Sample records for phlorizin

  1. Probing the antioxidant potential of phloretin and phlorizin through a computational investigation.


    Mendes, Rodrigo A; E Silva, Bruno L S; Takeara, Renata; Freitas, Renato G; Brown, Alex; de Souza, Gabriel L C


    The structures and energetics of two dihydrochalcones (phloretin and its glycoside phlorizin) were examined with density functional theory, using the B3LYP, M06-2X, and LC-ω PBE functionals with both the 6-311G(d,p) and 6-311 + G(d,p) basis sets. Properties connected to antioxidant activity, i.e., bond dissociation enthalpies (BDEs) for OH groups and ionization potentials (IPs), were computed in a variety of environments including the gas-phase, n-hexane, ethanol, methanol, and water. The smallest BDEs among the four OH groups for phloretin (three for phlorizin) were determined (using B3LYP/6-311 + G(d,p) in water) to be 79.36 kcal/mol for phloretin and 79.98 kcal/mol for phlorizin while the IPs (at the same level of theory) were obtained as 139.48 and 138.98 kcal/mol, respectively. By comparing with known antioxidants, these values for the BDEs indicate both phloretin and phlorizin show promise for antioxidant activity. In addition, the presence of the sugar moiety has a moderate (0-6 kcal/mol depending on functional) effect on the BDEs for all OH groups. Interestingly, the BDEs suggest that (depending on the functional chosen) the sugar moiety can lead to an increase, decrease, or no change in the antioxidant activity. Therefore, further experimental tests are encouraged to understand the substituent effect on the BDEs for phloretin and to help determine the most appropriate functional to probe BDEs for dihydrochalcones.

  2. Evaluation of the anti-inflammatory effects of phloretin and phlorizin in lipopolysaccharide-stimulated mouse macrophages.


    Chang, Wei-Tien; Huang, Wen-Chung; Liou, Chian-Jiun


    Many reports suggest that phloretin and phlorizin have antioxidant properties and can inhibit glucose transportation, the anti-inflammatory effects and mechanism of phloretin and phlorizin remain unclear. This study aims to evaluate the anti-inflammatory effects of phloretin and phlorizin in LPS-stimulated murine RAW264.7 macrophages. RAW264.7 cells were pretreated with various concentrations of phloretin or phlorizin (3-100 μM) and cell inflammatory responses were induced with LPS. Pretreated with 10 μM phloretin significantly inhibited the levels of NO, PGE(2), IL-6, TNF-α, iNOS and COX-2. Furthermore, it was demonstrated that phloretin suppressed the nuclear translocation of NF-κB subunit p65 proteins, and decreased phosphorylation in MAPK pathways. Surprisingly, phlorizin did not suppress the inflammatory response in LPS-stimulated RAW264.7 cells. These results suggest that phloretin has an anti-inflammatory effect that reduces levels of proinflammatory cytokines and mediators in RAW264.7 cells. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Isolation and characterization of a novel glycosyltransferase that converts phloretin to phlorizin, a potent antioxidant in apple.


    Jugdé, Hélène; Nguy, Danny; Moller, Isabel; Cooney, Janine M; Atkinson, Ross G


    The dihydrochalcone phlorizin (phloretin 2'-glucoside) contributes to the flavor, color and health benefits of apple fruit and processed products. A genomics approach was used to identify the gene MdPGT1 in apple (Malus x domestica) with homology to the UDP-glycosyltransferase 88 family of uridine diphosphate glycosyltransferases that show specificity towards flavonoid substrates. Expressed sequence tags for MdPGT1 were found in all tissues known to produce phlorizin including leaf, flower and fruit. However, the highest expression was measured by quantitative PCR in apple root tissue. The recombinant MdPGT1 enzyme expressed in Escherichia coli glycosylated phloretin in the presence of [(3)H]-UDP-glucose, but not other apple antioxidants, including quercetin, naringenin and cyanidin. The product of phloretin and UDP-glucose co-migrated with an authentic phlorizin standard. LC/MS indicated that MdPGT1 could glycosylate phloretin in the presence of three sugar donors: UDP-glucose, UDP-xylose and UDP-galactose. This is the first report of functional characterization of a UDP-glycosyltransferase that utilizes a dihydrochalcone as its primary substrate.

  4. Dietary phlorizin enhances osteoblastogenic bone formation through enhancing β-catenin activity via GSK-3β inhibition in a model of senile osteoporosis.


    Antika, Lucia Dwi; Lee, Eun-Jung; Kim, Yun-Ho; Kang, Min-Kyung; Park, Sin-Hye; Kim, Dong Yeon; Oh, Hyeongjoo; Choi, Yean-Jung; Kang, Young-Hee


    Osteoporosis is one of the most prevalent forms of age-related bone diseases. Increased bone loss with advancing age has become a grave public health concern. This study examined whether phlorizin and phloretin, dihydrochalcones in apple peels, inhibited senile osteoporosis through enhancing osteoblastogenic bone formation in cell-based and aged mouse models. Submicromolar phloretin and phlorizin markedly stimulated osteoblast differentiation of MC3T3-E1 cells with increased transcription of Runx2 and osteocalcin. Senescence-accelerated resistant mouse strain prone-6 (SAMP6) mice were orally supplemented with 10 mg/kg phlorizin and phloretin daily for 12 weeks. Male senescence-accelerated resistant mouse strain R1 mice were employed as a nonosteoporotic age-matched control. Oral administration of ploretin and phorizin boosted bone mineralization in all the bones of femur, tibia and vertebra of SAMP6. In particular, phlorizin reduced serum RANKL/OPG ratio and diminished TRAP-positive osteoclasts in trabecular bones of SAMP6. Additionally, treating phlorizin to SAMP6 inhibited the osteoporotic resorption in distal femoral bones through up-regulating expression of BMP-2 and collagen-1 and decreasing production of matrix-degrading cathepsin K and MMP-9. Finally, phlorizin and phloretin antagonized GSK-3β induction and β-catenin phosphorylation in osteoblasts and aged mouse bones. Therefore, phlorizin and phloretin were potential therapeutic agents encumbering senile osteoporosis through promoting bone-forming osteoblastogenesis via modulation of GSK-3β/β-catenin-dependent signaling. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Quantitation of phlorizin and phloretin using an ultra high performance liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometric method.


    Lijia, Xu; Guo, Jianru; Chen, QianQian; Baoping, Jiang; Zhang, Wei


    A sensitive and selective ultra high performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometric (UHPLC-MS/MS) method for the determination of phlorizin and phloretin in human plasma has been firstly developed. Samples were prepared after protein precipitation and analyzed on a C18 column interfaced with a triple quadrupole tandem mass spectrometer. Negative electrospray ionization was employed as the ionization source. The mobile phase consisted of acetonitrile-water (0.02% formic acid), using a gradient procedure. The analytes and internal standard dihydroquercetin were both detected by use of multiple reaction monitoring mode. The method was linear in the concentration range of 2.5-1000.0 ng/mL. The lower limit of quantification (LLOQ) was 2.5 ng/mL. The intra- and inter-day relative standard deviation across three validation runs over the entire concentration range was less than 9.2%. The accuracy determined at three concentrations was within ± 7.3% in terms of relative error. The total run time was 12.0 min. This assay offers advantages in terms of expediency, and suitability for the analysis of phlorizin and phloretin in various biological fluids. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Simultaneous separation and purification of chlorogenic acid, epicatechin, hyperoside and phlorizin from thinned young Qinguan apples by successive use of polyethylene and polyamide resins.


    Sun, Lijun; Liu, Dongjie; Sun, Jiaojiao; Yang, Xingbin; Fu, Minghai; Guo, Yurong


    The method for separating and purifying chlorogenic acid (CA), epicatechin (EC), hyperoside (HY) and phlorizin (PH) simutaneously from young Qinguan apples by successive use of X-5 and polyamide resins has been developed in this study. The order of adsorption capacities of X-5 for the four phenolics was PH>HY>EC>CA, and the adsorption equilibriums of the four phenolics onto X-5 resin conformed to Langmuir isotherms preferentially. The adsorption kinetics of EC and CA onto X-5 conformed to the pseudo-first-order model, while that of HY and PH accorded with the pseudo-second-order model. Interestingly, the values of equilibrium adsorption capacities (Q e ) calculated in the preferential kinetics models were closer to that of theoretical maximum adsorption capacities (Q 0 ) calculated by Langmuir isotherms. Through dynamic adsorption and desorption using X-5 and polyamide resins with ethanol solution as strippant, CA, EC, HY and PH were obtained with purities of 96.21%, 95.34%, 95.36% and 97.36%, respectively. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Phloretin and phlorizin promote lipolysis and inhibit inflammation in mouse 3T3-L1 cells and in macrophage-adipocyte co-cultures.


    Huang, Wen-Chung; Chang, Wei-Tien; Wu, Shu-Ju; Xu, Pei-Yin; Ting, Nai-Chun; Liou, Chian-Jiun


    Previous studies found that phloretin (PT) and phlorizin (PZ) could inhibit glucose transport, with PT being a better inhibitor of lipid peroxidation. This study aimed to evaluate the antiobesity effects of PT and PZ in 3T3-L1 cells and if they can modulate the relationship between adipocytes and macrophages. Differentiated 3T3-L1 cells were treated with PT or PZ. Subsequently, transcription factors of adipogenesis and lipolysis proteins were measured. In addition, RAW 264.7 macrophages treated with PT or PZ were cultured in differentiated media from 3T3-L1 cells to analyze inflammatory mediators and signaling pathways. PT significantly enhanced glycerol release and inhibited the adipogenesis-related transcription factors. PT also promoted phosphorylation of AMP-activated protein kinase and increased activity of adipose triglyceride lipase and hormone-sensitive lipase. PT suppressed the nuclear transcription factor kappa-B and mitogen-activated protein kinase pathways when RAW 264.7 cells were cultured in differentiated media from 3T3-L1 cells. PZ improved lipolysis and inhibited the macrophage inflammatory response less effectively than PT. This study suggests that PT is more effective than PZ at increasing lipolysis in adipocytes. In addition, PT also suppresses inflammatory response in macrophage that is stimulated by differentiated media from 3T3-L1 cells. © 2013 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  8. A comparative study on the metabolism of Epimedium koreanum Nakai-prenylated flavonoids in rats by an intestinal enzyme (lactase phlorizin hydrolase) and intestinal flora.


    Zhou, Jing; Chen, Yan; Wang, Ying; Gao, Xia; Qu, Ding; Liu, Congyan


    The aim of this study was to compare the significance of the intestinal hydrolysis of prenylated flavonoids in Herba Epimedii by an intestinal enzyme and flora. Flavonoids were incubated at 37 °C with rat intestinal enzyme and intestinal flora. HPLC-UV was used to calculate the metabolic rates of the parent drug in the incubation and LC/MS/MS was used to determine the chemical structures of metabolites generated by different flavonoid glycosides. Rates of flavonoid metabolism by rat intestinal enzyme were quicker than those of intestinal flora. The sequence of intestinal flora metabolic rates was icariin>epimedin B>epimedin A>epimedin C>baohuoside I, whereas the order of intestinal enzyme metabolic rates was icariin>epimedin A>epimedin C>epimedin B>baohuoside I. Meanwhile, the LC/MS/MS graphs showed that icariin produced three products, epimedin A/B/C had four and baohuoside I yielded one product in incubations of both intestinal enzyme and flora, which were more than the results of HPLC-UV due to the fact LC/MS/MS has lower detectability and higher sensitivity. Moreover, the outcomes indicated that the rate of metabolization of flavonoids by intestinal enzyme were faster than those of intestinal flora, which was consistent with the HPLC-UV results. In conclusion, the metabolic pathways of the same components by intestinal flora and enzyme were the same. What's more, an intestinal enzyme such as lactase phlorizin hydrolase exhibited a more significant metabolic role in prenylated flavonoids of Herba Epimedi compared with intestinal flora.

  9. Characteristics of (3H)2-Deoxyglucose Uptake by Slices of Rat Cerebral Cortex

    DTIC Science & Technology


    phlorizin or by phloretin , two compounds known to inhibit glucose transport by kidney and by erythrocytes, respectively. Net [-̂ H]2-de- oxyglucose uptake...Hexoses 53 17. The Effect of Phlorizin and Phloretin on Net [3H]2-Deoxy- glucose Transport by Slices of Cerebral Cortex 55 18. The Effect of Sodium...LeFevre, 1961). Transport by erythrocytes is not dependent on sodium (Silverman, 1976). Transport is, however, sensitive to inhibition by phloretin

  10. Nutritional Relationships in Schistosomiasis.

    DTIC Science & Technology


    to presence of ou~bain, phlorizin, phloretin . 1lexose mediated accumulation is Na coupled. Accession For NTIS GREA&I DDC TAB Unannounced...mediat,!d system is apparently Na + dependent and sensitive to presence of ouabain, phlorizin, phloretin . Hexose mediated accumulation is Na+ coupled. i...decreased Na+, ouabain, phiorizin phloretin and other sugars. Studies with Na22 suggest that the accumulation of 2-deoxyglucose and Na+ were coupled

  11. Natural Products as Lead Compounds for Sodium Glucose Cotransporter (SGLT) Inhibitors.


    Blaschek, Wolfgang


    Glucose homeostasis is maintained by antagonistic hormones such as insulin and glucagon as well as by regulation of glucose absorption, gluconeogenesis, biosynthesis and mobilization of glycogen, glucose consumption in all tissues and glomerular filtration, and reabsorption of glucose in the kidneys. Glucose enters or leaves cells mainly with the help of two membrane integrated transporters belonging either to the family of facilitative glucose transporters (GLUTs) or to the family of sodium glucose cotransporters (SGLTs). The intestinal glucose absorption by endothelial cells is managed by SGLT1, the transfer from them to the blood by GLUT2. In the kidney SGLT2 and SGLT1 are responsible for reabsorption of filtered glucose from the primary urine, and GLUT2 and GLUT1 enable the transport of glucose from epithelial cells back into the blood stream.The flavonoid phlorizin was isolated from the bark of apple trees and shown to cause glucosuria. Phlorizin is an inhibitor of SGLT1 and SGLT2. With phlorizin as lead compound, specific inhibitors of SGLT2 were developed in the last decade and some of them have been approved for treatment mainly of type 2 diabetes. Inhibition of SGLT2 eliminates excess glucose via the urine. In recent times, the dual SGLT1/SGLT2 inhibitory activity of phlorizin has served as a model for the development and testing of new drugs exhibiting both activities.Besides phlorizin, also some other flavonoids and especially flavonoid enriched plant extracts have been investigated for their potency to reduce postprandial blood glucose levels which can be helpful in the prevention and supplementary treatment especially of type 2 diabetes. Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  12. Sodium-Glucose Transporter-2 (SGLT2; SLC5A2) Enhances Cellular Uptake of Aminoglycosides

    PubMed Central

    Jiang, Meiyan; Wang, Qi; Karasawa, Takatoshi; Koo, Ja-Won; Li, Hongzhe; Steyger, Peter S.


