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Sample records for phip 2-amino-1-methyl-6 phenylimidazo

  1. Effect of lipid oxidation products on the formation of 2-amino-1-methyl-6-phenylimidazo[4,5-b]pyridine (PhIP) in model systems.

    PubMed

    Zamora, Rosario; Alcón, Esmeralda; Hidalgo, Francisco J

    2012-12-15

    Ternary mixtures of creatinine, phenylalanine and lipids (or carbohydrates) were heated at 200°C for 1h to determine the potential contribution of lipids to the formation of 2-amino-1-methyl-6-phenylimidazo[4,5-b]pyridine (PhIP). Although unoxidised lipids did not contribute to PhIP formation, their oxidation produced many compounds that significantly increased the formation of PhIP. Among the different lipid oxidation products (LOPs) studied, which included ω-6 and ω-3 derived lipid hydroperoxides, 2,4-alkadienals, 2-alkenals, 4,5-epoxy-2-alkenals, 4-oxo-2-alkenals, and 4-hydroxy-2-nonenal, 4-oxo-2-nonenal was the most reactive compound. It produced 32.48 pmol of PhIP/μmol of creatinine in comparison with the 7.92 pmol of PhIP/μmol of creatinine produced by the control phenylalanine/creatinine reaction mixture. 4-Oxo-2-nonenal reactivity was similar to that of most carbohydrates; although ribose and arabinose produced more PhIP (44-46 pmol of PhIP/μmol of creatinine). In addition to single LOP, the addition of oxidised soybean oil for 24-144 h at 60°C also increased PhIP formation. All these results pointed out to a potential contribution of LOP to the formation of PhIP in food products. This contribution will depend on the lipid content of the food product and its easiness to be oxidised.

  2. Effects of some cations on the formation of 2-amino-1-methyl-6-phenylimidazo[4,5-b]pyridine (PhIP) in a model system.

    PubMed

    Yu, Di; Yu, Shu-Juan

    2016-06-15

    The present study aimed to investigate in detail the changes to 2-amino-1-methyl-6-phenylimidazo[4,5-b]pyridine (PhIP) and its precursors in the presence of some cations (i.e., K(+), Na(+), Ca(2+), Mg(2+), Fe(2+) and Fe(3+)) in a creatinine/phenylacetaldehyde model system. Results showed that PhIP yields decreased when Fe(2+)and Fe(3+) were added to a mixture of phenylacetaldehyde and creatinine. This decrease may be attributed to the fact that Fe(3+) can form complexes with various properties with creatinine and accelerate creatinine degradation. This pathway can disturb the reaction with phenylacetaldehyde, influence aldol condensation product formation, and suppress PhIP formation. Furthermore, Ca(2+)and Mg(2+) enhanced PhIP content. Such enhancement may be attributed to the fact that CaCl2 and MgCl2 promote aldol and aldol condensation product reactions with ammonia and formaldehyde. A possible mechanism for the action of cations during PhIP formation in a model system is also proposed.

  3. Effect of sugarcane molasses extract on the formation of 2-amino-1-methyl-6-phenylimidazo[4,5-b]pyridine (PhIP) in a model system.

    PubMed

    Yu, Di; Chen, Ming-Shun; Yu, Shu-Juan

    2016-04-15

    Molasses, the main by-product of sugar production, is a well-known source of antioxidants. In this study, sugarcane molasses extract was investigated for its total phenolic content and in vitro antioxidant capacity. The experimental total phenolic content was 101.3 mg of gallic acid equivalent (GAE) in 1 g of extract, IC50 of Trolox and sugarcane molasses extract were 125.33 μg/ml and 126.0 μg/ml, respectively. A chemical model system showed that the sugarcane molasses extract effectively reduced the formation of phenylacetaldehyde and the aldol condensation product, meanwhile, the amount of 2-amino-1-methyl-6-phenylimidazo[4,5-b]pyridine (PhIP) also decreased. This could be due to the reaction between the phenolic compounds of sugarcane molasses extract and the carbonyl group of phenylacetaldehyde inhibiting the aldol condensation product formation, and this would suppress the formation of PhIP. A pathway that phenolic compounds inhibited the formation of PhIP is proposed. This pathway also suggested a mechanism for how the sugarcane affects the formation of PHIP.

  4. Structural characteristics that determine the inhibitory role of phenolic compounds on 2-amino-1-methyl-6-phenylimidazo[4,5-b]pyridine (PhIP) formation.

    PubMed

    Salazar, Ricardo; Arámbula-Villa, Gerónimo; Hidalgo, Francisco J; Zamora, Rosario

    2014-05-15

    In an attempt to understand the structural characteristics of phenolic compounds that favour the inhibition of 2-amino-1-methyl-6-phenylimidazo[4,5-b]pyridine (PhIP) formation, this study analyzes the role of twenty-five phenolic compounds on the PhIP produced in phenylalanine/creatinine/oxidised lipid reaction mixtures. The results showed that phenols having two hydroxy groups at meta positions of the aromatic ring were the most efficient inhibitors. The presence of alkyl or carboxylic groups as additional substituents in the aromatic ring slightly reduced the inhibitory effect. On the other hand, the introduction of additional hydroxy and amino groups mostly cancelled the inhibitory effect, which was also mostly absent in ortho and para dihydroxy derivatives. In complex phenols, the presence of several rings with opposite effects produced a reduced inhibitory effect. All these results suggest that it is possible to predict if a phenolic derivative will inhibit the formation of PhIP, or not, based on its structure.

  5. 2-Amino-1-methyl-6-phenylimidazo[4,5-b]pyridine (PhIP) is selectively toxic to primary dopaminergic neurons in vitro.

    PubMed

    Griggs, Amy M; Agim, Zeynep S; Mishra, Vartika R; Tambe, Mitali A; Director-Myska, Alison E; Turteltaub, Kenneth W; McCabe, George P; Rochet, Jean-Christophe; Cannon, Jason R

    2014-07-01

    Parkinson's disease (PD) is the second most common neurodegenerative disease. Much data has linked the etiology of PD to a variety of environmental factors. The majority of cases are thought to arise from a combination of genetic susceptibility and environmental factors. Chronic exposures to dietary factors, including meat, have been identified as potential risk factors. Although heterocyclic amines that are produced during high-temperature meat cooking are known to be carcinogenic, their effect on the nervous system has yet to be studied in depth. In this study, we investigated neurotoxic effects of 2-amino-1-methyl-6-phenylimidazo[4,5-b]pyridine (PhIP), a highly abundant heterocyclic amine in cooked meat, in vitro. We tested toxicity of PhIP and the two major phase I metabolites, N-OH-PhIP and 4'-OH-PhIP, using primary mesencephalic cultures from rat embryos. This culture system contains both dopaminergic and nondopaminergic neurons, which allows specificity of neurotoxicity to be readily examined. We find that exposure to PhIP or N-OH-PhIP is selectively toxic to dopaminergic neurons in primary cultures, resulting in a decreased percentage of dopaminergic neurons. Neurite length is decreased in surviving dopaminergic neurons. Exposure to 4'-OH-PhIP did not produce significant neurotoxicity. PhIP treatment also increased formation of oxidative damage markers, 4-hydroxy-2-nonenal (HNE) and 3-nitrotyrosine in dopaminergic neurons. Pretreatment with N-acetylcysteine was protective. Finally, treatment with blueberry extract, a dietary factor with known antioxidant and other protective mechanisms, prevented PhIP-induced toxicity. Collectively, our study suggests, for the first time, that PhIP is selectively toxic to dopaminergic neurons likely through inducing oxidative stress. PMID:24718704

  6. 2-Amino-1-methyl-6-phenylimidazo[4,5-b]pyridine (PhIP) Is Selectively Toxic to Primary Dopaminergic Neurons In Vitro

    PubMed Central

    Griggs, Amy M.; Agim, Zeynep S.; Mishra, Vartika R.; Tambe, Mitali A.; Director-Myska, Alison E.; Turteltaub, Kenneth W.; McCabe, George P.; Rochet, Jean-Christophe; Cannon, Jason R.

    2014-01-01

    Parkinson's disease (PD) is the second most common neurodegenerative disease. Much data has linked the etiology of PD to a variety of environmental factors. The majority of cases are thought to arise from a combination of genetic susceptibility and environmental factors. Chronic exposures to dietary factors, including meat, have been identified as potential risk factors. Although heterocyclic amines that are produced during high-temperature meat cooking are known to be carcinogenic, their effect on the nervous system has yet to be studied in depth. In this study, we investigated neurotoxic effects of 2-amino-1-methyl-6-phenylimidazo[4,5-b]pyridine (PhIP), a highly abundant heterocyclic amine in cooked meat, in vitro. We tested toxicity of PhIP and the two major phase I metabolites, N-OH-PhIP and 4′-OH-PhIP, using primary mesencephalic cultures from rat embryos. This culture system contains both dopaminergic and nondopaminergic neurons, which allows specificity of neurotoxicity to be readily examined. We find that exposure to PhIP or N-OH-PhIP is selectively toxic to dopaminergic neurons in primary cultures, resulting in a decreased percentage of dopaminergic neurons. Neurite length is decreased in surviving dopaminergic neurons. Exposure to 4′-OH-PhIP did not produce significant neurotoxicity. PhIP treatment also increased formation of oxidative damage markers, 4-hydroxy-2-nonenal (HNE) and 3-nitrotyrosine in dopaminergic neurons. Pretreatment with N-acetylcysteine was protective. Finally, treatment with blueberry extract, a dietary factor with known antioxidant and other protective mechanisms, prevented PhIP-induced toxicity. Collectively, our study suggests, for the first time, that PhIP is selectively toxic to dopaminergic neurons likely through inducing oxidative stress. PMID:24718704

  7. Inhibition of 2-Amino-1-methyl-6-phenylimidazo [4,5-b]pyridine (PhIP) Formation by Alkoxy Radical Scavenging of Flavonoids and Their Quantitative Structure-Activity Relationship in a Model System.

    PubMed

    Yu, Chundi; Shao, Zeping; Liu, Bing; Zhang, Yan; Wang, Shuo

    2016-08-01

    The inhibitory effect of 10 flavonoids on the formation of 2-amino-1-methyl-6-phenylimidazo[4,5-b]pyridine (PhIP) in a creatinine-phenylalanine model system was investigated through electronic spin resonance and a quantitative structure-activity relationship. Alkoxy radicals were observed during the heating process, providing evidence for a radical pathway in the formation of PhIP. The alkoxy radical scavenging capability of the flavonoids was proportional to their inhibition of PhIP formation (IC50 ). We deduced that flavonoid inhibition of PhIP generation occurs via scavenging of alkoxy radicals during the heating process. Multiple linear regression and partial least squares models were used to elucidate the relationship between PhIP inhibition activity and structure characteristics of the flavonoids. The lipo-hydro partition coefficient and molecular fractional polar surface area of the flavonoids were found to be predictive of the inhibition effect.

  8. Inhibition of 2-Amino-1-methyl-6-phenylimidazo [4,5-b]pyridine (PhIP) Formation by Alkoxy Radical Scavenging of Flavonoids and Their Quantitative Structure-Activity Relationship in a Model System.

    PubMed

    Yu, Chundi; Shao, Zeping; Liu, Bing; Zhang, Yan; Wang, Shuo

    2016-08-01

    The inhibitory effect of 10 flavonoids on the formation of 2-amino-1-methyl-6-phenylimidazo[4,5-b]pyridine (PhIP) in a creatinine-phenylalanine model system was investigated through electronic spin resonance and a quantitative structure-activity relationship. Alkoxy radicals were observed during the heating process, providing evidence for a radical pathway in the formation of PhIP. The alkoxy radical scavenging capability of the flavonoids was proportional to their inhibition of PhIP formation (IC50 ). We deduced that flavonoid inhibition of PhIP generation occurs via scavenging of alkoxy radicals during the heating process. Multiple linear regression and partial least squares models were used to elucidate the relationship between PhIP inhibition activity and structure characteristics of the flavonoids. The lipo-hydro partition coefficient and molecular fractional polar surface area of the flavonoids were found to be predictive of the inhibition effect. PMID:27384350

  9. Biomonitoring the Cooked Meat Carcinogen 2-Amino-1-methyl-6-phenylimidazo[4,5-b]pyridine (PhIP) in Hair: Impact of Exposure, Pigmentation and Cytochrome P450 1A2 Phenotype

    PubMed Central

    Turesky, Robert J.; Liu, Lin; Gu, Dan; Yonemori, Kim M.; White, Kami K.; Wilkens, Lynne R.; Marchand, Loic Le

    2013-01-01

    Background Hair is a promising tissue to assess exposure to 2-amino-1-methyl-6-phenylimidazo[4,5-b]pyridine (PhIP), a carcinogen formed in cooked meats. However, an understanding of how dietary exposure to PhIP, cytochrome P450 1A2 activity - a key enzyme involved in PhIP metabolism, and hair pigmentation affect the level of PhIP accrued in hair is required in order to determine the reliability of the PhIP hair level as a biomarker of exposure to this carcinogen. Methods We examined the impact of PhIP exposure, cytochrome P450 1A2 activity, and hair pigmentation on the levels of PhIP accumulated in the hair of volunteers on a 4-week semi-controlled diet of cooked meat containing known quantities of PhIP. Results The amount of PhIP in hair increased, on average, 15-fold in light- and dark-haired individuals during consumption of cooked meat. PhIP levels in hair were correlated to PhIP intake (ρ = 0.53; p < 0.001), and the relationship was strengthened when PhIP levels were normalized for the melanin content of hair (ρ = 0.71; p < 0.001). However, PhIP accrual in hair was not correlated to cytochrome P450 1A2 activity, as assessed by the caffeine test, or to the levels of unmetabolized PhIP in urine, or to the metabolic ratio of the major urinary metabolite N2-(ß-1-glucosiduronyl-2-(hydroxyamino)-1-methyl-6-phenylimidazo[4,5-b]pyridine to unmetabolized PhIP. Conclusions The employment of the PhIP hair biomarker should take hair pigmentation into account for accurate exposure assessment. Impact PhIP hair levels can serve as a biomarker in epidemiological studies investigating the association of HAAs, cooked meat and cancer risk. PMID:23329727

  10. Comparative formation of 2-amino-1-methyl-6-phenylimidazo[4,5-b]pyridine (PhIP) in creatinine/phenylalanine and creatinine/phenylalanine/4-oxo-2-nonenal reaction mixtures.

    PubMed

    Zamora, Rosario; Alcón, Esmeralda; Hidalgo, Francisco J

    2013-05-01

    The comparative formation of the heterocyclic aromatic amine 2-amino-1-methyl-6-phenylimidazo[4,5-b]pyridine (PhIP) in both creatinine/phenylalanine (CRN/Phe) and creatinine/phenylalanine/4-oxo-2-nonenal (CRN/Phe/ON) systems was studied to analyse the ability of lipid-derived reactive carbonyls to promote PhIP formation. Although PhIP was produced to some extent in the CRN/Phe system, the presence of the oxidized lipid increased considerably the amount of PhIP produced. This increase seemed to be a consequence of the decrease in the E(a) of the reaction when the lipid was present, which diminished from 112.9 to 80.9 kJ/mol. On the other hand, the addition of the lipid did not seem to produce PhIP by an alternative mechanism because PhIP was formed analogously in both CRN/Phe and CRN/Phe/ON systems as a function of pH, creatinine concentration, phenylalanine concentration, time, temperature, oxygen concentration in the reaction atmosphere, and the addition of different amounts of ammonia. All these results suggest that the ability of lipid oxidation products to produce PhIP is related to their capacity to induce the Strecker degradation of phenylalanine to phenylacetaldehyde. Therefore, any other reactive carbonyl compound that can produce the Strecker degradation of phenylalanine should also be considered as a potential inducer of PhIP formation under appropriate conditions.

  11. A Method to Biomonitor the Cooked Meat Carcinogen 2-Amino-1-methyl-6-phenylimidazo[4,5-b]pyridine (PhIP) in Dyed Hair by Ultra Performance Liquid Chromatography-Orbitrap High Resolution Multistage Mass Spectrometry

    PubMed Central

    Guo, Jingshu; Yonemori, Kim; Le Marchand, Loïc; Turesky, Robert J.

    2015-01-01

    2-Amino-1-methyl-6-phenylimidazo[4,5-b]pyridine (PhIP) is a carcinogenic heterocyclic aromatic amine formed in cooked meat. The use of naturally colored hair containing PhIP can serve as a long-term biomarker of exposure to this carcinogen. However, the measurement of PhIP in dyed hair, a cosmetic treatment commonly used by the adult population, is challenging because the dye process introduces a complex mixture of chemicals into the hair matrix, which interfere with the measurement of PhIP. The high-resolution scanning features of the Orbitrap Fusion™ mass spectrometer were employed to biomonitor PhIP in dyed hair. Because of the complexity of chemicals in the hair dye, the consecutive reaction monitoring of PhIP at the MS3 scan stage was employed to selectively remove the isobaric interferences. The limit of quantification (LOQ) of PhIP was 84 parts-per-trillion (ppt) employing 50 mg hair. Calibration curves were generated in dyed hair matrices and showed good linearity (40 to 1000 pg PhIP/g hair) with a goodness-of-fit regression value r2 > 0.9978. The within-day (between-day) coefficients of variation were 7.7% (17%) and 5.4% (6.1%), respectively, with dyed hair samples spiked with PhIP at 200 and 600 ppt. The levels of PhIP accrued in dyed hair from volunteers on a semi-controlled feeding study who ingested known levels of PhIP were comparable to the levels of PhIP accrued in hair of subjects with natural hair color. The method was successfully employed to measure PhIP in non-dyed and dyed hair biospecimens of participants in a case-control study of colorectal adenoma on their regular diet. PMID:25969997

  12. Effect of amino acids on the formation of 2-amino-1-methyl-6-phenylimidazo[4,5-b]pyridine (PhIP) in creatinine/phenylalanine and creatinine/phenylalanine/4-oxo-2-nonenal reaction mixtures.

    PubMed

    Zamora, Rosario; Alcón, Esmeralda; Hidalgo, Francisco J

    2013-12-15

    2-Amino-1-methyl-6-phenylimidazo[4,5-b]pyridine (PhIP) formation in mixtures of creatinine, phenylalanine, amino acids and 4-oxo-2-nonenal was studied, to analyse the role of amino acids on the generation of this heterocyclic aromatic amine. When oxidised lipid was absent, cysteine, serine, aspartic acid, threonine, asparagine, tryptophan, tyrosine, proline, and methionine increased significantly (p < 0.05) the amount of PhIP formed in comparison to the control. When lipid was present, only the addition of methionine, glycine, and serine increased significantly (p < 0.05) the amount of PhIP produced, while histidine, cysteine, lysine, tryptophan, tyrosine, and alanine reduced significantly (p < 0.05) PhIP. These results may be a consequence of the different competitive reactions that occur. Thus, in the absence of lipids, thermal decomposition of the amino acids produced reactive carbonyls that converted phenylalanine into phenylacetaldehyde as a key step in the formation of PhIP. When oxidised lipid was present, amino acids competed with phenylalanine for the lipid, and amino acid degradation products were formed, among which alpha-keto acids seemed to play a role in these reactions. These results suggest that PhIP can be produced by several alternative reaction pathways from all major food components, including amino acids and lipids, in addition to carbohydrates. PMID:23993611

  13. Effect of amino acids on the formation of 2-amino-1-methyl-6-phenylimidazo[4,5-b]pyridine (PhIP) in creatinine/phenylalanine and creatinine/phenylalanine/4-oxo-2-nonenal reaction mixtures.

    PubMed

    Zamora, Rosario; Alcón, Esmeralda; Hidalgo, Francisco J

    2013-12-15

    2-Amino-1-methyl-6-phenylimidazo[4,5-b]pyridine (PhIP) formation in mixtures of creatinine, phenylalanine, amino acids and 4-oxo-2-nonenal was studied, to analyse the role of amino acids on the generation of this heterocyclic aromatic amine. When oxidised lipid was absent, cysteine, serine, aspartic acid, threonine, asparagine, tryptophan, tyrosine, proline, and methionine increased significantly (p < 0.05) the amount of PhIP formed in comparison to the control. When lipid was present, only the addition of methionine, glycine, and serine increased significantly (p < 0.05) the amount of PhIP produced, while histidine, cysteine, lysine, tryptophan, tyrosine, and alanine reduced significantly (p < 0.05) PhIP. These results may be a consequence of the different competitive reactions that occur. Thus, in the absence of lipids, thermal decomposition of the amino acids produced reactive carbonyls that converted phenylalanine into phenylacetaldehyde as a key step in the formation of PhIP. When oxidised lipid was present, amino acids competed with phenylalanine for the lipid, and amino acid degradation products were formed, among which alpha-keto acids seemed to play a role in these reactions. These results suggest that PhIP can be produced by several alternative reaction pathways from all major food components, including amino acids and lipids, in addition to carbohydrates.

  14. Cooking methods and the formation of PhIP (2-Amino, 1-methyl, 6-phenylimidazo[4,5-b] pyridine) in the crust of the habitually consumed meat in Argentina.

    PubMed

    Reartes, Gabriela Angelina; Di Paola Naranjo, Romina Daniela; Eynard, Aldo Renato; Muñoz, Sonia Edith

    2016-06-01

    Content of carcinogenic molecules like, 2-Amino, 1-methyl, 6-phenylimidazo[4,5-b] pyridine in meals is one of the main mutagenic substances formed during meat cooking, and it can be used as a dietary exposure marker. Our objective was to estimate the amount of PhIP consumed from habitual Argentinean diet, rich in red meats, comparing different cooking procedures and meat type. Samples (n = 240) of lean and fatty beef, chicken, pork, and fish were cooked using different methods: griddle, grill, sauté pan, and oven. Samples were: Overcooked, or cooked with a microbiologically suitable or "healthy technique" (HT). The PhIP was determined by HPLC-MS. Meats cooked using HT formed little crust amounts and PhIP was below the detection levels. In overcooked meats, large amounts of crust were formed in lean meats, fatty beef, fatty chicken and baked pork. PhIP was measured in lean meats sauted or cooked on a griddle, a method reaching temperatures until 250 °C.It was estimated that Argentine people eats about 12,268.0 ng/day of PhIP being these values above those tolerated limits for total dietary heterocyclic amines in some developed countries. Hence, cooking small meat portions, at medium temperature, avoiding prolonged cooking and preferring baked lean meats could be recommended as a healthier habit. PMID:27059246

  15. Cooking methods and the formation of PhIP (2-Amino, 1-methyl, 6-phenylimidazo[4,5-b] pyridine) in the crust of the habitually consumed meat in Argentina.

    PubMed

    Reartes, Gabriela Angelina; Di Paola Naranjo, Romina Daniela; Eynard, Aldo Renato; Muñoz, Sonia Edith

    2016-06-01

    Content of carcinogenic molecules like, 2-Amino, 1-methyl, 6-phenylimidazo[4,5-b] pyridine in meals is one of the main mutagenic substances formed during meat cooking, and it can be used as a dietary exposure marker. Our objective was to estimate the amount of PhIP consumed from habitual Argentinean diet, rich in red meats, comparing different cooking procedures and meat type. Samples (n = 240) of lean and fatty beef, chicken, pork, and fish were cooked using different methods: griddle, grill, sauté pan, and oven. Samples were: Overcooked, or cooked with a microbiologically suitable or "healthy technique" (HT). The PhIP was determined by HPLC-MS. Meats cooked using HT formed little crust amounts and PhIP was below the detection levels. In overcooked meats, large amounts of crust were formed in lean meats, fatty beef, fatty chicken and baked pork. PhIP was measured in lean meats sauted or cooked on a griddle, a method reaching temperatures until 250 °C.It was estimated that Argentine people eats about 12,268.0 ng/day of PhIP being these values above those tolerated limits for total dietary heterocyclic amines in some developed countries. Hence, cooking small meat portions, at medium temperature, avoiding prolonged cooking and preferring baked lean meats could be recommended as a healthier habit.

  16. Investigation of the effects of soluble fibers on the absorption of resveratrol and 2-amino-1-methyl-6-phenylimidazo[4,5-b]pyridine (PHIP) in the Caco-2 cellular model of intestinal absorption.

    PubMed

    Willenberg, Ina; Wonik, Jasmin; Schebb, Nils Helge

    2015-01-01

    Soluble fibers are known to modulate intestinal absorption of non-polar compounds in the small intestine. Little is known about the modulation of absorption of more polar compounds. In the present study, we applied the Caco-2-transwell-system in order to investigate the modulation of intestinal bioavailability by soluble fibers. The system was tested using pectin and carrageenan as model soluble fibers at a concentration of 0.1% (w/v), which did not compromise the integrity of the cell monolayer. Modulation of absorption was evaluated for the heterocyclic amine aromatic 2-amino-1-methyl-6-phenylimidazo[4,5-b]pyridine (PHIP) and the polyphenol resveratrol. Neither pectin nor carrageenan reduced the high flux of PHIP, apparent permeability coefficient (Papp) of 16 × 10(-6) cm s(-1). The low Papp of resveratrol was reduced by both soluble fibers, particularly by pectin. These results suggest that the low bioavailability of polyphenols could be further reduced by soluble fibers. Because of their co-occurrence in several fruits, these findings warrant further research.

  17. ABCG2/BCRP decreases the transfer of a food-born chemical carcinogen, 2-amino-1-methyl-6-phenylimidazo[4,5-b]pyridine (PhIP) in perfused term human placenta

    SciTech Connect

    Myllynen, Paeivi Kummu, Maria; Kangas, Tiina; Ilves, Mika; Immonen, Elina; Rysae, Jaana; Pirilae, Rauna; Lastumaeki, Anni; Vaehaekangas, Kirsi H.

    2008-10-15

    We have studied the role of ATP binding cassette (ABC) transporters in fetal exposure to carcinogens using 2-amino-1-methyl-6-phenylimidazo[4,5-b]pyridine (PhIP) a known substrate for ABC transporters as a model compound. In perfusion of human term placenta, transfer of {sup 14}C-PhIP (2 {mu}M) through the placenta resulted in fetal-to-maternal concentration ratio (FM ratio) of 0.72 {+-} 0.09 at 6 h. The specific ABCG2 inhibitor KO143 increased the transfer of {sup 14}C-PhIP from maternal to fetal circulation (FM ratio 0.90 {+-} 0.08 at 6 h, p < 0.05) while the ABCC1/ABCC2 inhibitor probenecid had no effect (FM ratio at 6 h 0.75 {+-} 0.10, p = 0.84). There was a negative correlation between the expression of ABCG2 protein in perfused tissue and the FM ratio of {sup 14}C-PhIP (R = - 0.81, p < 0.01) at the end of the perfusion. The expression of ABCC2 protein did not correlate with FM ratio of PhIP (R: - 0.11, p = 0.76). In addition, PhIP induced the expression of ABC transporters in BeWo cells at mRNA level. In conclusion, our data indicates that ABCG2 decreases placental transfer of {sup 14}C-PhIP in perfused human placenta. Also, PhIP may modify ABC transporter expression in choriocarinoma cells.

  18. beta-catenin is strongly elevated in rat colonic epithelium following short-term intermittent treatment with 2-amino-1-methyl-6-phenylimidazo[4,5-b]pyridine (PhIP) and a high-fat diet.

    PubMed

    Wang, Rong; Dashwood, W Mohaiza; Löhr, Christiane V; Fischer, Kay A; Nakagama, Hitoshi; Williams, David E; Dashwood, Roderick H

    2008-09-01

    Colon tumors expressing high levels of beta-catenin and c-myc have been reported in male F344 rats given three short cycles of 2-amino-1-methyl-6-phenylimidazo[4,5-b]pyridine (PhIP) alternating with a high-fat (HF) diet. Using the same experimental protocol, rats were euthanized 24 h after the last dose of PhIP so as to examine early changes in colonic crypt homeostasis and beta-catenin expression, before the onset of frank tumors. PhIP/HF dosing caused a significant increase in the bromodeoxyuridine labeling index throughout the entire colon, and within the colonic crypt column cleaved caspase-3 was elevated in the basal and central zones, but reduced in the luminal region. In vehicle/HF controls, beta-catenin was immunolocalized primarily at the border between cells at the top of the crypt, whereas in rats given PhIP/HF diet there was strong cytoplasmic staining, which appeared as a gradient of increased beta-catenin extending from the base of the crypt column to the luminal region. Quantitative real-time PCR and immunoblot analyses confirmed that beta-catenin and c-myc were increased significantly in the colonic mucosa of rats given PhIP/HF diet. Collectively, these findings suggest that PhIP/HF cycling alters beta-catenin and c-myc expression in the colonic mucosa, resulting in expansion of the proliferative zone and redistribution of apoptotic cells from the lumen to the central and basal regions of the colonic crypt. Thus, during the early stages of colon carcinogenesis, alternating exposure to heterocyclic amines and a high-fat diet might facilitate molecular changes resulting in dysregulated beta-catenin and c-myc expression.

  19. Protection by beverages, fruits, vegetables, herbs, and flavonoids against genotoxicity of 2-acetylaminofluorene and 2-amino-1-methyl-6-phenylimidazo[4,5-b]pyridine (PhIP) in metabolically competent V79 cells.

    PubMed

    Edenharder, R; Sager, J W; Glatt, H; Muckel, E; Platt, K L

    2002-11-26

    Chinese hamster lung fibroblasts, genetically engineered for the expression of rat cytochrome P450 dependent monooxygenase 1A2 and rat sulfotransferase 1C1 (V79-rCYP1A2-rSULT1C1 cells), were utilized to check for possible protective effects of beverages of plant origin, fruits, vegetables, and spices against genotoxicity induced by 2-acetylaminofluorene (AAF) or 2-amino-1-methyl-6-phenylimidazo[4,5-b]pyridine (PhIP). Antigenotoxic activities of juices from spinach and red beets against AAF could be monitored with similar effectivity by the HPRT-mutagenicity test (IC(50)=0.64%; 2.57%) and alkaline single cell gel electrophoresis (comet assay; IC(50)=0.12%; 0.89%) which detects DNA strand breaks and abasic sites. Applying the comet assay, genotoxicity of PhIP could, however, be demonstrated only in the presence of hydroxyurea and 1-[beta-D-arabinofuranosyl]cytosine, known inhibitors of DNA repair synthesis. As expected, AAF and PhIP were unable to induce any genotoxic effects in the parent V79 cells. Genotoxic activity of PhIP was strongly reduced in a dose-related manner by green tea and red wine, by blueberries, blackberries, red grapes, kiwi, watermelon, parsley, and spinach, while two brands of beer, coffee, black tea, rooibos tea, morellos, black-currants, plums, red beets, broccoli (raw and cooked), and chives were somewhat less active. One brand of beer was only moderately active while white wine, bananas, white grapes, and strawberries were inactive. Similarly, genotoxicity of AAF was strongly reduced by green, black, and rooibos tea, red wine, morellos, black-currants, kiwi, watermelon, and spinach while plums, red beets, and broccoli (raw) were less potent. Broccoli cooked exerted only moderate and white wine weak antigenotoxic activity. With respect to the possible mechanism(s) of inhibition of genotoxicity, benzo[a]pyrene-7,8-dihydrodiol (BaP-7,8-OH) and N-OH-PhIP were applied as substrates for the CYP1A family and for rSULT 1C1, respectively. Morellos

  20. Biomonitoring the cooked meat carcinogen 2-amino-1-methyl-6-phenylimidazo[4,5-b]pyridine in canine fur.

    PubMed

    Gu, Dan; Neuman, Zachary L; Modiano, Jaime F; Turesky, Robert J

    2012-09-12

    2-Amino-1-methyl-6-phenylimidazo[4,5-b]pyridine (PhIP) is a heterocyclic aromatic amine (HAA) that is formed during the cooking of meat, poultry, and fish. PhIP is a rodent carcinogen and is thought to contribute to several diet-related cancers in humans. PhIP is present in the hair of human omnivores but not in the hair of vegetarians. We have now identified PhIP in the fur of 14 out of 16 healthy dogs consuming different brands of commercial pet food. The levels of PhIP in canine fur varied by over 85-fold and were comparable to the levels of PhIP present in human hair. However, high density fur containing PhIP covers a very high proportion of the body surface area of dogs, whereas high density terminal hair primarily covers the scalp and pubis body surface area of humans. These findings signify that the exposure and bioavailability of PhIP are high in canines. A potential role for PhIP in the etiology of canine cancer should be considered.

  1. Biomonitoring the cooked meat carcinogen 2-amino-1-methyl-6-phenylimidazo[4,5-b]pyridine in canine fur.

    PubMed

    Gu, Dan; Neuman, Zachary L; Modiano, Jaime F; Turesky, Robert J

    2012-09-12

    2-Amino-1-methyl-6-phenylimidazo[4,5-b]pyridine (PhIP) is a heterocyclic aromatic amine (HAA) that is formed during the cooking of meat, poultry, and fish. PhIP is a rodent carcinogen and is thought to contribute to several diet-related cancers in humans. PhIP is present in the hair of human omnivores but not in the hair of vegetarians. We have now identified PhIP in the fur of 14 out of 16 healthy dogs consuming different brands of commercial pet food. The levels of PhIP in canine fur varied by over 85-fold and were comparable to the levels of PhIP present in human hair. However, high density fur containing PhIP covers a very high proportion of the body surface area of dogs, whereas high density terminal hair primarily covers the scalp and pubis body surface area of humans. These findings signify that the exposure and bioavailability of PhIP are high in canines. A potential role for PhIP in the etiology of canine cancer should be considered. PMID:22906298

  2. Non-covalent DNA groove-binding by 2-amino-1-methyl-6-phenylimidazo[4,5-b]pyridine.

    PubMed Central

    Marsch, G A; Ward, R L; Colvin, M; Turteltaub, K W

    1994-01-01

    The cooked meat mutagen 2-amino-1-methyl-6-phenyl-imidazo[4,5-b]pyridine (PhIP) is metabolized in vivo to electrophilic intermediates that covalently bind to DNA guanines. Here we address the mechanism of PhIP's non-covalent interaction with DNA by using spectroscopic and computational methodologies. NMR methodologies indicated that upon addition of DNA, PhIP aromatic protons underwent a small, 0.11-0.12 p.p.m. upfield shift. DNA phosphorus resonances of non-covalent PhIP-DNA complexes broadened and slightly shifted upfield, while DNA base imino proton resonances shifted slightly downfield relative to DNA alone. UV and fluorescence spectra of PhIP titrated with DNA showed no detectable shifting and hypochromism of absorbance or fluorescence bands. In the presence of DNA, PhIP fluorescence was efficiently quenched by acrylamide, but not by silver ion. Further, the NMR spectra suggest that PhIP is in fast exchange with the DNA, and is slightly specific for adenine-thymine (A-T) sequences. Finally, structural arguments based on quantum chemistry calculations suggested that PhIP and its metabolites are unlikely to intercalate into DNA. These data collectively indicate that PhIP non-covalently binds in a groove of DNA. PMID:7816632

  3. An in vitro and in silico study on the flavonoid-mediated modulation of the transport of 2-amino-1-methyl-6-phenylimidazo[4,5-b]pyridine (PhIP) through Caco-2 monolayers

    SciTech Connect

    Schutte, Maaike E. . E-mail: maaike.schutte@wur.nl; Freidig, Andreas P.; Sandt, Johannes J.M. van de; Rietjens, Ivonne M.C.M.

    2006-12-01

    The present study describes the effect of different flavonoids on the absorption of the pro-carcinogen PhIP through Caco-2 monolayers and the development of an in silico model describing this process taking into account passive diffusion and active transport of PhIP. Various flavonoids stimulated the apical to basolateral PhIP transport. Using the in silico model for flavone, kaempferol and chrysoeriol, the apparent Ki value for inhibition of the active transport to the apical side was estimated to be below 53 {mu}M and for morin, robinetin and taxifolin between 164 and 268 {mu}M. For myricetin, luteolin, naringenin and quercetin, the apparent Ki values were determined more accurately and amounted to 37.3, 12.2, 11.7 and 5.6 {mu}M respectively. Additional experiments revealed that the apical to basolateral PhIP transport was also increased in the presence of a typical BCRP or MRP inhibitor with apparent Ki values in the same range as those of the flavonoids. This observation together with the fact that flavonoids are known to be inhibitors of MRPs and BCRP, corroborates that inhibition of these apical membrane transporters is involved in the flavonoid-mediated increased apical to basolateral PhIP transport. Based on the apparent Ki values obtained, it is concluded that the flavonols, at the levels present in the regular Western diet, are capable of stimulating the transport of PhIP through Caco-2 monolayers from the apical to the basolateral compartment. This points to flavonoid-mediated stimulation of the bioavailability of PhIP and, thus, a possible adverse effect of these supposed beneficial food ingredients.

  4. Susceptibility of rats to mammary gland carcinogenesis by the food-derived carcinogen 2-amino-1-methyl-6-phenylimidazo[4,5-b]pyridine (PhIP) varies with age and is associated with the induction of differential gene expression.

    PubMed

    Shan, Liang; Yu, Minshu; Schut, Herman A J; Snyderwine, Elizabeth G

    2004-07-01

    2-amino-1-methyl-6-phenylimidazo[4,5-b]pyridine (PhIP), a heterocyclic amine found in cooked meat, induces mammary gland cancer when administered to adolescent female rats (43-day-old). In contrast, mature virgin rats (150-day-old) were resistant to mammary carcinogenesis by PhIP. To explore the possible mechanisms for the age-related differences in susceptibility, PhIP-DNA adduct levels, mutations, and gene expression were examined in glands from 43-day and 150-day-old PhIP-treated rats. In rats of different ages, PhIP-DNA adduct levels detected by the (32)P-post-labeling assay and mutant frequency measured in the lacI reporter gene of Big Blue rats were not statistically different. PhIP-DNA adduct levels, adduct removal, and mutation burden did not appear to account for the variation in carcinogen susceptibility with age. However, cDNA microarray analysis indicated that PhIP treatment differentially altered the profile of gene expression in glands from 43-day-old and 150-day-old rats. In 150-day-old rats, PhIP enhanced the expression of genes associated with differentiation (eg, beta-casein, kappa-casein, whey acidic protein) and induced morphological differentiation. In contrast, in 43-day-old rats, PhIP inhibited the expression of differentiation genes and enhanced cellular proliferation. From 3 hours to 6 weeks after PhIP dosing, the number of clones showing altered expression declined more than 50% in 150-day-old rats but increased fourfold in 43-day-old rats (29 clones versus 194, respectively) suggesting that PhIP induced a cascade of gene expression alterations only in susceptible rats. Genes showing altered expression specifically in 43-day-old rats included the Ras superfamily genes and genes associated with protein synthesis/degradation (lysosomal proteins, heat shock proteins, and proteasomes). The microarray data support the notion that the mechanism of age-dependent susceptibility to mammary gland cancer is largely associated with differential

  5. Characterization of 2-amino-1-methyl-6-phenylimidazo[4,5b]pyridine at androgen receptor: mechanistic support for its role in prostate cancer.

    PubMed

    Glass-Holmes, Mashunté; Aguilar, Byron J; Gragg, Richard D; Darling-Reed, Selina; Goodman, Carl B

    2015-01-01

    2-amino-1-methyl-6-phenylimidazo[4,5b]pyridine (PhIP) is a dietary mutagenic carcinogen that has been shown not only to induce the formation of DNA adducts, but is capable of inducing tumors in the colon, mammary, and prostate glands. The normal development and maturation of the prostate gland, as well as early progression of prostate cancer, is dependent on androgens acting on the androgen receptor (AR). The actual mechanism by which PhIP interacts with our biological system and its potential interaction at the AR has yet to be fully defined. Here, we describe our work in evaluating the molecular events associated with PhIP-mediated disruption of AR function in LNCaP human prostate cancer cells. We demonstrate, by molecular docking simulation, that PhIP and its metabolite can bind to the ligand-binding domain (LBD). The binding competes with dihydrotestosterone (DHT) in the native AR binding cavity of the receptor. In vitro assays show that PhIP increase AR protein expression in LNCaP cells and alters its responsiveness through PSA protein and mRNA expression. We propose that the mechanism for the tissue-specific carcinogenicity seen in the rat prostate tumors and the presumptive human prostate cancer associated with the consumption of well-done meat may be mediated by this receptor activation. Our results indicate that PhIP may play an important role in modifications of AR function.

  6. Characterization of 2-amino-1-methyl-6-phenylimidazo[4,5b]pyridine at androgen receptor: mechanistic support for its role in prostate cancer

    PubMed Central

    Glass-Holmes, Mashunté; Aguilar, Byron J; Gragg, Richard D; Darling-Reed, Selina; Goodman, Carl B

    2015-01-01

    2-amino-1-methyl-6-phenylimidazo[4,5b]pyridine (PhIP) is a dietary mutagenic carcinogen that has been shown not only to induce the formation of DNA adducts, but is capable of inducing tumors in the colon, mammary, and prostate glands. The normal development and maturation of the prostate gland, as well as early progression of prostate cancer, is dependent on androgens acting on the androgen receptor (AR). The actual mechanism by which PhIP interacts with our biological system and its potential interaction at the AR has yet to be fully defined. Here, we describe our work in evaluating the molecular events associated with PhIP-mediated disruption of AR function in LNCaP human prostate cancer cells. We demonstrate, by molecular docking simulation, that PhIP and its metabolite can bind to the ligand-binding domain (LBD). The binding competes with dihydrotestosterone (DHT) in the native AR binding cavity of the receptor. In vitro assays show that PhIP increase AR protein expression in LNCaP cells and alters its responsiveness through PSA protein and mRNA expression. We propose that the mechanism for the tissue-specific carcinogenicity seen in the rat prostate tumors and the presumptive human prostate cancer associated with the consumption of well-done meat may be mediated by this receptor activation. Our results indicate that PhIP may play an important role in modifications of AR function. PMID:25628930

  7. Lack of large intestinal carcinogenicity of 2-amino-1-methyl-6-phenylimidazo[4,5-b]pyridine at low doses in rats initiated with azoxymethane.

    PubMed

    Doi, Kenichiro; Wanibuchi, Hideki; Salim, Elsayed I; Morimura, Keiichirou; Kinoshita, Anna; Kudoh, Shinzoh; Hirata, Kazuto; Yoshikawa, Junichi; Fukushima, Shoji

    2005-07-20

    2-amino-1-methyl-6-phenylimidazo[4,5-b]pyridine (PhIP), an abundant food-derived heterocyclic amine (HCA), has attracted particular attention as a human colon carcinogen. Humans are in fact exposed to continuous low doses of HCAs during lifetime. Therefore, we focused on rat large intestinal carcinogenicity of PhIP at levels that mimic practical human exposure. A total of 192 6-week-old male F344 rats were subcutaneously injected twice with 15 mg/kg body weight azoxymethane (AOM), then continuously fed various doses (0, 0.001, 0.01, 0.1, 1, 10, 50 and 200 ppm) of PhIP in the diet. At week 16, aberrant crypt foci (ACF) were quantitatively analyzed. At week 36, tumor occurrence was pathologically analyzed. Then immunohistochemical examinations were performed. PhIP was found to enhance strongly AOM-initiated rat large intestinal tumorigenesis at high doses (50 and 200 ppm), while lower doses (0.001-10 ppm) had no apparent effects. High doses also caused variation in tumor histologic types and their distribution throughout the large intestinal segments. Frequencies of ACF/cm(2) did not meaningfully vary between the groups. Cellular proliferation activity in normal-appearing colonic mucosa was significantly increased at high doses. These novel findings may provide evidence of a low-dose potential for PhIP, with a no-observed effect level speculated to be 10 ppm in the present initiation-promotion experimental model.

  8. The cooked meat carcinogen 2-amino-1-methyl-6-phenylimidazo[4,5-b]pyridine activates the extracellular signal regulated kinase mitogen-activated protein kinase pathway.

    PubMed

    Creton, Stuart K; Zhu, Huijun; Gooderham, Nigel J

    2007-12-01

    During the cooking of meat, mutagenic and carcinogenic heterocyclic amines are formed, the most abundant of which, 2-amino-1-methyl-6-phenylimidazo[4-5-b]pyridine (PhIP), induces tumors of the prostate, colon, and mammary gland in rats. Humans consuming cooked meat are exposed to PhIP on a daily basis, yet few studies have assessed the effects of PhIP at dietary relevant concentrations. In addition to its genotoxic properties, recent studies have shown that PhIP can activate estrogen receptor-mediated signaling pathways at doses that are similar to those that may be present in the body following consumption of a cooked meat meal. In the present study, we examined whether such doses of PhIP can affect estrogen receptor-independent signal transduction via the mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) extracellular signal-related kinase (ERK) pathway to influence proliferation and migration in the human mammary epithelial cell line MCF10A and the prostate cancer cell line PC-3. At doses shown to have a proliferative effect on MCF10A cells (10(-11)-10(-7) mol/L), PhIP induced a rapid, transient increase in phosphorylation of both MAPK/ERK kinase 1/2 and ERKs. Inhibition of this pathway significantly reduced the PhIP-induced proliferation of MCF10A cells and the migration of PC-3 cells. The data presented here show that levels of PhIP that approximate to human dietary exposure stimulate cellular signaling pathways and result in increased growth and migration, processes linked to the promotion and progression of neoplastic disease. These findings provide strong evidence that PhIP acts as a tumor initiator and promoter and that dietary exposure to this compound could contribute to carcinogenesis in humans.

  9. Anophthalmia in litters of female rats treated with the food-derived carcinogen, 2-amino-1-methyl-6-phenylimidazo[4,5-b]pyridine.

    PubMed

    Ikeda, Y; Takahashi, S; Kimura, J; Cho, Y M; Imaida, K; Shirai, S; Shirai, T

    1999-01-01

    Anophthalmia in litters of pregnant rats treated with 2-amino-1-methyl-6-phenylimidazo[4,5-b]pyridine (PhIP), a food-derived carcinogen, was incidentally encountered in a risk-assessment study with 2-generation exposure to PhIP. Female Fischer 344 animals were given 200 ppm PhIP in the diet for 4 wk before mating with nontreated males and also during gestation and lactation periods. Mean numbers of newborn rats per litter in control and PhIP-treated groups were 7.9 +/- 2.9 and 7.1 +/- 1.6 in trial 1 and 8.3 +/- 1.9 and 6.1 +/- 2.4 in trial 2. Among 49 (trial 1) and 63 (trial 2) offspring from PhIP-treated dams, 9 (18.4%) and 32 (50.8%) demonstrated anophthalmia, and 1 (2.0%) and 8 (12.7%) demonstrated hydrocephaly. Five of 7 (71.4%) and 13 of 14 (92.9%) dams delivered pups with malformations in trials 1 and 2, respectively. Also, in a previous study that was carried out with the same protocol and that used the Sprague-Dawley strain of rats, anophthalmia and hydrocephaly were observed in 2 and 1 out of 175 pups, respectively, from 100 ppm PhIP-treated dams. No congenital malformations were found in control groups of the same size in either experiment. In addition to having been previously identified as a cause of carcinogenic activity, our findings suggest that PhIP is capable of causing anophthalmia in rats when administered during the gestational period.

  10. Intervention of human breast cell carcinogenesis chronically induced by 2-amino-1-methyl-6-phenylimidazo[4,5-b]pyridine.

