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Sample records for phip 2-amino-1-methyl-6 phenylimidazo

  1. The strict anaerobic gut microbe Eubacterium hallii transforms the carcinogenic dietary heterocyclic amine 2-amino-1-methyl-6-phenylimidazo[4,5-b]pyridine (PhIP).

    PubMed

    Fekry, Mostafa I; Engels, Christina; Zhang, Jianbo; Schwab, Clarissa; Lacroix, Christophe; Sturla, Shana J; Chassard, Christophe

    2016-04-01

    2-Amino-1-methyl-6-phenylimidazo(4,5-b)pyridine (PhIP) is the most abundant food-derived heterocyclic aromatic amine in well-cooked meats and may contribute to the recognized carcinogenicity of processed meats. In this study, a panel of human gut microbes was tested for their ability to convert PhIP to a conjugate PhIP-M1. Eubacterium hallii was newly identified to catalyse the conversion of PhIP to PhIP-M1 with high efficiency. The reaction was shown to involve the metabolism of glycerol to 3-hydroxypropionaldehyde as a key pathway. The proficiency of E. hallii in transforming PhIP in the presence of a complex intestinal microbiota was confirmed using batch fermentations inoculated with effluents from a continuous intestinal fermentation model mimicking human proximal and distal colon microbiota. In batch fermentations inoculated with proximal colon microbiota, PhIP-M1 transformation corresponded to an up to 300-fold increase of E. hallii. In contrast, PhIP transformation of distal colon microbiota was low but increased by 120-fold after supplementation with E. hallii. These findings indicate for the first time the relevance of the abundant commensal strict anaerobe E. hallii in the transformation of a dietary carcinogen that could contribute to its detoxification in the human colon.

  2. 2-Amino-1-methyl-6-phenylimidazo [4,5-b]pyridine (PhIP) in human hair as biomarker for dietary exposure.

    PubMed

    R Reistad S H Nyholm L S Haug G Becher J Alexander

    1999-01-01

    Heterocyclic aromatic amines (HAAs), formed during cooking of meat, are multipotent rodent carcinogens and are suspected to cause cancer in humans. In a search for suitable biomarkers for human dietary exposure to HAAs, we have investigated the concentration of a common fried food mutagen, 2-amino-1-methyl-6-phenylimidazo [4,5-b]pyridine (PhIP), in human hair. Fourteen volunteers participated in the study, each contributing hair from a regular haircut, and completing a questionnaire about consumption of fried/grilled meat and smoking habits. Hair samples were treated with 1 N NaOH at 100 C, and the HAAs extracted under alkaline and acidic conditions, derivatized and analysed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. PhIP was found in 12 out of 14 hair samples, in amounts from approx. 50 to 5000 pg g(-1) hair, while two samples were below the detection limit (<50 pg g(-1) hair). Grey/white hair straws from subjects with a mixture of coloured and grey/white hair had about a 50% reduction in PhIP concentration as compared with the natural hair mixture from the same person. This demonstrates that melanin, responsible for hair colour and spectrophotometrically characterized in the samples, participates in PhIP binding. Thus, when HAA binding components of the hair are taken into account, hair seems like an interesting object of further investigation as a biomarker for human exposure to dietary PhIP.

  3. Effect of sugarcane molasses extract on the formation of 2-amino-1-methyl-6-phenylimidazo[4,5-b]pyridine (PhIP) in a model system.

    PubMed

    Yu, Di; Chen, Ming-Shun; Yu, Shu-Juan

    2016-04-15

    Molasses, the main by-product of sugar production, is a well-known source of antioxidants. In this study, sugarcane molasses extract was investigated for its total phenolic content and in vitro antioxidant capacity. The experimental total phenolic content was 101.3 mg of gallic acid equivalent (GAE) in 1 g of extract, IC50 of Trolox and sugarcane molasses extract were 125.33 μg/ml and 126.0 μg/ml, respectively. A chemical model system showed that the sugarcane molasses extract effectively reduced the formation of phenylacetaldehyde and the aldol condensation product, meanwhile, the amount of 2-amino-1-methyl-6-phenylimidazo[4,5-b]pyridine (PhIP) also decreased. This could be due to the reaction between the phenolic compounds of sugarcane molasses extract and the carbonyl group of phenylacetaldehyde inhibiting the aldol condensation product formation, and this would suppress the formation of PhIP. A pathway that phenolic compounds inhibited the formation of PhIP is proposed. This pathway also suggested a mechanism for how the sugarcane affects the formation of PHIP. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Eumelanin is a major determinant for 2-amino-1-methyl-6-phenylimidazo[4,5-b]pyridine (PhIP) incorporation into hair of mice.

    PubMed

    Hegstad, Soffrid; Reistad, Ragnhild; Haug, Line S; Alexander, Jan

    2002-06-01

    Mice with different hair pigmentation were studied to evaluate the role of melanin in the incorporation of 2-amino-1-methyl-6-phenylimidazo[4,5-b]pyridine (PhIP) into hair. Mice C57BL/6J-c2j/+ (white), C57BL/6J-Ay (yellow), C57L/J (grey), C57BR/cdJ (brown) and C57BL/6J (black) were dosed with PhIP: 7-9 days old (total amount: 0.006 or 0.58 mg/kg b.wt., for 4 days) and adults (total amount 50 mg/kg b.wt. during 8 weeks). Hair was collected either 30 days after the last PhIP administration (new-born mice) or 8 weeks after the first administration (adult mice). PhIP was incorporated into black hair to a greater extent than into brown, grey, yellow and non-pigmented hair. The concentration of PhIP in the hair of new-born mice exposed to 0.58 mg PhIP/kg b.wt. were (mean+/-S.D.): 328+/-135 (black), 134+/-41 (brown), 9.1+/-1.2 (yellow) and 5.2+/-1.4 (white) ng/g hair. The PhIP concentrations in the hair of adult mice exposed to 50 mg/kg b.wt. were: 4750+/-1449 (black), 810+/-235 (brown), 541+/-119 (grey), 35.5+/-4.6 (yellow) and 21.6+/-8.8 (white) ng/g, and the eumelanin hair concentration in the same animals decreased in a similar pattern. A linear relationship (r2= 1.00, P<0.0001) between the relative PhIP incorporation and the eumelanin concentration in hair was found.

  5. Effect of lipid oxidation products on the formation of 2-amino-1-methyl-6-phenylimidazo[4,5-b]pyridine (PhIP) in model systems.

    PubMed

    Zamora, Rosario; Alcón, Esmeralda; Hidalgo, Francisco J

    2012-12-15

    Ternary mixtures of creatinine, phenylalanine and lipids (or carbohydrates) were heated at 200°C for 1h to determine the potential contribution of lipids to the formation of 2-amino-1-methyl-6-phenylimidazo[4,5-b]pyridine (PhIP). Although unoxidised lipids did not contribute to PhIP formation, their oxidation produced many compounds that significantly increased the formation of PhIP. Among the different lipid oxidation products (LOPs) studied, which included ω-6 and ω-3 derived lipid hydroperoxides, 2,4-alkadienals, 2-alkenals, 4,5-epoxy-2-alkenals, 4-oxo-2-alkenals, and 4-hydroxy-2-nonenal, 4-oxo-2-nonenal was the most reactive compound. It produced 32.48 pmol of PhIP/μmol of creatinine in comparison with the 7.92 pmol of PhIP/μmol of creatinine produced by the control phenylalanine/creatinine reaction mixture. 4-Oxo-2-nonenal reactivity was similar to that of most carbohydrates; although ribose and arabinose produced more PhIP (44-46 pmol of PhIP/μmol of creatinine). In addition to single LOP, the addition of oxidised soybean oil for 24-144 h at 60°C also increased PhIP formation. All these results pointed out to a potential contribution of LOP to the formation of PhIP in food products. This contribution will depend on the lipid content of the food product and its easiness to be oxidised. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Inhibitory effects of selected dietary flavonoids on the formation of total heterocyclic amines and 2-amino-1-methyl-6-phenylimidazo[4,5-b]pyridine (PhIP) in roast beef patties and in chemical models.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Qin; Zhang, Shuang; Wang, Mingfu; Chen, Jie; Zheng, Zong-Ping

    2016-02-01

    In this study, the inhibitory effects of eight kinds of dietary flavonoids on the formation of heterocyclic amines (HAs) were investigated in roast beef patties. The results showed that most of them exhibited significant inhibition on both total HAs and 2-amino-1-methyl-6-phenylimidazo[4,5-b]pyridine (PhIP), one of the most abundant HAs. Among the studied flavonoids, phlorizin, epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG), and quercetin were found to be the most effective in both the reductions of total HAs (55-70%) and PhIP (60-80%). The reaction activity between the flavonoid and phenylacetaldehyde, a key intermediate in PhIP formation, showed a good correlation with the inhibition of PhIP formation in an aqueous model system (R(2) = 0.8904) and a di(ethylene) glycol reaction system (R(2) = 0.6514). However, no significant correlation was found between the flavonoid antioxidant capacity and PhIP formation (R(2) = 0.2359). The postulated adducts of flavonoids-phenylacetaldehyde were further confirmed by LC-MS analysis in the chemical models. Since phenylacetaldehyde is the chief intermediate in PhIP formation, these results suggest that the inhibitory effects of flavonoids on PhIP formation are mainly dependent on their abilities to trap phenylacetaldehyde as opposed to their antioxidant capacities.

  7. Effects of 2-amino-1-methyl-6-phenylimidazo [4, 5-b] pyridine (PhIP) on histopathology, oxidative stress, and expression of c-fos, c-jun and p16 in rat stomachs.

    PubMed

    Li, Ruijin; Tian, Jingjing; Li, Wanqing; Xie, Jingfang

    2013-05-01

    2-Amino-1-methyl-6-phenylimidazo [4, 5-b] pyridine (PhIP) is one of the most abundant heterocyclic amines (HCAs) generated from overcooking meat at high temperatures. To understand the possible mechanism of PhIP-associated stomach cancer, the effects of PhIP on morphology, oxidative stress, gene expression of c-fos, c-jun and p16 in rat stomachs were investigated. The results showed that (1) 15mg/kg body weight PhIP induced obvious histopathological changes in gastric mucosa; (2) PhIP (10 and/or 15mg/kg) significantly decreased superoxide dismutase (SOD) and glutathioneperoxidase (GPx) activities, while increased catalase (CAT) activity compared with the control. With the elevated doses of PhIP, malondialdehyde (MDA) contents, protein carbonyl (PCO) contents and DNA-protein crosslinks (DPC) coefficients were significantly raised in a dose-dependent manner; (3) PhIP at the doses of 10mg/kg and/or 15mg/kg significantly inhibited p16 mRNA and protein expression, whereas enhanced c-fos and c-jun expression relative to control. The data indicated that PhIP could cause stomach injury, oxidative stress in rat stomachs as well as the activation of c-fos and c-jun and inactivation of p16, which may play a role in the pathogenesis of PhIP-associated stomach cancer. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. A Method to Biomonitor the Cooked Meat Carcinogen 2-Amino-1-methyl-6-phenylimidazo[4,5-b]pyridine (PhIP) in Dyed Hair by Ultra Performance Liquid Chromatography-Orbitrap High Resolution Multistage Mass Spectrometry

    PubMed Central

    Guo, Jingshu; Yonemori, Kim; Le Marchand, Loïc; Turesky, Robert J.

    2015-01-01

    2-Amino-1-methyl-6-phenylimidazo[4,5-b]pyridine (PhIP) is a carcinogenic heterocyclic aromatic amine formed in cooked meat. The use of naturally colored hair containing PhIP can serve as a long-term biomarker of exposure to this carcinogen. However, the measurement of PhIP in dyed hair, a cosmetic treatment commonly used by the adult population, is challenging because the dye process introduces a complex mixture of chemicals into the hair matrix, which interfere with the measurement of PhIP. The high-resolution scanning features of the Orbitrap Fusion™ mass spectrometer were employed to biomonitor PhIP in dyed hair. Because of the complexity of chemicals in the hair dye, the consecutive reaction monitoring of PhIP at the MS3 scan stage was employed to selectively remove the isobaric interferences. The limit of quantification (LOQ) of PhIP was 84 parts-per-trillion (ppt) employing 50 mg hair. Calibration curves were generated in dyed hair matrices and showed good linearity (40 to 1000 pg PhIP/g hair) with a goodness-of-fit regression value r2 > 0.9978. The within-day (between-day) coefficients of variation were 7.7% (17%) and 5.4% (6.1%), respectively, with dyed hair samples spiked with PhIP at 200 and 600 ppt. The levels of PhIP accrued in dyed hair from volunteers on a semi-controlled feeding study who ingested known levels of PhIP were comparable to the levels of PhIP accrued in hair of subjects with natural hair color. The method was successfully employed to measure PhIP in non-dyed and dyed hair biospecimens of participants in a case-control study of colorectal adenoma on their regular diet. PMID:25969997

  9. Cooking methods and the formation of PhIP (2-Amino, 1-methyl, 6-phenylimidazo[4,5-b] pyridine) in the crust of the habitually consumed meat in Argentina.

    PubMed

    Reartes, Gabriela Angelina; Di Paola Naranjo, Romina Daniela; Eynard, Aldo Renato; Muñoz, Sonia Edith

    2016-06-01

    Content of carcinogenic molecules like, 2-Amino, 1-methyl, 6-phenylimidazo[4,5-b] pyridine in meals is one of the main mutagenic substances formed during meat cooking, and it can be used as a dietary exposure marker. Our objective was to estimate the amount of PhIP consumed from habitual Argentinean diet, rich in red meats, comparing different cooking procedures and meat type. Samples (n = 240) of lean and fatty beef, chicken, pork, and fish were cooked using different methods: griddle, grill, sauté pan, and oven. Samples were: Overcooked, or cooked with a microbiologically suitable or "healthy technique" (HT). The PhIP was determined by HPLC-MS. Meats cooked using HT formed little crust amounts and PhIP was below the detection levels. In overcooked meats, large amounts of crust were formed in lean meats, fatty beef, fatty chicken and baked pork. PhIP was measured in lean meats sauted or cooked on a griddle, a method reaching temperatures until 250 °C.It was estimated that Argentine people eats about 12,268.0 ng/day of PhIP being these values above those tolerated limits for total dietary heterocyclic amines in some developed countries. Hence, cooking small meat portions, at medium temperature, avoiding prolonged cooking and preferring baked lean meats could be recommended as a healthier habit. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  10. Bcrp1;Mdr1a/b;Mrp2 combination knockout mice: altered disposition of the dietary carcinogen PhIP (2-amino-1-methyl-6-phenylimidazo[4,5-b]pyridine) and its genotoxic metabolites.

    PubMed

    Vlaming, Maria L H; Teunissen, Sebastiaan F; van de Steeg, Evita; van Esch, Anita; Wagenaar, Els; Brunsveld, Luc; de Greef, Tom F A; Rosing, Hilde; Schellens, Jan H M; Beijnen, Jos H; Schinkel, Alfred H

    2014-03-01

    The multidrug transporters breast cancer resistance protein (BCRP), multidrug-resistance protein 1 (MDR1), and multidrug-resistance-associated protein (MRP) 2 and 3 eliminate toxic compounds from tissues and the body and affect the pharmacokinetics of many drugs and other potentially toxic compounds. The food-derived carcinogen PhIP (2-amino-1-methyl-6-phenylimidazo[4,5-b]pyridine) is transported by BCRP, MDR1, and MRP2. To investigate the overlapping functions of Bcrp1, Mdr1a/b, and Mrp2 in vivo, we generated Bcrp1;Mdr1a/b;Mrp2(-/-) mice, which are viable and fertile. These mice, together with Bcrp1;Mrp2;Mrp3(-/-) mice, were used to study the effects of the multidrug transporters on the pharmacokinetics of PhIP and its metabolites. Thirty minutes after oral or intravenous administration of PhIP (1 mg/kg), the PhIP levels in the small intestine were reduced 4- to 6-fold in Bcrp1;Mdr1a/b;Mrp2(-/) (-) and Bcrp1;Mrp2;Mrp3(-/-) mice compared with wild-type mice. Fecal excretion of PhIP was reduced 8- to 20-fold in knockouts. Biliary PhIP excretion was reduced 41-fold in Bcrp1;Mdr1a/b;Mrp2(-/-) mice. Biliary and small intestine levels of PhIP metabolites were reduced in Bcrp1;Mrp2-deficient mice. Furthermore, in both knockout strains, kidney levels and urinary excretion of genotoxic PhIP-metabolites were significantly increased, suggesting that reduced biliary excretion of PhIP and PhIP metabolites leads to increased urinary excretion of these metabolites and increased systemic exposure. Bcrp1 and Mdr1a limited PhIP brain accumulation. In Bcrp1;Mrp2;Mrp3(-/-), but not Bcrp1;Mdr1a/b;Mrp(-/-) mice, the carcinogenic metabolites N2-OH-PhIP (2-hydroxyamino-1-methyl-6-phenylimidazo[4,5-b]pyridine) and PhIP-5-sulfate (a genotoxicity marker) accumulated in liver tissue, indicating that Mrp3 is involved in the sinusoidal secretion of these compounds. We conclude that Bcrp1, Mdr1a/b, Mrp2, and Mrp3 significantly affect tissue disposition and biliary and fecal elimination of PhIP

  11. High susceptibility of the ACI and spontaneously hypertensive rat (SHR) strains to 2-amino-1-methyl-6-phenylimidazo[4,5-b]pyridine (PhIP) prostate carcinogenesis.

    PubMed

    Inaguma, Shingo; Takahashi, Satoru; Ohnishi, Hiroyuki; Suzuki, Shugo; Cho, Young-Man; Shirai, Tomoyuki

    2003-11-01

    Carcinogenic responses in the prostate to 2-amino-1-methyl-6-phenylimidazo[4,5-b]pyridine (PhIP) were compared among seven rat strains (F344, ACI, Spontaneously Hypertensive Rat (SHR), Sprague-Dawley (SD), Wistar, Lewis and Brown Norway (BN)). Ten-week-old animals of each strain were given PhIP at 400 ppm in the diet for 20 weeks then maintained until week 54. The final survival rates were 92, 92, 83, 75, 67, 42 and 42%, respectively, and the SHR strain showed the highest sensitivity with regard to development of prostatic intraepithelial neoplasias (PINs) in the ventral prostate. With regard to the induction of adenocarcinomas of the ventral prostate, the ACI strain was most sensitive, whereas Lewis and F344 rats were relatively resistant. No adenocarcinomas were found in the dorsolateral or anterior prostate or seminal vesicles in any of the strains. The levels of serum testosterone and estrogen, PhIP-DNA adducts and cell kinetics did not correlate with the development of ventral prostatic lesions and thus other factors are presumably responsible for the variations in susceptibility. The present data indicate that ACI and SHR rats are appropriate strains for experimental investigation of PhIP-induced prostate carcinogenesis.

  12. ABCG2/BCRP decreases the transfer of a food-born chemical carcinogen, 2-amino-1-methyl-6-phenylimidazo[4,5-b]pyridine (PhIP) in perfused term human placenta

    SciTech Connect

    Myllynen, Paeivi Kummu, Maria; Kangas, Tiina; Ilves, Mika; Immonen, Elina; Rysae, Jaana; Pirilae, Rauna; Lastumaeki, Anni; Vaehaekangas, Kirsi H.

    2008-10-15

    We have studied the role of ATP binding cassette (ABC) transporters in fetal exposure to carcinogens using 2-amino-1-methyl-6-phenylimidazo[4,5-b]pyridine (PhIP) a known substrate for ABC transporters as a model compound. In perfusion of human term placenta, transfer of {sup 14}C-PhIP (2 {mu}M) through the placenta resulted in fetal-to-maternal concentration ratio (FM ratio) of 0.72 {+-} 0.09 at 6 h. The specific ABCG2 inhibitor KO143 increased the transfer of {sup 14}C-PhIP from maternal to fetal circulation (FM ratio 0.90 {+-} 0.08 at 6 h, p < 0.05) while the ABCC1/ABCC2 inhibitor probenecid had no effect (FM ratio at 6 h 0.75 {+-} 0.10, p = 0.84). There was a negative correlation between the expression of ABCG2 protein in perfused tissue and the FM ratio of {sup 14}C-PhIP (R = - 0.81, p < 0.01) at the end of the perfusion. The expression of ABCC2 protein did not correlate with FM ratio of PhIP (R: - 0.11, p = 0.76). In addition, PhIP induced the expression of ABC transporters in BeWo cells at mRNA level. In conclusion, our data indicates that ABCG2 decreases placental transfer of {sup 14}C-PhIP in perfused human placenta. Also, PhIP may modify ABC transporter expression in choriocarinoma cells.

  13. A Comprehensive Investigation of 2-Amino-1-methyl-6-phenylimidazo[4,5-b]pyridine (PhIP) Metabolism in the Mouse Using a Multivariate Data Analysis Approach

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Chi; Ma, Xiaochao; Malfatti, Michael A.; Krausz, Kristopher W.; Kimura, Shioko; Felton, James S.; Idle, Jeffrey R.; Gonzalez, Frank J.

    2007-01-01

    2-Amino-1-methyl-6-phenylimidazo[4,5-b]pyridine (PhIP) is a potent rodent carcinogen and a potential human carcinogen because of its existence in the normal human diet. N2-OH-PhIP, a major PhIP metabolite, has been identified as a precursor of genotoxic species. In vitro data supported the view that CYP1A2 is the major enzyme responsible for the formation of N2-OH-PhIP. However, disruption of the CYP1A2 gene in mouse failed to inhibit PhIP-induced carcinogenesis. To investigate the mechanism underlying this observation, the metabolism of PhIP in wild-type, Cyp1a2-null, and CYP1A2-humanized mice was examined in detail using a metabolomic approach. Following data acquisition in a high-resolution LCMS system, urinary metabolomes of the control and PhIP-treated mice were characterized in a principal component analysis (PCA) model. Comprehensive metabolite profiles of PhIP in high dose (10 mg/kg) and low dose (100 μg/kg) were established through analyzing urinary ions contributing to the separation of three mouse lines in the multivariate model and by measuring radiolabled PhIP metabolite in a radio-HPLC assay, respectively. The genotoxicity of PhIP to three mouse lines was evaluated by measuring DNA adduction levels in liver, lung, colon, and mammary gland. On the basis of the chemical identities of 17 urinary PhIP metabolites, including eight novel metabolites, multivariate data analysis revealed the role of CYP1A2 in PhIP metabolism and a human-mouse interspecies difference in the catalytic activity of CYP1A2. In addition, the results also showed that Cyp1a2-null mice still possess significant N2- hydroxylation and DNA adduction activities, which may be partially attributed to mouse CYP2C enzymes according to the results from in vitro microsome and Supersome incubations and antibody inhibition experiments. PMID:17279779

  14. Chemoprotection against the formation of colon DNA adducts from the food-borne carcinogen 2-amino-1-methyl-6-phenylimidazo[4,5-b]pyridine (PhIP) in the rat.

    PubMed

    Huber, W W; McDaniel, L P; Kaderlik, K R; Teitel, C H; Lang, N P; Kadlubar, F F

    1997-05-12

    The mutagenic heterocyclic aromatic amine, 2-amino-1-methyl-6-phenylimidazo[4,5-b]pyridine (PhIP), is a pyrolysis product in cooked foods that has been shown to be a rat colon carcinogen and has been implicated in the etiology of human colon cancer. In order to identify chemoprotection strategies that could be carried out in humans, a pilot study was conducted in which PhIP-DNA-adduct levels were quantified in the colons of male F344 rats that had been subjected to 16 different putative chemoprotection regimens, followed by a gavage of PhIP (50 mg/kg) and sacrifice 24 h later. The 16 treatments (Oltipraz, benzylisothiocyanate, diallyl sulfide, garlic powder, ethoxyquin, butylated hydroxyanisole, glutathione, indole-3-carbinol, alpha-angelicalactone, kahweol/cafestol palmitates, quercetin, green tea, black tea, tannic acid, amylase-resistant starch, and physical exercise) comprised sulfur-containing compounds, antioxidants, flavonoids, diterpenes, polyphenols, high dietary fiber, etc. The strongest inhibition of PhIP-DNA adduct formation in the colon was observed upon pretreatment with black tea, benzylisothiocyanate, and a mixture (1:1) of kahweol:cafestol palmitates, which resulted in 67, 66, and 54% decreases in colon PhIP-DNA adduct levels, as compared with controls. Preliminary studies on their mechanism of action indicated that only kahweol:cafestol caused a substantial induction of glutathione S-transferase isozymes (GSTs) that are thought to be important in the detoxification of PhIP. Notably, this induction occurred in the liver rather than in the colon.

  15. beta-catenin is strongly elevated in rat colonic epithelium following short-term intermittent treatment with 2-amino-1-methyl-6-phenylimidazo[4,5-b]pyridine (PhIP) and a high-fat diet.

    PubMed

    Wang, Rong; Dashwood, W Mohaiza; Löhr, Christiane V; Fischer, Kay A; Nakagama, Hitoshi; Williams, David E; Dashwood, Roderick H

    2008-09-01

    Colon tumors expressing high levels of beta-catenin and c-myc have been reported in male F344 rats given three short cycles of 2-amino-1-methyl-6-phenylimidazo[4,5-b]pyridine (PhIP) alternating with a high-fat (HF) diet. Using the same experimental protocol, rats were euthanized 24 h after the last dose of PhIP so as to examine early changes in colonic crypt homeostasis and beta-catenin expression, before the onset of frank tumors. PhIP/HF dosing caused a significant increase in the bromodeoxyuridine labeling index throughout the entire colon, and within the colonic crypt column cleaved caspase-3 was elevated in the basal and central zones, but reduced in the luminal region. In vehicle/HF controls, beta-catenin was immunolocalized primarily at the border between cells at the top of the crypt, whereas in rats given PhIP/HF diet there was strong cytoplasmic staining, which appeared as a gradient of increased beta-catenin extending from the base of the crypt column to the luminal region. Quantitative real-time PCR and immunoblot analyses confirmed that beta-catenin and c-myc were increased significantly in the colonic mucosa of rats given PhIP/HF diet. Collectively, these findings suggest that PhIP/HF cycling alters beta-catenin and c-myc expression in the colonic mucosa, resulting in expansion of the proliferative zone and redistribution of apoptotic cells from the lumen to the central and basal regions of the colonic crypt. Thus, during the early stages of colon carcinogenesis, alternating exposure to heterocyclic amines and a high-fat diet might facilitate molecular changes resulting in dysregulated beta-catenin and c-myc expression.

  16. Response of Apc(min) and A33 (delta N beta-cat) mutant mice to treatment with tea, sulindac, and 2-amino-1-methyl-6-phenylimidazo[4,5-b]pyridine (PhIP).

    PubMed

    Orner, Gayle A; Dashwood, Wan-Mohaiza; Blum, Carmen A; Díaz, G Darío; Li, Qingjie; Al-Fageeh, Mohamad; Tebbutt, Niall; Heath, Joan K; Ernst, Matthias; Dashwood, Roderick H

    2002-09-30

    There is growing interest in the potential health benefits of tea, and a recent report described the potent antimutagenic activity of white tea in comparison with green tea against several heterocyclic amines, including 2-amino-1-methyl-6-phenylimidazo[4,5-b]pyridine (PhIP) [Mutat. Res. 495 (2001) 61]. We compared the inhibitory effects of white and green teas with sulindac, a nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory agent, in two different mouse models of intestinal tumorigenesis. In the Apc(min) mouse, white and green teas given at human-relevant concentrations (1.5% w/v, 2-min brew), and sulindac (80 ppm in the drinking water), each suppressed polyp formation by approximately 50%, and the combination of white tea plus sulindac was more effective than either treatment alone (P=0.05). Mice expressing an N-terminally truncated, oncogenic version of beta-catenin (A 33(delta N beta-cat) mutant mice) developed colonic aberrant crypt foci (ACF) spontaneously, but PhIP treatment increased the incidence and number of ACF per colon. In the normal-looking intestinal mucosa of Apc(min) and A 33(delta N beta-cat) mice, white tea plus sulindac treatment markedly attenuated the expression of beta-catenin protein, and this was recapitulated in vitro in cells transiently transfected with beta-catenin plus Tcf-4 and treated with tea or the major tea polyphenol epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG). Expression of a beta-catenin/Tcf reporter was inhibited by EGCG in the transfected cells, and the beta-catenin/Tcf target genes cyclin D1 and c-jun were downregulated in vivo by tea plus sulindac treatment. Collectively, the data support a chemopreventive role for tea and sulindac against intermediate and late stages of colon cancer, via effects on the beta-catenin/Tcf signaling pathway.

  17. Protection by beverages, fruits, vegetables, herbs, and flavonoids against genotoxicity of 2-acetylaminofluorene and 2-amino-1-methyl-6-phenylimidazo[4,5-b]pyridine (PhIP) in metabolically competent V79 cells.

    PubMed

    Edenharder, R; Sager, J W; Glatt, H; Muckel, E; Platt, K L

    2002-11-26

    Chinese hamster lung fibroblasts, genetically engineered for the expression of rat cytochrome P450 dependent monooxygenase 1A2 and rat sulfotransferase 1C1 (V79-rCYP1A2-rSULT1C1 cells), were utilized to check for possible protective effects of beverages of plant origin, fruits, vegetables, and spices against genotoxicity induced by 2-acetylaminofluorene (AAF) or 2-amino-1-methyl-6-phenylimidazo[4,5-b]pyridine (PhIP). Antigenotoxic activities of juices from spinach and red beets against AAF could be monitored with similar effectivity by the HPRT-mutagenicity test (IC(50)=0.64%; 2.57%) and alkaline single cell gel electrophoresis (comet assay; IC(50)=0.12%; 0.89%) which detects DNA strand breaks and abasic sites. Applying the comet assay, genotoxicity of PhIP could, however, be demonstrated only in the presence of hydroxyurea and 1-[beta-D-arabinofuranosyl]cytosine, known inhibitors of DNA repair synthesis. As expected, AAF and PhIP were unable to induce any genotoxic effects in the parent V79 cells. Genotoxic activity of PhIP was strongly reduced in a dose-related manner by green tea and red wine, by blueberries, blackberries, red grapes, kiwi, watermelon, parsley, and spinach, while two brands of beer, coffee, black tea, rooibos tea, morellos, black-currants, plums, red beets, broccoli (raw and cooked), and chives were somewhat less active. One brand of beer was only moderately active while white wine, bananas, white grapes, and strawberries were inactive. Similarly, genotoxicity of AAF was strongly reduced by green, black, and rooibos tea, red wine, morellos, black-currants, kiwi, watermelon, and spinach while plums, red beets, and broccoli (raw) were less potent. Broccoli cooked exerted only moderate and white wine weak antigenotoxic activity. With respect to the possible mechanism(s) of inhibition of genotoxicity, benzo[a]pyrene-7,8-dihydrodiol (BaP-7,8-OH) and N-OH-PhIP were applied as substrates for the CYP1A family and for rSULT 1C1, respectively. Morellos

  18. Non-covalent DNA groove-binding by 2-amino-1-methyl-6-phenylimidazo[4,5-b]pyridine.

    PubMed Central

    Marsch, G A; Ward, R L; Colvin, M; Turteltaub, K W

    1994-01-01

    The cooked meat mutagen 2-amino-1-methyl-6-phenyl-imidazo[4,5-b]pyridine (PhIP) is metabolized in vivo to electrophilic intermediates that covalently bind to DNA guanines. Here we address the mechanism of PhIP's non-covalent interaction with DNA by using spectroscopic and computational methodologies. NMR methodologies indicated that upon addition of DNA, PhIP aromatic protons underwent a small, 0.11-0.12 p.p.m. upfield shift. DNA phosphorus resonances of non-covalent PhIP-DNA complexes broadened and slightly shifted upfield, while DNA base imino proton resonances shifted slightly downfield relative to DNA alone. UV and fluorescence spectra of PhIP titrated with DNA showed no detectable shifting and hypochromism of absorbance or fluorescence bands. In the presence of DNA, PhIP fluorescence was efficiently quenched by acrylamide, but not by silver ion. Further, the NMR spectra suggest that PhIP is in fast exchange with the DNA, and is slightly specific for adenine-thymine (A-T) sequences. Finally, structural arguments based on quantum chemistry calculations suggested that PhIP and its metabolites are unlikely to intercalate into DNA. These data collectively indicate that PhIP non-covalently binds in a groove of DNA. PMID:7816632

  19. Ammonia and formaldehyde participate in the formation of 2-amino-1-methyl-6-phenylimidazo[4,5-b]pyridine (PhIP) in addition to creati(ni)ne and phenylacetaldehyde.

    PubMed

    Zamora, Rosario; Alcón, Esmeralda; Hidalgo, Francisco J

    2014-07-15

    The formation of formaldehyde from phenylacetaldehyde and phenylalanine, and the contribution of both formaldehyde and ammonia to the production of PhIP from phenylacetaldehyde and creatinine were studied in an attempt to clarify the reaction pathways that produce PhIP. Formaldehyde was produced by thermal degradation of phenylacetaldehyde and, to a lesser extent, also by degradation of phenylalanine, phenylethylamine, styrene, and creatinine. When formaldehyde was added to a mixture of phenylacetaldehyde and creatinine, PhIP yield was multiplied by nineteen. When formaldehyde and ammonia were simultaneously present, PhIP yield was multiplied by fifty and the Ea of the reaction decreased by 61%. All these results point to formaldehyde and ammonia as the two additional reactants required for PhIP formation from both phenylacetaldehyde/creati(ni)ne and phenylalanine/creati(ni)ne mixtures. A general pathway for PhIP formation is proposed. This pathway is suggested to be the main route for PhIP formation in foods. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. An in vitro and in silico study on the flavonoid-mediated modulation of the transport of 2-amino-1-methyl-6-phenylimidazo[4,5-b]pyridine (PhIP) through Caco-2 monolayers

    SciTech Connect

    Schutte, Maaike E. . E-mail: maaike.schutte@wur.nl; Freidig, Andreas P.; Sandt, Johannes J.M. van de; Rietjens, Ivonne M.C.M.

    2006-12-01

    The present study describes the effect of different flavonoids on the absorption of the pro-carcinogen PhIP through Caco-2 monolayers and the development of an in silico model describing this process taking into account passive diffusion and active transport of PhIP. Various flavonoids stimulated the apical to basolateral PhIP transport. Using the in silico model for flavone, kaempferol and chrysoeriol, the apparent Ki value for inhibition of the active transport to the apical side was estimated to be below 53 {mu}M and for morin, robinetin and taxifolin between 164 and 268 {mu}M. For myricetin, luteolin, naringenin and quercetin, the apparent Ki values were determined more accurately and amounted to 37.3, 12.2, 11.7 and 5.6 {mu}M respectively. Additional experiments revealed that the apical to basolateral PhIP transport was also increased in the presence of a typical BCRP or MRP inhibitor with apparent Ki values in the same range as those of the flavonoids. This observation together with the fact that flavonoids are known to be inhibitors of MRPs and BCRP, corroborates that inhibition of these apical membrane transporters is involved in the flavonoid-mediated increased apical to basolateral PhIP transport. Based on the apparent Ki values obtained, it is concluded that the flavonols, at the levels present in the regular Western diet, are capable of stimulating the transport of PhIP through Caco-2 monolayers from the apical to the basolateral compartment. This points to flavonoid-mediated stimulation of the bioavailability of PhIP and, thus, a possible adverse effect of these supposed beneficial food ingredients.

  1. Effects of waxy rice starch and short chain amylose (SCA) on the formation of 2-amino-1-methyl-6-phenylimidazo[4,5-b]pyridine (PhIP) in a model system.

    PubMed

    Yu, Di; Yu, Shu-Juan

    2016-03-01

    Starch is a glucose polymer of vast importance to mankind. It forms the major component of all our staple foods. Starch is often used as an important material in cooking meat. In this study, the effects of waxy rice starch and short chain amylose (SCA) from debranched waxy rice starch on the formation of PhIP in a model system were investigated and compared. The results showed that the addition of waxy rice starch and SCA significantly decreased PhIP, and the effect of SCA was more pronounced than that of waxy rice starch. This decrease may be attributed to the fact that the glucose residues of starch condense with the amino group of the creatinine formed N-glycosyl conjugate. This reaction path could disturb the reaction of creatinine with phenylacetaldehyde, subsequently influence the aldol condensation product formation, and finally suppress the formation of PhIP. Furthermore, the complex spatial structure of waxy rice starch disturbs the reaction of the glucosyl hydroxyl groups of glucose with the amino group of creatinine in the model reaction. So the effect of SCA was more pronounced than that of waxy rice starch on suppressing PhIP formation. A possible mechanism of waxy rice starch and SCA for inhibiting PhIP formation in the model system is also proposed.

  2. Susceptibility of rats to mammary gland carcinogenesis by the food-derived carcinogen 2-amino-1-methyl-6-phenylimidazo[4,5-b]pyridine (PhIP) varies with age and is associated with the induction of differential gene expression.

    PubMed

    Shan, Liang; Yu, Minshu; Schut, Herman A J; Snyderwine, Elizabeth G

    2004-07-01

    2-amino-1-methyl-6-phenylimidazo[4,5-b]pyridine (PhIP), a heterocyclic amine found in cooked meat, induces mammary gland cancer when administered to adolescent female rats (43-day-old). In contrast, mature virgin rats (150-day-old) were resistant to mammary carcinogenesis by PhIP. To explore the possible mechanisms for the age-related differences in susceptibility, PhIP-DNA adduct levels, mutations, and gene expression were examined in glands from 43-day and 150-day-old PhIP-treated rats. In rats of different ages, PhIP-DNA adduct levels detected by the (32)P-post-labeling assay and mutant frequency measured in the lacI reporter gene of Big Blue rats were not statistically different. PhIP-DNA adduct levels, adduct removal, and mutation burden did not appear to account for the variation in carcinogen susceptibility with age. However, cDNA microarray analysis indicated that PhIP treatment differentially altered the profile of gene expression in glands from 43-day-old and 150-day-old rats. In 150-day-old rats, PhIP enhanced the expression of genes associated with differentiation (eg, beta-casein, kappa-casein, whey acidic protein) and induced morphological differentiation. In contrast, in 43-day-old rats, PhIP inhibited the expression of differentiation genes and enhanced cellular proliferation. From 3 hours to 6 weeks after PhIP dosing, the number of clones showing altered expression declined more than 50% in 150-day-old rats but increased fourfold in 43-day-old rats (29 clones versus 194, respectively) suggesting that PhIP induced a cascade of gene expression alterations only in susceptible rats. Genes showing altered expression specifically in 43-day-old rats included the Ras superfamily genes and genes associated with protein synthesis/degradation (lysosomal proteins, heat shock proteins, and proteasomes). The microarray data support the notion that the mechanism of age-dependent susceptibility to mammary gland cancer is largely associated with differential

  3. Mapping Serum Albumin Adducts of the Food-borne Carcinogen 2-Amino-1-methyl-6-phenylimidazo[4,5-b]pyridine by Data-Dependent Tandem Mass Spectrometry

    PubMed Central

    Peng, Lijuan; Dasari, Surendra; Tabb, David L.; Turesky, Robert J.

    2012-01-01

    2-Amino-1-methyl-6-phenylimidazo[4,5-b]pyridine (PhIP) is a heterocyclic aromatic amine that is formed during the cooking of meats. PhIP is a potential human carcinogen: it undergoes metabolic activation to form electrophilic metabolites that bind to DNA and proteins, including serum albumin (SA). The structures of PhIP-SA adducts formed in vivo are unknown and require elucidation before PhIP protein adducts can be implemented as biomarkers in human studies. We previously examined the reaction of genotoxic N-oxidized metabolites of PhIP with human SA in vitro and identified covalent adducts formed at cysteine34 (Cys34); however, other adduction products were thought to occur. We have now identified adducts of PhIP formed at multiple sites of SA reacted with isotopic mixtures of electrophilic metabolites of PhIP and 2-amino-1-methyl-6-[2H5]-phenylimidazo[4,5-b]pyridine ([2H5]-PhIP). The metabolites used for study were: 2-nitro-1-methyl-6-phenylimidazo[4,5-b]pyridine (NO2-PhIP), 2-hydroxyamino-1-methyl-6-phenylimidazo[4,5-b]pyridine (HONH-PhIP), or N-acetyloxy-2-amino-1-methyl-6-phenylimidazo[4,5-b]pyridine (N-acetoxy-PhIP). Following proteolytic digestion, PhIP-adducted peptides were separated by ultra performance liquid chromatography and characterized by ion trap mass spectrometry, employing isotopic data-dependent scanning. Analysis of the tryptic or tryptic/chymotryptic digests of SA modified with NO2-PhIP revealed that adduction occurred at Cys34, Lys195, Lys199, Lys351, Lys541, Tyr138, Tyr150, Tyr401, and Tyr411, whereas the only site of HONH-PhIP adduction was detected at Cys34. N-Acetoxy-PhIP, a penultimate metabolite of PhIP that reacts with DNA to form covalent adducts, did not appear to form stable adducts with SA; instead, PhIP and 2-amino-1-methyl-6-(5-hydroxy)-phenylimidazo[4,5-b]pyridine, an aqueous reaction product of the proposed nitrenium ion of PhIP, were recovered during the proteolysis of N-acetoxy-PhIP-modified SA. Some of these SA adduction

  4. The identification of [2-(14)C]2-amino-1-methyl-6-phenylimidazo[4,5-b]pyridine metabolites in humans.

    PubMed

    Malfatti, M A; Kulp, K S; Knize, M G; Davis, C; Massengill, J P; Williams, S; Nowell, S; MacLeod, S; Dingley, K H; Turteltaub, K W; Lang, N P; Felton, J S

    1999-04-01

    [2-(14)C]2-amino-1-methyl-6-phenylimidazo[4,5-b]pyridine ([14C]PhIP), a putative human carcinogenic heterocyclic amine found in well-done cooked meat, was administered orally to three colon cancer patients undergoing a partial colonectomy. Forty-eight to seventy-two hours prior to surgery, subjects received a 70-84 microg dose of 14C. Urine and blood were analyzed by HPLC for PhIP and PhIP metabolites. Metabolites were identified based on HPLC co-elution with authentic PhIP metabolite standards, mass spectral analysis and susceptibility to enzymatic cleavage. In two subjects, approximately 90% of the administered [14C]PhIP dose was eliminated in the urine, whereas in the other, only 50% of the dose was found in the urine. One subject excreted three times more radioactivity in the first 4 h than did the others. Twelve radioactive peaks associated with PhIP were detected in the urine samples. The relative amount of each metabolite varied by subject, and the amounts of each metabolite within subjects changed over time. In all three subjects the most abundant urinary metabolite was identified as 2-hydroxyamino-1-methyl-6-phenylimidazo[4,5-b]pyridine-N2-glucuron ide (N-hydroxy-PhIP-N2-glucuronide), accounting for 47-60% of the recovered counts in 24 h. PhIP accounted for <1% of the excreted radiolabel in all three patients. Other metabolites detected in the urine at significant amounts were 4-(2-amino-1-methylimidazo[4,5-b]pyrid-6-yl)phenyl sulfate, N-hydroxy-PhIP-N3-glucuronide and PhIP-N2-glucuronide. In the plasma, N-hydroxy-PhIP-N2-glucuronide accounted for 60, 18 and 20% of the recovered plasma radioactivity at 1 h post PhIP dose in subjects 1, 2 and 3 respectively. Plasma PhIP was 56-17% of the recovered dose at 1 h post exposure. The relatively high concentration of N-hydroxy-PhIP-N2-glucuronide and the fact that it is an indicator of bioactivation make this metabolite a potential biomarker for PhIP exposure and activation. Determining the relative differences in

  5. Detection of 2-amino-1-methyl-6-phenylimidazo [4,5-b]-pyridine (PhIP)-DNA adducts in human pancreatic tissues

    PubMed Central

    ZHU, JIJIANG; RASHID, ASIF; CLEARY, KAREN; ABBRUZZESE, JAMES L.; FRIESS, HELMUT; TAKAHASHI, SATORU; SHIRAI, TOMOYUKI; LI, DONGHUI

    2008-01-01

    Recent epidemiologic investigations have observed an association between consumption of grilled or barbequed meat and an increased risk for pancreatic cancer, suggesting that dietary exposure to heterocyclic aromatic amines (HCA) may contribute to the development of this disease. 2-Amino-1-methyl-6-phenylimidazo [4,5-b]-pyridine (PhIP) is the most abundant HCA found in well-done and grilled meats. To determine whether HCA-induced DNA damage is present in the human pancreas, we used immunohistochemistry and computer-assisted image analysis to measure PhIP-DNA adducts in 54 normal pancreatic tissues (N) from persons without pancreatic cancer and in 38 normal adjacent pancreatic tissues (A), and 39 cancer tissues (T) from 68 patients with pancreatic adenocarcinoma. PhIP-DNA adducts were detected in 53 N, 34 A, and 39 T samples. Mean values (±SD) of the absorbency for PhIP staining were 0.22 ± 0.04, 0.24 ± 0.04, and 0.24 ± 0.03 for N, A, and T samples, respectively (p = 0.004). Using the median absorbency (0.21) of the samples from normal controls as the cut-off, 71% of A and 77% of T tissues, compared with 48% of N tissues, were distributed in the higher range (p = 0.009). The odds ratio of pancreatic cancer was 3.4 (95% confidence interval 1.5 to 7.5, p = 0.002) for individuals with a higher level of PhIP-DNA adducts. This is the first report of detection of PhIP-DNA adducts in human pancreatic tissue samples obtained from patients having unknown exposure to HCA. Although limited by the small sample size, these preliminary results suggest that PhIP exposure may contribute to human pancreatic cancer development. PMID:16908439

  6. Intervention of human breast cell carcinogenesis chronically induced by 2-amino-1-methyl-6-phenylimidazo[4,5-b]pyridine

    PubMed Central

    Choudhary, Shambhunath; Sood, Shilpa; Donnell, Robert L.; Wang, Hwa-Chain R.

    2012-01-01

    More than 85% of breast cancers are sporadic and attributable to long-term exposure to environmental carcinogens, such as those in the diet, through a multistep disease process progressing from non-cancerous to premalignant and malignant stages. The chemical carcinogen 2-amino-1-methyl-6-phenylimidazo[4,5-b]pyridine (PhIP) is one of the most abundant heterocyclic amines found in high-temperature cooked meats and is recognized as a mammary carcinogen. However, the PhIP’s mechanism of action in breast cell carcinogenesis is not clear. Here, we demonstrated, for the first time, that cumulative exposures to PhIP at physiologically achievable, pico to nanomolar concentrations effectively induced progressive carcinogenesis of human breast epithelial MCF10A cells from a non-cancerous stage to premalignant and malignant stages in a dose- and exposure-dependent manner. Progressive carcinogenesis was measured by increasingly- acquired cancer-associated properties of reduced dependence on growth factors, anchorage-independent growth, acinar-conformational disruption, proliferation, migration, invasion, tumorigenicity with metastasis and increased stem-like cell populations. These biological changes were accompanied by biochemical and molecular changes, including upregulated H-Ras gene expression, extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) pathway activation, Nox-1 expression, reactive oxygen species (ROS) elevation, increased HIF-1α, Sp1, tumor necrosis factor-α, matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-2, MMP-9, aldehyde dehydrogenase activity and reduced E-cadherin. The Ras-ERK-Nox-ROS pathway played an important role in not only initiation but also maintenance of cellular carcinogenesis induced by PhIP. Using biological, biochemical and molecular changes as targeted endpoints, we identified that the green tea catechin components epicatechin-3-gallate and epigallocatechin-3-gallate, at non-cytotoxic doses, were capable of suppressing PhIP-induced cellular carcinogenesis and

  7. Bacterial Prostatitis Enhances 2-amino-1-methyl-6-phenylimidazo[4,5-b]pyridine (PhIP)-Induced Cancer at Multiple Sites

    PubMed Central

    Sfanos, Karen S.; Canene-Adams, Kirstie; Hempel, Heidi; Yu, Shu-Han; Simons, Brian W.; Schaeffer, Anthony J.; Schaeffer, Edward M.; Nelson, William G.; De Marzo, Angelo M.

    2015-01-01

    Dietary carcinogens, such as 2-amino-1-methyl-6-phenylimidazo[4,5-b]pyridine (PhIP), and chronic inflammation have each been implicated as etiological agents in prostate cancer. We hypothesized that bacterial prostatitis would accelerate PhIP-induced pre-invasive lesions in the rat prostate. Male Fischer 344 rats were assigned into 4 groups: Control (untreated), PhIP (200 ppm in the diet for 20 weeks), E. coli (prostatic inoculation in week 10), or PhIP+E. coli. Study animals were monitored for a total of 52 weeks and were euthanized as necessary based on strict criteria for health status and tumor burden. Animals treated with E. coli initially developed acute and chronic inflammation in all lobes of the prostate, whereas inflammation was observed predominantly in the ventral lobe at time of death. PhIP+E. coli-treated animals exhibited a marked decrease in survival compared to PhIP-alone treated animals as a result of an increase in the number of invasive cancers that developed at multiple sites including the skin, small intestine, and Zymbal’s gland. Despite their earlier mortality, PhIP+E. coli-treated animals developed an increased average number of precancerous lesions within the prostate compared to PhIP-treated animals, with a significantly increased Ki-67 index. Multiplexed serum cytokine analysis indicated an increase in the level of circulating IL-6 and IL-12 in PhIP+E. coli-treated animals. Elevated serum IL-6 levels correlated with the development of precancerous lesions within the prostate. These results suggest that bacterial infections and dietary carcinogens - two conceivably preventable cancer risk factors – may synergistically promote tumorigenesis. PMID:25990088

  8. Red wine consumption is inversely associated with 2-amino-1-methyl-6-phenylimidazo[4,5-b]pyridine-DNA adduct levels in prostate.

    PubMed

    Rybicki, Benjamin A; Neslund-Dudas, Christine; Bock, Cathryn H; Nock, Nora L; Rundle, Andrew; Jankowski, Michelle; Levin, Albert M; Beebe-Dimmer, Jennifer; Savera, Adnan T; Takahashi, Satoru; Shirai, Tomoyuki; Tang, Deliang

    2011-10-01

    In humans, genetic variation and dietary factors may alter the biological effects of exposure to 2-amino-1-methyl-6-phenylimidazo[4,5-b]pyridine (PhIP), one of the major heterocyclic amines generated from cooking meats at high temperatures that has carcinogenic potential through the formation of DNA adducts. Previously, we reported grilled red meat consumption associated with PhIP-DNA adduct levels in human prostate. In this study, we expanded our investigation to estimate the associations between beverage consumption and PhIP-DNA adduct levels in prostate for 391 prostate cancer cases. Of the 15 beverages analyzed, red wine consumption had the strongest association with PhIP-DNA adduct levels showing an inverse correlation in both tumor (P = 0.006) and nontumor (P = 0.002) prostate cells. Red wine consumption was significantly lower in African American compared with white cases, but PhIP-DNA adduct levels in prostate did not vary by race. In African Americans compared with whites, however, associations between red wine consumption and PhIP-DNA adduct levels were not as strong as associations with specific (e.g., SULT1A1 and UGT1A10 genotypes) and nonspecific (e.g., African ancestry) genetic variation. In a multivariable model, the covariate for red wine consumption explained a comparable percentage (13%-16%) of the variation in PhIP-DNA adduct levels in prostate across the two racial groups, but the aforementioned genetic factors explained 33% of the PhIP-DNA adduct variation in African American cases, whereas only 19% of the PhIP-DNA adduct variation in whites. We conclude that red wine consumption may counteract biological effects of PhIP exposure in human prostate, but genetic factors may play an even larger role, particularly in African Americans.

  9. Method to Biomonitor the Cooked Meat Carcinogen 2-Amino-1-methyl-6-phenylimidazo[4,5-b]pyridine in Dyed Hair by Ultra-Performance Liquid Chromatography-Orbitrap High Resolution Multistage Mass Spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Guo, Jingshu; Yonemori, Kim; Le Marchand, Loïc; Turesky, Robert J

    2015-06-16

    2-Amino-1-methyl-6-phenylimidazo[4,5-b]pyridine (PhIP) is a carcinogenic heterocyclic aromatic amine formed in cooked meat. The use of naturally colored hair containing PhIP can serve as a long-term biomarker of exposure to this carcinogen. However, the measurement of PhIP in dyed hair, a cosmetic treatment commonly used by the adult population, is challenging because the dye process introduces into the hair matrix a complex mixture of chemicals that interferes with the measurement of PhIP. The high-resolution scanning features of the Orbitrap Fusion mass spectrometer were employed to biomonitor PhIP in dyed hair. Because of the complexity of chemicals in the hair dye, the consecutive reaction monitoring of PhIP at the MS(3) scan stage was employed to selectively remove the isobaric interferences. The limit of quantification (LOQ) of PhIP was 84 parts-per-trillion (ppt) employing 50 mg of hair. Calibration curves were generated in dyed hair matrixes and showed good linearity (40-1000 pg PhIP/g hair) with a goodness-of-fit regression value of r(2) > 0.9978. The within-day (between-day) coefficients of variation were 7.7% (17%) and 5.4% (6.1%), respectively, with dyed hair samples spiked with PhIP at 200 and 600 ppt. The levels of PhIP accrued in dyed hair from volunteers on a semicontrolled feeding study who ingested known levels of PhIP were comparable to the levels of PhIP accrued in hair of subjects with natural hair color. The method was successfully employed to measure PhIP in nondyed and dyed hair biospecimens of participants in a case-control study of colorectal adenoma on their regular diet.

  10. Inflammation does not precede or accompany the induction of preneoplastic lesions in the colon of 2-amino-1-methyl-6-phenylimidazo[4,5-b]pyridine-fed rats.

    PubMed

    Kühnel, Dana; Taugner, Felicitas; Scholtka, Bettina; Steinberg, Pablo

    2009-08-01

    Heterocyclic aromatic amines (HCAs) are formed in meat cooked at high temperatures for a long time or over an open flame. In this context 2-amino-1-methyl-6-phenylimidazo[4,5-b]pyridine (PhIP), the most abundant HCA in cooked meat, has been suggested to be involved in colon and prostate carcinogenesis. In the latter case it has been reported that: (1) roughly 50% of Fischer F344 male rats treated with PhIP develop carcinomas in the ventral prostate lobe at 1 year of age; (2) inflammation precedes prostatic intraepithelial neoplasia in PhIP-fed rats; (3) inflammation specifically occurs in the ventral prostate lobe of PhIP-fed rats. To test whether PhIP by itself leads to inflammation in the colon and whether a human-relevant concentration of PhIP is able to induce preneoplastic lesions in the colon, male F344 rats were fed 0.1 or 100 ppm PhIP for up to 10 months and thereafter the colon tissue was analyzed histochemically. In none of the experimental groups signs of acute or chronic colonic inflammation were observed. 0.1 ppm PhIP leads to the development of hyperplastic and dysplastic lesions in the colon of single animals, but the incidence of these lesions does not reach a statistical significance. In contrast, in rats fed 100 ppm PhIP for 10 months hyperplastic and dysplastic colonic lesions were induced in a statistically significant number of animals. It is concluded that: (1) the induction of preneoplastic lesions in rat colon by PhIP is not preceded or accompanied by an inflammatory process; (2) a human-relevant concentration of PhIP alone is not sufficient to initiate colon carcinogenesis in rats.

  11. Detection and quantitation of N-(deoxyguanosin-8-yl)-2-amino-1-methyl-6-phenylimidazo[4,5-b]pyridine adducts in DNA using online column-switching liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Rajinder; Arlt, Volker M.; Henderson, Colin J.; Phillips, David H.; Farmer, Peter B.; da Costa, Gonçalo Gamboa

    2010-01-01

    The heterocyclic aromatic amine, 2-amino-1-methyl-6-phenylimidazo[4,5-b]pyridine (PhIP) is formed by the grilled cooking of certain foods such as meats, poultry and fish. PhIP has been shown to induce tumours in the colon, prostate and mammary glands of rats and is regarded as a potential human dietary carcinogen. PhIP is metabolically activated via cytochrome P450 mediated oxidation to an N-hydroxylamino-PhIP intermediate that is subsequently converted to an ester by N-acetyltransferases or sulfotransferases and undergoes heterolytic cleavage to produce a PhIP-nitrenium ion, which reacts with DNA to form the N-(deoxyguanosin-8-yl)-2-amino-1-methyl-6-phenylimidazo[4,5-b]pyridine (PhIP-C8-dG) adduct. Thus far, the detection and quantification of PhIP-DNA adducts has relied to a large extent on 32P-postlabelling methodologies. In order to expand the array of available techniques for the detection and improved quantification of PhIP-C8-dG adducts in DNA we have developed an online column-switching liquid chromatography (LC)-electrospray ionization (ESI)-tandem mass spectrometry (MS/MS) selected reaction monitoring (SRM) method incorporating an isotopically [13C10]-labelled PhIP-C8-dG internal standard for the analysis of DNA enzymatically hydrolysed to 2′-deoxynucleosides. A dose-dependent increase was observed for PhIP-C8-dG adducts when salmon testis DNA was reacted with N-acetoxy-PhIP. Analysis of DNA samples isolated from colon tissue of mice treated by oral gavage daily for 5 days with 50 mg/kg body weight of PhIP resulted in the detection of an average level of 14.8 ± 3.7 PhIP-C8-dG adducts per 106 2′-deoxynucleosides. The method required 50 μg of hydrolysed animal DNA on column and the limit of detection for PhIP-C8-dG was 2.5 fmol (1.5 PhIP-C8-dG adducts per 108 2′-deoxynucleosides). In summary, the LC-ESI-MS/MS SRM method provides for the rapid automation of the sample clean up and a reduction in matrix components that would otherwise interfere with

  12. The Impact of Glucuronidation on the Bioactivation and DNA Adduction of the Cooked-Food Carcinogen 2-Amino-1-methyl-6-phenylimidazo[4,5-b] pyridine in vivo

    SciTech Connect

    Malfatti, M A; Ubick, E A; Felton, J S

    2005-03-31

    UDP-glucuronosyltransferases (UGTs) catalyze the glucuronidation of many different chemicals. Glucuronidation is especially important for detoxifying reactive intermediates from metabolic reactions, which otherwise can be biotransformed into highly reactive cytotoxic or carcinogenic species. Detoxification of certain food-borne carcinogenic heterocyclic amines (HAs) is highly dependent on UGT1A-mediated glucuronidation. 2-Amino-1-methyl-6-phenylimidazo[4,5-b]pyridine (PhIP), the most mass abundant carcinogenic HA found in well-done cooked meat, is extensively glucuronidated by UGT1A proteins. In humans, CYP1A2 catalyzed N-hydroxylation and subsequent UGT1A-mediated glucuronidation is a dominant pathway in the metabolism of PhIP. Therefore, changes in glucuronidation rates could significantly alter PhIP metabolism. To determine the importance of UGT1A-mediated glucuronidation in the biotransformation of PhIP, UGT1A proficient Wistar and UGT1A deficient Gunn rats were exposed to a single 100 {micro}g/kg oral dose of [{sup 14}C]-PhIP. Urine was collected over 24 h and the PhIP urinary metabolite profiles were compared between the two strains. After the 24 h exposure, livers and colon were removed and analyzed for DNA adduct formation by accelerator mass spectrometry. Wistar rats produced several PhIP and N-hydroxy-PhIP glucuronides that accounted for {approx}25% of the total amount of recovered urinary metabolites. In the Gunn rats, PhIP and N-hydroxy-PhIP glucuronides were reduced by 68-92%, compared to the Wistar rats, and comprised only 4% of the total amount of recovered urinary metabolites. PhIP-DNA adduct analysis from the Gunn rats revealed a correlation between reduced PhIP and N-hydroxy-PhIP glucuronide levels in the urine and increased hepatic DNA adducts, compared to the Wistar rats. These results indicate that UGT1A-mediated glucuronidation of PhIP and N-hydroxy-PhIP is an important pathway for PhIP detoxification. Failure to form glucuronide conjugates

  13. Optimizing proteolytic digestion conditions for the analysis of serum albumin adducts of 2-amino-1-methyl-6-phenylimidazo[4,5-b]pyridine, a potential human carcinogen formed in cooked meat.

    PubMed

    Peng, Lijuan; Turesky, Robert J

    2014-05-30

    Heterocyclic aromatic amines (HAAs) are carcinogens formed during the cooking of meats or arise in tobacco smoke. The genotoxic N-oxidized metabolites of HAAs bind to Cys residues of proteins to form arylsulfinamide adducts. However, these adducts are unstable and undergo hydrolysis during enzymatic digestion, and thus have been precluded as biomarkers of exposure to HAAs. Arylsulfinamide adducts of HAAs can undergo oxidation to form stable arylsulfonamide linkages, which are chemically stable and amenable for analysis. 2-Amino-1-methyl-6-phenylimidazo[4,5-b]pyridine (PhIP) is a carcinogen present in cooked meat. We established a quantitative MS-based method to measure the sulfinamide adduct of PhIP formed at the cysteine(34) (Cys(34)) residue of human serum albumin (SA), following chemical oxidation of PhIP-modified SA with m-chloroperoxybenzoic acid. Different enzyme systems (trypsin; chymotrypsin; trypsin/chymotrypsin; proteinase K; pronase E; and pronase E/leucine aminopeptidase/prolidase) were evaluated for their proficiency of digestion of SA modified with PhIP. The strongest signal was observed for the L(31)QQC*PFEDHVK(41) peptide, by ultraperformance liquid chromatography and ion trap MS. A limit of quantification value was 0.3fmol of LQQC*PFEDHVK per μg SA, or 2.5 adducts per 10(5) SA molecules, when assaying 0.75μg of SA. This article describes a mass spectrometric based method to characterize and measure human serum albumin (SA) adducts of 2-amino-1-methyl-6-phenylimidazo[4,5-b]pyridine (PhIP), a carcinogenic heterocyclic aromatic amine formed in cooked meats and tobacco smoke. PhIP undergoes metabolic activation to form reactive N-oxidized intermediates that bind to DNA and proteins. N-oxidized PhIP metabolites bind to the Cys(34) residue of SA to form a sulfinamide linkage. However, the linkage undergoes hydrolysis during proteolysis, precluding the employment of this adduct as a biomarker in human studies. We have shown that the sulfinamide linkage

  14. Optimizing proteolytic digestion conditions for the analysis of serum albumin adducts of 2-amino-1-methyl-6-phenylimidazo[4,5-b]pyridine, a potential human carcinogen formed in cooked meat

    PubMed Central

    Peng, Lijuan; Turesky, Robert J.

    2014-01-01

    Heterocyclic aromatic amines (HAAs) are carcinogens formed during the cooking of meats or arise in tobacco smoke. The genotoxic N-oxidized metabolites of HAAs bind to Cys residues of proteins to form arylsulfinamide adducts. However, these adducts are unstable and undergo hydrolysis during enzymatic digestion, and thus have been precluded as biomarkers of exposure to HAAs. Arylsulfinamide adducts of HAAs can undergo oxidation to form stable arylsulfonamide linkages, which are chemically stable and amenable for analysis. 2-Amino-1-methyl-6-phenylimidazo[4,5-b]pyridine (PhIP) is a carcinogen present in cooked meat. We established a quantitative MS-based method to measure the sulfinamide adduct of PhIP formed at the cysteine34 (Cys34) residue of human serum albumin (SA), following chemical oxidation of PhIP-modified SA with m-chloroperoxybenzoic acid. Different enzyme systems (trypsin; chymotrypsin; trypsin/chymotrypsin; proteinase K; pronase E; and pronase E/leucine aminopeptidase/prolidase) were evaluated for their proficiency of digestion of SA modified with PhIP. The strongest signal was observed for the L31QQC*PFEDHVK41 peptide, by ultraperformance liquid chromatography and ion trap MS. A limit of quantification value was 0.3 fmol of LQQC*PFEDHVK per μg SA, or 2.5 adducts per 105 SA molecules, when assaying 0.75 μg of SA. Biological significance This article describes a mass spectrometric based method to characterize and measure human serum albumin (SA) adducts of 2-amino-1-methyl-6-phenylimidazo[4,5-b]pyridine (PhIP), a carcinogenic heterocyclic aromatic amine formed in cooked meats and tobacco smoke. PhIP undergoes metabolic activation to form reactive N-oxidized intermediates that bind to DNA and proteins. N-oxidized PhIP metabolites bind to the Cys34 residue of SA to form a sulfinamide linkage. However, the linkage undergoes hydrolysis during proteolysis, precluding the employment of this adduct as a biomarker in human studies. We have shown that the

  15. Intestinal carcinogenesis of two food processing contaminants, 2-amino-1-methyl-6-phenylimidazo[4,5-b]pyridine and 5-hydroxymethylfurfural, in transgenic FVB min mice expressing human sulfotransferases.

    PubMed

    Svendsen, Camilla; Meinl, Walter; Glatt, Hansruedi; Alexander, Jan; Knutsen, Helle K; Hjertholm, Hege; Rasmussen, Tone; Husøy, Trine

    2012-12-01

    Humans express sulfotransferases (SULTs) of the SULT1A subfamily in many tissues, whilst the single SULT1A gene present in rodents is mainly expressed in liver. The food processing contaminants, 5-hydroxymethylfurfural (HMF) and 2-amino-1-methyl-6-phenylimidazo[4,5-b]pyridine (PhIP), are bioactivated by human SULT1A1 and SULT1A2. FVB multiple intestinal neoplasia (Min) mice, which spontaneously develop tumors and flat aberrant crypt foci (ACF) in intestine, were crossed with transgenic FVB mice expressing human SULT1A1 and 1A2 (hSULT) in several tissues, giving rise to wild-type and Min mice with and without hSULT. One-week-old Min mice with or without hSULT were given HMF (375 or 750 mg/kg bw) or saline by gavage three times a week for 11 wk. In another experiment, the F1 generation received subcutaneous injections of 50 mg/kg bw PhIP or saline 1 wk before birth, and 1, 2, and 3 wk after birth. HMF did not affect the formation of tumors, but may have induced some flat ACF (incidence 15-20%) in Min mice with and without hSULT. No control mouse developed any flat ACF. With the limitation that these putative effects were weak, they were unaffected by hSULT expression. The carcinogenic effect of PhIP increased in the presence of hSULT, with a significant increase in both incidence (31-80%) and number of colonic tumors (0.4-1.3 per animal). Thus, intestinal expression of human SULT1A1 and 1A2 might increase the susceptibility to compounds bioactivated via this pathway implying that humans might be more susceptible than conventional rodent models.

  16. Measurement of the Heterocyclic Amines 2-Amino-9H-pyrido[2,3-b]indole and 2-Amino-1-methyl-6-phenylimidazo[4,5-b]pyridine in Urine: Effects of Cigarette Smoking

    PubMed Central

    Konorev, Dmitri; Koopmeiners, Joseph S.; Tang, Yijin; Franck Thompson, Elizabeth A.; Jensen, Joni A.; Hatsukami, Dorothy K.; Turesky, Robert J.

    2015-01-01

    2-Amino-9H-pyrido[2,3-b]indole (AαC) and 2-amino-1-methyl-6-phenylimidazo[4,5-b]pyridine (PhIP) are carcinogenic heterocyclic aromatic amines (HAAs) formed during the combustion of tobacco and during the high-temperature cooking of meats. Human enzymes biotransform AαC and PhIP into reactive metabolites, which can bind to DNA and lead to mutations. We sought to understand the relative contribution of smoking and diet to the exposure of AαC and PhIP, by determining levels of AαC, its ring-oxidized conjugate 2-amino-9H-pyrido[2,3-b]indole-3-yl sulfate (AαC-3-OSO3H), and PhIP in urine of smokers on a free-choice diet before and after a six week tobacco smoking cessation study. AαC and AαC-3-OSO3H were detected in more than 90% of the urine samples of all subjects during the smoking phase. The geometric mean levels of urinary AαC during the smoking and cessation phases were 24.3 pg/mg creatinine and 3.2 pg/mg creatinine, and the geometric mean levels of AαC-3-OSO3H were 47.3 pg/mg creatinine and 3.7 pg/mg creatinine. These decreases in the mean levels of AαC and AαC-3-OSO3H were, respectively, 87% and 92%, after the cessation of tobacco (P < 0.0007). However, PhIP was detected in < 10% of the urine samples, and the exposure to PhIP was not correlated to smoking. Epidemiological studies have reported that smoking is a risk factor for cancer of the liver and gastrointestinal tract. It is noteworthy that AαC is a hepatocellular carcinogen and induces aberrant crypt foci, early biomarkers of colon cancer, in rodents. Our urinary biomarker data demonstrate that tobacco smoking is a significant source of AαC exposure. Further studies are warranted to examine the potential role of AαC as a risk factor for hepatocellular and gastrointestinal cancer in smokers. PMID:26574651

  17. The Effect of UDP-glucuronosyltransferase 1A1 Expression on the Mutagenicity and Metabolism of the Cooked-Food Carcinogen 2-Amino-1-methyl-6-phenylimidazo[4-5,b]pyridine in CHO cells

    SciTech Connect

    Malfatti, M A; Wu, R W; Felton, J S

    2004-08-13

    UDP-glucuronosyltransferase proteins (UGT) catalyze the glucuronidation of both endogenous and xenobiotic compounds. In previous studies UGT1A1 has been implicated in the detoxification of certain food-borne-carcinogenic-heterocyclic amines. To determine the importance of UDP-glucuronosyltransferase 1A1 (UGT1A1) in the biotransformation of the cooked-food carcinogen 2-amino-1-methyl-6-phenylimidazo[4,5-b]pyridine (PhIP), genetically modified CHO cells that are nucleotide excision repair-deficient, and express cytochrome P4501A2 (UV5P3 cell line) were transfected with a cDNA plasmid of human UGT1A1 to establish the UDPglucuronosyltransferase 1A1 expressing 5P3hUGT1A1 cell line. Expression of the UGT1A1 gene was verified by screening neogene expressing clonal isolates (G-418 resistant) for their sensitivity to cell killing from PhIP exposure. Five of eleven clones were chosen for further analysis due to their resistance to cell killing. Western blot analysis was used to confirm the presence of the UGT1A1 and CYP1A2 proteins. All five clones displayed a 52 kDa protein band, which corresponded to a UGT1A1 control protein. Only four of the clones had a protein band that corresponded to the CYP1A2 control protein. Correct fragment size of the cDNAs in the remaining 4 clones was confirmed by RT-PCR and quantification of the mRNA product was accomplished by real-time RT-PCR. Expression of UGT1A1 in the transfected cells was 10{sup 4}-10{sup 5} fold higher relative to the UV5P3 parental cells. One clone (No.14) had a 10 fold higher increase in expression at 1.47 x 10{sup 5} over the other three clones. This clone was also the most active in converting N-hydroxy-PhIP to N-hydroxy-PhIP glucuronide conjugates in microsomal metabolism assays. Based on the D{sub 50} values, the cytotoxic effect of PhIP was decreased {approx}350 fold in the 5P3hUGT1A1 cells compared to the UV5P3 control cells. In addition no significant increase in mutation frequency was observed in the

  18. Protective effect of lactofermented red beetroot juice against aberrant crypt foci formation, genotoxicity of fecal water and oxidative stress induced by 2-amino-1-methyl-6-phenylimidazo[4,5-b] pyridine in rats model.

