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Sample records for phoenix landins site

  1. Phoenix Test Sample Site

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2008-01-01

    This image, acquired by NASA's Phoenix Mars Lander's Surface Stereo Imager on Sol 7, the seventh day of the mission (June 1, 2008), shows the so-called 'Knave of Hearts' first-dig test area to the north of the lander. The Robotic Arm's scraping blade left a small horizontal depression above where the sample was taken.

    Scientists speculate that white material in the depression left by the dig could represent ice or salts that precipitated into the soil. This material is likely the same white material observed in the sample in the Robotic Arm's scoop.

    The Phoenix Mission is led by the University of Arizona, Tucson, on behalf of NASA. Project management of the mission is by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif. Spacecraft development is by Lockheed Martin Space Systems, Denver.

  2. Chlorine Salts at the Phoenix Landing Site

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hanley, J.; Horgan, B.

    2016-09-01

    Although chlorine salts (perchlorates, chlorides) are known to exist at the Phoenix landing site, their distribution and type have not been positively identified yet. We look for these salts through a novel NIR remote sensing technique.

  3. Phoenix Landing Site Indicated on Global View

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2008-01-01

    NASA's Phoenix Mars Mission landed at 68.2 degrees north latitude, 234.2 degrees east longitude. The far-northern location of the site is indicated on this global view from the Mars Orbiter Camera on NASA's Mars Global Surveyor.

    The Phoenix Mission is led by the University of Arizona, Tucson, on behalf of NASA. Project management of the mission is by JPL, Pasadena, Calif. Spacecraft development was by Lockheed Martin Space Systems, Denver.

  4. Sulfur Mineralogy at the Mars Phoenix Landing Site

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ming, Douglas W.; Morris, R.V.; Golden, D.C.; Sutter, B.; Clark, B.C.; Boynton, W.V.; Hecht, M.H.; Kounaves, S.P.

    2009-01-01

    The Mars Phoenix Scout mission landed at the northernmost location (approx.68deg N) of any lander or rover on the martian surface. This paper compares the S mineralogy at the Phoenix landing site with S mineralogy of soils studied by previous Mars landers. S-bearing phases were not directly detected by the payload onboard the Phoenix spacecraft. Our objective is to derive the possible mineralogy of S-bearing phases at the Phoenix landing site based upon Phoenix measurements in combination with orbital measurements, terrestrial analog and Martian meteorite studies, and telescopic observations.

  5. Stereo View of Phoenix Test Sample Site

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2008-01-01

    This anaglyph image, acquired by NASA's Phoenix Lander's Surface Stereo Imager on Sol 7, the seventh day of the mission (June 1, 2008), shows a stereoscopic 3D view of the so-called 'Knave of Hearts' first-dig test area to the north of the lander. The Robotic Arm's scraping blade left a small horizontal depression above where the sample was taken.

    Scientists speculate that white material in the depression left by the dig could represent ice or salts that precipitated into the soil. This material is likely the same white material observed in the sample in the Robotic Arm's scoop.

    The Phoenix Mission is led by the University of Arizona, Tucson, on behalf of NASA. Project management of the mission is by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif. Spacecraft development is by Lockheed Martin Space Systems, Denver.

  6. Phoenix Test Sample Site in Color

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2008-01-01

    This color image, acquired by NASA's Phoenix Mars Lander's Surface Stereo Imager on Sol 7, the seventh day of the mission (June 1, 2008), shows the so-called 'Knave of Hearts' first-dig test area to the north of the lander. The Robotic Arm's scraping blade left a small horizontal depression above where the sample was taken.

    Scientists speculate that white material in the depression left by the dig could represent ice or salts that precipitated into the soil. This material is likely the same white material observed in the sample in the Robotic Arm's scoop.

    The Phoenix Mission is led by the University of Arizona, Tucson, on behalf of NASA. Project management of the mission is by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif. Spacecraft development is by Lockheed Martin Space Systems, Denver.

  7. Initial CRISM Observations of the Candidate 2007 Phoenix Landing Sites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seelos, K. D.; Murchie, S.; Arvidson, R. E.; Seelos, F. P.

    2006-12-01

    The Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter (MRO) Compact Reconnaissance Imaging Spectrometer for Mars (CRISM) will acquire multispectral and targeted hyperspectral visible and near infrared data of the candidate Phoenix landing sites during the first few months of primary mission operations (beginning early November). Three 150 x 75 km candidate Phoenix landing sites are located in the high northern plains of Mars within a region from 65-72° N and 120-140° E. Geomorphologic characterization of this region indicates a relatively homogeneous terrain primarily composed of multiple kilometer-scale polygonal plains with superposed degraded craters. At decameter spatial scales, the area is ubiquitously covered by patterned ground in the form of basketball terrain, stripes, and small polygons. Spectral variation of these different types of landforms and materials that are detected by CRISM at 100- or 200-meter scales (multispectral) or ~20-meter scales (targeted hyperspectral) will be analyzed and initial results presented. Implications for Phoenix landing site selection and in situ measurements will also be discussed. CRISM observations along with other MRO data will be critical to the selection of the final landing site prior to launch in August of 2007.

  8. Solar Panel Buffeted by Wind at Phoenix Site

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2008-01-01

    Winds were strong enough to cause about a half a centimeter (.19 inch) of motion of a solar panel on NASA's Phoenix Mars lander when the lander's Surface Stereo Imager took this picture on Aug. 31, 2008, during the 96th Martian day since landing.

    The lander's telltale wind gauge has been indicating wind speeds of about 4 meters per second (9 miles per hour) during late mornings at the site.

    These conditions were anticipated and the wind is not expected to do any harm to the lander.

    The Phoenix Mission is led by the University of Arizona, Tucson, on behalf of NASA. Project management of the mission is by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif. Spacecraft development is by Lockheed Martin Space Systems, Denver.

  9. Evidence for calcium carbonate at the Mars Phoenix landing site.

    PubMed

    Boynton, W V; Ming, D W; Kounaves, S P; Young, S M M; Arvidson, R E; Hecht, M H; Hoffman, J; Niles, P B; Hamara, D K; Quinn, R C; Smith, P H; Sutter, B; Catling, D C; Morris, R V

    2009-07-03

    Carbonates are generally products of aqueous processes and may hold important clues about the history of liquid water on the surface of Mars. Calcium carbonate (approximately 3 to 5 weight percent) has been identified in the soils around the Phoenix landing site by scanning calorimetry showing an endothermic transition beginning around 725 degrees C accompanied by evolution of carbon dioxide and by the ability of the soil to buffer pH against acid addition. Based on empirical kinetics, the amount of calcium carbonate is most consistent with formation in the past by the interaction of atmospheric carbon dioxide with liquid water films on particle surfaces.

  10. Martian Sunrise at Phoenix Landing Site, Sol 101

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2008-01-01

    This sequence of nine images taken by the Surface Stereo Imager on NASA's Phoenix Mars Lander shows the sun rising on the morning of the lander's 101st Martian day after landing.

    The images were taken on Sept. 5, 2008. The local solar times at the landing site for the nine images were between 1:23 a.m. and 1:41 a.m.

    The landing site is on far-northern Mars, and the mission started in late northern spring. For nearly the entire first 90 Martian days of the mission, the sun never set below the horizon. As the amount of sunshine each day declined steadily after that, so has the amount of electricity available for the solar-powered spacecraft.

    The Phoenix Mission is led by the University of Arizona, Tucson, on behalf of NASA. Project management of the mission is by JPL, Pasadena, Calif. Spacecraft development was by Lockheed Martin Space Systems, Denver.

  11. 78 FR 52759 - Expansion of Foreign-Trade Zone 75 Under Alternative Site Framework; Phoenix, Arizona

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-26

    ... ASF to include an additional magnet site, proposed Site 9, within the Phoenix, Arizona U.S. Customs...,000-acre activation limit for the zone, and to a five-year ASF sunset provision for magnet sites...

  12. 77 FR 74457 - Foreign-Trade Zone 75-Phoenix, Arizona Application for Expansion (New Magnet Site) Under...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-12-14

    ... Foreign-Trade Zones Board Foreign-Trade Zone 75--Phoenix, Arizona Application for Expansion (New Magnet...)) to include a new magnet site in Phoenix, Arizona. The application was submitted pursuant to the... following magnet sites: Site 1 (338 acres)--within the 550-acre Phoenix Sky Harbor Center and adjacent...

  13. Ground Ice at the Phoenix Landing Site: A Preflight Assessment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mellon, M. T.; Arvidson, R. E.; Seelos, F.; Tamppari, L. K.; Boynton, W. V.; Smith, P.

    2004-01-01

    One of the objectives of the Mars Scout mission, Phoenix, is to characterize the present state of water in the martian environment, in a location where water may play a significant role in the present and past habitability of Mars. Given the generally dry and cold climate of Mars today any substantial amount of water is expected to occur in the form of ground ice (subsurface ice) within the regolith. The Mars Odyssey Gamma Ray Spectrometer has indicated abundant subsurface hydrogen and inferred ground ice at high latitudes. Therefore, the Phoenix mission will be targeted to land in the northern high latitudes (approximately 65 degrees N - 75 degrees N) where ground ice is expected to be abundantly available for analysis. The lander will be capable of excavating, sampling, and analyzing, dry and water-rich/icy soils. The location and depth of excavation necessary to achieve the goals of sampling and analysis of icy material become important parameters to assess. In the present work we ask two key questions: 1) At what depth within the regolith do we expect to find ice? 2) How might this depth vary over the region of potential landing sites? Numerous lines of evidence can be employed to provide an indication of the presence or absence of shallow ground ice at the potential landing sites. For example geomorphology, neutrons, gamma rays, and theory each contribute clues to an overall understanding of the distribution of ice. Orbital observations provide information on a variety of spatial scales, typically 10 s of meters (patterned ground) to 100 s of kilometers (gamma rays). While information on all of these scales are important, of particular interest is how the presence and depth of ground ice might vary on spatial scales comparable to the lander and its work area. While ground ice may be stable (and present) on a regional scale, local-scale slopes and changes in the physical characteristics of soils can result in significant variations in the distribution of ice.

  14. Mars Exploration Program 2007 Phoenix landing site selection and characteristics

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Arvidson, R.; Adams, D.; Bonfiglio, G.; Christensen, P.; Cull, S.; Golombek, M.; Guinn, J.; Guinness, E.; Heet, T.; Kirk, R.; Knudson, A.; Malin, M.; Mellon, M.; McEwen, A.; Mushkin, A.; Parker, T.; Seelos, F.; Seelos, K.; Smith, P.; Spencer, D.; Stein, T.; Tamppari, L.

    2009-01-01

    To ensure a successful touchdown and subsequent surface operations, the Mars Exploration Program 2007 Phoenix Lander must land within 65?? to 72?? north latitude, at an elevation less than -3.5 km. The landing site must have relatively low wind velocities and rock and slope distributions similar to or more benign than those found at the Viking Lander 2 site. Also, the site must have a soil cover of at least several centimeters over ice or icy soil to meet science objectives of evaluating the environmental and habitability implications of past and current near-polar environments. The most challenging aspects of site selection were the extensive rock fields associated with crater rims and ejecta deposits and the centers of polygons associated with patterned ground. An extensive acquisition campaign of Odyssey Thermal Emission Imaging Spectrometer predawn thermal IR images, together with ???0.31 m/pixel Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter High Resolution Imaging Science Experiment images was implemented to find regions with acceptable rock populations and to support Monte Carlo landing simulations. The chosen site is located at 68.16?? north latitude, 233.35?? east longitude (areocentric), within a ???50 km wide (N-S) by ???300 km long (E-W) valley of relatively rock-free plains. Surfaces within the eastern portion of the valley are differentially eroded ejecta deposits from the relatively recent ???10-km-wide Heimdall crater and have fewer rocks than plains on the western portion of the valley. All surfaces exhibit polygonal ground, which is associated with fracture of icy soils, and are predicted to have only several centimeters of poorly sorted basaltic sand and dust over icy soil deposits. Copyright 2008 by the American Geophysical Union.

  15. Dark Skies and Clouds Move in at Phoenix site

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2008-01-01

    Clouds of dust and ice swirl past the Surface Stereo Imager (SSI) camera on NASA's Phoenix Mars Lander in a series of images taken on the 132nd Martian day of the mission (Oct. 7, 2008). The images show the increase in storm activity and potential for snowfall.

    The solar powered spacecraft was disabled by decreased light from heavy dust storms in the area a few weeks later. The last communication heard from the lander occurred on Nov. 2, 2008.

    The Phoenix Mission is led by the University of Arizona, Tucson, on behalf of NASA. Project management of the mission is by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif. Spacecraft development is by Lockheed Martin Space Systems, Denver.

  16. Mars 101: Linking Educational Content to Mission Purpose on the Phoenix Mars Lander Mission Web Site

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schmidt, L. J.; Smith, P. H.; Lombardi, D.

