferences from randomized experiments can be improved by blocking: assigning treatment in fixed proportions within groups of similar units. However, the use of the method is limited by the difficulty in deriving these groups. Current blocking methods are restricted to special cases or run in exponential time; are not sensitive to clustering of data points; and are often heuristic, providing an unsatisfactory solution in many common instances. We present an algorithm that implements a widely applicable class of blocking—threshold blocking—that solves these problems. Given a minimum required group size and a distance metric, we study the blocking problem of minimizing the maximum distance between any two units within the same group. We prove this is a nondeterministic polynomial-time hard problem and derive an approximation algorithm that yields a blocking where the maximum distance is guaranteed to be, at most, four times the optimal value. This algorithm runs in O(n log n) time with O(n) space complexity. This makes it, to our knowledge, the first blocking method with an ensured level of performance that works in massive experiments. Whereas many commonly used algorithms form pairs of units, our algorithm constructs the groups flexibly for any chosen minimum size. This facilitates complex experiments with several treatment arms and clustered data. A simulation study demonstrates the efficiency and efficacy of the algorithm; tens of millions of units can be blocked using a desktop computer in a few minutes. PMID:27382151

  7. Capacitor blocks for linear transformer driver stages

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kovalchuk, B. M.; Kharlov, A. V.; Kumpyak, E. V.; Smorudov, G. V.; Zherlitsyn, A. A.

    2014-01-01

    In the Linear Transformer Driver (LTD) technology, the low inductance energy storage components and switches are directly incorporated into the individual cavities (named stages) to generate a fast output voltage pulse, which is added along a vacuum coaxial line like in an inductive voltage adder. LTD stages with air insulation were recently developed, where air is used both as insulation in a primary side of the stages and as working gas in the LTD spark gap switches. A custom designed unit, referred to as a capacitor block, was developed for use as a main structural element of the transformer stages. The capacitor block incorporates two capacitors GA 35426 (40 nF, 100 kV) and multichannel multigap gas switch. Several modifications of the capacitor blocks were developed and tested on the life time and self breakdown probability. Blocks were tested both as separate units and in an assembly of capacitive module, consisting of five capacitor blocks. This paper presents detailed design of capacitor blocks, description of operation regimes, numerical simulation of electric field in the switches, and test results.

  8. Adaptive overlapped sub-blocks contrast enhancement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Anqiu; Yuan, Fei; Liu, Jing; Liu, Siqi; Li, An; Zheng, Zhenrong

    2016-09-01

    In this paper, an overlapped sub-block gray-level average method for contrast enhancement is presented. The digital image correction of uneven illumination under microscope transmittance is a problem in image processing, also sometimes the image in the dark place need to correct the uneven problem. A new correction method was proposed based on the mask method and sub-blocks gray-level average method because Traditional mask method and background fitting method are restricted due to application scenarios, and the corrected image brightness is low by using background fitting method, so it has some limitations of the application. In this paper, we introduce a new method called AOSCE for image contrast enhancement. The image is divided into many sub-blocks which are overlapped, calculate the average gray-level of the whole image as M and the calculate the average gray-level of each one as mi, next for each block it can get d = mi - m, each block minus d to get a new image, and then get the minimum gray-level of each block into a matrix DD to get the background, and use bilinearity to get the same scale of the image. over fitting the image in matlab in order to get smoother image, then minus the background to get the contrast enhancement image.

  9. MIBSA: Multi Interacting Blocks for Slope Analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dattola, Giuseppe; Crosta, Giovanni; Castellanza, Riccardo; di Prisco, Claudio

    2016-04-01

    As it is well known, the slope instabilities have very important consequences in terms of human lives and activities. So predicting the evolution in time and space of slope mass movements becomes fundamental. This is even more relevant when we consider that the triggering mechanisms are a rising ground water level and the occurrence of earthquakes. Therefore, seasonal rainfall has a direct influence on the triggering of large rock and earthslide with a composite failure surface and causing differential behaviors within the sliding mass. In this contribution, a model describing the slope mass by means of an array of blocks that move on a prefixed failure surface, is defined. A shear band located at the base of each block, whose behavior is modelled via a viscous plastic model based on the Perzyna's approach, controls the slip velocity of the block. The motion of the blocks is obtained by solving the second balance equation in which the normal and tangential interaction forces are obtained by a specific interaction model. The model has been implemented in an original code and it is used to perform a parametric analysis that describes the effects of block interactions under a transient ground water oscillation. The numerical results confirm that the normal and tangential interactions between blocks can inhibit or induce the slope movements. The model is tested against some real case studies. This model is under development to add the dynamic effects generated by earthquake shaking.

  10. Molecular origin of photovoltaic performance in donor-block-acceptor all-conjugated block copolymers

    DOE PAGES

    Smith, Kendall A.; Lin, Yen -Hao; Mok, Jorge W.; ...

    2015-11-03

    All-conjugated block copolymers may be an effective route to self-assembled photovoltaic devices, but we lack basic information on the relationship between molecular characteristics and photovoltaic performance. Here, we synthesize a library of poly(3-hexylthiophene) (P3HT) block poly((9,9-dialkylfluorene)-2,7-diyl-alt-[4,7-bis(alkylthiophen-5-yl)-2,1,3-benzothiadiazole]-2',2''-diyl) (PFTBT) donor-block-acceptor all-conjugated block copolymers and carry out a comprehensive study of processing conditions, crystallinity, domain sizes, and side-chain structure on photovoltaic device performance. We find that all block copolymers studied exhibit an out-of-plane crystal orientation after deposition, and on thermal annealing at high temperatures the crystal orientation flips to an in-plane orientation. By varying processing conditions on polymer photovoltaic devices, we show thatmore » the crystal orientation has only a modest effect (15-20%) on photovoltaic performance. The addition of side-chains to the PFTBT block is found to decrease photovoltaic power conversion efficiencies by at least an order of magnitude. Through grazing-incidence X-ray measurements we find that the addition of side-chains to the PFTBT acceptor block results in weak segregation and small (< 10 nm) block copolymer self-assembled donor and acceptor domains. This work is the most comprehensive to date on all-conjugated block copolymer systems and suggests that photovoltaic performance of block copolymers depends strongly on the miscibility of donor and acceptor blocks, which impacts donor and acceptor domain sizes and purity. Lastly, strategies for improving the device performance of block copolymer photovoltaics should seek to increase segregation between donor and acceptor polymer domains.« less

  11. 7. BLOCK HOUSE BASEMENT LOOKING THROUGH DOOR INTO CABLE TUNNEL ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    7. BLOCK HOUSE BASEMENT LOOKING THROUGH DOOR INTO CABLE TUNNEL RUNNING BETWEEN BLOCK HOUSE AND STATIC TEST TOWER. - Marshall Space Flight Center, East Test Area, Block House, Huntsville, Madison County, AL

  12. Cell block eleven, looking from the "Death Row" exercise yard, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Cell block eleven, looking from the "Death Row" exercise yard, facing north (note cell block fifteen to the right and cell block fourteen in the distance_ - Eastern State Penitentiary, 2125 Fairmount Avenue, Philadelphia, Philadelphia County, PA

  13. Cell block one and southeast guard tower, looking from the ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Cell block one and southeast guard tower, looking from the central guard tower, facing southeast (note view also includes cell block ten (left) and cell block nine (right)) - Eastern State Penitentiary, 2125 Fairmount Avenue, Philadelphia, Philadelphia County, PA

  14. Block Copolymerization of Lactide and an Epoxide Facilitated by a Redox Switchable Iron-Based Catalyst.

    PubMed

    Biernesser, Ashley B; Delle Chiaie, Kayla R; Curley, Julia B; Byers, Jeffery A

    2016-04-18

    A cationic iron(III) complex was active for the polymerization of various epoxides, whereas the analogous neutral iron(II) complex was inactive. Cyclohexene oxide polymerization could be "switched off" upon in situ reduction of the iron(III) catalyst and "switched on" upon in situ oxidation, which is orthogonal to what was observed previously for lactide polymerization. Conducting copolymerization reactions in the presence of both monomers resulted in block copolymers whose identity can be controlled by the oxidation state of the catalyst: selective lactide polymerization was observed in the iron(II) oxidation state and selective epoxide polymerization was observed in the iron(III) oxidation state. Evidence for the formation of block copolymers was obtained from solubility differences, GPC, and DOSY-NMR studies.

  15. A potential vorticity perspective on atmospheric blocking?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Croci Maspoli, M.; Schwierz, C.

    2003-04-01

    A persistent large-scale anomaly of the west to east flow in the midlatitudes with a weakening and meridional splitting of the jet can be specified as atmospheric blocking. Lifetimes last from several days up to weeks so that blocking can therefore significantly determine monthly circulation index values. The vertical range affected by this phenomenon covers the entire troposphere as mirrored in increased surface pressure as well as an elevated tropopause and is also felt in the lower-stratosphere. Here we seek to shed more light on the physical mechanisms related to blocking by adopting the PV (potential vorticity) perspective with a focus on tropopause-level dynamics. Processes such as Rossby-wave breaking and diabatic heating can modify the conservative behaviour of the PV and are therefore important features for the formation and maintenance of atmospheric blocking. This motivates the definition of a novel blocking index based upon the three-dimensional structure of the phenomenon. A vertically integrated measure (PV within the 500 - 150 hPa layer, VIPV) is calculated, underlining the quasi-barotropic nature of blocked atmospheric state. Benefits of the new index include: representation of the two-dimensional structure of the phenomenon, its lifecycle and geographical distribution. The investigation is conducted over the period 1979 to 2001 using ECMWF reanalysis data. Characteristics of the VIPV field are presented. The new VIPV index is compared to a standard blocking index (e.g. Tibaldi and Molteni (1989)) on a case study basis and also with respect to seasonal variability. Relations to climate modes/indices (NAO, AO) are also discussed.

  16. Blocking of Person Information in Small Social Groupings: The Information of Person Categories.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1983-12-20

    capacity for processing information. Psychological Review , 1956, 63, 81-97. Miller, G. A., Galanter, E., & Pribram, Plans and the structure of behavior. New... Alderfer Yale University School of Organization and Management New Haven, Connecticut 06520 Dr. Janet L. Barnes-Farrell Department of Psychology ...I’D-Ali37 282 BLOCKING OF PERSON INFORMATION IN SMALL SOCIAL i/i GROUPINGS: THE INFORMATION..(U) OHIO STATE5UNIV COLUMBUS DEPT OF PSYCHOLOGY C D

  17. Ticagrelor Associated Heart Block: The Need for Close and Continued Monitoring

    PubMed Central

    2017-01-01

    Ticagrelor is an antiplatelet agent prescribed to prevent the development of adverse cardiac events after acute coronary syndrome (ACS). According to the PLATO trial, ticagrelor is associated with ventricular pauses in the first week of treatment; however, these episodes were felt to be asymptomatic and nonfatal to the patient. We present a case of ticagrelor related second-degree type II heart block causing severe dizziness and diaphoresis that resolved after discontinuation of the medication. PMID:28246559

  18. Self-assembled microspheres from f-block elements and nucleoamphiphiles.

    PubMed

    Moreau, Louis; Ziarelli, Fabio; Grinstaff, Mark W; Barthélémy, Philippe

    2006-04-21

    Hollow microspheres featuring a hybrid lipid-cation multilamellar shell are prepared by hydration of a nucleoside based amphiphile with an aqueous solution containing either actinide or lanthanide salts. The physico-chemical data collected clearly indicate that the formation of these microspheres is a consequence of the following concomitant stabilizing factors: (i) hydrophobic interactions, (ii) nucleobase dimer formation and (iii) phosphate/f-block element salt binding.

  19. Protease inhibitor homologues from mamba venoms: facilitation of acetylcholine release and interactions with prejunctional blocking toxins.

    PubMed

    Harvey, A L; Karlsson, E

    1982-09-01

    1 Five polypeptides, which were isolated from elapid snake venoms and which are structurally related to protease inhibitors, were tested for action on isolated biventer cervicis nerve-muscle preparations of the chick. 2 Dendrotoxin from the Eastern green mamba (Dendroaspis angusticeps) and toxins K and I from the black mamba (Dendroaspis polylepis polylepis) increased to indirect stimulation without affecting responses to exogenous acetylcholine, carbachol of KCl. 3 The two other protease inhibitor homologues, HHV-II from Ringhals cobra (Hemachatus haemachatus) and NNV-II from Cape cobra (Naja nivea) did not increase responses to nerve stimulation. Trypsin inhibitor from bovine pancreas also had no facilitatory effects on neuromuscular transmission. 4 The facilitatory toxins from mamba venoms interacted with the prejunctional blocking toxins, beta-bungarotoxin, crotoxin and notexin, but not with taipoxin. The blocking effects of beta-bungarotoxin were reduced by pretreatment with the mamba toxins, whereas the blocking actions of crotoxin and notexin were enhanced. 5 The results indicate that protease inhibitor homologues from mamba venoms form a new class of neurotoxin, which acts to increase the release of acetylcholine in response to motor nerve stimulation. 6 From the interaction studies it is concluded that the facilitatory toxins bind to motor nerve terminals at sites related to those occupied by the prejunctional blocking toxins. However, differences in interactions with individual toxins suggest that there must be several related binding sites on the nerve terminals.

  20. Teaching Chemistry in the Block Schedule

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Craven, Sally

    2001-04-01

    Block scheduling, which refers to an arrangement of class time into fewer, longer periods that make up a school day, has been adopted by many high schools across America. Taking fewer classes per day reduces the instructional time lost to transitions. Students like having an extra day to complete homework assignments, and teachers gain an 85-minute planning period every day. With the extended periods of class time available, teachers can build toward higher-order thinking skills and explore connections between disciplines. Collaborative learning and other forms of group learning are ideal for block scheduling. For instance, when studying kinetic theory and phase changes, students are divided into groups and each group becomes an expert on a state of matter. The extended class period allows students within the group to cover the necessary material during two class meetings. With the block schedule it is possible to accomplish prelab questioning, the activity, and postlab analysis in the same day. Successful implementation was made possible through ongoing professional development, creation of an in-house block scheduling expert, and orientation for students and parents on time management and block scheduling.

  1. Mineral resources estimation based on block modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bargawa, Waterman Sulistyana; Amri, Nur Ali

    2016-02-01

    The estimation in this paper uses three kinds of block models of nearest neighbor polygon, inverse distance squared and ordinary kriging. The techniques are weighting scheme which is based on the principle that block content is a linear combination of the grade data or the sample around the block being estimated. The case study in Pongkor area, here is gold-silver resource modeling that allegedly shaped of quartz vein as a hydrothermal process of epithermal type. Resources modeling includes of data entry, statistical and variography analysis of topography and geological model, the block model construction, estimation parameter, presentation model and tabulation of mineral resources. Skewed distribution, here isolated by robust semivariogram. The mineral resources classification generated in this model based on an analysis of the kriging standard deviation and number of samples which are used in the estimation of each block. Research results are used to evaluate the performance of OK and IDS estimator. Based on the visual and statistical analysis, concluded that the model of OK gives the estimation closer to the data used for modeling.

  2. Quadratus Lumborum Block as an Alternative to Lumbar Plexus Block for Hip Surgery: A Report of 2 Cases.

    PubMed

    La Colla, Luca; Ben-David, Bruce; Merman, Rita

    2017-01-01

    Quadratus lumborum (QL) block was first described several years ago, but few articles have been published regarding this technique, for the most part case series involving abdominal surgery. We report 2 cases of prolonged, extensive block of thoracic and lumbar dermatomes after QL block in patients undergoing different hip surgery procedures for whom QL block was used in place of lumbar plexus block. Further prospective studies comparing these 2 techniques are necessary to better characterize the role of QL block in hip surgery.

  3. 3 CFR 13573 - Executive Order 13573 of May 18, 2011. Blocking Property of Senior Officials of the Government of...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... Property of Senior Officials of the Government of Syria 13573 Order 13573 Presidential Documents Executive Orders Executive Order 13573 of May 18, 2011 EO 13573 Blocking Property of Senior Officials of the... be a senior official of the Government of Syria; (ii) to be an agency or instrumentality of...

  4. Structure-property relationships in block copolymers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mcgrath, J. E.

    1976-01-01

    Block copolymers are a class of relatively new materials which contain long sequences of two (or more) chemically different repeat units. Unlike random copolymers, each segment may retain some properties which are characteristic of its homopolymer. It is well known that most physical blends of two different homopolymers are incompatible on a macro-scale. By contrast most block copolymers display only a microphase (eg. 100-200 A domains) separation. Complete separation is restricted because of a loss in configurational entropy. The latter is due to presence of chemical bond(s) between the segments. Novel physical properties can be obtained because it is possible to prepare any desired combination of rubber-like, glassy, or crystalline blocks. The architecture and sequential arrangement of the segments can strongly influence mechanical behavior.

  5. Rapid ordering of block copolymer thin films

    DOE PAGES

    Majewski, Pawel W.; Yager, Kevin G.

    2016-08-18

    Block-copolymers self-assemble into diverse morphologies, where nanoscale order can be finely tuned via block architecture and processing conditions. However, the ultimate usage of these materials in real-world applications may be hampered by the extremely long thermal annealing times—hours or days—required to achieve good order. Here, we provide an overview of the fundamentals of block-copolymer self-assembly kinetics, and review the techniques that have been demonstrated to influence, and enhance, these ordering kinetics. We discuss the inherent tradeoffs between oven annealing, solvent annealing, microwave annealing, zone annealing, and other directed self-assembly methods; including an assessment of spatial and temporal characteristics. Here, wemore » also review both real-space and reciprocal-space analysis techniques for quantifying order in these systems.« less

  6. Rapid ordering of block copolymer thin films

    SciTech Connect

    Majewski, Pawel W.; Yager, Kevin G.

    2016-08-18

    Block-copolymers self-assemble into diverse morphologies, where nanoscale order can be finely tuned via block architecture and processing conditions. However, the ultimate usage of these materials in real-world applications may be hampered by the extremely long thermal annealing times—hours or days—required to achieve good order. Here, we provide an overview of the fundamentals of block-copolymer self-assembly kinetics, and review the techniques that have been demonstrated to influence, and enhance, these ordering kinetics. We discuss the inherent tradeoffs between oven annealing, solvent annealing, microwave annealing, zone annealing, and other directed self-assembly methods; including an assessment of spatial and temporal characteristics. Here, we also review both real-space and reciprocal-space analysis techniques for quantifying order in these systems.

  7. Single molecule magnets from magnetic building blocks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kroener, W.; Paretzki, A.; Cervetti, C.; Hohloch, S.; Rauschenbach, S.; Kern, K.; Dressel, M.; Bogani, L.; M&üLler, P.

    2013-03-01

    We provide a basic set of magnetic building blocks that can be rationally assembled, similar to magnetic LEGO bricks, in order to create a huge variety of magnetic behavior. Using rare-earth centers and multipyridine ligands, fine-tuning of intra and intermolecular exchange interaction is demonstrated. We have investigated a series of molecules with monomeric, dimeric and trimeric lanthanide centers using SQUID susceptometry and Hall bar magnetometry. A home-made micro-Hall-probe magnetometer was used to measure magnetic hysteresis loops at mK temperatures and fields up to 17 T. All compounds show hysteresis below blocking temperatures of 3 to 4 K. The correlation of the assembly of the building blocks with the magnetic properties will be discussed.