    PubMed

    Klewicka, Elżbieta; Nowak, Adriana; Zduńczyk, Zenon; Juśkiewicz, Jerzy; Cukrowska, Bożena

    2012-11-01

    The aim of the study was to investigate the effects of beetroot juice fermented by Lactobacillus brevis 0944 and Lactobacillus paracasei 0920 (FBJ) on carcinogen induction of aberrant crypt foci (ACF) in rat colon. 2-Amino-1-methyl-6-phenylimidazo[4,5-b] pyridine (PhIP) was used as carcinogen, which was administrated intragastrically at a dose of 10 μg/day, every day of the experiment. Additionally, we investigated the cytotoxicity and genotoxicity of fecal water from experimental animals in the Caco-2 cell line, evaluated by MTT test and the comet assay, respectively, as well as by the count of bacteria adhered to colon epithelium assessed by fluorescence in situ hybridization. Oxidative stress in rats was expressed by measuring serum antioxidant status and the level of malondialdehyde in the kidneys and liver. The experimental rats were divided into four groups based on diet type: basal diet, basal diet supplemented with FBJ, basal diet and PhIP treatment, and basal diet supplemented with FBJ and PhIP treatment. FBJ significantly reduced the number of ACF in PhIP-treated rats (from 59 ± 18 to 26 ± 4). Moreover, the number of extensive aberrations (more than 4 crypts in a focus) decreased from 52 ± 18 to 18 ± 4. Fecal water obtained from rats fed with a PhIP-containing diet induced pronounced cytotoxic and genotoxic effects in Caco-2 cells, but FBJ supplementation of the diet abolished these effects. In groups fed dietary PhP and FBJ the latter was found to increase the antioxidant status of serum from 40% to 66% depending on the fraction. Reduced concentration of malondialdehyde was found only in the kidneys of rats fed with PhIP and FBJ. FBJ present in the diet of rats causes a reduction of MDA in the kidneys from 118.7 nmol/g tissue to 100 nmol/g tissue. The presence of FBJ in the diet of rats significantly increased the count of bacteria, including Lactobacillus/Enterococcus and Bacteroides-Prevotella group adhered to colonic epithelium. In conclusion

  19. Novel LC-ESI/MS/MS(n) method for the characterization and quantification of 2'-deoxyguanosine adducts of the dietary carcinogen 2-amino-1-methyl-6-phenylimidazo[4,5-b]pyridine by 2-D linear quadrupole ion trap mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Goodenough, Angela K; Schut, Herman A J; Turesky, Robert J

    2007-02-01

    An accurate and sensitive liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization/multi-stage mass spectrometry (LC-ESI/MS/MS(n)) technique has been developed for the characterization and quantification of 2'-deoxyguanosine (dG) adducts of the dietary mutagen, 2-amino-1-methyl-6-phenylimidazo[4,5-b]pyridine (PhIP). PhIP is an animal and potential human carcinogen that occurs in grilled meats. Following enzymatic digestion and adduct enrichment by solid-phase extraction (SPE), PhIP-DNA adducts were analyzed by MS/MS and MS(n) scan modes on a 2-D linear quadrupole ion trap mass spectrometer (QIT/MS). The major DNA adduct, N-(deoxyguanosin-8-yl)-2-amino-1-methyl-6-phenylimidazo[4,5-b]pyridine (dG-C8-PhIP), was detected in calf thymus (CT) DNA modified in vitro with a bioactivated form of PhIP and in the colon and liver of rats given PhIP as part of the diet. The lower limit of detection (LOD) was 1 adduct per 10(8) DNA bases, and the limit of quantification (LOQ) was 3 adducts per 10(8) DNA bases in both MS/MS and MS(3) scan modes, using 27 microg of DNA for analysis. Measurements were based on isotope dilution with the internal standard, N-(deoxyguanosin-8-yl)-2-amino-1-(trideutero)methyl-6-phenylimidazo[4,5-b]pyridine (dG-C8-[2H3C]-PhIP). The selected reaction monitoring (SRM) scan mode in MS/MS was employed to monitor the loss of deoxyribose (dR) from the protonated molecules of the adducts ([M + H - 116]+). The consecutive reaction monitoring (CRM) scan modes in MS(3) and MS(4) were used to measure and further characterize product ions of the aglycone ion (BH2+) (Guanyl-PhIP). The MS(3) scan mode was effective in eliminating isobaric interferences observed in the MS/MS scan mode and resulted in an improved signal-to-noise (S/N) ratio. Moreover, the product ion spectra obtained by the MS(n) scan modes provided rich structural information about the adduct and were used to corroborate the identity of dG-C8-PhIP. In addition, an isomeric dG-PhIP adduct was detected in vivo

  20. Synergistic and Antagonistic Mutation Responses of Human MCL-5 Cells to Mixtures of Benzo[a]pyrene and 2-Amino-1-Methyl-6-Phenylimidazo[4,5-b]pyridine: Dose-Related Variation in the Joint Effects of Common Dietary Carcinogens

    PubMed Central

    David, Rhiannon; Ebbels, Timothy; Gooderham, Nigel

    2015-01-01

    Background Chemical carcinogens such as benzo[a]pyrene (BaP) and 2-amino-1-methyl-6-phenylimidazo[4,5-b]pyridine (PhIP) may contribute to the etiology of human diet-associated cancer. Individually, these compounds are genotoxic, but the consequences of exposure to mixtures of these chemicals have not been systematically examined. Objectives We determined the mutagenic response to mixtures of BaP and PhIP at concentrations relevant to human exposure (micromolar to subnanomolar). Methods Human MCL-5 cells (metabolically competent) were exposed to BaP or PhIP individually or in mixtures. Mutagenicity was assessed at the thymidine kinase (TK) locus, CYP1A activity was determined by ethoxyresorufin-O-deethylase (EROD) activity and qRT-PCR, and cell cycle was measured by flow cytometry. Results Mixtures of BaP and PhIP produced dose responses different from those of the individual chemicals; we observed remarkably increased mutant frequency (MF) at lower concentrations of the mixtures (not mutagenic individually), and decreased MF at higher concentrations of the mixtures, than the calculated predicted additive MF of the individual chemicals. EROD activity and CYP1A1 mRNA levels were correlated with TK MF, supporting involvement of the CYP1A family in mutation. Moreover, a cell cycle G2/M phase block was observed at high-dose combinations, consistent with DNA damage sensing and repair. Conclusions Mixtures of these genotoxic chemicals produced mutation responses that differed from those expected for the additive effects of the individual chemicals. The increase in MF for certain combinations of chemicals at low concentrations that were not genotoxic for the individual chemicals, as well as the nonmonotonic dose response, may be important for understanding the mutagenic potential of food and the etiology of diet-associated cancers. Citation David R, Ebbels T, Gooderham N. 2016. Synergistic and antagonistic mutation responses of human MCL-5 cells to mixtures of benzo

  1. Protective activity of probiotic bacteria against 2-amino-3-methyl-3H-imidazo[4,5-f]quinoline (IQ) and 2-amino-1-methyl-6-phenyl-1H-imidazo[4,5-b]pyridine (PhIP) - an in vitro study.

    PubMed

    Nowak, Adriana; Czyżowska, Agata; Stańczyk, Małgorzata

    2015-01-01

    Heterocyclic aromatic amines (HAAs) are carcinogenic compounds present in a typical Western diet rich in thermally processed meat. These nutritional factors can modulate the cytotoxicity of faecal water (FW) and induce tumours in the human gastrointestinal tract. Supplementation with probiotics is promising in terms of reducing the harmful effects of HAAs in the human body. The aim of the study was in vitro assessment of the protective activity of the probiotic strains Lb. rhamnosus 0900, Lb. rhamnosus 0908, Lb. casei 0919 and Lb. casei DN 114001 against IQ (2-amino-3-methyl-3H-imidazo[4,5-f]quinoline) and PhIP (2-amino-1-methyl-6-phenyl-1H-imidazo[4,5-b]pyridine) after incubation with faeces from 15 persons aged 4 months to 82 years (children, adults and the elderly). The highest mean cytotoxicity of FW was observed for the elderly (63.2% ± 3.7%) and the lowest for children (28.0% ± 9.5%), as estimated by a neutral red uptake assay. The probiotics lowered the average cytotoxicity of FW exposed to IQ or PhIP. The concentration of IQ and PhIP in FW was most effectively reduced by Lb. rhamnosus 0900 (47.5%) and Lb. casei 0919 (45.8%), respectively, as determined by high -performance liquid chromatography. All the tested strains bound PhIP to a higher extent than IQ. In an alkaline comet assay, Lb. casei 0919 and Lb. rhamnosus 0908 displayed the strongest protective effect against IQ and PhIP (up to 80% reduction of DNA damage). Also in a comet assay, Lb. rhamnosus 0908 exhibited antioxidative activity toward H2O2 and PhIP (up to 63% and 69.5% reduction of oxidative DNA damage, respectively). The protective activity of the probiotic strains was specific to a given person's FW, which implies the involvement of intestinal microbiota in the process.

  2. Mass Spectrometric Characterization of Human Serum Albumin Adducts Formed with N-Oxidized Metabolites of 2-Amino-1-methyl-phenylimidazo[4,5-b]pyridine in Human Plasma and Hepatocytes

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Yi; Peng, Lijuan; Bellamri, Medjda; Langoueët, Sophie; Turesky, Robert J.

    2015-01-01

    2-Amino-1-methyl-6-phenylimidazo[4,5-b]pyridine (PhIP), a carcinogenic heterocyclic aromatic amine formed in cooked meats, is metabolically activated to electrophilic intermediates that form covalent adducts with DNA and protein. We previously identified an adduct of PhIP formed at the Cys34 residue of human serum albumin following reaction of albumin with the genotoxic metabolite 2-hydroxyamino-1-methyl-6-phenylimidazo[4,5-b]pyridine (HONH-PhIP). The major adducted peptide recovered from a tryptic/chymotryptic digest was identified as the missed-cleavage peptide LQQC*[SO2PhIP]PFEDHVK, a [Cysteine-S-yl-PhIP]-S-dioxide linked adduct. In this investigation, we have characterized the albumin adduction products of N-sulfooxy-2-amino-1-methyl-6-phenylimidazo[4,5-b]pyridine (N-sulfooxy-PhIP), which is thought to be a major genotoxic metabolite of PhIP formed in vivo. Targeted and data-dependent scanning methods showed that N-sulfooxy-PhIP adducted to the Cys34 of albumin in human plasma to form LQQC*[SO2PhIP]PFEDHVK at levels that were 8 to 10-fold greater than the adduct levels formed with N-(acetyloxy)-2-amino-1-methyl-6-phenylimidazo[4,5-b]pyridine (N-acetoxy-PhIP) or HONH-PhIP. We also discovered that N-sulfooxy-PhIP forms an adduct at the sole tryptophan (Trp214) residue of albumin in the sequence AW*[PhIP]AVAR. However, stable adducts of PhIP with albumin were not detected in human hepatocytes. Instead, PhIP and 2-amino-1-methyl-6-(5-hydroxy)-phenylimidazo[4,5-b]pyridine (5-HO-PhIP), a solvolysis product of the proposed nitrenium ion of PhIP, were recovered during the proteolysis, suggesting a labile sulfenamide linkage had formed between an N-oxidized intermediate of PhIP and Cys34 of albumin. A stable adduct was formed at the Tyr411 residue of albumin in hepatocytes, and identified as a deaminated product of PhIP, Y*[desaminoPhIP]TK, where the 4-HO-tyrosine group bound to the C-2 imidazole atom of PhIP. PMID:25815793

  3. A Cytogenetic Footprint for Mammary Carcinomas Induced by PhIP in Rats

    SciTech Connect

    Christian, A T

    2001-04-01

    PhIP (2-amino-1-methyl-6-phenylimidazo [4,5-b] pyridine), a mutagen/carcinogen belonging to the class of heterocyclic amines (HCAs) found in cooked meats, is a mammary gland carcinogen in rats and has been implicated in the etiology of certain human cancers including breast cancer. To gain insight into the genomic alterations associated with PhIP-induced mammary gland carcinogenesis, we used comparative genomic hybridization (CGH) to examine chromosomal abnormalities in rat mammary carcinomas induced by PhIP, and for comparison, by DMBA (7,12-dimethylbenz[a]anthracene), a potent experimental mammary carcinogen. There was a consistent and characteristic pattern of chromosome-region loss in PhIP-induced carcinomas that clearly distinguished them from carcinomas induced by DMBA.

  4. Inability to confirm estrogenicity of the heterocyclic amine PhIP in two in vitro assays.

    PubMed

    Evans, Richard M; Rahte, Sinikka; Kortenkamp, Andreas

    2010-09-01

    2-Amino-1-methyl-6-phenylimidazo-[4,5-b]pyridine (PhIP) is a heterocyclic amine which is found in food after cooking and which is a known mutagen. Reports from several laboratories have proposed that PhIP has estrogenic activity, which would classify PhIP as a xenoestrogen with human exposure via food. We tested PhIP in two cell-based assays for estrogenicity, both based on human cell lines but utilising different outcome measures: ERLUX (reporter-gene activation) and ESCREEN (cell proliferation). PhIP was inactive in both assays at concentrations spanning the picomolar to micromolar range. To eliminate supplier differences as an explanation for the disparity between these results and positive findings in the literature, we purchased PhIP from three suppliers and found no detectable estrogenic activity in any batch. (1)H NMR spectroscopy confirmed the chemical identity of the tested stock solutions. Correct assay performance was confirmed by including positive and vehicle controls on every assay plate, and by demonstrating the expected responses to a panel of known estrogens (estradiol, bisphenol A, and genistein). Our results differ from those in the literature and, whilst the exact reason for this is unknown, we discuss possible explanations of the disparity. Our results provide no in vitro evidence for the classification of PhIP as an estrogen. Copyright 2010. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  5. Inflammation and Atrophy Precede Prostate Neoplasia in PhIP Induced Rat Model

    SciTech Connect

    Borowsky, A D; Dingley, K; Ubick, E; Turteltaub, K; Cardiff, R D; DeVere-White, R

    2006-06-01

    2-amino-1-methyl-6-phenylimidazo(4,5-b)pyridine (PhIP) has been implicated as a major mutagenic heterocyclic amine in the human diet and is carcinogenic in the rat prostate. In order to validate PhIP induced rat prostate neoplasia as a model of human prostate cancer progression, we sought to study the earliest histologic and morphologic changes in the prostate and to follow the progressive changes over time. We fed 67 male Fischer F344 5 week old rats with PhIP (400 PPM) or control diets for 20 weeks, and then sacrificed animals for histomorphologic examination at age 25 weeks, 45 weeks, and 65 weeks. Animals treated with PhIP showed significantly more inflammation (P=.002 (25wk), >.001(45wk), .016(65wk)) and atrophy (P=.003(25wk), >.001(45wk), .006 (65wk)) in their prostate glands relative to controls. Prostatic intraepithelial neoplasia (PIN) occurred only in PhIP treated rats. PIN lesions arose in areas of glandular atrophy, most often in the ventral prostate. Atypical cells in areas of atrophy show loss of glutathione S-transferase pi immunostaining preceding development of PIN. None of the animals in this study developed invasive carcinomas differing from previous reports. Overall, these findings suggest that the pathogenesis of prostatic neoplasia in the PhIP treated rat prostate proceeds from inflammation to post-inflammatory proliferative atrophy to PIN.

  6. Impact of dextran sulphate sodium-induced colitis on the intestinal transport of the colon carcinogen PhIP.

    PubMed

    Nicken, Petra; von Keutz, Anne; Willenberg, Ina; Ostermann, Annika I; Schebb, Nils Helge; Giovannini, Samoa; Kershaw, Olivia; Breves, Gerhard; Steinberg, Pablo

    2016-05-01

    Colorectal cancer is one of the most frequent cancers in Western countries. Chronic intestinal diseases such as Crohn's disease and ulcerative colitis, in which the intestinal barrier is massively disturbed, significantly raise the risk of developing a colorectal tumour. 2-Amino-1-methyl-6-phenylimidazo[4,5-b]pyridine (PhIP) is a genotoxic heterocyclic aromatic amine that is formed after strongly heating fish and meat. In this study, the hypothesis that PhIP uptake in the gut is increased during chronic colitis was tested. Chronic colitis was induced by oral administration of dextran sulphate sodium (DSS) to Fischer 344 rats. The transport of PhIP in eight different rat intestinal segments was examined in Ussing chambers. The tissues were incubated with 10 µM PhIP for 90 min, and the concentration of PhIP was determined in the mucosal and serosal compartments of the Ussing chambers as well as in the clamped tissues by LC-MS. Although chronic colitis was clearly induced in the rats, no differences in the intestinal transport of PhIP were observed between control and DSS-treated animals. The hypothesis that in the course of chronic colitis more PhIP is taken up by the intestinal epithelium, thereby increasing the risk of developing colorectal cancer, could not be confirmed in the present report.

  7. Enhanced glutathione S-transferase expression in 2-hydroxyamino-1-methyl-6-phenylimidazo[4,5-b]pyridine-resistant IEC-18 cells.

    PubMed

    Teubner, W; Fuchs, J I; Steinberg, P

    2007-05-01

    In the present study we show that repeated exposure of the rat intestinal epithelial cell line IEC-18 to 2-hydroxyamino-1-methyl-6-phenylimidazo[4,5-b]pyridine (N-OH-PhIP), from a toxicological point of view the most relevant phase-1 metabolite of 2-amino-1-methyl-6-phenylimidazo[4,5-b]pyridine (PhIP, the main heterocyclic aromatic amine present in processed meat), led to the selection of N-OH-PhIP-resistant IEC-18 cells. This phenomenon was accompanied by a fivefold increase in total glutathione S-transferase (GST) activity, measured with the broad-spectrum substrate 1-chloro-2,4-dinitrobenzene, in the N-OH-PhIP-resistant IEC-18 cells. Furthermore, a Western blotting analysis revealed that the expression of GST subunits A1, A3, A4, M1 and P1 was enhanced in the N-OH-PhIP-resistant IEC-18 cells.

  8. Separation of a chemically modified DNA oligomer bound by the carcinogen 2-Amino-1-methy-6-phenylimidazo [4,5-{beta}]pyridine using capillary gel electrophoresis

    SciTech Connect

    Nguyen, T.N.

    1994-05-06

    We have optimized the reaction conditions under which unactivated metabolite of the food borne carcinogen 2-amino-1-methyl-6-phenylimidazo [4,5-{beta}]pyridine (PhIP) is covalently bound to the oligodeoxynucleotide d(CCTACGCATCC). Capillary electrophoresis (CE) was used to separate and characterize this DNA oligomer bound by PhIP. We observed 2 major and several minor PhIP adduct species. The 2 major adducts had different absorbance maxima; the major adduct eluates with faster and slower mobilities had absorbance maxima of 360 and 340 nm, respectively. One of the two major PhIP adduct species was resolvable but the peak was broad. Using detection at 260 nm, the other major PhIP adduct with fastest electrophoretic mobility was not resolvable, but coelute with the huge broad unmodified DNA oligomer peak. However, at higher wavelengths (>320 nm) where DNA does not absorb, electropherograms generated by detection at these higher wavelengths showed very heterogeneous binding by PhIP to the DNA oligomer with no interfering absorbance by the DNA.

  9. Detection of PhIP in grilled chicken entrées at popular chain restaurants throughout California.

    PubMed

    Sullivan, Kristie M; Erickson, Michael A; Sandusky, Chad B; Barnard, Neal D

    2008-01-01

    Heterocyclic amines (HCAs), compounds formed when meat is cooked at high temperatures particularly through pan frying, grilling, or barbequing, pose a potential carcinogenic risk to the public. It is unclear whether there is any level at which consumption of HCAs can be considered safe. Efforts to measure these compounds mainly include cooking studies under laboratory conditions and some measurement of home-cooked foods, but analysis of commercially cooked foods has been minimal. Attempts to estimate exposure of the public to these compounds must take into consideration dining outside the home, which could result in significant exposure for some individuals. We surveyed at least 9 locations each of 7 popular chain restaurants (McDonald's, Burger King, Chick-fil-A, Chili's, TGI Friday's, Outback Steakhouse, and Applebee's) in California, collecting one or two entrees from each location. Entrees were analyzed for 2-amino-1-methyl-6-phenylimidazo[4,5-b]pyridine (PhIP) using high-performance liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry. All 100 samples contained PhIP. Concentrations were variable within and between entrees and ranged from 0.08 to 43.2 ng/g. When factoring in the weight of the entrees, absolute levels of PhIP reached over 1,000 ng for some entrees. Potential strategies for reducing exposure include the avoidance of meats cooked using methods that are known to form PhIP.

  10. Highly elevated PSA and dietary PhIP intake in a prospective clinic-based study among African Americans.

    PubMed

    Bogen, K T; Keating, G A; Chan, J M; Paine, L J; Simms, E L; Nelson, D O; Holly, E A

    2007-01-01

    African-American men die from prostate cancer (PC) nearly twice as often as white US men and consume about twice as much of the predominant US dietary heterocyclic amine, 2-amino-1-methyl-6-phenylimidazo[4,5-b]pyridine (PhIP), a genotoxic rat-prostate carcinogen found primarily in well-cooked chicken and beef. To investigate the hypothesis that PhIP exposure increases PC risk, an ongoing prospective clinic-based study compared PC screening outcomes with survey-based estimates of dietary PhIP intake among 40-70-year-old African-American men with no prior PC in Oakland, CA. They completed food-frequency and meat-cooking/consumption questionnaires and had a prostate-specific antigen (PSA) test and digital-rectal exam. Results for 392 men indicated a 17 (+/-17) ng/kg day mean (+/-1 s.d.) daily intake of PhIP, about twice that of white US men of similar age. PhIP intake was attributable mostly to chicken (61%) and positively associated (R(2)=0.32, P<0.0001) with saturated fat intake. An odds ratio (95% confidence interval) of 31 (3.1-690) for highly elevated PSA > or =20 ng/ml was observed in the highest 15% vs lowest 50% of estimated daily PhIP intake (> or =30 vs < or =10 ng/kg day) among men 50+ years old (P=0.0002 for trend) and remained significant after adjustment for self-reported family history of (brother or father) PC, saturated fat intake and total energy intake. PSA measures were higher in African-American men with positive family history (P=0.007 all men, P<0.0001 highest PSA quartile). These preliminary results are consistent with a positive association between PhIP intake and highly elevated PSA, supporting the hypothesis that dietary intervention may help reduce PC risk.

  11. Dietary Chemoprevention of PhIP Induced Carcinogenesis in Male Fischer 344 Rats with Tomato and Broccoli

    PubMed Central

    Canene-Adams, Kirstie; Sfanos, Karen S.; Liang, Chung-Tiang; Yegnasubramanian, Srinivasan; Nelson, William G.; Brayton, Cory; De Marzo, Angelo M.

    2013-01-01

    The heterocyclic amine, 2-amino-1-methyl-6-phenylimidazo[4,5-B]pyridine (PhIP), found in meats cooked at high temperatures, has been implicated in epidemiological and rodent studies for causing breast, prostate, and colorectal cancers. A previous animal study using a xenograft model has shown that whole tomato and broccoli, when eaten in combination, exhibit a marked effect on tumor reduction compared to when eaten alone. Our aim was to determine if PhIP-induced carcinogenesis can be prevented by dietary consumption of whole tomato + broccoli powders. Male Fischer 344 rats (n = 45) were randomized into the following treatment groups: control (AIN93G diet), PhIP (200 ppm in AIN93G diet for the first 20 weeks of the study), or tomato + broccoli + PhIP (mixed in AIN93G diet at 10% each and fed with PhIP for 20 weeks, and then without PhIP for 32 weeks). Study animals were monitored for 52 weeks and were euthanized as necessary based on a set of criteria for health status and tumor burden. Although there appeared to be some hepatic and intestinal toxicity due to the combination of PhIP and tomato + broccoli, these rodents had improved survival and reduced incidence and/or severity of PhIP-induced neoplastic lesions compared to the PhIP-alone treated group. Rats eating tomato + broccoli exhibited a marked decrease in the number and size of cribiform prostatic intraepitheilial neoplasia/carcinoma in situ (cribiform PIN/CIS) lesions and in the incidence of invasive intestinal adenocarcinomas and skin carcinomas. Although the apparent toxic effects of combined PhIP and tomato + broccoli need additional study, the results of this study support the hypothesis that a diet rich in tomato and broccoli can reduce or prevent dietary carcinogen-induced cancers. PMID:24312188

  12. Modeling human colon cancer in rodents using a food-borne carcinogen, PhIP.

    PubMed

    Nakagama, Hitoshi; Nakanishi, Masako; Ochiai, Masako

    2005-10-01

    Animal models provide researchers with powerful tools to elucidate multistage mechanisms for cancer development and to gain further insights into the biological roles of various cancer-related genes in in vivo situations. As for colon cancer models in rodents, Apc-disrupted mice, including ApcMin, have been one of the most widely utilized animal models to dissect the molecular events implicated in the development of intestinal tumors. In rats, several models have been established using chemical carcinogens, including azoxymethane and 2-amino-1-methyl-6-phenylimidazo-[4,5-b]pyridine (PhIP). The former is a representative colon carcinogenic alkylating agent, and the latter a heterocyclic amine produced while cooking meat and fish, which people are exposed to in ordinary life. It is of great importance to note that PhIP preferentially targets the colon and prostate gland in male rats, and the mammary glands in female rats. Cancers in these three organs are common in Western countries and are currently increasing in Japan, where modern dietary habits are rapidly becoming more like those of the West. In the present article, the history of PhIP-induced colon cancer models in rodents, activation/detoxification mechanisms of PhIP with regard to the formation of PhIP-DNA adducts, mechanistic approaches to dissect the molecular events involved in the development of colon cancer by PhIP, and epidemiological evidence of human exposure to PhIP are overviewed. The induction of Paneth cell maturation/differentiation in PhIP-induced colon cancers, genetic traits affecting susceptibility to colon carcinogenesis, and the biological relevance of colon cancer models in rodents to studying human colon carcinogenesis are also discussed.

  13. Combined genotoxic effects of a polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (B(a)P) and an heterocyclic amine (PhIP) in relation to colorectal carcinogenesis.

    PubMed

    Jamin, Emilien L; Riu, Anne; Douki, Thierry; Debrauwer, Laurent; Cravedi, Jean-Pierre; Zalko, Daniel; Audebert, Marc

    2013-01-01

    Colorectal neoplasia is the third most common cancer worldwide. Environmental factors such as diet are known to be involved in the etiology of this cancer. Several epidemiological studies have suggested that specific neo-formed mutagenic compounds related to meat consumption are an underlying factor involved in the association between diet and colorectal cancer. Heterocyclic amines (HCAs) and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are known mutagens and possible human carcinogens formed at the same time in meat during cooking processes. We studied the genotoxicity of the model PAH benzo(a)pyrene (B(a)P) and HCA 2-amino-1-methyl-6-phenylimidazo[4,5-b]pyridine (PhIP), alone or in mixture, using the mouse intestinal cell line Apc(Min/+), mimicking the early step of colorectal carcinogenesis, and control Apc(+/+) cells. The genotoxicity of B(a)P and PhIP was investigated using both cell lines, through the quantification of B(a)P and PhIP derived DNA adducts, as well as the use of a genotoxic assay based on histone H2AX phosphorylation quantification. Our results demonstrate that heterozygous Apc mutated cells are more effective to metabolize B(a)P. We also established in different experiments that PhIP and B(a)P were more genotoxic on Apc (Min/+) cells compared to Apc (+/+) . Moreover when tested in mixture, we observed a combined genotoxicity of B(a)P and PhIP on the two cell lines, with an increase of PhIP derived DNA adducts in the presence of B(a)P. Because of their genotoxic effects observed on heterozygous Apc mutated cells and their possible combined genotoxic effects, both B(a)P and PhIP, taken together, could be implicated in the observed association between meat consumption and colorectal cancer.

  14. Apiaceous Vegetable Consumption Decreases PhIP-Induced DNA Adducts and Increases Methylated PhIP Metabolites in the Urine Metabolome in Rats123

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Jae Kyeom; Gallaher, Daniel D; Chen, Chi; Yao, Dan; Trudo, Sabrina P

    2015-01-01

    Background: Heterocyclic aromatic amines, such as 2-amino-1-methyl-6-phenylimidazo[4,5-b]pyridine (PhIP), are carcinogenic compounds produced during heating of protein-containing foods. Apiaceous vegetables inhibit PhIP-activating enzymes, whereas cruciferous vegetables induce both PhIP-activating and -detoxifying enzymes. Objective: We investigated the effects of these vegetables, either alone or combined, on PhIP metabolism and colonic DNA adduct formation in rats. Methods: Male Wistar rats were fed cruciferous vegetables (21%, wt:wt), apiaceous vegetables (21%, wt:wt), or a combination of both vegetables (10.5% wt:wt of each). Negative and positive control groups were fed an AIN-93G diet. After 6 d, all groups received an intraperitoneal injection of PhIP (10 mg · kg body weight−1) except for the negative control group, which received only vehicle. Urine was collected for 24 h after the injection for LC–tandem mass spectrometry metabolomic analyses. On day 7, rats were killed and tissues processed. Results: Compared with the positive control, cruciferous vegetables increased the activity of hepatic PhIP-activating enzymes [39.5% and 45.1% for cytochrome P450 (CYP) 1A1 (P = 0.0006) and CYP1A2 (P < 0.0001), respectively] and of uridine 5′-diphospho-glucuronosyltransferase 1A (PhIP-detoxifying) by 24.5% (P = 0.0267). Apiaceous vegetables did not inhibit PhIP-activating enzymes, yet reduced colonic PhIP-DNA adducts by 20.4% (P = 0.0496). Metabolomic analyses indicated that apiaceous vegetables increased the relative abundance of urinary methylated PhIP metabolites. The sum of these methylated metabolites inversely correlated with colonic PhIP-DNA adducts (r = −0.43, P = 0.01). We detected a novel methylated urinary PhIP metabolite and demonstrated that methylated metabolites are produced in the human liver S9 fraction. Conclusions: Apiaceous vegetables did not inhibit the activity of PhIP-activating enzymes in rats, suggesting that the reduction in Ph

  15. Genetic analysis of colon tumors induced by a dietary carcinogen PhIP in CYP1A humanized mice: Identification of mutation of β-catenin/Ctnnb1 as the driver gene for the carcinogenesis.

    PubMed

    Wang, Hong; Zhou, Hong; Liu, Anna; Guo, Xiangyi; Yang, Chung S

    2015-11-01

    Replacing mouse Cyp1a with human CYP1A enables the humanized CYP1A mice to mimic human metabolism of the dietary carcinogen, 2-amino-1-methyl-6-phenylimidazo[4,5-b]pyridine (PhIP), by N(2) -hydroxylation to a proximate carcinogen. Our previous study demonstrated that PhIP, combined with the dextrin sulfate sodium (DSS)-induced colitis, induces colon carcinogenesis in hCYP1A mice. Here, we employed whole exome sequencing and found multiple gene mutations in PhIP/DSS-induced colon tumors. Mutations in the exon 3 of Ctnnb1/β-catenin, however, were the predominant events. We further sequenced the key fragments of Apc, Ctnnb1, and Kras, because mutations of these genes in the humans are commonly found as the drivers of colorectal cancer. Mutations on either codon 32 or 34 in the exon 3 of Ctnnb1 were found in 39 out of 42 tumors, but no mutation was found in either Apc or Kras. The sequence context of codons 32 and 34 suggests that PhIP targets +3G in a TGGA motif of Ctnnb1. Since mutations that activate Wnt signal is a major driving force for human colorectal cancers, we conclude that the mutated β-catenin is the driver in PhIP/DSS-induced colon carcinogenesis. This result suggests that the colon tumors in hCYP1A mice mimic human colorectal carcinogenesis not only in the dietary etiology involving PhIP, but also in the aberrant activation of the Wnt signaling pathway as the driving force. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  16. AKT is critically involved in cooperation between obesity and the dietary carcinogen amino-1-methyl-6-phenylimidazo [4,5-b] (PhIP) toward colon carcinogenesis in rats.

    PubMed

    Igarashi, Maki; Hippo, Yoshitaka; Ochiai, Masako; Fukuda, Hirokazu; Nakagama, Hitoshi

    2014-01-17

    Obesity is highly associated with colon cancer development. Whereas it is generally attributed to pro-tumorigenic effects of high fat diet (HFD), we here show that a common genetic basis for predisposition to obesity and colon cancer might also underlie the close association. Comparison across multiple rat strains revealed that strains prone to colon tumorigenesis initiated by a dietary carcinogen amino-1-methyl-6-phenylimidazo [4,5-b] pyridine (PhIP) tended to develop obesity. Through transcriptome and extensive immunoblotting analyses, we identified the basal level of activated AKT in colonic crypts as a biomarker for the common predisposition. Notably, PhIP induced activation of AKT, which could persist for several weeks under a low fat diet (LFD), but not under HFD. On the other hand, PhIP and HFD independently induced Wnt pathway activation and inhibited apoptosis, through distinct mechanisms involving GSK-3β, caspase 3 and poly-ADP ribose polymerase (PARP). Taken together, these observations provide mechanistic insights into how PhIP-induced activation of AKT might cooperate with HFD at multiple levels toward development of colon cancer. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Tea as a potential chemopreventive agent in PhIP carcinogenesis: effects of green tea and black tea on PhIP-DNA adduct formation in female F-344 rats.

    PubMed

    Schut, H A; Yao, R

    2000-01-01

    The heterocyclic amine 2-amino-1-methyl-6-phenylimidazo[4,5-b]pyridine (PhIP) is formed during the cooking of proteinaceous animal foods (meat, chicken, and fish). PhIP is a carcinogen in the Fischer 344 (F-344) rat; it induces mammary tumors in female rats and lymphomas and colon and prostate tumors in male rats. In F-344 rats, PhIP forms DNA adducts in various organs, including the target organs. Inhibition of PhIP-DNA adduct formation is likely to lead to inhibition of PhIP tumorigenicity. We have examined the chemopreventive properties of green tea and black tea in PhIP carcinogenesis by evaluating their effects on PhIP-DNA adduct formation in the female F-344 rat. Young adult animals were maintained on powdered AIN-76A diet while receiving regular drinking water or 2% (wt/vol) infusions of green tea or black tea for a total of six weeks. During Weeks 3, 4, and 5, all animals received PhIP by gavage (1 mg/kg/day). Three rats per group were euthanized on Days 1 and 8 after termination of PhIP exposure. DNA was isolated from a number of organs and analyzed for PhIP-DNA adducts by 32P-postlabeling assays. Compared with animals on regular drinking water, PhIP-DNA adduct formation was inhibited in small intestine, colon, liver, and mammary epithelial cells (MECs) of animals receiving green tea or black tea as the sole source of drinking fluid. Green tea inhibited adduct formation in colon, liver, and MECs (33.3-80.0%) on both days, but only on Day 8 (54.4%) in small intestine. Black tea inhibited adduct formation on both days in liver (71.4-80.0%), on Day 1 in colon (40.0%), and on Day 8 in small intestine (81.8%); it had no effect on MEC adducts. Neither green tea nor black tea had an effect on adduct levels in pancreas, lungs, white blood cells, heart, kidneys, spleen, cecum, or stomach. Similarly, these teas did not affect the rate of adduct removal (percent change from Day 1 to Day 8) in any organ. It is concluded that green tea and black tea are potential

  18. Concentration-dependent inhibition of Escherichia coli O157:H7 and potentially carcinogenic heterocyclic amines in heated ground beef patties by apple,olive,and onion powders and clove bud oil

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    We determined the effects of plant compounds on Escherichia coli O157:H7 and two major carcinogenic heterocyclic amines (HCAs), 2-amino-3,8-dimethylamidazo[4,5-f]quinoxaline (MeIQx) and 2-amino-1-methyl-6-phenylimidazo[4,5b]pyridine (PhIP) in grilled ground beef patties. Ground beef with added apple...

  19. Molecule-Specific Imaging Analysis of Carcinogens in Breast Cancer Cells Using Time-of-Flight Secondary Ion Mass Spectrometry

    SciTech Connect

    Quong, J N; Knize, M G; Kulp, K S; Wu, K J

    2003-08-19

    Imaging time-of-flight secondary ion mass spectrometry (TOF-SIMS) is used to study the localization of heterocyclic amines in MCF7 line of human breast cancer cells. The detection sensitivities of a model rodent mutagen, 2-amino-1-methyl-6-phenylimidazo[4,5-b]pyridine (PhIP) were determined. Following an established criteria for the determination of status of freeze-fracture cells, the distribution of PhIP in the MCF7 cells are reported.

  20. Mutation and repair induced by the carcinogen 2-(hydroxyamino)-1-methyl-6-phenylimidazo[4,5-b]pyridine (N-OH-PhIP) in the dihydrofolate reductase gene of Chinese hamster ovary cells and conformational modeling of the dG-C8-PhIP adduct in DNA.

    PubMed

    Carothers, A M; Yuan, W; Hingerty, B E; Broyde, S; Grunberger, D; Snyderwine, E G

    1994-01-01

    Three experiments using 20 microM 2-(hydroxyamino)-1-methyl-6-phenylimidazo[4,5-b]pyridine (N-OH-PhIP) were performed to induce mutations in the dihydrofolate reductase (DHFR) gene of a hemizygous Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cell line (UA21). Metabolized forms of this chemical primarily bind at the C-8 position of guanine in DNA. In total, 21 independent induced mutants were isolated and 20 were characterized. DNA sequencing showed that the preferred mutation type found in 75% of the induced DHFR- clones was G.C-->T.A single and tandem double transversions. In addition to base substitutions, one mutant carried a-1 frameshift and another one had lost the entire locus by deletion. The induced changes affected purine targets on the nontranscribed strand of the gene in nearly all of the mutants sequenced (18/19). At the time that the first two experiments were performed, the initial adduct levels were quantitated in treated cells at the mutagenic dose by 32P-postlabeling. While the induced frequency of mutation was relatively low (approximately 5 x 10(-6), the adduct levels after a 1-h exposure of UA21 cells to 20 microM N-OH-PhIP were relatively high (13 adducts x 10(-6) nucleotides). This latter method was then employed to learn if the induced mutation frequency correlated with rapid overall genome repair of PhIP-DNA adducts. Total adduct levels, determined using DNA samples from treated cells collected after intervals of time, were reduced by about 50% after 6 h, and about 70% after 24 h. Since overall genome repair in CHO cells is relatively slow compared with preferential gene repair, the removal of dG-C8-PhIP adducts was apparently efficient. In order to better understand the mutational and repair results, we performed computational modeling to determine the lowest energy structure for the major dG-C8-PhIP adduct in a repetitively mutated duplex sequence opposite dA. Results of this analysis indicate that the PhIP-modified base resembles previous structural

  1. MACROMOLECULAR ADDUCT FORMATION AND METABOLISM OF HETEROCYCLIC AMINES IN HUMANS AND RODENTS AT LOW DOSES. (R825280)

    EPA Science Inventory

    Abstract

    2-Amino-3,8-dimethylimidazo[4,5-f]quinoxaline (MeIQx) and 2-amino-1-methyl-6-phenylimidazo[4,5-b]pyridine (PhIP) are heterocyclic amines formed during the cooking of meat and fish. Both are genotoxic in a number of test systems and are carcinogen...

  2. Model studies of lignified fiber fermentation by human fecal microbiota and its impact on heterocyclic aromatic amine adsorption

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    This study examined how shifts in pH and fiber fermentation may alter the adsorption of mutagenic heterocyclic amines (HAAs) 2-amino-1-methyl-6-phenylimidazo[4,5-b]pyridine (PhIP) and 2-amino-9H-pyrido[2,3-b]indole (AaC) to dietary fiber in the human small intestine and colon. Nonlignified and artif...

  3. MACROMOLECULAR ADDUCT FORMATION AND METABOLISM OF HETEROCYCLIC AMINES IN HUMANS AND RODENTS AT LOW DOSES. (R825280)

    EPA Science Inventory

    Abstract

    2-Amino-3,8-dimethylimidazo[4,5-f]quinoxaline (MeIQx) and 2-amino-1-methyl-6-phenylimidazo[4,5-b]pyridine (PhIP) are heterocyclic amines formed during the cooking of meat and fish. Both are genotoxic in a number of test systems and are carcinogen...

  4. Impact of Environmental Exposures on the Mutagenicity/Carcinogenicity of Heterocyclic Amines

    SciTech Connect

    Felton, J S; Knize, M G; Bennett, L M; Malfatti, M A; Colvin, M E; Kulp, K S

    2003-12-19

    Carcinogenic heterocyclic amines are produced from overcooked foods and are highly mutagenic in most short-term test systems. One of the most abundant of these amines, 2-amino-1-methyl-6-phenylimidazo[4,5-b]pyridine (PhIP), induces breast, colon and prostate tumors in rats. Human dietary epidemiology studies suggest a strong correlation between either meat consumption or well-done muscle meat consumption and cancers of the colon, breast, stomach, lung and esophagus. For over 20 years our laboratory has helped define the human exposure to these dietary carcinogens. In this report we describe how various environmental exposures may modulate the risk from exposure to heterocyclic amines, especially PhIP. To assess the impact of foods on PhIP metabolism in humans, we developed an LC/MS/MS method to analyze the four major PhIP urinary metabolites following the consumption of a single portion of grilled chicken. Adding broccoli to the volunteers' diet altered the kinetics of PhIP metabolism. At the cellular level we have found that PhIP itself stimulates a significant estrogenic response in MCF-7 cells, but even more interestingly, co-incubation of the cells with herbal teas appear to enhance the response. Numerous environmental chemicals found in food or the atmosphere can impact the exposure, metabolism, and cell proliferation response of heterocyclic amines.

  5. In vitro synthesis and purification of PhIP-deoxyguanosine and PhIP-DNA oligomer covalent complexes

    SciTech Connect

    Freeman, J.

    1994-12-01

    2-Amino-1-methyl-6-phenylimidazo[4,5-b]pyridine (PhIP) is a heterocyclic amine compound formed when meats are cooked at high temperatures. PhIP damages DNA by forming covalent complexes with DNA carcinogen. In an effort to understand how the binding of PhIP to DNA may cause cancer, it is important to characterize the structures of PhIP-damaged DNA molecules. Our HPLC data support fluorescence and {sup 32}P Post-labeling studies which indicate the formation of several species of 2{prime}deoxyguanosine-(dG) or oligodeoxynucleotide-PhIP adducts. The reaction of PhIP with dG resulted in a reddish precipitate that was likely the major adduct, N-(deoxyguanosin-8-yl)-PhIP (dG-C8-PhIP) adduct, with a more polar adduct fraction remaining in the supernatant. Reversed-phase HPLC analysis of the adducts in the supernatant revealed the existence of species of much shorter retention times than the dG-C8-PhIP adduct, confirming that these species are more polar than dG-C8-PhIP. At least four adducts were formed in the reaction of PhIP with DNA oligomer. HPLC analysis of the PhIP-DNA oligomer supernatant after butanol extractions revealed four unresolved peaks which spectra had maximum wavelengths between 340 and 360 nm. Though adduct peaks were not completely resolved, there was {approximately}3 minutes interval between the DNA oligomer peak and the adduct peaks. Furthermore, fluorescence emission data of the DNA oligomer-PhIP adduct solution show heterogeneous binding. The more polar PhIP adducts were fraction-collected and their structures will be solved by nuclear magnetic resonance or x-ray crystallography.

  6. Antioxidant capacity and inhibitory effect of grape seed and rosemary extract in marinades on the formation of heterocyclic amines in fried beef patties.

    PubMed

    Gibis, Monika; Weiss, Jochen

    2012-09-15

    The effect of oil-based marinades containing grape seed extract (Vitis vinifera L.; 0.2, 0.4, 0.6 and 0.8 g/100g) formulated in a water/oil emulsion or rosemary extract (Rosmarinus officinalis; 0.12, 0.2, 0.6, 1.0 and 1.5 g/100g) in oil on the formation of heterocyclic amines (HAs) in fried beef patties was examined. After application of marinades and frying, four HAs MeIQx (2-amino-3,8-dimethylimidazo[4,5-f]quinoxaline), PhIP (2-amino-1-methyl-6-phenylimidazo[4,5b]pyridine), Norharman, and Harman were found at low levels in all fried patties, MeIQx (0.3-1.0 ng/g), and PhIP (0.02-0.3 ng/g). The content of MeIQx and PhIP were significantly reduced by approx. 57% and 90% (p<0.05), respectively, after use of marinades containing the highest extract concentration. The antioxidant capacity of grape seed was about two-times greater than that of rosemary extract. A correlation between inhibition of HAs and Trolox-equivalents (MeIQx, R(2)=0.85, p<0.001; PhIP, R(2)=0.83, p<0.001) was found. Sensory tests showed a high acceptance of flavour and colour for controls and samples.

  7. Genotoxicity of three food processing contaminants in transgenic mice expressing human sulfotransferases 1A1 and 1A2 as assessed by the in vivo alkaline single cell gel electrophoresis assay.

    PubMed

    Høie, Anja Hortemo; Svendsen, Camilla; Brunborg, Gunnar; Glatt, Hansruedi; Alexander, Jan; Meinl, Walter; Husøy, Trine

    2015-10-01

    The food processing contaminants 2-amino-1-methyl-6-phenylimidazo[4,5-b]pyridine (PhIP), 5-hydroxymethylfurfural (HMF) and 2,5 dimethylfuran (DMF) are potentially both mutagenic and carcinogenic in vitro and/or in vivo, although data on DMF is lacking. The PHIP metabolite N-hydroxy-PhIP and HMF are bioactivated by sulfotransferases (SULTs). The substrate specificity and tissue distribution of SULTs differs between species. A single oral dose of PhIP, HMF or DMF was administered to wild-type (wt) mice and mice expressing human SULT1A1/1A2 (hSULT mice). DNA damage was studied using the in vivo alkaline single cell gel electrophoresis (SCGE) assay. No effects were detected in wt mice. In the hSULT mice, PhIP and HMF exposure increased the levels of DNA damage in the liver and kidney, respectively. DMF was not found to be genotoxic. The observation of increased DNA damage in hSULT mice compared with wt mice supports the role of human SULTs in the bioactivation of N-hydroxy-PhIP and HMF in vivo.

  8. Urinary Metabolites of the Dietary Carcinogen PhIP are Predictive of Colon DNA Adducts After a Low Dose Exposure in Humans

    SciTech Connect

    Malfatti, M; Dingley, K; Nowell, S; Ubick, E; Mulakken, N; Nelson, D; Lang, N; Felton, J; Turteltaub, K

    2006-04-28

    Epidemiologic evidence indicates that exposure to heterocyclic amines (HAs) in the diet is an important risk factor for the development of colon cancer. Well-done cooked meats contain significant levels of HAs which have been shown to cause cancer in laboratory animals. To better understand the mechanisms of HA bioactivation in humans, the most mass abundant HA, 2-amino-l-methyl-6-phenylimidazo[4,5-b]pyridine (PhIP), was used to assess the relationship between PhIP metabolism and DNA adduct formation. Ten human volunteers were administered a dietary relevant dose of [{sup 14}C]PhIP 48-72 h prior to surgery to remove colon tumors. Urine was collected for 24 h after dosing for metabolite analysis, and DNA was extracted from colon tissue and analyzed by accelerator mass spectrometry for DNA adducts. All ten subjects were phenotyped for CYP1A2, NAT2, and SULT1A1 enzyme activity. Twelve PhIP metabolites were detected in the urine samples. The most abundant metabolite in all volunteers was N-hydroxy-PhIP-N{sup 2}-glucuronide. Metabolite levels varied significantly between the volunteers. Interindividual differences in colon DNA adducts levels were observed between each individual. The data showed that individuals with a rapid CYP1A2 phenotype and high levels of urinary N-hydroxy-PhIP-N{sup 2}-glucuronide, had the lowest level of colon PhIP-DNA adducts. This suggests that glucuronidation plays a significant role in detoxifying N-hydroxy-PhIP. The levels of urinary N-hydroxy-PhIP-N{sup 2}-glucuronide were negatively correlated to colon DNA adduct levels. Although it is difficult to make definite conclusions from a small data set, the results from this pilot study have encouraged further investigations using a much larger study group.

  9. Differential toxicity of heterocyclic aromatic amines and their mixture in metabolically competent HepaRG cells

    SciTech Connect

    Dumont, Julie; Josse, Rozenn; Lambert, Carine; Antherieu, Sebastien; Le Hegarat, Ludovic; Aninat, Caroline; Robin, Marie-Anne; Guguen-Guillouzo, Christiane

    2010-06-01

    Human exposure to heterocyclic aromatic amines (HAA) usually occurs through mixtures rather than individual compounds. However, the toxic effects and related mechanisms of co-exposure to HAA in humans remain unknown. We compared the effects of two of the most common HAA, 2-amino-1-methyl-6-phenylimidazo[4,5-b]pyridine (PhIP) and 2-amino-3,8-dimethylimidazo[4,5-f]quinoxaline (MeIQx), individually or in combination, in the metabolically competent human hepatoma HepaRG cells. Various endpoints were measured including cytotoxicity, apoptosis, oxidative stress and DNA damage by the comet assay. Moreover, the effects of PhIP and/or MeIQx on mRNA expression and activities of enzymes involved in their activation and detoxification pathways were evaluated. After a 24 h treatment, PhIP and MeIQx, individually and in combination, exerted differential effects on apoptosis, oxidative stress, DNA damage and cytochrome P450 (CYP) activities. Only PhIP induced DNA damage. It was also a stronger inducer of CYP1A1 and CYP1B1 expression and activity than MeIQx. In contrast, only MeIQx exposure resulted in a significant induction of CYP1A2 activity. The combination of PhIP with MeIQx induced an oxidative stress and showed synergistic effects on apoptosis. However, PhIP-induced genotoxicity was abolished by a co-exposure with MeIQx. Such an inhibitory effect could be explained by a significant decrease in CYP1A2 activity which is responsible for PhIP genotoxicity. Our findings highlight the need to investigate interactions between HAA when assessing risks for human health and provide new insights in the mechanisms of interaction between PhIP and MeIQx.

  10. An Ultra Performance Liquid Chromatography – Tandem Mass Spectrometry Method for Biomonitoring Cooked Meat Carcinogens and Their Metabolites in Human Urine

    PubMed Central

    Gu, Dan; Raymundo, Melissa M.; Kadlubar, Fred F.; Turesky, Robert J.

    2011-01-01

    The cooked meat carcinogens 2-amino-1-methyl-6-phenylimidazo[4,5-b]pyridine (PhIP), 2-amino-3,8-dimethylimidazo[4,5-f]quinoxaline (MeIQx), and their principal metabolites produced by cytochrome P450 and/or uridine diphosphate glucuronosyltransferases were simultaneously measured at the parts per trillion level in urine of omnivores, by ultra performance liquid chromatography (UPLC) with a Michrom Advance CaptiveSpray™, source and a triple stage quadrupole mass spectrometer. Quantitation was performed in the selected reaction monitoring mode. The UPLC method is much more rapid and sensitive than our earlier capillary HPLC method: the duty cycle of the UPLC method is 19 minutes compared to 57 minutes for capillary HPLC. The performance of the UPLC assay was evaluated with urine samples from three subjects over 4 different days. The intraday and interday precisions of the estimates of PhIP, MeIQx, and their metabolites, reported as the coefficients of variation, were ≤10%. The limit of quantification (LOQ) values for PhIP and MeIQx were about 5 pg/mL, whereas the LOQ values of their metabolites ranged from 10 to 40 pg/mL. Furthermore, the identities of the analytes were corroborated by acquisition of full scan product ion spectra, employing between 0.5 and 5 pg of analyte for assay. PMID:21194225

  11. Formation and inhibition of heterocyclic aromatic amines in fried ground beef patties.

    PubMed

    Balogh, Z; Gray, J I; Gomaa, E A; Booren, A M

    2000-05-01

    The effect of vitamin E and oleoresin rosemary on heterocyclic aromatic amine (HAA) formation in fried ground beef patties was studied. Patties were fried at three temperatures (175 degrees C, 200 degrees C, 225 degrees C) for 6 and 10 min/side to determine the conditions for optimum HAA formation. HAAs were isolated by solid phase extraction and quantitated by HPLC. Greatest concentrations were generated when patties were fried at 225 degrees C for 10 min/side, 31.4 ng/g 2-amino-1-methyl-6-phenylimidazo[4,5-b]pyridine (PhIP) and 5.8 ng/g 2-amino-3,8-dimethylimidazo[4,5-f]quinoxaline (MeIQx). Vitamin E, when used at two concentrations (1% and 10% based on fat content) and added directly to the ground beef patties, reduced PhIP concentrations in the cooked patties by 69% and 72%, respectively. Smaller but more variable reductions were achieved for MeIQx. Comparable inhibition of HAA formation was achieved by the direct addition of vitamin E (1% based on fat content) to the surface of the patties before frying. Concentrations of five HAAs studied were all significantly reduced (P<0.006), with average reductions ranging from 45% to 75%. Oleoresin rosemary, when used at two concentrations (1% and 10% based on fat content), reduced PhIP formation by 44%.

  12. Metabolic activation of 2‐amino‐1‐methyl‐6‐phenylimidazo [4,5‐b]pyridine and DNA adduct formation depends on p53: Studies in T rp53(+/+),T rp53(+/−) and T rp53(−/−) mice

    PubMed Central

    Krais, Annette M.; Speksnijder, Ewoud N.; Melis, Joost P.M.; Singh, Rajinder; Caldwell, Anna; Gamboa da Costa, Gonçalo; Luijten, Mirjam; Phillips, David H.

    2015-01-01

    The expression of the tumor suppressor p53 can influence the bioactivation of, and DNA damage induced by, the environmental carcinogen benzo[a]pyrene, indicating a role for p53 in its cytochrome P450 (CYP)‐mediated biotransformation. The carcinogen 2‐amino‐1‐methyl‐6‐phenylimidazo[4,5‐b]pyridine (PhIP), which is formed during the cooking of food, is also metabolically activated by CYP enzymes, particularly CYP1A2. We investigated the potential role of p53 in PhIP metabolism in vivo by treating Trp53(+/+), Trp53(+/−) and Trp53(−/−) mice with a single oral dose of 50 mg/kg body weight PhIP. N‐(Deoxyguanosin‐8‐yl)‐2‐amino‐1‐methyl‐6‐phenylimidazo[4,5‐b]pyridine (PhIP‐C8‐dG) levels in DNA, measured by liquid chromatography‐tandem mass spectrometry, were significantly lower in liver, colon, forestomach and glandular stomach of Trp53(−/−) mice compared to Trp53(+/+) mice. Lower PhIP‐DNA adduct levels in the livers of Trp53(−/−) mice correlated with lower Cyp1a2 enzyme activity (measured by methoxyresorufin‐O‐demethylase activity) in these animals. Interestingly, PhIP‐DNA adduct levels were significantly higher in kidney and bladder of Trp53(−/−) mice compared to Trp53(+/+) mice, which was accompanied by higher sulfotransferase (Sult) 1a1 protein levels and increased Sult1a1 enzyme activity (measured by 2‐naphthylsulfate formation from 2‐naphthol) in kidneys of these animals. Our study demonstrates a role for p53 in the metabolism of PhIP in vivo, extending previous results on a novel role for p53 in xenobiotic metabolism. Our results also indicate that the impact of p53 on PhIP biotransformation is tissue‐dependent and that in addition to Cyp1a enzymes, Sult1a1 can contribute to PhIP‐DNA adduct formation. PMID:26335255

  13. Direct reduction of N-acetoxy-PhIP by tea polyphenols: a possible mechanism for chemoprevention against PhIP-DNA adduct formation.

    PubMed

    Lin, Dong-Xin; Thompson, Patricia A; Teitel, Candee; Chen, Jun-Shi; Kadlubar, Fred F

    2003-01-01

    The chemopreventive effect of tea against 2-amino-1-methyl-6-phenylimidazo[4,5-b]pyridine (PhIP)-DNA adduct formation and its mechanism were studied. Rats were exposed to freshly prepared aqueous extracts of green tea (3% (w/v)) as the sole source of drinking water for 10 days prior to administration with a single dose of PhIP (10 mg/kg body weight) by oral gavage. PhIP-DNA adducts in the liver, colon, heart, and lung were measured using the 32P-postlabelling technique. Rats pre-treated with tea and given PhIP 20 h before sacrifice had significantly reduced levels of PhIP-DNA adducts as compared with controls given PhIP alone. The possible mechanism of protective effect of tea on PhIP-DNA adduct formation was then examined in vitro. It was found that an aqueous extract of green and black tea, mixtures of green and black tea polyphenols, as well as purified polyphenols could strongly inhibit the DNA binding of N-acetoxy-PhIP, a putative ultimate carcinogen of PhIP formed in vivo via metabolic activation. Among these, epigallocatechin gallate was exceptionally potent. HPLC analyses of these incubation mixtures containing N-acetoxy-PhIP and the tea polyphenols each revealed the production of the parent amine, PhIP, indicating the involvement of a redox mechanism. In view of the presence of relatively high levels of tea polyphenols in rat and human plasma after ingestion of tea, this study suggests that direct reduction of the ultimate carcinogen N-acetoxy-PhIP by tea polyphenols is likely to be involved in the mechanism of chemoprotection of tea against this carcinogen.

  14. A phenylacetaldehyde-flavonoid adduct, 8-C-(E-phenylethenyl)-norartocarpetin, exhibits intrinsic apoptosis and MAPK pathways-related anticancer potential on HepG2, SMMC-7721 and QGY-7703.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Zong-Ping; Yan, Yan; Xia, Ji; Zhang, Shuang; Wang, Mingfu; Chen, Jie; Xu, Yang

    2016-04-15

    Norartocarpetin, quercetin and naringenin were found to effectively inhibit 2-amino-1-methyl-6-phenylimidazo[4,5-b]pyridine (PhIP) formation through trapping its phenylacetaldehyde and form their adducts in roast beef patties. Six adducts [8-C- or 6-C-(E-phenylethenyl) flavonoids] formed between phenylacetaldehyde and three flavonoids were detected in roast beef patties by UPLC-MS analyses and compared with their synthetic references. These flavonoid-phenylacetaldehyde adducts were synthesised and further subjected to cytotoxicity tests on three liver cancer cell lines HepG2, SMMC-7721 and QGY-7703. The adduct 8-C-(E-phenylethenyl)norartocarpetin (NARA1) was found to significantly induce cancer cell death with IC50 values about 7 μM. After pre-treating with MAPK and caspase inhibitors, alteration of the cell morphology and cleaved-PARP were detected in liver cancer cell lines administered with NARA1. These data indicated that norartocarpetin could inhibit PhIP formation in roast beef patties and form norartocarpetin-phenylacetaldehyde adducts. The adduct NARA1 has anticancer potential via intrinsic caspase-dependent and cell context-dependent MAPKs pathways.

  15. Exposure to heterocyclic amines.

    PubMed Central

    Wakabayashi, K; Ushiyama, H; Takahashi, M; Nukaya, H; Kim, S B; Hirose, M; Ochiai, M; Sugimura, T; Nagao, M

    1993-01-01

    Many mutagenic heterocyclic amines (HAs) have been isolated from cooked foods and pyrolysates of amino acids and proteins, and the carcinogenicity of 10 of these HAs in rodents and of 1 in monkeys has been reported. Quantification of these carcinogenic HAs in various kinds of cooked foods indicated that the level of 2-amino-1-methyl-6-phenylimidazo[4,5-b]pyridine (PhIP) was highest (0.56-69.2 ng/g), that of 2-amino-3,8-dimethylimidazo[4,5-f]quinoxaline (MeIQx) was second highest (0.64-6.44 ng/g), and those of other HAs were 0.03-2.50 ng/g. Heterocyclic amines were found in urine samples of 10 healthy volunteers consuming a normal diet, but HAs were not detectable in urine samples of three patients receiving parenteral alimentation. These results strongly suggest that humans are continuously exposed to HAs derived from food in the normal diet. Based on quantitative data on the levels of HAs in cooked foods and urine samples, the daily exposures to PhIP and MeIQx were estimated to be 0.1-13.8 micrograms and 0.2-2.6 micrograms per person, respectively. These levels of carcinogenic HAs are in the same range as those of other carcinogens such as N-nitrosodimethylamine and benzo[a]pyrene to which humans are exposed. PMID:8319610

  16. Effects of cooking variables on formation of heterocyclic amines (HCA) in roasted pork and mackerel.

    PubMed

    Kim, Simhae; Lee, Kwang-Geun

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of cooking temperature, time, and water content on the formation of heterocyclic amines (HCA) in roasted pork and mackerel using a kinetic model. The levels of 2-amino-6-methyldipiryd[1,2-a:3',2'-d]imidazole (Glu-p-1), 1-methyl-9H-pyrido[4,3-b]-indol (harman), 9H-pyrido[4,3-b]-indol (norharman), and 2-amino-1-methyl-6-phenylimidazo [4,5-b] pyridine (PhIP) in pork and mackerel rose with increasing cooking temperature and time. The concentration of PhIP ranged from 6 to 54 ng/g in roasted pork and was the HCA most sensitive to cooking temperature and time. In the roasted mackerel, levels of harman and norharman increased markedly at 230°C. The kinetics of HCA generation followed first-order reaction (A = A(0) × e(-kt)). In roasted pork, activation enthalpies (ΔH) ranged from 10.3 to 41.6 kJ/mol, whereas in roasted mackerel, ΔH ranged from 12.3 to 49.3 kJ/mol. The activation entropies (ΔS) were less than zero for all HCA, ranging from -159 to -309 kJ/mol-K. The data of the kinetic parameters may be used to predict the formation and temperature sensitivity of HCA in roasted pork and mackerel.

  17. Identification of Carcinogen DNA Adducts in Human Saliva by Linear Quadrupole Ion Trap/Multistage Tandem Mass Spectrometry

    PubMed Central

    Bessette, Erin E.; Spivack, Simon D.; Goodenough, Angela K.; Wang, Tao; Pinto, Shailesh; Kadlubar, Fred F.; Turesky, Robert J.

    2010-01-01

    DNA adducts of carcinogens derived from tobacco smoke and cooked meat were identified, by liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization/multi-stage tandem mass spectrometry (LC-ESI/MS/MSn), in saliva samples from 37 human volunteers on unrestricted diets. The N-(deoxyguanosin-8-yl) (dG-C8) adducts of the heterocyclic aromatic amines 2-amino-1-methyl-6-phenylimidazo[4,5-b]pyridine (PhIP); 2-amino-9H-pyrido[2,3-b]indole (AαC); 2-amino-3,8-dimethylmidazo[4,5-f]quinoxaline (MeIQx); and the aromatic amine, 4-aminobiphenyl (4-ABP) were characterized and quantified, by LC-ESI/MS/MSn, employing consecutive reaction monitoring at the MS3 scan stage mode with a linear quadrupole ion trap (LIT) mass spectrometer (MS). DNA adducts of PhIP were found most frequently: dG-C8-PhIP was detected in saliva samples from 13 of 29 ever-smokers and in saliva samples from 2 of 8 never-smokers. dG-C8-AαC and dG-C8-MeIQx were identified solely in saliva samples of 3 current smokers, and dG-C8-4-ABP was detected in saliva from 2 current-smokers. The levels of these different adducts ranged from 1 to 9 adducts per 108 DNA bases. These findings demonstrate that PhIP is a significant DNA-damaging agent in humans. Saliva appears to be a promising biological fluid in which to assay DNA adducts of tobacco and dietary carcinogens, by selective LIT MS techniques. PMID:20443584

  18. Chronic Exposure to Combined Carcinogens Enhances Breast Cell Carcinogenesis with Mesenchymal and Stem-Like Cell Properties

    PubMed Central

    Pluchino, Lenora Ann; Wang, Hwa-Chain Robert

    2014-01-01

    Breast cancer is the most common type of cancer affecting women in North America and Europe. More than 85% of breast cancers are sporadic and attributable to long-term exposure to small quantities of multiple carcinogens. To understand how multiple carcinogens act together to induce cellular carcinogenesis, we studied the activity of environmental carcinogens 4-(methylnitrosamino)-1-(3-pyridyl)-1-butanone (NNK) and benzo[a]pyrene (B[a]P), and dietary carcinogen 2-amino-1-methyl-6-phenylimidazo[4,5-b]pyridine (PhIP) using our breast cell carcinogenesis model. Our study revealed, for the first time, that combined NNK and B[a]P enhanced breast cell carcinogenesis chronically induced by PhIP in both non-cancerous and cancerous breast cells. Co-exposure was more potent than sequential exposure to combined NNK and B[a]P followed by PhIP in inducing carcinogenesis. Initiation of carcinogenesis was measured by transient endpoints induced in a single exposure, while progression of carcinogenesis was measured by acquisition of constitutive endpoints in cumulative exposures. Transient endpoints included DNA damage, Ras-Erk-Nox pathway activation, reactive oxygen species elevation, and increased cellular proliferation. Constitutive endpoints included various cancer-associated properties and signaling modulators, as well as enrichment of cancer stem-like cell population and activation of the epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition program. Using transient and constitutive endpoints as targets, we detected that a combination of the green tea catechins ECG and EGCG, at non-cytotoxic levels, was more effective than individual agents in intervention of cellular carcinogenesis induced by combined NNK, B[a]P, and PhIP. Thus, use of combined ECG and EGCG should be seriously considered for early intervention of breast cell carcinogenesis associated with long-term exposure to environmental and dietary carcinogens. PMID:25372613

  19. Association of the ABCG2 C421A polymorphism with prostate cancer risk and survival

    PubMed Central

    Gardner, Erin R.; Ahlers, Christoph M.; Shukla, Suneet; Sissung, Tristan M.; Ockers, Sandra B.; Price, Douglas K.; Hamada, Akinobu; Robey, Robert W.; Steinberg, Seth M.; Ambudkar, Suresh V.; Dahut, William L.; Figg, William D.

    2009-01-01

    Objective To determine if the C421A single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) in the ATP-binding cassette transporter ABCG2 increases prostate cancer risk or affects survival. Patients, subjects and methods Numerous studies have suggested that dietary, hormonal and environmental factors all play a role in the initiation in prostate cancer; among these, the carcinogenic heterocyclic amine 2-amino-1-methyl-6-phenylimidazo[4,5-b]pyridine (PhIP), a known substrate of the ABCG2. A SNP of ABCG2, C421A, resulting in a glutamine to lysine change at amino acid 141, has been shown to result in decreased function of the protein. Due to the expression of ABCG2 in the prostate, together with the purported role of dietary carcinogens and steroids in the development and progression of prostate cancer, 311 individuals were genotyped for the ABCG2 C421A SNP, 170 patients with androgen-independent prostate cancer (AIPC) and 141 ‘healthy’ controls. We also evaluated the effect of this SNP on the intracellular accumulation of PhIP and testosterone in vitro. Results There were no significant differences in the prevalence of prostate cancer based on ABCG2 genetic variation in this population. However, survival was significantly longer for individuals with wild-type ABCG2, as compared with those hetero- or homozygous for the C421A SNP (7.4 years vs 5.3 years, P = 0.044). Conclusion Intracellular accumulation of PhIP was 80% higher in HEK293 cells transfected with Q141K ABCG2 than in wild-type cells, confirming that this SNP decreases transport of PhIP. In contrast, testosterone was not transported by either wild-type or variant transfected cells, nor did it act as in inhibitor of ABCG2 in subsequent transport assays. PMID:18710444

  20. PSA-Based Screening Outcomes, Dietary Heterocyclic Amine Exposure, and Prostate Cancer Risk in African Americans: Annual Report (Year 1 of 3)

    SciTech Connect

    Bogen, K T

    2006-01-18

    Prostate cancer (PC) is the second leading cause of male U.S. cancer deaths, with African-Americans having the highest rate of PC mortality worldwide, as well as more abnormal results from screening tests that correlate with current or eventual PC. A 3-year prospective clinic-based study is studying the performance of current (PSA and DRE) vs. (% free PSA) clinical biomarkers of PC risk in 400 African-American men 50 to 70 years of age who undergo PC screening in Oakland, CA (East Bay San Francisco area), as well as possible association of PC screening results for these men with their dietary exposures to the cancer-causing heterocyclic amine, 2-amino-1-methyl-6-phenylimidazo[4,5-b]pyridine (PhIP) that forms when meat is cooked. This study expands an ongoing NIH-funded study (by the same research team) to add a new %-free-PSA test, results of which will be compared with PSA/DRE results and PhIP exposures estimated by dietary interviews. For 392 men studied under the NIH protocol, an odds ratio (95% CL) of 32 (3.2, 720) for highly elevated PSA ({ge}20 ng/mL) was observed in the highest 15% vs. the lower 50% of estimated daily PhIP intakes. Approximately 100 additional men have completed participation in the expanded NIH/DOD-supported study. This study will help define the potential value of improved screening and dietary/behavioral intervention to reduce PC risk, namely, prevention of PhIP intake by avoiding overcooked meats.

  1. Chronic exposure to combined carcinogens enhances breast cell carcinogenesis with mesenchymal and stem-like cell properties.

    PubMed

    Pluchino, Lenora Ann; Wang, Hwa-Chain Robert

    2014-01-01

    Breast cancer is the most common type of cancer affecting women in North America and Europe. More than 85% of breast cancers are sporadic and attributable to long-term exposure to small quantities of multiple carcinogens. To understand how multiple carcinogens act together to induce cellular carcinogenesis, we studied the activity of environmental carcinogens 4-(methylnitrosamino)-1-(3-pyridyl)-1-butanone (NNK) and benzo[a]pyrene (B[a]P), and dietary carcinogen 2-amino-1-methyl-6-phenylimidazo[4,5-b]pyridine (PhIP) using our breast cell carcinogenesis model. Our study revealed, for the first time, that combined NNK and B[a]P enhanced breast cell carcinogenesis chronically induced by PhIP in both non-cancerous and cancerous breast cells. Co-exposure was more potent than sequential exposure to combined NNK and B[a]P followed by PhIP in inducing carcinogenesis. Initiation of carcinogenesis was measured by transient endpoints induced in a single exposure, while progression of carcinogenesis was measured by acquisition of constitutive endpoints in cumulative exposures. Transient endpoints included DNA damage, Ras-Erk-Nox pathway activation, reactive oxygen species elevation, and increased cellular proliferation. Constitutive endpoints included various cancer-associated properties and signaling modulators, as well as enrichment of cancer stem-like cell population and activation of the epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition program. Using transient and constitutive endpoints as targets, we detected that a combination of the green tea catechins ECG and EGCG, at non-cytotoxic levels, was more effective than individual agents in intervention of cellular carcinogenesis induced by combined NNK, B[a]P, and PhIP. Thus, use of combined ECG and EGCG should be seriously considered for early intervention of breast cell carcinogenesis associated with long-term exposure to environmental and dietary carcinogens.