    Aminoglycoside antibiotics, like gentamicin, continue to be clinically essential worldwide to treat life-threatening bacterial infections. Yet, the ototoxic and nephrotoxic side-effects of these drugs remain serious complications. A major site of gentamicin uptake and toxicity resides within kidney proximal tubules that also heavily express electrogenic sodium-glucose transporter-2 (SGLT2; SLC5A2) in vivo. We hypothesized that SGLT2 traffics gentamicin, and promotes cellular toxicity. We confirmed in vitro expression of SGLT2 in proximal tubule-derived KPT2 cells, and absence in distal tubule-derived KDT3 cells. D-glucose competitively decreased the uptake of 2-(N-(7-nitrobenz-2-oxa-1,3-diazol-4-yl)amino)-2-deoxyglucose (2-NBDG), a fluorescent analog of glucose, and fluorescently-tagged gentamicin (GTTR) by KPT2 cells. Phlorizin, an SGLT2 antagonist, strongly inhibited uptake of 2-NBDG and GTTR by KPT2 cells in a dose- and time-dependent manner. GTTR uptake was elevated in KDT3 cells transfected with SGLT2 (compared to controls); and this enhanced uptake was attenuated by phlorizin. Knock-down of SGLT2 expression by siRNA reduced gentamicin-induced cytotoxicity. In vivo, SGLT2 was robustly expressed in kidney proximal tubule cells of heterozygous, but not null, mice. Phlorizin decreased GTTR uptake by kidney proximal tubule cells in Sglt2+/− mice, but not in Sglt2−/− mice. However, serum GTTR levels were elevated in Sglt2−/− mice compared to Sglt2+/− mice, and in phlorizin-treated Sglt2+/− mice compared to vehicle-treated Sglt2+/− mice. Loss of SGLT2 function by antagonism or by gene deletion did not affect gentamicin cochlear loading or auditory function. Phlorizin did not protect wild-type mice from kanamycin-induced ototoxicity. We conclude that SGLT2 can traffic gentamicin and contribute to gentamicin-induced cytotoxicity. PMID:25268124

  13. Dapagliflozin, a selective SGLT2 Inhibitor, attenuated cardiac fibrosis by regulating the macrophage polarization via STAT3 signaling in infarcted rat hearts.


    Lee, Tsung-Ming; Chang, Nen-Chung; Lin, Shinn-Zong


    During myocardial infarction, infiltrated macrophages have pivotal roles in cardiac remodeling and delayed M1 toward M2 macrophage phenotype transition is considered one of the major factors for adverse ventricular remodeling. We investigated whether dapagliflozin, a sodium-glucose cotransporter 2 (SGLT2) inhibitor, attenuates cardiac fibrosis via regulating macrophage phenotype by a reactive oxygen and nitrogen species (RONS)/STAT3-dependent pathway in postinfarcted rats. Normoglycemic male Wistar rats were subjected to coronary ligation and then randomized to either saline, dapagliflozin (a specific SGLT2 inhibitor), phlorizin (a nonspecific SGLT1/2 inhibitor), dapagliflozin + S3I-201 (a STAT3 inhibitor), or phlorizin + S3I-201 for 4 weeks. There were similar infarct sizes among the infarcted groups at the acute and chronic stages of infarction. At day 3 after infarction, post-infarction was associated with increased levels of superoxide and nitrotyrosine, which can be inhibited by administering either dapagliflozin or phlorizin. SGLT2 inhibitors significantly increased STAT3 activity, STAT3 nuclear translocation, myocardial IL-10 levels and the percentage of M2 macrophage infiltration. At day 28 after infarction, SGLT2 inhibitors were associated with attenuated myofibroblast infiltration and cardiac fibrosis. Although phlorizin decreased myofibroblast infiltration, the effect of dapagliflozin on attenuated myofibroblast infiltration was significantly higher than phlorizin. The effects of SGLT2 inhibitors on cardiac fibrosis were nullified by adding S3I-201. Furthermore, the effects of dapagliflozin on STAT3 activity and myocardial IL-10 levels can be reversed by 3-morpholinosydnonimine, a peroxynitrite generator. Taken together, these observations provide a novel mechanism of SGLT2 inhibitors-mediated M2 polarization through a RONS-dependent STAT3-mediated pathway and selective SGLT2 inhibitors are more effective in attenuating myofibroblast infiltration during

  14. cap alpha. -Methylglucoside satisfies only Na/sup +/-dependent transport system of intestinal epithelium

    SciTech Connect

    Kimmich, G.A.; Randles, J.


    The unidirectional influx of ..cap alpha..-methylglucoside (..cap alpha..-MG) by isolated chicken intestinal epithelial cells is 98% inhibited by phlorizin. The remaining 2% of the total influx occurs in the absence of Na/sup +/, is not sensitive to phloretin, and is equal to the diffusional entry rate for 2-deoxyglucose. The glucoside is much more strongly accumulated (75-fold) than 3-O-methylglucose (3-OMG) (10-fold). Inhibitors of the serosal sugar carrier (phloretin, cytochalasin B, theophylline, and flavanoids) do not enhance ..cap alpha..-MG accumulation. It is concluded that the glycoside is not a substrate for the intestinal serosal transport system. Steady-state gradients of the sugar canmore » be represented accurately by a concentrative, phlorizin-sensitive system that is opposed by a diffusional efflux process.« less

  15. Sodium transport through the cerebral sodium-glucose transporter exacerbates neuron damage during cerebral ischaemia.


    Yamazaki, Yui; Harada, Shinichi; Wada, Tetsuyuki; Yoshida, Shigeru; Tokuyama, Shogo


    We recently demonstrated that the cerebral sodium-glucose transporter (SGLT) is involved in postischaemic hyperglycaemia-induced exacerbation of cerebral ischaemia. However, the associated SGLT-mediated mechanisms remain unclear. Thus, we examined the involvement of cerebral SGLT-induced excessive sodium ion influx in the development of cerebral ischaemic neuronal damage. [Na+]i was estimated according to sodium-binding benzofuran isophthalate fluorescence. In the in vitro study, primary cortical neurons were prepared from fetuses of ddY mice. Primary cortical neurons were cultured for 5 days before each treatment with reagents, and these survival rates were assessed using biochemical assays. In in vivo study, a mouse model of focal ischaemia was generated using middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO). In these experiments, treatment with high concentrations of glucose induced increment in [Na+]i, and this phenomenon was suppressed by the SGLT-specific inhibitor phlorizin. SGLT-specific sodium ion influx was induced using a-methyl-D-glucopyranoside (a-MG) treatments, which led to significant concentration-dependent declines in neuronal survival rates and exacerbated hydrogen peroxide-induced neuronal cell death. Moreover, phlorizin ameliorated these effects. Finally, intracerebroventricular administration of a-MG exacerbated the development of neuronal damage induced by MCAO, and these effects were ameliorated by the administration of phlorizin. Hence, excessive influx of sodium ions into neuronal cells through cerebral SGLT may exacerbate the development of cerebral ischaemic neuronal damage. © 2016 Royal Pharmaceutical Society.

  16. Mechanisms underlying the inhibitory effect of the feed contaminant deoxynivalenol on glucose absorption in broiler chickens.


    Awad, W A; Ghareeb, K; Zentek, J


    Deoxynivalenol (DON), a major contaminant of cereals and grains, is of public health concern worldwide and has been shown to reduce the electrogenic transport of glucose. However, the full effects of Fusarium mycotoxins on nutrient absorption are still not clear. The aim of this study was to investigate whether decreased nutrient absorption was due to specific effects on transporter trafficking in the intestine and whether inhibition of phosphoinositol-3-kinase (PI-3-kinase) affected the electrogenic jejunal transport of glucose. Jejunal mucosa of 6-week-old broiler chickens were mounted in Ussing chambers and treated with DON, wortmannin (a specific inhibitor of PI-3-kinase), DON + wortmannin, phlorizin and cytochalasin B. DON was found to decrease the short-circuit current (Isc) after glucose addition. A similar decline in Isc after glucose addition was observed following pre-application of wortmannin, or phlorizin (Na(+)/glucose co-transporter, SGLT1 inhibitor). The results indicate that DON decreased glucose absorption in the absence of wortmannin or phlorizin but had no additional effect on glucose absorption in their presence. Glucose transport was not affected by cytochalasin B (facilitative glucose transporter, GLUT2 inhibitor). The study provides evidence that the suppressive effect of DON on the electrogenic transport of glucose may be due to an inhibitory activity of the PI3 kinase pathway and intestinal SGLT1. Furthermore, the effect of cytochalasin B on glucose transport in chicken tissues differs from that in mammals. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Facilitated glucose transporters play a crucial role throughout mouse preimplantation embryo development.


    Leppens-Luisier, G; Urner, F; Sakkas, D


    The role of glucose fluctuates during preimplantation mouse embryo development, indicating that a specific interplay exists between glucose metabolism and uptake. In this study, attempts were made to characterize the role of the Na(+)-coupled active and the facilitated glucose transporters (GLUT) during preimplantation development by using specific glucose analogues and transport inhibitors and by examining the expression of GLUT1. One-cell outbred mouse embryos were cultured in medium M16 (5.5 mmol/l glucose), M16 without glucose (M16-G), M16-G + 2-deoxyglucose, M16-G + 3-O-methylglucose, M16 + phlorizin and M16 + phloretin and development to the blastocyst stage assessed. The absence of glucose, or the presence of 3-O-methylglucose, which is taken up but not metabolized, did not inhibit blastocyst development. 2-Deoxyglucose, which is phosphorylated but not metabolized, inhibited blastocyst development. Culture in M16 supplemented with phlorizin, an inhibitor of Na(+)-coupled active glucose transport did not inhibit blastocyst formation. Phloretin had no effect on the cleavage of two-cell embryos to the four-cell stage, but inhibited the morula/blastocyst transition. Both phloretin and phlorizin inhibited glucose uptake in two-cell embryos. Finally, GLUT1 expression was 10-fold less in blastocysts cultured in M16 compared to in-vivo blastocysts and those cultured in M16-G. The results show that both types of glucose transporters influence preimplantation embryo development and that the embryo has an innate ability to control the uptake of glucose by regulating the expression of GLUT1.

  18. Glucose rapidly decreases plasma membrane GLUT4 content in rat skeletal muscle.


    Marette, A; Dimitrakoudis, D; Shi, Q; Rodgers, C D; Klip, A; Vranic, M


    We have previously demonstrated that chronic hyperglycemia per se decreases GLUT4 glucose transporter expression and plasma membrane content in mildly streptozotocin- (STZ) diabetic rats (Biochem. J. 284, 341-348, 1992). In the present study, we investigated the effect of an acute rise in glycemia on muscle GLUT4 and GLUT1 protein contents in the plasma membrane, in the absence of insulin elevation. Four experimental groups of rats were analyzed in the postabsorptive state: 1. Control rats. 2. Hyperglycemic STZ-diabetic rats with moderately reduced fasting insulin levels. 3. STZ-diabetic rats made normoglycemic with phlorizin treatment. 4. Phlorizin-treated (normoglycemic) STZ-diabetic rats infused with glucose for 40 min. The uniqueness of the latter model is that glycemia can be rapidly raised without any concomitant increase in plasma insulin levels. Plasma membranes were isolated from hindlimb muscle and GLUT1 and GLUT4 proteins amounts determined by Western blot analysis. As predicted, STZ-diabetes caused a significant decrease in the abundance of GLUT4 in the isolated plasma membranes. Normalization of glycemia for 3 d with phlorizin treatment restored plasma membrane GLUT4 content in muscle of STZ-diabetic rats. A sudden rise in glycemia over a period of 40 min caused the GLUT4 levels in the plasma membrane fraction to decrease to those of nontreated STZ-diabetic rats. In contrast to the GLUT4 transporter, plasma membrane GLUT1 abundance was not changed by the acute glucose challenge. It is concluded that glucose can have regulatory effect by acutely reducing plasma membrane GLUT4 protein contents in rat skeletal muscle. We hypothesize that this glucose-induced downregulation of plasma membrane GLUT4 could represent a protective mechanism against excessive glucose uptake under hyperglycemic conditions accompanied by insulin resistance.

  19. Permeability of human jejunal segments to gonyautoxins measured by the Ussing chamber technique.


    Mardones, Pamela; Andrinolo, Darío; Csendes, Attila; Lagos, Néstor


    The aim of this work was to study the mechanisms involved in intestinal permeability of gonyautoxins. For this purpose, the influence on transmucosal resistance of gonyautoxins and their permeability was investigated in excised human jejunal segments. To evaluate these events, the isolated mucosa was mounted in Ussing chambers for electrophysiological characterization. The organic gonyautoxin cations were applied to the mucosal side and samples collected on the serosal side. The permeability of gonyautoxins measured at 37 degrees C was 4.3-fold greater than at 4 degrees C, indicative of high cation selective transcellular permeability. In order to characterize the permeability of gonyautoxins, the effects of choline, ouabain, phlorizin and fluorescein were studied. The inhibition by these compounds was expressed as percent inhibition of the maximal flux of gonyautoxins at 120 min. Replacement of sodium ion by choline, showed the highest inhibition (85.5% from control). Ouabain, fluorescein and phlorizin inhibit the gonyautoxins flux by 53.9, 41.0 and 9.64%, respectively. The inhibition of gonyautoxins' permeability produced by ouabain and phlorizin go in parallel with an increase in the transmucosal electrical resistance (TER). This study shows that permeability of gonyautoxin cations occurred predominantly by the transcellular pathway (76%) when toxins were applied in the mucosal-serosal direction. The paracellular pathway of gonyautoxins was 24% of total permeability when compared with [3H] mannitol permeability. These findings suggests that permeability of gonyautoxins depends on temperature and processes involving sodium ion. Replacing sodium ions by choline ions showed a marked effect on TER.