    2006-12-01

    The Phoenix Mars Lander, scheduled to launch in August 2007, is the first mission in NASA's Scout Program. Phoenix has been specifically designed to measure volatiles (especially water) in the northern arctic plains of Mars, where the Mars Odyssey detected evidence of ice-rich soil near the surface. A fundamental part of the mission's goal-driven education and public outreach program is the Phoenix Mars Lander 2007 web site. Content for the site was designed not only to further the casual user's understanding of the Phoenix mission and its objectives, but also to meet the needs of the more science-attentive user who desires in-depth information. To this end, the web site's "Mars 101" module includes five distinct themes, all of which are directly connected to the mission's purpose: Mars Intro includes basic facts about Mars and how the planet differs from Earth; Polar Regions discusses the history of polar exploration on Earth and the similarities between these regions on Mars and Earth; Climate covers the effects that Earth's polar regions have on climate and how these same effects may occur on Mars; Water on Mars introduces the reader to the idea of liquid water and water ice on Mars; and Biology includes a discussion of the requirements of life and life in the universe to facilitate reader understanding of what Phoenix might find. Each of the five themes is described in simple language accompanied by relevant images and graphics, with hypertext links connecting the science-attentive user to more in-depth content. By presenting the "Mars 101" content in a manner that relates each subheading to a specific component of the mission's purpose, the Phoenix web site nurtures understanding of the mission and its relevance to NASA's Mars Exploration goals by the general lay public as well as the science-attentive user.

  17. Size-Frequency Distribution of Rock Clasts at the Phoenix Landing Site

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heet, T. L.; Arvidson, R. E.; Mellon, M. T.; Golombek, M. P.; Marshall, J.

    2008-12-01

    Rock populations on the plains surrounding the Phoenix landing site were analyzed using a combination of ground-based and orbital data. We determined the size-frequency distribution of rocks larger than 1.5 meters in diameter using images from the Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter High Resolution Imaging Science Experiment (HiRISE). Surface images taken by the Phoenix Lander Surface Stereo Imager camera were used to characterize the size-frequency distribution of rocks as small as 2 centimeters. Comparison of the size-frequency distribution of rocks for the Phoenix landing site with model curves shows that the rock population is characterized by significantly more pebble-sized rocks (>10 centimeters) than simple crushing models predict. Additionally, comparison with rock counts from Mars Exploration Rover Spirit rover images show that the Phoenix landing site is depleted in rocks relative to the Gusev plains. The depletion of rocks of all sizes at the Phoenix landing site is consistent with the proposed hypothesis that rocks were removed from the surface during fluidized ejecta emplacement by nearby Heimdall crater. We also characterized rock populations on a detailed scale within eight meters of the Phoenix Lander. Results indicate that more rocks are located in polygon troughs than in polygon interiors, although the biggest rocks are found within polygon interiors. Nearest neighbor statistics show that rocks with diameters between 2cm and 30cm on polygon interiors are clumped or less uniformly dispersed, whereas rocks in polygon troughs are uniformly spaced. The differences observed between rock distributions within the polygon interior and polygon trough units suggest that polygons are actively redistributing rocks in a manner consistent with thermal-contraction-based cryoturbation.

  18. Evidence for Calcium Carbonate at the Phoenix Landing Site

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Boynton, W. V.; Ming, D. W.; Sutter, B.; Arvidson, R. E.; Hoffman, J.; Niles, P. B.; Smith, P.

    2009-01-01

    The Phoenix mission has recently finished its study of the north polar environment of Mars with the aim to help understand both the current climate and to put constraints on past climate. An important part of understanding the past climate is the study of secondary minerals, those formed by reaction with volatile compounds such as H2O and CO2. This work describes observations made by the Thermal and Evolved-Gas Analyzer (TEGA) on the Phoenix Lander related to carbonate minerals. Carbonates are generally considered to be products of aqueous processes. A wet and warmer climate during the early history of Mars coupled with a much denser CO2 atmosphere are ideal conditions for the aqueous alteration of basaltic materials and the subsequent formation of carbonates. Carbonates (Mg- and Ca-rich) are predicted to be thermodynamically stable minerals in the present martian environment, however, there have been only a few indications of carbonates on the surface by a host of orbiting and landed missions to Mars. Carbonates (Mg-rich) have been suggested to be a component (2-5 wt %) of the martian global dust based upon orbital thermal emission spectroscopy. The identifications, based on the presence of a 1480 cm-1 absorption feature, are consistent with Mgcarbonates. A similar feature is observed in brighter, undisturbed soils by Mini-TES on the Gusev plains. Recently, Mg-rich carbonates have been identified in the Nili Fossae region by the CRISM instrument onboard the Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter. Carbonates have also been confirmed as aqueous alteration phases in martian meteorites so it is puzzling why there have not been more discoveries of carbonates by landers, rovers, and orbiters. Carbonates may hold important clues about the history of liquid water and aqueous processes on the surface of Mars.

  19. Discovery of Perchlorate at the Phoenix Landing Site

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hecht, M. H.; Kounaves, S. P.; Quinn, R. C.; West, S. J.; Young, S. M.; Clark, B. C.; Deflores, L. P.; Kapit, J. A.; Gospodinova, K.; Smith, P. H.; Team, T. P.

    2008-12-01

    One of several payload components on the Phoenix Lander, the Microscopy, Electrochemistry, and Conductivity Analyzer (MECA) is a suite of instruments that includes a microscopy station (optical and atomic force), four wet chemistry laboratories (WCL), and a soil probe. After the addition of up to 1 cm3 of martian soil into 25 ml of an aqueous calibration solution, the WCL measures solution cation and anion concentration, including pH, as well as total conductivity and cyclic voltammetry. With the exception of a redundant coulombic titration of halides, all cation and anion measurements are made with ion selective electrodes (ISE). Among the species not directly measured are sulfate and carbonate, which can be inferred indirectly by the response to acid and Ba additions, and soluble Fe, which can sometimes be detected with cyclic voltammetry. Responses from several cation and anion sensors were observed almost immediately upon addition of soil to the solution. Most striking was a three order-of-magnitude increase of the Hofmeister series sensor, which could only be explained by a large concentration of the perchlorate ion, ClO4-. Perchlorates are highly water soluble oxidants, often deliquescent, and some are powerful freezing-point depressors that can form aqueous brines at mean Martian temperatures appropriate to this region, as low as -70 deg C. This combination of properties has implications that span the disciplines of geochemistry, atmospheric sciences, astrobiology, and the potential for future human exploration. An important qualification of any such discussion, however, is uncertainty about how widespread the distribution of perchlorate may be. Other WCL findings, including alkaline pH and buffered response to purposeful addition of acid consistent with the presence of carbonates, will also be summarized.

  20. Convective vortices and dust devils at the Phoenix Mars mission landing site

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ellehoj, M. D.; Gunnlaugsson, H. P.; Taylor, P. A.; Kahanpää, H.; Bean, K. M.; Cantor, B. A.; Gheynani, B. T.; Drube, L.; Fisher, D.; Harri, A.-M.; Holstein-Rathlou, C.; Lemmon, M. T.; Madsen, M. B.; Malin, M. C.; Polkko, J.; Smith, P. H.; Tamppari, L. K.; Weng, W.; Whiteway, J.

    2010-04-01

    The Phoenix Mars Lander detected a larger number of short (˜20 s) pressure drops that probably indicate the passage of convective vortices or dust devils. Near-continuous pressure measurements have allowed for monitoring the frequency of these events, and data from other instruments and orbiting spacecraft give information on how these pressure events relate to the seasons and weather phenomena at the Phoenix landing site. Here 502 vortices were identified with a pressure drop larger than 0.3 Pa occurring in the 151 sol mission (Ls 76 to 148). The diurnal distributions show a peak in convective vortices around noon, agreeing with current theory and previous observations. The few events detected at night might have been mechanically forced by turbulent eddies caused by the nearby Heimdal crater. A general increase with major peaks in the convective vortex activity occurs during the mission, around Ls = 111. This correlates with changes in midsol surface heat flux, increasing wind speeds at the landing site, and increases in vortex density. Comparisons with orbiter imaging show that in contrast to the lower latitudes on Mars, the dust devil activity at the Phoenix landing site is influenced more by active weather events passing by the area than by local forcing.

  1. Phoenix landing site and sample context images from the Surface Stereo Imager

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lemmon, M. T.; Arvidson, R.; Blaney, D.; Dejong, E.; Madsen, M. B.; Malin, M.; Mellon, M.; Morris, R.; Pike, W. T.; Smith, P. H.; Stoker, C.; Team, P. S.

    2008-12-01

    Phoenix landed in the northern plains of Mars in an area with low rock abundance dominated by few-meter- scale polygonal patterned ground with decimeter scale troughs. The Phoenix Surface Stereo Imager (SSI) provides geomorphic and spectral information about the Phoenix landing site for scales that range from site- wide to context for samples analyzed by other Phoenix instruments. The SSI is a multispectral stereo camera with properties that are comparable to the Mars Exploration Rover Pancam. It has MER-heritage 1024x1024 pixel detectors, a 14-degree field of view for individual images, and resolution as high as 1-2 mm for near- field terrain (0.24 mrad/pixel). Images are taken through one of 24 filters, including 13 unique spectral bandpasses, 2 stereo bandpasses, 2 filters paired with lenses for best focus on the lander deck, 6 solar filters for atmospheric dust and water vapor and ice measurements, and 1 polarizer. The stereo separation of the eyes is 15 cm, and the focus and toe-in are optimized at 3 to 3.5 m to support Robotic Arm (RA) operations. SSI can image from the camera bar at -72 degrees to the zenith, and through 360 degrees of azimuth. As with Pancam, panoramic images are built on the ground from a number of individual frames. SSI provided geomorphic information through a set of campaigns. Three major site panoramas were acquired: on sols 1 and 3, a low-resolution monochromatic site panorama provided context for higher- resolution images in the RA workspace; a color-stereo panorama was completed on sol 43; a multispectral high-resolution panorama is currently underway. High resolution detail observations were conducted throughout the mission for high priority targets in and beyond the workspace. These campaigns show a landscape dominated by polygons with typical diameters of 2 to 4 meters. Troughs between the polygons have depths of typically 5-20 cm relative to the polygon centers. Phoenix landed with access to a trough and parts of two polygons

  2. 75 FR 17692 - Foreign-Trade Zone 75 -- Phoenix, Arizona, Application for Reorganization under Alternative Site...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-07

    ... Foreign-Trade Zones Board Foreign-Trade Zone 75 -- Phoenix, Arizona, Application for Reorganization under...) by the City of the Phoenix, grantee of FTZ 75, requesting authority to reorganize the zone under the...-acre Phoenix Sky Harbor Center and adjacent air cargo terminal at the Phoenix Sky Harbor...

  3. Full-Circle Color Panorama of Phoenix Landing Site on Northern Mars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2008-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Click on image for animation

    This view combines more than 400 images taken during the first several weeks after NASA's Phoenix Mars Lander arrived on an arctic plain at 68.22 degrees north latitude, 234.25 degrees east longitude on Mars.

    The full-circle panorama in approximately true color shows the polygonal patterning of ground at the landing area, similar to patterns in permafrost areas on Earth. The center of the image is the westward part of the scene. Trenches where Phoenix's robotic arm has been exposing subsurface material are visible in the right half of the image. The spacecraft's meteorology mast, topped by the telltale wind gauge, extends into the sky portion of the panorama.

    This view comprises more than 100 different camera pointings, with images taken through three different filters at each pointing. It is presented here as a cylindrical projection.

    The Phoenix Mission is led by the University of Arizona, Tucson, on behalf of NASA. Project management of the mission is by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif. Spacecraft development is by Lockheed Martin Space Systems, Denver.

  4. Full-Circle Color Panorama of Phoenix Landing Site on Northern Mars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2008-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Mission Success Pan Click on image to view the movie

    This view combines more than 400 images taken during the first several weeks after NASA's Phoenix Mars Lander arrived on an arctic plain at 68.22 degrees north latitude, 234.25 degrees east longitude on Mars.

    The movie makes a slow tour around highlights of the image.

    The full-circle panorama in approximately true color shows the polygonal patterning of ground at the landing area, similar to patterns in permafrost areas on Earth. The center of the image is the westward part of the scene. Trenches where Phoenix's robotic arm has been exposing subsurface material are visible in the right half of the image. The spacecraft's meteorology mast, topped by the telltale wind gauge, extends into the sky portion of the panorama.

    This view comprises more than 100 different camera pointings, with images taken through three different filters at each pointing. It is presented here as a cylindrical projection.

    The Phoenix Mission is led by the University of Arizona, Tucson, on behalf of NASA. Project management of the mission is by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif. Spacecraft development is by Lockheed Martin Space Systems, Denver.

  5. Full-Circle Color Panorama of Phoenix Lander Deck and Landing Site on Northern Mars, Animation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2008-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Click on image to view the animation

    This view combines more than 500 images taken after NASA's Phoenix Mars Lander arrived on an arctic plain at 68.22 degrees north latitude, 234.25 degrees east longitude on Mars.

    This movie makes a slow tour around highlights of the image including the landscape and the spacecraft's science deck.

    The full-circle panorama in approximately true color shows the polygonal patterning of ground at the landing area, similar to patterns in permafrost areas on Earth. The center of the image is the westward part of the scene. Trenches where Phoenix's robotic arm has been exposing subsurface material are visible in the right half of the image. The spacecraft's meteorology mast, topped by the telltale wind gauge, extends into the sky portion of the panorama.

    This view comprises more than 100 different Stereo Surface Imager camera pointings, with images taken through three different filters at each pointing. It is presented here as a cylindrical projection.

    The Phoenix Mission is led by the University of Arizona, Tucson, on behalf of NASA. Project management of the mission is by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif. Spacecraft development is by Lockheed Martin Space Systems, Denver.