  2. Identification of carcinogen DNA adducts in human saliva by linear quadrupole ion trap/multistage tandem mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Bessette, Erin E; Spivack, Simon D; Goodenough, Angela K; Wang, Tao; Pinto, Shailesh; Kadlubar, Fred F; Turesky, Robert J

    2010-07-19

    DNA adducts of carcinogens derived from tobacco smoke and cooked meat were identified by liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization/multistage tandem mass spectrometry (LC-ESI/MS/MS(n)) in saliva samples from 37 human volunteers on unrestricted diets. The N-(deoxyguanosin-8-yl) (dG-C8) adducts of the heterocyclic aromatic amines 2-amino-1-methyl-6-phenylimidazo[4,5-b]pyridine (PhIP), 2-amino-9H-pyrido[2,3-b]indole (AalphaC), 2-amino-3,8-dimethylmidazo[4,5-f]quinoxaline (MeIQx), and the aromatic amine, 4-aminobiphenyl (4-ABP), were characterized and quantified by LC-ESI/MS/MS(n), employing consecutive reaction monitoring at the MS(3) scan stage mode with a linear quadrupole ion trap (LIT) mass spectrometer (MS). DNA adducts of PhIP were found most frequently: dG-C8-PhIP was detected in saliva samples from 13 of 29 ever-smokers and in saliva samples from 2 of 8 never-smokers. dG-C8-AalphaC and dG-C8-MeIQx were identified solely in saliva samples of three current smokers, and dG-C8-4-ABP was detected in saliva from two current smokers. The levels of these different adducts ranged from 1 to 9 adducts per 10(8) DNA bases. These findings demonstrate that PhIP is a significant DNA-damaging agent in humans. Saliva appears to be a promising biological fluid in which to assay DNA adducts of tobacco and dietary carcinogens by selective LIT MS techniques.

  3. Predictive assay for cancer targets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suess, Amanda; Nguyen, Christine; Sorensen, Karen; Montgomery, Jennifer; Souza, Brian; Kulp, Kris; Dugan, Larry; Christian, Allen

    2005-11-01

    Early detection of cancer is a key element in successful treatment of the disease. Understanding the particular type of cancer involved, its origins and probable course, is also important. PhIP (2-amino-1- methyl-6 phenylimidazo [4,5-b]pyridine), a heterocyclic amine produced during the cooking of meat at elevated temperatures, has been shown to induce mammary cancer in female, Sprague-Dawley rats. Tumors induced by PhIP have been shown to contain discreet cytogenetic signature patterns of gains and losses using comparative genomic hybridization (CGH). To determine if a protein signature exists for these tumors, we are analyzing expression levels of the protein products of the above-mentioned tumors in combination with a new bulk protein subtractive assay. This assay produces a panel of antibodies against proteins that are either on or off in the tumor. Hybridization of the antibody panel onto a 2-D gel of tumor or control protein will allow for identification of a distinct protein signature in the tumor. Analysis of several gene databases has identified a number of rat homologs of human cancer genes located in these regions of gain and loss. These genes include the oncogenes c-MYK, ERBB2/NEU, THRA and tumor suppressor genes EGR1 and HDAC3. The listed genes have been shown to be estrogen-responsive, suggesting a possible link between delivery of bio-activated PhIP to the cell nucleus via estrogen receptors and gene-specific PhIP-induced DNA damage, leading to cell transformation. All three tumors showed similar silver staining patterns compared to each other, while they all were different than the control tissue. Subsequent screening of these genes against those from tumors know to be caused by other agents may produce a protein signature unique to PhIP, which can be used as a diagnostic to augment optical and radiation-based detection schemes.

  4. Predictive Assay For Cancer Targets

    SciTech Connect

    Suess, A; Nguyen, C; Sorensen, K; Montgomery, J; Souza, B; Kulp, K; Dugan, L; Christian, A

    2005-09-19

    Early detection of cancer is a key element in successful treatment of the disease. Understanding the particular type of cancer involved, its origins and probable course, is also important. PhIP (2-amino-1-methyl-6 phenylimidazo [4,5-b]pyridine), a heterocyclic amine produced during the cooking of meat at elevated temperatures, has been shown to induce mammary cancer in female, Sprague-Dawley rats. Tumors induced by PhIP have been shown to contain discreet cytogenetic signature patterns of gains and losses using comparative genomic hybridization (CGH). To determine if a protein signature exists for these tumors, we are analyzing expression levels of the protein products of the above-mentioned tumors in combination with a new bulk protein subtractive assay. This assay produces a panel of antibodies against proteins that are either on or off in the tumor. Hybridization of the antibody panel onto a 2-D gel of tumor or control protein will allow for identification of a distinct protein signature in the tumor. Analysis of several gene databases has identified a number of rat homologs of human cancer genes located in these regions of gain and loss. These genes include the oncogenes c-MYK, ERBB2/NEU, THRA and tumor suppressor genes EGR1 and HDAC3. The listed genes have been shown to be estrogen-responsive, suggesting a possible link between delivery of bio-activated PhIP to the cell nucleus via estrogen receptors and gene-specific PhIP-induced DNA damage, leading to cell transformation. All three tumors showed similar silver staining patterns compared to each other, while they all were different than the control tissue. Subsequent screening of these genes against those from tumors know to be caused by other agents may produce a protein signature unique to PhIP, which can be used as a diagnostic to augment optical and radiation-based detection schemes.

  5. Protein adducts of the prostate carcinogen PhIP in children

    SciTech Connect

    Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory

    2004-02-20

    Prostate cancer is the second leading cause of cancer death in men in the United States. few epidemiology studies have indicated that exposure to PhIP, a rodent prostate carcinogen formed in meat during cooking, may be an important risk factor for prostate cancer in humans. Therefore, a highly sensitive biomarker assay is urgently needed to clarify the role of PhIP in prostate cancer. The goal of this project is to develop an assay that can be used to more accurately quantify human exposure to PhIP and potential prostate cancer risk. Our hypothesis is that an Accelerator Mass Spectrometry-based method can be developed to measure protein adducts of PhIP in the blood of humans. This will provide a measure of the internal dose, as well as the capacity for carcinogen bioactivation to a form that can initiate the cancer process. Towards this goal, we have characterized an adduct formed by PhIP in vitro with the amino acid cysteine. This adduct should provide a biomarker of dietary PhIP exposure and potential prostate cancer risk that could be used to identify individuals for prevention and for monitoring the effect chemoprevention strategies.

  6. Plant extracts, spices, and essential oils inactivate Escherichia coli O157:H7 and reduce formation of potentially carcinogenic heterocyclic amines in cooked beef patties.

    PubMed

    Rounds, Liliana; Havens, Cody M; Feinstein, Yelena; Friedman, Mendel; Ravishankar, Sadhana

    2012-04-11

    Meats need to be heated to inactivate foodborne pathogens such as Escherichia coli O157:H7. High-temperature treatment used to prepare well-done meats increases the formation of carcinogenic heterocyclic amines (HCAs). We evaluated the ability of plant extracts, spices, and essential oils to simultaneously inactivate E. coli O157:H7 and suppress HCA formation in heated hamburger patties. Ground beef with added antimicrobials was inoculated with E. coli O157:H7 (10(7) CFU/g). Patties were cooked to reach 45 °C at the geometric center, flipped, and cooked for 5 min. Samples were then taken for microbiological and mass spectrometry analysis of HCAs. Some compounds were inhibitory only against E. coli or HCA formation, while some others inhibited both. Addition of 5% olive or apple skin extracts reduced E. coli O157:H7 populations to below the detection limit and by 1.6 log CFU/g, respectively. Similarly, 1% lemongrass oil reduced E. coli O157:H7 to below detection limits, while clove bud oil reduced the pathogen by 1.6 log CFU/g. The major heterocyclic amines 2-amino-3,8-dimethylimidazo[4,5-f]quinoxaline (MeIQx) and 2-amino-1-methyl-6-phenylimidazo[4,5-b]pyridine (PhIP) were concurrently reduced with the addition of olive extract by 79.5% and 84.3% and with apple extract by 76.1% and 82.1%, respectively. Similar results were observed with clove bud oil: MeIQx and PhIP were reduced by 35% and 52.1%, respectively. Addition of onion powder decreased formation of PhIP by 94.3%. These results suggest that edible natural plant compounds have the potential to prevent foodborne infections as well as carcinogenesis in humans consuming heat-processed meat products.

  7. Heterocyclic amines content of meat and fish cooked by Brazilian methods

    PubMed Central

    Iwasaki, Motoki; Kataoka, Hiroyuki; Ishihara, Junko; Takachi, Ribeka; Hamada, Gerson Shigeaki; Sharma, Sangita; Le Marchand, Loïc; Tsugane, Shoichiro

    2009-01-01

    Heterocyclic amine (HCA) concentrations were measured in meat and fish samples cooked by pan-frying, grilling and churrasco (Brazilian barbecue) to various levels of doneness in accordance with the cooking methods most commonly used in Brazil. HCAs were extracted by the Blue-rayon absorption method and measured by liquid chromatography–mass spectrometry. 2-Amino-1-methyl-6-phenylimidazo[4,5-b]pyridine (PhIP), 2-amino-3,8-dimethylimidazo[4,5-f]quinoxaline (MeIQx), and 2-amino-3,4,8-trimethylimidazo[4,5-f]quinoxaline (4,8-DiMeIQx) were sharply increased in very well-done meats and fish. HCA levels varied somewhat across cooking methods: levels of PhIP (ng/g) in very well-done, non-marinated samples were particularly high for churrasco (31.8 in the exterior of the sample), compared to lower levels for grilled (16.3), and pan-fried beef (0.58). On comparison across foods, chicken contained higher HCA levels than other non-marinated samples. For example, PhIP levels (ng/g) in very well-done pan-fried foods were 34.6 for chicken with the skin, 0.58 for beef, 7.25 for pork, 2.28 for sardines, and 7.37 for salmon cooked with the skin. HCA levels were lower in marinated meats and fish than in non-marinated samples, except for pan-fried salmon. This study provides valuable information which will allow the estimation of dietary HCA exposure using an epidemiologic questionnaire and the investigation of the association of HCA intake with cancer risk in Brazil. PMID:20383312

  8. Inhibition of heterocyclic amine formation in beef patties by ethanolic extracts of rosemary.

    PubMed

    Puangsombat, Kanithaporn; Smith, J Scott

    2010-03-01

    Heterocyclic amines (HCAs) are mutagenic compounds formed during cooking muscle foods at high temperature. Inhibition of HCAs by rosemary extracts were evaluated with beef patties cooked at 191 degrees C (375 degrees F) for 6 min each side and 204 degrees C (400 degrees F) for 5 min each side. Five rosemary extracts extracted with different solvents were used in this study: extract 100W (100% water), 10E (10% ethanol), 20E (20% ethanol), 30E (30% ethanol), and 40E (40% ethanol). The 5 extracts were directly added to beef patties at 3 levels (0.05%, 0.2%, and 0.5%) before cooking and HCA contents were extracted and quantified. All of the patties contained 2-amino-3,8-dimethylimidazo [4,5-f]quinoxaline (MeIQx), and 2-amino-1-methyl-6-phenylimidazo [4,5-b]pyridine (PhIP). There was no statistical difference in the inhibition of HCAs in the 0.05%, 0.2%, and 0.5% rosemary extracts. All rosemary extracts significantly decreased the levels of MeIQx and PhIP at both cooking conditions. When cooking at 204 degrees C (400 degrees F) for 5 min each side, rosemary extracts 10E and 20E were superior to rosemary extracts 100W, 30E, and 40E in inhibiting HCA formation. Rosemary extract 20E showed the greatest inhibition of MeIQx (up to 91.7%) and PhIP (up to 85.3%). The inhibiting effect of rosemary extracts on HCA formation corresponded to their antioxidant activity based on a DPPH scavenging assay. Rosemary extract 10E and 20E contain a mixture of rosmarinic acid, carnosol, and carnosic acid. It is possible that these compounds might act synergistically in inhibiting the formation of HCAs.

  9. Accurate characterization of carcinogenic DNA adducts using MALDI tandem time-of-flight mass spectrometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barnes, Charles A.; Chiu, Norman H. L.

    2009-01-01

    Many chemical carcinogens and their in vivo activated metabolites react readily with genomic DNA, and form covalently bound carcinogen-DNA adducts. Clinically, carcinogen-DNA adducts have been linked to various cancer diseases. Among the current methods for DNA adduct analysis, mass spectroscopic method allows the direct measurement of unlabeled DNA adducts. The goal of this study is to explore the use of matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization tandem time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF/TOF MS) to determine the identity of carcinogen-DNA adducts. Two of the known carcinogenic DNA adducts, namely N-(2'-deoxyguanosin-8-yl)-2-amino-1-methyl-6-phenyl-imidazo [4,5-b] pyridine (dG-C8-PhIP) and N-(2'-deoxyguanosin-8yl)-4-aminobiphenyl (dG-C8-ABP), were selected as our models. In MALDI-TOF MS measurements, the small matrix ion and its cluster ions did not interfere with the measurements of both selected dG adducts. To achieve a higher accuracy for the characterization of selected dG adducts, 1 keV collision energy in MALDI-TOF/TOF MS/MS was used to measure the adducts. In comparison to other MS/MS techniques with lower collision energies, more extensive precursor ion dissociations were observed. The detection of the corresponding fragment ions allowed the identities of guanine, PhIP or ABP, and the position of adduction to be confirmed. Some of the fragment ions of dG-C8-PhIP have not been reported by other MS/MS techniques.

  10. Preferential induction of the AhR gene battery in HepaRG cells after a single or repeated exposure to heterocyclic aromatic amines

    SciTech Connect

    Dumont, Julie Josse, Rozenn Lambert, Carine Antherieu, Sebastien Laurent, Veronique Loyer, Pascal Robin, Marie-Anne Guillouzo, Andre

    2010-11-15

    2-Amino-1-methyl-6-phenylimidazo[4,5-b]pyridine (PhIP) and 2-amino-3,8-dimethylimidazo[4,5-f]quinoxaline (MeIQx) are two of the most common heterocyclic aromatic amines (HAA) produced during cooking of meat, fish and poultry. Both HAA produce different tumor profiles in rodents and are suspected to be carcinogenic in humans. In order to better understand the molecular basis of HAA toxicity, we have analyzed gene expression profiles in the metabolically competent human HepaRG cells using pangenomic oligonucleotide microarrays, after either a single (24-h) or a repeated (28-day) exposure to 10 {mu}M PhIP or MeIQx. The most responsive genes to both HAA were downstream targets of the arylhydrocarbon receptor (AhR): CYP1A1 and CYP1A2 after both time points and CYP1B1 and ALDH3A1 after 28 days. Accordingly, CYP1A1/1A2 induction in HAA-treated HepaRG cells was prevented by chemical inhibition or small interference RNA-mediated down-regulation of the AhR. Consistently, HAA induced activity of the CYP1A1 promoter, which contains a consensus AhR-related xenobiotic-responsive element (XRE). In addition, several other genes exhibited both time-dependent and compound-specific expression changes with, however, a smaller magnitude than previously reported for the prototypical AhR target genes. These changes concerned genes mainly related to cell growth and proliferation, apoptosis, and cancer. In conclusion, these results identify the AhR gene battery as the preferential target of PhIP and MeIQx in HepaRG cells and further support the hypothesis that intake of HAA in diet might increase human cancer risk.

  11. Genotoxicity and induction of DNA damage responsive genes by food-borne heterocyclic aromatic amines in human hepatoma HepG2 cells.

    PubMed

    Pezdirc, Marko; Žegura, Bojana; Filipič, Metka

    2013-09-01

    Heterocyclic aromatic amines (HAAs) are potential human carcinogens formed in well-done meats and fish. The most abundant are 2-Amino-1-methyl-6-phenylimidazo[4,5-b]pyridine (PhIP), 2-Amino-3,8-dimethylimidazo[4,5-f]quinoxaline (MeIQx), 2-Amino-3,4,8-trimethyl-3H-imidazo[4,5-f]quinoxaline (4,8-DiMeIQx) and 2-Amino-3-methyl-3H-imidazo[4,5-f]quinoline (IQ). HAAs exert genotoxic activity after metabolic transformation by CYP1A enzymes, that is well characterized, however the genomic and intervening responses are not well explored. We have examined cellular and genomic responses of human hepatoma HepG2 cells after 24h exposure to HAAs. Comet assay revealed increase in formation of DNA strand breaks by PhIP, MeIQx and IQ but not 4,8-DiMeIQx, whereas increased formation of micronuclei was not observed. The four HAAs up-regulated expression of genes encoding metabolic enzymes CYP1A1, CYP1A2 and UGT1A1 and expression of TP53 and its downstream regulated genes CDKN1A, GADD45α and BAX. Consistent with the up-regulation of CDKN1A and GADD45α the cell-cycle analysis showed arrest in S-phase by PhIP and IQ, and in G1-phase by 4,8-DiMeIQx and MeIQx. The results indicate that upon exposure to HAAs the cells respond with the cell-cycle arrest, which enables cells to repair the damage or eliminate them by apoptosis. However, elevated expression of BCL2 and down-regulation of BAX may indicate that HAAs could suppress apoptosis meaning higher probability of damaged cells to survive and mutate. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Assessment of ABCG2-mediated transport of xenobiotics across the blood-milk barrier of dairy animals using a new MDCKII in vitro model.

    PubMed

    Wassermann, Louise; Halwachs, Sandra; Baumann, Daniela; Schaefer, Ingo; Seibel, Peter; Honscha, Walther

    2013-09-01

    The ATP-binding cassette (ABC) efflux transporter ABCG2 represents the main route for active secretion of drugs and toxins across the blood-milk barrier, thereby producing a potential health risk for dairy consumers through formation of relevant residues in milk. However, no suitable in vitro model is as yet available to systematically investigate ABCG2-mediated transport of xenobiotics into milk of dairy animals. We recently cloned ABCG2 from the lactating mammary gland of dairy cows (bABCG2) and goats (cABCG2). Thus, the objective of this study was to generate a suitable blood-milk barrier in vitro model using polarized MDCKII monolayers stably expressing mammary bABCG2 or cABCG2. ABCG2 protein was localized by confocal microscopy to the apical and lateral plasma membrane of polarized MDCKII cells. Intact barrier function of MDCKII-bABCG2 and MDCKII-cABCG2 monolayers was confirmed by determination of cell permeability of transcellular marker propranolol and paracellular marker atenolol which was ≤1 %. In flux assays, ABCG2 substrate 2-amino-1-methyl-6-phenylimidazo[4,5-b]pyridine (PhIP) showed preferential basolateral to apical (B > A) transport in ABCG2-MDCKII cells. This apically directed PhIP transport was significantly inhibited by ABCG2 inhibitor fumitremorgin C (FTC) or the flavonoid equol. PhIP B > A transport in MDCKII-bABCG2 monolayers was additionally decreased by ABCG2 inhibitor Ko143. The fluoroquinolone antibiotic enrofloxacin was identified as a substrate of ruminant mammary ABCG2. The analgesic drug sodium salicylate was shown to be substrate of bABCG2 but not of cABCG2. Thus, the generated mammary ABCG2-expressing MDCKII cells represent a valuable tool to study active secretion of drugs and toxins into milk.

  13. Effects of nobiletin on PhIP-induced prostate and colon carcinogenesis in F344 rats.

    PubMed

    Tang, Ming Xi; Ogawa, Kumiko; Asamoto, Makoto; Chewonarin, Teera; Suzuki, Shugo; Tanaka, Takuji; Shirai, Tomoyuki

    2011-01-01

    The current study was designed to investigate the effects of nobiletin (5,6,7,8,3',4'-hexamethoxy flavone) on 2-amino-1-methyl-6-phenylimidazo[4,5-b]pyridine (PhIP)-induced prostate and colon carcinogenesis. PhIP was administered to 6-wk-old F344 male rats intragastrically (100 mg/kg) twice a wk for 10 wk. The animals were given 0.05% nobiletin or the basal diet for 50 wk. At the end of the experiment, serum testosterone, estrogen, and leptin did not differ between the 2 groups. The body weights of nobiletin-treated rats were significantly higher than controls (P<0.05), and feeding of nobiletin significantly reduced the relative prostate (P<0.05) and testes (P<0.05) weights as well as the Ki67 labeling index in the normal epithelium in the ventral prostate (P<0.01). The incidence and multiplicity of adenocarcinomas in nobiletin-treated ventral prostate were 50% and 36%, respectively, of controls, but the differences were not statistically significant. However, nobiletin did significantly reduce the total number of colonic aberrant crypt foci (ACF) compared to the control value (P<0.05). Nobiletin, therefore, may have potential for chemoprevention of early changes associated with carcinogenesis in both the prostate and colon.

  14. Colon Preneoplastic Lesions in Animal Models

    PubMed Central

    Suzui, Masumi; Morioka, Takamitsu; Yoshimi, Naoki

    2013-01-01

    The animal model is a powerful and fundamental tool in the field of biochemical research including toxicology, carcinogenesis, cancer therapeutics and prevention. In the carcinogenesis animal model system, numerous examples of preneoplastic lesions have been isolated and investigated from various perspectives. This may indicate that several options of endpoints to evaluate carcinogenesis effect or therapeutic outcome are presently available; however, classification of preneoplastic lesions has become complicated. For instance, these lesions include aberrant crypt foci (ACF), dysplastic ACF, flat ACF, β-catenin accumulated crypts, and mucin-depleted foci. These lesions have been induced by commonly used chemical carcinogens such as azoxymethane (AOM), 1,2-dimethylhydrazine (DMH), methylnitrosourea (MUN), or 2-amino-1-methyl-6-phenylimidazo[4,5-b]pyridine (PhIP). Investigators can choose any procedures or methods to examine colonic preneoplastic lesions according to their interests and the objectives of their experiments. Based on topographical, histopathological, and biological features of colon cancer preneoplastic lesions in the animal model, we summarize and discuss the character and implications of these lesions. PMID:24526805

  15. Acute effects of ethanol on the transfer of nicotine and two dietary carcinogens in human placental perfusion.

    PubMed

    Veid, Jenni; Karttunen, Vesa; Myöhänen, Kirsi; Myllynen, Päivi; Auriola, Seppo; Halonen, Toivo; Vähäkangas, Kirsi

    2011-09-10

    Many mothers use, against instructions, alcohol during pregnancy. Simultaneously mothers are exposed to a wide range of other environmental chemicals. These chemicals may also harm the developing fetus, because almost all toxic compounds can go through human placenta. Toxicokinetic effects of ethanol on the transfer of other environmental compounds through human placenta have not been studied before. It is known that ethanol has lytic properties and increases the permeability and fluidity of cell membranes. We studied the effects of ethanol on the transfer of three different environmental toxins: nicotine, PhIP (2-amino-1-methyl-6-phenylimidazo(4,5-b)pyridine) and NDMA (N-nitrosodimethylamine) in placental perfusion. We tested in human breast cancer adenocarcinoma cell line MCF-7 whether ethanol affects ABCG2/BCRP, which is also the major transporter in human placenta. We found that the transfer of ethanol is comparable to that of antipyrine, which points to passive diffusion as the transfer mechanism. Unexpectedly, ethanol had no statistically significant effect on the transfer of the other studied compounds. Neither did ethanol inhibit the function of ABCG2/BCRP. These experiments represent only the effects of acute exposure to ethanol and chronic exposure remains to be studied.

  16. XENOBIOTIC METABOLISM – A VIEW THROUGH THE METABOLOMETER

    PubMed Central

    Patterson, Andrew D.; Gonzalez, Frank J.; Idle, Jeffrey R.

    2010-01-01

    The combination of advanced ultra-performance liquid chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry, chemometrics, and genetically modified mice provide an attractive raft of technologies with which to examine the metabolism of xenobiotics. Here a reexamination of the metabolism of the food mutagen PhIP (2-amino-1-methyl-6-phenylimidazo[4,5-b]pyridine), the suspect carcinogen areca alkaloids (arecoline, arecaidine, and arecoline 1-oxide), the hormone supplement melatonin, and the metabolism of the experimental cancer therapeutic agent aminoflavone is presented. In all cases, the metabolic maps of the xenobiotics were considerably enlarged, providing new insights into their toxicology. The inclusion of transgenic mice permitted unequivocal attribution of individual and often novel metabolic pathways to particular enzymes. Lastly, a future perspective for xenobiotic metabolomics is discussed and its impact on the metabolome is described. The studies reviewed here are not specific to the mouse, and can be adapted to study xenobiotic metabolism in any animal species, including Man. The view through the metabolometer is unique and visualizes a metabolic space that contains both established and unknown metabolites of a xenobiotic thereby enhancing knowledge of their modes of toxic action. PMID:20232918

  17. Impact of different pan-frying conditions on the formation of heterocyclic aromatic amines and sensory quality in fried bacon.

    PubMed

    Gibis, Monika; Kruwinnus, Miriam; Weiss, Jochen

    2015-02-01

    Heterocyclic aromatic amines (HAAs) are formed in the crust of cooked meat products. Most HAAs are carcinogenic in long-term animal studies. Besides precursors in raw materials, important factors are temperature and heating time. Bacon slices were investigated for concentrations of HAAs after pan-frying under different monitored heating conditions. Two HAAs, MeIQx (2-amino-3,8-dimethylimidazo [4,5-f]quinoxaline) (1.5-5.6ng/g) and PhIP (2-amino-1-methyl-6-phenylimidazo[4,5-b]pyridine) (0.1-2.6ng/g), were found in pan-fried bacon slices. The bacon clearly contained higher concentrations of HAAs both with longer frying times and at temperatures of 200-220°C rather than 150-170°C, respectively. A similar continuous increase of the concentrations was observed for norharman (5.0-19.9ng/g) and harman (0.3-1.7ng/g). The sensory evaluation, using a hedonic test design for colour and flavour, of the pan-fried bacon slices resulted in a preferred frying time of 5min at 150-170°C. However, some testers clearly preferred crispy and darker bacon slices containing higher HAA concentrations.

  18. Biomonitoring of Carcinogenic Heterocyclic Aromatic Amines in Hair: A Validation Study

    PubMed Central

    Bessette, Erin E.; Yasa, Isil; Dunbar, Deborah; Wilkens, Lynne R.; Marchand, Loic Le; Turesky, Robert J.

    2009-01-01

    A facile method was established to measure heterocyclic aromatic amines (HAAs) accumulated in human hair and rodent fur. The samples were digested by base hydrolysis, and the liberated HAAs were isolated by tandem solvent/solid-phase extraction. Quantification was done by liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry, using a triple stage quadrupole mass spectrometer in the selected reaction monitoring mode. In a pilot study of 12 human volunteers, 2-amino-1-methyl-6-phenylimidazo[4,5-b]pyridine (PhIP) was detected in hair of six meat-eaters at levels ranging from 290 to 890 pg/g hair. 2-Amino-3,8-dimethylimidazo[4,5-f]quinoxaline (MeIQx) and 2-amino-9H-pyrido[2,3-b]indole (AαC) were below the limit of quantification (LOQ) (50 pg/g hair) in hair from meat-eaters and six vegetarians. PhIP was detected in the hair from one vegetarian, and at level just above the LOQ (65 pg/g hair), indicating PhIP exposure occurs primarily through meat consumption. The levels of PhIP in hair samples from two meat-eaters varied by less than 24% over a 6-month interval, signifying that the exposure to PhIP and its accumulation in hair are relatively constant over time. In a controlled feeding study, female C57BL/6 mice were given these HAAs in their drinking water for 1 month, at six daily dose concentrations ranging from 0, 0.080 to 800 µg/kg body weight. PhIP was detected in fur of mice at all doses, whereas AαC and MeIQx were detected in fur at dosages ≥0.8 µg AαC/kg body weight and ≥8 µg MeIQx/kg body weight. There was a strong positive relationship between dosage and each of the HAAs accumulated in fur and their DNA adducts formed in liver and colon (p-values <0.0001); however, the levels of HAA in fur did not correlate to the levels of DNA adducts after adjustment of dose. Thus, hair appears to be a promising long-lived biomarker with by which we can assess the exposure to PhIP, a potential human carcinogen. PMID:19588936

  19. De novo PHIP-predicted deleterious variants are associated with developmental delay, intellectual disability, obesity, and dysmorphic features

    PubMed Central

    Webster, Emily; Cho, Megan T.; Alexander, Nora; Desai, Sonal; Naidu, Sakkubai; Bekheirnia, Mir Reza; Lewis, Andrea; Retterer, Kyle; Juusola, Jane; Chung, Wendy K.

    2016-01-01

    Using whole-exome sequencing, we have identified novel de novo heterozygous pleckstrin homology domain-interacting protein (PHIP) variants that are predicted to be deleterious, including a frameshift deletion, in two unrelated patients with common clinical features of developmental delay, intellectual disability, anxiety, hypotonia, poor balance, obesity, and dysmorphic features. A nonsense mutation in PHIP has previously been associated with similar clinical features. Patients with microdeletions of 6q14.1, including PHIP, have a similar phenotype of developmental delay, intellectual disability, hypotonia, and obesity, suggesting that the phenotype of our patients is a result of loss-of-function mutations. PHIP produces multiple protein products, such as PHIP1 (also known as DCAF14), PHIP, and NDRP. PHIP1 is one of the multiple substrate receptors of the proteolytic CUL4-DDB1 ubiquitin ligase complex. CUL4B deficiency has been associated with intellectual disability, central obesity, muscle wasting, and dysmorphic features. The overlapping phenotype associated with CUL4B deficiency suggests that PHIP mutations cause disease through disruption of the ubiquitin ligase pathway. PMID:27900362

  20. Effects of (+)-catechin and (-)-epicatechin on heterocyclic amines-induced oxidative DNA damage.

    PubMed

    Haza, Ana Isabel; Morales, Paloma

    2011-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to evaluate the protective effect of (+)-catechin and (-)-epicatechin against 2-amino-3,8- dimethylimidazo[4,5-f]quinoxaline (8-MeIQx), 2-amino-3,4,8-trimethylimidazo[4,5-f]-quinoxaline (4,8-diMeIQx) and 2-amino-1-methyl-6-phenyl-imidazo[4,5-b]pyridine (PhIP)-induced DNA damage in human hepatoma cells (HepG2). DNA damage (strand breaks and oxidized purines/pyrimidines) was evaluated by the alkaline single-cell gel electrophoresis or comet assay. Increasing concentrations of 8-MeIQx, 4,8-diMeIQx and PhIP induced a significant increase in DNA strand breaks and oxidized purines and pyrimidines in a dose-dependent manner. Among those, PhIP (300 µm) exerted the highest genotoxicity. (+)-Catechin exerted protection against oxidized purines induced by 8-MeIQx, 4,8-diMeIQx and PhIP. Oxidized pyrimidines and DNA strand breaks induced by PhIP were also prevented by (+)-catechin. Otherwise, (-)-epicatechin protected against the oxidized pyrimidines induced by PhIP and the oxidized purines induced by 8-MeIQx and 4,8-diMeIQx. One feasible mechanism by which (+)-catechin and (-)-epicatechin exert their protective effect towards heterocyclic amines-induced oxidative DNA damage may be by modulation of phase I and II enzyme activities. The ethoxyresorufin O-deethylation (CYP1A1) activity was moderately inhibited by (+)-catechin, while little effect was observed by (-)-epicatechin. However, (+)-catechin showed the greatest increase in UDP-glucuronyltransferase activity. In conclusion, our results clearly indicate that (+)-catechin was more efficient than (-)-epicatechin in preventing DNA damage (strand breaks and oxidized purines/pyrimidines) induced by PhIP than that induced by 8-MeIQx and 4,8-diMeIQx. Copyright © 2010 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  1. Dietary exposure to heterocyclic amines in high-temperature cooked meat and fish in Malaysia.

    PubMed

    Jahurul, M H A; Jinap, S; Ang, S J; Abdul-Hamid, A; Hajeb, P; Lioe, H N; Zaidul, I S M

    2010-08-01

    The intake of heterocyclic amines is influenced by the amount and type of meat and fish ingested, frequency of consumption, cooking methods, cooking temperature, and duration of cooking. In this study, the dietary intake of heterocyclic amines in Malaysia and their main sources were investigated. Forty-two samples of meat and fish were analysed by high-performance liquid chromatography with photodiode array detector to determine the concentration of the six predominant heterocyclic amines, namely: 2-amino-3-methylimidazo[4,5-f] quinoline (IQ), 2-amino-3,4-dimethylimidazo[4,5-f] quinoline(MeIQ), 2-amino-3,8-dimethylimidazo[4,5-f] quinoxaline (MeIQx), 2-amino-3,4,8-trimethylimidazo[4,5-f] quinoxaline (4,8-DiMeIQx), 2-amino-3,7,8-trimethylimidazo[4,5-f] quinoxaline (7,8-DiMeIQx), and 2-amino-1-methyl-6-phenylimidazo[4,5-b]pyridine (PhIP). Dietary intake data were obtained using a food-frequency questionnaire when interviewing 600 Malaysian respondents. The level of total heterocyclic amines in food samples studies ranged from not detected to 38.7 ng g(-1). The average daily intake level of heterocyclic amine was 553.7 ng per capita day(-1). The intake of PhIP was the highest, followed by MeIQx and MeIQ. The results reveal that fried and grilled chicken were the major dietary source of heterocyclic amines in Malaysia. However, the heterocyclic amine intake by the Malaysian population was lower than those reported from other regions.

  2. Xenobiotic metabolizing genes, meat-related exposures, and risk of advanced colorectal adenoma

    PubMed Central

    Ferrucci, Leah M.; Cross, Amanda J.; Gunter, Marc J.; Ahn, Jiyoung; Mayne, Susan T.; Ma, Xiaomei; Chanock, Stephen J.; Yeager, Meredith; Graubard, Barry I.; Berndt, Sonja I.; Huang, Wen-Yi; Hayes, Richard B.; Sinha, Rashmi

    2011-01-01

    Objectives Carcinogenic action of meat-related exposures, such as heterocyclic amines (HCAs), polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), and N-nitroso compounds (NOCs), might explain positive associations between red and processed meat and colorectal neoplasia. Single nucleotide polymorphisms in xenobiotic metabolizing enzyme (XME) genes could alter activation/detoxfication of these compounds. Methods We evaluated interactions between several XME genes (CYP1A1, CYP1B1, CYP2A6, CYP2C9, CYP2E1, CYP3A4, EPHX1, GSTM1, GSTM2, GSTT1, NAT1, NAT2, NQO1, SULT1A1, and SULT1A2) and meat-related exposures using a pathway-based approach in 720 advanced colorectal adenoma cases of the distal colon or rectum and 746 controls from the Prostate, Lung, Colorectal, and Ovarian Cancer Screening Trial. Using meat-related databases, we estimated intake of the HCAs, 2-amino-3,8-dimethylimidazo[4,5-f]quinoxaline (MeIQx) and 2-amino-1-methyl-6-phenyl-imidazo[4,5-b]pyridine (PhIP), the PAH, benzo[a]pyrene (B[a]P), and nitrate/nitrite, as NOC precursors. Results There were possible interactions between PhIP and CYP1B1 (Pinteraction=0.019) and NQO1 (Pinteraction=0.007), B[a]P and CYP1B1 (Pinteraction=0.005) and CYP3A4 (Pinteraction=0.021), and nitrate/nitrite and CYP1A1 (Pinteraction=0.022) in relation to colorectal adenoma. However, none of these interactions were statistically significant using a false discovery rate threshold of 0.20. Conclusions Common variants in XME genes may modify the association of HCAs, PAHs, and nitrate/nitrite with advanced colorectal adenoma, but investigation in other populations is required, especially within consortia. PMID:20436251

  3. Inhibitory activity of Asian spices on heterocyclic amines formation in cooked beef patties.

    PubMed

    Puangsombat, Kanithaporn; Jirapakkul, Wannee; Smith, J Scott

    2011-10-01

    Heterocyclic amines (HCAs) are mutagenic compounds formed when foods are cooked at high temperatures. Numerous reports have shown that natural antioxidants from spices, fruits, chocolate, and tea can inhibit formation. In this study, we evaluated HCA formation in the presence of 5 of Asian spices: galangal (Alpinia galangal), fingerroot (Boesenbergia pandurata), turmeric (Curcuma longa), cumin (Cuminum cyminum), and coriander seeds (Coriandrum sativum). HCA levels were compared to patties containing rosemary (Rosmarinus officinalis), of which the inhibitory effect is well documented. Inhibition of HCA formation by the spices was evaluated in beef patties cooked at 204 °C (400 °F) for 10 min. All spices were mixed into patties at 0.2% before cooking, and HCAs levels were measured in the final product. All patties, including the control, contained 2-amino-3,8-dimethylimidazo [4,5-f]quinoxaline (MeIQx) and 2-amino-1-methyl -6-phenylimidazo [4,5-b]pyridine (PhIP). The average HCA content of the control patties was 7 ng/g MeIQx and 6.53 ng/g PhIP. Turmeric (39.2% inhibition), fingerroot (33.5% inhibition), and galangal (18.4% inhibition) significantly decreased HCAs compared with the control. But, only turmeric and fingerroot were as effective as rosemary in preventing HCA formation. The HCA inhibition in patties containing spices was significantly correlated to the total phenolic content (R(2) = 0.80) and the scavenging activity (R(2) = 0.84) of the spices as measured by the 2,2-diphenyl-β-picrylhydrazyl assay. Results of this study suggest that addition of Asian spices can be an important factor in decreasing the levels of HCAs in fried beef patties.

  4. Carcinogens formed when Meat is Cooked

    SciTech Connect

    Felton, J S; Salmon, C P; Knize, M G

    2003-05-30

    Diet has been associated with varying cancer rates in human populations for many years, yet the causes of the observed variation in cancer patterns have not been adequately explained (Wynder et al. 1977). Along with the effect of diet on human cancer incidence is the strong evidence that mutations are the initiating events in the cancer process (Vogelstein et al. 1992). Foods, when heated, are a good source of genotoxic carcinogens that very likely are a cause for some of these events(Doll et al. 1981). These carcinogens fall into two chemical classes: heterocyclic aromatic amines (HAA) and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH). There is ample evidence that many of these compounds are complete carcinogens in rodents(El-Bayoumy et al. 1995; Ohgaki et al. 1991). Heterocyclic aromatic amines are among the most potent mutagenic substances ever tested in the Ames/Salmonella mutagenicity test (Wakabayashi et al. 1992). Both classes of carcinogen cause tumors in rodents at multiple sites, (El-Bayoumy et al. 1995; Ohgaki et al. 1991) many of which are common tumor sites in people on a Western diet. An HAA, PhIP (2-amino-1-methyl-6-phenylimidazo[4,5-b]pyridine), and a PAH, B[a]P (benzo[a]pyrene), of comparable carcinogenic potency caused mammary gland tumors in a feeding study in female rats (El-Bayoumy et al. 1995). In addition, PhIP has recently been shown to cause carcinomas in the prostate of the male rat (Shirai et al. 1997). Complementing the rodent cancer studies are numerous human case-control and prospective studies suggesting a relationship between overheated beef, chicken, and lamb, and cancer of the colon, breast, prostate, and stomach (Sinha et al. 1999; Ward et al. 1997; Zheng et al. 1998).

  5. Presence of carcinogenic heterocyclic amines in urine of healthy volunteers eating normal diet, but not of inpatients receiving parenteral alimentation.

    PubMed

    Ushiyama, H; Wakabayashi, K; Hirose, M; Itoh, H; Sugimura, T; Nagao, M

    1991-08-01

    For estimation of human exposures to carcinogenic heterocyclic amines, the amounts of four compounds, 3-amino-1, 4-dimethyl-5H-pyrido[4,3-b]indole (Trp-P-1), 3-amino-1-methyl-5H-pyrido[4,3-b]indole (Trp-P-2), 2-amino-1-methyl-6-phenylimidazo[4,5-b]pyridine (PhIP) and 2-amino-3,8-dimethylimidazo[4,5-f]quinoxaline (MeIQx), in human urine were measured. Twenty-four hour urine specimens were collected from ten healthy volunteers eating normal diet (five males and five females) and three inpatients (two males and a female) receiving parenteral alimentation, and the levels of the four heterocyclic amines were measured by HPLC after partial purification by treatment with blue cotton and ion exchange column chromatography. Trp-P-1, Trp-P-2, PhIP and MeIQx were detected in the 24 h urine samples of all healthy volunteers at levels of 0.04-1.43 ng, 0.03-0.68 ng, 0.12-1.97 ng and 11-47 ng respectively. As 1.8-4.9% of an oral dose of MeIQx is reported to be excreted unchanged in the urine, the daily exposure of humans to MeIQx was estimated to be 0.2-2.6 micrograms/person. The four heterocyclic amines were not detected in the urine of parenterally fed inpatients. These results indicate that humans are continually exposed to carcinogenic heterocyclic amines in food, and these compounds may not be formed endogenously.

  6. Lactoperoxidase-catalyzed activation of carcinogenic aromatic and heterocyclic amines.

    PubMed

    Gorlewska-Roberts, Katarzyna M; Teitel, Candee H; Lay, Jackson O; Roberts, Dean W; Kadlubar, Fred F

    2004-12-01

    Lactoperoxidase, an enzyme secreted from the human mammary gland, plays a host defensive role through antimicrobial activity. It has been implicated in mutagenic and carcinogenic activation in the human mammary gland. The potential role of heterocyclic and aromatic amines in the etiology of breast cancer led us to examination of the lactoperoxidase-catalyzed activation of the most commonly studied arylamine carcinogens: 2-amino-1-methyl-6-phenylimidazo[4,5-b]-pyridine (PhIP), benzidine, 4-aminobiphenyl (ABP), 2-amino-3-methylimidazo[4,5-f]quinoline (IQ), and 2-amino-3,8-dimethylimidazo[4,5-f]quinoxaline (MeIQx). In vitro activation was performed with lactoperoxidase (partially purified from bovine milk or human milk) in the presence of hydrogen peroxide and calf thymus DNA. Products formed during enzymatic activation were monitored by HPLC with ultraviolet and radiometric detection. Two of these products were characterized as hydrazo and azo derivatives by means of mass spectrometry. The DNA binding level of 3H- and 14C-radiolabeled amines after peroxidase-catalyzed activation was dependent on the hydrogen peroxide concentration, and the highest levels of carcinogen binding to DNA were observed at 100 microM H2O2. Carcinogen activation and the level of binding to DNA were in the order of benzidine > ABP > IQ > MeIQx > PhIP. One of the ABP adducts was identified, and the level at which it is formed was estimated to be six adducts/10(5) nucleotides. The susceptibility of aromatic and heterocyclic amines for lactoperoxidase-catalyzed activation and the binding levels of activated products to DNA suggest a potential role of lactoperoxidase-catalyzed activation of carcinogens in the etiology of breast cancer.

  7. Carcinogen-induced histone alteration in normal human mammary epithelial cells.

    PubMed

    Bradley, Chastity; van der Meer, Riet; Roodi, Nady; Yan, Heping; Chandrasekharan, Mahesh B; Sun, Zu-Wen; Mernaugh, Ray L; Parl, Fritz F

    2007-10-01

    Little is known about early carcinogen-induced protein alterations in mammary epithelium. Detection of early alterations would enhance our understanding of early-stage carcinogenesis. Here, normal human mammary epithelial cells (HMECs) were exposed to dietary and environmental carcinogens [2-amino-1-methyl-6-phenylimidazo[4,5b]pyridine (PhIP), 4-aminobiphenyl (ABP), benzo[a]pyrene, 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin] individually or in combination. A phage display library of single-chain variable fragment antibodies was used to screen protein targets altered by the treatment. In combination with matrix-assisted laser desorption time of flight, we identified histone H3 as a target antigen. Although histone H3 total protein remained unchanged in control and treated HMEC, the methylation of lysine 4 was altered. A reduction in mono-methyl histone H3 (Lys 4) was observed in treated HMEC compared with control HMEC. This alteration was shown to be dependent on carcinogen concentration and specific for PhIP and ABP. To characterize potential histone demethylation mechanisms, localization and protein expression patterns of lysine-specific demethylase 1 (LSD1) were analyzed. In control HMEC, LSD1 was present at the nuclear periphery. However, following 72 h carcinogen treatment, LSD1 localized within the nucleus. Within 48 h after treatment, mono-methyl histone H3 (Lys 4) was restored and LSD1 localization was reversed. Protein expression levels of LSD1 were also increased in treated HMEC compared with control HMEC. Our data suggest that the induction of a single enzyme, LSD1, represents an early response to carcinogen exposure, which leads to the demethylation of histone H3 (Lys 4), which, in turn, may influence the expression of multiple genes critical in early-stage mammary carcinogenesis.

  8. Dietary tocopherols inhibit PhIP-induced prostate carcinogenesis in CYP1A-humanized mice.

    PubMed

    Chen, Jayson X; Li, Guangxun; Wang, Hong; Liu, Anna; Lee, Mao-Jung; Reuhl, Kenneth; Suh, Nanjoo; Bosland, Maarten C; Yang, Chung S

    2016-02-01

    Tocopherols, the major forms of vitamin E, exist as alpha-tocopherol (α-T), β-T, γ-T and δ-T. The cancer preventive activity of vitamin E is suggested by epidemiological studies, but recent large-scale cancer prevention trials with high dose of α-T yielded disappointing results. Our hypothesis that other forms of tocopherols have higher cancer preventive activities than α-T was tested, herein, in a novel prostate carcinogenesis model induced by 2-amino-1-methyl-6-phenylimidazo [4,5-b] pyridine (PhIP), a dietary carcinogen, in the CYP1A-humanized (hCYP1A) mice. Treatment of hCYP1A mice with PhIP (200 mg/kg b.w., i.g.) induced high percentages of mouse prostatic intraepithelial neoplasia (mPIN), mainly in the dorsolateral glands. Supplementation with a γ-T-rich mixture of tocopherols (γ-TmT, 0.3% in diet) significantly inhibited the development of mPIN lesions and reduced PhIP-induced elevation of 8-oxo-deoxyguanosine, COX-2, nitrotyrosine, Ki-67 and p-AKT, and the loss of PTEN and Nrf2. Further studies with purified δ-T, γ-T or α-T (0.2% in diet) showed that δ-T was more effective than γ-T or α-T in preventing mPIN formations and p-AKT elevation. These results indicate that γ-TmT and δ-T could be effective preventive agents of prostate cancer. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Comparison of primary human hepatocytes and hepatoma cell line Hepg2 with regard to their biotransformation properties.

    PubMed

    Wilkening, Stefan; Stahl, Frank; Bader, Augustinus

    2003-08-01

    Cultures of primary hepatocytes and hepatoma cell line HepG2 are frequently used in in vitro models for human biotransformation studies. In this study, we characterized and compared the capacity of these model systems to indicate the presence of different classes of promutagens. Genotoxic sensitivity, enzyme activity, and gene expression were monitored in response to treatment with food promutagens benzo[a]pyrene, dimethylnitrosamine (DMN), and 2-amino-1-methyl-6-phenylimidazo[4,5-b]pyridine (PhIP). DNA damage could be detected reliably with the comet assay in primary human hepatocytes, which were maintained in sandwich culture. All three promutagens caused DNA damage in primary cells, but in HepG2 no genotoxic effects of DMN and PhIP could be detected. We supposed that the lack of specific enzymes accounts for their inability to process these promutagens. Therefore, we quantified the expression of a broad range of genes coding for drug-metabolizing enzymes with real-time reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction. The genes code for cytochromes p450 and, in addition, for a series of important phase II enzymes. The expression level of these genes in human hepatocytes was similar to those previously reported for human liver samples. On the other hand, expression levels in HepG2 differed significantly from that in human. Activity and expression, especially of phase I enzymes, were demonstrated to be extremely low in HepG2 cells. Up-regulation of specific genes by test substances was similar in both cell types. In conclusion, human hepatocytes are the preferred model for biotransformation in human liver, whereas HepG2 cells may be useful to study regulation of drug-metabolizing enzymes.

  10. Molecular characterization of cancer reveals interactions between ionizing radiation and chemicals on rat mammary carcinogenesis.

    PubMed

    Imaoka, Tatsuhiko; Nishimura, Mayumi; Doi, Kazutaka; Tani, Shusuke; Ishikawa, Ken-ichi; Yamashita, Satoshi; Ushijima, Toshikazu; Imai, Takashi; Shimada, Yoshiya

    2014-04-01

    Although various mechanisms have been inferred for combinatorial actions of multiple carcinogens, these mechanisms have not been well demonstrated in experimental carcinogenesis models. We evaluated mammary carcinogenesis initiated by combined exposure to various doses of radiation and chemical carcinogens. Female rats at 7 weeks of age were γ-irradiated (0.2-2 Gy) and/or exposed to 1-methyl-1-nitrosourea (MNU) (20 or 40 mg/kg, single intraperitoneal injection) or 2-amino-1-methyl-6-phenylimidazo[4,5-b]pyridine (PhIP) (40 mg/kg/day by gavage for 10 days) and were observed until 50 weeks of age. The incidence of mammary carcinoma increased steadily as a function of radiation dose in the absence of chemicals; mathematical analysis supported an additive increase when radiation was combined with a chemical carcinogen, irrespective of the chemical species and its dose. Hras mutations were characteristic of carcinomas that developed after chemical carcinogen treatments and were overrepresented in carcinomas induced by the combination of radiation and MNU (but not PhIP), indicating an interaction of radiation and MNU at the level of initiation. The expression profiles of seven classifier genes, previously shown to distinguish two classes of rat mammary carcinomas, categorized almost all examined carcinomas that developed after individual or combined treatments with radiation (1 Gy) and chemicals as belonging to a single class; more comprehensive screening using microarrays and a separate test sample set failed to identify differences in gene expression profiles among these carcinomas. These results suggest that a complex, multilevel interaction underlies the combinatorial action of radiation and chemical carcinogens in the experimental model.

  11. Dietary tocopherols inhibit PhIP-induced prostate carcinogenesis in CYP1A-humanized mice

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Jayson X.; Li, Guangxun; Wang, Hong; Liu, Anna; Lee, Mao-Jung; Reuhl, Kenneth; Suh, Nanjoo; Bosland, Maarten C.; Yang, Chung S.

    2015-01-01

    Tocopherols, the major forms of vitamin E, exist as alpha-tocopherol (α-T), β-T, γ-T and δ-T. The cancer preventive activity of vitamin E is suggested by epidemiological studies, but recent large-scale cancer prevention trials with high dose of α-T yielded disappointing results. Our hypothesis that other forms of tocopherols have higher cancer preventive activities than α-T was tested, herein, in a novel prostate carcinogenesis model induced by 2-amino-1-methyl-6-phenylimidazo [4,5-b] pyridine (PhIP), a dietary carcinogen, in the CYP1A-humanized (hCYP1A) mice. Treatment of hCYP1A mice with PhIP (200mg/kg b.w., i.g.) induced high percentages of mouse prostatic intraepithelial neoplasia (mPIN), mainly in the dorsolateral glands. Supplementation with a γ-T-rich mixture of tocopherols (γ-TmT, 0.3% in diet) significantly inhibited the development of mPIN lesions and reduced PhIP-induced elevation of 8-oxo-deoxyguanosine, COX-2, nitrotyrosine, Ki-67 and p-AKT, and the loss of PTEN and Nrf2. Further studies with purified δ-T, γ-T or α-T (0.2% in diet) showed that δ-T was more effective than γ-T or α-T in preventing mPIN formations and p-AKT elevation. These results indicate that γ-TmT and δ-T could be effective preventive agents of prostate cancer. PMID:26582657

  12. Meat and components of meat and the risk of bladder cancer in the NIH-AARP Diet and Health Study

    PubMed Central

    Ferrucci, Leah M.; Sinha, Rashmi; Ward, Mary H.; Graubard, Barry I.; Hollenbeck, Albert R.; Kilfoy, Briseis A.; Schatzkin, Arthur; Michaud, Dominique S.; Cross, Amanda J.

    2010-01-01

    Background Meat could be involved in bladder carcinogenesis via multiple potentially carcinogenic meat-related compounds related to cooking and processing, including nitrate, nitrite, heterocyclic amines (HCAs), and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons. We comprehensively investigated the association between meat and meat components and bladder cancer. Methods During 7 years of follow-up, 854 transitional cell bladder cancer cases were identified among 300,933 men and women who completed a validated food frequency questionnaire in the large prospective NIH-AARP Diet and Health Study. We estimated intake of nitrate and nitrite from processed meat and HCAs and PAHs from cooked meat using quantitative databases of measured values. We calculated total dietary nitrate and nitrite based on literature values. Results The hazard ratios (HR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) for red meat (HR for fifth compared to first quintile=1.22, 95% CI=0.96–1.54, p-trend=0.07) and the HCA 2-amino-1-methyl-6-phenylimidazo[4,5-b]pyridine (PhIP) (HR=1.19, 95% CI=0.95–1.48, p-trend=0.06) conferred a borderline statistically significant increased risk of bladder cancer. We observed positive associations in the top quintile for total dietary nitrite (HR=1.28, 95% CI=1.02–1.61, p-trend= 0.06) and nitrate plus nitrite intake from processed meat (HR=1.29 95% CI=1.00–1.67, p-trend= 0.11). Conclusions These findings provide modest support for a role for total dietary nitrite and nitrate plus nitrite from processed meat in bladder cancer. Our results also suggest a positive association between red meat and PhIP and bladder carcinogenesis. PMID:20681011

  13. Intake of meat mutagens and risk of prostate cancer in a cohort of U.S. health professionals

    PubMed Central

    Rohrmann, Sabine; Nimptsch, Katharina; Sinha, Rashmi; Willett, Walter C; Giovannucci, Edward L.; Platz, Elizabeth A; Wu, Kana

    2015-01-01

    Background Evidence relating heterocyclic aromatic amines (HCA), associated with high-temperature cooking methods, to prostate cancer risk is inconsistent Methods In a large US cohort study, intakes of 2-amino-1-methyl-6-phenylimidazo[4,5-b]pyridine (PhIP), 2-amino-3,8-dimethylimidazo[4,5-f]quinoxaline (MeIQx) and 2-amino-3,4,8-trimethylimidazo[4,5-f]quinoxaline (DiMeIQx) and a meat-derived mutagenicity index (MDM) were assessed using a cooking method questionnaire administered in 1996. Until 2010, 2,770 prostate cancer cases were observed among 26,030 participants. Results Intake of PhIP from red meat was statistically significantly associated with total prostate cancer risk (top vs. bottom quintile HR=1.18, 95% CI 1.03–1.35), but not other HCAs (MeIQx, 1.12, 0.98–1.27, PhIP from white meat, 1.08, 0.95–1.22, DiMeIQx, 1.09, 0.97–1.21) or MDM (1.13, 1.00–1.28). For high grade (Gleason sum 7 with pattern 4+3 and Gleason sum 8–10, n=483 cases) and advanced cancers (n=281), we only observed positive associations for PhIP from red meat (top vs. bottom quintile: high grade: HR=1.44, 95% CI 1.04–1.98, p-trend=0.03; advanced: HR=1.50, 95% 0.99–2.26; p-trend=0.12), but associations for advanced cancers did not reach statistical significance. Observed associations remained similar after adjustment for total, unprocessed or processed red meat intake. Conclusion Observed positive associations between PhIP intake from red meat and prostate cancer, particularly high-grade and possibly also advanced prostate cancer need to be confirmed in other studies. Impact Results do not provide strong evidence that HCAs increase risk of prostate cancers. PMID:26224797

  14. DNA damage response curtails detrimental replication stress and chromosomal instability induced by the dietary carcinogen PhIP.

    PubMed

    Mimmler, Maximilian; Peter, Simon; Kraus, Alexander; Stroh, Svenja; Nikolova, Teodora; Seiwert, Nina; Hasselwander, Solveig; Neitzel, Carina; Haub, Jessica; Monien, Bernhard H; Nicken, Petra; Steinberg, Pablo; Shay, Jerry W; Kaina, Bernd; Fahrer, Jörg

    2016-12-01

    PhIP is an abundant heterocyclic aromatic amine (HCA) and important dietary carcinogen. Following metabolic activation, PhIP causes bulky DNA lesions at the C8-position of guanine. Although C8-PhIP-dG adducts are mutagenic, their interference with the DNA replication machinery and the elicited DNA damage response (DDR) have not yet been studied. Here, we analyzed PhIP-triggered replicative stress and elucidated the role of the apical DDR kinases ATR, ATM and DNA-PKcs in the cellular defense response. First, we demonstrate that PhIP induced C8-PhIP-dG adducts and DNA strand breaks. This stimulated ATR-CHK1 signaling, phosphorylation of histone 2AX and the formation of RPA foci. In proliferating cells, PhIP treatment increased the frequency of stalled replication forks and reduced fork speed. Inhibition of ATR in the presence of PhIP-induced DNA damage strongly promoted the formation of DNA double-strand breaks, activation of the ATM-CHK2 pathway and hyperphosphorylation of RPA. The abrogation of ATR signaling potentiated the cell death response and enhanced chromosomal aberrations after PhIP treatment, while ATM and DNA-PK inhibition had only marginal effects. These results strongly support the notion that ATR plays a key role in the defense against cancer formation induced by PhIP and related HCAs. © The Author(s) 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Nucleic Acids Research.

  15. DNA damage response curtails detrimental replication stress and chromosomal instability induced by the dietary carcinogen PhIP

    PubMed Central

    Mimmler, Maximilian; Peter, Simon; Kraus, Alexander; Stroh, Svenja; Nikolova, Teodora; Seiwert, Nina; Hasselwander, Solveig; Neitzel, Carina; Haub, Jessica; Monien, Bernhard H.; Nicken, Petra; Steinberg, Pablo; Shay, Jerry W.; Kaina, Bernd; Fahrer, Jörg

    2016-01-01

    PhIP is an abundant heterocyclic aromatic amine (HCA) and important dietary carcinogen. Following metabolic activation, PhIP causes bulky DNA lesions at the C8-position of guanine. Although C8-PhIP-dG adducts are mutagenic, their interference with the DNA replication machinery and the elicited DNA damage response (DDR) have not yet been studied. Here, we analyzed PhIP-triggered replicative stress and elucidated the role of the apical DDR kinases ATR, ATM and DNA-PKcs in the cellular defense response. First, we demonstrate that PhIP induced C8-PhIP-dG adducts and DNA strand breaks. This stimulated ATR-CHK1 signaling, phosphorylation of histone 2AX and the formation of RPA foci. In proliferating cells, PhIP treatment increased the frequency of stalled replication forks and reduced fork speed. Inhibition of ATR in the presence of PhIP-induced DNA damage strongly promoted the formation of DNA double-strand breaks, activation of the ATM-CHK2 pathway and hyperphosphorylation of RPA. The abrogation of ATR signaling potentiated the cell death response and enhanced chromosomal aberrations after PhIP treatment, while ATM and DNA-PK inhibition had only marginal effects. These results strongly support the notion that ATR plays a key role in the defense against cancer formation induced by PhIP and related HCAs. PMID:27599846

  16. Heterocyclic aromatic amine formation in grilled bacon, beef and fish and in grill scrapings.

    PubMed

    Gross, G A; Turesky, R J; Fay, L B; Stillwell, W G; Skipper, P L; Tannenbaum, S R

    1993-11-01

    The heterocyclic aromatic amines (HAAs) 2-amino-1-methyl-6-phenylimidazo[4,5-b]pyridine (PhIP), 2-amino-3,8-dimethylimidazo[4,5-f]quinoxaline (MeIQx), 2-amino-3,4,8-trimethylimidazo[4,5-f]quinoxaline (4,8-DiMeIQx) and 2-amino alpha carboline (A alpha C) were quantitated in grilled bacon and beef. The levels of PhIP in bacon ranged from < 0.1 to 52 p.p.b., MeIQx was detected at levels ranging from 0.9 to 18 p.p.b. Both 4,8-DiMeIQx and A alpha C were found at < 1 p.p.b. In grilled meat patties, MeIQx and PhIP were detected at levels ranging from 0.8 to 3.2 p.p.b., while 4,8-DiMeIQx and A alpha C were below the limit of detection (approximately 0.5 p.p.b.). HAAs were below the limit of detection in grilled fish. The bacon fat drippings and the pan scrapings obtained from grilled meat and fish also contained significant amounts of HAAs and indicated that either these carcinogens are released with the fat during grilling or that HAAs are formed directly in the released fat and juices. Several of these carcinogens were detected in the pan scrapings at concentrations 10- to 100-fold higher than in cooked meats. PhIP was detected at 144 p.p.b. in combined grilled meat and fish scrapings, followed by A alpha C at 77 p.p.b., MeIQx at 29 p.p.b. and 4,8-DiMeIQx at 4 p.p.b. The co-mutagens harman and norharman were also detected in cooked meats and fish at amounts ranging from 5 to 30 p.p.b. Fat drippings and grill residue scrapings are often used as a base for gravies and sauces. Thus, cooking practices and dietary habits have a strong impact on HAA exposure.

  17. Synthesis and Characterization of 2-Phenylimidazo[1,2-a]pyridine: A Privileged Structure for Medicinal Chemistry

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Santaniello, Brandi S.; Price, Matthew J.; Murray, James K., Jr.

    2017-01-01

    A straightforward synthesis of 2-phenylimidazo[1,2-a]pyridine is described. The reaction is designed to demonstrate to students the preparation of a bridged N-heterocycle, in which the heteroatom occupies a bridgehead position. The product is obtained in moderate to high yield and is highly crystalline. The compound can be purified either by…

  18. Improved PHIP polarization using a precision, low noise, voltage controlled current source.

    PubMed

    Agraz, Jose; Grunfeld, Alexander; Cunningham, Karl; Li, Debiao; Wagner, Shawn

    2013-10-01

    Existing para-hydrogen induced polarization (PHIP) instrumentation relies on magnetic fields to hyperpolarize substances. These hyperpolarized substances have enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) signals over 10,000 fold, allowing for MRI at the molecular level. Required magnetic fields are generated by energizing a solenoid coil with current produced by a voltage controlled voltage source (VCVS), also known as a power supply. A VCVS lacks the current regulation necessary to keep magnetic field fluctuations to a minimum, which results in low PHIP polarization. A voltage controlled current source (VCCS) is an electric circuit that generates a steady flow of electrons proportional to an input voltage. A low noise VCCS provides the solenoid current flow regulation necessary to generate a stable static magnetic field (Bo). We discuss the design and implementation of a low noise, high stability, VCCS for magnetic field generation with minimum variations. We show that a precision, low noise, voltage reference driving a metal oxide semiconductor field effect transistor (MOSFET) based current sink, results in the current flow control necessary for generating a low noise and high stability Bo. In addition, this work: (1) compares current stability for ideal VCVS and VCCS models using transfer functions (TF), (2) develops our VCCS design's TF, (3) measures our VCCS design's thermal & 1/f noise, and (4) measures and compares hydroxyethyl-propionate (HEP) polarization obtained using a VCVS and our VCCS. The hyperpolarization of HEP was done using a PHIP instrument developed in our lab. Using our VCCS design, HEP polarization magnitude data show a statistically significant increase in polarization over using a VCVS. Circuit schematic, bill of materials, board layout, TF derivation, and Matlab simulations code are included as supplemental files.

  19. Meat-related compounds and colorectal cancer risk by anatomical subsite.

    PubMed

    Miller, Paige E; Lazarus, Philip; Lesko, Samuel M; Cross, Amanda J; Sinha, Rashmi; Laio, Jason; Zhu, Jay; Harper, Gregory; Muscat, Joshua E; Hartman, Terryl J

    2013-01-01

    Since meat may be involved in the etiology of colorectal cancer, associations between meat-related compounds were examined to elucidate underlying mechanisms in a population-based case-control study. Participants (989 cases/1,033 healthy controls) completed a food frequency questionnaire with a meat-specific module. Multivariable logistic regression was used to examine associations between meat variables and colorectal cancer; polytomous logistic regression was used for subsite-specific analyses. The following significant positive associations were observed for meat-related compounds: 2-amino-3,4,8-trimethylimidazo[4,5-f]quinoxaline (DiMeIQx) and colorectal, distal colon, and rectal tumors; 2-amino-3,8-dimethylimidazo[4,5-f]quinoxaline (MeIQx) and colorectal and colon cancer tumors; nitrites/nitrates and proximal colon cancer; 2-amino-1-methyl-6-phenylimidazo[4,5-b]pyridine (PhIP) and rectal cancer; and benzo[a]pyrene and rectal cancer (P-trends < 0.05). For analyses by meat type, cooking method, and doneness preference, positive associations between red processed meat and proximal colon cancer and pan-fried red meat and colorectal cancer were found (P-trends < 0.05). Inverse associations were observed between unprocessed poultry and colorectal, colon, proximal colon, and rectal tumors; grilled/barbequed poultry and proximal colon cancer; and well-done/charred poultry and colorectal, colon, and proximal colon tumors (P-trends < 0.05). HCAs, PAHs, nitrites, and nitrates may be involved in colorectal cancer etiology. Further examination into the unexpected inverse associations between poultry and colorectal cancer is warranted.

  20. The role of genetic polymorphisms in metabolism of carcinogenic heterocyclic aromatic amines.

    PubMed

    Turesky, R J

    2004-04-01

    More than twenty heterocyclic aromatic amines (HAAs) have been identified in grilled meats, fish, poultry, and tobacco smoke condensate. HAAs are carcinogens and induce tumors at multiple sites in experimental laboratory animals. Because of the widespread occurrence of HAAs in foods, these chemicals may contribute to the etiology of several common human cancers that are associated with frequent consumption of grilled meats including colon, rectum, prostate, and breast. HAAs require metabolism in order to exert their genotoxic effects. Metabolic activation occurs by N-hydroxylation, a reaction catalyzed by cytochromes p450 (CYP). Some N-hydroxy-HAA metabolites may directly react with DNA, but further metabolism by N-acetyltransferases (NATs) or sulfotransferases (SULTs) may occur to form highly reactive N-acetoxy or N-sulfonyloxy esters that readily react with DNA bases. The N-acetoxy ester of the HAA 2-amino-1-methyl-6-phenylimidazo[4,5-b]pyridine (PhIP) is detoxified by glutathione S-transferases (GSTs), which catalyze the reduction of the reactive intermediate back to the parent amine. Some HAAs also undergo detoxification through conjugation reactions with the phase II enzymes such as UDP-glucuronosyltransferases (UGTs) or SULTs to form stable, polar products that are readily eliminated. All of these xenobiotic metabolism enzyme systems (XMEs) display common genetic polymorphisms, which may affect protein expression, protein stability, catalytic activity, and thus, the biological potency of these procarcinogens. In this review, the roles of common genetic polymorphisms of XMEs involved in HAA metabolism and cancer risk are discussed.

  1. Formation of heterocyclic amines in Chinese marinated meat: effects of animal species and ingredients (rock candy, soy sauce and rice wine).

    PubMed

    Wang, Pan; Hong, Yanting; Ke, Weixin; Hu, Xiaosong; Chen, Fang

    2017-09-01

    Heterocyclic aromatic amines (HAAs) are one type of neo-formed contaminants in protein-rich foods during heat processing. Recently, accumulative studies have focused on the formation of HAs in Western foods. However, there is little knowledge about the occurrence of HAAs in traditional Chinese foods. The objective of this study was to determinate the contents of main HAs in traditional marinated meat products by UPLC-MS/MS, and to investigate the effects of animal species and the ingredients (soy sauce, rock candy, and rice wine) on the formation of HAAs in marinated meats. Five HAs - 2-amino-3-methylimidazo[4,5-f]-quinolone (IQ), 2-amino-3,8-dimethylimidazo[4,5-f]quinoxaline (MeIQx), 2-amino-3,4-dimethylimidazo[4,5-f]quinoxaline (MeIQ), 9H-pyrido[3,4-b]indole (Norharman) and l-methyl-9H-pyrido[3,4-b]indole (Harman) - were detected in 12 marinated meats, but 2-amino-1-methyl-6-phenylimidazo[4,5-b]pyridine (PhIP) was only found in three chicken marinates. The animal species and ingredients (soy sauce, rock candy and rice wine) have significant influence on the formation of HAAs in meat marinates. Beef had the highest content of total HAAs compared with pork, mutton and chicken. Meanwhile, soy sauce contributed to the formation of HAAs more greatly than rock candy, soy sauce, and rice wine. Choice of raw materials and optimisation of ingredients recipe should be become a critical point to control the HAAs formation in marinated meats. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry.

  2. Formation of heterocyclic amines during cooking of duck meat.

    PubMed

    Liao, G Z; Wang, G Y; Zhang, Y J; Xu, X L; Zhou, G H

    2012-01-01

    Heterocyclic amines (HAs) are an important class of food mutagens and carcinogens produced in meat cooked at high temperature. In the present study, the effects of various cooking methods: boiling, microwave cooking, charcoal-grilling, roasting, deep-frying and pan-frying on the formation of HAs in duck breast were studied. The various HAs formed during cooking were isolated by solid-phase extraction and analysed by HPLC. Results showed that both the varieties and contents of HAs and the cooking loss of duck breast increase along with increasing cooking temperature and time. Pan-fried duck breasts contained the highest amount of total HAs, followed by charcoal-grilling, deep-frying, roasting, microwave cooking and boiling. 9H-pyrido[3,4-b]indole (norharman) and 1-methyl-9H-pyrido[3,4-b]indole (harman) were detected in all of the cooked duck meat, with levels in the range of 0.1-33 ng g⁻¹. 2-Amino-1-methyl-6-phenylimidazo[4,5-f]pyridine (PhIP) was formed easily in duck meat cooked by pan-frying and charcoal-grilling in the range of 0.9-17.8 ng g⁻¹. 2-Amino-3-methylimidazo[4,5-f]quinoline (IQ) was identified in duck meat cooked by charcoal-grilling and pan-frying, in the range of 0.4-4.2 ng g⁻¹. 2-Amino-3,8-dimethyl-imidazo[4,5-f]quinoxaline (MeIQx) was detected in amounts below 4.5 ng g⁻¹ in duck meat cooked by charcoal-grilling, roasting, deep-frying and pan-frying. The other HAs were detected in amounts below 10 ng g⁻¹. Colour development increased with cooking temperature, but no correlation with HAs' content was observed.

  3. Meat-Related Compounds and Colorectal Cancer Risk by Anatomical Subsite

    PubMed Central

    Miller, Paige E.; Lazarus, Philip; Lesko, Samuel M.; Cross, Amanda J.; Sinha, Rashmi; Laio, Jason; Zhu, Jay; Harper, Gregory; Muscat, Joshua E.; Hartman, Terryl J.