  8. Arbitrary lattice symmetries via block copolymer nanomeshes

    PubMed Central

    Majewski, Pawel W.; Rahman, Atikur; Black, Charles T.; Yager, Kevin G.

    2015-01-01

    Self-assembly of block copolymers is a powerful motif for spontaneously forming well-defined nanostructures over macroscopic areas. Yet, the inherent energy minimization criteria of self-assembly give rise to a limited library of structures; diblock copolymers naturally form spheres on a cubic lattice, hexagonally packed cylinders and alternating lamellae. Here, we demonstrate multicomponent nanomeshes with any desired lattice symmetry. We exploit photothermal annealing to rapidly order and align block copolymer phases over macroscopic areas, combined with conversion of the self-assembled organic phase into inorganic replicas. Repeated photothermal processing independently aligns successive layers, providing full control of the size, symmetry and composition of the nanoscale unit cell. We construct a variety of symmetries, most of which are not natively formed by block copolymers, including squares, rhombuses, rectangles and triangles. In fact, we demonstrate all possible two-dimensional Bravais lattices. Finally, we elucidate the influence of nanostructure on the electrical and optical properties of nanomeshes. PMID:26100566

  9. A region labeling algorithm based on block

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Jing

    2009-10-01

    The time performance of region labeling algorithm is important for image process. However, common region labeling algorithms cannot meet the requirements of real-time image processing. In this paper, a technique using block to record the connective area is proposed. By this technique, connective closure and information related to the target can be computed during a one-time image scan. It records the edge pixel's coordinate, including outer side edges and inner side edges, as well as the label, and then it can calculate connecting area's shape center, area and gray. Compared to others, this block based region labeling algorithm is more efficient. It can well meet the time requirements of real-time processing. Experiment results also validate the correctness and efficiency of the algorithm. Experiment results show that it can detect any connecting areas in binary images, which contains various complex and quaint patterns. The block labeling algorithm is used in a real-time image processing program now.

  10. Does haloperidol block methylphenidate? Motivation or attention?

    PubMed

    Levy, F; Hobbes, G

    1996-07-01

    The effect of methylphenidate preceded by a moderate dose of haloperidol on reaction times over the duration of a continuous performance test (CPT), was investigated in ten male children, with a DSM-III diagnosis of attention deficit disorder with hyperactivity disorder (ADDH). Using a within-subject double-blind design, the effects of methylphenidate preceded by haloperidol on reaction time during the first and second blocks of CPT test were compared. Methylphenidate maintained a significantly improved reaction time in the second block of the CPT test. When methylphenidate, preceded by placebo, was preceded by haloperidol this effect was not observed, suggesting opposing effects on attentional systems by methylphenidate versus haloperidol. The study is the first to examine the "blocking" effect of haloperidol over the course of a CPT. The results suggest that dopamine systems are involved in the maintenance of the CPT response, and support an "incentive motivation" theory of sustained attention.

  11. Rapid ordering of block copolymer thin films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Majewski, Pawel W.; Yager, Kevin G.

    2016-10-01

    Block-copolymers self-assemble into diverse morphologies, where nanoscale order can be finely tuned via block architecture and processing conditions. However, the ultimate usage of these materials in real-world applications may be hampered by the extremely long thermal annealing times—hours or days—required to achieve good order. Here, we provide an overview of the fundamentals of block-copolymer self-assembly kinetics, and review the techniques that have been demonstrated to influence, and enhance, these ordering kinetics. We discuss the inherent tradeoffs between oven annealing, solvent annealing, microwave annealing, zone annealing, and other directed self-assembly methods; including an assessment of spatial and temporal characteristics. We also review both real-space and reciprocal-space analysis techniques for quantifying order in these systems.

  12. Additive-driven assembly of block copolymers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Ying; Daga, Vikram; Anderson, Eric; Watkins, James

    2011-03-01

    One challenge to the formation of well ordered hybrid materials is the incorporation of nanoscale additives including metal, semiconductor and dielectric nanoparticles at high loadings while maintaining strong segregation. Here we describe the molecular and functional design of small molecule and nanoparticle additives that enhance phase segregation in their block copolymer host and enable high additive loadings. Our approach includes the use of hydrogen bond interactions between the functional groups on the additive or particle that serve as hydrogen bond donors and one segment of the block copolymer containing hydrogen bond acceptors. Further, the additives show strong selectively towards the targeted domains, leading to enhancements in contrast between properties of the phases. In addition to structural changes, we explore how large changes in the thermal and mechanical properties occur upon incorporation of the additives. Generalization of this additive-induced ordering strategy to various block copolymers will be discussed.

  13. Intercultural Communication Activities in the Classroom: Turning Stumbling Blocks into Building Blocks.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dillon, Randy K.

    This paper explores behavior patterns that inhibit effective communication in everyday, educational, and business cross-cultural settings. Opportunities to change these inhibiting patterns, metaphorically referred to as "stumbling blocks," into building blocks or tools for successful intercultural understandings are discussed in the…

  14. 31 CFR 537.209 - Expenses of maintaining blocked property; liquidation of blocked account.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Expenses of maintaining blocked property; liquidation of blocked account. 537.209 Section 537.209 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE OF FOREIGN ASSETS CONTROL, DEPARTMENT OF THE...

  15. 31 CFR 537.209 - Expenses of maintaining blocked property; liquidation of blocked account.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Expenses of maintaining blocked property; liquidation of blocked account. 537.209 Section 537.209 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE OF FOREIGN ASSETS CONTROL, DEPARTMENT OF THE...

  16. 31 CFR 537.209 - Expenses of maintaining blocked physical property; liquidation of blocked property.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Expenses of maintaining blocked physical property; liquidation of blocked property. 537.209 Section 537.209 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE OF FOREIGN ASSETS CONTROL, DEPARTMENT OF...

  17. Block Play: It's Not Just for Boys Anymore--Strategies for Encouraging Girls' Block Play

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tokarz, Barb

    2008-01-01

    While block play is essential for both boys' and girls' social, cognitive, language, and motor development, girls do not engage in block play as frequently as boys. This situation can be attributed to the socialization process--children learn societal expectations for behavior and materials for both boys and girls--lack of experience for girls…

  18. 31 CFR 537.209 - Expenses of maintaining blocked property; liquidation of blocked account.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Expenses of maintaining blocked property; liquidation of blocked account. 537.209 Section 537.209 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE OF FOREIGN ASSETS CONTROL, DEPARTMENT OF THE...

  19. 31 CFR 544.204 - Expenses of maintaining blocked physical property; liquidation of blocked property.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Expenses of maintaining blocked physical property; liquidation of blocked property. 544.204 Section 544.204 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE OF FOREIGN ASSETS CONTROL, DEPARTMENT OF...

  20. 31 CFR 547.204 - Expenses of maintaining blocked physical property; liquidation of blocked property.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Expenses of maintaining blocked physical property; liquidation of blocked property. 547.204 Section 547.204 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE OF FOREIGN ASSETS CONTROL, DEPARTMENT OF...

  1. 31 CFR 542.204 - Expenses of maintaining blocked property; liquidation of blocked property.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Expenses of maintaining blocked property; liquidation of blocked property. 542.204 Section 542.204 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE OF FOREIGN ASSETS CONTROL, DEPARTMENT OF THE...

  2. 31 CFR 548.204 - Expenses of maintaining blocked physical property; liquidation of blocked property.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Expenses of maintaining blocked physical property; liquidation of blocked property. 548.204 Section 548.204 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE OF FOREIGN ASSETS CONTROL, DEPARTMENT OF...

  3. 31 CFR 541.205 - Expenses of maintaining blocked property; liquidation of blocked account.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Expenses of maintaining blocked property; liquidation of blocked account. 541.205 Section 541.205 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE OF FOREIGN ASSETS CONTROL, DEPARTMENT OF THE...

  4. 31 CFR 543.204 - Expenses of maintaining blocked physical property; liquidation of blocked property.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Expenses of maintaining blocked physical property; liquidation of blocked property. 543.204 Section 543.204 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE OF FOREIGN ASSETS CONTROL, DEPARTMENT OF...

  5. 31 CFR 546.204 - Expenses of maintaining blocked physical property; liquidation of blocked property.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Expenses of maintaining blocked physical property; liquidation of blocked property. 546.204 Section 546.204 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE OF FOREIGN ASSETS CONTROL, DEPARTMENT OF...

  6. 31 CFR 545.207 - Expenses of maintaining blocked property; liquidation of blocked account.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Expenses of maintaining blocked property; liquidation of blocked account. 545.207 Section 545.207 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE OF FOREIGN ASSETS CONTROL, DEPARTMENT OF THE...

  7. Lidocaine block of cardiac sodium channels.

    PubMed

    Bean, B P; Cohen, C J; Tsien, R W

    1983-05-01

    Lidocaine block of cardiac sodium channels was studied in voltage-clamped rabbit purkinje fibers at drug concentrations ranging from 1 mM down to effective antiarrhythmic doses (5-20 muM). Dose-response curves indicated that lidocaine blocks the channel by binding one-to-one, with a voltage-dependent K(d). The half-blocking concentration varied from more than 300 muM, at a negative holding potential where inactivation was completely removed, to approximately 10 muM, at a depolarized holding potential where inactivation was nearly complete. Lidocaine block showed prominent use dependence with trains of depolarizing pulses from a negative holding potential. During the interval between pulses, repriming of I (Na) displayed two exponential components, a normally recovering component (tauless than 0.2 s), and a lidocaine-induced, slowly recovering fraction (tau approximately 1-2 s at pH 7.0). Raising the lidocaine concentration magnified the slowly recovering fraction without changing its time course; after a long depolarization, this fraction was one-half at approximately 10 muM lidocaine, just as expected if it corresponded to drug-bound, inactivated channels. At less than or equal to 20 muM lidocaine, the slowly recovering fraction grew exponentially to a steady level as the preceding depolarization was prolonged; the time course was the same for strong or weak depolarizations, that is, with or without significant activation of I(Na). This argues that use dependence at therapeutic levels reflects block of inactivated channels, rather than block of open channels. Overall, these results provide direct evidence for the "modulated-receptor hypothesis" of Hille (1977) and Hondeghem and Katzung (1977). Unlike tetrodotoxin, lidocaine shows similar interactions with Na channels of heart, nerve, and skeletal muscle.

  8. Routing System for Building Block Layout

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Nang-Ping

    With the advent VLSI, layout techniques become more and more crucial to IC design. An automatic building block layout system is a useful tool to deal with the increasing complexity of custom chip layout problem. An approach to the routing part of this layout system is proposed. This routing system can handle arbitrarily shaped rectilinear blocks with pins on the boundary. A feature of this system is its ability to shift blocks at any moment so that better placement and hence better routing can be achieved. The system minimizes layout area and assures 100% routing completion. A relative placement is the input to this routing system. The prerouting analysis will calculate the expected routing density around each block and the routing space is allocated accordingly. The "bottleneck" idea is introduced to represent the critical regions of the layout plane where the congestion of routing is most likely to occur. It also serves as a link between blocks whereby all information are easily updated when some blocks have to move their positions. A weighted "global routing graph" is constructed to reflect the current routing situation associated with bottlenecks. The global routing of each signal is done by a "Steiner-Tree-on-Graphs" (STOG) algorithm. The basic element of STOG is a three-point Steiner-Tree-on-Graphs algorithm. Some theoretical results are derived and an efficient algorithm is developed based on them. STOG has reasonable computational complexities and yields very good results from experimental tests. In the detailed routing phase, an existing channel router and a switch-box router are called for track assignment. Special emphasis has been put on terminal position alignment between two neighboring channels to avoid unnecessary jogs. The power and ground will be allowed different wire width and routed on the metal layer. Several examples have been tested against this routing system. It has achieved very compact layout in short running time.

  9. Building blocks for subleading helicity operators

    SciTech Connect

    Kolodrubetz, Daniel W.; Moult, Ian; Stewart, Iain W.

    2016-05-24

    On-shell helicity methods provide powerful tools for determining scattering amplitudes, which have a one-to-one correspondence with leading power helicity operators in the Soft-Collinear Effective Theory (SCET) away from singular regions of phase space. We show that helicity based operators are also useful for enumerating power suppressed SCET operators, which encode subleading amplitude information about singular limits. In particular, we present a complete set of scalar helicity building blocks that are valid for constructing operators at any order in the SCET power expansion. In conclusion, we also describe an interesting angular momentum selection rule that restricts how these building blocks can be assembled.

  10. Low-Cost Constant Temperature Heating Block

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shevlin, Charles G.; Coppersmith, Ward; Fish, Christopher; Vlock, Stanley; Vellema, William

    1997-08-01

    A simple constant temperature heat block was constructed from readily available materials. The configuration of the heating block can be constructed to meet the needs of any laboratory. Some highlights of this temperature controller include the elimination of dangerous flames and cumbersome water baths, maintenance of temperature over a wide range within 1 °C and compact electronics. In addition, the IC power supply circuit is self-contained thus eliminating the need for bulky transformers and additional power related circuitry. Secondary school and undergraduate laboratories can build many units for the cost of a commercially comparable one while simultaneously putting to practice several electronic principles taught in most instrumental analysis courses.

  11. Geological evolution of the Wonominta Block

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mills, K. J.

    1992-11-01

    The Wonominta Block in western New South Wales is an area of over 20,000 km 2 of poorly to moderately exposed Palaeozoic and older rocks. The block is surrounded by Mesozoic or younger sediments and is separated from the Broken Hill and Euriowie Blocks by the Bancannia Trough. The Wonominta Block can be divided into a number of lithostratigraphic units. The oldest unit is a fault-bounded sequence of multiply deformed low- to medium-grade metasediments, basic volcanics and silicic tuffs, that may be correlated with the Middle Proterozoic Willyama Supergroup of the Broken Hill Block. The second unit is an extensive sequence of carbonaceous slates containing several clean quartzite beds, with some dolomitic limestones and rare polymictic conglomerates in its upper section. This unit is equated with the Upper Proterozoic Adelaidean sequence overlying the Broken Hill Block, but differs in having a sequence of alkalic basaltic pillow lavas and tuffs interbedded with quartz-rich rocks at one level within the unit. A thin slate bed at the top of this unit marks a transitional stratigraphie contact with a thick overlying sequence of graded lithic and quartzofeldspathic sandstones with thin slate interbeds. This thick turbidite sequence, forming the third unit, is widespread within the Wonominta Block, becomes less oxidised to the east, contains rare trace fossils and sponge spicule shale horizons and is isoclinally folded along with the two older units. This unit equates with the Kanmantoo Group in South Australia. The more fossiliferous Lower to Middle Cambrian Gnalta Group, exposed near Mount Arrowsmith and near Mount Wright on the western edge of the Wonominta Block, may represent a shallow water near shore sequence equivalent to this deeper water turbidite unit to the east. The fossiliferous Upper Cambrian to Lower Ordovician Mootwingee Group in the west and the Kayrunnera Group in the east overlie the older units with a pronounced unconformity. This unconformity

  12. Building blocks for subleading helicity operators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kolodrubetz, Daniel W.; Moult, Ian; Stewart, Iain W.

    2016-05-01

    On-shell helicity methods provide powerful tools for determining scattering amplitudes, which have a one-to-one correspondence with leading power helicity operators in the Soft-Collinear Effective Theory (SCET) away from singular regions of phase space. We show that helicity based operators are also useful for enumerating power suppressed SCET operators, which encode subleading amplitude information about singular limits. In particular, we present a complete set of scalar helicity building blocks that are valid for constructing operators at any order in the SCET power expansion. We also describe an interesting angular momentum selection rule that restricts how these building blocks can be assembled.

  13. Complete heart block in rheumatoid arthritis.

    PubMed Central

    Ahern, M; Lever, J V; Cosh, J

    1983-01-01

    We report 8 cases of complete heart block (CHB) occurring in patients with rheumatoid arthritis and review 20 similar patients previously reported. Complete heart block occurs generally in patients with established erosive nodular rheumatoid disease. It usually appears to be sudden and permanent, but progression from minor conduction delays is not uncommon. The characteristic histopathological finding is a rheumatoid granuloma in or near the AV node or bundle of His. If syncope or Stokes-Adams attacks occur, the treatment of choice is the insertion of a permanent pacemaker. The prognosis is good provided no other cardiac lesions occur, whether pericardial, valvular, or myocardial. Images PMID:6882034

  14. ION PRODUCING MECHANISM (ARC EXTERNAL TO BLOCK)

    DOEpatents

    Brobeck, W.H.

    1958-09-01

    This patent pentains to an ion producing mechanism employed in a calutron which has the decided advantage of an increased amount of ionization effectuated by the arc, and a substantially uniform arc in poiat of time, i arc location and along the arc length. The unique features of the disclosed ion source lie in the specific structural arrangement of the source block, gas ionizing passage, filament shield and filament whereby the arc is established both within the ionizing passage and immediately outside the exit of the ionizing passage at the block face.

  15. A comparison between caudal block versus splash block for postoperative analgesia following inguinal herniorrhaphy in children

    PubMed Central

    Cheon, Jun Kong; Hwang, Kan Taeck; Choi, Bo Yoon

    2011-01-01

    Background We wanted to determine the postoperative analgesic efficacy of preincisional caudal epidural block versus instillation (splash block) following inguinal herniorrhaphy in children. Methods Thirty children (age range: 1-7 years) who were scheduled to undergo inguinal herniorrhaphy were divided into 2 groups: the caudal block group and the splash block group with 15 children in each group. Tracheal intubation was performed. Fifteen children received caudal block with 1.0 ml/kg of 0.25% ropivacaine (Group 1). Caudal block was performed using the loss of resistance method via the sacral hiatus. Fifteen children in Group 2 received local instillation (splash block) in the surgical site with up to 0.4 ml/kg of 0.25% ropivacaine. The patients were observed for 90 minutes in the postanesthesia care unit and then they were transferred to the ward. The pain scores were taken 4 times. We assessed pain using the Faces pain scores. Results There were no significant differences between the groups regarding the pain scores at 10, 30 and 60 minutes upon entering the postanesthesia care unit. The pain scores of Group 1 were slightly lower at the last evaluation point when compared to that of Group 2. One patient in Group 1 required supplemental postoperative intravenous (IV) tramadol, while all the other patients in both groups did not require supplemental IV tramadol. The intraoperative requirement for sevoflurane was decreased in Group 1 as compared to that of Group 2. There were no major complications related to either type of block. Conclusions We conclude that a splash block can have a similar analgesic effect as that of a caudal block for the postoperative herniorrhaphy pain of children. PMID:21602975

  16. Incremental versus maximum bite advancement during twin-block therapy: a randomized controlled clinical trial.

    PubMed

    Banks, Phil; Wright, Jean; O'Brien, Kevin

    2004-11-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of incremental and maximum bite advancement during treatment of Class II Division 1 malocclusion with the Twin-block appliance in the permanent dentition. It was performed at 3 district general hospitals in the United Kingdom with 4 operators. Two hundred three patients, 10-14 years old, were randomized. Control patients had the initial bite taken edge-to-edge for appliance construction with a standard Twin-block. Experimental patients had 2 mm initial bite advancement and subsequent 2 mm advancements at 6 weekly intervals with a Twin-block appliance incorporating advancement screws. Data were collected at the start and the finish of Twin-block treatment. The use of incremental advancement of the Twin-block did not confer any advantages in terms of process and outcome of the treatment. However, patient compliance was influenced by operator and patient age. The duration of treatment was influenced by operator and initial overjet. Incremental bite advancement produced no advantages over maximum advancement.