  6. Phoenix Mars Lander: Vortices and Dust Devils at the Landing Site

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ellehoj, M. D.; Taylor, P. A.; Gunnlaugsson, H. P.; Gheynani, B. T.; Drube, L.; von Holstein-Rathlou, C.; Whiteway, J.; Lemmon, M.; Madsen, M. B.; Fisher, D.; Volpe, R.; Smith, P.

    2008-12-01

    Near continuous measurements of temperatures and pressure on the Phoenix Mars Lander are used to identify the passage of vertically oriented vortex structures at the Phoenix landing site (126W, 68N) on Mars. Observations: During the Phoenix mission the pressure and temperature sensors frequently detected features passing over or close to the lander. Short duration (order 20 s) pressure drops of order 1-2 Pa, and often less, were observed relatively frequently, accompanied by increases in temperature. Similar features were observed from the Pathfinder mission, although in that case the reported pressure drops were often larger [1]. Statistics of the pressure drop features over the first 102 sols of the Phoenix mission shows that most of the events occur between noon and 15:00 LMST - the hottest part of the sol. Dust Raising: By assuming the concept of a vortex in cyclostrophic flow as well as various assumptions about the atmosphere, we obtain a pressure drop of 1.9 - 3.2 Pa if dust is to be raised. We only saw few pressure drops this large in Sols 0-102. However, the features do not need to pass directly over the lander and the pressures could be lower than the minima we measure. Furthermore, the response time of the pressure sensor is of order 3-5 s so it may not capture peak pressure perturbations. Thus, more dust devils may have occurred near the Phoenix site, but most of our detected vortices would be ghostly, dustless devils. Modelling: Using a Large Eddy Simulation model, we can simulate highly convective boundary layers on Mars [2]. The typical vortex has a diameter of 150 m, and extends up to 1 km. Further calculations give an incidence of 11 vortex events per day that could be compatible with the LES simulations. Deeper investigation of this is planned -but the numbers are roughly compatible. If the significant pressure signatures are limited to the center of the vortex then 5 per sol might be appropriate. The Phoenix mission has collected a unique set of

  7. Geologic Setting and Soil Physical Properties of the Mars Phoenix Landing Site

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arvidson, R. E.; Mellon, M. T.

    2008-12-01

    The Phoenix Lander touched down ~30 km to the southwest (68.22 N, 234.25 E) of the Amazonian aged, 10 km wide, bowl-shaped Heimdall impact crater. The lander is sitting on ejecta deposits from the Heimdall event that were emplaced as a ground hugging, volatile rich flow, interpreted to be a consequence of impact into icy soil and bedrock. The ejecta deposits have been differentially eroded by aeolian activity and reworked by permafrost-related processes into polygonal ground. Rock abundances are low relative to most of Mars and rocks are concentrated in troughs in between polygons and tend to be evenly spaced, implying an on-going process of polygon formation. Rocks range from tabular to rounded in shape and massive to vesicular in texture. Very few aeolian features (e.g., ripples or ventifacted rock surfaces) are evident, in contrast to the other Mars landing sites. Based on analyses of Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter CRISM hyperspectral data (~0.4 to 4 micrometers) and Phoenix observations, the surface cover is dominated by basaltic soils (sandy silts) and ferric-rich dust, with only contribution from minerals formed under aqueous conditions. The soil is cloddy and adheres to spacecraft surfaces, probably because of electrostatic charging. Densely-cemented icy soil is found within a few centimeters of the surface and once exposed and allowed to warm in the sunlight the ice eventually sublimates into the atmosphere, leaving behind soil lag deposits. The Phoenix landing site is unique relative to the other five sites (two Viking Landers, Pathfinder, Spirit and Opportunity rovers) because of the high latitude, location on relatively young ejecta emplaced as a volatile-rich flow, and because the ice table depth is predicted to have varied from centimeters to as much as a meter beneath the surface during orbital shifts associated with Martian Milankovitch cycles and consequent insolation over the northern latitudes.

  8. A Physical Taxonomy of Martian Sand and Dust Grainsat the Phoenix Landing Site

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marshall, John; Stoker, Carol

    2014-11-01

    A quantitative taxonomy of martian sand and dust grains for soil samples at the Phoenix lander site has been developed from the mission’s optical microscope data with a resolution of 4 μm per pixel. Approx. 3-4000 grains were analyzed for color, hue, size, shape, surface texture, aspect ratio, and optical properties. At least 26 types of sand and dust grains have been identified. Grain colors include black, brown, orange, red, white, and clear. Most grains are opaque, but many are translucent or transparent. Grain shapes range from botryoidal, blackberry-like, bead-like and rounded, to subrounded, elongate, angular, and highly irregular forms. Surface textures range from knobbly, rough, and multifaceted to smooth and polished. Surface reflectivity varied from dull to shiny to specularly reflective. Materials may include augite, pyroxenes, olivine, volcanic glass, hematite, other iron oxides, and salts. Grain size of the sand has a modal value of ~90 μm, but there is no gradation into dust sizes, indicating a bimodal distribution of the samples. The dust was probably imported into the region from aeolian dust storms. This accords with a mineralogical dissimilarity between the sand and dust grain populations. The sand is dominated by black and brown grains; the dust is dominated by orange grains. The Phoenix site also has centimeter and larger stones in abundance that again have no apparent gradation into the sand size material. Thus, the Phoenix landing site soil appears multimodal. The soil appears to be magnetically susceptible, but it is unclear what the source of magnetism might be. Specific magnetic minerals were not identified in the samples with the possible exception of paramagnetic microbotryoidal hematite. The soil was nevertheless adhesive to the substrates and internally cohesive (forming spherical aggregates) owing to van der Waals forces and possibly salt/moisture bonding.

  9. Periglacial landforms at the Phoenix landing site and the northern plains of Mars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mellon, Michael T.; Arvidson, Raymond E.; Marlow, Jeffrey J.; Phillips, Roger J.; Asphaug, Erik

    2008-11-01

    We examine potentially periglacial landforms in Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) and High Resolution Imaging Science Experiment (HiRISE) images at the Phoenix landing site and compare them with numerical models of permafrost processes to better understand the origin, nature, and history of the permafrost and the surface of the northern plains of Mars. Small-scale (3-6 m) polygonal-patterned ground is ubiquitous throughout the Phoenix landing site and northern plains. Larger-scale (20-25 m) polygonal patterns and regularly spaced (20-35 m) rubble piles (localized collections of rocks and boulders) are also common. Rubble piles were previously identified as ``basketball terrain'' in MOC images. The small polygon networks exhibit well-developed and relatively undegraded morphology, and they overlay all other landforms. Comparison of the small polygons with a numerical model shows that their size is consistent with a thermal contraction origin on current-day Mars and are likely active. In addition, the observed polygon size is consistent with a subsurface rheology of ice-cemented soil on depth scales of about 10 m. The size and morphology of the larger polygonal patterns and rubble piles indicate a past episode of polygon formation and rock sorting in thermal contraction polygons, while the ice table was about twice as deep as it is presently. The pervasive nature of small and large polygons, and the extensive sorting of surface rocks, indicates that widespread overturning of the surface layer to depths of many meters has occurred in the recent geologic past. This periglacial reworking has had a significant influence on the landscape at the Phoenix landing site and over the Martian northern plains.

  10. (Ca,Mg)-Carbonate and Mg-Carbonate at the Phoenix Landing Site: Evaluation of the Phoenix Lander's Thermal Evolved Gas Analyzer (TEGA) Data Using Laboratory Simulations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sutter, B.; Ming, D. W.; Boynton, W. V.; Niles, P. B.; Morris, R. V.

    2011-01-01

    Calcium carbonate (4.5 wt. %) was detected in the soil at the Phoenix Landing site by the Phoenix Lander s The Thermal and Evolved Gas Analyzer [1]. TEGA operated at 12 mbar pressure, yet the detection of calcium carbonate is based on interpretations derived from thermal analysis literature of carbonates measured under ambient (1000 mbar) and vacuum (10(exp -3) mbar) conditions [2,3] as well as at 100 and 30 mbar [4,5] and one analysis at 12 mbar by the TEGA engineering qualification model (TEGA-EQM). Thermodynamics (Te = H/ S) dictate that pressure affects entropy ( S) which causes the temperature (Te) of mineral decomposition at one pressure to differ from Te obtained at another pressure. Thermal decomposition analyses of Fe-, Mg-, and Ca-bearing carbonates at 12 mbar is required to enhance the understanding of the TEGA results at TEGA operating pressures. The objectives of this work are to (1) evaluate the thermal and evolved gas behavior of a suite of Fe-, Mg-, Ca-carbonate minerals at 1000 and 12 mbar and (2) discuss possible emplacement mechanisms for the Phoenix carbonate.

  11. Ice Lens Formation and Frost Heave at the Phoenix Landing Site

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zent, A. P.; Sizemore, H. G.; Remple, A. W.

    2011-01-01

    Several lines of evidence indicate that the volume of shallow ground ice in the martian high latitudes exceeds the pore volume of the host regolith. Boynton et al. found an optimal fit to the Mars Odyssey Gamma Ray Spectrometer (GRS) data at the Phoenix landing site by modeling a buried layer of 50-75% ice by mass (up to 90% ice by volume). Thermal and optical observations of recent impact craters in the northern hemisphere have revealed nearly pure ice. Ice deposits containing only 1-2% soil by volume were excavated by Phoenix. The leading hypothesis for the origin of this excess ice is that it developed in situ by a mechanism analogous to the formation of terrestrial ice lenses and needle ice. Problematically, terrestrial soil-ice segregation is driven by freeze/thaw cycling and the movement of bulk water, neither of which are expected to have occurred in the geologically recent past on Mars. If however ice lens formation is possible at temperatures less than 273 K, there are possible implications for the habitability of Mars permafrost, since the same thin films of unfrozen water that lead to ice segregation are used by terrestrial psychrophiles to metabolize and grow down to temperatures of at least 258 K.

  12. Soil moisture detection from radar imagery of the Phoenix, Arizona test site

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cihlar, J.; Ulaby, F. T.; Mueller, R.

    1975-01-01

    The Environmental Research Institute of Michigan (ERIM) dual-polarization X and L band radar was flown to acquire radar imagery over the Phoenix (Arizona) test site. The site was covered by a north-south pass and an east-west pass. Radar response to soil moisture was investigated. Since the ERIM radar does not have accurately measured antenna patterns, analysis of the L band data was performed separately for each of several strips along the flight line, each corresponding to a narrow angle of incidence. For the NS pass, good correlation between the radar return and mositure content was observed for each of the two nearest (to nadir) angular ranges. At higher angular ranges, no correlation was observed. The above procedure was not applied to the EW pass due to flight path misalignments. The results obtained stress the importance of radar calibration, the digitization process, and the angle of incidence.

  13. Geomorphic and geologic settings of the Phoenix Lander mission landing site

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heet, T. L.; Arvidson, R. E.; Cull, S. C.; Mellon, M. T.; Seelos, K. D.

    2009-11-01

    The Phoenix Lander touched down on the northern distal flank of the shield volcano Alba Patera in a ˜150 km wide valley underlain by the Scandia region unit. The geomorphology and geology of the landing site is dominated by the ˜0.6 Ga, 11.5 km wide, bowl-shaped impact crater, Heimdal, and its areally extensive ejecta deposits. The Lander is located ˜20 km to the west of the crater and is sitting on a plains surface underlain by partially eroded Heimdal ejecta deposits. Heimdal was produced by a hypervelocity impact into fine-grained, ice-rich material and is inferred to have produced high velocity winds and a ground-hugging ejecta emplacement mode that destroyed or buried preexisting surfaces and rock fields out to ˜10 crater radii. Patterned ground is ubiquitous, with complex polygon patterns and rock rubble piles located on older plains (˜3.3 Ga) to the west of the ejecta deposits. Crater size frequency distributions are complex and represent equilibria between crater production and destruction processes (e.g., aeolian infill, cryoturbation, relaxation of icy substrate). Rock abundances increase near craters for the older plains and rocks with their dark shadows explain the reason for the few percent lower albedo for these plains as opposed to the Heimdal ejecta deposits. Many rocks at the landing site have been reworked by cryoturbation and moved to polygon troughs. The evidence for cryoturbation and the lack of aeolian features imply that the soils sampled by Phoenix are locally derived and mixed with a subordinate amount of windblown dust.

  14. Phoenix Trenches

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2008-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Annotated Version

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Left-eye view of a stereo pair [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Right-eye view of a stereo pair

    This image is a stereo, panoramic view of various trenches dug by NASA's Phoenix Mars Lander. The images that make up this panorama were taken by Phoenix's Surface Stereo Imager at about 4 p.m., local solar time at the landing site, on the 131st, Martian day, or sol, of the mission (Oct. 7, 2008).

    In figure 1, the trenches are labeled in orange and other features are labeled in blue. Figures 2 and 3 are the left- and right-eye members of a stereo pair.

    For scale, the 'Pet Donkey' trench just to the right of center is approximately 38 centimeters (15 inches) long and 31 to 34 centimeters (12 to 13 inches) wide. In addition, the rock in front of it, 'Headless,' is about 11.5 by 8.5 centimeters (4.5 by 3.3 inches), and about 5 centimeters (2 inches) tall.

    The Phoenix Mission is led by the University of Arizona, Tucson, on behalf of NASA. Project management of the mission is by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif. Spacecraft development is by Lockheed Martin Space Systems, Denver.