    2012-01-01

    Since meat may be involved in the etiology of colorectal cancer, associations between meat-related compounds were examined to elucidate underlying mechanisms in a population-based case-control study. Participants (989 cases/1,033 healthy controls) completed a food frequency questionnaire with a meat-specific module. Multivariable logistic regression was used to examine associations between meat variables and colorectal cancer; polytomous logistic regression was used for subsite-specific analyses. The following significant positive associations were observed for meat-related compounds: 2-amino-3,4,8-trimethylimidazo[4,5-f]quinoxaline (DiMeIQx) and colorectal, distal colon, and rectal tumors; 2-amino-3,8-dimethylimidazo[4,5-f]quinoxaline (MeIQx) and colorectal and colon cancer tumors; nitrites/nitrates and proximal colon cancer; 2-amino-1-methyl-6-phenylimidazo[4,5-b]pyridine (PhIP) and rectal cancer; and benzo[a]pyrene and rectal cancer (P-trends < 0.05 ). For analyses by meat type, cooking method, and doneness preference, positive associations between red processed meat and proximal colon cancer and pan-fried red meat and colorectal cancer were found (P-trends < 0.05). Inverse associations were observed between unprocessed poultry and colorectal, colon, proximal colon, and rectal tumors; grilled/barbequed poultry and proximal colon cancer; and well-done/charred poultry and colorectal, colon, and proximal colon tumors (P-trends < 0.05). HCAs, PAHs, nitrites, and nitrates may be involved in colorectal cancer etiology. Further examination into the unexpected inverse associations between poultry and colorectal cancer is warranted. PMID:23441608

  4. Genetic and Diet-Induced Obesity Increased Intestinal Tumorigenesis in the Double Mutant Mouse Model Multiple Intestinal Neoplasia X Obese via Disturbed Glucose Regulation and Inflammation

    PubMed Central

    Hetland, Ragna Bogen

    2015-01-01

    We have studied how spontaneous or carcinogen-induced intestinal tumorigenesis was affected by genetic or diet-induced obesity in C57BL/6J-Apc Min/+ X C57BL/6J-Lep ob/+ mice. Obesity was induced by the obese (ob) mutation in the lep gene coding for the hormone leptin, or by a 45% fat diet. The effects of obesity were examined on spontaneous intestinal tumors caused by the multiple intestinal neoplasia (Min) mutation in the adenomatous polyposis coli (Apc) gene and on tumors induced by the dietary carcinogen 2-amino-1-methyl-6-phenylimidazo[4,5-b]pyridine (PhIP). F1 ob/ob (homozygous mutated) mice had increased body weight (bw) and number of spontaneous and PhIP-induced small intestinal tumors (in Apc Min/+ mice), versus ob/wt (heterozygous mutated) and wt/wt mice (homozygous wild-type). A 45% fat diet exacerbated bw and spontaneous tumor numbers versus 10% fat, but not PhIP-induced tumors. Except for bw, ob/wt and wt/wt were not significantly different. The obesity caused hyperglucosemia and insulinemia in ob/ob mice. A 45% fat diet further increased glucose, but not insulin. Inflammation was seen as increased TNFα levels in ob/ob mice. Thus the results implicate disturbed glucose regulation and inflammation as mechanisms involved in the association between obesity and intestinal tumorigenesis. Ob/ob mice had shorter lifespan than ob/wt and wt/wt mice. PMID:26347815

  5. Seasonal variations of atmospheric heterocyclic aromatic amines in Beijing, China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dong, Xueling; Liu, Dameng; Gao, Shaopeng

    2013-02-01

    Heterocyclic aromatic amines (HAAs) belong to a group of substances associated with a high mutagenic and carcinogenic potential. This study reports that carcinogenic HAAs may be present in airborne particles. Airborne particles (PM10) were sampled from March 2005 to January 2006 at four urban sites in Beijing. Collected particulate matter was analyzed for six HAAs using high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) with fluorescence and UV detection. Clear seasonal variations of HAAs were observed with seasonal mass concentrations ranging from 0.66 ± 0.20 ng m- 3 (summer) to 19.76 ± 14.38 ng m- 3 (autumn). The carcinogenic amino-imidazo-azaarenes, including 2-Amino-3-methyl-3H-imidazo[4,5-f] quinoline (IQ), 2-Amino-3,4-dimethyl-3H-imidazo[4,5-f] quinoline (MeIQ), and 2-Amino-1-methyl-6-phenylimidazo[4,5-b] pyridine (PhIP), were the major components with 75.2-87.0% of the total HAAs during the whole year except for summer. 3-Amino-1-methyl-5H-pyrido[3,4-b] indole (Trp-P-2), 2-Amino-9H-pyrido[2,3-b] indole (AαC), and 2-Amino-3-methyl-9H-pyrido[2,3-b] indole (MeAαC), with similar structures, were found to have similar seasonal patterns and strong correlations (r = 0.63-0.90) throughout the observation, which indicates that they most likely come from similar emission sources. Positive correlations between site-specific HAA concentrations and the relative humidity were observed. Of the different sites studied, the total HAA concentrations were most abundant at commercial sites and the smallest at residential sites. The combustion aerosols emitted from cooking, coal, and petroleum may be the sources of these carcinogens in the atmosphere, and cooking emissions may probably play an important role in Beijing's HAAs pollution.

  6. Tobacco smoke carcinogens and breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Hecht, Stephen S

    2002-01-01

    Cigarette smoking is an established cause of a variety of cancer types, but its role in breast cancer etiology is not clear. In this report, the potential role of cigarette smoke carcinogens as causes of human breast cancer is evaluated. Of over 60 known carcinogens in tobacco smoke, several are known to induce mammary tumors in laboratory animals: benzo[a]pyrene (B[a]P), dibenzo[a,l]pyrene (DB[a,l]P), 2-toluidine, 4-aminobiphenyl, 2-amino-3-methylimidazo[4,5-f]quinoline (IQ), 2-amino-1-methyl-6-phenylimidazo[4,5-b]pyridine (PhIP), 1,3-butadiene, isoprene, nitromethane, ethylene oxide, and benzene. Studies in humans demonstrate that tobacco constituents can reach breast tissue. The uptake and metabolic activation of mammary carcinogens such as polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and 4-aminobiphenyl are frequently higher in smokers than in nonsmokers. Although it is likely that specific mammary carcinogens in tobacco smoke can reach breast tissue, evidence is lacking at the present time. Some PAHs present in cigarette smoke can be metabolized to sterically hindered diol epoxides, which are potent mammary carcinogens. Thus, compounds such as benzo[c]phenanthrene (B[c]P), not classically considered to be a strong carcinogen in rodents, could nevertheless be metabolized in humans to diol epoxides carcinogenic to the breast. Collectively, the link between smoking and breast cancer is plausible but has been difficult to establish, probably because of the low carcinogen dose. Copyright 2002 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  7. Optimised extraction of heterocyclic aromatic amines from blood using hollow fibre membrane liquid-phase microextraction and triple quadrupole mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Cooper, Kevin M; Jankhaikhot, Natcha; Cuskelly, Geraldine

    2014-09-05

    Heterocyclic aromatic amines (HCA) are carcinogenic mutagens formed during cooking of proteinaceous foods, particularly meat. To assist in the ongoing search for biomarkers of HCA exposure in blood, a method is described for the extraction from human plasma of the most abundant HCAs: 2-amino-1-methyl-6-phenylimidazo(4,5-b)pyridine (PhIP), 2-amino-3,8-dimethylimidazo[4,5-f]quinoxaline (MeIQx) and 2-amino-3,4,8-trimethylimidazo[4,5-f]quinoxaline (4,8-DiMeIQx) (and its isomer 7,8-DiMeIQx), using hollow fibre membrane liquid-phase microextraction. This technique employs 2.5cm lengths of porous polypropylene fibres impregnated with organic solvent to facilitate simultaneous extraction from an alkaline aqueous sample into a low volume acidic acceptor phase. This low cost protocol is extensively optimised for fibre length, extraction time, sample pH and volume. Detection is by UPLC-MS/MS using positive mode electrospray ionisation with a 3.4min runtime, with optimum peak shape, sensitivity and baseline separation being achieved at pH 9.5. To our knowledge this is the first description of HCA chromatography under alkaline conditions. Application of fixed ion ratio tolerances for confirmation of analyte identity is discussed. Assay precision is between 4.5 and 8.8% while lower limits of detection between 2 and 5pg/mL are below the concentrations postulated for acid-labile HCA-protein adducts in blood.

  8. Inhibitory effect of cellulose fibers on the formation of heterocyclic aromatic amines in grilled beef patties.

    PubMed

    Gibis, Monika; Weiss, Jochen

    2017-08-15

    Microcrystalline cellulose (MCC) or carboxymethyl cellulose (CMC) can be used as fat replacers; both are nondigestible fibers. As water-holding compounds, the impact of added CMC or MCC was studied concerning the formation of heterocyclic amines (HAAs). Low-fat patties with 0.5-3% MCC/CMC were prepared using 90% of beef and 10% of an aqueous fiber dispersion and were determined for HAA-levels after grilling. The HAAs in patties containing CMC(MCC) were found in the following concentrations; MeIQx (2-Amino-3,8-dimethylimidazo[4,5-f]quinoxaline) 0.6-2.7 (0.9-3.3)ng/g, 4,8-DiMeIQx (2-Amino-3,4,8-trimethylimidazo[4,5-f]quinoxaline) n.d.-1.5 (n.d.-2.2)ng/g and PhIP (2-amino-1-methyl-6-phenylimidazo[4,5-b]pyridine) 0.03-0.3 (0.06-0.2)ng/g. The patties clearly contained lower HAA-levels with increasing addition of CMC or MCC. A continuous increase of the concentrations of comutagenic harman was observed (CMC: 1.2-13.2; MCC: 5.2-11.4ng/g) for increasing levels of fibers and a slight decrease of the content of norharman for MCC (0.5-1.6ng/g). No clear tendency was found for norharman using CMC (0.3-1.1ng/g). Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Effect of cooking methods on the formation of heterocyclic aromatic amines in chicken and duck breast.

    PubMed

    Liao, G Z; Wang, G Y; Xu, X L; Zhou, G H

    2010-05-01

    Heterocyclic aromatic amines (HAAs), potent mutagens/carcinogens, are pyrolysis formed during the cooking of meat and fish. In the present study, the effects of various cooking methods, pan-frying, deep-frying, charcoal grilling and roasting on the formation of HAAs in chicken breast and duck breast were studied. The various HAAs formed during cooking were isolated by solid-phase extraction and analyzed by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). Results showed that chicken breast cooked by charcoal grilling contained the highest content of total HAAs, as high as 112 ng/g, followed by pan-fried duck breast (53.3 ng/g), charcoal grilled duck breast (32 ng/g), pan-fried chicken breast (27.4 ng/g), deep-fried chicken breast (21.3 ng/g), deep-fried duck breast (14 ng/g), roasted duck breast (7 ng/g) and roasted chicken breast (4 ng/g). For individual HAA, the most abundant HAA was 9H-pyrido-[4,3-b]indole (Norharman), which was detected in charcoal grilled chicken breast at content as high as 32.2 ng/g, followed by 1-methyl-9H-pyrido[4,3-b] indole (Harman) and 2-amino-1-methyl-6-phenylimidazo[4,5-f]pyridine(PhIP) at 32 and 31.1 ng/g in charcoal grilled chicken breast, respectively. The content of PhIP in pan-fried duck and chicken breast were 22 and 18.3 ng/g, respectively. Generally, the type and content of HAAs in cooked poultry meat varies with cooking method and cooking conditions.

  10. Airborne mutagens produced by frying beef, pork and a soy-based food.

    PubMed

    Thiébaud, H P; Knize, M G; Kuzmicky, P A; Hsieh, D P; Felton, J S

    1995-10-01

    Airborne cooking by-products from frying beef (hamburgers), pork (bacon strips) and soybean-based food (tempeh burgers) were collected, extracted, tested for mutagenicity and chemically analysed. The fumes generated by frying pork and beef were mutagenic, with 4900 and 1300 revertants/g of food cooked, respectively. No mutagenicity was detected in fumes from frying tempeh burgers. Bacon fried to a well-done but non-charred state was eight times more mutagenic in a microsuspension Ames/Salmonella test (TA98 with S-9) than hamburgers and about 350 times more mutagenic than tempeh burgers. Among food samples cooked to a well-done, non-charred state, bacon strips had almost 15-fold more mass (109.5 ng/g) than that of the beef, whereas no heterocyclic amine (HCA) was detected in the fried tempeh burgers. 2-Amino-1-methyl-6-phenylimidazo[4,5-b]pyridine (PhIP) was the most abundant HCA, followed by 2-amino-3,8-dimethylimidazo[4,5-f]quinoxaline (MeIQx) and 2-amino-3,4,8-trimethylimidazo[4,5-f]quinoxaline (DiMeIQx). No 2-amino-9H-pyrido[2,3-b]indole (A alpha C) was detected in the food samples fried at about 200 degrees C, although it was present in the collected airborne products. The total amounts of HCAs in the smoke condensates were 3 ng/g from fried bacon, 0.37 ng/g from fried beef and 0.177 ng/g from fried soy-based food. This study indicates that cooks are potentially exposed to relatively high levels of airborne mutagens and carcinogens and that long-term sampling inside restaurants and kitchens may be warranted in order to assess the potential risk of prolonged exposure.

  11. Effect of phenolic compounds from spices consumed in China on heterocyclic amine profiles in roast beef patties by UPLC-MS/MS and multivariate analysis.

    PubMed

    Zeng, Maomao; Li, Yang; He, Zhiyong; Qin, Fang; Chen, Jie

    2016-06-01

    Ultra performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry and multivariate analysis were used to exploit the effect and further synergistic or antagonistic interactions of main phenolic compounds with the same ratios as in spices consumed in China, on the profiles of HAs in roast beef patties. Quantitative levels of harman (1-methyl-9H-pyrido[3,4-b]indole), norharman (9H-pyrido[3,4-b]indole), PhIP (2-amino-1-methyl-6-phenylimidazo[4,5-b]pyridine), DMIP (2-amino-1,6-dimethylimidazo[4,5-b]pyridine), 1,5,6-TMIP (2-amino-1,5,6-trimethylimidazo[4,5-b]pyridine), MeIQx (2-amino-3,8-dimethylimidazo[4,5-f]quinoxaline) and 4,8-DiMeIQx (2-amino-3,4,8-trimethylimidazo[4,5-f]quinoxaline) were detected in all of the beef patties. The formation of most of these seven HAs was significantly (P<0.05) enhanced by phenolic compounds. Mixed and corresponding single phenolic compounds had different effects on HA profiles. DMIP, 1,5,6-TMIP and 4,8-DiMeIQx were investigated as differentiating factors for single compounds, while harman and MeIQx for mixed ones. Moreover, certain combination of phenolic compounds have synergistic on harman, norharman and MeIQx, but antagonistic effects on the formation of DMIP and 4,8-DiMeIQx. The results may shed light on the mechanism for the effects of spices on the formation of HAs. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Prenylated flavanones isolated from flowers of Azadirachta indica (the neem tree) as antimutagenic constituents against heterocyclic amines.

    PubMed

    Nakahara, Kazuhiko; Roy, Molay Kumar; Ono, Hiroshi; Maeda, Ikuko; Ohnishi-Kameyama, Mayumi; Yoshida, Mitsuru; Trakoontivakorn, Gassinee

    2003-10-22

    Four prenylated flavanones were isolated from the methanol extract of the flowers of Azadirachta indica (the neem tree) as potent antimutagens against Trp-P-1 (3-amino-1,4-dimethyl-5H-pyrido[4,3-b]indole) in the Salmonella typhimurium TA98 assay by activity-guided fractionation. Spectroscopic properties revealed that those compounds were 5,7,4'-trihydroxy-8-prenylflavanone (1), 5,4'-dihydroxy-7-methoxy-8-prenylflavanone (2), 5,7,4'-trihydroxy-3',8-diprenylflavanone (3), and 5,7,4'-trihydroxy-3',5'-diprenylflavanone (4). All isolated compounds were found for the first time in this plant. The antimutagenic IC(50) values of compounds 1-4 were 2.7 +/- 0.1, 3.7 +/- 0.1, 11.1 +/- 0.1, and 18.6 +/- 0.1 microM in the preincubation mixture, respectively. These compounds also similarly inhibited the mutagenicity of Trp-P-2 (3-amino-1-methyl-5H-pyrido[4,3-b]indole) and PhIP (2-amino-1-methyl-6-phenylimidazo[4,5-b]pyridine). All of the compounds 1-4 strongly inhibited ethoxyresorufin O-dealkylation activity of cytochrome P450 1A isoforms, which catalyze N-hydroxylation of heterocyclic amines. However, compounds 1-4 did not show significant inhibition against the direct-acting mutagen NaN(3). Thus, the antimutagenic effect of compounds 1-4 would be mainly based on the inhibition of the enzymatic activation of heterocyclic amines.

  13. PHIPS-HALO: the airborne Particle Habit Imaging and Polar Scattering probe - Part 1: Design and operation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abdelmonem, Ahmed; Järvinen, Emma; Duft, Denis; Hirst, Edwin; Vogt, Steffen; Leisner, Thomas; Schnaiter, Martin

    2016-07-01

    The number and shape of ice crystals present in mixed-phase and ice clouds influence the radiation properties, precipitation occurrence and lifetime of these clouds. Since clouds play a major role in the climate system, influencing the energy budget by scattering sunlight and absorbing heat radiation from the earth, it is necessary to investigate the optical and microphysical properties of cloud particles particularly in situ. The relationship between the microphysics and the single scattering properties of cloud particles is usually obtained by modelling the optical scattering properties from in situ measurements of ice crystal size distributions. The measured size distribution and the assumed particle shape might be erroneous in case of non-spherical ice particles. There is a demand to obtain both information correspondently and simultaneously for individual cloud particles in their natural environment. For evaluating the average scattering phase function as a function of ice particle habit and crystal complexity, in situ measurements are required. To this end we have developed a novel airborne optical sensor (PHIPS-HALO) to measure the optical properties and the corresponding microphysical parameters of individual cloud particles simultaneously. PHIPS-HALO has been tested in the AIDA cloud simulation chamber and deployed in mountain stations as well as research aircraft (HALO and Polar 6). It is a successive version of the laboratory prototype instrument PHIPS-AIDA. In this paper we present the detailed design of PHIPS-HALO, including the detection mechanism, optical design, mechanical construction and aerodynamic characterization.

  14. Impact of Precursors Creatine, Creatinine, and Glucose on the Formation of Heterocyclic Aromatic Amines in Grilled Patties of Various Animal Species.

    PubMed

    Gibis, Monika; Weiss, Jochen

    2015-11-01

    The impact of precursors such as creatine, creatinine, and glucose on the formation of mutagenic/carcinogenic heterocyclic amines (HAs) were studied in patties of 9 different animal species equally heat treated with a double-plate contact grill. All grilled patties of the various species (veal, beef, pork, lamb, horse, venison, turkey, chicken, ostrich) contained several HAs such as MeIQx (2-amino-3,8-dimethylimidazo[4,5-f] quinoxaline; 0.5-1.4 ng/g), 4,8-DiMeIQx (2-amino-3,4,8-trimethylimidazo[4,5-f] quinoxaline, 0 to 1.3 ng/g), PhIP (2-amino-1-methyl-6-phenylimidazo[4,5-b] pyridine, 1.2 to 10.5 ng/g), harman (1-methyl-9H-pyrido[3,4-b] indole; 0.5 to 3.2 ng/g), and/or norharman (9H-pyrido[3,4-b]indole 0.5 to 1.9 ng/g). Residual glycogen (glucose) content varied greatly from 0.07 to 1.46 wt% on a dry matter (DM) basis. Total creatin(in)e content in raw meat (1.36 to 2.0 wt% DM) hardly differed between species, except in turkey and ostrich (1.1 wt% DM). Chicken contained, compared to all other species, very low concentrations of glucose (0.07 wt% DM) and the highest levels of nonprotein nitrogen compounds. The free amino acids lysine (r = 0.77, P < 0.001), tyrosine, phenylalanine, proline, isoleucine, and aspartic acid (r = 0.47-0.56, P < 0.05) showed significant correlation to PhIP in chicken. Also a linear correlation was found to exist between PhIP (r = 0.87, P < 0.001) and MeIQx (r = 0.35, P < 0.01), and the molar ratio of creatin(in)e to glucose, respectively. Harman as co-mutagens was linearly correlated to the concentration of glucose (r = 0.65, P < 0.001). By contrast, norharman was not significant correlated to glucose levels.

  15. Dietary Intake of Meat Cooking-Related Mutagens (HCAs) and Risk of Colorectal Adenoma and Cancer: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Chiavarini, Manuela; Bertarelli, Gaia; Minelli, Liliana; Fabiani, Roberto

    2017-01-01

    Much evidence suggests that the positive association between meat intake and colorectal adenoma (CRA) and cancer (CRC) risk is mediated by mutagenic compounds generated during cooking at high temperature. A number of epidemiological studies have estimated the effect of meat-related mutagens intake on CRC/CRA risk with contradictory and sometimes inconsistent results. A literature search was carried out (PubMed, Web of Science and Scopus) to identify articles reporting the relationship between the intake of meat-related mutagens (2-amino-1-methyl-6-phenylimidazo[4,5-b]pyridine (PhIP), 2-amino-3,8-dimethylimidazo[4,5-f] quinoxaline (MeIQx), 2-amino-3,4,8-trimethylimidazo[4,5-f] quinoxaline: DiMeIQx, benzo(a) pyrene (B(a)P) and “meat derived mutagenic activity” (MDM)) and CRC/CRA risk. A random-effect model was used to calculate the risk association. Thirty-nine studies were included in the systematic review and meta-analysis. Polled CRA risk (15229 cases) was significantly increased by intake of PhIP (OR = 1.20; 95% CI: 1.13,1.28; p < 0.001), MeIQx (OR = 1.14; 95% CI: 1.05,1.23; p = 0.001), DiMeIQx (OR = 1.13; 95% CI: 1.05,1.21; p = 0.001), B(a)P (OR = 1.10; 95% CI: 1.02,1.19; p = 0.017) and MDM (OR = 1.17; 95% CI: 1.07,1.28; p = 0.001). A linear and curvilinear trend was observed in dose–response meta-analysis between CRA risk in association with PhIP, MDM, and MeIQx. CRC risk (21,344 cases) was increased by uptake of MeIQx (OR = 1.14; 95% CI: 1.04,1.25; p = 0.004), DiMeIQx (OR = 1.12; 95% CI: 1.02,1.22; p = 0.014) and MDM (OR = 1.12; 95% CI: 1.06,1.19; p < 0.001). No publication bias could be detected, whereas heterogeneity was in some cases rather high. Mutagenic compounds formed during cooking of meat at high temperature may be responsible of its carcinogenicity. PMID:28524104

  16. Fruits and vegetables protect against the genotoxicity of heterocyclic aromatic amines activated by human xenobiotic-metabolizing enzymes expressed in immortal mammalian cells.

    PubMed

    Platt, K L; Edenharder, R; Aderhold, S; Muckel, E; Glatt, H

    2010-12-21

    Heterocyclic aromatic amines (HAAs) can be formed during the cooking of meat and fish at elevated temperatures and are associated with an increased risk for cancer. On the other hand, epidemiological findings suggest that foods rich in fruits and vegetables can protect against cancer. In the present study three teas, two wines, and the juices of 15 fruits and 11 vegetables were investigated for their protective effect against the genotoxic effects of 2-amino-3-methylimidazo[4,5-f]quinoline (IQ) and 2-amino-1-methyl-6-phenylimidazo[4,5-b]pyridine (PhIP). To closely mimic the enzymatic activation of these HAAs in humans, genetically engineered V79 Chinese hamster fibroblasts were employed that express human cytochrome P450-dependent monooxygenase (hCYP) 1A2 (responsible for the first step of enzymatic activation) and human N(O)-acetyltransferase (hNAT) 2*4 or human sulfotransferase (hSULT)1A1*1 (responsible for the second step of enzymatic activation): V79-hCYP1A2-hNAT2*4 for IQ activation and V79-hCYP1A2-hSULT1A1*1 for PhIP activation. HAA genotoxicity was determined by use of the comet assay. Black, green and rooibos tea moderately reduced the genotoxicity of IQ (IC(50)=0.8-0.9%), whereas red and white wine were less active. From the fruit juices, sweet cherry juice exhibited the highest inhibitory effect on IQ genotoxicity (IC(50)=0.17%), followed by juices from kiwi fruit, plum and blueberry (IC(50)=0.48-0.71%). The juices from watermelon, blackberry, strawberry, black currant, and Red delicious apple showed moderate suppression, whereas sour cherry, grapefruit, red currant, and pineapple juices were only weakly active. Granny Smith apple juice and orange juice proved inactive. Of the vegetable juices, strong inhibition of IQ genotoxicity was only seen with spinach and onion juices (IC(50)=0.42-0.54%). Broccoli, cauliflower, beetroot, sweet pepper, tomato, chard, and red-cabbage juices suppressed IQ genotoxicity only moderately, whereas cucumber juice was

  17. Screening of molecular cell targets for carcinogenic heterocyclic aromatic amines by using CALUX® reporter gene assays.

    PubMed

    Steinberg, Pablo; Behnisch, Peter A; Besselink, Harrie; Brouwer, Abraham A

    2016-12-10

    Heterocyclic aromatic amines (HCAs) are compounds formed when meat or fish are cooked at high temperatures for a long time or over an open fire. To determine which pathways of toxicity are activated by HCAs, nine out of the ten HCAs known to be carcinogenic in rodents (2-amino-9H-pyrido[2,3-b]indole (AαC), 2-aminodipyrido[1,2-a:3',2-d]imidazole (Glu-P-2), 2-amino-3-methylimidazo[4,5-f]quinoline (IQ), 2-amino-3-methyl-9H-pyrido[2,3-b]indole (MeAαC), 2-amino-3,4-dimethylimidazo[4,5-f]quinoline (MeIQ), 2-amino-3,8-dimethylimidazo[4,5-f]quinoxaline (MeIQx), 2-amino-1-methyl-6-phenylimidazo[4,5-b]pyridine (PhIP), 3-amino-1,4-dimethyl-5H-pyrido[4,3-b]indole (Trp-P-1), and 3-amino-1-methyl-5H-pyrido[4,3-b]indole (Trp-P-2)) were tested in the estrogen receptor α (ERα), androgen receptor (AR), glucocorticoid receptor (GR), peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ2 (PPARγ2), polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH), Nrf2, and p53 CALUX® reporter gene assays. Trp-P-1 was the only HCA that led to a positive response in the ERα, PPARγ2, and Nrf2 CALUX® assays. In the PAH CALUX® assay, Trp-P-2, MeAαC, and AαC induced luciferase activity to a greater extent than MeIQ and PhIP. In the p53 CALUX® assay without a coupled metabolic activation, only Trp-P-1 and Trp-P-2 enhanced luciferase expression; when a metabolic activation step was coupled to the p53 CALUX® assay, Trp-P-1, Glu-P-2, MeIQ, MeIQx, and PhIP induced a positive response. No HCA was positive in the AR and GR CALUX® assays. Taken together, the results obtained show that the battery of CALUX® assays performed in the present study can successfully be used to screen for molecular cell targets of carcinogenic compounds such as HCAs.

  18. Heterocyclic Aromatic Amines in Domestically Prepared Chicken and Fish from Singapore Chinese Households

    SciTech Connect

    Salmon, C P; Knize, M G; Felton, J S; Zhao, B; Seow, A

    2005-05-16

    Chicken and fish samples prepared by 42 Singapore Chinese in their homes were obtained. Researchers were present to collect data on raw meat weight, cooking time, maximum cooking surface temperature, and cooked meat weight. Each participant prepared one pan-fried fish sample and two pan-fried chicken samples, one marinated, one not marinated. The cooked samples were analyzed for five heterocyclic aromatic amine (HAA) mutagens, including MeIQx (2-amino 3,8-dimethylimidazo[4,5-f]quinoxaline); 4,8-DiMeIQx (2-amino-3,4,8-trimethylimidazo[4,5-f]quinoxaline); 7,8-DiMeIQx (2-amino-3,7,8-trimethylimidazo[4,5-f]quinoxaline); PhIP (2-amino-1-methyl-6-phenylimidazo[4,5-b]pyridine), and IFP (2-amino-(1,6-dimethylfuro[3,2-e]imidazo [4,5-b])pyridine). A paired Student's t-test showed that marinated chicken had lower concentrations of PhIP (p<0.05), but higher concentrations of MeIQx (p<0.05) and 4,8-DiMeIQx (p<0.001) than non-marinated chicken, and also that weight loss due to cooking was less in marinated chicken than in non-marinated chicken (p<0.001). Interestingly, the maximum cooking surface temperature was higher for fish than for either marinated or non-marinated chicken (P<0.001), yet fish was lower in 4,8-DiMeIQx per gram than marinated or non-marinated chicken (p<0.001), lower in PhIP than non-marinated chicken (P<0.05), and lost less weight due to cooking than either marinated or non-marinated chicken (P<0.001). Fish was also lower in MeIQx and 7,8-DiMeIQx than marinated chicken (P<0.05). This study provides new information on HAA content in the Singapore Chinese diet.

  19. The effect of rosemary on the mutagenic activity of heterocyclic amines extracted from common food consumed in Saudi Arabia.

    PubMed

    Awney, Hala A; Sindi, Heba

    2010-03-01

    Meat intake may increase cancer risk as heterocyclic amines (HCAs) are one of the food mutagens produced in meat cooked at high temperature. The consumption of meat in Saudi Arabia is high compared with other developing countries and the incidence of cancer has been increasing during the past 30 years. The present study aimed to quantitatively determine the effect of rosemary on the mutagenic activity and the amount of HCAs formed in beef Shawerma, grilled chicken and fried liver as an attempt to minimize the carcinogenic risk of HCAs formed in these commonly consumed meat dishes. Surprisingly, rosemary extracts (2%, 5%, 10% and 15%) apparently enhanced the total amount of HCAs measured in beef Shawerma, whereas 2-amino-1-methyl-6-phenylimidazo[4,5-b]pyridine (PhIP) was the only mutagenic amine inhibited by 2% rosemary with a reduction up to 61.6% compared with control. In grilled chicken, the total amount of HCAs measured in 2% rosemary samples was reduced seven-fold lower than the control level, whereas PhIp and 3-amino-1,4-dimethyl-5H-pyrido[4,3-b]indole (TrpP1) were inhibited to non-detectable levels. These data demonstrate that 2% rosemary may play an important role in attenuating the production of PhIP in both Shawerma and fried chicken. In fried liver, HCAs were not detected either in the control or in 2% treated samples whereas augmented levels of TrpP1 were measured in 5%, 10% and 15% rosemary. The mutagenic activity of HCAs extracted from all beef Shawerma and grilled chicken treated samples increased over the control sample using Salmonella typhimurium TA100. In fried liver, the mutagenic activity detected in the control sample was higher than treated samples, which suggests that S. typhimurium TA100 might be less sensitive in detecting the mutagenic response of TrpP1 extracted from the real food system. We believe more research is needed to assess the role of antioxidants in the formation of HCAs in order to optimize both safety and quality of our diets.

  20. Alternating Delays Achieve Polarization Transfer (ADAPT) to heteronuclei in PHIP experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stevanato, Gabriele

    2017-01-01

    A new methodology for producing hyperpolarized 13C nuclei in small organic systems via parahydrogen induced polarization (PHIP) is proposed: ADAPT (Alternating Delays Achieve Polarization Transfer). The theoretical foundation of the process is investigated in some detail and experimental examples demonstrating the viability of the approach are provided as well. The number of adjustable parameters is fewer than most of other conversion schemes. The achieved theoretical heteronuclear polarization is close to unity for any examined magnetic equivalence regime. The duration of the pulse sequence, which was successfully implemented, can be shorter than other established methods reducing possible relaxation losses. The conversion scheme is robust to B1 inhomogeneities, but more sensitive to off-resonance RF irradiation.

  1. The Effect of Cancer Chemopreventive Agents on DNA Adduct Formation by the Dietary Prostate Carcinogen PhIP

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2001-04-01

    8217,5,7-pentahyroxyflavone/kg (quercetin), 906mg 1-isothiocyanato- (4R,S)-(methylsulfinyl) butane/kg ( sulforaphane ), or the de-alcoholized-dehydrated...and sulforaphane altered the concentrations of PhIP or its metabolites in some of the tissues, suggesting that these diet supplements significantly...fed for one week prior to the diet fortified with sulforaphane , phenethylisothiocyanate (PEITC), catechin, quercetin, wine ,drogen and NMU (50 mg/kg

  2. Long interspersed element-1 is differentially regulated by food-borne carcinogens via the aryl hydrocarbon receptor

    PubMed Central

    Okudaira, N; Okamura, T; Tamura, M; Iijma, K; Goto, M; Matsunaga, A; Ochiai, M; Nakagama, H; Kano, S; Fujii-Kuriyama, Y; Ishizaka, Y

    2013-01-01

    A single human cell contains more than 5.0 × 105 copies of long interspersed element-1 (L1), 80–100 of which are competent for retrotransposition (L1-RTP). Recent observations have revealed the presence of de novo L1 insertions in various tumors, but little is known about its mechanism. Here, we found that 2-amino-1-methyl-6-phenylimidazo[4,5-b]pyridine (PhIP) and 2-amino-3,8-dimethyl-imidazo[4,5-f]quinoxaline (MeIQx), food-borne carcinogens that are present in broiled meats, induced L1-RTP. This induction was dependent on a cellular cascade comprising the aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR), a mitogen-activated protein kinase, and CCAAT/enhancer-binding protein β. Notably, these compounds exhibited differential induction of L1-RTP. MeIQx-induced L1-RTP was dependent on AhR nuclear translocator 1 (ARNT1), a counterpart of AhR required for gene expression in response to environmental pollutants. By contrast, PhIP-induced L1-RTP did not require ARNT1 but was dependent on estrogen receptor α (ERα) and AhR repressor. In vivo studies using transgenic mice harboring the human L1 gene indicated that PhIP-induced L1-RTP was reproducibly detected in the mammary gland, which is a target organ of PhIP-induced carcinoma. Moreover, picomolar levels of each compound induced L1-RTP, which is comparable to the PhIP concentration detected in human breast milk. Data suggest that somatic cells possess machineries that induce L1-RTP in response to the carcinogenic compounds. Together with data showing that micromolar levels of heterocyclic amines (HCAs) were non-genotoxic, our observations indicate that L1-RTP by environmental compounds is a novel type of genomic instability, further suggesting that analysis of L1-RTP by HCAs is a novel approach to clarification of modes of carcinogenesis. PMID:23208499

  3. Reductive Detoxication of Arylhydroxylamine Carcinogens by Human NADH Cytochrome b5 Reductase and Cytochrome b5

    PubMed Central

    Kurian, Joseph R.; Chin, Nathaniel A.; Longlais, Brett J.; Hayes, Kristie L.; Trepanier, Lauren A.

    2008-01-01

    Heterocyclic and aromatic amine carcinogens are thought to lead to tumor initiation via the formation of DNA adducts, and bioactivation to arylhydroxylamine metabolites is necessary for reactivity with DNA. Carcinogenic arylhydroxylamine metabolites are cleared by a microsomal, NADH-dependent, oxygen-insensitive reduction pathway in humans, which may be a source of inter-individual variability in response to aromatic amine carcinogens. The purpose of this study was to characterize the identity of this reduction pathway in human liver. Based on our findings with structurally similar arylhydroxylamine metabolites of therapeutic drugs, we hypothesized that the reductive detoxication of arylhydroxylamine carcinogens was catalyzed by NADH cytochrome b5 reductase (b5R) and cytochrome b5 (cyt b5). We found that reduction of the carcinogenic hydroxylamines of the aromatic amine 4-aminobiphenyl (4-ABP; found in cigarette smoke) and the heterocyclic amine 2- amino-1-methyl-6-phenylimidazo [4,5-b] pyridine (PhIP; found in grilled meats) was indeed catalyzed by a purified system containing only human b5R and cyt b5. Specific activities were 56 to 346-fold higher in the purified system compared to human liver microsomes (HLM), with similar Michaelis-Menten constants (Km values) in both systems. The stoichiometry for b5R and cyt b5 that yielded the highest activity in the purified system was also similar to that found in native HLM (∼1:8 to 1:10). Polyclonal antisera to either b5R or cyt b5 significantly inhibited N-hydroxy-4-aminobiphenyl (NHOH-4-ABP) reduction by 95 and 89%, respectively, and immunoreactive cyt b5 protein content in individual HLM was significantly correlated with individual reduction of both NHOH-4-ABP and N-hydroxy-PhIP (NHOH-PhIP). Finally, titration of HLM into the purified b5R/cyt b5 system did not enhance the efficiency of reduction activity. We conclude that b5R and cyt b5 are together solely capable of the reduction of arylhydroxylamine carcinogens

  4. DNA Adduct Formation of 4-Aminobiphenyl and Heterocyclic Aromatic Amines in Human Hepatocytes

    PubMed Central

    Nauwelaers, Gwendoline; Bessette, Erin E.; Gu, Dan; Tang, Yijin; Rageul, Julie; Fessard, Valérie; Yuan, Jian-Min; Yu, Mimi C.; Langouët, Sophie; Turesky, Robert J.

    2011-01-01

    DNA adduct formation of the aromatic amine, 4-aminobiphenyl (4-ABP), a known human carcinogen present in tobacco smoke, and the heterocyclic aromatic amines (HAAs), 2-amino-9H-pyrido[2,3-b]indole (AαC), 2-amino-1-methyl-6-phenylimidazo[4,5-b]pyridine (PhIP), 2-amino-3-methylimidazo[4,5-f]quinoline (IQ), and 2-amino-3,8-dimethylmidazo[4,5-f]quinoxaline (MeIQx), potential human carcinogens, which are also present in tobacco smoke or formed during the high-temperature cooking of meats, was investigated in freshly cultured human hepatocytes. The carcinogens (10 μM) were incubated with hepatocytes derived from eight different donors for time periods up to 24 h. The DNA adducts were quantified by liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization mass spectrometry with a linear quadrupole ion trap mass spectrometer. The principal DNA adducts formed for all of the carcinogens were N-(deoxyguanosin-8-yl) (dG-C8) adducts. The levels of adducts ranged from 3.4 to 140 adducts per 107 DNA bases. The highest level of adduct formation occurred with AαC, followed by 4-ABP, then by PhIP, MeIQx, and IQ. Human hepatocytes formed dG-C8-HAA-adducts at levels that were up to 100-fold greater than the amounts of adducts produced in rat hepatocytes. In contrast to HAA adducts, the levels of dG-C8-4-ABP adduct formation were similar in human and rat hepatocytes. These DNA binding data demonstrate that the rat, an animal model that is used for carcinogenesis bioassays, significantly underestimates the potential hepatic genotoxicity of HAAs in humans. The high level of DNA adducts formed by AαC, a carcinogen produced in tobacco smoke at levels that are up to 100-fold higher than the amounts of 4-ABP, is noteworthy. The possible causal role of AαC in tobacco-associated cancers warrants investigation. PMID:21456541

  5. Cigarette smoke toxicants as substrates and inhibitors for human cytosolic SULTs

    SciTech Connect

    Yasuda, Shin; Idell, Steven; Fu Jian; Carter, Glendora; Snow, Rhodora; Liu, M.-C. . E-mail: ming.liu@uthct.edu

    2007-05-15

    The current study was designed to examine the role of sulfation in the metabolism of cigarette smoke toxicants and clarify whether these toxicants, by serving as substrates for the cytosolic sulfotransferases (SULTs), may interfere with the sulfation of key endogenous compounds. By metabolic labeling, [{sup 35}S]sulfated species were found to be generated and released into the media of HepG2 human hepatoma cells and primary human lung endothelial cells labeled with [{sup 35}S]sulfate in the presence of cigarette smoke extract (CSE). Concomitantly, several [{sup 35}S]sulfated metabolites observed in the medium in the absence of CSE either decreased or disappeared. Eleven previously prepared human cytosolic SULTs were tested for sulfating activity with CSE and known cigarette smoke toxicants as substrates. Activity data revealed SULT1A1, SULT1A2, SULT1A3, and SULT1C2 as major enzymes responsible for their sulfation. To examine their inhibitory effects on the sulfation of 17{beta}-estradiol by SULT1A1, enzymatic assays were performed in the presence of three representative toxicant compounds, namely N-hydroxy-4-aminobiphenyl (N-OH-4-ABP), 4-aminobiphenyl (4-ABP) and 2-amino-1-methyl-6-phenylimidazo[4,5-b]pyridine (PhIP). IC{sub 50} values determined for the sulfation of 17{beta}-estradiol by SULT1A1 were 11.8 {mu}M, 28.2 {mu}M, and 500 {mu}M, respectively, for N-OH-4-ABP, 4-ABP and PhIP. Kinetic analyses indicated that the mechanism underlying the inhibition of 17{beta}-estradiol sulfation by these cigarette smoke toxicants is of a mixed competitive-noncompetitive type. Metabolic labeling experiments clearly showed inhibition of the production of [{sup 35}S]sulfated 17{beta}-estradiol by N-OH-4-ABP in a concentration-dependent manner in HepG2 cells. Taken together, these results suggest that sulfation plays a significant role in the metabolism of cigarette smoke compounds. By serving as substrates for SULTs, cigarette smoke toxicants may interfere with the metabolism

  6. Formation of heterocyclic amines in salami and ham pizza toppings during baking of frozen pizza.

    PubMed

    Gibis, Monika; Weiss, Jochen

    2013-06-01

    Heterocyclic amines (HAs) are formed as Maillard reaction products in the crust of meat products during heating processes. Two typical pizza toppings--salami and cooked ham--were analyzed for the presence of HAs after baking frozen pizzas at top and bottom temperatures of 250 and 230 °C, respectively. After baking pizza slices for 12 min, MeIQx (2-amino-3,4,8-trimethylimidazo[4,5-f]quinoxaline; 0.2 ng/g), 4,8-DiMeIQx (2-amino-3,8-dimethylimidazo[4,5-f]quinoxaline; 0.5 ng/g), PhIP (2-amino-1-methyl-6-phenylimidazo[4,5-b]pyridine; 0.2 ng/g), norharman (4.5 ng/g), and harman (2.5 ng/g) were found in the ham toppings, whereas only the comutagenic norharman (107.4 ng/g) and harman (11.4 ng/g) were found in the salami toppings. The content of MeIQx and 4,8-DiMeIQx in ham increased from 0.3 to 1.8 ng/g and 0.8 to 1.6 ng/g, respectively, when the recommended baking time was increased from 15 min (manufacturer's specification) to 18 min at 230 °C. MeIQx was formed in salami when the heating time was extended to 18 min. Moreover, higher concentrations of PhIP in salami or ham slices were found when baking temperatures were 250 °C rather than 230 °C (baking time of 12 min). However, sensory tests showed that panelists preferred longer-baked pizzas due to an increased crispiness. Thus, results show that a substantial formation of HAs may occur in pizza toppings such as ham and salami, with ham being particularly susceptible when compared to salami. Formation of HAs increases with increasing baking time and temperature. The occurrence of the cupping of ham or salami slices during baking may also increase the formation of HAs.

  7. Obesity promotes PhIP-induced small intestinal carcinogenesis in hCYP1A-db/db mice: involvement of mutations and DNA hypermethylation of Apc.

    PubMed

    Wang, Hong; Liu, Anna; Kuo, Yingyi; Chi, Eric; Yang, Xu; Zhang, Lanjing; Yang, Chung S

    2016-07-01

    Obesity is associated with an increased risk of cancer. To study the promotion of dietary carcinogen-induced gastrointestinal cancer by obesity, we employed 2-amino-1-methyl-6-phenylimidazo[4,5-b]pyridine (PhIP) to induce intestinal tumorigenesis in CYP1A-humanized (hCYP1A) mice, in which mouse Cyp1a1/1a2 was replaced with human CYP1A1/1A2 Obesity was introduced in hCYP1A mice by breeding with Lepr(db/+) mice to establish the genetically induced obese hCYP1A-Lepr(db/db) mice or by feeding hCYP1A mice a high-fat diet. PhIP induced the formation of small intestinal tumors at the ages of weeks 28-40 in obese hCYP1A mice, but not in lean hCYP1A mice. No tumors were found in colon and other gastrointestinal organs in the lean or obese mice. Using immunohistochemistry (IHC), we found strong positive staining of NF-κB p65, pSTAT3 and COX2 as well as elevated levels of nuclear β-catenin (Ctnnb1) in small intestinal tumors, but not in normal tissues. By sequencing Apc and Ctnnb1 genes, we found that most PhIP-induced small intestinal tumors in obese mice carried only a single heterozygous mutation in Apc By bisulfite-sequencing of CpG islands of Apc, we found DNA hypermethylation in a CpG cluster located in its transcription initiation site, which most likely caused the inactivation of the wild-type Apc allele. Our findings demonstrate that PhIP-induced small intestinal carcinogenesis in hCYP1A-db/db mice is promoted by obesity and involves Apc mutation and inactivation by DNA hypermethylation. This experimental result is consistent with the association of obesity and the increased incidence of small intestinal cancer in humans in recent decades. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  8. No effect of meat, meat cooking preferences, meat mutagens or heme iron on lung cancer risk in the prostate, lung, colorectal and ovarian cancer screening trial.

    PubMed

    Tasevska, Nataša; Cross, Amanda J; Dodd, Kevin W; Ziegler, Regina G; Caporaso, Neil E; Sinha, Rashmi

    2011-01-15

    Recent epidemiological studies have suggested that red and processed meat may increase the risk of lung cancer. Possible underlying mechanisms include mutagens produced during high-temperature cooking or preservation, or formed endogenously from heme iron in meat. We used data from 99,579 participants of both screened and nonscreened arms of the Prostate, Lung, Colorectal and Ovarian Cancer Screening Trial, aged 55-74 years, to investigate whether meat type, cooking method, doneness level, intake of specific meat mutagens 2-amino-3,8-dimethylimidazo[4,5-f]quinoxaline (MeIQx), 2-amino-3,4,8-trimethylimidazo[4,5-f]quinoxaline] (DiMeIQx), 2-amino-1-methyl-6-phenylimidazo[4,5-b]pyridine (PhIP) and benzo(a)pyrene (B(a)P)] and heme iron are associated with lung cancer. Participants' diet was assessed prospectively using a 124-item food frequency questionnaire and an additional meat-cooking module. Dietary data were used in conjunction with a database to estimate intake of MeIQx, DiMeIQx, PhIP, B(a)P and heme iron. After up to 8 years of follow-up, 782 incident lung cancer cases were ascertained. Lung cancer risk was not associated with the consumption of either red (men: HR(Q₅ vs. Q₁) = 1.11, 95% CI = 0.79-1.56, P(trend) = 0.42; women: HR(Q₅ vs. Q₁) = 1.30, 95% CI = 0.87-1.95, P(trend) = 0.65) or processed meat (men: HR(Q₅ vs. Q₁1) = 1.12, 95% CI = 0.83-1.53, P(trend) = 0.22; women: HR(Q₅ vs. Q₁) = 0.98, 95% CI = 0.68-1.41, P(trend) = 0.32) in multivariable models. High-temperature cooking methods, level of meat doneness, meat mutagens and heme iron had no effect on lung cancer risk. In this population, we found no association between meat type, cooking method, doneness level or intake of specific meat mutagens or heme iron and lung cancer risk.

  9. Reductive detoxification of arylhydroxylamine carcinogens by human NADH cytochrome b5 reductase and cytochrome b5.

    PubMed

    Kurian, Joseph R; Chin, Nathaniel A; Longlais, Brett J; Hayes, Kristie L; Trepanier, Lauren A

    2006-10-01

    Heterocyclic and aromatic amine carcinogens are thought to lead to tumor initiation via the formation of DNA adducts, and bioactivation to arylhydroxylamine metabolites is necessary for reactivity with DNA. Carcinogenic arylhydroxylamine metabolites are cleared by a microsomal, NADH-dependent, oxygen-insensitive reduction pathway in humans, which may be a source of interindividual variability in response to aromatic amine carcinogens. The purpose of this study was to characterize the identity of this reduction pathway in human liver. On the basis of our findings with structurally similar arylhydroxylamine metabolites of therapeutic drugs, we hypothesized that the reductive detoxification of arylhydroxylamine carcinogens was catalyzed by NADH cytochrome b5 reductase (b5R) and cytochrome b5 (cyt b5). We found that reduction of the carcinogenic hydroxylamines of the aromatic amine 4-aminobiphenyl (4-ABP; found in cigarette smoke) and the heterocyclic amine 2-amino-1-methyl-6-phenylimidazo [4,5-b] pyridine (PhIP; found in grilled meats) was indeed catalyzed by a purified system containing only human b5R and cyt b5. Specific activities were 56-346-fold higher in the purified system as compared to human liver microsomes (HLM), with similar Michaelis-Menten constants (K(m) values) in both systems. The stoichiometry for b5R and cyt b5 that yielded the highest activity in the purified system was also similar to that found in native HLM ( approximately 1:8 to 1:10). Polyclonal antisera to either b5R or cyt b5 significantly inhibited N-hydroxy-4-aminobiphenyl (NHOH-4-ABP) reduction by 95 and 89%, respectively, and immunoreactive cyt b5 protein content in individual HLM was significantly correlated with individual reduction of both NHOH-4-ABP and N-hydroxy-PhIP (NHOH-PhIP). Finally, titration of HLM into the purified b5R/cyt b5 system did not enhance the efficiency of reduction activity. We conclude that b5R and cyt b5 are together solely capable of the reduction of

  10. Long interspersed element-1 is differentially regulated by food-borne carcinogens via the aryl hydrocarbon receptor.

    PubMed

    Okudaira, N; Okamura, T; Tamura, M; Iijma, K; Goto, M; Matsunaga, A; Ochiai, M; Nakagama, H; Kano, S; Fujii-Kuriyama, Y; Ishizaka, Y

    2013-10-10

    A single human cell contains more than 5.0 × 10(5) copies of long interspersed element-1 (L1), 80-100 of which are competent for retrotransposition (L1-RTP). Recent observations have revealed the presence of de novo L1 insertions in various tumors, but little is known about its mechanism. Here, we found that 2-amino-1-methyl-6-phenylimidazo[4,5-b]pyridine (PhIP) and 2-amino-3,8-dimethyl-imidazo[4,5-f]quinoxaline (MeIQx), food-borne carcinogens that are present in broiled meats, induced L1-RTP. This induction was dependent on a cellular cascade comprising the aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR), a mitogen-activated protein kinase, and CCAAT/enhancer-binding protein β. Notably, these compounds exhibited differential induction of L1-RTP. MeIQx-induced L1-RTP was dependent on AhR nuclear translocator 1 (ARNT1), a counterpart of AhR required for gene expression in response to environmental pollutants. By contrast, PhIP-induced L1-RTP did not require ARNT1 but was dependent on estrogen receptor α (ERα) and AhR repressor. In vivo studies using transgenic mice harboring the human L1 gene indicated that PhIP-induced L1-RTP was reproducibly detected in the mammary gland, which is a target organ of PhIP-induced carcinoma. Moreover, picomolar levels of each compound induced L1-RTP, which is comparable to the PhIP concentration detected in human breast milk. Data suggest that somatic cells possess machineries that induce L1-RTP in response to the carcinogenic compounds. Together with data showing that micromolar levels of heterocyclic amines (HCAs) were non-genotoxic, our observations indicate that L1-RTP by environmental compounds is a novel type of genomic instability, further suggesting that analysis of L1-RTP by HCAs is a novel approach to clarification of modes of carcinogenesis.

  11. A Prospective Analysis of Meat Mutagens and Colorectal Cancer in the Nurses’ Health Study and Health Professionals Follow-up Study

    PubMed Central

    Le, Ngoan Tran; Michels, Fernanda Alessandra Silva; Song, Mingyang; Zhang, Xuehong; Bernstein, Adam M.; Giovannucci, Edward L.; Fuchs, Charles S.; Ogino, Shuji; Chan, Andrew T.; Sinha, Rashmi; Willett, Walter C.; Wu, Kana

    2016-01-01

    Background: Heterocyclic amines (HCAs) in cooked meats may play a role in colorectal cancer (CRC) development. Objectives: We aimed to prospectively examine the association between estimated intakes of HCAs and meat-derived mutagenicity (MDM) in two cohorts of health professionals, the Health Professionals Follow-up Study (HPFS) and the Nurses’ Health Study (NHS). Methods: In 29,615 men and 65,875 women, intake of the HCAs 2-amino-3,8-dimethylimidazo(4,5-j)quinoxaline (MeIQx), 2-amino-1-methyl-6-phenylimidazo(4,5-b)pyridine (PhIP), 2-amino-3,4,8-trimethylimidazo(4,5-f)quinoxaline (DiMeIQx), and MDM was estimated using a 1996 cooking questionnaire, the 1994 food frequency questionnaire, and an online database. Cox proportional hazards models were used to estimate hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) and to adjust for potential confounders. Estimates for both cohorts were pooled using random-effects meta-analysis. Results: Between 1996 and 2010, 418 male and 790 female CRC cases were identified. Meat mutagen intake was not statistically significantly associated with risk of CRC [highest vs. lowest quintile, pooled HR (95% CI) for MeIQx: 1.12 (0.93, 1.34), p for trend 0.23; PhIP: 1.10 (0.90, 1.33), p for trend 0.35; MDM: 1.03 (0.86, 1.24), p for trend 0.75] or subtypes of CRC defined by tumor location (proximal or distal colon, or rectum). When analyzed by source of meat, PhIP from red but not from white meat was nonsignificantly positively associated with CRC and significantly positively associated with proximal cancers [HR (95% CI) per standard deviation increase of log-transformed intake: PhIP red meat: CRC: 1.06 (0.99, 1.12), proximal: 1.11 (1.02, 1.21); PhIP white meat: CRC: 0.99 (0.94, 1.04), proximal: 1.00 (0.93, 1.09)]. Conclusions: Estimated intakes of meat mutagens were not significantly associated with CRC risk over 14 years of follow-up in the NHS and HPFS cohorts. Results for PhIP from red but not from white meat warrant further

  12. Microwave-assisted Hantzsch thiazole synthesis of N-phenyl-4-(6-phenylimidazo[2,1-b]thiazol-5-yl)thiazol-2-amines from the reaction of 2-chloro-1-(6-phenylimidazo[2,1-b]thiazol-5-yl)ethanones and thioureas

    PubMed Central

    Kamila, Sukanta; Mendoza, Kimberly; Biehl, Edward R.

    2012-01-01

    N-Phenyl-4-(6-phenylimidazo[2,1-b]thiazol-5-yl)thiazol-2-amines (6a-q) have been synthesized by the Hantzsch thiazole reaction of 2-chloro-1-(6-phenylimidazo[2,1-b]thiazol-5-yl)ethanones (4a-e) with suitably substituted thioureas using microwave heating. The ethanones (4a-e) were prepared by the reaction of 6-phenylimidazo[2,1-b]thiazoles (3a-e) with chloroacetylchloride in refluxing 1,4-dioxane whereas the thiazoles (3a-e) were synthesized by the reaction of 2-bromo-1-phenylethanones (2a-e) with thiazol-2-amine in refluxing acetone. PMID:23175584

  13. Meat consumption and risk of esophageal and gastric cancer in a large prospective study

    PubMed Central

    Cross, Amanda J.; Freedman, Neal D.; Ren, Jiansong; Ward, Mary H.; Hollenbeck, Albert R.; Schatzkin, Arthur; Sinha, Rashmi; Abnet, Christian C.

    2010-01-01

    Background Red and processed meats could increase cancer risk via several potential mechanisms involving iron, heterocyclic amines, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and N-nitroso compounds. Although there have been multiple studies of meat and colorectal cancer, other gastrointestinal malignancies are understudied. Methods We estimated hazards ratios (HR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) for the association between meat, meat components, and meat cooking by-products and risk of esophageal or gastric cancer in a large cohort study. During approximately 10 years of follow-up, we accrued 215 esophageal squamous cell carcinomas, 630 esophageal adenocarcinomas, 454 gastric cardia adenocarcinomas and 501 gastric non-cardia adenocarcinomas. Results Red meat intake was positively associated with esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (HR for the top versus bottom quintile = 1.79, 95% CI: 1.07–3.01, P for trend = 0.019). Individuals in the highest intake quintile of 2-amino-3,4,8-trimethylimidazo[4,5-f]quinoxaline (DiMeIQx) had an increased risk for gastric cardia cancer (HR = 1.44, 95% CI: 1.01–2.07, P for trend = 0.104). Furthermore, those in the highest quintile of 2-amino-3,8-dimethylimidazo[4,5-f]quinoxaline (MeIQx), 2-amino-1-methyl-6-phenylimidazo[4,5-b]pyridine (PhIP) or heme iron intake had a suggestive increased risk for esophageal adenocarcinoma (HR = 1.35, 95% CI: 0.97–1.89, P for trend = 0.022; HR = 1.45, 95% CI: 0.99–2.12, P for trend = 0.463; HR = 1.47, 95% CI: 0.99-2.20, P for trend = 0.063, respectively). Benzo[a]pyrene, nitrate and nitrite were not associated with esophageal or gastric cancer. Conclusions We found positive associations between red meat intake and esophageal squamous cell carcinoma, and between DiMeIQx intake and gastric cardia cancer. PMID:20978481

  14. Inhibitory Effect of Rosa rugosa Tea Extract on the Formation of Heterocyclic Amines in Meat Patties at Different Temperatures.

    PubMed

    Jamali, Muneer Ahmed; Zhang, Yawei; Teng, Hui; Li, Shun; Wang, Fulong; Peng, Zengqi

    2016-01-30

    In previous studies, heterocyclic amines (HCAs) have been identified as carcinogenic and a risk factor for human cancer. Therefore, the present study was designed to identify bioactive natural products capable of controlling the formation of HCAs during cooking. For this purpose we have evaluated the effect of Rosa rugosa tea extract (RTE) on the formation of HCAs in ground beef patties fried at 160 °C or 220 °C. RTE is rich in phenolic compounds and capable of inhibiting the formation of free radicals. The pyrido[3,4-b]indole (norharman) and 1-methyl-9H-pyrido[3,4-b]indole (harman) contents were significantly (p < 0.05) decreased in RTE-treated patties at 220 °C. 9H-3-Amino-1-methyl-5H-pyrido[4,3-b]indole acetate (Trp-P-2) and 3-amino-1,4-dimethyl-5H-pyrido-[4,3-b]indole acetate (Trp-P-1) were not detected at 160 °C and were statistically (p < 0.01) reduced at 220 °C compared to the control. RTE remarkably inhibited the formation of 2-amino-1-methyl-6-phenylimidazo[4,5-b]pyridine (PhIP) at 220 °C (p < 0.001) and at 160 °C (p < 0.05). 2-Amino-9H-pyrido[2,3-b]indole (AαC) and 2-amino-3-methyl-9H-pyrido[2,3-b]-indole (MeAαC) were only detected in the control group at 160 °C but were comparatively (p > 0.05) similar in the control and treated groups at 220 °C. 2-Amino-3-methylimidazo[4,5-f]quinoline (IQ), 2-amino-3,4-dimethylimidazo[4,5-f]quinoline (MeIQ), 2-amino-3,8-dimethylimidazo[4,5-f]quinoxaline (MeIQx), and 2-amino-3,4,8-trimethylimidazo[4,5-f]-quinoxaline (4,8-DiMeIQx) were not detected in any sample. Total HCAs were positively correlated with cooking loss. In the RTE-treated groups, 75% of the total HCAs were decreased at 160 °C and 46% at 220 °C, suggesting that RTE is effective at both temperatures and can be used during cooking at high temperatures to lessen the amount of HCAs formed.

  15. Association of Meat and Fat Intake With Liver Disease and Hepatocellular Carcinoma in the NIH-AARP Cohort

    PubMed Central

    Cross, Amanda J.; McGlynn, Katherine A.; Abnet, Christian C.; Park, Yikyung; Hollenbeck, Albert R.; Schatzkin, Arthur; Everhart, James E.; Sinha, Rashmi

    2010-01-01

    Background Several plausible mechanisms, including fat, iron, heterocyclic amines, and N-nitroso compounds, link meat intake with chronic liver disease (CLD) and hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Few studies have investigated these associations. Methods We prospectively examined the relationship between meat and associated exposures with CLD mortality (n = 551; not including HCC) and HCC incidence (n = 338) in 495 006 men and women of the National Institutes of Health–AARP Diet and Health Study. Hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for the fifth (Q5) vs the first (Q1) quintile were estimated from multivariable adjusted Cox proportional hazards regression models. All tests of statistical significance were two-sided. Results We found inverse associations between white meat and risk of CLD (HR = 0.52, 95% CI = 0.39 to 0.70, 7.5 vs 18.2 cases per 100 000 person-years) and HCC (HR = 0.52, 95% CI = 0.36 to 0.77, 5.8 vs 14.3 cases per 100 000 person-years). Red meat was associated with higher risk of CLD (HR = 2.59, 95% CI = 1.86 to 3.61, 22.3 vs 6.2 cases per 100 000 person-years) and HCC (HR = 1.74, 95% CI = 1.16 to 2.61, 14.9 vs 5.7 cases per 100 000 person-years). Among fat types, results were strongest for saturated fat (for CLD, HR = 3.50, 95% CI = 2.48 to 4.96, 23.0 vs 6.5 cases per 100 000 person-years; for HCC, HR = 1.87, 95% CI = 1.23 to 2.85, 14.5 vs 6.3 cases per 100 000 person-years). After mutual adjustment, risk estimates persisted for saturated fat, red meat, and white meat. Heme iron, processed meat, nitrate, and nitrite were positively associated with CLD but not with HCC. Individual heterocyclic amines, 2-amino-3,4,8-trimethylimidazo[4,5,-f]quinoxaline (DiMeIQx), 2-amino-3,8-dimethylimidazo[4,5-f] quinoxaline (MeIQx), and 2-amino-1-methyl-6-phenyl-imidazo[4,5-b]pyridine (PhIP), were not associated with either outcome. Conclusion Our results suggest that red meat and saturated fat may be associated with increased CLD and

  16. Determination of heterocyclic amines in flame-grilled fish patty by capillary electrophoresis.

    PubMed

    Wu, J; Wong, M K; Lee, H K; Lee, B L; Shi, C Y; Ong, C N

    1996-10-01

    A simple and reliable capillary zone electrophoretic (CZE) method for quantifying mutagenic and carcinogenic heterocyclic amines (HCAs) in cooked foods with UV-visible diode-array detection is described. The buffer system consisted of 50 mM disodium hydrogen phosphate, 30 mM sodium chloride, 20 mM citric acid and 26% methanol at pH 2.1. An uncoated silica tubing, 51 cm in length, was used for the CZE separation. The capillary tubing temperature was maintained at 25 degrees C with a constant voltage of 20 kV. The reproducibility of the method was over 95% for a five-replicate analysis of 10 micrograms/l-spiked 2-amino-3,4,7,8-tetramethylimidazo[4,5-f]quinoxaline (4,7,8-TriMeIQx) and the detection limit was in the low microgram/l range with coefficients of variation between 6 and 18%. An analytical run took only 15 min for 12 known HCAs. Using this procedure, up to 30 samples could be analysed in a single day. The method is reliable and can be used for screening of various HCAs. It has been applied to assess the concentrations of heterocyclic amines in otak-otak, a Malay-style grilled fish patty. The major mutagenic contaminant found in this foodstuff was 2-aminodipyrido[1,2-a:3',2'-d]imidazole (Glu-P-2) (286-1068 micrograms/kg), followed by 2-amino-1-methyl-6-phenylimidazo[4,5-b]pyridine (PhIP) (1.6-13.0 micrograms/kg) and 2-amino-3-methylimidazo[4,5-f]quinoline (IQ) (14.0-87.5 micrograms/kg). Two co-mutagens norharman (NH) and harman (H) were also detected in otak-otak at levels of 2.0-13.0 micrograms/kg and 12.8-21.3 micrograms/kg, respectively. The substantial amount of Glu-P-2 detected in otak-otak is probably a result of the ingredients used and the high temperature grilling process.

  17. Metabolism of Foodborne Heterocyclic Aromatic Amines by Lactobacillus reuteri DSM 20016.

    PubMed

    Beer, Falco; Urbat, Felix; Steck, Jan; Huch, Melanie; Bunzel, Diana; Bunzel, Mirko; Kulling, Sabine E

    2017-08-16

    The heterocyclic aromatic amine (HAA) 2-amino-1-methyl-6-phenylimidazo[4,5-b]pyridine (PhIP) is converted into 7-hydroxy-5-methyl-3-phenyl-6,7,8,9-tetrahydropyrido[3',2':4,5]imidazo[1,2-a]pyrimidin-5-ium chloride (PhIP-M1) via a chemical reaction with 3-hydroxypropionaldehyde or acrolein derived from glycerol by reuterin producing gut bacteria. Because it is unknown whether this reaction also applies to other HAAs, seven foodborne HAAs (2-amino-9H-pyrido[2,3-b]indole (AαC), 3-amino-1,4-dimethyl-5H-pyrido[4,3-b]indole (Trp-P-1), 2-amino-3-methyl-3H-imidazo[4,5-f]quinoline (IQ), 2-amino-3,4-dimethyl-3H-imidazo[4,5-f]quinoline (MeIQ), 2-amino-3,8-dimethyl-3H-imidazo[4,5-f]quinoxaline (MeIQx), 9H-pyrido[3,4-b]indole (norharman), and 1-methyl-9H-pyrido[3,4-b]indole (harman)) were anaerobically incubated with Lactobacillus reuteri DSM 20016 in the presence of glycerol. The extent of conversion, as analyzed by HPLC-DAD/FLD, was dependent on both the studied HAAs and the glucose/glycerol ratio, indicating reuterin to be involved in HAA metabolism. Based on HRMS analyses, PhIP-M1-type metabolites were detected for AαC, Trp-P-1, IQ, MeIQ, MeIQx, harman, and norharman. In the case of AαC, this was confirmed by metabolite isolation (AαC-M8, 2,3,4,10-tetrahydro-1H-indolo[2,3-b][1,8]naphthyridin-2-ol) and one- ((1)H) and two-dimensional (HSQC, HMBC, COSY, DOSY) NMR spectroscopy. In addition, based on HRMS and/or NMR spectroscopy, a new type of HAA metabolite, resulting from the reaction with two molecules of 3-hydroxypropionaldehyde or acrolein, is hypothesized for AαC, Trp-P-1, IQ, MeIQ, and MeIQx.

  18. Can creatine supplementation form carcinogenic heterocyclic amines in humans?

    PubMed

    Pereira, Renato Tavares dos Santos; Dörr, Felipe Augusto; Pinto, Ernani; Solis, Marina Yazigi; Artioli, Guilherme Giannini; Fernandes, Alan Lins; Murai, Igor Hisashi; Dantas, Wagner Silva; Seguro, Antônio Carlos; Santinho, Mirela Aparecida Rodrigues; Roschel, Hamilton; Carpentier, Alain; Poortmans, Jacques Remi; Gualano, Bruno

    2015-09-01

    There is a long-standing concern that creatine supplementation could be associated with cancer, possibly by facilitating the formation of carcinogenic heterocyclic amines (HCAs). This study provides compelling evidence that both low and high doses of creatine supplementation, given either acutely or chronically, does not cause a significant increase in HCA formation. HCAs detection was unrelated to creatine supplementation. Diet was likely to be the main factor responsible for HCAs formation after either placebo (n = 6) or creatine supplementation (n = 3). These results directly challenge the recently suggested biological plausibility for the association between creatine use and risk of testicular germ cell cancer. Creatine supplementation has been associated with increased cancer risk. In fact, there is evidence indicating that creatine and/or creatinine are important precursors of carcinogenic heterocyclic amines (HCAs). The present study aimed to investigate the acute and chronic effects of low- and high-dose creatine supplementation on the production of HCAs in healthy humans (i.e. 2-amino-1-methyl-6-phenylimidazo[4,5-b]pyridine (PhIP), 2-amino-3,8-dimethylimidazo[4,5-f]quinoxaline (8-MeIQx), 2-amino-(1,6-dimethylfuro[3,2-e]imidazo[4,5-b])pyridine (IFP) and 2-amino-3,4,8-trimethylimidazo[4,5-f]quinoxaline (4,8-DiMeIQx)). This was a non-counterbalanced single-blind crossover study divided into two phases, in which low- and high-dose creatine protocols were tested. After acute (1 day) and chronic supplementation (30 days), the HCAs PhIP, 8-MeIQx, IFP and 4,8-DiMeIQx were assessed through a newly developed HPLC-MS/MS method. Dietary HCA intake and blood and urinary creatinine were also evaluated. Out of 576 assessments performed (from 149 urine samples), only nine (3 from creatine and 6 from placebo) showed quantifiable levels of HCAs (8-MeIQx: n = 3; 4,8-DiMeIQx: n = 2; PhIP: n = 4). Individual analyses revealed that diet rather than creatine supplementation was

  19. Can creatine supplementation form carcinogenic heterocyclic amines in humans?

    PubMed Central

    Pereira, Renato Tavares dos Santos; Dörr, Felipe Augusto; Pinto, Ernani; Solis, Marina Yazigi; Artioli, Guilherme Giannini; Fernandes, Alan Lins; Murai, Igor Hisashi; Dantas, Wagner Silva; Seguro, Antônio Carlos; Santinho, Mirela Aparecida Rodrigues; Roschel, Hamilton; Carpentier, Alain; Poortmans, Jacques Remi; Gualano, Bruno

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Creatine supplementation has been associated with increased cancer risk. In fact, there is evidence indicating that creatine and/or creatinine are important precursors of carcinogenic heterocyclic amines (HCAs). The present study aimed to investigate the acute and chronic effects of low- and high-dose creatine supplementation on the production of HCAs in healthy humans (i.e. 2-amino-1-methyl-6-phenylimidazo[4,5-b]pyridine (PhIP), 2-amino-3,8-dimethylimidazo[4,5-f]quinoxaline (8-MeIQx),  2-amino-(1,6-dimethylfuro[3,2-e]imidazo[4,5-b])pyridine (IFP) and 2-amino-3,4,8-trimethylimidazo[4,5-f]quinoxaline (4,8-DiMeIQx)). This was a non-counterbalanced single-blind crossover study divided into two phases, in which low- and high-dose creatine protocols were tested. After acute (1 day) and chronic supplementation (30 days), the HCAs PhIP, 8-MeIQx, IFP and 4,8-DiMeIQx were assessed through a newly developed HPLC–MS/MS method. Dietary HCA intake and blood and urinary creatinine were also evaluated. Out of 576 assessments performed (from 149 urine samples), only nine (3 from creatine and 6 from placebo) showed quantifiable levels of HCAs (8-MeIQx: n = 3; 4,8-DiMeIQx: n = 2; PhIP: n = 4). Individual analyses revealed that diet rather than creatine supplementation was the main responsible factor for HCA formation in these cases. This study provides compelling evidence that both low and high doses of creatine supplementation, given either acutely or chronically, did not cause increases in the carcinogenic HCAs PhIP, 8-MeIQx, IFP and 4,8-DiMeIQx in healthy subjects. These findings challenge the long-existing notion that creatine supplementation could potentially increase the risk of cancer by stimulating the formation of these mutagens. Key points There is a long-standing concern that creatine supplementation could be associated with cancer, possibly by facilitating the formation of carcinogenic heterocyclic amines (HCAs). This study provides compelling evidence

  20. The Particle Habit Imaging and Polar Scattering probe PHIPS: First Stereo-Imaging and Polar Scattering Function Measurements of Ice Particles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abdelmonem, A.; Schnaiter, M.; Schön, R.; Leisner, T.