    PubMed

    Choudhary, Shambhunath; Sood, Shilpa; Donnell, Robert L; Wang, Hwa-Chain R

    2012-04-01

    More than 85% of breast cancers are sporadic and attributable to long-term exposure to environmental carcinogens, such as those in the diet, through a multistep disease process progressing from non-cancerous to premalignant and malignant stages. The chemical carcinogen 2-amino-1-methyl-6-phenylimidazo[4,5-b]pyridine (PhIP) is one of the most abundant heterocyclic amines found in high-temperature cooked meats and is recognized as a mammary carcinogen. However, the PhIP's mechanism of action in breast cell carcinogenesis is not clear. Here, we demonstrated, for the first time, that cumulative exposures to PhIP at physiologically achievable, pico to nanomolar concentrations effectively induced progressive carcinogenesis of human breast epithelial MCF10A cells from a non-cancerous stage to premalignant and malignant stages in a dose- and exposure-dependent manner. Progressive carcinogenesis was measured by increasingly- acquired cancer-associated properties of reduced dependence on growth factors, anchorage-independent growth, acinar-conformational disruption, proliferation, migration, invasion, tumorigenicity with metastasis and increased stem-like cell populations. These biological changes were accompanied by biochemical and molecular changes, including upregulated H-Ras gene expression, extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) pathway activation, Nox-1 expression, reactive oxygen species (ROS) elevation, increased HIF-1α, Sp1, tumor necrosis factor-α, matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-2, MMP-9, aldehyde dehydrogenase activity and reduced E-cadherin. The Ras-ERK-Nox-ROS pathway played an important role in not only initiation but also maintenance of cellular carcinogenesis induced by PhIP. Using biological, biochemical and molecular changes as targeted endpoints, we identified that the green tea catechin components epicatechin-3-gallate and epigallocatechin-3-gallate, at non-cytotoxic doses, were capable of suppressing PhIP-induced cellular carcinogenesis and

  11. Isolation and Characterization of Human Intestinal Bacteria Capable of Transforming the Dietary Carcinogen 2-Amino-1-Methyl-6-Phenylimidazo[4,5-b]Pyridine▿

    PubMed Central

    Vanhaecke, Lynn; Vercruysse, Filip; Boon, Nico; Verstraete, Willy; Cleenwerck, Ilse; De Wachter, Marjan; De Vos, Paul; van de Wiele, Tom

    2008-01-01

    2-Amino-1-methyl-6-phenylimidazo[4,5-b]pyridine (PhIP) is a carcinogenic heterocyclic aromatic amine formed in meat products during cooking. Although the formation of hazardous PhIP metabolites by mammalian enzymes has been extensively reported, research on the putative involvement of the human intestinal microbiota in PhIP metabolism remains scarce. In this study, the in vitro conversion of PhIP into its microbial derivate, 7-hydroxy-5-methyl-3-phenyl-6,7,8,9-tetrahydropyrido[3′,2′:4,5]imidazo[1,2-a]pyrimidin-5-ium chloride (PhIP-M1), by fecal samples from 18 human volunteers was investigated. High-performance liquid chromatography analysis showed that all human fecal samples transformed PhIP but with efficiencies ranging from 1.8 to 96% after 72 h of incubation. Two PhIP-transforming strains, PhIP-M1-a and PhIP-M1-b, were isolated from human feces and identified by fluorescent amplified fragment length polymorphism and pheS sequence analyses as Enterococcus faecium strains. Some strains from culture collections belonging to the species E. durans, E. avium, E. faecium, and Lactobacillus reuteri were also able to perform this transformation. Yeast extract, special peptone, and meat extract supported PhIP transformation by the enriched E. faecium strains, while tryptone, monomeric sugars, starch, and cellulose did not. Glycerol was identified as a fecal matrix constituent required for PhIP transformation. Abiotic synthesis of PhIP-M1 and quantification of the glycerol metabolite 3-hydroxypropionaldehyde (3-HPA) confirmed that the anaerobic fermentation of glycerol via 3-HPA is the critical bacterial transformation process responsible for the formation of PhIP-M1. Whether it is a detoxification is still a matter of debate, since PhIP-M1 has been shown to be cytotoxic toward Caco-2 cells but is not mutagenic in the Ames assay. PMID:18192423

  12. Method to Biomonitor the Cooked Meat Carcinogen 2-Amino-1-methyl-6-phenylimidazo[4,5-b]pyridine in Dyed Hair by Ultra-Performance Liquid Chromatography-Orbitrap High Resolution Multistage Mass Spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Guo, Jingshu; Yonemori, Kim; Le Marchand, Loïc; Turesky, Robert J

    2015-06-16

    2-Amino-1-methyl-6-phenylimidazo[4,5-b]pyridine (PhIP) is a carcinogenic heterocyclic aromatic amine formed in cooked meat. The use of naturally colored hair containing PhIP can serve as a long-term biomarker of exposure to this carcinogen. However, the measurement of PhIP in dyed hair, a cosmetic treatment commonly used by the adult population, is challenging because the dye process introduces into the hair matrix a complex mixture of chemicals that interferes with the measurement of PhIP. The high-resolution scanning features of the Orbitrap Fusion mass spectrometer were employed to biomonitor PhIP in dyed hair. Because of the complexity of chemicals in the hair dye, the consecutive reaction monitoring of PhIP at the MS(3) scan stage was employed to selectively remove the isobaric interferences. The limit of quantification (LOQ) of PhIP was 84 parts-per-trillion (ppt) employing 50 mg of hair. Calibration curves were generated in dyed hair matrixes and showed good linearity (40-1000 pg PhIP/g hair) with a goodness-of-fit regression value of r(2) > 0.9978. The within-day (between-day) coefficients of variation were 7.7% (17%) and 5.4% (6.1%), respectively, with dyed hair samples spiked with PhIP at 200 and 600 ppt. The levels of PhIP accrued in dyed hair from volunteers on a semicontrolled feeding study who ingested known levels of PhIP were comparable to the levels of PhIP accrued in hair of subjects with natural hair color. The method was successfully employed to measure PhIP in nondyed and dyed hair biospecimens of participants in a case-control study of colorectal adenoma on their regular diet. PMID:25969997

  13. Method to Biomonitor the Cooked Meat Carcinogen 2-Amino-1-methyl-6-phenylimidazo[4,5-b]pyridine in Dyed Hair by Ultra-Performance Liquid Chromatography-Orbitrap High Resolution Multistage Mass Spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Guo, Jingshu; Yonemori, Kim; Le Marchand, Loïc; Turesky, Robert J

    2015-06-16

    2-Amino-1-methyl-6-phenylimidazo[4,5-b]pyridine (PhIP) is a carcinogenic heterocyclic aromatic amine formed in cooked meat. The use of naturally colored hair containing PhIP can serve as a long-term biomarker of exposure to this carcinogen. However, the measurement of PhIP in dyed hair, a cosmetic treatment commonly used by the adult population, is challenging because the dye process introduces into the hair matrix a complex mixture of chemicals that interferes with the measurement of PhIP. The high-resolution scanning features of the Orbitrap Fusion mass spectrometer were employed to biomonitor PhIP in dyed hair. Because of the complexity of chemicals in the hair dye, the consecutive reaction monitoring of PhIP at the MS(3) scan stage was employed to selectively remove the isobaric interferences. The limit of quantification (LOQ) of PhIP was 84 parts-per-trillion (ppt) employing 50 mg of hair. Calibration curves were generated in dyed hair matrixes and showed good linearity (40-1000 pg PhIP/g hair) with a goodness-of-fit regression value of r(2) > 0.9978. The within-day (between-day) coefficients of variation were 7.7% (17%) and 5.4% (6.1%), respectively, with dyed hair samples spiked with PhIP at 200 and 600 ppt. The levels of PhIP accrued in dyed hair from volunteers on a semicontrolled feeding study who ingested known levels of PhIP were comparable to the levels of PhIP accrued in hair of subjects with natural hair color. The method was successfully employed to measure PhIP in nondyed and dyed hair biospecimens of participants in a case-control study of colorectal adenoma on their regular diet.

  14. Improved high-performance liquid chromatography analysis of 32P-postlabeled 2-amino-1-methyl-6-phenylimidazo[4,5-b]pyridine-DNA adducts using in-line precolumn purification.

    PubMed

    Mauthe, R J; Marsch, G A; Turteltaub, K W

    1996-04-26

    An improved HPLC-based 32P-postlabeling assay has been developed for the analysis of DNA modified with the food carcinogen 2-amino-1-methyl-6-phenylimidazo[4,5-b]pyridine (PhIP). Postlabeled samples are loaded onto a C18 precolumn and adducted bases are retained while excess radioactivity and unmodified DNA bases are eluted directly to waste through a switching valve. The use of this HPLC in-line precolumn purification (HIPP) technique allows entire postlabeled samples to be analyzed without prior removal of inorganic phosphate and unmodified DNA bases. The method has a sample to sample precision of 15% and accuracy of 20%, at adduct levels of 2 adducts/10(7) bases and shows a linear relationship between signal and adduction levels from 1 adduct per 10(4) to approximately 2 +/- 1 adducts per 10(9) bases. Individual postlabeled DNA samples can be analyzed by HPLC in less than 1 h, allowing high throughput. The use of calf-thymus DNA (CT-DNA), highly modified with PhIP, or DNA isolated from mice chronically fed a PhIP-modified diet shows two major PhIP-DNA adduct peaks and three additional minor adduct peaks when labeled under ATP-limiting conditions. Isolation of the HPLC purified peaks and analysis by thin layer chromatography (TLC) matches the five HPLC peaks to the spots typically seen by TLC, including N-(deoxyguanosin-8-yl)-2-amino-1-methyl-6-phenylimidazo[4,5- b]pyridine (dG-C8-PhIP). Variations in digestion techniques indicate a potential resistance of the PhIP-DNA adducts to the standard enzymatic digestion methods. Attempts at adduct intensification by solid phase extraction, nuclease P1 enrichment or 1-butanol extraction decreased PhIP-DNA adduct peaks and introduced a large early eluting peak. Removal of the 3'-phosphate with nuclease P1 following the kinase labeling reaction simplifies the HPLC profile to one major peak (dG-C8-PhIP monophosphate) with several minor peaks. In addition to the high resolution provided by HPLC separation of the Ph

  15. The Impact of Glucuronidation on the Bioactivation and DNA Adduction of the Cooked-Food Carcinogen 2-Amino-1-methyl-6-phenylimidazo[4,5-b] pyridine in vivo

    SciTech Connect

    Malfatti, M A; Ubick, E A; Felton, J S

    2005-03-31

    UDP-glucuronosyltransferases (UGTs) catalyze the glucuronidation of many different chemicals. Glucuronidation is especially important for detoxifying reactive intermediates from metabolic reactions, which otherwise can be biotransformed into highly reactive cytotoxic or carcinogenic species. Detoxification of certain food-borne carcinogenic heterocyclic amines (HAs) is highly dependent on UGT1A-mediated glucuronidation. 2-Amino-1-methyl-6-phenylimidazo[4,5-b]pyridine (PhIP), the most mass abundant carcinogenic HA found in well-done cooked meat, is extensively glucuronidated by UGT1A proteins. In humans, CYP1A2 catalyzed N-hydroxylation and subsequent UGT1A-mediated glucuronidation is a dominant pathway in the metabolism of PhIP. Therefore, changes in glucuronidation rates could significantly alter PhIP metabolism. To determine the importance of UGT1A-mediated glucuronidation in the biotransformation of PhIP, UGT1A proficient Wistar and UGT1A deficient Gunn rats were exposed to a single 100 {micro}g/kg oral dose of [{sup 14}C]-PhIP. Urine was collected over 24 h and the PhIP urinary metabolite profiles were compared between the two strains. After the 24 h exposure, livers and colon were removed and analyzed for DNA adduct formation by accelerator mass spectrometry. Wistar rats produced several PhIP and N-hydroxy-PhIP glucuronides that accounted for {approx}25% of the total amount of recovered urinary metabolites. In the Gunn rats, PhIP and N-hydroxy-PhIP glucuronides were reduced by 68-92%, compared to the Wistar rats, and comprised only 4% of the total amount of recovered urinary metabolites. PhIP-DNA adduct analysis from the Gunn rats revealed a correlation between reduced PhIP and N-hydroxy-PhIP glucuronide levels in the urine and increased hepatic DNA adducts, compared to the Wistar rats. These results indicate that UGT1A-mediated glucuronidation of PhIP and N-hydroxy-PhIP is an important pathway for PhIP detoxification. Failure to form glucuronide conjugates

  16. Rapid induction of colon carcinogenesis in CYP1A-humanized mice by 2-amino-1-methyl-6-phenylimidazo[4,5-b]pyridine and dextran sodium sulfate.

    PubMed

    Cheung, Connie; Loy, Shea; Li, Guang Xun; Liu, Anna B; Yang, Chung S

    2011-02-01

    2-Amino-1-methyl-6-phenylimidazo[4,5-b]pyridine (PhIP), the most abundant heterocyclic amine produced during the cooking of meats and fish, is suspected to be a human carcinogen. Metabolic activation of PhIP is primarily mediated by the enzyme cytochrome P450 (CYP) 1A2. Metabolism of PhIP by CYP1A2 differs considerably between humans and rodents, with more N(2)-hydroxylation (activation) and less 4'-hydroxylation (detoxication) in humans. Transgenic CYP1A-humanized mice (hCYP1A-mice), which have the human CYP1A1 and CYP1A2 genes but lack the murine orthologs Cyp1a1 and Cyp1a2, provide an excellent opportunity to develop a relevant model to study dietary-induced colon carcinogenesis. The treatment with 200 mg/kg PhIP by oral gavage, followed by 1.5% dextran sodium sulfate (DSS) in the drinking water for 7 days, was found to be an effective combination to induce colon carcinogenesis in hCYP1A-mice. Tumor multiplicity at week 6 was calculated to be 3.75 ± 0.70 and for week 10 was 3.90 ± 0.61 with 80-95% of the tumors being adenocarcinomas. No tumors were found in the similarly treated wild-type mice. Western blots revealed overexpression of β-catenin, c-Myc, cyclin D1, inducible nitric oxide synthase and cyclooxygenase-2 in colon tumor samples. Strong nuclear localization of β-catenin was observed in tumors. These results illustrate that PhIP and DSS combination produces rapid colon carcinogenesis in hCYP1A-mice and this is an effective model to mimic human colon carcinogenesis.

  17. Influence of a fat-rich diet, folic acid supplementation and a human-relevant concentration of 2-amino-1-methyl-6-phenylimidazo[4,5-b]pyridine on the induction of preneoplastic lesions in the rat colon.

    PubMed

    Nicken, Petra; Brauer, Nicole; Lampen, Alfonso; Steinberg, Pablo

    2012-05-01

    In the present study, the effect of three controversially discussed risk factors for colorectal cancer, a fat-rich diet (16% raw fat content), dietary folic acid supplementation (50 mg folic acid/kg lab chow) and a human-relevant concentration (0.1 ppm) of the heterocyclic aromatic amine 2-amino-1-methyl-6-phenylimidazo[4,5-b]pyridine (PhIP), either alone or in combination, on the induction of aberrant crypt foci (ACF) in the colon of male Fischer 344 rats was analyzed. The mean number of ACF per rat in the case of the four groups fed a fat-rich diet tended to be higher than that of the four groups being fed a standard diet. However, the increase in the mean number of ACF per rat only reached statistical significance in the case of the rats receiving a fat-rich lab chow supplemented with 50 mg/kg folic acid. Moreover, a concentration of 0.1 ppm PhIP per se, either in the standard or in the fat-rich lab chow, did not lead to an increase in the mean number of ACF per rat. In conclusion, the present study provides additional evidence for a colon cancer promoting effect of folic acid supplementation when rodents are fed the compound in supraphysiological concentrations.

  18. The role of sulfation and/or acetylation in the metabolism of the cooked-food mutagen 2-amino-1-methyl-6-phenylimidazo[4,5-b]pyridine in Salmonella typhimurium and isolated rat hepatocytes.

    PubMed

    Malfatti, M A; Buonarati, M H; Turteltaub, K W; Shen, N H; Felton, J S

    1994-01-01

    Mutagenic activity of the cooked-food mutagen/carcinogen 2-amino-1-methyl-6-phenylimidazo-[4,5-b]pyridine (PhIP) is highly dependent upon cytochrome P450 activation to the N-hydroxylated intermediate. In the present study the bioactivation pathways of PhIP were investigated in Salmonella typhimurium and isolated rat hepatocyte preparations. In the Ames/S. typhimurium assay, the acetyltransferase and sulfotransferase enzyme inhibitors pentachlorophenol (PCP) and 2,6-dichloro-4-nitrophenol (DCNP) were used to modulate mutagenicity. DCNP, but not PCP, produced a concentration-dependent decrease in mutagenic activity of 2-(hydroxyamino)-1-methyl-6-phenylimidazo[4,5-b]pyridine (N-hydroxy-PhIP). In rat hepatocyte preparations, PCP and DCNP, as well as the cytochrome P450 IA1 and IA2 inhibitor alpha-naphthoflavone (ANF), were used to modulate metabolite, protein adduct, and DNA adduct formation. Incubations of [3H]PhIP (100 microM) with Aroclor 1254-induced or uninduced hepatocytes resulted in the formation of several metabolites, including 4'-(2-amino-1-methylimidazo[4,5-b]pyrid-6-yl)phenyl sulfate (4'-PhIP-sulfate), 2-amino-1-methyl-4'-hydroxy-6- phenylimidazo[4,5-b]pyridine (4'-hydroxy-PhIP), a glucuronide conjugate of 2-(hydroxyamino)-1-methyl-6-phenylimidazo[4,5-b]pyridine, and other uncharacterized metabolites. While PCP or DCNP pretreatment produced a significant decline in sulfate-dependent conjugation of 4'-hydroxy-PhIP to 4'-PhIP-sulfate, these inhibitors produced only slight decreases in PhIP-dependent covalent binding to proteins in hepatocytes derived from either Aroclor 1254-induced or uninduced rats. PhIP DNA adduct levels were relatively unchanged by PCP or DCNP pretreatment of Aroclor 1254-induced hepatocytes. DNA adducts from hepatocytes dosed with N-hydroxy-PhIP, however, resulted in a decrease in adduct levels from cells pretreated with PCP or DCNP.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  19. Measurement of the Heterocyclic Amines 2-Amino-9H-pyrido[2,3-b]indole and 2-Amino-1-methyl-6-phenylimidazo[4,5-b]pyridine in Urine: Effects of Cigarette Smoking.

    PubMed

    Konorev, Dmitri; Koopmeiners, Joseph S; Tang, Yijin; Franck Thompson, Elizabeth A; Jensen, Joni A; Hatsukami, Dorothy K; Turesky, Robert J

    2015-12-21

    2-Amino-9H-pyrido[2,3-b]indole (AαC) and 2-amino-1-methyl-6-phenylimidazo[4,5-b]pyridine (PhIP) are carcinogenic heterocyclic aromatic amines (HAAs) formed during the combustion of tobacco and during the high-temperature cooking of meats. Human enzymes biotransform AαC and PhIP into reactive metabolites, which can bind to DNA and lead to mutations. We sought to understand the relative contribution of smoking and diet to the exposure of AαC and PhIP, by determining levels of AαC, its ring-oxidized conjugate 2-amino-9H-pyrido[2,3-b]indole-3-yl sulfate (AαC-3-OSO3H), and PhIP in urine of smokers on a free-choice diet before and after a six week tobacco smoking cessation study. AαC and AαC-3-OSO3H were detected in more than 90% of the urine samples of all subjects during the smoking phase. The geometric mean levels of urinary AαC during the smoking and cessation phases were 24.3 pg/mg creatinine and 3.2 pg/mg creatinine, and the geometric mean levels of AαC-3-OSO3H were 47.3 pg/mg creatinine and 3.7 pg/mg creatinine. These decreases in the mean levels of AαC and AαC-3-OSO3H were, respectively, 87% and 92%, after the cessation of tobacco (P < 0.0007). However, PhIP was detected in <10% of the urine samples, and the exposure to PhIP was not correlated to smoking. Epidemiological studies have reported that smoking is a risk factor for cancer of the liver and gastrointestinal tract. It is noteworthy that AαC is a hepatocellular carcinogen and induces aberrant crypt foci, early biomarkers of colon cancer, in rodents. Our urinary biomarker data demonstrate that tobacco smoking is a significant source of AαC exposure. Further studies are warranted to examine the potential role of AαC as a risk factor for hepatocellular and gastrointestinal cancer in smokers.

  20. The Effect of UDP-glucuronosyltransferase 1A1 Expression on the Mutagenicity and Metabolism of the Cooked-Food Carcinogen 2-Amino-1-methyl-6-phenylimidazo[4-5,b]pyridine in CHO cells

    SciTech Connect

    Malfatti, M A; Wu, R W; Felton, J S

    2004-08-13

    UDP-glucuronosyltransferase proteins (UGT) catalyze the glucuronidation of both endogenous and xenobiotic compounds. In previous studies UGT1A1 has been implicated in the detoxification of certain food-borne-carcinogenic-heterocyclic amines. To determine the importance of UDP-glucuronosyltransferase 1A1 (UGT1A1) in the biotransformation of the cooked-food carcinogen 2-amino-1-methyl-6-phenylimidazo[4,5-b]pyridine (PhIP), genetically modified CHO cells that are nucleotide excision repair-deficient, and express cytochrome P4501A2 (UV5P3 cell line) were transfected with a cDNA plasmid of human UGT1A1 to establish the UDPglucuronosyltransferase 1A1 expressing 5P3hUGT1A1 cell line. Expression of the UGT1A1 gene was verified by screening neogene expressing clonal isolates (G-418 resistant) for their sensitivity to cell killing from PhIP exposure. Five of eleven clones were chosen for further analysis due to their resistance to cell killing. Western blot analysis was used to confirm the presence of the UGT1A1 and CYP1A2 proteins. All five clones displayed a 52 kDa protein band, which corresponded to a UGT1A1 control protein. Only four of the clones had a protein band that corresponded to the CYP1A2 control protein. Correct fragment size of the cDNAs in the remaining 4 clones was confirmed by RT-PCR and quantification of the mRNA product was accomplished by real-time RT-PCR. Expression of UGT1A1 in the transfected cells was 10{sup 4}-10{sup 5} fold higher relative to the UV5P3 parental cells. One clone (No.14) had a 10 fold higher increase in expression at 1.47 x 10{sup 5} over the other three clones. This clone was also the most active in converting N-hydroxy-PhIP to N-hydroxy-PhIP glucuronide conjugates in microsomal metabolism assays. Based on the D{sub 50} values, the cytotoxic effect of PhIP was decreased {approx}350 fold in the 5P3hUGT1A1 cells compared to the UV5P3 control cells. In addition no significant increase in mutation frequency was observed in the

  1. Protective effect of lactofermented red beetroot juice against aberrant crypt foci formation, genotoxicity of fecal water and oxidative stress induced by 2-amino-1-methyl-6-phenylimidazo[4,5-b] pyridine in rats model.

    PubMed

    Klewicka, Elżbieta; Nowak, Adriana; Zduńczyk, Zenon; Juśkiewicz, Jerzy; Cukrowska, Bożena

    2012-11-01

    The aim of the study was to investigate the effects of beetroot juice fermented by Lactobacillus brevis 0944 and Lactobacillus paracasei 0920 (FBJ) on carcinogen induction of aberrant crypt foci (ACF) in rat colon. 2-Amino-1-methyl-6-phenylimidazo[4,5-b] pyridine (PhIP) was used as carcinogen, which was administrated intragastrically at a dose of 10 μg/day, every day of the experiment. Additionally, we investigated the cytotoxicity and genotoxicity of fecal water from experimental animals in the Caco-2 cell line, evaluated by MTT test and the comet assay, respectively, as well as by the count of bacteria adhered to colon epithelium assessed by fluorescence in situ hybridization. Oxidative stress in rats was expressed by measuring serum antioxidant status and the level of malondialdehyde in the kidneys and liver. The experimental rats were divided into four groups based on diet type: basal diet, basal diet supplemented with FBJ, basal diet and PhIP treatment, and basal diet supplemented with FBJ and PhIP treatment. FBJ significantly reduced the number of ACF in PhIP-treated rats (from 59 ± 18 to 26 ± 4). Moreover, the number of extensive aberrations (more than 4 crypts in a focus) decreased from 52 ± 18 to 18 ± 4. Fecal water obtained from rats fed with a PhIP-containing diet induced pronounced cytotoxic and genotoxic effects in Caco-2 cells, but FBJ supplementation of the diet abolished these effects. In groups fed dietary PhP and FBJ the latter was found to increase the antioxidant status of serum from 40% to 66% depending on the fraction. Reduced concentration of malondialdehyde was found only in the kidneys of rats fed with PhIP and FBJ. FBJ present in the diet of rats causes a reduction of MDA in the kidneys from 118.7 nmol/g tissue to 100 nmol/g tissue. The presence of FBJ in the diet of rats significantly increased the count of bacteria, including Lactobacillus/Enterococcus and Bacteroides-Prevotella group adhered to colonic epithelium. In conclusion

  2. Activation of amino-alpha-carboline, 2-amino-1-methyl-6-phenylimidazo[4,5-b]pyridine and a copper phthalocyanine cellulose extract of cigarette smoke condensate by cytochrome P-450 enzymes in rat and human liver microsomes.

    PubMed

    Shimada, T; Guengerich, F P

    1991-10-01

    The ability of cigarette smoke condensate to induce a genotoxic response has been measured in liver microsomal and reconstituted monooxygenase systems containing rat and human cytochrome P-450 (P-450) enzymes, as determined by umu gene expression in Salmonella typhimurium TA1535/pSK1002. The reactivities of amino-alpha-carboline and 2-amino-1-methyl-6-phenylimidazo[4,5-b]pyridine (PhIP), two compounds known to be present at considerable levels in cigarette smoke condensate, were also determined and compared with regard to genotoxicity. Amino-alpha-carboline and PhIP are activated principally by P-450 1A2 enzymes in human and rat liver microsomes: (a) activation of both compounds was catalyzed efficiently by liver microsomes prepared from rats treated with 5,6-benzoflavone, isosafrole, or the commercial polychlorinated biphenyl mixture Aroclor 1254, and the activities could be considerably inhibited by antibodies raised against P-450 1A1 or 1A2; (b) the rates of activation of these compounds were correlated with the amount of human P-450 1A2 and of phenacetin O-deethylation activity in different human liver microsomal preparations, and these activities were inhibited by anti-P-450 1A2; (c) reconstituted enzyme systems containing P-450 1A enzymes isolated from rats and humans showed the highest rates of activation of amino-alpha-carboline and PhIP. In rat liver microsomes PhIP may also be activated by P-450 3A enzymes; activity was induced in rats treated with pregnenolone 16 alpha-carbonitrile and was inhibited by anti-human P-450 3A4. However, in humans the contribution of P-450 3A enzymes could be excluded as judged by the very low effects of anti-P-450 3A4 on the microsomal activities and poor correlation with P-450 3A4-catalyzed activities in various liver samples. Cigarette smoke condensate strongly inhibited the activation of several potent procarcinogens by human liver microsomes, particularly the reactions catalyzed by P-450 1A2, but was not so inhibitory of

  3. A comprehensive approach to the profiling of the cooked meat carcinogens 2-amino-3,8-dimethylimidazo[4,5-f]quinoxaline, 2-amino-1-methyl-6-phenylimidazo[4,5-b]pyridine, and their metabolites in human urine.

    PubMed

    Gu, Dan; McNaughton, Lynn; Lemaster, David; Lake, Brian G; Gooderham, Nigel J; Kadlubar, Fred F; Turesky, Robert J

    2010-04-19

    A targeted liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry-based metabolomics type approach, employing a triple stage quadrupole mass spectrometer in the product ion scan and selected reaction monitoring modes, was established to profile 2-amino-3,8-dimethylimidazo[4,5-f]quinoxaline (MeIQx), 2-amino-1-methyl-6-phenylimidazo[4,5-b]pyridine (PhIP), and their principal metabolites in the urine of omnivores. A mixed-mode reverse phase cation exchange resin enrichment procedure was employed to isolate MeIQx and its oxidized metabolites, 2-amino-8-(hydroxymethyl)-3-methylimidazo[4,5-f]quinoxaline (8-CH(2)OH-IQx) and 2-amino-3-methylimidazo[4,5-f]quinoxaline-8-carboxylic acid (IQx-8-COOH), which are produced by cytochrome P450 1A2 (P450 1A2). The phase II conjugates N(2)-(beta-1-glucosiduronyl)-2-amino-3,8-dimethylimidazo[4,5-f]quinoxaline and N(2)-(3,8-dimethylimidazo[4,5-f]quinoxalin-2-yl)-sulfamic acid were measured indirectly, following acid hydrolysis to form MeIQx. The enrichment procedure permitted the simultaneous analysis of PhIP, N(2)-(beta-1-glucosidurony1)-2-amino-1-methyl-6-phenylimidazo[4,5-b]pyridine, N3-(beta-1-glucosidurony1)-2-amino-1-methyl-6-phenylimidazo[4,5-b]pyridine, 2-amino-1-methyl-6-(4'-hydroxy)-phenylimidazo[4,5-b]pyridine (4'-HO-PhIP), and the isomeric N(2)- and N3-glucuronide conjugates of the carcinogenic metabolite, 2-hydroxyamino-1-methyl-6-phenylimidazo[4,5-b]pyridine (HONH-PhIP), which is formed by P450 1A2. The limit of quantification (LOQ) for MeIQx, PhIP, and 4'-HO-PhIP was approximately 5 pg/mL; the LOQ values for 8-CH(2)OH-IQx and IQx-8-COOH were, respectively, <15 and <25 pg/mL, and the LOQ values for the glucuronide conjugates of PhIP and HONH-PhIP were 50 pg/mL. The metabolism was extensive; less than 9% of the dose was eliminated in urine as unaltered MeIQx, and <1% was eliminated as unaltered PhIP. Phase II conjugates of the parent amines accounted for up to 12% of the dose of MeIQx and up to 2% of the dose of PhIP. 8-CH(2)OH

  4. A Comprehensive Approach to the Profiling of the Cooked Meat Carcinogens 2-Amino-3,8-dimethylimidazo[4,5-f]quinoxaline, 2-Amino-1-methyl-6-phenylimidazo[4,5-b]pyridine and their Metabolites in Human Urine

    PubMed Central

    Gu, Dan; McNaughton, Lynn; LeMaster, David; Lake, Brian G.; Gooderham, Nigel J.; Kadlubar, Fred F.

    2011-01-01

    A targeted liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry-based metabolomics-type approach, employing a triple stage quadrupole mass spectrometer in the product ion scan and selected reaction monitoring modes, was established to profile 2-amino-3,8-dimethylimidazo[4,5-f]quinoxaline (MeIQx), 2-amino-1-methyl-6-phenylimidazo[4,5-b]pyridine (PhIP), and their principal metabolites in urine of omnivores. A mixed-mode reverse phase cation exchange resin enrichment procedure was employed to isolate MeIQx, and its oxidized metabolites, 2-amino-8-(hydroxymethyl)-3-methylimidazo[4,5-f]quinoxaline (8-CH2OH-IQx) and 2-amino-3-methylimidazo[4,5-f]quinoxaline-8-carboxylic acid (IQx-8-COOH), which are produced by cytochrome P450 1A2 (P450 1A2). The phase II conjugates N2-(ß-1-glucosiduronyl)-2-amino-3,8-dimethylimidazo[4,5-f]quinoxaline and N2-(3,8-dimethylimidazo[4,5-f]quinoxalin-2-yl)-sulfamic acid were measured indirectly, following acid hydrolysis to form MeIQx. The enrichment procedure permitted the simultaneous analysis of PhIP; N2-(ß-1-glucosidurony1)-2-amino-1-methy1-6-phenylimidazo[4,5-b]pyridine; N3-(ß-1-glucosidurony1)-2-amino-1-methy1-6-phenylimidazo[4,5-b]pyridine; 2-amino-1-methyl-6-(4′-hydroxy)-phenylimidazo[4,5-b]pyridine (4′-HOPhIP); and the isomeric N2- and N3-glucuronide conjugates of the carcinogenic metabolite, 2-hydroxyamino-1-methyl-6-phenylimidazo[4,5-b]pyridine (HONH-PhIP), which is formed by P450 1A2. The limit of quantification (LOQ) for MeIQx, PhIP, and 4′-HO-PhIP was ~5 pg/mL; the LOQ values for 8-CH2OH-IQx and IQx-8-COOH were, respectively, <15 pg/mL and <25 pg/mL; and the LOQ values for the glucuronide conjugates of PhIP and HONH-PhIP were 50 pg/mL. The metabolism was extensive: Less than 9% of the dose was eliminated in urine as unaltered MeIQx and <1% was eliminated as unaltered PhIP. Phase II conjugates of the parent amines accounted for up to 12% of the dose of MeIQx, and up to 2% of the dose of PhIP. 8-CH2OH-IQx and IQx-8-COOH

  5. Synergistic and Antagonistic Mutation Responses of Human MCL-5 Cells to Mixtures of Benzo[a]pyrene and 2-Amino-1-Methyl-6-Phenylimidazo[4,5-b]pyridine: Dose-Related Variation in the Joint Effects of Common Dietary Carcinogens

    PubMed Central

    David, Rhiannon; Ebbels, Timothy; Gooderham, Nigel

    2015-01-01

    Background Chemical carcinogens such as benzo[a]pyrene (BaP) and 2-amino-1-methyl-6-phenylimidazo[4,5-b]pyridine (PhIP) may contribute to the etiology of human diet-associated cancer. Individually, these compounds are genotoxic, but the consequences of exposure to mixtures of these chemicals have not been systematically examined. Objectives We determined the mutagenic response to mixtures of BaP and PhIP at concentrations relevant to human exposure (micromolar to subnanomolar). Methods Human MCL-5 cells (metabolically competent) were exposed to BaP or PhIP individually or in mixtures. Mutagenicity was assessed at the thymidine kinase (TK) locus, CYP1A activity was determined by ethoxyresorufin-O-deethylase (EROD) activity and qRT-PCR, and cell cycle was measured by flow cytometry. Results Mixtures of BaP and PhIP produced dose responses different from those of the individual chemicals; we observed remarkably increased mutant frequency (MF) at lower concentrations of the mixtures (not mutagenic individually), and decreased MF at higher concentrations of the mixtures, than the calculated predicted additive MF of the individual chemicals. EROD activity and CYP1A1 mRNA levels were correlated with TK MF, supporting involvement of the CYP1A family in mutation. Moreover, a cell cycle G2/M phase block was observed at high-dose combinations, consistent with DNA damage sensing and repair. Conclusions Mixtures of these genotoxic chemicals produced mutation responses that differed from those expected for the additive effects of the individual chemicals. The increase in MF for certain combinations of chemicals at low concentrations that were not genotoxic for the individual chemicals, as well as the nonmonotonic dose response, may be important for understanding the mutagenic potential of food and the etiology of diet-associated cancers. Citation David R, Ebbels T, Gooderham N. 2016. Synergistic and antagonistic mutation responses of human MCL-5 cells to mixtures of benzo

  6. Protective activity of probiotic bacteria against 2-amino-3-methyl-3H-imidazo[4,5-f]quinoline (IQ) and 2-amino-1-methyl-6-phenyl-1H-imidazo[4,5-b]pyridine (PhIP) - an in vitro study.

    PubMed

    Nowak, Adriana; Czyżowska, Agata; Stańczyk, Małgorzata

    2015-01-01

    Heterocyclic aromatic amines (HAAs) are carcinogenic compounds present in a typical Western diet rich in thermally processed meat. These nutritional factors can modulate the cytotoxicity of faecal water (FW) and induce tumours in the human gastrointestinal tract. Supplementation with probiotics is promising in terms of reducing the harmful effects of HAAs in the human body. The aim of the study was in vitro assessment of the protective activity of the probiotic strains Lb. rhamnosus 0900, Lb. rhamnosus 0908, Lb. casei 0919 and Lb. casei DN 114001 against IQ (2-amino-3-methyl-3H-imidazo[4,5-f]quinoline) and PhIP (2-amino-1-methyl-6-phenyl-1H-imidazo[4,5-b]pyridine) after incubation with faeces from 15 persons aged 4 months to 82 years (children, adults and the elderly). The highest mean cytotoxicity of FW was observed for the elderly (63.2% ± 3.7%) and the lowest for children (28.0% ± 9.5%), as estimated by a neutral red uptake assay. The probiotics lowered the average cytotoxicity of FW exposed to IQ or PhIP. The concentration of IQ and PhIP in FW was most effectively reduced by Lb. rhamnosus 0900 (47.5%) and Lb. casei 0919 (45.8%), respectively, as determined by high -performance liquid chromatography. All the tested strains bound PhIP to a higher extent than IQ. In an alkaline comet assay, Lb. casei 0919 and Lb. rhamnosus 0908 displayed the strongest protective effect against IQ and PhIP (up to 80% reduction of DNA damage). Also in a comet assay, Lb. rhamnosus 0908 exhibited antioxidative activity toward H2O2 and PhIP (up to 63% and 69.5% reduction of oxidative DNA damage, respectively). The protective activity of the probiotic strains was specific to a given person's FW, which implies the involvement of intestinal microbiota in the process. PMID:26295367

  7. DNA adducts induced by food mutagen PhIP in a mouse model expressing human sulfotransferases 1A1 and 1A2.

    PubMed

    Høie, Anja Hortemo; Monien, Bernhard Hans; Glatt, Hansruedi; Hjertholm, Hege; Husøy, Trine

    2016-04-25

    Food processing contaminant 2-amino-1-methyl-6-phenylimidazo[4,5-b]pyridine (PhIP) has previously been shown to induce formation of DNA adducts in vivo. In a previous study the adduct levels were found to increase in a mouse model expressing human (h) sulfotransferases (SULTs) 1A1 and 1A2 after PhIP exposure, detected by (32)P-postlabelling. Isotope dilution ultra performance liquid chromatography coupled with tandem mass spectrometry (UPLC-MS/MS) is emerging as the method of choice for selective and reproducible detection of known DNA adducts. In the present study we investigated the level and distribution of PhIP induced DNA adducts in male FVB mice 9-11 weeks of age with hSULT mice or wild-type mice (wt) using UPLC-MS/MS. Mice received a single administration of 75 mg/kg bw PhIP by oral gavage, and DNA was analysed 3h after exposure. C8-(2-amino-1-methyl-6-phenylimidazo[4,5-b]pyridine- N(2)-yl)-2'-deoxyguanosine (C8-PhIP-dG) adduct levels are significantly higher in PhIP exposed hSULT mice compared with PhIP exposed wt mice. The liver was the least affected organ in wild-type mice, whereas it was the most affected organ in hSULT mice with a 14-fold higher adduct level. PMID:26940682

  8. A Cytogenetic Footprint for Mammary Carcinomas Induced by PhIP in Rats

    SciTech Connect

    Christian, A T

    2001-04-01

    PhIP (2-amino-1-methyl-6-phenylimidazo [4,5-b] pyridine), a mutagen/carcinogen belonging to the class of heterocyclic amines (HCAs) found in cooked meats, is a mammary gland carcinogen in rats and has been implicated in the etiology of certain human cancers including breast cancer. To gain insight into the genomic alterations associated with PhIP-induced mammary gland carcinogenesis, we used comparative genomic hybridization (CGH) to examine chromosomal abnormalities in rat mammary carcinomas induced by PhIP, and for comparison, by DMBA (7,12-dimethylbenz[a]anthracene), a potent experimental mammary carcinogen. There was a consistent and characteristic pattern of chromosome-region loss in PhIP-induced carcinomas that clearly distinguished them from carcinomas induced by DMBA.

  9. Inflammation and Atrophy Precede Prostate Neoplasia in PhIP Induced Rat Model

    SciTech Connect

    Borowsky, A D; Dingley, K; Ubick, E; Turteltaub, K; Cardiff, R D; DeVere-White, R

    2006-06-01

    2-amino-1-methyl-6-phenylimidazo(4,5-b)pyridine (PhIP) has been implicated as a major mutagenic heterocyclic amine in the human diet and is carcinogenic in the rat prostate. In order to validate PhIP induced rat prostate neoplasia as a model of human prostate cancer progression, we sought to study the earliest histologic and morphologic changes in the prostate and to follow the progressive changes over time. We fed 67 male Fischer F344 5 week old rats with PhIP (400 PPM) or control diets for 20 weeks, and then sacrificed animals for histomorphologic examination at age 25 weeks, 45 weeks, and 65 weeks. Animals treated with PhIP showed significantly more inflammation (P=.002 (25wk), >.001(45wk), .016(65wk)) and atrophy (P=.003(25wk), >.001(45wk), .006 (65wk)) in their prostate glands relative to controls. Prostatic intraepithelial neoplasia (PIN) occurred only in PhIP treated rats. PIN lesions arose in areas of glandular atrophy, most often in the ventral prostate. Atypical cells in areas of atrophy show loss of glutathione S-transferase pi immunostaining preceding development of PIN. None of the animals in this study developed invasive carcinomas differing from previous reports. Overall, these findings suggest that the pathogenesis of prostatic neoplasia in the PhIP treated rat prostate proceeds from inflammation to post-inflammatory proliferative atrophy to PIN.

  10. Dose validation of PhIP hair level as a biomarker of heterocyclic aromatic amines exposure: a feeding study.

    PubMed

    Le Marchand, Loïc; Yonemori, Kim; White, Kami K; Franke, Adrian A; Wilkens, Lynne R; Turesky, Robert J

    2016-07-01

    Hair measurement of 2-amino-1-methyl-6-phenylimidazo[4,5-b]pyridine (PhIP) is a promising biomarker of exposure to this carcinogen formed in cooked meats. However, the dose relationship between normal range intake and hair levels and the modulating effects of CYP1A2 metabolism and hair melanin need to be evaluated. We conducted a randomized, cross-over feeding study among 41 non-smokers using ground beef cooked to two different levels of doneness, 5 days a week for 1 month. PhIP was measured by liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry in food (mean low dose = 0.72 µg/serving; mean high dose = 2.99 µg/serving), and change in PhIP hair level was evaluated. CYP1A2 activity was assessed in urine with the caffeine challenge test and head hair melanin was estimated by UV spectrophotometry. We observed a strong dose-dependent increase in hair PhIP levels. This increase was highly correlated with dose received (ρ = 0.68, P < 0.0001). CYP1A2 activity and normalizing for hair melanin did not modify the response to the intervention. Consumption of PhIP at doses similar to those in the American diet results in a marked dose-dependent accumulation of PhIP in hair. Hair PhIP levels may be used as a biomarker of dietary exposure in studies investigating disease risk. PMID:27207666

  11. Effects of industrially produced flavours with pro- and antioxidative properties on the formation of the heterocyclic amine PhIP in a model system.

    PubMed

    Zöchling, Siegfried; Murkovic, Michael; Pfannhauser, Werner

    2002-01-01

    PhIP (2-amino-1-methyl-6-phenylimidazo[4,5-b]pyridine) is a heterocyclic aromatic amine belonging to a class of mutagens found in food. This project studied the effects of commercially available flavours of spices on the formation of PhIP, one of the most common heterocyclic aromatic amines in heated meat and fish products. The model reactions were carried out in diethylene glycol. Highest amounts of PhIP were obtained at 200 degrees C, a heating time of 60 min and an equivalent molar ratio of phenylalanine and creatinine. With this model system, the influence of Monascus red and flavours extracted from thyme, marjoram and rosemary on the formation of PhIP was tested. The flavours were added to the model system in different amounts. The oxidative properties were determined with the rancimat method. It was shown that all tested products, independent of their pro- or antioxidative properties, increased PhIP in the model system. PMID:12406584

  12. Detection of PhIP in grilled chicken entrées at popular chain restaurants throughout California.

    PubMed

    Sullivan, Kristie M; Erickson, Michael A; Sandusky, Chad B; Barnard, Neal D

    2008-01-01

    Heterocyclic amines (HCAs), compounds formed when meat is cooked at high temperatures particularly through pan frying, grilling, or barbequing, pose a potential carcinogenic risk to the public. It is unclear whether there is any level at which consumption of HCAs can be considered safe. Efforts to measure these compounds mainly include cooking studies under laboratory conditions and some measurement of home-cooked foods, but analysis of commercially cooked foods has been minimal. Attempts to estimate exposure of the public to these compounds must take into consideration dining outside the home, which could result in significant exposure for some individuals. We surveyed at least 9 locations each of 7 popular chain restaurants (McDonald's, Burger King, Chick-fil-A, Chili's, TGI Friday's, Outback Steakhouse, and Applebee's) in California, collecting one or two entrees from each location. Entrees were analyzed for 2-amino-1-methyl-6-phenylimidazo[4,5-b]pyridine (PhIP) using high-performance liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry. All 100 samples contained PhIP. Concentrations were variable within and between entrees and ranged from 0.08 to 43.2 ng/g. When factoring in the weight of the entrees, absolute levels of PhIP reached over 1,000 ng for some entrees. Potential strategies for reducing exposure include the avoidance of meats cooked using methods that are known to form PhIP. PMID:18791922

  13. Dietary chemoprevention of PhIP induced carcinogenesis in male Fischer 344 rats with tomato and broccoli.

    PubMed

    Canene-Adams, Kirstie; Sfanos, Karen S; Liang, Chung-Tiang; Yegnasubramanian, Srinivasan; Nelson, William G; Brayton, Cory; De Marzo, Angelo M

    2013-01-01

    The heterocyclic amine, 2-amino-1-methyl-6-phenylimidazo[4,5-B]pyridine (PhIP), found in meats cooked at high temperatures, has been implicated in epidemiological and rodent studies for causing breast, prostate, and colorectal cancers. A previous animal study using a xenograft model has shown that whole tomato and broccoli, when eaten in combination, exhibit a marked effect on tumor reduction compared to when eaten alone. Our aim was to determine if PhIP-induced carcinogenesis can be prevented by dietary consumption of whole tomato + broccoli powders. Male Fischer 344 rats (n = 45) were randomized into the following treatment groups: control (AIN93G diet), PhIP (200 ppm in AIN93G diet for the first 20 weeks of the study), or tomato + broccoli + PhIP (mixed in AIN93G diet at 10% each and fed with PhIP for 20 weeks, and then without PhIP for 32 weeks). Study animals were monitored for 52 weeks and were euthanized as necessary based on a set of criteria for health status and tumor burden. Although there appeared to be some hepatic and intestinal toxicity due to the combination of PhIP and tomato + broccoli, these rodents had improved survival and reduced incidence and/or severity of PhIP-induced neoplastic lesions compared to the PhIP-alone treated group. Rats eating tomato + broccoli exhibited a marked decrease in the number and size of cribiform prostatic intraepitheilial neoplasia/carcinoma in situ (cribiform PIN/CIS) lesions and in the incidence of invasive intestinal adenocarcinomas and skin carcinomas. Although the apparent toxic effects of combined PhIP and tomato + broccoli need additional study, the results of this study support the hypothesis that a diet rich in tomato and broccoli can reduce or prevent dietary carcinogen-induced cancers.

  14. Dietary chemoprevention of PhIP induced carcinogenesis in male Fischer 344 rats with tomato and broccoli.

    PubMed

    Canene-Adams, Kirstie; Sfanos, Karen S; Liang, Chung-Tiang; Yegnasubramanian, Srinivasan; Nelson, William G; Brayton, Cory; De Marzo, Angelo M

    2013-01-01

    The heterocyclic amine, 2-amino-1-methyl-6-phenylimidazo[4,5-B]pyridine (PhIP), found in meats cooked at high temperatures, has been implicated in epidemiological and rodent studies for causing breast, prostate, and colorectal cancers. A previous animal study using a xenograft model has shown that whole tomato and broccoli, when eaten in combination, exhibit a marked effect on tumor reduction compared to when eaten alone. Our aim was to determine if PhIP-induced carcinogenesis can be prevented by dietary consumption of whole tomato + broccoli powders. Male Fischer 344 rats (n = 45) were randomized into the following treatment groups: control (AIN93G diet), PhIP (200 ppm in AIN93G diet for the first 20 weeks of the study), or tomato + broccoli + PhIP (mixed in AIN93G diet at 10% each and fed with PhIP for 20 weeks, and then without PhIP for 32 weeks). Study animals were monitored for 52 weeks and were euthanized as necessary based on a set of criteria for health status and tumor burden. Although there appeared to be some hepatic and intestinal toxicity due to the combination of PhIP and tomato + broccoli, these rodents had improved survival and reduced incidence and/or severity of PhIP-induced neoplastic lesions compared to the PhIP-alone treated group. Rats eating tomato + broccoli exhibited a marked decrease in the number and size of cribiform prostatic intraepitheilial neoplasia/carcinoma in situ (cribiform PIN/CIS) lesions and in the incidence of invasive intestinal adenocarcinomas and skin carcinomas. Although the apparent toxic effects of combined PhIP and tomato + broccoli need additional study, the results of this study support the hypothesis that a diet rich in tomato and broccoli can reduce or prevent dietary carcinogen-induced cancers. PMID:24312188

  15. Apiaceous Vegetable Consumption Decreases PhIP-Induced DNA Adducts and Increases Methylated PhIP Metabolites in the Urine Metabolome in Rats123

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Jae Kyeom; Gallaher, Daniel D; Chen, Chi; Yao, Dan; Trudo, Sabrina P

    2015-01-01

    Background: Heterocyclic aromatic amines, such as 2-amino-1-methyl-6-phenylimidazo[4,5-b]pyridine (PhIP), are carcinogenic compounds produced during heating of protein-containing foods. Apiaceous vegetables inhibit PhIP-activating enzymes, whereas cruciferous vegetables induce both PhIP-activating and -detoxifying enzymes. Objective: We investigated the effects of these vegetables, either alone or combined, on PhIP metabolism and colonic DNA adduct formation in rats. Methods: Male Wistar rats were fed cruciferous vegetables (21%, wt:wt), apiaceous vegetables (21%, wt:wt), or a combination of both vegetables (10.5% wt:wt of each). Negative and positive control groups were fed an AIN-93G diet. After 6 d, all groups received an intraperitoneal injection of PhIP (10 mg · kg body weight−1) except for the negative control group, which received only vehicle. Urine was collected for 24 h after the injection for LC–tandem mass spectrometry metabolomic analyses. On day 7, rats were killed and tissues processed. Results: Compared with the positive control, cruciferous vegetables increased the activity of hepatic PhIP-activating enzymes [39.5% and 45.1% for cytochrome P450 (CYP) 1A1 (P = 0.0006) and CYP1A2 (P < 0.0001), respectively] and of uridine 5′-diphospho-glucuronosyltransferase 1A (PhIP-detoxifying) by 24.5% (P = 0.0267). Apiaceous vegetables did not inhibit PhIP-activating enzymes, yet reduced colonic PhIP-DNA adducts by 20.4% (P = 0.0496). Metabolomic analyses indicated that apiaceous vegetables increased the relative abundance of urinary methylated PhIP metabolites. The sum of these methylated metabolites inversely correlated with colonic PhIP-DNA adducts (r = −0.43, P = 0.01). We detected a novel methylated urinary PhIP metabolite and demonstrated that methylated metabolites are produced in the human liver S9 fraction. Conclusions: Apiaceous vegetables did not inhibit the activity of PhIP-activating enzymes in rats, suggesting that the reduction in Ph

  16. Protective effects of xanthohumol against the genotoxicity of heterocyclic aromatic amines MeIQx and PhIP in bacteria and in human hepatoma (HepG2) cells.