  15. A revised Pitzer model for low-temperature soluble salt assemblages at the Phoenix site, Mars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Toner, J. D.; Catling, D. C.; Light, B.

    2015-10-01

    The Wet Chemistry Laboratory (WCL) on the Mars Phoenix Lander measured ions in a soil-water extraction and found Na+, K+, H+ (pH), Ca2+, Mg2+, SO42-, ClO4-, and Cl-. Equilibrium models offer insights into salt phases that were originally present in the Phoenix soil, which dissolved to form the measured WCL solution; however, there are few experimental datasets for single cation perchlorates (ClO4-), and none for mixed perchlorates, at low temperatures, which are needed to build models. In this study, we measure ice and salt solubilities in binary and ternary solutions in the Na-Ca-Mg-ClO4 system, and then use this data, along with existing data, to construct a low-temperature Pitzer model for perchlorate brines. We then apply our model to a nominal WCL solution. Previous studies have modeled either freezing of a WCL solution or evaporation at a single temperature. For the first time, we model evaporation at subzero temperatures, which is relevant for dehydration conditions that might occur at the Phoenix site. Our model indicates that a freezing WCL solution will form ice, KClO4, hydromagnesite (3MgCO3·Mg(OH)2·3H2O), calcite (CaCO3), meridianiite (MgSO4·11H2O), MgCl2·12H2O, NaClO4·2H2O, and Mg(ClO4)2·6H2O at the eutectic (209 K). The total water held in hydrated salt phases at the eutectic is ∼1.2 wt.%, which is much greater than hydrated water contents when evaporation is modeled at 298.15 K (∼0.3 wt.%). Evaporation of WCL solutions at lower temperatures (down to 210 K) results in lower water activities and the formation of more dehydrated minerals, e.g. kieserite (MgSO4·H2O) instead of meridianiite. Potentially habitable brines, with water activity aw > 0.6, can occur when soil temperatures are above 220 K and when the soil liquid water content is greater than 0.4 wt.% (100 ×gH2O gsoil-1). In general, modeling indicates that mineral assemblages derived from WCL-type solutions are characteristic of the soil temperature, water content, and water

  16. Ice Lens Formation and Frost Heave at the Phoenix Landing Site

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zent, A.; Sizemore, H. G.; Rempel, A. W.

    2010-12-01

    Several lines of evidence indicate that the volume of shallow ground ice in the Martian high latitudes exceeds the pore volume of the host regolith. Boynton et al. (2002) found an optimal fit to the Mars Odyssey Gamma Ray Spectrometer (GRS) data at the Phoenix landing site by modeling a buried layer of 50-75% ice by mass (up to 90% by volume). Thermal and optical observations of recent impact craters in the northern hemisphere have revealed nearly pure ice. Ice deposits containing only 1-2% soil by volume were excavated by Phoenix. The leading hypothesis for the origin of this excess, or segregated, ice is that it developed in situ by a mechanism analogous to the formation of terrestrial ice lenses and needle ice. Problematically, terrestrial soil-ice segregation is driven by freeze/thaw cycling and the movement of bulk water, which are not expected to have occurred in the geologically recent past on Mars. We have developed a numerical model that applies the physics of pre-melting to track phase partitioning in soil pore spaces and test for conditions under which ice lenses could initiate. Our results indicate that diurnal cycling in the ice-cemented regolith and resultant pressure gradients in thin films at grain-ice interfaces can cause interparticle forces to unload, initiating an ice lens at temperatures as low as 245 K. These results indicate that in situ ice segregation may have occurred on Mars in the recent past, and that geologically young ice lenses may account for much of observed excess ice.

  17. 75 FR 64708 - Reorganization of Foreign-Trade Zone 75 under Alternative Site Framework; Phoenix, AZ

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-10-20

    ...; Phoenix, AZ Pursuant to its authority under the Foreign-Trade Zones Act of June 18, 1934, as amended (19 U...; Whereas, the City of Phoenix, grantee of Foreign-Trade Zone 75, submitted an application to the Board (FTZ... Maricopa County and portions of Pinal and Yavapai Counties, Arizona, within and adjacent to the...

  18. Landing Site Dispersion Analysis and Statistical Assessment for the Mars Phoenix Lander

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bonfiglio, Eugene P.; Adams, Douglas; Craig, Lynn; Spencer, David A.; Strauss, William; Seelos, Frank P.; Seelos, Kimberly D.; Arvidson, Ray; Heet, Tabatha

    2008-01-01

    The Mars Phoenix Lander launched on August 4, 2007 and successfully landed on Mars 10 months later on May 25, 2008. Landing ellipse predicts and hazard maps were key in selecting safe surface targets for Phoenix. Hazard maps were based on terrain slopes, geomorphology maps and automated rock counts of MRO's High Resolution Imaging Science Experiment (HiRISE) images. The expected landing dispersion which led to the selection of Phoenix's surface target is discussed as well as the actual landing dispersion predicts determined during operations in the weeks, days, and hours before landing. A statistical assessment of these dispersions is performed, comparing the actual landing-safety probabilities to criteria levied by the project. Also discussed are applications for this statistical analysis which were used by the Phoenix project. These include using the statistical analysis used to verify the effectiveness of a pre-planned maneuver menu and calculating the probability of future maneuvers.

  19. Physical Properties of the Icy Soil at the Phoenix Landing Site

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Keller, H.; Markiewicz, W. J.; Hviid, S. F.; Goetz, W.; Mellon, M. T.; El Maarry, M.; Madsen, M. B.; Smith, P.; Pike, W.; Zent, A.; Hecht, M. H.; Ming, D.; Staufer, U.

    2008-12-01

    The geomorphological setting of the subpolar terrain at the landing site is characterized by polygonal structures. These structures are generated by long term and periodic cycles of contraction and expansion of the subsurface icy soil. The physical properties of the covering soil layer effectively control the details of this process that has its counterpart on earth in (sub) polar regions including the Siberian tundra and in Antartica. One of the prime science goals of the Phoenix mission is to investigate the physical properties of the icy soil, how these processes are influenced by water vapour diffusion in the regolith and exchange of the water vapour with the atmosphere. It is important to understand these processes on diurnal, seasonal, and climatic time scales. Phoenix landed in the middle of one of the polygons. Its retro rockets cleared the ice table of the polygon underneath the jet assemblies from ca. 5 to 10 cm of loose cloddy regolith. Soil was piled up in the centre. The fact that the soil looked still cloddy similar to that in undisturbed areas suggests strong cohesiveness of the matrix material. The clumps were not destroyed by the blast. Excavated regolith material imaged in the scoop was made up of agglomerates of grains smaller than the best resolution of the Robotic Arm Camera (20 micron). Higher resolution images (4 micron) of the microscope corroborate that the soil is predominantly composed of agglomerates of very small particles with a mean size comparable to those observed in the Martian atmosphere. The Atomic Force Microscope reveals micron sized particles and smaller, partly of plate-like shape, indicating clay like particles. The matrix material of the soil is of reddish colour probably due to iron oxideadmixture. Only about 10% by volume of the soil are most often rounded grains between 40 to 100 micrometers of diameter. Some are glassy resembling micro tektites, and most of these are magnetic. The cohesiveness of the clumps and clods of

  20. Atmospheric dynamics at the Phoenix landing site as seen by the Surface Stereo Imager

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moores, John E.; Lemmon, Mark T.; Smith, Peter H.; Komguem, Leonce; Whiteway, James A.

    2010-01-01

    The Surface Stereo Imager has made observations of dust blowing aloft and clouds near the horizon at the Phoenix landing site. These subtle features are apparent because of the high signal-to-noise ratio of the camera which allows for the removal of a mean frame from multiple images captured in rapid succession and the ability to conduct simultaneous capture through different filters in each camera eye. By examining the ratios between two filters, it was possible to determine in a relative sense how the water ice content of the atmosphere changed over the mission and on a diurnal time scale. The direction of travel and speed of features aloft near the zenith has been inferred and agree well with the diurnal pattern of near-surface wind direction from the Telltale. Direct observation of cumulus-like cloud near the surface suggests convection of water vapor-rich air, but only until midday, requiring a mechanism to inhibit cloud formation in the early afternoon. The spectral ratios agree well with the observation of cloud and indicate a general increase in water ice toward the end of the mission as well as a strong diurnal pattern. However, even in periods of high water ice content, there is still a great deal of variability and days when dense clouds are absent. Also, different cloud layers are occasionally observed moving in different directions, indicating occasional wind shear aloft. Features observed had estimated minimum optical depths up to 0.11.

  1. An Historical Search for Unfrozen Water at the Phoenix Landing Site

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zent, Aaron

    2004-01-01

    The goal of this work is to explore the history of the high-latitude subsurface in the latitude range of the Phoenix landing site (65-75 deg. N). The approach is to use time-marching climate models to search for times, locations, and depths where thick films of unfrozen water might periodically occur. Thick films of unfrozen water (as distinct from ubiquitous monolayer water) are interesting for two reasons. First, multi-layer films of water may be bio-available. Second, patterned ground may require the occurrence of thick films of unfrozen water to facilitate the migration of particles and the development of excess pore ice, as reported by the Odyssey Gamma Ray Spectrometer (GRS) results. For the purposes of this work, we define conditions adequate to establish thick films of unfrozen water to be T greater than 268 K, and RH greater than 0.5. We start with the need to understand the atmospheric pressure. Because of the fact that we're looking at high latitudes, the seasonal cap buffers surface temperature for some part of the year. That directly affects the subsurface thermal regime, at least in the uppermost meter where we will be

  2. Full-Circle Color Panorama of Phoenix Landing Site on Northern Mars, Vertical Projection

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2008-01-01

    This view combines more than 400 images taken during the first several weeks after NASA's Phoenix Mars Lander arrived on an arctic plain at 68.22 degrees north latitude, 234.25 degrees east longitude on Mars.

    The full-circle panorama in approximately true color shows the polygonal patterning of ground in the landing area, similar to patterns in permafrost areas on Earth. North is toward the top. Trenches where Phoenix's robotic arm has been exposing subsurface material are visible just north of the lander.

    This view comprises more than 100 different camera pointings, with images taken through three different filters at each pointing. It is presented here as a vertical projection.

    The Phoenix Mission is led by the University of Arizona, Tucson, on behalf of NASA. Project management of the mission is by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif. Spacecraft development is by Lockheed Martin Space Systems, Denver.

  3. Phoenix rising

    SciTech Connect

    Buchsbaum, L.

    2008-08-15

    Phoenix Coal currently operates 3 surface coal mines in Western Kentucky and have recently obtained the permits to construct their first underground mine. The expansion of the Phoenix Coal company since its formation in July 2004 is described. 4 photos.

  4. Geomorphology of the 2007 Phoenix Mission Landing Sites in the Northern Plains of Mars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seelos, K. D.; Arvidson, R. E.; Golombek, M.; Parker, T.; Tamppari, L.; Smith, P.

    2005-12-01

    In 2008, the Phoenix lander will touch down in the northern plains of Mars to sample and characterize near surface and underlying ice-rich soils, gather meteorological data, and provide insight into the evolution of the surrounding landscape. Three regions from 65 to 72 N and (A) 250-270E, (B) 120-140E, and (C) 65-85E that meet both engineering and scientific constraints were chosen for concentrated acquisition of remote data to support landing site selection. Smaller areas (150x75 km) within these regions devoid of large craters or other hazards were selected as potential landing sites; center coordinates for these targeted areas are (A) 68N, 260E, (B) 67.5N, 130E, and (C) 70N, 80E. MOLA topographic data along with MOC imagery and THEMIS 36m/pixel visible, 18m/pixel visible, and ~100m/pixel infrared data are utilized to produce geomorphologic maps at 36m/pixel for the larger regions and 18m/pixel for the targeted sites. All regions are dominated by intercrater plains units, with the plains in regions B and C comprised of slightly elevated, multiple kilometer-scale polygonal blocks surrounded or infilled by finer-grained material. The plains unit of region A lacks large polygons, instead exhibiting a smooth to mottled appearance. Patterned ground is ubiquitous throughout all regions. The characteristic dimpled texture of "basketball" terrain is most common, being superposed on the large polygons in regions B and C, and often organized into stripes with orientations partially controlled by local slopes. Small-scale polygonal ground is also observed usually in association with crater ejecta. Craters throughout all regions appear highly degraded, with most small craters (< 1km) remarkably worn with little or no rim definition and ejecta present only as a faint dark halo. Larger craters frequently exhibit pedestal-style ejecta. The style and state of landform degradation and the consistent presence of patterned ground throughout all regions suggests the long

  5. An Historical Search for Unfrozen Water at the Phoenix Landing Site

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zent, A. P.