    2009-04-01

    Cirrus clouds impact climate by their influence on the water vapour distribution in the upper troposphere. Moreover, they directly affect the radiative balance of the Earth's atmosphere by the scattering of incoming solar radiation and the absorption of outgoing thermal emission. The link between the microphysical properties of ice cloud particles and the radiative forcing of the clouds is not as yet well understood and the influence of the shapes of ice crystals on the radiative budget of cirrus clouds is currently under debate. PHIPS is a new experimental device for the stereo-imaging of individual cloud particles and the simultaneous measurement of the polar scattering function of the same particle. PHIPS uses an automated particle event triggering system that ensures that only those particles are captured which are located in the field of view - depth of field volume of the microscope unit. Efforts were made to improve the resolution power of the microscope unit down to about 3 µm and to facilitate a 3D morphology impression of the ice crystals. This is realised by a stereo-imaging set up composed of two identical microscopes which image the same particle under an angular viewing distance of 30°. The scattering part of PHIPS enables the measurement of the polar light scattering function of cloud particles with an angular resolution of 1° for forward scattering directions (from 1° to 10°) and 8° for side and backscattering directions (from 18° to 170°). For each particle the light scattering pulse per channel is stored either as integrated intensity or as time resolved intensity function which opens a new category of data analysis concerning details of the particle movement. PHIPS is the first step to PHIPS-HALO which is one of the in situ ice particle and water vapour instruments that are currently under development for the new German research aircraft HALO. The instrument was tested in the ice cloud characterisation campaign HALO-02 which was conducted

  1. Human UDP-Glucuronosyltransferase 1A1 is the Primary Enzyme Responsible for the N-glucuronidation of N-hydroxy-PhIP in vitro

    SciTech Connect

    Malfatti, M A; Felton, J S

    2004-04-06

    UDP-Glucuronosyltransferase 1A proteins (UGT1A) catalyze the glucuronidation of many endogenous and xenobiotic compounds including heterocyclic amines and their hydroxylated metabolites (the main topic of this study). Studies have shown that in humans UGT1A mediated glucuronidation is an important pathway in the detoxification of food-borne carcinogenic heterocyclic amines. The biotransformation of 2-amino-1-methyl-6-phenylimidazo[4,5-b]pyridine (PhIP), the most mass abundant heterocyclic amine found in cooked meats, is highly dependent on cytochrome P4501A2 hydroxylation followed by UGT catalyzed glucuronidation of the N-hydroxy-PhIP reactive intermediate. To determine which UGT1A proteins are involved in the glucuronidation of N-hydroxy-PhIP, microsomal preparations from baculovirus infected insect cells that express all of the known functional human UGT1A isozymes (UGT1A1, -1A3, -1A4, -1A6, -1A7, -1A8, -1A9, -1A10) were exposed to N-hydroxy-PhIP and the reaction products were isolated by HPLC. All UGT1A proteins except UGT1A6 showed some degree of activity towards N-hydroxy-PhIP. The formation of both N-hydroxy-PhIP-N{sup 2}-glucuronide and N-hydroxy-PhIP-N3-glucuronide was both time and substrate concentration dependent in all the microsomal incubations that showed appreciable activity. UGT1A1 was the most efficient in converting N-hydroxy-PhIP to both conjugates producing 5 times more of the N{sup 2}-conjugate than UGT1A4, the next active UGT, and 286 times more than UGT1A7, the least active UGT. With an apparent Km of 52 {micro}M and a K{sub cat} of 114 min-1, UGT1A1 was also the most catalytically efficient in forming N-hydroxy-PhIP-N{sup 2}-glucuronide. Catalytic constants for UGT1A4, UGT1A8 and UGT1A9 were 52 min-1, 35 min{sup -1} and 3.7 min{sup -1}, respectively. The catalytic efficiency for N-hydroxy-PhIP-N3-glucuronide formation was 8, 10, and 6 times lower for UGT1A1, -1A4, and -1A8, respectively, when compared to the k{sub cat} values for N

  2. Differential staining of dysplastic aberrant crypt foci in the colon facilitates prediction of carcinogenic potentials of chemicals in rats.

    PubMed

    Ochiai, Masako; Watanabe, Masatoshi; Nakanishi, Masako; Taguchi, Ayako; Sugimura, Takashi; Nakagama, Hitoshi

    2005-03-18

    We developed a novel and simple method to identify dysplastic aberrant crypt foci (ACF) induced in rats by colon carcinogens more efficiently and selectively without conducting laborious histological examination, which usually requires enough time to get final diagnosis. By adding a simple decolorization process with 70% methanol after conventional 0.2% methylene blue staining, dysplastic ACF could be differentially contrasted. To examine the validity of this novel method, which we refer to as differential staining, we analyzed colonic lesions induced by three heterocyclic amines, including 2-amino-1-methyl-6-phenylimidazo[4,5-b]pyridine, and found that the number of dysplastic ACF detected more precisely reflected their carcinogenic potential than the total numbers of ACF.

  3. Malignant transformation of human colon epithelial cells by benzo[c]phenanthrene dihydrodiolepoxides as well as 2-hydroxyamino-1-methyl-6-phenylimidazo[4,5-b]pyridine

    SciTech Connect

    Herbst, Uta; Fuchs, Judith Iris; Teubner, Wera; Steinberg, Pablo . E-mail: steinber@rz.uni-potsdam.de

    2006-04-15

    Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and heterocyclic aromatic amines (HCAs) ingested with food have repeatedly been suggested to be involved in the malignant transformation of colon epithelial cells. In order to test this hypothesis, HCEC cells (SV40 large T antigen-immortalized human colon epithelial cells) were incubated with a racemic mixture of benzo[c]phenanthrene dihydrodiol epoxides (B[c]PhDE), extremely potent carcinogenic PAH metabolites in vivo, or with 2-hydroxyamino-1-methyl-6-phenylimidazo[4,5-b]pyridine (N-OH-PhIP), the N-hydroxylated metabolite of the most abundant HCA in cooked meat. First, it was shown that HCEC cells express sulfotransferase 1A1, which is needed to metabolize N-OH-PhIP to the corresponding N-sulfonyloxy derivative, the direct precursor molecule of genotoxic nitrenium ions. Thereafter, exponentially growing HCEC cells were exposed five times to 0.1 {mu}g (0.37 nmol) B[c]PhDE/ml for 30 min or 0.72 {mu}g (3 nmol) N-OH-PhIP/ml for 24 h. Chemically treated HCEC cells showed an enhanced saturation density and grew faster than the corresponding solvent-treated cell cultures. After five treatment cycles, HCEC{sup B[c]PhDE} as well as HCEC {sup N-OH-PhIP} cells lost cell-cell contact inhibition and started piling up and forming foci in the culture flasks. Furthermore, HCEC{sup B[c]PhDE} and HCEC {sup N-OH-PhIP} cells were injected i.m. into SCID mice. Within 6 weeks after injection, eight animals out of eight injected with HCEC{sup B[c]PhDE} or HCEC {sup N-OH-PhIP} cells developed tumors at the site of injection, thus demonstrating the high tumorigenic potential of the HCEC{sup B[c]PhDE} and HCEC {sup N-OH-PhIP} cell cultures. Taken together, we show for the first time that the abovementioned active PAH metabolites as well as N-OH-PhIP are indeed able to malignantly transform human colon epithelial cells in vitro.

  4. Theoretical study on phosphorescence efficiency and color tuning from orange to blue-green of Ir(III) complexes based on substituted 2-phenylimidazo[1,2-a]pyridine ligand.

    PubMed

    Li, Xiao-Na; Wu, Zhi-Jian; Li, Xi-Yan; Zhang, Hong-Jie; Liu, Xiao-Juan

    2011-04-30

    The geometrical structures, phosphorescence quantum yields, and electroluminescence (EL) efficiency of six iridium(III) complexes containing 2-phenylimidazo[1,2-a]pyridine ligand are investigated by density functional theory (DFT), which show a wide color tuning of photoluminescence from orange (λ(em) = 550 nm) to blue-green (λ(em) = 490 nm). The calculated results shed some light on the reasons of the remarkably manipulated excited-state and EL properties through substitution effect. The Mulliken charge calculation reveals that attached -CF(3) groups on phenyl and imidazo[1,2-a]pyridine (impy) moieties (4) can make both of them as electron-deficient region, which will lead to the contraction of the whole coordination sphere and strengthen the metal-ligand interaction. While attaching two -CF(3) groups on phenyl ring can make it more electron-deficient, which will induce electron transferring from acac and impy fragment to phenyl ring, and also result in the contracted structure. The largest metal-to-ligand charge transfer ((3)MLCT) character and the smaller S(1)-T(1) energy gap (ΔE(S(1)-T(1))) value increase the emission quantum yields of 4 and 6 than other complexes. For EL efficiency, because of the similar highest occupied molecular orbital (HOMO) levels of 4 and 6 to that of holes injection material poly(N-vinylcarbazole) (PVK) and the larger dipole moments, majority hole will be accumulated on the HOMO of 4 and 6. Combination with the lower lowest unoccupied molecular orbital energy levels compared with PVK, the recombination zones of 4 and 6 can be well confined within emitting material layer (EML) and lead to the higher EL efficiency.

  5. 2-Phenylimidazo[1,2-a]pyridine-containing ligands of the 18-kDa translocator protein (TSPO) behave as agonists and antagonists of steroidogenesis in a mouse leydig tumor cell line.

    PubMed

    Midzak, Andrew; Denora, Nunzio; Laquintana, Valentino; Cutrignelli, Annalisa; Lopedota, Angela; Franco, Massimo; Altomare, Cosimo D; Papadopoulos, Vassilios

    2015-08-30

    Ligands of 18-kDa translocator protein (TSPO) are known for their ability to potently and dose-dependently stimulate steroid biosynthesis in steroidogenic cells. In this study, we investigated a number of 2-phenyl-imidazo[1,2-a]pyridine acetamide derivatives, analogs of alpidem, for their ability to bind TSPO and to affect steroidogenesis in a mouse Leydig tumor cell line. We observed that not only some compounds behaved as agonists, stimulating steroidogenesis (e.g., 3 and 4) with EC50 values (15.9 and 6.99μM) close to that determined for FGIN-1-27 used as positive control (7.24μM), but two compounds, namely 5 and 6, which on the other hand are the most lipophilic ones in the investigated series, behaved as antagonists, by significantly inhibiting steroid production at concentrations at least twenty times lower than the cytotoxic ones. To our surprise, the newly synthesized compound 3, which is a strict analog of alpidem bearing at the para position of the 2-phenyl group a methoxy group instead of chlorine, achieved a ten-fold stimulation of the steroid production (for comparison FGIN-1-27 achieved 1.6-fold stimulation). Within the limits of the examined property space, some unprecedented SARs were unveiled, which can help in understanding the key molecular factors underlying the transition from agonism to antagonism in the steroidogenesis process. Besides the substitution pattern and the physicochemical features (mainly hydrogen bonding potential) of the substituents at the positions C(6) and C(8) of the imidazo[1,2-a]pyridine nucleus, and at the para position of the 2-phenyl group, the structure-activity relationship analysis suggested lipophilicity, whose increase seems to be generally related to steroidogenesis inhibition, and steric hindrance, which appeared as a stimulation-limiting factor, as two main properties to control in the design or optimization of novel imidazo[1,2-a]pyridine-based TSPO ligands endowed with potential in modulating the

  6. Structure and Function of the Human Breast Cancer Resistance Protein (BCRP/ABCG2)

    PubMed Central

    Ni, Zhanglin; Bikadi, Zsolt; Rosenberg, Mark F.; Mao, Qingcheng

    2010-01-01

    The human breast cancer resistance protein (BCRP/ABCG2) is the second member of the G subfamily of the large ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporter superfamily. BCRP was initially discovered in multidrug resistant breast cancer cell lines where it confers resistance to chemotherapeutic agents such as mitoxantrone, topotecan and methotrexate by extruding these compounds out of the cell. BCRP is capable of transporting non-chemotherapy drugs and xenobiotiocs as well, including nitrofurantoin, prazosin, glyburide, and 2-amino-1-methyl-6-phenylimidazo [4,5-b]pyridine. BCRP is frequently detected at high levels in stem cells, likely providing xenobiotic protection. BCRP is also highly expressed in normal human tissues including the small intestine, liver, brain endothelium, and placenta. Therefore, BCRP has been increasingly recognized for its important role in the absorption, elimination, and tissue distribution of drugs and xenobiotics. At present, little is known about the transport mechanism of BCRP, particularly how it recognizes and transports a large number of structurally and chemically unrelated drugs and xenobiotics. Here, we review current knowledge of structure and function of this medically important ABC efflux drug transporter. PMID:20812902

  7. Progesterone acts via progesterone receptors A and B to regulate breast cancer resistance protein expression.

    PubMed

    Vore, Mary; Leggas, Markos

    2008-03-01

    The breast cancer resistance protein (BCRP; ABCG2) is an ATP-dependent efflux multidrug transporter that belongs to the G family of half-transporters that consist of six transmembrane-spanning domains and must homodimerize to form the active membrane transporter. It is expressed in the apical plasma membrane domain of the small intestine, endothelium, and liver, where it has been shown to play an important role in limiting drug absorption and distribution and in enhancing drug clearance, respectively. BCRP is also expressed in the apical membrane of mammary alveolar epithelia, where it mediates efflux of substrates into milk, and in the placental syncytiotro-phoblasts, where it reduces fetal exposure to these substrates. BCRP substrates include numerous drugs (topotecan, nitrofurantoin, cimetidine) as well as food carcinogens (2-amino-1-methyl-6-phenylimidazo[4,5-b]pyridine) and the vitamins riboflavin and folic acid. BCRP expression is regulated by a number of nuclear transcription factors, including the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-gamma and Hif-1. This issue of Molecular Pharmacology includes a study (p. 845) now conclusively demonstrating that progesterone acts via the progesterone A and B receptors to regulate BCRP expression in a placental cell line.

  8. Inhibition of heterocyclic aromatic amine formation in fried ground beef patties by garlic and selected garlic-related sulfur compounds.

    PubMed

    Shin, Inn-Seung; Rodgers, W John; Gomaa, Enayat A; Strasburg, Gale M; Gray, J Ian

    2002-11-01

    The effects of garlic and selected organosulfur compounds (diallyl disulfide, dipropyl disulfide, diallyl sulfide, allyl methyl sulfide, allyl mercaptan, cysteine, and cystine) on the formation of heterocyclic aromatic amines (HAAs) in fried ground beef patties were evaluated. Minced garlic cloves (ca. 4.8 to 16.7%, wt/wt) or organosulfur compounds (0.67 mmol) were added directly to ground beef. Patties (100 g) were fried at 225 degrees C (surface temperature) for 10 min per side. Two patties were fried for each replication, and five replicates were analyzed for each treatment. For each replicate, four subsamples were analyzed (two unspiked subsamples for concentration and two spiked subsamples for the recovery of HAA standards). The volatile sulfur compounds significantly (P < 0.05) reduced concentrations of 2-amino-1-methyl-6-phenylimidazo[4,5-b]pyridine by reductions of 46 to 81%, while average reductions of 35, 22, and 71%, were achieved with cystine, cysteine, and whole garlic, respectively. The volatile sulfur compounds reduced concentrations of 2-amino-3,8-dimethylimidazo[4,5-f]quinoxaline by 34 to 67%, while reductions of 25, 19, and 63% (P < 0.05) were achieved with cystine, cysteine, and whole garlic, respectively. These studies confirm that garlic and some organosulfur compounds have the potential to reduce HAA formation incooked beef patties.

  9. Synthesis and Evaluation of Two 18F-Labeled 6-Iodo-2-(4′-N,N-dimethylamino)phenylimidazo[1,2-a]pyridine Derivatives as Prospective Radioligands for β-Amyloid in Alzheimer’s Disease

    PubMed Central

    Cai, Lisheng; Chin, Frederick T.; Pike, Victor W.; Toyama, Hiroshi; Liow, Jeih-San; Zoghbi, Sami S.; Modell, Kendra; Briard, Emmanuelle; Shetty, H. Umesha; Sinclair, Kathryn; Donohue, Sean; Tipre, Dnyanesh; Kung, Mei-Ping; Dagostin, Claudio; Widdowson, David A.; Green, Michael; Gao, Weiyi; Herman, Mary M.; Ichise, Masanori; Innis, Robert B.

    2014-01-01

    This study evaluated 18F-labeled IMPY [6-iodo-2-(4′-N,N-dimethylamino)phenylimidazo[1,2-a]pyridine] derivatives as agents for imaging β-amyloid plaque with positron emission tomography (PET). The precursor for radiolabeling and reference compounds was synthesized in up to five steps from commercially accessible starting materials. One of the two N-methyl groups of IMPY was substituted with either a 3-fluoropropyl (FPM-IMPY) or a 2-fluoroethyl (FEM-IMPY) group. FPM-IMPY and FEM-IMPY were found to have moderate affinity for Aβ- aggregates with Ki = 27 ± 8 and 40 ± 5 nM, respectively. A “one-pot” method for 18F-2-fluoroethylation and 18F-3-fluoropropylation of the precursor was developed. The overall decay-corrected radiochemical yields were 26–51%. In PET experiments with normal mouse, high uptake of activity was obtained in the brain after iv injection of each probe: 6.4% ID/g for [18F]FEM-IMPY at 1.2 min, and 5.7% ID/g for [18F]FPM-IMPY at 0.8 min. These values were similar to those of [123I/125I]IMPY (7.2% ID/g at 2 min). Polar and nonpolar radioactive metabolites were observed in both plasma and brain homogenates after injection of [18F]FEM or [18F]FPM-IMPY. In contrast to the single-exponential washout of [123I/125I]IMPY, the washouts of brain activity for the two fluorinated analogues were biphasic, with an initial rapid phase over 20 min and a subsequent much slower phase. Residual brain activity at 2 h, which may represent polar metabolites trapped in the brain, was 4.5% ID/g for [18F]FEM-IMPY and 2.1% ID/g for [18F]FPM-IMPY. Substantial skull uptake of [18F]fluoride was also clearly observed. With a view to slow the metabolism of [18F]FEM-IMPY, an analogue was prepared with deuteriums substituted for the four ethyl hydrogens. However, D4-[18F]FEM-IMPY showed the same brain uptake and clearance as the protio analogue. Metabolism of the [18F]FEM-IMPY was appreciably slower in rhesus monkey than in mouse. Autoradiography of postmortem brain sections

  10. The influence of Lactobacillus casei DN 114 001 on the activity of faecal enzymes and genotoxicity of faecal water in the presence of heterocyclic aromatic amines.

    PubMed

    Nowak, Adriana; Śliżewska, Katarzyna; Błasiak, Janusz; Libudzisz, Zdzisława

    2014-12-01

    High activity of bacterial enzymes in human colon and genotoxicity of faecal water (FW) are biomarkers of the harmful action of microbiota. The aim of the present study was to assess the activity of β-glucuronidase and β-glucosidase and the genotoxicity of FW in vitro after incubation with 2-amino-3-methyl-3H-imidazo[4,5-f]quinoline (IQ) or 2-amino-1-methyl-6-phenyl-1H-imidazo[4,5-b]pyridine (PhIP) and probiotic Lactobacillus casei DN 114 001 (Actimel). Our results indicate, that IQ and PhIP greatly increased the activity of faecal enzymes (it was up to four times higher, as measured by spectrophotometric methods) and the genotoxicity of FW (% DNA in the tail was up to 3.2 times higher, as evaluated by the comet assay on Caco-2 cells) in 15 individuals from three age-dependent groups (breast-fed children, adults aged 30-40 years, elderly aged 75-85 years). Lb. casei DN 114 001 decreased the activity of faecal enzymes and the genotoxicity of FW exposed to PhIP and IQ mostly to control values. The activity of faecal enzymes after incubation with IQ was reduced by 71.8% in the FW of children, 37.5% in adults and 64.2% in elderly (β-glucuronidase); as well as by 59.9% in children and 87.9% in elderly (β-glucosidase). For PhIP the reduction was by 59.0% in the FW of children, 50.0% in adults and 81.2% in elderly (β-glucuronidase) and by 20.2% in children, 20.7% in adults and 84.1% in elderly (β-glucosidase). Lb. casei DN 114 001 also decreased the genotoxicity of FW to the greatest extent in adults after incubation with IQ (by 65.4%) and PhIP (by 69.6%) and it was found to correlate positively with the decrease in faecal enzymes activity. In conclusion, Lb. casei DN 114 001 may exert the protective effects against genotoxic and possibly pro-carcinogenic effects of food processing-derived chemicals present in faecal water. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  11. Synthesis and evaluation of N-methyl and S-methyl 11C-labeled 6-methylthio-2-(4'-N,N-dimethylamino)phenylimidazo[1,2-a]pyridines as radioligands for imaging beta-amyloid plaques in Alzheimer's disease.

    PubMed

    Cai, Lisheng; Liow, Jeih-San; Zoghbi, Sami S; Cuevas, Jessica; Baetas, Cesar; Hong, Jinsoo; Shetty, H Umesha; Seneca, Nicholas M; Brown, Amira K; Gladding, Robert; Temme, Sebastian S; Herman, Mary M; Innis, Robert B; Pike, Victor W

    2008-01-10

    6-Thiolato-substituted 2-(4'- N,N-dimethylamino)phenylimidazo[1,2- a]pyridines ( RS-IMPYs; 1- 4) were synthesized as candidates for labeling with carbon-11 ( t 1/2 = 20.4 min) and imaging of A beta plaques in living human brain using positron emission tomography (PET). K i values for binding of these ligands to Alzheimer's disease brain homogenates were measured in vitro against tritium-labeled 6 (Pittsburgh compound B). MeS-IMPY ( 3, K i = 7.93 nM) was labeled with carbon-11 at its S- or N-methyl position to give [ (11)C] 7 or [ (11)C] 8, respectively. After injection into rats, [ (11)C] 7 or [ (11)C] 8 gave moderately high brain uptakes of radioactivity followed by rapid washout to low levels. The ratio of radioactivity at maximal uptake to that at 60 min reached 18.7 for [ (11)C] 7. [ (11)C] 7 behaved similarly in mouse and monkey. [ (11)C] 7 also bound selectively to A beta plaques in post mortem human Alzheimer's disease brain. Although rapidly metabolized in rat by N-demethylation, [ (11)C] 7 was stable in rat brain homogenates. The ex vivo brain radiometabolites observed in rats have a peripheral origin. Overall, [ (11)C] 7 merits further evaluation in human subjects.

  12. Novel Transgenic Mouse Model for Studying Human Serum Albumin as a Biomarker of Carcinogenic Exposure.

    PubMed

    Sheng, Jonathan; Wang, Yi; Turesky, Robert J; Kluetzman, Kerri; Zhang, Qing-Yu; Ding, Xinxin

    2016-05-16

    Albumin is a commonly used serum protein for studying human exposure to xenobiotic compounds, including therapeutics and environmental pollutants. Often, the reactivity of albumin with xenobiotic compounds is studied ex vivo with human albumin or plasma/serum samples. Some studies have characterized the reactivity of albumin with chemicals in rodent models; however, differences between the orthologous peptide sequences of human and rodent albumins can result in the formation of different types of chemical-protein adducts with different interaction sites or peptide sequences. Our goal is to generate a human albumin transgenic mouse model that can be used to establish human protein biomarkers of exposure to hazardous xenobiotics for human risk assessment via animal studies. We have developed a human albumin transgenic mouse model and characterized the genotype and phenotype of the transgenic mice. The presence of the human albumin gene in the genome of the model mouse was confirmed by genomic PCR analysis, whereas liver-specific expression of the transgenic human albumin mRNA was validated by RT-PCR analysis. Further immunoblot and mass spectrometry analyses indicated that the transgenic human albumin protein is a full-length, mature protein, which is less abundant than the endogenous mouse albumin that coexists in the serum of the transgenic mouse. The transgenic protein was able to form ex vivo adducts with a genotoxic metabolite of 2-amino-1-methyl-6-phenylimidazo[4,5-b]pyridine, a procarcinogenic heterocyclic aromatic amine formed in cooked meat. This novel human albumin transgenic mouse model will facilitate the development and validation of albumin-carcinogen adducts as biomarkers of xenobiotic exposure and/or toxicity in humans.

  13. Analysis of non-polar heterocyclic aromatic amines in beefburguers by using microwave-assisted extraction and dispersive liquid-ionic liquid microextraction.

    PubMed

    Agudelo Mesa, Leidy B; Padró, Juan M; Reta, Mario

    2013-12-01

    A new sample preparation procedure to determine six heterocyclic aromatic amines (3-Amino-1,4-dimethyl-5H-pirido[4,3-b]indole, 3-Amino-1-methyl-5H-pirido[4,3-b]indole, 2-amino-1-methyl-6-phenylimidazo-[4,5-b]pyridine, 2-amino-9H-pyrido-[2,3-b] indole, 2-amino-3-methyl-9H-pyrido-[2,3-b] indole and 2-Amino-1,6-dimethylimidazo [4,5-b]-pyridine) in cooked beefburguers by using a combination of microwave-assisted solvent extraction and dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction with an ionic liquid generated in situ was used. The optimized microwave extraction procedure consisted of a clean-up step with n-heptane and a subsequent dissolution step in basic media to desorb the analytes from the matrix. Next, an aqueous solution of the ionic liquid 1-octyl-3-methylimidazolium tetrafluorborate and sodium hexafluorphosphate was added and a water-insoluble 1-octyl-3-methylimidazolium hexafluorphosphate was formed within the matrix sample. The amines were analyzed by liquid chromatography with fluorescence and diode-array detection by using a typical C18 column. Peak identities were confirmed by absorbance spectral matching. Repeatability (RSD%) between 5.4% and 10.9%, enrichment factors between 19 and 30, limits of detection between 0.35 and 2.4 ng mL(-1) and recoveries between 69% and 100% were achieved. The extraction methodology is simple, rapid (about 40 min/sample) cheap and green since small amounts of non-toxic solvents are necessary.

  14. Effect of commercial marinades on the mutagenic activity, sensory quality and amount of heterocyclic amines in chicken grilled under different conditions.

    PubMed

    Tikkanen, L M; Latva-Kala, K J; Heiniö, R L

    1996-08-01

    The effect of processing conditions on the mutagenic activity and sensory quality of everyday food was studied by investigating grilled chicken samples seasoned with four different marinades and grilled at temperatures of about 110, 170 and 220 degrees C. The amounts of the heterocyclic amines 2-amino-3,8-dimethylimidazo[4,5-f]quinoxaline, 2-amino-3,4,8-trimethylimidazo[4,5-f]quinoxaline and 2-amino-1-methyl-6-phenylimidazo[4,5,-b]pyridine were determined only in samples grilled at 220 degrees C, using a gas chromatography-mass spectrometry technique with negative-ion chemical ionization. Sensory quality was determined using the extended ranking test method and the mutagenic activity using the Ames Salmonella assay. At 220 degrees C one of the marinades decreased the mutagenic activity in the chicken samples compared with the unseasoned control or samples treated with the other marinades. Great variations, without any clear correlation with mutagenicity, were observed in the amounts of heterocyclic amines between chicken samples treated with the same or different marinades. At the grilling temperatures of 170 degrees C and 110 degrees C the mutagenic activities of the chicken samples were lower or they were non-mutagenic. There was no correlation between mutagenic activity and sensory quality of the products. The samples with high mutagenic activity were ranked to be as good as the samples with lower or no mutagenicity. The results show that it is possible to prepare grilled products with reduced mutagenicity without compromising their sensory quality. It was also evident that marinades can have a reducing effect on the mutagenicity of grilled chicken. Variation observed in the amounts of heterocyclic amines between equivalent products makes it difficult to estimate their concentration in everyday foods.

  15. Dietary intake of heterocyclic amines and cancers of the esophagus and gastric cardia.

    PubMed

    Terry, Paul D; Lagergren, Jesper; Wolk, Alicja; Steineck, Gunnar; Nyrén, Olof

    2003-09-01

    The results of two epidemiological studies suggest that high intake of heterocyclic amines, which are formed on the surface of meats cooked at high temperatures, might be associated with increased risk of esophageal or cardia cancers. Our aim was to further investigate heterocyclic amine intake and risk of these cancers. We examined data from a nationwide, population-based, case-control study of risk factors for adenocarcinoma of the esophagus and gastric cardia and squamous cell carcinoma of the esophagus in Sweden, with 185, 258, and 165 cases, respectively, and 815 controls. Heterocyclic amine intake was estimated based on the frequency of consumption and degree of surface browning of commonly fried meats, and the consumption of pan juices. Statistically nonsignificant 50-70% higher risks of esophageal squamous cell carcinoma were observed among individuals in the highest quartile levels of 2-amino-3,8-dimethylimidazo[4,5-f]quinoxaline, 2-amino-3,4,8-trimethylimidazo[4,5-f]quinoxaline, and 2-amino-1methyl-6-phenylimidazo[4,5-b]pyridine relative to those in the lowest. Dose-risk trends were evident. Subjects reporting high intake of all three heterocyclic amines had an odds ratio of 2.4 (95% confidence interval, 1.2-4.8) relative to those with low intake of all three substances. In contrast, no association was found with risk of adenocarcinoma of the esophagus or gastric cardia. Heterocyclic amine intake might be associated with an increase in risk of squamous cell carcinoma of the esophagus. Given the dearth of epidemiological data regarding these cancers and the lack of established biological mechanisms, confirmatory data are needed.

  16. Genetic and epigenetic regulation of AHR gene expression in MCF-7 breast cancer cells: role of the proximal promoter GC-rich region

    PubMed Central

    Englert, Neal A.; Turesky, Robert J.; Han, Weiguo; Bessette, Erin E.; Spivack, Simon D.; Caggana, Michele; Spink, David C.; Spink, Barbara C.

    2014-01-01

    The aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR), a ligand-activated transcription factor, contributes to carcinogenesis through its role in the regulation of cytochrome P450 1 (CYP1)-catalyzed metabolism of carcinogens. Here, we investigated genetic and epigenetic mechanisms that affect AhR expression. Analyses of the human AHR proximal promoter in MCF-7 human breast cancer cells using luciferase assays and electrophoretic mobility shift assays revealed multiple specificity protein (Sp) 1 binding sequences that are transcriptional activators in vitro. The regulation of AhR expression was evaluated in long-term estrogen exposed (LTEE) MCF-7 cells, which showed increased AhR expression, enhanced CYP1 inducibility, and increased capacity to form DNA adducts when exposed to the dietary carcinogen, 2-amino-1-methyl-6-phenylimidazo[4,5-b]pyridine. The increased AhR expression in LTEE cells was found not to result from increased mRNA stability, differential RNA processing, or decreased DNA methylation. Analysis of the AHR proximal promoter region using chromatin immunoprecipitation confirmed that enhanced expression of AhR in LTEE cells involves changes in histone modifications, notably decreased trimethylation of histone 3, lysine 27. Upon further examination of the GC-rich Sp1-binding region, we confirmed that it contains a polymorphic (GGGGC)n repeat. In a population of newborns from New York State, the allele frequency of (GGGGC)n was n = 4>5≫6, 2. Circular dichroism spectroscopy revealed the ability of sequences of this GC-rich region to form guanine-quadruplex structures in vitro. These studies revealed multiple levels at which AhR expression may be controlled, and offer additional insights into mechanisms regulating AhR expression that can ultimately impact carcinogenesis. PMID:22728919

  17. Genetic and epigenetic regulation of AHR gene expression in MCF-7 breast cancer cells: role of the proximal promoter GC-rich region.

    PubMed

    Englert, Neal A; Turesky, Robert J; Han, Weiguo; Bessette, Erin E; Spivack, Simon D; Caggana, Michele; Spink, David C; Spink, Barbara C

    2012-09-01

    The aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR), a ligand-activated transcription factor, contributes to carcinogenesis through its role in the regulation of cytochrome P450 1 (CYP1)-catalyzed metabolism of carcinogens. Here, we investigated genetic and epigenetic mechanisms that affect AhR expression. Analyses of the human AHR proximal promoter in MCF-7 human breast cancer cells using luciferase assays and electrophoretic mobility shift assays revealed multiple specificity protein (Sp) 1 binding sequences that are transcriptional activators in vitro. The regulation of AhR expression was evaluated in long-term estrogen exposed (LTEE) MCF-7 cells, which showed increased AhR expression, enhanced CYP1 inducibility, and increased capacity to form DNA adducts when exposed to the dietary carcinogen, 2-amino-1-methyl-6-phenylimidazo[4,5-b]pyridine. The increased AhR expression in LTEE cells was found not to result from increased mRNA stability, differential RNA processing, or decreased DNA methylation. Analysis of the AHR proximal promoter region using chromatin immunoprecipitation confirmed that enhanced expression of AhR in LTEE cells involves changes in histone modifications, notably decreased trimethylation of histone 3, lysine 27. Upon further examination of the GC-rich Sp1-binding region, we confirmed that it contains a polymorphic (GGGGC)(n) repeat. In a population of newborns from New York State, the allele frequency of (GGGGC)(n) was n = 4 > 5 ≫ 6, 2. Circular dichroism spectroscopy revealed the ability of sequences of this GC-rich region to form guanine-quadruplex structures in vitro. These studies revealed multiple levels at which AhR expression may be controlled, and offer additional insights into mechanisms regulating AhR expression that can ultimately impact carcinogenesis.

  18. Simultaneous Detection of Multiple DNA Adducts in Human Lung Samples by Isotope-Dilution UPLC-MS/MS

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Recent studies have demonstrated that various DNA adducts can be detected in human tissues and fluids using liquid chromatography connected to tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). However, the utility of a single DNA adduct as a biomarker in risk assessment is debatable because humans are exposed to many genotoxicants. We established a method to measure DNA adducts derived from 16 ubiquitous genotoxicants and developed an analytical technique for their simultaneous quantification by ultra performance liquid chromatography (UPLC)-MS/MS. Methods for the enrichment of the analytes from DNA hydrolysates and chromatographic separation preceding mass spectrometric analysis were optimized, and the resultant technique was used for the simultaneous analysis of the 16 DNA adducts in human lung biopsy specimens. Eleven adducts (formed by benzo[a]pyrene, 1-methylpyrene, 4-aminobiphenyl, 2-amino-1-methyl-6-phenylimidazo[4,5-b]pyridine, 1-methoxy-3-indolylmethylglucosinolate, 5-hydroxymethylfurfural, and malondialdehyde) were not detected in any tissue sample (limits of detection: 0.02–7.1 adducts/108 nucleosides). 3,N4-etheno-2′-deoxycytidine and 1,N6-etheno-2′-deoxyadenosine, formed from 2,3-epoxyaldehydes of endogenous lipid peroxidation products, were present in all subjects (16.9–115.3 and 27.2–179/108 nucleosides, respectively). The same was true for N2-(trans-methylisoeugenol-3′-yl)-2′-deoxyguanosine, the major adduct of methyleugenol (1.7–23.7/108 nucleosides). A minor adduct of methyleugenol and two adducts of furfuryl alcohol were detected in several pulmonary specimens. Taken together, we developed a targeted approach for the simultaneous mass spectrometric analyses of 16 DNA adducts, which can be easily extended by adducts formed from other mutagens. The method allowed one to detect adducts of furfuryl alcohol and methyleugenol in samples of human lung. PMID:25423194

  19. Screening for DNA adducts by data-dependent constant neutral loss-triple stage mass spectrometry with a linear quadrupole ion trap mass spectrometer.

    PubMed

    Bessette, Erin E; Goodenough, Angela K; Langouët, Sophie; Yasa, Isil; Kozekov, Ivan D; Spivack, Simon D; Turesky, Robert J

    2009-01-15

    A two-dimensional linear quadrupole ion trap mass spectrometer (LIT/MS) was employed to simultaneously screen for DNA adducts of environmental, dietary, and endogenous genotoxicants, by data-dependent constant neutral loss scanning followed by triple-stage mass spectrometry (CNL-MS3). The loss of the deoxyribose (dR) from the protonated DNA adducts ([M + H - 116]+) in the MS/MS scan mode triggered the acquisition of MS3 product ion spectra of the aglycone adducts [BH2]+. Five DNA adducts of the tobacco carcinogen 4-aminobiphenyl (4-ABP) were detected in human hepatocytes treated with 4-ABP, and three DNA adducts of the cooked-meat carcinogen 2-amino-3,8-dimethylimidazo[4,5-f]quinoxaline (MeIQx) were identified in the livers of rats exposed to MeIQx, by the CNL-MS3 scan mode. Buccal cell DNA from tobacco smokers was screened for DNA adducts of various classes of carcinogens in tobacco smoke including 4-ABP, 2-amino-9H-pyrido[2,3-b]indole (AalphaC), and benzo[a]pyrene (BaP); the cooked-meat carcinogens MeIQx, AalphaC, and 2-amino-1-methyl-6-phenylmidazo[4,5-b]pyridine (PhIP); and the lipid peroxidation products acrolein (AC) and trans-4-hydroxynonenal (HNE). The CNL-MS3 scanning technique can be used to simultaneously screen for multiple DNA adducts derived from different classes of carcinogens, at levels of adduct modification approaching 1 adduct per 108 unmodified DNA bases, when 10 microg of DNA is employed for the assay.

  20. Screening for DNA Adducts by Data-Dependent Constant Neutral Loss - Triple Stage (MS3) Mass Spectrometry with a Linear Quadrupole Ion Trap Mass Spectrometer

    PubMed Central

    Bessette, Erin E.; Goodenough, Angela K.; Langouët, Sophie; Yasa, Isil; Kozekov, Ivan D.; Spivack, Simon D.; Turesky, Robert J.

    2009-01-01

    A 2-dimensional linear quadrupole ion trap mass spectrometer (LIT/MS) was employed to simultaneously screen for DNA adducts of environmental, dietary, and endogenous genotoxicants, by data-dependent constant neutral loss scanning followed by triple-stage mass spectrometry (CNL-MS3). The loss of the deoxyribose (dR) from the protonated DNA adducts ([M+H-116]+) in the MS/MS scan mode triggered the acquisition of MS3 product ion spectra of the aglycone adducts [BH2+]. Five DNA adducts of the tobacco carcinogen 4-aminobiphenyl (4-ABP) were detected in human hepatocytes treated with 4-ABP, and three DNA adducts of the cooked-meat carcinogen 2-amino-3,8-dimethylimidazo[4,5-f]quinoxaline (MeIQx) were identified in the livers of rats exposed to MeIQx, by the CNL-MS3 scan mode. Buccal-cell DNA from tobacco smokers was screened for DNA adducts of various classes of carcinogens in tobacco smoke including 4-ABP, 2-amino-9H-pyrido[2,3-b]indole (AαC), and benzo[a]pyrene (BaP); the cooked-meat carcinogens MeIQx, AαC, and 2-amino-1-methyl-6-phenylmidazo[4,5-b]pyridine (PhIP); and the lipid peroxidation products acrolein (AC) and trans-4-hydroxynonenal (HNE). The CNL-MS3 scanning technique can be used to simultaneously screen for multiple DNA adducts derived from different classes of carcinogens, at levels of adduct modification approaching 1 adduct per 108 unmodified DNA bases, when 10 μg of DNA are employed for the assay. PMID:19086795

  1. Genotoxicity of three food processing contaminants in transgenic mice expressing human sulfotransferases 1A1 and 1A2 as assessed by the in vivo alkaline single cell gel electrophoresis assay

    PubMed Central

    Høie, Anja Hortemo; Svendsen, Camilla; Brunborg, Gunnar; Glatt, Hansruedi; Alexander, Jan; Meinl, Walter

    2015-01-01

    The food processing contaminants 2‐amino‐1‐methyl‐6‐phenylimidazo[4,5‐b]pyridine (PhIP), 5‐hydroxymethylfurfural (HMF) and 2,5 dimethylfuran (DMF) are potentially both mutagenic and carcinogenic in vitro and/or in vivo, although data on DMF is lacking. The PHIP metabolite N‐hydroxy‐PhIP and HMF are bioactivated by sulfotransferases (SULTs). The substrate specificity and tissue distribution of SULTs differs between species. A single oral dose of PhIP, HMF or DMF was administered to wild‐type (wt) mice and mice expressing human SULT1A1/1A2 (hSULT mice). DNA damage was studied using the in vivo alkaline single cell gel electrophoresis (SCGE) assay. No effects were detected in wt mice. In the hSULT mice, PhIP and HMF exposure increased the levels of DNA damage in the liver and kidney, respectively. DMF was not found to be genotoxic. The observation of increased DNA damage in hSULT mice compared with wt mice supports the role of human SULTs in the bioactivation of N‐hydroxy‐PhIP and HMF in vivo. Environ. Mol. Mutagen. 56:709–714, 2015. © 2015 The Authors. Environmental and Molecular Mutagenesis Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:26270892

  2. Human exposure to carcinogenic heterocyclic amines and their mutational fingerprints in experimental animals.

    PubMed Central

    Nagao, M; Wakabayashi, K; Ushijima, T; Toyota, M; Totsuka, Y; Sugimura, T

    1996-01-01

    Heterocyclic amines (HCAs) are mutagens/carcinogens to which humans are exposed on almost a daily basis. 2-Amino-1-methyl-6-phenylimidazo[4,5-b]pyridine (PhlP) is the most abundant of the various carcinogenic HCAs (present at a level of 0.56 to 69.2 ng/g of cooked meat or fish), with 2-amino-3,8-dimethylimidazo[4,5-f]quinoxaline (MelQx) following it at 0.64 to 6.44 ng/g. HCAs have been found in the urine of healthy people who consume ordinary diets, while patients receiving parenteral alimentation lack, for example, PhlP and MelQx in their urine. Based on the concentrations of PhlP and MelQx in urine samples from 10 healthy volunteers, daily intake of MelQx in Japanese was calculated to be 0.3 to 3.9 micrograms/person, while that of PhlP was 0.005 to 0 micrograms. The Japanese consume more MelQx than Americans, whereas Japanese intake of PhlP was about one-third that of Americans. MelQx-DNA adducts have also detected in Japanese Kidney, colon, and rectum samples using the 32P-postlabeling method followed by identification using high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) analysis; the levels were 0.18, 1.8, and 1.4 per 10(9) nucleotides, respectively. In addition, we elucidated the mutational fingerprints of Phlp by analyzing Apc mutations in rat colon cancers induced by this carcinogen. Four of eight tumors had a total of five mutations in the Apc gene, four of which featured a guanine deletion from 5'-GTGGGAT-3' sequences. This specific mutation spectrum may be used as a fingerprint of PhlP in evaluating its risk potential for human colon carcinogenesis. Mutations were not found in similar 2-amino-3-methylimidazo[4,5-f]quinoline-induced colon lesions. Microsatellite instability was detected in both colon and mammary tumors induced by PhlP. The mechanisms involved in this development of microsatellite instability in PhlP. The mechanisms involved in this development of microsatellite instability in PhlP-induced cancers remain to be elucidated. Images Figure 1

  3. Catalytic properties and heat stabilities of novel recombinant human N-acetyltransferase 2 allozymes support existence of genetic heterogeneity within the slow acetylator phenotype.

    PubMed

    Hein, David W; Doll, Mark A

    2017-08-01

    Human N-acetyltransferase 2 (NAT2) catalyzes the N-acetylation of numerous aromatic amine drugs such as sulfamethazine (SMZ) and hydrazine drugs such as isoniazid (INH). NAT2 also catalyzes the N-acetylation of aromatic amine carcinogens such as 2-aminofluorene and the O- and N,O-acetylation of aromatic amine and heterocyclic amine metabolites. Genetic polymorphism in NAT2 modifies drug efficacy and toxicity as well as cancer risk. Acetyltransferase catalytic activities and heat stability associated with six novel NAT2 haplotypes (NAT2*6C, NAT2*14C, NAT2*14D, NAT2*14E, NAT2*17, and NAT2*18) were compared with that of the reference NAT2*4 haplotype following recombinant expression in Escherichia coli. N-acetyltransferase activities towards SMZ and INH were significantly (p < 0.0001) lower when catalyzed by the novel recombinant human NAT2 allozymes compared to NAT2 4. SMZ and INH N-acetyltransferase activities catalyzed by NAT2 14C and NAT2 14D were significantly lower (p < 0.001) than catalyzed by NAT2 6C and NAT2 14E. N-Acetylation catalyzed by recombinant human NAT2 17 was over several hundred-fold lower than by recombinant NAT2 4 precluding measurement of its kinetic or heat inactivation constants. Similar results were observed for the O-acetylation of N-hydroxy-2-aminofluorene and N-hydroxy-2-amino-1-methyl-6-phenylimidazo [4,5-b] pyridine and the intramolecular N,O-acetylation of N-hydroxy-N-acetyl-2-aminofluorene. The apparent V max of the novel recombinant NAT2 allozymes NAT2 6C, NAT2 14C, NAT2 14D, and NAT2 14E towards AF, 4-aminobiphenyl (ABP), and 3,2'-dimethyl-4-aminobiphenyl (DMABP) were each significantly (p < 0.001) lower while their apparent K m values did not differ significantly (p > 0.05) from recombinant NAT2 4. The apparent V max catalyzed by NAT2 14C and NAT2 14D were significantly lower (p < 0.05) than the apparent V max catalyzed by NAT2 6C and NAT2 14E towards AF, ABP, and DMABP. Heat inactivation rate constants for recombinant

  4. New Oxidovanadium Complexes Incorporating Thiosemicarbazones and 1, 10-Phenanthroline Derivatives as DNA Cleavage, Potential Anticancer Agents, and Hydroxyl Radical Scavenger.

    PubMed

    Ying, Peng; Zeng, Pengfei; Lu, Jiazheng; Chen, Hongyuan; Liao, Xiangwen; Yang, Ning

    2015-10-01

    Four novel oxidovanadium(IV) complexes, [VO(hntdtsc)(PHIP)] (1) (hntdtsc = 2-hydroxy-1-naphthaldehyde thiosemicarbazone, PHIP= 2-phenyl-imidazo[4,5-f]1,10-phenanthroline), [VO(hntdtsc)(DPPZ)](2)(DPPZ= dipyrido[3,2-a:2',3'-c]phenazine), [VO(satsc)(PHIP)](3) (satsc=salicylaldehyde thiosemicarbazone), and [VO(satsc)(DPPZ)](4), have been prepared and characterized. The chemical nuclease activities and photocleavage reactions of the complexes were tested. All four complexes can efficiently cleave pBR322 DNA, and complex 1 has the best cleaving ability. The antitumor properties of these complexes were examined with three different tumor cell lines using MTT assay. Their antitumor mechanism has been analyzed using cell cycle analysis, fluorescence microscopy of apoptosis, and Annexin V-FITC/PI assay. The results showed that the growth of human neuroblastoma (SH-SY5Y, SK-N-SH) and human breast adenocarcinoma (MCF-7) cells were inhibited significantly with very low IC50 values. Complex 1 was found to be the most potent antitumor agent among the four complexes. It can cause G0/G1 phase arrest of the cell cycle and exhibited significant induced apoptosis in SK-N-SH cells and displayed typical morphological apoptotic characteristics. In addition, they all displayed reasonable abilities to scavenge hydroxyl radical, and complex 1 was the best inhibitor.

  5. Demonstrate VERA Core Simulator Performance Improvements L2:PHI.P13.03

    SciTech Connect

    Collins, Benjamin S.; Hamilton, Steven P.; Jarrett, Michael G.; Kim, Kang Seog; Kochunas, Brendan; Liu, Yuxuan; Palmtag, Scott; Salko, Robert K.; Stimpson, Shane G.; Toth, Alex; Yee, Ben

    2016-08-31

    This report describes the performance improvements made to the VERA Core Simulator (VERA-CS) during FY2016. The development of the VERA Core Simulator has focused on the capability needed to deplete physical reactors and help solve various problems; this capability required the accurate simulation of many operating cycles of a nuclear power plant. The first section of this report introduces two test problems used to assess the run-time performance of VERA-CS using a source dated February 2016. The next section provides a brief overview of the major modifications made to decrease the computational cost. Following the descriptions of the major improvements, the run-time for each improvement is shown. Conclusions on the work are presented, and further follow-on performance improvements are suggested.

  6. Inhibitory effects of apple peel polyphenol extract on the formation of heterocyclic amines in pan fried beef patties.

    PubMed

    Sabally, Kebba; Sleno, Lekha; Jauffrit, Julie-Anne; Iskandar, Michèle M; Kubow, Stan

    2016-07-01

    The efficacy of polyphenol-rich dried apple peel extract (DAPP) to inhibit the formation of heterocyclic aromatic amines (HCAs) during frying of beef patties was assessed after DAPP was applied at 0.1, 0.15 and 0.3% (w/w) either on the surface of the patties or mixed inside the patty prior to frying. 2-Amino-3,8-dimethylimidazo[4,5f]quinoxaline (MeIQx), 2-amino-1-ethyl-6-phenylimidazo[4,5-b]pyridine (PhIP) and 2-amino-3,4,8-dimethylimidazo[4,5-f]quinoxaline (4,8-DiMeIQx) were quantified after frying. HCA concentrations decreased (p<0.05) upon both surface and mixed applications of DAPP at all of the tested doses. Surface application of 0.3% DAPP showed greater (p<0.05) inhibitory effects on HCA formation by 68% for MeIQx, 56% for 4,8-DiMeIQx and 83% for PhIP as opposed to 41%, 21% and 60% respectively, for the mixed DAPP application of 0.3%. The present study results indicate that surface application of DAPP in meat preparation prior to pan-frying can be a useful approach to minimize the formation of genotoxic HCAs in fried beef patties.

  7. Conversion rate of para-hydrogen to ortho-hydrogen by oxygen: implications for PHIP gas storage and utilization.

    PubMed

    Wagner, Shawn

    2014-06-01

    To determine the storability of para-hydrogen before reestablishment of the room temperature thermal equilibrium mixture. Para-hydrogen was produced at near 100% purity and mixed with different oxygen quantities to determine the rate of conversion to the thermal equilibrium mixture of 75: 25% (ortho: para) by detecting the ortho-hydrogen (1)H nuclear magnetic resonance using a 9.4 T imager. The para-hydrogen to ortho-hydrogen velocity constant, k, near room temperature (292 K) was determined to be 8.27 ± 1.30 L/mol · min(-1). This value was calculated utilizing four different oxygen fractions. Para-hydrogen conversion to ortho-hydrogen by oxygen can be minimized for long term storage with judicious removal of oxygen contamination. Prior calculated velocity rates were confirmed demonstrating a dependence on only the oxygen concentration.

  8. The Caffeine Cytochrome P450 1A2 Metabolic Phenotype Does Not Predict the Metabolism of Heterocyclic Aromatic Amines in Humans

    PubMed Central

    Turesky, Robert J.; White, Kami K.; Wilkens, Lynne R.; Marchand, Loïc Le

    2015-01-01

    2-Amino-1-methylimidazo[4,5-b]pyridine (PhIP) and 2-amino-3,8-dimethylimidazo[4,5-f]quinoxaline (MeIQx) are carcinogenic heterocyclic aromatic amines (HAAs) formed in well-done cooked meats. Chemicals that induce cytochrome P450 (P450) 1A2, a major enzyme involved in the bioactivation of HAAs, also form in cooked meat. Therefore, well-done cooked meat may pose an increase in cancer risk because it contains both inducers of P450 1A2 and procarcinogenic HAAs. We examined the influence of components in meat to modulate P450 1A2 activity and the metabolism of PhIP and MeIQx in volunteers during a 4 week feeding study of well-done cooked beef. The mean P450 1A2 activity, assessed by caffeine metabolic phenotyping, ranged from 6.3 to 7.1 before the feeding study commenced and from 9.6 to 10.4 during the meat feeding period: the difference in means was significant (P < 0.001). Unaltered PhIP, MeIQx, and their P450 1A2 metabolites, N2-(β-1-glucosiduronyl-2-(hydroxyamino)-1-methyl-6-phenylimidazo[4,5-b]pyridine (HON-PhIP-N2-Gl); N3-(β-1-glucosiduronyl-2-(hydroxyamino)-1-methyl-6-phenylimidazo[4,5-b]pyridine (HON-PhIP-N3-Gl); 2-amino-3-methylimidazo-[4,5-f]quinoxaline-8-carboxylic acid (IQx-8-COOH); and 2-amino-8-(hydroxymethyl)-3-methylimidazo[4,5-f]quinoxaline (8-CH2OH-IQx) were measured in urine during days 2, 14, and 28 days of the meat diet. Significant correlations were observed on these days between the levels of the unaltered HAAs and their oxidized metabolites, when expressed as percent of dose ingested or as metabolic ratios. However, there was no statistically significant correlation between the caffeine P450 1A2 phenotype and any urinary HAA biomarker. Although the P450 1A2 activity varied by greater than 20-fold among the subjects, there was a large intra-individual variation of the P450 1A2 phenotype and inconsistent responses to inducers of P450 1A2. The coefficient of variation of the P450 1A2 phenotype within-individual ranged between 1 to 112% (median=40

  9. Caffeine Cytochrome P450 1A2 Metabolic Phenotype Does Not Predict the Metabolism of Heterocyclic Aromatic Amines in Humans.

    PubMed

    Turesky, Robert J; White, Kami K; Wilkens, Lynne R; Le Marchand, Loïc

    2015-08-17

    2-Amino-1-methylimidazo[4,5-b]pyridine (PhIP) and 2-amino-3,8-dimethylimidazo[4,5-f]quinoxaline (MeIQx) are carcinogenic heterocyclic aromatic amines (HAAs) formed in well-done cooked meats. Chemicals that induce cytochrome P450 (P450) 1A2, a major enzyme involved in the bioactivation of HAAs, also form in cooked meat. Therefore, well-done cooked meat may pose an increase in cancer risk because it contains both inducers of P450 1A2 and procarcinogenic HAAs. We examined the influence of components in meat to modulate P450 1A2 activity and the metabolism of PhIP and MeIQx in volunteers during a 4 week feeding study of well-done cooked beef. The mean P450 1A2 activity, assessed by caffeine metabolic phenotyping, ranged from 6.3 to 7.1 before the feeding study commenced and from 9.6 to 10.4 during the meat feeding period: the difference in means was significant (P < 0.001). Unaltered PhIP, MeIQx, and their P450 1A2 metabolites, N(2)-(β-1-glucosiduronyl)-2-(hydroxyamino)-1-methyl-6-phenylimidazo[4,5-b]pyridine (HON-PhIP-N(2)-Gl); N3-(β-1-glucosiduronyl)-2-(hydroxyamino)-1-methyl-6-phenylimidazo[4,5-b]pyridine (HON-PhIP-N3-Gl); 2-amino-3-methylimidazo-[4,5-f]quinoxaline-8-carboxylic acid (IQx-8-COOH); and 2-amino-8-(hydroxymethyl)-3-methylimidazo[4,5-f]quinoxaline (8-CH2OH-IQx) were measured in urine during days 2, 14, and 28 of the meat diet. Significant correlations were observed on these days between the levels of the unaltered HAAs and their oxidized metabolites, when expressed as percent of dose ingested or as metabolic ratios. However, there was no statistically significant correlation between the caffeine P450 1A2 phenotype and any urinary HAA biomarker. Although the P450 1A2 activity varied by greater than 20-fold among the subjects, there was a large intraindividual variation of the P450 1A2 phenotype and inconsistent responses to inducers of P450 1A2. The coefficient of variation of the P450 1A2 phenotype within-individual ranged between 1 to 112% (median

  10. Mutagenic activity of heterocyclic amines in cooked foods

    SciTech Connect

    Felton, J.S.; Knize, M.G.; Dolbeare, F.A.

    1993-01-19

    Mutagenic heterocyclic amines are generated in foods when they are cooked at temperatures over 150{degrees}C. These compounds are present from 0.1 to 50 ppb depending on the food and the cooking conditions. These heterocyclic amines are not only present in cooked red meat, fish, chicken, and in baked and fried foods derived from grain. Mutagenicity of fried beef hamburgers cooked at 230{degrees}C is 800 {plus_minus} 37 TA98 revertants per gram cooked weight. We measured 2-amino-3,8-dimethylimidazo(4,5-flquinoxaline (MelQx), 2-amino-3,4,8-trimethylimidazo[4,5-flquinoxaline (DiMeIQx), and 2-amino-3-methylimidazo[4,5-flquinoline (IQ) formation at this temperature and found 3.0 {plus_minus} 2.0,1.0 {plus_minus} 0.18, and 0.06 {plus_minus} 0.03 ng/g, respectively. 2-amino-l-methyl-6-phenylimidazo[4,5-b]pyridine (PhIP) was found at a higher concentration of 9.6 ng/g. We have shown these heterocyclic amines are capable of producing both reverse and forward mutations in Salmonella bacteria and forward mutations in Chinese Hamster Cells.

  11. Mutagenic activity of heterocyclic amines in cooked foods

    SciTech Connect

    Felton, J.S.; Knize, M.G.; Dolbeare, F.A.

    1993-01-19

    Mutagenic heterocyclic amines are generated in foods when they are cooked at temperatures over 150[degrees]C. These compounds are present from 0.1 to 50 ppb depending on the food and the cooking conditions. These heterocyclic amines are not only present in cooked red meat, fish, chicken, and in baked and fried foods derived from grain. Mutagenicity of fried beef hamburgers cooked at 230[degrees]C is 800 [plus minus] 37 TA98 revertants per gram cooked weight. We measured 2-amino-3,8-dimethylimidazo(4,5-flquinoxaline (MelQx), 2-amino-3,4,8-trimethylimidazo[4,5-flquinoxaline (DiMeIQx), and 2-amino-3-methylimidazo[4,5-flquinoline (IQ) formation at this temperature and found 3.0 [plus minus] 2.0,1.0 [plus minus] 0.18, and 0.06 [plus minus] 0.03 ng/g, respectively. 2-amino-l-methyl-6-phenylimidazo[4,5-b]pyridine (PhIP) was found at a higher concentration of 9.6 ng/g. We have shown these heterocyclic amines are capable of producing both reverse and forward mutations in Salmonella bacteria and forward mutations in Chinese Hamster Cells.

  12. Ruthenium(II) Complexes with 2-Phenylimidazo[4,5-f][1,10]phenanthroline Derivatives that Strongly Combat Cisplatin-Resistant Tumor Cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zeng, Leli; Chen, Yu; Liu, Jiangping; Huang, Huaiyi; Guan, Ruilin; Ji, Liangnian; Chao, Hui

    2016-01-01

    Cisplatin was the first metal-based therapeutic agent approved for the treatment of human cancers, but its clinical activity is greatly limited by tumor drug resistance. This work utilized the parent complex [Ru(phen)2(PIP)]2+ (1) to develop three Ru(II) complexes (2–4) with different positional modifications. These compounds exhibited similar or superior cytotoxicities compared to cisplatin in HeLa, A549 and multidrug-resistant (A549R) tumor cell lines. Complex 4, the most potent member of the series, was highly active against A549R cancer cells (IC50 = 0.8 μM). This complex exhibited 178-fold better activity than cisplatin (IC50 = 142.5 μM) in A549R cells. 3D multicellular A549R tumor spheroids were also used to confirm the high proliferative and cytotoxic activity of complex 4. Complex 4 had the greatest cellular uptake and had a tendency to accumulate in the mitochondria of A549R cells. Further mechanistic studies showed that complex 4 induced A549R cell apoptosis via inhibition of thioredoxin reductase (TrxR), elevated intracellular ROS levels, mitochondrial dysfunction and cell cycle arrest, making it an outstanding candidate for overcoming cisplatin resistance.

  13. Crystal structure of (E)-4-[N-(7-methyl-2-phenyl-imidazo[1,2-a]pyridin-3-yl)carboximido-yl]phenol.

    PubMed

    Elaatiaoui, Abdelmalik; Saddik, Rafik; Benchat, Noureddine; Saadi, Mohamed; El Ammari, Lahcen

    2015-10-01

    The mol-ecule of the title compound, C21H17N3O, is built up from fused five- and six-membered rings connected to a methyl group, a phenyl ring and an (imino-meth-yl)phenol group. The fused ring system is almost planar (r.m.s. deviation = 0.031 Å) and forms dihedral angles of 64.97 (7) and 18.52 (6)° with the phenyl ring and the (imino-meth-yl)phenol group, respectively. In the crystal, centrosymmetric mol-ecules are linked by pairs of C-H⋯π inter-actions into dimeric units, which are further connected by O-H⋯N hydrogen bonds to form layers parallel to (101).

  14. Synthesis and antiviral activity of new phenylimidazopyridines and N-benzylidenequinolinamines derived by molecular simplification of phenylimidazo[4,5-g]quinolines.

    PubMed

    Loddo, Roberta; Briguglio, Irene; Corona, Paola; Piras, Sandra; Loriga, Mario; Paglietti, Giuseppe; Carta, Antonio; Sanna, Giuseppina; Giliberti, Gabriele; Ibba, Cristina; Farci, Pamela; La Colla, Paolo

    2014-09-12

    Continuing our program of research concerning the antiviral activity of a wide series of new angular and linear azolo bicyclic and tricyclic derivatives, now we have simplified and modified the 4-chloro-2-(4-nitrophenyl)-3H-imidazo[4,5-g]quinoline 1, which previously resulted the most active derivative, through either the elimination of the central ring or the opening of the imidazole ring, obtaining various imidazopyridines and N-benzylidenequinolinamines respectively. Title compounds were tested in cell-based assays for cytotoxicity and antiviral activity against representatives of two DNA virus families as wells as against representatives of RNA virus families containing single-stranded, either positive-sense (ssRNA(+)) or negative-sense (ssRNA(-)), and double-stranded genomes (dsRNA). Some imidazo[4,5-b]pyridines emerged as new derivatives endowed with antiviral activity against Vaccinia Virus (VV) at concentrations ranging from 2 to 16 μM. In particular, compound 2b demonstrate to be about 10 times more potent than Cidofovir, used as reference drug. Similarly, the imidazo[4,5-c]pyridines and N-benzylidenequinolinamines derivatives resulted active against Bovine Viral Diarrhoea virus (BVDV), at concentrations ranging from 1.2 to 28 μM. Above all compounds 1, 3a and 3f showed an EC50 of the same order of magnitude of the reference drug, the 2'-C-methyl-guanosine. Moreover, several N-benzylidenequinolinamines showed an interesting activity against Respiratory Syncytial Virus (RSV) at concentrations between 12 and 26 μM.

  15. Meat consumption, Cooking Practices, Meat Mutagens and Risk of Prostate Cancer

    PubMed Central

    John, Esther M.; Stern, Mariana C.; Sinha, Rashmi; Koo, Jocelyn

    2012-01-01

    Consumption of red meat, particularly well done meat, has been associated with increased prostate cancer risk. High temperature cooking methods such as grilling and barbequeing may produce heterocyclic amines (HCAs) and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) which are known carcinogens. We assessed the association with meat consumption and estimated HCA and PAH exposure in a population-based case-control study of prostate cancer. Newly diagnosed cases aged 40–79 years (531 advanced cases, 195 localized cases) and 527 controls were asked about dietary intake, including usual meat cooking methods and doneness levels. Odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) were calculated using multivariate logistic regression. For advanced prostate cancer, but not localized disease, increased risks were associated with higher consumption of hamburgers (OR=1.79. CI=1.10–2.92), processed meat (OR=1.57, CI=1.04, 2.36), grilled red meat (OR=1.63, CI=0.99–2.68), and well done red meat (OR=1.52, CI=0.93–2.46), and intermediate intake of 2-amino-1-methyl1-6-phenylimidazo[4,5-b]pyridine (PhIP) (quartile 2 vs. 1: OR=1.41, CI=0.98–2.01; quartile 3 vs. 1: OR=1.42, CI=0.98–2.04), but not for higher intake. White meat consumption was not associated with prostate cancer. These findings provide further evidence that consumption of processed meat and red meat cooked at high temperature is associated with increased risk of advanced, but not localized prostate cancer. PMID:21526454

  16. Understanding gas phase modifier interactions in rapid analysis by Differential Mobility-Tandem Mass Spectrometry

    PubMed Central

    Kafle, Amol; Coy, Stephen L.; Wong, Bryan M.; Fornace, Albert J.; Glick, James J.; Vouros, Paul

    2014-01-01

    A systematic study involving the use and optimization of gas phase modifiers in quantitative differential mobility- mass spectrometry (DMS-MS) analysis is presented using mucleoside-adduct biomarkers of DNA damage as an important reference point for analysis in complex matrices. Commonly used polar protic and polar aprotic modifiers have been screened for use against two deoxyguanosine adducts of DNA: N-(deoxyguanosin-8-yl)-4-aminobiphenyl (dG-C8-4-ABP) and N-(deoxyguanosin-8-y1)-2-amino-l-methyl-6-phenylimidazo[4,5-b]pyridine (dG-C8-PhIP). Particular attention was paid to compensation voltage (CoV) shifts, peak shapes and product ion signal intensities while optimizing the DMS-MS conditions. The optimized parameters were then applied to rapid quantitation of the DNA adducts in calf thymus DNA. After a protein precipitation step, adduct levels corresponding to less than one modification in 106 normal DNA bases were detected using the DMS-MS platform. Based on DMS fundamentals and ab-initio thermochemical results we interpret the complexity of DMS modifier responses in terms of thermal activation and the development of solvent shells. At very high bulk gas temperature, modifier dipole moment may be the most important factor in cluster formation and cluster geometry in mobility differences, but at lower temperatures multi-neutral clusters are important and less predictable. This work provides a useful protocol for targeted DNA adduct quantitation and a basis for future work on DMS modifier effects. PMID:24452298

  17. Understanding Gas Phase Modifier Interactions in Rapid Analysis by Differential Mobility-Tandem Mass Spectrometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kafle, Amol; Coy, Stephen L.; Wong, Bryan M.; Fornace, Albert J.; Glick, James J.; Vouros, Paul

    2014-07-01

    A systematic study involving the use and optimization of gas-phase modifiers in quantitative differential mobility-mass spectrometry (DMS-MS) analysis is presented using nucleoside-adduct biomarkers of DNA damage as an important reference point for analysis in complex matrices. Commonly used polar protic and polar aprotic modifiers have been screened for use against two deoxyguanosine adducts of DNA: N-(deoxyguanosin-8-yl)-4-aminobiphenyl (dG-C8-4-ABP) and N-(deoxyguanosin-8-y1)-2-amino-l-methyl-6-phenylimidazo[4,5-b]pyridine (dG-C8-PhIP). Particular attention was paid to compensation voltage (CoV) shifts, peak shapes, and product ion signal intensities while optimizing the DMS-MS conditions. The optimized parameters were then applied to rapid quantitation of the DNA adducts in calf thymus DNA. After a protein precipitation step, adduct levels corresponding to less than one modification in 106 normal DNA bases were detected using the DMS-MS platform. Based on DMS fundamentals and ab initio thermochemical results, we interpret the complexity of DMS modifier responses in terms of thermal activation and the development of solvent shells. At very high bulk gas temperature, modifier dipole moment may be the most important factor in cluster formation and cluster geometry, but at lower temperatures, multi-neutral clusters are important and less predictable. This work provides a useful protocol for targeted DNA adduct quantitation and a basis for future work on DMS modifier effects.

  18. Meat consumption, cooking practices, meat mutagens, and risk of prostate cancer.

    PubMed

    John, Esther M; Stern, Mariana C; Sinha, Rashmi; Koo, Jocelyn

    2011-01-01

    Consumption of red meat, particularly well-done meat, has been associated with increased prostate cancer risk. High-temperature cooking methods such as grilling and barbecuing may produce heterocyclic amines (HCAs) and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), which are known carcinogens. We assessed the association with meat consumption and estimated HCA and PAH exposure in a population-based case-control study of prostate cancer. Newly diagnosed cases aged 40-79 years (531 advanced cases, 195 localized cases) and 527 controls were asked about dietary intake, including usual meat cooking methods and doneness levels. Odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) were calculated using multivariate logistic regression. For advanced prostate cancer, but not localized disease, increased risks were associated with higher consumption of hamburgers (OR = 1.79, CI = 1.10-2.92), processed meat (OR = 1.57, CI = 1.04-2.36), grilled red meat (OR = 1.63, CI = 0.99-2.68), and well-done red meat (OR = 1.52, CI = 0.93-2.46), and intermediate intake of 2-amino-1-methyl1-6-phenylimidazo[4,5-b]pyridine (PhIP) (Quartile 2 vs. 1: OR = 1.41, CI = 0.98-2.01; Quartile 3 vs. 1: OR = 1.42, CI = 0.98-2.04), but not for higher intake. White meat consumption was not associated with prostate cancer. These findings provide further evidence that consumption of processed meat and red meat cooked at high temperature is associated with increased risk of advanced, but not localized, prostate cancer.

  19. Discovery and characterization of a cytochrome b5 variant in humans with impaired hydroxylamine reduction capacity.

    PubMed

    Kurian, Joseph R; Longlais, Brett J; Trepanier, Lauren A

    2007-08-01

    We have shown that cytochrome b5 (cyt b5), along with its reductase, NADH cytochrome b5 reductase (b5R), is capable of direct xenobiotic biotransformation. We hypothesized that functionally significant genetic variability in cyt b5 could be found in healthy individuals. Cyt b5 cDNAs were prepared from peripheral blood mononuclear cells from 63 individuals. One individual was heterozygous for a sequence variant in cyt b5 (A178G), with a predicted amino acid substitution of T60A. This variant, when expressed in Escherichia. coli, maintained a similar Vmax for the hydroxylamines of sulfamethoxazole, 4-aminobiphenyl, and 2-amino-l-methyl-6-phenylimidazo[4,5-b] pyridine (PhIP), compared with wild type cyt b5, with a modestly increased Km (2 to 3.5-fold) for each substrate. When expressed in a mammalian system (HeLa cells), however, T60A was associated with a 70% reduction in cyt b5 protein expression compared with wild type. mRNA expression for both isoforms were comparable in HeLa cells, and translation of these mRNAs in a rabbit reticulocyte lysate system with inhibited proteasomal machinery were also similar. Incubation of these translated enzymes with uninhibited rabbit reticulocyte lysate, however, indicated greater susceptibility of T60A to proteasomal degradation. These data indicate that a naturally occurring variant in cyt b5, T60A, leads to modestly altered affinity for hydroxylamine substrates and dramatically reduced cyt b5 expression. Work is underway to determine the prevalence of this and other variants in cyt b5 or b5R in a larger population, and to determine the association of such variants with differences in hydroxylamine reduction in vivo.