  17. Kilohertz frequency nerve block enhances anti-inflammatory effects of vagus nerve stimulation

    PubMed Central

    Patel, Yogi A.; Saxena, Tarun; Bellamkonda, Ravi V.; Butera, Robert J.

    2017-01-01

    Efferent activation of the cervical vagus nerve (cVN) dampens systemic inflammatory processes, potentially modulating a wide-range of inflammatory pathological conditions. In contrast, afferent cVN activation amplifies systemic inflammatory processes, leading to activation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis, the sympathetic nervous system through the greater splanchnic nerve (GSN), and elevation of pro-inflammatory cytokines. Ideally, to clinically implement anti-inflammatory therapy via cervical vagus nerve stimulation (cVNS) one should selectively activate the efferent pathway. Unfortunately, current implementations, in animal and clinical investigations, activate both afferent and efferent pathways. We paired cVNS with kilohertz electrical stimulation (KES) nerve block to preferentially activate efferent pathways while blocking afferent pathways. Selective efferent cVNS enhanced the anti-inflammatory effects of cVNS. Our results demonstrate that: (i) afferent, but not efferent, cVNS synchronously activates the GSN in a dose-dependent manner; (ii) efferent cVNS enabled by complete afferent KES nerve block enhances the anti-inflammatory benefits of cVNS; and (iii) incomplete afferent KES nerve block exacerbates systemic inflammation. Overall, these data demonstrate the utility of paired efferent cVNS and afferent KES nerve block for achieving selective efferent cVNS, specifically as it relates to neuromodulation of systemic inflammation. PMID:28054557

  18. Perineural administration of dexmedetomidine in combination with ropivacaine prolongs axillary brachial plexus block.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yu; Wang, Chang-Song; Shi, Jing-Hui; Sun, Bo; Liu, Shu-Jie; Li, Peng; Li, En-You

    2014-01-01

    To evaluate the hypothesis that adding dexmedetomidine to ropivacaine prolongs axillary brachial plexus block. Forty-five patients of ASA I~II and aged 25-60 yr who were scheduled for elective forearm and hand surgery were randomly divided into 3 equal groups and received 40 ml of 0.33% ropivacaine + 1 ml dexmedetomidine (50 μg) (Group DR1), 40 ml of 0.33% ropivacaine + 1 ml dexmedetomidine (100 μg) (group DR2) or 40 ml of 0.33% ropivacaine + 1 ml saline (group R) in a double-blind fashion. The onset and duration of sensory and motor blocks and side effects were recorded. The demographic data and surgical characteristics were similar in each group. Sensory and motor block onset times were the same in the three groups. Sensory and motor blockade durations were longer in group DR2 than in group R (P < 0.05). There was no significant difference in the sensory blockade duration between group DR1 and group R. Bradycardia, hypertension and hypotension were not observed in group R and occurred more often in group DR2 than in group DR1. Dexmedetomidine added to ropivacaine for an axillary brachial plexus block prolongs the duration of the block. However, dexmedetomidine may also lead to side effects such as bradycardia, hypertension, and hypotension.

  19. Correlating self-assembly of block copolymers for their application in synthesis of gold nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Ray, Debes; Aswall, Vinod Kumar; Srivastava, Dinesh

    2011-03-01

    We report the role of self-assembly of polyethylene oxide-polypropylene oxide-polyethylene oxide (PEO-PPO-PEO) block copolymers for the synthesis of gold nanoparticles from hydrogen tetrachloroaureate (III) hydrate (HAuCl4 x 3H2O) in aqueous solution. The synthesis has been carried out using three different block copolymers P85 [EO26PO39EO26], F88 [EO103PO39EO103] and P105 [EO37PO56EO37], which not only have varying molecular weight but also differ in hydrophobicity to hydrophilicity ratio. The formation of gold nanoparticles is confirmed by the UV-Visible Spectroscopy. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) provides the sizes of the nanoparticles formed in these systems. Small-Angle Neutron Scattering (SANS) and Dynamic Light Scattering (DLS) techniques are used to correlate the self-assembly of block copolymer to their propensity to form gold nanoparticles. The yield is found to be in the order P105 > P85 > F88 and is related to the higher tendency of block copolymer to self-assemble to give greater yield of gold nanoparticles. For all the block copolymers, SANS and DLS results suggests that the yield in the synthesis does not always increases with the salt concentration and is limited due to the fact that most of the block copolymers remain unassociated with the gold nanoparticles. By making use of these unassociated block copolymers, we propose two methods (i) step addition method and (ii) additional reductant method, where the synthesis yield of gold nanoparticles can be enhanced by manifold.

  20. Olfactory Blocking and Odorant Similarity in the Honeybee

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gerber, Bertram; Giurfa, Martin; Guerrieri, Fernando; Lachnit, Harald

    2005-01-01

    Blocking occurs when previous training with a stimulus A reduces (blocks) subsequent learning about a stimulus B, when A and B are trained in compound. The question of whether blocking exists in olfactory conditioning of proboscis extension reflex (PER) in honeybees is under debate. The last published accounts on blocking in honeybees state that…

  1. 21 CFR 882.1925 - Ultrasonic scanner calibration test block.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Ultrasonic scanner calibration test block. 882... Ultrasonic scanner calibration test block. (a) Identification. An ultrasonic scanner calibration test block is a block of material with known properties used to calibrate ultrasonic scanning devices (e.g.,...

  2. 21 CFR 882.1925 - Ultrasonic scanner calibration test block.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Ultrasonic scanner calibration test block. 882... Ultrasonic scanner calibration test block. (a) Identification. An ultrasonic scanner calibration test block is a block of material with known properties used to calibrate ultrasonic scanning devices (e.g.,...

  3. Real-time ultrasound-guided comparison of adductor canal block and psoas compartment block combined with sciatic nerve block in laparoscopic knee surgeries

    PubMed Central

    Messeha, Medhat M.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Lumbar plexus block, combined with a sciatic nerve block, is an effective locoregional anesthetic technique for analgesia and anesthesia of the lower extremity. The aim of this study was to compare the clinical results outcome of the adductor canal block versus the psoas compartment block combined with sciatic nerve block using real time ultrasound guidance in patients undergoing elective laparoscopic knee surgeries. Patients and Methods: Ninety patients who were undergoing elective laparoscopic knee surgeries were randomly allocated to receive a sciatic nerve block in addition to lumbar plexus block using either an adductor canal block (ACB) or a posterior psoas compartment approach (PCB) using 25 ml of bupivacine 0.5% with adrenaline 1:400,000 injection over 2-3 minutes while observing the distribution of the local anesthetic in real time. Successful nerve block was defined as a complete loss of pinprick sensation in the region that is supplied by the three nerves along with adequate motor block, 30 minutes after injection. The degree of motor block was evaluated 30 minutes after the block procedure. The results of the present study showed that the real time ultrasound guidance of PCB is more effective than ACB approach. Although the sensory blockade of the femoral nerve achieved equally by both techniques, the LFC and OBT nerves were faster and more effectively blocked with PCB technique. Also PCB group showed significant complete sensory block without need for general anesthesia, significant decrease in the post-operative VAS and significant increase time of first analgesic requirement as compared to the ACB group. Result and Conclusion: The present study demonstrates that blockade of lumber plexus by psoas compartment block is more effective in complete sensory block without general anesthesia supplementation in addition to decrease post-operative analgesic requirement than adductor canal block. PMID:27212766

  4. Conference on Building Blocks to Success.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ohio State Board of Education, Columbus.

    This document reproduces several papers that were delivered at the Ohio Department of Education's statewide ESEA Title I conference 1971, the theme of which was "Building Blocks to Success"; this typifies how Ohio school administrators and teachers have designed Title I programs to help educationally disadvantaged children experience…

  5. Seed conformal blocks in 4D CFT

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Echeverri, Alejandro Castedo; Elkhidir, Emtinan; Karateev, Denis; Serone, Marco

    2016-02-01

    We compute in closed analytical form the minimal set of "seed" conformal blocks associated to the exchange of generic mixed symmetry spinor/tensor operators in an arbitrary representation ( ℓ, overline{ℓ} ) of the Lorentz group in four dimensional conformal field theories. These blocks arise from 4-point functions involving two scalars, one (0, | ℓ - overline{7ell;} |) and one (| ℓ - overline{ℓ} |, 0) spinors or tensors. We directly solve the set of Casimir equations, that can elegantly be written in a compact form for any ( ℓ, overline{ℓ} ), by using an educated ansatz and reducing the problem to an algebraic linear system. Various details on the form of the ansatz have been deduced by using the so called shadow formalism. The complexity of the conformal blocks depends on the value of p = | ℓ - overline{ℓ} | and grows with p, in analogy to what happens to scalar conformal blocks in d even space-time dimensions as d increases. These results open the way to bootstrap 4-point functions involving arbitrary spinor/tensor operators in four dimensional conformal field theories.

  6. Complete atrioventricular block in Duchenne muscular dystrophy.

    PubMed

    Fayssoil, A; Orlikowski, D; Nardi, O; Annane, D

    2008-11-01

    Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) is an inherited myogenic disorder due to mutations in the dystrophin gene on chromosome Xp21.1. It is characterized by progressive muscle wasting and weakness of variable distribution and severity. Heart is involved leading to heart failure. Conduction abnormalities are unusual. We report a case of complete atrio-ventricular block in a DMD patient.

  7. Who Is at Risk for Heart Block?

    MedlinePlus

    ... degree heart block caused by an overly active vagus nerve. You have one vagus nerve on each side of your body. These nerves ... the way to your abdomen. Activity in the vagus nerve slows the heart rate. Rate This Content: NEXT >> ...

  8. Efficient block rate structures: Rethinking conventional wisdom

    SciTech Connect

    Chamberlin, J.; Seiden, K.

    1993-12-01

    The supposed inefficiency of declining block rates is greatly exaggerated. In fact, evidence shows that rates that vary significantly from the cost of service - e.g., as they might for winter heating customers of a summer peaking utility - worsen economic efficiency.

  9. Charge Transport in Conjugated Block Copolymers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, Brandon; Le, Thinh; Lee, Youngmin; Gomez, Enrique

    Interest in conjugated block copolymers for high performance organic photovoltaic applications has increased considerably in recent years. Polymer/fullerene mixtures for conventional bulk heterojunction devices, such as P3HT:PCBM, are severely limited in control over interfaces and domain length scales. In contrast, microphase separated block copolymers self-assemble to form lamellar morphologies with alternating electron donor and acceptor domains, thereby maximizing electronic coupling and local order at interfaces. Efficiencies as high as 3% have been reported in solar cells for one block copolymer, P3HT-PFTBT, but the details concerning charge transport within copolymers have not been explored. To fill this gap, we probed the transport characteristics with thin-film transistors. Excellent charge mobility values for electron transport have been observed on aluminum source and drain contacts in a bottom gate, bottom contact transistor configuration. Evidence of high mobility in ordered PFTBT phases has also been obtained following thermal annealing. The insights gleaned from our investigation serve as useful guideposts, revealing the significance of the interplay between charge mobility, interfacial order, and optimal domain size in organic block copolymer semiconductors.

  10. SunBlock '99- An Educational Resource

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pike, C. D.; Mason, H. E.; Walsh, R. W.

    2000-04-01

    SunBlock `99 is a web-based Public Understanding of Science and educational project which presents the very latest solar research as seen through the eyes of young British scientists. It seeks both to increase public awareness of solar physics and to provide an educational resource for use in the classroom.

  11. Block Addressing Indices for Approximate Text Retrieval.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baeza-Yates, Ricardo; Navarro, Gonzalo

    2000-01-01

    Discusses indexing in large text databases, approximate text searching, and space-time tradeoffs for indexed text searching. Studies the space overhead and retrieval times as functions of the text block size, concludes that an index can be sublinear in space overhead and query time, and applies the analysis to the Web. (Author/LRW)

  12. Ecology of Great Salt Pond, Block Island

    EPA Science Inventory

    Great Salt Pond is an island of estuarine water on Block Island, which sits in the middle of the Northwest Atlantic Continental Shelf. When the last continental glaciers retreated, they left a high spot on a terminal moraine. The rising sea from melting glaciers formed two island...

  13. 47 CFR 8.5 - No blocking.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION GENERAL PRESERVING THE OPEN INTERNET § 8.5 No blocking. (a) A person engaged in the provision of fixed broadband Internet access service, insofar as such person is so engaged... network management. (b) A person engaged in the provision of mobile broadband Internet access...

  14. 47 CFR 8.5 - No Blocking.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION GENERAL PRESERVING THE OPEN INTERNET § 8.5 No Blocking. (a) A person engaged in the provision of fixed broadband Internet access service, insofar as such person is so engaged... network management. (b) A person engaged in the provision of mobile broadband Internet access...

  15. 47 CFR 8.5 - No blocking.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION GENERAL PRESERVING THE OPEN INTERNET § 8.5 No blocking. (a) A person engaged in the provision of fixed broadband Internet access service, insofar as such person is so engaged... network management. (b) A person engaged in the provision of mobile broadband Internet access...

  16. 47 CFR 8.5 - No blocking.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION GENERAL PRESERVING THE OPEN INTERNET § 8.5 No blocking. (a) A person engaged in the provision of fixed broadband Internet access service, insofar as such person is so engaged... network management. (b) A person engaged in the provision of mobile broadband Internet access...

  17. 21 CFR 882.5070 - Bite block.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Bite block. 882.5070 Section 882.5070 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES... is a device inserted into a patient's mouth to protect the tongue and teeth while the patient...

  18. 21 CFR 882.5070 - Bite block.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Bite block. 882.5070 Section 882.5070 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES... is a device inserted into a patient's mouth to protect the tongue and teeth while the patient...

  19. 21 CFR 882.5070 - Bite block.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Bite block. 882.5070 Section 882.5070 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES... is a device inserted into a patient's mouth to protect the tongue and teeth while the patient...

  20. 21 CFR 882.5070 - Bite block.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Bite block. 882.5070 Section 882.5070 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES... is a device inserted into a patient's mouth to protect the tongue and teeth while the patient...

  1. Defying Gravity Using Jenga[TM] Blocks

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tan, Yin-Soo; Yap, Kueh-Chin

    2007-01-01

    This paper describes how Jenga[TM] blocks can be used to demonstrate the physics of an overhanging tower that appears to defy gravity. We also propose ideas for how this demonstration can be adapted for the A-level physics curriculum. (Contains 8 figures and 1 table.)

  2. Nanostructured high-performance dielectric block copolymers.

    PubMed

    Liu, Wenmei; Liao, Xiaojuan; Li, Yawei; Zhao, Qiuhua; Xie, Meiran; Sun, Ruyi

    2015-10-25

    A new type of insulating-conductive block copolymer was synthesized by metathesis polymerization. The copolymer can self-assemble into unique nanostructures of micelles or hollow spheres. It exhibits a high dielectric constant, low dielectric loss, and high stored/released energy density due to the strong dipolar and nano-interfacial polarization contributions.

  3. Laughter-induced left bundle branch block.

    PubMed

    Chow, Grant V; Desai, Dipan; Spragg, David D; Zakaria, Sammy

    2012-10-01

    We present the case of a patient with ischemic heart disease and intermittent left bundle branch block, reproducibly induced by laughter. Following treatment of ischemia with successful deployment of a drug-eluting stent, no further episodes of inducible LBBB were seen. Transient ischemia, exacerbated by elevated intrathoracic pressure during laughter, may have contributed to onset of this phenomenon.

  4. Block Scheduling in North Carolina High Schools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    North Carolina State Dept. of Public Instruction, Raleigh. Div. of Innovation and Development Services.

    Since 1989, North Carolina has implemented several statewide initiatives to establish high expectations for all students. State educators have also paid increasing attention to the flexible use of time as a resource for expanding student learning. Block scheduling is a reorganization of school time that is increasingly being adopted by North…

  5. Blocking and Unblocking in a Navigation Task

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rodrigo, T.; Arall, M.; Chamizo, V. D.

    2005-01-01

    Rodrigo, Chamizo, McLaren, & Mackintosh (1997) demonstrated the blocking effect in a navigational task using a swimming pool: rats initially trained to use three landmarks (ABC) to find an invisible platform learned less about a fourth landmark (X) added later than did rats trained from the outset with these four landmarks (ABCX). The aim of the…

  6. Mechanisms of angiotensin II natriuresis and antinatriuresis.

    PubMed

    Olsen, M E; Hall, J E; Montani, J P; Guyton, A C; Langford, H G; Cornell, J E

    1985-08-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the role of changes in renal arterial pressure (RAP), renal hemodynamics, and tubular reabsorption in mediating the natriuretic and antinatriuretic actions of angiotensin II (ANG II). In seven anesthetized dogs, endogenous ANG II formation was blocked with captopril, and ANG II was infused intravenously at rates of 5-1,215 ng X kg-1 X min-1 while RAP was either servo-controlled at the preinfusion level or permitted to increase. When RAP was servo-controlled, ANG II infusion at all rates from 5-1,215 ng X kg-1 X min-1 decreased urinary sodium excretion (UNaV) and fractional sodium excretion (FENa) while increasing fractional reabsorption of lithium (FRLi) (an index of proximal tubular fractional sodium reabsorption) and causing no change in calculated distal tubule fractional sodium reabsorption (FRDNa). When RAP was permitted to increase, ANG II infusion rates up to 45 ng X kg-1. min-1 also decreased UNaV and FENa while increasing FRLi and causing no change in FRDNa. However, at 135 ng X kg-1 X min-1 and above, UNaV and FENa increased while FRLi and FRDNa decreased when RAP was allowed to rise, even though renal blood flow and filtration fraction were not substantially different from the values observed when RAP was servo-controlled. Filtered sodium load was slightly higher when RAP was permitted to increase during ANG II infusion compared with when RAP was servo-controlled, although the differences were not statistically significant. Thus, even very large doses of ANG II cause antinatriuresis when RAP is prevented from increasing.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  7. Blocking Losses With a Photon Counter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moision, Burce E.; Piazzolla, Sabino

    2012-01-01

    It was not known how to assess accurately losses in a communications link due to photodetector blocking, a phenomenon wherein a detector is rendered inactive for a short time after the detection of a photon. When used to detect a communications signal, blocking leads to losses relative to an ideal detector, which may be measured as a reduction in the communications rate for a given received signal power, or an increase in the signal power required to support the same communications rate. This work involved characterizing blocking losses for single detectors and arrays of detectors. Blocking may be mitigated by spreading the signal intensity over an array of detectors, reducing the count rate on any one detector. A simple approximation was made to the blocking loss as a function of the probability that a detector is unblocked at a given time, essentially treating the blocking probability as a scaling of the detection efficiency. An exact statistical characterization was derived for a single detector, and an approximation for multiple detectors. This allowed derivation of several accurate approximations to the loss. Methods were also derived to account for a rise time in recovery, and non-uniform illumination due to diffraction and atmospheric distortion of the phase front. It was assumed that the communications signal is intensity modulated and received by an array of photon-counting photodetectors. For the purpose of this analysis, it was assumed that the detectors are ideal, in that they produce a signal that allows one to reproduce the arrival times of electrons, produced either as photoelectrons or from dark noise, exactly. For single detectors, the performance of the maximum-likelihood (ML) receiver in blocking is illustrated, as well as a maximum-count (MC) receiver, that, when receiving a pulse-position-modulated (PPM) signal, selects the symbol corresponding to the slot with the largest electron count. Whereas the MC receiver saturates at high count rates

  8. Self-assembly in block polyelectrolytes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Shuang; Vishnyakov, Aleksey; Neimark, Alexander V.