    PubMed

    Viegas, Olga; Zegura, Bojana; Pezdric, Marko; Novak, Matjaž; Ferreira, Isabel M P L V O; Pinho, Olívia; Filipič, Metka

    2012-03-01

    Previous studies showed that xanthohumol (XN), a hop derived prenylflavonoid, very efficiently protects against genotoxicity and potential carcinogenicity of the food borne carcinogenic heterocyclic aromatic amine (HAA) 2-amino-3-methylimidazo[4,5-f]quinoline (IQ). In this study, we showed that XN was not mutagenic in Salmonella typhimurium TA98 and did not induce genomic instability in human hepatoma HepG2 cells. In the bacteria XN suppressed the formation of 2-amino-1-methyl-6-phenylimidazo[4,5-b]pyridine (PhIP) and 2-amino-3,8 dimethylimidazo[4,5-f]quinoxaline (MeIQx) induced mutations in a dose dependent manner and in HepG2 cells it completely prevented PhIP and MeIQx induced DNA strand breaks at nanomolar concentrations. With the QRT-PCR gene expression analysis of the main enzymes involved in the biotransformation of HAAs in HepG2 cells we found that XN upregulates the expression of phase I (CYP1A1 and CYP1A2) and phase II (UGT1A1) enzymes. Further gene expression analysis in cells exposed to MeIQx and PhIP in combination with XN revealed that XN mediated up-regulation of UGT1A1 expression may be important mechanism of XN mediated protection against HAAs induced genotoxicity. Our findings confirm the evidence that XN displays strong chemopreventive effects against genotoxicity of HAAs, and provides additional mechanistic information to assess its potential chemopreventive efficiency in humans. PMID:22138251

  17. Proteomics of rat prostate lobes treated with 2-N-hydroxylamino-1-methyl-6-phenylimidazo[4,5-b]pyridine, 5α-dihydrotestosterone, individually and in combination

    PubMed Central

    BOYIRI, TELIH; SOMIARI, RICHARD I.; RUSSELL, STEPHEN; ALIAGA, CESAR; EL-BAYOUMY, KARAM

    2013-01-01

    Epidemiological and preclinical studies suggest that environmental factors, hormonal responses and lifestyle, including diet and physical inactivity, are likely contributors to the initiation and progression of prostate cancer in humans. Although the effects of the food derived carcinogen 2-amino-1-methyl-6-phenylimidazo[4,5-b]pyridine (PhIP) and/or testosterone (T) in the development of prostate cancer in the rat have been reported, the extent to which such compounds impact cancer related proteins is not clear. Knowledge of cancer-related proteins impacted by PhIP and/or T is pre-requisite to developing novel strategies to early-detect prostate cancer. Male F344 rats were sacrificed, the prostate tissue isolated and separated into dorsolateral, ventral, and anterior lobes. The lobes were cultured and treated with 10−3 M NHPhIP and/or 10−7 M DT for 24 h. NHPhIP is the genotoxic form of PhIP and DT is the more proliferative form of T. We used 2D-DIGE and LC/MS/MS technologies to study the proteome of the prostate lobes to determine if the compounds will trigger detectable changes in expression of cancer-related proteins. Analysis of the signals from 2D-DIGE revealed that about 10% of proteins were differentially expressed in the NHPhIP and/or DT treatments compared to controls. Eight candidate protein spots detected by 2D-DIGE in at least two out of three lobes showed ≥2-fold difference between treated and control samples. Five out of the eight spots contained single proteins; including, phospholipase C (PLP-Cα), Rab7, SAR1a, ribosomal protein S7 (RPS7), and nucleoside diphosphate kinase (NDPK). A survey of the literature shows that NDPK expression is altered in human cancers, including prostate cancer. Thus, we validated the altered expression of NDPK by Western blot analysis. The concordance between 2D-DIGE and Western blot analysis was 80%. The results of this study demonstrate, for the first time, that the combination of 2D-DIGE and LC/MS/MS is a powerful

  18. Concentration-dependent inhibition of Escherichia coli O157:H7 and potentially carcinogenic heterocyclic amines in heated ground beef patties by apple,olive,and onion powders and clove bud oil

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    We determined the effects of plant compounds on Escherichia coli O157:H7 and two major carcinogenic heterocyclic amines (HCAs), 2-amino-3,8-dimethylamidazo[4,5-f]quinoxaline (MeIQx) and 2-amino-1-methyl-6-phenylimidazo[4,5b]pyridine (PhIP) in grilled ground beef patties. Ground beef with added apple...

  19. Molecule-Specific Imaging Analysis of Carcinogens in Breast Cancer Cells Using Time-of-Flight Secondary Ion Mass Spectrometry

    SciTech Connect

    Quong, J N; Knize, M G; Kulp, K S; Wu, K J

    2003-08-19

    Imaging time-of-flight secondary ion mass spectrometry (TOF-SIMS) is used to study the localization of heterocyclic amines in MCF7 line of human breast cancer cells. The detection sensitivities of a model rodent mutagen, 2-amino-1-methyl-6-phenylimidazo[4,5-b]pyridine (PhIP) were determined. Following an established criteria for the determination of status of freeze-fracture cells, the distribution of PhIP in the MCF7 cells are reported.

  20. MACROMOLECULAR ADDUCT FORMATION AND METABOLISM OF HETEROCYCLIC AMINES IN HUMANS AND RODENTS AT LOW DOSES. (R825280)

    EPA Science Inventory

    Abstract

    2-Amino-3,8-dimethylimidazo[4,5-f]quinoxaline (MeIQx) and 2-amino-1-methyl-6-phenylimidazo[4,5-b]pyridine (PhIP) are heterocyclic amines formed during the cooking of meat and fish. Both are genotoxic in a number of test systems and are carcinogen...

  1. Mass Spectrometric Characterization of Human Serum Albumin Adducts Formed with N-Oxidized Metabolites of 2-Amino-1-methylphenylimidazo[4,5-b]pyridine in Human Plasma and Hepatocytes.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yi; Peng, Lijuan; Bellamri, Medjda; Langouët, Sophie; Turesky, Robert J

    2015-05-18

    2-Amino-1-methyl-6-phenylimidazo[4,5-b]pyridine (PhIP), a carcinogenic heterocyclic aromatic amine formed in cooked meats, is metabolically activated to electrophilic intermediates that form covalent adducts with DNA and protein. We previously identified an adduct of PhIP formed at the Cys(34) residue of human serum albumin following reaction of albumin with the genotoxic metabolite 2-hydroxyamino-1-methyl-6-phenylimidazo[4,5-b]pyridine (HONH-PhIP). The major adducted peptide recovered from a tryptic/chymotryptic digest was identified as the missed-cleavage peptide LQQC*([SO2PhIP])PFEDHVK, a [cysteine-S-yl-PhIP]-S-dioxide linked adduct. In this investigation, we have characterized the albumin adduction products of N-sulfooxy-2-amino-1-methyl-6-phenylimidazo[4,5-b]pyridine (N-sulfooxy-PhIP), which is thought to be a major genotoxic metabolite of PhIP formed in vivo. Targeted and data-dependent scanning methods showed that N-sulfooxy-PhIP adducted to the Cys(34) of albumin in human plasma to form LQQC*([SO2PhIP])PFEDHVK at levels that were 8-10-fold greater than the adduct levels formed with N-(acetyloxy)-2-amino-1-methyl-6-phenylimidazo[4,5-b]pyridine (N-acetoxy-PhIP) or HONH-PhIP. We also discovered that N-sulfooxy-PhIP forms an adduct at the sole tryptophan (Trp(214)) residue of albumin in the sequence AW*([PhIP])AVAR. However, stable adducts of PhIP with albumin were not detected in human hepatocytes. Instead, PhIP and 2-amino-1-methyl-6-(5-hydroxy)phenylimidazo[4,5-b]pyridine (5-HO-PhIP), a solvolysis product of the proposed nitrenium ion of PhIP, were recovered during the proteolysis, suggesting a labile sulfenamide linkage had formed between an N-oxidized intermediate of PhIP and Cys(34) of albumin. A stable adduct was formed at the Tyr(411) residue of albumin in hepatocytes and identified as a deaminated product of PhIP, Y(*[desaminoPhIP])TK, where the 4-HO-tyrosine group bound to the C-2 imidazole atom of PhIP. PMID:25815793

  2. Impact of Environmental Exposures on the Mutagenicity/Carcinogenicity of Heterocyclic Amines

    SciTech Connect

    Felton, J S; Knize, M G; Bennett, L M; Malfatti, M A; Colvin, M E; Kulp, K S

    2003-12-19

    Carcinogenic heterocyclic amines are produced from overcooked foods and are highly mutagenic in most short-term test systems. One of the most abundant of these amines, 2-amino-1-methyl-6-phenylimidazo[4,5-b]pyridine (PhIP), induces breast, colon and prostate tumors in rats. Human dietary epidemiology studies suggest a strong correlation between either meat consumption or well-done muscle meat consumption and cancers of the colon, breast, stomach, lung and esophagus. For over 20 years our laboratory has helped define the human exposure to these dietary carcinogens. In this report we describe how various environmental exposures may modulate the risk from exposure to heterocyclic amines, especially PhIP. To assess the impact of foods on PhIP metabolism in humans, we developed an LC/MS/MS method to analyze the four major PhIP urinary metabolites following the consumption of a single portion of grilled chicken. Adding broccoli to the volunteers' diet altered the kinetics of PhIP metabolism. At the cellular level we have found that PhIP itself stimulates a significant estrogenic response in MCF-7 cells, but even more interestingly, co-incubation of the cells with herbal teas appear to enhance the response. Numerous environmental chemicals found in food or the atmosphere can impact the exposure, metabolism, and cell proliferation response of heterocyclic amines.

  3. Parahydrogen discriminated PHIP at low magnetic fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prina, I.; Buljubasich, L.; Acosta, R. H.

    2015-02-01

    Parahydrogen induced polarization (PHIP) is a powerful hyperpolarization technique. However, as the signal created has an anti-phase characteristic, it is subject to signal cancellation when the experiment is carried out in inhomogeneous magnetic fields or in low fields that lack the necessary spectral resolution. The use of benchtop spectrometers and time domain (TD) analyzers has continuously grown in the last years and many applications are found in the food industry, for non-invasive compound detection or as a test bench for new contrast agents among others. In this type of NMR devices the combination of low and inhomogeneous magnetic fields renders the application of PHIP quite challenging. We have recently shown that the acquisition of J-spectra in high magnetic fields not only removes the anti-phase peak cancellation but also produces a separation of thermal from hyperpolarized signals, providing Parahydrogen Discriminated (PhD-PHIP) spectra. In this work we extend the use of PhD-PHIP to low and inhomogeneous fields. In this case the strong coupling found for the protons of the sample renders spin-echo spectra that have a great complexity, however, a central region in the spectrum with only hyperpolarized signal is clearly identified. This experimental approach is ideal for monitoring real time chemical reaction of pure PHIP signals.

  4. Antioxidant and antigenotoxic effects of rosemary (Rosmarinus officinalis L.) extracts in Salmonella typhimurium TA98 and HepG2 cells.

    PubMed

    Zegura, Bojana; Dobnik, David; Niderl, Maša Hojnik; Filipič, Metka

    2011-09-01

    In the present study the chemopreventive effects of water soluble AquaROX(®) 15 and oil soluble VivOX(®) 40 rosemary extracts against 4-nitroquinoline-N-oxide (NQNO) and 2-amino-3-methyl-3H-imidazo[4,5-F]quinoline (IQ) induced mutagenicity in the reverse mutation assays with Salmonella typhimurium TA98 and against t-butyl hydroperoxide (t-BOOH), benzo(a)pyrene (BaP) and 2-amino-1-methyl-6-phenylimidazo[4,5-b]pyridine (PhIP) induced DNA damage in HepG2 cells were studied, applying the comet assay. The results showed comparable protective effect of AquaROX and VivOX against oxidative DNA damage, whereas protection against indirect active genotoxic carcinogens was more efficient by VivOX.

  5. In vitro synthesis and purification of PhIP-deoxyguanosine and PhIP-DNA oligomer covalent complexes

    SciTech Connect

    Freeman, J.

    1994-12-01

    2-Amino-1-methyl-6-phenylimidazo[4,5-b]pyridine (PhIP) is a heterocyclic amine compound formed when meats are cooked at high temperatures. PhIP damages DNA by forming covalent complexes with DNA carcinogen. In an effort to understand how the binding of PhIP to DNA may cause cancer, it is important to characterize the structures of PhIP-damaged DNA molecules. Our HPLC data support fluorescence and {sup 32}P Post-labeling studies which indicate the formation of several species of 2{prime}deoxyguanosine-(dG) or oligodeoxynucleotide-PhIP adducts. The reaction of PhIP with dG resulted in a reddish precipitate that was likely the major adduct, N-(deoxyguanosin-8-yl)-PhIP (dG-C8-PhIP) adduct, with a more polar adduct fraction remaining in the supernatant. Reversed-phase HPLC analysis of the adducts in the supernatant revealed the existence of species of much shorter retention times than the dG-C8-PhIP adduct, confirming that these species are more polar than dG-C8-PhIP. At least four adducts were formed in the reaction of PhIP with DNA oligomer. HPLC analysis of the PhIP-DNA oligomer supernatant after butanol extractions revealed four unresolved peaks which spectra had maximum wavelengths between 340 and 360 nm. Though adduct peaks were not completely resolved, there was {approximately}3 minutes interval between the DNA oligomer peak and the adduct peaks. Furthermore, fluorescence emission data of the DNA oligomer-PhIP adduct solution show heterogeneous binding. The more polar PhIP adducts were fraction-collected and their structures will be solved by nuclear magnetic resonance or x-ray crystallography.

  6. The protective effect of the flavonoids on food-mutagen-induced DNA damage in peripheral blood lymphocytes from colon cancer patients.

    PubMed

    Kurzawa-Zegota, Malgorzata; Najafzadeh, Mojgan; Baumgartner, Adolf; Anderson, Diana

    2012-02-01

    The food mutagens IQ (2-amino-3-methylimidazo[4,5-f]quinoline) and PhIP (2-amino-1-methyl-6-phenylimidazo[4,5-b]pyridine) are heterocyclic amines (HCA), generated when heating proteinaceous food. This study investigates the protective potential of the flavonoids quercetin (Q) and rutin (R) against oxidative stress induced in vitro by IQ and PhIP in lymphocytes from healthy individuals and untreated, newly diagnosed colon cancer patients using the Comet assay. In the presence of up to 500μM Q and R, the DNA damage resulting from a high dose of PhIP (75μM) or IQ (150μM) was significantly reduced (P<0.001) to levels comparable to six times lower IQ or 7.5 times lower PhIP doses. Lymphocytes from colon cancer patients had greater baseline DNA damage than those from healthy individuals (P<0.01) and this higher level of damage was also observed throughout in vitro treatment. Except for the >50years of age group and male gender, confounding factors such as smoking, drinking and/or dietary habits were not found to be significant. In conclusion, flavonoids reduced oxidative stress caused by food mutagens in vitro in lymphocytes of healthy individuals and colon cancer patients. Thus, dietary supplementation with flavonoid-rich vegetables and fruits may prove very effective in protecting against oxidative stress.

  7. Differential toxicity of heterocyclic aromatic amines and their mixture in metabolically competent HepaRG cells

    SciTech Connect

    Dumont, Julie; Josse, Rozenn; Lambert, Carine; Antherieu, Sebastien; Le Hegarat, Ludovic; Aninat, Caroline; Robin, Marie-Anne; Guguen-Guillouzo, Christiane

    2010-06-01

    Human exposure to heterocyclic aromatic amines (HAA) usually occurs through mixtures rather than individual compounds. However, the toxic effects and related mechanisms of co-exposure to HAA in humans remain unknown. We compared the effects of two of the most common HAA, 2-amino-1-methyl-6-phenylimidazo[4,5-b]pyridine (PhIP) and 2-amino-3,8-dimethylimidazo[4,5-f]quinoxaline (MeIQx), individually or in combination, in the metabolically competent human hepatoma HepaRG cells. Various endpoints were measured including cytotoxicity, apoptosis, oxidative stress and DNA damage by the comet assay. Moreover, the effects of PhIP and/or MeIQx on mRNA expression and activities of enzymes involved in their activation and detoxification pathways were evaluated. After a 24 h treatment, PhIP and MeIQx, individually and in combination, exerted differential effects on apoptosis, oxidative stress, DNA damage and cytochrome P450 (CYP) activities. Only PhIP induced DNA damage. It was also a stronger inducer of CYP1A1 and CYP1B1 expression and activity than MeIQx. In contrast, only MeIQx exposure resulted in a significant induction of CYP1A2 activity. The combination of PhIP with MeIQx induced an oxidative stress and showed synergistic effects on apoptosis. However, PhIP-induced genotoxicity was abolished by a co-exposure with MeIQx. Such an inhibitory effect could be explained by a significant decrease in CYP1A2 activity which is responsible for PhIP genotoxicity. Our findings highlight the need to investigate interactions between HAA when assessing risks for human health and provide new insights in the mechanisms of interaction between PhIP and MeIQx.

  8. Ultraperformance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry method for biomonitoring cooked meat carcinogens and their metabolites in human urine.

    PubMed

    Gu, Dan; Raymundo, Melissa M; Kadlubar, Fred F; Turesky, Robert J

    2011-02-01

    The cooked meat carcinogens 2-amino-1-methyl-6-phenylimidazo[4,5-b]pyridine (PhIP), 2-amino-3,8-dimethylimidazo[4,5-f]quinoxaline (MeIQx), and their principal metabolites produced by cytochrome P450 and/or uridine diphosphate glucuronosyl transferases were simultaneously measured at the parts per trillion level in urine of omnivores, by ultraperformance liquid chromatography (UPLC) with a Michrom Advance CaptiveSpray source and a triple stage quadrupole mass spectrometer. Quantitation was performed in the selected reaction monitoring mode. The UPLC method is much more rapid and sensitive than our earlier capillary HPLC method: the duty cycle of the UPLC method is 19 min compared to 57 min for capillary HPLC. The performance of the UPLC assay was evaluated with urine samples from three subjects over 4 different days. The intraday and interday precisions of the estimates of PhIP, MeIQx, and their metabolites, reported as the coefficients of variation, were ≤10%. The limit of quantification (LOQ) values for PhIP and MeIQx were about 5 pg/mL, whereas the LOQ values of their metabolites ranged from 10 to 40 pg/mL. Furthermore, the identities of the analytes were corroborated by acquisition of full scan product ion spectra, employing between 0.5 and 5 pg of analyte for assay.

  9. Urinary Metabolites of the Dietary Carcinogen PhIP are Predictive of Colon DNA Adducts After a Low Dose Exposure in Humans

    SciTech Connect

    Malfatti, M; Dingley, K; Nowell, S; Ubick, E; Mulakken, N; Nelson, D; Lang, N; Felton, J; Turteltaub, K

    2006-04-28

    Epidemiologic evidence indicates that exposure to heterocyclic amines (HAs) in the diet is an important risk factor for the development of colon cancer. Well-done cooked meats contain significant levels of HAs which have been shown to cause cancer in laboratory animals. To better understand the mechanisms of HA bioactivation in humans, the most mass abundant HA, 2-amino-l-methyl-6-phenylimidazo[4,5-b]pyridine (PhIP), was used to assess the relationship between PhIP metabolism and DNA adduct formation. Ten human volunteers were administered a dietary relevant dose of [{sup 14}C]PhIP 48-72 h prior to surgery to remove colon tumors. Urine was collected for 24 h after dosing for metabolite analysis, and DNA was extracted from colon tissue and analyzed by accelerator mass spectrometry for DNA adducts. All ten subjects were phenotyped for CYP1A2, NAT2, and SULT1A1 enzyme activity. Twelve PhIP metabolites were detected in the urine samples. The most abundant metabolite in all volunteers was N-hydroxy-PhIP-N{sup 2}-glucuronide. Metabolite levels varied significantly between the volunteers. Interindividual differences in colon DNA adducts levels were observed between each individual. The data showed that individuals with a rapid CYP1A2 phenotype and high levels of urinary N-hydroxy-PhIP-N{sup 2}-glucuronide, had the lowest level of colon PhIP-DNA adducts. This suggests that glucuronidation plays a significant role in detoxifying N-hydroxy-PhIP. The levels of urinary N-hydroxy-PhIP-N{sup 2}-glucuronide were negatively correlated to colon DNA adduct levels. Although it is difficult to make definite conclusions from a small data set, the results from this pilot study have encouraged further investigations using a much larger study group.

  10. Effects of marinating on heterocyclic amine carcinogen formation in grilled chicken.

    PubMed

    Salmon, C P; Knize, M G; Felton, J S

    1997-05-01

    This study compared heterocyclic aromatic amines in marinated and unmarinated chicken breast meat flame-broiled on a propane grill. Chicken was marinated prior to grilling and the levels of several heterocyclic amines formed during cooking were determined by solid-phase extraction and HPLC. Compared with unmarinated controls, a 92-99% decrease in 2-amino-1-methyl-6-phenylimidazo[4,5-b]pyridine (PhIP) was observed in whole chicken breast marinated with a mixture of brown sugar, olive oil, cider vinegar, garlic, mustard, lemon juice and salt, then grilled for 10, 20, 30 or 40 min. Conversely, 2-amino-3, 8-dimethylimidazo[4,5-f]quinoxaline (MeIQx) increased over 10-fold with marinating, but only at the 30 and 40 min cooking times. Marinating reduced the total detectable heterocyclic amines from 56 to 1.7 ng/g, from 158 to 10 ng/g and from 330 to 44 ng/g for grilling times of 20, 30 and 40 min, respectively. The mutagenic activity of the sample extracts was also measured, using the Ames/Salmonella assay. Mutagenic activity was lower in marinated samples cooked for 10, 20 and 30 min, but higher in the marinated samples cooked for 40 min, compared with unmarinated controls. Although a change in free amino acids, which are heterocyclic amine precursors, might explain the decrease in PhIP and increase in MeIQx, no such change was detected. Marinating chicken in one ingredient at a time showed that sugar was involved in the increased MeIQx, but the reason for the decrease in PhIP was unclear. PhIP decreased in grilled chicken after marinating with several individual ingredients. This work shows that marinating is one method that can significantly reduce PhIP concentration in grilled chicken. PMID:9216741

  11. Response surface optimization of effects of some processing variables on carcinogenic/mutagenic heterocyclic aromatic amine (HAA) content in cooked patties.

    PubMed

    Dundar, Adnan; Sarıçoban, Cemalettin; Yılmaz, Mustafa Tahsin

    2012-07-01

    A five-factor Central Composite Orthogonal Design was adopted to study simultaneous effects of some processing variables such as NaCl (0-2%), fat (10-30%), ascorbic acid (0-600 ppm), cooking temperature (150-230°C) and cooking time (5-15 min) on physicochemical properties and heterocyclic aromatic amine (HAA) contents of cooked beef patties. The HAAs analyzed were 2-amino-3-methylimidazo[4,5-f]-quinoline (IQ), 2-amino-3,8-dimethylimidazo[4,5-f]-quinoxaline (MeIQx), 2-amino-3,4-dimethylimidazo[4,5-f]-quinoline (MeIQ), 2-amino-3,4,8-trimethylimidazo[4,5-f]-quinoxaline (4,8-DiMeIQx) and 2-amino-1-methyl-6-phenylimidazo[4,5-b]-pyridine (PhIP), as quantified by high-performance liquid chromatography with photo-diode array detection (HPLC-UV/DAD). It was found that ascorbic acid decreased; however, fat, cooking temperature and time levels increased the contents of IQ, MeIQx, MeIQ and PhIP. In addition, estimated ridge analysis was conducted to find values of the processing variables that maximize and minimize the five HAA contents, revealing that the results obtained would be useful for meat industry aiming to decrease HAA content in cooked meat products.

  12. Prevention of heterocyclic amine formation by tea and tea polyphenols.

    PubMed

    Weisburger, J H; Nagao, M; Wakabayashi, K; Oguri, A

    1994-08-15

    Heterocyclic amines (HCAs), formed during the cooking of meats and fish, are thought to be the genotoxic carcinogens associated with important types of human cancer in meat-eating populations, such as cancer of the breast, colon or pancreas. We studied the effect of black or green tea, and of the tea polyphenols theaflavine gallate (TFG, black tea) and epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG, green tea) on the formation of typical HCAs, 2-amino-3,8-dimethylimidazo[4,5-f]quinoxaline (MeIQx), and 2-amino-1-methyl-6-phenylimidazo[4,5-b]pyridine (PhIP), using the model in vitro systems of Jägerstad. Green tea and black tea and solutions of TFG and EGCG lower the formation of PhIP by 62-85% during 1 h heating at 160 degrees C of 1 mmol creatinine, 1 mmol phenylalanine and 0.5 mmol glucose in 3.3 ml diethylene glycol-water (10:1), where the inhibitors replaced 0.3 ml of the water. The production of MeIQx and related HCAs, in the same system but with 1 mmol glycine instead of phenylalanine was likewise reduced, determined by amounts of mutagens formed. In the latter systems, the teas were not, or less effective, but the polyphenols were inhibitory. Thus, the tea products represent another approach to lower the formation of HCAs.

  13. Formation and mitigation of heterocyclic aromatic amines in fried pork.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yan; Yu, Chundi; Mei, Jingbo; Wang, Shuo

    2013-01-01

    Heterocyclic aromatic amines (HAAs) are potent mutagens and carcinogens generated during the heat processing of meat. HAAs, which are abundant in processed meat products, include 2-amino-3,8-dimethylimidazo[4,5-f]quinoxaline (MeIQx), 2-amino-3,4,8-trimethylimidazo[4,5-f]quinoxaline (4,8-DiMeIQx), and 2-amino-1-methyl-6-phenylimidazo [4,5-b] pyridine (PhIP). The content of these three HAAs in fried pork was determined by LC-MS/MS. The effects of frying time and temperature, sample shape, and addition of antioxidants on the generation of HAAs were investigated. The results show that HAAs were produced during frying, and their levels increased with increasing frying time and temperature. Pork patties had the highest concentration of HAAs compared with pork meatballs and pork strips. The addition of antioxidant of bamboo leaves (AOB), liquorice extract, tea polyphenol, phytic acid and sodium iso-ascorbate to pork before frying had an inhibitory effect on HAA generation, with AOB being the most effective antioxidant. Inhibition levels of nearly 69.73% for MeIQx, 53.59% for 4,8-DiMeIQx and 77.07% for PhIP in fried pork were achieved when the concentrations of AOB added were 0.02, 0.01 and 0.10 g kg⁻¹, respectively.

  14. Pleckstrin homology domain-interacting protein (PHIP) as a marker and mediator of melanoma metastasis

    PubMed Central

    De Semir, David; Nosrati, Mehdi; Bezrookove, Vladimir; Dar, Altaf A.; Federman, Scot; Bienvenu, Geraldine; Venna, Suraj; Rangel, Javier; Climent, Joan; Meyer Tamgüney, Tanja M.; Thummala, Suresh; Tong, Schuyler; Leong, Stanley P. L.; Haqq, Chris; Billings, Paul; Miller, James R.; Sagebiel, Richard W.; Debs, Robert; Kashani-Sabet, Mohammed

    2012-01-01

    Although melanomas with mutant v-Raf murine sarcoma viral oncogene homolog B1 (BRAF) can now be effectively targeted, there is no molecular target for most melanomas expressing wild-type BRAF. Here, we show that the activation of Pleckstrin homology domain-interacting protein (PHIP), promotes melanoma metastasis, can be used to classify a subset of primary melanomas, and is a prognostic biomarker for melanoma. Systemic, plasmid-based shRNA targeting of Phip inhibited the metastatic progression of melanoma, whereas stable suppression of Phip in melanoma cell lines suppressed metastatic potential and prolonged the survival of tumor-bearing mice. The human PHIP gene resides on 6q14.1, and although 6q loss has been observed in melanoma, the PHIP locus was preserved in melanoma cell lines and patient samples, and its overexpression was an independent adverse predictor of survival in melanoma patients. In addition, a high proportion of PHIP-overexpressing melanomas harbored increased PHIP copy number. PHIP-overexpressing melanomas include tumors with wild-type BRAF, neuroblastoma RAS viral (v-ras) oncogene homolog, and phosphatase and tensin homolog, demonstrating PHIP activation in triple-negative melanoma. These results describe previously unreported roles for PHIP in predicting and promoting melanoma metastasis, and in the molecular classification of melanoma. PMID:22511720

  15. Pleckstrin homology domain-interacting protein (PHIP) as a marker and mediator of melanoma metastasis.

    PubMed

    De Semir, David; Nosrati, Mehdi; Bezrookove, Vladimir; Dar, Altaf A; Federman, Scot; Bienvenu, Geraldine; Venna, Suraj; Rangel, Javier; Climent, Joan; Meyer Tamgüney, Tanja M; Thummala, Suresh; Tong, Schuyler; Leong, Stanley P L; Haqq, Chris; Billings, Paul; Miller, James R; Sagebiel, Richard W; Debs, Robert; Kashani-Sabet, Mohammed

    2012-05-01

    Although melanomas with mutant v-Raf murine sarcoma viral oncogene homolog B1 (BRAF) can now be effectively targeted, there is no molecular target for most melanomas expressing wild-type BRAF. Here, we show that the activation of Pleckstrin homology domain-interacting protein (PHIP), promotes melanoma metastasis, can be used to classify a subset of primary melanomas, and is a prognostic biomarker for melanoma. Systemic, plasmid-based shRNA targeting of Phip inhibited the metastatic progression of melanoma, whereas stable suppression of Phip in melanoma cell lines suppressed metastatic potential and prolonged the survival of tumor-bearing mice. The human PHIP gene resides on 6q14.1, and although 6q loss has been observed in melanoma, the PHIP locus was preserved in melanoma cell lines and patient samples, and its overexpression was an independent adverse predictor of survival in melanoma patients. In addition, a high proportion of PHIP-overexpressing melanomas harbored increased PHIP copy number. PHIP-overexpressing melanomas include tumors with wild-type BRAF, neuroblastoma RAS viral (v-ras) oncogene homolog, and phosphatase and tensin homolog, demonstrating PHIP activation in triple-negative melanoma. These results describe previously unreported roles for PHIP in predicting and promoting melanoma metastasis, and in the molecular classification of melanoma. PMID:22511720

  16. PSA-Based Screening Outcomes, Dietary Heterocyclic Amine Exposure, and Prostate Cancer Risk in African Americans: Annual Report (Year 1 of 3)

    SciTech Connect

    Bogen, K T

    2006-01-18

    Prostate cancer (PC) is the second leading cause of male U.S. cancer deaths, with African-Americans having the highest rate of PC mortality worldwide, as well as more abnormal results from screening tests that correlate with current or eventual PC. A 3-year prospective clinic-based study is studying the performance of current (PSA and DRE) vs. (% free PSA) clinical biomarkers of PC risk in 400 African-American men 50 to 70 years of age who undergo PC screening in Oakland, CA (East Bay San Francisco area), as well as possible association of PC screening results for these men with their dietary exposures to the cancer-causing heterocyclic amine, 2-amino-1-methyl-6-phenylimidazo[4,5-b]pyridine (PhIP) that forms when meat is cooked. This study expands an ongoing NIH-funded study (by the same research team) to add a new %-free-PSA test, results of which will be compared with PSA/DRE results and PhIP exposures estimated by dietary interviews. For 392 men studied under the NIH protocol, an odds ratio (95% CL) of 32 (3.2, 720) for highly elevated PSA ({ge}20 ng/mL) was observed in the highest 15% vs. the lower 50% of estimated daily PhIP intakes. Approximately 100 additional men have completed participation in the expanded NIH/DOD-supported study. This study will help define the potential value of improved screening and dietary/behavioral intervention to reduce PC risk, namely, prevention of PhIP intake by avoiding overcooked meats.

  17. Predictive Assay For Cancer Targets

    SciTech Connect

    Suess, A; Nguyen, C; Sorensen, K; Montgomery, J; Souza, B; Kulp, K; Dugan, L; Christian, A

    2005-09-19

    Early detection of cancer is a key element in successful treatment of the disease. Understanding the particular type of cancer involved, its origins and probable course, is also important. PhIP (2-amino-1-methyl-6 phenylimidazo [4,5-b]pyridine), a heterocyclic amine produced during the cooking of meat at elevated temperatures, has been shown to induce mammary cancer in female, Sprague-Dawley rats. Tumors induced by PhIP have been shown to contain discreet cytogenetic signature patterns of gains and losses using comparative genomic hybridization (CGH). To determine if a protein signature exists for these tumors, we are analyzing expression levels of the protein products of the above-mentioned tumors in combination with a new bulk protein subtractive assay. This assay produces a panel of antibodies against proteins that are either on or off in the tumor. Hybridization of the antibody panel onto a 2-D gel of tumor or control protein will allow for identification of a distinct protein signature in the tumor. Analysis of several gene databases has identified a number of rat homologs of human cancer genes located in these regions of gain and loss. These genes include the oncogenes c-MYK, ERBB2/NEU, THRA and tumor suppressor genes EGR1 and HDAC3. The listed genes have been shown to be estrogen-responsive, suggesting a possible link between delivery of bio-activated PhIP to the cell nucleus via estrogen receptors and gene-specific PhIP-induced DNA damage, leading to cell transformation. All three tumors showed similar silver staining patterns compared to each other, while they all were different than the control tissue. Subsequent screening of these genes against those from tumors know to be caused by other agents may produce a protein signature unique to PhIP, which can be used as a diagnostic to augment optical and radiation-based detection schemes.

  18. Chronic Exposure to Combined Carcinogens Enhances Breast Cell Carcinogenesis with Mesenchymal and Stem-Like Cell Properties

    PubMed Central

    Pluchino, Lenora Ann; Wang, Hwa-Chain Robert

    2014-01-01

    Breast cancer is the most common type of cancer affecting women in North America and Europe. More than 85% of breast cancers are sporadic and attributable to long-term exposure to small quantities of multiple carcinogens. To understand how multiple carcinogens act together to induce cellular carcinogenesis, we studied the activity of environmental carcinogens 4-(methylnitrosamino)-1-(3-pyridyl)-1-butanone (NNK) and benzo[a]pyrene (B[a]P), and dietary carcinogen 2-amino-1-methyl-6-phenylimidazo[4,5-b]pyridine (PhIP) using our breast cell carcinogenesis model. Our study revealed, for the first time, that combined NNK and B[a]P enhanced breast cell carcinogenesis chronically induced by PhIP in both non-cancerous and cancerous breast cells. Co-exposure was more potent than sequential exposure to combined NNK and B[a]P followed by PhIP in inducing carcinogenesis. Initiation of carcinogenesis was measured by transient endpoints induced in a single exposure, while progression of carcinogenesis was measured by acquisition of constitutive endpoints in cumulative exposures. Transient endpoints included DNA damage, Ras-Erk-Nox pathway activation, reactive oxygen species elevation, and increased cellular proliferation. Constitutive endpoints included various cancer-associated properties and signaling modulators, as well as enrichment of cancer stem-like cell population and activation of the epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition program. Using transient and constitutive endpoints as targets, we detected that a combination of the green tea catechins ECG and EGCG, at non-cytotoxic levels, was more effective than individual agents in intervention of cellular carcinogenesis induced by combined NNK, B[a]P, and PhIP. Thus, use of combined ECG and EGCG should be seriously considered for early intervention of breast cell carcinogenesis associated with long-term exposure to environmental and dietary carcinogens. PMID:25372613

  19. Prognostic Impact of PHIP Copy Number in Melanoma: Linkage to Ulceration

    PubMed Central

    Nosrati, Mehdi; Tong, Schuyler; Wu, Clayton; Thummala, Suresh; Dar, Altaf A.; Leong, Stanley P.L.; Cleaver, James E.; Sagebiel, Richard W.; Miller, James R.; Kashani-Sabet, Mohammed

    2013-01-01

    Ulceration is an important prognostic factor in melanoma whose biologic basis is poorly understood. Here we assessed the prognostic impact of pleckstrin homology domain-interacting protein (PHIP) copy number and its relationship to ulceration. PHIP copy number was determined using fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) in a tissue microarray cohort of 238 melanomas. Elevated PHIP copy number was associated with significantly reduced DMFS (P = 0.01) and DSS (P = 0.009) by Kaplan-Meier analyses. PHIP FISH scores were independently predictive of DMFS (P = 0.03) and DSS (P = 0.03). Increased PHIP copy number was an independent predictor of ulceration status (P = 0.04). The combined impact of increased PHIP copy number and tumor vascularity on ulceration status was highly significant (P< 0.0001). Stable suppression of PHIP in human melanoma cells resulted in significantly reduced glycolytic activity in vitro, with lower expression of LDH5, HIF1A, and VEGF, and was accompanied by reduced microvessel density in vivo. These results provide further support for PHIP as a molecular prognostic marker of melanoma, and reveal a significant linkage between PHIP levels and ulceration. Moreover, they suggest that ulceration may be driven by increased glycolysis and angiogenesis. PMID:24005052

  20. Prognostic impact of PHIP copy number in melanoma: linkage to ulceration.

    PubMed

    Bezrookove, Vladimir; De Semir, David; Nosrati, Mehdi; Tong, Schuyler; Wu, Clayton; Thummala, Suresh; Dar, Altaf A; Leong, Stanley P L; Cleaver, James E; Sagebiel, Richard W; Miller, James R; Kashani-Sabet, Mohammed

    2014-03-01

    Ulceration is an important prognostic factor in melanoma whose biologic basis is poorly understood. Here we assessed the prognostic impact of pleckstrin homology domain-interacting protein (PHIP) copy number and its relationship to ulceration. PHIP copy number was determined using fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) in a tissue microarray cohort of 238 melanomas. Elevated PHIP copy number was associated with significantly reduced distant metastasis-free survival (DMFS; P=0.01) and disease-specific survival (DSS; P=0.009) by Kaplan-Meier analyses. PHIP FISH scores were independently predictive of DMFS (P=0.03) and DSS (P=0.03). Increased PHIP copy number was an independent predictor of ulceration status (P=0.04). The combined impact of increased PHIP copy number and tumor vascularity on ulceration status was highly significant (P<0.0001). Stable suppression of PHIP in human melanoma cells resulted in significantly reduced glycolytic activity in vitro, with lower expression of lactate dehydrogenase 5, hypoxia-inducible factor 1 alpha subunit, and vascular endothelial growth factor, and was accompanied by reduced microvessel density in vivo. These results provide further support for PHIP as a molecular prognostic marker of melanoma, and reveal a significant linkage between PHIP levels and ulceration. Moreover, they suggest that ulceration may be driven by increased glycolysis and angiogenesis. PMID:24005052

  1. Effects of varying degrees of doneness on the formation of heterocyclic aromatic amines in chicken and beef satay.

    PubMed

    Jinap, S; Mohd-Mokhtar, M S; Farhadian, A; Hasnol, N D S; Jaafar, S N; Hajeb, P

    2013-06-01

    The study was carried out to determine the effect of cooking method on Heterocyclic Aromatic Amines (HAs) concentration in grilled chicken and beef (satay). Six common HAs were investigated: 2-amino-3-methylimidazo[4,5-f]quinolone (IQ), 2amino 3,4dimethylimidazo [4,5f]quinoline (MeIQ), 2-amino-3,8-dimethylimidazo[4,5-f]quinoxaline (MeIQx), 2-amino-3,4,8 trimethylimidazo[4,5-f]quinoxaline (4,8-DiMeIQx), 2-amino-3,7,8trimethylimidazo [4,5-f]quinoxaline (7,8-DiMeIQx), and 2-amino-1-methyl-6-phenylimidazo[4,5-b]pyridine (PhIP). Chicken and beef satay samples were grilled to medium and well done level of doneness. Charcoal grilled (treatment A), microwave pre-treatment prior to grilling (treatment B), and microwave-deep fried (treatment C) were applied to beef and chicken satay samples. The satay samples which were microwaved prior to grilling (B) showed significantly (p<0.05) lower HAs concentration as compared to those charcoal grilled (A). Both medium and well done cooked beef and chicken satay samples that were microwaved and deep fried (C) as an alternative method to grilling were proven to produce significantly lesser HAs as compared to charcoal-grilled (A) and microwaved prior to grilling (B).

  2. Heterocyclic amine content in commercial ready to eat meat products.

    PubMed

    Puangsombat, Kanithaporn; Gadgil, Priyadarshini; Houser, Terry A; Hunt, Melvin C; Smith, J Scott

    2011-06-01

    Heterocyclic amines (HCAs) are produced in meats cooked at high temperature, which are potent mutagens and a risk factor for human cancers. The aim of this study was to estimate the amount of HCAs in some commonly consumed ready-to-eat (RTE) meat products. The RTE products were purchased from a local grocery store, and HCA were analyzed using an analytical method based on solid-phase extraction followed by HPLC. The primary HCAs in these samples were PhIP (2-amino-1-methyl-6-phenylimidazo [4,5-b]pyridine) (not detected-7.9 ng/g) and MeIQx (2-amino-3,8-dimethylimidazo [4,5-f]quinoxaline) (not detected-3.6 ng/g). Products ranked in order of increasing total HCA content: pepperoni (0.05 ng/g)

  3. Effects of nobiletin on PhIP-induced prostate and colon carcinogenesis in F344 rats.

    PubMed

    Tang, Ming Xi; Ogawa, Kumiko; Asamoto, Makoto; Chewonarin, Teera; Suzuki, Shugo; Tanaka, Takuji; Shirai, Tomoyuki

    2011-01-01

    The current study was designed to investigate the effects of nobiletin (5,6,7,8,3',4'-hexamethoxy flavone) on 2-amino-1-methyl-6-phenylimidazo[4,5-b]pyridine (PhIP)-induced prostate and colon carcinogenesis. PhIP was administered to 6-wk-old F344 male rats intragastrically (100 mg/kg) twice a wk for 10 wk. The animals were given 0.05% nobiletin or the basal diet for 50 wk. At the end of the experiment, serum testosterone, estrogen, and leptin did not differ between the 2 groups. The body weights of nobiletin-treated rats were significantly higher than controls (P<0.05), and feeding of nobiletin significantly reduced the relative prostate (P<0.05) and testes (P<0.05) weights as well as the Ki67 labeling index in the normal epithelium in the ventral prostate (P<0.01). The incidence and multiplicity of adenocarcinomas in nobiletin-treated ventral prostate were 50% and 36%, respectively, of controls, but the differences were not statistically significant. However, nobiletin did significantly reduce the total number of colonic aberrant crypt foci (ACF) compared to the control value (P<0.05). Nobiletin, therefore, may have potential for chemoprevention of early changes associated with carcinogenesis in both the prostate and colon.

  4. Protection by dietary compounds against mutation in a transgenic rodent.

    PubMed

    de Boer, J G

    2001-11-01

    One of the most relevant biomarkers of genotoxicity and, potentially, carcinogenesis is the occurrence of mutations. Data indicate that carcinogens are highly specific with regard to their target tissue in inducing both tumors and mutations. This specificity may reflect the dependence on tissue-specific metabolic activation, the organ-specific environment or both. Ideally, therefore, mutation should be determined in a real animal rather than in a cell culture system. The lacI transgenic rodent model provides such a system. We have used this model to investigate tissue, species and sex specificity of mutation induced by selected dietary carcinogens and to examine how some compounds may alter the induction of mutation. We have studied mutation using several chemicals, including the dietary heterocyclic amine 2-amino-1-methyl-6-phenylimidazo[4,5-b]pyridine (PhIP), the environmentally important aromatic hydrocarbon benzo[a]pyrene and the food contaminant aflatoxin B1. We have shown that the mutagenic potency of these chemicals can be modulated by other dietary compounds, including green tea and conjugated linoleic acid, and the dioxin 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo[b,e][1,4]dioxin (TCDD). These results demonstrate that the lacI transgenic rodent is a useful model for the study of chemoprevention in vivo.

  5. Preferential induction of the AhR gene battery in HepaRG cells after a single or repeated exposure to heterocyclic aromatic amines

    SciTech Connect

    Dumont, Julie Josse, Rozenn Lambert, Carine Antherieu, Sebastien Laurent, Veronique Loyer, Pascal Robin, Marie-Anne Guillouzo, Andre

    2010-11-15

    2-Amino-1-methyl-6-phenylimidazo[4,5-b]pyridine (PhIP) and 2-amino-3,8-dimethylimidazo[4,5-f]quinoxaline (MeIQx) are two of the most common heterocyclic aromatic amines (HAA) produced during cooking of meat, fish and poultry. Both HAA produce different tumor profiles in rodents and are suspected to be carcinogenic in humans. In order to better understand the molecular basis of HAA toxicity, we have analyzed gene expression profiles in the metabolically competent human HepaRG cells using pangenomic oligonucleotide microarrays, after either a single (24-h) or a repeated (28-day) exposure to 10 {mu}M PhIP or MeIQx. The most responsive genes to both HAA were downstream targets of the arylhydrocarbon receptor (AhR): CYP1A1 and CYP1A2 after both time points and CYP1B1 and ALDH3A1 after 28 days. Accordingly, CYP1A1/1A2 induction in HAA-treated HepaRG cells was prevented by chemical inhibition or small interference RNA-mediated down-regulation of the AhR. Consistently, HAA induced activity of the CYP1A1 promoter, which contains a consensus AhR-related xenobiotic-responsive element (XRE). In addition, several other genes exhibited both time-dependent and compound-specific expression changes with, however, a smaller magnitude than previously reported for the prototypical AhR target genes. These changes concerned genes mainly related to cell growth and proliferation, apoptosis, and cancer. In conclusion, these results identify the AhR gene battery as the preferential target of PhIP and MeIQx in HepaRG cells and further support the hypothesis that intake of HAA in diet might increase human cancer risk.

  6. Inhibition of heterocyclic amine formation in beef patties by ethanolic extracts of rosemary.

    PubMed

    Puangsombat, Kanithaporn; Smith, J Scott

    2010-03-01

    Heterocyclic amines (HCAs) are mutagenic compounds formed during cooking muscle foods at high temperature. Inhibition of HCAs by rosemary extracts were evaluated with beef patties cooked at 191 degrees C (375 degrees F) for 6 min each side and 204 degrees C (400 degrees F) for 5 min each side. Five rosemary extracts extracted with different solvents were used in this study: extract 100W (100% water), 10E (10% ethanol), 20E (20% ethanol), 30E (30% ethanol), and 40E (40% ethanol). The 5 extracts were directly added to beef patties at 3 levels (0.05%, 0.2%, and 0.5%) before cooking and HCA contents were extracted and quantified. All of the patties contained 2-amino-3,8-dimethylimidazo [4,5-f]quinoxaline (MeIQx), and 2-amino-1-methyl-6-phenylimidazo [4,5-b]pyridine (PhIP). There was no statistical difference in the inhibition of HCAs in the 0.05%, 0.2%, and 0.5% rosemary extracts. All rosemary extracts significantly decreased the levels of MeIQx and PhIP at both cooking conditions. When cooking at 204 degrees C (400 degrees F) for 5 min each side, rosemary extracts 10E and 20E were superior to rosemary extracts 100W, 30E, and 40E in inhibiting HCA formation. Rosemary extract 20E showed the greatest inhibition of MeIQx (up to 91.7%) and PhIP (up to 85.3%). The inhibiting effect of rosemary extracts on HCA formation corresponded to their antioxidant activity based on a DPPH scavenging assay. Rosemary extract 10E and 20E contain a mixture of rosmarinic acid, carnosol, and carnosic acid. It is possible that these compounds might act synergistically in inhibiting the formation of HCAs.

  7. Accurate characterization of carcinogenic DNA adducts using MALDI tandem time-of-flight mass spectrometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barnes, Charles A.; Chiu, Norman H. L.

    2009-01-01

    Many chemical carcinogens and their in vivo activated metabolites react readily with genomic DNA, and form covalently bound carcinogen-DNA adducts. Clinically, carcinogen-DNA adducts have been linked to various cancer diseases. Among the current methods for DNA adduct analysis, mass spectroscopic method allows the direct measurement of unlabeled DNA adducts. The goal of this study is to explore the use of matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization tandem time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF/TOF MS) to determine the identity of carcinogen-DNA adducts. Two of the known carcinogenic DNA adducts, namely N-(2'-deoxyguanosin-8-yl)-2-amino-1-methyl-6-phenyl-imidazo [4,5-b] pyridine (dG-C8-PhIP) and N-(2'-deoxyguanosin-8yl)-4-aminobiphenyl (dG-C8-ABP), were selected as our models. In MALDI-TOF MS measurements, the small matrix ion and its cluster ions did not interfere with the measurements of both selected dG adducts. To achieve a higher accuracy for the characterization of selected dG adducts, 1 keV collision energy in MALDI-TOF/TOF MS/MS was used to measure the adducts. In comparison to other MS/MS techniques with lower collision energies, more extensive precursor ion dissociations were observed. The detection of the corresponding fragment ions allowed the identities of guanine, PhIP or ABP, and the position of adduction to be confirmed. Some of the fragment ions of dG-C8-PhIP have not been reported by other MS/MS techniques.

  8. Plant extracts, spices, and essential oils inactivate Escherichia coli O157:H7 and reduce formation of potentially carcinogenic heterocyclic amines in cooked beef patties.

    PubMed

    Rounds, Liliana; Havens, Cody M; Feinstein, Yelena; Friedman, Mendel; Ravishankar, Sadhana

    2012-04-11

    Meats need to be heated to inactivate foodborne pathogens such as Escherichia coli O157:H7. High-temperature treatment used to prepare well-done meats increases the formation of carcinogenic heterocyclic amines (HCAs). We evaluated the ability of plant extracts, spices, and essential oils to simultaneously inactivate E. coli O157:H7 and suppress HCA formation in heated hamburger patties. Ground beef with added antimicrobials was inoculated with E. coli O157:H7 (10(7) CFU/g). Patties were cooked to reach 45 °C at the geometric center, flipped, and cooked for 5 min. Samples were then taken for microbiological and mass spectrometry analysis of HCAs. Some compounds were inhibitory only against E. coli or HCA formation, while some others inhibited both. Addition of 5% olive or apple skin extracts reduced E. coli O157:H7 populations to below the detection limit and by 1.6 log CFU/g, respectively. Similarly, 1% lemongrass oil reduced E. coli O157:H7 to below detection limits, while clove bud oil reduced the pathogen by 1.6 log CFU/g. The major heterocyclic amines 2-amino-3,8-dimethylimidazo[4,5-f]quinoxaline (MeIQx) and 2-amino-1-methyl-6-phenylimidazo[4,5-b]pyridine (PhIP) were concurrently reduced with the addition of olive extract by 79.5% and 84.3% and with apple extract by 76.1% and 82.1%, respectively. Similar results were observed with clove bud oil: MeIQx and PhIP were reduced by 35% and 52.1%, respectively. Addition of onion powder decreased formation of PhIP by 94.3%. These results suggest that edible natural plant compounds have the potential to prevent foodborne infections as well as carcinogenesis in humans consuming heat-processed meat products. PMID:22397498

  9. Biomonitoring of Carcinogenic Heterocyclic Aromatic Amines in Hair: A Validation Study

    PubMed Central

    Bessette, Erin E.; Yasa, Isil; Dunbar, Deborah; Wilkens, Lynne R.; Marchand, Loic Le; Turesky, Robert J.