  20. A fluorescence method for determination of glucose transport by intestinal BBMV of common carp.


    Yang, Li-Ping; Yan, Xiao; Zheng, Wen-Jia; Hu, Jun-Yi; Zhang, Yu-Ru; Qin, Chao-Bin; Meng, Xiao-Lin; Lu, Rong-Hua; Chen, Fang; Xie, Di-Zhi; Nie, Guo-Xing


    Epithelial brush-border membrane vesicles (BBMVs) were isolated from the intestine of common carp and studied systematically by enzyme activity, transmission electron microscopy and immunoblotting. The uptake time course and the substrate concentration effect were assessed, and then, the ability of phlorizin and cytochalasin B to inhibit uptake was analyzed. The results show that sucrase, alkaline phosphatase and Na + -K + -ATPase activities in these vesicles were enriched 7.94-, 6.74- and 0.42-fold, respectively, indicating a relatively pure preparation of apical membrane with little basolateral contamination. The vesicular structure was in complete closure, as confirmed by electron microscopy. The presence of SGLT1 on the BBMVs was confirmed by Western blot analysis. In the time course experiment, the glucose uptake by BBMVs in Na + medium displayed an initial accumulation (overshoot) at 5 min followed by a rapid return to equilibrium values at 60 min. Over the 2-NBDG concentration range selected, the external 2-NBDG concentration in NaSCN medium graphed as a curved line. Phlorizin and cytochalasin B had an obvious inhibitory effect on 2-NBDG transport in carp BBMVs, and the detected fluorescence intensity decreased. The inhibition rate in the 1000 μM group was the strongest at 64.18% and 63.61% of phlorizin and cytochalasin B, respectively, indicating the presence of carriers other than SGLT1. This study is the first to demonstrate that 2-NBDG can be used as a convenient and sensitive probe to detect glucose uptake in fish BBMVs. This technology will provide a convenient method to discover new effects and factors in glucose metabolism. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  1. Mechanisms and time course of impaired skeletal muscle glucose transport activity in streptozocin diabetic rats.

    PubMed Central

    Napoli, R; Hirshman, M F; Horton, E S


    Skeletal muscle glucose transport is altered in diabetes in humans, as well as in rats. To investigate the mechanisms of this abnormality, we measured glucose transport Vmax, the total transporter number, their average intrinsic activity, GLUT4 and GLUT1 contents in skeletal muscle plasma membrane vesicles from basal or insulin-stimulated streptozocin diabetic rats with different duration of diabetes, treated or not with phlorizin. The glucose transport Vmax progressively decreased with the duration of diabetes. In the basal state, this decrease was primarily associated with the reduction of transporter intrinsic activity, which appeared earlier than any change in transporter number or GLUT4 and GLUT1 content. In the insulin-stimulated state, the decrease of transport was mainly associated with severe defects in transporter translocation. Phlorizin treatment partially increased the insulin-stimulated glucose transport by improving the transporter translocation defects. In conclusion, in streptozocin diabetes (a) reduction of intrinsic activity plays a major and early role in the impairment of basal glucose transport; (b) a defect in transporter translocation is the mechanism responsible for the decrease in insulin-stimulated glucose transport; and (c) hyperglycemia per se affects the insulin-stimulated glucose transport by altering the transporter translocation. PMID:7615815

  2. Chemical Fingerprint and Quantitative Analysis for the Quality Evaluation of Docynia dcne Leaves by High-Performance Liquid Chromatography Coupled with Chemometrics Analysis.


    Zhang, Xiaoyu; Mei, Xueran; Wang, Zhanguo; Wu, Jing; Liu, Gang; Hu, Huiling; Li, Qijuan


    Docynia dcne leaf from the genus of Docynia Dcne (including three species of Docynia delavayi, Docynia indica and Docynia longiunguis.) is an important raw material of local ethnic minority tea, ethnomedicines and food supplements in southwestern areas of China. However, D. dcne leaves from these three species are usually used confusingly, which could influence the therapeutic effect of it. A rapid and effective method for the chemical fingerprint and quantitative analysis to evaluate the quality of D. dcne leaves was established. The chemometric methods, including similarity analysis, hierarchical cluster analysis and partial least-squares discrimination analysis, were applied to distinguish 30 batches of D. dcne leaf samples from these three species. The above results could validate each other and successfully group these samples into three categories which were closely related to the species of D. dcne leaves. Moreover, isoquercitrin and phlorizin were screened as the chemical markers to evaluate the quality of D. dcne leaves from different species. And the contents of isoquercitrin and phlorizin varied remarkably in these samples, with ranges of 6.41-38.84 and 95.73-217.76 mg/g, respectively. All the results indicated that an integration method of chemical fingerprint couple with chemometrics analysis and quantitative assessment was a powerful and beneficial tool for quality control of D. dcne leaves, and could be applied also for differentiation and quality control of other herbal preparations.

  3. How to Plant Apple Trees to Reduce Replant Disease in Apple Orchard: A Study on the Phenolic Acid of the Replanted Apple Orchard

    PubMed Central

    Yin, Chengmiao; Xiang, Li; Wang, Gongshuai; Wang, Yanfang; Shen, Xiang; Chen, Xuesen; Mao, Zhiquan


    Apple replant disease (ARD) is an important problem in the production of apple. The phenolic acid is one of the causes of ARD. How phenolic acid affects the ARD was not well known. In this study, we analyzed the type, concentration and annual dynamic variation of phenolic acid in soil from three replanted apple orchards using an accelerated solvent extraction system with high performance liquid chromatography (ASE-HPLC). We found that the type and concentration of phenolic acid were significantly differed among different seasons, different sampling positions and different soil layers. Major types of phenolic acid in three replanted apple orchards were phlorizin, benzoic acid and vanillic aldehyde. The concentration of phenolic acid was highest in the soil of the previous tree holes and it was increased from the spring to autumn. Moreover, phenolic acid was primarily distributed in 30–60 cm soil layer in the autumn, while it was most abundant in 0–30 cm soil layer in the spring. Our results suggest that phlorizin, benzoic acid and vanillic aldehyde may be the key phenolic acid that brought about ARD in the replanted apple orchard. PMID:27907081

  4. In vitro antioxidant profiles of some flavonoids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aksoy, Mine; Gülçin, Ilhami; Küfrevioǧlu, Ö. Irfan


    Baicalin ((2S,3S,4S,5R,6S)-6-(5,6-dihydroxy-4-oxo-2-phenyl-chromen-7-yl)oxy-3,4,5-trihydroxy-tetrahydropyran-2-carboxylic acid) and baicalein (5,6,7-trihydroxyflavone) are a flavone, a type of flavonoid. Baicalin is the glucuronide of baicalein. Phlorizin, or phloridzin is a naturally occurring flavonoid produced in some plants. It belongs to the group of dihydrochalcones. In this study, we investigated the in vitro antioxidant properties of baicalin, baicalein and phloridzin using different methods including ferric ion (Fe3+) reducing power, cupric ion (Cu2+) reducing power (CUPRAC method), reduction of Fe3+-TPTZ complex, 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl free radicals (DPPH.) scavenging, 2,2'-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzthiazoline-6-sulphonic acid radicals (ABTS.+) scavenging activities. Also, butylated hydroxyanisole (BHA), butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT) and α-Tocopherol were used as standard antioxidants.

  5. A method to quantify at late imaging a release rate of 18F-FDG in tissues.


    Laffon, Eric; Allard, Michèle; Marthan, Roger; Ducassou, Dominique


    This theoretical work shows that the rate constant for the (18)F-FDG release in tissues can be assessed without needing any arterial blood sampling. The method requires that the clearance of (18)F-FDG from plasma has occurred, whereas (18)F-FDG is still present in the tissue. This condition can be met dating from 3 h after (18)F-FDG injection, when hydration and/or phlorizin injection are applied after the routine static acquisition. The release rate constant can be obtained from a graphical analysis performed at the later decreasing phase of the tissue tracer activity. A two-compartment and a three-compartment model are developed, both in accordance with one another. To cite this article: E. Laffon et al., C. R. Biologies 328 (2005).

  6. Profile and antioxidant activity of phenolic extracts from 10 crabapples (Malus wild species).


    Li, Nan; Shi, Junling; Wang, Kun


    Phenolic products are highly demanded by the food and cosmetics industries and consumers due to their high antioxidant activities. To evaluate the potential of crabapples (Malus wild species) in preparing phenolic extracts, fruits of 10 crabapples grown in China were separately extracted with 80% (v/v) ethanol and ethyl acetate and the phenolic profiles, polyphenol (PC) and flavonoid contents (FC), and antioxidant activities of the extracts were analyzed. Chlorogenic acid, (-)-epicatechin, rutin, hyperin, and phlorizin appeared as the major phenolic compounds in all phenolic extracts. Ethanol extracts had PC of 302.83-1265.94 mg GAE/100g and FC of 352.45-2351.74 mg RE/100g, being 4.17 and 4.49 times those obtained in ethyl acetate extracts and much higher than those previously reported in apples. Malus wild species appeared as rich sources of phenolic compounds with high antioxidant activity, especially when high chlorogenic acid and rutin contents are emphasized.

  7. The Diverse Forms of Lactose Intolerance and the Putative Linkage to Several Cancers.


    Amiri, Mahdi; Diekmann, Lena; von Köckritz-Blickwede, Maren; Naim, Hassan Y


    Lactase-phlorizin hydrolase (LPH) is a membrane glycoprotein and the only β-galactosidase of the brush border membrane of the intestinal epithelium. Besides active transcription, expression of the active LPH requires different maturation steps of the polypeptide through the secretory pathway, including N- and O-glycosylation, dimerization and proteolytic cleavage steps. The inability to digest lactose due to insufficient lactase activity results in gastrointestinal symptoms known as lactose intolerance. In this review, we will concentrate on the structural and functional features of LPH protein and summarize the cellular and molecular mechanism required for its maturation and trafficking. Then, different types of lactose intolerance are discussed, and the molecular aspects of lactase persistence/non-persistence phenotypes are investigated. Finally, we will review the literature focusing on the lactase persistence/non-persistence populations as a comparative model in order to determine the protective or adverse effects of milk and dairy foods on the incidence of colorectal, ovarian and prostate cancers.

  8. Fluorine-Directed Glycosylation Enables the Stereocontrolled Synthesis of Selective SGLT2 Inhibitors for Type II Diabetes.


    Sadurní, Anna; Kehr, Gerald; Ahlqvist, Marie; Wernevik, Johan; Sjögren, Helena Peilot; Kankkonen, Cecilia; Knerr, Laurent; Gilmour, Ryan


    Inhibition of the sodium-glucose co-transporters (SGLT1 and SGLT2) is a validated strategy to address the increasing prevalence of type II diabetes mellitus. However, achieving selective inhibition of human SGLT1 or SGLT2 remains challenging. Orally available small molecule drugs based on the d-glucose core of the natural product Gliflozin have proven to be clinically effective in this regard, effectively impeding glucose reabsorption. Herein, we disclose the influence of molecular editing with fluorine at the C2 position of the pyranose ring of Phlorizin analogues Remogliflozin Etabonate and Dapagliflozin (Farxiga ® ) to concurrently direct β-selective glycosylation, as is required for biological efficacy, and enhance aspects of the physicochemical profile. Given the abundance of glycosylated pharmaceuticals in diabetes therapy that contain a β-configured d-glucose nucleus, it is envisaged that this strategy may prove to be expansive. © 2018 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  9. Design of SGLT2 Inhibitors for the Treatment of Type 2 Diabetes: A History Driven by Biology to Chemistry.


    Cai, Wenqing; Jiang, Linlin; Xie, Yafei; Liu, Yuqiang; Liu, Wei; Zhao, Guilong


    A brief history of the design of sodium-dependent glucose cotransporter 2 (SGLT2) inhibitors is reviewed. The design of O-glucoside SGLT2 inhibitors by structural modification of phlorizin, a naturally occurring O-glucoside, in the early stage was a process mainly driven by biology with anticipation of improving SGLT2/SGLT1 selectivity and increasing metabolic stability. Discovery of dapagliflozin, a pioneering C-glucoside SGLT2 inhibitor developed by Bristol-Myers Squibb, represents an important milestone in this history. In the second stage, the design of C-glycoside SGLT2 inhibitors by modifications of the aglycone and glucose moiety of dapagliflozin, an original structural template for almost all C-glycoside SGLT2 inhibitors, was mainly driven by synthetic organic chemistry due to the challenge of designing dapagliflozin derivatives that are patentable, biologically active and synthetically accessible. Structure-activity relationships (SAR) of the SGLT2 inhibitors are also discussed.

  10. Synthesis, crystal structure, and biological evaluation of a series of phloretin derivatives.


    Wang, Li; Li, Zheng-Wei; Zhang, Wei; Xu, Rui; Gao, Fei; Liu, Yang-Feng; Li, Ya-Jun


    A one-step synthesis of phloretin derivatives 2-11 from phloretin in good to excellent yields is reported. Their structures were characterized by 1H-NMR, 13C-NMR and MS, and the structures of 8 and 11 were determined by X-ray diffraction analysis. A mechanism for the formation of 9-11 is proposed. Compared with the anticancer drug docetaxel, phloretin, phloretin derivatives and phlorizin exhibited moderate cytotoxicity toward the MDA-MB-231, SPC-A1, A549, MCF-7 and EC109 cell lines. Among all of the tested compounds, 7 exhibited the strongest cytotoxicity toward the five cell lines and was more active than docetaxel in MDA-MB-231 cells. Our findings suggest that these derivatives hold great promise for further development as anticancer agents.