    2011-02-01

    The self-consistent field theory (SCFT) complemented with the Poisson-Boltzmann equation is employed to explore self-assembly of polyelectrolyte copolymers composed of charged blocks A and neutral blocks B. We have extended SCFT to dissociating triblock copolymers and demonstrated our approach on three characteristic examples: (1) diblock copolymer (AB) melt, (2) symmetric triblock copolymer (ABA) melt, (3) triblock copolymer (ABA) solution with added electrolyte. For copolymer melts, we varied the composition (that is, the total fraction of A-segments in the system) and the charge density on A blocks and calculated the phase diagram that contains ordered mesophases of lamellar, gyroid, hexagonal, and bcc symmetries, as well as the uniform disordered phase. The phase diagram of charged block copolymer melts in the charge density - system composition coordinates is similar to the classical phase diagram of neutral block copolymer melts, where the composition and the Flory mismatch interaction parameter χ _{AB} are used as variables. We found that the transitions between the polyelectrolyte mesophases with the increase of charge density occur in the same sequence, from lamellar to gyroid to hexagonal to bcc to disordered morphologies, as the mesophase transitions for neutral diblocks with the decrease of χ _{AB}. In a certain range of compositions, the phase diagram for charged triblock copolymers exhibits unexpected features, allowing for transitions from hexagonal to gyroid to lamellar mesophases as the charge density increases. Triblock polyelectrolyte solutions were studied by varying the charge density and solvent concentration at a fixed copolymer composition. Transitions from lamellar to gyroid and gyroid to hexagonal morphologies were observed at lower polymer concentrations than the respective transitions in the similar neutral copolymer, indicating a substantial influence of the charge density on phase behavior.

  9. Latest Cretaceous sedimentation on Peninsular Ranges block

    SciTech Connect

    Abbott, P.L.

    1986-04-01

    The Peninsular Ranges block is dominated by a Late Jurassic-middle Cretaceous batholithic belt that extends from the Santa Ana Mountains in southern California southward through the state of Baja California. From paleomagnetic evidence, the block appears to have moved north about 11/sup 0/ with respect to the North American craton since the Late Cretaceous. The Campanian-Maestrichtian sedimentary record along the western side of the block shows that sedimentation occurred contemporaneously with faulting. Dominantly coarse sediments were stripped off the batholithic complex, carried westward relatively short distances, and deposited in alluvial-fan, fluvial, fan-delta, and shelf environments as well as in submarine fans built into local, fault-created basins. The Peninsular Ranges block apparently moved northward in response to oblique subduction of the Farallon plate; it seemingly rode along on a reasonably even keel as transcurrent faulting wrenched pieces off its western side. The steady keel allowed the sedimentary record to reflect eustatic changes. Along the west side of the Peninsular Ranges block, the Campanian column typically has a retrogradational sequence lower in the section that is overlain by a progradational sequence. This pattern holds for the Santa Ana Mountains, San Diego, California, and Descanso, Salsipuedes, and El Rosario, Baja California. Eustatic sea level changes left a dominant imprint on the entire stratigraphic column, although local facies may be distinctly different because basins were created by contemporaneous faulting. The fault basins may have had a borderland-style topography, judging from their relatively small size, discontinuous and sporadic development, and apparently linear margins.

  10. Geomechanical analysis of the large block test

    SciTech Connect

    Blair, S.C.; Berge, P.A.; Wang, H.F.

    1996-08-01

    The Yucca Mountain Site Characterization Project is investigating the Topopah Spring tuff at Yucca Mountain, Nevada, to determine whether it is suitable as a host rock for the disposal of high-level nuclear wastes. The Large Block Test (LBT) at Fran Ridge was planned as part of the project to investigate coupled thermal-mechanical-hydrological and geochemical processes that may occur in the repository near-field environment. This test would be performed on an excavated block of Topopah Spring tuff and would provide information at an intermediate scale (1-10 m) that would help evaluate existing models for repository performance. As part of the LBT, we are analyzing the coupled thermal-mechanical- hydrological behavior of the block in response to heating. Our objectives are to aid in the experimental design of the test, to evaluate different thermal and constitutive models, and to evaluate several different numerical methods. In this report, we present results of thermal-mechanical simulations of the heat-up phase of the LBT conducted using two different numerical codes that are commercially available: a two-dimensional (2D), finite- difference model called FLAC and a three-dimensional (3D), finite- element model, called ABAQUS. The purpose of this initial numerical modeling is to calculate temperatures, stresses, and displacements in two and three dimensions for a simplified representation of the large block. In reality, numerous joints and fractures complicate the behavior of the large block significantly. Nonetheless, these 1218 simulations provide a general understanding of the thermal-mechanical behavior to be expected in the LBT.

  11. Probing the mechanisms underlying modulation of quinidine sensitivity to cardiac IKs block by protein kinase A-mediated IKs phosphorylation

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Tao; Kanki, Hideaki; Zhang, Wei; Roden, Dan M

    2009-01-01

    Background and purpose: Cardiac IKs is enhanced by protein kinase A (PKA) stimulation. And PKA-stimulated IKs is about threefold less sensitive to quinidine block than basal current. In this study, we further tested two competing hypotheses: IKs phosphorylation either (i) modulates access of blocking drugs to a binding site; or (ii) destabilizes the drug–channel interaction. Experimental approach: To distinguish between these hypotheses, we studied quinidine block of IKs channels in which three PKA site residues of the α-subunit KCNQ1 were mutated with a bulky negative charged aspartic acid (D). To study alleviation of IKs block by quinidine, we compared activating current at +60 mV, either with or without 5 s hyperpolarizing prepulses to −120 mV. Key results: Without PKA stimulation, quinidine (100 µM) blocked wild-type current to a similar extent with and without the prepulse (93 ± 2% of pre-drug current at +60 mV vs. 95 ± 1%). With PKA-stimulated wild-type channels, however, there was less block with the hyperpolarization to −120 mV: at +60 mV, block was 71 ± 2% (−prepulse) versus 58 ± 3% (+prepulse). Individual D-mutations and the triple-D mutant were resistant to quinidine block similar to that seen with PKA-stimulated wild-type IKs. Conclusions and implications: We conclude that phosphorylation-induced insertion of bulky negative charges alleviates quinidine block and that PKA-induced stimulation, by conferring negative charges to the channels, blunts IKs block as the interaction between the channels and blockers becomes destabilized. These effects would be of clinical significance in providing protective mechanisms against pro-arrhythmias caused by drug-induced inhibition of IKs and IKr. PMID:19522859

  12. Negative regulation by HLA-DO of MHC class II-restricted antigen processing.

    PubMed

    Denzin, L K; Sant'Angelo, D B; Hammond, C; Surman, M J; Cresswell, P

    1997-10-03

    HLA-DM is a major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class II-like molecule that facilitates antigen processing by catalyzing the exchange of invariant chain-derived peptides (CLIP) from class II molecules for antigenic peptides. HLA-DO is a second class II-like molecule that physically associates with HLA-DM in B cells. HLA-DO was shown to block HLA-DM function. Purified HLA-DM-DO complexes could not promote peptide exchange in vitro. Expression of HLA-DO in a class II+ and DM+, DO- human T cell line caused the accumulation of class II-CLIP complexes, indicating that HLA-DO blocked DM function in vivo and suggesting that HLA-DO is an important modulator of class II-restricted antigen processing.

  13. Differential reinforcement with and without blocking as treatment for elopement.

    PubMed

    Call, Nathan A; Pabico, Ryan S; Findley, Addie J; Valentino, Amber L

    2011-01-01

    Blocking is a frequent component of treatments for elopement. Unfortunately, blocking may not always be feasible because elopement often occurs when supervision is low or the behavior cannot be prevented. The present study evaluated the use of blocking in the treatment of elopement by using differential reinforcement of other behavior with and without blocking. In this case, results suggested that blocking may be an essential component for differential reinforcement-based treatments of elopement.

  14. Autophagy Induction by Endothelial-Monocyte Activating Polypeptide II Contributes to the Inhibition of Malignant Biological Behaviors by the Combination of EMAP II with Rapamycin in Human Glioblastoma

    PubMed Central

    Ma, Jun; Meng, Fanjie; Li, Shuai; Liu, Libo; Zhao, Lini; Liu, Yunhui; Hu, Yi; Li, Zhen; Yao, Yilong; Xi, Zhuo; Teng, Hao; Xue, Yixue

    2015-01-01

    This study aims to investigate the effect of endothelial-monocyte activating polypeptide II (EMAP II) on human glioblastoma (GBM) cells and glioblastoma stem cells (GSCs) as well as its possible mechanisms. In this study, EMAP II inhibited the cell viability and decreased the mitochondrial membrane potential in human GBM cells and GSCs, and autophagy inhibitor 3-methyl adenine (3-MA) blocked these effects. Autophagic vacuoles were formed in these cells after EMAP II treatment and this phenomenon was blocked by 3-MA. In addition, the up-regulation of microtubule-associated protein-1 light chain-3 (LC3)-II and the down-regulation of autophagic degraded substrate p62/SQSTM1 caused by EMAP II were observed. Cells treated with EMAP-II inhibited the PI3K/Akt/mTOR signal pathway, and PI3K/Akt agonist insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) blocked the effect of EMAP II on the expression of LC3-II and p62/SQSTM1. Cells exposed to EMAP-II experienced mitophagy and ER stress. Furthermore, the inhibition of cell proliferation, migration and invasion of GBM cells and GSCs were more remarkable by the combination of EMAP II and rapamycin than either agent alone in vitro and in vivo. The current study demonstrated that the cytotoxicity of EMAP II in human GBM cells and GSCs was induced by autophagy, accompanied by the inhibition of PI3K/Akt/mTOR signal pathway, mitophagy and ER stress. The combination of EMAP II with rapamycin demonstrated the inhibitory effect on the malignant biological behaviors of human GBM cells and GSCs in vitro and in vivo. PMID:26648842

  15. Combined KHFAC + DC nerve block without onset or reduced nerve conductivity after block

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Franke, Manfred; Vrabec, Tina; Wainright, Jesse; Bhadra, Niloy; Bhadra, Narendra; Kilgore, Kevin

    2014-10-01

    Objective. Kilohertz frequency alternating current (KHFAC) waveforms have been shown to provide peripheral nerve conductivity block in many acute and chronic animal models. KHFAC nerve block could be used to address multiple disorders caused by neural over-activity, including blocking pain and spasticity. However, one drawback of KHFAC block is a transient activation of nerve fibers during the initiation of the nerve block, called the onset response. The objective of this study is to evaluate the feasibility of using charge balanced direct current (CBDC) waveforms to temporarily block motor nerve conductivity distally to the KHFAC electrodes to mitigate the block onset-response. Approach. A total of eight animals were used in this study. A set of four animals were used to assess feasibility and reproducibility of a combined KHFAC + CBDC block. A following randomized study, conducted on a second set of four animals, compared the onset response resulting from KHFAC alone and combined KHFAC + CBDC waveforms. To quantify the onset, peak forces and the force-time integral were measured during KHFAC block initiation. Nerve conductivity was monitored throughout the study by comparing muscle twitch forces evoked by supra-maximal stimulation proximal and distal to the block electrodes. Each animal of the randomized study received at least 300 s (range: 318-1563 s) of cumulative dc to investigate the impact of combined KHFAC + CBDC on nerve viability. Main results. The peak onset force was reduced significantly from 20.73 N (range: 18.6-26.5 N) with KHFAC alone to 0.45 N (range: 0.2-0.7 N) with the combined CBDC and KHFAC block waveform (p < 0.001). The area under the force curve was reduced from 6.8 Ns (range: 3.5-21.9 Ns) to 0.54 Ns (range: 0.18-0.86 Ns) (p < 0.01). No change in nerve conductivity was observed after application of the combined KHFAC + CBDC block relative to KHFAC waveforms. Significance. The distal application of CBDC can significantly reduce or even

  16. Ovarian Cancer Stage II

    MedlinePlus

    ... Download Title: Ovarian Cancer Stage II Description: Three-panel drawing of stage IIA, IIB, and stage II primary peritoneal cancer; the first panel (stage IIA) shows cancer inside both ovaries that ...

  17. Factor II deficiency

    MedlinePlus

    ... if one or more of these factors are missing or are not functioning like they should. Factor II is one such coagulation factor. Factor II deficiency runs in families (inherited) and is very rare. Both parents must ...

  18. Comparison of the characteristics and mechanisms of Hg(II) sorption by biochars and activated carbon.

    PubMed

    Xu, Xiaoyun; Schierz, Ariette; Xu, Nan; Cao, Xinde

    2016-02-01

    Two biochars were produced from bagasse and hickory chips (referred to as BB and HCB, respectively) and evaluated for their sorption ability of Hg(II) in aqueous solution. A commercial activated carbon (AC) which is commonly used for Hg(II) removal was included for comparison. Both biochars showed higher sorption capacities than AC, following the trend of BB>HCB>AC. The sorption of Hg(II) by BB and AC was mainly attributed to the formation of (COO)2Hg(II) and (O)2Hg(II). As a result, the adsorption capacity of Hg(II) by BB decreased 17.6% and 37.6% after COOH and OH were blocked, respectively and that of Hg(II) by AC decreased 6.63% and 62.2% for COOH and OH hindered, respectively. However, blocking the function groups had little effect on the Hg removal by HCB since sorption of Hg(II) by HCB was mainly resulted from the π electrons of CC and CO induced Hg-π binding. Further X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy analysis indicated the possibility of reduction of the Hg(II) to Hg(I) by phenol groups or π electrons during the removal of Hg(II) by both biochars. In conclusion, biochar is more effective than activated carbon in removing Hg(II) and there exists a high potential that biochar can be a substitute of activated carbon for removal of Hg(II) from wastewater.

  19. Solving block linear systems with low-rank off-diagonal blocks is easily parallelizable

    SciTech Connect

    Menkov, V.

    1996-12-31

    An easily and efficiently parallelizable direct method is given for solving a block linear system Bx = y, where B = D + Q is the sum of a non-singular block diagonal matrix D and a matrix Q with low-rank blocks. This implicitly defines a new preconditioning method with an operation count close to the cost of calculating a matrix-vector product Qw for some w, plus at most twice the cost of calculating Qw for some w. When implemented on a parallel machine the processor utilization can be as good as that of those operations. Order estimates are given for the general case, and an implementation is compared to block SSOR preconditioning.

  20. Cyclic block copolymers for controlling feature sizes in block copolymer lithography.

    PubMed

    Poelma, Justin E; Ono, Kosuke; Miyajima, Daigo; Aida, Takuzo; Satoh, Kotaro; Hawker, Craig J

    2012-12-21

    Block copolymer lithography holds promise as a next-generation technique to achieve the sub-20 nm feature sizes demanded by semiconductor roadmaps. While molecular weight and block immiscibility have traditionally been used to control feature size, this study demonstrates that macromolecular architecture is also a powerful tool for tuning domain spacing. To demonstrate this concept, a new synthetic strategy for cyclic block polymers based on highly efficient "click" coupling of difunctional linear chains is developed, and the thin film self-assembly of cyclic polystyrene-block-polyethylene oxide (cPS-b-PEO) is compared with the corresponding linear analogues. The reduced hydrodynamic radii of the cyclic systems result in ~30% decrease in domain spacing over the corresponding linear polymers.

  1. Block adaptive rate controlled image data compression

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rice, R. F.; Hilbert, E.; Lee, J.-J.; Schlutsmeyer, A.

    1979-01-01

    A block adaptive rate controlled (BARC) image data compression algorithm is described. It is noted that in the algorithm's principal rate controlled mode, image lines can be coded at selected rates by combining practical universal noiseless coding techniques with block adaptive adjustments in linear quantization. Compression of any source data at chosen rates of 3.0 bits/sample and above can be expected to yield visual image quality with imperceptible degradation. Exact reconstruction will be obtained if the one-dimensional difference entropy is below the selected compression rate. It is noted that the compressor can also be operated as a floating rate noiseless coder by simply not altering the input data quantization. Here, the universal noiseless coder ensures that the code rate is always close to the entropy. Application of BARC image data compression to the Galileo orbiter mission of Jupiter is considered.

  2. "Clickable" PEG-dendritic block copolymers.

    PubMed

    Fernandez-Megia, Eduardo; Correa, Juan; Riguera, Ricardo

    2006-11-01

    Three generations of azido-terminated PEG-dendritic block copolymers have been synthesized and completely characterized by NMR and MALDI-TOF. A radial decrease of density, leading to more mobile protons at the outermost periphery, and an increasingly higher compactness of the core with generation have been determined by T(1) and T(2) relaxation time studies. The efficient surface decoration of these dendritic polymers by means of click chemistry has been demonstrated by the incorporation of unprotected carbohydrate units in very good to excellent yields. The reaction proceeds at room temperature, under aqueous conditions, and requires just catalytic amounts of Cu. The modified block copolymers are conveniently purified by ultrafiltration. The glycodendrimers functionalized with alpha-mannose form aggregates with concanavalin A as determined by absorbance experiments at 400 nm. This aggregation ability increases with generation.

  3. Building blocks for subleading helicity operators

    DOE PAGES

    Kolodrubetz, Daniel W.; Moult, Ian; Stewart, Iain W.