    2009-01-01

    A facile method was established to measure heterocyclic aromatic amines (HAAs) accumulated in human hair and rodent fur. The samples were digested by base hydrolysis, and the liberated HAAs were isolated by tandem solvent/solid-phase extraction. Quantification was done by liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry, using a triple stage quadrupole mass spectrometer in the selected reaction monitoring mode. In a pilot study of 12 human volunteers, 2-amino-1-methyl-6-phenylimidazo[4,5-b]pyridine (PhIP) was detected in hair of six meat-eaters at levels ranging from 290 to 890 pg/g hair. 2-Amino-3,8-dimethylimidazo[4,5-f]quinoxaline (MeIQx) and 2-amino-9H-pyrido[2,3-b]indole (AαC) were below the limit of quantification (LOQ) (50 pg/g hair) in hair from meat-eaters and six vegetarians. PhIP was detected in the hair from one vegetarian, and at level just above the LOQ (65 pg/g hair), indicating PhIP exposure occurs primarily through meat consumption. The levels of PhIP in hair samples from two meat-eaters varied by less than 24% over a 6-month interval, signifying that the exposure to PhIP and its accumulation in hair are relatively constant over time. In a controlled feeding study, female C57BL/6 mice were given these HAAs in their drinking water for 1 month, at six daily dose concentrations ranging from 0, 0.080 to 800 µg/kg body weight. PhIP was detected in fur of mice at all doses, whereas AαC and MeIQx were detected in fur at dosages ≥0.8 µg AαC/kg body weight and ≥8 µg MeIQx/kg body weight. There was a strong positive relationship between dosage and each of the HAAs accumulated in fur and their DNA adducts formed in liver and colon (p-values <0.0001); however, the levels of HAA in fur did not correlate to the levels of DNA adducts after adjustment of dose. Thus, hair appears to be a promising long-lived biomarker with by which we can assess the exposure to PhIP, a potential human carcinogen. PMID:19588936

  10. Protein adducts of the prostate carcinogen PhIP in children

    SciTech Connect

    Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory

    2004-02-20

    Prostate cancer is the second leading cause of cancer death in men in the United States. few epidemiology studies have indicated that exposure to PhIP, a rodent prostate carcinogen formed in meat during cooking, may be an important risk factor for prostate cancer in humans. Therefore, a highly sensitive biomarker assay is urgently needed to clarify the role of PhIP in prostate cancer. The goal of this project is to develop an assay that can be used to more accurately quantify human exposure to PhIP and potential prostate cancer risk. Our hypothesis is that an Accelerator Mass Spectrometry-based method can be developed to measure protein adducts of PhIP in the blood of humans. This will provide a measure of the internal dose, as well as the capacity for carcinogen bioactivation to a form that can initiate the cancer process. Towards this goal, we have characterized an adduct formed by PhIP in vitro with the amino acid cysteine. This adduct should provide a biomarker of dietary PhIP exposure and potential prostate cancer risk that could be used to identify individuals for prevention and for monitoring the effect chemoprevention strategies.

  11. Predictors of dietary heterocyclic amine intake in three prospective cohorts.

    PubMed

    Byrne, C; Sinha, R; Platz, E A; Giovannucci, E; Colditz, G A; Hunter, D J; Speizer, F E; Willett, W C

    1998-06-01

    Cooking meat creates heterocyclic amines (HCAs) through pyrolysis of amino acids and creatinine. Although recognized as mutagenic, the etiological role of HCA in human cancer is unclear, due to the lack of information on the effect of typical food cooking methods on HCA concentrations and on variation in HCA exposure in populations. We estimated overall daily dietary HCA intake and variation in intake between individuals, using recent data on HCA concentrations in various meats prepared by cooking methods, temperatures, and times common in United States in the 1990s. Random samples of 250 participants from each of three large prospective cohorts were mailed a questionnaire to assess frequency of consumption, cooking method, and typical outside appearance of pan-fried, broiled, and grilled or barbecued chicken, fish, hamburger, and steak; fried, microwaved, and broiled bacon; fried sausage; roast beef; and homemade gravy. The 2-amino-3,8-dimethylimidazo[4,5-f]quinoxaline (MeIQx), 2-amino-1-methyl-6-phenylimidazo[4,5-b]pyridine (PhIP), and 2-amino-3,4,8-trimethylimidazo[4,5,f]quinoxaline (DiMeIQx) concentrations, measured in composite samples by solid-phase extraction and high-performance liquid chromatography, were assigned to each food, cooking method, and doneness level. The dietary reports showed approximately 30-fold relative variation in 2-amino-3,8-dimethylimidazo[4,5-f]quinoxaline intake, 20-fold for 2-amino- -methyl-6-phenylimidazo[4,5-b]pyridine, and over 110-fold for 2-amino-3,4,8-trimethylimidazo[4,5,f]quinoxaline, when the 10th and 90th percentiles of HCA intake were compared (90th/10th percentile value). These reported variations in HCA exposure among participants in these three large cohorts indicates that estimation of HCA intake and determination of association with disease risk are feasible, if additional information on meat cooking methods is obtained.

  12. Dietary tocopherols inhibit PhIP-induced prostate carcinogenesis in CYP1A-humanized mice.

    PubMed

    Chen, Jayson X; Li, Guangxun; Wang, Hong; Liu, Anna; Lee, Mao-Jung; Reuhl, Kenneth; Suh, Nanjoo; Bosland, Maarten C; Yang, Chung S

    2016-02-01

    Tocopherols, the major forms of vitamin E, exist as alpha-tocopherol (α-T), β-T, γ-T and δ-T. The cancer preventive activity of vitamin E is suggested by epidemiological studies, but recent large-scale cancer prevention trials with high dose of α-T yielded disappointing results. Our hypothesis that other forms of tocopherols have higher cancer preventive activities than α-T was tested, herein, in a novel prostate carcinogenesis model induced by 2-amino-1-methyl-6-phenylimidazo [4,5-b] pyridine (PhIP), a dietary carcinogen, in the CYP1A-humanized (hCYP1A) mice. Treatment of hCYP1A mice with PhIP (200 mg/kg b.w., i.g.) induced high percentages of mouse prostatic intraepithelial neoplasia (mPIN), mainly in the dorsolateral glands. Supplementation with a γ-T-rich mixture of tocopherols (γ-TmT, 0.3% in diet) significantly inhibited the development of mPIN lesions and reduced PhIP-induced elevation of 8-oxo-deoxyguanosine, COX-2, nitrotyrosine, Ki-67 and p-AKT, and the loss of PTEN and Nrf2. Further studies with purified δ-T, γ-T or α-T (0.2% in diet) showed that δ-T was more effective than γ-T or α-T in preventing mPIN formations and p-AKT elevation. These results indicate that γ-TmT and δ-T could be effective preventive agents of prostate cancer.

  13. Lactoperoxidase-catalyzed activation of carcinogenic aromatic and heterocyclic amines.

    PubMed

    Gorlewska-Roberts, Katarzyna M; Teitel, Candee H; Lay, Jackson O; Roberts, Dean W; Kadlubar, Fred F

    2004-12-01

    Lactoperoxidase, an enzyme secreted from the human mammary gland, plays a host defensive role through antimicrobial activity. It has been implicated in mutagenic and carcinogenic activation in the human mammary gland. The potential role of heterocyclic and aromatic amines in the etiology of breast cancer led us to examination of the lactoperoxidase-catalyzed activation of the most commonly studied arylamine carcinogens: 2-amino-1-methyl-6-phenylimidazo[4,5-b]-pyridine (PhIP), benzidine, 4-aminobiphenyl (ABP), 2-amino-3-methylimidazo[4,5-f]quinoline (IQ), and 2-amino-3,8-dimethylimidazo[4,5-f]quinoxaline (MeIQx). In vitro activation was performed with lactoperoxidase (partially purified from bovine milk or human milk) in the presence of hydrogen peroxide and calf thymus DNA. Products formed during enzymatic activation were monitored by HPLC with ultraviolet and radiometric detection. Two of these products were characterized as hydrazo and azo derivatives by means of mass spectrometry. The DNA binding level of 3H- and 14C-radiolabeled amines after peroxidase-catalyzed activation was dependent on the hydrogen peroxide concentration, and the highest levels of carcinogen binding to DNA were observed at 100 microM H2O2. Carcinogen activation and the level of binding to DNA were in the order of benzidine > ABP > IQ > MeIQx > PhIP. One of the ABP adducts was identified, and the level at which it is formed was estimated to be six adducts/10(5) nucleotides. The susceptibility of aromatic and heterocyclic amines for lactoperoxidase-catalyzed activation and the binding levels of activated products to DNA suggest a potential role of lactoperoxidase-catalyzed activation of carcinogens in the etiology of breast cancer.

  14. Molecular characterization of cancer reveals interactions between ionizing radiation and chemicals on rat mammary carcinogenesis.

    PubMed

    Imaoka, Tatsuhiko; Nishimura, Mayumi; Doi, Kazutaka; Tani, Shusuke; Ishikawa, Ken-ichi; Yamashita, Satoshi; Ushijima, Toshikazu; Imai, Takashi; Shimada, Yoshiya

    2014-04-01

    Although various mechanisms have been inferred for combinatorial actions of multiple carcinogens, these mechanisms have not been well demonstrated in experimental carcinogenesis models. We evaluated mammary carcinogenesis initiated by combined exposure to various doses of radiation and chemical carcinogens. Female rats at 7 weeks of age were γ-irradiated (0.2-2 Gy) and/or exposed to 1-methyl-1-nitrosourea (MNU) (20 or 40 mg/kg, single intraperitoneal injection) or 2-amino-1-methyl-6-phenylimidazo[4,5-b]pyridine (PhIP) (40 mg/kg/day by gavage for 10 days) and were observed until 50 weeks of age. The incidence of mammary carcinoma increased steadily as a function of radiation dose in the absence of chemicals; mathematical analysis supported an additive increase when radiation was combined with a chemical carcinogen, irrespective of the chemical species and its dose. Hras mutations were characteristic of carcinomas that developed after chemical carcinogen treatments and were overrepresented in carcinomas induced by the combination of radiation and MNU (but not PhIP), indicating an interaction of radiation and MNU at the level of initiation. The expression profiles of seven classifier genes, previously shown to distinguish two classes of rat mammary carcinomas, categorized almost all examined carcinomas that developed after individual or combined treatments with radiation (1 Gy) and chemicals as belonging to a single class; more comprehensive screening using microarrays and a separate test sample set failed to identify differences in gene expression profiles among these carcinomas. These results suggest that a complex, multilevel interaction underlies the combinatorial action of radiation and chemical carcinogens in the experimental model.

  15. Carcinogens formed when Meat is Cooked

    SciTech Connect

    Felton, J S; Salmon, C P; Knize, M G

    2003-05-30

    Diet has been associated with varying cancer rates in human populations for many years, yet the causes of the observed variation in cancer patterns have not been adequately explained (Wynder et al. 1977). Along with the effect of diet on human cancer incidence is the strong evidence that mutations are the initiating events in the cancer process (Vogelstein et al. 1992). Foods, when heated, are a good source of genotoxic carcinogens that very likely are a cause for some of these events(Doll et al. 1981). These carcinogens fall into two chemical classes: heterocyclic aromatic amines (HAA) and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH). There is ample evidence that many of these compounds are complete carcinogens in rodents(El-Bayoumy et al. 1995; Ohgaki et al. 1991). Heterocyclic aromatic amines are among the most potent mutagenic substances ever tested in the Ames/Salmonella mutagenicity test (Wakabayashi et al. 1992). Both classes of carcinogen cause tumors in rodents at multiple sites, (El-Bayoumy et al. 1995; Ohgaki et al. 1991) many of which are common tumor sites in people on a Western diet. An HAA, PhIP (2-amino-1-methyl-6-phenylimidazo[4,5-b]pyridine), and a PAH, B[a]P (benzo[a]pyrene), of comparable carcinogenic potency caused mammary gland tumors in a feeding study in female rats (El-Bayoumy et al. 1995). In addition, PhIP has recently been shown to cause carcinomas in the prostate of the male rat (Shirai et al. 1997). Complementing the rodent cancer studies are numerous human case-control and prospective studies suggesting a relationship between overheated beef, chicken, and lamb, and cancer of the colon, breast, prostate, and stomach (Sinha et al. 1999; Ward et al. 1997; Zheng et al. 1998).

  16. Intake of meat mutagens and risk of prostate cancer in a cohort of U.S. health professionals

    PubMed Central

    Rohrmann, Sabine; Nimptsch, Katharina; Sinha, Rashmi; Willett, Walter C; Giovannucci, Edward L.; Platz, Elizabeth A; Wu, Kana

    2015-01-01

    Background Evidence relating heterocyclic aromatic amines (HCA), associated with high-temperature cooking methods, to prostate cancer risk is inconsistent Methods In a large US cohort study, intakes of 2-amino-1-methyl-6-phenylimidazo[4,5-b]pyridine (PhIP), 2-amino-3,8-dimethylimidazo[4,5-f]quinoxaline (MeIQx) and 2-amino-3,4,8-trimethylimidazo[4,5-f]quinoxaline (DiMeIQx) and a meat-derived mutagenicity index (MDM) were assessed using a cooking method questionnaire administered in 1996. Until 2010, 2,770 prostate cancer cases were observed among 26,030 participants. Results Intake of PhIP from red meat was statistically significantly associated with total prostate cancer risk (top vs. bottom quintile HR=1.18, 95% CI 1.03–1.35), but not other HCAs (MeIQx, 1.12, 0.98–1.27, PhIP from white meat, 1.08, 0.95–1.22, DiMeIQx, 1.09, 0.97–1.21) or MDM (1.13, 1.00–1.28). For high grade (Gleason sum 7 with pattern 4+3 and Gleason sum 8–10, n=483 cases) and advanced cancers (n=281), we only observed positive associations for PhIP from red meat (top vs. bottom quintile: high grade: HR=1.44, 95% CI 1.04–1.98, p-trend=0.03; advanced: HR=1.50, 95% 0.99–2.26; p-trend=0.12), but associations for advanced cancers did not reach statistical significance. Observed associations remained similar after adjustment for total, unprocessed or processed red meat intake. Conclusion Observed positive associations between PhIP intake from red meat and prostate cancer, particularly high-grade and possibly also advanced prostate cancer need to be confirmed in other studies. Impact Results do not provide strong evidence that HCAs increase risk of prostate cancers. PMID:26224797

  17. Regional mutagenicity of heterocyclic amines in the intestine: mutation analysis of the cII gene in lambda/lacZ transgenic mice.

    PubMed

    Itoh, Toshiaki; Kuwahara, Tomomi; Suzuki, Takayoshi; Hayashi, Makoto; Ohnishi, Yoshinari

    2003-08-01

    Transgenic mouse assays have revealed that the mouse intestine, despite its resistance to carcinogenesis, is sensitive to the mutagenicity of some heterocyclic amines (HCAs). Little is known, however, about the level and localization of that sensitivity. We assessed the mutagenicity of four orally administered (20 mg/kg per day for 5 days) HCAs-2-amino-1-methyl-6-phenylimidazo[4,5-b]pyridine (PhIP) hydrochloride, 2-amino-3-methylimidazo[4,5-f]quinoline (IQ), 2-amino-3,4-dimethylimidazo[4,5-f]quinoline (MeIQ), and 3-amino-1-methyl-5H-pyrido[4,3-b]indole (Trp-P-2) acetate-in the intestine of male MutaMice. Two weeks after the last administration, we isolated epithelium from the small intestine, cecum, and colon and analyzed lacZ and cII transgene mutations. PhIP increased the lacZ mutant frequency (MF) in all the samples, and in the small intestine, cII and lacZ MFs were comparable. In the cII gene, G:C to T:A and G:C to C:G transversions were characteristic PhIP-induced mutations (which has also been reported for the rat colon, where PhIP is carcinogenic). In the small intestine, PhIP increased the cII MF to four-fold that of the control, but IQ, MeIQ, and Trp-P-2 did not have a significant mutagenic effect. In the cecum, cII MFs induced by IQ and MeIQ were 1.9 and 2.7 times those in the control, respectively. The MF induced by MeIQ in the colon was 3.1 times the control value. Mutagenic potency was in the order PhIP>MeIQ>IQ; Trp-P-2 did not significantly increase the MF in any tissue. The cecum was the most susceptible organ to HCA mutagenicity. PMID:12948818

  18. Meat-Related Compounds and Colorectal Cancer Risk by Anatomical Subsite

    PubMed Central

    Miller, Paige E.; Lazarus, Philip; Lesko, Samuel M.; Cross, Amanda J.; Sinha, Rashmi; Laio, Jason; Zhu, Jay; Harper, Gregory; Muscat, Joshua E.; Hartman, Terryl J.

    2012-01-01

    Since meat may be involved in the etiology of colorectal cancer, associations between meat-related compounds were examined to elucidate underlying mechanisms in a population-based case-control study. Participants (989 cases/1,033 healthy controls) completed a food frequency questionnaire with a meat-specific module. Multivariable logistic regression was used to examine associations between meat variables and colorectal cancer; polytomous logistic regression was used for subsite-specific analyses. The following significant positive associations were observed for meat-related compounds: 2-amino-3,4,8-trimethylimidazo[4,5-f]quinoxaline (DiMeIQx) and colorectal, distal colon, and rectal tumors; 2-amino-3,8-dimethylimidazo[4,5-f]quinoxaline (MeIQx) and colorectal and colon cancer tumors; nitrites/nitrates and proximal colon cancer; 2-amino-1-methyl-6-phenylimidazo[4,5-b]pyridine (PhIP) and rectal cancer; and benzo[a]pyrene and rectal cancer (P-trends < 0.05 ). For analyses by meat type, cooking method, and doneness preference, positive associations between red processed meat and proximal colon cancer and pan-fried red meat and colorectal cancer were found (P-trends < 0.05). Inverse associations were observed between unprocessed poultry and colorectal, colon, proximal colon, and rectal tumors; grilled/barbequed poultry and proximal colon cancer; and well-done/charred poultry and colorectal, colon, and proximal colon tumors (P-trends < 0.05). HCAs, PAHs, nitrites, and nitrates may be involved in colorectal cancer etiology. Further examination into the unexpected inverse associations between poultry and colorectal cancer is warranted. PMID:23441608

  19. Effect of phenolic compounds from spices consumed in China on heterocyclic amine profiles in roast beef patties by UPLC-MS/MS and multivariate analysis.

    PubMed

    Zeng, Maomao; Li, Yang; He, Zhiyong; Qin, Fang; Chen, Jie

    2016-06-01

    Ultra performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry and multivariate analysis were used to exploit the effect and further synergistic or antagonistic interactions of main phenolic compounds with the same ratios as in spices consumed in China, on the profiles of HAs in roast beef patties. Quantitative levels of harman (1-methyl-9H-pyrido[3,4-b]indole), norharman (9H-pyrido[3,4-b]indole), PhIP (2-amino-1-methyl-6-phenylimidazo[4,5-b]pyridine), DMIP (2-amino-1,6-dimethylimidazo[4,5-b]pyridine), 1,5,6-TMIP (2-amino-1,5,6-trimethylimidazo[4,5-b]pyridine), MeIQx (2-amino-3,8-dimethylimidazo[4,5-f]quinoxaline) and 4,8-DiMeIQx (2-amino-3,4,8-trimethylimidazo[4,5-f]quinoxaline) were detected in all of the beef patties. The formation of most of these seven HAs was significantly (P<0.05) enhanced by phenolic compounds. Mixed and corresponding single phenolic compounds had different effects on HA profiles. DMIP, 1,5,6-TMIP and 4,8-DiMeIQx were investigated as differentiating factors for single compounds, while harman and MeIQx for mixed ones. Moreover, certain combination of phenolic compounds have synergistic on harman, norharman and MeIQx, but antagonistic effects on the formation of DMIP and 4,8-DiMeIQx. The results may shed light on the mechanism for the effects of spices on the formation of HAs.

  20. Dextran sulfate sodium-induced colitis-associated neoplasia: a promising model for the development of chemopreventive interventions.

    PubMed

    Clapper, Margie Lee; Cooper, Harry Stanley; Chang, Wen-Chi Lee

    2007-09-01

    Individuals diagnosed with ulcerative colitis face a significantly increased risk of developing colorectal dysplasia and cancer during their lifetime. To date, little attention has been given to the development of a chemopreventive intervention for this high-risk population. The mouse model of dextran sulfate sodium (DSS) - induced colitis represents an excellent preclinical system in which to both characterize the molecular events required for tumor formation in the presence of inflammation and assess the ability of select agents to inhibit this process. Cyclic administration of DSS in drinking water results in the establishment of chronic colitis and the development of colorectal dysplasias and cancers with pathological features that resemble those of human colitis-associated neoplasia. The incidence and multiplicity of lesions observed varies depending on the mouse strain used (ie, Swiss Webster, C57BL/6J, CBA, ICR) and the dose (0.7%-5.0%) and schedule (1-15 cycles with or without a subsequent recovery period) of DSS. The incidence of neoplasia can be increased and its progression to invasive cancer accelerated significantly by administering DSS in combination with a known colon carcinogen (azoxymethane (AOM), 2-amino-3-methylimidazo[4,5-f]quinoline (IQ), 2-amino-1- methyl-6-phenylimidazo[4,5-b]pyridine (PhIP)) or iron. More recent induction of colitis-associated neoplasia in genetically defined mouse strains has provided new insight into the role of specific genes (ie, adenomatous polyposis coli (Apc), p53, inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), Msh2) in the development of colitis-associated neoplasias. Emerging data from chemopreventive intervention studies document the efficacy of several agents in inhibiting DSS-induced neoplasia and provide great promise that colitis-associated colorectal neoplasia is a preventable disease.

  1. Metabolic activation of N-hydroxy arylamines, N-hydroxy heterocyclic amines and ring-hydroxymethyl polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons by human sulfotransferases

    SciTech Connect

    Chou, H.C.

    1993-01-01

    Arylamines and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are two major classes of chemical carcinogens. N-Hydroxylation of arylamines is regarded to be a necessary process for their mutagenicity and carcinogenicity, while alkyl-hydroxylation is the major metabolic pathway for alkyl-substituted PAHs. Evidence has been presented that sulfation of several N-hydroxy arylamines and hydroxymethyl PAHs is an important pathway leading to the formation of ultimate carcinogens in experiment animals. Sulfation of these chemicals forms putative sulfuric acid ester intermediates that can rearrange to electrophilic nitrenium or carbenium ions capable of forming covalent adducts with important cellular macromolecules. In order to study the metabolic activation by sulfotransferase(s) in various human tissue preparations an in vitro enzymatic assay was established. A metabolic phenotyping method was also developed for thermostable phenolsulfotransferase (TS-PST) in platelet homogenates (correlated with TS-PST activity in other tissues) based on a simple colorimetric assay using 2-naphthol as substrate. By using a PAPS-regenerating system to supply the activated sulfate and calf thymus DNA to trap the reactive metabolites, we found that N-hydroxy derivatives of the carcinogens, 4-aminobiphenyl (4-ABP), 4,4[prime]-methylene-bis(2-chloroaniline) (MOCA), 2-acetylaminofluorene (2-AAF), 2-aminofluorene (2-AF), 2-amino-1-methyl-6-phenylimidazo [4,5-b]pyridine (PhIP), and 2-amino-6-methyldipyrido [1,2-1:3[prime],2[prime]-d]imidazole (Glu-P-1) were metabolically activated by human TS-PST. On the other hand, three methyl-hydroxylated derivatives (7-OH, 12-OH, and 7,12-diOH) of 7, 12-dimethylbenz[a]anthracene (DMBA) were metabolically activated by human steroid sulfotransferase. Human sulfotransferase(s)-mediated activation of 2-amino-3-methylimidazo[4,5-f]quinoline (IQ) or 2-amino-3,8-dimethylimidazo[4,5-f]quinoxaline (MeIQx) was not observed.

  2. Formation of heterocyclic amines during cooking of duck meat.

    PubMed

    Liao, G Z; Wang, G Y; Zhang, Y J; Xu, X L; Zhou, G H

    2012-01-01

    Heterocyclic amines (HAs) are an important class of food mutagens and carcinogens produced in meat cooked at high temperature. In the present study, the effects of various cooking methods: boiling, microwave cooking, charcoal-grilling, roasting, deep-frying and pan-frying on the formation of HAs in duck breast were studied. The various HAs formed during cooking were isolated by solid-phase extraction and analysed by HPLC. Results showed that both the varieties and contents of HAs and the cooking loss of duck breast increase along with increasing cooking temperature and time. Pan-fried duck breasts contained the highest amount of total HAs, followed by charcoal-grilling, deep-frying, roasting, microwave cooking and boiling. 9H-pyrido[3,4-b]indole (norharman) and 1-methyl-9H-pyrido[3,4-b]indole (harman) were detected in all of the cooked duck meat, with levels in the range of 0.1-33 ng g⁻¹. 2-Amino-1-methyl-6-phenylimidazo[4,5-f]pyridine (PhIP) was formed easily in duck meat cooked by pan-frying and charcoal-grilling in the range of 0.9-17.8 ng g⁻¹. 2-Amino-3-methylimidazo[4,5-f]quinoline (IQ) was identified in duck meat cooked by charcoal-grilling and pan-frying, in the range of 0.4-4.2 ng g⁻¹. 2-Amino-3,8-dimethyl-imidazo[4,5-f]quinoxaline (MeIQx) was detected in amounts below 4.5 ng g⁻¹ in duck meat cooked by charcoal-grilling, roasting, deep-frying and pan-frying. The other HAs were detected in amounts below 10 ng g⁻¹. Colour development increased with cooking temperature, but no correlation with HAs' content was observed.

  3. Genetic and Diet-Induced Obesity Increased Intestinal Tumorigenesis in the Double Mutant Mouse Model Multiple Intestinal Neoplasia X Obese via Disturbed Glucose Regulation and Inflammation

    PubMed Central

    Ngo, Ha Thi; Hetland, Ragna Bogen; Nygaard, Unni Cecilie; Steffensen, Inger-Lise

    2015-01-01

    We have studied how spontaneous or carcinogen-induced intestinal tumorigenesis was affected by genetic or diet-induced obesity in C57BL/6J-ApcMin/+ X C57BL/6J-Lepob/+ mice. Obesity was induced by the obese (ob) mutation in the lep gene coding for the hormone leptin, or by a 45% fat diet. The effects of obesity were examined on spontaneous intestinal tumors caused by the multiple intestinal neoplasia (Min) mutation in the adenomatous polyposis coli (Apc) gene and on tumors induced by the dietary carcinogen 2-amino-1-methyl-6-phenylimidazo[4,5-b]pyridine (PhIP). F1 ob/ob (homozygous mutated) mice had increased body weight (bw) and number of spontaneous and PhIP-induced small intestinal tumors (in ApcMin/+ mice), versus ob/wt (heterozygous mutated) and wt/wt mice (homozygous wild-type). A 45% fat diet exacerbated bw and spontaneous tumor numbers versus 10% fat, but not PhIP-induced tumors. Except for bw, ob/wt and wt/wt were not significantly different. The obesity caused hyperglucosemia and insulinemia in ob/ob mice. A 45% fat diet further increased glucose, but not insulin. Inflammation was seen as increased TNFα levels in ob/ob mice. Thus the results implicate disturbed glucose regulation and inflammation as mechanisms involved in the association between obesity and intestinal tumorigenesis. Ob/ob mice had shorter lifespan than ob/wt and wt/wt mice. PMID:26347815

  4. Impact of Precursors Creatine, Creatinine, and Glucose on the Formation of Heterocyclic Aromatic Amines in Grilled Patties of Various Animal Species.

    PubMed

    Gibis, Monika; Weiss, Jochen

    2015-11-01

    The impact of precursors such as creatine, creatinine, and glucose on the formation of mutagenic/carcinogenic heterocyclic amines (HAs) were studied in patties of 9 different animal species equally heat treated with a double-plate contact grill. All grilled patties of the various species (veal, beef, pork, lamb, horse, venison, turkey, chicken, ostrich) contained several HAs such as MeIQx (2-amino-3,8-dimethylimidazo[4,5-f] quinoxaline; 0.5-1.4 ng/g), 4,8-DiMeIQx (2-amino-3,4,8-trimethylimidazo[4,5-f] quinoxaline, 0 to 1.3 ng/g), PhIP (2-amino-1-methyl-6-phenylimidazo[4,5-b] pyridine, 1.2 to 10.5 ng/g), harman (1-methyl-9H-pyrido[3,4-b] indole; 0.5 to 3.2 ng/g), and/or norharman (9H-pyrido[3,4-b]indole 0.5 to 1.9 ng/g). Residual glycogen (glucose) content varied greatly from 0.07 to 1.46 wt% on a dry matter (DM) basis. Total creatin(in)e content in raw meat (1.36 to 2.0 wt% DM) hardly differed between species, except in turkey and ostrich (1.1 wt% DM). Chicken contained, compared to all other species, very low concentrations of glucose (0.07 wt% DM) and the highest levels of nonprotein nitrogen compounds. The free amino acids lysine (r = 0.77, P < 0.001), tyrosine, phenylalanine, proline, isoleucine, and aspartic acid (r = 0.47-0.56, P < 0.05) showed significant correlation to PhIP in chicken. Also a linear correlation was found to exist between PhIP (r = 0.87, P < 0.001) and MeIQx (r = 0.35, P < 0.01), and the molar ratio of creatin(in)e to glucose, respectively. Harman as co-mutagens was linearly correlated to the concentration of glucose (r = 0.65, P < 0.001). By contrast, norharman was not significant correlated to glucose levels. PMID:26445401

  5. The effect of rosemary on the mutagenic activity of heterocyclic amines extracted from common food consumed in Saudi Arabia.

    PubMed

    Awney, Hala A; Sindi, Heba

    2010-03-01

    Meat intake may increase cancer risk as heterocyclic amines (HCAs) are one of the food mutagens produced in meat cooked at high temperature. The consumption of meat in Saudi Arabia is high compared with other developing countries and the incidence of cancer has been increasing during the past 30 years. The present study aimed to quantitatively determine the effect of rosemary on the mutagenic activity and the amount of HCAs formed in beef Shawerma, grilled chicken and fried liver as an attempt to minimize the carcinogenic risk of HCAs formed in these commonly consumed meat dishes. Surprisingly, rosemary extracts (2%, 5%, 10% and 15%) apparently enhanced the total amount of HCAs measured in beef Shawerma, whereas 2-amino-1-methyl-6-phenylimidazo[4,5-b]pyridine (PhIP) was the only mutagenic amine inhibited by 2% rosemary with a reduction up to 61.6% compared with control. In grilled chicken, the total amount of HCAs measured in 2% rosemary samples was reduced seven-fold lower than the control level, whereas PhIp and 3-amino-1,4-dimethyl-5H-pyrido[4,3-b]indole (TrpP1) were inhibited to non-detectable levels. These data demonstrate that 2% rosemary may play an important role in attenuating the production of PhIP in both Shawerma and fried chicken. In fried liver, HCAs were not detected either in the control or in 2% treated samples whereas augmented levels of TrpP1 were measured in 5%, 10% and 15% rosemary. The mutagenic activity of HCAs extracted from all beef Shawerma and grilled chicken treated samples increased over the control sample using Salmonella typhimurium TA100. In fried liver, the mutagenic activity detected in the control sample was higher than treated samples, which suggests that S. typhimurium TA100 might be less sensitive in detecting the mutagenic response of TrpP1 extracted from the real food system. We believe more research is needed to assess the role of antioxidants in the formation of HCAs in order to optimize both safety and quality of our diets.

  6. Fruits and vegetables protect against the genotoxicity of heterocyclic aromatic amines activated by human xenobiotic-metabolizing enzymes expressed in immortal mammalian cells.

    PubMed

    Platt, K L; Edenharder, R; Aderhold, S; Muckel, E; Glatt, H

    2010-12-21

    Heterocyclic aromatic amines (HAAs) can be formed during the cooking of meat and fish at elevated temperatures and are associated with an increased risk for cancer. On the other hand, epidemiological findings suggest that foods rich in fruits and vegetables can protect against cancer. In the present study three teas, two wines, and the juices of 15 fruits and 11 vegetables were investigated for their protective effect against the genotoxic effects of 2-amino-3-methylimidazo[4,5-f]quinoline (IQ) and 2-amino-1-methyl-6-phenylimidazo[4,5-b]pyridine (PhIP). To closely mimic the enzymatic activation of these HAAs in humans, genetically engineered V79 Chinese hamster fibroblasts were employed that express human cytochrome P450-dependent monooxygenase (hCYP) 1A2 (responsible for the first step of enzymatic activation) and human N(O)-acetyltransferase (hNAT) 2*4 or human sulfotransferase (hSULT)1A1*1 (responsible for the second step of enzymatic activation): V79-hCYP1A2-hNAT2*4 for IQ activation and V79-hCYP1A2-hSULT1A1*1 for PhIP activation. HAA genotoxicity was determined by use of the comet assay. Black, green and rooibos tea moderately reduced the genotoxicity of IQ (IC(50)=0.8-0.9%), whereas red and white wine were less active. From the fruit juices, sweet cherry juice exhibited the highest inhibitory effect on IQ genotoxicity (IC(50)=0.17%), followed by juices from kiwi fruit, plum and blueberry (IC(50)=0.48-0.71%). The juices from watermelon, blackberry, strawberry, black currant, and Red delicious apple showed moderate suppression, whereas sour cherry, grapefruit, red currant, and pineapple juices were only weakly active. Granny Smith apple juice and orange juice proved inactive. Of the vegetable juices, strong inhibition of IQ genotoxicity was only seen with spinach and onion juices (IC(50)=0.42-0.54%). Broccoli, cauliflower, beetroot, sweet pepper, tomato, chard, and red-cabbage juices suppressed IQ genotoxicity only moderately, whereas cucumber juice was

  7. Heterocyclic Aromatic Amines in Domestically Prepared Chicken and Fish from Singapore Chinese Households

    SciTech Connect

    Salmon, C P; Knize, M G; Felton, J S; Zhao, B; Seow, A

    2005-05-16

    Chicken and fish samples prepared by 42 Singapore Chinese in their homes were obtained. Researchers were present to collect data on raw meat weight, cooking time, maximum cooking surface temperature, and cooked meat weight. Each participant prepared one pan-fried fish sample and two pan-fried chicken samples, one marinated, one not marinated. The cooked samples were analyzed for five heterocyclic aromatic amine (HAA) mutagens, including MeIQx (2-amino 3,8-dimethylimidazo[4,5-f]quinoxaline); 4,8-DiMeIQx (2-amino-3,4,8-trimethylimidazo[4,5-f]quinoxaline); 7,8-DiMeIQx (2-amino-3,7,8-trimethylimidazo[4,5-f]quinoxaline); PhIP (2-amino-1-methyl-6-phenylimidazo[4,5-b]pyridine), and IFP (2-amino-(1,6-dimethylfuro[3,2-e]imidazo [4,5-b])pyridine). A paired Student's t-test showed that marinated chicken had lower concentrations of PhIP (p<0.05), but higher concentrations of MeIQx (p<0.05) and 4,8-DiMeIQx (p<0.001) than non-marinated chicken, and also that weight loss due to cooking was less in marinated chicken than in non-marinated chicken (p<0.001). Interestingly, the maximum cooking surface temperature was higher for fish than for either marinated or non-marinated chicken (P<0.001), yet fish was lower in 4,8-DiMeIQx per gram than marinated or non-marinated chicken (p<0.001), lower in PhIP than non-marinated chicken (P<0.05), and lost less weight due to cooking than either marinated or non-marinated chicken (P<0.001). Fish was also lower in MeIQx and 7,8-DiMeIQx than marinated chicken (P<0.05). This study provides new information on HAA content in the Singapore Chinese diet.

  8. Analysis of heterocyclic amines and beta-carbolines by liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry in cooked meats commonly consumed in Korea.

    PubMed

    Back, Y M; Lee, J H; Shin, H S; Lee, K G

    2009-03-01

    Heterocyclic amines (HAs), which form in meats during heating and cooking, are recognized as mutagenic and carcinogenic compounds. In this study, 13 HAs and 2 beta-carbolines (BCs) were analyzed in cooked Korean meat products, including griddled bacon, griddled pork loin, boiled pork loin, boiled chicken meat, chicken meat stock, chicken breast for salad and chicken patty. The samples were either cooked in the laboratory or purchased from local fast-food restaurants. The HAs and BCs in the samples were separated using solid-phase extraction and were analyzed by high performance liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (HPLC-MS). The most frequently detected HAs and BCs in the cooked meats were harman (1-methyl-9H pyrido[4,3-b]indole; 990.9 ng g(-1)), norharman (9H-pyrido[4,3-b]indole; 412.7 ng g(-1)) and PhIP (2-amino-1-methyl-6-phenylimidazo[4,5-b]pyridine; 258.2 ng g(-1)). The griddled pork loin and bacon contained higher levels of norharman, harman and PhIP than the other cooked meats. PhIP, which is classified as a Group 2B carcinogen by the International Agency for Research on Cancer, had levels of 258.2 and 168.2 ng g(-1) in the griddled pork loin and griddled bacon, respectively. The griddled bacon was the only sample containing TriMeIQx (2-amino-3,4,7,8-tetramethylimidazo[4,5-f]quinoxaline; 79.9 ng g(-1)). IQ (2-amino-3-methyl imidazo[4,5-f]quinoline), 7,8-DiMeIQx (2-amino-3,7,8-trimethylimidazo[4,5-f]quinoxaline), 4,8-DiMeIQx (2-amino-3,4,8-trimethylimidazo[4,5-f]quinoxaline) and AalphaC (2-amino-9H-pyrido[2,3-b]indole) were detected at trace levels in all samples. PMID:19680902

  9. Impact of Precursors Creatine, Creatinine, and Glucose on the Formation of Heterocyclic Aromatic Amines in Grilled Patties of Various Animal Species.

    PubMed

    Gibis, Monika; Weiss, Jochen

    2015-11-01

    The impact of precursors such as creatine, creatinine, and glucose on the formation of mutagenic/carcinogenic heterocyclic amines (HAs) were studied in patties of 9 different animal species equally heat treated with a double-plate contact grill. All grilled patties of the various species (veal, beef, pork, lamb, horse, venison, turkey, chicken, ostrich) contained several HAs such as MeIQx (2-amino-3,8-dimethylimidazo[4,5-f] quinoxaline; 0.5-1.4 ng/g), 4,8-DiMeIQx (2-amino-3,4,8-trimethylimidazo[4,5-f] quinoxaline, 0 to 1.3 ng/g), PhIP (2-amino-1-methyl-6-phenylimidazo[4,5-b] pyridine, 1.2 to 10.5 ng/g), harman (1-methyl-9H-pyrido[3,4-b] indole; 0.5 to 3.2 ng/g), and/or norharman (9H-pyrido[3,4-b]indole 0.5 to 1.9 ng/g). Residual glycogen (glucose) content varied greatly from 0.07 to 1.46 wt% on a dry matter (DM) basis. Total creatin(in)e content in raw meat (1.36 to 2.0 wt% DM) hardly differed between species, except in turkey and ostrich (1.1 wt% DM). Chicken contained, compared to all other species, very low concentrations of glucose (0.07 wt% DM) and the highest levels of nonprotein nitrogen compounds. The free amino acids lysine (r = 0.77, P < 0.001), tyrosine, phenylalanine, proline, isoleucine, and aspartic acid (r = 0.47-0.56, P < 0.05) showed significant correlation to PhIP in chicken. Also a linear correlation was found to exist between PhIP (r = 0.87, P < 0.001) and MeIQx (r = 0.35, P < 0.01), and the molar ratio of creatin(in)e to glucose, respectively. Harman as co-mutagens was linearly correlated to the concentration of glucose (r = 0.65, P < 0.001). By contrast, norharman was not significant correlated to glucose levels.

  10. Analysis of heterocyclic amines and beta-carbolines by liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry in cooked meats commonly consumed in Korea.

    PubMed

    Back, Y M; Lee, J H; Shin, H S; Lee, K G

    2009-03-01

    Heterocyclic amines (HAs), which form in meats during heating and cooking, are recognized as mutagenic and carcinogenic compounds. In this study, 13 HAs and 2 beta-carbolines (BCs) were analyzed in cooked Korean meat products, including griddled bacon, griddled pork loin, boiled pork loin, boiled chicken meat, chicken meat stock, chicken breast for salad and chicken patty. The samples were either cooked in the laboratory or purchased from local fast-food restaurants. The HAs and BCs in the samples were separated using solid-phase extraction and were analyzed by high performance liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (HPLC-MS). The most frequently detected HAs and BCs in the cooked meats were harman (1-methyl-9H pyrido[4,3-b]indole; 990.9 ng g(-1)), norharman (9H-pyrido[4,3-b]indole; 412.7 ng g(-1)) and PhIP (2-amino-1-methyl-6-phenylimidazo[4,5-b]pyridine; 258.2 ng g(-1)). The griddled pork loin and bacon contained higher levels of norharman, harman and PhIP than the other cooked meats. PhIP, which is classified as a Group 2B carcinogen by the International Agency for Research on Cancer, had levels of 258.2 and 168.2 ng g(-1) in the griddled pork loin and griddled bacon, respectively. The griddled bacon was the only sample containing TriMeIQx (2-amino-3,4,7,8-tetramethylimidazo[4,5-f]quinoxaline; 79.9 ng g(-1)). IQ (2-amino-3-methyl imidazo[4,5-f]quinoline), 7,8-DiMeIQx (2-amino-3,7,8-trimethylimidazo[4,5-f]quinoxaline), 4,8-DiMeIQx (2-amino-3,4,8-trimethylimidazo[4,5-f]quinoxaline) and AalphaC (2-amino-9H-pyrido[2,3-b]indole) were detected at trace levels in all samples.

  11. Improved PHIP polarization using a precision, low noise, voltage controlled current source.

    PubMed

    Agraz, Jose; Grunfeld, Alexander; Cunningham, Karl; Li, Debiao; Wagner, Shawn

    2013-10-01

    Existing para-hydrogen induced polarization (PHIP) instrumentation relies on magnetic fields to hyperpolarize substances. These hyperpolarized substances have enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) signals over 10,000 fold, allowing for MRI at the molecular level. Required magnetic fields are generated by energizing a solenoid coil with current produced by a voltage controlled voltage source (VCVS), also known as a power supply. A VCVS lacks the current regulation necessary to keep magnetic field fluctuations to a minimum, which results in low PHIP polarization. A voltage controlled current source (VCCS) is an electric circuit that generates a steady flow of electrons proportional to an input voltage. A low noise VCCS provides the solenoid current flow regulation necessary to generate a stable static magnetic field (Bo). We discuss the design and implementation of a low noise, high stability, VCCS for magnetic field generation with minimum variations. We show that a precision, low noise, voltage reference driving a metal oxide semiconductor field effect transistor (MOSFET) based current sink, results in the current flow control necessary for generating a low noise and high stability Bo. In addition, this work: (1) compares current stability for ideal VCVS and VCCS models using transfer functions (TF), (2) develops our VCCS design's TF, (3) measures our VCCS design's thermal & 1/f noise, and (4) measures and compares hydroxyethyl-propionate (HEP) polarization obtained using a VCVS and our VCCS. The hyperpolarization of HEP was done using a PHIP instrument developed in our lab. Using our VCCS design, HEP polarization magnitude data show a statistically significant increase in polarization over using a VCVS. Circuit schematic, bill of materials, board layout, TF derivation, and Matlab simulations code are included as supplemental files.

  12. Improved PHIP polarization using a precision, low noise, voltage controlled current source

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Agraz, Jose; Grunfeld, Alexander; Cunningham, Karl; Li, Debiao; Wagner, Shawn

    2013-10-01

    Existing para-hydrogen induced polarization (PHIP) instrumentation relies on magnetic fields to hyperpolarize substances. These hyperpolarized substances have enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) signals over 10,000 fold, allowing for MRI at the molecular level. Required magnetic fields are generated by energizing a solenoid coil with current produced by a voltage controlled voltage source (VCVS), also known as a power supply. A VCVS lacks the current regulation necessary to keep magnetic field fluctuations to a minimum, which results in low PHIP polarization. A voltage controlled current source (VCCS) is an electric circuit that generates a steady flow of electrons proportional to an input voltage. A low noise VCCS provides the solenoid current flow regulation necessary to generate a stable static magnetic field (Bo). We discuss the design and implementation of a low noise, high stability, VCCS for magnetic field generation with minimum variations. We show that a precision, low noise, voltage reference driving a metal oxide semiconductor field effect transistor (MOSFET) based current sink, results in the current flow control necessary for generating a low noise and high stability Bo. In addition, this work: (1) compares current stability for ideal VCVS and VCCS models using transfer functions (TF), (2) develops our VCCS design's TF, (3) measures our VCCS design's thermal & 1/f noise, and (4) measures and compares hydroxyethyl-propionate (HEP) polarization obtained using a VCVS and our VCCS. The hyperpolarization of HEP was done using a PHIP instrument developed in our lab. Using our VCCS design, HEP polarization magnitude data show a statistically significant increase in polarization over using a VCVS. Circuit schematic, bill of materials, board layout, TF derivation, and Matlab simulations code are included as supplemental files.

  13. Improved PHIP polarization using a precision, low noise, voltage controlled current source.

    PubMed

    Agraz, Jose; Grunfeld, Alexander; Cunningham, Karl; Li, Debiao; Wagner, Shawn

    2013-10-01

    Existing para-hydrogen induced polarization (PHIP) instrumentation relies on magnetic fields to hyperpolarize substances. These hyperpolarized substances have enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) signals over 10,000 fold, allowing for MRI at the molecular level. Required magnetic fields are generated by energizing a solenoid coil with current produced by a voltage controlled voltage source (VCVS), also known as a power supply. A VCVS lacks the current regulation necessary to keep magnetic field fluctuations to a minimum, which results in low PHIP polarization. A voltage controlled current source (VCCS) is an electric circuit that generates a steady flow of electrons proportional to an input voltage. A low noise VCCS provides the solenoid current flow regulation necessary to generate a stable static magnetic field (Bo). We discuss the design and implementation of a low noise, high stability, VCCS for magnetic field generation with minimum variations. We show that a precision, low noise, voltage reference driving a metal oxide semiconductor field effect transistor (MOSFET) based current sink, results in the current flow control necessary for generating a low noise and high stability Bo. In addition, this work: (1) compares current stability for ideal VCVS and VCCS models using transfer functions (TF), (2) develops our VCCS design's TF, (3) measures our VCCS design's thermal & 1/f noise, and (4) measures and compares hydroxyethyl-propionate (HEP) polarization obtained using a VCVS and our VCCS. The hyperpolarization of HEP was done using a PHIP instrument developed in our lab. Using our VCCS design, HEP polarization magnitude data show a statistically significant increase in polarization over using a VCVS. Circuit schematic, bill of materials, board layout, TF derivation, and Matlab simulations code are included as supplemental files. PMID:23988431

  14. Inhibition of PhIP mutagenicity by catechins, and by theaflavins and gallate esters.

    PubMed

    Apostolides, Z; Balentine, D A; Harbowy, M E; Hara, Y; Weisburger, J H

    1997-03-17

    Aqueous solutions of gallic acid, methyl gallate, catechins, theaflavins and tannic acid were tested for inhibition of the mutagenicity of PhIP in the Salmonella typhimurium TA98 assay with an S9 fraction from the liver of rats induced with alpha-naphthoflavone and phenobarbital. The IC50S were in the 80-250 microM range for the gallated catechins, theaflavins and tannic acid. No inhibition could be found with these compounds when a direct acting mutagen was used. This indicates that the anti-mutagenic properties of these phenolic compounds may be due to their inhibition of the cytochrome P-450 enzymes.

  15. PHIPS-HALO: the airborne Particle Habit Imaging and Polar Scattering probe - Part 1: Design and operation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abdelmonem, Ahmed; Järvinen, Emma; Duft, Denis; Hirst, Edwin; Vogt, Steffen; Leisner, Thomas; Schnaiter, Martin

    2016-07-01

    The number and shape of ice crystals present in mixed-phase and ice clouds influence the radiation properties, precipitation occurrence and lifetime of these clouds. Since clouds play a major role in the climate system, influencing the energy budget by scattering sunlight and absorbing heat radiation from the earth, it is necessary to investigate the optical and microphysical properties of cloud particles particularly in situ. The relationship between the microphysics and the single scattering properties of cloud particles is usually obtained by modelling the optical scattering properties from in situ measurements of ice crystal size distributions. The measured size distribution and the assumed particle shape might be erroneous in case of non-spherical ice particles. There is a demand to obtain both information correspondently and simultaneously for individual cloud particles in their natural environment. For evaluating the average scattering phase function as a function of ice particle habit and crystal complexity, in situ measurements are required. To this end we have developed a novel airborne optical sensor (PHIPS-HALO) to measure the optical properties and the corresponding microphysical parameters of individual cloud particles simultaneously. PHIPS-HALO has been tested in the AIDA cloud simulation chamber and deployed in mountain stations as well as research aircraft (HALO and Polar 6). It is a successive version of the laboratory prototype instrument PHIPS-AIDA. In this paper we present the detailed design of PHIPS-HALO, including the detection mechanism, optical design, mechanical construction and aerodynamic characterization.