  11. Phloretin-induced changes in ion transport across lipid bilayer membranes

    PubMed Central


    Phloretin, the aglucone derivative of phlorizin, increases cation conductance and decreases anion conductance in lipid bilayer membranes. In this paper we present evidence that phloretin acts almost exclusively by altering the permeability of the membrane interior and not by modifying the partition of the permanent species between the membrane and the bulk aqueous phases. We base our conclusion on an analysis of the current responses to a senylborate, and the cation complex, peptide PV-K+. These results are consistent with the hypothesis that phloretin decreases the intrinsic positive internal membrane potential but does not modify to a great extent the potential energy minima at the membrane interfaces. Phloretin increases the conductance for the nonactin-K+ complex, but above 10(-5) M the steady- state nonactin-K+ voltage-current curve changes from superlinear to sublinear. These results imply that, above 10(-5) M phloretin, the nonactin-5+ transport across the membrane becomes interfacially limited. PMID:576427

  12. Biochemical and antimicrobial activity of phloretin and its glycosilated derivatives present in apple and kumquat.


    Barreca, Davide; Bellocco, Ersilia; Laganà, Giuseppina; Ginestra, Giovanna; Bisignano, Carlo


    Phloretin and its glycosylated derivatives (phlorizin and phloretin 3',5'-di-C-glucoside) are dihydrochalcones that have many interesting biological properties. The results obtained showed that the dihydrochalcones are able to inhibit growth of Gram positive bacteria, in particular Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 6538, Listeria monocytogenes ATCC 13932 and methicillin-resistant S. aureus clinical strains. Moreover, phloretin is active also against the Gram negative bacteria Salmonella typhimurium ATCC 13311. The determination of the enzymatic activity of key metabolic enzymes allowed us to shed some light on the biochemical mechanism of aglycon cell growth inhibition, showing as it remarkably influences the energetic metabolism of S. aureus. In addition, structure/activity determinations highlighted that the presence of a glycosyl moiety bound to the chalcone structure dramatically decreases the antimicrobial activity of phloretin. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Protein kinase C is increased in the liver of humans and rats with non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus: an alteration not due to hyperglycemia.

    PubMed Central

    Considine, R V; Nyce, M R; Allen, L E; Morales, L M; Triester, S; Serrano, J; Colberg, J; Lanza-Jacoby, S; Caro, J F


    We tested the hypothesis that liver protein kinase C (PKC) is increased in non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (NIDDM). To this end we examined the distribution of PKC isozymes in liver biopsies from obese individuals with and without NIDDM and in lean controls. PKC isozymes alpha, beta, epsilon and zeta were detected by immunoblotting in both the cytosol and membrane fractions. Isozymes gamma and delta were not detected. There was a significant increase in immunodetectable PKC-alpha (twofold), -epsilon (threefold), and -zeta (twofold) in the membrane fraction isolated from obese subjects with NIDDM compared with the lean controls. In obese subjects without NIDDM, the amount of membrane PKC isozymes was not different from the other two groups. We next sought an animal model where this observation could be studied further. The Zucker diabetic fatty rat offered such a model system. Immunodetectable membrane PKC-alpha, -beta, -epsilon, and -zeta were significantly increased when compared with both the lean and obese controls. The increase in immunodetectable PKC protein correlated with a 40% elevation in the activity of PKC at the membrane. Normalization of circulating glucose in the rat model by either insulin or phlorizin treatment did not result in a reduction in membrane PKC isozyme protein or kinase activity. Further, phlorizin treatment did not improve insulin receptor autophosphorylation nor did the treatment lower liver diacylglycerol. We conclude that liver PKC is increased in NIDDM, a change that is not secondary to hyperglycemia. It is possible that PKC-mediated phosphorylation of some component in the insulin signaling cascade contributes to the insulin resistance observed in NIDDM. Images PMID:7769136

  14. SGLT2 Inhibitors May Predispose to Ketoacidosis.


    Taylor, Simeon I; Blau, Jenny E; Rother, Kristina I


    Sodium glucose cotransporter 2 (SGLT2) inhibitors are antidiabetic drugs that increase urinary excretion of glucose, thereby improving glycemic control and promoting weight loss. Since approval of the first-in-class drug in 2013, data have emerged suggesting that these drugs increase the risk of diabetic ketoacidosis. In May 2015, the Food and Drug Administration issued a warning that SGLT2 inhibitors may lead to ketoacidosis. Using PubMed and Google, we conducted Boolean searches including terms related to ketone bodies or ketoacidosis with terms for SGLT2 inhibitors or phlorizin. Priority was assigned to publications that shed light on molecular mechanisms whereby SGLT2 inhibitors could affect ketone body metabolism. SGLT2 inhibitors trigger multiple mechanisms that could predispose to diabetic ketoacidosis. When SGLT2 inhibitors are combined with insulin, it is often necessary to decrease the insulin dose to avoid hypoglycemia. The lower dose of insulin may be insufficient to suppress lipolysis and ketogenesis. Furthermore, SGLT2 is expressed in pancreatic α-cells, and SGLT2 inhibitors promote glucagon secretion. Finally, phlorizin, a nonselective inhibitor of SGLT family transporters decreases urinary excretion of ketone bodies. A decrease in the renal clearance of ketone bodies could also increase the plasma ketone body levels. Based on the physiology of SGLT2 and the pharmacology of SGLT2 inhibitors, there are several biologically plausible mechanisms whereby this class of drugs has the potential to increase the risk of developing diabetic ketoacidosis. Future research should be directed toward identifying which patients are at greatest risk for this side effect and also to optimizing pharmacotherapy to minimize the risk to patients.

  15. Common mechanisms of inhibition for the Na+/glucose (hSGLT1) and Na+/Cl−/GABA (hGAT1) cotransporters

    PubMed Central

    Hirayama, Bruce A; Díez-Sampedro, Ana; Wright, Ernest M


    Electrophysiological methods were used to investigate the interaction of inhibitors with the human Na+/glucose (hSGLT1) and Na+/Cl−/GABA (hGAT1) cotransporters. Inhibitor constants were estimated from both inhibition of substrate-dependent current and inhibitor-induced changes in cotransporter conformation. The competitive, non-transported inhibitors are substrate derivatives with inhibition constants from 200 nM (phlorizin) to 17 mM (esculin) for hSGLT1, and 300 nM (SKF89976A) to 10 mM (baclofen) for hGAT1. At least for hSGLT1, values determined using either method were proportional over 5-orders of magnitude. Correlation of inhibition to structure of the inhibitors resulted in a pharmacophore for glycoside binding to hSGLT1: the aglycone is coplanar with the pyranose ring, and binds to a hydrophobic/aromatic surface of at least 7×12Å. Important hydrogen bond interactions occur at five positions bordering this surface. In both hSGLT1 and hGAT1 the data suggests that there is a large, hydrophobic inhibitor binding site ∼8Å from the substrate binding site. This suggests an architectural similarity between hSGLT1 and hGAT1. There is also structural similarity between non-competitive and competitive inhibitors, e.g., phloretin is the aglycone of phlorizin (hSGLT1) and nortriptyline resembles SKF89976A without nipecotic acid (hGAT1). Our studies establish that measurement of the effect of inhibitors on presteady state currents is a valid non-radioactive method for the determination of inhibitor binding constants. Furthermore, analysis of the presteady state currents provide novel insights into partial reactions of the transport cycle and mode of action of the inhibitors. PMID:11588102

  16. Neuroprotective effects of phloretin and its glycosylated derivative on rotenone-induced toxicity in human SH-SY5Y neuronal-like cells.


    Barreca, Davide; Currò, Monica; Bellocco, Ersilia; Ficarra, Silvana; Laganà, Giuseppina; Tellone, Ester; Laura Giunta, Maria; Visalli, Giuseppa; Caccamo, Daniela; Galtieri, Antonio; Ientile, Riccardo


    Phloretin and phlorizin are the two strong natural antioxidants whose biological and pharmacological applications are rapidly growing in different human pathological conditions. The neuroprotective activity of the two flavonoids has been analyzed on cell culture of neuroblastoma cells. The neuroprotective activity of the two flavonoids has been analyzed on cell culture of neuroblastoma cells and evaluated by testing cell vitality, mitochondrial transmembrane potential and ROS production, antioxidant enzymes detection, activation of caspase 3, DNA damage, protein carbonylation, lipid peroxidation, and superoxide anion scavenging activity. Incubation of cells with rotenone caused cell death and significant increase in intracellular reactive oxygen species, activation of caspase 3, and variation in mitochondrial transmembrane potential. Although, rotenone exposure caused a significant increase of antioxidant enzymes, high levels of lipid peroxidation were also observed. Phloretin or phlorizin, at micromolar concentration, reduced rotenone-induced cell death by scavenging ability against superoxide anion radical, one of the main effectors of rotenone toxicity at level of mitochondrial respiratory chain complex I. Under our experimental conditions, a reduction of the intracellular ROS levels with consequent normalization of the aforementioned antioxidant enzymes occurred. Concomitantly, we observed the inhibition of caspase 3 activity and DNA damage. This study shows the promising neuroprotective ability of the two dihydrochalcones able to protect human differentiated neuroblastoma cells (commonly used as model of Parkinson's disease) from injury induced by rotenone, actively scavenging ROS, normalizing mitochondrial transmembrane potential and consequently avoiding energy depletion. © 2017 BioFactors, 43(4):549-557, 2017. © 2017 International Union of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology.

  17. Na+-independent D-glucose transport in rabbit renal basolateral membranes

    SciTech Connect

    Cheung, P.T.; Hammerman, M.R.


    To define the mechanism by which glucose is transported across the basolateral membrane of the renal proximal tubular cell, we measured D-(14C)glucose uptake in basolateral membrane vesicles from rabbit kidney. Na+-dependent D-glucose transport, demonstrable in brush-border vesicles, could not be demonstrated in basolateral membrane vesicles. In the absence of Na+, the uptake of D-(14C)glucose in basolateral vesicles was more rapid than that of L-(3H)glucose over a concentration range of 1-50 mM. Subtraction of the latter from the former uptakes revealed a saturable process with apparent Km of 9.9 mM and Vmax of 0.80 protein-1.s-1. To characterize the transport componentmore » of D-glucose uptake in basolateral vesicles, we measured trans stimulation of 2 mM D-(14C)glucose entry in the absence of Na+. Trans stimulation could be effected by preloading basolateral vesicles with D-glucose, 2-deoxy-D-glucose, or 3-O-methyl-D-glucose, but not with L-glucose or alpha-methyl-D-glucoside. Trans-stimulated D-(14C)glucose uptake was inhibited by 0.1 mM phloretin or cytochalasin B but not phlorizin. In contrast, Na+-dependent D-(14C)glucose transport in brush-border vesicles was inhibited by phlorizin but not phloretin or cytochalasin B. Our findings are consistent with the presence of a Na+-independent D-glucose transporter in the proximal tubular basolateral membrane with characteristics similar to those of transporters present in nonepithelial cells.« less

  18. Functional identification and characterization of sodium binding sites in Na symporters

    PubMed Central

    Loo, Donald D. F.; Jiang, Xuan; Gorraitz, Edurne; Hirayama, Bruce A.; Wright, Ernest M.


    Sodium cotransporters from several different gene families belong to the leucine transporter (LeuT) structural family. Although the identification of Na+ in binding sites is beyond the resolution of the structures, two Na+ binding sites (Na1 and Na2) have been proposed in LeuT. Na2 is conserved in the LeuT family but Na1 is not. A biophysical method has been used to measure sodium dissociation constants (Kd) of wild-type and mutant human sodium glucose cotransport (hSGLT1) proteins to identify the Na+ binding sites in hSGLT1. The Na1 site is formed by residues in the sugar binding pocket, and their mutation influences sodium binding to Na1 but not to Na2. For the canonical Na2 site formed by two –OH side chains, S392 and S393, and three backbone carbonyls, mutation of S392 to cysteine increased the sodium Kd by sixfold. This was accompanied by a dramatic reduction in the apparent sugar and phlorizin affinities. We suggest that mutation of S392 in the Na2 site produces a structural rearrangement of the sugar binding pocket to disrupt both the binding of the second Na+ and the binding of sugar. In contrast, the S393 mutations produce no significant changes in sodium, sugar, and phlorizin affinities. We conclude that the Na2 site is conserved in hSGLT1, the side chain of S392 and the backbone carbonyl of S393 are important in the first Na+ binding, and that Na+ binding to Na2 promotes binding to Na1 and also sugar binding. PMID:24191006

  19. SciTech Connect

    Lee, J.Y.

    Serial experiments were performed in order to understand and explore the Na/sup +/ transport system. In order to test possible covariation of cation and anion permeabilities, we applied inhibitors of cation or anion transport. Sulfonamide loop diuretics, furosemide and bumetanide, suppress 22/sub Na/sup +// influx into high permeability (HP) red cells but less into low permeability (LP) erythrocytes. These drugs also inhibit SO/sub 4/ = transport about 70% in both types of RBC. RBC pretreated with impermeant polyanions also show significantly decreased Na/sup +/ influx into HP but not LP RBC. However,a potent inhibitor of RBC anion transport, diisothiocyanostilbene disulfonatemore » (DIDS), has no influence on Na/sup +/ transport. Since the glucose channel is another transmembrane protein in erythrocyte membranes, the effects of the potent glucose transport inhibitors, phlorizin and phloretinyl-3'-benzylazide (PBAz), were measured. Both chemicals effect reduction of Na/sup +/ flux. Because radioactive PBAz is not available, we employed another potent Na/sup +/ channel blocker, /sup 32/P-8-azido-ATP, in an attempt to label HP and LP RBC membranes. Autoradiograms showed that /sup 32/P labels only band 4.2 and external iodination with /sup 125/I yields similar results.« less

  20. Presence of leptin receptors in rat small intestine and leptin effect on sugar absorption.


    Lostao, M P; Urdaneta, E; Martínez-Ansó, E; Barber, A; Martínez, J A


    Leptin is involved in food intake and thermogenesis regulation. Since leptin receptor expression has been found in several tissues including small intestine, a possible role of leptin in sugar absorption by the intestine was investigated. Leptin inhibited D-galactose uptake by rat small intestinal rings 33% after 5 min of incubation. The inhibition increased to 56% after 30 min. However, neither at 5 min nor at 30 min did leptin prevent intracellular galactose accumulation. This leptin effect was accompanied by a decrease of the active sugar transport apparent Vmax (20 vs. 4.8 micromol/g wet weight 5 min) and apparent Km (15.8 vs. 5.3 mM) without any change in the phlorizin-resistant component. On the other hand, immunohistochemical experiments using anti-leptin monoclonal antibodies recognized leptin receptors in the plasma membrane of immune cells located in the lamina propria. These results indicate for the first time that leptin has a rapid inhibitory effect on sugar absorption and demonstrate the presence of leptin receptors in the intestinal mucosa.