    2004-11-01

    The 2007 Phoenix mission will land near 70 N latitude, and excavate the regolith to sample ground ice. Chemical analyses will search for dissolved species, chemical sediments, and organic compounds that may indicate the chemical and environmental history of the ground ice. Mars periodically experiences high obliquities, leading to warming of the polar latitudes. This raises the possibility that thin films of unfrozen water could serve as habitats for microbial communities in a manner analogous to terrestrial permafrost communities. However, Phoenix can only access the uppermost millimeters of the ground ice. We model the likely history of the ground ice that Phoenix will access. The model tracks surface energy balance, including cap latent heat. The upper boundary condition is the annual average H2O vapor density, which is a sensitive function of H2O ice albedo and conductivity, as well as the albedo, emissivity, and thermal conductivity of the seasonal CO2 cap. Relatively small variations in these properties can introduce considerable uncertainties in the actual depth of the ground ice. We bracket these uncertainties by assuming either that: a) the annual average H2O vapor density is invariant with time, or b) the annual average H2O vapor density is proportional to the column abundance determined by radiative balance. For most thermophysical properties, the model predicts that ground ice has become more shallow over the past 25 ka, corresponding with migration of perihelion from northern summer to northern winter. The ice Phoenix will access has probably been recently deposited from the atmosphere, and has not experienced heating at high obliquities. Therefore, it is unlikely to have constituted a viable habitat. Nonetheless, Phoenix may encounter materials relict of earlier periods of high obliquity when thin unfrozen films were possible.

  6. Full-Circle Color Panorama of Phoenix Landing Site on Northern Mars, Polar Projection

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2008-01-01

    This view combines more than 400 images taken during the first several weeks after NASA's Phoenix Mars Lander arrived on an arctic plain at 68.22 degrees north latitude, 234.25 degrees east longitude on Mars.

    The full-circle panorama in approximately true color shows the polygonal patterning of ground at the landing area, similar to patterns in permafrost areas on Earth. South is toward the top. Trenches where Phoenix's robotic arm has been exposing subsurface material are visible in the lower half of the image. The spacecraft's meteorology mast, topped by the telltale wind gauge, extends into the sky portion of the panorama.

    This view comprises more than 100 different camera pointings, with images taken through three different filters at each pointing. It is presented here as a polar projection.

    The Phoenix Mission is led by the University of Arizona, Tucson, on behalf of NASA. Project management of the mission is by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif. Spacecraft development is by Lockheed Martin Space Systems, Denver.

  7. Time-Dependent SSI Multispectral Properties for Rock, Soil, Ice, and Sublimation Lags at the Phoenix Landing Site on Mars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morris, R. V.; Lemmon, M. T.; Arvidson, R. E.; Blaney, D. L.; Ellehoj, M. D.; Mellon, M. T.; Phoenix, S. T.

    2008-12-01

    The Surface Stereo Imager (SSI) on the Phoenix Lander is a 15 band multispectral imager covering the spectral range from 0.45 to 1.00 micrometers. More than 250 15-filter spectral image cubes have been obtained for surface targets at the Phoenix landing site in the north polar region of Mars. The spectra of surface soils and rocks are dominated by a ferric absorption edge from nanophase ferric oxide, and they are broadly similar to most multispectral data obtained during the Pathfinder and MER missions. Negative spectral slopes between about 0.70 and 1.00 micrometers, indicative of high concentrations of olivine in the El Dorado sand sheet at Gusev crater, were not detected. The albedo (cos(i) corrected) of Phoenix surface spectra is highly dependent on the time of sol (albedo at 0.80 micrometers varies by a factor of 2), consistent with opposition and phase function effects. Subsurface layers bearing water ice were exposed at a depth of about 4 cm by digging with the robotic arm scoop. The SSI spectra of icy materials are highly variable, ranging from typical ice (spectrally neutral and high albedo near 0.7) at the Dodo-Goldilocks trench to low albedo spectra (about 0.3 at 0.80 micrometers) with a ferric absorption edge at the Snow White trench. The differences are attributed, respectively, to low and high concentrations of fine-grained and ferric-rich material dispersed throughout the ice. The spectra of the icy surfaces are dependent on time as the ice sublimes. At Snow White, an optically thick (about 300 micrometers) sublimate lag develops within two sols. At Dodo- Goldilocks, the time scale for development of an optically thick sublimate lag is 5 to greater than 60 sols, depending on location within the trench. The spectra of sublimate lag are equivalent to those for fine-grained soil.

  8. A prelanding assessment of the ice table depth and ground ice characteristics in Martian permafrost at the Phoenix landing site

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mellon, M.T.; Boynton, W.V.; Feldman, W.C.; Arvidson, R. E.; Titus, Joshua T.N.; Bandfield, L.; Putzig, N.E.; Sizemore, H.G.

    2009-01-01

    We review multiple estimates of the ice table depth at potential Phoenix landing sites and consider the possible state and distribution of subsurface ice. A two-layer model of ice-rich material overlain by ice-free material is consistent with both the observational and theoretical lines of evidence. Results indicate ground ice to be shallow and ubiquitous, 2-6 cm below the surface. Undulations in the ice table depth are expected because of the thermodynamic effects of rocks, slopes, and soil variations on the scale of the Phoenix Lander and within the digging area, which can be advantageous for analysis of both dry surficial soils and buried ice-rich materials. The ground ice at the ice table to be sampled by the Phoenix Lander is expected to be geologically young because of recent climate oscillations. However, estimates of the ratio of soil to ice in the ice-rich subsurface layer suggest that that the ice content exceeds the available pore space, which is difficult to reconcile with existing ground ice stability and dynamics models. These high concentrations of ice may be the result of either the burial of surface snow during times of higher obliquity, initially high-porosity soils, or the migration of water along thin films. Measurement of the D/H ratio within the ice at the ice table and of the soil-to-ice ratio, as well as imaging ice-soil textures, will help determine if the ice is indeed young and if the models of the effects of climate change on the ground ice are reasonable. Copyright 2008 by the American Geophysical Union.

  9. Introduction to special section on the Phoenix Mission: Landing Site Characterization Experiments, Mission Overviews, and Expected Science

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, P. H.; Tamppari, L.; Arvidson, R. E.; Bass, D.; Blaney, D.; Boynton, W.; Carswell, A.; Catling, D.; Clark, B.; Duck, T.; DeJong, E.; Fisher, D.; Goetz, W.; Gunnlaugsson, P.; Hecht, M.; Hipkin, V.; Hoffman, J.; Hviid, S.; Keller, H.; Kounaves, S.; Lange, C. F.; Lemmon, M.; Madsen, M.; Malin, M.; Markiewicz, W.; Marshall, J.; McKay, C.; Mellon, M.; Michelangeli, D.; Ming, D.; Morris, R.; Renno, N.; Pike, W. T.; Staufer, U.; Stoker, C.; Taylor, P.; Whiteway, J.; Young, S.; Zent, A.

    2008-10-01

    Phoenix, the first Mars Scout mission, capitalizes on the large NASA investments in the Mars Polar Lander and the Mars Surveyor 2001 missions. On 4 August 2007, Phoenix was launched to Mars from Cape Canaveral, Florida, on a Delta 2 launch vehicle. The heritage derived from the canceled 2001 lander with a science payload inherited from MPL and 2001 instruments gives significant advantages. To manage, build, and test the spacecraft and its instruments, a partnership has been forged between the Jet Propulsion Laboratory, the University of Arizona (home institution of principal investigator P. H. Smith), and Lockheed Martin in Denver; instrument and scientific contributions from Canada and Europe have augmented the mission. The science mission focuses on providing the ground truth for the 2002 Odyssey discovery of massive ice deposits hidden under surface soils in the circumpolar regions. The science objectives, the instrument suite, and the measurements needed to meet the objectives are briefly described here with reference made to more complete instrument papers included in this special section. The choice of a landing site in the vicinity of 68°N and 233°E balances scientific value and landing safety. Phoenix will land on 25 May 2008 during a complex entry, descent, and landing sequence using pulsed thrusters as the final braking strategy. After a safe landing, twin fan-like solar panels are unfurled and provide the energy needed for the mission. Throughout the 90-sol primary mission, activities are planned on a tactical basis by the science team; their requests are passed to an uplink team of sequencing engineers for translation to spacecraft commands. Commands are transmitted each Martian morning through the Deep Space Network by way of a Mars orbiter to the spacecraft. Data are returned at the end of the Martian day by the same path. Satisfying the mission's goals requires digging and providing samples of interesting layers to three on-deck instruments. By

  10. Thermal and Evolved Gas Analysis of Magnesium Perchlorate: Implications for Perchlorates in Soils at the Mars Phoenix Landing Site

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ming, Douglas W.; Morris, R.V.; Lauer, H. V.; Sutter, B.; Golden, D.C.; Boynton, W.V.

    2009-01-01

    Perchlorate salts were discovered in the soils around the Phoenix landing site on the northern plains of Mars [1]. Perchlorate was detected by an ion selective electrode that is part of the MECA Wet Chemistry Laboratory (WCL). The discovery of a mass 32 fragment (likely 02) by the Thermal and Evolved-Gas Analyzer (TEGA) provided additional confirmation of a strong oxidizer in the soils around the landing site. The purpose of this paper is to evaluate the thermal and evolved gas behavior of perchlorate salts using TEGA-like laboratory testbed instruments. TEGA ovens were fabricated from high purity Ni. Hence, an additional objective of this paper is to determine the effects that Ni might have on the evolved gas behavior of perchlorate salts.

  11. Phoenix's Position on Mars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2008-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Click on the image for the animation

    This animation shows an orbital view sweeping upward from Olympus Mons, the tallest volcano in the solar system, to the location of NASA's Phoenix Mars Lander in the northern polar reaches of Mars. The animation then zooms in on the flat terrain where Phoenix touched down May 25, 2008.

    Phoenix eased down to the surface of Mars at approximately 68 degrees north latitude, 234 degrees east longitude, landing in the center of the red circle at the end of the animation. Before Phoenix landed, engineers had predicted it would land within the blue ellipse.

    Phoenix touched down on the Red Planet at 4:53 p.m. Pacific Time (7:53 p.m. Eastern Time), May 25, 2008, in an arctic region called Vastitas Borealis.

    The shaded relief map is based on data from the Mars Orbiter Laser Altimeter on NASA's Mars Global Surveyor orbiter.

    The Phoenix Mission is led by the University of Arizona, Tucson, on behalf of NASA. Project management of the mission is by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif. Spacecraft development is by Lockheed Martin Space Systems, Denver.

  12. Confirmation of Soluble Sulfate at the Phoenix Landing Site: Implications for Martian Geochemistry and Habitability

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kounaves, S. P.; Hecht, M. H.; Kapit, J.; Quinn, R. C.; Catling, D. C.; Clark, B. C.; Ming, D. W.; Gospodinova, K.; Hredzak, P.; McElhoney, K.; Shusterman, J.

    2010-01-01

    Over the past several decades, elemental sulfur in martian soils and rocks has been detected by a number of missions using X-ray spectroscopy [1-3]. Optical spectroscopy has also provided evidence for widespread sulfates on Mars [4,5]. The ubiquitous presence of sulfur in soils has been interpreted as a widely distributed sulfate mineralogy [6]. However, direct confirmation as to the identity and solubility of the sulfur species in martian soil has never been obtained. One goal of the Wet Chemistry Laboratory (WCL) [7] on board the 2007 Phoenix Mars Lander [8] was to determine soluble sulfate in the martian soil. The WCL received three primary samples. Each sample was added to 25 mL of leaching solution and analysed for solvated ionic species, pH, and conductivity [9,10]. The analysis also showed a discrepancy between charge balance, ionic strength, and conductivity, suggesting unidentified anionic species.

  13. Modeling water ice clouds on Mars at the proposed Phoenix Lander site using a one-dimensional aerosol model.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pathak, J.; Michelangeli, D. V.; Tamppari, L. K.

    2004-11-01

    The Phoenix lander which will land on Mars in 2008 and be there from about Ls=76-140 as a NASA Scout mission will carry a MDRobotics/Optech lidar system supported by the Canadian Space Agency, to investigate various aspects of the atmosphere at the landing site. Clouds are an important element of the Martian climate system because of their ability to redistribute water vapor [Michelangeli et al., 1993; Clancy et al., 1996], and their impact on the radiation field. Since the condensation of ice particles is occurring most likely on suspended dust within the atmosphere, cloud formation will also modify the amount and location of dust in the Martian atmosphere, thus having an impact on radiation and dynamics. In order to effectively model clouds and dust in the Martian environment, we have modified the Community Aerosol and Radiation Model for Atmospheres (CARMA, developed by NASA/Ames Research Center) which is capable of simulating microphysics, transport and radiation. The one dimensional model results simulated at the proposed Phoenix lander site will be compared with the MGS TES cloud and dust opacity results. Acknowledgements. This work is supported by the Canadian Space Agency and Natural Sciences and Engineering Council of Canada. References: Clancy,R.T., A.W.Grossman, M.J. Wolff, P.B. James, D.J.Ruddy, Y.N. Billawala, B.J. Sandor, S.W. Lee and D.O. Muhleman, Water vapor saturation at low altitudes around Mars aphelion: A key to Mars climate?, Icarus, 122, 36-62, 1996. Michelangeli, D.V., O.B. Toon, R.M. Haberle, and J.B. Pollack, Numerical simulation of the formation and evolution of water ice clouds in the Martian atmosphere, Icarus, 100, 261 -285, 1993.

  14. Phoenix Lander on Mars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2007-01-01

    NASA's Phoenix Mars Lander monitors the atmosphere overhead and reaches out to the soil below in this artist's depiction of the spacecraft fully deployed on the surface of Mars.

    Phoenix has been assembled and tested for launch in August 2007 from Cape Canaveral Air Force Station, Fla., and for landing in May or June 2008 on an arctic plain of far-northern Mars. The mission responds to evidence returned from NASA's Mars Odyssey orbiter in 2002 indicating that most high-latitude areas on Mars have frozen water mixed with soil within arm's reach of the surface.