  20. 2-Phenyl-imidazo[1,2-a]pyridine compounds containing hydrophilic groups as potent and selective ligands for peripheral benzodiazepine receptors: synthesis, binding affinity and electrophysiological studies.

    PubMed

    Denora, Nunzio; Laquintana, Valentino; Pisu, Maria Giuseppina; Dore, Riccardo; Murru, Luca; Latrofa, Andrea; Trapani, Giuseppe; Sanna, Enrico

    2008-11-13

    A series of imidazopyridine acetamides were synthesized to evaluate the effects of structural changes at both central (CBRs) and peripheral benzodiazepine receptors (PBRs). These changes include the introduction of polar substituents or ionizable functional groups at the 2- and 8-position of the imidazopyridine skeleton. The results suggest that substituents endowed with hydrogen bonding acceptor and/or donor properties in the para position of the phenyl ring lead to high affinity for PBR. In electrophysiological studies, it was found that compounds 9, 12, 13, and 28 markedly enhanced GABA-evoked Cl (-) currents in Xenopus oocytes expressing alpha 1beta 2gamma 2 GABA A receptors. The capability of flumazenil to reduce the stimulatory effect exerted by compound 9 supports the conclusion that the modulatory effects of the examined compounds occur involving the CBR. The ability of compound 16 to increase GABA A receptor-mediated miniature inhibitory postsynaptic currents in CA1 pyramidal neurons is indicative of its ability to stimulate the local synthesis and secretion of neurosteroids.

  1. Role of the reaction intermediates in determining PHIP (parahydrogen induced polarization) effect in the hydrogenation of acetylene dicarboxylic acid with the complex [Rh (dppb)]+ (dppb: 1,4-bis(diphenylphosphino)butane).

    PubMed

    Reineri, F; Aime, S; Gobetto, R; Nervi, C

    2014-03-07

    This study deals with the parahydrogenation of the symmetric substrate acetylene dicarboxylic acid catalyzed by a Rh(I) complex bearing the chelating diphosphine dppb (1,4-bis(diphenylphosphino)butane). The two magnetically equivalent protons of the product yield a hyperpolarized emission signal in the (1)H-NMR spectrum. Their polarization intensity varies upon changing the reaction solvent from methanol to acetone. A detailed analysis of the hydrogenation pathway is carried out by means of density functional theory calculations to assess the structure of hydrogenation intermediates and their stability in the two solvents. The observed polarization effects have been accounted on the basis of the obtained structures. Insights into the lifetime of a short-lived reaction intermediate are also obtained.

  2. THE ROLE OF HUMAN GLUTATHIONE S-TRANSFERASES (HGSTS) IN THE DETOXIFICATION OF THE FOOD-DERIVED CARCINOGEN METABOLITE N-ACETOXY-PHIP, AND THE EFFECT OF A POLYMORPHISM IN HGSTA1 ON COLORECTAL CANCER RISK. (R825280)

    EPA Science Inventory

    The perspectives, information and conclusions conveyed in research project abstracts, progress reports, final reports, journal abstracts and journal publications convey the viewpoints of the principal investigator and may not represent the views and policies of ORD and EPA. Concl...

  3. Role of the reaction intermediates in determining PHIP (parahydrogen induced polarization) effect in the hydrogenation of acetylene dicarboxylic acid with the complex [Rh (dppb)]{sup +} (dppb: 1,4-bis(diphenylphosphino)butane)

    SciTech Connect

    Reineri, F.; Aime, S.; Gobetto, R.; Nervi, C.

    2014-03-07

    This study deals with the parahydrogenation of the symmetric substrate acetylene dicarboxylic acid catalyzed by a Rh(I) complex bearing the chelating diphosphine dppb (1,4-bis(diphenylphosphino)butane). The two magnetically equivalent protons of the product yield a hyperpolarized emission signal in the {sup 1}H-NMR spectrum. Their polarization intensity varies upon changing the reaction solvent from methanol to acetone. A detailed analysis of the hydrogenation pathway is carried out by means of density functional theory calculations to assess the structure of hydrogenation intermediates and their stability in the two solvents. The observed polarization effects have been accounted on the basis of the obtained structures. Insights into the lifetime of a short-lived reaction intermediate are also obtained.

  4. THE ROLE OF HUMAN GLUTATHIONE S-TRANSFERASES (HGSTS) IN THE DETOXIFICATION OF THE FOOD-DERIVED CARCINOGEN METABOLITE N-ACETOXY-PHIP, AND THE EFFECT OF A POLYMORPHISM IN HGSTA1 ON COLORECTAL CANCER RISK. (R825280)

    EPA Science Inventory

    The perspectives, information and conclusions conveyed in research project abstracts, progress reports, final reports, journal abstracts and journal publications convey the viewpoints of the principal investigator and may not represent the views and policies of ORD and EPA. Concl...

  5. Meat and meat-mutagen intake, doneness preference and the risk of colorectal polyps: the Tennessee Colorectal Polyp Study.

    PubMed

    Shin, Aesun; Shrubsole, Martha J; Ness, Reid M; Wu, Huiyun; Sinha, Rashmi; Smalley, Walter E; Shyr, Yu; Zheng, Wei

    2007-07-01

    Although meat intake has been fairly consistently linked to the risk of colorectal cancer, only a few studies have evaluated meat intake by doneness level and the heterocyclic amines (HCAs) and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) produced by high temperature cooking of meat in relation to colorectal adenomatous and hyperplastic polyps. We evaluated these associations in a large colonoscopy-based case-control study. Included in this study were participants with adenomatous polyp only (n = 573), hyperplastic polyp only (n = 256), or both adenomatous and hyperplastic polyps (n = 199), and 1,544 polyp-free controls. In addition to information related to demographic and other lifestyle factors, meat intake by cooking method and doneness preference were obtained through telephone interviews. Polytomous logistic regression models were used to estimate odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals for the association between exposures and colorectal polyp risks. Presence of hyperplastic polyp was found to be positively associated with high consumption of total meat (p(trend) = 0.076) or red meat (p(trend) = 0.060), with an approximate 50-60% elevated risk observed in the highest vs. the lowest intake group. High intake of 2-amino-I-methyl-6-phenylimidazo[4,5-b]pyridine (PhIP) and 2-amino-3,4,8-trimethylimidazo [4,5]quinoxaline (DiMeIQx) were associated with increased risk for hyperplastic polyp (p(trend) = 0.036 and 0.038, respectively). With a possible exception of the intake of total well-done meats (p(trend) = 0.055) or well-done red meats (p(trend) = 0.074) with the risk of large adenomas, no other positive association was found specifically for the risk of adenomas with any of the exposure variables aforementioned. This study provides additional support for a positive association of high intake of red meat with colorectal adenomas, and suggests that high intake of meats and meat carcinogens may also be associated with hyperplastic polyps.

  6. Heterocyclic amines: evaluation of their role in diet associated human cancer

    PubMed Central

    GOODERHAM, N. J.; MURRAY, S.; LYNCH, A. M.; EDWARDS, R. J.; YADOLLAHI-FARSANI, M.; BRATT, C.; RICH, K. J.; ZHAO, K.; MURRAY, B. P.; BHADRESA, S.; CROSBIE, S. J.; BOOBIS, A. R.; DAVIES, D. S.

    1996-01-01

    1Heterocyclic amines are formed in parts per billion levels when meat is cooked. 2The heterocyclic amines MeIQx and PhIP are efficiently absorbed into the systemic circulation after ingestion of cooked food. 3We have shown that MeIQx and PhIP, both in vitro and in vivo, are substrates for human hepatic CYP1A2, which exclusively and efficiently catalyses their conversion to genotoxic hydroxylamines. 4MeIQx and PhIP are promutagens. MeIQx is a very powerful bacterial mutagen whereas PhIP is a more potent mammalian cell mutagen. Using a mammalian cell target gene, hprt, we have shown that PhIP induces a characteristic mutational ‘fingerprint’. 5MeIQx and PhIP are carcinogenic in bioassays. The PhIP mutational ‘fingerprint’ has been detected in the Apc gene of 5/8 colonic tumours induced by PhIP in rats. PMID:8807149

  7. March to Disaster: Major General Edward Braddock and the Monongahela Campaign

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-12-12

    Montreal, a naval force, commanded by the governor of Massachusetts, Sir William Phips set sail for Quebec via the Saint Lawrence River. The Battle...Frontenac, unleashed Indian scalping parties from Canada into New England. The British, led by Sir William Phips, captured Port Royal from the French and...The Duke of Cumberland, Commander of all British Land Forces. Source: William Augustus, Duke of Cumberland after Sir Joshua Reynolds oil on canvas

  8. Time domain para hydrogen induced polarization.

    PubMed

    Ratajczyk, Tomasz; Gutmann, Torsten; Dillenberger, Sonja; Abdulhussaein, Safaa; Frydel, Jaroslaw; Breitzke, Hergen; Bommerich, Ute; Trantzschel, Thomas; Bernarding, Johannes; Magusin, Pieter C M M; Buntkowsky, Gerd

    2012-01-01

    Para hydrogen induced polarization (PHIP) is a powerful hyperpolarization technique, which increases the NMR sensitivity by several orders of magnitude. However the hyperpolarized signal is created as an anti-phase signal, which necessitates high magnetic field homogeneity and spectral resolution in the conventional PHIP schemes. This hampers the application of PHIP enhancement in many fields, as for example in food science, materials science or MRI, where low B(0)-fields or low B(0)-homogeneity do decrease spectral resolution, leading to potential extinction if in-phase and anti-phase hyperpolarization signals cannot be resolved. Herein, we demonstrate that the echo sequence (45°-τ-180°-τ) enables the acquisition of low resolution PHIP enhanced liquid state NMR signals of phenylpropiolic acid derivatives and phenylacetylene at a low cost low-resolution 0.54 T spectrometer. As low field TD-spectrometers are commonly used in industry or biomedicine for the relaxometry of oil-water mixtures, food, nano-particles, or other systems, we compare two variants of para-hydrogen induced polarization with data-evaluation in the time domain (TD-PHIP). In both TD-ALTADENA and the TD-PASADENA strong spin echoes could be detected under conditions when usually no anti-phase signals can be measured due to the lack of resolution. The results suggest that the time-domain detection of PHIP-enhanced signals opens up new application areas for low-field PHIP-hyperpolarization, such as non-invasive compound detection or new contrast agents and biomarkers in low-field Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI). Finally, solid-state NMR calculations are presented, which show that the solid echo (90y-τ-90x-τ) version of the TD-ALTADENA experiment is able to convert up to 10% of the PHIP signal into visible magnetization.

  9. Ruthenium(II)-Catalyzed Regioselective Ortho Amidation of Imidazo Heterocycles with Isocyanates.

    PubMed

    Shakoor, S M Abdul; Kumari, Santosh; Khullar, Sadhika; Mandal, Sanjay K; Kumar, Anil; Sakhuja, Rajeev

    2016-12-16

    Direct ortho amidation at the phenyl ring of 2-phenylimidazo heterocycles with aryl isocyanates has been achieved via a chelation-assisted cationic ruthenium(II) complex catalyzed mechanism. The methodology provides a straightforward, high-yielding regioselective approach toward the synthesis of an array of ortho-amidated phenylimidazo heterocycles without prior activation of C(sp(2))-H. This also reports the first method for coupling of aryl isocyanates with the imidazo[1,2-a]pyridine system via a pentacyclometalated intermediate. The methodology is found to be easily scalable and could be applied toward the selective ortho amidation of 2-heteroarylimidazo[1,2-a]pyridine frameworks.

  10. The cooked meat derived genotoxic carcinogen 2-amino-3-methylimidazo[4,5-b]pyridine has potent hormone-like activity: mechanistic support for a role in breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Lauber, Sandra N; Gooderham, Nigel J

    2007-10-01

    The cooked meat-derived heterocyclic amine 2-amino-3-methylimidazo[4,5-b]pyridine (PhIP) is activated by CYP1A2 to the N-hydroxy metabolite, then esterified by acetyl transferase and sulfur transferase into unstable DNA-reactive products that can lead to mutation. The genotoxicity of PhIP has been implicated in its carcinogenicity. Yet, CYP1A2-null mice are still prone to PhIP-mediated cancer, inferring that alternative mechanisms must be operative in tumor induction. PhIP induces tumors of the breast, prostate, and colon in rats and lymphoma in mice. This profile of carcinogenicity is indicative of hormonal involvement. We recently reported that PhIP has potent estrogenic activity inducing transcription of estrogen (E2)-regulated genes, proliferation of E(2)-dependent cells, up-regulation of progesterone receptor, and stimulation of mitogen-activated protein kinase signaling. In this report, we show for the first time that PhIP at doses as low as of 10(-11) mol/L has direct effects on a rat pituitary lactotroph model (GH3 cells) and is able to induce cell proliferation and the synthesis and secretion of prolactin. This PhIP-induced pituitary cell proliferation and synthesis and secretion of prolactin can be attenuated by an estrogen receptor (ER) inhibitor, implying that PhIP effects on lactotroph responses are ERalpha mediated. In view of the strong association between estrogen, progesterone, prolactin, and breast cancer, the PhIP repertoire of hormone-like activities provides further mechanistic support for the tissue-specific carcinogenicity of the chemical. Furthermore, the recent epidemiology studies that report an association between consumption of cooked red meat and premenopausal and postmenopausal human breast cancer are consonant with these observations.

  11. Exploiting adiabatically switched RF-field for manipulating spin hyperpolarization induced by parahydrogen

    SciTech Connect

    Kiryutin, Alexey S.; Yurkovskaya, Alexandra V.; Lukzen, Nikita N.; Ivanov, Konstantin L.; Vieth, Hans-Martin

    2015-12-21

    A method for precise manipulation of non-thermal nuclear spin polarization by switching a RF-field is presented. The method harnesses adiabatic correlation of spin states in the rotating frame. A detailed theory behind the technique is outlined; examples of two-spin and three-spin systems prepared in a non-equilibrium state by Para-Hydrogen Induced Polarization (PHIP) are considered. We demonstrate that the method is suitable for converting the initial multiplet polarization of spins into net polarization: compensation of positive and negative lines in nuclear magnetic resonance spectra, which is detrimental when the spectral resolution is low, is avoided. Such a conversion is performed for real two-spin and three-spin systems polarized by means of PHIP. Potential applications of the presented technique are discussed for manipulating PHIP and its recent modification termed signal amplification by reversible exchange as well as for preparing and observing long-lived spin states.

  12. Immunoaffinity purification of dietary heterocyclic amine carcinogens

    SciTech Connect

    Vanderlaan, M.; Hwang, M.; Djanegara, T. )

    1993-03-01

    Cooking meats produces a family of heterocyclic aromatic amines that are carcinogens in rodents and genotoxic in many short-term assays. Concern that these compounds may be human carcinogens has prompted us to develop immunochemical methods for quantifying these compounds in the human diet and for identifying the parent compounds and metabolites in urine and feces. Previously reported monoclonal antibodies to 2-amino-3,8-dimethylimidazo[4,5-f]quinoxaline (MeIQx) and 6-phenyl-2-amino-1-methylimidazo[4,5-f]pyridine (PhIP) were used to purify by immunoaffinity these known mutagens and cross-reacting structural analogs from well-done cooked beef and urine samples. Materials recovered from the immunoaffinity columns were subsequently separated by HPLC to purify the known mutagens from cross-reacting chemicals that co-purify by immunoaffinity. Immunoaffinity chromatography was found to be a rapid means of quantifying individual known mutagens, with a minimum of precolumn sample clean-up required. In addition, this procedure has yielded several new mutagens present in cooked meats that are apparently structural analogs of PhIP. Immunoaffinity techniques were also used to purify metabolites from the urine of rats and humans exposed to MeIQx or PhIP. For MeIQx-exposed rats, the combination antibodies immunoconcentrated 75% of the total urinary radioactivity. Analysis of PhIP metabolites recovered from antibody columns is facilitated by the intrinsic fluorescence of PhIP and its metabolites, providing sufficient sensitivity to monitor individuals for the levels of PhIP excreted following consumption of typical western diets. 6 refs., 3 figs.

  13. Identifying Molecular Targets for Chemoprevention in a Rat Model

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2005-12-01

    engineered mice. Am J Pathol 2002;161:727-35. [13] Weisburger JH, Rivenson A, Reinhardt J, Braley J, Pittman B, Zang E. On the occurrence of...relatively large patch of Leydig cells ( Ley ) adjacent to two seminiferous tubules (Tub). Borowsky, et al. PhIP Rat Prostate 15 Figure 1

  14. Identifying Molecular Targets for Chemoprevention in a Rat Model

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-06-01

    at the 65-week time point. This example shows a relatively large patch of Leydig cells ( Ley ) adjacent to two seminiferous tubules (Tub). PhIP Rat...9, 2006 [16] Weisburger JH, Rivenson A, Reinhardt J, Braley J, Pittman B, and Zang E (2002). On the occurrence of Leydig cell tumors in the F344 rat

  15. Demonstration of Heterogeneous Parahydrogen Induced Polarization Using Hyperpolarized Agent Migration from Dissolved Rh(I) Complex to Gas Phase

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Parahydrogen-induced polarization (PHIP) was used to demonstrate the concept that highly polarized, catalyst-free fluids can be obtained in a catalysis-free regime using a chemical reaction with molecular addition of parahydrogen to a water-soluble Rh(I) complex carrying a payload of compound with unsaturated (C=C) bonds. Hydrogenation of norbornadiene leads to formation of norbornene, which is eliminated from the Rh(I) complex and, therefore, leaves the aqueous phase and becomes a gaseous hyperpolarized molecule. The Rh(I) metal complex resides in the original liquid phase, while the product of hydrogen addition is found exclusively in the gaseous phase based on the affinity. Hyperpolarized norbornene 1H NMR signals observed in situ were enhanced by a factor of approximately 10 000 at a static field of 47.5 mT. High-resolution 1H NMR at a field of 9.4 T was used for ex situ detection of hyperpolarized norbornene in the gaseous phase, where a signal enhancement factor of approximately 160 was observed. This concept of stoichiometric as opposed to purely catalytic use of PHIP-available complexes with an unsaturated payload precursor molecule can be extended to other contrast agents for both homogeneous and heterogeneous PHIP. The Rh(I) complex was employed in aqueous medium suitable for production of hyperpolarized contrast agents for biomedical use. Detection of PHIP hyperpolarized gas by low-field NMR is demonstrated here for the first time. PMID:24918975

  16. Demonstration of heterogeneous parahydrogen induced polarization using hyperpolarized agent migration from dissolved Rh(I) complex to gas phase.

    PubMed

    Kovtunov, Kirill V; Barskiy, Danila A; Shchepin, Roman V; Coffey, Aaron M; Waddell, Kevin W; Koptyug, Igor V; Chekmenev, Eduard Y

    2014-07-01

    Parahydrogen-induced polarization (PHIP) was used to demonstrate the concept that highly polarized, catalyst-free fluids can be obtained in a catalysis-free regime using a chemical reaction with molecular addition of parahydrogen to a water-soluble Rh(I) complex carrying a payload of compound with unsaturated (C═C) bonds. Hydrogenation of norbornadiene leads to formation of norbornene, which is eliminated from the Rh(I) complex and, therefore, leaves the aqueous phase and becomes a gaseous hyperpolarized molecule. The Rh(I) metal complex resides in the original liquid phase, while the product of hydrogen addition is found exclusively in the gaseous phase based on the affinity. Hyperpolarized norbornene (1)H NMR signals observed in situ were enhanced by a factor of approximately 10,000 at a static field of 47.5 mT. High-resolution (1)H NMR at a field of 9.4 T was used for ex situ detection of hyperpolarized norbornene in the gaseous phase, where a signal enhancement factor of approximately 160 was observed. This concept of stoichiometric as opposed to purely catalytic use of PHIP-available complexes with an unsaturated payload precursor molecule can be extended to other contrast agents for both homogeneous and heterogeneous PHIP. The Rh(I) complex was employed in aqueous medium suitable for production of hyperpolarized contrast agents for biomedical use. Detection of PHIP hyperpolarized gas by low-field NMR is demonstrated here for the first time.

  17. LabVIEW-based control software for para-hydrogen induced polarization instrumentation

    SciTech Connect

    Agraz, Jose Grunfeld, Alexander; Li, Debiao; Cunningham, Karl; Willey, Cindy; Pozos, Robert; Wagner, Shawn

    2014-04-15

    The elucidation of cell metabolic mechanisms is the modern underpinning of the diagnosis, treatment, and in some cases the prevention of disease. Para-Hydrogen induced polarization (PHIP) enhances magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) signals over 10 000 fold, allowing for the MRI of cell metabolic mechanisms. This signal enhancement is the result of hyperpolarizing endogenous substances used as contrast agents during imaging. PHIP instrumentation hyperpolarizes Carbon-13 ({sup 13}C) based substances using a process requiring control of a number of factors: chemical reaction timing, gas flow, monitoring of a static magnetic field (B{sub o}), radio frequency (RF) irradiation timing, reaction temperature, and gas pressures. Current PHIP instruments manually control the hyperpolarization process resulting in the lack of the precise control of factors listed above, resulting in non-reproducible results. We discuss the design and implementation of a LabVIEW based computer program that automatically and precisely controls the delivery and manipulation of gases and samples, monitoring gas pressures, environmental temperature, and RF sample irradiation. We show that the automated control over the hyperpolarization process results in the hyperpolarization of hydroxyethylpropionate. The implementation of this software provides the fast prototyping of PHIP instrumentation for the evaluation of a myriad of {sup 13}C based endogenous contrast agents used in molecular imaging.

  18. LabVIEW-based control software for para-hydrogen induced polarization instrumentation.

    PubMed

    Agraz, Jose; Grunfeld, Alexander; Li, Debiao; Cunningham, Karl; Willey, Cindy; Pozos, Robert; Wagner, Shawn

    2014-04-01

    The elucidation of cell metabolic mechanisms is the modern underpinning of the diagnosis, treatment, and in some cases the prevention of disease. Para-Hydrogen induced polarization (PHIP) enhances magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) signals over 10,000 fold, allowing for the MRI of cell metabolic mechanisms. This signal enhancement is the result of hyperpolarizing endogenous substances used as contrast agents during imaging. PHIP instrumentation hyperpolarizes Carbon-13 ((13)C) based substances using a process requiring control of a number of factors: chemical reaction timing, gas flow, monitoring of a static magnetic field (Bo), radio frequency (RF) irradiation timing, reaction temperature, and gas pressures. Current PHIP instruments manually control the hyperpolarization process resulting in the lack of the precise control of factors listed above, resulting in non-reproducible results. We discuss the design and implementation of a LabVIEW based computer program that automatically and precisely controls the delivery and manipulation of gases and samples, monitoring gas pressures, environmental temperature, and RF sample irradiation. We show that the automated control over the hyperpolarization process results in the hyperpolarization of hydroxyethylpropionate. The implementation of this software provides the fast prototyping of PHIP instrumentation for the evaluation of a myriad of (13)C based endogenous contrast agents used in molecular imaging.

  19. LabVIEW-based control software for para-hydrogen induced polarization instrumentation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Agraz, Jose; Grunfeld, Alexander; Li, Debiao; Cunningham, Karl; Willey, Cindy; Pozos, Robert; Wagner, Shawn

    2014-04-01

    The elucidation of cell metabolic mechanisms is the modern underpinning of the diagnosis, treatment, and in some cases the prevention of disease. Para-Hydrogen induced polarization (PHIP) enhances magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) signals over 10 000 fold, allowing for the MRI of cell metabolic mechanisms. This signal enhancement is the result of hyperpolarizing endogenous substances used as contrast agents during imaging. PHIP instrumentation hyperpolarizes Carbon-13 (13C) based substances using a process requiring control of a number of factors: chemical reaction timing, gas flow, monitoring of a static magnetic field (Bo), radio frequency (RF) irradiation timing, reaction temperature, and gas pressures. Current PHIP instruments manually control the hyperpolarization process resulting in the lack of the precise control of factors listed above, resulting in non-reproducible results. We discuss the design and implementation of a LabVIEW based computer program that automatically and precisely controls the delivery and manipulation of gases and samples, monitoring gas pressures, environmental temperature, and RF sample irradiation. We show that the automated control over the hyperpolarization process results in the hyperpolarization of hydroxyethylpropionate. The implementation of this software provides the fast prototyping of PHIP instrumentation for the evaluation of a myriad of 13C based endogenous contrast agents used in molecular imaging.

  20. Nuclear spin hyperpolarization with ansa-aminoboranes: a metal-free perspective for parahydrogen-induced polarization.

    PubMed

    Zhivonitko, Vladimir V; Sorochkina, Kristina; Chernichenko, Konstantin; Kótai, Bianka; Földes, Tamás; Pápai, Imre; Telkki, Ville-Veikko; Repo, Timo; Koptyug, Igor

    2016-10-12

    The parahydrogen-induced polarization (PHIP) phenomenon, observed when parahydrogen is used in H2 addition processes, provides a means for substantial NMR signal enhancements and mechanistic studies of chemical reactions. Commonly, noble metal complexes are used for parahydrogen activation, whereas metal-free activation is rare. Herein, we report a series of unimolecular metal-free frustrated Lewis pairs based on an ansa-aminoborane (AAB) moiety in the context of PHIP. These molecules, which have a "molecular tweezers" structure, differ in their substituents at the boryl site (-H, -Ph, -o-iPr-Ph, and -Mes). PHIP effects were observed for all the AABs after exposing their solutions to parahydrogen in a wide temperature range, and experimental measurements of their kinetic and thermodynamic parameters were performed. A theoretical analysis of their nuclear spin polarization effects is presented, and the roles of chemical exchange, chemical equilibrium and spin dynamics are discussed in terms of the key dimensionless parameters. The analysis allowed us to formulate the prerequisites for achieving strong polarization effects with AAB molecules, which can be applied for further design of efficient metal-free tweezers-like molecules for PHIP. Mechanistic (chemical and physical) aspects of the observed effects are discussed in detail. In addition, we performed quantum chemical calculations, which confirmed that the J-coupling between the parahydrogen-originated protons in AAB-H2 molecules is mediated through dihydrogen bonding.

  1. Parahydrogen-induced polarization in heterogeneous catalytic processes.

    PubMed

    Kovtunov, Kirill V; Zhivonitko, Vladimir V; Skovpin, Ivan V; Barskiy, Danila A; Koptyug, Igor V

    2013-01-01

    Parahydrogen-induced polarization of nuclear spins provides enhancements of NMR signals for various nuclei of up to four to five orders of magnitude in magnetic fields of modern NMR spectrometers and even higher enhancements in low and ultra-low magnetic fields. It is based on the use of parahydrogen in catalytic hydrogenation reactions which, upon pairwise addition of the two H atoms of parahydrogen, can strongly enhance the NMR signals of reaction intermediates and products in solution. A recent advance in this field is the demonstration that PHIP can be observed not only in homogeneous hydrogenations but also in heterogeneous catalytic reactions. The use of heterogeneous catalysts for generating PHIP provides a number of significant advantages over the homogeneous processes, including the possibility to produce hyperpolarized gases, better control over the hydrogenation process, and the ease of separation of hyperpolarized fluids from the catalyst. The latter advantage is of paramount importance in light of the recent tendency toward utilization of hyperpolarized substances in in vivo spectroscopic and imaging applications of NMR. In addition, PHIP demonstrates the potential to become a useful tool for studying mechanisms of heterogeneous catalytic processes and for in situ studies of operating catalytic reactors. Here, the known examples of PHIP observations in heterogeneous reactions over immobilized transition metal complexes, supported metals, and some other types of heterogeneous catalysts are discussed and the applications of the technique for hypersensitive NMR imaging studies are presented.

  2. Veteran Use of Health Care Systems in Rural States: Comparing VA and Non-VA Health Care Use Among Privately Insured Veterans Under Age 65.

    PubMed

    Charlton, Mary E; Mengeling, Michelle A; Schlichting, Jennifer A; Jiang, Lan; Turvey, Carolyn; Trivedi, Amal N; Kizer, Kenneth W; West, Alan N

    2016-09-01

    To quantify use of VA and non-VA care among working-age veterans with private insurance by linking VA data to private health insurance plan (PHIP) data. Demographics and utilization were compared between dual users of VA and non-VA systems versus single-system users for veterans < 65 living in 2 rural Midwestern states concurrently enrolled in VA health care and a PHIP for ≥ 1 complete federal fiscal year from 2000 to 2010. Chi-square and t-tests were used for univariate analyses. VA reliance was computed as the percentage of visits, admissions and prescriptions in VA. Multinomial logistic regression was used to compare characteristics by dual use versus non-VA only or VA only use. Of 16,330 eligible veterans, 54% used both VA and non-VA services, 39% used non-VA only, and 5% used VA only. Compared with single-system use, dual use was associated with older age, priority levels 1-4, service-connected conditions, rural residence, greater years of study eligibility, and enrollment in the PHIP before VA. VA reliance was 33% for outpatient care, 14% for inpatient, and 40% for pharmacy. PHIP data substantially underestimated VA use compared to VA data; 26% who used VA health care had no VA claims in the PHIP dataset. Over half of working-age veterans enrolled in VA and private insurance used services in both systems. Care coordination efforts across systems should include veterans of all ages, particularly rural veterans more likely to be dual users, and better methods are needed to identify veterans with private insurance and their private providers. © 2016 National Rural Health Association.

  3. The mutagenicity of food mutagenes in the intestine

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, X.B.; Heddle, J.A.; Felton, J.

    1995-11-01

    PhIP and amino ({alpha})carboline (AAC) have been identified as mutagens in cooked food by means of the Ames test. In this study they were incorporated in the diet (400 and 800 ppm respectively) of groups of 3 {male} {male} and 3 {female} {female} mice F{sub 1} (C57B1/6 X SWR) mice heterozygous for a lac1 transgene (the Big Blue {trademark} Mouse) and at Dlb-1. The Dlb-1 locus controls the presence (+) or absence of a lectin-binding site in the small intestine so mutational loss of the dominant + allele can be seen as ribbons of non-staining cells on the villi. PhIP has been shown to be mutagenic in the small intestine by Brooks et al., with this assay. Its activity in the colon, where human cancers arise, has not been reported. lac1 mutations were assayed in the epithelial cells of both the colon and small intestine. PhIP was mutagenic in the Dlb-1 assay (thereby confirming Brooks et al.) and induced lac1 mutations in both colon and small intestine about equally. AAC was not mutagenic in the small intestine at Dlb-1 or lac1, but induced lac1 mutations at a rate (mutations/ppm*days) in the colon similar to PhIP. The concentrations of PhIP and AAC were about 10,000 times that found in the human diet, but the maximum exposures were much shorter: 90 and 45 days respectively.

  4. A pulse sequence for singlet to heteronuclear magnetization transfer: S2hM

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stevanato, Gabriele; Eills, James; Bengs, Christian; Pileio, Giuseppe

    2017-04-01

    We have recently demonstrated, in the context of para-hydrogen induced polarization (PHIP), the conversion of hyperpolarized proton singlet order into heteronuclear magnetisation can be efficiently achieved via a new sequence named S2hM (Singlet to heteronuclear Magnetisation). In this paper we give a detailed theoretical description, supported by an experimental illustration, of S2hM. Theory and experiments on thermally polarized samples demonstrate the proposed method is robust to frequency offset mismatches and radiofrequency field inhomogeneities. The simple implementation, optimisation and the high conversion efficiency, under various regimes of magnetic equivalence, makes S2hM an excellent candidate for a widespread use, particularly within the PHIP arena.

  5. Profiles and concentrations of heterocyclic aromatic amines formed in beef during various heat treatments depend on the time of ripening and muscle type.

    PubMed

    Szterk, Arkadiusz; Roszko, Marek; Małek, Krystian; Kurek, Marcin; Zbieć, Monika; Waszkiewicz-Robak, Bożena

    2012-12-01

    Heterocyclic Aromatic Amine (HAA) profiles and concentrations depended on several factors. The largest changes in the HAA profile were observed in meat ripened (chill stored) for 5-10 days. Amines whos concentration varied most prominently included: Phe-P 1, harmane, AαC, IQ, IQx, PhIP, MeAαC, and MeIQx. HAA concentrations were strongly correlated with concentrations of the above compounds. Time of storage significantly affected the HAA profile and concentration. The profile changed dynamically for storage times up to 10 days. For longer times the profile stabilized, only the HAA content increased. A novel, highly precise and accurate HAA analytical method was developed for this study. Results may help to optimize meat processing technology from the point of view of reducing concentration of HAA formed during heat treatment, including the most carcinogenic; IQ, IQx, MeIQx and PhIP amines.

  6. Synthetic approach for unsaturated precursors for parahydrogen induced polarization of choline and its analogs†

    PubMed Central

    Shchepin, Roman V.; Chekmenev, Eduard Y.

    2014-01-01

    Reported here are (i) a new synthetic approach for preparation of (ii) a new compound class, of –OH, for example, an –OH group is replaced with acetyl protecting group, protected 1,2-dehydrocholine analogs and (iii) a new synthetic route for betaine aldehyde. The C=C bond of 1,2-dehydrocholine moiety can be used for molecular addition of parahydrogen producing –OH protected hyperpolarized choline by parahydrogen-induced polarization (PHIP). The reported synthetic approach allows for incorporation of 15N and deuterium labels, which are necessary for preparation of highly polarized PHIP contrast agents. Isotope labeling with 15N and/or deuterium was conducted. Hyperpolarized 15N-choline enabled by the reported synthetic approach can be potentially used as an imaging biomarker of cancer similar to choline positron emission tomography tracers. PMID:25196027

  7. [Effects of acid rain stress on Eleocarpus glabripetalus seedlings leaf chlorophyll fluorescence characteristics and growth].

    PubMed

    Yin, Xiu-Min; Yu, Shu-Quan; Jiang, Hong; Liu, Mei-Hu

    2010-06-01

    A pot experiment was conducted to study the Eleocarpus glabripetalus seedlings leaf chlorophyll fluorescence characteristics and growth in different seasons under simulated acid rain stress (heavy, pH = 2. 5; moderate, pH = 4.0; and control, pH = 5.6). In the same treatments, the leaf relative chlorophyll content (SPAD), maximum PS II photochemical efficiency (F(v)/F(m)), actual PSII photochemical quantum yield (phi(PS II)), plant height, and stem diameter in different seasons were all in the order of October > July > April > January. In the same seasons, all the parameters were in the order of heavy acid rain > moderate acid rain > control. The interactions between different acid rain stress and seasons showed significant effects on the SPAD, F(v)/F(m), plant height, and stem diameter, but lesser effects on phi(PS II), qp and qN.

  8. Polarized nuclear target based on parahydrogen induced polarization

    SciTech Connect

    D. Budker, M.P. Ledbetter, S. Appelt, L.S. Bouchard, B. Wojtsekhowski

    2012-12-01

    We discuss a novel concept of a polarized nuclear target for accelerator fixed-target scattering experiments, which is based on parahydrogen induced polarization (PHIP). One may be able to reach a 33% free-proton polarization in the ethane molecule. The potential advantages of such a target include operation at zero magnetic field, fast ({approx}100 HZ) polarization oscillation (akin to polarization reversal), and operation with large intensity of an electron beam.

  9. The breast cancer resistance protein BCRP (ABCG2) concentrates drugs and carcinogenic xenotoxins into milk.

    PubMed

    Jonker, Johan W; Merino, Gracia; Musters, Sandra; van Herwaarden, Antonius E; Bolscher, Ellen; Wagenaar, Els; Mesman, Elly; Dale, Trevor C; Schinkel, Alfred H

    2005-02-01

    Contamination of milk with drugs, pesticides and other xenotoxins can pose a major health risk to breast-fed infants and dairy consumers. Here we show that the multidrug transporter BCRP (encoded by ABCG2) is strongly induced in the mammary gland of mice, cows and humans during lactation and that it is responsible for the active secretion of clinically and toxicologically important substrates such as the dietary carcinogen PhIP, the anticancer drug topotecan and the antiulcerative cimetidine into mouse milk.

  10. Exposure to meat-derived carcinogens and bulky DNA adduct levels in normal-appearing colon mucosa.

    PubMed

    Ho, Vikki; Brunetti, Vanessa; Peacock, Sarah; Massey, Thomas E; Godschalk, Roger W L; van Schooten, Frederik J; Ashbury, Janet E; Vanner, Stephen J; King, Will D

    2017-09-01

    Meat consumption is a risk factor for colorectal cancer. This research investigated the relationship between meat-derived carcinogen exposure and bulky DNA adduct levels, a biomarker of DNA damage, in colon mucosa. Least squares regression was used to examine the relationship between meat-derived carcinogen exposure (PhIP and meat mutagenicity) and bulky DNA adduct levels in normal-appearing colon tissue measured using (32)P-postlabelling among 202 patients undergoing a screening colonoscopy. Gene-diet interactions between carcinogen exposure and genetic factors relevant to biotransformation and DNA repair were also examined. Genotyping was conducting using the MassARRAY(®) iPLEX(®) Gold SNP Genotyping assay. PhIP and higher meat mutagenicity exposures were not associated with levels of bulky DNA adducts in colon mucosa. The XPC polymorphism (rs2228001) was found to associate with bulky DNA adduct levels, whereby genotypes conferring lower DNA repair activity were associated with higher DNA adduct levels than the normal activity genotype. Among individuals with genotypes associated with lower DNA repair (XPD, rs13181 and rs1799179) or detoxification activity (GSTP1, rs1695), higher PhIP or meat mutagenicity exposures were associated with higher DNA adduct levels. Significant interactions between the XPC polymorphism (rs2228000) and both dietary PhIP and meat mutagenicity on DNA adduct levels was observed, but associations were inconsistent with the a priori hypothesized direction of effect. Exposure to meat-derived carcinogens may be associated with increased DNA damage occurring directly in the colon among genetically susceptible individuals. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Computational Characterization and Prediction of Estrogen Receptor Coactivator Binding Site Inhibitors

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2005-09-01

    Gutendorf, andJ. Westendorf. 2000. Endocrine disruptors in fried meat: PhIP is an estrogen. Proceedings of the American Association for Cancer...binding site of the ERa LBD [3-5]. Because these studies have focused on the estradiol binding site, new potential ER disruptors that bind in the co...activator site have been missed. Our proposal focuses on developing a new computational approach to predict therapeutically useful ERa disruptors by

  12. Brattle, Thomas (1658-1713)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murdin, P.

    2000-11-01

    Prominent Boston merchant, tutor at Harvard University, became its treasurer. Observed the comet of 1680 with Harvard's first telescope of 3.5 feet focal length—the observations were mentioned by ISAAC NEWTON in Principia. One of the first astronomers in America, Brattle's unique claim to a place in history is that he persuaded colonial Governor William Phips to order that reliance on spectral an...

  13. Computational Characterization and Prediction of Estrogen Receptor Coactivator Binding Site Inhibitors

    SciTech Connect

    Bennion, B J; Kulp, K S; Cosman, M; Lightstone, F C

    2005-08-26

    Many carcinogens have been shown to cause tissue specific tumors in animal models. The mechanism for this specificity has not been fully elucidated and is usually attributed to differences in organ metabolism. For heterocyclic amines, potent carcinogens that are formed in well-done meat, the ability to either bind to the estrogen receptor and activate or inhibit an estrogenic response will have a major impact on carcinogenicity. Here we describe our work with the human estrogen receptor alpha (hERa) and the mutagenic/carcinogenic heterocyclic amines PhIP, MeIQx, IFP, and the hydroxylated metabolite of PhIP, N2-hydroxy-PhIP. We found that PhIP, in contrast to the other heterocyclic amines, increased cell-proliferation in MCF-7 human breast cancer cells and activated the hERa receptor. We show mechanistic data supporting this activation both computationally by homology modeling and docking, and by NMR confirmation that PhIP binds with the ligand binding domain (LBD). This binding competes with estradiol (E2) in the native E2 binding cavity of the receptor. We also find that other heterocyclic amines and N2-hydroxy-PhIP inhibit ER activation presumably by binding into another cavity on the LBD. Moreover, molecular dynamics simulations of inhibitory heterocyclic amines reveal a disruption of the surface of the receptor protein involved with protein-protein signaling. We therefore propose that the mechanism for the tissue specific carcinogenicity seen in the rat breast tumors and the presumptive human breast cancer associated with the consumption of well-done meat maybe mediated by this receptor activation.

  14. [Response of photosynthetic characteristics of peanut seedlings leaves to low light].

    PubMed

    Zhang, Kun; Wan, Yong-shan; Liu, Feng-zhen; Zhang, Er-qun; Wang, Su

    2009-12-01

    To investigate the effects of shading and light recovery on the photosynthetic characteristics of peanut seedlings leaves, different shading treatments including no shading, 27% shading, 43% shading, and 77% shading were performed with black sunshade net at the seedling stage of two peanut cultivars Fenghua 1 and Fenghua 2, with related parameters determined. It was shown that with the increase of shading degree, the leaf chlorophyll content, actual PSII photochemical efficiency under irradiance (phi(PS II)), and maximum PS II photochemical efficiency (Fv/Fm) of test cultivars increased, while the Chl a/b ratio and photosynthetic rate (Pn) decreased. On the first day after light recovery, the Pn and stomatal conductance (Gs) decreased while the intercellular CO2 concentration (Ci) increased with increasing shading degree when measured under high light, but the Pn increased and the Gs and Ci decreased with increasing shading degree when measured under low light. The ratio of Pn measured under low light to that measured under high light increased significantly. With increasing shading degree, the light compensation point, light saturation point, CO2 compensation point, CO2 saturation point, and carboxylation efficiency decreased, while the apparent quantum yield increased. After the removal of shading, the Pn, phi(PS II), and Fv/Fm under natural light decreased immediately, but increased gradually 3-5 days after. 15 days after light recovery, the Pn, phi(PS II) and Fv/Fm in treatment 27% shading recovered to the level of no shading. As for the other treatments, the restored extent differed with shading degree and test variety. In the same treatments, the leaf chlorophyll content, Pn and phi(PS II) of Fenghua 1 were higher than those of Fenghua 2. The results demonstrated that shading at seedling stage improved the capabilities of test varieties in using low light, but reduced the capabilities in using high light.

  15. Protein Adducts of the Prostate Carcinogen PhlP in Children

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-02-01

    DAMD17-03-1-0076 TITLE: Protein Adducts of the Prostate Carcinogen PhIP in Children PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR: Paul T. Henderson, Ph.D...response, including the time for reviewing instructions, searching existing data sources, gathering and maintaining the data needed, and completing and... reviewing this collection of information. Send comments regarding this burden estimate or any other aspect of this collection of information

  16. Inhibitory effects of pomegranate seed extract on the formation of heterocyclic aromatic amines in beef and chicken meatballs after cooking by four different methods.

    PubMed

    Keşkekoğlu, Hasan; Uren, Ali

    2014-04-01

    Beef and chicken meatballs with a 0.5% (w/w) pomegranate seed extract were cooked using four different cooking methods (oven roasting, pan cooking, charcoal-barbecue, and deep-fat frying) and six heterocyclic aromatic amines; IQ, MeIQx, 4,8-DiMeIQx, PhIP, norharman, and harman were observed. In the beef meatballs, the highest inhibitory effects of pomegranate seed extract on heterocyclic aromatic amines formation were 68% for PhIP, 24% for norharman, 18% for harman, 45% for IQ, and 57% for MeIQx. Total heterocyclic aromatic amine formation was reduced by 39% and 46% in beef meatballs cooked by charcoal-barbecue and deep-fat frying, respectively. In the chicken meatballs, the highest inhibitory effects were 75% for PhIP, 57% for norharman, 28% for harman, 46% for IQ, and 49% for MeIQx. When the pomegranate seed extract was added to the chicken meatballs cooked by deep-fat frying, the total heterocyclic aromatic amine formation was inhibited by 49%, in contrast the total heterocyclic aromatic amine contents after oven roasting increased by 70%.

  17. Hamiltonian Approach to Nonlinear Travelling Whistler Waves

    SciTech Connect

    Webb, G.M.; McKenzie, J.F.; Dubinin, E.; Sauer, K.

    2005-08-01

    A Hamiltonian formulation of nonlinear, parallel propagating, travelling whistler waves is discussed. The model is based on the equations of two-fluid electron-proton plasmas. In the cold gas limit, the complete system of equations reduces to two coupled differential equations for the transverse electron speed u and a phase variable {phi} = {phi}p - {phi}e representing the difference in the phases of the transverse complex velocities of the protons and the electrons. Two integrals of the equations are obtained. The Hamiltonian integral H, is used to classify the trajectories in the ({phi}, w) phase plane, where {phi} and w = u2 are the canonical coordinates. Periodic, oscillation solitary wave and compacton solutions are obtained, depending on the value of the Hamiltonian integral H and the Alfven Mach number M of the travelling wave. The individual electron and proton phase variables {phi}e and {phi}p are determined in terms of {phi} and w. An alternative Hamiltonian formulation in which {phi}-tilde = {phi}p + {phi}e is the new independent variable replacing x is used to write the travelling wave solutions parametrically in terms of {phi}-tilde.

  18. Concentration-dependent inhibition of Escherichia coli O157:H7 and heterocyclic amines in heated ground beef patties by apple and olive extracts, onion powder and clove bud oil.

    PubMed

    Rounds, Liliana; Havens, Cody M; Feinstein, Yelena; Friedman, Mendel; Ravishankar, Sadhana

    2013-08-01

    The effects of plant compounds on Escherichia coli O157:H7 and two major heat-induced heterocyclic amines (HCAs) MeIQx and PhIP in grilled ground beef patties were determined. Ground beef with added apple and olive extracts, onion powder, and clove bud oil was inoculated with E. coli O157:H7 (10⁷ CFU/g) and cooked to reach 45 °C at the geometric center, flipped and then cooked for another 5 min. Cooled samples were taken for microbiological and HCA analyses. Olive extract at 3% reduced E. coli O157:H7 to below detection. Reductions of up to 1 log were achieved with apple extract. Olive and apple extracts reduced MeIQx by up to 49.1 and 50.9% and PhIP by up to 50.6 and 65.2%, respectively. Onion powder reduced MeIQx and PhIP by 47 and 80.7%, respectively. Inactivation of E. coli O157:H7 and suppression of HCAs in grilled meat were achieved by optimized amounts of selected plant compounds.

  19. Open-Source Automated Parahydrogen Hyperpolarizer for Molecular Imaging Using (13)C Metabolic Contrast Agents.

    PubMed

    Coffey, Aaron M; Shchepin, Roman V; Truong, Milton L; Wilkens, Ken; Pham, Wellington; Chekmenev, Eduard Y

    2016-08-16

    An open-source hyperpolarizer producing (13)C hyperpolarized contrast agents using parahydrogen induced polarization (PHIP) for biomedical and other applications is presented. This PHIP hyperpolarizer utilizes an Arduino microcontroller in conjunction with a readily modified graphical user interface written in the open-source processing software environment to completely control the PHIP hyperpolarization process including remotely triggering an NMR spectrometer for efficient production of payloads of hyperpolarized contrast agent and in situ quality assurance of the produced hyperpolarization. Key advantages of this hyperpolarizer include: (i) use of open-source software and hardware seamlessly allowing for replication and further improvement as well as readily customizable integration with other NMR spectrometers or MRI scanners (i.e., this is a multiplatform design), (ii) relatively low cost and robustness, and (iii) in situ detection capability and complete automation. The device performance is demonstrated by production of a dose (∼2-3 mL) of hyperpolarized (13)C-succinate with %P13C ∼ 28% and 30 mM concentration and (13)C-phospholactate at %P13C ∼ 15% and 25 mM concentration in aqueous medium. These contrast agents are used for ultrafast molecular imaging and spectroscopy at 4.7 and 0.0475 T. In particular, the conversion of hyperpolarized (13)C-phospholactate to (13)C-lactate in vivo is used here to demonstrate the feasibility of ultrafast multislice (13)C MRI after tail vein injection of hyperpolarized (13)C-phospholactate in mice.

  20. Ability of probiotic Lactobacillus casei DN 114001 to bind or/and metabolise heterocyclic aromatic amines in vitro.

    PubMed

    Nowak, Adriana; Libudzisz, Zdzislawa

    2009-10-01

    Heterocyclic aromatic amines (HCA) are compounds with high mutagenic potential, formed when meat is cooked at high temperatures of 150-300 degrees C. These compounds contribute to development of colon and gastric cancer. Western diet provides a lot of HCA and influences the available substrates for the intestinal microbiota which can activate HCA to direct acting mutagens. On the other hand, lactic acid bacteria existing in the colon and ingested with food including probiotics, may exert an anti-carcinogenic action, but the mechanism is still poorly understood. In the present study we determined the ability of probiotic Lactobacillus casei DN 114001 (Actimel strain) to metabolise or adsorb three HCA: IQ, MelQx and PhIP in vitro. Lactobacilli were cultivated in MRS and in a modified MRS broth with reduced concentrations of nitrogen and carbon (MRS NC), with addition of 25 mug/ml of IQ, MelQx or PhIP. Their concentration after cultivation with L. casei DN 114001 was measured with high-performance liquid chromatography and the genotoxicity was evaluated by the alkaline comet assay. It was measured, that after 24 h cultivation in MRS (cell density was 10(9) cfu/ml), rapid decrease of IQ and PhIP (98-99%) was observed, and the peaks on chromatograms were almost completely reduced. In case of MeIQx the decrease was about 27%. In a modified MRS broth (cell density was 10(8) cfu/ml), the ability to decrease HCA concentration during prolonged cultivation (to 168 h) depended on the growth phase of bacteria, and it was about 51.5% for IQ and at about 11.2% for MeIQx. Non-growing cells (in phosphate buffer), could reduce the content of IQ and PhIP from 72 h to the end of incubation. L. casei DN 114001 reduced genotoxicity of HCA (IQ from 46 to 48%; MeIQx from 35 to 65% and PhIP from 32 to 81%), and the degree depended on the incubation time, cell growth and the medium used. It may suggest that bacteria can metabolise or adsorb HCA.

  1. Heterocyclic aromatic amine formation in barbecued sardines (Sardina pilchardus) and Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar).

    PubMed

    Costa, Mariana; Viegas, Olga; Melo, Armindo; Petisca, Catarina; Pinho, Olívia; Ferreira, Isabel M P L V O

    2009-04-22

    The formation of heterocyclic aromatic amines (HAs) during barbecuing of sardines ( Sardina pilchardus ) and Atlantic salmon ( Salmo salar ) to various degrees of doneness and grilling conditions was evaluated by HPLC-diode array (DAD)/fluorescence (FLD) detection. Additionally, the influences of charcoal and electric heat sources on formation of HAs in grilled salmon were compared. With regard to sardine samples barbecued at 280-300 degrees C, "rare" samples produced nondetectable amounts of HAs, "medium" sardines presented IQ, MeIQx, PhIP, and AalphaC at levels of 1.9, 4.4, 3.3, and 2.0 ng/g, respectively, and "well done" sardines presented IQ, MeIQx, Trp-P-1, Trp-P-2, PhIP, AalphaC, and MeAalphaC at levels of 0.9, 2.2, 1.8, 8.2, 6.5, 17.7, and 10.6 ng/g, respectively. Different qualitative and quantitative profiles of HAs were observed in sardine and salmon samples cooked under similar conditions of temperature and doneness. Levels of 13.3, 3.5, 1.13, and 3.18 ng/g were obtained, respectively, for PhIP, AalphaC, MeAalphaC, and Glu-P-1 in salmon samples barbecued at 280-300 degrees C. The contents of HAs were significantly higher in these samples than in salmon samples barbecued at 180-200 degrees C or in the electric device. However, MeIQx content (0.5 ng/g) was lower in salmon samples barbecued at 280-300 degrees C than in the other samples.

  2. Genetically modified CHO cells for studying the genotoxicity of heterocyclic amines from cooked foods

    SciTech Connect

    Thompson, L.H.; Wu, R.W.; Felton, J.S.

    1995-07-01

    We have developed metabolically competent CHO cells to evaluate the genotoxicity associated with heterocyclic amines, such as those that are present in cooked foods. Into repair-deficient UV5 cells we introduced cDNAs for expressing cytochrome P450IA2 and acetyltransferases. We then genetically reverted these transformed lines to obtain matched metabolically competent repair-deficient/proficient lines. For a high mutagenic response, we find a requirement for acetyltransferase with IQ but not with PhIP. This system allows for both quantifying mutagenesis and analyzing the mutational spectra produced by heterocyclic amines.

  3. Alterations in Cell Signaling Pathways in Breast Cancer Cells after Environmental Exposure

    SciTech Connect

    Kulp, K; McCutcheon-Maloney, S M; Bennett, L M

    2003-02-01

    Recent human epidemiological studies suggest that up to 75% of human cancers can be attributed to environmental exposures. Understanding the biologic impact of being exposed to a lifetime of complex environmental mixtures that may not be fully characterized is currently a major challenge. Functional endpoints may be used to assess the gross health consequences of complex mixture exposures from groundwater contamination, superfund sites, biologic releases, or nutritional sources. Such endpoints include the stimulation of cell growth or the induction of a response in an animal model. An environmental exposure that upsets normal cell growth regulation may have important ramifications for cancer development. Stimulating cell growth may alter an individual's cancer risk by changing the expression of genes and proteins that have a role in growth regulatory pathways within cells. Modulating the regulation of these genes and their products may contribute to the initiation, promotion or progression of disease in response to environmental exposure. We are investigating diet-related compounds that induce cell proliferation in breast cancer cell lines. These compounds, PhIP, Flor-Essence{reg_sign} and Essiac{reg_sign}, may be part of an everyday diet. PhIP is a naturally occurring mutagen that is formed in well-cooked muscle meats. PhIP consistently causes dose-dependent breast tumor formation in rats and consumption of well-done meat has been linked to increased risk of breast cancer in women. Flor-Essence{reg_sign} and Essiac{reg_sign} herbal tonics are complementary and alternative medicines used by women who have been diagnosed with breast cancer as an alternative therapy for disease treatment and prevention. The long-term goal of this work is to identify those cellular pathways that are altered by a chemical or biologic environmental exposure and understand how those changes correlate with and or predict changes in human health risk. This project addressed this goal by

  4. [Effects of controlled-release fertilizer on chrysanthemum leaf chlorophyll fluorescence characteristics and ornamental quality].

    PubMed

    Song, Xu-xu; Zheng, Cheng-shu; Sun, Xia; Ma, Hai-yan

    2011-07-01

    Taking cut flower chrysanthemum 'Baima' as test material, a pot experiment was conducted to study the effects of controlled-release fertilizer on the leaf chlorophyll fluorescence parameters, chlorophyll and nutrient contents, and ornamental quality of chrysanthemum. Under no fertilization, the maximal photochemical efficiency of PS II in dark (F(v)/F(m)), potential photochemical efficiency of PS II (F(v)/F(0)), and quantum yield of PS II electron transport (phi(PS II)) decreased significantly, compared with those under fertilization. With the application of conventional compound fertilizers CCFA (N:P:K=20:8:10) and CCFB (N:P:K= 14:14:14), the F(v)/F(m), F(v)/F(0) and phi(PS II) had a slight increase in early period (30-60 d) but a remarkable decrease in mid and later periods (75 - 120 d), compared with those under the application of controlled-release fertilizers CRFA (N:P:K = 20:8:10) and CRFB (N:P:K= 14:14:14). Under the application of CRFA, the F(v)/F(m), phi(PS II), and photochemical quenching (q(P)) had somewhat increase, as compared with the application of CRFB. The non-photochemical quenching (NPQ) under the application of CRFA and CRFB decreased significantly, compared with that under the application of CCFA and CCFB and the control. The chlorophyll content had a similar change trend with F(v)/F(m), F(v)/F(0), and phi(PS II). The leaf N, P, and K contents, flower stalk length and stalk diameter, flower diameter, and flower fresh and dry mass at harvest stage all increased under the application of CRFA and CRFB, compared with those under the application of CCFA and CCFB and the control, and the flower fresh and dry mass was significantly higher under the application of CRFA than of CRFB. This study showed that controlled-release fertilizer could improve the ornamental quality of chrysanthemum via improving the leaf chlorophyll content, photochemical transduction rate, and nutrient uptake, and CRFA had better effects than CRFB.

  5. Severe Symptomatic Primary Human Cytomegalovirus Infection despite Effective Innate and Adaptive Immune Responses.

    PubMed

    Riou, Raphaëlle; Bressollette-Bodin, Céline; Boutoille, David; Gagne, Katia; Rodallec, Audrey; Lefebvre, Maeva; Raffi, François; Senitzer, David; Imbert-Marcille, Berthe-Marie; Retière, Christelle

    2017-03-01

    Primary human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) infection usually goes unnoticed, causing mild or no symptoms in immunocompetent individuals. However, some rare severe clinical cases have been reported without investigation of host immune responses or viral virulence. In the present study, we investigate for the first time phenotypic and functional features, together with gene expression profiles in immunocompetent adults experiencing a severe primary HCMV infection. Twenty primary HCMV-infected patients (PHIP) were enrolled, as well as 26 HCMV-seronegative and 39 HCMV-seropositive healthy controls. PHIP had extensive lymphocytosis marked by massive expansion of natural killer (NK) and T cell compartments. Interestingly, PHIP mounted efficient innate and adaptive immune responses with a deep HCMV imprint, revealed mainly by the expansion of NKG2C(+) NK cells, CD16(+) Vδ2(-) γδ T cells, and conventional HCMV-specific CD8(+) T cells. The main effector lymphocytes were activated and displayed an early immune phenotype that developed toward a more mature differentiated status. We suggest that both massive lymphocytosis and excessive lymphocyte activation could contribute to massive cytokine production, known to mediate tissue damage observed in PHIP. Taken together, these findings bring new insights into the comprehensive understanding of immune mechanisms involved during primary HCMV infection in immunocompetent individuals.IMPORTANCE HCMV-specific immune responses have been extensively documented in immunocompromised patients and during in utero acquisition. While it usually goes unnoticed, some rare severe clinical cases of primary HCMV infection have been reported in immunocompetent patients. However, host immune responses or HCMV virulence in these patients has not so far been investigated. In the present study, we show massive expansion of NK and T cell compartments during the symptomatic stage of acute HCMV infection. The patients mounted efficient innate and adaptive

  6. Want of Proper Spirit and Energy: The Penobscot Expedition of 1779

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-06-10

    Colonial Wars: 1689-1762 ( Chicago : University of Chicago , 1964), 31. 30Viola F. Barnes, ―The Rise of William Phips,‖ The New England Quarterly 1, no...56Samuel Adams Drake, The Taking of Louisburg, 1745 (Boston: Lee and Shepard , 1890), 54-55. The measure might have failed except that one of the...Wars of New England. New York: Charles Scribner’s Sons, 1897. ———. The Taking of Louisburg, 1745. Boston: Lee and Shepard , 1890. Drake, Samuel

  7. Immobilization and functional reconstitution of antibody Fab fragment by solid-phase refolding.

    PubMed

    Kumada, Yoichi; Hamasaki, Kyoto; Nakagawa, Aya; Sasaki, Eiju; Shirai, Tatsunori; Okumura, Masahiro; Inoue, Manami; Kishimoto, Michimasa

    2013-12-31

    In this study, we demonstrated the successful preparation of a Fab antibody-immobilized hydrophilic polystyrene (phi-PS) plate via one- and two-step solid-phase refolding methods. Both polystyrene-binding peptide (PS-tag)-fused Fd fragment of heavy chain (Fab H-PS) and full-length of light-chain (Fab L-PS) were individually produced in insoluble fractions of Escherichia coli cells, and they were highly purified in the presence of 8M of urea. Antigen-binding activities of Fab antibody immobilized were correctly recovered by the one-step solid-phase refolding method that a mixture of Fab H-PS and Fab L-PS was immobilized in the presence of 0.5-2M urea, followed by surface washing of the phi-PS plate with PBST. These results indicate that by genetic fusion of a PS-tag, a complex between Fab H and Fab L was efficiently immobilized on the surface of a phi-PS plate even in the presence of a low concentration of urea, and was then correctly refolded to retain its high antigen-binding activity via removal of the urea. A two-step solid-phase refolding method whereby Fab H-PS and Fab L-PS were successively refolded on the surface of a phi-PS plate also resulted in Fab antibody formation on the plate. Furthermore, both the binding affinity and the specificity of the Fab antibody produced by the two-step method were highly maintained, according to the results of sandwich ELISA and competitive ELISA using Fab antibody-immobilized plate via two-step solid-phase refolding. Thus, the solid-phase refolding method demonstrated in this study should be quite useful for the preparation of a Fab antibody-immobilized PS surface with high efficiency from individually produced Fab H-PS and Fab L-PS. This method will be applicable to the preparation of a large Fab antibody library on the surface of a PS plate for use in antibody screening.

  8. Comparison of measured and computed phase functions of individual tropospheric ice crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stegmann, Patrick G.; Tropea, Cameron; Järvinen, Emma; Schnaiter, Martin

    2016-07-01

    Airplanes passing the incuda (lat. anvils) regions of tropical cumulonimbi-clouds are at risk of suffering an engine power-loss event and engine damage due to ice ingestion (Mason et al., 2006 [1]). Research in this field relies on optical measurement methods to characterize ice crystals; however the design and implementation of such methods presently suffer from the lack of reliable and efficient means of predicting the light scattering from ice crystals. The nascent discipline of direct measurement of phase functions of ice crystals in conjunction with particle imaging and forward modelling through geometrical optics derivative- and Transition matrix-codes for the first time allow us to obtain a deeper understanding of the optical properties of real tropospheric ice crystals. In this manuscript, a sample phase function obtained via the Particle Habit Imaging and Polar Scattering (PHIPS) probe during a measurement campaign in flight over Brazil will be compared to three different light scattering codes. This includes a newly developed first order geometrical optics code taking into account the influence of the Gaussian beam illumination used in the PHIPS device, as well as the reference ray tracing code of Macke and the T-matrix code of Kahnert.

  9. An in vitro model system to predict the bioaccessibility of heterocyclic amines from a cooked meat matrix.

    PubMed

    Kulp, Kristen S; Fortson, Susan L; Knize, Mark G; Felton, James S

    2003-12-01

    To understand the impact of variation in digestion parameters on the release of heterocyclic amines naturally formed during cooking, we developed and characterized a model system to assess the effect of amylase, pepsin, and pancreatin on digestion of well-done chicken. The amounts of MeIQx, DiMeIQx, IFP, and PhIP in the liquid portion of the digestate were compared to levels in the undigested meat to determine the percentage released (accessible fraction). Incubating the meat with amylase and pepsin did not change the accessibility of HAs when compared to incubation with water alone. In contrast, increasing amounts of pancreatin increased the accessibility up to 6.4-fold. Comparing the amounts of the HAs in the liquid to the solid fraction showed that there was more MeIQx, DiMeIQx, and IFP in the liquid fraction. In contrast, PhIP was equally divided between the solid and liquid fractions. For all four compounds, increasing the doneness of the meat decreased the amount of the compound accessible from the meat matrix. Our data suggest that bioaccessability of HAs may vary according to the polarity of the individual HAs and also may depend upon the doneness of the meat. These results may have important ramifications for human feeding studies, which assume that the total amount of each HA in the meat matrix is equally bioavailable.

  10. Detoxification of chlorella supplement on heterocyclic amines in Korean young adults.

    PubMed

    Lee, Inyeong; Tran, Minhphuong; Evans-Nguyen, Theresa; Stickle, Dawn; Kim, Soyeon; Han, Jaegab; Park, Jong Y; Yang, Mihi

    2015-01-01

    Heterocyclic amines (HCAs) and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) have been established as carcinogenic chemicals in Western diet. This study was performed to estimate HCA exposure levels in Korean daily life and to assess the ability of Chlorella vulgaris to detoxify carcinogenic HCAs in a randomized, double blind, placebo-controlled crossover study with chlorella supplement (N=6, all females, age: 27.17±7.73yr) for 2 weeks. We analyzed HCAs in hydrolyzed urine specimens using LC/TOF-MS. As results, urinary levels of MeIQx, PhIP, and IQx-8-COOH were 323.36±220.11ng/L, 351.59±254.93ng/L, and 130.85±83.22ng/L, respectively. Effects of chlorella to reduce urinary MeIQx were marginally significant (before, 430±226.86pg/mL vs. after, 174.45±101.65pg/mL: 0.05PhIP or IQx-8-COOH, a major metabolite of MeIQx, were not changed by chlorella supplementation. In conclusion, our study demonstrates that current daily levels of HCA exposure in Korean young adults are not lower than those in the Western world. In addition, the effects of chlorella's to detoxify HCAs likely occur by interfering e with absorption or metabolism.

  11. Influence of beer marinades on the reduction of carcinogenic heterocyclic aromatic amines in charcoal-grilled pork meat.

    PubMed

    Viegas, Olga; Moreira, Patrícia S; Ferreira, Isabel M P L V O

    2015-01-01

    The effect of beer marinades on the formation of heterocyclic aromatic amines (HAs) was examined in charcoal-grilled pork. Pilsner, non-alcoholic pilsner and black beers (coded respectively as PB, P0B and BB) were assayed and unmarinated samples cooked under similar conditions provided reference HAs levels. Two thermic (PhIP and 4,8-DiMeIQx) and three pyrolytic HAs (Trp-P-1, AαC, MeAαC) were quantified in unmarinated meat samples. Marinating meat in beer resulted in a significant decrease of PhIP, Trp-P-1 and AαC (p < 0.05). 4,8-DiMeIQx formation was inhibited only by BB marinade. No significant effect was observed on MeAαC formation. All beers reduced total HA formation in charcoal-grilled pork, black beer being the most efficient with a level of 90% inhibition. A strong positive correlation was observed between the inhibitory effect of beer on total HA formation and their antioxidant activity. Beer marinades mitigate the impact of consumption of well-done grilled pork meat reducing the formation of cooking carcinogens.

  12. Investigation of the separation of heterocyclic aromatic amines by reversed phase ion-pair liquid chromatography coupled with tandem mass spectrometry: the role of ion pair reagents on LC-MS/MS sensitivity.

    PubMed

    Bianchi, F; Careri, M; Corradini, C; Elviri, L; Mangia, A; Zagnoni, I

    2005-10-25

    Reversed phase ion-pair chromatography (RP-IPC) of seven heterocyclic aromatic amines encompassing quinoline (IQ, MeIQ), quinoxaline (MeIQx), pyridine (PhIP) and carboline derivatives (AalphaC, Harman, Norharman) was carried out with formate as counter ion in an aqueous eluent with acetonitrile as organic modifier. TSKgel ODS-80TS was used as the stationary phase. With the aim of acquiring a better insight into the mutual influence of ion-pair reagent and the organic modifier upon solute retention, the study was performed by using an experimental design approach able to evidencing the effect of the simultaneous variation of the two factors. A model for the chromatographic behavior of the amines is proposed that includes classical ion-pair mechanism involving formate in the case of MeIQx, PhIP, Harman and Norharman. A competitive ion-exchange mechanism was hypothesized to govern retention of quinoline compounds, whereas electrostatic interactions and hydrogen bond formation with the silanols of the stationary phase were judged to be responsible for the retention of AalphaC. Further, the chromatographic behavior of the analytes using the formic acid-ammonium formate buffer in the mobile phase was compared with that observed using acetic acid-ammonium acetate buffer. The method based on the use of RP IPC with tandem mass spectrometry when the eluent contained formate buffer at pH 2.8 exhibited higher detectability with respect to that achieved using the acetate buffer.

  13. Human glutathion S-transferase A1 polymorphism and susceptibility to urothelial cancer in the Japanese population.

    PubMed

    Komiya, Yasuhiro; Tsukino, Hiromasa; Nakao, Hiroyuki; Kuroda, Yoshiki; Imai, Hirohisa; Katoh, Takahiko

    2005-04-18

    GSTA1 has been reported to be most efficient in detoxifying N-acetoxy PhIP. In this study, 341 Japanese urothelial cancer patients and 457 healthy controls were compared for frequencies of GSTA1 genotype. We present the first evidence of an association between GSTA1*B (-567G, -69T, -52A) and urothelial cancer among never smokers. The frequency of GSTA1 *A/*B or *B/*B genotype was 24.3% in urothelial cancer cases, compared with 21.2% in the control groups (OR=1.22; 95%CI 0.87-1.72) after adjustment for age, gender and smoking status. But among never smokers, the GSTA1 *A/*B or *B/*B genotype was significantly higher in urothelial cancer cases (31.2%) compared with the controls (19.9%) (OR=1.73; 95%CI 1.01-2.97). This study suggests that exposure to food-derived PhIP could be one of the risk factors in the incidence of urothelial cancer in never smokers.

  14. Degradation of heterocyclic aromatic amines in oil under storage and frying conditions and reduction of their mutagenic potential.

    PubMed

    Randel, G; Balzer, M; Grupe, S; Drusch, S; Kaina, B; Platt, K-L; Schwarz, K

    2007-11-01

    Heterocyclic aromatic amines (HAA) were systematically studied concerning their partition behavior in water/oil-systems and their thermostability in different animal derived fats and vegetable oils. Partitioning of IQx-compounds and PhIP in water/oil systems was found to depend on the polarity defined by the molecular structure and on the pH-value of the aqueous phase. In particular, beta-carbolines norharman and harman showed a significant strong lipophilic character at alkaline pH. After heating in frying fats at 130 degrees C, contents of IQx compounds and PhIP were reduced by more than 40% and after heating at 180 degrees C less than 10% of the HAA initial concentration was recovered. By contrast, norharman and harman were much more stable under equivalent conditions. The present study leads for the first time to the conclusion that degradation of HAA in frying fats strongly correlates to the type of frying fat and is promoted by lipid oxidation products. Firstly, addition of hydroperoxides to model oils lead to a decrease of HAA during storage at 40 degrees C. Secondly, stability of HAA correlated with the content of unsaturated fatty acids in the oil, which is indicative for the oxidative stability of the medium. Degradation of HAA by heat treatment was associated with a reduction of their mutagenic potential towards strain TA98 of Salmonella typhimurium.

  15. Estimation of Reconnection Flux Using Post-Eruption Arcades and Its Relevance to Magnetic Clouds at 1 AU

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gopalswamy, N.; Yashiro, S.; Akiyama, S.; Xie, H.