    2016-05-24

    On-shell helicity methods provide powerful tools for determining scattering amplitudes, which have a one-to-one correspondence with leading power helicity operators in the Soft-Collinear Effective Theory (SCET) away from singular regions of phase space. We show that helicity based operators are also useful for enumerating power suppressed SCET operators, which encode subleading amplitude information about singular limits. In particular, we present a complete set of scalar helicity building blocks that are valid for constructing operators at any order in the SCET power expansion. In conclusion, we also describe an interesting angular momentum selection rule that restricts how these building blocks canmore » be assembled.« less

  4. Progressive interatrial block and supraventricular arrhythmias.

    PubMed

    Enriquez, Andres; Conde, Diego; Redfearn, Damian P; Baranchuk, Adrian

    2015-07-01

    Interatrial conduction disorders are frequent in patients with structural heart diseases, including hypertension, coronary disease, and hypertrophic cardiomyopathy, and they are strongly associated with atrial tachyarrhythmias, especially atrial fibrillation and flutter. Conduction delays lead to dispersion of refractory periods and participate in initiating and maintaining reentry circuits, facilitating atrial arrhythmias. In this case, the changing pattern over time is a manifestation of progressive atrial remodeling and conduction delay. The terminal negative component of the P wave in the inferior leads suggests block of the electrical impulse in the Bachman bundle zone, with retrograde activation of the left atria via muscular connections at the coronary sinus. This has been reproduced in experimental models and confirmed by endocardial mapping. Physicians should be aware of the association between advanced interatrial block and development of atrial arrhythmias as its recognition could prompt early and aggressive antiarrhythmic treatment.

  5. Osmosis and thermodynamics explained by solute blocking.

    PubMed

    Nelson, Peter Hugo

    2017-01-01

    A solute-blocking model is presented that provides a kinetic explanation of osmosis and ideal solution thermodynamics. It validates a diffusive model of osmosis that is distinct from the traditional convective flow model of osmosis. Osmotic equilibrium occurs when the fraction of water molecules in solution matches the fraction of pure water molecules that have enough energy to overcome the pressure difference. Solute-blocking also provides a kinetic explanation for why Raoult's law and the other colligative properties depend on the mole fraction (but not the size) of the solute particles, resulting in a novel kinetic explanation for the entropy of mixing and chemical potential of ideal solutions. Some of its novel predictions have been confirmed; others can be tested experimentally or by simulation.

  6. Block variables for deterministic aperiodic sequences

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hörnquist, Michael

    1997-10-01

    We use the concept of block variables to obtain a measure of order/disorder for some one-dimensional deterministic aperiodic sequences. For the Thue - Morse sequence, the Rudin - Shapiro sequence and the period-doubling sequence it is possible to obtain analytical expressions in the limit of infinite sequences. For the Fibonacci sequence, we present some analytical results which can be supported by numerical arguments. It turns out that the block variables show a wide range of different behaviour, some of them indicating that some of the considered sequences are more `random' than other. However, the method does not give any definite answer to the question of which sequence is more disordered than the other and, in this sense, the results obtained are negative. We compare this with some other ways of measuring the amount of order/disorder in such systems, and there seems to be no direct correspondence between the measures.

  7. Porous polymers based on aryleneethynylene building blocks.

    PubMed

    Bunz, Uwe H F; Seehafer, Kai; Geyer, Florian L; Bender, Markus; Braun, Ingo; Smarsly, Emanuel; Freudenberg, Jan

    2014-09-01

    Porous conjugated polymers are synthesized by metal-catalyzed coupling reactions. The progress for porous polymers when planar or tetrahedral building blocks are connected by alkyne units into novel materials is highlighted. The most prominent reaction for the buildup of the microporous alkyne-bridged polymers is the Sonogashira reaction, connecting alkynes to aromatic iodides or bromides. The availability of the building blocks and the potency of the Sonogashira reaction allow preparing a large variety of intrinsically porous polymeric materials, in which rigid struts connect multipronged centers. The microporous polymers are used as catalysts and as storage materials for gases and sensors. Postfunctionalization schemes, understanding of structure-property relationships, and the quest for high porosity are pertinent.

  8. Gauge Blocks – A Zombie Technology

    PubMed Central

    Doiron, Ted

    2008-01-01

    Gauge blocks have been the primary method for disseminating length traceability for over 100 years. Their longevity was based on two things: the relatively low cost of delivering very high accuracy to users, and the technical limitation that the range of high precision gauging systems was very small. While the first reason is still true, the second factor is being displaced by changes in measurement technology since the 1980s. New long range sensors do not require master gauges that are nearly the same length as the part being inspected, and thus one of the primary attributes of gauge blocks, wringing stacks to match the part, is no longer needed. Relaxing the requirement that gauges wring presents an opportunity to develop new types of end standards that would increase the accuracy and usefulness of gauging systems. PMID:27096119

  9. HEAO Block 2 study executive summary

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1976-01-01

    An executive summary is presented of a preliminary study done on several potential High Energy Astronomy Observatory (HEAO) missions which are follow-on missions to the currently defined HEAO program. The purpose was to examine several typical missions and determine the relative complexities associated with them. The four payloads investigated were (1) a 1.2 m Diameter X-ray Telescope observatory, (2) a Large Area Moderate Angular Resolution (LAMAR) observatory, (3) a cosmic ray observatory, and (4) a gamma ray observatory. Each of the four observatories was considered a national facility. Low cost approaches were stressed throughout, with considerable use of HEAO Block I experience and designs effected to provide a high degree of confidence that such approaches were achievable. The use of the Multi-Mission Spacecraft (MMS) and the HEAO Block I spacecraft was considered as a result of this low cost emphasis. Also, NASA standard components were considered, where applicable.

  10. Salt Complexation in Block Copolymer Thin Films

    SciTech Connect

    Kim,S.; Misner, M.; Yang, L.; Gang, O.; Ocko, B.; Russell, T.

    2006-01-01

    Ion complexation within cylinder-forming block copolymer thin films was found to affect the ordering process of the copolymer films during solvent annealing, significantly enhancing the long-range positional order. Small amounts of alkali halide or metal salts were added to PS-b-PEO, on the order of a few ions per chain, where the salt complexed with the PEO block. The orientation of the cylindrical microdomains strongly depended on the salt concentration and the ability of the ions to complex with PEO. The process shows large flexibility in the choice of salt used, including gold or cobalt salts, whereby well-organized patterns of nanoparticles can be generated inside the copolymer microdomains. By further increasing the amount of added salts, the copolymer remained highly ordered at large degrees of swelling and demonstrated long-range positional correlations of the microdomains in the swollen state, which holds promise as a route to addressable media.

  11. Hierarchical porous polymer scaffolds from block copolymers.

    PubMed

    Sai, Hiroaki; Tan, Kwan Wee; Hur, Kahyun; Asenath-Smith, Emily; Hovden, Robert; Jiang, Yi; Riccio, Mark; Muller, David A; Elser, Veit; Estroff, Lara A; Gruner, Sol M; Wiesner, Ulrich

    2013-08-02

    Hierarchical porous polymer materials are of increasing importance because of their potential application in catalysis, separation technology, or bioengineering. Examples for their synthesis exist, but there is a need for a facile yet versatile conceptual approach to such hierarchical scaffolds and quantitative characterization of their nonperiodic pore systems. Here, we introduce a synthesis method combining well-established concepts of macroscale spinodal decomposition and nanoscale block copolymer self-assembly with porosity formation on both length scales via rinsing with protic solvents. We used scanning electron microscopy, small-angle x-ray scattering, transmission electron tomography, and nanoscale x-ray computed tomography for quantitative pore-structure characterization. The method was demonstrated for AB- and ABC-type block copolymers, and resulting materials were used as scaffolds for calcite crystal growth.

  12. Unexpected Complete Heart Block and Anesthetic Implications.

    PubMed

    Torres, Arturo G

    2015-08-01

    A healthy, active duty military 25-year-old female with a history of congenital complete heart block presented for a routine septorhinoplasty. During the preoperative interview, she did not disclose her heart condition. A preordered electrocardiogram was not available. During induction of anesthesia, she became extremely bradycardic, approaching asystole, requiring resuscitation. This case highlights the potential anesthetic risks in individuals with a history of congenital heart rhythm disease.

  13. Impedance Matched Absorptive Thermal Blocking Filters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wollack, E. J.; Chuss, D. T.; Rostem, K.; U-Yen, K.

    2014-01-01

    We have designed, fabricated and characterized absorptive thermal blocking filters for cryogenic microwave applications. The transmission line filter's input characteristic impedance is designed to match 50O and its response has been validated from 0-to-50GHz. The observed return loss in the 0-to-20GHz design band is greater than 20 dB and shows graceful degradation with frequency. Design considerations and equations are provided that enable this approach to be scaled and modified for use in other applications.

  14. Impedance Matched Absorptive Thermal Blocking Filters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wollack, E. J.; Chuss, D. T.; U-Yen, K.; Rostem, K.

    2014-01-01

    We have designed, fabricated and characterized absorptive thermal blocking filters for cryogenic microwave applications. The transmission line filter's input characteristic impedance is designed to match 50 Omega and its response has been validated from 0-to-50GHz. The observed return loss in the 0-to-20GHz design band is greater than 20 dB and shows graceful degradation with frequency. Design considerations and equations are provided that enable this approach to be scaled and modified for use in other applications.

  15. Neuro-muscular junction block stimulator simulator.

    PubMed

    Sprick, Cyle

    2006-03-01

    Improved technology and higher fidelity are making medical simulations increasingly popular. A simulated peripheral nerve stimulator and thumb actuator has been developed for use with the SimMan Universal Patient Simulator. This device incorporates a handheld control box, a McKibben pneumatic muscle and articulated thumb, and a remote software interface for the simulation facilitator. The system simulates the action of a peripheral nerve stimulator on the ulnar nerve, and the effects of neuromuscular junction blocking agents on the thumb motion.

  16. Interferometry theory for the block 2 processor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thomas, J. B.

    1987-01-01

    Presented is the interferometry theory for the Block 2 processor, including a high-level functional description and a discussion of data structure. The analysis covers the major processing steps: cross-correlation, fringe counter-rotation, transformation to the frequency domain, phase calibration, bandwidth synthesis, and extraction of the observables of amplitude, phase, phase rate, and delay. Also included are analyses for fractional bitshift correction, station clock error, ionosphere correction, and effective frequencies for the observables.

  17. Klebsiella oxytoca Endocarditis With Complete Heart Block

    PubMed Central

    Ullah, Saad; Elbita, Omar; Abdelghany, Mahmoud; Tahir, Hassan; Tuli, Puneet; Alkilani, Waseem Zaid; Suri, Joshan

    2016-01-01

    Gram-negative bacterial endocarditis causes 5% of all bacterial endocarditis. Among gram-negative bacteria, Klebsiella species are rare causes of native valve endocarditis. Klebsiella oxytoca is an extremely rare subspecies that can infrequently cause endocarditis and is associated with poor outcome. We report a case of Klebsiella oxytoca endocarditis in an elderly man who initially presented with stroke but later developed sepsis and heart block secondary to endocarditis. PMID:27635410

  18. Moving Block Bootstrap for Analyzing Longitudinal Data.

    PubMed

    Ju, Hyunsu

    In a longitudinal study subjects are followed over time. I focus on a case where the number of replications over time is large relative to the number of subjects in the study. I investigate the use of moving block bootstrap methods for analyzing such data. Asymptotic properties of the bootstrap methods in this setting are derived. The effectiveness of these resampling methods is also demonstrated through a simulation study.

  19. Nanostructured Block Copolymer Coatings for Biofouling Inhibition

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-06-30

    despite similar contact angles) indicating that the amphiphilic nature and patterning of the coating was deterring spore settlement . The two PS-P2VP-PEO...involved settlement and release of algal spores/sporelings, barnacle cyprids/adults, and tubeworm adults, against these phase segregated block...Our previous studies investigated the antifouling properties of a triblock copolymer system PS-b-P2VP-b- PEO in the field in Florida. No settlement of

  20. [Congenital atrioventricular block and maternal autoimmune diseases].

    PubMed

    Herreman, G; Sauvaget, F; Généreau, T; Galezowski, N

    1990-01-01

    Congenital heart block is rare; it is acquired in utero, definitive and, more often than not, complete. It can be diagnosed by the appearance of fetal bradycardia around the 23rd week of gestation, during ultrasonographic monitoring of pregnancy. Heart block is usually associated with the presence of anti-Ro and/or anti-La antibodies in the mother's serum. These maternal immunological abnormalities can be isolated or associated with an autoimmune disease, usually systemic lupus erythematosus, but also Sjögren's syndrome, or more rarely still, an as yet unclassified connective tissue disease. Anti-Ro and anti-La antibodies cross the placental barrier and react with a fetal heart, leading to acute fetal myocarditis by the 17th week of gestation. When severe, it is lethal, otherwise it can result in degeneration and endocardial fibroelastosis, disrupting conduction and leading to congenital heart block. The ideal treatment would be prevention with corticosteroids. When the mother is Ro or La antibody-positive before pregnancy, elimination of these circulating antibodies can be attempted by treatment with 0.5 mg/kg body wt/d of prednisolone for 3 months. If the treatment is successful, corticotherapy can be prescribed early in the pregnancy to try to protect the fetus. However, there is not always a relationship between maternal anti-Ro antibodies and fetal heart block. If the Ro/La antibody-positive woman is already pregnant, but before her 17th week, it is possible to prescribe dexamethasone, which crosses the placenta and remains active, sometimes in association with plasmapheresis.

  1. Order and Disorder in Short Block Polymers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bates, Frank S.

    2015-03-01

    Block polymers have captivated the interest of scientists and engineers for more than half a century. The phase behavior of this class of self-assembling soft material is well understood in the limit of infinite molecular weight, based on the self-consistent mean-field theory pioneered by Leibler. At practical molecular sizes, typically around N ~ 1000 repeat units, fluctuation effects become highly significant in the vicinity of the order disorder transition. One-loop corrections to mean-field theory, first described by Brazovski and applied to block polymers by Fredrickson and Helfand, are not expected to be applicable in this limit. Moreover, the drive towards ever smaller domain dimensions, and the opportunity to circumvent transport limitations associated with entanglements, have motivated experiments with yet lower molecular weight block polymers, N less than 100. This presentation will describe the consequences of fluctuations and the equilibrium structural properties of short model AB diblock polymers in the symmetric (f = 1/2) and asymmetric (f --> 0) regimes above and below the order-disorder transition. The consequences of fluctuations and access to equilibrium states will be described in the 1-dimensional stripped (lamellar) phase and the ordering of point particles in 3-dimensions, respectively. As N --> 1 computer simulation with realistic molecular detail becomes feasible presenting exciting opportunities to compliment the associated theoretical challenges. Research in collaboration with Sangwoo Lee, Chris Leighton and Timothy Gillard and Supported by NSF-DMR-1104368.

  2. MIKES’ primary phase stepping gauge block interferometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Byman, V.; Lassila, A.

    2015-08-01

    MIKES’ modernized phase stepping interferometer for gauge block calibration (PSIGB) will be described. The instrument is based on the well-regarded NPL-TESA gauge block interferometer from 1994. The decision to upgrade the instrument resulted from several components, such as the PC and charge-coupled device (CCD) camera, having reached the end of their lifetime. In this paper modernized components, measurement method and analysis will be explained. The lasers are coupled to the instrument using single mode fiber. The instrument uses phase stepping generated by an added optical window on a controllable rotatory table in the reference arm with a recently developed nine-position phase stepping algorithm. Unwrapping is done with a robust path following algorithm. Procedures for adjusting the interferometer are explained. Determination and elimination of wavefront error, coherent noise and analysis of their influence on the results is described. Flatness and variation in length are also important parameters of gauge blocks to be characterized, and the corresponding analysis method is clarified. Uncertainty analysis for the central length, flatness and variation in length is also described. The results are compared against those of the old hardware and software. The standard uncertainty for central length measurement is u = [(9.5 nm)2 + (121 × 10-9 L)2]½, where L is measured length.

  3. Process-Accessible States of Block Copolymers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, De-Wen; Müller, Marcus

    2017-02-01

    Process-directed self-assembly of block copolymers refers to thermodynamic processes that reproducibly direct the kinetics of structure formation from a starting, unstable state into a selected, metastable mesostructure. We investigate the kinetics of self-assembly of linear A C B triblock copolymers after a rapid transformation of the middle C block from B to A . This prototypical process (e.g., photochemical transformation) converts the initial, equilibrium mesophase of the A B B copolymer into a well-defined but unstable, starting state of the A A B copolymer. The spontaneous structure formation that ensues from this unstable state becomes trapped in a metastable mesostructure, and we systematically explore which metastable mesostructures can be fabricated by varying the block copolymer composition of the initial and final states. In addition to the equilibrium mesophases of linear A B diblock copolymers, this diagram of process-accessible states includes 7 metastable periodic mesostructures, inter alia, Schoen's F-RD periodic minimal surface. Generally, we observe that the final, metastable mesostructure of the A A B copolymer possesses the same symmetry as the initial, equilibrium mesophase of the A B B copolymer.

  4. A chenopod extensin lacks repetitive tetrahydroxyproline blocks

    SciTech Connect

    Li, Xiongbiao; Kieliszewski, M.; Lamport, D.T.A. )

    1990-02-01

    An extensin isolated from sugar beet (Beta vulgaris) cell suspension cultures fulfills all criteria for membership of the extensin family save one, notably, lack of the diagnostic pentamer Ser-Hyp-Hyp-Hyp-Hyp. However, sequence analysis of the major tryptic peptides shows that sugar beet extensin shares a motif in common with tomato extensin P1 but differs by the position of an insertion sequence (X) or (Y) which, in sugar beet, splits the tetrahydroxyproline block: Ser-Hyp-Hyp-(X)-Hyp-Hyp-Thr-Hyp-Val-Tyr-Lys, where (X) is (Val-His-Glu/Lys-Tyr-Pro), while in tomato the insertion sequence (Y) = (Val-Lys-Pro-Tyr-His-Pro) and, when it occurs, immediately follows the tetrahydroxyproline block: Ser-Hyp-Hyp-Hyp-Hyp-(Y)-Thr-Hyp-Val-Tyr-Lys. Based on these data were reinterpret three highly repetitive cDNA sequences, including nodulin N75 from soybean and wound-induced P33 of carrot, as extensins with split tetra(hydroxy)proline blocks.