    Phoenix will use a robotic arm to dig down to the expected icy layer. It will analyze scooped-up samples of the soil and ice for factors that will help scientists evaluate whether the subsurface environment at the site ever was, or may still be, a favorable habitat for microbial life. The instruments on Phoenix will also gather information to advance understanding about the history of the water in the icy layer. A weather station on the lander will conduct the first study Martian arctic weather from ground level.

    The vertical green line in this illustration shows how the weather station on Phoenix will use a laser beam from a lidar instrument to monitor dust and clouds in the atmosphere. The dark 'wings' to either side of the lander's main body are solar panels for providing electric power.

    The Phoenix mission is led by Principal Investigator Peter H. Smith of the University of Arizona, Tucson, with project management at NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory and development partnership with Lockheed Martin Space Systems, Denver. International contributions for Phoenix are provided by the Canadian Space Agency, the University of Neuchatel (Switzerland), the University of Copenhagen (Denmark), the Max Planck Institute (Germany) and the Finnish Meteorological institute. JPL is a division of the California Institute of Technology in Pasadena.

  15. The effect of cangrelor and access site on ischaemic and bleeding events: insights from CHAMPION PHOENIX

    PubMed Central

    Gutierrez, J. Antonio; Harrington, Robert A.; Blankenship, James C.; Stone, Gregg W.; Steg, Ph. Gabriel; Gibson, C. Michael; Hamm, Christian W.; Price, Matthew J.; Généreux, Philippe; Prats, Jayne; Deliargyris, Efthymios N.; Mahaffey, Kenneth W.; White, Harvey D.; Bhatt, Deepak L.

    2016-01-01

    Aims To assess whether the use of the femoral or radial approach for percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) interacted with the efficacy and safety of cangrelor, an intravenous P2Y12 inhibitor, in CHAMPION PHOENIX. Methods and results A total of 11 145 patients were randomly assigned in a double-dummy, double-blind manner either to a cangrelor bolus and 2-h infusion or to clopidogrel at the time of PCI. The primary endpoint, a composite of death, myocardial infarction, ischaemia-driven revascularization, or stent thrombosis, and the primary safety endpoint, Global Use of Strategies to Open Occluded Coronary Arteries (GUSTO) defined severe bleeding, were evaluated at 48 h. Of the patients undergoing PCI and receiving study drug treatment, a total of 8064 (74%) and 2855 (26%) patients underwent femoral or radial PCI, respectively. Among the femoral cohort, the primary endpoint rate was 4.8% with cangrelor vs. 6.0% with clopidogrel (odds ratio, OR [95% confidence interval, CI] = 0.79 [0.65–0.96]); among the radial cohort, the primary endpoint was 4.4% with cangrelor vs. 5.7% with clopidogrel (OR [95% CI] = 0.76 [0.54–1.06]), P-interaction 0.83. The rate of GUSTO severe bleeding in the femoral cohort was 0.2% with cangrelor vs. 0.1% with clopidogrel (OR [95% CI] = 1.73 [0.51–5.93]). Among the radial cohort, the rate of GUSTO severe bleeding was 0.1% with cangrelor vs. 0.1% with clopidogrel (OR [95% CI] = 1.02 [0.14–7.28]), P-interaction 0.65. The evaluation of safety endpoints with the more sensitive ACUITY-defined bleeding found major bleeding in the femoral cohort to be 5.2% with cangrelor vs. 3.1% with clopidogrel (OR [95% CI] = 1.69 [1.35–2.12]); among the radial cohort the rate of ACUITY major bleeding was 1.5% with cangrelor vs. 0.7% with clopidogrel (OR [95% CI] = 2.17 [1.02–4.62], P-interaction 0.54). Conclusion In CHAMPION PHOENIX, cangrelor reduced ischaemic events with no significant increase in GUSTO-defined severe bleeding. The absolute rates

  16. Airborne dust and soil particles at the Phoenix landing site, Mars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Madsen, M. B.; Drube, L.; Goetz, W.; Leer, K.; Falkenberg, T. V.; Gunnlaugsson, H. P.; Haspang, M. P.; Hviid, S. F.; Ellehøj, M. D.; Lemmon, M. T.

    2009-04-01

    The three iSweep targets on the Phoenix lander instrument deck utilize permanent magnets and 6 different background colors for studies of airborne dust [1]. The name iSweep is short for Improved Sweep Magnet experiments and derives from MER heritage [2, 3] as the rovers carried a sweep magnet, which is a very strong ring magnet built into an aluminum structure. Airborne dust is attracted and held by the magnet and the pattern formed depends on magnetic properties of the dust. The visible/near-infrared spectra acquired of the iSweep are rather similar to typical Martian dust and soil spectra. Because of the multiple background colors of the iSweeps the effect of the translucence of thin dust layers can be studied. This is used to estimate the rate of dust accumulation and will be used to evaluate light scattering properties of the particles. Some particles raised by the retro-rockets during the final descent came to rest on the lander deck and spectra of these particles are studied and compared with those of airborne dust and with spectra obtained from other missions. High resolution images acquired by the Optical Microscope (OM) [4] showed subtle differences between different Phoenix soil samples in terms of particle size and color. Most samples contain orange dust (particles smaller than 10 micrometer) as their major component and silt-sized (50-80 micrometer large) subrounded particles. Both particle types are substantially magnetic. Based on results from the Mars Exploration Rovers, the magnetization of the silt-sized particles is believed to be caused by magnetite. Morphology, texture and color of these particles (ranging from colorless, red-brown to almost black) suggest a multiple origin: The darkest particles probably represent lithic fragments, while the brighter ones could be impact or volcanic glasses. [1] Leer K. et al. (2008) JGR, 113, E00A16. [2] Madsen M.B. et al. (2003) JGR, 108, 8069. [3] Madsen M.B. et al. (2008) JGR (in print). [4] Hecht M.H. et

  17. Observations of near-surface fog at the Phoenix Mars landing site

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moores, John E.; Komguem, Léonce; Whiteway, James A.; Lemmon, Mark T.; Dickinson, Cameron; Daerden, Frank

    2011-02-01

    The Surface Stereo Imager (SSI) on the Phoenix Mars Lander was able to complement the operations of the LIDAR on four occasions during the mission by observing the laser beam while the LIDAR laser was transmitting. These SSI observations permitted measurement of the scatter from atmospheric aerosols below 200 m where the LIDAR emitter and receiver do not overlap fully. The observed laser scattering was used to estimate the ice-water content (IWC) of near surface fog. Values of IWC up to 1.7 ± 1.0 mg m-3 were observed. Compared to air aloft, fog formation was inhibited near the surface which had accumulated at least 30 ± 24 mg m-2 (0.030 pr-μm) on sol 113. Microphysical modeling shows that when precipitation is included, up to 0.48 pr-μm of water may be present on the surface at the time of measurement. Integrated over the entire night, this represents up to 2.5 pr-μm of water taken up diurnally by the surface, or 6% of the total water column.

  18. Stable isotope measurements of martian atmospheric CO2 at the Phoenix landing site.

    PubMed

    Niles, Paul B; Boynton, William V; Hoffman, John H; Ming, Douglas W; Hamara, Dave

    2010-09-10

    Carbon dioxide is a primary component of the martian atmosphere and reacts readily with water and silicate rocks. Thus, the stable isotopic composition of CO2 can reveal much about the history of volatiles on the planet. The Mars Phoenix spacecraft measurements of carbon isotopes [referenced to the Vienna Pee Dee belemnite (VPDB)] [delta13C(VPDB) = -2.5 +/- 4.3 per mil (per thousand)] and oxygen isotopes [referenced to the Vienna standard mean ocean water (VSMOW)] (delta18O(VSMOW) = 31.0 +/- 5.7 per thousand), reported here, indicate that CO2 is heavily influenced by modern volcanic degassing and equilibration with liquid water. When combined with data from the martian meteorites, a general model can be constructed that constrains the history of water, volcanism, atmospheric evolution, and weathering on Mars. This suggests that low-temperature water-rock interaction has been dominant throughout martian history, carbonate formation is active and ongoing, and recent volcanic degassing has played a substantial role in the composition of the modern atmosphere.

  19. Phoenix's Snow White Trench

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2008-01-01

    A soil sample taken from the informally named 'Snow White' trench at NASA's Phoenix Mars Lander work site produced minerals that indicate evidence of past interaction between the minerals and liquid water.

    This image was taken by the Surface Stereo Imager on Sol 103, the 103rd day since landing (Sept. 8, 2008).

    The trench is approximately 23 centimeters (9 inches) long.

    The Phoenix Mission is led by the University of Arizona, Tucson, on behalf of NASA. Project management of the mission is by JPL, Pasadena, Calif. Spacecraft development was by Lockheed Martin Space Systems, Denver.

  20. Phoenix Animation Looking North

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2008-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Click on image for animation

    This animation is a series of images, taken by NASA's Phoenix Mars Lander's Surface Stereo Imager, combined into a panoramic view looking north from the lander. The area depicted is beyond the immediate workspace of the lander and shows a system of polygons and troughs that connect with the ones Phoenix will be investigating in depth.

    The images were taken on sol 14 (June 8, 2008) or the 14th Martian day after landing.

    The Phoenix Mission is led by the University of Arizona, Tucson, on behalf of NASA. Project management of the mission is by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif. Spacecraft development is by Lockheed Martin Space Systems, Denver.

  1. Phoenix Work Area Animation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2008-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Click on image for animation

    This animation from Sol 1 shows a mosaic of the Phoenix digging area in the Martian terrain. Phoenix scientists are very pleased with this view as the terrain features few rocks an optimal place for digging. The mast of the camera looks disjointed because the photos that comprise this mosaic were taken at different times of day. This video also show some of the lander's instrumentation.

    The Phoenix Mission is led by the University of Arizona, Tucson, on behalf of NASA. Project management of the mission is by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif. Spacecraft development is by Lockheed Martin Space Systems, Denver.

  2. Effect of evaporation and freezing on the salt paragenesis and habitability of brines at the Phoenix landing site

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Elsenousy, Amira; Hanley, Jennifer; Chevrier, Vincent F.

    2015-07-01

    The WCL (Wet Chemistry Lab) instrument on board the Phoenix Lander identified the soluble ionic composition of the soil at the landing site. However, few studies have been conducted to understand the parent salts of these soluble ions. Here we studied the possible salt assemblages at the Phoenix landing site using two different thermodynamic models: FREZCHEM and Geochemist's Workbench (GWB). Two precipitation pathways were used: evaporation (T > 0 °C using both FREZCHEM and GWB) and freezing (T < 0 °C using only FREZCHEM). Through applying three different models of initial ionic concentrations (from sulfate to chlorate/perchlorate dominated), we calculated the resulting precipitated minerals. The results-through both freezing and evaporation-showed some common minerals that precipitated regardless of the ionic initial concentration. These ubiquitous minerals are magnesium chlorate hexahydrate Mg(ClO3)2ṡ6H2O, potassium perchlorate (KClO4) and gypsum (CaSO4ṡ2H2O). Other minerals evidence specific precipitation pathway. Precipitation of highly hydrated salts such as meridianiite (MgSO4ṡ11H2O) and MgCl2ṡ12H2O indicate freezing pathway, while precipitation of the low hydrated salts (anhydrite, kieserite and epsomite) indicate evaporation. The present hydration states of the precipitated hydrated minerals probably reflect the ongoing thermal processing and recent seasonally varying humidity conditions at the landing site, but these hydration states might not reflect the original depositional conditions. The simulations also showed the absence of Ca-perchlorate in all models, mainly because of the formation of two main salts: KClO4 and gypsum which are major sinks for ClO-4 and Ca2+ respectively. Finally, in consideration to the Martian life, it might survive at the very low temperatures and low water activities of the liquids formed. However, besides the big and widely recognized challenges to life posed by those extreme environmental parameters (especially low

  3. 20. This adobe building, housing the Phoenix Herald in 1879, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    20. This adobe building, housing the Phoenix Herald in 1879, stood on the site later occupied by the Stroud Building. The Salt River Herald, Phoenix's first newspaper, was founded in 1878; in 1879, it became the Phoenix Herald. Prior to 1879, the adobe building served as the office for a stagecoach line operating between Maricopa and Prescott via Phoenix. Credit PPL. - Stroud Building, 31-33 North Central Avenue, Phoenix, Maricopa County, AZ

  4. Combustion of Organic Molecules by the Thermal Decomposition of Perchlorate Salts: Implications for Organics at the Mars Phoenix Scout Landing Site

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ming, D.W.; Morris, R.V.; Niles, B.; Lauer, H.V.; Archer, P.D.; Sutter, B.; Boynton, W.V.; Golden, D.C.