    2017-01-01

    We report on a new method to compute the flare reconnection (RC) flux from post-eruption arcades (PEAs) and the underlying photospheric magnetic fields. In previous works, the RC flux has been computed using the cumulative flare ribbon area. Here we obtain the RC flux as the flux in half of the area underlying the PEA in EUV imaged after the flare maximum. We apply this method to a set of 21 eruptions that originated near the solar disk center in Solar Cycle 23. We find that the RC flux from the arcade method ((Phi)rA) has excellent agreement with the flux from the flare-ribbon method ((Phi)rR) according to (Phi)rA = 1.24((Phi)rR)(sup 0.99). We also find (Phi)rA to be correlated with the poloidal flux ((Phi)P) of the associated magnetic cloud at 1 AU: (Phi)P = 1.20((Phi)rA)(sup 0.85). This relation is nearly identical to that obtained by Qiu et al. (Astrophys. J. 659, 758, 2007) using a set of only 9 eruptions. Our result supports the idea that flare reconnection results in the formation of the flux rope and PEA as a common process.

  16. Phimosis in male dromedary camels: Clinical findings and changes in the hemogram, nitric oxide metabolites, and testosterone concentrations.

    PubMed

    Ali, Ahmed; Derar, Derar; Al-Sobyil, Fahd A; Zeitoun, Moustafa M; Hassanein, Khaled M A; Al-Howas, Abdella

    2016-06-01

    The objectives of this study were to elucidate the clinical findings in male dromedary camels with phimosis (PHI, n = 43) and to investigate the association of this syndrome with the hemogram, nitric oxide metabolites (NOMs), and testosterone concentrations. History and signalment were obtained, and a breeding soundness examination was performed. The penis was exteriorized after administration of a pudendal nerve block. Abnormal masses obtained from the prepuce and penis were prepared for histopathology. Blood samples for hemogram assessment were taken from the diseased animals and from 10 healthy control males. Total nitrates/nitrites were determined in sera using the Griess assay. Testosterone was estimated in sera using ELISA. Phimosis associated with detectable pathologic lesions, mainly including ulcerative posthitis and lacerated glans penis, was present in 34 (79.1%) of the 43 cases (PHI-P), whereas the remaining nine (20.9%) of the 43 cases had no noticeable lesions (PHI-N). The PHI-P group showed higher leukocyte counts (P = 0.001), especially neutrophils (P = 0.0001), and greater NOM concentrations (P = 0.002) than the PHI-N and control groups. However, testosterone concentrations did not differ among groups. In conclusion, PHI in the male dromedary camels was mainly associated with ulcerative posthitis and laceration of the glans penis. The presence of pathologic lesions in cases with PHI was associated with leukocytosis, neutrophilia, and high NOM concentrations. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Inhibitory effect of antioxidant-rich marinades on the formation of heterocyclic aromatic amines in pan-fried beef.

    PubMed

    Viegas, Olga; Amaro, L Filipe; Ferreira, Isabel M P L V O; Pinho, Olívia

    2012-06-20

    The inhibitory effect of antioxidant-rich marinades containing beer and white wine (with/without alcohol) alone or mixed with herbs commonly used as meat flavoring (garlic, ginger, thyme, rosemary, and red chili pepper) on the formation of heterocyclic aromatic amines (HAs) in pan-fried beef was studied. Radical-scavenging activity was evaluated by DPPH assay, before the addition of meat to the marinade (T0) and after 4 h of meat marinating (T4). At T0, wine with herbs possessed the highest scavenging activity (73.5%), followed by wine (72.5%), dealcoholized wine with herbs (53.4%), beer and herbs (41.7%), dealcoholized wine (39.6%), and beer (25.9%). At T4, a decrease in the radical-scavenging activity of all marinades was observed, although with a similar radical-scavenging profile. All of the six marinades under the study reduced the total amount of HAs, keeping meat with good overall sensory quality. Beer marinades were more efficient than white wine marinades, and the addition of herbs provided a superior inhibitory effect, reducing around 90% of HAs. No correlation was observed between radical-scavenging activity of marinades and total or individual HAs formation. Herbs explained around 30% of inhibition of PhIP formation, whereas alcohol increased PhIP formation.

  18. Carvacrol facilitates heat-induced inactivation of Escherichia coli O157:H7 and inhibits formation of heterocyclic amines in grilled ground beef patties.

    PubMed

    Friedman, Mendel; Zhu, Libin; Feinstein, Yelena; Ravishankar, Sadhana

    2009-03-11

    Heating meat at high temperature and/or for a long time to kill foodborne pathogens increases the formation of potentially carcinogenic heterocyclic amines. To overcome this problem, 1% carvacrol, the main ingredient of oregano oil widely used in salad dressings, was added to ground beef, which was mixed well and then inoculated with Escherichia coli O157:H7. Beef patties were then prepared and heat-treated on a preheated electrical skillet to reach an internal temperature of 65, 70, or 80 degrees C at the cold spot. Samples were enumerated for surviving E. coli O157:H7 population by plating on appropriate media. Heterocyclic amines (MeIQ, MeIQx, and PhIP) were extracted from ground beef using solid phase extraction and analyzed by mass spectrometry. Multiple reaction monitoring (MRM) scan type in positive mode was used to monitor the amines of interest. Compared to controls, the population of E. coli O157:H7 was reduced by 2.5-5 logs. The corresponding highest reductions in the three major amines were MeIQ, 58%; MeIQx, 72%; and PhIP, 78%. The results show that carvacrol concurrently reduced E. coli O157:H7 and amines in a widely consumed meat product. Possible mechanisms of the beneficial effects and dietary significance of the results are discussed.

  19. Electrochemical DNA biosensor for detection of porcine oligonucleotides using ruthenium(II) complex as intercalator label redox

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Halid, Nurul Izni Abdullah; Hasbullah, Siti Aishah; Ahmad, Haslina; Heng, Lee Yook; Karim, Nurul Huda Abd; Harun, Siti Norain

    2014-09-01

    A DNA biosensor detection of oligonucleotides via the interactions of porcine DNA with redox active complex based on the electrochemical transduction is described. A ruthenium(II) complex, [Ru(bpy)2(PIP)]2+, (bpy = 2,2'bipyridine, PIP = 2-phenylimidazo[4,5-f[[1,10-phenanthroline]) as DNA label has been synthesized and characterized by 1H NMR and mass spectra. The study was carried out by covalent bonding immobilization of porcine aminated DNA probes sequences on screen printed electrode (SPE) modified with succinimide-acrylic microspheres and [Ru(bpy)2(PIP)]2+ was used as electrochemical redox intercalator label to detect DNA hybridization event. Electrochemical detection was performed by cyclic voltammetry (CV) and differential pulse voltammetry (DPV) over the potential range where the ruthenium (II) complex was active. The results indicate that the interaction of [Ru(bpy)2(PIP)]2+ with hybridization complementary DNA has higher response compared to single-stranded and mismatch complementary DNA.

  20. [Effects of NaCl stress on Hovenia dulcis and Gleditsia sinensis seedlings growth, chlorophyll fluorescence, and active oxygen metabolism].

    PubMed

    Feng, Lei; Bai, Zhi-ying; Lu, Bing-she; Cai, Sheng-wen; Feng, Li-na

    2008-11-01

    With potted Hovenia dulcis and Gleditsia sinensis seedlings as test materials, their plant growth, chlorophyll fluorescence characteristics, and active oxygen metabolism under stress of different concentration (0, 0.15%, 0.30%, 0.45%, and 0.60%) NaCl were studied. The results showed that with increasing concentration of NaCl, the plant growth, leaf chlorophyll content, photochemical efficiency of PS II (Fv/Fm), quantum yield of PS II (phi(PS II)), and photochemical quenching (q(P)) decreased gradually, while the non-photochemical quenching of fluorescence (q(N)) was in adverse. After 10 days of 0. 15% NaCl stress, the leaf chlorophyll content, Fv/Fm, phi(PS II), and q(P) of H. dulcis seedlings decreased by 19.77%, 2.94%, 29.03%, and 8.16%, respectively, with significant differences (P<0.05) to the control, while no significant differences were observed for G. sinensis seedlings. Compared with the control, the Fv/Fm and phi(PS II), of G. sinensis seedlings in treatment 0.30% NaCl decreased significantly by 1.91% and 14.66%, and the chlorophyll content and q(P) of the seedling in treatment 0.45% NaCl decreased significantly by 29.28% and 11.36%, respectively (P<0.05). With increasing concentration of NaCl, the SOD activity of G. sinensis seedlings showed a consistent increasing trend, and that of H. dulcis seedlings increased first and decreased then. The POD and CAT activities of G. sinensis and H. dulci seedlings tended to increase first and decrease then, with the increment being higher for G. sinensis than for H. dulci, while the MDA content of the seedlings had an increasing trend, with the increment being higher for H. dulcis than for G. sinensis, suggesting that the cell membrane lipid peroxidation of H. dulcis was more serious than that of G. sinensis. It was concluded that G. sinensis had greater salt tolerance than H. dulcis, which was related toits higher anti-oxidation enzyme activities.

  1. An NMR study of cobalt-catalyzed hydroformylation using para-hydrogen induced polarisation.

    PubMed

    Godard, Cyril; Duckett, Simon B; Polas, Stacey; Tooze, Robert; Whitwood, Adrian C

    2009-04-14

    The syntheses of Co(eta3-C3H5)(CO)2PR2R' (R, R' = Ph, Me; R, R' = Me, Ph; R = R' = Ph, Cy, CH2Ph) and Co(eta3-C3H5)(CO)(L) (L = dmpe and dppe) are described, and X-ray structures for Co(eta3-C3H5)(CO)(dppe) and the PPh2Me, PCy3 derivatives reported. The relative ability of Co(eta3-C3H5)(CO)2(PR2R') to exchange phosphine for CO follows the trend PMe2Ph < PPh2Me < PCy3 < P(CH2Ph)3 < PPh3. Reactions of the allyl complexes with para-hydrogen (p-H2) lead to the observation of para-hydrogen induced polarisation (PHIP) in both liberated propene and propane. Reaction of these complexes with both CO and H2 leads to the detection of linear acyl containing species Co(COCH2CH2CH3)(CO)3(PR2R') and branched acyl complexes Co(COCH(CH3)2)(CO)3(PR2R') via the PHIP effect. In the case of PPh2Me, additional signals for Co(COCH2CH2CH3)(CO)2(PPh2Me)(propene) and Co(COCH(CH3)2)(CO)2(PPh2Me)(propene) are also detected. When the reactions of H2 and diphenylacetylene are studied with the same precursor, Co(CO)3(PPh2Me)(CHPhCH2Ph) is seen. Studies on how the appearance and ratio, of the PHIP enhanced signals vary as a function of reaction temperature and H2 : CO ratio are reported. These profiles are used to learn about the mechanism of catalysis and reveal how the rates of key steps leading to linear and branched hydroformylation products vary with the phosphine. These data also reveal that the PMe2Ph and PPh2Me based systems yield the highest selectivity for linear hydroformylation products.

  2. Investigations on Schottky Barrier Structures in Compound Semiconductors: I. Mercuric-Telluride on Cadmium-Telluride a Lattice-Matched Schottky Barrier. I. Gold - Barriers to Cadmium-Telluride III. Gold Barriers on INDIUM(X)GALLIUM(1-X)PHOSPHIDE.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuech, Thomas Francis

    (i)The Au Schottky barrier height to n-In(,x)Ga(,1 -x)P was measured as a function of alloy composition. The Au barrier, (phi)(,p), to p-In(,x)Ga(,1-x)P was found to be independent of composition. The barrier, (phi)(,p), was determined by the relation (phi)(,p) + (phi)(,n) = (phi)(,g) where (phi)(,g) is the band gap energy and (phi)(,n) is the measured barrier height to n-In(,x)Ga(,1-x)P. It has been observed that the Au barrier height to p-type material for most compound semiconductors is determined by the anion. This dependence on the anion of the compound has now been seen to extend to the alloy system In(,x)Ga(,1 -x)P measured here. (ii)The Schottky barrier height of Cd, Au, and Au-Cd alloys was determined on vacuum cleaved surfaces of n-CdTe. A large barrier of 0.92 eV was found in the case of the Au-Cd alloy contacts. Contacts made with elemental Cd or Au gave barrier heights of 0.45 and 0.65 eV, respectively. The increased barrier height found on Au-Cd alloy contacts may be related to recent UHV observations on Schottky barrier formation where crystal defects play a role in determining the observed barrier height. (iii)HgTe-CdTe lattice matched heterojunctions were formed by the epitaxial growth of HgTe on CdTe substrates using a new low temperature metal organic chemical vapor deposition (MOCVD) technique. These heterojunctions combine features of the Schottky barrier structure, due to the high carrier concentrations found in the semi-metallic HgTe, with the structural perfection present in a lattice matched heterojunction. The measured Schottky barrier height varied from 0.65 to 0.90 eV depending on the details of the HgTe growth procedure used. Two models of the HgTe -CdTe heterojunction are presented which account for the observed variation in barrier height.

  3. The blow-up problem for a semilinear parabolic equation with a potential

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cortazar, Carmen; Elgueta, Manuel; Rossi, Julio D.

    2007-11-01

    Let [Omega] be a bounded smooth domain in . We consider the problem ut=[Delta]u+V(x)up in [Omega]×[0,T), with Dirichlet boundary conditions u=0 on [not partial differential][Omega]×[0,T) and initial datum u(x,0)=M[phi](x) where M[greater-or-equal, slanted]0, [phi] is positive and compatible with the boundary condition. We give estimates for the blow-up time of solutions for large values of M. As a consequence of these estimates we find that, for M large, the blow-up set concentrates near the points where [phi]p-1V attains its maximum.

  4. High-Resolution 3D Proton MRI of Hyperpolarized Gas Enabled by Parahydrogen and Rh/TiO2 Heterogeneous Catalyst

    PubMed Central

    Barskiy, Danila A.; Coffey, Aaron M.; Truong, Milton L.; Salnikov, Oleg G.; Khudorozhkov, Alexander K.; Inozemtseva, Elizaveta A.; Prosvirin, Igor P.; Bukhtiyarov, Valery I.; Waddell, Kevin W.; Koptyug, Igor V.

    2015-01-01

    Several supported metal catalysts were synthesized, characterized, and tested in heterogeneous hydrogenation of propene with parahydrogen to maximize nuclear spin hyperpolarization of propane gas using parahydrogen induced polarization (PHIP). The Rh/TiO2 catalyst with a metal particle size of 1.6 nm was found to be the most active and effective in the pairwise hydrogen addition and robust, demonstrating reproducible results with multiple hydrogenation experiments and stability for ≥1.5 years. 3D 1H magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of 1 % hyperpolarized flowing gas with microscale spatial resolution (625 × 625 × 625 μm3) and large imaging matrix (128 × 128 × 32) was demonstrated by using a preclinical 4.7 T scanner and 17.4 s imaging scan time. PMID:24961814

  5. Susceptibility to Exposure to Heterocyclic Amines from Cooked Food: Role of UDP-glucuronosyltransferases

    SciTech Connect

    Malfatti, M A; Felton, J S

    2005-08-22

    A number of carcinogenic heterocyclic amines (PhIP, MeIQx, and DiMeIQx) are produced from the condensation of creatinine, hexoses and amino acids during the cooking of meat (1). There are many variables that impact the production and subsequent ingestion of these compounds in our diet. Temperature, type of meat product, cooking method, doneness, and other factors affect the quantity of these carcinogens consumed by humans. Estimates of ingestion of these carcinogens are 1-20 ng/kg body weight per day (2). Human case control studies that correlate meat consumption from well-done cooking practices with cancer incidence indicate excess tumors for breast, colon, stomach, esophagus, and possibly prostate (3-5).

  6. Development and psychometric properties of the Carer – Head Injury Neurobehavioral Assessment Scale (C-HINAS) and the Carer – Head Injury Participation Scale (C-HIPS): patient and family determined outcome scales

    PubMed Central

    Deb, Shoumitro; Bryant, Eleanor; Morris, Paul G; Prior, Lindsay; Lewis, Glyn; Haque, Sayeed

    2007-01-01

    Objective Develop and assess the psychometric properties of the Carer – Head Injury Participation Scale (C-HIPS) and its biggest factor the Carer – Head Injury Neurobehavioral Assessment Scale (C-HINAS). Furthermore, the aim was to examine the inter-informant reliability by comparing the self reports of individuals with traumatic brain injury (TBI) with the carer reports on the C-HIPS and the C-HINAS. Method Thirty-two TBI individuals and 27 carers took part in in-depth qualitative interviews exploring the consequences of the TBI. Interview transcripts were analysed and key themes and concepts were used to construct a 49-item and 58-item patient (Patient – Head Injury Participation Scale [P-HIPS]) and carer outcome measure (C-HIPS) respectively, of which 49 were parallel items and nine additional items were used to assess carer burden. Postal versions of the P-HIPS, C-HIPS, Mayo Portland Adaptability Inventory-3 (MPAI-3), and the Glasgow Outcome Scale-Extended (GOSE) were completed by a cohort of 113 TBI individuals and 80 carers. Data from a sub-group of 66 patient/carer pairs were used to compare inter-informant reliability between the P-HIPS and the C-HIPS, and the P-HINAS and the C-HINAS respectively. Results All individual 49 items of the C-HIPS and their total score showed good test-retest reliability (0.95) and internal consistency (0.95). Comparisons with the MPAI-3 and GOSE found a good correlation with the MPAI-3 (0.7) and a moderate negative correlation with the GOSE (−0.6). Factor analysis of these items extracted a 4-factor structure which represented the domains ‘Emotion/Behavior’ (C-HINAS), ‘Independence/Community Living’, ‘Cognition’, and ‘Physical’. The C-HINAS showed good internal consistency (0.92), test-retest reliability (0.93), and concurrent validity with one MPAI subscale (0.7). Assessment of inter-informant reliability revealed good correspondence between the reports of the patients and the carers for both the C

  7. Cosmological three-coupled scalar theory for the dS/LCFT correspondence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Myung, Yun Soo; Moon, Taeyoon

    2015-01-01

    We investigate cosmological perturbations generated during de Sitter inflation in the three-coupled scalar theory. This theory is composed of three coupled scalars phip,p=1,2,3) to give a sixth-order derivative scalar theory for phi3, in addition to tensor. Recovering the power spectra between scalars from the LCFT correlators in momentum space indicates that the de Sitter/logarithmic conformal field theory (dS/LCFT) correspondence works in the superhorizon limit. We use LCFT correlators derived from the dS/LCFT differentiate dictionary to compare cosmological correlators (power spectra) and find also LCFT correlators by making use of extrapolate dictionary. This is because the former approach is more conventional than the latter. A bulk version dual to the truncation process to find a unitary CFT in the LCFT corresponds to selecting a physical field phi2 with positive norm propagating on the dS spacetime.

  8. Exclusive single pion electroproduction off the proton in the high-lying resonances at Q2 < 5 GeV2 from CLAS

    SciTech Connect

    Park, Kijun

    2014-09-01

    The differential cross sections and structure functions for the exclusive electroproduction process ep --> e'n pi+ were measured in the range of the invariantmass for the np+ system 1.6 GeV lte W lte 2.0 GeV, and the photon virtuality 1.8 GeV2 lte Q2 lte 4.0 GeV2 using CLAS at Jefferson Lab. For the first time, these kinematics are probed in the exclusive p+ production from the protons with nearly full coverage in the azimuthal and polar angles of the np+ center-of-mass system. In this analysis, approximately 39,000 differential cross-section data points in terms of W, Q2, cosq theta* _ pi, and phi*_p-, were obtained. The preliminary differential cross section and structure function analyses are carried out, which allow us to extract the helicity amplitudes in high-lying resonances.

  9. Self-assembly of rod-shaped particles in diblock-copolymer templates.

    PubMed

    Tang, Qi-yun; Ma, Yu-qiang

    2009-07-30

    We investigate the self-assembly of hard rod-shaped particles with an affinity for A block in diblock AB copolymer templates. The results are consistent with a series of recent experimental findings. Furthermore, we construct the phase diagrams of the mixture with different aspect ratios of particles by changing the particle concentration phip and the volume fraction f of the A block. The variation of the aspect ratio in different particle concentrations will significantly influence the effective volume of the A component and consequent phase behavior of nanoparticle/copolymer hybrid systems, which may account for the emergence of some unexpected phenomena of morphological transitions. The present study provides insightful guidance to control the nanometer-length-scale structures of shaped particles for potential applications as functional devices.

  10. Optimization of SABRE for polarization of the tuberculosis drugs pyrazinamide and isoniazid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zeng, Haifeng; Xu, Jiadi; Gillen, Joseph; McMahon, Michael T.; Artemov, Dmitri; Tyburn, Jean-Max; Lohman, Joost A. B.; Mewis, Ryan E.; Atkinson, Kevin D.; Green, Gary G. R.; Duckett, Simon B.; van Zijl, Peter C. M.

    2013-12-01

    Hyperpolarization produces nuclear spin polarization that is several orders of magnitude larger than that achieved at thermal equilibrium thus providing extraordinary contrast and sensitivity. As a parahydrogen induced polarization (PHIP) technique that does not require chemical modification of the substrate to polarize, Signal Amplification by Reversible Exchange (SABRE) has attracted a lot of attention. Using a prototype parahydrogen polarizer, we polarize two drugs used in the treatment of tuberculosis, namely pyrazinamide and isoniazid. We examine this approach in four solvents, methanol-d4, methanol, ethanol and DMSO and optimize the polarization transfer magnetic field strength, the temperature as well as intensity and duration of hydrogen bubbling to achieve the best overall signal enhancement and hence hyperpolarization level.

  11. On the relationship between the non-photochemical quenching of the chlorophyll fluorescence and the Photosystem II light harvesting efficiency. A repetitive flash fluorescence induction study.

    PubMed

    Koblízek, M; Kaftan, D; Nedbal, L

    2001-01-01

    Plants respond to excess light by a photoprotective reduction of the light harvesting efficiency. The notion that the non-photochemical quenching of chlorophyll fluorescence can be reliably used as an indicator of the photoprotection is put to a test here. The technique of the repetitive flash fluorescence induction is employed to measure in parallel the non-photochemical quenching of the maximum fluorescence and the functional cross-section (sigma(PS II)) which is a product of the photosystem II optical cross-section a(PS II) and of its photochemical yield Phi(PS II) (sigma (PS II) = a(PS II) Phi(PS II)). The quenching is measured for both, the maximum fluorescence found in a single-turnover flash (F(M) (ST)) and in a multiple turnover light pulse (F(M) (MT)). The experiment with the diatom Phaeodactylum tricornutum confirmed that, in line with the prevalent model, the PS II functional cross-section sigma (PS II) is reduced in high light and restored in the dark with kinetics and amplitude that are closely matching the changes of the F(M) (ST) and F(M) (MT) quenching. In contrast, a poor correlation between the light-induced changes in the PS II functional cross-section sigma (PS II) and the quenching of the multiple-turnover F(M) (MT) fluorescence was found in the green alga Scenedesmus quadricauda. The non-photochemical quenching in Scenedesmus quadricauda was further investigated using series of single-turnover flashes given with different frequencies. Several mechanisms that modulate the fluorescence emission in parallel to the Q(A) redox state and to the membrane energization were resolved and classified in relation to the light harvesting capacity of Photosystem II.

  12. [Effects of temperature regime on low-light tolerance of Cucumis sativus seedling leaves in their photosynthesis].

    PubMed

    Li, Wei; Sui, Xiao-lei; Zhang, Zhen-xian

    2008-12-01

    In a phytotron, the effects of three temperature regimes (day/night 25 degrees C/18 degrees C, optimal temperature; 15 degrees C/9 degrees C, suboptimal temperature; and 9 degrees C/7 degrees C, low temperature) on the low-light (75-85 micromol x m(-2) x s(-1)) tolerance of two Cucumis sativus cultivars (shade-susceptible Jinyan 2 and shade-tolerant Deltastar) seedling leaves in their photosynthesis were studied. The results showed that under low light, the SPAD, net photosynthesis rate (Pn), stomatal conductance (Gs), transpiration rate (Tr), water use efficiency (WUE), actual photochemical efficiency of PS II in the light (phi(PS II)), and photochemical quenching of chlorophyll fluorescence (q(p)) of cucumber leaves decreased, with the decrement getting more with decreasing temperature, while the superoxide dismutase (SOD), peroxidase (POD) and catalase (CAT) activities were in adverse. During the recovery process after low-light stress relieved, the parameters of gas exchange and chlorophyll fluorescence of the leaves recovered gradually, and the recovery of some gas exchange parameters lagged to that of chlorophyll fluorescence parameters. Under low light, the lower the temperature, the more damage the photosynthesis apparatus suffered, and the lesser tolerance to low light the cucumber leaves had in their photosynthesis. During the low temperature and low light treatment period, the decrease of Pn, phi(PS II), and q(p) was more obvious for Jinyan 2 than for Deltastar; and during the relief period, the recovery of these parameters was slower for Jinyan 2 than for Deltastar. It was indicated that Jinyan 2 had weaker tolerance to low temperature and/or low light in its photosynthesis than Deltastar.

  13. Food mutagens: The role of cooked food in genetic changes

    SciTech Connect

    1995-07-01

    Of all the toxic substances producing during cooking, the most important are likely to be the heterocyclic amines. For 17 years, LLNL researchers have been identifying these food mutagens, measuring their abundance in cooked foods typical of the Western diet, working to understand how they can trigger malignant tumors in laboratory animals that have been exposed to high mutagen doses, and estimating the importance of human exposures. Our success is largely a function of the interdisciplinary approach we have taken to quantify food mutagens and to study their biological effects. LLNL investigators were the first to identify five of the most important mutagens in heated food, including PhIP and DiMeIQx. We have shown that fried beef may be the most important single source of heterocyclic amines in the human diet and the PhIP accounts for most of the combined mass of mutagens in fried beef cooked well-done. Most nonmeat foods contain low or undetectable levels of these types of compounds, but some cooked protein-containing foods, such as those high in wheat gluten, have significant levels of unknown aromatic amine mutagens. Cooking time and temperature significantly affect the amounts of mutagens generated. For example, reducing the frying temperature of ground beef from 250 to 200{degrees}C lowers the mutagenic activity by six- to sevenfold. Microwave pretreatment of meat and discarding the liquid that is formed also greatly reduces the formation of heterocyclic amines. Our related work on dose and risk assessment will be described in a forthcoming article.

  14. Electrochemical DNA biosensor for detection of porcine oligonucleotides using ruthenium(II) complex as intercalator label redox

    SciTech Connect

    Halid, Nurul Izni Abdullah; Hasbullah, Siti Aishah; Heng, Lee Yook; Karim, Nurul Huda Abd; Ahmad, Haslina; Harun, Siti Norain

    2014-09-03

    A DNA biosensor detection of oligonucleotides via the interactions of porcine DNA with redox active complex based on the electrochemical transduction is described. A ruthenium(II) complex, [Ru(bpy){sub 2}(PIP)]{sup 2+}, (bpy = 2,2′bipyridine, PIP = 2-phenylimidazo[4,5-f[[1,10-phenanthroline]) as DNA label has been synthesized and characterized by 1H NMR and mass spectra. The study was carried out by covalent bonding immobilization of porcine aminated DNA probes sequences on screen printed electrode (SPE) modified with succinimide-acrylic microspheres and [Ru(bpy){sub 2}(PIP)]{sup 2+} was used as electrochemical redox intercalator label to detect DNA hybridization event. Electrochemical detection was performed by cyclic voltammetry (CV) and differential pulse voltammetry (DPV) over the potential range where the ruthenium (II) complex was active. The results indicate that the interaction of [Ru(bpy){sub 2}(PIP)]{sup 2+} with hybridization complementary DNA has higher response compared to single-stranded and mismatch complementary DNA.

  15. Cyclometalated Iridium(III) Complexes as AIE Phosphorescent Probes for Real-Time Monitoring of Mitophagy in Living Cells

    PubMed Central

    Jin, Chengzhi; Liu, Jiangping; Chen, Yu; Guan, Ruilin; Ouyang, Cheng; Zhu, Yanjiao; Ji, Liangnian; Chao, Hui

    2016-01-01

    Mitophagy, which is a special autophagy that removes damaging mitochondria to maintain sufficient healthy mitochondria, provides an alternative path for addressing dysfunctional mitochondria and avoiding cellular death. In the present study, by coupling the triphenylamine group with 2-phenylimidazo[4,5-f][1,10]phenanthroline derivatives, we synthesized five Ir(III) complexes with an AIE property that are expected to fulfill requirements for real-time monitoring of mitophagy. Ir1-Ir5 were exploited to image mitochondria with a short incubation time by confocal microscopy and inductive coupled plasma–mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). Due to aggregation-induced emission (AIE), Ir1-Ir5 exhibited excellent photostability compared to MitoTracker Green (MTG). Moreover, Ir1-Ir5 manifested satisfactory photostability in the mitochondrial physiological pH range. In addition, the uptake mechanism of Ir1 was investigated using confocal microscopy and flow cytometry analysis. Finally, using both Ir1 and LysoTracker Green, we were able to achieve real-time monitoring of mitophagy. PMID:26907559

  16. Synthesis of a new Ni-phenanthroline complex and its application as an electrochemical probe for detection of nucleic acid.

    PubMed

    Qiu, Bin; Guo, Longhua; Guo, Chunhua; Guo, Zhiyong; Lin, Zhenyu; Chen, Guonan

    2011-01-15

    A new DNA sensor using a nickel(II) phenanthroline complex ([Ni(phen)(2)PHPIP]·2ClO(4)) as the electrochemical probe was developed. The sensor is very sensitive and selective for calf thymus DNA (ctDNA) detection in aqueous medium. The Ni-phenanthroline probe was synthesized by a two-step preparation using p-hydroxy-phenylimidazo-1,10-phenanthroline (PHPIP) as the ligand and characterized with IR, UV and MS. Some interesting electrochemical properties of the Ni-complex and the interactions of the complex with ctDNA were reported. The calculated dynamics parameters of the electrode process indicate that there are obvious interactions between the probe and the ctDNA in aqueous solution. Under constant potential conditions, the redox current peak of the probe (Ni-complex) decreases obviously as the probe interacts/binds with ctDNAs. This unexpected electrochemical behavior may suggest that a new adduct through the binding of Ni-phenanthroline complex with ctDNA is formed electrochemically. By estimation, the binding ratio of the probe and ctDNA was found to be 1:1 with a binding constant β=4.29×10(5) mol L(-1) in aqueous solution at room temperature.

  17. Cyclometalated Iridium(III) Complexes as AIE Phosphorescent Probes for Real-Time Monitoring of Mitophagy in Living Cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jin, Chengzhi; Liu, Jiangping; Chen, Yu; Guan, Ruilin; Ouyang, Cheng; Zhu, Yanjiao; Ji, Liangnian; Chao, Hui

    2016-02-01

    Mitophagy, which is a special autophagy that removes damaging mitochondria to maintain sufficient healthy mitochondria, provides an alternative path for addressing dysfunctional mitochondria and avoiding cellular death. In the present study, by coupling the triphenylamine group with 2-phenylimidazo[4,5-f][1,10]phenanthroline derivatives, we synthesized five Ir(III) complexes with an AIE property that are expected to fulfill requirements for real-time monitoring of mitophagy. Ir1-Ir5 were exploited to image mitochondria with a short incubation time by confocal microscopy and inductive coupled plasma–mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). Due to aggregation-induced emission (AIE), Ir1-Ir5 exhibited excellent photostability compared to MitoTracker Green (MTG). Moreover, Ir1-Ir5 manifested satisfactory photostability in the mitochondrial physiological pH range. In addition, the uptake mechanism of Ir1 was investigated using confocal microscopy and flow cytometry analysis. Finally, using both Ir1 and LysoTracker Green, we were able to achieve real-time monitoring of mitophagy.

  18. Unexpected imidazoquinoxalinone annulation products in the photoinitiated reaction of substituted-3-methyl-quinoxalin-2-ones with N-phenylglycine.

    PubMed

    De la Fuente, Julio R; Cañete, Álvaro; Jullian, Carolina; Saitz, Claudio; Aliaga, Christian

    2013-01-01

    Photoinduced electron transfer between N-phenylglycine (NPG) and electronically excited triplets of 7-substituted-3-methyl-quinoxalin-2-ones in acetonitrile generate the respective ion radical pair, where by decarboxylation the phenyl-amino-alkyl radical, PhNHCH2•, is generated. This radical reacts with the 3-methyl-quinoxalin-2-ones ground states, leading to the product 2. Other, unexpected, 7-substituted-1,2,3,3a-tetrahydro-3a-methyl-2-phenylimidazo[1,5-a]quinoxalin-4(5H)-ones, annulation products, 3a-f, were generated; likely by the addition of two PhNHCH2• radicals, to positions 3 and 4 of the quinoxalin-2-ones. The reaction mechanism includes a photoinduced one electron transfer initiation step, propagation steps involving radical intermediates and NPG with radical chain termination steps that lead to the respective products 2a-f and 3a-f and NPG by-products. The proposed mechanism accounts for the strong dependency found for the initial photoconsumption quantum yields on the electron-withdrawing power of the substituent. Therefore, photolysis of common reactants widely used such as NPG and substituted quinoxalin-2-ones may provide a simple synthetic way to the unusual, unreported tetrahydro-imidazoquinoxalinones 3a-f.

  19. Cyclometalated Iridium(III) Complexes as Two-Photon Phosphorescent Probes for Specific Mitochondrial Dynamics Tracking in Living Cells.

    PubMed

    Jin, Chengzhi; Liu, Jiangping; Chen, Yu; Zeng, Leli; Guan, Ruilin; Ouyang, Cheng; Ji, Liangnian; Chao, Hui

    2015-08-17

    Five cyclometalated iridium(III) complexes with 2-phenylimidazo[4,5-f][1,10]phenanthroline derivatives (IrL1-IrL5) were synthesized and developed to image and track mitochondria in living cells under two-photon (750 nm) excitation, with two-photon absorption cross-sections of 48.8-65.5 GM at 750 nm. Confocal microscopy and inductive coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) demonstrated that these complexes selectively accumulate in mitochondria within 5 min, without needing additional reagents for membrane permeabilization, or replacement of the culture medium. In addition, photobleaching experiments and luminescence measurements confirmed the photostability of these complexes under continuous laser irradiation and physiological pH resistance. Moreover, results using 3D multicellular spheroids demonstrate the proficiency of these two-photon luminescent complexes in deep penetration imaging. Two-photon excitation using such novel complexes of iridium(III) for exclusive visualization of mitochondria in living cells may substantially enhance practical applications of bioimaging and tracking. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  20. Cyclometalated Iridium(III) Complexes as AIE Phosphorescent Probes for Real-Time Monitoring of Mitophagy in Living Cells.

    PubMed

    Jin, Chengzhi; Liu, Jiangping; Chen, Yu; Guan, Ruilin; Ouyang, Cheng; Zhu, Yanjiao; Ji, Liangnian; Chao, Hui

    2016-02-24

    Mitophagy, which is a special autophagy that removes damaging mitochondria to maintain sufficient healthy mitochondria, provides an alternative path for addressing dysfunctional mitochondria and avoiding cellular death. In the present study, by coupling the triphenylamine group with 2-phenylimidazo[4,5-f][1,10]phenanthroline derivatives, we synthesized five Ir(III) complexes with an AIE property that are expected to fulfill requirements for real-time monitoring of mitophagy. Ir1-Ir5 were exploited to image mitochondria with a short incubation time by confocal microscopy and inductive coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). Due to aggregation-induced emission (AIE), Ir1-Ir5 exhibited excellent photostability compared to MitoTracker Green (MTG). Moreover, Ir1-Ir5 manifested satisfactory photostability in the mitochondrial physiological pH range. In addition, the uptake mechanism of Ir1 was investigated using confocal microscopy and flow cytometry analysis. Finally, using both Ir1 and LysoTracker Green, we were able to achieve real-time monitoring of mitophagy.

  1. Effects of the immunostimulant, levamisole, on opiate withdrawal and levels of endogenous opiate alkaloids and monoamine neurotransmitters in rat brain.

    PubMed

    Spector, S; Munjal, I; Schmidt, D E

    1998-11-01

    This report present evidence that the immunostimulant drug levamisole, (-)-(S)-2,3,5,6-tetrahydro-6-phenylimidazo[2,1-b] thiazole monohydrochloride, produced a significant elevation of endogeneous morphine and codeine levels in brain regions and peripheral organs and attenuated the effects of naltrexone-induced withdrawal in morphine-addicted rats. Levamisole also significantly altered the metabolism of norepinephrine, dopamine, and serotonin in specific brain regions. These results suggest that levamisole's attenuation of opiate withdrawal may be related to its ability to increase endogeneous opiate alkaloid levels and/or to alter central monoaminergic function. Levamisole does not have significant affinity for opiate receptors. These results raise the intriguing possibility that agents such as levamisole, which elevate the levels of the endogenous opiate alkaloids, might be useful for treating narcotic withdrawal. The mechanism for the immunostimulatory properties of agents such as levamisole and muramyl dipeptide (MDP) have not been established. We suggest that the ability of MDP and levamisole to increase endogenous opiate alkaloids may be related to their immunostimulatory properties.

  2. Intra-periaqueductal grey microinjections of an imidazo[1,2-b]pyridazine derivative, DM2, affects rostral ventromedial medulla cell activity and shows antinociceptive effect.

    PubMed

    Palazzo, Enza; Rimoli, Maria Grazia; De Chiaro, Maria; Guida, Francesca; Melisi, Daniela; Curcio, Annalisa; de Novellis, Vito; Marabese, Ida; Rossi, Francesco; Abignente, Enrico; Maione, Sabatino

    2010-03-01

    The 6-methoxy-2-phenylimidazo[1,2-b]pyridazine-3-carboxylic acid, DM2, exerts anti-absence activity and blocks Cav3.1 channel, a T-type voltage-dependent Ca(2+) channel subtype, in vitro. The current study investigated the effect of intra-ventrolateral periaqueductal grey (VLPAG) administration of DM2 on formalin-induced nocifensive responses in rats. In addition, the effect of intra-VLPAG microinjection of DM2 on the ongoing and tail flick-related activities of rostral ventromedial medulla (RVM) cell population was also investigated. Formalin was injected subcutaneously into the dorsal surface of the hind paws of awake rats. We found that DM2 reduced nocifensive responses in the late phase of the formalin test. Moreover, in the RVM, the intra-VLPAG microinjection of DM2 reduced the ongoing and tail flick-related activity of the nociceptive ON cells, whereas it increased the ongoing activity and reduced the tail flick-induced pause of the antinociceptive OFF cells, consistent with antinociception. Behavioural and electrophysiological effects were reproduced by intra-VLPAG microinjection of ethosuximide, a conventional T-type Ca(2+) channel blocker. Finally, DM2 administration did not produce any adverse cardiovascular effects as blood pressure and heart rate remained unchanged. In conclusion, DM2 plays an analgesic role in vivo and changes RVM cell activity, consistent with antinociception. These effects were even more potent than those elicited by ethosuximide treatments. Copyright 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. High-resolution low-field molecular magnetic resonance imaging of hyperpolarized liquids.

    PubMed

    Coffey, Aaron M; Kovtunov, Kirill V; Barskiy, Danila A; Koptyug, Igor V; Shchepin, Roman V; Waddell, Kevin W; He, Ping; Groome, Kirsten A; Best, Quinn A; Shi, Fan; Goodson, Boyd M; Chekmenev, Eduard Y

    2014-09-16

    We demonstrate the feasibility of microscale molecular imaging using hyperpolarized proton and carbon-13 MRI contrast media and low-field (47.5 mT) preclinical scale (38 mm i.d.) 2D magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Hyperpolarized proton images with 94 × 94 μm(2) spatial resolution and hyperpolarized carbon-13 images with 250 × 250 μm(2) in-plane spatial resolution were recorded in 4-8 s (largely limited by the electronics response), surpassing the in-plane spatial resolution (i.e., pixel size) achievable with micro-positron emission tomography (PET). These hyperpolarized proton and (13)C images were recorded using large imaging matrices of up to 256 × 256 pixels and relatively large fields of view of up to 6.4 × 6.4 cm(2). (13)C images were recorded using hyperpolarized 1-(13)C-succinate-d2 (30 mM in water, %P(13C) = 25.8 ± 5.1% (when produced) and %P(13C) = 14.2 ± 0.7% (when imaged), T1 = 74 ± 3 s), and proton images were recorded using (1)H hyperpolarized pyridine (100 mM in methanol-d4, %P(H) = 0.1 ± 0.02% (when imaged), T1 = 11 ± 0.1 s). Both contrast agents were hyperpolarized using parahydrogen (>90% para-fraction) in an automated 5.75 mT parahydrogen induced polarization (PHIP) hyperpolarizer. A magnetized path was demonstrated for successful transportation of a (13)C hyperpolarized contrast agent (1-(13)C-succinate-d2, sensitive to fast depolarization when at the Earth's magnetic field) from the PHIP polarizer to the 47.5 mT low-field MRI. While future polarizing and low-field MRI hardware and imaging sequence developments can further improve the low-field detection sensitivity, the current results demonstrate that microscale molecular imaging in vivo is already feasible at low (<50 mT) fields and potentially at low (~1 mM) metabolite concentrations.

  4. Exploring the Patterns of Acupuncture on Mild Cognitive Impairment Patients Using Regional Homogeneity

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Zhenyu; Wei, Wenjuan; Bai, Lijun; Dai, Ruwei; You, Youbo; Chen, Shangjie; Tian, Jie

    2014-01-01

    Purpose To investigate the different responses to acupuncture in MCI patients and age-matched healthy subjects reflected by the Regional Homogeneity (ReHo) indices. Methods The experiment was performed at the acupoint KI3 in 12 MCI patients and 12 healthy controls, respectively. A novel non-repeated event-related (NRER) fMRI design paradigm was applied to separately detect neural activities related to different stages of acupuncture (pre-acupuncture resting state, needling manipulation and post-acupuncture resting state). ReHo values were calculated for MCI patients and healthy controls in pre- and post-acupuncture resting state. Then, a two-way ANCOVA with repeated measures with post-hoc two sample t-tests was performed to explore the different responses to acupuncture in the two groups. Results The ANCOVA revealed a significant main effect of group, but no significant main effect of acupuncture and interactions between group and acupuncture. During the pre-acupuncture resting state, ReHo values increased in the precentral gyrus (PCG), superior frontal gyrus (SFG), and insula (INS) and decreased mainly in middle temporal gyrus (MTG), parahippocampal (PHIP) and cingulate cortex in MCI patients compared with healthy controls. Furthermore, we found that the regions including precuneus (PCUN), and cingulate cortex showed increased ReHo values for MCI patients following acupuncture. For healthy controls, the medial frontal gyrus, PCG, anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) and INS showed enhanced ReHo values following acupuncture. During the post-acupuncture resting state, MCI patients showed increased ReHo values mainly in the MTG, superior parietal lobule (SPL), middle frontal gyrus (MFG), supramarginal (SMG), and PCG, and decreased ReHo values mainly in the frontal regions, PHIP, and posterior cingulated cortex (PCC) compared to healthy controls. Conclusion Though we found some ReHo changes between MCI patients and healthy controls, the two-way ANCOVA results showed no

  5. [Effects of perchlorate on growth and chlorophyll fluorescence parameters of Alternanthera philoxeroides].

    PubMed

    Xie, Yin-feng; Cai, Xian-lei; Liu, Wei-long; Deng, Wei

    2009-08-15

    Perchlorate is a new emerging persistent pollutant, while no studies about its effects on plants have been reported both home and abroad. In order to explore the effects of perchlorate on growth and physiology of aquatic plant, Alternanthera philoxeroides were treated by 1/20 Hoagland nutrient solution with different concentrations (0, 1, 5, 20, 100, 500 mg/L) of ClO4- under the controlled conditions. The results showed as follow. (1) Under perchlorate treatment, relative growth yield,dry weight of root,shoot and leaves were inhibited at different degrees, in which root biomass under different treatments showed significant difference to the control. After treatment for 40 d, relative growth yield of different treatments at concentration from 1 mg/L to 500 mg/L were about 61.6%, 60.8%, 53.1%, 20.4% and 3.3% separately of the control. And the order of variation coefficients of biomass in different organ were as follows: leaf > root biomass > stem; the relationship of biomass allocation in different organs of Alternanthera philoxeroides under perchlorate treatment changed, and the proportion of stem biomass increased,while leaf decreased, in which 100 and 500 mg/L ClO4- treatment showed significant difference to the control. (2) Under perchlorate treatment, young leaves of Alternanthera philoxeroides presented injury symptoms (such as parietal roiling reversely, leaf edge getting black and withered etc), and the damaged degree of Alternanthera philoxeroides increased with the increase of treatment concentration and time. (3) Under perchlorate treatment, the relative chlorophyll content (SPAD value), primary maximal PSII efficiency(Fv/Fm), efficiency of excitation capture by open PSII centre (F'v,/F'm), actual photochemical efficiency of PSII (phi(PS II)), electron transport rate (ETR), maximal electron transport rate(ETR ,) and other indexes were inhibited at different degrees. SPAD and chlorophyll fluorescence parameters (phi(PS II)) etc. could be used as sensitive

  6. Estimation of dietary HCA intakes in a large-scale population-based prospective study in Japan.

    PubMed

    Kobayashi, Minatsu; Hanaoka, Tomoyuki; Nishioka, Sachiko; Kataoka, Hiroyuki; Tsugane, Shoichiro

    2002-09-30

    Heterocyclic amines (HCAs) are known mutagens and animal carcinogens formed in cooked meat and fish. Japanese people generally consume more fish than animal meat, and chopped and stir-fried method of meat preparation is favored as much as the grilled cooking method. Therefore, it is supposed that the foods contributing to HCA intake in Japan are different from those in western countries. However, dietary HCA intake levels and their main sources have not been estimated in Japan. The purpose of this study was to assess individual intake levels of specific HCAs in subjects of the Japan Public Health Center (JPHC)-based prospective study on cancer and cardiovascular disease (JPHC study). Individual intake levels of six predominant HCAs (Trp-P-1, MeIQ, MeIQx, 7,8-DiMeIQx, 4,8-DiMeIQx, and PhIP) were calculated for 39035 JPHC study participants (18290 men and 20745 women) from four geographic areas (9412 from Iwate, 12018 from Akita, 9896 from Nagano, and 7709 from Okinawa) based on a self-reported food frequency questionnaire (FFQ). Mean daily HCA intake levels (ng/kg per day) for subjects in the mainland areas (Iwate, Akita, and Nagano) were 1.06 (inter quartile range 0.50-1.35) in men and 1.10 (inter quartile range 0.53-1.40) in women. Mean daily HCA intake levels (ng/kg per day) for subjects in Okinawa Island were lower than those in the mainland; 0.83 (inter quartile range 0.33-1.04) in men and 0.92 (inter quartile range 0.33-1.18) in women. PhIP accounted for more than 60% of total HCA intake, followed by MeIQx and MeIQ. More than 50% of total HCA intake was derived from fish in the mainland, whereas more than 50% was from pork in Okinawa. Our study suggests that grilled fish are the major dietary sources of HCAs in Japanese, except those in Okinawa Island.

  7. Validation of an ion-pair liquid chromatography-electrospray-tandem mass spectrometry method for the determination of heterocyclic aromatic amines in meat-based infant foods.

    PubMed

    Calbiani, F; Careri, M; Elviri, L; Mangia, A; Zagnoni, I

    2007-08-01

    A method based on ion-pair liquid chromatography-electrospray tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) is reported for determining heterocyclic aromatic amines (HAAs) in meat-based infant foods. The HAAs encompassed quinoline (IQ, MeIQ), quinoxaline (MeIQx), pyridine (PhIP), and carboline derivatives (AalphaC, Harman, Norharman) with d(3)-IQ, (13)C(2)-MeIQx, and d(3)-PhIP used as labelled internal standards. The method used extraction into acetone followed by a clean-up on an SCX solid-phase extraction column. LC separation was performed on a TSKgel ODS-80TS column (250 x 2.0 mm, 5 microm), the mobile phase being an ammonium formate-formic acid buffer (3.03 mM ammonium formate, pH = 2.8) aqueous solution-acetonitrile gradient at a flow rate of 0.2 ml min(-1). For unequivocal identification of each analyte, three ions were detected and chosen for selected reaction monitoring (SRM). Validation was carried out on lyophilized meat samples. Mean recoveries ranged between 78 +/- 4% and 98 +/- 2% for different analytes. Limits of quantification generally lower than 8 ng g(-1) were demonstrated in meat samples for the analytes investigated. The method exhibited a good linearity and repeatability. Robustness testing identified those factors which were statistically significant in influencing chromatographic separation and response, and indicated which parameters have to be strictly controlled for a reliable analysis of HAAs. In particular, the mobile-phase flow rate was found to be statistically significant (alpha = 0.05) for the capacity factor (k') of all analytes except for AalphaC peak, whereas the mobile-phase pH resulted to be a critical parameter for the k' values of IQ, MeIQ, and Norharman. The method was proved to be robust vs. resolution between IQ and MeIQ peaks. Among mass-spectrometric parameters, collision energy was found to significantly affect quantitative response of all analytes except that of IQ. The applicability of the method to the analysis of meat

  8. Inhibitory profiles of spices against free and protein-bound heterocyclic amines of roast beef patties as revealed by ultra-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry and principal component analysis.

    PubMed

    Chen, Jing; He, Zhiyong; Qin, Fang; Chen, Jie; Cao, Dongsheng; Guo, Fengxian; Zeng, Maomao

    2017-09-21

    The effects of various levels of chili pepper, Sichuan pepper, and black pepper on the amounts of 17 heterocyclic amines (HAs) from seven categories of both free and protein-bound states in roast beef patties were assessed by ultra-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry combined with principal component analysis. Three groups of HA, including imidazopyridines (DMIP), imidazoquinoxalines (MeIQx and 4,8-MeIQx), and β-carbolines (norharman and harman), were detected and quantified in both their free and protein-bound states, whereas PhIP was detected only in its free state, and imidazoquinolines (IQ, IQ[4,5-b], and MeIQ), α-carbolines (AαC and MeAαC), and phenylpyridines (Phe-P-1) were detected only in their protein-bound states. The results demonstrate that the peppers at all three levels had significant inhibitory effects on free PhIP, DMIP, MeIQx, and 4,8-DiMeIQx and could promote free norharman. Harman was significantly suppressed by chili pepper and black pepper, but enhanced by Sichuan pepper. All 11 protein-bound HAs, with the exception of IQ, IQ[4,5-b], and MeIQx with added chili pepper, were significantly reduced by the three peppers. The total amounts of the free and protein-bound states of all 11 HAs (1692.4 ± 78.9 ng g(-1)), imidazopyridines (5.5 ± 0.2 ng g(-1)), imidazoquinolines (7.2 ± 0.2 ng g(-1)), imidazoquinoxalines (6.9 ± 0.2 ng g(-1)), α-carbolines (20.1 ± 0.4 ng g(-1)), and β-carbolines (1651.7 ± 79.5 ng g(-1)) were suppressed by each level of all of the three peppers except for 0.5% and 1.0% chili pepper. Our findings may facilitate the inhibition of HA formation in the processing of meat products.

  9. [Diurnal variation of gas exchange and chlorophyll fluorescence parameters of cotton functional leaves under effects of soil salinity].

    PubMed

    Zhang, Guo-wei; Zhang, Lei; Tang, Ming-xing; Zhou, Ling-ling; Chen, Bing-lin; Zhou, Zhi-guo

    2011-07-01

    A two-year (2007-2008) pot experiment with cotton varieties Sumian 12 (salinity-sensitive) and Zhongmiansuo 44 (salinity-tolerance) was conducted at the Pailou experimental station of Nanjing Agricultural University to study the diurnal variation of the gas exchange and chlorophyll fluorescence parameters of cotton functional leaves under five levels (0, 0.35%, 0.60% , 0.85%, and 1.00%) of soil salinity. With the increase of soil salinity, the concentrations of Na+, Cl-, and Mg2+ in functional leaves increased, whereas the concentrations of K+ and Ca2+ decreased. The salinity level <0. 35% had little effects on the gas exchange and chlorophyll fluorescence parameters, but that >0.35% depressed the net photosynthetic rate (Pn) dramatically. At the salinity level >0.35%, the sensitivity of functional leaves to daytime photon flux density (PFD) and air temperature (Ta) enhanced, which in turn resulted in more severe photo- and temperature inhibition, and changed the diurnal variation patterns of Pn and stomatal conductance (Gs) from a one-peak curve to a constantly decreasing one. Along with the variations of daytime PED and Ta, the diurnal variation patterns of the maximum photochemical efficiency (F(v)/F(m)), quantum yield of electron transport (phi(PS II), and photochemical quenching coefficient (q(P)) of functional leaves presented a V-shaped curve, with the minimum value appeared at 12:00-13:00, while the non-photochemical quenching coefficient (q(N)) showed a single-peak curve. Soil salinity decreased the F(v)/F(m), phi(PS II), and q(P) significantly, but increased the q(N) and enlarged its change trend. The comparatively low concentrations of Na+ and Cl- and the relatively high concentrations of K+ and Ca2+ in salt-tolerant Zhongmiansuo 44 functional leaves benefited the relative stability of PS II, and the maintenance of a relatively high thermal dissipation capacity could be one of the reasons for a high level of Pn at high salinity level.

  10. Formation of Heterocyclic Aromatic Amines and Migration Level of Bisphenol-A in Sous-Vide-Cooked Trout Fillets at Different Cooking Temperatures and Cooking Levels.

    PubMed

    Oz, Fatih; Seyyar, Esra

    2016-04-20

    The effects of different cooking temperatures (65, 75, and 85 °C) and cooking levels (medium and well) on some quality properties, the formation of heterocyclic aromatic amines (HCAs), and the migration level of bisphenol-A (BPA) in trout fillets cooked by sous-vide were investigated. As a result, as expected, cooking caused a reduction in water content of the samples, whereas pH, TBARS, L*, and b* values increased. Cooking loss values ranged between 14.78 and 20.51%. Whereas IQ, MeIQ, 7,8-DiMeIQx, 4,8-DiMeIQx, PhIP, AαC and MeAαC could not be detected in the analyzed samples, varying levels of IQx (up to 0.16 ng/g) and MeIQx (up to 5.66 ng/g) were detected. It was determined that total HCA amounts ranged between 1.28 and 5.75 ng/g, and all or a big part of the total HCAs belonged to MeIQx. In addition, the migration level of BPA in sous-vide-cooked samples ranged between 4.93 and 27.11 ng/g.

  11. Role of skin lesions in the Salem witchcraft trials.

    PubMed

    Flotte, T J; Bell, D A

    1989-12-01

    In the late 17th century, several hundred people were tried for the crime of practicing witchcraft in Salem Village, Massachusetts. Twenty-four people died before the Superior Court of Judicature dismissed the remaining cases and Governor Phips pardoned and granted amnesty to all of the accused and convicted. The evidence used to convict a person of being a witch included spectral evidence confessions, and apparent proof of that person's alleged supernatural abilities. Also used as evidence were skin lesions characteristic of what were termed "devil's marks" or "witch's marks." It was believed that the devil would confirm his pact with a witch by giving her or him a mark of identification. Devil's marks included a variety of skin lesions described as flat or raised, red, blue, or brown lesions, sometimes with unusual outlines. Witch's marks were most probably supernumerary nipples. It was believed that familiars (agents of the devil, usually in animal form) would receive sustenance by being suckled. In the Salem witchcraft trials, a variety of skin lesions were used as confirmatory evidence that the accused person had made a pact with the devil, but there is no indication in the trial transcripts that anyone was convicted based on this evidence alone.

  12. [Effect of enhanced UV-B radiation on photosynthetic structure and photosynthetic characteristics of Mentha piperita].

    PubMed

    Wu, Nengbiao; Ma, Hongqun; Hu, Litao; Hong, Hong; Sun, Jinchun; Zhang, Yanghuan; Dai, Dalin

    2009-12-01

    To reveal the effects of UV-B radiation on the growth of medical plant Mentha piperita, simulate an enhanced UV-B radiation and evaluate intensity of radiation on the photosynthesis of M. piperita. Three different levels of UV-B radiation were set in the experiment which included: natural light control (0 W x m(-2)), light UV-B radiation stress (0.15 W x m(-2)) and heavy UV-B radiation stress (0.35 W x m(-2)). The chloroplast ultrastructure, photosynthesis indexes and chlorophyll fluorescence parameters of the M. piperita were observed under the three treatments. Although the chloroplast ultrastructure was destroyed to some degree under the light UV-B radiation stress, F(v)/(F)m, F(v)/F(o), qP, phiPS II and ETR could resume to the comparative level of natural light control. At the same time, qN increased firstly and decreased thereafter. But under the high strength UV-B radiation stress, the photosynthetic structures were badly destroyed, which could not recover through protecting mechanism by itself. It was showed that M. piperita was able to protect photosynthetic structures by increasing respiration and dissipation when photosynthetic capacity reduced under light UV-B radiation stress. It is demonstrated that M. piperita has high adaptation to light UV-B radiation stress, which is kind of promising medical plant for area with higher UV-B radiation.

  13. Inhibitory effect of marinades with hibiscus extract on formation of heterocyclic aromatic amines and sensory quality of fried beef patties.

    PubMed

    Gibis, Monika; Weiss, Jochen

    2010-08-01

    Heterocyclic aromatic amines (HAA) are carcinogenic compounds found in the crust of fried meat. The objective was to examine the possibility of inhibiting HAA formation in fried beef patties by using marinades with different concentrations of hibiscus extract (Hibiscus sabdariffa) (0.2, 0.4, 0.6, 0.8 g/100g). After frying, patties were analyzed for 15 different HAA by HPLC-analysis. Four HAA MeIQx (0.3-0.6 ng/g), PhIP (0.02-0.06 ng/g), co-mutagenic norharmane (0.4-0.7 ng/g), and harmane (0.8-1.1 ng/g) were found at low levels. The concentration of MeIQx was reduced by about 50% and 40% by applying marinades containing the highest amount of extract compared to sunflower oil and control marinade, respectively. The antioxidant capacity (TEAC-Assay/Folin-Ciocalteu-Assay) was determined as 0.9, 1.7, 2.6 and 3.5 micromol Trolox antioxidant equivalents and total phenolic compounds were 49, 97, 146 and 195 microg/g marinade. In sensory ranking tests, marinated and fried patties were not significantly different (p>0.05) to control samples.

  14. Diagnosing pure-electron plasmas with internal particle flux probes.

    PubMed

    Kremer, J P; Pedersen, T Sunn; Marksteiner, Q; Lefrancois, R G; Hahn, M

    2007-01-01

    Techniques for measuring local plasma potential, density, and temperature of pure-electron plasmas using emissive and Langmuir probes are described. The plasma potential is measured as the least negative potential at which a hot tungsten filament emits electrons. Temperature is measured, as is commonly done in quasineutral plasmas, through the interpretation of a Langmuir probe current-voltage characteristic. Due to the lack of ion-saturation current, the density must also be measured through the interpretation of this characteristic thereby greatly complicating the measurement. Measurements are further complicated by low densities, low cross field transport rates, and large flows typical of pure-electron plasmas. This article describes the use of these techniques on pure-electron plasmas in the Columbia Non-neutral Torus (CNT) stellarator. Measured values for present baseline experimental parameters in CNT are phi(p)=-200+/-2 V, T(e)=4+/-1 eV, and n(e) on the order of 10(12) m(-3) in the interior.

  15. Mammary carcinogen-protein binding potentials: novel and biologically relevant structure-activity relationship model descriptors.

    PubMed

    Cunningham, A R; Qamar, S; Carrasquer, C A; Holt, P A; Maguire, J M; Cunningham, S L; Trent, J O

    2010-07-01

    Previously, SAR models for carcinogenesis used descriptors that are essentially chemical descriptors. Herein we report the development of models with the cat-SAR expert system using biological descriptors (i.e., ligand-receptor interactions) rat mammary carcinogens. These new descriptors are derived from the virtual screening for ligand-receptor interactions of carcinogens, non-carcinogens, and mammary carcinogens to a set of 5494 target proteins. Leave-one-out validations of the ligand mammary carcinogen-non-carcinogen model had a concordance between experimental and predicted results of 71%, and the mammary carcinogen-non-mammary carcinogen model was 72% concordant. The development of a hybrid fragment-ligand model improved the concordances to 85 and 83%, respectively. In a separate external validation exercise, hybrid fragment-ligand models had concordances of 81 and 76%. Analyses of example rat mammary carcinogens including the food mutagen and oestrogenic compound PhIP, the herbicide atrazine, and the drug indomethacin; the ligand model identified a number of proteins associated with each compound that had previously been referenced in Medline in conjunction with the test chemical and separately with association to breast cancer. This new modelling approach can enhance model predictivity and help bridge the gap between chemical structure and carcinogenic activity by descriptors that are related to biological targets.

  16. Mammary Carcinogen-Protein Binding Potentials: Novel and Biologically Relevant Structure-Activity Relationship Model Descriptors

    PubMed Central

    Cunningham, A.R.; Qamar, S.; Carrasquer, C.A.; Holt, P.A.; Maguire, J.M.; Cunningham, S.L.; Trent, J.O.

    2010-01-01

    Previously, SAR models for carcinogenesis used descriptors that are essentially chemical descriptors. Herein we report the development of models with the cat-SAR expert system using biological descriptors (i.e., ligand-receptor interactions) rat mammary carcinogens. These new descriptors are derived from the virtual screening for ligand-receptor interactions of carcinogens, non-carcinogens, and mammary carcinogens to a set of 5494 target proteins. Leave-one-out validations of the ligand mammary carcinogen non-carcinogen model had a concordance between experimental and predicted results of 71% and the mammary carcinogen non-mammary carcinogen model was 72% concordant. The development of a hybrid fragment-ligand model improved the concordances to 85 and 83%, respectively. In a separate external validation exercise, hybrid fragment-ligand models had concordances of 81 and 76%. Analyses of example rat mammary carcinogens including the food mutagen and estrogenic compound PhIP, the herbicide atrazine, and the drug indomethacin, the ligand model identified a number of proteins associated with each compound that had previously been referenced in Medline in conjunction with the test chemical and separately with association to breast cancer. This new modelling approach can enhance model predictivity and help bridge the gap between chemical structure and carcinogenic activity by descriptors that are related to biological targets. PMID:20818582

  17. Surface charge-specific interactions between polymer nanoparticles and ABC transporters in Caco-2 cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bhattacharjee, Sourav; van Opstal, Edward J.; Alink, Gerrit M.; Marcelis, Antonius T. M.; Zuilhof, Han; Rietjens, Ivonne M. C. M.

    2013-06-01

    The surface charge-dependent transport of polymeric nanoparticles (PNPs) across Caco-2 monolayers grown on transwell culture systems as an in vitro model for intestinal transport was tested. The transport of well-characterized, monodisperse, and fluorescent tri-block copolymer nanoparticles (TCNPs/size 45 nm) and polystyrene nanoparticles (PSNPs/size 50 nm), with different surface charges (positive and negative), was quantified. The positive PNPs showed a higher intracellular uptake and flux across the Caco-2 monolayers than the negative PNPs. Multidrug resistance/P-glycoprotein (MDR1/P-gp), a specific ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporter, was found to play a major role in the cellular efflux of positive PNPs, whereas the multidrug resistance protein 1 took part in the efflux of negative PNPs from Caco-2 cells. The positive PNPs also caused an increased cellular uptake and apical to basolateral transport of the carcinogen PhIP across the Caco-2 monolayer. The flavonoid quercetin, which is known to interact with ABC transporters, promoted the intracellular uptake of different PNPs and interfered with the normal distribution patterns of PNPs in the transwell system. These results indicate that PNPs display surface charge-specific interactions with ABC transporters and can even affect the bioavailability of toxic food-borne compounds (like pro-carcinogens).

  18. Insights into the O-Acetylation Reaction of Hydroxylated Heterocyclic Amines by Human Arylamine N-Acetyltransferases: A Computational Study

    SciTech Connect

    Lau, E Y; Felton, J S; Lightstone, F C

    2006-06-06

    A computational study was performed to better understand the differences between human arylamine N-acetyltransferase (NAT) 1 and 2. Homology models were constructed from available crystal structures and comparisons of the active site residues 125, 127, and 129 for these two enzymes provide insight into observed substrate differences. The NAT2 model provided a basis for understanding how some of the common mutations may affect the structure of the protein. Molecular dynamics simulations of the human NAT models and the template structure (NAT from Mycobacterium smegmatis) were performed and showed the models to be stable and reasonable. Docking studies of hydroxylated heterocyclic amines in the models of NAT1 and NAT2 probed the differences exhibited by these two proteins with mutagenic agents. The hydroxylated heterocyclic amines were only able to fit into the NAT2 active site, and an alternative binding site by the P-loop was found using our models and will be discussed. Additionally, quantum mechanical calculations were performed to study the O-acetylation reaction of the hydroxylated heterocyclic amines N-OH MeIQx and N-OH PhIP. This study has given us insight into why there are substrate differences among isoenzymes and explains some of the polymorphic activity differences.

  19. Effect of oil marinades with garlic, onion, and lemon juice on the formation of heterocyclic aromatic amines in fried beef patties.

    PubMed

    Gibis, Monika

    2007-12-12

    Effects of the application of oil marinades with garlic, onion, and lemon juice on the formation of heterocyclic aromatic amines (HAAs) in fried beef patties were investigated. Two different statistical design models were used. In the screening experiment, a significant inhibition of formation of MeIQx was determined only by addition of garlic (p < 0.05). When the amount of garlic was changed from 2 to 20 g/100 g of marinade, the estimated MeIQx content in patties was reduced about 70%. MeIQx (0.38-1.22 ng/g), 4,8-DiMeIQx (n.d.-0.45 ng/g), PhIP (n.d.-0.09 ng/g), norharman (0.76-13.5 ng/g), and harman (2.9-21.5 ng/g) were found in fried patties. The results of two-level and three-level fractional factorial design experiments confirmed the first investigation. They showed a stronger reduction in MeIQx in patties with the addition of increasing amounts of garlic (p < 0.01) and onion (p < 0.05) in marinades. A higher content of lemon juice in marinades led to only a marginal reduction in MeIQx (p > 0.05). The optimum amounts of onion, garlic, and lemon juice that achieved a maximum reduction of HAAs were calculated as 31.2%, 28.6%, and 14.6% in marinade.

  20. Heterocyclic amines in griddled beef steak analysed using a single extract clean-up procedure.

    PubMed

    Toribio, F; Busquets, R; Puignou, L; Galceran, M T

    2007-04-01

    Heterocyclic amines (HAs), which are potent mutagenic and carcinogenic substances, are formed in muscle meats during their cooking under ordinary conditions. In this work, we measured the concentration of 15 HAs in different samples of griddled beef steak, which is one of the most consumed meat items is Spain. Three samples were obtained from different restaurants, and the other sample was cooked under controlled conditions to a well-done degree of doneness. A low-time consuming solid-phase extraction procedure was used to purify the samples, and liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry with an ion trap mass analyzer was used as determination technique. A second well-established purification procedure was used to demonstrate the applicability of the method to the analysis of these kind of samples. 8-MeIQx, 4,8-DiMeIQx, PhIP and the comutagens Harman and Norharman were found in all the samples, at levels ranging from 0.28 to 21.2ngg(-1). AalphaC was found in three samples (0.18-1.41ngg(-1)), whereas Trp-P-1 was detected in two samples (0.35ngg(-1)). MeAalphaC was found in three samples but could only be quantified in one (0.15ngg(-1)). Trp-P-2 and DMIP were also detected in some cases at levels below their limit of quantification. The remaining HAs analyzed were not detected in any of the samples.

  1. Remote detection NMR imaging of gas phase hydrogenation in microfluidic chips.

    PubMed

    Zhivonitko, Vladimir V; Telkki, Ville-Veikko; Leppäniemi, Jarmo; Scotti, Gianmario; Franssila, Sami; Koptyug, Igor V

    2013-04-21

    The heterogeneous hydrogenation reaction of propene into propane in microreactors is studied by remote detection (RD) nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR). The reactors consist of 36 parallel microchannels (50 × 50 μm(2) cross sections) coated with a platinum catalyst. We show that RD NMR is capable of monitoring reactions with sub-millimeter spatial resolution over a field-of-view of 30 × 8 mm(2) with a steady-state time-of-flight time resolution in the tens of milliseconds range. The method enables the visualization of active zones in the reactors, and time-of-flight is used to image the flow velocity variations inside the reactor. The overall reaction yields determined by NMR varied from 10% to 50%, depending on the flow rate, temperature and length of the reaction channels. The reaction yield was highest for the channels with the lowest flow velocity. Propane T1 relaxation time in the channels, estimated by means of RD NMR images, was 270 ± 18 ms. No parahydrogen-induced polarization (PHIP) was observed in experiments carried out using parahydrogen-enriched H2, indicating fast spreading of the hydrogen atoms on the sputtered Pt surface. In spite of the low concentration of gases, RD NMR made imaging of gas phase hydrogenation of propene in microreactors feasible, and it is a highly versatile method for characterizing on-chip chemical reactions.

  2. Similarity of SABRE field dependence in chemically different substrates.

    PubMed

    Dücker, Eibe B; Kuhn, Lars T; Münnemann, Kerstin; Griesinger, Christian

    2012-01-01

    The Non-Hydrogenative Parahydrogen-Induced Polarization (NH-PHIP) technique, which is referred to as Signal Amplification by Reversible Exchange (SABRE), has been reported to be applicable to various substrates and catalysts. For more detailed studies, pyridine was mainly examined in the past. Here, we examined several pyrazole derivatives towards their amenability to this method using Crabtree's Catalyst, which is the polarization transfer catalyst that is best documented. Additionally, the dependence of the signal enhancement on the field strength, at which the polarization step takes place, was examined for pyridine and four different pyrazoles. To achieve this, the polarization step was performed at numerous previously determined magnetic fields in the stray field of the NMR spectrometer. The substrate dependence of the field dependence proved to be relatively small for the different pyrazoles and a strong correlation to the field dependence for pyridine was observed. Reducing the number of spins in the catalyst by deuteration leads to increased enhancement. This indicates that more work has to be invested in order to be able to reproduce the SABRE field dependence by simulations. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. De novo genic mutations among a Chinese autism spectrum disorder cohort

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Tianyun; Guo, Hui; Xiong, Bo; Stessman, Holly A.F.; Wu, Huidan; Coe, Bradley P.; Turner, Tychele N.; Liu, Yanling; Zhao, Wenjing; Hoekzema, Kendra; Vives, Laura; Xia, Lu; Tang, Meina; Ou, Jianjun; Chen, Biyuan; Shen, Yidong; Xun, Guanglei; Long, Min; Lin, Janice; Kronenberg, Zev N.; Peng, Yu; Bai, Ting; Li, Honghui; Ke, Xiaoyan; Hu, Zhengmao; Zhao, Jingping; Zou, Xiaobing; Xia, Kun; Eichler, Evan E.