  1. Separation of polyphenols from leaves of Malus hupehensis (Pamp.) Rehder by off-line two-dimensional High Speed Counter-Current Chromatography combined with recycling elution mode.


    Liu, Qi; Zeng, Hualiang; Jiang, Shujing; Zhang, Li; Yang, Fuzhu; Chen, Xiaoqing; Yang, Hua


    In this study, off-line two-dimensional High Speed Counter-Current Chromatography (2D HSCCC) strategy combined with recycling elution mode was developed to isolate compounds from the ethyl acetate extract of a common green tea--leaves of Malus hupehensis (Pamp.) Rehder. In the orthogonal separation system, a conventional HSCCC was employed for the first dimension and two recycling HSCCCs were used for the second in parallel. Using a solvent system consisting of n-hexane-ethyl acetate-methanol-water (1:4:0.6:4.4, v/v) in the first and second dimension, four compounds including 3-hydroxy-phlorizin (1), phloretin (2), avicularin (3) and kaempferol 3-O-β-D-glucoside (4) were obtained. The purities of these four compounds were all over 95.0% as determined by HPLC. And their structures were all identified through UV, MS and (1)H NMR. It has been demonstrated that the combination of off-line 2D HSCCC with recycling elution mode is an efficient technique to isolate compounds with similar polarities in natural products. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Hepatoprotective effect against CCl4-induced acute liver damage in mice and High-performance liquid chromatography mass spectrometric method for analysis of the constituents of extract of Rubus crataegifolius.


    Sun, Yongjiao; Jia, Lingyun; Huang, Zhanbo; Wang, Jing; Lu, Jincai; Li, Jing


    This study is an attempt to evaluate the hepatoprotective activity of Rubus Crataegifolius against carbon tetrachloride-induced liver injury in mice. 70% ethanolic, ethyl acetate and n-BuOH extract of R. crataegifolius were administered daily for 14 days in experimental animals before they were treated with CCl 4 . The hepatoprotective activity of the extracts in this study was compared with the reference drug silymarin. A high-performance liquid chromatography mass spectrometric (HPLC-EIS-MS/MS) method was developed for the determination of the constituents of the extracts. According to the data of HPLC-EIS-MS/MS, the chemical structures of the largely 14 constituents of R. crataegifolius were identified online without time-consuming isolation. Ethyl acetate extracts of R. crataegifolius showed strong antioxidant activities and significant protective effect against acute hepatotoxicity induced by CCl 4 . According to the data of HPLC-EIS-MS/MS, Oleanic acid, Phlorizin dehydrate and Quercetin-3-rhamnoside are considered as the main hepatoprotective factor in ethyl acetate extract.

  3. The Diverse Forms of Lactose Intolerance and the Putative Linkage to Several Cancers

    PubMed Central

    Amiri, Mahdi; Diekmann, Lena; von Köckritz-Blickwede, Maren; Naim, Hassan Y.


    Lactase-phlorizin hydrolase (LPH) is a membrane glycoprotein and the only β-galactosidase of the brush border membrane of the intestinal epithelium. Besides active transcription, expression of the active LPH requires different maturation steps of the polypeptide through the secretory pathway, including N- and O-glycosylation, dimerization and proteolytic cleavage steps. The inability to digest lactose due to insufficient lactase activity results in gastrointestinal symptoms known as lactose intolerance. In this review, we will concentrate on the structural and functional features of LPH protein and summarize the cellular and molecular mechanism required for its maturation and trafficking. Then, different types of lactose intolerance are discussed, and the molecular aspects of lactase persistence/non-persistence phenotypes are investigated. Finally, we will review the literature focusing on the lactase persistence/non-persistence populations as a comparative model in order to determine the protective or adverse effects of milk and dairy foods on the incidence of colorectal, ovarian and prostate cancers. PMID:26343715

  4. Sodium-Glucose Cotransporter 2 (SGLT2) Inhibitors from Natural Products: Discovery of Next-Generation Antihyperglycemic Agents.


    Choi, Chang-Ik


    Diabetes mellitus is a chronic condition associated with the metabolic impairment of insulin actions, leading to the development of life-threatening complications. Although many kinds of oral antihyperglycemic agents with different therapeutic mechanisms have been marketed, their undesirable adverse effects, such as hypoglycemia, weight gain, and hepato-renal toxicity, have increased demand for the discovery of novel, safer antidiabetic drugs. Since the important roles of the sodium-glucose cotransporter 2 (SGLT2) for glucose homeostasis in the kidney were recently elucidated, pharmacological inhibition of SGLT2 has been considered a promising therapeutic target for the treatment of type 2 diabetes. Since the discovery of the first natural SGLT2 inhibitor, phlorizin, several synthetic glucoside analogs have been developed and introduced into the market. Furthermore, many efforts to find new active constituents with SGLT2 inhibition from natural products are still ongoing. This review introduces the history of research on the development of early-generation SGLT2 inhibitors, and recent progress on the discovery of novel candidates for SGLT2 inhibitor from several natural products that are widely used in traditional herbal medicine.

  5. Development and application of a fluorescent glucose uptake assay for the high-throughput screening of non-glycoside SGLT2 inhibitors.


    Wu, Szu-Huei; Yao, Chun-Hsu; Hsieh, Chieh-Jui; Liu, Yu-Wei; Chao, Yu-Sheng; Song, Jen-Shin; Lee, Jinq-Chyi


    Sodium-dependent glucose co-transporter 2 (SGLT2) inhibitors are of current interest as a treatment for type 2 diabetes. Efforts have been made to discover phlorizin-related glycosides with good SGLT2 inhibitory activity. To increase structural diversity and better understand the role of non-glycoside SGLT2 inhibitors on glycemic control, we initiated a research program to identify non-glycoside hits from high-throughput screening. Here, we report the development of a novel, fluorogenic probe-based glucose uptake system based on a Cu(I)-catalyzed [3+2] cycloaddition. The safer processes and cheaper substances made the developed assay our first priority for large-scale primary screening as compared to the well-known [(14)C]-labeled α-methyl-D-glucopyranoside ([(14)C]-AMG) radioactive assay. This effort culminated in the identification of a benzimidazole, non-glycoside SGLT2 hit with an EC50 value of 0.62 μM by high-throughput screening of 41,000 compounds. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Absorption of resveratrol by vascular endothelial cells through passive diffusion and an SGLT1-mediated pathway.


    Chen, Ming-liang; Yi, Long; Jin, Xin; Xie, Qi; Zhang, Ting; Zhou, Xi; Chang, Hui; Fu, Yu-jie; Zhu, Jun-dong; Zhang, Qian-yong; Mi, Man-tian


    Resveratrol is a natural polyphenol that exerts potent effects to suppress atherosclerosis. However, its low concentration in plasma has placed this role in doubt. Thus, resveratrol effects might be dependent on its transport into vascular endothelium, a question not previously addressed in spite of its obvious and fundamental importance. Via high-performance liquid chromatography and liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry, we found that resveratrol was absorbed by human umbilical vein endothelial cells in a temperature-, concentration- and time-dependent manner, suggesting the involvement of passive diffusion and active transport. As determined by confocal laser scanning microscopy, resveratrol primarily distributed throughout the cytoplasm. Furthermore, resveratrol absorption was modulated by serum proteins and sodium-dependent glucose transporter 1 (SGLT1) yet inhibited by glucose (an SGLT1 substrate) and phlorizin (an SGLT1 selective inhibitor), as well as SGLT1 siRNA transfection. Additionally, Sprague-Dawley rats were intragastrically administrated with 100mg/kg of resveratrol and the concentration of resveratrol in blood vessels declined more slowly up to 24h compared to that in the blood. Our results suggested that resveratrol uptake by vascular endothelial cells involved both passive diffusion and an SGLT1-mediated process, at least partially. Moreover, the intracellular resveratrol pool may be more important than the serum level in vivo. These provide new insights into the cardiovascular benefits of resveratrol. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. A novel local recycling mechanism that enhances enteric bioavailability of flavonoids and prolongs their residence time in the gut.


    Xia, Bijun; Zhou, Qiong; Zheng, Zhijie; Ye, Ling; Hu, Ming; Liu, Zhongqiu


    Recycling in the gastrointestinal tract is important for endogenous substances such as bile acids and for xenobiotics such as flavonoids. Although both enterohepatic and enteric recycling mechanisms are well recognized, no one has discussed the third recycling mechanism for glucuronides: local recycling. The intestinal absorption and metabolism of wogonin and wogonoside (wogonin-7-glucuronide) was characterized by using a four-site perfused rat intestinal model, and hydrolysis of wogonoside was measured in various enzyme preparations. In the perfusion model, the wogonoside and wogonin were interconverted in all four perfused segments. Absorption of wogonoside and conversion to its aglycon at the upper small intestine was inhibited in the presence of a glucuronidase inhibitor (saccharolactone) but was not inhibited by lactase phlorizin hydrolase (LPH) inhibitor gluconolactone or antibiotics. Further investigation indicated that hydrolysis of wogonoside in the blank intestinal perfusate was not correlated with bacterial counts. Kinetic studies indicated that K(m) values from blank duodenal and jejunal perfusate were essentially identical to the K(m) values from intestinal S9 fraction but were much higher (>2-fold) than those from the microbial enzyme extract. Lastly, jejunal perfusate and S9 fraction share the same optimal pH, which was different from those of fecal extract. In conclusion, local recycling of wogonin and wogonoside is the first demonstrated example that this novel mechanism is functional in the upper small intestine without significant contribution from bacteria β-glucuronidase.

  8. Expression of a Dianthus flavonoid glucosyltransferase in Saccharomyces cerevisiae for whole-cell biocatalysis.


    Werner, Sean R; Morgan, John A


    Glycosyltransferases are promising biocatalysts for the synthesis of small molecule glycosides. In this study, Saccharomyces cerevisiae expressing a flavonoid glucosyltransferase (GT) from Dianthus caryophyllus (carnation) was investigated as a whole-cell biocatalyst. Two yeast expression systems were compared using the flavonoid naringenin as a model substrate. Under in vitro conditions, naringenin-7-O-glucoside was formed and a higher specific glucosyl transfer activity was found using a galactose inducible expression system compared to a constitutive expression system. However, S. cerevisiae expressing the GT constitutively was significantly more productive than the galactose inducible system under in vivo conditions. Interestingly, the glycosides were recovered directly from the culture broth and did not accumulate intracellularly. A previously uncharacterized naringenin glycoside formed using the D. caryophyllus GT was identified as naringenin-4'-O-glucoside. It was found that S. cerevisiae cells hydrolyze naringenin-7-O-glucoside during whole-cell biocatalysis, resulting in a low final glycoside titer. When phloretin was added as a substrate to the yeast strain expressing the GT constitutively, the natural product phlorizin was formed. This study demonstrates S. cerevisiae is a promising whole-cell biocatalyst host for the production of valuable glycosides.

  9. Hexose transport by brain slices: further studies on energy dependence

    SciTech Connect

    Kyle-Lillegard, J.; Gold, B.I.


    We studied the uptake of (/sup 3/H)2-deoxyglucose ((/sup 3/H)2DG) by slices of rat cerebral cortex in vitro as a model of glucose transport by brain. Slices were incubated with (/sup 3/H)2DG, or with L-(/sup 3/H)glucose as a marker for diffusion; the difference between (/sup 3/H)2DG uptake and L-(/sup 3/H)glucose uptake was defined as net (/sup 3/H)2DG transport. Net (/sup 3/H)2DG transport was a function of incubation temperature, with an estimated temperature coefficient of 1.87 from 15 degrees C to 25 degrees C. The net uptake of (/sup 3/H)2DG was not inhibited by phlorizin or phloretin in concentrations well above themore » reported Ki of these inhibitors for hexose uptake in other systems. To examine the hypothesis that (/sup 3/H)2DG transport by brain slices is dependent on mitochondrial energy, we studied net (/sup 3/H)2DG uptake by slices which had been preincubated in media designed to alter intracellular ATP stores. The transport process was very sensitive to inhibition by DNP, but the correlation between (/sup 3/H)2DG transport and ATP levels was unclear. In contrast to our published hypothesis that the transport process required mitochondrial energy, these data indicate that dependence on energy is not absolute.« less

  10. Phloretin inhibits interleukin-1β-induced COX-2 and ICAM-1 expression through inhibition of MAPK, Akt, and NF-κB signaling in human lung epithelial cells.


    Huang, Wen-Chung; Wu, Shu-Ju; Tu, Rong-Syuan; Lai, You-Rong; Liou, Chian-Jiun


    Phloretin, a flavonoid isolated from the apple tree, is reported to have anti-inflammatory, anti-oxidant, and anti-adiposity effects. In this study, we evaluated the suppressive effects of phloretin on intercellular adhesion molecule 1 (ICAM-1) and cyclooxygenase (COX)-2 expression in IL-1β-stimulated human lung epithelial A549 cells. The cells were pretreated with various concentrations of phloretin (3-100 μM), followed by induced inflammation by IL-1β. Phloretin inhibited levels of prostaglandin E2, decreased COX-2 expression, and suppressed IL-8, monocyte chemotactic protein 1, and IL-6 production. It also decreased ICAM-1 gene and protein expression and suppressed monocyte adhesion to inflammatory A549 cells. Phloretin also significantly inhibited Akt and mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) phosphorylation and decreased nuclear transcription factor kappa-B (NF-κB) subunit p65 protein translocation into the nucleus. In addition, ICAM-1 and COX-2 expression was suppressed by pretreatment with both MAPK inhibitors and phloretin in inflammatory A549 cells. However, phlorizin, a derivative of phloretin, did not suppress the inflammatory response in IL-1β-stimulated A549 cells. These results suggest that phloretin might have an anti-inflammatory effect by inhibiting proinflammatory cytokine, COX-2, and ICAM-1 expression via blocked NF-κB and MAPK signaling pathways.

  11. Na/sup +/-independent, phloretin-sensitive monosaccharide transport system in isolated intestinal epithelial cells. [Chickens

    SciTech Connect

    Kimmich, G.A.; Randles, J.