    2009-01-01

    The Mars 2007 Phoenix Scout Mission successfully landed on May 25, 2008 and operated on the northern plains of Mars for 150 sols. The primary mission objective was to study the history of water and evaluate the potential for past and present habitability in Martian arctic ice-rich soil [1]. Phoenix landed near 68 N latitude on polygonal terrain created by ice layers that are a few centimeters under loose soil materials. The Phoenix Mission is assessing the potential for habitability by searching for organic molecules in the ice or icy soils at the landing site. Organic molecules are necessary building blocks for life, although their presence in the ice or soil does not indicate life itself. Phoenix searched for organic molecules by heating soil/ice samples in the Thermal and Evolved-Gas Analyzer (TEGA, [2]). TEGA consists of 8 differential scanning calorimeter (DSC) ovens integrated with a magnetic-sector mass spectrometer with a mass range of 2-140 daltons [2]. Endothermic and exothermic reactions are recorded by the TEGA DSC as samples are heated from ambient to 1000 C. Evolved gases, including any organic molecules and their fragments, are simultaneously measured by the mass spectrometer during heating. Phoenix TEGA data are still under analysis; however, no organic fragments have been identified to date in the evolved gas analysis (EGA). The MECA Wet Chemistry Lab (WCL) discovered a perchlorate salt in the Phoenix soils and a mass 32 peak evolved between 325 and 625 C for one surface sample dubbed Baby Bear [3]. The mass 32 peak is attributed to evolved O2 generated during the thermal decomposition of the perchlorate salt. Perchlorates are very strong oxidizers when heated, so it is possible that organic fragments evolved in the temperature range of 300-600 C were combusted by the O2 released during the thermal decomposition of the perchlorate salt. The byproduct of the combustion of organic molecules is CO2. There is a prominent release of CO2 between 200

  5. Soluble salts at the Phoenix Lander site, Mars: A reanalysis of the Wet Chemistry Laboratory data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Toner, J. D.; Catling, D. C.; Light, B.

    2014-07-01

    The Wet Chemistry Laboratory (WCL) on the Phoenix Mars Scout Lander analyzed soils for soluble ions and found Ca2+, Mg2+, Na+, K+, Cl-, SO42-, and ClO4-. The salts that gave rise to these ions can be inferred using aqueous equilibrium models; however, model predictions are sensitive to the initial solution composition. This is problematic because the WCL data is noisy and many different ion compositions are possible within error bounds. To better characterize ion concentrations, we reanalyzed WCL data using improvements to original analyses, including Kalman optimal smoothing and ion-pair corrections. Our results for Rosy Red are generally consistent with previous analyses, except that Ca2+ and Cl- concentrations are lower. In contrast, ion concentrations in Sorceress 1 and Sorceress 2 are significantly different from previous analyses. Using the more robust Rosy Red WCL analysis, we applied equilibrium models to determine salt compositions within the error bounds of the reduced data. Modeling with FREZCHEM predicts that WCL solutions evolve Ca-Mg-ClO4-rich compositions at low temperatures. These unusual compositions are likely influenced by limitations in the experimental data used to parameterize FREZCHEM. As an alternative method to evaluate salt assemblages, we employed a chemical divide model based on the eutectic temperatures of salts. Our chemical divide model predicts that the most probable salts in order of mass abundance are MgSO4·11H2O (meridianiite), MgCO3·nH2O, Mg(ClO4)2·6H2O, NaClO4·2H2O, KClO4, NaCl·2H2O (hydrohalite), and CaCO3 (calcite). If ClO3- is included in the chemical divide model, then NaClO3 precipitates instead of NaClO4·2H2O and Mg(ClO3)2·6H2O precipitates in addition to Mg(ClO4)2·6H2O. These salt assemblages imply that at least 1.3 wt.% H2O is bound in the soil, noting that we cannot account for water in hydrated insoluble salts or deliquescent brines. All WCL solutions within error bounds precipitate Mg(ClO4)2·6H2O and/or Mg

  6. Spectral Modeling of Ground Ices Exposed by Trenching at the Phoenix Mars Landing Site

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cull, S.; Arvidson, R. E.; Blaney, D.; Morris, R. V.

    2008-12-01

    The Phoenix Lander, which landed on the northern plains of Mars on 25 May 2008, used its Robotic Arm (RA) to dig six trenches during its nominal 90-sol mission: Dodo-Goldilocks, Snow White, Cupboard, Neverland, Burn Alive, and Stone Soup. During excavation of the first five of these, the RA encountered hard material interpreted to be the ice table, and the Stereo Surface Imager (SSI) imaged the exposed materials using 15 filters spanning a wavelength range from 445 to 1001 nm. Materials exposed in the Dodo- Goldilocks and Snow White trenches are spectroscopically dissimilar: Dodo-Goldilocks hard material is brighter relative to the surrounding soil, and has a distinct downturn around 800 nm resulting from a dusty ice with low soil-to-ice ratio. Snow White hard stuff varies in brightness and spectral shape depending on the phase angle, with low-phase angle images showing dark material and higher phase angles showing more soil-like material. The Snow White material does not have the strong 800-nm downturn seen in Dodo- Goldilocks, because the soil-to-ice ratio is high as inferred by the rapid development of a sublimation lag; however, the albedo variation with phase angle could be due to strong forward-scattering at low phase angles, consistent with icy material. A modified Hapke model is used to estimate the relative abundances of water ice and dust in the Dodo- Goldilocks and Snow White materials, with dehydrated palagonite as an analogue for dust . The ice exposed at Dodo-Goldilocks must be relatively dust-free, since only a small amount of dust is needed to obscure water ice absorptions. In our modeling, we find that as little as 5 wt% 20-um dust is enough to completely mask the 1001 nm absorption in 1-mm grain size water ice. Dodo-Goldilocks spectra can have up to a 20% drop in reflectance from 800 nm to 1001 nm, which is best-matched in our Hapke model by water ice with path lengths on the order of 2-3 mm. The Snow White dark materials typically have a small

  7. Formation and Persistence of Brine on Mars: Experimental Simulations throughout the Diurnal Cycle at the Phoenix Landing Site

    PubMed Central

    Martínez, G.M.; Rennó, N.O.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract In the last few years, water ice and salts capable of melting this ice and producing liquid saline water (brine) have been detected on Mars. Moreover, indirect evidence for brine has been found in multiple areas of the planet. Here, we simulate full diurnal cycles of temperature and atmospheric water vapor content at the Phoenix landing site for the first time and show experimentally that, in spite of the low Mars-like chamber temperature, brine forms minutes after the ground temperature exceeds the eutectic temperature of salts in contact with water ice. Moreover, we show that the brine stays liquid for most of the diurnal cycle when enough water ice is available to compensate for evaporation. This is predicted to occur seasonally in areas of the polar region where the temperature exceeds the eutectic value and frost or snow is deposited on saline soils, or where water ice and salts coexist in the shallow subsurface. This is important because the existence of liquid water is a key requirement for habitability. Key Words: Mars—Ice—Perchlorates—Brine—Water—Raman spectroscopy. Astrobiology 16, 937–948. PMID:27912028

  8. Formation and Persistence of Brine on Mars: Experimental Simulations throughout the Diurnal Cycle at the Phoenix Landing Site.

    PubMed

    Fischer, E; Martínez, G M; Rennó, N O

    2016-12-01

    In the last few years, water ice and salts capable of melting this ice and producing liquid saline water (brine) have been detected on Mars. Moreover, indirect evidence for brine has been found in multiple areas of the planet. Here, we simulate full diurnal cycles of temperature and atmospheric water vapor content at the Phoenix landing site for the first time and show experimentally that, in spite of the low Mars-like chamber temperature, brine forms minutes after the ground temperature exceeds the eutectic temperature of salts in contact with water ice. Moreover, we show that the brine stays liquid for most of the diurnal cycle when enough water ice is available to compensate for evaporation. This is predicted to occur seasonally in areas of the polar region where the temperature exceeds the eutectic value and frost or snow is deposited on saline soils, or where water ice and salts coexist in the shallow subsurface. This is important because the existence of liquid water is a key requirement for habitability. Key Words: Mars-Ice-Perchlorates-Brine-Water-Raman spectroscopy. Astrobiology 16, 937-948.

  9. Formation and Persistence of Brine on Mars: Experimental Simulations throughout the Diurnal Cycle at the Phoenix Landing Site

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fischer, E.; Martínez, G. M.; Rennó, N. O.

    2016-12-01

    In the last few years, water ice and salts capable of melting this ice and producing liquid saline water (brine) have been detected on Mars. Moreover, indirect evidence for brine has been found in multiple areas of the planet. Here, we simulate full diurnal cycles of temperature and atmospheric water vapor content at the Phoenix landing site for the first time and show experimentally that, in spite of the low Mars-like chamber temperature, brine forms minutes after the ground temperature exceeds the eutectic temperature of salts in contact with water ice. Moreover, we show that the brine stays liquid for most of the diurnal cycle when enough water ice is available to compensate for evaporation. This is predicted to occur seasonally in areas of the polar region where the temperature exceeds the eutectic value and frost or snow is deposited on saline soils, or where water ice and salts coexist in the shallow subsurface. This is important because the existence of liquid water is a key requirement for habitability.

  10. Constraints on water vapor vertical distribution at the Phoenix landing site during summer from MGS TES day and night observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pankine, Alexey A.; Tamppari, Leslie K.

    2015-05-01

    We present a new method to retrieve column abundances and vertical extent of the water vapor from the Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Thermal Emission Spectrometer (TES) spectra. The new method enables retrievals from the nighttime TES spectra. The retrieval algorithm employs a new model of the vertical distribution of water vapor in the martian atmosphere. In this model water vapor is confined to a layer of finite height in the lower atmosphere. The atmosphere is dry above this 'wet' layer. Within the 'wet' layer the water vapor has a constant mixing ratio below the water ice cloud condensation height and is saturated above that height. The new retrieval method simultaneously fits the daytime and nighttime TES spectra for a given location using a single mixing ratio profile. We apply this new method to the TES spectra collected over the site of the Phoenix spacecraft landing during late northern spring and summer. Retrieved daytime column abundances are ∼1-5 pr-μm higher than in the previous TES retrieval. Nighttime column abundances are lower than the daytime abundances by ∼5-10 pr-μm due to assumed exchange with soil and predicted water ice cloud formation. The height of the 'wet' layer varies with season, reaching ∼18 km around Ls = 80-100° and decreasing to 7-10 km by Ls = 140°. Changes in the vertical extent of vapor are consistent with seasonal changes in the intensity of the turbulent mixing in the lower atmosphere and in the water ice cloud condensation height. Water vapor extends by several kilometers above the top of the boundary layer at ∼4 km, suggesting that vertical transport of vapor is not limited to the boundary layer.

  11. How Phoenix Looks Under Itself

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2008-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Click on image for animation

    This is an animation of NASA's Phoenix Mars Lander reaching with its Robotic Arm and taking a picture of the surface underneath the lander. The image at the conclusion of the animation was taken by Phoenix's Robotic Arm Camera (RAC) on the eighth Martian day of the mission, or Sol 8 (June 2, 2008). The light feature in the middle of the image below the leg is informally called 'Holy Cow.' The dust, shown in the dark foreground, has been blown off of 'Holy Cow' by Phoenix's thruster engines.

    The Phoenix Mission is led by the University of Arizona, Tucson, on behalf of NASA. Project management of the mission is by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif. Spacecraft development is by Lockheed Martin Space Systems, Denver.

  12. How Phoenix Talks to Earth

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2008-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Click on the image for the animation

    This animation shows how NASA's Phoenix Mars Lander stays in contact with Earth. As NASA's Mars Odyssey orbiter passes overhead approximately every two hours, Phoenix transmits images and scientific data from the surface to the orbiter, which then relays the data to NASA's Deep Space Network of antennas on Earth. Similarly, NASA's Deep Space Network transmits instructions from Earth to Odyssey, which then relays the information to Phoenix.

    The Phoenix Mission is led by the University of Arizona, Tucson, on behalf of NASA. Project management of the mission is by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif. Spacecraft development is by Lockheed Martin Space Systems, Denver.

  13. Microscopy analysis of soils at the Phoenix landing site, Mars: Classification of soil particles and description of their optical and magnetic properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goetz, W.; Pike, W. T.; Hviid, S. F.; Madsen, M. B.; Morris, R. V.; Hecht, M. H.; Staufer, U.; Leer, K.; Sykulska, H.; Hemmig, E.; Marshall, J.; Morookian, J. M.; Parrat, D.; Vijendran, S.; Bos, B. J.; El Maarry, M. R.; Keller, H. U.; Kramm, R.; Markiewicz, W. J.; Drube, L.; Blaney, D.; Arvidson, R. E.; Bell, J. F.; Reynolds, R.; Smith, P. H.; Woida, P.; Woida, R.; Tanner, R.

    2010-08-01

    The optical microscope onboard the Phoenix spacecraft has returned color images (4 μm pixel-1) of soils that were delivered to and held on various substrates. A preliminary taxonomy of Phoenix soil particles, based on color, size, and shape, identifies the following particle types [generic names in brackets]: (1) reddish fines, mostly unresolved, that are spectrally similar to (though slightly darker than) global airborne dust [red fines], (2) silt- to sand-sized brownish grains [brown sand], (3) silt- to sand-sized black grains [black sand], and (4) small amounts of whitish fines, possibly salts [white fines]. Most particles have a saturation magnetization in the range 0.5-2 Am2 kg-1 as inferred from their interaction with magnetic substrates. The particle size distribution has two distinct peaks below 10 μm (fines) and in the range 20-100 μm (grains), respectively, and is different from that of ripple soils in Gusev crater. In particular medium to large sand grains appear to be absent in Phoenix soils. Most sand grains have subrounded shape with variable texture. A fractured grain (observed on sol 112) reveals evidence of micrometer-sized crystal facets. The brown sand category displays a large diversity in color including shiny, almost colorless particles. Potential source regions for these grains may be the Tharsis volcanoes or Heimdal crater (20 km east of the landing site). The black grains are suggested to belong to a more widespread population of particles with mafic mineralogy. The absence of black/brown composite grains is consistent with different formation pathways and source regions for each grain type.