  16. Reductive detoxification of arylhydroxylamine carcinogens by human NADH cytochrome b5 reductase and cytochrome b5.

    PubMed

    Kurian, Joseph R; Chin, Nathaniel A; Longlais, Brett J; Hayes, Kristie L; Trepanier, Lauren A

    2006-10-01

    Heterocyclic and aromatic amine carcinogens are thought to lead to tumor initiation via the formation of DNA adducts, and bioactivation to arylhydroxylamine metabolites is necessary for reactivity with DNA. Carcinogenic arylhydroxylamine metabolites are cleared by a microsomal, NADH-dependent, oxygen-insensitive reduction pathway in humans, which may be a source of interindividual variability in response to aromatic amine carcinogens. The purpose of this study was to characterize the identity of this reduction pathway in human liver. On the basis of our findings with structurally similar arylhydroxylamine metabolites of therapeutic drugs, we hypothesized that the reductive detoxification of arylhydroxylamine carcinogens was catalyzed by NADH cytochrome b5 reductase (b5R) and cytochrome b5 (cyt b5). We found that reduction of the carcinogenic hydroxylamines of the aromatic amine 4-aminobiphenyl (4-ABP; found in cigarette smoke) and the heterocyclic amine 2-amino-1-methyl-6-phenylimidazo [4,5-b] pyridine (PhIP; found in grilled meats) was indeed catalyzed by a purified system containing only human b5R and cyt b5. Specific activities were 56-346-fold higher in the purified system as compared to human liver microsomes (HLM), with similar Michaelis-Menten constants (K(m) values) in both systems. The stoichiometry for b5R and cyt b5 that yielded the highest activity in the purified system was also similar to that found in native HLM ( approximately 1:8 to 1:10). Polyclonal antisera to either b5R or cyt b5 significantly inhibited N-hydroxy-4-aminobiphenyl (NHOH-4-ABP) reduction by 95 and 89%, respectively, and immunoreactive cyt b5 protein content in individual HLM was significantly correlated with individual reduction of both NHOH-4-ABP and N-hydroxy-PhIP (NHOH-PhIP). Finally, titration of HLM into the purified b5R/cyt b5 system did not enhance the efficiency of reduction activity. We conclude that b5R and cyt b5 are together solely capable of the reduction of

  17. Long interspersed element-1 is differentially regulated by food-borne carcinogens via the aryl hydrocarbon receptor.

    PubMed

    Okudaira, N; Okamura, T; Tamura, M; Iijma, K; Goto, M; Matsunaga, A; Ochiai, M; Nakagama, H; Kano, S; Fujii-Kuriyama, Y; Ishizaka, Y

    2013-10-10

    A single human cell contains more than 5.0 × 10(5) copies of long interspersed element-1 (L1), 80-100 of which are competent for retrotransposition (L1-RTP). Recent observations have revealed the presence of de novo L1 insertions in various tumors, but little is known about its mechanism. Here, we found that 2-amino-1-methyl-6-phenylimidazo[4,5-b]pyridine (PhIP) and 2-amino-3,8-dimethyl-imidazo[4,5-f]quinoxaline (MeIQx), food-borne carcinogens that are present in broiled meats, induced L1-RTP. This induction was dependent on a cellular cascade comprising the aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR), a mitogen-activated protein kinase, and CCAAT/enhancer-binding protein β. Notably, these compounds exhibited differential induction of L1-RTP. MeIQx-induced L1-RTP was dependent on AhR nuclear translocator 1 (ARNT1), a counterpart of AhR required for gene expression in response to environmental pollutants. By contrast, PhIP-induced L1-RTP did not require ARNT1 but was dependent on estrogen receptor α (ERα) and AhR repressor. In vivo studies using transgenic mice harboring the human L1 gene indicated that PhIP-induced L1-RTP was reproducibly detected in the mammary gland, which is a target organ of PhIP-induced carcinoma. Moreover, picomolar levels of each compound induced L1-RTP, which is comparable to the PhIP concentration detected in human breast milk. Data suggest that somatic cells possess machineries that induce L1-RTP in response to the carcinogenic compounds. Together with data showing that micromolar levels of heterocyclic amines (HCAs) were non-genotoxic, our observations indicate that L1-RTP by environmental compounds is a novel type of genomic instability, further suggesting that analysis of L1-RTP by HCAs is a novel approach to clarification of modes of carcinogenesis.

  18. Multiclass Carcinogenic DNA Adduct Quantification in Formalin-Fixed Paraffin-Embedded Tissues by Ultraperformance Liquid Chromatography-Tandem Mass Spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Guo, Jingshu; Yun, Byeong Hwa; Upadhyaya, Pramod; Yao, Lihua; Krishnamachari, Sesha; Rosenquist, Thomas A; Grollman, Arthur P; Turesky, Robert J

    2016-05-01

    DNA adducts are a measure of internal exposure to genotoxicants and an important biomarker for human risk assessment. However, the employment of DNA adducts as biomarkers in human studies is often restricted because fresh-frozen tissues are not available. In contrast, formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded (FFPE) tissues with clinical diagnosis are readily accessible. Recently, our laboratory reported that DNA adducts of aristolochic acid, a carcinogenic component of Aristolochia herbs used in traditional Chinese medicines worldwide, can be recovered quantitatively from FFPE tissues. In this study, we have evaluated the efficacy of our method for retrieval of DNA adducts from archived tissue by measuring DNA adducts derived from four other classes of human carcinogens: polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), aromatic amines, heterocyclic aromatic amines (HAAs), and N-nitroso compounds (NOCs). Deoxyguanosine (dG) adducts of the PAH benzo[a]pyrene (B[a]P), 10-(deoxyguanosin-N(2)-yl)-7,8,9-trihydroxy-7,8,9,10-tetrahydrobenzo[a]pyrene (dG-N(2)-B[a]PDE); the aromatic amine 4-aminobiphenyl (4-ABP), N-(deoxyguanosin-8-yl)-4-aminobiphenyl (dG-C8-4-ABP); the HAA 2-amino-1-methyl-6-phenylimidazo[4,5-b]pyridine (PhIP), N-(deoxyguanosin-8-yl)-PhIP (dG-C8-PhIP); and the dG adducts of the NOC 4-(methylnitrosamino)-1-(3-pyridyl)-1-butanone (NNK), O(6)-methyl-dG (O(6)-Me-dG) and O(6)-pyridyloxobutyl-dG (O(6)-POB-dG), formed in liver, lung, bladder, pancreas, or colon were recovered in comparable yields from fresh-frozen and FFPE preserved tissues of rodents treated with the procarcinogens. Quantification was achieved by ultraperformance liquid chromatography coupled with electrospray ionization ion-trap multistage mass spectrometry (UPLC/ESI-IT-MS(3)). These advancements in the technology of DNA adduct retrieval from FFPE tissue clear the way for use of archived pathology samples in molecular epidemiology studies designed to assess the causal role of exposure to hazardous chemicals

  19. DNA Adduct Formation of 4-Aminobiphenyl and Heterocyclic Aromatic Amines in Human Hepatocytes

    PubMed Central

    Nauwelaers, Gwendoline; Bessette, Erin E.; Gu, Dan; Tang, Yijin; Rageul, Julie; Fessard, Valérie; Yuan, Jian-Min; Yu, Mimi C.; Langouët, Sophie; Turesky, Robert J.

    2011-01-01

    DNA adduct formation of the aromatic amine, 4-aminobiphenyl (4-ABP), a known human carcinogen present in tobacco smoke, and the heterocyclic aromatic amines (HAAs), 2-amino-9H-pyrido[2,3-b]indole (AαC), 2-amino-1-methyl-6-phenylimidazo[4,5-b]pyridine (PhIP), 2-amino-3-methylimidazo[4,5-f]quinoline (IQ), and 2-amino-3,8-dimethylmidazo[4,5-f]quinoxaline (MeIQx), potential human carcinogens, which are also present in tobacco smoke or formed during the high-temperature cooking of meats, was investigated in freshly cultured human hepatocytes. The carcinogens (10 μM) were incubated with hepatocytes derived from eight different donors for time periods up to 24 h. The DNA adducts were quantified by liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization mass spectrometry with a linear quadrupole ion trap mass spectrometer. The principal DNA adducts formed for all of the carcinogens were N-(deoxyguanosin-8-yl) (dG-C8) adducts. The levels of adducts ranged from 3.4 to 140 adducts per 107 DNA bases. The highest level of adduct formation occurred with AαC, followed by 4-ABP, then by PhIP, MeIQx, and IQ. Human hepatocytes formed dG-C8-HAA-adducts at levels that were up to 100-fold greater than the amounts of adducts produced in rat hepatocytes. In contrast to HAA adducts, the levels of dG-C8-4-ABP adduct formation were similar in human and rat hepatocytes. These DNA binding data demonstrate that the rat, an animal model that is used for carcinogenesis bioassays, significantly underestimates the potential hepatic genotoxicity of HAAs in humans. The high level of DNA adducts formed by AαC, a carcinogen produced in tobacco smoke at levels that are up to 100-fold higher than the amounts of 4-ABP, is noteworthy. The possible causal role of AαC in tobacco-associated cancers warrants investigation. PMID:21456541

  20. Cigarette smoke toxicants as substrates and inhibitors for human cytosolic SULTs

    SciTech Connect

    Yasuda, Shin; Idell, Steven; Fu Jian; Carter, Glendora; Snow, Rhodora; Liu, M.-C. . E-mail: ming.liu@uthct.edu

    2007-05-15

    The current study was designed to examine the role of sulfation in the metabolism of cigarette smoke toxicants and clarify whether these toxicants, by serving as substrates for the cytosolic sulfotransferases (SULTs), may interfere with the sulfation of key endogenous compounds. By metabolic labeling, [{sup 35}S]sulfated species were found to be generated and released into the media of HepG2 human hepatoma cells and primary human lung endothelial cells labeled with [{sup 35}S]sulfate in the presence of cigarette smoke extract (CSE). Concomitantly, several [{sup 35}S]sulfated metabolites observed in the medium in the absence of CSE either decreased or disappeared. Eleven previously prepared human cytosolic SULTs were tested for sulfating activity with CSE and known cigarette smoke toxicants as substrates. Activity data revealed SULT1A1, SULT1A2, SULT1A3, and SULT1C2 as major enzymes responsible for their sulfation. To examine their inhibitory effects on the sulfation of 17{beta}-estradiol by SULT1A1, enzymatic assays were performed in the presence of three representative toxicant compounds, namely N-hydroxy-4-aminobiphenyl (N-OH-4-ABP), 4-aminobiphenyl (4-ABP) and 2-amino-1-methyl-6-phenylimidazo[4,5-b]pyridine (PhIP). IC{sub 50} values determined for the sulfation of 17{beta}-estradiol by SULT1A1 were 11.8 {mu}M, 28.2 {mu}M, and 500 {mu}M, respectively, for N-OH-4-ABP, 4-ABP and PhIP. Kinetic analyses indicated that the mechanism underlying the inhibition of 17{beta}-estradiol sulfation by these cigarette smoke toxicants is of a mixed competitive-noncompetitive type. Metabolic labeling experiments clearly showed inhibition of the production of [{sup 35}S]sulfated 17{beta}-estradiol by N-OH-4-ABP in a concentration-dependent manner in HepG2 cells. Taken together, these results suggest that sulfation plays a significant role in the metabolism of cigarette smoke compounds. By serving as substrates for SULTs, cigarette smoke toxicants may interfere with the metabolism

  1. Formation of heterocyclic amines in salami and ham pizza toppings during baking of frozen pizza.

    PubMed

    Gibis, Monika; Weiss, Jochen

    2013-06-01

    Heterocyclic amines (HAs) are formed as Maillard reaction products in the crust of meat products during heating processes. Two typical pizza toppings--salami and cooked ham--were analyzed for the presence of HAs after baking frozen pizzas at top and bottom temperatures of 250 and 230 °C, respectively. After baking pizza slices for 12 min, MeIQx (2-amino-3,4,8-trimethylimidazo[4,5-f]quinoxaline; 0.2 ng/g), 4,8-DiMeIQx (2-amino-3,8-dimethylimidazo[4,5-f]quinoxaline; 0.5 ng/g), PhIP (2-amino-1-methyl-6-phenylimidazo[4,5-b]pyridine; 0.2 ng/g), norharman (4.5 ng/g), and harman (2.5 ng/g) were found in the ham toppings, whereas only the comutagenic norharman (107.4 ng/g) and harman (11.4 ng/g) were found in the salami toppings. The content of MeIQx and 4,8-DiMeIQx in ham increased from 0.3 to 1.8 ng/g and 0.8 to 1.6 ng/g, respectively, when the recommended baking time was increased from 15 min (manufacturer's specification) to 18 min at 230 °C. MeIQx was formed in salami when the heating time was extended to 18 min. Moreover, higher concentrations of PhIP in salami or ham slices were found when baking temperatures were 250 °C rather than 230 °C (baking time of 12 min). However, sensory tests showed that panelists preferred longer-baked pizzas due to an increased crispiness. Thus, results show that a substantial formation of HAs may occur in pizza toppings such as ham and salami, with ham being particularly susceptible when compared to salami. Formation of HAs increases with increasing baking time and temperature. The occurrence of the cupping of ham or salami slices during baking may also increase the formation of HAs.

  2. Obesity promotes PhIP-induced small intestinal carcinogenesis in hCYP1A-db/db mice: involvement of mutations and DNA hypermethylation of Apc.

    PubMed

    Wang, Hong; Liu, Anna; Kuo, Yingyi; Chi, Eric; Yang, Xu; Zhang, Lanjing; Yang, Chung S

    2016-07-01

    Obesity is associated with an increased risk of cancer. To study the promotion of dietary carcinogen-induced gastrointestinal cancer by obesity, we employed 2-amino-1-methyl-6-phenylimidazo[4,5-b]pyridine (PhIP) to induce intestinal tumorigenesis in CYP1A-humanized (hCYP1A) mice, in which mouse Cyp1a1/1a2 was replaced with human CYP1A1/1A2 Obesity was introduced in hCYP1A mice by breeding with Lepr(db/+) mice to establish the genetically induced obese hCYP1A-Lepr(db/db) mice or by feeding hCYP1A mice a high-fat diet. PhIP induced the formation of small intestinal tumors at the ages of weeks 28-40 in obese hCYP1A mice, but not in lean hCYP1A mice. No tumors were found in colon and other gastrointestinal organs in the lean or obese mice. Using immunohistochemistry (IHC), we found strong positive staining of NF-κB p65, pSTAT3 and COX2 as well as elevated levels of nuclear β-catenin (Ctnnb1) in small intestinal tumors, but not in normal tissues. By sequencing Apc and Ctnnb1 genes, we found that most PhIP-induced small intestinal tumors in obese mice carried only a single heterozygous mutation in Apc By bisulfite-sequencing of CpG islands of Apc, we found DNA hypermethylation in a CpG cluster located in its transcription initiation site, which most likely caused the inactivation of the wild-type Apc allele. Our findings demonstrate that PhIP-induced small intestinal carcinogenesis in hCYP1A-db/db mice is promoted by obesity and involves Apc mutation and inactivation by DNA hypermethylation. This experimental result is consistent with the association of obesity and the increased incidence of small intestinal cancer in humans in recent decades. PMID:27207656

  3. A Prospective Analysis of Meat Mutagens and Colorectal Cancer in the Nurses’ Health Study and Health Professionals Follow-up Study

    PubMed Central

    Le, Ngoan Tran; Michels, Fernanda Alessandra Silva; Song, Mingyang; Zhang, Xuehong; Bernstein, Adam M.; Giovannucci, Edward L.; Fuchs, Charles S.; Ogino, Shuji; Chan, Andrew T.; Sinha, Rashmi; Willett, Walter C.; Wu, Kana

    2016-01-01

    Background: Heterocyclic amines (HCAs) in cooked meats may play a role in colorectal cancer (CRC) development. Objectives: We aimed to prospectively examine the association between estimated intakes of HCAs and meat-derived mutagenicity (MDM) in two cohorts of health professionals, the Health Professionals Follow-up Study (HPFS) and the Nurses’ Health Study (NHS). Methods: In 29,615 men and 65,875 women, intake of the HCAs 2-amino-3,8-dimethylimidazo(4,5-j)quinoxaline (MeIQx), 2-amino-1-methyl-6-phenylimidazo(4,5-b)pyridine (PhIP), 2-amino-3,4,8-trimethylimidazo(4,5-f)quinoxaline (DiMeIQx), and MDM was estimated using a 1996 cooking questionnaire, the 1994 food frequency questionnaire, and an online database. Cox proportional hazards models were used to estimate hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) and to adjust for potential confounders. Estimates for both cohorts were pooled using random-effects meta-analysis. Results: Between 1996 and 2010, 418 male and 790 female CRC cases were identified. Meat mutagen intake was not statistically significantly associated with risk of CRC [highest vs. lowest quintile, pooled HR (95% CI) for MeIQx: 1.12 (0.93, 1.34), p for trend 0.23; PhIP: 1.10 (0.90, 1.33), p for trend 0.35; MDM: 1.03 (0.86, 1.24), p for trend 0.75] or subtypes of CRC defined by tumor location (proximal or distal colon, or rectum). When analyzed by source of meat, PhIP from red but not from white meat was nonsignificantly positively associated with CRC and significantly positively associated with proximal cancers [HR (95% CI) per standard deviation increase of log-transformed intake: PhIP red meat: CRC: 1.06 (0.99, 1.12), proximal: 1.11 (1.02, 1.21); PhIP white meat: CRC: 0.99 (0.94, 1.04), proximal: 1.00 (0.93, 1.09)]. Conclusions: Estimated intakes of meat mutagens were not significantly associated with CRC risk over 14 years of follow-up in the NHS and HPFS cohorts. Results for PhIP from red but not from white meat warrant further

  4. Helicobacter pylori infection and antioxidants can modulate the genotoxic effects of heterocyclic amines in gastric mucosa cells.

    PubMed

    Poplawski, Tomasz; Chojnacki, Cezary; Czubatka, Anna; Klupinska, Grazyna; Chojnacki, Jan; Blasiak, Janusz

    2013-08-01

    Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) infection plays an important role in gastric carcinogenesis. This bacterium may induce cancer transformation and change the susceptibility of gastric mucosa cells to various exogenous dietary irritants. The aim of the study was to evaluate the influence of H. pylori infection on the reaction of the stomach cells to a genotoxic effect of heterocyclic amines (HCAs). These well-known mutagens are formed during cooking of protein-rich foods, primarily meat. Taking into account that persons consuming a mixed-western diet are exposed to these compound nearly an entire lifetime and more than half of human population is infected with H. pylori, it is important to assess the combined effect of H. pylori infection and HCAs in the context of DNA damage in gastric mucosa cells, which is a prerequisite to cancer transformation. We employed 2-amino-3-methylimidazo[4,5-f]quinoline (IQ), 2-amino-3,8-dimethyl-imidazo[4,5-f]quinoxaline (MeIQx) and 2-amino-1-methyl-6-phenylimidazo[4,5-b]pyridine (PhIP) because these substances are present in a great amount in cooked and fried meat. Using alkaline comet assay, we showed that the extent of the DNA damage induced by HCAs was significantly higher in H. pylori infected gastric mucosa cells than in non-infected counterparts. We did not observed any difference in the efficiency of repair of DNA lesions induced by HCAs in both type of cells. Vitamin C reduced the genotoxic effects of HCAs in H. pylori infected and non-infected gastric mucosa cells. Melatonin more effectively decreased DNA damage caused by HCAs in H. pylori infected gastric mucosa cells as compared with control. Our results suggest that H. pylori infection may influence the susceptibility of gastric mucosa cells to HCAs and dietary antioxidative substances, including vitamin C and melatonin may inhibit the genotoxic effects of HCAs on gastric mucosa cells and may reduce the risk of carcinogenesis caused by food borne mutagens and H. pylori

  5. Dietary phenolics as anti-mutagens and inhibitors of tobacco-related DNA adduction in the urothelium of smokers.

    PubMed

    Malaveille, C; Hautefeuille, A; Pignatelli, B; Talaska, G; Vineis, P; Bartsch, H

    1996-10-01

    Human urine is known to contain substances that strongly inhibit bacterial mutagenicity of aromatic and heterocyclic amines in vitro. The biological relevance of these anti-mutagens was examined by comparing levels of tobacco-related DNA adducts in exfoliated urothelial cells from smokers with the anti-mutagenic activity in corresponding 24-h urine samples. An inverse relationship was found between the inhibition of 2-amino-1-methyl-6-phenylimidazo[4,5-b]pyridine (PhIP)-mutagenicity by urine extracts in vitro and two DNA adduct measurements: the level of the putatively identified N-(deoxyguanosine-8-yl)-4-aminobiphenyl adduct and the total level of all tobacco-smoke-related carcinogen adducts including those probably derived from PhIP. Urinary anti-mutagenicity in vitro appears thus to be a good indicator of the anti-genotoxicity exerted by substances excreted in urine, that protect the bladder mucosal cells (and possibly other cells) against DNA damage. These substances appear to be dietary phenolics and/or their metabolites because (i) the anti-mutagenic activity of urine extracts (n = 18) was linearly related to their content in phenolics; (ii) the concentration ranges of these substances in urine extracts were similar to those of various plant phenols (quercetin, isorhamnetin and naringenin) for which an inhibitory effect on the liver S9-mediated mutagenicity of PhIP was obtained; (iii) treatment of urines with beta-glucuronidase and arylsulfatase enhanced both anti-mutagenicity and the levels of phenolics in urinary extracts; (iv) urinary extracts inhibited noncompetitively the liver S9-mediated mutagenicity of PhIP as did quercetin, used as a model phenolics. Several structural features of the flavonoids were identified as necessary for the inhibition of PhIP and 2-amino-3,8-dimethylimidazo[4,5-f]quinoxiline mutagenicity. Fractionation by reverse-phase HPLC and subsequent analysis of two urinary extracts, showed the presence of several anti

  6. The Particle Habit Imaging and Polar Scattering probe PHIPS: First Stereo-Imaging and Polar Scattering Function Measurements of Ice Particles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abdelmonem, A.; Schnaiter, M.; Schön, R.; Leisner, T.

    2009-04-01

    Cirrus clouds impact climate by their influence on the water vapour distribution in the upper troposphere. Moreover, they directly affect the radiative balance of the Earth's atmosphere by the scattering of incoming solar radiation and the absorption of outgoing thermal emission. The link between the microphysical properties of ice cloud particles and the radiative forcing of the clouds is not as yet well understood and the influence of the shapes of ice crystals on the radiative budget of cirrus clouds is currently under debate. PHIPS is a new experimental device for the stereo-imaging of individual cloud particles and the simultaneous measurement of the polar scattering function of the same particle. PHIPS uses an automated particle event triggering system that ensures that only those particles are captured which are located in the field of view - depth of field volume of the microscope unit. Efforts were made to improve the resolution power of the microscope unit down to about 3 µm and to facilitate a 3D morphology impression of the ice crystals. This is realised by a stereo-imaging set up composed of two identical microscopes which image the same particle under an angular viewing distance of 30°. The scattering part of PHIPS enables the measurement of the polar light scattering function of cloud particles with an angular resolution of 1° for forward scattering directions (from 1° to 10°) and 8° for side and backscattering directions (from 18° to 170°). For each particle the light scattering pulse per channel is stored either as integrated intensity or as time resolved intensity function which opens a new category of data analysis concerning details of the particle movement. PHIPS is the first step to PHIPS-HALO which is one of the in situ ice particle and water vapour instruments that are currently under development for the new German research aircraft HALO. The instrument was tested in the ice cloud characterisation campaign HALO-02 which was conducted

  7. Human UDP-Glucuronosyltransferase 1A1 is the Primary Enzyme Responsible for the N-glucuronidation of N-hydroxy-PhIP in vitro

    SciTech Connect

    Malfatti, M A; Felton, J S

    2004-04-06

    UDP-Glucuronosyltransferase 1A proteins (UGT1A) catalyze the glucuronidation of many endogenous and xenobiotic compounds including heterocyclic amines and their hydroxylated metabolites (the main topic of this study). Studies have shown that in humans UGT1A mediated glucuronidation is an important pathway in the detoxification of food-borne carcinogenic heterocyclic amines. The biotransformation of 2-amino-1-methyl-6-phenylimidazo[4,5-b]pyridine (PhIP), the most mass abundant heterocyclic amine found in cooked meats, is highly dependent on cytochrome P4501A2 hydroxylation followed by UGT catalyzed glucuronidation of the N-hydroxy-PhIP reactive intermediate. To determine which UGT1A proteins are involved in the glucuronidation of N-hydroxy-PhIP, microsomal preparations from baculovirus infected insect cells that express all of the known functional human UGT1A isozymes (UGT1A1, -1A3, -1A4, -1A6, -1A7, -1A8, -1A9, -1A10) were exposed to N-hydroxy-PhIP and the reaction products were isolated by HPLC. All UGT1A proteins except UGT1A6 showed some degree of activity towards N-hydroxy-PhIP. The formation of both N-hydroxy-PhIP-N{sup 2}-glucuronide and N-hydroxy-PhIP-N3-glucuronide was both time and substrate concentration dependent in all the microsomal incubations that showed appreciable activity. UGT1A1 was the most efficient in converting N-hydroxy-PhIP to both conjugates producing 5 times more of the N{sup 2}-conjugate than UGT1A4, the next active UGT, and 286 times more than UGT1A7, the least active UGT. With an apparent Km of 52 {micro}M and a K{sub cat} of 114 min-1, UGT1A1 was also the most catalytically efficient in forming N-hydroxy-PhIP-N{sup 2}-glucuronide. Catalytic constants for UGT1A4, UGT1A8 and UGT1A9 were 52 min-1, 35 min{sup -1} and 3.7 min{sup -1}, respectively. The catalytic efficiency for N-hydroxy-PhIP-N3-glucuronide formation was 8, 10, and 6 times lower for UGT1A1, -1A4, and -1A8, respectively, when compared to the k{sub cat} values for N

  8. The DNA repair inhibitors hydroxyurea and cytosine arabinoside enhance the sensitivity of the alkaline single-cell gel electrophoresis ('comet') assay in metabolically-competent MCL-5 cells.

    PubMed

    Martin, F L; Cole, K J; Orme, M H; Grover, P L; Phillips, D H; Venitt, S

    1999-09-15

    We have found previously that the metabolically-competent human MCL-5 cell line did not appear to be usefully sensitive to the DNA-damaging effects of several carcinogens, as measured by the alkaline single-cell gel electrophoresis ('comet') assay. We therefore sought to increase its sensitivity by inhibiting DNA repair during exposure to test compounds, using 10 mM hydroxyurea (HU) and 1.8 mM cytosine arabinoside (ara-C), which inhibit DNA resynthesis during nucleotide excision repair. The following compounds were tested, using a 30-min exposure, in the absence or presence of HU/ara-C: 2-amino-3,8-dimethylimidazo[4,5-f]quinoxaline (8-MeIQx), 2-amino-3,4,8-trimethylimidazo[4,5-f]quinoxaline (4, 8-DiMeIQx), 2-amino-3-methylimidazo[4,5-f]quinoline (IQ), 2-amino-9H-pyrido[2,3-b]indole (A[alpha]C), 2-amino-3-methyl-9H-pyrido[2,3-b]indole (MeA[alpha]C), 2-amino-1-methyl-6-phenylimidazo[4,5-b]pyridine (PhIP), benzo[a]pyrene (B[a]P), 3-methylcholanthrene (3-MCA), 7, 12-dimethylbenz[a]anthracene (DMBA), 1-nitropyrene (1-NP), 2-nitrofluorene (2-NF), aniline, o-toluidine, benzene, lindane, bleomycin, cisplatin, N-methyl-N'-nitro-N-nitrosoguanidine (MNNG), sodium chromate, chromic chloride, and diethylstilboestrol (DES). We made the following observations. The background level of comet formation was reasonably constant over several months and was increased only slightly, but significantly, in the presence of the DNA-repair inhibitors. All compounds that induced comet formation did so without appreciable cytotoxicity as assessed by trypan blue exclusion. Of the compounds tested, the heterocyclic amines and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (with the exceptions of PhIP and B[a]P) failed to induce convincing levels of comet formation in the absence of repair inhibitors. In their presence the heterocyclic amines tested induced comet formation (with the exception of 8-MeIQx), with widely differing potencies. 1-NP failed to elicit marked comet formation even in the presence of HU

  9. Synthesis of Naphtho[1',2':4,5]imidazo[1,2-a]pyridines and Imidazo[5,1,2-cd]indolizines Through Pd-Catalyzed Cycloaromatization of 2-Phenylimidazo[1,2-a]pyridines with Alkynes.

    PubMed

    Li, Peiyuan; Zhang, Xinying; Fan, Xuesen

    2015-08-01

    In this paper, palladium-catalyzed oxidative cycloaromatization of 2-phenylimidazo[1,2-a]pyridine (PIP) with internal alkyne is studied. From this reaction, two classes of fused N-heterocycle, naphtho[1',2':4,5]imidazo[1,2-a]pyridine (NIP) and imidazo[5,1,2-cd]indolizine (IID), were formed through dehydrogenative coupling featured with cleavage of the C-H bonds located on different moiety of the PIP substrates. Moreover, when 5-methyl-2-phenylimidazo [1,2-a]pyridine or 2-mesitylimidazo[1,2-a]pyridine was used, either NIP or IID could be obtained as an exclusive product with good efficiency. Intriguingly, Pd(II) showed different action mode in promoting this reaction compared with Rh(III) and led to the formation of NIP with reversed regio-selectivity for the reaction of asymmetrical alkyne. PMID:26168267

  10. Malignant transformation of human colon epithelial cells by benzo[c]phenanthrene dihydrodiolepoxides as well as 2-hydroxyamino-1-methyl-6-phenylimidazo[4,5-b]pyridine

    SciTech Connect

    Herbst, Uta; Fuchs, Judith Iris; Teubner, Wera; Steinberg, Pablo . E-mail: steinber@rz.uni-potsdam.de

    2006-04-15

    Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and heterocyclic aromatic amines (HCAs) ingested with food have repeatedly been suggested to be involved in the malignant transformation of colon epithelial cells. In order to test this hypothesis, HCEC cells (SV40 large T antigen-immortalized human colon epithelial cells) were incubated with a racemic mixture of benzo[c]phenanthrene dihydrodiol epoxides (B[c]PhDE), extremely potent carcinogenic PAH metabolites in vivo, or with 2-hydroxyamino-1-methyl-6-phenylimidazo[4,5-b]pyridine (N-OH-PhIP), the N-hydroxylated metabolite of the most abundant HCA in cooked meat. First, it was shown that HCEC cells express sulfotransferase 1A1, which is needed to metabolize N-OH-PhIP to the corresponding N-sulfonyloxy derivative, the direct precursor molecule of genotoxic nitrenium ions. Thereafter, exponentially growing HCEC cells were exposed five times to 0.1 {mu}g (0.37 nmol) B[c]PhDE/ml for 30 min or 0.72 {mu}g (3 nmol) N-OH-PhIP/ml for 24 h. Chemically treated HCEC cells showed an enhanced saturation density and grew faster than the corresponding solvent-treated cell cultures. After five treatment cycles, HCEC{sup B[c]PhDE} as well as HCEC {sup N-OH-PhIP} cells lost cell-cell contact inhibition and started piling up and forming foci in the culture flasks. Furthermore, HCEC{sup B[c]PhDE} and HCEC {sup N-OH-PhIP} cells were injected i.m. into SCID mice. Within 6 weeks after injection, eight animals out of eight injected with HCEC{sup B[c]PhDE} or HCEC {sup N-OH-PhIP} cells developed tumors at the site of injection, thus demonstrating the high tumorigenic potential of the HCEC{sup B[c]PhDE} and HCEC {sup N-OH-PhIP} cell cultures. Taken together, we show for the first time that the abovementioned active PAH metabolites as well as N-OH-PhIP are indeed able to malignantly transform human colon epithelial cells in vitro.

  11. Synthesis and analgesic activity of 1,3-dihydro-3-(substituted phenyl)imidazo[4,5-b]pyridin-2-ones and 3-(substituted phenyl)-1,2,3-triazolo[4,5-b]pyridines.

    PubMed

    Clark, R L; Pessolano, A A; Shen, T Y; Jacobus, D P; Jones, H; Lotti, V J; Flataker, L M

    1978-09-01

    In a study of nonsteroidal antiinflammatory and analgesic agents, a series of 1,3-dihydro-3-(substituted phenyl)imidazo[4,5-b]pyridin-2-ones-and 3-(substituted phenyl)triazolo[4,5-b]pyridines was prepared. Many of the imidazolones were alkylated on the free nitrogen. In a modified Randall-Selitto analgesic assay, the pain thresholds of both the inflamed and normal foot were elevated. This is not commonly observed with nonsteroidal antiinflammatory agents. The most active compounds were 1,3-dihydro-3[3,4-(methylenedioxy)phenyl]imidazo[4,5-b]pyridin-2-one (I-15) and its N-allyl (I-21) and N-isopropyl (I-121) derivatives. In the triazole series the 3-(2-fluoro- and 2,4-difluorophenyl)triazolo[4,5-b]pyridines (T-1 and T-8) were the best. The imidazole compounds were somewhat superior in analgesic activity to codeine and d-propoxyphene without showing any narcotic characteristics. Some of the compounds also possessed activity against carrageenan-induced foot edema in the rat, so these compounds represent a new class of nonnarcotic analgesic antiinflammatories, capable of producing a greater degree of analgesia than that obtainable with other nonsteroidal antiinflammatory agents.

  12. Effect of microwave pretreatment on heterocyclic aromatic amine mutagens/carcinogens in fried beef patties.

    PubMed

    Felton, J S; Fultz, E; Dolbeare, F A; Knize, M G

    1994-10-01

    To investigate a method to reduce the amount of mutagenic/carcinogenic heterocyclic aromatic amines formed during frying of ground beef, the mutagenic activity in Salmonella strain TA98 was assessed and the amount of known heterocyclic amines was determined by solid-phase extraction and HPLC. The beef patties received microwave treatment for various times before frying. Microwave pretreatment for 0, 1, 1.5, 2 or 3 min before frying at either 200 degrees C or 250 degrees C for 6 min per side reduced heterocyclic aromatic amine precursors (creatine, creatinine, amino acids, glucose), water, and fat up to 30%, in the patties and resulted in a decrease in mutagenic activity up to 95%. The sum of the four heterocyclic aromatic amines shown to be present--2-amino-3,8-dimethylimidazo[4,5-f]-quinoxaline (MeIQx), 2-amino-3-methylimidazo[4,5-f]quinoline (IQ), 2-amino-3,4,8-trimethylimidazo-[4,5-f]quinoxaline (DiMeIQx) and 2-amino-1-methyl-6-phenylimidazo[4,5-b]pyridine (PhIP)--decreased three- to nine-fold compared with control, non-microwaved beef patties fried under identical conditions.

  13. Progesterone acts via progesterone receptors A and B to regulate breast cancer resistance protein expression.

    PubMed

    Vore, Mary; Leggas, Markos

    2008-03-01

    The breast cancer resistance protein (BCRP; ABCG2) is an ATP-dependent efflux multidrug transporter that belongs to the G family of half-transporters that consist of six transmembrane-spanning domains and must homodimerize to form the active membrane transporter. It is expressed in the apical plasma membrane domain of the small intestine, endothelium, and liver, where it has been shown to play an important role in limiting drug absorption and distribution and in enhancing drug clearance, respectively. BCRP is also expressed in the apical membrane of mammary alveolar epithelia, where it mediates efflux of substrates into milk, and in the placental syncytiotro-phoblasts, where it reduces fetal exposure to these substrates. BCRP substrates include numerous drugs (topotecan, nitrofurantoin, cimetidine) as well as food carcinogens (2-amino-1-methyl-6-phenylimidazo[4,5-b]pyridine) and the vitamins riboflavin and folic acid. BCRP expression is regulated by a number of nuclear transcription factors, including the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-gamma and Hif-1. This issue of Molecular Pharmacology includes a study (p. 845) now conclusively demonstrating that progesterone acts via the progesterone A and B receptors to regulate BCRP expression in a placental cell line.

  14. Relative validity of a food frequency questionnaire with a meat-cooking and heterocyclic amine module.

    PubMed

    Cantwell, Marie; Mittl, Beth; Curtin, Jane; Carroll, Ray; Potischman, Nancy; Caporaso, Neil; Sinha, Rashmi

    2004-02-01

    The nutrient and heterocyclic amine (HCA) intake of 165 healthy participants was assessed using a self-administered food frequency questionnaire (FFQ), which included a meat-cooking practices module. A database containing the HCA [2-amino-3,8-dimethylimadazo [4,5-f] quinoxaline (MeIQx) and 2-amino-1-methyl-6-phenylimadazo [4,5-b] pyridine (PhIP)] composition of various types of meat, cooked by different methods and to varying degrees, was developed and validated in conjunction with this module. The relative validity of dietary and HCA intake estimated by the FFQ was investigated using multiple food diaries (3 sets of 4 nonconsecutive day diaries completed over a 3-month period) as the reference method. Crude correlation coefficients of HCA intake assessed by the FFQ and food diaries were 0.43 [95% confidence interval (CI) 0.30-0.55] for MeIQx and 0.22 (95% CI 0.07-0.36) for PhIP intake. Deattenuated correlations were 0.60 (95% CI 0.49-0.69) and 0.36 (95% CI 0.22-0.49), respectively. Absolute MeIQx and PhIP intake was, however, underestimated by the FFQ (21.9 and 78.1 ng/day) compared with the food diaries (34.9 and 263.8 ng/day). The FFQ underestimated total red meat intake, the percentage of consumers, and the median intake of roast/baked and microwaved red meat. PhIP intake was severely underestimated by the FFQ and was most likely because of an underestimation of the percentage of people who cooked chicken using PhIP-producing cooking methods such as broiling and pan-frying. Additionally, the FFQ overestimated the percentage of consumers of baked chicken, a cooking method that produces less PhIP. In conclusion, although the FFQ and meat module underestimated absolute MeIQx and PhIP intake, its ability to rank individuals according to intake was acceptable.

  15. 2-Phenylimidazo[1,2-a]pyridine-containing ligands of the 18-kDa translocator protein (TSPO) behave as agonists and antagonists of steroidogenesis in a mouse leydig tumor cell line.

    PubMed

    Midzak, Andrew; Denora, Nunzio; Laquintana, Valentino; Cutrignelli, Annalisa; Lopedota, Angela; Franco, Massimo; Altomare, Cosimo D; Papadopoulos, Vassilios

    2015-08-30

    Ligands of 18-kDa translocator protein (TSPO) are known for their ability to potently and dose-dependently stimulate steroid biosynthesis in steroidogenic cells. In this study, we investigated a number of 2-phenyl-imidazo[1,2-a]pyridine acetamide derivatives, analogs of alpidem, for their ability to bind TSPO and to affect steroidogenesis in a mouse Leydig tumor cell line. We observed that not only some compounds behaved as agonists, stimulating steroidogenesis (e.g., 3 and 4) with EC50 values (15.9 and 6.99μM) close to that determined for FGIN-1-27 used as positive control (7.24μM), but two compounds, namely 5 and 6, which on the other hand are the most lipophilic ones in the investigated series, behaved as antagonists, by significantly inhibiting steroid production at concentrations at least twenty times lower than the cytotoxic ones. To our surprise, the newly synthesized compound 3, which is a strict analog of alpidem bearing at the para position of the 2-phenyl group a methoxy group instead of chlorine, achieved a ten-fold stimulation of the steroid production (for comparison FGIN-1-27 achieved 1.6-fold stimulation). Within the limits of the examined property space, some unprecedented SARs were unveiled, which can help in understanding the key molecular factors underlying the transition from agonism to antagonism in the steroidogenesis process. Besides the substitution pattern and the physicochemical features (mainly hydrogen bonding potential) of the substituents at the positions C(6) and C(8) of the imidazo[1,2-a]pyridine nucleus, and at the para position of the 2-phenyl group, the structure-activity relationship analysis suggested lipophilicity, whose increase seems to be generally related to steroidogenesis inhibition, and steric hindrance, which appeared as a stimulation-limiting factor, as two main properties to control in the design or optimization of novel imidazo[1,2-a]pyridine-based TSPO ligands endowed with potential in modulating the

  16. Synthesis and Evaluation of Two 18F-Labeled 6-Iodo-2-(4′-N,N-dimethylamino)phenylimidazo[1,2-a]pyridine Derivatives as Prospective Radioligands for β-Amyloid in Alzheimer’s Disease

    PubMed Central

    Cai, Lisheng; Chin, Frederick T.; Pike, Victor W.; Toyama, Hiroshi; Liow, Jeih-San; Zoghbi, Sami S.; Modell, Kendra; Briard, Emmanuelle; Shetty, H. Umesha; Sinclair, Kathryn; Donohue, Sean; Tipre, Dnyanesh; Kung, Mei-Ping; Dagostin, Claudio; Widdowson, David A.; Green, Michael; Gao, Weiyi; Herman, Mary M.; Ichise, Masanori; Innis, Robert B.

    2014-01-01

    This study evaluated 18F-labeled IMPY [6-iodo-2-(4′-N,N-dimethylamino)phenylimidazo[1,2-a]pyridine] derivatives as agents for imaging β-amyloid plaque with positron emission tomography (PET). The precursor for radiolabeling and reference compounds was synthesized in up to five steps from commercially accessible starting materials. One of the two N-methyl groups of IMPY was substituted with either a 3-fluoropropyl (FPM-IMPY) or a 2-fluoroethyl (FEM-IMPY) group. FPM-IMPY and FEM-IMPY were found to have moderate affinity for Aβ- aggregates with Ki = 27 ± 8 and 40 ± 5 nM, respectively. A “one-pot” method for 18F-2-fluoroethylation and 18F-3-fluoropropylation of the precursor was developed. The overall decay-corrected radiochemical yields were 26–51%. In PET experiments with normal mouse, high uptake of activity was obtained in the brain after iv injection of each probe: 6.4% ID/g for [18F]FEM-IMPY at 1.2 min, and 5.7% ID/g for [18F]FPM-IMPY at 0.8 min. These values were similar to those of [123I/125I]IMPY (7.2% ID/g at 2 min). Polar and nonpolar radioactive metabolites were observed in both plasma and brain homogenates after injection of [18F]FEM or [18F]FPM-IMPY. In contrast to the single-exponential washout of [123I/125I]IMPY, the washouts of brain activity for the two fluorinated analogues were biphasic, with an initial rapid phase over 20 min and a subsequent much slower phase. Residual brain activity at 2 h, which may represent polar metabolites trapped in the brain, was 4.5% ID/g for [18F]FEM-IMPY and 2.1% ID/g for [18F]FPM-IMPY. Substantial skull uptake of [18F]fluoride was also clearly observed. With a view to slow the metabolism of [18F]FEM-IMPY, an analogue was prepared with deuteriums substituted for the four ethyl hydrogens. However, D4-[18F]FEM-IMPY showed the same brain uptake and clearance as the protio analogue. Metabolism of the [18F]FEM-IMPY was appreciably slower in rhesus monkey than in mouse. Autoradiography of postmortem brain sections

  17. Modification of N-acetyltransferases and glutathione S-transferases by coffee components: possible relevance for cancer risk.

    PubMed

    Huber, Wolfgang W; Parzefall, Wolfram

    2005-01-01

    Enzymes of xenobiotic metabolism are involved in the activation and detoxification of carcinogens and can play a pivotal role in the susceptibility of individuals toward chemically induced cancer. Differences in such susceptibility are often related to genetically predetermined enzyme polymorphisms but may also be caused by enzyme induction or inhibition through environmental factors or in the frame of chemopreventive intervention. In this context, coffee consumption, as an important lifestyle factor, has been under thorough investigation. Whereas the data on a potential procarcinogenic effect in some organs remained inconclusive, epidemiology has clearly revealed coffee drinkers to be at a lower risk of developing cancers of the colon and the liver and possibly of several other organs. The underlying mechanisms of such chemoprotection, modifications of xenobiotic metabolism in particular, were further investigated in rodent and in vitro models, as a result of which several individual chemoprotectants out of the >1000 constituents of coffee were identified as well as some strongly metabolized individual carcinogens against which they specifically protected. This chapter discusses the chemoprotective effects of several coffee components and whole coffee in association with modifications of the usually protective glutathione-S-transferase (GST) and the more ambivalent N-acetyltransferase (NAT). A key role is played by kahweol and cafestol (K/C), two diterpenic constituents of the unfiltered beverage that were found to reduce mutagenesis/tumorigenesis by strongly metabolized compounds, such as 2-amino-1-methyl-6-phenylimidazo-[4,5-b]pyridine, 7,12-dimethylbenz[a]anthracene, and aflatoxin B(1), and to cause various modifications of xenobiotic metabolism that were overwhelmingly beneficial, including induction of GST and inhibition of NAT. Other coffee components such as polyphenols and K/C-free coffee are also capable of increasing GST and partially of inhibiting NAT

  18. Roles of human sulfotransferases in genotoxicity of carcinogens using genetically engineered umu test strains.

    PubMed

    Oda, Yoshimitsu; Zhang, Yu; Buchinger, Sebastian; Reifferscheid, Georg; Yang, Min

    2012-03-01

    Human sulfotransferase (SULT) 1A1, 1A2, and 1A3 cDNA genes were subcloned separately into the pTrc99A(KM) vector. The generated plasmids were introduced into the Salmonella typhimurium O-acetyltransferase-deficient strain NM6000 (TA1538/1,8-DNP/pSK1002), resulting in the new strains NM7001, NM7002, and NM7003. We compared the sensitivities of these three strains with the parental strain NM7000 against 51 chemicals including aromatic amines, nitroarenes, alkenylbenzenes, estrogens-like chemicals, and other compounds with and without S9 mix by making use of the umu test system that is based on the bacterial SOS induction. 2-Amino-6-methyl-dipyrido[1,2-α:3',2'-d]imidazole, 3-methoxy-4-aminoazobenzene, 3-nitrobenzanthrone, 5-nitroacenaphthene, and 3,9-dinitrofluoranthene caused high genotoxicity in the NM7001 strain. The genotoxic effects of 2-aminofluorene, 2-acetylaminofluorene, 2-amino-1-methyl-6-phenylimidazo[4,5-b]pyridine, 2-nitrofluorene, 1-nitropyrene, and 2-nitropropane were stronger in the NM7002 strain compared with the NM7001 and NM7003 strains. Among the tested benzylic and allylic compounds, 1-hydroxymethylpyrene was detected in the NM7001 strain with the highest sensitivity. Estragole and 1'-hydroxysafrole exhibited strong genotoxicity in the NM7003 strain. The estrogen-like chemicals such as bisphenol A, genistein, p,n-nonylphenol, and 4-hydroxytamoxifen were not detected as genotoxins in any strain used. Collectively, the present results suggest that the generated test strains are valuable tools in order to elucidate the role of SULT enzymes in the bioactivation of chemicals to environmental carcinogens. PMID:22072630

  19. Role of human N-acetyltransferases, NAT1 or NAT2, in genotoxicity of nitroarenes and aromatic amines in Salmonella typhimurium NM6001 and NM6002.

    PubMed

    Oda, Y; Yamazaki, H; Shimada, T

    1999-06-01

    Human NAT1 and NAT2 genes were subcloned into pACYC184 vector and the plasmids thus obtained were introduced into Salmonella typhimurium O-acetyltransferase-deficient strain NM6000 (TA1538/1, 8-DNP/pSK1002), establishing new strains NM6001 and NM6002, respectively. We compared the sensitivities of these two strains with those of NM6000 towards carcinogenic nitroarenes and aromatic amines in the SOS/umu response. The induction of umuC gene expression by these chemicals in the presence and absence of the S9 fraction was assayed by measuring the cellular beta-galactosidase activity expressed by the umuC"lacZ fusion gene in the tester strains. 2-Nitrofluorene and 2-aminofluorene induced umuC gene expression more strongly in the NM6001 strain than in the NM6002 strain. In contrast, induction of umuC gene expression by 1, 8-dinitropyrene, 6-aminochrysene and 2-amino-3,5-dimethylimidazo[4, 5-f]quinoline was weaker in the NM6001 strain than in the NM6002 strain. 1-Nitropyrene, 2-amino-6-methyl-dipyrido[1,2-a:3', 2'-d]imidazole, 3-amino-1,4-dimethyl-5H-pyrido[4,3-b]indole, 3-amino-1-methyl-5H-pyrido[4,3-b]indole, 2-amino-1-methyl-6-phenylimidazo[4,5-b]pyridine and 2-amino-3-methyl-9H-pyrido[2,3-b]indole were found to induce umuC gene expression at similar extents in both strains. These results suggest that the newly developed strains can be employed for the studies on mechanisms of genotoxicity of a variety of nitroarenes and aromatic amines, along with the assessment of cancer risk to humans. PMID:10357791

  20. Prevention of heterocyclic amine-induced DNA damage in colon and liver of rats by different lactobacillus strains.

    PubMed

    Zsivkovits, Markus; Fekadu, Kassie; Sontag, Gerhard; Nabinger, Ursula; Huber, Wolfgang W; Kundi, Michael; Chakraborty, Asima; Foissy, Helmuth; Knasmüller, Siegfried

    2003-12-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the impact of four different lactobacillus (LB) strains, namely Lactobacillus bulgaricus 291, Streptococcus thermophilus F4, S.thermophilus V3 and Bifidobacterium longum BB536, which are used for the production of yogurt, on the DNA-damaging effects of heterocyclic aromatic amines (HCAs). Male F344 rats were treated orally with HCA mixtures containing 2-amino-1-methyl-6-phenylimidazo[4,5-b]pyridine, 2-amino-3,8-dimethylimidazo[4,5-f]quinoxaline, 2-amino-3,4,8-trimethyl-3H-imidazo[4,5-f]quinoxaline, 2-amino-9H-pyrido[2,3-b]indole and 2-amino-3-methyl-3H- imidazo[4,5-f]quinoline, which were representative of the HCA contents found in fried beef ('beef mix') and chicken ('chicken mix'). Suspensions of LB were given by gavage to the animals simultaneously with and at different time periods before administration of the HCAs. Subsequently, the extent of DNA migration was measured in colon and liver cells in single cell gel electrophoresis (SCGE) assays. All four strains caused complete inhibition of DNA damage induced with beef mix after administration of 1 x 1010 LB cells/animal, whereas with chicken mix only marginal (non-significant) effects were seen. The inhibition of beef-induced DNA damage was dose dependent and was still significant when 1 x 107 cells/animal were administered. Kinetics studies showed that the protective effects were still significant when LB was given 12 h before the beef mix. A comparison of the present results with chemical analytical data from in vitro experiments suggests that the strong reduction in DNA migration seen in the animals can be only partly explained by direct binding effects. The results of the present study show that LB are highly protective against the genotoxic effects of HCAs under conditions which are relevant for humans and provide a possible explanation for the reduced colon cancer rates observed in some studies in individuals with either high LB counts in their feces or with

  1. Utility of B-13 Progenitor-Derived Hepatocytes in Hepatotoxicity and Genotoxicity Studies

    PubMed Central

    Probert, Philip M. E.