  5. Cavitation in block copolymer modified epoxy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Declet-Perez, Carmelo; Francis, Lorraine; Bates, Frank

    2013-03-01

    Today, brittleness in epoxy networks limits most commercial applications. Significant toughness can be imparted by adding small amounts of micelle forming block copolymers (BCP) without compromising critical properties such as high use temperature and modulus. Curing the network locks in the self-assembled BCP micellar structures formed in the monomer resin providing control of the resulting morphology. Despite significant research over the last decade, a complete description of the parameters influencing toughness in block copolymer modified epoxies is still lacking. In this presentation we compare the ultimate mechanical behavior of epoxies modified with spherical micelle forming BCP's containing rubbery and glassy cores using real-time in-situ small-angle X-ray scattering (SAXS) performed during tensile deformation. Striking differences in the 2D SAXS patterns were documented for epoxies modified with rubbery (PEP) versus glassy (PS) micelle cores. Rubbery cores dilate by 100% in volume upon specimen yielding, while the glassy micelle cores deform at approximately constant volume. These results provide direct evidence of a cavitation mediated mechanism for toughness in block copolymer modified epoxies. We further interpret characteristic butterfly features in the 2D SAXS patterns in terms of epoxy network deformation. Support was provided by the NSF sponsored MRSEC at the University of Minnesota

  6. Thalamic pain alleviated by stellate ganglion block

    PubMed Central

    Liao, Chenlong; Yang, Min; Liu, Pengfei; Zhong, Wenxiang; Zhang, Wenchuan

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Rationale: Thalamic pain is a distressing and treatment-resistant type of central post-stroke pain. Although stellate ganglion block is an established intervention used in pain management, its use in the treatment of thalamic pain has never been reported. Patient concerns: A 66-year-old woman presented with a 3-year history of severe intermittent lancinating pain on the right side of the face and the right hand. The pain started from the ulnar side of the right forearm after a mild ischemic stroke in bilateral basal ganglia and left thalamus. Weeks later, the pain extended to the dorsum of the finger tips and the whole palmar surface, becoming more severe. Meanwhile, there was also pain with similar characteristics emerging on her right face, resembling atypical trigeminal neuralgia. Diagnoses: Thalamic pain was diagnosed. Interventions: After refusing the further invasive treatment, she was suggested to try stellate ganglion block. Outcomes: After a 3-day period of pain free (numerical rating scale: 0) postoperatively, she reported moderate to good pain relief with a numerical rating scale of about 3 to 4 lasting 1 month after the first injection. Pain as well as the quality of life was markedly improved with less dose of analgesic agents. Lessons: Stellate ganglion block may be an optional treatment for thalamic pain. PMID:28151918

  7. Processing of IN-718 Lattice Block Castings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hebsur, Mohan G.

    2002-01-01

    Recently a low cost casting method known as lattice block casting has been developed by JAM Corporation, Wilmington, Massachusetts for engineering materials such as aluminum and stainless steels that has shown to provide very high stiffness and strength with only a fraction of density of the alloy. NASA Glenn Research Center has initiated research to investigate lattice block castings of high temperature Ni-base superalloys such as the model system Inconel-718 (IN-718) for lightweight nozzle applications. Although difficulties were encountered throughout the manufacturing process , a successful investment casting procedure was eventually developed. Wax formulation and pattern assembly, shell mold processing, and counter gravity casting techniques were developed. Ten IN-718 lattice block castings (each measuring 15-cm wide by 30-cm long by 1.2-cm thick) have been successfully produced by Hitchiner Gas Turbine Division, Milford, New Hampshire, using their patented counter gravity casting techniques. Details of the processing and resulting microstructures are discussed in this paper. Post casting processing and evaluation of system specific mechanical properties of these specimens are in progress.

  8. Process-Accessible States of Block Copolymers.

    PubMed

    Sun, De-Wen; Müller, Marcus

    2017-02-10

    Process-directed self-assembly of block copolymers refers to thermodynamic processes that reproducibly direct the kinetics of structure formation from a starting, unstable state into a selected, metastable mesostructure. We investigate the kinetics of self-assembly of linear ACB triblock copolymers after a rapid transformation of the middle C block from B to A. This prototypical process (e.g., photochemical transformation) converts the initial, equilibrium mesophase of the ABB copolymer into a well-defined but unstable, starting state of the AAB copolymer. The spontaneous structure formation that ensues from this unstable state becomes trapped in a metastable mesostructure, and we systematically explore which metastable mesostructures can be fabricated by varying the block copolymer composition of the initial and final states. In addition to the equilibrium mesophases of linear AB diblock copolymers, this diagram of process-accessible states includes 7 metastable periodic mesostructures, inter alia, Schoen's F-RD periodic minimal surface. Generally, we observe that the final, metastable mesostructure of the AAB copolymer possesses the same symmetry as the initial, equilibrium mesophase of the ABB copolymer.

  9. HTTR Fuel Block Simulations with SCALE

    SciTech Connect

    Ilas, Dan; Gehin, Jess C

    2010-01-01

    The SCALE code system is currently being updated to improve the methods and data to support High Temperature Gas Cooled reactor analysis. This paper presents the results of a High Temperature Engineering Test Reactor (HTTR) fuel block analysis with SCALE6.0, which is included as one of the sources of validation data. Good agreement is reported between continuous energy and multigroup SCALE/KENO models of the HTTR block for eigenvalue and fission density distribution. The agreement of the SCALE/KENO results with the MCNP5 results is also very good. The boundary condition is shown to have a large effect on both the calculated eigenvalue and the fission density distribution within the fuel block. In addition to the reported results, a method is proposed to alleviate the fuel mass non-conservation due to the clipping of the lattice of grains within the fuel element in the Monte Carlo continuous energy models. One of the high-temperature gas-cooled (HTGR) reactor technology options under consideration by the Next Generation Nuclear Plant (NGNP) project is based on the prismatic, graphite-moderated reactor design. Within this context, the capability to generate accurate three-dimensional (3-D) core power distributions is one of the main challenges for the NGNP methods development.

  10. Blocking a selective association in pigeons.

    PubMed Central

    Weiss, S J; Panlilio, L V

    1999-01-01

    Experiment 1 demonstrated for the first time a stimulus-reinforcer interaction in pigeons trained with free-operant multiple schedules of reinforcement. Pigeons that treadle pressed in the presence of a tone-light (TL) compound for food exhibited primarily visual stimulus control on a stimulus-element test, whereas pigeons that avoided shock in TL exhibited auditory control. In Experiment 2, this selective association was blocked in pigeons pretrained with the biologically contingency-disadvantage element of the compound (i.e., tone-food or light-shock) before TL training. When this pretraining preceded compound-stimulus training, control was now auditory in pigeons that treadle pressed for food and was visual in pigeons that avoided shock. Previous attempts at blocking this selective association were unsuccessful in pigeons (LoLordo, Jacobs, & Foree, 1982) but were successful in rats (Schindler & Weiss, 1985). Experiment 2 established that selective associations can be blocked in pigeons when the procedures that were effective with rats were systematically replicated. These results further demonstrate the cross-species generality of an associative attentional mechanism involving a biological constraint on learning in species with different dominant sensory systems. PMID:10028692

  11. Blocking transmission of vector-borne diseases.

    PubMed

    Schorderet-Weber, Sandra; Noack, Sandra; Selzer, Paul M; Kaminsky, Ronald

    2017-04-01

    Vector-borne diseases are responsible for significant health problems in humans, as well as in companion and farm animals. Killing the vectors with ectoparasitic drugs before they have the opportunity to pass on their pathogens could be the ideal way to prevent vector borne diseases. Blocking of transmission might work when transmission is delayed during blood meal, as often happens in ticks. The recently described systemic isoxazolines have been shown to successfully prevent disease transmission under conditions of delayed pathogen transfer. However, if the pathogen is transmitted immediately at bite as it is the case with most insects, blocking transmission becomes only possible if ectoparasiticides prevent the vector from landing on or, at least, from biting the host. Chemical entities exhibiting repellent activity in addition to fast killing, like pyrethroids, could prevent pathogen transmission even in cases of immediate transfer. Successful blocking depends on effective action in the context of the extremely diverse life-cycles of vectors and vector-borne pathogens of medical and veterinary importance which are summarized in this review. This complexity leads to important parameters to consider for ectoparasiticide research and when considering the ideal drug profile for preventing disease transmission.

  12. Cell-mediated immune response to unrelated proteins and unspecific inflammation blocked by orally tolerated proteins.

    PubMed

    Ramos, Gustavo C; Rodrigues, Claudiney M; Azevedo, Geraldo M; Pinho, Vanessa; Carvalho, Cláudia R; Vaz, Nelson M

    2009-03-01

    Oral tolerance promotes a generalized decrease in specific immune responsiveness to proteins previously encountered via the oral route. In addition, parenteral immunization with a tolerated protein also triggers a significant reduction in the primary responsiveness to a second unrelated antigen. This is generally explained by 'innocent bystander suppression', suggesting that the transient and episodic effects of inhibitory cytokines released by contact with the tolerated antigen would block responses to the second antigen. In disagreement with this view, we have previously shown that: (i) these inhibitory effects do not require concomitance or contiguity of the injections of the two proteins; (ii) that intravenous or intragastric exposures to the tolerated antigen are not inhibitory; and (iii) that the inhibitory effect, once triggered, persists in the absence of further contact with the tolerated protein, possibly by inhibition of secondary responsiveness (immunological memory). The present work confirms that immunological memory of the second unrelated antigen is hindered by exposure to the tolerated antigen and, in addition, shows that this exposure: (i) inhibits the inflammation triggered by an unrelated antigen through the double effect of inhibiting production of leucocytes in the bone marrow and blocking their migration to inflammed sites; and (ii) significantly blocks footpaw swelling triggered by carrageenan. Taken together, these results conclusively demonstrate that inhibitory effects of parenteral injection of tolerated antigens are much more general than suggested by the 'innocent bystander suppression' hypothesis.

  13. Efficacy of magnesium as an adjuvant to bupivacaine in 3-in-1 nerve block for arthroscopic anterior cruciate ligament repair

    PubMed Central

    Muthiah, Thilaka; Arora, Mahesh K; Trikha, Anjan; Sunder, Rani A; Prasad, Ganga; Singh, Preet M

    2016-01-01

    Background and Aims: Three-in-one and femoral nerve blocks are proven modalities for postoperative analgesia following anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) reconstruction. The aim of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of magnesium (Mg) as an adjuvant to bupivacaine in 3-in-1 block for ACL reconstruction. Methods: Sixty patients undergoing arthroscopic ACL reconstruction were randomly allocated to Group I (3-in-1 block with 30 ml of 0.25% bupivacaine preceded by 1.5 ml of intravenous [IV] saline), Group II (3-in-1 block with 30 ml of 0.25% bupivacaine preceded by 1.5 ml of solution containing 150 mg Mg IV) or Group III (3-in-1 block with 30 ml containing 0.25% bupivacaine and 150 mg of Mg as adjuvant preceded by 1.5 ml of IV saline). Post-operatively, patients received morphine when visual analogue scale (VAS) score was ≥4. Quantitative parameters were compared using one-way ANOVA and Kruskal–Wallis test and qualitative data were analysed using Chi-square test. Results: Demographics, haemodynamic parameters, intra-operative fentanyl requirement, post-operative VAS scores and total morphine requirement were comparable between groups. Time to first analgesic requirement was significantly prolonged in Group III (789 ± 436) min compared to Group I (466 ± 290 min) and Group II (519 ± 274 min), (P = 0.02 and 0.05). Significantly less number of patients in Group III (1/20) received morphine in the first 6 h post-operatively, compared to Group I (8/20) and Group II (6/20) (P = 0.008 and 0.03). No side effects were observed. Conclusion: Mg as an adjuvant to bupivacaine in 3-in-1 block for ACL reconstruction significantly prolongs the time to first analgesic requirement and reduces the number of patients requiring morphine in the immediate post-operative period. PMID:27512165

  14. Hydrophobic Blocks Facilitate Lipid Compatibility and Translocon Recognition of Transmembrane Protein Sequences

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Biophysical hydrophobicity scales suggest that partitioning of a protein segment from an aqueous phase into a membrane is governed by its perceived segmental hydrophobicity but do not establish specifically (i) how the segment is identified in vivo for translocon-mediated insertion or (ii) whether the destination lipid bilayer is biochemically receptive to the inserted sequence. To examine the congruence between these dual requirements, we designed and synthesized a library of Lys-tagged peptides of a core length sufficient to span a bilayer but with varying patterns of sequence, each composed of nine Leu residues, nine Ser residues, and one (central) Trp residue. We found that peptides containing contiguous Leu residues (Leu-block peptides, e.g., LLLLLLLLLWSSSSSSSSS), in comparison to those containing discontinuous stretches of Leu residues (non-Leu-block peptides, e.g., SLSLLSLSSWSLLSLSLLS), displayed greater helicity (circular dichroism spectroscopy), traveled slower during sodium dodecyl sulfate–polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis, had longer reverse phase high-performance liquid chromatography retention times on a C-18 column, and were helical when reconstituted into 1-palmitoyl-2-oleoylglycero-3-phosphocholine liposomes, each observation indicating superior lipid compatibility when a Leu-block is present. These parameters were largely paralleled in a biological membrane insertion assay using microsomal membranes from dog pancreas endoplasmic reticulum, where we found only the Leu-block sequences successfully inserted; intriguingly, an amphipathic peptide (SLLSSLLSSWLLSSLLSSL; Leu face, Ser face) with biophysical properties similar to those of Leu-block peptides failed to insert. Our overall results identify local sequence lipid compatibility rather than average hydrophobicity as a principal determinant of transmembrane segment potential, while demonstrating that further subtleties of hydrophobic and helical patterning, such as circumferential hydrophobicity

  15. Hydrophobic blocks facilitate lipid compatibility and translocon recognition of transmembrane protein sequences.

    PubMed

    Stone, Tracy A; Schiller, Nina; von Heijne, Gunnar; Deber, Charles M

    2015-02-24

    Biophysical hydrophobicity scales suggest that partitioning of a protein segment from an aqueous phase into a membrane is governed by its perceived segmental hydrophobicity but do not establish specifically (i) how the segment is identified in vivo for translocon-mediated insertion or (ii) whether the destination lipid bilayer is biochemically receptive to the inserted sequence. To examine the congruence between these dual requirements, we designed and synthesized a library of Lys-tagged peptides of a core length sufficient to span a bilayer but with varying patterns of sequence, each composed of nine Leu residues, nine Ser residues, and one (central) Trp residue. We found that peptides containing contiguous Leu residues (Leu-block peptides, e.g., LLLLLLLLLWSSSSSSSSS), in comparison to those containing discontinuous stretches of Leu residues (non-Leu-block peptides, e.g., SLSLLSLSSWSLLSLSLLS), displayed greater helicity (circular dichroism spectroscopy), traveled slower during sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis, had longer reverse phase high-performance liquid chromatography retention times on a C-18 column, and were helical when reconstituted into 1-palmitoyl-2-oleoylglycero-3-phosphocholine liposomes, each observation indicating superior lipid compatibility when a Leu-block is present. These parameters were largely paralleled in a biological membrane insertion assay using microsomal membranes from dog pancreas endoplasmic reticulum, where we found only the Leu-block sequences successfully inserted; intriguingly, an amphipathic peptide (SLLSSLLSSWLLSSLLSSL; Leu face, Ser face) with biophysical properties similar to those of Leu-block peptides failed to insert. Our overall results identify local sequence lipid compatibility rather than average hydrophobicity as a principal determinant of transmembrane segment potential, while demonstrating that further subtleties of hydrophobic and helical patterning, such as circumferential hydrophobicity in

  16. Rapid self-assembly of block copolymers to photonic crystals

    DOEpatents

    Xia, Yan; Sveinbjornsson, Benjamin R; Grubbs, Robert H; Weitekamp, Raymond; Miyake, Garret M; Atwater, Harry A; Piunova, Victoria; Daeffler, Christopher Scot; Hong, Sung Woo; Gu, Weiyin; Russell, Thomas P.

    2016-07-05

    The invention provides a class of copolymers having useful properties, including brush block copolymers, wedge-type block copolymers and hybrid wedge and polymer block copolymers. In an embodiment, for example, block copolymers of the invention incorporate chemically different blocks comprising polymer size chain groups and/or wedge groups that significantly inhibit chain entanglement, thereby enhancing molecular self-assembly processes for generating a range of supramolecular structures, such as periodic nanostructures and microstructures. The present invention also provides useful methods of making and using copolymers, including block copolymers.

  17. Angiotensin II, sympathetic nerve activity and chronic heart failure.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yutang; Seto, Sai-Wang; Golledge, Jonathan

    2014-03-01

    Sympathetic nerve activity has been reported to be increased in both humans and animals with chronic heart failure. One of the mechanisms believed to be responsible for this phenomenon is increased systemic and cerebral angiotensin II signaling. Plasma angiotensin II is increased in humans and animals with chronic heart failure. The increase in angiotensin II signaling enhances sympathetic nerve activity through actions on both central and peripheral sites during chronic heart failure. Angiotensin II signaling is enhanced in different brain sites such as the paraventricular nucleus, the rostral ventrolateral medulla and the area postrema. Blocking angiotensin II type 1 receptors decreases sympathetic nerve activity and cardiac sympathetic afferent reflex when therapy is administered to the paraventricular nucleus. Injection of an angiotensin receptor blocker into the area postrema activates the sympathoinhibitory baroreflex. In peripheral regions, angiotensin II elevates both norepinephrine release and synthesis and inhibits norepinephrine uptake at nerve endings, which may contribute to the increase in sympathetic nerve activity seen in chronic heart failure. Increased circulating angiotensin II during chronic heart failure may enhance the sympathoexcitatory chemoreflex and inhibit the sympathoinhibitory baroreflex. In addition, increased circulating angiotensin II can directly act on the central nervous system via the subfornical organ and the area postrema to increase sympathetic outflow. Inhibition of angiotensin II formation and its type 1 receptor has been shown to have beneficial effects in chronic heart failure patients.