    A monosaccharide transport system in addition to the active Na/sup +/-dependent system characteristic of the brush border surface of vertebrate intestinal tissue has been identified in isolated chick intestinal epithelial cells. The newly described system differs in several characteristics from the Na/sup +/-dependent process, including function in the absence of Na/sup +/; a high sensitivity to phloretin, relative insensitivity to phlorizin; different substrate specificity; and a very high K/sub T/ and V/sub max/. The system apparently functions only in a facilitated diffusion manner so that it serves to move monosaccharide across the cell membrane down its chemical gradient. An appreciablemore » fraction of total sugar efflux occurs via the Na/sup +/-independent carrier from cells which have accumulated sugar to a steady state. Phloretin selectively blocks this efflux so that a normal steady-state sugar gradient of seven- to eightfold is transformed to a new steady-state gradient which is greater than 14-fold. Locus of the new system is tentatively ascribed to the serosal cell surface where it would serve for monosaccharide transfer between enterocyte and lamina propria of the villus. (auth)« less

  12. Acute and chronic exposure of rat intestinal mucosa to dextran promotes SGLTI-mediated glucose transport.


    Debnam, E S; Denholm, E E; Grimble, G K


    The intestinal handling of dextran, an alpha-1,6-linked glucose polymer, is poor compared with starch, and some ingested dextran might therefore reach the lower small intestine. As luminal sugar up-regulates SGLT1 (sodium-dependent glucose transporter) locally, we report the effects of a dextran-enriched diet on jejunal and ileal brush border membrane (BBM) glucose uptake. Rats were maintained on a diet containing 65% maltodextrin or 32.5% maltodextrin + 32.5% dextran (10 kD or 40 kD) for 8-10 days, and the kinetics of phlorizin-sensitive [3H]-glucose uptake by purified BBM vesicles was determined. Ingestion of 40-kD but not 10-kD dextran increased Vmax for jejunal and ileal glucose uptake (+64.3% and +61.8% respectively, both P < 0.02). The transport response to 40-kD dextran was in keeping with lower levels of expired H2 at the end of the feeding period. High-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) analysis of luminal contents indicated extensive hydrolysis of ingested dextran. Finally, 3-h jejunal exposure to 40-kD dextran in vivo increased the Vmax for glucose uptake by jejunal BBM. It is likely that increased SGLT1-mediated glucose uptake after short or longer term mucosal exposure to dextran results from luminal dextran per se or a hydrolysis product. The clinical implications of this up-regulation are discussed.

  13. Role of Sphingolipids in Infant Gut Health and Immunity.


    Nilsson, Åke


    Sphingomyelin (SM), glycosphingolipids, and gangliosides are important polar lipids in the milk fat globule membrane but are not found in standard milk replacement formulas. Because digestion and absorption of SM and glycosphingolipids generate the bioactive metabolites ceramide, sphingosine, and sphingosine-1-phosphate (S1P), and because intact gangliosides may have beneficial effects in the gut, this may be important for gut integrity and immune maturation in the neonate. The brush border enzymes that hydrolyze milk SM, alkaline sphingomyelinase (nucleotide phosphodiesterase pyrophosphatase 7), and neutral ceramidase are expressed at birth in both term and preterm infants. Released sphingosine is absorbed, phosphorylated to S1P, and converted to palmitic acid via S1P-lyase in the gut mucosa. Hypothetically, S1P also may be released from absorptive cells and exert important paracrine actions favoring epithelial integrity and renewal, as well as immune function, including secretory IgA production and migration of T lymphocyte subpopulations. Gluco-, galacto-, and lactosylceramide are hydrolyzed to ceramide by lactase-phlorizin hydrolase, which also hydrolyzes lactose. Gangliosides may adhere to the brush border and is internalized, modified, and possibly transported into blood, and may exert protective functions by their interactions with bacteria, bacterial toxins, and the brush border. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. The biphasic effect of extracellular glucose concentration on carbachol-induced fluid secretion from mouse submandibular glands.


    Terachi, Momomi; Hirono, Chikara; Kitagawa, Michinori; Sugita, Makoto


    Cholinergic agonists evoke elevations of the cytoplasmic free-calcium concentration ([Ca 2+ ] i ) to stimulate fluid secretion in salivary glands. Salivary flow rates are significantly reduced in diabetic patients. However, it remains elusive how salivary secretion is impaired in diabetes. Here, we used an ex vivo submandibular gland perfusion technique to characterize the dependency of salivary flow rates on extracellular glucose concentration and activities of glucose transporters expressed in the glands. The cholinergic agonist carbachol (CCh) induced sustained fluid secretion, the rates of which were modulated by the extracellular glucose concentration in a biphasic manner. Both lowering the extracellular glucose concentration to less than 2.5 mM and elevating it to higher than 5 mM resulted in decreased CCh-induced fluid secretion. The CCh-induced salivary flow was suppressed by phlorizin, an inhibitor of the sodium-glucose cotransporter 1 (SGLT1) located basolaterally in submandibular acinar cells, which is altered at the protein expression level in diabetic animal models. Our data suggest that SGLT1-mediated glucose uptake in acinar cells is required to maintain the fluid secretion by sustaining Cl - secretion in real-time. High extracellular glucose levels may suppress the CCh-induced secretion of salivary fluid by altering the activities of ion channels and transporters downstream of [Ca 2+ ] i signals. © 2018 Eur J Oral Sci.

  15. Mobility of ions, sugar, and water in the cytoplasm of Xenopus oocytes expressing Na+-coupled sugar transporters (SGLT1)

    PubMed Central

    Zeuthen, Thomas; Zeuthen, Emil; Klaerke, Dan A


    A model was set up to study water transport in membrane proteins expressed in Xenopus oocytes. The model was tested experimentally using human and rabbit Na+-glucose cotransporters (SGLT1), and was used to explain controversies regarding unstirred layer effects. Cotransport of Na+, sugar and water was monitored by two-electrode voltage clamp and online measurements of oocyte volume. The specific resistance of the oocyte cytoplasm was found by means of microelectrodes to be 263 ± 91 Ω cm (s.d., n = 52), or 2.5 times that of Kulori medium, in agreement with reported values of intracellular ion concentrations and diffusion constants. Osmotically induced volume and resistance changes were compatible with a model of the oocyte in which 37 ± 17 % (s.d., n = 66) of the intracellular volume acts as a free solution while the remainder is inert, being occupied by organelles, etc. The model explains the results of several types of experiments: rapid changes in rates of water cotransport induced by changes in clamp voltage followed by osmotic equilibration in sugar-free conditions; volume changes induced by Na+ transport via the ionophore gramicidin; and uphill water transport. Ethanol (0.5 %) induced a marked swelling of the oocytes of about 16 pl s−1. If the specific inhibitor of SGLT1 phlorizin is added from stock solutions in ethanol, the effect of ethanol obfuscates the effects of the inhibitor. We conclude that the transport parameters derived for water cotransport by the SGLT1 can be attributed to the protein residing in the plasma membrane with no significant influences from unstirred layer effects. PMID:12096052

  16. Molecular Ecological Basis of Grasshopper (Oedaleus asiaticus) Phenotypic Plasticity under Environmental Selection

    PubMed Central

    Qin, Xinghu; Hao, Kun; Ma, Jingchuan; Huang, Xunbing; Tu, Xiongbing; Ali, Md. Panna; Pittendrigh, Barry R.; Cao, Guangchun; Wang, Guangjun; Nong, Xiangqun; Whitman, Douglas W.; Zhang, Zehua


    While ecological adaptation in insects can be reflected by plasticity of phenotype, determining the causes and molecular mechanisms for phenotypic plasticity (PP) remains a crucial and still difficult question in ecology, especially where control of insect pests is involved. Oedaleus asiaticus is one of the most dominant pests in the Inner Mongolia steppe and represents an excellent system to study phenotypic plasticity. To better understand ecological factors affecting grasshopper phenotypic plasticity and its molecular control, we conducted a full transcriptional screening of O. asiaticus grasshoppers reared in four different grassland patches in Inner Mongolia. Grasshoppers showed different degrees of PP associated with unique gene expressions and different habitat plant community compositions. Grasshopper performance variables were susceptible to habitat environment conditions and closely associated with plant architectures. Intriguingly, eco-transcriptome analysis revealed five potential candidate genes playing important roles in grasshopper performance, with gene expression closely relating to PP and plant community factors. By linking the grasshopper performances to gene profiles and ecological factors using canonical regression, we first demonstrated the eco-transcriptomic architecture (ETA) of grasshopper phenotypic traits (ETAGPTs). ETAGPTs revealed plant food type, plant density, coverage, and height were the main ecological factors influencing PP, while insect cuticle protein (ICP), negative elongation factor A (NELFA), and lactase-phlorizin hydrolase (LCT) were the key genes associated with PP. Our study gives a clear picture of gene-environment interaction in the formation and maintenance of PP and enriches our understanding of the transcriptional events underlying molecular control of rapid phenotypic plasticity associated with environmental variability. The findings of this study may also provide new targets for pest control and highlight the

  17. Fine-tuning of the flavonoid and monolignol pathways during apple early fruit development.


    Baldi, Paolo; Moser, Mirko; Brilli, Matteo; Vrhovsek, Urska; Pindo, Massimo; Si-Ammour, Azeddine


    A coordinated regulation of different branches of the flavonoid pathway was highlighted that may contribute to elucidate the role of this important class of compounds during the early stages of apple fruit development. Apple (Malus × domestica Borkh.) is an economically important fruit appreciated for its organoleptic characteristics and its benefits for human health. The first stages after fruit set represent a very important and still poorly characterized developmental process. To enable the profiling of genes involved in apple early fruit development, we combined the suppression subtractive hybridization (SSH) protocol to next-generation sequencing. We identified and characterized genes induced and repressed during fruit development in the apple cultivar 'Golden Delicious'. Our results showed an opposite regulation of genes coding for enzymes belonging to flavonoid and monolignol pathways, with a strong induction of the former and a simultaneous repression of the latter. Two isoforms of phenylalanine ammonia-lyase and 4-coumarate:CoA ligase, key enzymes located at the branching point between flavonoid and monolignol pathways, showed opposite expression patterns during the period in analysis, suggesting a possible regulation mechanism. A targeted metabolomic analysis supported the SSH results and revealed an accumulation of the monomers catechin and epicatechin as well as several forms of procyanidin oligomers in apple fruitlets starting early after anthesis, together with a decreased production of other classes of flavonoids such as some flavonols and the dihydrochalcone phlorizin. Moreover, gene expression and metabolites accumulation of 'Golden Delicious' were compared to a wild apple genotype of Manchurian crabapple (Malus mandshurica (Maxim.) Kom.). Significant differences in both gene expression and metabolites accumulation were found between the two genotypes.

  18. Sodium, phosphate, glucose, bicarbonate, and alanine interactions in the isolated proximal convoluted tubule of the rabbit kidney.


    Dennis, V W; Brazy, P C


    Interactions among the transport systems involved with sodium, bicarbonate, glucose, phosphate, and alanine absorption in isolated segments of the rabbit proximal convoluted tubule were examined with radioisotopic techniques to measure glucose, phosphate, and fluid absorption rates. The composition of the perfusate and bath varied from normal, physiological fluids to fluids deficient in a single solute. The deletion of glucose from the perfusate increased the lumen-to-bath flux of phosphate from 5.51 +/- 1.15 to 8.32 +/- 1.34 pmol/mm-min (P less than 0.01). Similar changes occurred when glucose transport was inhibited by phlorizin 10 micron in the perfusate, The deletion of alanine from the perfusate increased the lumen-to-bath flux of phosphate from 6.55 +/- 1.08 to 9.00 +/- 1.30 pmol/mm-min (P less than 0.01) but did not affect glucose transport significantly, 80.1 +/- 10.1 vs. 72.5 +/- 5.4 pmol/mm-min. Replacement of intraluminal sodium with choline, elimination of potassium from the bath, and removal of bicarbonate from the lumen and bath each reduced glucose, phosphate, and fluid absorption. These data indicate that the proximal absorptive processes for glucose and for phosphate include elements that are dependent upon some function of sodium transport. Additionally, the effects on phosphate transport of deleting glucose or alanine occur independent of any changes in net sodium transport and are opposite the effects of deleting bicarbonate. These differences may relate to the observations that the transport of glucose and alanine is electrogenic while that of bicarbonate is not. Regardless of possible mechanisms, the data demonstrate that important changes in the absorption rates of different solutes handled significantly by the proximal convoluted tubule may occur in response to changes in specific components of proximal sodium transport.

  19. Studies on the lithium transport across the red cell membrane. II. Characterization of ouabain-sensitive and ouabain-insensitive Li+ transport. Effects of bicarbonate and dipyridamole.


    Duhm, J; Becker, B F


    In studies on Li+ net-transport across the human red cell membrane following results were obtained: 1. In K+- and Na+-free choline chloride media, Li+ is transported into the erythrocytes against an electrochemical gradient. This Li+ uphill transport as well as Li+ downhill transport into the cells is inhibited by ouabain, ATP-depletion, and by external K+ and Na+. The effects of K+ and Na+ are relieved at high Li+ concentrations. 2. Ouabain-sensitive Li+ uptake, determined at 10 mM external Na+, does not obey simple Michaelis-Menten kinetics and exhibits a maximum at about pH 7. 3. Ouabain-resistant Li+ downhill transport into erythrocytes increases with rising pH. It is comprised of a saturating component and a component linearly dependent on external Li+. The linear component is partly inhibited by dipyridamole and accelerated by bicarbonate. The bicarbonate effect can be completely blocked by dipyridamole, phlorizin and phenylbutazone. 4. Li+ release is not inhibited by ouabain, ATP-depletion and external K+. It increases with external Na+ concentration, tending to saturate at 150 mM Na+. Na+-independent Li+ release is stimulated by bicarbonate. It is concluded that ouabain-sensitive Li+ uptake is mediated at the K+-site(s) of the Na+-K+ pump. Li+, K+ and Na+ appear to compete for a common site (or sites). The stimulation of Li+ transfer by bicarbonate and the inhibition by dipyridamole suggest a participation of anionic species in ouabain-resistant Li+ transfer. The Na+-dependent Li+ release and the "saturating component" of Li+ uptake are ascribed to the Na+-dependent Li+ countertransport system.

  20. Sodium, phosphate, glucose, bicarbonate, and alanine interactions in the isolated proximal convoluted tubule of the rabbit kidney.