    2014-01-01

    AR42J-B-13 (B-13) cells form hepatocyte-like (B-13/H) cells in response to glucocorticoid treatment. To establish its utility in toxicity and genotoxicity screening, cytochrome P450 (CYP) induction, susceptibility to toxins, and transporter gene expression were examined. Conversion to B-13/H cells resulted in expression of male-specific CYP2C11 and sensitivity to methapyrilene. B-13/H cells constitutively expressed CYP1A, induced expression in response to an aryl hydrocarbon receptor agonist, and activated benzo[α]pyrene to a DNA-damaging species. Functional CYP1A2 was not expressed due to deletions in the Cyp1a2 gene. A B-13 cell line stably expressing the human CYP1A2 was therefore engineered (B-13−TR/h1A2) and the derived B-13/H cells expressed metabolically functional CYP1A2. Treatment with the cooked food mutagen 2-amino-1-methyl-6-phenylimidazo(4,5-b)pyridine resulted in a dose-dependent increase in DNA damage. B-13/H cells expressed constitutive androstane receptor (CAR) and induced CYP2B1 mRNA levels in response to classical CAR activators. However, translation to functional CYP2B1 protein was low and increased minimally by CAR activator treatment. B-13/H cells expressed high levels of pregnane X-receptor (PXR) and induced CYP3A1 in response to classical PXR activators. CYP3A genes were inducible, functional, and activated aflatoxin B1 to a DNA-damaging species. All 23 major hepatic transporters were induced when B-13 cells were converted to B-13/H cells, although in many cases, levels remained below those present in adult rat liver. However, bile salt export pump, Abcb1b, multidrug resistance-associated protein, and breast cancer resistance protein transporters were functional in B-13/H cells. These data demonstrate that the B-13 cell generates hepatocyte-like cells with functional drug metabolism and transporter activities, which can alone—or in a humanized form—be used to screen for hepatotoxic and genotoxic endpoints in vitro. PMID:24235770

  2. Genotoxicity of three food processing contaminants in transgenic mice expressing human sulfotransferases 1A1 and 1A2 as assessed by the in vivo alkaline single cell gel electrophoresis assay

    PubMed Central

    Høie, Anja Hortemo; Svendsen, Camilla; Brunborg, Gunnar; Glatt, Hansruedi; Alexander, Jan; Meinl, Walter

    2015-01-01

    The food processing contaminants 2‐amino‐1‐methyl‐6‐phenylimidazo[4,5‐b]pyridine (PhIP), 5‐hydroxymethylfurfural (HMF) and 2,5 dimethylfuran (DMF) are potentially both mutagenic and carcinogenic in vitro and/or in vivo, although data on DMF is lacking. The PHIP metabolite N‐hydroxy‐PhIP and HMF are bioactivated by sulfotransferases (SULTs). The substrate specificity and tissue distribution of SULTs differs between species. A single oral dose of PhIP, HMF or DMF was administered to wild‐type (wt) mice and mice expressing human SULT1A1/1A2 (hSULT mice). DNA damage was studied using the in vivo alkaline single cell gel electrophoresis (SCGE) assay. No effects were detected in wt mice. In the hSULT mice, PhIP and HMF exposure increased the levels of DNA damage in the liver and kidney, respectively. DMF was not found to be genotoxic. The observation of increased DNA damage in hSULT mice compared with wt mice supports the role of human SULTs in the bioactivation of N‐hydroxy‐PhIP and HMF in vivo. Environ. Mol. Mutagen. 56:709–714, 2015. © 2015 The Authors. Environmental and Molecular Mutagenesis Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:26270892

  3. The Caffeine Cytochrome P450 1A2 Metabolic Phenotype Does Not Predict the Metabolism of Heterocyclic Aromatic Amines in Humans

    PubMed Central

    Turesky, Robert J.; White, Kami K.; Wilkens, Lynne R.; Marchand, Loïc Le

    2015-01-01

    2-Amino-1-methylimidazo[4,5-b]pyridine (PhIP) and 2-amino-3,8-dimethylimidazo[4,5-f]quinoxaline (MeIQx) are carcinogenic heterocyclic aromatic amines (HAAs) formed in well-done cooked meats. Chemicals that induce cytochrome P450 (P450) 1A2, a major enzyme involved in the bioactivation of HAAs, also form in cooked meat. Therefore, well-done cooked meat may pose an increase in cancer risk because it contains both inducers of P450 1A2 and procarcinogenic HAAs. We examined the influence of components in meat to modulate P450 1A2 activity and the metabolism of PhIP and MeIQx in volunteers during a 4 week feeding study of well-done cooked beef. The mean P450 1A2 activity, assessed by caffeine metabolic phenotyping, ranged from 6.3 to 7.1 before the feeding study commenced and from 9.6 to 10.4 during the meat feeding period: the difference in means was significant (P < 0.001). Unaltered PhIP, MeIQx, and their P450 1A2 metabolites, N2-(β-1-glucosiduronyl-2-(hydroxyamino)-1-methyl-6-phenylimidazo[4,5-b]pyridine (HON-PhIP-N2-Gl); N3-(β-1-glucosiduronyl-2-(hydroxyamino)-1-methyl-6-phenylimidazo[4,5-b]pyridine (HON-PhIP-N3-Gl); 2-amino-3-methylimidazo-[4,5-f]quinoxaline-8-carboxylic acid (IQx-8-COOH); and 2-amino-8-(hydroxymethyl)-3-methylimidazo[4,5-f]quinoxaline (8-CH2OH-IQx) were measured in urine during days 2, 14, and 28 days of the meat diet. Significant correlations were observed on these days between the levels of the unaltered HAAs and their oxidized metabolites, when expressed as percent of dose ingested or as metabolic ratios. However, there was no statistically significant correlation between the caffeine P450 1A2 phenotype and any urinary HAA biomarker. Although the P450 1A2 activity varied by greater than 20-fold among the subjects, there was a large intra-individual variation of the P450 1A2 phenotype and inconsistent responses to inducers of P450 1A2. The coefficient of variation of the P450 1A2 phenotype within-individual ranged between 1 to 112% (median=40

  4. Mutagenic activity of heterocyclic amines in cooked foods

    SciTech Connect

    Felton, J.S.; Knize, M.G.; Dolbeare, F.A.

    1993-01-19

    Mutagenic heterocyclic amines are generated in foods when they are cooked at temperatures over 150[degrees]C. These compounds are present from 0.1 to 50 ppb depending on the food and the cooking conditions. These heterocyclic amines are not only present in cooked red meat, fish, chicken, and in baked and fried foods derived from grain. Mutagenicity of fried beef hamburgers cooked at 230[degrees]C is 800 [plus minus] 37 TA98 revertants per gram cooked weight. We measured 2-amino-3,8-dimethylimidazo(4,5-flquinoxaline (MelQx), 2-amino-3,4,8-trimethylimidazo[4,5-flquinoxaline (DiMeIQx), and 2-amino-3-methylimidazo[4,5-flquinoline (IQ) formation at this temperature and found 3.0 [plus minus] 2.0,1.0 [plus minus] 0.18, and 0.06 [plus minus] 0.03 ng/g, respectively. 2-amino-l-methyl-6-phenylimidazo[4,5-b]pyridine (PhIP) was found at a higher concentration of 9.6 ng/g. We have shown these heterocyclic amines are capable of producing both reverse and forward mutations in Salmonella bacteria and forward mutations in Chinese Hamster Cells.

  5. Mutagenic activity of heterocyclic amines in cooked foods

    SciTech Connect

    Felton, J.S.; Knize, M.G.; Dolbeare, F.A.

    1993-01-19

    Mutagenic heterocyclic amines are generated in foods when they are cooked at temperatures over 150{degrees}C. These compounds are present from 0.1 to 50 ppb depending on the food and the cooking conditions. These heterocyclic amines are not only present in cooked red meat, fish, chicken, and in baked and fried foods derived from grain. Mutagenicity of fried beef hamburgers cooked at 230{degrees}C is 800 {plus_minus} 37 TA98 revertants per gram cooked weight. We measured 2-amino-3,8-dimethylimidazo(4,5-flquinoxaline (MelQx), 2-amino-3,4,8-trimethylimidazo[4,5-flquinoxaline (DiMeIQx), and 2-amino-3-methylimidazo[4,5-flquinoline (IQ) formation at this temperature and found 3.0 {plus_minus} 2.0,1.0 {plus_minus} 0.18, and 0.06 {plus_minus} 0.03 ng/g, respectively. 2-amino-l-methyl-6-phenylimidazo[4,5-b]pyridine (PhIP) was found at a higher concentration of 9.6 ng/g. We have shown these heterocyclic amines are capable of producing both reverse and forward mutations in Salmonella bacteria and forward mutations in Chinese Hamster Cells.

  6. Ruthenium(II) Complexes with 2-Phenylimidazo[4,5-f][1,10]phenanthroline Derivatives that Strongly Combat Cisplatin-Resistant Tumor Cells

    PubMed Central

    Zeng, Leli; Chen, Yu; Liu, Jiangping; Huang, Huaiyi; Guan, Ruilin; Ji, Liangnian; Chao, Hui

    2016-01-01

    Cisplatin was the first metal-based therapeutic agent approved for the treatment of human cancers, but its clinical activity is greatly limited by tumor drug resistance. This work utilized the parent complex [Ru(phen)2(PIP)]2+ (1) to develop three Ru(II) complexes (2–4) with different positional modifications. These compounds exhibited similar or superior cytotoxicities compared to cisplatin in HeLa, A549 and multidrug-resistant (A549R) tumor cell lines. Complex 4, the most potent member of the series, was highly active against A549R cancer cells (IC50 = 0.8 μM). This complex exhibited 178-fold better activity than cisplatin (IC50 = 142.5 μM) in A549R cells. 3D multicellular A549R tumor spheroids were also used to confirm the high proliferative and cytotoxic activity of complex 4. Complex 4 had the greatest cellular uptake and had a tendency to accumulate in the mitochondria of A549R cells. Further mechanistic studies showed that complex 4 induced A549R cell apoptosis via inhibition of thioredoxin reductase (TrxR), elevated intracellular ROS levels, mitochondrial dysfunction and cell cycle arrest, making it an outstanding candidate for overcoming cisplatin resistance. PMID:26763798

  7. Understanding Gas Phase Modifier Interactions in Rapid Analysis by Differential Mobility-Tandem Mass Spectrometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kafle, Amol; Coy, Stephen L.; Wong, Bryan M.; Fornace, Albert J.; Glick, James J.; Vouros, Paul

    2014-07-01

    A systematic study involving the use and optimization of gas-phase modifiers in quantitative differential mobility-mass spectrometry (DMS-MS) analysis is presented using nucleoside-adduct biomarkers of DNA damage as an important reference point for analysis in complex matrices. Commonly used polar protic and polar aprotic modifiers have been screened for use against two deoxyguanosine adducts of DNA: N-(deoxyguanosin-8-yl)-4-aminobiphenyl (dG-C8-4-ABP) and N-(deoxyguanosin-8-y1)-2-amino-l-methyl-6-phenylimidazo[4,5-b]pyridine (dG-C8-PhIP). Particular attention was paid to compensation voltage (CoV) shifts, peak shapes, and product ion signal intensities while optimizing the DMS-MS conditions. The optimized parameters were then applied to rapid quantitation of the DNA adducts in calf thymus DNA. After a protein precipitation step, adduct levels corresponding to less than one modification in 106 normal DNA bases were detected using the DMS-MS platform. Based on DMS fundamentals and ab initio thermochemical results, we interpret the complexity of DMS modifier responses in terms of thermal activation and the development of solvent shells. At very high bulk gas temperature, modifier dipole moment may be the most important factor in cluster formation and cluster geometry, but at lower temperatures, multi-neutral clusters are important and less predictable. This work provides a useful protocol for targeted DNA adduct quantitation and a basis for future work on DMS modifier effects.

  8. Understanding gas phase modifier interactions in rapid analysis by Differential Mobility-Tandem Mass Spectrometry

    PubMed Central

    Kafle, Amol; Coy, Stephen L.; Wong, Bryan M.; Fornace, Albert J.; Glick, James J.; Vouros, Paul

    2014-01-01

    A systematic study involving the use and optimization of gas phase modifiers in quantitative differential mobility- mass spectrometry (DMS-MS) analysis is presented using mucleoside-adduct biomarkers of DNA damage as an important reference point for analysis in complex matrices. Commonly used polar protic and polar aprotic modifiers have been screened for use against two deoxyguanosine adducts of DNA: N-(deoxyguanosin-8-yl)-4-aminobiphenyl (dG-C8-4-ABP) and N-(deoxyguanosin-8-y1)-2-amino-l-methyl-6-phenylimidazo[4,5-b]pyridine (dG-C8-PhIP). Particular attention was paid to compensation voltage (CoV) shifts, peak shapes and product ion signal intensities while optimizing the DMS-MS conditions. The optimized parameters were then applied to rapid quantitation of the DNA adducts in calf thymus DNA. After a protein precipitation step, adduct levels corresponding to less than one modification in 106 normal DNA bases were detected using the DMS-MS platform. Based on DMS fundamentals and ab-initio thermochemical results we interpret the complexity of DMS modifier responses in terms of thermal activation and the development of solvent shells. At very high bulk gas temperature, modifier dipole moment may be the most important factor in cluster formation and cluster geometry in mobility differences, but at lower temperatures multi-neutral clusters are important and less predictable. This work provides a useful protocol for targeted DNA adduct quantitation and a basis for future work on DMS modifier effects. PMID:24452298

  9. Understanding gas phase modifier interactions in rapid analysis by differential mobility-tandem mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Kafle, Amol; Coy, Stephen L; Wong, Bryan M; Fornace, Albert J; Glick, James J; Vouros, Paul

    2014-07-01

    A systematic study involving the use and optimization of gas-phase modifiers in quantitative differential mobility-mass spectrometry (DMS-MS) analysis is presented using nucleoside-adduct biomarkers of DNA damage as an important reference point for analysis in complex matrices. Commonly used polar protic and polar aprotic modifiers have been screened for use against two deoxyguanosine adducts of DNA: N-(deoxyguanosin-8-yl)-4-aminobiphenyl (dG-C8-4-ABP) and N-(deoxyguanosin-8-y1)-2-amino-l-methyl-6-phenylimidazo[4,5-b]pyridine (dG-C8-PhIP). Particular attention was paid to compensation voltage (CoV) shifts, peak shapes, and product ion signal intensities while optimizing the DMS-MS conditions. The optimized parameters were then applied to rapid quantitation of the DNA adducts in calf thymus DNA. After a protein precipitation step, adduct levels corresponding to less than one modification in 10(6) normal DNA bases were detected using the DMS-MS platform. Based on DMS fundamentals and ab initio thermochemical results, we interpret the complexity of DMS modifier responses in terms of thermal activation and the development of solvent shells. At very high bulk gas temperature, modifier dipole moment may be the most important factor in cluster formation and cluster geometry, but at lower temperatures, multi-neutral clusters are important and less predictable. This work provides a useful protocol for targeted DNA adduct quantitation and a basis for future work on DMS modifier effects.

  10. Role of the reaction intermediates in determining PHIP (parahydrogen induced polarization) effect in the hydrogenation of acetylene dicarboxylic acid with the complex [Rh (dppb)]{sup +} (dppb: 1,4-bis(diphenylphosphino)butane)

    SciTech Connect

    Reineri, F.; Aime, S.; Gobetto, R.; Nervi, C.

    2014-03-07

    This study deals with the parahydrogenation of the symmetric substrate acetylene dicarboxylic acid catalyzed by a Rh(I) complex bearing the chelating diphosphine dppb (1,4-bis(diphenylphosphino)butane). The two magnetically equivalent protons of the product yield a hyperpolarized emission signal in the {sup 1}H-NMR spectrum. Their polarization intensity varies upon changing the reaction solvent from methanol to acetone. A detailed analysis of the hydrogenation pathway is carried out by means of density functional theory calculations to assess the structure of hydrogenation intermediates and their stability in the two solvents. The observed polarization effects have been accounted on the basis of the obtained structures. Insights into the lifetime of a short-lived reaction intermediate are also obtained.

  11. THE ROLE OF HUMAN GLUTATHIONE S-TRANSFERASES (HGSTS) IN THE DETOXIFICATION OF THE FOOD-DERIVED CARCINOGEN METABOLITE N-ACETOXY-PHIP, AND THE EFFECT OF A POLYMORPHISM IN HGSTA1 ON COLORECTAL CANCER RISK. (R825280)

    EPA Science Inventory

    The perspectives, information and conclusions conveyed in research project abstracts, progress reports, final reports, journal abstracts and journal publications convey the viewpoints of the principal investigator and may not represent the views and policies of ORD and EPA. Concl...

  12. Heterocyclic amines: evaluation of their role in diet associated human cancer

    PubMed Central

    GOODERHAM, N. J.; MURRAY, S.; LYNCH, A. M.; EDWARDS, R. J.; YADOLLAHI-FARSANI, M.; BRATT, C.; RICH, K. J.; ZHAO, K.; MURRAY, B. P.; BHADRESA, S.; CROSBIE, S. J.; BOOBIS, A. R.; DAVIES, D. S.

    1996-01-01

    1Heterocyclic amines are formed in parts per billion levels when meat is cooked. 2The heterocyclic amines MeIQx and PhIP are efficiently absorbed into the systemic circulation after ingestion of cooked food. 3We have shown that MeIQx and PhIP, both in vitro and in vivo, are substrates for human hepatic CYP1A2, which exclusively and efficiently catalyses their conversion to genotoxic hydroxylamines. 4MeIQx and PhIP are promutagens. MeIQx is a very powerful bacterial mutagen whereas PhIP is a more potent mammalian cell mutagen. Using a mammalian cell target gene, hprt, we have shown that PhIP induces a characteristic mutational ‘fingerprint’. 5MeIQx and PhIP are carcinogenic in bioassays. The PhIP mutational ‘fingerprint’ has been detected in the Apc gene of 5/8 colonic tumours induced by PhIP in rats. PMID:8807149

  13. Imidazo[2,1-b]benzothiazoles. II. Synthesis and antiinflammatory activity of some imidazo[2,1-b]benzothiazoles.

    PubMed

    El-Shorbagi, A N; Sakai, S; el-Gendy, M A; Omar, N; Farag, H H

    1989-11-01

    3-[2-[p-(Un)substituted phenyl]imidazo [2,1-b]benzothiazol-3- yl]propionic acid derivatives (2a--e) were prepared via the interaction of the corresponding 2-[p-(un)substituted phenyl]imidazo[2,1-b]benzothiazoles (1a--e) with acrylic acid in the presence of acetic anhydride and acetic acid. Esterification of 2a--e produced methyl esters (3a--e). Upon the interaction of 3a with m-chloroperbenzoic acid, the S-dioxide (4a) was obtained. Compound 5a was prepared from 4a by alkaline hydrolysis. Vilsmeier formylation for 1a--e produced novel [2-[p-(un)substituted phenyl]imidazo[2,1-b]benzothiazol-3- yl]formaldehyde derivatives (6a--e). Derivatives 6a--e reacted with ethyl bromoacetate to give ethyl 3-hydroxy-3-[2-[p-(un)substituted phenyl]imidazo[2,1-b]benzothiazol- 3-yl]propionate esters (7a--e). Compound dl-7a was resolved with l-(+)-tartaric acid. Compounds 2a--e showed weak or no activity in the carrageein-induced paw edema assay. Compound 4a significantly inhibited the leakage of pontamine-sky blue dye into the peritoneal cavity of mice, in the capillary permeability inhibition assay. Compound 5a inhibited the writhing by 62% in the acetic acid-induced writhing assay.

  14. Exploiting adiabatically switched RF-field for manipulating spin hyperpolarization induced by parahydrogen

    SciTech Connect

    Kiryutin, Alexey S.; Yurkovskaya, Alexandra V.; Lukzen, Nikita N.; Ivanov, Konstantin L.; Vieth, Hans-Martin

    2015-12-21

    A method for precise manipulation of non-thermal nuclear spin polarization by switching a RF-field is presented. The method harnesses adiabatic correlation of spin states in the rotating frame. A detailed theory behind the technique is outlined; examples of two-spin and three-spin systems prepared in a non-equilibrium state by Para-Hydrogen Induced Polarization (PHIP) are considered. We demonstrate that the method is suitable for converting the initial multiplet polarization of spins into net polarization: compensation of positive and negative lines in nuclear magnetic resonance spectra, which is detrimental when the spectral resolution is low, is avoided. Such a conversion is performed for real two-spin and three-spin systems polarized by means of PHIP. Potential applications of the presented technique are discussed for manipulating PHIP and its recent modification termed signal amplification by reversible exchange as well as for preparing and observing long-lived spin states.

  15. Demonstration of heterogeneous parahydrogen induced polarization using hyperpolarized agent migration from dissolved Rh(I) complex to gas phase.

    PubMed

    Kovtunov, Kirill V; Barskiy, Danila A; Shchepin, Roman V; Coffey, Aaron M; Waddell, Kevin W; Koptyug, Igor V; Chekmenev, Eduard Y

    2014-07-01

    Parahydrogen-induced polarization (PHIP) was used to demonstrate the concept that highly polarized, catalyst-free fluids can be obtained in a catalysis-free regime using a chemical reaction with molecular addition of parahydrogen to a water-soluble Rh(I) complex carrying a payload of compound with unsaturated (C═C) bonds. Hydrogenation of norbornadiene leads to formation of norbornene, which is eliminated from the Rh(I) complex and, therefore, leaves the aqueous phase and becomes a gaseous hyperpolarized molecule. The Rh(I) metal complex resides in the original liquid phase, while the product of hydrogen addition is found exclusively in the gaseous phase based on the affinity. Hyperpolarized norbornene (1)H NMR signals observed in situ were enhanced by a factor of approximately 10,000 at a static field of 47.5 mT. High-resolution (1)H NMR at a field of 9.4 T was used for ex situ detection of hyperpolarized norbornene in the gaseous phase, where a signal enhancement factor of approximately 160 was observed. This concept of stoichiometric as opposed to purely catalytic use of PHIP-available complexes with an unsaturated payload precursor molecule can be extended to other contrast agents for both homogeneous and heterogeneous PHIP. The Rh(I) complex was employed in aqueous medium suitable for production of hyperpolarized contrast agents for biomedical use. Detection of PHIP hyperpolarized gas by low-field NMR is demonstrated here for the first time.

  16. LabVIEW-based control software for para-hydrogen induced polarization instrumentation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Agraz, Jose; Grunfeld, Alexander; Li, Debiao; Cunningham, Karl; Willey, Cindy; Pozos, Robert; Wagner, Shawn

    2014-04-01

    The elucidation of cell metabolic mechanisms is the modern underpinning of the diagnosis, treatment, and in some cases the prevention of disease. Para-Hydrogen induced polarization (PHIP) enhances magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) signals over 10 000 fold, allowing for the MRI of cell metabolic mechanisms. This signal enhancement is the result of hyperpolarizing endogenous substances used as contrast agents during imaging. PHIP instrumentation hyperpolarizes Carbon-13 (13C) based substances using a process requiring control of a number of factors: chemical reaction timing, gas flow, monitoring of a static magnetic field (Bo), radio frequency (RF) irradiation timing, reaction temperature, and gas pressures. Current PHIP instruments manually control the hyperpolarization process resulting in the lack of the precise control of factors listed above, resulting in non-reproducible results. We discuss the design and implementation of a LabVIEW based computer program that automatically and precisely controls the delivery and manipulation of gases and samples, monitoring gas pressures, environmental temperature, and RF sample irradiation. We show that the automated control over the hyperpolarization process results in the hyperpolarization of hydroxyethylpropionate. The implementation of this software provides the fast prototyping of PHIP instrumentation for the evaluation of a myriad of 13C based endogenous contrast agents used in molecular imaging.

  17. Parahydrogen Induced polarization by homogeneous catalysis: theory and applications.

    PubMed

    Buljubasich, Lisandro; Franzoni, María Belén; Münnemann, Kerstin

    2013-01-01

    The alignment of the nuclear spins in parahydrogen can be transferred to other molecules by a homogeneously catalyzed hydrogenation reaction resulting in dramatically enhanced NMR signals. In this chapter we introduce the involved theoretical concepts by two different approaches: the well known, intuitive population approach and the more complex but more complete density operator formalism. Furthermore, we present two interesting applications of PHIP employing homogeneous catalysis. The first demonstrates the feasibility of using PHIP hyperpolarized molecules as contrast agents in (1)H MRI. The contrast arises from the J-coupling induced rephasing of the NMR signal of molecules hyperpolarized via PHIP. It allows for the discrimination of a small amount of hyperpolarized molecules from a large background signal and may open up unprecedented opportunities to use the standard MRI nucleus (1)H for, e.g., metabolic imaging in the future. The second application shows the possibility of continuously producing hyperpolarization via PHIP by employing hollow fiber membranes. The continuous generation of hyperpolarization can overcome the problem of fast relaxation times inherent in all hyperpolarization techniques employed in liquid-state NMR. It allows, for instance, the recording of a reliable 2D spectrum much faster than performing the same experiment with thermally polarized protons. The membrane technique can be straightforwardly extended to produce a continuous flow of a hyperpolarized liquid for MRI enabling important applications in natural sciences and medicine.

  18. The mutagenicity of food mutagenes in the intestine

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, X.B.; Heddle, J.A.; Felton, J.

    1995-11-01

    PhIP and amino ({alpha})carboline (AAC) have been identified as mutagens in cooked food by means of the Ames test. In this study they were incorporated in the diet (400 and 800 ppm respectively) of groups of 3 {male} {male} and 3 {female} {female} mice F{sub 1} (C57B1/6 X SWR) mice heterozygous for a lac1 transgene (the Big Blue {trademark} Mouse) and at Dlb-1. The Dlb-1 locus controls the presence (+) or absence of a lectin-binding site in the small intestine so mutational loss of the dominant + allele can be seen as ribbons of non-staining cells on the villi. PhIP has been shown to be mutagenic in the small intestine by Brooks et al., with this assay. Its activity in the colon, where human cancers arise, has not been reported. lac1 mutations were assayed in the epithelial cells of both the colon and small intestine. PhIP was mutagenic in the Dlb-1 assay (thereby confirming Brooks et al.) and induced lac1 mutations in both colon and small intestine about equally. AAC was not mutagenic in the small intestine at Dlb-1 or lac1, but induced lac1 mutations at a rate (mutations/ppm*days) in the colon similar to PhIP. The concentrations of PhIP and AAC were about 10,000 times that found in the human diet, but the maximum exposures were much shorter: 90 and 45 days respectively.

  19. [Effects of acid rain stress on Eleocarpus glabripetalus seedlings leaf chlorophyll fluorescence characteristics and growth].

    PubMed

    Yin, Xiu-Min; Yu, Shu-Quan; Jiang, Hong; Liu, Mei-Hu

    2010-06-01

    A pot experiment was conducted to study the Eleocarpus glabripetalus seedlings leaf chlorophyll fluorescence characteristics and growth in different seasons under simulated acid rain stress (heavy, pH = 2. 5; moderate, pH = 4.0; and control, pH = 5.6). In the same treatments, the leaf relative chlorophyll content (SPAD), maximum PS II photochemical efficiency (F(v)/F(m)), actual PSII photochemical quantum yield (phi(PS II)), plant height, and stem diameter in different seasons were all in the order of October > July > April > January. In the same seasons, all the parameters were in the order of heavy acid rain > moderate acid rain > control. The interactions between different acid rain stress and seasons showed significant effects on the SPAD, F(v)/F(m), plant height, and stem diameter, but lesser effects on phi(PS II), qp and qN.

  20. Brattle, Thomas (1658-1713)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murdin, P.

    2000-11-01

    Prominent Boston merchant, tutor at Harvard University, became its treasurer. Observed the comet of 1680 with Harvard's first telescope of 3.5 feet focal length—the observations were mentioned by ISAAC NEWTON in Principia. One of the first astronomers in America, Brattle's unique claim to a place in history is that he persuaded colonial Governor William Phips to order that reliance on spectral an...

  1. Polarized nuclear target based on parahydrogen induced polarization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Budker, D.; Ledbetter, M. P.; Appelt, S.; Bouchard, L. S.; Wojtsekhowski, B.

    2012-12-01

    We discuss a novel concept of a polarized nuclear target for accelerator fixed-target scattering experiments, which is based on parahydrogen induced polarization (PHIP). One may be able to reach a 33% free-proton polarization in the ethane molecule. The potential advantages of such a target include operation at zero magnetic field, fast (˜100 Hz) polarization oscillation (akin to polarization reversal), and operation with large intensity of an electron beam.

  2. Computational Characterization and Prediction of Estrogen Receptor Coactivator Binding Site Inhibitors

    SciTech Connect

    Bennion, B J; Kulp, K S; Cosman, M; Lightstone, F C

    2005-08-26

    Many carcinogens have been shown to cause tissue specific tumors in animal models. The mechanism for this specificity has not been fully elucidated and is usually attributed to differences in organ metabolism. For heterocyclic amines, potent carcinogens that are formed in well-done meat, the ability to either bind to the estrogen receptor and activate or inhibit an estrogenic response will have a major impact on carcinogenicity. Here we describe our work with the human estrogen receptor alpha (hERa) and the mutagenic/carcinogenic heterocyclic amines PhIP, MeIQx, IFP, and the hydroxylated metabolite of PhIP, N2-hydroxy-PhIP. We found that PhIP, in contrast to the other heterocyclic amines, increased cell-proliferation in MCF-7 human breast cancer cells and activated the hERa receptor. We show mechanistic data supporting this activation both computationally by homology modeling and docking, and by NMR confirmation that PhIP binds with the ligand binding domain (LBD). This binding competes with estradiol (E2) in the native E2 binding cavity of the receptor. We also find that other heterocyclic amines and N2-hydroxy-PhIP inhibit ER activation presumably by binding into another cavity on the LBD. Moreover, molecular dynamics simulations of inhibitory heterocyclic amines reveal a disruption of the surface of the receptor protein involved with protein-protein signaling. We therefore propose that the mechanism for the tissue specific carcinogenicity seen in the rat breast tumors and the presumptive human breast cancer associated with the consumption of well-done meat maybe mediated by this receptor activation.

  3. Polarized nuclear target based on parahydrogen induced polarization

    SciTech Connect

    D. Budker, M.P. Ledbetter, S. Appelt, L.S. Bouchard, B. Wojtsekhowski

    2012-12-01

    We discuss a novel concept of a polarized nuclear target for accelerator fixed-target scattering experiments, which is based on parahydrogen induced polarization (PHIP). One may be able to reach a 33% free-proton polarization in the ethane molecule. The potential advantages of such a target include operation at zero magnetic field, fast ({approx}100 HZ) polarization oscillation (akin to polarization reversal), and operation with large intensity of an electron beam.

  4. Open-Source Automated Parahydrogen Hyperpolarizer for Molecular Imaging Using (13)C Metabolic Contrast Agents.

    PubMed

    Coffey, Aaron M; Shchepin, Roman V; Truong, Milton L; Wilkens, Ken; Pham, Wellington; Chekmenev, Eduard Y

    2016-08-16

    An open-source hyperpolarizer producing (13)C hyperpolarized contrast agents using parahydrogen induced polarization (PHIP) for biomedical and other applications is presented. This PHIP hyperpolarizer utilizes an Arduino microcontroller in conjunction with a readily modified graphical user interface written in the open-source processing software environment to completely control the PHIP hyperpolarization process including remotely triggering an NMR spectrometer for efficient production of payloads of hyperpolarized contrast agent and in situ quality assurance of the produced hyperpolarization. Key advantages of this hyperpolarizer include: (i) use of open-source software and hardware seamlessly allowing for replication and further improvement as well as readily customizable integration with other NMR spectrometers or MRI scanners (i.e., this is a multiplatform design), (ii) relatively low cost and robustness, and (iii) in situ detection capability and complete automation. The device performance is demonstrated by production of a dose (∼2-3 mL) of hyperpolarized (13)C-succinate with %P13C ∼ 28% and 30 mM concentration and (13)C-phospholactate at %P13C ∼ 15% and 25 mM concentration in aqueous medium. These contrast agents are used for ultrafast molecular imaging and spectroscopy at 4.7 and 0.0475 T. In particular, the conversion of hyperpolarized (13)C-phospholactate to (13)C-lactate in vivo is used here to demonstrate the feasibility of ultrafast multislice (13)C MRI after tail vein injection of hyperpolarized (13)C-phospholactate in mice. PMID:27478927

  5. Fundamental Aspects of Parahydrogen Enhanced Low-Field Nuclear Magnetic Resonance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Colell, Johannes; Türschmann, Pierre; Glöggler, Stefan; Schleker, Philipp; Theis, Thomas; Ledbetter, Micah; Budker, Dmitry; Pines, Alexander; Blümich, Bernhard; Appelt, Stephan

    2013-03-01

    We report new phenomena in low-field H1 nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy using parahydrogen induced polarization (PHIP), enabling determination of chemical shift differences, δν, and the scalar coupling constant J. NMR experiments performed with thermal polarization in millitesla magnetic fields do not allow the determination of scalar coupling constants for homonuclear coupled spins in the inverse weak coupling regime (δνPHIP experiments in the inverse weak coupling regime enable the precise determination of δν and J. Furthermore we experimentally prove that observed splittings are related to δν in a nonlinear way. Naturally abundant C13 and Si29 isotopes lead to heteronuclear J-coupled H1-multiplet lines with amplitudes significantly enhanced compared to the amplitudes for thermally prepolarized spins. PHIP-enhanced NMR in the millitesla regime allows us to measure characteristic NMR parameters in a single scan using samples containing rare spins in natural abundance.

  6. Concentration-dependent inhibition of Escherichia coli O157:H7 and heterocyclic amines in heated ground beef patties by apple and olive extracts, onion powder and clove bud oil.

    PubMed

    Rounds, Liliana; Havens, Cody M; Feinstein, Yelena; Friedman, Mendel; Ravishankar, Sadhana

    2013-08-01

    The effects of plant compounds on Escherichia coli O157:H7 and two major heat-induced heterocyclic amines (HCAs) MeIQx and PhIP in grilled ground beef patties were determined. Ground beef with added apple and olive extracts, onion powder, and clove bud oil was inoculated with E. coli O157:H7 (10⁷ CFU/g) and cooked to reach 45 °C at the geometric center, flipped and then cooked for another 5 min. Cooled samples were taken for microbiological and HCA analyses. Olive extract at 3% reduced E. coli O157:H7 to below detection. Reductions of up to 1 log were achieved with apple extract. Olive and apple extracts reduced MeIQx by up to 49.1 and 50.9% and PhIP by up to 50.6 and 65.2%, respectively. Onion powder reduced MeIQx and PhIP by 47 and 80.7%, respectively. Inactivation of E. coli O157:H7 and suppression of HCAs in grilled meat were achieved by optimized amounts of selected plant compounds.

  7. Inhibitory effects of pomegranate seed extract on the formation of heterocyclic aromatic amines in beef and chicken meatballs after cooking by four different methods.

    PubMed

    Keşkekoğlu, Hasan; Uren, Ali

    2014-04-01

    Beef and chicken meatballs with a 0.5% (w/w) pomegranate seed extract were cooked using four different cooking methods (oven roasting, pan cooking, charcoal-barbecue, and deep-fat frying) and six heterocyclic aromatic amines; IQ, MeIQx, 4,8-DiMeIQx, PhIP, norharman, and harman were observed. In the beef meatballs, the highest inhibitory effects of pomegranate seed extract on heterocyclic aromatic amines formation were 68% for PhIP, 24% for norharman, 18% for harman, 45% for IQ, and 57% for MeIQx. Total heterocyclic aromatic amine formation was reduced by 39% and 46% in beef meatballs cooked by charcoal-barbecue and deep-fat frying, respectively. In the chicken meatballs, the highest inhibitory effects were 75% for PhIP, 57% for norharman, 28% for harman, 46% for IQ, and 49% for MeIQx. When the pomegranate seed extract was added to the chicken meatballs cooked by deep-fat frying, the total heterocyclic aromatic amine formation was inhibited by 49%, in contrast the total heterocyclic aromatic amine contents after oven roasting increased by 70%.

  8. Concentration-dependent inhibition of Escherichia coli O157:H7 and heterocyclic amines in heated ground beef patties by apple and olive extracts, onion powder and clove bud oil.

    PubMed

    Rounds, Liliana; Havens, Cody M; Feinstein, Yelena; Friedman, Mendel; Ravishankar, Sadhana

    2013-08-01

    The effects of plant compounds on Escherichia coli O157:H7 and two major heat-induced heterocyclic amines (HCAs) MeIQx and PhIP in grilled ground beef patties were determined. Ground beef with added apple and olive extracts, onion powder, and clove bud oil was inoculated with E. coli O157:H7 (10⁷ CFU/g) and cooked to reach 45 °C at the geometric center, flipped and then cooked for another 5 min. Cooled samples were taken for microbiological and HCA analyses. Olive extract at 3% reduced E. coli O157:H7 to below detection. Reductions of up to 1 log were achieved with apple extract. Olive and apple extracts reduced MeIQx by up to 49.1 and 50.9% and PhIP by up to 50.6 and 65.2%, respectively. Onion powder reduced MeIQx and PhIP by 47 and 80.7%, respectively. Inactivation of E. coli O157:H7 and suppression of HCAs in grilled meat were achieved by optimized amounts of selected plant compounds. PMID:23624435

  9. Genetically modified CHO cells for studying the genotoxicity of heterocyclic amines from cooked foods

    SciTech Connect

    Thompson, L.H.; Wu, R.W.; Felton, J.S.

    1995-07-01

    We have developed metabolically competent CHO cells to evaluate the genotoxicity associated with heterocyclic amines, such as those that are present in cooked foods. Into repair-deficient UV5 cells we introduced cDNAs for expressing cytochrome P450IA2 and acetyltransferases. We then genetically reverted these transformed lines to obtain matched metabolically competent repair-deficient/proficient lines. For a high mutagenic response, we find a requirement for acetyltransferase with IQ but not with PhIP. This system allows for both quantifying mutagenesis and analyzing the mutational spectra produced by heterocyclic amines.

  10. Alterations in Cell Signaling Pathways in Breast Cancer Cells after Environmental Exposure

    SciTech Connect

    Kulp, K; McCutcheon-Maloney, S M; Bennett, L M

    2003-02-01

    Recent human epidemiological studies suggest that up to 75% of human cancers can be attributed to environmental exposures. Understanding the biologic impact of being exposed to a lifetime of complex environmental mixtures that may not be fully characterized is currently a major challenge. Functional endpoints may be used to assess the gross health consequences of complex mixture exposures from groundwater contamination, superfund sites, biologic releases, or nutritional sources. Such endpoints include the stimulation of cell growth or the induction of a response in an animal model. An environmental exposure that upsets normal cell growth regulation may have important ramifications for cancer development. Stimulating cell growth may alter an individual's cancer risk by changing the expression of genes and proteins that have a role in growth regulatory pathways within cells. Modulating the regulation of these genes and their products may contribute to the initiation, promotion or progression of disease in response to environmental exposure. We are investigating diet-related compounds that induce cell proliferation in breast cancer cell lines. These compounds, PhIP, Flor-Essence{reg_sign} and Essiac{reg_sign}, may be part of an everyday diet. PhIP is a naturally occurring mutagen that is formed in well-cooked muscle meats. PhIP consistently causes dose-dependent breast tumor formation in rats and consumption of well-done meat has been linked to increased risk of breast cancer in women. Flor-Essence{reg_sign} and Essiac{reg_sign} herbal tonics are complementary and alternative medicines used by women who have been diagnosed with breast cancer as an alternative therapy for disease treatment and prevention. The long-term goal of this work is to identify those cellular pathways that are altered by a chemical or biologic environmental exposure and understand how those changes correlate with and or predict changes in human health risk. This project addressed this goal by

  11. Immobilization and functional reconstitution of antibody Fab fragment by solid-phase refolding.

    PubMed

    Kumada, Yoichi; Hamasaki, Kyoto; Nakagawa, Aya; Sasaki, Eiju; Shirai, Tatsunori; Okumura, Masahiro; Inoue, Manami; Kishimoto, Michimasa

    2013-12-31

    In this study, we demonstrated the successful preparation of a Fab antibody-immobilized hydrophilic polystyrene (phi-PS) plate via one- and two-step solid-phase refolding methods. Both polystyrene-binding peptide (PS-tag)-fused Fd fragment of heavy chain (Fab H-PS) and full-length of light-chain (Fab L-PS) were individually produced in insoluble fractions of Escherichia coli cells, and they were highly purified in the presence of 8M of urea. Antigen-binding activities of Fab antibody immobilized were correctly recovered by the one-step solid-phase refolding method that a mixture of Fab H-PS and Fab L-PS was immobilized in the presence of 0.5-2M urea, followed by surface washing of the phi-PS plate with PBST. These results indicate that by genetic fusion of a PS-tag, a complex between Fab H and Fab L was efficiently immobilized on the surface of a phi-PS plate even in the presence of a low concentration of urea, and was then correctly refolded to retain its high antigen-binding activity via removal of the urea. A two-step solid-phase refolding method whereby Fab H-PS and Fab L-PS were successively refolded on the surface of a phi-PS plate also resulted in Fab antibody formation on the plate. Furthermore, both the binding affinity and the specificity of the Fab antibody produced by the two-step method were highly maintained, according to the results of sandwich ELISA and competitive ELISA using Fab antibody-immobilized plate via two-step solid-phase refolding. Thus, the solid-phase refolding method demonstrated in this study should be quite useful for the preparation of a Fab antibody-immobilized PS surface with high efficiency from individually produced Fab H-PS and Fab L-PS. This method will be applicable to the preparation of a large Fab antibody library on the surface of a PS plate for use in antibody screening.

  12. [Effects of controlled-release fertilizer on chrysanthemum leaf chlorophyll fluorescence characteristics and ornamental quality].

    PubMed

    Song, Xu-xu; Zheng, Cheng-shu; Sun, Xia; Ma, Hai-yan

    2011-07-01

    Taking cut flower chrysanthemum 'Baima' as test material, a pot experiment was conducted to study the effects of controlled-release fertilizer on the leaf chlorophyll fluorescence parameters, chlorophyll and nutrient contents, and ornamental quality of chrysanthemum. Under no fertilization, the maximal photochemical efficiency of PS II in dark (F(v)/F(m)), potential photochemical efficiency of PS II (F(v)/F(0)), and quantum yield of PS II electron transport (phi(PS II)) decreased significantly, compared with those under fertilization. With the application of conventional compound fertilizers CCFA (N:P:K=20:8:10) and CCFB (N:P:K= 14:14:14), the F(v)/F(m), F(v)/F(0) and phi(PS II) had a slight increase in early period (30-60 d) but a remarkable decrease in mid and later periods (75 - 120 d), compared with those under the application of controlled-release fertilizers CRFA (N:P:K = 20:8:10) and CRFB (N:P:K= 14:14:14). Under the application of CRFA, the F(v)/F(m), phi(PS II), and photochemical quenching (q(P)) had somewhat increase, as compared with the application of CRFB. The non-photochemical quenching (NPQ) under the application of CRFA and CRFB decreased significantly, compared with that under the application of CCFA and CCFB and the control. The chlorophyll content had a similar change trend with F(v)/F(m), F(v)/F(0), and phi(PS II). The leaf N, P, and K contents, flower stalk length and stalk diameter, flower diameter, and flower fresh and dry mass at harvest stage all increased under the application of CRFA and CRFB, compared with those under the application of CCFA and CCFB and the control, and the flower fresh and dry mass was significantly higher under the application of CRFA than of CRFB. This study showed that controlled-release fertilizer could improve the ornamental quality of chrysanthemum via improving the leaf chlorophyll content, photochemical transduction rate, and nutrient uptake, and CRFA had better effects than CRFB. PMID:22007449

  13. [Effects of controlled-release fertilizer on chrysanthemum leaf chlorophyll fluorescence characteristics and ornamental quality].

    PubMed

    Song, Xu-xu; Zheng, Cheng-shu; Sun, Xia; Ma, Hai-yan

    2011-07-01

    Taking cut flower chrysanthemum 'Baima' as test material, a pot experiment was conducted to study the effects of controlled-release fertilizer on the leaf chlorophyll fluorescence parameters, chlorophyll and nutrient contents, and ornamental quality of chrysanthemum. Under no fertilization, the maximal photochemical efficiency of PS II in dark (F(v)/F(m)), potential photochemical efficiency of PS II (F(v)/F(0)), and quantum yield of PS II electron transport (phi(PS II)) decreased significantly, compared with those under fertilization. With the application of conventional compound fertilizers CCFA (N:P:K=20:8:10) and CCFB (N:P:K= 14:14:14), the F(v)/F(m), F(v)/F(0) and phi(PS II) had a slight increase in early period (30-60 d) but a remarkable decrease in mid and later periods (75 - 120 d), compared with those under the application of controlled-release fertilizers CRFA (N:P:K = 20:8:10) and CRFB (N:P:K= 14:14:14). Under the application of CRFA, the F(v)/F(m), phi(PS II), and photochemical quenching (q(P)) had somewhat increase, as compared with the application of CRFB. The non-photochemical quenching (NPQ) under the application of CRFA and CRFB decreased significantly, compared with that under the application of CCFA and CCFB and the control. The chlorophyll content had a similar change trend with F(v)/F(m), F(v)/F(0), and phi(PS II). The leaf N, P, and K contents, flower stalk length and stalk diameter, flower diameter, and flower fresh and dry mass at harvest stage all increased under the application of CRFA and CRFB, compared with those under the application of CCFA and CCFB and the control, and the flower fresh and dry mass was significantly higher under the application of CRFA than of CRFB. This study showed that controlled-release fertilizer could improve the ornamental quality of chrysanthemum via improving the leaf chlorophyll content, photochemical transduction rate, and nutrient uptake, and CRFA had better effects than CRFB.

  14. Influence of beer marinades on the reduction of carcinogenic heterocyclic aromatic amines in charcoal-grilled pork meat.

    PubMed

    Viegas, Olga; Moreira, Patrícia S; Ferreira, Isabel M P L V O

    2015-01-01

    The effect of beer marinades on the formation of heterocyclic aromatic amines (HAs) was examined in charcoal-grilled pork. Pilsner, non-alcoholic pilsner and black beers (coded respectively as PB, P0B and BB) were assayed and unmarinated samples cooked under similar conditions provided reference HAs levels. Two thermic (PhIP and 4,8-DiMeIQx) and three pyrolytic HAs (Trp-P-1, AαC, MeAαC) were quantified in unmarinated meat samples. Marinating meat in beer resulted in a significant decrease of PhIP, Trp-P-1 and AαC (p < 0.05). 4,8-DiMeIQx formation was inhibited only by BB marinade. No significant effect was observed on MeAαC formation. All beers reduced total HA formation in charcoal-grilled pork, black beer being the most efficient with a level of 90% inhibition. A strong positive correlation was observed between the inhibitory effect of beer on total HA formation and their antioxidant activity. Beer marinades mitigate the impact of consumption of well-done grilled pork meat reducing the formation of cooking carcinogens.

  15. Comparison of measured and computed phase functions of individual tropospheric ice crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stegmann, Patrick G.; Tropea, Cameron; Järvinen, Emma; Schnaiter, Martin

    2016-07-01

    Airplanes passing the incuda (lat. anvils) regions of tropical cumulonimbi-clouds are at risk of suffering an engine power-loss event and engine damage due to ice ingestion (Mason et al., 2006 [1]). Research in this field relies on optical measurement methods to characterize ice crystals; however the design and implementation of such methods presently suffer from the lack of reliable and efficient means of predicting the light scattering from ice crystals. The nascent discipline of direct measurement of phase functions of ice crystals in conjunction with particle imaging and forward modelling through geometrical optics derivative- and Transition matrix-codes for the first time allow us to obtain a deeper understanding of the optical properties of real tropospheric ice crystals. In this manuscript, a sample phase function obtained via the Particle Habit Imaging and Polar Scattering (PHIPS) probe during a measurement campaign in flight over Brazil will be compared to three different light scattering codes. This includes a newly developed first order geometrical optics code taking into account the influence of the Gaussian beam illumination used in the PHIPS device, as well as the reference ray tracing code of Macke and the T-matrix code of Kahnert.