  18. Chirped-Superlattice, Blocked-Intersubband QWIP

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gunapala, Sarath; Ting, David; Bandara, Sumith

    2004-01-01

    An Al(x)Ga(1-x)As/GaAs quantum-well infrared photodetector (QWIP) of the blocked-intersubband-detector (BID) type, now undergoing development, features a chirped (that is, aperiodic) superlattice. The purpose of the chirped superlattice is to increase the quantum efficiency of the device. A somewhat lengthy background discussion is necessary to give meaning to a brief description of the present developmental QWIP. A BID QWIP was described in "MQW Based Block Intersubband Detector for Low-Background Operation" (NPO-21073), NASA Tech Briefs Vol. 25, No. 7 (July 2001), page 46. To recapitulate: The BID design was conceived in response to the deleterious effects of operation of a QWIP at low temperature under low background radiation. These effects can be summarized as a buildup of space charge and an associated high impedance and diminution of responsivity with increasing modulation frequency. The BID design, which reduces these deleterious effects, calls for a heavily doped multiple-quantum-well (MQW) emitter section with barriers that are thinner than in prior MQW devices. The thinning of the barriers results in a large overlap of sublevel wave functions, thereby creating a miniband. Because of sequential resonant quantum-mechanical tunneling of electrons from the negative ohmic contact to and between wells, any space charge is quickly neutralized. At the same time, what would otherwise be a large component of dark current attributable to tunneling current through the whole device is suppressed by placing a relatively thick, undoped, impurity-free AlxGa1 x As blocking barrier layer between the MQW emitter section and the positive ohmic contact. [This layer is similar to the thick, undoped Al(x)Ga(1-x)As layers used in photodetectors of the blocked-impurity-band (BIB) type.] Notwithstanding the aforementioned advantage afforded by the BID design, the responsivity of a BID QWIP is very low because of low collection efficiency, which, in turn, is a result of low

  19. A comparative study of clonidine and dexmedetomidine as an adjunct to bupivacaine in supraclavicular brachial plexus block

    PubMed Central

    Tripathi, Archana; Sharma, Khushboo; Somvanshi, Mukesh; Samal, Rajib Lochan

    2016-01-01

    Background and Aims: Various additives are mixed with local anesthetic agents to increase the quality of block in regional anesthesia. We compared clonidine and dexmedetomidine as an adjunct to bupivacaine in supraclavicular brachial plexus block with respect to the onset and duration of sensory and motor block and duration of analgesia. Material and Methods: Sixty American Society of Anesthesiologists Grades I and II patients scheduled for various orthopedic surgeries of the upper limb under supraclavicular brachial plexus block were divided into two equal groups in a randomized, double-blind manner. Patients were assigned randomly to one of the two groups. In Group C (n = 30), 39 ml of 0.25% bupivacaine plus 1 ml (1 μg/kg) clonidine and in Group D (n = 30), 39 ml of 0.25% bupivacaine plus 1 ml (1 μg/kg) dexmedetomidine were given. The onset and duration of sensory and motor block, duration of analgesia, and quality of anesthesia were studied in both the groups. Results: There was no statistically significant difference in the onset of sensory and motor block in both the groups. The durations of sensory and motor block were 316.67 ± 45.21 and 372.67 ± 44.48 min, respectively, in Group C, whereas they were 502.67 ± 43.78 and 557.67 ± 38.83 min, respectively, in Group D. The duration of analgesia was 349.33 ± 42.91 min, significantly less in Group C compared to 525.33 ± 42.89 min in Group D (P < 0.001). The quality of anesthesia was significantly better in dexmedetomidine group compared to clonidine group (P < 0.001). Conclusion: The addition of dexmedetomidine prolongs the durations of sensory and motor block and duration of analgesia and improves the quality of anesthesia as compared with clonidine when injected with bupivacaine in supraclavicular brachial plexus block. PMID:27625483

  20. Variation block-based genomics method for crop plants

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background In contrast with wild species, cultivated crop genomes consist of reshuffled recombination blocks, which occurred by crossing and selection processes. Accordingly, recombination block-based genomics analysis can be an effective approach for the screening of target loci for agricultural traits. Results We propose the variation block method, which is a three-step process for recombination block detection and comparison. The first step is to detect variations by comparing the short-read DNA sequences of the cultivar to the reference genome of the target crop. Next, sequence blocks with variation patterns are examined and defined. The boundaries between the variation-containing sequence blocks are regarded as recombination sites. All the assumed recombination sites in the cultivar set are used to split the genomes, and the resulting sequence regions are termed variation blocks. Finally, the genomes are compared using the variation blocks. The variation block method identified recurring recombination blocks accurately and successfully represented block-level diversities in the publicly available genomes of 31 soybean and 23 rice accessions. The practicality of this approach was demonstrated by the identification of a putative locus determining soybean hilum color. Conclusions We suggest that the variation block method is an efficient genomics method for the recombination block-level comparison of crop genomes. We expect that this method will facilitate the development of crop genomics by bringing genomics technologies to the field of crop breeding. PMID:24929792

  1. Factors influencing teaching style in block-scheduled science classrooms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schoen Giddings, Linda

    This survey study sought to determine the extent to which teachers' personal belief systems, the leadership practices of the principal, and the nature of the organization as a professional learning community influence their teaching methodologies. The data were contributed by 172 South Carolina science teachers from 65 4 x 4 block-scheduled high schools. The teachers were pre-identified by teaching style as predominantly constructivist or traditional. The online survey consisted of two parts. Part I was the CTBA (Torff & Warburton 2005), which examined teacher beliefs regarding critical-thinking classroom strategies. Part II was the short form of the LOLSO Project Questionnaires (Shins et al., 2002), which examined teacher perceptions of their principal as a transformational leader and of their school as a learning organization. Logistic regression analysis identified two significant factors differentiating constructivist and traditional teachers. Traditional teachers were more likely to believe that low critical-thinking strategies were appropriate strategies for use in the classroom and constructivist teachers were more likely to perceive their schools as learning organizations. These two factors, when entered into the logistic regression predictive equation, could predict group membership with a 61% accuracy level. While not a differentiating factor, there was also a strong correlation between leadership and organizational learning (r = .86). These findings are consistent with other research that has found that schools which are learning organizations support more constructivist pedagogy and student-centered classrooms and are dependent upon strong support from school leadership.

  2. Optimal and efficient decoding of concatenated quantum block codes

    SciTech Connect

    Poulin, David

    2006-11-15

    We consider the problem of optimally decoding a quantum error correction code--that is, to find the optimal recovery procedure given the outcomes of partial ''check'' measurements on the system. In general, this problem is NP hard. However, we demonstrate that for concatenated block codes, the optimal decoding can be efficiently computed using a message-passing algorithm. We compare the performance of the message-passing algorithm to that of the widespread blockwise hard decoding technique. Our Monte Carlo results using the five-qubit and Steane's code on a depolarizing channel demonstrate significant advantages of the message-passing algorithms in two respects: (i) Optimal decoding increases by as much as 94% the error threshold below which the error correction procedure can be used to reliably send information over a noisy channel; and (ii) for noise levels below these thresholds, the probability of error after optimal decoding is suppressed at a significantly higher rate, leading to a substantial reduction of the error correction overhead.

  3. Effect of Pauli blocking on coherent states of composite bosons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shiau, Shiue-Yuan; Combescot, Monique

    2017-01-01

    The quantum nature of elementary bosons can be completely erased by using coherent states known as Glauber states. Here, we consider composite bosons (cobosons) made of two fermions and look for the possibility of erasing the bosonic quantum nature of the field and the fermionic quantum nature of its constituents, when the distribution of the coboson Schmidt decomposition is either flat like Frenkel excitons or localized like Wannier excitons. We show that for Frenkel-like cobosons, complete erasure of the field quantum nature is possible up to a density that is a sizable fraction of the number of fermion-pair states making up the coboson at hand. At a higher density, the Pauli exclusion principle between fermionic constituents shows up dramatically. It induces (i) a decrease in the number-operator eigenvalues down to 1 and an increase in the number-state second-order correlation functions up to 2; (ii) the disappearance of the usual sharp peak in the coherent-state distribution and an increase in the coherent-state second-order correlation function up to 2. It also is possible to construct number states and coherent states for Wannier-like cobosons, but their forms are far more complex. Finally, we show that Pauli blocking makes the coboson coherent states qualitatively different from Anderson's ansatz.

  4. Binder-block copolymer micelle interactions in bactericidal filter paper.

    PubMed

    Mansur-Azzam, Nura; Woo, Su Gyeong; Eisenberg, Adi; van de Ven, Theo G M

    2013-08-06

    We previously produced a bactericidal filter paper loaded with PAA47-b-PS214 block copolymer micelles containing the biocide triclosan (TCN), using cationic polyacryamide (cPAM) as a binder. However, we encountered a very slow filtration, resulting in long bacteria deactivation times. Slow drainage occurred only when the filter paper was left to dry. It appears that the filter paper with cPAM and micelles develops hydrophobic properties responsible for this very slow filtration. Three approaches were taken to accelerate the very slow drainage all based on modification of binder-micelle interactions: (i) keeping the micelles wet, (ii) modification of the corona, and (iii) replacing cPAM with smaller and more highly charged cationic poly(isopropanol dimethylammonium) chloride (PIDMAC). In all cases, the drainage time of bactericidal filter paper became close to that of untreated filter paper, without decreasing its efficiency. Moreover, replacing cPAM with PIDMAC led to a much more efficient bactericidal filter paper that reduced bacteria viability by more than 6 orders of magnitude. In addition to resolving the hydrophobic drainage hurdle, the three solutions also offer a better understanding of the interaction between cPAM and micelles in the filter paper.

  5. Consolidation of Military Pay and Personnel Functions (Copper). Volume II

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1978-05-01

    Inclusi Log In 3815 Sign 3815 To T.S ToPage 11-15-A12 1 1 -1-AlICOPPER From Pago 11-15-All Log 11TL In UTL Control Log From Page 11-15-AIO Today’s saing...SIDPERS JUMPS BT Input BT Input BT (or unit SID uput) 210 211 212 To Page II 15-C17 To Page 11-15-Cll To Pago 11-15-C2 *A ’miwni SJ block" Is a block...possibility for traffic con- gestion ; equipment inadequacies and location problems; lighting, safety, and telephone problems, and problems such as the

  6. Thinking beyond the block: block matching for copy-move forgery detection revisited

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kirchner, Matthias; Schöttle, Pascal; Riess, Christian

    2015-03-01

    Detection of copy{move forgeries is one of the most actively researched topics in image forensics. It has been shown that so-called block-based methods give the highest pixel-wise accuracy for detecting copy{move forgeries. However, matching of block-based features can be computationally extremely demanding. Hence, the current predominant line of thought is that block-based algorithms are too slow to be applicable in practice. In this paper, we revisit the matching stage of block-based copy{move forgery detection methods. We propose an efficient approach for finding duplicate patterns of a given size in integer-valued input data. By design, we focus on the spatial relation of potentially duplicated elements. This allows us to locate copy{move forgeries via bit-wise operations, without expensive block comparisons in the feature space. Experimental investigation of different matching strategies shows that the proposed method has its benefits. However, on a broader scale, our experiments demonstrate that the performance of matching by lexicographic sorting might have been underestimated in previous work, despite its remarkable speed benefit on large images. In fact, in a practical setting, where accuracy and computational efficiency have to be balanced, lexicographic sorting may be considered the method of choice.

  7. Solid-supported block copolymer membranes through interfacial adsorption of charged block copolymer vesicles.

    PubMed

    Rakhmatullina, Ekaterina; Meier, Wolfgang

    2008-06-17

    The properties of amphiphilic block copolymer membranes can be tailored within a wide range of physical parameters. This makes them promising candidates for the development of new (bio)sensors based on solid-supported biomimetic membranes. Here we investigated the interfacial adsorption of polyelectrolyte vesicles on three different model substrates to find the optimum conditions for formation of planar membranes. The polymer vesicles were made from amphiphilic ABA triblock copolymers with short, positively charged poly(2,2-dimethylaminoethyl methacrylate) (PDMAEMA) end blocks and a hydrophobic poly( n-butyl methacrylate) (PBMA) middle block. We observed reorganization of the amphiphilic copolymer chains from vesicular structures into a 1.5+/-0.04 nm thick layer on the hydrophobic HOPG surface. However, this film starts disrupting and dewetting upon drying. In contrast, adsorption of the vesicles on the negatively charged SiO2 and mica substrates induced vesicle fusion and formation of planar, supported block copolymer films. This process seems to be controlled by the surface charge density of the substrate and concentration of the block copolymers in solution. The thickness of the copolymer membrane on mica was comparable to the thickness of phospholipid bilayers.

  8. Block 1. Photograph portrays general view of designated seating area ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Block 1. Photograph portrays general view of designated seating area at mid point of Block 1 and illustrates poor maintenance of vegetation within the park - Skyline Park, 1500-1800 Arapaho Street, Denver, Denver County, CO

  9. BLOCK-FLOATING-POINT REALIZATION OF DIGITAL FILTERS

    DTIC Science & Technology

    A realization for digital filters using block- floating - point arithmetic is proposed. A statistical model for roundoff noise is presented and used to compare block- floating - point with fixed-point and floating - point realizations.

  10. 1. STREETSCAPE VIEW, LOOKING NORTHWEST, OF 2300 BLOCK (NORTHSIDE) OF ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. STREETSCAPE VIEW, LOOKING NORTHWEST, OF 2300 BLOCK (NORTHSIDE) OF UNIVERSITY BOULEVARD IN THE DOWNTOWN TUSCALOOSA NATIONAL REGISTER HISTORIC DISTRICT - Town of Tuscaloosa, 2300 Block University Boulevard, Tuscaloosa, Tuscaloosa County, AL

  11. 1. PHOTOCOPY OF PHOTO OF GENERAL VIEW OF TYLER BLOCK ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. PHOTOCOPY OF PHOTO OF GENERAL VIEW OF TYLER BLOCK (WITH A PEDIMENT). PHOTO COURTESY OF NATIONAL REGISTER OF HISTORIC PLACES, WASHINGTON, D.C. - Tyler Block, 319 West Jefferson Street, Louisville, Jefferson County, KY

  12. Block coals from Indiana: Inferences on changing depositional environment

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mastalerz, Maria; Padgett, P.L.; Eble, C.F.

    2000-01-01

    Significant differences in coal petrography, palynology and coal quality were found between the Lower Block and Upper Block Coal Members (Brazil Formation, Pennsylvanian) in Daviess County, Indiana. The Lower Block Coal Member ranges in thickness from 51 to 74 cm and the Upper Block Coal Member ranges from 20 to 65 cm. Average sulfur content and ash yield of the Lower Block coal (0.98%, 7.65%) are lower than in the Upper Block coal. Megascopically, the coals show distinct differences. The Lower Block is a banded coal with numerous thin fusain horizons and a thin clay parting in the lower third of the seam. The Upper Block coal has a dulling-upward trend, with a bright clarain found at the base that grades into a clarain and then into a durain in the upper portion of the seam. Vitrinite content of the Lower Block coal ranges from 63% to 78%, with the highest vitrinite content found in the middle portion of the seam. In the Upper Block coal, vitrinite content ranges from 40% to 83%, with the highest values found in the lower part of the seam. Ash yield is higher in the upper part of the Upper Block coal, reaching up to 40%. The Lower Block coal is dominated by lycopod trees and tree ferns. The Upper Block coal shows marked differences in spore assemblages between lower and upper parts of the seam. The lower half is dominated by large lycopod trees and tree ferns, similar to the Lower Block coal. The upper half is dominated by small lycopods, mainly Densosporites and Radiizonates. These differences between the Lower Block and Upper Block Coal Members are significant correlation tools applicable to mining exploration and chronostratigraphy. (C) 2000 Elsevier Science B.V. All rights reserved.Significant differences in coal petrography, palynology and coal quality were found between the Lower Block and Upper Block Coal Members (Brazil Formation, Pennsylvanian) in Daviess County, Indiana. The Lower Block Coal Member ranges in thickness from 51 to 74 cm and the Upper Block

  13. 2. INTERIOR, CENTRAL BLOCK, FIRST FLOOR, EAST ROOM, GENERAL VIEW ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. INTERIOR, CENTRAL BLOCK, FIRST FLOOR, EAST ROOM, GENERAL VIEW OF NORTH WALL WITH ARCHED WINDOW, AND WEST WALL WITH DOORWAY LEADING INTO NORTHEAST ROOM OF CENTRAL BLOCK - Bulows Minde Estate House, Bulows Minde, Bulows Minde, St. Croix, VI

  14. Block 3. Southeastern view towards the May D & F ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Block 3. Southeastern view towards the May D & F Tower observed from within central portion of Block 3. Photograph exhibits stair walls, berms and trees - Skyline Park, 1500-1800 Arapaho Street, Denver, Denver County, CO

  15. Mission Crew Fatigue during RIVET JOINT Block II Demonstration/Evaluation.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1980-11-01

    you feel RIGHT NOW. STATEMENT SETTER THAN SAME AS WORSE THAN 1. VERY LIVELY 2. EXTREMELY TIRED & QUITE FRESH & SLIGHTLY POOPED 0 S, EXTREMELY PEPPV 6...SOMEWHAT PRISMJ 7. PETERED OUT •Z L. VERY REFRESHED 9. FAIL.Y WELL POOPED Re IEADY TO DROP WE SAM roy’" 136 SUBJECTIVE FATIGUE CNECKCARDGaip 74 aa

  16. Military Curricula for Vocational & Technical Education. Refrigeration & Air Conditioning Specialist, Blocks I-II.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ohio State Univ., Columbus. National Center for Research in Vocational Education.

    This plan of instruction, study guides, workbooks, and programmed texts for a secondary-postsecondary-level course in refrigeration and air conditioning are one of a number of military-developed curriculum packages selected for adaptation to vocational instruction and curriculum development in a civilian setting. It is the first section of a…

  17. Aeroelastic Tests of an Eight Percent Scale Saturn C-1 Block II

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1963-01-01

    Buffet and flutter characteristics of Saturn Apollo mission were studied using a dynamically scaled model. The model was built around a central aluminum tube for scaled stiffness distribution and strength to resist loads imposed during testing. Styrofoam sections attached to the core provided the correct external contours. Lead weights were added for correct mass distribution. An electromagnetic shaker was used to excite the model in its flexible modes of vibration during portions of the test. The model was supported on a sting, mounted by leaf springs, cables and torsion bars. The support system provided for simulating the full scale rigid body pitch frequency with minimum restraint imposed on elastic deflections. Bending moments recorded by sensors on the aluminum tube. Several modified nose configurations were tested: The basic configuration was tested with and without a flow separator disk on the escape rocket motor, tests also were made with the escape tower and rocket motor removed completely. For the final test, the Apollo capsule was replaced with a Jupiter nose cone. The test program consisted of determining model response throughout the transonic speed range at angles of attack up to 6 degrees and measuring the aerodynamic damping over the same range for the basic model and the modified configurations. Signals from the model pickup were recorded on tape for later analysis. The data obtained were used to estimate bending moments that would be produced on the full-scale vehicle by aerodynamic forces due to buffeting.

  18. LABCEDE and COCHISE Analysis II. Volume II.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1980-02-01

    Continue on revere side if neceeeary and Identify by block number) Infrared Radiation Vibrational Kinetics Chemilurnine scence Electron Irradiation Radiation...falling between the planes at x 4. 8, 11. Z cm. -13- Ill. CO 2 INFRARED FLUORESCENCE A number of fluorescence measurements were performed in room...interferometric infrared measurements on the LABCEDE facility. The relative response of the system across the field of view has been mapped out and, to first

  19. Block copolymer/ferroelectric nanoparticle nanocomposites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pang, Xinchang; He, Yanjie; Jiang, Beibei; Iocozzia, James; Zhao, Lei; Guo, Hanzheng; Liu, Jin; Akinc, Mufit; Bowler, Nicola; Tan, Xiaoli; Lin, Zhiqun

    2013-08-01

    Nanocomposites composed of diblock copolymer/ferroelectric nanoparticles were formed by selectively constraining ferroelectric nanoparticles (NPs) within diblock copolymer nanodomains via judicious surface modification of ferroelectric NPs. Ferroelectric barium titanate (BaTiO3) NPs with different sizes that are permanently capped with polystyrene chains (i.e., PS-functionalized BaTiO3NPs) were first synthesized by exploiting amphiphilic unimolecular star-like poly(acrylic acid)-block-polystyrene (PAA-b-PS) diblock copolymers as nanoreactors. Subsequently, PS-functionalized BaTiO3 NPs were preferentially sequestered within PS nanocylinders in the linear cylinder-forming polystyrene-block-poly(methyl methacrylate) (PS-b-PMMA) diblock copolymer upon mixing the BaTiO3 NPs with PS-b-PMMA. The use of PS-b-PMMA diblock copolymers, rather than traditional homopolymers, offers the opportunity for controlling the spatial organization of PS-functionalized BaTiO3 NPs in the PS-b-PMMA/BaTiO3 NP nanocomposites. Selective solvent vapor annealing was utilized to control the nanodomain orientation in the nanocomposites. Vertically oriented PS nanocylinders containing PS-functionalized BaTiO3 NPs were yielded after exposing the PS-b-PMMA/BaTiO3 NP nanocomposite thin film to acetone vapor, which is a selective solvent for PMMA block. The dielectric properties of nanocomposites in the microwave frequency range were investigated. The molecular weight of PS-b-PMMA and the size of BaTiO3 NPs were found to exert an apparent influence on the dielectric properties of the resulting nanocomposites.Nanocomposites composed of diblock copolymer/ferroelectric nanoparticles were formed by selectively constraining ferroelectric nanoparticles (NPs) within diblock copolymer nanodomains via judicious surface modification of ferroelectric NPs. Ferroelectric barium titanate (BaTiO3) NPs with different sizes that are permanently capped with polystyrene chains (i.e., PS-functionalized BaTiO3NPs) were

  20. An unusual toxic reaction to axillary block by mepivacaine with adrenaline.

    PubMed

    Koscielniak-Nielsen, Z J

    1998-08-01

    An increase in blood pressure, accompanied by atrial fibrillation, agitation, incomprehensible shouts and loss of consciousness, was observed in an elderly, ASA classification group II, cardiovascularly medicated male, 12 min after performance of axillary block with mepivacaine 850 mg containing adrenaline 0.225 mg, for correction of Dupuytren's contracture. After intravenous administration of labetalol, metoprolol and midazolam the patient's condition improved, and 15 min later he woke up. The block was successful and surgery was conducted as scheduled despite persisting atrial fibrillation. Postoperatively, the patient refused DC cardioversion and was treated medically. Both the temporal relationship of events and the response to treatment suggest that a rapid systemic absorption of mepivacaine with adrenaline and/or interaction of these drugs with the patient's cardiovascular medications were responsible for the perioperative complications.