    PubMed Central

    Dennis, V W; Brazy, P C


    Interactions among the transport systems involved with sodium, bicarbonate, glucose, phosphate, and alanine absorption in isolated segments of the rabbit proximal convoluted tubule were examined with radioisotopic techniques to measure glucose, phosphate, and fluid absorption rates. The composition of the perfusate and bath varied from normal, physiological fluids to fluids deficient in a single solute. The deletion of glucose from the perfusate increased the lumen-to-bath flux of phosphate from 5.51 +/- 1.15 to 8.32 +/- 1.34 pmol/mm-min (P less than 0.01). Similar changes occurred when glucose transport was inhibited by phlorizin 10 micron in the perfusate, The deletion of alanine from the perfusate increased the lumen-to-bath flux of phosphate from 6.55 +/- 1.08 to 9.00 +/- 1.30 pmol/mm-min (P less than 0.01) but did not affect glucose transport significantly, 80.1 +/- 10.1 vs. 72.5 +/- 5.4 pmol/mm-min. Replacement of intraluminal sodium with choline, elimination of potassium from the bath, and removal of bicarbonate from the lumen and bath each reduced glucose, phosphate, and fluid absorption. These data indicate that the proximal absorptive processes for glucose and for phosphate include elements that are dependent upon some function of sodium transport. Additionally, the effects on phosphate transport of deleting glucose or alanine occur independent of any changes in net sodium transport and are opposite the effects of deleting bicarbonate. These differences may relate to the observations that the transport of glucose and alanine is electrogenic while that of bicarbonate is not. Regardless of possible mechanisms, the data demonstrate that important changes in the absorption rates of different solutes handled significantly by the proximal convoluted tubule may occur in response to changes in specific components of proximal sodium transport. PMID:670399

  1. EGFR-SGLT1 interaction does not respond to EGFR modulators, but inhibition of SGLT1 sensitizes prostate cancer cells to EGFR tyrosine kinase inhibitors.


    Ren, Jiangong; Bollu, Lakshmi R; Su, Fei; Gao, Guang; Xu, Lei; Huang, Wei-Chien; Hung, Mien-Chie; Weihua, Zhang


    Overexpression of epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) is associated with poor prognosis in malignant tumors. Sodium/glucose co-transporter 1 (SGLT1) is an active glucose transporter that is overexpressed in many cancers including prostate cancer. Previously, we found that EGFR interacts with and stabilizes SGLT1 in cancer cells. In this study, we determined the micro-domain of EGFR that is required for its interaction with SGLT1 and the effects of activation/inactivation of EGFR on EGFR-SGLT1 interaction, measured the expression of EGFR and SGLT1 in prostate cancer tissues, and tested the effect of inhibition of SGLT1 on the sensitivity of prostate cancer cells to EGFR tyrosine inhibitors. We found that the autophosphorylation region (978-1210 amino acids) of EGFR was required for its sufficient interaction with SGLT1 and that this interaction was independent of EGFR's tyrosine kinase activity. Most importantly, the EGFR-SGLT1 interaction does not respond to EGFR tyrosine kinase modulators (EGF and tyrosine kinase inhibitors). EGFR and SGLT1 co-localized in prostate cancer tissues, and inhibition of SGLT1 by a SGLT1 inhibitor (Phlorizin) sensitized prostate cancer cells to EGFR inhibitors (Gefitinib and Erlotinib). These data suggest that EGFR in cancer cells can exist as either a tyrosine kinase modulator responsive status or an irresponsive status. SGLT1 is a protein involved in EGFR's functions that are irresponsive to EGFR tyrosine kinase inhibitors and, therefore, the EGFR-SGLT1 interaction might be a novel target for prostate cancer therapy. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. This article is a U.S. Government work and is in the public domain in the USA.

  2. Ancient DNA Analysis Reveals High Frequency of European Lactase Persistence Allele (T-13910) in Medieval Central Europe

    PubMed Central

    Akgül, Gülfirde; Della Casa, Philippe; Rühli, Frank; Warinner, Christina


    Ruminant milk and dairy products are important food resources in many European, African, and Middle Eastern societies. These regions are also associated with derived genetic variants for lactase persistence. In mammals, lactase, the enzyme that hydrolyzes the milk sugar lactose, is normally down-regulated after weaning, but at least five human populations around the world have independently evolved mutations regulating the expression of the lactase-phlorizin-hydrolase gene. These mutations result in a dominant lactase persistence phenotype and continued lactase tolerance in adulthood. A single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) at C/T-13910 is responsible for most lactase persistence in European populations, but when and where the T-13910 polymorphism originated and the evolutionary processes by which it rose to high frequency in Europe have been the subject of strong debate. A history of dairying is presumed to be a prerequisite, but archaeological evidence is lacking. In this study, DNA was extracted from the dentine of 36 individuals excavated at a medieval cemetery in Dalheim, Germany. Eighteen individuals were successfully genotyped for the C/T-13910 SNP by molecular cloning and sequencing, of which 13 (72%) exhibited a European lactase persistence genotype: 44% CT, 28% TT. Previous ancient DNA-based studies found that lactase persistence genotypes fall below detection levels in most regions of Neolithic Europe. Our research shows that by AD 1200, lactase persistence frequency had risen to over 70% in this community in western Central Europe. Given that lactase persistence genotype frequency in present-day Germany and Austria is estimated at 71–80%, our results suggest that genetic lactase persistence likely reached modern levels before the historic population declines associated with the Black Death, thus excluding plague-associated evolutionary forces in the rise of lactase persistence in this region. This new evidence sheds light on the dynamic evolutionary

  3. Docosahexaenoic acid ester of phloridzin inhibit lipopolysaccharide-induced inflammation in THP-1 differentiated macrophages.


    Sekhon-Loodu, Satvir; Ziaullah; Rupasinghe, H P Vasantha


    Phloridzin or phlorizin (PZ) is a predominant phenolic compound found in apple and also used in various natural health products. Phloridzin shows poor absorption and cellular uptake due to its hydrophilic nature. The aim was to investigate and compare the effect of docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) ester of PZ (PZ-DHA) and its parent compounds (phloridzin and DHA), phloretin (the aglycone of PZ) and cyclooxygenase inhibitory drugs (diclofenac and nimesulide) on production of pro-inflammatory biomarkers in inflammation-induced macrophages by lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulation. Human THP-1 monocytes were seeded in 24-well plates (5×10(5)/well) and treated with phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate (PMA, 0.1μg/mL) for 48h to induce macrophage differentiation. After 48h, the differentiated macrophages were washed with Hank's buffer and treated with various concentrations of test compounds for 4h, followed by the LPS-stimulation (18h). Pre-exposure of PZ-DHA ester was more effective in reducing tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α), interleukin-6 (IL-6) and cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) protein levels compared to DHA and nimesulide. However, diclofenac was the most effective in reducing prostaglandin (PGE2) level by depicting a dose-dependent response. However, PZ-DHA ester and DHA were the most effective in inhibiting the activation of nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-κB) among other test compounds. Our results suggest that PZ-DHA ester might possess potential therapeutic activity to treat inflammation related disorders such as type 2 diabetes, asthma, atherosclerosis and inflammatory bowel disease. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Genetic predisposition for adult lactose intolerance and relation to diet, bone density, and bone fractures.


    Obermayer-Pietsch, Barbara M; Bonelli, Christine M; Walter, Daniela E; Kuhn, Regina J; Fahrleitner-Pammer, Astrid; Berghold, Andrea; Goessler, Walter; Stepan, Vinzenz; Dobnig, Harald; Leb, Georg; Renner, Wilfried


    Evidence that genetic disposition for adult lactose intolerance significantly affects calcium intake, bone density, and fractures in postmenopausal women is presented. PCR-based genotyping of lactase gene polymorphisms may complement diagnostic procedures to identify persons at risk for both lactose malabsorption and osteoporosis. Lactase deficiency is a common autosomal recessive condition resulting in decreased intestinal lactose degradation. A -13910 T/C dimorphism (LCT) near the lactase phlorizin hydrolase gene, reported to be strongly associated with adult lactase nonpersistence, may have an impact on calcium supply, bone density, and osteoporotic fractures in the elderly. We determined LCT genotypes TT, TC, and CC in 258 postmenopausal women using a polymerase chain reaction-based assay. Genotypes were related to milk intolerance, nutritional calcium intake, intestinal calcium absorption, bone mineral density (BMD), and nonvertebral fractures. Twenty-four percent of all women were found to have CC genotypes and genetic lactase deficiency. Age-adjusted BMD at the hip in CC genotypes and at the spine in CC and TC genotypes was reduced by -7% to -11% depending on the site measured (p = 0.04). LCT(T/C-13910) polymorphisms alone accounted for 2-4% of BMD in a multiple regression model. Bone fracture incidence was significantly associated with CC genotypes (p = 0.001). Milk calcium intake was significantly lower (-55%, p = 0.004) and aversion to milk consumption was significantly higher (+166%, p = 0.01) in women with the CC genotype, but there were no differences in overall dietary calcium intake or in intestinal calcium absorption test values. The LCT(T/C-13910) polymorphism is associated with subjective milk intolerance, reduced milk calcium intake, and reduced BMD at the hip and the lumbar spine and may predispose to bone fractures. Genetic testing for lactase deficiency may complement indirect methods in the detection of individuals at risk for both lactose

  5. Prevention of duodenal ileus reveals functional differences in the duodenal response to luminal hypertonicity in Sprague-Dawley and Dark Agouti rats.


    Sedin, J; Sjöblom, M; Nylander, O


    The mechanism by which the duodenum adjusts the luminal osmolality remains unclear. The aim was to compare the duodenal osmoregulation in response to different hyperosmolar solutions in Sprague-Dawley and Dark Agouti rats and to elucidate whether cyclooxygenase-2 inhibition affects these responses. The duodenum was perfused in situ with a 700-milliosmolar solution (NaCl alone, D-glucose ± NaCl, D-mannitol ± NaCl or orange juice), and the effects on the duodenal motility, mucosal permeability, luminal alkalinization, fluid flux and osmoregulation were assessed in anaesthetized rats. The change in net fluid flux and luminal osmolality, in response to a given hyperosmolar solution, was almost identical in control rats of both strains. In control rats, hypertonic D-glucose-NaCl induced fluid secretion only in the presence of phlorizin, an inhibitor of SGLT1. Cyclooxygenase-2 inhibition potentiated the hypertonicity-induced fluid secretion and increased the osmolality-adjusting capability in both strains, but the responses were greater in Dark Agouti rats. While cyclooxygenase-2-inhibited Dark Agouti rats responded to the hyperosmolar solutions with depression of motility and increased mucosal permeability, these effects were absent or smaller in the Sprague-Dawley strain. In contrast, orange juice induced the same duodenal responses in cyclooxygenase-2-inhibited Dark Agouti and Sprague-Dawley rats. The duodenum possesses the ability to absorb fluid despite a very high luminal osmolality. Inhibition of cyclooxygenase-2 markedly enhanced the capability of the duodenum to secrete fluid and to decrease luminal osmolality, irrespective of the hyperosmolar solution or the rat strain used, and revealed notable differences between the two strains with regard to their osmolality-adjusting capability. © 2013 Scandinavian Physiological Society. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  6. Genetic Origins of Lactase Persistence and the Spread of Pastoralism in Africa

    PubMed Central

    Ranciaro, Alessia; Campbell, Michael C.; Hirbo, Jibril B.; Ko, Wen-Ya; Froment, Alain; Anagnostou, Paolo; Kotze, Maritha J.; Ibrahim, Muntaser; Nyambo, Thomas; Omar, Sabah A.; Tishkoff, Sarah A.


    In humans, the ability to digest lactose, the sugar in milk, declines after weaning because of decreasing levels of the enzyme lactase-phlorizin hydrolase, encoded by LCT. However, some individuals maintain high enzyme amounts and are able to digest lactose into adulthood (i.e., they have the lactase-persistence [LP] trait). It is thought that selection has played a major role in maintaining this genetically determined phenotypic trait in different human populations that practice pastoralism. To identify variants associated with the LP trait and to study its evolutionary history in Africa, we sequenced MCM6 introns 9 and 13 and ∼2 kb of the LCT promoter region in 819 individuals from 63 African populations and in 154 non-Africans from nine populations. We also genotyped four microsatellites in an ∼198 kb region in a subset of 252 individuals to reconstruct the origin and spread of LP-associated variants in Africa. Additionally, we examined the association between LP and genetic variability at candidate regulatory regions in 513 individuals from eastern Africa. Our analyses confirmed the association between the LP trait and three common variants in intron 13 (C-14010, G-13907, and G-13915). Furthermore, we identified two additional LP-associated SNPs in intron 13 and the promoter region (G-12962 and T-956, respectively). Using neutrality tests based on the allele frequency spectrum and long-range linkage disequilibrium, we detected strong signatures of recent positive selection in eastern African populations and the Fulani from central Africa. In addition, haplotype analysis supported an eastern African origin of the C-14010 LP-associated mutation in southern Africa. PMID:24630847

  7. Cl sup minus -HCO sub 3 sup minus exchange is present with Na sup + -K sup + -Cl sup minus cotransport in rabbit parotid acinar basolateral membranes

    SciTech Connect

    Turner, R.J.; George, J.N.