  16. An in vitro model system to predict the bioaccessibility of heterocyclic amines from a cooked meat matrix.

    PubMed

    Kulp, Kristen S; Fortson, Susan L; Knize, Mark G; Felton, James S

    2003-12-01

    To understand the impact of variation in digestion parameters on the release of heterocyclic amines naturally formed during cooking, we developed and characterized a model system to assess the effect of amylase, pepsin, and pancreatin on digestion of well-done chicken. The amounts of MeIQx, DiMeIQx, IFP, and PhIP in the liquid portion of the digestate were compared to levels in the undigested meat to determine the percentage released (accessible fraction). Incubating the meat with amylase and pepsin did not change the accessibility of HAs when compared to incubation with water alone. In contrast, increasing amounts of pancreatin increased the accessibility up to 6.4-fold. Comparing the amounts of the HAs in the liquid to the solid fraction showed that there was more MeIQx, DiMeIQx, and IFP in the liquid fraction. In contrast, PhIP was equally divided between the solid and liquid fractions. For all four compounds, increasing the doneness of the meat decreased the amount of the compound accessible from the meat matrix. Our data suggest that bioaccessability of HAs may vary according to the polarity of the individual HAs and also may depend upon the doneness of the meat. These results may have important ramifications for human feeding studies, which assume that the total amount of each HA in the meat matrix is equally bioavailable.

  17. Inhibitory effect of antioxidant-rich marinades on the formation of heterocyclic aromatic amines in pan-fried beef.

    PubMed

    Viegas, Olga; Amaro, L Filipe; Ferreira, Isabel M P L V O; Pinho, Olívia

    2012-06-20

    The inhibitory effect of antioxidant-rich marinades containing beer and white wine (with/without alcohol) alone or mixed with herbs commonly used as meat flavoring (garlic, ginger, thyme, rosemary, and red chili pepper) on the formation of heterocyclic aromatic amines (HAs) in pan-fried beef was studied. Radical-scavenging activity was evaluated by DPPH assay, before the addition of meat to the marinade (T0) and after 4 h of meat marinating (T4). At T0, wine with herbs possessed the highest scavenging activity (73.5%), followed by wine (72.5%), dealcoholized wine with herbs (53.4%), beer and herbs (41.7%), dealcoholized wine (39.6%), and beer (25.9%). At T4, a decrease in the radical-scavenging activity of all marinades was observed, although with a similar radical-scavenging profile. All of the six marinades under the study reduced the total amount of HAs, keeping meat with good overall sensory quality. Beer marinades were more efficient than white wine marinades, and the addition of herbs provided a superior inhibitory effect, reducing around 90% of HAs. No correlation was observed between radical-scavenging activity of marinades and total or individual HAs formation. Herbs explained around 30% of inhibition of PhIP formation, whereas alcohol increased PhIP formation.

  18. Inhibitory effect of antioxidant-rich marinades on the formation of heterocyclic aromatic amines in pan-fried beef.

    PubMed

    Viegas, Olga; Amaro, L Filipe; Ferreira, Isabel M P L V O; Pinho, Olívia

    2012-06-20

    The inhibitory effect of antioxidant-rich marinades containing beer and white wine (with/without alcohol) alone or mixed with herbs commonly used as meat flavoring (garlic, ginger, thyme, rosemary, and red chili pepper) on the formation of heterocyclic aromatic amines (HAs) in pan-fried beef was studied. Radical-scavenging activity was evaluated by DPPH assay, before the addition of meat to the marinade (T0) and after 4 h of meat marinating (T4). At T0, wine with herbs possessed the highest scavenging activity (73.5%), followed by wine (72.5%), dealcoholized wine with herbs (53.4%), beer and herbs (41.7%), dealcoholized wine (39.6%), and beer (25.9%). At T4, a decrease in the radical-scavenging activity of all marinades was observed, although with a similar radical-scavenging profile. All of the six marinades under the study reduced the total amount of HAs, keeping meat with good overall sensory quality. Beer marinades were more efficient than white wine marinades, and the addition of herbs provided a superior inhibitory effect, reducing around 90% of HAs. No correlation was observed between radical-scavenging activity of marinades and total or individual HAs formation. Herbs explained around 30% of inhibition of PhIP formation, whereas alcohol increased PhIP formation. PMID:22642699

  19. [Effect of long-term suboptimal temperature and short-term low temperature under low light density on cucumber growth and its photosynthesis].

    PubMed

    Ai, Xizhen; Ma, Xingzhuang; Yu, Liming; Xing, Yuxian

    2004-11-01

    The study on the effects of long-term suboptimal temperature (T1) and short-term low temperature (T2) under low light density on cucumber seedling's growth and its photosynthesis showed that the growth speed, photosynthetic rate (Pn), carboxylation efficiency (CE), apparent quantum yield (AQY) and actual quantum yield of P(S II) electron transport (phi(PS II)) all declined remarkably, and the photochemical efficiency of PS II (Fnu/Fm) also decreased to some extent. The decreasing extents of Pn, CE and AQY of T1 were less than those of T2, while the recovery rate of T1 was slower than that of T2. The Fnu/Fm and phi(PS II) of T1 declined to less extent and resiled quickly, while those of T2 decreased to larger extent and recovered slowly. The contents of chlorophyll a, chlorophyll b and carotenoid of T1 increased remarkably after being treated, while those of T2 decreased evidently. The Chl a/b of both T1 and T2 declined remarkably. With recovery time going, the pigment of T1 declined under most conditions, while that of T2 increased gradually. Three days later, the pigment content of T1 and T2 were both higher than control. The Chl a/b had no significant change during the recovery period, and was still obviously lower than control.

  20. Phimosis in male dromedary camels: Clinical findings and changes in the hemogram, nitric oxide metabolites, and testosterone concentrations.

    PubMed

    Ali, Ahmed; Derar, Derar; Al-Sobyil, Fahd A; Zeitoun, Moustafa M; Hassanein, Khaled M A; Al-Howas, Abdella

    2016-06-01

    The objectives of this study were to elucidate the clinical findings in male dromedary camels with phimosis (PHI, n = 43) and to investigate the association of this syndrome with the hemogram, nitric oxide metabolites (NOMs), and testosterone concentrations. History and signalment were obtained, and a breeding soundness examination was performed. The penis was exteriorized after administration of a pudendal nerve block. Abnormal masses obtained from the prepuce and penis were prepared for histopathology. Blood samples for hemogram assessment were taken from the diseased animals and from 10 healthy control males. Total nitrates/nitrites were determined in sera using the Griess assay. Testosterone was estimated in sera using ELISA. Phimosis associated with detectable pathologic lesions, mainly including ulcerative posthitis and lacerated glans penis, was present in 34 (79.1%) of the 43 cases (PHI-P), whereas the remaining nine (20.9%) of the 43 cases had no noticeable lesions (PHI-N). The PHI-P group showed higher leukocyte counts (P = 0.001), especially neutrophils (P = 0.0001), and greater NOM concentrations (P = 0.002) than the PHI-N and control groups. However, testosterone concentrations did not differ among groups. In conclusion, PHI in the male dromedary camels was mainly associated with ulcerative posthitis and laceration of the glans penis. The presence of pathologic lesions in cases with PHI was associated with leukocytosis, neutrophilia, and high NOM concentrations. PMID:26879996

  1. Strongly hyperpolarized gas from parahydrogen by rational design of ligand-capped nanoparticles

    PubMed Central

    Sharma, Ramesh; Bouchard, Louis-S

    2012-01-01

    The production of hyperpolarized fluids in continuous mode would broaden substantially the range of applications in chemistry, materials science, and biomedicine. Here we show that the rational design of a heterogeneous catalyst based on a judicious choice of metal type, nanoparticle size and surface decoration with appropriate ligands leads to highly efficient pairwise addition of dihydrogen across an unsaturated bond. This is demonstrated in a parahydrogen-induced polarization (PHIP) experiment by a 508-fold enhancement (±78) of a CH3 proton signal and a corresponding 1219-fold enhancement (±187) of a CH2 proton signal using nuclear magnetic resonance (1H-NMR). In contrast, bulk metal catalyst does not show this effect due to randomization of reacting dihydrogen. Our approach results in the largest gas-phase NMR signal enhancement by PHIP known to date. Sensitivity-enhanced NMR with this technique could be used to image microfluidic reactions in-situ, to probe nonequilibrium thermodynamics or for the study of metabolic reactions. PMID:22355789

  2. Electrochemical DNA biosensor for detection of porcine oligonucleotides using ruthenium(II) complex as intercalator label redox

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Halid, Nurul Izni Abdullah; Hasbullah, Siti Aishah; Ahmad, Haslina; Heng, Lee Yook; Karim, Nurul Huda Abd; Harun, Siti Norain

    2014-09-01

    A DNA biosensor detection of oligonucleotides via the interactions of porcine DNA with redox active complex based on the electrochemical transduction is described. A ruthenium(II) complex, [Ru(bpy)2(PIP)]2+, (bpy = 2,2'bipyridine, PIP = 2-phenylimidazo[4,5-f[[1,10-phenanthroline]) as DNA label has been synthesized and characterized by 1H NMR and mass spectra. The study was carried out by covalent bonding immobilization of porcine aminated DNA probes sequences on screen printed electrode (SPE) modified with succinimide-acrylic microspheres and [Ru(bpy)2(PIP)]2+ was used as electrochemical redox intercalator label to detect DNA hybridization event. Electrochemical detection was performed by cyclic voltammetry (CV) and differential pulse voltammetry (DPV) over the potential range where the ruthenium (II) complex was active. The results indicate that the interaction of [Ru(bpy)2(PIP)]2+ with hybridization complementary DNA has higher response compared to single-stranded and mismatch complementary DNA.

  3. [Effects of NaCl stress on Hovenia dulcis and Gleditsia sinensis seedlings growth, chlorophyll fluorescence, and active oxygen metabolism].

    PubMed

    Feng, Lei; Bai, Zhi-ying; Lu, Bing-she; Cai, Sheng-wen; Feng, Li-na

    2008-11-01

    With potted Hovenia dulcis and Gleditsia sinensis seedlings as test materials, their plant growth, chlorophyll fluorescence characteristics, and active oxygen metabolism under stress of different concentration (0, 0.15%, 0.30%, 0.45%, and 0.60%) NaCl were studied. The results showed that with increasing concentration of NaCl, the plant growth, leaf chlorophyll content, photochemical efficiency of PS II (Fv/Fm), quantum yield of PS II (phi(PS II)), and photochemical quenching (q(P)) decreased gradually, while the non-photochemical quenching of fluorescence (q(N)) was in adverse. After 10 days of 0. 15% NaCl stress, the leaf chlorophyll content, Fv/Fm, phi(PS II), and q(P) of H. dulcis seedlings decreased by 19.77%, 2.94%, 29.03%, and 8.16%, respectively, with significant differences (P<0.05) to the control, while no significant differences were observed for G. sinensis seedlings. Compared with the control, the Fv/Fm and phi(PS II), of G. sinensis seedlings in treatment 0.30% NaCl decreased significantly by 1.91% and 14.66%, and the chlorophyll content and q(P) of the seedling in treatment 0.45% NaCl decreased significantly by 29.28% and 11.36%, respectively (P<0.05). With increasing concentration of NaCl, the SOD activity of G. sinensis seedlings showed a consistent increasing trend, and that of H. dulcis seedlings increased first and decreased then. The POD and CAT activities of G. sinensis and H. dulci seedlings tended to increase first and decrease then, with the increment being higher for G. sinensis than for H. dulci, while the MDA content of the seedlings had an increasing trend, with the increment being higher for H. dulcis than for G. sinensis, suggesting that the cell membrane lipid peroxidation of H. dulcis was more serious than that of G. sinensis. It was concluded that G. sinensis had greater salt tolerance than H. dulcis, which was related toits higher anti-oxidation enzyme activities. PMID:19238854

  4. High-Resolution 3D Proton MRI of Hyperpolarized Gas Enabled by Parahydrogen and Rh/TiO2 Heterogeneous Catalyst

    PubMed Central

    Barskiy, Danila A.; Coffey, Aaron M.; Truong, Milton L.; Salnikov, Oleg G.; Khudorozhkov, Alexander K.; Inozemtseva, Elizaveta A.; Prosvirin, Igor P.; Bukhtiyarov, Valery I.; Waddell, Kevin W.; Koptyug, Igor V.

    2015-01-01

    Several supported metal catalysts were synthesized, characterized, and tested in heterogeneous hydrogenation of propene with parahydrogen to maximize nuclear spin hyperpolarization of propane gas using parahydrogen induced polarization (PHIP). The Rh/TiO2 catalyst with a metal particle size of 1.6 nm was found to be the most active and effective in the pairwise hydrogen addition and robust, demonstrating reproducible results with multiple hydrogenation experiments and stability for ≥1.5 years. 3D 1H magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of 1 % hyperpolarized flowing gas with microscale spatial resolution (625 × 625 × 625 μm3) and large imaging matrix (128 × 128 × 32) was demonstrated by using a preclinical 4.7 T scanner and 17.4 s imaging scan time. PMID:24961814

  5. Optimization of SABRE for polarization of the tuberculosis drugs pyrazinamide and isoniazid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zeng, Haifeng; Xu, Jiadi; Gillen, Joseph; McMahon, Michael T.; Artemov, Dmitri; Tyburn, Jean-Max; Lohman, Joost A. B.; Mewis, Ryan E.; Atkinson, Kevin D.; Green, Gary G. R.; Duckett, Simon B.; van Zijl, Peter C. M.

    2013-12-01

    Hyperpolarization produces nuclear spin polarization that is several orders of magnitude larger than that achieved at thermal equilibrium thus providing extraordinary contrast and sensitivity. As a parahydrogen induced polarization (PHIP) technique that does not require chemical modification of the substrate to polarize, Signal Amplification by Reversible Exchange (SABRE) has attracted a lot of attention. Using a prototype parahydrogen polarizer, we polarize two drugs used in the treatment of tuberculosis, namely pyrazinamide and isoniazid. We examine this approach in four solvents, methanol-d4, methanol, ethanol and DMSO and optimize the polarization transfer magnetic field strength, the temperature as well as intensity and duration of hydrogen bubbling to achieve the best overall signal enhancement and hence hyperpolarization level.

  6. Well-Defined Cobalt(I) Dihydrogen Catalyst: Experimental Evidence for a Co(I)/Co(III) Redox Process in Olefin Hydrogenation.

    PubMed

    Tokmic, Kenan; Markus, Charles R; Zhu, Lingyang; Fout, Alison R

    2016-09-14

    The synthesis of a cobalt dihydrogen Co(I)-(H2) complex prepared from a Co(I)-(N2) precursor supported by a monoanionic pincer bis(carbene) ligand, (Mes)CCC ((Mes)CCC = bis(mesityl-benzimidazol-2-ylidene)phenyl), is described. This species is capable of H2/D2 scrambling and hydrogenating alkenes at room temperature. Stoichiometric addition of HCl to the Co(I)-(N2) cleanly affords the Co(III) hydridochloride complex, which, upon the addition of Cp2ZrHCl, evolves hydrogen gas and regenerates the Co(I)-(N2) complex. Furthermore, the catalytic olefin hydrogenation activity of the Co(I) species was studied by using multinuclear and parahydrogen (p-H2) induced polarization (PHIP) transfer NMR studies to elucidate catalytically relevant intermediates, as well as to establish the role of the Co(I)-(H2) in the Co(I)/Co(III) redox cycle. PMID:27569420

  7. Imaging of Isotopically Enhanced Molecular Targeting Agents Final Report

    SciTech Connect

    Quong, J N

    2004-02-19

    The goal of this project is to develop experimental and computational protocols to use SIMS to image the chemical composition of biological samples, focusing on optimizing sample preparation protocols and developing multivariate data analysis methods. Our results on sample preparation, molecular imaging, and multivariate analysis have been presented at several meeting abstracts (UCRL151797ABS, UCRL151797ABSREV1, UCRL151426ABS, UCRL201277, UCRL154757). A refereed paper describing our results for sample preparation and molecular imaging of various endogenous biomolecules as well as the mutagen PhIP has been accepted for publication (UCRL-JC-151797). We are also preparing two additional papers describing our multivariate analysis methods to analyze spectral data. As these papers have not been submitted, their content is included in this final report.

  8. Interfacial atomic composition and Schottky barrier heights at the Al/GaAs(001) interface

    SciTech Connect

    Dandrea, R.G.; Duke, C.B.

    1993-07-01

    The influence of different interfacial chemical compositions on the Schottky barrier heights across the Al/GaAs(001) interface is studied using first-principles local density functional calculations. The barrier heights are calculated for seven different interfacial chemical compositions, including the chemically abrupt As-terminated and Ga-terminated interfaces, and also several other interfaces related by Al{leftrightarrow}Ga place exchange or containing As antisites. We find p-type barrier heights {phi}p that vary by 0.4 eV, demonstrating a significant influence of the interface composition on the resulting barrier heights. The barrier height variation is explained by the different chemical bonding at the interface in the various cases. The metal induced gap states (MIGS) of two structures with different barrier heights are compared in order to demonstrate why such states do not result in barrier heights independent of interfacial chemical composition.

  9. Susceptibility to Exposure to Heterocyclic Amines from Cooked Food: Role of UDP-glucuronosyltransferases

    SciTech Connect

    Malfatti, M A; Felton, J S

    2005-08-22

    A number of carcinogenic heterocyclic amines (PhIP, MeIQx, and DiMeIQx) are produced from the condensation of creatinine, hexoses and amino acids during the cooking of meat (1). There are many variables that impact the production and subsequent ingestion of these compounds in our diet. Temperature, type of meat product, cooking method, doneness, and other factors affect the quantity of these carcinogens consumed by humans. Estimates of ingestion of these carcinogens are 1-20 ng/kg body weight per day (2). Human case control studies that correlate meat consumption from well-done cooking practices with cancer incidence indicate excess tumors for breast, colon, stomach, esophagus, and possibly prostate (3-5).

  10. Exclusive single pion electroproduction off the proton in the high-lying resonances at Q2 < 5 GeV2 from CLAS

    SciTech Connect

    Park, Kijun

    2014-09-01

    The differential cross sections and structure functions for the exclusive electroproduction process ep --> e'n pi+ were measured in the range of the invariantmass for the np+ system 1.6 GeV lte W lte 2.0 GeV, and the photon virtuality 1.8 GeV2 lte Q2 lte 4.0 GeV2 using CLAS at Jefferson Lab. For the first time, these kinematics are probed in the exclusive p+ production from the protons with nearly full coverage in the azimuthal and polar angles of the np+ center-of-mass system. In this analysis, approximately 39,000 differential cross-section data points in terms of W, Q2, cosq theta* _ pi, and phi*_p-, were obtained. The preliminary differential cross section and structure function analyses are carried out, which allow us to extract the helicity amplitudes in high-lying resonances.

  11. Observational constraints on monomial warm inflation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Visinelli, Luca

    2016-07-01

    Warm inflation is, as of today, one of the best motivated mechanisms for explaining an early inflationary period. In this paper, we derive and analyze the current bounds on warm inflation with a monomial potential U propto phip, using the constraints from the PLANCK mission. In particular, we discuss the parameter space of the tensor-to-scalar ratio r and the potential coupling λ of the monomial warm inflation in terms of the number of e-folds. We obtain that the theoretical tensor-to-scalar ratio r ~ 10‑8 is much smaller than the current observational constrain r lesssim 0.12, despite a relatively large value of the field excursion Δ phi ~ 0.1MPl. Warm inflation thus eludes the Lyth bound set on the tensor-to-scalar ratio by the field excursion.

  12. Thermodynamic analysis of the CSL x Notch interaction: distribution of binding energy of the Notch RAM region to the CSL beta-trefoil domain and the mode of competition with the viral transactivator EBNA2.

    PubMed

    Johnson, Scott E; Ilagan, M Xenia G; Kopan, Raphael; Barrick, Doug

    2010-02-26

    The Notch signaling pathway is a cell-cell communication network giving rise to cell differentiation during metazoan development. Activation of the pathway releases the intracellular portion of the Notch receptor to translocate to the nucleus, where it is able to interact with the effector transcription factor CSL, converting CSL from a transcriptional repressor to an activator. This conversion is dependent upon the high affinity binding of the RAM region of the Notch receptor to the beta-trefoil domain (BTD) of CSL. Here we probe the energetics of binding to BTD of each conserved residue of RAM through the use of isothermal titration calorimetry and single residue substitution. We find that although the highly conserved PhiW PhiP motif is the largest determinant of binding, energetically significant interactions are contributed by N-terminal residues, including a conserved Arg/Lys-rich region. Additionally, we present a thermodynamic analysis of the interaction between the Epstein-Barr virus protein EBNA2 with BTD and explore the extent to which the EBNA2- and RAM-binding sites on BTD are nonoverlapping, as proposed by Fuchs et al. (Fuchs, K. P., Bommer, G., Dumont, E., Christoph, B., Vidal, M., Kremmer, E., and Kempkes, B. (2001) Eur. J. Biochem. 268, 4639-4646). Combining these results with displacement isothermal titration calorimetry, we propose a mechanism by which the PhiW PhiP motif of RAM and EBNA2 compete with one another for binding at the hydrophobic pocket of BTD using overlapping but specific interactions that are unique to each BTD ligand.

  13. [Effects of temperature regime on low-light tolerance of Cucumis sativus seedling leaves in their photosynthesis].

    PubMed

    Li, Wei; Sui, Xiao-lei; Zhang, Zhen-xian

    2008-12-01

    In a phytotron, the effects of three temperature regimes (day/night 25 degrees C/18 degrees C, optimal temperature; 15 degrees C/9 degrees C, suboptimal temperature; and 9 degrees C/7 degrees C, low temperature) on the low-light (75-85 micromol x m(-2) x s(-1)) tolerance of two Cucumis sativus cultivars (shade-susceptible Jinyan 2 and shade-tolerant Deltastar) seedling leaves in their photosynthesis were studied. The results showed that under low light, the SPAD, net photosynthesis rate (Pn), stomatal conductance (Gs), transpiration rate (Tr), water use efficiency (WUE), actual photochemical efficiency of PS II in the light (phi(PS II)), and photochemical quenching of chlorophyll fluorescence (q(p)) of cucumber leaves decreased, with the decrement getting more with decreasing temperature, while the superoxide dismutase (SOD), peroxidase (POD) and catalase (CAT) activities were in adverse. During the recovery process after low-light stress relieved, the parameters of gas exchange and chlorophyll fluorescence of the leaves recovered gradually, and the recovery of some gas exchange parameters lagged to that of chlorophyll fluorescence parameters. Under low light, the lower the temperature, the more damage the photosynthesis apparatus suffered, and the lesser tolerance to low light the cucumber leaves had in their photosynthesis. During the low temperature and low light treatment period, the decrease of Pn, phi(PS II), and q(p) was more obvious for Jinyan 2 than for Deltastar; and during the relief period, the recovery of these parameters was slower for Jinyan 2 than for Deltastar. It was indicated that Jinyan 2 had weaker tolerance to low temperature and/or low light in its photosynthesis than Deltastar.

  14. Food mutagens: The role of cooked food in genetic changes

    SciTech Connect

    1995-07-01

    Of all the toxic substances producing during cooking, the most important are likely to be the heterocyclic amines. For 17 years, LLNL researchers have been identifying these food mutagens, measuring their abundance in cooked foods typical of the Western diet, working to understand how they can trigger malignant tumors in laboratory animals that have been exposed to high mutagen doses, and estimating the importance of human exposures. Our success is largely a function of the interdisciplinary approach we have taken to quantify food mutagens and to study their biological effects. LLNL investigators were the first to identify five of the most important mutagens in heated food, including PhIP and DiMeIQx. We have shown that fried beef may be the most important single source of heterocyclic amines in the human diet and the PhIP accounts for most of the combined mass of mutagens in fried beef cooked well-done. Most nonmeat foods contain low or undetectable levels of these types of compounds, but some cooked protein-containing foods, such as those high in wheat gluten, have significant levels of unknown aromatic amine mutagens. Cooking time and temperature significantly affect the amounts of mutagens generated. For example, reducing the frying temperature of ground beef from 250 to 200{degrees}C lowers the mutagenic activity by six- to sevenfold. Microwave pretreatment of meat and discarding the liquid that is formed also greatly reduces the formation of heterocyclic amines. Our related work on dose and risk assessment will be described in a forthcoming article.

  15. Cyclometalated Iridium(III) Complexes as AIE Phosphorescent Probes for Real-Time Monitoring of Mitophagy in Living Cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jin, Chengzhi; Liu, Jiangping; Chen, Yu; Guan, Ruilin; Ouyang, Cheng; Zhu, Yanjiao; Ji, Liangnian; Chao, Hui

    2016-02-01

    Mitophagy, which is a special autophagy that removes damaging mitochondria to maintain sufficient healthy mitochondria, provides an alternative path for addressing dysfunctional mitochondria and avoiding cellular death. In the present study, by coupling the triphenylamine group with 2-phenylimidazo[4,5-f][1,10]phenanthroline derivatives, we synthesized five Ir(III) complexes with an AIE property that are expected to fulfill requirements for real-time monitoring of mitophagy. Ir1-Ir5 were exploited to image mitochondria with a short incubation time by confocal microscopy and inductive coupled plasma–mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). Due to aggregation-induced emission (AIE), Ir1-Ir5 exhibited excellent photostability compared to MitoTracker Green (MTG). Moreover, Ir1-Ir5 manifested satisfactory photostability in the mitochondrial physiological pH range. In addition, the uptake mechanism of Ir1 was investigated using confocal microscopy and flow cytometry analysis. Finally, using both Ir1 and LysoTracker Green, we were able to achieve real-time monitoring of mitophagy.

  16. Cyclometalated Iridium(III) Complexes as AIE Phosphorescent Probes for Real-Time Monitoring of Mitophagy in Living Cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jin, Chengzhi; Liu, Jiangping; Chen, Yu; Guan, Ruilin; Ouyang, Cheng; Zhu, Yanjiao; Ji, Liangnian; Chao, Hui

    2016-02-01

    Mitophagy, which is a special autophagy that removes damaging mitochondria to maintain sufficient healthy mitochondria, provides an alternative path for addressing dysfunctional mitochondria and avoiding cellular death. In the present study, by coupling the triphenylamine group with 2-phenylimidazo[4,5-f][1,10]phenanthroline derivatives, we synthesized five Ir(III) complexes with an AIE property that are expected to fulfill requirements for real-time monitoring of mitophagy. Ir1-Ir5 were exploited to image mitochondria with a short incubation time by confocal microscopy and inductive coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). Due to aggregation-induced emission (AIE), Ir1-Ir5 exhibited excellent photostability compared to MitoTracker Green (MTG). Moreover, Ir1-Ir5 manifested satisfactory photostability in the mitochondrial physiological pH range. In addition, the uptake mechanism of Ir1 was investigated using confocal microscopy and flow cytometry analysis. Finally, using both Ir1 and LysoTracker Green, we were able to achieve real-time monitoring of mitophagy.

  17. Cyclometalated Iridium(III) Complexes as Two-Photon Phosphorescent Probes for Specific Mitochondrial Dynamics Tracking in Living Cells.

    PubMed

    Jin, Chengzhi; Liu, Jiangping; Chen, Yu; Zeng, Leli; Guan, Ruilin; Ouyang, Cheng; Ji, Liangnian; Chao, Hui

    2015-08-17

    Five cyclometalated iridium(III) complexes with 2-phenylimidazo[4,5-f][1,10]phenanthroline derivatives (IrL1-IrL5) were synthesized and developed to image and track mitochondria in living cells under two-photon (750 nm) excitation, with two-photon absorption cross-sections of 48.8-65.5 GM at 750 nm. Confocal microscopy and inductive coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) demonstrated that these complexes selectively accumulate in mitochondria within 5 min, without needing additional reagents for membrane permeabilization, or replacement of the culture medium. In addition, photobleaching experiments and luminescence measurements confirmed the photostability of these complexes under continuous laser irradiation and physiological pH resistance. Moreover, results using 3D multicellular spheroids demonstrate the proficiency of these two-photon luminescent complexes in deep penetration imaging. Two-photon excitation using such novel complexes of iridium(III) for exclusive visualization of mitochondria in living cells may substantially enhance practical applications of bioimaging and tracking.

  18. Electrochemical DNA biosensor for detection of porcine oligonucleotides using ruthenium(II) complex as intercalator label redox

    SciTech Connect

    Halid, Nurul Izni Abdullah; Hasbullah, Siti Aishah; Heng, Lee Yook; Karim, Nurul Huda Abd; Ahmad, Haslina; Harun, Siti Norain

    2014-09-03

    A DNA biosensor detection of oligonucleotides via the interactions of porcine DNA with redox active complex based on the electrochemical transduction is described. A ruthenium(II) complex, [Ru(bpy){sub 2}(PIP)]{sup 2+}, (bpy = 2,2′bipyridine, PIP = 2-phenylimidazo[4,5-f[[1,10-phenanthroline]) as DNA label has been synthesized and characterized by 1H NMR and mass spectra. The study was carried out by covalent bonding immobilization of porcine aminated DNA probes sequences on screen printed electrode (SPE) modified with succinimide-acrylic microspheres and [Ru(bpy){sub 2}(PIP)]{sup 2+} was used as electrochemical redox intercalator label to detect DNA hybridization event. Electrochemical detection was performed by cyclic voltammetry (CV) and differential pulse voltammetry (DPV) over the potential range where the ruthenium (II) complex was active. The results indicate that the interaction of [Ru(bpy){sub 2}(PIP)]{sup 2+} with hybridization complementary DNA has higher response compared to single-stranded and mismatch complementary DNA.

  19. Cyclometalated Iridium(III) Complexes as AIE Phosphorescent Probes for Real-Time Monitoring of Mitophagy in Living Cells

    PubMed Central

    Jin, Chengzhi; Liu, Jiangping; Chen, Yu; Guan, Ruilin; Ouyang, Cheng; Zhu, Yanjiao; Ji, Liangnian; Chao, Hui

    2016-01-01

    Mitophagy, which is a special autophagy that removes damaging mitochondria to maintain sufficient healthy mitochondria, provides an alternative path for addressing dysfunctional mitochondria and avoiding cellular death. In the present study, by coupling the triphenylamine group with 2-phenylimidazo[4,5-f][1,10]phenanthroline derivatives, we synthesized five Ir(III) complexes with an AIE property that are expected to fulfill requirements for real-time monitoring of mitophagy. Ir1-Ir5 were exploited to image mitochondria with a short incubation time by confocal microscopy and inductive coupled plasma–mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). Due to aggregation-induced emission (AIE), Ir1-Ir5 exhibited excellent photostability compared to MitoTracker Green (MTG). Moreover, Ir1-Ir5 manifested satisfactory photostability in the mitochondrial physiological pH range. In addition, the uptake mechanism of Ir1 was investigated using confocal microscopy and flow cytometry analysis. Finally, using both Ir1 and LysoTracker Green, we were able to achieve real-time monitoring of mitophagy. PMID:26907559

  20. [Diurnal variation of gas exchange and chlorophyll fluorescence parameters of cotton functional leaves under effects of soil salinity].

    PubMed

    Zhang, Guo-wei; Zhang, Lei; Tang, Ming-xing; Zhou, Ling-ling; Chen, Bing-lin; Zhou, Zhi-guo

    2011-07-01

    A two-year (2007-2008) pot experiment with cotton varieties Sumian 12 (salinity-sensitive) and Zhongmiansuo 44 (salinity-tolerance) was conducted at the Pailou experimental station of Nanjing Agricultural University to study the diurnal variation of the gas exchange and chlorophyll fluorescence parameters of cotton functional leaves under five levels (0, 0.35%, 0.60% , 0.85%, and 1.00%) of soil salinity. With the increase of soil salinity, the concentrations of Na+, Cl-, and Mg2+ in functional leaves increased, whereas the concentrations of K+ and Ca2+ decreased. The salinity level <0. 35% had little effects on the gas exchange and chlorophyll fluorescence parameters, but that >0.35% depressed the net photosynthetic rate (Pn) dramatically. At the salinity level >0.35%, the sensitivity of functional leaves to daytime photon flux density (PFD) and air temperature (Ta) enhanced, which in turn resulted in more severe photo- and temperature inhibition, and changed the diurnal variation patterns of Pn and stomatal conductance (Gs) from a one-peak curve to a constantly decreasing one. Along with the variations of daytime PED and Ta, the diurnal variation patterns of the maximum photochemical efficiency (F(v)/F(m)), quantum yield of electron transport (phi(PS II), and photochemical quenching coefficient (q(P)) of functional leaves presented a V-shaped curve, with the minimum value appeared at 12:00-13:00, while the non-photochemical quenching coefficient (q(N)) showed a single-peak curve. Soil salinity decreased the F(v)/F(m), phi(PS II), and q(P) significantly, but increased the q(N) and enlarged its change trend. The comparatively low concentrations of Na+ and Cl- and the relatively high concentrations of K+ and Ca2+ in salt-tolerant Zhongmiansuo 44 functional leaves benefited the relative stability of PS II, and the maintenance of a relatively high thermal dissipation capacity could be one of the reasons for a high level of Pn at high salinity level.

  1. Insights into the O-Acetylation Reaction of Hydroxylated Heterocyclic Amines by Human Arylamine N-Acetyltransferases: A Computational Study

    SciTech Connect

    Lau, E Y; Felton, J S; Lightstone, F C

    2006-06-06

    A computational study was performed to better understand the differences between human arylamine N-acetyltransferase (NAT) 1 and 2. Homology models were constructed from available crystal structures and comparisons of the active site residues 125, 127, and 129 for these two enzymes provide insight into observed substrate differences. The NAT2 model provided a basis for understanding how some of the common mutations may affect the structure of the protein. Molecular dynamics simulations of the human NAT models and the template structure (NAT from Mycobacterium smegmatis) were performed and showed the models to be stable and reasonable. Docking studies of hydroxylated heterocyclic amines in the models of NAT1 and NAT2 probed the differences exhibited by these two proteins with mutagenic agents. The hydroxylated heterocyclic amines were only able to fit into the NAT2 active site, and an alternative binding site by the P-loop was found using our models and will be discussed. Additionally, quantum mechanical calculations were performed to study the O-acetylation reaction of the hydroxylated heterocyclic amines N-OH MeIQx and N-OH PhIP. This study has given us insight into why there are substrate differences among isoenzymes and explains some of the polymorphic activity differences.

  2. Influence of antioxidants in virgin olive oil on the formation of heterocyclic amines in fried beefburgers.

    PubMed

    Persson, E; Graziani, G; Ferracane, R; Fogliano, V; Skog, K

    2003-11-01

    An association between the intake of heterocyclic amines (HAs) and the development of cancer has been observed in some epidemiological studies, while in other studies no such correlation has been found. HAs are mutagenic/carcinogenic compounds formed at low levels via the Maillard reaction and a free radical mechanism during cooking of animal tissue. The addition of pure antioxidants or foods containing antioxidants has previously been shown to decrease the amount of HAs formed during cooking. In this study, beefburgers were fried in six different oils: refined olive oil, virgin olive oil, virgin olive oil depleted of phenols, rapeseed oil, virgin olive oil with rosemary extract and refined olive oil with rosemary extract. The content of antioxidative compounds in the virgin olive oil and the rosemary extract was determined. The beefburgers were analysed with regards to 12 different HAs by solid phase extraction and HPLC analysis. MeIQx, 4,8-DiMeIQx, PhIP, Harman and Norharman were detected in all beefburgers fried in the different oils, but the relative amounts varied. Frying in virgin olive oil reduced the formation of HAs compared with refined olive oil. This effect is probably due to the content of phenols in the virgin olive oil. The HA-reducing effect of virgin olive oil decreased during storage, but the addition of rosemary extract may prevent this decrease.

  3. [Effects of high- and low temperature stress on the leaf PSII functions and physiological characteristics of tree peony (Paeonia suffruticosa cv. 'Roufurong')].

    PubMed

    Liu, Chun-Ying; Chen, Da-Yin; Gai, Shu-Peng; Zhang, Yu-Xi; Zheng, Guo-Sheng

    2012-01-01

    Taking the detached leaves of tree peony (Paeonia suffruticosa cv. 'Roufurong') as test materials, this paper studied the effects of high temperature (40 degrees C) and low temperature (15 degrees C) stresses on the PS II functions and physiological characteristics of peony leaves under strong light intensity (1400 micromol x m(-2) x s(-1)), with 25 degrees C as the control. With the increasing time of high- and low temperature stress, the maximal photochemical efficiency (Fv/Fm), actual quantum yield of photosystem II (Phi(PS II)) , and efficiency of excitation capture of open PS II center (Fv'/Fm') all decreased continuously. After recovered in the dark for 4 hours, the Fv/Fm in treatments 15 degrees C and 25 degrees C quickly recovered, but that in treatment 40 degrees C only recovered to 75.5% of non-treatment, even if the leaves were treated in the dark for 15 hours. At 40 degrees C, the balance of excited energy between PS I and PS II under strong light intensity was perturbed seriously. Treatment 40 degrees C inhibited the superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity, enhanced the production of O2-, H2O2, and MDA, and reduced the contents of chlorophyll and soluble protein. This study revealed that strong light combined with high temperature impaired the photosynthetic apparatus of the tree peony irreversibly, whereas strong light plus low temperature had weaker impact.

  4. Role of skin lesions in the Salem witchcraft trials.

    PubMed

    Flotte, T J; Bell, D A

    1989-12-01

    In the late 17th century, several hundred people were tried for the crime of practicing witchcraft in Salem Village, Massachusetts. Twenty-four people died before the Superior Court of Judicature dismissed the remaining cases and Governor Phips pardoned and granted amnesty to all of the accused and convicted. The evidence used to convict a person of being a witch included spectral evidence confessions, and apparent proof of that person's alleged supernatural abilities. Also used as evidence were skin lesions characteristic of what were termed "devil's marks" or "witch's marks." It was believed that the devil would confirm his pact with a witch by giving her or him a mark of identification. Devil's marks included a variety of skin lesions described as flat or raised, red, blue, or brown lesions, sometimes with unusual outlines. Witch's marks were most probably supernumerary nipples. It was believed that familiars (agents of the devil, usually in animal form) would receive sustenance by being suckled. In the Salem witchcraft trials, a variety of skin lesions were used as confirmatory evidence that the accused person had made a pact with the devil, but there is no indication in the trial transcripts that anyone was convicted based on this evidence alone. PMID:2690652

  5. Remote detection NMR imaging of gas phase hydrogenation in microfluidic chips.

    PubMed

    Zhivonitko, Vladimir V; Telkki, Ville-Veikko; Leppäniemi, Jarmo; Scotti, Gianmario; Franssila, Sami; Koptyug, Igor V

    2013-04-21

    The heterogeneous hydrogenation reaction of propene into propane in microreactors is studied by remote detection (RD) nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR). The reactors consist of 36 parallel microchannels (50 × 50 μm(2) cross sections) coated with a platinum catalyst. We show that RD NMR is capable of monitoring reactions with sub-millimeter spatial resolution over a field-of-view of 30 × 8 mm(2) with a steady-state time-of-flight time resolution in the tens of milliseconds range. The method enables the visualization of active zones in the reactors, and time-of-flight is used to image the flow velocity variations inside the reactor. The overall reaction yields determined by NMR varied from 10% to 50%, depending on the flow rate, temperature and length of the reaction channels. The reaction yield was highest for the channels with the lowest flow velocity. Propane T1 relaxation time in the channels, estimated by means of RD NMR images, was 270 ± 18 ms. No parahydrogen-induced polarization (PHIP) was observed in experiments carried out using parahydrogen-enriched H2, indicating fast spreading of the hydrogen atoms on the sputtered Pt surface. In spite of the low concentration of gases, RD NMR made imaging of gas phase hydrogenation of propene in microreactors feasible, and it is a highly versatile method for characterizing on-chip chemical reactions.

  6. Mutagenic Potency of Food-Derived Heterocyclic Amines

    SciTech Connect

    Felton, J S; Knize, M G; Wu, R W; Colvin, M E; Hatch, F T; Malfatti, M A

    2006-10-26

    The understanding of mutagenic potency has been primarily approached using ''quantitative structure activity relationships'' (QSAR). Often this method allows the prediction of mutagenic potency of the compound based on its structure. But it does not give the underlying reason why the mutagenic activities differ. We have taken a set of heterocyclic amine structures and used molecular dynamic calculations to dock these molecules into the active site of a computational model of the cytochrome P-450 1A1 enzyme. The calculated binding strength using Boltzman distribution constants was then compared to the QSAR value (HF/6-31G* optimized structures) and the Ames/Salmonella mutagenic potency. Further understanding will only come from knowing the complete set of mutagenic determinants. These include the nitrenium ion half-life, DNA adduct half-life, efficiency of repair of the adduct, and ultimately fixation of the mutation through cellular processes. For two isomers, PhIP and 3-Me-PhIP, we showed that for the 100-fold difference in the mutagenic potency a 5-fold difference can be accounted for by differences in the P450 oxidation. The other factor of 20 is not clearly understood but is downstream from the oxidation step. The application of QSAR (chemical characteristics) to biological principles related to mutagenesis is explored in this report.

  7. Formation of Heterocyclic Aromatic Amines and Migration Level of Bisphenol-A in Sous-Vide-Cooked Trout Fillets at Different Cooking Temperatures and Cooking Levels.

    PubMed

    Oz, Fatih; Seyyar, Esra

    2016-04-20

    The effects of different cooking temperatures (65, 75, and 85 °C) and cooking levels (medium and well) on some quality properties, the formation of heterocyclic aromatic amines (HCAs), and the migration level of bisphenol-A (BPA) in trout fillets cooked by sous-vide were investigated. As a result, as expected, cooking caused a reduction in water content of the samples, whereas pH, TBARS, L*, and b* values increased. Cooking loss values ranged between 14.78 and 20.51%. Whereas IQ, MeIQ, 7,8-DiMeIQx, 4,8-DiMeIQx, PhIP, AαC and MeAαC could not be detected in the analyzed samples, varying levels of IQx (up to 0.16 ng/g) and MeIQx (up to 5.66 ng/g) were detected. It was determined that total HCA amounts ranged between 1.28 and 5.75 ng/g, and all or a big part of the total HCAs belonged to MeIQx. In addition, the migration level of BPA in sous-vide-cooked samples ranged between 4.93 and 27.11 ng/g. PMID:27029998

  8. Role of skin lesions in the Salem witchcraft trials.

    PubMed

    Flotte, T J; Bell, D A

    1989-12-01

    In the late 17th century, several hundred people were tried for the crime of practicing witchcraft in Salem Village, Massachusetts. Twenty-four people died before the Superior Court of Judicature dismissed the remaining cases and Governor Phips pardoned and granted amnesty to all of the accused and convicted. The evidence used to convict a person of being a witch included spectral evidence confessions, and apparent proof of that person's alleged supernatural abilities. Also used as evidence were skin lesions characteristic of what were termed "devil's marks" or "witch's marks." It was believed that the devil would confirm his pact with a witch by giving her or him a mark of identification. Devil's marks included a variety of skin lesions described as flat or raised, red, blue, or brown lesions, sometimes with unusual outlines. Witch's marks were most probably supernumerary nipples. It was believed that familiars (agents of the devil, usually in animal form) would receive sustenance by being suckled. In the Salem witchcraft trials, a variety of skin lesions were used as confirmatory evidence that the accused person had made a pact with the devil, but there is no indication in the trial transcripts that anyone was convicted based on this evidence alone.

  9. Formation of Heterocyclic Aromatic Amines and Migration Level of Bisphenol-A in Sous-Vide-Cooked Trout Fillets at Different Cooking Temperatures and Cooking Levels.

    PubMed

    Oz, Fatih; Seyyar, Esra

    2016-04-20

    The effects of different cooking temperatures (65, 75, and 85 °C) and cooking levels (medium and well) on some quality properties, the formation of heterocyclic aromatic amines (HCAs), and the migration level of bisphenol-A (BPA) in trout fillets cooked by sous-vide were investigated. As a result, as expected, cooking caused a reduction in water content of the samples, whereas pH, TBARS, L*, and b* values increased. Cooking loss values ranged between 14.78 and 20.51%. Whereas IQ, MeIQ, 7,8-DiMeIQx, 4,8-DiMeIQx, PhIP, AαC and MeAαC could not be detected in the analyzed samples, varying levels of IQx (up to 0.16 ng/g) and MeIQx (up to 5.66 ng/g) were detected. It was determined that total HCA amounts ranged between 1.28 and 5.75 ng/g, and all or a big part of the total HCAs belonged to MeIQx. In addition, the migration level of BPA in sous-vide-cooked samples ranged between 4.93 and 27.11 ng/g.

  10. [Effects of gamma-aminobutyric acid on the photosynthesis and chlorophyll fluorescence parameters of muskmelon seedlings under hypoxia stress].

    PubMed

    Xia, Qing-ping; Gao, Hong-bo; Li, Jing-rui

    2011-04-01

    By the method of hydroponic culture, this paper studied the effects of exogenous gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) on the photosynthetic pigment contents, photosynthesis, and chlorophyll fluorescence parameters of muskmelon seedlings under hypoxia stress. Hypoxia stress induced a significant decrease of photosynthetic pigment contents, resulting in the decrease of photosynthesis. Applying GABA could significantly increase the photosynthetic pigment contents, net photosynthetic rate (P(n)), stomatal conductance (G(s)), intercellular CO2 concentration (C(i)), carboxylation efficiency (CE), maximal photochemical efficiency of PS II (F(v)/F(m)), photochemical quenching (q(P)), apparent photosynthetic electron transfer rate (ETR), and quantum yield of PS II electron transport (phi(PS II)), and decrease the stomatal limitation value (L(s)), minimal fluorescence (F(o)), and non-photochemical quenching (NPQ) under both hypoxic and normal conditions. The alleviation effect of GABA on photosynthetic characteristics was more obvious under hypoxia stress. However, simultaneously applying GABA and VGB could significantly decrease the alleviation effect of GABA under hypoxia stress.

  11. Low reheating temperatures in monomial and binomial inflationary models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rehagen, Thomas; Gelmini, Graciela B.

    2015-06-01

    We investigate the allowed range of reheating temperature values in light of the Planck 2015 results and the recent joint analysis of Cosmic Microwave Background (CMB) data from the BICEP2/Keck Array and Planck experiments, using monomial and binomial inflationary potentials. While the well studied phi2 inflationary potential is no longer favored by current CMB data, as well as phip with p>2, a phi1 potential and canonical reheating (0wre=) provide a good fit to the CMB measurements. In this last case, we find that the Planck 2015 68% confidence limit upper bound on the spectral index, ns, implies an upper bound on the reheating temperature of Trelesssim 6× 1010 GeV, and excludes instantaneous reheating. The low reheating temperatures allowed by this model open the possibility that dark matter could be produced during the reheating period instead of when the Universe is radiation dominated, which could lead to very different predictions for the relic density and momentum distribution of WIMPs, sterile neutrinos, and axions. We also study binomial inflationary potentials and show the effects of a small departure from a phi1 potential. We find that as a subdominant phi2 term in the potential increases, first instantaneous reheating becomes allowed, and then the lowest possible reheating temperature of Tre=4 MeV is excluded by the Planck 2015 68% confidence limit.

  12. [Effects of exogenous Ca2+ on morphological and photosynthetic characteristics and chlorophyll fluorescent parameters of squash seedlings under high temperature and strong light stress].

    PubMed

    Qin, Shu-hao; Li, Ling-ling; Chen, Na-na

    2010-11-01

    Taking squash (Cucurbita pepo L.) variety Alan as test object, this paper studied the effects of exogenous Ca2+ on the morphological and photosynthetic characteristics and chlorophyll fluorescent parameters of squash seedlings under the cross-stress of high temperature and strong light. Under the stress, applying 5-20 mmol x L(-1) of Ca2+ increased the plant height, leaf area, chlorophyll and carotenoid contents, photosynthetic rate (Pn), stoma conductance (Gs), transpiration rate (Tr), maximal PS II efficiency (Fv/Fm), actual PS II efficiency (phi(PS II)), and photochemical queching coefficient (q(P)), and decreased the intercellular CO2 concentration (Ci) and non-photochemical fluorescence quenching coefficient (NPQ), suggesting that this application of exogenous Ca2+ could effectively mitigate the damage of high temperature and strong light stress on the squash seedlings leaf, and make it keep more rapid photosynthetic electron transfer rate and higher PS II electron transfer activity. Among the treatments of applying Ca2+, 10 mmol Ca2+ x L(-1) had the best effect. When the Ca2+ application rate exceeded 40 mmol x L(1), no mitigation effect was observed on the high temperature and strong light stress.

  13. Mass ordering of differential elliptic flow and its violation for {phi} mesons

    SciTech Connect

    Hirano, Tetsufumi; Heinz, Ulrich; Kharzeev, Dmitri; Lacey, Roy; Nara, Yasushi

    2008-04-15

    We simulate the dynamics of Au+Au collisions at the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC) with a hybrid model that treats the dense early quark-gluon plasma (QGP) stage macroscopically as an ideal fluid but models the dilute late hadron resonance gas (HG) microscopically using a hadronic cascade. By comparing with a pure hydrodynamic approach we identify effects of hadronic viscosity on the transverse momentum spectra and differential elliptic flow v{sub 2}(p{sub T}). We investigate the dynamical origins of the observed mass ordering of v{sub 2}(p{sub T}) for identified hadrons, focusing on dissipative effects during the late hadronic stage. Within our approach, we find that, at RHIC energies, much of the finally observed mass splitting is generated during the hadronic stage, due to buildup of additional radial flow. The {phi} meson, having a small interaction cross section, does not fully participate in this additional flow. As a result, it violates the mass-ordering pattern for v{sub 2}(p{sub T}) that is observed for other hadron species. We also show that the early decoupling of the {phi} meson from the hadronic rescattering dynamics leads to interesting and unambiguous features in the p{sub T} dependence of the nuclear suppression factor R{sub AA} and of the {phi}/p ratio.

  14. Highly selective luminescent nanostructures for mitochondrial imaging and targeting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fanizza, E.; Iacobazzi, R. M.; Laquintana, V.; Valente, G.; Caliandro, G.; Striccoli, M.; Agostiano, A.; Cutrignelli, A.; Lopedota, A.; Curri, M. L.; Franco, M.; Depalo, N.; Denora, N.