    2016-01-01

    Recurrent de novo (DN) and likely gene-disruptive (LGD) mutations contribute significantly to autism spectrum disorders (ASDs) but have been primarily investigated in European cohorts. Here, we sequence 189 risk genes in 1,543 Chinese ASD probands (1,045 from trios). We report an 11-fold increase in the odds of DN LGD mutations compared with expectation under an exome-wide neutral model of mutation. In aggregate, ∼4% of ASD patients carry a DN mutation in one of just 29 autism risk genes. The most prevalent gene for recurrent DN mutations is SCN2A (1.1% of patients) followed by CHD8, DSCAM, MECP2, POGZ, WDFY3 and ASH1L. We identify novel DN LGD recurrences (GIGYF2, MYT1L, CUL3, DOCK8 and ZNF292) and DN mutations in previous ASD candidates (ARHGAP32, NCOR1, PHIP, STXBP1, CDKL5 and SHANK1). Phenotypic follow-up confirms potential subtypes and highlights how large global cohorts might be leveraged to prove the pathogenic significance of individually rare mutations. PMID:27824329

  4. Mutagenic Potency of Food-Derived Heterocyclic Amines

    SciTech Connect

    Felton, J S; Knize, M G; Wu, R W; Colvin, M E; Hatch, F T; Malfatti, M A

    2006-10-26

    The understanding of mutagenic potency has been primarily approached using ''quantitative structure activity relationships'' (QSAR). Often this method allows the prediction of mutagenic potency of the compound based on its structure. But it does not give the underlying reason why the mutagenic activities differ. We have taken a set of heterocyclic amine structures and used molecular dynamic calculations to dock these molecules into the active site of a computational model of the cytochrome P-450 1A1 enzyme. The calculated binding strength using Boltzman distribution constants was then compared to the QSAR value (HF/6-31G* optimized structures) and the Ames/Salmonella mutagenic potency. Further understanding will only come from knowing the complete set of mutagenic determinants. These include the nitrenium ion half-life, DNA adduct half-life, efficiency of repair of the adduct, and ultimately fixation of the mutation through cellular processes. For two isomers, PhIP and 3-Me-PhIP, we showed that for the 100-fold difference in the mutagenic potency a 5-fold difference can be accounted for by differences in the P450 oxidation. The other factor of 20 is not clearly understood but is downstream from the oxidation step. The application of QSAR (chemical characteristics) to biological principles related to mutagenesis is explored in this report.

  5. Chemical state of heterocyclic aromatic amines in grilled beef: evaluation by in vitro digestion model and comparison of alkaline hydrolysis and organic solvent for extraction.

    PubMed

    Szterk, Arkadiusz

    2013-12-01

    During grilling of the roast beef the following heterocyclic aromatic amines were found: IQ=200.6 ng 100g(-1), MeIQx=719.8 ng 100 g(-1), MeIQ=532.9 ng 100g(-1), 4.8-diMeIQx=755.4 ng 100 g(-1), norharmane=507.0 ng 100 g(-1), harmane=1952.6 ng 100 g(-1), Phe-P 1=263.7 ng 100 g(-1), Trp-P 2=559.2 ng 100 g(-1), PhIP=1179.8 ng 100 g(-1) and AαC=51.7 ng 100g(-1). Their content was tested by using the method based on alkaline hydrolysis of the sample and the method based on solvent extraction of the grilled meat samples at different temperatures (without hydrolysis). The study showed that the heterocyclic aromatic amines produced during the grilling of beef are in a free form and chemically or physico-chemically bonded. The chemical forms of HAA formed in food have never been studied. For the purpose of the partial confirmation that HAA may be chemically or physico-chemically bonded, grilled beef samples were digested in vitro in model segments of the human digestive tract. Digestive enzymes, particularly proteolytic enzymes caused a statistically significant increase of free HAA determined by using solvent extraction without prior chemical hydrolysis of the sample. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. [Effects of gamma-aminobutyric acid on the photosynthesis and chlorophyll fluorescence parameters of muskmelon seedlings under hypoxia stress].

    PubMed

    Xia, Qing-ping; Gao, Hong-bo; Li, Jing-rui

    2011-04-01

    By the method of hydroponic culture, this paper studied the effects of exogenous gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) on the photosynthetic pigment contents, photosynthesis, and chlorophyll fluorescence parameters of muskmelon seedlings under hypoxia stress. Hypoxia stress induced a significant decrease of photosynthetic pigment contents, resulting in the decrease of photosynthesis. Applying GABA could significantly increase the photosynthetic pigment contents, net photosynthetic rate (P(n)), stomatal conductance (G(s)), intercellular CO2 concentration (C(i)), carboxylation efficiency (CE), maximal photochemical efficiency of PS II (F(v)/F(m)), photochemical quenching (q(P)), apparent photosynthetic electron transfer rate (ETR), and quantum yield of PS II electron transport (phi(PS II)), and decrease the stomatal limitation value (L(s)), minimal fluorescence (F(o)), and non-photochemical quenching (NPQ) under both hypoxic and normal conditions. The alleviation effect of GABA on photosynthetic characteristics was more obvious under hypoxia stress. However, simultaneously applying GABA and VGB could significantly decrease the alleviation effect of GABA under hypoxia stress.

  7. C-H Activation on Co,O Sites: Isolated Surface Sites versus Molecular Analogs.

    PubMed

    Estes, Deven P; Siddiqi, Georges; Allouche, Florian; Kovtunov, Kirill V; Safonova, Olga V; Trigub, Alexander L; Koptyug, Igor V; Copéret, Christophe

    2016-11-16

    The activation and conversion of hydrocarbons is one of the most important challenges in chemistry. Transition-metal ions (V, Cr, Fe, Co, etc.) isolated on silica surfaces are known to catalyze such processes. The mechanisms of these processes are currently unknown but are thought to involve C-H activation as the rate-determining step. Here, we synthesize well-defined Co(II) ions on a silica surface using a metal siloxide precursor followed by thermal treatment under vacuum at 500 °C. We show that these isolated Co(II) sites are catalysts for a number of hydrocarbon conversion reactions, such as the dehydrogenation of propane, the hydrogenation of propene, and the trimerization of terminal alkynes. We then investigate the mechanisms of these processes using kinetics, kinetic isotope effects, isotopic labeling experiments, parahydrogen induced polarization (PHIP) NMR, and comparison with a molecular analog. The data are consistent with all of these reactions occurring by a common mechanism, involving heterolytic C-H or H-H activation via a 1,2 addition across a Co-O bond.

  8. [Thermal dissipation pathway in cucumber seedling leaves under hypoxia stress].

    PubMed

    Jia, Yong-xi; Sun, Jin; Wang, Li-ping; Shu, Sheng; Guo, Shi-rong

    2011-03-01

    A water culture experiment was conducted to study the relationship between photosynthetic thermal dissipation and xanthophyll cycle in cucumber seedling leaves under hypoxia stress (the dissolved oxygen concentration in nutrient solution was 0.9-1.1 mg x L(-1)). Under the hypoxia stress, there was a significant decrease in the quantum yield of PS II photochemistry rate (phi(PS II)), net photosynthetic rate (Pn) under saturation light intensity, quanta yield (AQY), and maximal photochemical efficiency (Fv/Fm), suggesting that the photoinhibition of the seedling leaves was induced. Meanwhile, the thermal dissipation (NPQ) and the allocation of dissipation energy (D) by antenna increased, but the photochemical quenching apparent (q(p)) decreased, suggesting the enhancement of thermal dissipation in cucumber leaves under hypoxia stress. A positive correlation was observed between NPQ and xanthophyll de-epoxidation state (DEPS), and both of them were promoted by ascorbic acid (AsA) and inhibited by 1,4-dithiothreitol (DTT), suggesting that xanthophyll cycle was the major pathway of photosynthetic thermal dissipation in cucumber seedling leaves under hypoxia stress.

  9. Low reheating temperatures in monomial and binomial inflationary models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rehagen, Thomas; Gelmini, Graciela B.

    2015-06-01

    We investigate the allowed range of reheating temperature values in light of the Planck 2015 results and the recent joint analysis of Cosmic Microwave Background (CMB) data from the BICEP2/Keck Array and Planck experiments, using monomial and binomial inflationary potentials. While the well studied phi2 inflationary potential is no longer favored by current CMB data, as well as phip with p>2, a phi1 potential and canonical reheating (0wre=) provide a good fit to the CMB measurements. In this last case, we find that the Planck 2015 68% confidence limit upper bound on the spectral index, ns, implies an upper bound on the reheating temperature of Trelesssim 6× 1010 GeV, and excludes instantaneous reheating. The low reheating temperatures allowed by this model open the possibility that dark matter could be produced during the reheating period instead of when the Universe is radiation dominated, which could lead to very different predictions for the relic density and momentum distribution of WIMPs, sterile neutrinos, and axions. We also study binomial inflationary potentials and show the effects of a small departure from a phi1 potential. We find that as a subdominant phi2 term in the potential increases, first instantaneous reheating becomes allowed, and then the lowest possible reheating temperature of Tre=4 MeV is excluded by the Planck 2015 68% confidence limit.

  10. Extending the Lifetime of Hyperpolarized Propane Gas through Reversible Dissolution.

    PubMed

    Burueva, Dudari B; Romanov, Alexey S; Salnikov, Oleg G; Zhivonitko, Vladimir V; Chen, Yu-Wen; Barskiy, Danila A; Chekmenev, Eduard Y; Hwang, Dennis W; Kovtunov, Kirill V; Koptyug, Igor V

    2017-03-02

    Hyperpolarized (HP) propane produced by the parahydrogen-induced polarization (PHIP) technique has been recently introduced as a promising contrast agent for functional lung magnetic resonance (MR) imaging. However, its short lifetime due to a spin-lattice relaxation time T1 of less than 1 s in the gas phase is a significant translational challenge for its potential biomedical applications. The previously demonstrated approach for extending the lifetime of the HP propane state through long-lived spin states allows the HP propane lifetime to be increased by a factor of ∼3. Here, we demonstrate that a remarkable increase in the propane hyperpolarization decay time at high magnetic field (7.1 T) can be achieved by its dissolution in deuterated organic solvents (acetone-d6 or methanol-d4). The approximate values of the HP decay time for propane dissolved in acetone-d6 are 35.1 and 28.6 s for the CH2 group and the CH3 group, respectively (similar values were obtained for propane dissolved in methanol-d4), which are ∼50 times larger than the gaseous propane T1 value. Furthermore, we show that it is possible to retrieve HP propane from solution to the gas phase with the preservation of hyperpolarization.

  11. Constraints on single-field inflation with WMAP, SPT and ACT data — a last-minute stand before Planck

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cheng, Cheng; Huang, Qing-Guo; Ma, Yin-Zhe

    2013-07-01

    We constrain models of single field inflation with the pre-Planck CMB data. The data used here is the 9-year Wilkinson Microwave Anisotropy Probe (WMAP) data, South Pole Telescope (SPT) data and Atacama Cosmology Telescope (ACT) data. By adding in running of spectral index parameter, we find that the χ2 is improved by a factor of Δχ2 = 8.44, which strongly indicates the preference of this parameter from current data. In addition, we find that the running of spectral index αs does not change very much even if we switch to different pivot scales, which suggests that the power law expansion of power spectrum is accurate enough till the 1st order term. Furthermore, we find that the joint constraints on r-ns give very tight constraints on single-field inflation models, and the models with power law potential phip can only survive if 0.9lesssimplesssim2.1, so a large class of inflation models have already been ruled out before Planck data. Finally, we use the fNL data to constrain the non-trivial sound speed cs. We find that the current constraint is dominated by the power spectrum constraints which have some inconsistency with the constraints from fNL. This poses important questions of consistency between power spectrum and bispectrum of WMAP data.

  12. [Effects of light intensity on growth and photosynthetic characteristics of Tulipa edulis].

    PubMed

    Xu, Hongjian; Zhu, Zaibiao; Guo, Qiaosheng; Wu, Zhengjun; Ma, Hongliang; Miao, Yuanyuan

    2012-02-01

    Present study was conducted to explore the growth and photosynthetic characteristics of Tulipa edulis under different light conditions (23%, 45%, 63%, 78%, 100% of full sunlight) and to determine the optimum light intensity for growth of T. edulis. The leaf area and biomass indicators as well as reproductive characteristics were measured. The photosynthetic basic parameters and light response curve were determined by a LI-6400XT portable photosynthesis system, and the light response curve characteristic parameters was determined. Additionally, chlorophyll fluorescence parameters were determined by assorted fluorescence leaf chamber of LI-6400XT. The lowest biomass yield was observed in the 23% and 100% of full sunlight treatments while the highest value was found under the 78% of full sunlight conditions. With the reduction of light availability, the success rate of sexual reproduction, light saturation point (LSP) and light compensation point (LCP) reduced, while apparent quantum yield (AQY) increased. 23% and 45% of full sunlight treatments led to lower photosynthesis rate (Pn) and higher apparent quantum yield (AQY) in comparison with other treatents. The highest photosynthesis rate was observed in the 78% and 100% of full sunlight treatments. In addition, 78% of full sunlight treatments led to highest Fv/Fm, Fv'/Fm', PhiPS II, ETR, and qP. T. edulis was able to adapt in a wide range of light intensity, and 78% of full sunlinght was the most suitable light condition for growth of T. edulis.

  13. Highly selective luminescent nanostructures for mitochondrial imaging and targeting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fanizza, E.; Iacobazzi, R. M.; Laquintana, V.; Valente, G.; Caliandro, G.; Striccoli, M.; Agostiano, A.; Cutrignelli, A.; Lopedota, A.; Curri, M. L.; Franco, M.; Depalo, N.; Denora, N.

    2016-02-01

    Here a luminescent hybrid nanostructure based on functionalized quantum dots (QDs) is used as a fluorescent imaging agent able to target selectively mitochondria thanks to the molecular recognition of the translocator protein (TSPO). The selective targeting of such an 18 kDa protein mainly located in the outer mitochondrial membrane and overexpressed in several pathological states including neurodegenerative diseases and cancers may provide valuable information for the early diagnosis and therapy of human disorders. In particular, the rational design of amino functionalized luminescent silica coated QD nanoparticles (QD@SiO2 NPs) provides a versatile nanoplatform to anchor a potent and selective TSPO ligand, characterized by a 2-phenyl-imidazo[1,2-a]pyridine acetamide structure along with a derivatizable carboxylic end group, useful to conjugate the TSPO ligand and achieve TSPO-QD@SiO2 NPs by means of a covalent amide bond. The colloidal stability and optical properties of the proposed nanomaterials are comprehensively investigated and their potential as mitochondrial imaging agents is fully assessed. Sub-cellular fractionation, together with confocal laser scanning fluorescence microscopy and co-localization analysis of targeted TSPO-QD@SiO2 NPs in C6 glioma cells overexpressing the TSPO, proves the great potential of these multifunctional nanosystems as in vitro selective mitochondrial imaging agents.Here a luminescent hybrid nanostructure based on functionalized quantum dots (QDs) is used as a fluorescent imaging agent able to target selectively mitochondria thanks to the molecular recognition of the translocator protein (TSPO). The selective targeting of such an 18 kDa protein mainly located in the outer mitochondrial membrane and overexpressed in several pathological states including neurodegenerative diseases and cancers may provide valuable information for the early diagnosis and therapy of human disorders. In particular, the rational design of amino

  14. A ruthenium polypyridyl intercalator stalls DNA replication forks, radiosensitizes human cancer cells and is enhanced by Chk1 inhibition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gill, Martin R.; Harun, Siti Norain; Halder, Swagata; Boghozian, Ramon A.; Ramadan, Kristijan; Ahmad, Haslina; Vallis, Katherine A.

    2016-08-01

    Ruthenium(II) polypyridyl complexes can intercalate DNA with high affinity and prevent cell proliferation; however, the direct impact of ruthenium-based intercalation on cellular DNA replication remains unknown. Here we show the multi-intercalator [Ru(dppz)2(PIP)]2+ (dppz = dipyridophenazine, PIP = 2-(phenyl)imidazo[4,5-f][1,10]phenanthroline) immediately stalls replication fork progression in HeLa human cervical cancer cells. In response to this replication blockade, the DNA damage response (DDR) cell signalling network is activated, with checkpoint kinase 1 (Chk1) activation indicating prolonged replication-associated DNA damage, and cell proliferation is inhibited by G1-S cell-cycle arrest. Co-incubation with a Chk1 inhibitor achieves synergistic apoptosis in cancer cells, with a significant increase in phospho(Ser139) histone H2AX (γ-H2AX) levels and foci indicating increased conversion of stalled replication forks to double-strand breaks (DSBs). Normal human epithelial cells remain unaffected by this concurrent treatment. Furthermore, pre-treatment of HeLa cells with [Ru(dppz)2(PIP)]2+ before external beam ionising radiation results in a supra-additive decrease in cell survival accompanied by increased γ-H2AX expression, indicating the compound functions as a radiosensitizer. Together, these results indicate ruthenium-based intercalation can block replication fork progression and demonstrate how these DNA-binding agents may be combined with DDR inhibitors or ionising radiation to achieve more efficient cancer cell killing.

  15. DNA-binding studies and antitumor evaluation of novel water soluble organic pip and hpip analogs.

    PubMed

    Coban, Burak; Yildiz, Ufuk

    2014-01-01

    Two new water-soluble pip and hpip analogs, 1 and 2 pip = 2-phenylimidazo[4,5-f][1, 10]phenanthroline; hpip = 2-(2-hydroxyphenyl)imidazo[4,5-f][1, 10]phenanthroline, have been synthesized and fully characterized by CHN analysis, MALDI-TOF MS, (1)H-NMR, IR (ATR), and UV-Vis methods. The DNA-binding behaviors of both compounds have been studied by viscosity measurements, spectroscopic methods, and gel electrophoresis studies, and potential for antitumor activity was evaluated by measuring their ability to inhibit DNA transcription. The results indicate that both compounds show some strong binding to DNA in a mixture of electrostatic and intercalative mode resulting in the intrinsic binding constants Kb of (4.0 ± 0.5) × 10(5) M(-1) and (7.5 ± 0.5) × 10(5) M(-1) for 1 and 2, respectively. These strong binding affinities for DNA are comparable for that seen for many transition metal-based intercalators. Comparatively, observed difference in the DNA-binding affinities of two complexes can be reasonably explained by the presence of an intra-molecular hydrogen-bonding between the ortho-phenolic group and the nitrogen atom of the imidazole ring. The extended co-planarity of 2 due to the intramolecular hydrogen bonding may lead to an enhancement of DNA binding affinity of 2. In addition, 2 can promote cleavage of pBR322 DNA upon irradiation, it inhibits DNA transcription and it is more cytotoxic at lower concentrations in comparison to 1, as revealed by the spectroscopic measurements.

  16. A ruthenium polypyridyl intercalator stalls DNA replication forks, radiosensitizes human cancer cells and is enhanced by Chk1 inhibition

    PubMed Central

    Gill, Martin R.; Harun, Siti Norain; Halder, Swagata; Boghozian, Ramon A.; Ramadan, Kristijan; Ahmad, Haslina; Vallis, Katherine A.

    2016-01-01

    Ruthenium(II) polypyridyl complexes can intercalate DNA with high affinity and prevent cell proliferation; however, the direct impact of ruthenium-based intercalation on cellular DNA replication remains unknown. Here we show the multi-intercalator [Ru(dppz)2(PIP)]2+ (dppz = dipyridophenazine, PIP = 2-(phenyl)imidazo[4,5-f][1,10]phenanthroline) immediately stalls replication fork progression in HeLa human cervical cancer cells. In response to this replication blockade, the DNA damage response (DDR) cell signalling network is activated, with checkpoint kinase 1 (Chk1) activation indicating prolonged replication-associated DNA damage, and cell proliferation is inhibited by G1-S cell-cycle arrest. Co-incubation with a Chk1 inhibitor achieves synergistic apoptosis in cancer cells, with a significant increase in phospho(Ser139) histone H2AX (γ-H2AX) levels and foci indicating increased conversion of stalled replication forks to double-strand breaks (DSBs). Normal human epithelial cells remain unaffected by this concurrent treatment. Furthermore, pre-treatment of HeLa cells with [Ru(dppz)2(PIP)]2+ before external beam ionising radiation results in a supra-additive decrease in cell survival accompanied by increased γ-H2AX expression, indicating the compound functions as a radiosensitizer. Together, these results indicate ruthenium-based intercalation can block replication fork progression and demonstrate how these DNA-binding agents may be combined with DDR inhibitors or ionising radiation to achieve more efficient cancer cell killing. PMID:27558808

  17. Efficient refolding and immobilization of PMMA-tag-fused single-chain Fv antibodies for sensitive immunological detection on a PMMA plate.

    PubMed

    Kumada, Yoichi; Ishikawa, Yasuyuki; Fujiwara, Yusuke; Takeda, Rui; Miyamoto, Ryosuke; Niwa, Daisuke; Momose, Shun; Kang, Bongmun; Kishimoto, Michimasa

    2014-09-01

    In this study, we investigated the efficient refolding and site-specific immobilization of single-chain variable fragments (scFvs) genetically fused with a poly(methylmethacrylate)-binding peptide (PMMA-tag). According to the results of an aggregation test of a scFv-PM in the presence of 0.5 M urea, aggregation was hardly detectable at a weak-alkaline pH (8.5) with lower concentrations of NaCl. Consequently, more than 93% recovery of the anti-RNase scFv-PM model was attained, when it was refolded by dialysis against 50 mM TAPS (pH8.5). These results suggested that the apparent isoelectric point (pI) of a target scFv was decreased to a great extent by the genetic fusion of a PMMA-tag containing 5 acidic amino acids, and, thus, the solubility of the scFv-PM in its semi-denatured form was considerably improved. We also designed alternative peptide-tags composed of plural aspartic acid residues (D5, D10 and D15-tags) to decrease the apparent pI value of the fusion protein. As a consequence, scFv-D5, scFv-D10 and scFv-D15 were also efficiently refolded with yields of more than 95%. It is noteworthy that even scFv-PS-D15, which had both a positively charged polystyrene-binding peptide (PS-tag) and a negatively charged D15-tag, was serially connected at the C-terminal region of scFvs, and also refolded with a yield of 96.1%. These results clearly indicate that controlling the apparent pI value of scFvs by the fusion of oligo-peptides composed of acidic amino acids at the C-terminus resulted in a high degree of recovery via dialysis refolding. According to the results of a sandwich ELISA using scFv-PMs, scFv-D15 and scFv-PS-D15 as ligands, high antigen-binding signals were detected from both the PMMA and phi-PS plates immobilized with scFv-PMs. Furthermore, the high antigen-binding activity of scFv-PMs was maintained in an adsorption state when it was immobilized on the surface of not only PMMA, but also hydrophilic PS (phi-PS) and polycarbonate (PC). These results

  18. Urinary mutagenesis and fried red meat intake: influence of cooking temperature, phenotype, and genotype of metabolizing enzymes in a controlled feeding study.

    PubMed

    Peters, Ulrike; Sinha, Rashmi; Bell, Douglas A; Rothman, Nathaniel; Grant, Delores J; Watson, Mary A; Kulldorff, Martin; Brooks, Lance R; Warren, Sarah H; DeMarini, David M

    2004-01-01

    Meat cooked at high temperatures contains potential carcinogenic compounds, such as heterocyclic amines (HCAs) and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). Samples from a 2-week controlled feeding study were used to examine the relationship between the intake of mutagenicity from meat fried at different temperatures and the levels of mutagenicity subsequently detected in urine, as well as the influence of the genotype of drug metabolizing enzymes on urinary mutagenicity. Sixty subjects consumed ground beef patties fried at low temperature (100 degrees C) for 1 week, followed by ground beef patties fried at high temperature (250 degrees C) the second week. Mutagenicity in the meat was assayed in Salmonella typhimurium TA98 (+S9), and urinary mutagenicity was determined using Salmonella YG1024 (+S9). Genotypes for NAT1, NAT2, GSTM1, and UGT1A1 were analyzed using blood samples from the subjects. Meat fried at 100 degrees C was not mutagenic, whereas meat fried at 250 degrees C was mutagenic (1023 rev/g). Unhydrolyzed and hydrolyzed urine samples were 22x and 131x more mutagenic, respectively, when subjects consumed red meat fried at 250 degrees C compared with red meat fried at 100 degrees C. We found that hydrolyzed urine was approximately 8x more mutagenic than unhydrolyzed urine, likely due to the deconjugation of mutagens from glucuronide. The intake of meat cooked at high temperature correlated with the mutagenicity of unhydrolyzed urine (r = 0.32, P = 0.01) and hydrolyzed urine (r = 0.34, P = 0.008). Mutagenicity in unhydrolyzed urine was not influenced by NAT1, NAT2, or GSTM1 genotypes. However, a UGT1A1*28 polymorphism that reduced UGT1A1 expression and conjugation modified the effect of intake of meat cooked at high temperature on mutagenicity of unhydrolyzed urine (P for interaction = 0.04). These mutagenicity data were also compared with previously determined levels of HCAs (measured as MeIQx, DiMeIQx, and PhIP) and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs

  19. Mutagenic activity and heterocyclic amine content of the human diet

    SciTech Connect

    Knize, M.G.; Dolbeare, F.A.; Cunningham, P.L.; Felton, J.S.

    1993-01-15

    The mutagenic activity and the mass amount of heterocyclic amines responsible for the mutagenic activity have been measured in some cooked foods. Cooked meats are the predominant source of mutagenic activity in the diet with values ranging from 0 to 10,000 revertants per gram reported in the Ames/Salmonelia test with strain TA98. Several heterocyclic amines are present and have been quantified using solid-phase extraction followed by HPLC. Frying at higher temperatures and for longer times produces the greatest mutagenic response, and concomitantly, the largest amounts of heterocyclic amines. Most of the mutagenic activity in fried meat samples can be accounted for by MelQx, DiMelQx and IQ, although other heterocylic amines are present and PHIP mutagenic activity becomes significant at higher temperatures. Non-meat products such as baked breads can also form significant mutagenic activity, particularly when overcooked. Commercially prepared hamburgers made from meat substitutes such as tofu, wheat gluten or tempeh and fried at 210{degrees}C have up to 10% of the mutagenic activity of a fried beef patty cooked under the same conditions. When detected, amounts of heterocyclic amines in fried beef patties range from a total of 0.35 ng/g for commercial beef hamburgers to 142 ng/g for a beef patty cooked over a barbecue. Dietary intake is expected to have a large range, from less than one microgram per day to over 50 micrograms per day based on current knowledge of known heterocyclic amine chemicals and heterocyclic amine-containing foods.

  20. Tamoxifen Forms DNA Adducts In Human Colon After Administration Of A Single [14C]-Labeled Therapeutic Dose.

    SciTech Connect

    Brown, K; Tompkins, E M; Boocock, D J; Martin, E A; Farmer, P B; Turteltaub, K W; Ubick, E; Hemingway, D; Horner-Glister, E; White, I H

    2007-05-23

    Tamoxifen is widely prescribed for the treatment of breast cancer and is also licensed in the U.S. for the prevention of this disease. However, tamoxifen therapy is associated with an increased occurrence of endometrial cancer in women and there is also evidence that it may elevate the risk of colorectal cancer. The underlying mechanisms responsible for tamoxifen-induced carcinogenesis in women have not yet been elucidated but much interest has focussed on the role of DNA adduct formation. We investigated the propensity of tamoxifen to bind irreversibly to colorectal DNA when given to ten women as a single [{sup 14}C]-labeled therapeutic (20 mg) dose, {approx}18 h prior to undergoing colon resections. Using the sensitive technique of accelerator mass spectrometry, coupled with HPLC separation of enzymatically digested DNA, a peak corresponding to authentic dG-N{sup 2}-tamoxifen adduct was detected in samples from three patients, at levels ranging from 1-7 adducts/10{sup 9} nucleotides. No [{sup 14}C]-radiolabel associated with tamoxifen or its major metabolites was detected. The presence of detectable CYP3A4 protein in all colon samples suggests this tissue has the potential to activate tamoxifen to {alpha}-hydroxytamoxifen, in addition to that occurring in the systemic circulation, and direct interaction of this metabolite with DNA could account for the binding observed. Although the level of tamoxifeninduced damage displayed a degree of inter-individual variability, when present it was {approx}10-100 times higher than that reported for other suspect human colon carcinogens such as PhIP. These findings provide a mechanistic basis through which tamoxifen could increase the incidence of colon cancers in women.

  1. Genetic variation in the bioactivation pathway for polycyclic hydrocarbons and heterocyclic amines in relation to risk of colorectal neoplasia

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Hansong; Yamamoto, Jennifer F.; Caberto, Christian; Saltzman, Barbara; Decker, Robert; Vogt, Thomas M.; Yokochi, Lance; Chanock, Stephen; Wilkens, Lynne R.; Le Marchand, Loïc

    2011-01-01

    Animal work implicates chemical carcinogens, such as polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and heterocyclic aromatic amines (HAAs) as contributing to the development of colorectal cancer (CRC). The epidemiologic evidence, however, remains inconsistent possibly due to intra-individual variation in bioactivation of these compounds. We conducted a case–control study of colorectal adenoma (914 cases, 1185 controls) and CRC (496 cases, 607 controls) among Japanese Americans, European Americans and Native Hawaiians to investigate the association of genetic variation in the PAH and HAA bioactivation pathway (CYP1A1, CYP1A2, CYP1B1, AHR and ARNT) identified through sequencing with risk of colorectal neoplasia, as well as their interactions with smoking and intakes of red meat and HAAs. The A allele for ARNT rs12410394 was significantly inversely associated with CRC [odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for GG, AG and AA genotypes: 1.00, 0.66 (0.48–0.89), 0.54 (0.37–0.78), Ptrend = 0.0008] after multiple comparison adjustment. CYP1A2 rs11072508 was marginally significantly associated with CRC, where each copy of the T allele was associated with reduced risk (OR: 0.72, 95% CI: 0.58–0.88, Ptrend = 0.0017). No heterogeneity of genetic effects across racial/ethnic groups was detected. In addition, no significant interaction was observed after adjusting for multiple testing between genetic variants and pack-years of smoking, intake of red meat or HAAs (PhIP, MeIQx, Di-MeIQx or total HAAs) or NAT2 genotype (Rapid versus Slow or Intermediate). This study suggests that the genomic region around ARNT rs12410394 may harbor variants associated with CRC. PMID:21081473

  2. [Photosynthetic mechanisms of northern boundary formation of Quercus wutaishanica forest in Loess Plateau of northern Shaanxi Province].

    PubMed

    Meng, Qian-Cai; Zhang, Xiao-Fei; Liu, Xiao; Yue, Ming

    2011-06-01

    Aimed to understand the causes of the boundary formation of Quercus wutaishanica forest, four sites were chosen along a precipitation and thermal gradient from Qinling Mountain to Loess Plateau of northern Shaanxi Province, i. e. , north slope of Qinling Mountain (Jiwozi) and southern (Chenjiashan), central (Huaishuzhuang), and northern site (Xiasiwan) of Loess Plateau, with the gas exchange, chlorophyll fluorescence parameters, stomatal density, and stomatal size of Q. wutaishanica leaves measured. From the south to the north along the precipitation and thermal gradient, weather varied from cool and humid to warm and semi-arid, and the maximum net photosynthetic rate (Pn max) and light saturation point (Lsp) of Q. wutaishanica leaves reduced obviously from 13.34 to 6.99 micromol CO2 x m(-2) x s(-1) and from 1489.9 to 1055.6 micromol x m(-2) x s(-1), dark respiration rate (Rd) and light compensation point (Lcp) increased evidently from 0.313 to 1.080 micromol CO2 x m(-2) x s(-1) and from 7.49 to 31.96 micromol x m(-2) x s(-1), the minimum fluorescence (F0) and coefficient of non-photochemical quenching (NPQ) displayed an increasing trend, and actual photochemical quantum yield of PS II (phiPS II), apparent electron transport rates (ETR), and coefficient of photochemical quenching (qP) reduced obviously. These results demonstrated that the photosynthetic capacity of Q. wutaishanica declined gradually with decreasing precipitation, but the stomatal density and stomatal size showed no obvious difference among the study sites except for the southern site of Loess Plateau. It was speculated that the depressed net photosynthetic rate of Q. wutaishanica leaves induced by the declined Phi PS II and ETR Could be one of the main causes for the formation of northern boundary of Q. wutaishanica forest.

  3. The effects of cooking on wire and stone barbecue at different cooking levels on the formation of heterocyclic aromatic amines and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in beef steak.

    PubMed

    Oz, Fatih; Yuzer, M Onur

    2016-07-15

    The effects of type of barbecue (wire and stone) and cooking levels (rare, medium, well-done and very well-done) on the formation of heterocyclic aromatic amines (HCAs) and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in beef steak were investigated. Varying levels of IQx (up to 0.29 ng/g), IQ (up to 0.93 ng/g), MeIQx (up to 0.08 ng/g), MeIQ (up to 0.75 ng/g), 7,8-DiMeIQx (up to 0.08 ng/g), 4,8-DiMeIQx (up to 4.95 ng/g), PhIP (up to 6.24 ng/g) and AαC (up to 0.20 ng/g) were determined, while MeAαC was not detected. The total HCA amounts in wire barbecued samples were higher than stone barbecued samples. Total HCA contents of the samples ranged between nd and 13.52 ng/g. In terms of PAHs, varying levels of BaA (up to 0.34 ng/g), Chry (up to 0.28 ng/g), BbF (up to 0.39 ng/g), BkF (up to 0.90 ng/g), BaP (up to 0.29 ng/g) and Bghip (up to 0.43 ng/g) were determined, while DahA and IncdP were not detected. The total PAH amounts in stone barbecued samples were higher than those of wire barbecued samples. Total PAH amounts of the samples ranged between nd and 2.63 ng/g.

  4. Effect of six Chinese spices on heterocyclic amine profiles in roast beef patties by ultra performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry and principal component analysis.

    PubMed

    Zeng, Maomao; He, Zhiyong; Zheng, Zongping; Qin, Fang; Tao, Guanjun; Zhang, Shuang; Gao, Yahui; Chen, Jie

    2014-10-08

    The effects of Chinese spices on the profiles of 17 heterocyclic amines (HAs) from seven HA categories were investigated in roast beef patties using Ultra Performance Liquid Chromatography-Tandem Mass Spectrometry (UPLC-MS/MS) and principal component analysis. Three groups of HAs, imidazopyridines (PhIP, DMIP, and 1,5,6-TMIP), imidazoquinoxalines (MeIQx and 4,8-DiMeIQx), and β-carbolines (harman and norharman), were detected and quantified in all of the samples. The results demonstrated that the total HA and imidazopyridine profiles could clearly be affected by 1% pricklyash peel (14.1 ± 0.76 and 6.06 ± 0.32 ng/g), chilli (41.0 ± 0.01 and 23.0 ± 0.52 ng/g), and cumin (59.9 ± 2.44 and 31.1 ± 3.06 ng/g), in comparison with control values of 21.8 ± 2.40 and 14.3 ± 2.04 ng/g, respectively. The difference was only significant (p < 0.05) for cumin. The imidazoquinoxaline profile was significantly (p < 0.05) affected by 1% pricklyash peel (0.57 ± 0.05 ng/g) and cumin (2.36 ± 0.20 ng/g) compared to the control (1.16 ± 0.11 ng/g). The β-carboline profile was only markedly (p < 0.05) affected by 1% cumin (26.4 ± 0.82 ng/g) compared to the control (6.26 ± 0.26 ng/g). In general, pricklyash peel inhibited HA formation, whereas star anise, fennel, cumin, chilli, and black pepper promoted HA formation. The findings could facilitate the selection of spices in meat processing to minimize HA formation.

  5. Cloud chamber experiments on the origin of ice crystal complexity in cirrus clouds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schnaiter, M.; Järvinen, E.; Vochezer, P.; Abdelmonem, A.; Wagner, R.; Jourdan, O.; Mioche, G.; Shcherbakov, V. N.; Schmitt, C. G.; Tricoli, U.; Ulanowski, Z.; Heymsfield, A. J.

    2015-11-01

    This study reports on the origin of ice crystal complexity and its influence on the angular light scattering properties of cirrus clouds. Cloud simulation experiments were conducted at the AIDA (Aerosol Interactions and Dynamics in the Atmosphere) cloud chamber of the Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (KIT). A new experimental procedure was applied to grow and sublimate ice particles at defined super- and subsaturated ice conditions and for temperatures in the -40 to -60 °C range. The experiments were performed for ice clouds generated via homogeneous and heterogeneous initial nucleation. Ice crystal complexity was deduced from measurements of spatially resolved single particle light scattering patterns by the latest version of the Small Ice Detector (SID-3). It was found that a high ice crystal complexity is dominating the microphysics of the simulated clouds and the degree of this complexity is dependent on the available water vapour during the crystal growth. Indications were found that the crystal complexity is influenced by unfrozen H2SO4/H2O residuals in the case of homogeneous initial ice nucleation. Angular light scattering functions of the simulated ice clouds were measured by the two currently available airborne polar nephelometers; the Polar Nephelometer (PN) probe of LaMP and the Particle Habit Imaging and Polar Scattering (PHIPS-HALO) probe of KIT. The measured scattering functions are featureless and flat in the side- and backward scattering directions resulting in low asymmetry parameters g around 0.78. It was found that these functions have a rather low sensitivity to the crystal complexity for ice clouds that were grown under typical atmospheric conditions. These results have implications for the microphysical properties of cirrus clouds and for the radiative transfer through these clouds.

  6. Cloud chamber experiments on the origin of ice crystal complexity in cirrus clouds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schnaiter, Martin; Järvinen, Emma; Vochezer, Paul; Abdelmonem, Ahmed; Wagner, Robert; Jourdan, Olivier; Mioche, Guillaume; Shcherbakov, Valery N.; Schmitt, Carl G.; Tricoli, Ugo; Ulanowski, Zbigniew; Heymsfield, Andrew J.

    2016-04-01

    This study reports on the origin of small-scale ice crystal complexity and its influence on the angular light scattering properties of cirrus clouds. Cloud simulation experiments were conducted at the AIDA (Aerosol Interactions and Dynamics in the Atmosphere) cloud chamber of the Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (KIT). A new experimental procedure was applied to grow and sublimate ice particles at defined super- and subsaturated ice conditions and for temperatures in the -40 to -60 °C range. The experiments were performed for ice clouds generated via homogeneous and heterogeneous initial nucleation. Small-scale ice crystal complexity was deduced from measurements of spatially resolved single particle light scattering patterns by the latest version of the Small Ice Detector (SID-3). It was found that a high crystal complexity dominates the microphysics of the simulated clouds and the degree of this complexity is dependent on the available water vapor during the crystal growth. Indications were found that the small-scale crystal complexity is influenced by unfrozen H2SO4 / H2O residuals in the case of homogeneous initial ice nucleation. Angular light scattering functions of the simulated ice clouds were measured by the two currently available airborne polar nephelometers: the polar nephelometer (PN) probe of Laboratoire de Métérologie et Physique (LaMP) and the Particle Habit Imaging and Polar Scattering (PHIPS-HALO) probe of KIT. The measured scattering functions are featureless and flat in the side and backward scattering directions. It was found that these functions have a rather low sensitivity to the small-scale crystal complexity for ice clouds that were grown under typical atmospheric conditions. These results have implications for the microphysical properties of cirrus clouds and for the radiative transfer through these clouds.

  7. A central role for heme iron in colon carcinogenesis associated with red meat intake.

    PubMed

    Bastide, Nadia M; Chenni, Fatima; Audebert, Marc; Santarelli, Raphaelle L; Taché, Sylviane; Naud, Nathalie; Baradat, Maryse; Jouanin, Isabelle; Surya, Reggie; Hobbs, Ditte A; Kuhnle, Gunter G; Raymond-Letron, Isabelle; Gueraud, Françoise; Corpet, Denis E; Pierre, Fabrice H F

    2015-03-01

    Epidemiology shows that red and processed meat intake is associated with an increased risk of colorectal cancer. Heme iron, heterocyclic amines, and endogenous N-nitroso compounds (NOC) are proposed to explain this effect, but their relative contribution is unknown. Our study aimed at determining, at nutritional doses, which is the main factor involved and proposing a mechanism of cancer promotion by red meat. The relative part of heme iron (1% in diet), heterocyclic amines (PhIP + MeIQx, 50 + 25 μg/kg in diet), and NOC (induced by NaNO₂+ NaNO₂; 0.17 + 0.23 g/L of drinking water) was determined by a factorial design and preneoplastic endpoints in chemically induced rats and validated on tumors in Min mice. The molecular mechanisms (genotoxicity, cytotoxicity) were analyzed in vitro in normal and Apc-deficient cell lines and confirmed on colon mucosa. Heme iron increased the number of preneoplastic lesions, but dietary heterocyclic amines and NOC had no effect on carcinogenesis in rats. Dietary hemoglobin increased tumor load in Min mice (control diet: 67 ± 39 mm²; 2.5% hemoglobin diet: 114 ± 47 mm², P = 0.004). In vitro, fecal water from rats given hemoglobin was rich in aldehydes and was cytotoxic to normal cells, but not to premalignant cells. The aldehydes 4-hydroxynonenal and 4-hydroxyhexenal were more toxic to normal versus mutated cells and were only genotoxic to normal cells. Genotoxicity was also observed in colon mucosa of mice given hemoglobin. These results highlight the role of heme iron in the promotion of colon cancer by red meat and suggest that heme iron could initiate carcinogenesis through lipid peroxidation. .

  8. Determination of Heterocyclic Amines and Acrylamide in Agricultural Products with Liquid Chromatography-Tandem Mass Spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Lee, Kyung-Jun; Lee, Gae-Ho; Kim, HaeSol; Oh, Min-Seok; Chu, Seok; Hwang, In Ju; Lee, Jee-Yeon; Choi, Ari; Kim, Cho-Il; Park, Hyun-Mee

    2015-09-01

    Heterocyclic amines (HCAs) and acrylamide are unintended hazardous substances generated by heating or processing of foods and are known as carcinogenic and mutagenic agents by the animal experiments. A simple method was established for a rapid and accurate determination of 12 types of HCAs (IQ, MeIQ, Glu-P-1, Glu-P-2, MeIQx, Trp-P-1, Trp-P-2, PhIP, AαC, MeAαC, Harman and Norharman) and acrylamide in three food matrices (non-fat liquid, non-fat solid and fat solid) by isotope dilution liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). In every sample, a mixture of internal standards including IQ-d3, MeIQx-d3, PhIP-d3, Trp-P-2-(13)C2-(15)N and MeAαC-d3 was spiked for quantification of HCAs and (13)C3-acrylamide was also spiked for the analysis of acrylamide. HCAs and acrylamide in sample were extracted with acetonitrile and water, respectively, and then two solid-phase extraction cartridges, ChemElut: HLB for HCAs and Accucat: HLB for acrylamide, were used for efficiently removing interferences such as pigment, lipid, polar, nonpolar and ionic compounds. Established method was validated in terms of recovery, accuracy, precision, limit of detection, limit of quantitation, and linearity. This method showed good precision (RSD < 20%), accuracy (71.8~119.1%) and recovery (66.0~118.9%). The detection limits were < 3.1 ng/g for all analytes. The correlation coefficients for all the HCAs and acrylamide were > 0.995, showing excellent linearity. These methods for the detection of HCAs and acrylamide by LC-MS/MS were applied to real samples and were successfully used for quantitative monitoring in the total diet study and this can be applied to risk assessment in various food matrices.

  9. Towards Real-time Metabolic Profiling of Cancer with Hyperpolarized Succinate

    PubMed Central

    Zacharias, Niki M.; McCullough, Christopher R.; Wagner, Shawn; Sailasuta, Napapon; Chan, Henry R.; Lee, Youngbok; Hu, Jingzhe; Perman, William H.; Henneberg, Cameron; Ross, Brian D.; Bhattacharya, Pratip

    2016-01-01

    Purpose The energy-yielding mitochondrial Krebs cycle has been shown in many cancers and other diseases to be inhibited or mutated. In most cells, the Krebs cycle with oxidative phosphorylation generates approximately 90% of the adenosine triphosphate in the cell. We designed and hyperpolarized carbon-13 labeled succinate (SUC) and its derivative diethyl succinate (DES) to interrogate the Krebs cycle in real-time in cancer animal models. Procedures Using Parahydrogen Induced Polarization (PHIP), we generated hyperpolarized SUC and DES by hydrogenating their respective fumarate precursors. DES and SUC metabolism was studied in five cancer allograft animal models: breast (4T1), Renal Cell Carcinoma (RENCA), colon (CT26), lymphoma NSO, and lymphoma A20. Results The extent of hyperpolarization was 8 ± 2% for SUC and 2.1 ± 0.6% for DES. The metabolism of DES and SUC in the Krebs cycle could be followed in animals 5 s after tail vein injection. The biodistribution of the compounds was observed using 13C FISP imaging. We observed significant differences in uptake and conversion of both compounds in different cell types both in vivo and in vitro. Conclusion With hyperpolarized DES and SUC, we are able to meet many of the requirements for a useable in vivo metabolic imaging compound – high polarization, relatively long T1 values, low toxicity and high water solubility. However, succinate and its derivative DES are metabolized robustly by RENCA but not by the other cancer models. Our results underscore the heterogeneity of cancer cells and the role cellular uptake plays in hyperpolarized metabolic spectroscopy. PMID:27547490

  10. Propane-d6 Heterogeneously Hyperpolarized by Parahydrogen

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Long-lived spin states of hyperpolarized propane-d6 gas were demonstrated following pairwise addition of parahydrogen gas to propene-d6 using heterogeneous parahydrogen-induced polarization (HET-PHIP). Hyperpolarized molecules were synthesized using Rh/TiO2 solid catalyst with 1.6 nm Rh nanoparticles. Hyperpolarized (PH ∼ 1%) propane-d6 was detected at high magnetic field (9.4 T) spectroscopically and by high-resolution 3D gradient-echo MRI (4.7 T) as the gas flowed through the radiofrequency coil with a spatial and temporal resolution of 0.5 × 0.5 × 0.5 mm3 and 17.7 s, respectively. Stopped-flow hyperpolarized propane-d6 gas was also detected at 0.0475 T with an observed nuclear spin polarization of PH ∼ 0.1% and a relatively long lifetime with T1,eff = 6.0 ± 0.3 s. Importantly, it was shown that the hyperpolarized protons of the deuterated product obtained via pairwise parahydrogen addition could be detected directly at low magnetic field. Importantly, the relatively long low-field T1,eff of HP propane-d6 gas is not susceptible to paramagnetic impurities as tested by exposure to ∼0.2 atm oxygen. This long lifetime and nontoxic nature of propane gas could be useful for bioimaging applications including potentially pulmonary low-field MRI. The feasibility of high-resolution low-field 2D gradient-echo MRI was demonstrated with 0.88 × 0.88 mm2 spatial and ∼0.7 s temporal resolution, respectively, at 0.0475 T. PMID:25506406

  11. Mutagenic activity and heterocyclic amine content of heated foods

    SciTech Connect

    Knize, M.G.; Johansson, M.; Jones, A.L.; Blakley, M.; Felton, J.S.

    1994-12-31

    Cooked foods were extracted and analyzed for mutagenic activity and assayed for known heterocyclic amines (HAs) by the Ames/Salmonella test and HPLC, respectively. Fried meats contain HAs (predominantly PhIP, MeIQx, DiMeIQx, and A{alpha}C) that are potent promutagens in bacteria, mutagenic in cultured mammalian cells, and carcinogenic in rodents and in nonhuman primates. Meats contain levels ranging from undetectable (< 0.1 ppb) to 50 ppb of known HAs when fried at temperatures from 190 to 250{degrees}C. These identified compounds are responsible for ca 75% of the measured mutagenic activity in Salmonella strain TA98. Barbecued beef and chicken have up to several thousand TA98 revertants per gram (rev/g) of cooked meat, with only ca 30% of the mutagenic activity accounted for by known heterocyclic amines. Some heated nonmeat foods also contain potent mutagenic activity. Toasted breads, cereals and snack foods have 0 to 10 TA98 rev/g, but overtoasting yields up to 40 rev/g, wheat and gluten-containing products are associated with higher activity. Grain-based coffee-substitute powders and instant coffees have 190 to 380 rev/g in TA98, and 1100 to 4000 rev/g in strain YG1024. The identify of the compounds responsible for the mutagenic activity are unknown in these non-meat foods. Toasted grain-based foods probably contribute less than 10% of the total mutagenic activity of the diet, with meat products responsible for the reminder. The finding of varying amounts of known and unknown mutagens in some cooked foods may be responsible for the poorly understood variation in human cancer incidence worldwide.

  12. Dietary Mutagen Exposure and Risk of Pancreatic Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Li, Donghui; Sue Day, Rena; Bondy, Melissa L.; Sinha, Rashmi; Nguyen, Nga T.; Evans, Douglas B.; Abbruzzese, James L.; Hassan, Manal M.

    2007-01-01

    To investigate the association between dietary exposure to food mutagens and risk of pancreatic cancer, we conducted a hospital-based case-control study at the University of Texas M. D. Anderson Cancer Center during June 2002 to May 2006. Atotal of 626 cases and 530 noncancer controls were frequency matched for race, sex and age (±5 years). Dietary exposure information was collected via personal interview using a meat preparation questionnaire. A significantly greater portion of the cases than controls showed a preference to well-done pork, bacon, grilled chicken, and pan-fried chicken, but not to hamburger and steak. Cases had a higher daily intake of food mutagens and mutagenicity activity (revertants per gram of daily meat intake) than controls did. The daily intakes of 2-amino-3,4,8-trimethylimidazo[4,5—f]quinoxaline (DiMeIQx) and benzo(a)pyrene (BaP), as well as the mutagenic activity, were significant predictors for pancreatic cancer (P = 0.008, 0.031, and 0.029, respectively) with adjustment of other confounders. A significant trend of elevated cancer risk with increasing DiMeIQx intake was observed in quintile analysis (Ptrend= 0.024). Ahigher intake of dietary mutagens (those in the two top quintiles) was associated with a 2-fold increased risk of pancreatic cancer among those without a family history of cancer but not among those with a family history of cancer. Apossible synergistic effect of dietary mutagen exposure and smoking was observed among individuals with the highest level of exposure (top 10%) to PhIP and BaP, Pinteraction= 0.09 and 0.099, respectively. These data support the hypothesis that dietary mutagen exposure alone and in interaction with other factors contribute to the development of pancreatic cancer. PMID:17416754

  13. [Effects of soil acidity on Pinus resinosa seedlings photosynthesis and chlorophyll fluorescence].

    PubMed

    Liu, Shuang; Wang, Qing-cheng; Liu, Ya-li; Tian, Yu-ming; Sun, Jing; Xu, Jing

    2009-12-01

    Red pine (Pinus resinosa) is one of the most important tree species for timber plantation in North America, and preliminary success has been achieved in its introduction to the mountainous area of Northeast China since 2004. In order to expand its growth area in other parts of Northeast China, a pot experiment was conducted to study the adaptability of this tree species to varying soil acidity. P. resinosa seedlings were grown in soils with different acidity (pH = 4.5, 5.5, 6.5, 7.5, and 8.0) to test the responses of their photosynthesis and chlorophyll fluorescence parameters to soil pH levels, and the appropriate soil acidity was evaluated. Dramatic responses in chlorophyll a and b contents, Pn and chlorophyll fluorescence parameters (Fo, Fm, Fv, Fv/Fm, and phi(PS II)) were detected under different soil acidity (P < 0.05), with the highest chlorophyll content and Pn under soil pH 5.5, and significantly lower chlorophyll content and Pn under soil pH 7.5 and 8.0. The chlorophyll content and Pn were 41% and 50%, and 61% and 88% higher under soil pH 5.5 than under soil pH 7.5 and 8.0. The seedlings had a significant photosynthetic inhibition under soil pH 7.5 and 8.0, but the highest Fv/Fm and phi (PS II) under soil pH 5.5. Comparing with those under soil pH 7.5 and 8.0, the Fv/Fm and phi (PS II) under soil pH 5.5 were 8% and 12%, and 22% and 35% higher, respectively. It was suggested that soil pH 5.5 was most appropriate for P. resinosa growth.

  14. Candidate Genes in Ocular Dominance Plasticity

    PubMed Central

    Rietman, M. Liset; Sommeijer, J.-P.; Levelt, Christiaan N.; Heimel, J. Alexander

    2012-01-01

    Many studies have been devoted to the identification of genes involved in experience-dependent plasticity in the visual cortex. To discover new candidate genes, we have reexamined data from one such study on ocular dominance (OD) plasticity in recombinant inbred BXD mouse strains. We have correlated the level of plasticity with the gene expression data in the neocortex that have become available for these same strains. We propose that genes with a high correlation are likely to play a role in OD plasticity. We have tested this hypothesis for genes whose inactivation is known to affect OD plasticity. The expression levels of these genes indeed correlated with OD plasticity if their levels showed strong differences between the BXD strains. To narrow down our candidate list of correlated genes, we have selected only those genes that were previously found to be regulated by visual experience and associated with pathways implicated in OD plasticity. This resulted in a list of 32 candidate genes. The list contained unproven, but not unexpected candidates such as the genes for IGF-1, NCAM1, NOGO-A, the gamma2 subunit of the GABA(A) receptor, acetylcholine esterase, and the catalytic subunit of cAMP-dependent protein kinase A. This demonstrates the viability of our approach. More interestingly, the following novel candidate genes were identified: Akap7, Akt1, Camk2d, Cckbr, Cd44, Crim1, Ctdsp2, Dnajc5, Gnai1, Itpka, Mapk8, Nbea, Nfatc3, Nlk, Npy5r, Phf21a, Phip, Ppm1l, Ppp1r1b, Rbbp4, Slc1a3, Slit2, Socs2, Spock3, St8sia1, Zfp207. Whether all these novel candidates indeed function in OD plasticity remains to be established, but possible roles of some of them are discussed in the article. PMID:22347157

  15. [Influence of different concentration Ni and Cu on the photosynthesis and chlorophyll fluorescence characteristics of Peganum harmala].

    PubMed

    Lu, Yan; Li, Xin-rong; He, Ming-zhu; Su, Yan-gui; Zeng, Fan-jiang

    2011-04-01

    A pot experiment was conducted to study the influence of different concentration (0, 50, 100, 200, and 400 mg kg(-1)) Ni and Cu on the growth, photosynthesis, and chlorophyll fluorescence characteristics of Peganum harmala seedlings. With increasing concentration Ni in the medium, the seedlings growth parameters, photosynthetic pigment content, net photosynthetic rate (P(n)), stomatal conductance (G(s)), transpiration rate (T(r)), maximal photochemical efficiency of PS II (F(v)/F(m)), quantum efficiency of electric transport of PS II (phi (PS II)), and coefficient of photochemical quenching (q(P)) of P. harmala decreased significantly, while the intercellular CO2 concentration (C(i)) and the coefficient of non-photochemical quenching (q(N)) were in adverse. The decrease of P(n) under Ni stress was mainly caused by non-stomatal limitation. At 50 mg kg(-1) Cu, the growth parameters, photosynthetic pigment content, P(n), G(s), T(r), C(i), F(v)/F(m), phi(PS II), and q(P) reached their peak values; at 100 mg kg(-1) Cu, the growth parameters, chlorophyll a and b contents, P(n), G(s), T(r), C(i), and F(v)/F(m) were still slightly higher than the control; while with the further increasing Cu concentration in the medium, all the test indices except q(N) tended to decrease. The decrease of P(n) under Cu stress was mainly caused by stomatal limitation.

  16. Determination of Heterocyclic Amines and Acrylamide in Agricultural Products with Liquid Chromatography-Tandem Mass Spectrometry

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Kyung-Jun; Lee, Gae-Ho; Kim, HaeSol; Oh, Min-Seok; Chu, Seok; Hwang, In Ju; Lee, Jee-yeon; Choi, Ari; Kim, Cho-il

    2015-01-01

    Heterocyclic amines (HCAs) and acrylamide are unintended hazardous substances generated by heating or processing of foods and are known as carcinogenic and mutagenic agents by the animal experiments. A simple method was established for a rapid and accurate determination of 12 types of HCAs (IQ, MeIQ, Glu-P-1, Glu-P-2, MeIQx, Trp-P-1, Trp-P-2, PhIP, AαC, MeAαC, Harman and Norharman) and acrylamide in three food matrices (non-fat liquid, non-fat solid and fat solid) by isotope dilution liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). In every sample, a mixture of internal standards including IQ-d3, MeIQx-d3, PhIP-d3, Trp-P-2-13C2-15N and MeAαC-d3 was spiked for quantification of HCAs and 13C3-acrylamide was also spiked for the analysis of acrylamide. HCAs and acrylamide in sample were extracted with acetonitrile and water, respectively, and then two solid-phase extraction cartridges, ChemElut: HLB for HCAs and Accucat: HLB for acrylamide, were used for efficiently removing interferences such as pigment, lipid, polar, nonpolar and ionic compounds. Established method was validated in terms of recovery, accuracy, precision, limit of detection, limit of quantitation, and linearity. This method showed good precision (RSD < 20%), accuracy (71.8~119.1%) and recovery (66.0~118.9%). The detection limits were < 3.1 ng/g for all analytes. The correlation coefficients for all the HCAs and acrylamide were > 0.995, showing excellent linearity. These methods for the detection of HCAs and acrylamide by LC-MS/MS were applied to real samples and were successfully used for quantitative monitoring in the total diet study and this can be applied to risk assessment in various food matrices. PMID:26483884

  17. Structural changes upon excitation of D1-D2-Cyt b559 photosystem II reaction centers depend on the beta-carotene content.

    PubMed

    Losi, Aba; Yruela, Inmaculada; Reus, Michael; Holzwarth, Alfred R; Braslavsky, Silvia E

    2003-07-01

    Different preparations of D1-D2-Cyt b559 complexes from spinach with different beta-carotene (Car) content [on average from <0.5 to 2 per reaction center (RC)] were studied by means of laser-induced optoacoustic spectroscopy. phiP680(+)Pheo(-) does not depend on the preparation (or on the Car content) inasmuch as the magnitude of the prompt heat (produced within 20 ns) does not vary for the different samples upon excitation at 675 and 620 nm. The energy level of the primary charge-separated state, P680(+)Pheo(-), was determined as EP680(+)Pheo(-) = 1.55 eV. Thus, an enthalpy change accompanying charge separation from excited P680 of deltaH*P680Pheo-->P680(+)Pheo(-) = -0.27 eV is obtained. Calculations using the heat evolved during the time-resolved decay of P680(+)Pheo(-) (< or = 100 ns) affords a triplet (3[P680Pheo]) quantum yield phi3[P680Pheo] = 0.5 +/- 0.14. The structural volume change, deltaV1, corresponding to the formation of P680(+)Pheo(-), strongly depends on the Car content; it is ca. -2.5 A3 molecule(-1) for samples with <0.5 Car on average, decreases (in absolute value) to -0.5 +/- 0.2 A3 for samples with an average of 1 Car, and remains the same for samples with two Cars per RC. This suggests that the Car molecules induce changes in the ground-state RC conformation, an idea which was confirmed by preferential excitation of Car with blue light, which produced different carotene triplet lifetimes in samples with 2 Car compared to those containing less carotene. We conclude that the two beta-carotenes are not structurally equivalent. Upon blue-light excitation (480 nm, preferential carotene absorption) the fraction of energy stored is ca. 60% for the 9Chl-2Car sample, whereas it is 40% for the preparations with one or less Cars on average, indicating different paths of energy distribution after Car excitation in these RCs with remaining chlorophyll antennae.

  18. Energy and electron transfer in enhanced two-photon-absorbing systems with triplet cores.

    PubMed

    Finikova, Olga S; Troxler, Thomas; Senes, Alessandro; DeGrado, William F; Hochstrasser, Robin M; Vinogradov, Sergei A

    2007-08-02

    Enhanced two-photon-absorbing (2PA) systems with triplet cores are currently under scrutiny for several biomedical applications, including photodynamic therapy (PDT) and two-photon microscopy of oxygen. The performance of so far developed molecules, however, is substantially below expected. In this study we take a detailed look at the processes occurring in these systems and propose ways to improve their performance. We focus on the interchromophore distance tuning as a means for optimization of two-photon sensors for oxygen. In these constructs, energy transfer from several 2PA chromophores is used to enhance the effective 2PA cross section of phosphorescent metalloporphyrins. Previous studies have indicated that intramolecular electron transfer (ET) can act as an effective quencher of phosphorescence, decreasing the overall sensor efficiency. We studied the interplay between 2PA, energy transfer, electron transfer, and phosphorescence emission using Rhodamine B-Pt tetrabenzoporphyrin (RhB-PtTBP) adducts as model compounds. 2PA cross sections (sigma2) of tetrabenzoporphyrins (TBPs) are in the range of several tens of GM units (near 800 nm), making TBPs superior 2PA chromophores compared to regular porphyrins (sigma2 values typically 1-2 GM). Relatively large 2PA cross sections of rhodamines (about 200 GM in 800-850 nm range) and their high photostabilities make them good candidates as 2PA antennae. Fluorescence of Rhodamine B (lambda(fl) = 590 nm, phi(fl) = 0.5 in EtOH) overlaps with the Q-band of phosphorescent PtTBP (lambda(abs) = 615 nm, epsilon = 98 000 M(-1) cm(-1), phi(p) approximately 0.1), suggesting that a significant amplification of the 2PA-induced phosphorescence via fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET) might occur. However, most of the excitation energy in RhB-PtTBP assemblies is consumed in several intramolecular ET processes. By installing rigid nonconducting decaproline spacers (Pro10) between RhB and PtTBP, the intramolecular ETs were

  19. [Effects of nitrogen application and elevated atmospheric CO2 on electron transport and energy partitioning in flag leaf photosynthesis of wheat].

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xu-cheng; Yu, Xian-feng; Ma, Yi-fan

    2011-03-01

    Wheat (Triticum aestivum) plants were pot-cultured in open top chambers at the nitrogen application rate of 0 and 200 mg x kg(-1) soil and the atmospheric CO2 concentration of 400 and 760 micromol x mol(-1). Through the determination of flag leaf nitrogen and chlorophyll contents, photosynthetic rate (Pn)-intercellar CO2 concentration (Ci) response curve, and chlorophyll fluorescence parameters at heading stage, the photosynthetic electron transport rate and others were calculated, aimed to investigate the effects of nitrogen application and elevated atmospheric CO2 concentration on the photosynthetic energy partitioning in wheat flag leaves. Elevated atmospheric CO2 concentration decreased the leaf nitrogen and chlorophyll contents, compared with the ambient one, and the chlorophyll a/b ratio increased at the nitrogen application rate of 200 mg x kg(-1). With the application of nitrogen, no evident variations were observed in the maximal photochemical efficiency (Fv/Fm), maximal quantum yield under irradiance (Fv'/Fm') of PS II reaction center, photochemical fluorescence quenching coefficient (q(p)), and actual PS II efficiency under irradiance (phi(PS II) at elevated atmospheric CO2 concentration, and the total photosynthetic electron transport rate (J(F)) of PS II reaction center had no evident increase, though the non-photochemical fluorescence quenching coefficient (NPQ) decreased significantly. With no nitrogen application, the Fv'/Fm', psi(PS II), and NPQ at elevated atmospheric CO2 concentration decreased significantly, and the J(F) had a significant decrease though the Fv/Fm and q(p) did not vary remarkably. Nitrogen application increased the J(F) and photochemical electron transport rate (Jc); while elevated atmospheric CO2 concentration decreased the photorespiration electron transport rate (J0), Rubisco oxidation rate (V0), ratio of photorespiration to photochemical electron transport rate (J0/Jc) , and Rubisco oxidation/carboxylation rate (Vo/Vc), but

  20. [Effects of different LED light qualities on growth, photosynthetic characteristics and nutritional quality of savoy].

    PubMed

    Chen, Xiang-Wei; Liu, Shi-Qi; Wang, Yue; Liu, Jing-Kai; Feng, Lei

    2014-07-01

    LED lighting has several unique advantages over traditional lighting, including the ability to control spectral composition, the ability to produce very high light levels with low radiant heat output when cooled properly, and the ability to maintain useful light output for years without replacement. LED light sources have the capability of controlling true spectral composition, allowing wavelengths to match plant photoreceptors to provide more optimal production to regulate plant morphology and nutritional quality. In this paper, the effects of different light qualities on the growth, photosynthetic response and nutritional quality of savoy were studied. With 'Juhua-Xiaobaye' savoy as the test plant, full red light, full blue light, red/blue (3/1) light, red/blue (7/1) light and white/red/blue (3/2/1) light generated by light-emitting diodes were applied with white light generated by fluorescent lamps as control. The results showed that red light could increase biomass and stem diameter, but blue light showed the opposite effect. The chlorophyll (a+b) content was the highest in the red/blue (7/1) light treatment, and chlorophyll (a+b) content was correlated with the red/blue ratio positively. Blue light decreased chlorophyll (a + b) content of savoy, and increased chlorophyll a/b. The photosynthetic rate (Pn) and transpiration rate under red light were the highest, and increased by 43.8% and 55.1% compared with the control. Intercellular CO2 concentration and conductance were the highest under blue light. The fluorescence parameters of the plant were significantly affected by light quality. Values of the maximal photochemical efficiency of PS II (Fv/Fm), Fv/Fo and Phi(PS II) were the highest under white light. Soluble sugar, soluble protein and vitamin C contents were the highest under red, blue and white light, respectively. Comprehensive analysis indicated that red/blue (7/1) light was the best light combination to increase leaf chlorophyll (a+b) content and net

  1. A series of Cd(II) complexes with {pi}-{pi} stacking and hydrogen bonding interactions: Structural diversities by varying the ligands

    SciTech Connect

    Wang Xiuli; Zhang Jinxia; Liu Guocheng; Lin Hongyan

    2011-02-15

    Seven new Cd(II) complexes consisting of different phenanthroline derivatives and organic acid ligands, formulated as [Cd(PIP){sub 2}(dnba){sub 2}] (1), [Cd(PIP)(ox)].H{sub 2}O (2), [Cd(PIP)(1,4-bdc)(H{sub 2}O)].4H{sub 2}O (3), [Cd(3-PIP){sub 2}(H{sub 2}O){sub 2}].4H{sub 2}O (4), [Cd{sub 2}(3-PIP){sub 4}(4,4'-bpdc)(H{sub 2}O){sub 2}].5H{sub 2}O (5), [Cd(3-PIP)(nip)(H{sub 2}O)].H{sub 2}O (6), [Cd{sub 2}(TIP){sub 4}(4,4'-bpdc)(H{sub 2}O){sub 2}].3H{sub 2}O (7) (PIP=2-phenylimidazo[4,5-f]1,10-phenanthroline, 3-PIP=2-(3-pyridyl)imidazo[4,5-f]1,10-phenanthroline, TIP=2-(2-thienyl)imidazo[4,5-f]1,10-phenanthroline, Hdnba=3,5-dinitrobenzoic acid, H{sub 2}ox=oxalic acid, 1,4-H{sub 2}bdc=benzene-1,4-dicarboxylic acid, 4,4'-H{sub 2}bpdc=biphenyl-4,4'-dicarboxylic acid, H{sub 2}nip=5-nitroisophthalic acid) have been synthesized under hydrothermal conditions. Complexes 1 and 4 possess mononuclear structures; complexes 5 and 7 are isostructural and have dinuclear structures; complexes 2 and 3 feature 1D chain structures; complex 6 contains 1D double chain, which are further extended to a 3D supramolecular structure by {pi}-{pi} stacking and hydrogen bonding interactions. The N-donor ligands with extended {pi}-system and organic acid ligands play a crucial role in the formation of the final supramolecular frameworks. Moreover, thermal properties and fluorescence of 1-7 are also investigated. -- Graphical abstract: Seven new supramolecular architectures have been successfully isolated under hydrothermal conditions by reactions of different phen derivatives and Cd(II) salts together with organic carboxylate anions auxiliary ligands. Display Omitted Research highlights: {yields} Complexes 1-7 are 0D or 1D polymeric structure, the {pi}-{pi} stacking and H-bonding interactions extend the complexes into 3D supramolecular network. To our knowledge, systematic study on {pi}-{pi} stacking and H-bonding interactions in cadmium(II) complexes are still limited. {yields} The structural

  2. Responses of photosynthesis, nitrogen and proline metabolism to salinity stress in Solanum lycopersicum under different levels of nitrogen supplementation.

    PubMed

    Singh, Madhulika; Singh, Vijay Pratap; Prasad, Sheo Mohan

    2016-12-01

    In the present study, effect of different levels of nitrogen (N0, deprived; N25, sub-optimum; N75, optimum and N150, supra-optimum) in Solanum lycopersicum L. seedlings under NaCl (NaCl1, 0.3 g kg(-1) sand and NaCl2, 0.5 g kg(-1)sand) stress was investigated. Biomass accumulation, pigments, K(+) concentration, nitrate and nitrite contents were declined by NaCl in dose dependent manner. As compared to control (N75 without NaCl), fresh weight declined by 4% and 11%, and dry weight by 7 and 13% when seedlings were grown under N75+NaCl1 and N75+NaCl2 combinations, respectively. Furthermore, fluorescence parameters (JIP-test): the size and number of active reaction centres of photosynthetic apparatus (Fv/F0), efficiency of water splitting complex (F0/Fv), quantum yield of primary photochemistry (φP0 or Phi_P0), yield of electron transport per trapped excitation (Ψ0 or Psi_0), the quantum yield of electron transport (φE0), and performance index of PS II (PIABS) and parameters related to energy fluxes per reaction centre (ABS/RC, TR0/RC, ET0/RC and DI0/RC) were also affected by NaCl. However, toxic effect of NaCl on photosystem II photochemistry was ameliorated by N. The lower dose (NaCl1) of NaCl exerts damaging effect on oxidation side of PS II, while higher dose (NaCl2) damages PS II reaction centre and its reduction side. Moreover, control seedlings (N75 without NaCl) when exposed to NaCl1 and NaCl2 exhibited a significant enhancement in respiration rate by 6 and 16%, Na(+) accumulation by 111 and 169% in shoot, and 141 and 223% in root and ammonium contents by 19 and 34% respectively. Nitrate and ammonium assimilating enzymes such as nitrate reductase (NR), nitrite reductase (NiR), glutamine synthetase (GS) and glutamate synthase (GOGAT) were adversely affected by NaCl stress while glutamate dehydrogenase (GDH) showed reverse trend. N addition caused further enhancement in free proline, and activity of Δ1-pyrroline-5-carboxylate synthetase (P5CS), while