    The presence of a sodium-independent electroneutral Cl{sup {minus}}-anion exchanger in a basolateral membrane vesicle preparation from the rabbit parotid is demonstrated. This exchanger is shared by HCO{sub 3}{sup {minus}}, NO{sub 3}{sup {minus}}, Br{sup {minus}}, F{sup {minus}}, and formate, but not by thiocyanate, acetate, methylsulfate, gluconate, or hydroxyl ions. In order of relative potency, the exchanger is inhibited by SITS {ge} phloretin > furosemide > bumetanide {ge} phlorizin. A Na{sup +}-K{sup +}-dependent component of chloride flux, presumably due to the Na{sup +}-K{sup +}-Cl{sup {minus}} cotransporter already characterized in this preparation, was also observed. {sup 36}Cl uptake into vesicles loaded with KClmore » exhibited an overshoot of intravesicular ({sup 36}Cl) due to {sup 36}Cl-Cl exchange. However, when vesicles were loaded with both KCl and NaCl the height of the overshoot was considerably decreased indicating a Na{sup +}-K{sup +}-dependent dissipation of the intravesicular to extravesicular chloride gradient. This experiment provides strong evidence that the Na{sup +}-K{sup +}Cl{sup {minus}} cotransporter and the Cl{sup {minus}} HCO{sub 3}{sup {minus}} exchange are present in the same membrane vesicles. These results indicate that Cl{sup {minus}}-HCO{sub 3}{sup {minus}} exchange is present in the basolateral membrane of parotid acinar cells and thus that this transporter may play a significant role in salivary secretion.« less

  8. Quercetin, Morin, Luteolin, and Phloretin Are Dietary Flavonoid Inhibitors of Monocarboxylate Transporter 6.


    Jones, Robert S; Parker, Mark D; Morris, Marilyn E


    Monocarboxylate transporter 6 (MCT6; SLC16A5) has been recognized for its role as a xenobiotic transporter, with characterized substrates probenecid, bumetanide, and nateglinide. To date, the impact of commonly ingested dietary compounds on MCT6 function has not been investigated, and therefore, the objective of this study was to evaluate a variety of flavonoids for their potential MCT6-specific interactions. Flavonoids are a large group of polyphenolic phytochemicals found in commonly consumed plant-based products that have been recognized for their dietary health benefits. The uptake of bumetanide in human MCT6 gene-transfected Xenopus laevis oocytes was significantly decreased in the presence of a variety of flavonoids (e.g., quercetin, luteolin, phloretin, and morin), but was not significantly affected by flavonoid glycosides (e.g., naringin, rutin, phlorizin). The IC 50 values of quercetin, phloretin, and morin were determined to be 25.3 ± 3.36, 17.3 ± 2.37, and 33.1 ± 3.29 μM, respectively. The mechanism of inhibition of phloretin was reversible and competitive, with a K i value of 22.8 μM. Furthermore, typical MCT substrates were also investigated for their potential interactions with MCT6. Substrates of MCTs 1, 2, 4, 8, and 10 did not cause any significant decrease in MCT6-mediated bumetanide uptake, suggesting that MCT6 has distinct compound selectivity. In summary, these results suggest that dietary aglycon flavonoids may significantly alter the pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of bumetanide and other MCT6-specific substrates, and may represent potential substrates for MCT6.

  9. Evidence that forskolin binds to the glucose transporter of human erythrocytes

    SciTech Connect

    Lavis, V.R.; Lee, D.P.; Shenolikar, S.


    Binding of (4-/sup 3/H)cytochalasin B and (12-/sup 3/H)forskolin to human erythrocyte membranes was measured by a centrifugation method. Glucose-displaceable binding of cytochalasin B was saturable, with KD = 0.11 microM, and maximum binding approximately 550 pmol/mg of protein. Forskolin inhibited the glucose-displaceable binding of cytochalasin B in an apparently competitive manner, with K1 = 3 microM. Glucose-displaceable binding of (12-/sup 3/H)forskolin was also saturable, with KD = 2.6 microM and maximum binding approximately equal to 400 pmol/mg of protein. The following compounds inhibited binding of (12-/sup 3/H)forskolin and (4-/sup 3/H)cytochalasin B equivalently, with relative potencies parallel to their reported affinitiesmore » for the glucose transport system: cytochalasins A and D, dihydrocytochalasin B, L-rhamnose, L-glucose, D-galactose, D-mannose, D-glucose, 2-deoxy-D-glucose, 3-O-methyl-D-glucose, phloretin, and phlorizin. A water-soluble derivative of forskolin, 7-hemisuccinyl-7-desacetylforskolin, displaced equivalent amounts of (4-/sup 3/H)cytochalasin B or (12-/sup 3/H)forskolin. Rabbit erythrocyte membranes, which are deficient in glucose transporter, did not bind either (4-/sup 3/H)cytochalasin B or (12-/sup 3/H)forskolin in a glucose-displaceable manner. These results indicate that forskolin, in concentrations routinely employed for stimulation of adenylate cyclase, binds to the glucose transporter. Endogenous ligands with similar specificities could be important modulators of cellular metabolism.« less

  10. Na(+)-D-glucose cotransporter in the kidney of Squalus acanthias: molecular identification and intrarenal distribution.


    Althoff, Thorsten; Hentschel, Hartmut; Luig, Jutta; Schütz, Hendrike; Kasch, Myriam; Kinne, Rolf K-H


    Using primers against conserved regions of mammalian Na(+)-d-glucose cotransporters (SGLT), a cDNA was cloned from the kidney of spiny dogfish shark (Squalus acanthias). On the basis of comparison of amino acid sequence, membrane topology, and putative glycosylation and phosphorylation sites, the cDNA could be shown to belong to the family of sglt genes. Indeed, Na(+)-dependent d-glucose uptake could be demonstrated after expression of the gene in Xenopus laevis oocytes. In a dendrogram, the SGLT from shark kidney has a high homology to the mammalian SGLT2. Computer analysis revealed that the elasmobranch protein is most similar to the mammalian proteins in the transmembrane regions and contains already all the amino acids identified to be functionally important, suggesting early conservation during evolution. Extramembraneous loops show larger variations. This holds especially for loop 13, which has been implied as a phlorizin-binding domain. Antibodies were generated and the intrarenal distribution of the SGLT was studied in cryosections. In parallel, the nephron segments were identified by lectins. Positive immunoreactions were found in the proximal tubule in the early parts PIa and PIb and the late segment PIIb. The large PIIa segment of the proximal tubule showed no reaction. In contrast to the mammalian kidney also the late distal tubule, the collecting tubule, and the collecting duct showed immunoreactivity. The molecular information confirms previous vesicle studies in which a low affinity SGLT with a low stoichiometry has been observed and supports the notion of a similarity of the shark kidney SGLT to the mammalian SGLT2. Despite its presence in the late parts of the nephron, the absence of SGLT in the major part of the proximal tubule, the relatively low affinity, and in particular the low stoichiometry might explain the lack of a T(m) for d-glucose in the shark kidney.

  11. Development of a novel non-radioactive cell-based method for the screening of SGLT1 and SGLT2 inhibitors using 1-NBDG.


    Chang, Hung-Chi; Yang, Su-Fu; Huang, Ching-Chun; Lin, Tzung-Sheng; Liang, Pi-Hui; Lin, Chun-Jung; Hsu, Lih-Ching


    Sodium-coupled glucose co-transporters SGLT1 and SGLT2 play important roles in intestinal absorption and renal reabsorption of glucose, respectively. Blocking SGLT2 is a novel mechanism for lowering the blood glucose level by inhibiting renal glucose reabsorption and selective SGLT2 inhibitors are under development for treatment of type 2 diabetes. Furthermore, it has been reported that perturbation of SGLT1 is associated with cardiomyopathy and cancer. Therefore, both SGLT1 and SGLT2 are potential therapeutic targets. Here we report the development of a non-radioactive cell-based method for the screening of SGLT inhibitors using COS-7 cells transiently expressing human SGLT1 (hSGLT1), CHO-K1 cells stably expressing human SGLT2 (hSGLT2), and a novel fluorescent d-glucose analogue 1-NBDG as a substrate. Our data indicate that 1-NBDG can be a good replacement for the currently used isotope-labeled SGLT substrate, (14)C-AMG. The Michaelis constant of 1-NBDG transport (0.55 mM) is similar to that of d-glucose (0.51 mM) and AMG (0.40 mM) transport through hSGLT1. The IC50 values of a SGLT inhibitor phlorizin for hSGLT1 obtained using 1-NBDG and (14)C-AMG were identical (0.11 μM) in our cell-based system. The IC50 values of dapagliflozin, a well-known selective SGLT2 inhibitor, for hSGLT2 and hSGLT1 determined using 1-NBDG were 1.86 nM and 880 nM, respectively, which are comparable to the published results obtained using (14)C-AMG. Compared to (14)C-AMG, the use of 1-NBDG is cost-effective, convenient and potentially more sensitive. Taken together, a non-radioactive system using 1-NBDG has been validated as a rapid and reliable method for the screening of SGLT1 and SGLT2 inhibitors.

  12. Comprehensive Enzymatic Analysis of the Cellulolytic System in Digestive Fluid of the Sea Hare Aplysia kurodai. Efficient Glucose Release from Sea Lettuce by Synergistic Action of 45 kDa Endoglucanase and 210 kDa ß-Glucosidase

    PubMed Central

    Tsuji, Akihiko; Tominaga, Keiko; Nishiyama, Nami; Yuasa, Keizo


    Although many endo-ß-1,4-glucanases have been isolated in invertebrates, their cellulolytic systems are not fully understood. In particular, gastropod feeding on seaweed is considered an excellent model system for production of bioethanol and renewable bioenergy from third-generation feedstocks (microalgae and seaweeds). In this study, enzymes involved in the conversion of cellulose and other polysaccharides to glucose in digestive fluids of the sea hare (Aplysia kurodai) were screened and characterized to determine how the sea hare obtains glucose from sea lettuce (Ulva pertusa). Four endo-ß-1,4-glucanases (21K, 45K, 65K, and 95K cellulase) and 2 ß-glucosidases (110K and 210K) were purified to a homogeneous state, and the synergistic action of these enzymes during cellulose digestion was analyzed. All cellulases exhibited cellulase and lichenase activities and showed distinct cleavage specificities against cellooligosaccharides and filter paper. Filter paper was digested to cellobiose, cellotriose, and cellotetraose by 21K cellulase, whereas 45K and 65K enzymes hydrolyzed the filter paper to cellobiose and glucose. 210K ß-glucosidase showed unique substrate specificity against synthetic and natural substrates, and 4-methylumbelliferyl (4MU)-ß-glucoside, 4MU–ß-galactoside, cello-oligosaccharides, laminarin, and lichenan were suitable substrates. Furthermore, 210K ß-glucosidase possesses lactase activity. Although ß-glucosidase and cellulase are necessary for efficient hydrolysis of carboxymethylcellulose to glucose, laminarin is hydrolyzed to glucose only by 210K ß-glucosidase. Kinetic analysis of the inhibition of 210K ß-glucosidase by D-glucono-1,5-lactone suggested the presence of 2 active sites similar to those of mammalian lactase-phlorizin hydrolase. Saccharification of sea lettuce was considerably stimulated by the synergistic action of 45K cellulase and 210K ß-glucosidase. Our results indicate that 45K cellulase and 210K ß-glucosidase are the

  13. Experimental type II diabetes and related models of impaired glucose metabolism differentially regulate glucose transporters at the proximal tubule brush border membrane.


    Chichger, Havovi; Cleasby, Mark E; Srai, Surjit K; Unwin, Robert J; Debnam, Edward S; Marks, Joanne


    What is the central question of this study? Although SGLT2 inhibitors represent a promising treatment for patients suffering from diabetic nephropathy, the influence of metabolic disruption on the expression and function of glucose transporters is largely unknown. What is the main finding and its importance? In vivo models of metabolic disruption (Goto-Kakizaki type II diabetic rat and junk-food diet) demonstrate increased expression of SGLT1, SGLT2 and GLUT2 in the proximal tubule brush border. In the type II diabetic model, this is accompanied by increased SGLT- and GLUT-mediated glucose uptake. A fasted model of metabolic disruption (high-fat diet) demonstrated increased GLUT2 expression only. The differential alterations of glucose transporters in response to varying metabolic stress offer insight into the therapeutic value of inhibitors. SGLT2 inhibitors are now in clinical use to reduce hyperglycaemia in type II diabetes. However, renal glucose reabsorption across the brush border membrane (BBM) is not completely understood in diabetes. Increased consumption of a Western diet is strongly linked to type II diabetes. This study aimed to investigate the adaptations that occur in renal glucose transporters in response to experimental models of diet-induced insulin resistance. The study used Goto-Kakizaki type II diabetic rats and normal rats rendered insulin resistant using junk-food or high-fat diets. Levels of protein kinase C-βI (PKC-βI), GLUT2, SGLT1 and SGLT2 were determined by Western blotting of purified renal BBM. GLUT- and SGLT-mediated d-[(3) H]glucose uptake by BBM vesicles was measured in the presence and absence of the SGLT inhibitor phlorizin. GLUT- and SGLT-mediated glucose transport was elevated in type II diabetic rats, accompanied by increased expression of GLUT2, its upstream regulator PKC-βI and SGLT1 protein. Junk-food and high-fat diet feeding also caused higher membrane expression of GLUT2 and its upstream regulator PKC

  14. Inhibitors of GLUT/SLC2A Enhance the Action of BCNU and Temozolomide against High-Grade Gliomas.


    Azzalin, Alberto; Nato, Giulia; Parmigiani, Elena; Garello, Francesca; Buffo, Annalisa; Magrassi, Lorenzo


    Glucose transport across glioblastoma membranes plays a crucial role in maintaining the enhanced glycolysis typical of high-grade gliomas and glioblastoma. We tested the ability of two inhibitors of the glucose transporters GLUT/SLC2A superfamily, indinavir (IDV) and ritonavir (RTV), and of one inhibitor of the Na/glucose antiporter type 2 (SGLT2/SLC5A2) superfamily, phlorizin (PHZ), in decreasing glucose consumption and cell proliferation of human and murine glioblastoma cells. We found in vitro that RTV, active on at least three different GLUT/SLC2A transporters, was more effective than IDV, a specific inhibitor of GLUT4/SLC2A4, both in decreasing glucose consumption and lactate production and in inhibiting growth of U87MG and Hu197 human glioblastoma cell lines and primary cultures of human glioblastoma. PHZ was inactive on the same cells. Similar results were obtained when cells were grown in adherence or as 3D multicellular tumor spheroids. RTV treatment but not IDV treatment induced AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPKα) phosphorylation that paralleled the decrease in glycolytic activity and cell growth. IDV, but not RTV, induced an increase in GLUT1/SLC2A1 whose activity could compensate for the inhibition of GLUT4/SLC2A4 by IDV. RTV and IDV pass poorly the blood brain barrier and are unlikely to reach sufficient liquoral concentrations in vivo to inhibit glioblastoma growth as single agents. Isobologram analysis of the association of RTV or IDV and 1,3-bis(2-chloroethyl)-1-nitrosourea (BCNU) or 4-methyl-5-oxo-2,3,4,6,8-pentazabicyclo[4.3.0]nona-2,7,9-triene-9-carboxamide (TMZ) indicated synergy only with RTV on inhibition of glioblastoma cells. Finally, we tested in vivo the combination of RTV and BCNU on established GL261 tumors. This drug combination increased the overall survival and allowed a five-fold reduction in the dose of BCNU. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.