    2016-02-01

    Here a luminescent hybrid nanostructure based on functionalized quantum dots (QDs) is used as a fluorescent imaging agent able to target selectively mitochondria thanks to the molecular recognition of the translocator protein (TSPO). The selective targeting of such an 18 kDa protein mainly located in the outer mitochondrial membrane and overexpressed in several pathological states including neurodegenerative diseases and cancers may provide valuable information for the early diagnosis and therapy of human disorders. In particular, the rational design of amino functionalized luminescent silica coated QD nanoparticles (QD@SiO2 NPs) provides a versatile nanoplatform to anchor a potent and selective TSPO ligand, characterized by a 2-phenyl-imidazo[1,2-a]pyridine acetamide structure along with a derivatizable carboxylic end group, useful to conjugate the TSPO ligand and achieve TSPO-QD@SiO2 NPs by means of a covalent amide bond. The colloidal stability and optical properties of the proposed nanomaterials are comprehensively investigated and their potential as mitochondrial imaging agents is fully assessed. Sub-cellular fractionation, together with confocal laser scanning fluorescence microscopy and co-localization analysis of targeted TSPO-QD@SiO2 NPs in C6 glioma cells overexpressing the TSPO, proves the great potential of these multifunctional nanosystems as in vitro selective mitochondrial imaging agents.Here a luminescent hybrid nanostructure based on functionalized quantum dots (QDs) is used as a fluorescent imaging agent able to target selectively mitochondria thanks to the molecular recognition of the translocator protein (TSPO). The selective targeting of such an 18 kDa protein mainly located in the outer mitochondrial membrane and overexpressed in several pathological states including neurodegenerative diseases and cancers may provide valuable information for the early diagnosis and therapy of human disorders. In particular, the rational design of amino

  15. A ruthenium polypyridyl intercalator stalls DNA replication forks, radiosensitizes human cancer cells and is enhanced by Chk1 inhibition.

    PubMed

    Gill, Martin R; Harun, Siti Norain; Halder, Swagata; Boghozian, Ramon A; Ramadan, Kristijan; Ahmad, Haslina; Vallis, Katherine A

    2016-01-01

    Ruthenium(II) polypyridyl complexes can intercalate DNA with high affinity and prevent cell proliferation; however, the direct impact of ruthenium-based intercalation on cellular DNA replication remains unknown. Here we show the multi-intercalator [Ru(dppz)2(PIP)](2+) (dppz = dipyridophenazine, PIP = 2-(phenyl)imidazo[4,5-f][1,10]phenanthroline) immediately stalls replication fork progression in HeLa human cervical cancer cells. In response to this replication blockade, the DNA damage response (DDR) cell signalling network is activated, with checkpoint kinase 1 (Chk1) activation indicating prolonged replication-associated DNA damage, and cell proliferation is inhibited by G1-S cell-cycle arrest. Co-incubation with a Chk1 inhibitor achieves synergistic apoptosis in cancer cells, with a significant increase in phospho(Ser139) histone H2AX (γ-H2AX) levels and foci indicating increased conversion of stalled replication forks to double-strand breaks (DSBs). Normal human epithelial cells remain unaffected by this concurrent treatment. Furthermore, pre-treatment of HeLa cells with [Ru(dppz)2(PIP)](2+) before external beam ionising radiation results in a supra-additive decrease in cell survival accompanied by increased γ-H2AX expression, indicating the compound functions as a radiosensitizer. Together, these results indicate ruthenium-based intercalation can block replication fork progression and demonstrate how these DNA-binding agents may be combined with DDR inhibitors or ionising radiation to achieve more efficient cancer cell killing. PMID:27558808

  16. A ruthenium polypyridyl intercalator stalls DNA replication forks, radiosensitizes human cancer cells and is enhanced by Chk1 inhibition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gill, Martin R.; Harun, Siti Norain; Halder, Swagata; Boghozian, Ramon A.; Ramadan, Kristijan; Ahmad, Haslina; Vallis, Katherine A.

    2016-08-01

    Ruthenium(II) polypyridyl complexes can intercalate DNA with high affinity and prevent cell proliferation; however, the direct impact of ruthenium-based intercalation on cellular DNA replication remains unknown. Here we show the multi-intercalator [Ru(dppz)2(PIP)]2+ (dppz = dipyridophenazine, PIP = 2-(phenyl)imidazo[4,5-f][1,10]phenanthroline) immediately stalls replication fork progression in HeLa human cervical cancer cells. In response to this replication blockade, the DNA damage response (DDR) cell signalling network is activated, with checkpoint kinase 1 (Chk1) activation indicating prolonged replication-associated DNA damage, and cell proliferation is inhibited by G1-S cell-cycle arrest. Co-incubation with a Chk1 inhibitor achieves synergistic apoptosis in cancer cells, with a significant increase in phospho(Ser139) histone H2AX (γ-H2AX) levels and foci indicating increased conversion of stalled replication forks to double-strand breaks (DSBs). Normal human epithelial cells remain unaffected by this concurrent treatment. Furthermore, pre-treatment of HeLa cells with [Ru(dppz)2(PIP)]2+ before external beam ionising radiation results in a supra-additive decrease in cell survival accompanied by increased γ-H2AX expression, indicating the compound functions as a radiosensitizer. Together, these results indicate ruthenium-based intercalation can block replication fork progression and demonstrate how these DNA-binding agents may be combined with DDR inhibitors or ionising radiation to achieve more efficient cancer cell killing.

  17. A ruthenium polypyridyl intercalator stalls DNA replication forks, radiosensitizes human cancer cells and is enhanced by Chk1 inhibition

    PubMed Central

    Gill, Martin R.; Harun, Siti Norain; Halder, Swagata; Boghozian, Ramon A.; Ramadan, Kristijan; Ahmad, Haslina; Vallis, Katherine A.

    2016-01-01

    Ruthenium(II) polypyridyl complexes can intercalate DNA with high affinity and prevent cell proliferation; however, the direct impact of ruthenium-based intercalation on cellular DNA replication remains unknown. Here we show the multi-intercalator [Ru(dppz)2(PIP)]2+ (dppz = dipyridophenazine, PIP = 2-(phenyl)imidazo[4,5-f][1,10]phenanthroline) immediately stalls replication fork progression in HeLa human cervical cancer cells. In response to this replication blockade, the DNA damage response (DDR) cell signalling network is activated, with checkpoint kinase 1 (Chk1) activation indicating prolonged replication-associated DNA damage, and cell proliferation is inhibited by G1-S cell-cycle arrest. Co-incubation with a Chk1 inhibitor achieves synergistic apoptosis in cancer cells, with a significant increase in phospho(Ser139) histone H2AX (γ-H2AX) levels and foci indicating increased conversion of stalled replication forks to double-strand breaks (DSBs). Normal human epithelial cells remain unaffected by this concurrent treatment. Furthermore, pre-treatment of HeLa cells with [Ru(dppz)2(PIP)]2+ before external beam ionising radiation results in a supra-additive decrease in cell survival accompanied by increased γ-H2AX expression, indicating the compound functions as a radiosensitizer. Together, these results indicate ruthenium-based intercalation can block replication fork progression and demonstrate how these DNA-binding agents may be combined with DDR inhibitors or ionising radiation to achieve more efficient cancer cell killing. PMID:27558808

  18. Gold(III) compounds-mediated inhibition of lung cancer cell proliferation.

    PubMed

    Bostancioğlu, Rakibe B; Kaya, Murat; Koparal, Ayşe T; Benkli, Kadriye

    2016-03-01

    Research on chemotherapeutics for lung cancer is crucial for designing a new therapeutic strategy against malignant lung tumors. Although radiotherapy and chemotherapy, which are not selective for cancer cells and exert toxic effects on healthy cells, have a limited advantage, they are the primary treatment modalities for non-small lung cancer. In addition to cytotoxicity, resistance of chemotherapeutics results in failure of treatment. This is why it is of utmost importance to focus on the creation of new chemotherapeutics without toxicity for the successful treatment and improved survival of cancer patients. New gold(III) and Pt(II) compounds were synthesized with a heterocyclic ligand using 2-phenylimidazo[4,5-f][1,10]phenanthroline as a ligand and bis-1,4-di[([1,10] phenanthroline-5-il)amino]-2-buten as a bridge molecule. The characterization of the compounds was carried out using a variety of spectroscopic methods (H NMR, IR, MS, and elemental analysis). Their antiproliferative, antitumoral, and apoptotic activities were determined. IR spectra and NMR results confirmed the formation of dinuclear heterocyclic complexes for two metal complexes. Cytotoxicity studies on lung cancer cells (A549) and healthy cells (CHL) showed a marked increase in cytotoxicity with the use of gold(III) complexes, and especially [Au(L)B](PF6)2 showed higher cytotoxic and apoptotic features than cisplatin at lower concentrations in cancer cells. These findings have been supported by results from DAPI staining and colorimetric measurement of the caspase-3 enzyme in both cell lines. Compounds showed selective toxicity on the cancer cells. In the light of the high efficacy of our newly synthesized gold complexes, they might be good and promising anticancer agents compared with cisplatin. PMID:26825752

  19. Mutagenic activity and heterocyclic amine content of the human diet

    SciTech Connect

    Knize, M.G.; Dolbeare, F.A.; Cunningham, P.L.; Felton, J.S.

    1993-01-15

    The mutagenic activity and the mass amount of heterocyclic amines responsible for the mutagenic activity have been measured in some cooked foods. Cooked meats are the predominant source of mutagenic activity in the diet with values ranging from 0 to 10,000 revertants per gram reported in the Ames/Salmonelia test with strain TA98. Several heterocyclic amines are present and have been quantified using solid-phase extraction followed by HPLC. Frying at higher temperatures and for longer times produces the greatest mutagenic response, and concomitantly, the largest amounts of heterocyclic amines. Most of the mutagenic activity in fried meat samples can be accounted for by MelQx, DiMelQx and IQ, although other heterocylic amines are present and PHIP mutagenic activity becomes significant at higher temperatures. Non-meat products such as baked breads can also form significant mutagenic activity, particularly when overcooked. Commercially prepared hamburgers made from meat substitutes such as tofu, wheat gluten or tempeh and fried at 210{degrees}C have up to 10% of the mutagenic activity of a fried beef patty cooked under the same conditions. When detected, amounts of heterocyclic amines in fried beef patties range from a total of 0.35 ng/g for commercial beef hamburgers to 142 ng/g for a beef patty cooked over a barbecue. Dietary intake is expected to have a large range, from less than one microgram per day to over 50 micrograms per day based on current knowledge of known heterocyclic amine chemicals and heterocyclic amine-containing foods.

  20. Tamoxifen Forms DNA Adducts In Human Colon After Administration Of A Single [14C]-Labeled Therapeutic Dose.

    SciTech Connect

    Brown, K; Tompkins, E M; Boocock, D J; Martin, E A; Farmer, P B; Turteltaub, K W; Ubick, E; Hemingway, D; Horner-Glister, E; White, I H

    2007-05-23

    Tamoxifen is widely prescribed for the treatment of breast cancer and is also licensed in the U.S. for the prevention of this disease. However, tamoxifen therapy is associated with an increased occurrence of endometrial cancer in women and there is also evidence that it may elevate the risk of colorectal cancer. The underlying mechanisms responsible for tamoxifen-induced carcinogenesis in women have not yet been elucidated but much interest has focussed on the role of DNA adduct formation. We investigated the propensity of tamoxifen to bind irreversibly to colorectal DNA when given to ten women as a single [{sup 14}C]-labeled therapeutic (20 mg) dose, {approx}18 h prior to undergoing colon resections. Using the sensitive technique of accelerator mass spectrometry, coupled with HPLC separation of enzymatically digested DNA, a peak corresponding to authentic dG-N{sup 2}-tamoxifen adduct was detected in samples from three patients, at levels ranging from 1-7 adducts/10{sup 9} nucleotides. No [{sup 14}C]-radiolabel associated with tamoxifen or its major metabolites was detected. The presence of detectable CYP3A4 protein in all colon samples suggests this tissue has the potential to activate tamoxifen to {alpha}-hydroxytamoxifen, in addition to that occurring in the systemic circulation, and direct interaction of this metabolite with DNA could account for the binding observed. Although the level of tamoxifeninduced damage displayed a degree of inter-individual variability, when present it was {approx}10-100 times higher than that reported for other suspect human colon carcinogens such as PhIP. These findings provide a mechanistic basis through which tamoxifen could increase the incidence of colon cancers in women.

  1. Effect of six Chinese spices on heterocyclic amine profiles in roast beef patties by ultra performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry and principal component analysis.

    PubMed

    Zeng, Maomao; He, Zhiyong; Zheng, Zongping; Qin, Fang; Tao, Guanjun; Zhang, Shuang; Gao, Yahui; Chen, Jie

    2014-10-01

    The effects of Chinese spices on the profiles of 17 heterocyclic amines (HAs) from seven HA categories were investigated in roast beef patties using Ultra Performance Liquid Chromatography-Tandem Mass Spectrometry (UPLC-MS/MS) and principal component analysis. Three groups of HAs, imidazopyridines (PhIP, DMIP, and 1,5,6-TMIP), imidazoquinoxalines (MeIQx and 4,8-DiMeIQx), and β-carbolines (harman and norharman), were detected and quantified in all of the samples. The results demonstrated that the total HA and imidazopyridine profiles could clearly be affected by 1% pricklyash peel (14.1 ± 0.76 and 6.06 ± 0.32 ng/g), chilli (41.0 ± 0.01 and 23.0 ± 0.52 ng/g), and cumin (59.9 ± 2.44 and 31.1 ± 3.06 ng/g), in comparison with control values of 21.8 ± 2.40 and 14.3 ± 2.04 ng/g, respectively. The difference was only significant (p < 0.05) for cumin. The imidazoquinoxaline profile was significantly (p < 0.05) affected by 1% pricklyash peel (0.57 ± 0.05 ng/g) and cumin (2.36 ± 0.20 ng/g) compared to the control (1.16 ± 0.11 ng/g). The β-carboline profile was only markedly (p < 0.05) affected by 1% cumin (26.4 ± 0.82 ng/g) compared to the control (6.26 ± 0.26 ng/g). In general, pricklyash peel inhibited HA formation, whereas star anise, fennel, cumin, chilli, and black pepper promoted HA formation. The findings could facilitate the selection of spices in meat processing to minimize HA formation.

  2. Cloud chamber experiments on the origin of ice crystal complexity in cirrus clouds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schnaiter, Martin; Järvinen, Emma; Vochezer, Paul; Abdelmonem, Ahmed; Wagner, Robert; Jourdan, Olivier; Mioche, Guillaume; Shcherbakov, Valery N.; Schmitt, Carl G.; Tricoli, Ugo; Ulanowski, Zbigniew; Heymsfield, Andrew J.

    2016-04-01

    This study reports on the origin of small-scale ice crystal complexity and its influence on the angular light scattering properties of cirrus clouds. Cloud simulation experiments were conducted at the AIDA (Aerosol Interactions and Dynamics in the Atmosphere) cloud chamber of the Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (KIT). A new experimental procedure was applied to grow and sublimate ice particles at defined super- and subsaturated ice conditions and for temperatures in the -40 to -60 °C range. The experiments were performed for ice clouds generated via homogeneous and heterogeneous initial nucleation. Small-scale ice crystal complexity was deduced from measurements of spatially resolved single particle light scattering patterns by the latest version of the Small Ice Detector (SID-3). It was found that a high crystal complexity dominates the microphysics of the simulated clouds and the degree of this complexity is dependent on the available water vapor during the crystal growth. Indications were found that the small-scale crystal complexity is influenced by unfrozen H2SO4 / H2O residuals in the case of homogeneous initial ice nucleation. Angular light scattering functions of the simulated ice clouds were measured by the two currently available airborne polar nephelometers: the polar nephelometer (PN) probe of Laboratoire de Métérologie et Physique (LaMP) and the Particle Habit Imaging and Polar Scattering (PHIPS-HALO) probe of KIT. The measured scattering functions are featureless and flat in the side and backward scattering directions. It was found that these functions have a rather low sensitivity to the small-scale crystal complexity for ice clouds that were grown under typical atmospheric conditions. These results have implications for the microphysical properties of cirrus clouds and for the radiative transfer through these clouds.

  3. Cloud chamber experiments on the origin of ice crystal complexity in cirrus clouds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schnaiter, M.; Järvinen, E.; Vochezer, P.; Abdelmonem, A.; Wagner, R.; Jourdan, O.; Mioche, G.; Shcherbakov, V. N.; Schmitt, C. G.; Tricoli, U.; Ulanowski, Z.; Heymsfield, A. J.

    2015-11-01

    This study reports on the origin of ice crystal complexity and its influence on the angular light scattering properties of cirrus clouds. Cloud simulation experiments were conducted at the AIDA (Aerosol Interactions and Dynamics in the Atmosphere) cloud chamber of the Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (KIT). A new experimental procedure was applied to grow and sublimate ice particles at defined super- and subsaturated ice conditions and for temperatures in the -40 to -60 °C range. The experiments were performed for ice clouds generated via homogeneous and heterogeneous initial nucleation. Ice crystal complexity was deduced from measurements of spatially resolved single particle light scattering patterns by the latest version of the Small Ice Detector (SID-3). It was found that a high ice crystal complexity is dominating the microphysics of the simulated clouds and the degree of this complexity is dependent on the available water vapour during the crystal growth. Indications were found that the crystal complexity is influenced by unfrozen H2SO4/H2O residuals in the case of homogeneous initial ice nucleation. Angular light scattering functions of the simulated ice clouds were measured by the two currently available airborne polar nephelometers; the Polar Nephelometer (PN) probe of LaMP and the Particle Habit Imaging and Polar Scattering (PHIPS-HALO) probe of KIT. The measured scattering functions are featureless and flat in the side- and backward scattering directions resulting in low asymmetry parameters g around 0.78. It was found that these functions have a rather low sensitivity to the crystal complexity for ice clouds that were grown under typical atmospheric conditions. These results have implications for the microphysical properties of cirrus clouds and for the radiative transfer through these clouds.

  4. A central role for heme iron in colon carcinogenesis associated with red meat intake.

    PubMed

    Bastide, Nadia M; Chenni, Fatima; Audebert, Marc; Santarelli, Raphaelle L; Taché, Sylviane; Naud, Nathalie; Baradat, Maryse; Jouanin, Isabelle; Surya, Reggie; Hobbs, Ditte A; Kuhnle, Gunter G; Raymond-Letron, Isabelle; Gueraud, Françoise; Corpet, Denis E; Pierre, Fabrice H F

    2015-03-01

    Epidemiology shows that red and processed meat intake is associated with an increased risk of colorectal cancer. Heme iron, heterocyclic amines, and endogenous N-nitroso compounds (NOC) are proposed to explain this effect, but their relative contribution is unknown. Our study aimed at determining, at nutritional doses, which is the main factor involved and proposing a mechanism of cancer promotion by red meat. The relative part of heme iron (1% in diet), heterocyclic amines (PhIP + MeIQx, 50 + 25 μg/kg in diet), and NOC (induced by NaNO₂+ NaNO₂; 0.17 + 0.23 g/L of drinking water) was determined by a factorial design and preneoplastic endpoints in chemically induced rats and validated on tumors in Min mice. The molecular mechanisms (genotoxicity, cytotoxicity) were analyzed in vitro in normal and Apc-deficient cell lines and confirmed on colon mucosa. Heme iron increased the number of preneoplastic lesions, but dietary heterocyclic amines and NOC had no effect on carcinogenesis in rats. Dietary hemoglobin increased tumor load in Min mice (control diet: 67 ± 39 mm²; 2.5% hemoglobin diet: 114 ± 47 mm², P = 0.004). In vitro, fecal water from rats given hemoglobin was rich in aldehydes and was cytotoxic to normal cells, but not to premalignant cells. The aldehydes 4-hydroxynonenal and 4-hydroxyhexenal were more toxic to normal versus mutated cells and were only genotoxic to normal cells. Genotoxicity was also observed in colon mucosa of mice given hemoglobin. These results highlight the role of heme iron in the promotion of colon cancer by red meat and suggest that heme iron could initiate carcinogenesis through lipid peroxidation. .

  5. Mutagenic activity and heterocyclic amine content of heated foods

    SciTech Connect

    Knize, M.G.; Johansson, M.; Jones, A.L.; Blakley, M.; Felton, J.S.

    1994-12-31

    Cooked foods were extracted and analyzed for mutagenic activity and assayed for known heterocyclic amines (HAs) by the Ames/Salmonella test and HPLC, respectively. Fried meats contain HAs (predominantly PhIP, MeIQx, DiMeIQx, and A{alpha}C) that are potent promutagens in bacteria, mutagenic in cultured mammalian cells, and carcinogenic in rodents and in nonhuman primates. Meats contain levels ranging from undetectable (< 0.1 ppb) to 50 ppb of known HAs when fried at temperatures from 190 to 250{degrees}C. These identified compounds are responsible for ca 75% of the measured mutagenic activity in Salmonella strain TA98. Barbecued beef and chicken have up to several thousand TA98 revertants per gram (rev/g) of cooked meat, with only ca 30% of the mutagenic activity accounted for by known heterocyclic amines. Some heated nonmeat foods also contain potent mutagenic activity. Toasted breads, cereals and snack foods have 0 to 10 TA98 rev/g, but overtoasting yields up to 40 rev/g, wheat and gluten-containing products are associated with higher activity. Grain-based coffee-substitute powders and instant coffees have 190 to 380 rev/g in TA98, and 1100 to 4000 rev/g in strain YG1024. The identify of the compounds responsible for the mutagenic activity are unknown in these non-meat foods. Toasted grain-based foods probably contribute less than 10% of the total mutagenic activity of the diet, with meat products responsible for the reminder. The finding of varying amounts of known and unknown mutagens in some cooked foods may be responsible for the poorly understood variation in human cancer incidence worldwide.

  6. [Effects of high temperature stress on photosynthesis and chlorophyll fluorescence of cut flower chrysanthemum (Dendranthema grandiflora 'Jinba')].

    PubMed

    Sun, Xian-Zhi; Zheng, Cheng-Shu; Wang, Xiu-Feng

    2008-10-01

    Cut flower chrysanthemum (Dendranthema grandflora 'Jinba') plants were treated with 40 degrees C/35 degrees C or 33 degrees C/28 degrees C (day/night) for 11 days and then transferred to 23 degrees C/18 degrees C for 5 days to study the changes in their photosynthesis and fluorescence parameters under high temperature stress and normal temperature recovery. The results showed that on the 5th day of 33 degrees C/28 degrees C treatment, net photosynthesis (P(n)) decreased gradually and stomatal conductance (G(s)) decreased evidently; while after recovery for 5 days, both P(n) and G(s) resumed to 80% of the control. At 40 degrees C/35 degrees C, P(n) and G(s) decreased dramatically. The increase of intercellular CO2 concentration (C(i)) at the early stage under given high temperatures showed that the photosynthesis inhibition by high temperature stress was resulted from non-stomatal limitations. However, 9 days later, stomatal limitation became the mainly cause of photosynthesis inhibition. The intrinsic photochemical efficiency (F(v)/F(m)), quantum yield of PS II (phi(PS II), and the efficiency of excitation energy capture by open PS II reaction center (F(v)'/F(m)') at 33 degrees C/28 degrees C and 40 degrees C/35 degrees C all decreased, with antenna heat dissipation increased, indicating that reaction center was protected by decreased light capture and efficiency of electron transfer through PS II. The photochemical quenching (q(p)) at 33 degrees C/28 degrees C descended first and turned to rise then, suggesting that the electron transfer was firstly restrained by the stress. Contrastively, q(p) rose continuously at 40 degrees C/35 degrees C, indicating that oxygen-evolving complex (OEC) was the location in chrysanthemum photosynthesis apparatus most sensitive to extreme high temperature.

  7. Propane-d6 Heterogeneously Hyperpolarized by Parahydrogen

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Long-lived spin states of hyperpolarized propane-d6 gas were demonstrated following pairwise addition of parahydrogen gas to propene-d6 using heterogeneous parahydrogen-induced polarization (HET-PHIP). Hyperpolarized molecules were synthesized using Rh/TiO2 solid catalyst with 1.6 nm Rh nanoparticles. Hyperpolarized (PH ∼ 1%) propane-d6 was detected at high magnetic field (9.4 T) spectroscopically and by high-resolution 3D gradient-echo MRI (4.7 T) as the gas flowed through the radiofrequency coil with a spatial and temporal resolution of 0.5 × 0.5 × 0.5 mm3 and 17.7 s, respectively. Stopped-flow hyperpolarized propane-d6 gas was also detected at 0.0475 T with an observed nuclear spin polarization of PH ∼ 0.1% and a relatively long lifetime with T1,eff = 6.0 ± 0.3 s. Importantly, it was shown that the hyperpolarized protons of the deuterated product obtained via pairwise parahydrogen addition could be detected directly at low magnetic field. Importantly, the relatively long low-field T1,eff of HP propane-d6 gas is not susceptible to paramagnetic impurities as tested by exposure to ∼0.2 atm oxygen. This long lifetime and nontoxic nature of propane gas could be useful for bioimaging applications including potentially pulmonary low-field MRI. The feasibility of high-resolution low-field 2D gradient-echo MRI was demonstrated with 0.88 × 0.88 mm2 spatial and ∼0.7 s temporal resolution, respectively, at 0.0475 T. PMID:25506406

  8. Effect of six Chinese spices on heterocyclic amine profiles in roast beef patties by ultra performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry and principal component analysis.

    PubMed

    Zeng, Maomao; He, Zhiyong; Zheng, Zongping; Qin, Fang; Tao, Guanjun; Zhang, Shuang; Gao, Yahui; Chen, Jie

    2014-10-01

    The effects of Chinese spices on the profiles of 17 heterocyclic amines (HAs) from seven HA categories were investigated in roast beef patties using Ultra Performance Liquid Chromatography-Tandem Mass Spectrometry (UPLC-MS/MS) and principal component analysis. Three groups of HAs, imidazopyridines (PhIP, DMIP, and 1,5,6-TMIP), imidazoquinoxalines (MeIQx and 4,8-DiMeIQx), and β-carbolines (harman and norharman), were detected and quantified in all of the samples. The results demonstrated that the total HA and imidazopyridine profiles could clearly be affected by 1% pricklyash peel (14.1 ± 0.76 and 6.06 ± 0.32 ng/g), chilli (41.0 ± 0.01 and 23.0 ± 0.52 ng/g), and cumin (59.9 ± 2.44 and 31.1 ± 3.06 ng/g), in comparison with control values of 21.8 ± 2.40 and 14.3 ± 2.04 ng/g, respectively. The difference was only significant (p < 0.05) for cumin. The imidazoquinoxaline profile was significantly (p < 0.05) affected by 1% pricklyash peel (0.57 ± 0.05 ng/g) and cumin (2.36 ± 0.20 ng/g) compared to the control (1.16 ± 0.11 ng/g). The β-carboline profile was only markedly (p < 0.05) affected by 1% cumin (26.4 ± 0.82 ng/g) compared to the control (6.26 ± 0.26 ng/g). In general, pricklyash peel inhibited HA formation, whereas star anise, fennel, cumin, chilli, and black pepper promoted HA formation. The findings could facilitate the selection of spices in meat processing to minimize HA formation. PMID:25229184

  9. Determination of Heterocyclic Amines and Acrylamide in Agricultural Products with Liquid Chromatography-Tandem Mass Spectrometry

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Kyung-Jun; Lee, Gae-Ho; Kim, HaeSol; Oh, Min-Seok; Chu, Seok; Hwang, In Ju; Lee, Jee-yeon; Choi, Ari; Kim, Cho-il

    2015-01-01

    Heterocyclic amines (HCAs) and acrylamide are unintended hazardous substances generated by heating or processing of foods and are known as carcinogenic and mutagenic agents by the animal experiments. A simple method was established for a rapid and accurate determination of 12 types of HCAs (IQ, MeIQ, Glu-P-1, Glu-P-2, MeIQx, Trp-P-1, Trp-P-2, PhIP, AαC, MeAαC, Harman and Norharman) and acrylamide in three food matrices (non-fat liquid, non-fat solid and fat solid) by isotope dilution liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). In every sample, a mixture of internal standards including IQ-d3, MeIQx-d3, PhIP-d3, Trp-P-2-13C2-15N and MeAαC-d3 was spiked for quantification of HCAs and 13C3-acrylamide was also spiked for the analysis of acrylamide. HCAs and acrylamide in sample were extracted with acetonitrile and water, respectively, and then two solid-phase extraction cartridges, ChemElut: HLB for HCAs and Accucat: HLB for acrylamide, were used for efficiently removing interferences such as pigment, lipid, polar, nonpolar and ionic compounds. Established method was validated in terms of recovery, accuracy, precision, limit of detection, limit of quantitation, and linearity. This method showed good precision (RSD < 20%), accuracy (71.8~119.1%) and recovery (66.0~118.9%). The detection limits were < 3.1 ng/g for all analytes. The correlation coefficients for all the HCAs and acrylamide were > 0.995, showing excellent linearity. These methods for the detection of HCAs and acrylamide by LC-MS/MS were applied to real samples and were successfully used for quantitative monitoring in the total diet study and this can be applied to risk assessment in various food matrices. PMID:26483884

  10. [Effects of grafting on photosynthesis of sweet pepper seedlings under low temperature and weak light intensity].

    PubMed

    Zheng, Nan; Wang, Mei-ling; Wang, Hong-tao; Ai, Xi-zhen

    2009-03-01

    Sweet pepper 'Chifengtexuan' seedlings were grafted onto 'Weishi' and 'Buyeding' rootstocks, treated with low temperature (8 degrees C/ 5 degrees C) and weak light intensity (100 micromol x m(-2) s(-1)) for 7 days, and then recovered under normal conditions (25 degrees C/ 18 degrees C, PFD 550-600 micromol x s(-1)) for 3 days to study the variations of their gas exchange parameters, carboxylation efficiency, and fluorescence parameters, with the own-rooted 'Chifengtexuan' seedlings as the control. The results showed that on the 3rd day of low temperature and weak light intensity stress, the photosynthetic rate (Pn), stomatal conductance (Gs), and carboxylation efficiency (CE) of both own-rooted and grafted seedling leaves decreased more than 50%, and after then, the Pn and Gs tended to stable while CE decreased continually. The intercellular CO2 concentration (Ci) declined first, but enhanced after the 4th day of the stress. Low temperature and weak light intensity decreased the maximal photochemical efficiency of PS II in darkness (Fv/Fm), actual photochemical efficiency of PS II during illumination (phi (PS II)) and electron transport rate (ETR), but increased the initial fluorescence (Fo), which implied that the stress caused definite damage of photosynthetic apparatus. However, the damage diminished after 3 days of recovery. Comparing with those of own-rooted seedlings, the Pn, Gs, CE, phi(PS II), and Fv/Fm of grafted seedlings increased to various degrees, and Fo decreased markedly during the stress. It was concluded that grafting could promote the photosynthetic function, and alleviate the effects of low temperature and weak light intensity on the photosynthesis of sweet pepper seedlings.

  11. [Effects of low temperature- and weak light stress and its recovery on the photosynthesis and chlorophyll fluorescence parameters of cut flower chrysanthemum].

    PubMed

    Liang, Fang; Zheng, Cheng-Shu; Sun, Xian-Zhi; Wang, Wen-Li

    2010-01-01

    The cut flower chrysanthemum 'Jinba' was respectively treated with lower temperature and weaker light (16 degrees C/ 12 degrees C, PFD 100 micromol x m(-2) x s(-1)) and critical low temperature and weak light (12 degrees C/8 degrees C, PFD 60 micromol x m(-2) x s(-1)) for 11 days, and then transferred to normal condition (22 degrees C/18 degrees C, PFD 450 micromol x m(-2) x s(-1)) for 11 days, aimed to study the low temperature- and weak light stress and its recovery on the photosynthesis and chlorophyll fluorescence of chrysanthemum leaves. Under the stress of lower temperature and weaker light, the net photosynthetic rate (P(n)) and stomatal limitation (L(s)) of chrysanthemum leaves decreased while the intercellular CO2 concentration (C(i)) increased, the maximal photochemical efficiency of PS II (F(v)/F(m)) in dark and the initial fluorescence (F(o)) had no obvious change, but the maximal photochemical efficiency of PS II (F(v)'/F(m)') in light increased after an initial decrease. Contrarily, under the stress of critical low temperature and weak light, the F(o) increased, and the F(v)/F(m) and F(v)'/F(m)' decreased significantly. The quantum yield of PS II electron transport (phi(PS II)), photochemical quenching (q(p)), and apparent photosynthetic electron transfer rate (ETR) of chrysanthemum leaves decreased with increasing stress and time, and recovered quickly after the release of lower temperature- and weaker light stress but more slowly after the release of critical low temperature- and weak light stress. At the same time, the photochemistry react rate (Prate) decreased, but the hot dissipation of antenna (Drate) and the energy dissipation of PS II (Ex) increased under the stress conditions. Drate was the main pathway of superfluous light allocation.

  12. A combined computational and experimental study on DNA-photocleavage of Ru(II) polypyridyl complexes [Ru(bpy)2(L)]2+ (L = pip, o-mopip and p-mopip).

    PubMed

    Xu, Lian-Cai; Shi, Shuo; Li, Jun; Liao, Si-Yan; Zheng, Kang-Cheng; Ji, Liang-Nian

    2008-01-14

    A combined computational and experimental study on DNA-photocleavage by Ru(II) polypyridyl complexes [Ru(bpy)2(L)]2+ 1-3 (bpy = 2,2-bipyridine; L: pip = 2-phenylimidazo[4,5-f]1,10-phenanthroline, o-mopip = 2-(2-methoxyphenyl)imidazo[4,5-f]1,10-phenanthroline and p-mopip = 2-(4-methoxyphenyl)imidazo[4,5-f]1,10-phenanthroline) has been carried out. The DNA-photocleavage behavior of these complexes was comparably measured by the gel electrophoresis experiments. The experimental results show that they can induce considerable DNA-photocleavage, and have different DNA-photocleavage efficiencies (phi) following the order phi (1) < phi (2) < phi (3). In order to understand their DNA-photocleavage mechanism and trend, the theoretical studies on the geometric and electronic structures of these complexes in the ground state (S0), the first singlet excited state (S1) and triplet excited states (T1), have been carried out using the density functional theory (DFT/TD-DFT), Hartree-Fock (HF) and configuration interaction singles (CIS) methods. In particular, the reduction potentials (E*red) of the excited complexes in aqueous solution, which seem to be closely responsible for the DNA-photocleavage behavior, were calculated to be 0.966 V (vs. SCE) for complex , 1.024 V (vs. SCE) for complex and 1.030 V (vs. SCE) for complex , respectively. Such computational results show that the reduction potentials of the excited complexes reach the theoretical range for oxidizing some DNA-bases, and follow the order E*red (1) < E*red (2) < E*red (3). Therefore, here, in addition to the general theoretical explanation of their DNA-photocleavage mechanism according to our recent report, a further explanation on the trend of their DNA-photocleavage efficiencies, i.e., phi (1) < phi (2) < phi (3), was reasonably carried out, on the basis of the calculated electrochemical properties in the excited states as well as general photochemical insights. PMID:18097496

  13. [Effects of different LED light qualities on growth, photosynthetic characteristics and nutritional quality of savoy].

    PubMed

    Chen, Xiang-Wei; Liu, Shi-Qi; Wang, Yue; Liu, Jing-Kai; Feng, Lei

    2014-07-01

    LED lighting has several unique advantages over traditional lighting, including the ability to control spectral composition, the ability to produce very high light levels with low radiant heat output when cooled properly, and the ability to maintain useful light output for years without replacement. LED light sources have the capability of controlling true spectral composition, allowing wavelengths to match plant photoreceptors to provide more optimal production to regulate plant morphology and nutritional quality. In this paper, the effects of different light qualities on the growth, photosynthetic response and nutritional quality of savoy were studied. With 'Juhua-Xiaobaye' savoy as the test plant, full red light, full blue light, red/blue (3/1) light, red/blue (7/1) light and white/red/blue (3/2/1) light generated by light-emitting diodes were applied with white light generated by fluorescent lamps as control. The results showed that red light could increase biomass and stem diameter, but blue light showed the opposite effect. The chlorophyll (a+b) content was the highest in the red/blue (7/1) light treatment, and chlorophyll (a+b) content was correlated with the red/blue ratio positively. Blue light decreased chlorophyll (a + b) content of savoy, and increased chlorophyll a/b. The photosynthetic rate (Pn) and transpiration rate under red light were the highest, and increased by 43.8% and 55.1% compared with the control. Intercellular CO2 concentration and conductance were the highest under blue light. The fluorescence parameters of the plant were significantly affected by light quality. Values of the maximal photochemical efficiency of PS II (Fv/Fm), Fv/Fo and Phi(PS II) were the highest under white light. Soluble sugar, soluble protein and vitamin C contents were the highest under red, blue and white light, respectively. Comprehensive analysis indicated that red/blue (7/1) light was the best light combination to increase leaf chlorophyll (a+b) content and net

  14. [Effects of nitrogen application and elevated atmospheric CO2 on electron transport and energy partitioning in flag leaf photosynthesis of wheat].

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xu-cheng; Yu, Xian-feng; Ma, Yi-fan

    2011-03-01

    Wheat (Triticum aestivum) plants were pot-cultured in open top chambers at the nitrogen application rate of 0 and 200 mg x kg(-1) soil and the atmospheric CO2 concentration of 400 and 760 micromol x mol(-1). Through the determination of flag leaf nitrogen and chlorophyll contents, photosynthetic rate (Pn)-intercellar CO2 concentration (Ci) response curve, and chlorophyll fluorescence parameters at heading stage, the photosynthetic electron transport rate and others were calculated, aimed to investigate the effects of nitrogen application and elevated atmospheric CO2 concentration on the photosynthetic energy partitioning in wheat flag leaves. Elevated atmospheric CO2 concentration decreased the leaf nitrogen and chlorophyll contents, compared with the ambient one, and the chlorophyll a/b ratio increased at the nitrogen application rate of 200 mg x kg(-1). With the application of nitrogen, no evident variations were observed in the maximal photochemical efficiency (Fv/Fm), maximal quantum yield under irradiance (Fv'/Fm') of PS II reaction center, photochemical fluorescence quenching coefficient (q(p)), and actual PS II efficiency under irradiance (phi(PS II) at elevated atmospheric CO2 concentration, and the total photosynthetic electron transport rate (J(F)) of PS II reaction center had no evident increase, though the non-photochemical fluorescence quenching coefficient (NPQ) decreased significantly. With no nitrogen application, the Fv'/Fm', psi(PS II), and NPQ at elevated atmospheric CO2 concentration decreased significantly, and the J(F) had a significant decrease though the Fv/Fm and q(p) did not vary remarkably. Nitrogen application increased the J(F) and photochemical electron transport rate (Jc); while elevated atmospheric CO2 concentration decreased the photorespiration electron transport rate (J0), Rubisco oxidation rate (V0), ratio of photorespiration to photochemical electron transport rate (J0/Jc) , and Rubisco oxidation/carboxylation rate (Vo/Vc), but

  15. [Effects of different LED light qualities on growth, photosynthetic characteristics and nutritional quality of savoy].

    PubMed

    Chen, Xiang-Wei; Liu, Shi-Qi; Wang, Yue; Liu, Jing-Kai; Feng, Lei

    2014-07-01

    LED lighting has several unique advantages over traditional lighting, including the ability to control spectral composition, the ability to produce very high light levels with low radiant heat output when cooled properly, and the ability to maintain useful light output for years without replacement. LED light sources have the capability of controlling true spectral composition, allowing wavelengths to match plant photoreceptors to provide more optimal production to regulate plant morphology and nutritional quality. In this paper, the effects of different light qualities on the growth, photosynthetic response and nutritional quality of savoy were studied. With 'Juhua-Xiaobaye' savoy as the test plant, full red light, full blue light, red/blue (3/1) light, red/blue (7/1) light and white/red/blue (3/2/1) light generated by light-emitting diodes were applied with white light generated by fluorescent lamps as control. The results showed that red light could increase biomass and stem diameter, but blue light showed the opposite effect. The chlorophyll (a+b) content was the highest in the red/blue (7/1) light treatment, and chlorophyll (a+b) content was correlated with the red/blue ratio positively. Blue light decreased chlorophyll (a + b) content of savoy, and increased chlorophyll a/b. The photosynthetic rate (Pn) and transpiration rate under red light were the highest, and increased by 43.8% and 55.1% compared with the control. Intercellular CO2 concentration and conductance were the highest under blue light. The fluorescence parameters of the plant were significantly affected by light quality. Values of the maximal photochemical efficiency of PS II (Fv/Fm), Fv/Fo and Phi(PS II) were the highest under white light. Soluble sugar, soluble protein and vitamin C contents were the highest under red, blue and white light, respectively. Comprehensive analysis indicated that red/blue (7/1) light was the best light combination to increase leaf chlorophyll (a+b) content and net

  16. Synthetic routes to the food carcinogen 2 amino-3,8-dimethylimidazo[4,5-f]quinoxaline (8-MeIQx) and related compounds.

    PubMed

    Grivas, S

    1995-01-01

    A review of five different routes to the synthesis of the grilled or fried food carcinogen 2-amino-3,8-dimethylimidazo[4,5-f]quinoxaline (8-MeIQx) and of closely related compounds developed in different laboratories is presented. Interest in the synthesis of these amines began in the late 1970s when the research group led by Professor T. Sugimura (National Cancer Center, Tokyo) detected extremely high mutagenicity in the charred parts of fish and meat that could not be explained only by the presence of polyaromatic hydrocarbons. A number of new mutagenic heterocyclic amines have been detected, isolated and identified since then (de Meester, 1989; Overvik and Gustafsson, 1990; Felton and Knize, 1991; Jägerstad et al., 1991). It is still not entirely clear how these compounds are formed during cooking. For the "IQ-group" of the amines (2-amino-3-methylimidazo-quinoline and -quinoxaline congeners), a formation pathway from Maillard reaction products and creatinine was conceived by Professor K. Olsson (this laboratory) and presented at the 183rd meeting of the American Chemical Society, Las Vegas in 1982 (Jägerstad et al., 1983). However, the amounts of the amines formed during cooking or in model reaction systems are very small. Therefore, efficient and unambiguous synthetic methods yielding the compounds in isomerically pure form are required for reference purposes in analytical work and structure-biological activity studies. For instance, compare the mutagenicity of 4,8- and 5,8-DiMeIQx, and PhIP and its 3-methyl isomer shown on the following page. The pure compounds are also required in large quantities for long-term animal feeding studies. The length of this article does not allow a presentation of the published synthetic methods for all the heterocyclic amines. Therefore, the syntheses of only one of the food mutagens, 8-MeIQx, and some related compounds are presented. This will hopefully demonstrate the sort of problems the organic chemist encounters and some

  17. Inflation after WMAP3: confronting the slow-roll and exact power spectra with CMB data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martin, Jérôme; Ringeval, Christophe

    2006-08-01

    The implications of the WMAP (Wilkinson Microwave Anisotropy Probe) third year data for inflation are investigated using both the slow-roll approximation and an exact numerical integration of the inflationary power spectra including a phenomenological modelling of the reheating era. At slow-roll leading order, the constraints epsi1 < 0.022 and -0.07 < epsi2 < 0.07 are obtained at the 95% CL (confidence level) implying a tensor to scalar ratio r10 < 0.21 and a Hubble parameter during inflation H/mPl < 1.3 × 10-5. At next-to-leading order, a tendency for epsi3 > 0 is observed. With regard to the exact numerical integration, large field models, V(\\phi)\\propto \\phi^p , with p > 3.1 are now excluded at the 95% CL. Small field models, V(\\phi)\\propto 1-(\\phi /\\mu)^p , are still compatible with the data for all values of p. However, if μ/mPl < 10 is assumed, then the case p = 2 is slightly disfavoured. In addition, mild constraints on the reheating temperature for an extreme equation of state w_{\\mathrm {reh}}\\gtrsim-1/3 are found, namely Treh > 2 TeV at the 95% CL. Hybrid models are disfavoured by the data, the best fit model having \\Delta \\chi ^2\\simeq+5 with two extra parameters in comparison with large field models. Running mass models remain compatible, but no prior independent constraints can be obtained. Finally, superimposed oscillations of trans-Planckian origin are studied. The vanilla slow-roll model is still the most probable one. However, the overall statistical weight in favour of superimposed oscillations has increased in comparison with the WMAP first year data, the amplitude of the oscillations satisfying 2|x|σ0 < 0.76 at the 95% CL. The best fit model leads to an improvement of \\Delta \\chi^2\\simeq-12 for three extra parameters. Moreover, compared to other oscillatory patterns, the logarithmic shape is favoured.

  18. Role of Metabolic Enzymes P450 (CYP) on Activating Procarcinogen and their Polymorphisms on the Risk of Cancers.

    PubMed

    He, Xin; Feng, Shan

    2015-01-01

    Cytochrome P450 (CYP450) enzymes are the most important metabolizing enzyme family exists among all organs. Apart from their role in the deactivation of most endogenous compounds and xenobiotics, they also mediate most procarcinogens oxidation to ultimate carcinogens. There are several modes of CYP450s activation of procarcinogens. 1) Formation of epoxide and diol-epoxides intermediates, such as CYP1A1 and CYP1B1 mediates PAHs oxidation to epoxide intermediates; 2) Formation of diazonium ions, such as CYP2A6, CYP2A13 and CYP2E1 mediates activation of most nitrosamines to unstable metabolites, which can rearrange to give diazonium ions. 3) Formation of reactive semiquinones and quinines, such as CYP1A1 and CYP1B1 transformation of estradiol to catechol estrogens, subsequently formation semiquinones; 4) Formation of toxic O-esterification, such as CYP1A1 and CYP1A2 metabolizes PhIP to N(2)-acetoxy-PhIP and N(2)-sulfonyloxy-PhIP, which are carcinogenic metabolites. 5) Formation of free radical, such as CYP2E1 is involved in activation tetrachloromethane to free radicals. While for CYP2B6 and CYP2D6, only a minor role has been found in procarcinogens activation. In addition, as the gene polymorphisms reflected, the polymorphisms of CYP1A1 (-3801T/C and -4889A/G), CYP1A2 (- 163C/A and -2467T/delT), CYP1B1 (-48G/C, -119G/T and -432G/C), CYP2E1 (-1293G/C and -1053 C/T) have been associated with an increased risk of lung cancer. The polymorphisms CYP1A1 (-3801T/C and -4889A/G), and CYP2E1 (PstI/Rsa and 9-bp insertion) have an association with higher risk colon cancers, whereas CYP1A2 (-163C/A and -3860G/A) polymorphism is found to be among the protective factors. The polymorphisms CYP1A1 (-3801T/C and -4889A/G), CYP1B1 -432G/C, CYP2B6 (-516G/T and -785A/G) may increase the risk of breast cancer. In conclusion, CYP1A1, CYP1A2, CYP1B1, CYP2A6, and CYP2E1 are responsible for most of the procarcinogens activation, and their gene polymorphisms are associated with the risk of

  19. A series of Cd(II) complexes with {pi}-{pi} stacking and hydrogen bonding interactions: Structural diversities by varying the ligands

    SciTech Connect

    Wang Xiuli; Zhang Jinxia; Liu Guocheng; Lin Hongyan

    2011-02-15

    Seven new Cd(II) complexes consisting of different phenanthroline derivatives and organic acid ligands, formulated as [Cd(PIP){sub 2}(dnba){sub 2}] (1), [Cd(PIP)(ox)].H{sub 2}O (2), [Cd(PIP)(1,4-bdc)(H{sub 2}O)].4H{sub 2}O (3), [Cd(3-PIP){sub 2}(H{sub 2}O){sub 2}].4H{sub 2}O (4), [Cd{sub 2}(3-PIP){sub 4}(4,4'-bpdc)(H{sub 2}O){sub 2}].5H{sub 2}O (5), [Cd(3-PIP)(nip)(H{sub 2}O)].H{sub 2}O (6), [Cd{sub 2}(TIP){sub 4}(4,4'-bpdc)(H{sub 2}O){sub 2}].3H{sub 2}O (7) (PIP=2-phenylimidazo[4,5-f]1,10-phenanthroline, 3-PIP=2-(3-pyridyl)imidazo[4,5-f]1,10-phenanthroline, TIP=2-(2-thienyl)imidazo[4,5-f]1,10-phenanthroline, Hdnba=3,5-dinitrobenzoic acid, H{sub 2}ox=oxalic acid, 1,4-H{sub 2}bdc=benzene-1,4-dicarboxylic acid, 4,4'-H{sub 2}bpdc=biphenyl-4,4'-dicarboxylic acid, H{sub 2}nip=5-nitroisophthalic acid) have been synthesized under hydrothermal conditions. Complexes 1 and 4 possess mononuclear structures; complexes 5 and 7 are isostructural and have dinuclear structures; complexes 2 and 3 feature 1D chain structures; complex 6 contains 1D double chain, which are further extended to a 3D supramolecular structure by {pi}-{pi} stacking and hydrogen bonding interactions. The N-donor ligands with extended {pi}-system and organic acid ligands play a crucial role in the formation of the final supramolecular frameworks. Moreover, thermal properties and fluorescence of 1-7 are also investigated. -- Graphical abstract: Seven new supramolecular architectures have been successfully isolated under hydrothermal conditions by reactions of different phen derivatives and Cd(II) salts together with organic carboxylate anions auxiliary ligands. Display Omitted Research highlights: {yields} Complexes 1-7 are 0D or 1D polymeric structure, the {pi}-{pi} stacking and H-bonding interactions extend the complexes into 3D supramolecular network. To our knowledge, systematic study on {pi}-{pi} stacking and H-bonding interactions in cadmium(II) complexes are still limited. {yields} The structural