  1. Can We Perform Distal Nerve Block Instead of Brachial Plexus Nerve Block Under Ultrasound Guidance for Hand Surgery?

    PubMed Central

    Ince, Ilker; Aksoy, Mehmet; Celik, Mine

    2016-01-01

    Objective: Distal nerve blocks are used in the event of unsuccessful blocks as rescue techniques. The primary purpose of this study was to determine the sufficiency for anesthesia of distal nerve block without the need for deep sedation or general anesthesia. The secondary purpose was to compare block performance times, block onset times, and patient and surgeon satisfaction. Materials and Methods: Patients who underwent hand surgery associated with the innervation area of the radial and median nerves were included in the study. Thirty-four patients who were 18–65 years old and American Society of Anesthesiologists grade I–III and who were scheduled for elective hand surgery under conscious nerve block anesthesia were randomly included in an infraclavicular block group (Group I, n=17) or a radial plus median block group (Group RM, n=17). The block performance time, block onset time, satisfaction of the patient and surgeon, and number of fentanyl administrations were recorded. Results: The numbers of patients who needed fentanyl administration and conversion to general anesthesia were the same in Group I and Group RM and there was no statistically significant difference (p>0.05). The demographics, surgery times, tourniquet times, block perfomance times, and patient and surgeon satisfaction of the groups were similar and there were no statistically significant differences (p>0.05). There was a statistically significant difference in block onset times between the groups (p<0.05). Conclusions: Conscious hand surgery can be performed under distal nerve block anesthesia safely and successfully. PMID:28149139

  2. The Moore-Penrose Inverse of Block Magic Rectangles

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hakopian, Y. R.; Eloyan, A. N.

    2007-01-01

    As is known, a semi-magic square is an "n x n" matrix having the sum of entries in each row and each column equal to a constant. This note generalizes this notion and introduce a special class of block matrices called "block magic rectangles." It is proved that the Moore-Penrose inverse of a block magic rectangle is also a block magic rectangle.

  3. Blocking of the Lymphatic Vessel in Lymphedema

    PubMed Central

    Mihara, Makoto

    2017-01-01

    Objective: In this case report, we present a case wherein we observed a blocking of lymphatic vessels in indocyanine green lymphography and found a shrunken lymphatic vessel intraoperatively. Methods: We performed indocyanine green lymphography and lymphaticovenous anastomosis on a 77-year-old woman. She had previously undergone right mastectomy and axillary lymph node dissection accompanied by radiotherapy and chemotherapy for right breast cancer. She noticed swelling in the right upper limb 22 years after the surgery and consulted our hospital. Although she started wearing elastic sleeve, there was still stiffness in the right upper limb, and we decided to perform lymphaticovenous anastomosis 5 months after the first consultation. Results: In the preoperative indocyanine green lymphography, we observed a linear pattern in the medial side of the right forearm, which suddenly blocked in the middle of the forearm. At that point, we observed dilated lymphatic vessels that were suddenly shrunken at the proximal side intraoperatively. We performed lymphaticovenous anastomosis with the dilated part of this lymphatic vessel. We also performed 4 additional lymphaticovenous anastomoses. The operation time was 2 hours 10 minutes, and the amount of bleeding was minimal. The right upper limb of the patient got softer, and she was satisfied with the result 3 months after the operation. The average circumference change at the 5 points in the right upper limb was −1.26 cm (range, −2.3 to −0.3 cm). Conclusions: There was a possibility that the blocking of the lymphatic vessels was a cause of lymphedema in the upper extremity.

  4. Block copolymer/ferroelectric nanoparticle nanocomposites.

    PubMed

    Pang, Xinchang; He, Yanjie; Jiang, Beibei; Iocozzia, James; Zhao, Lei; Guo, Hanzheng; Liu, Jin; Akinc, Mufit; Bowler, Nicola; Tan, Xiaoli; Lin, Zhiqun

    2013-09-21

    Nanocomposites composed of diblock copolymer/ferroelectric nanoparticles were formed by selectively constraining ferroelectric nanoparticles (NPs) within diblock copolymer nanodomains via judicious surface modification of ferroelectric NPs. Ferroelectric barium titanate (BaTiO3) NPs with different sizes that are permanently capped with polystyrene chains (i.e., PS-functionalized BaTiO3NPs) were first synthesized by exploiting amphiphilic unimolecular star-like poly(acrylic acid)-block-polystyrene (PAA-b-PS) diblock copolymers as nanoreactors. Subsequently, PS-functionalized BaTiO3 NPs were preferentially sequestered within PS nanocylinders in the linear cylinder-forming polystyrene-block-poly(methyl methacrylate) (PS-b-PMMA) diblock copolymer upon mixing the BaTiO3 NPs with PS-b-PMMA. The use of PS-b-PMMA diblock copolymers, rather than traditional homopolymers, offers the opportunity for controlling the spatial organization of PS-functionalized BaTiO3 NPs in the PS-b-PMMA/BaTiO3 NP nanocomposites. Selective solvent vapor annealing was utilized to control the nanodomain orientation in the nanocomposites. Vertically oriented PS nanocylinders containing PS-functionalized BaTiO3 NPs were yielded after exposing the PS-b-PMMA/BaTiO3 NP nanocomposite thin film to acetone vapor, which is a selective solvent for PMMA block. The dielectric properties of nanocomposites in the microwave frequency range were investigated. The molecular weight of PS-b-PMMA and the size of BaTiO3 NPs were found to exert an apparent influence on the dielectric properties of the resulting nanocomposites.

  5. Brucella Infection Associated with Complete Atrioventricular Block

    PubMed Central

    Bilici, Meki; Demir, Fikri; Yılmazer, Murat Muhtar; Bozkurt, Fatma; Tuzcu, Volkan

    2016-01-01

    Background: The clinical spectrum of Brucella infection is quite diverse and characterized by multi-system involvement. Patients present with myocarditis, endocarditis, or pericarditis. Infective endocarditis is the most common cardiovascular complication in patients with brucellosis. Although conduction abnormalities are seen in cases with endocarditis, they are reported very rarely in the setting of cardiac Brucella infection. Case Report: An eight and a half-year-old male patient was referred to our clinic due to inadequate response to cotrimaxazole plus streptomycin treatment at the 15th day of admission. Although local hospital records on the patient showed a heart rate of 80 bpm, we determined a heart rate of 46 bpm. The electrocardiogram showed complete atrioventricular (AV) block. The average heart rate was determined as 48 bpm with 24-hour Holter electrocardiogram (ECG) monitoring. The echocardiographic examination showed normal-sized heart chambers and the absence of valvular involvement. An agglutination test for brucellosis was found to be positive with a titer of 1/320. High fever, arthralgia, and splenomegaly regressed following doxycycline plus rifampicin therapy, but there was no improvement in the AV block. A permanent pacemaker was implanted because of the detection of an average heart rate of 48 bpm. Conclusion: Because cardiac failure and rhythm abnormalities are reported in the course of Brucella infection and may be associated with significant outcomes, cases with brucellosis should be evaluated carefully in terms of cardiac involvement. This report aims to draw attention to complete AV block as an extremely rare complication of Brucella infection. PMID:27761286

  6. Investigations Into Orographic Blocking of Atmospheric Flows.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Broad, Adrian Stewart

    Available from UMI in association with The British Library. Two idealized models of mountain flow are used to examine features of blocking flows on time scales for which the Earth's rotation is important. A two-dimensional barotropic (x-y) semi-geostrophic equation system is used to investigate blocking flow around mountain barriers under the assumption of strong vertical stratification, for which the ambient atmospheric motion is shown to be quasi-horizontal. Integrations of a numerical model of the system for a family of elliptic mountain obstacle profiles (with varying ellipticity and angle of attack to the upstream flow) show positive geostrophic vorticity production on the high pressure side of the obstacles (where the high pressure is defined by the initial geostrophic velocity distribution). The intensity of this low pressure feature is dependent on the uniform upstream flow speed and the aspect ratio of the obstacle as seen by the incoming flow, increasing the former, and decreasing the latter being conducive to enhanced cyclonic development. It is proposed that the balanced response seen from the model is a possible strong ingredient in mountain lee cyclogenesis events. In conjunction, a new approach to shallow fluid flow over isolated mountain obstacles is presented, based on the concept of the constitutive surface. An analytic description is given of steady solutions to the nonlinear problem of non-rotating, one-dimensional flow, and a discussion of the inclusion of rotation to the theoretical framework is given. This model offers a first step towards the classification of upstream flow states which are blocked by mountains.

  7. Efficient Reconstruction of Block-Sparse Signals

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-01-26

    constraints can be used. (4) (5) Let Coff represent a subset of the positive integers less than or equal 10 N such that k E Coff implies x(k) = O. Let...equalit y into the set Can. Equa- tion (1 0) still holds since Uk = z (h’)/il. Then I’ can be re- duced furth er using ( 10). The se ts Can ,md Coff are...modifi ed in the followin g manner. I. If reducing 11 causes a block component ’Uk with k E Coff to ac hieve unity norm, then en te r the kIll

  8. Pudendal nerve block for vaginal birth.

    PubMed

    Anderson, Deborah

    2014-01-01

    Pudendal nerve block is a safe and effective pain relief method for vaginal birth. Providing analgesia to the vulva and anus, it is used for operative vaginal birth and subsequent repair, late second stage pain relief with spontaneous vaginal birth, repair of complex lacerations, or repair of lacerations in women who are unable to achieve adequate or satisfactory pain relief during perineal repair with local anesthesia. Key to its efficacy is the knowledge of pudendal nerve anatomy, the optimal point of infiltration of local anesthetic, and an understanding of the amount of time necessary to effect adequate analgesia.

  9. A building block for hardware belief networks

    PubMed Central

    Behin-Aein, Behtash; Diep, Vinh; Datta, Supriyo

    2016-01-01

    Belief networks represent a powerful approach to problems involving probabilistic inference, but much of the work in this area is software based utilizing standard deterministic hardware based on the transistor which provides the gain and directionality needed to interconnect billions of them into useful networks. This paper proposes a transistor like device that could provide an analogous building block for probabilistic networks. We present two proof-of-concept examples of belief networks, one reciprocal and one non-reciprocal, implemented using the proposed device which is simulated using experimentally benchmarked models. PMID:27443521

  10. Acute Complete Heart Block in Dogs

    PubMed Central

    Starzl, T. E.; Gaertner, R. A.; Baker, R. Robinson

    2010-01-01

    A study has been conducted immediately and up to 18 days after the surgical production of complete heart block in dogs. Immediately after surgery cardiac output, coronary flow, and mean arterial pressure were reduced in rough proportion to the degree of bradycardia. In time, these measures began to return toward preoperative levels. Paralleling the diminished left ventricular work was a diminished left ventricular oxygen consumption with little consequent change in myocardial efficiency. Small rises were detected in central venous pressure. At autopsy, the only unequivocal abnormality was myocardial hypertrophy which became measurable between 2 and 18 days after operation. PMID:14390703

  11. House moves to block Internet censorship.

    PubMed

    Mirken, B

    1995-08-18

    Congress has created conflicting amendments to the Communications Decency Act, an amendment to the telecommunications deregulation bill. The Senate amendment contains sweeping language barring objectionable communications online. Observers fear this will block online distribution of AIDS prevention information as well as bar responses by activist's of drug companies and government officials. The House amendments seek to protect online services from liability if they restrict access to objectionable materials, while another amendment seeks to modify obscenity laws to criminalize only some forms of online speech. These conflicts are to be resolved in a House-Senate conference committee whose meeting date is yet to be decided.

  12. Block rotations, fault domains and crustal deformation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nur, A.; Ron, H.

    1987-01-01

    Much of the earth's crust is broken by sets of parallel strike-slip faults which are organized in domains. A simple kinematic model suggests that when subject to tectonic strain, the faults, and the blocks bound by them, rotate. The rotation can be estimated from the structurally-determined fault slip and fault spacing, and independently from local deviations of paleomagnetic declinations from global values. A rigorous test of this model was carried out in northern Israel, where good agreement was found between the two rotations.

  13. Heart block following topical latanoprost treatment

    PubMed Central

    De Smit, Elisabeth; Theodorou, Maria; Hildebrand, Göran Darius; Bloom, Philip

    2011-01-01

    The authors report a case of second degree heart block associated with topical latanoprost treatment. The authors discuss the possibility of a causative effect as the cessation of this treatment resulted in improvement of the arrhythmia. The authors highlight previous reports and research in humans and animals which demonstrate an association of arrhythmias with prostaglandin analogues. This report draws attention to the possibility that an extremely commonly prescribed topical drug may trigger arrhythmias in susceptible individuals. It is important that prescribers are aware of this possible side-effect. PMID:22679164

  14. Dynamic condensation blocking in cryogenic refueling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Osipov, V. V.; Muratov, C. B.

    2008-12-01

    We demonstrate that a negative feedback between vapor pressure and condensation rate may be established in two-phase systems during vapor compression with rates of practical importance. As a result, dynamic condensation blocking occurs. The effect is studied numerically in the case of filling a no-vent insulated tank by liquid hydrogen. It is shown that the filling dynamics quite sensitively depends on the filling rate, and for sufficiently fast filling rates consist of a fast stage dominated by gas compression and a slow stage governed by heat conduction in the liquid.

  15. Building blocks for correlated superconductors and magnets

    DOE PAGES

    Sarrao, J. L.; Ronning, F.; Bauer, E. D.; ...

    2015-04-01

    Recent efforts at Los Alamos to discover strongly correlated superconductors and hard ferromagnets are reviewed. While serendipity remains a principal engine of materials discovery, design principles and structural building blocks are beginning to emerge that hold potential for predictive discovery. Successes over the last decade with the so-called “115” strongly correlated superconductors are summarized, and more recent efforts to translate these insights and principles to novel hard magnets are discussed. While true “materials by design” remains a distant aspiration, progress is being made in coupling empirical design principles to electronic structure simulation to accelerate and guide materials design and synthesis.

  16. Birth of a nanoscience building block.

    PubMed

    Alivisatos, A Paul

    2008-08-01

    The first Kavli Prize in Nanoscience has recognized two giants of the field, Louis Brus and Sumio Ijima, who have helped to lay the foundation of the field of nanoscience through their efforts to develop two of the most fundamental nanoscience building blocks: colloidal quantum dots and the carbon nanotube. In this Focus, I provide a brief history on the birth of the field of semiconductor nanoparticles, or quantum dots, and outline the contributions that Louis Brus has made in this area, which have served to advance the field of nanoscience in vast and far-reaching ways.

  17. Angiotensin II Blockade and Renal Protection

    PubMed Central

    Kobori, Hiroyuki; Mori, Hirohito; Masaki, Tsutomu; Nishiyama, Akira

    2013-01-01

    Current national guidelines have recommended the use of renin-angiotensin system inhibitors, including angiotensin II type 1 receptor blockers (ARBs), in preference to other antihypertensive agents for treating hypertensive patients with chronic kidney disease. However, the mechanisms underlying the renoprotective effects of ARBs are multiple and complex. Blood pressure reduction by systemic vasodilation with an ARB contributes to its beneficial effects in treating kidney disease. Furthermore, ARB-induced renal vasodilation results in an increase in renal blood flow, leading to improvement of renal ischemia and hypoxia. ARBs are also effective in reducing urinary albumin excretion through a reduction in intraglomerular pressure and the protection of glomerular endothelium and/or podocyte injuries. In addition to blocking angiotensin II-induced renal cell and tissue injuries, ARBs can decrease intrarenal angiotensin II levels by reducing proximal tubular angiotensinogen and production of collecting duct renin, as well as angiotensin II accumulation in the kidney. In this review, we will briefly summarize our current understanding of the pharmacological effects of an ARB in the kidney. We will also discuss the possible mechanisms responsible for the renoprotective effects of ARBs on type 2 diabetic nephropathy. PMID:23176216

  18. 21 CFR 520.1448a - Monensin blocks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS ORAL DOSAGE FORM NEW ANIMAL DRUGS § 520.1448a Monensin blocks. (a)(1... replacement heifers). Provide at least 1 block per 5 head of cattle. Feed blocks continuously. Do not feed salt or minerals containing salt. Do not allow horses or other equines access to...

  19. Mechanical properties of crushed salt/bentonite blocks

    SciTech Connect

    Gerstle, W.H.; Jones, A.K.

    1986-08-01

    A preliminary mechanical testing program has been conducted on crushed salt/bentonite blocks. These blocks are pototypes of blocks that may eventually be used to build engineered seals in drifts at the WIPP site. Three types of blocks were tested: pure crushed salt, crushed salt with bentonite binder, and pure bentonite. Simple uniaxial compression tests were performed. Axial displacement and lateral displacements were measured as a function of applied axial load. The ultimate strength, initial elastic moduli, and mode of failure were determined from these tests. The ultimate uniaxial strength of the pure bentonite blocks were found to be about 6.8 MPa. The ultimate uniaxial strength of pure salt blocks were found to be about 3.2 MPa. The blocks composed of both salt and bentonite had a strength somewhere between these two values. Surprisingly, the bentonite blocks, while stronger than the pure salt blocks, were less stiff. The mode of failure in all cases was through longitudinal splitting cracking. Also, ultrasonic velocities in the blocks were measured. The results of these tests indicate a high degree of anisotropy in the bentonite and salt/bentonite blocks, while the pure salt blocks appear to be isotropic.

  20. Preference for Blocking or Response Redirection during Stereotypy Treatment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Giles, Aimee F.; St. Peter, Claire C.; Pence, Sacha T.; Gibson, Alexandra B.

    2012-01-01

    Response redirection and response blocking reduce stereotypy maintained by automatic reinforcement. The current study evaluated the effects of redirection and response blocking on the stereotypic responding of three elementary-age children diagnosed with autism. During the treatment evaluation, redirection and response blocking were evaluated…