  14. Phoenix Lander on Mars (Stereo)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2007-01-01

    NASA's Phoenix Mars Lander monitors the atmosphere overhead and reaches out to the soil below in this stereo illustration of the spacecraft fully deployed on the surface of Mars. The image appears three-dimensional when viewed through red-green stereo glasses.

    Phoenix has been assembled and tested for launch in August 2007 from Cape Canaveral Air Force Station, Fla., and for landing in May or June 2008 on an arctic plain of far-northern Mars. The mission responds to evidence returned from NASA's Mars Odyssey orbiter in 2002 indicating that most high-latitude areas on Mars have frozen water mixed with soil within arm's reach of the surface.

    Phoenix will use a robotic arm to dig down to the expected icy layer. It will analyze scooped-up samples of the soil and ice for factors that will help scientists evaluate whether the subsurface environment at the site ever was, or may still be, a favorable habitat for microbial life. The instruments on Phoenix will also gather information to advance understanding about the history of the water in the icy layer. A weather station on the lander will conduct the first study Martian arctic weather from ground level.

    The vertical green line in this illustration shows how the weather station on Phoenix will use a laser beam from a lidar instrument to monitor dust and clouds in the atmosphere. The dark 'wings' to either side of the lander's main body are solar panels for providing electric power.

    The Phoenix mission is led by Principal Investigator Peter H. Smith of the University of Arizona, Tucson, with project management at NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory and development partnership with Lockheed Martin Space Systems, Denver. International contributions for Phoenix are provided by the Canadian Space Agency, the University of Neuchatel (Switzerland), the University of Copenhagen (Denmark), the Max Planck Institute (Germany) and the Finnish Meteorological institute. JPL is a division of the California

  15. Ultrahigh resolution topographic mapping of Mars with MRO HiRISE stereo images: Meter-scale slopes of candidate Phoenix landing sites

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kirk, R.L.; Howington-Kraus, E.; Rosiek, M.R.; Anderson, J.A.; Archinal, B.A.; Becker, K.J.; Cook, D.A.; Galuszka, D.M.; Geissler, P.E.; Hare, T.M.; Holmberg, I.M.; Keszthelyi, L.P.; Redding, B.L.; Delamere, W.A.; Gallagher, D.; Chapel, J.D.; Eliason, E.M.; King, R.; McEwen, A.S.

    2009-01-01

    The objectives of this paper are twofold: first, to report our estimates of the meter-to-decameter-scale topography and slopes of candidate landing sites for the Phoenix mission, based on analysis of Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) images with a typical pixel scale of 3 m and Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter (MRO) High Resolution Imaging Science Experiment (HiRISE) images at 0.3 m pixel-1 and, second, to document in detail the geometric calibration, software, and procedures on which the photogrammetric analysis of HiRISE data is based. A combination of optical design modeling, laboratory observations, star images, and Mars images form the basis for software in the U.S. Geological Survey Integrated Software for Imagers and Spectrometers (ISIS) 3 system that corrects the images for a variety of distortions with single-pixel or subpixel accuracy. Corrected images are analyzed in the commercial photogrammetric software SOCET SET (??BAE Systems), yielding digital topographic models (DTMs) with a grid spacing of 1 m (3-4 pixels) that require minimal interactive editing. Photoclinometry yields DTMs with single-pixel grid spacing. Slopes from MOC and HiRISE are comparable throughout the latitude zone of interest and compare favorably with those where past missions have landed successfully; only the Mars Exploration Rover (MER) B site in Meridiani Planum is smoother. MOC results at multiple locations have root-mean-square (RMS) bidirectional slopes of 0.8-4.5?? at baselines of 3-10 m. HiRISE stereopairs (one per final candidate site and one in the former site) yield 1.8-2.8?? slopes at 1-m baseline. Slopes at 1 m from photoclinometry are also in the range 2-3?? after correction for image blur. Slopes exceeding the 16?? Phoenix safety limit are extremely rare. Copyright 2008 by the American Geophysical Union.

  16. Phoenix Eases Down to Mars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2008-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Click on the image for the animation

    This artist's conception depicts NASA's Phoenix Mars Lander a moment before its touchdown on the arctic plains of Mars. Pulsed rocket engines control the spacecraft's speed during the final seconds of descent.

    This illustration is part of the animation featured above.

    The Phoenix Mission is led by the University of Arizona, Tucson, on behalf of NASA. Project management of the mission is by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif. Spacecraft development is by Lockheed Martin Space Systems, Denver.

  17. Flyover Animation of Phoenix Workspace

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2008-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Click on image for animation

    This animated 'flyover' of the workspace of NASA's Phoenix Mars Lander's was created from images taken by the Surface Stereo Imager on Sol 14 (June 8, 2008), or the 14th Martian day after landing.

    The visualization uses both of the camera's 'eyes' to provide depth perception and ranging. The camera is looking north over the workspace.

    The Phoenix Mission is led by the University of Arizona, Tucson, on behalf of NASA. Project management of the mission is by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif. Spacecraft development is by Lockheed Martin Space Systems, Denver.

  18. The Ground Beneath Phoenix's Feet

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2008-01-01

    This view of a portion of the spacecraft deck and one of the footpads of NASA's three-legged Phoenix Mars Lander shows a solid surface at the spacecraft's landing site. As the legs touched down on the surface of Mars, they kicked up some loose material on top of the footpad, but overall, the surface is unperturbed.

    Each footpad is about the size of a large dinner plate, measuring 11.5 inches from rim to rim. The base of the footpad is shaped like the bottom of a shallow bowl to provide stability.

    This image was taken by the Phoenix spacecraft's Surface Stereo Imager shortly after landing on Mars.

    The Phoenix Mission is led by the University of Arizona, Tucson, on behalf of NASA. Project management of the mission is by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif. Spacecraft development is by Lockheed Martin Space Systems, Denver.

  19. Identity of the Perchlorate Parent Salt(s) at the Phoenix Mars Landing Site Based on Reanalysis of the Calcium Sensor Response

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kounaves, S. P.; Folds, K. E.; Hansen, V. M.; Weber, A. W.; Carrier, B. L.; Chaniotakis, N. A.

    2012-12-01

    analyses further constrain and provide a clear indication that the dominate parent salt in the soil at the Phoenix landing site is Ca(ClO4)2, with little or no contribution by Mg or Na-perchlorate salts. [1] Kounaves et al. (2010) J. Geophys. Res., 114, E00A19. [2] Hecht et al. (2009) Science, 325, 64-67. [3] Kounaves et al. (2010) Geophys. Res. Let., 37, L09201 [4] Quinn et al. (2011) Geophys. Res. Lett., 38, L14202. [5] Gellert et al. (2004) Science, 305, 829-32.

  20. Phoenix Telltale Movie with Clouds, Sol 103

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2008-01-01

    NASA's Phoenix Mars Lander's telltale catches a breeze as clouds move over the landing site on Sol 103 (Sept. 7, 2008), the 103rd Martian day since landing.

    Phoenix's Surface Stereo Imager took this series of images during daily telltale monitoring around 3 p.m. local solar time and captured the clouds moving over the landing site.

    Phoenix can measure wind speed and direction by imaging the telltale, which is about about 10 centimeters (4 inches) tall. The telltale was built by the University of Aarhus, Denmark.

    The Phoenix Mission is led by the University of Arizona, Tucson, on behalf of NASA. Project management of the mission is by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif. Spacecraft development is by Lockheed Martin Space Systems, Denver.

  1. Flyover Video of Phoenix Work Area

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2008-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Click on image for animation

    This video shows an overhead view of NASA's Phoenix Mars Lander and the work area of the Robotic Arm.

    The Phoenix Mission is led by the University of Arizona, Tucson, on behalf of NASA. Project management of the mission is by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif. Spacecraft development is by Lockheed Martin Space Systems, Denver.

  2. Phoenix's Lay of the Land

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2008-01-01

    This image from NASA's Phoenix Mars Lander shows the spacecraft's recent activity site as of the 23rd Martian day of the mission, or Sol 22 (June 16, 2008), after the spacecraft touched down on the Red Planet's northern polar plains. The mosaic was taken by the lander's Surface Stereo Imager (SSI). Parts of Phoenix can be seen in the foreground.

    The first two trenches dug by the lander's Robotic Arm, called 'Dodo' and 'Goldilocks,' were enlarged on the 19th Martian day of the mission, or Sol 18 (June 12, 2008), to form one trench, dubbed 'Dodo-Goldilocks.' Scoops of material taken from those trenches are informally called 'Baby Bear' and 'Mama Bear.' Baby Bear was carried to Phoenix's Thermal and Evolved-Gas Analyzer, or TEGA, instrument for analysis, while Mama Bear was delivered to Phoenix's Microscopy, Electrochemistry and Conductivity Analyzer instrument suite, or MECA, for a closer look.

    The color inset picture of the Dodo-Goldilocks trench, also taken with Phoenix's SSI, reveals white material thought to be ice.

    More recently, on Sol 22 (June 16, 2008), Phoenix's Robotic Arm began digging a trench, dubbed 'Snow White,' in a patch of Martian soil near the center of a polygonal surface feature, nicknamed 'Cheshire Cat.' The 'dump pile' is located at the top of the trench, and has been dubbed 'Croquet Ground.' The digging site has been nicknamed 'Wonderland.'

    The Snow White trench, seen here in an SSI image from Sol 22 (June 16, 2008) is about 2 centimeters (.8 inches) deep and 30 centimeters (12 inches) long. As of Sol 25 (June 19, 2008), the trench is 5 centimeters (2 inches deep) and the trench has been renamed 'Snow White 1,' as a second trench has been dug to its right and nicknamed 'Snow White 2.'

    The Phoenix Mission is led by the University of Arizona, Tucson, on behalf of NASA. Project management of the mission is by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif. Spacecraft development is by Lockheed Martin Space Systems

  3. Phoenix Lidar Operation Animation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2008-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Click on image for animation

    This is an animation of the Canadian-built meteorological station's lidar, which was successfully activated on Sol 2. The animation shows how the lidar is activated by first opening its dust cover, then emitting rapid pulses of light (resembling a brilliant green laser) into the Martian atmosphere. Some of the light then bounces off particles in the atmosphere, and is reflected back down to the lidar's telescope. This allows the lidar to detect dust, clouds and fog.

    The Phoenix Mission is led by the University of Arizona, Tucson, on behalf of NASA. Project management of the mission is by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif. Spacecraft development is by Lockheed Martin Space Systems, Denver.

  4. Martian Surface Beneath Phoenix

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2008-01-01

    This is an image of the Martian surface beneath NASA's Phoenix Mars Lander. The image was taken by Phoenix's Robotic Arm Camera (RAC) on the eighth Martian day of the mission, or Sol 8 (June 2, 2008). The light feature in the middle of the image below the leg is informally called 'Holy Cow.' The dust, shown in the dark foreground, has been blown off of 'Holy Cow' by Phoenix's thruster engines.

    The Phoenix Mission is led by the University of Arizona, Tucson, on behalf of NASA. Project management of the mission is by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif. Spacecraft development is by Lockheed Martin Space Systems, Denver.

  5. Declining Sunshine for Phoenix Lander

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2008-01-01

    The yellow line on this graphic indicates the number of hours of sunlight each sol, or Martian day, at the Phoenix landing site's far-northern latitude, beginning with the entire Martian day (about 24 hours and 40 minutes) for the first 90 sols, then declining to no sunlight by about sol 300. The blue tick mark indicates that on Sol 124 (Sept. 29, 2008), the sun is above the horizon for about 20 hours.

    The brown vertical bar represents the period from Nov. 18 to Dec. 24, 2008, around the 'solar conjunction,' when the sun is close to the line between Mars and Earth, affecting communications.

    The green vertical rectangle represents the period from February to November 2009 when the Phoenix lander is expected to be encased in carbon-dioxide ice.

  6. Dust Devil Tracks and Wind Streaks in the North Polar Region of Mars: A Study of the 2007 Phoenix Mars Lander Sites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Drake, Nathan B.; Tamppari, Leslie K.; Baker, R. David; Cantor, Bruce A.; Hale, Amy S.

    2006-01-01

    The 65-72 latitude band of the North Polar Region of Mars, where the 2007 Phoenix Mars Lander will land, was studied using satellite images from the Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Orbiter Camera Narrow-Angle (MOC-NA) camera. Dust devil tracks (DDT) and wind streaks (WS) were observed and recorded as surface evidence for winds. No active dust devils (DDs) were observed. 162 MOC-NA images, 10.3% of total images, contained DDT/WS. Phoenix landing Region C (295-315W) had the highest concentration of images containing DDT/WS per number of available images (20.9%); Region D (130-150W) had the lowest (3.5%). DDT and WS direction were recorded for Phoenix landing regions A (110-130W), B (240-260W), and C to infer local wind direction. Region A showed dominant northwest-southeast DDT/WS, Region B showed dominant north-south, east-west and northeast-southwest DDT/WS, and region C showed dominant west/northwest - east/southeast DDT/ WS. Results indicate the 2007 Phoenix Lander has the highest probability of landing near DDT/WS in landing Region C. Based on DDT/WS linearity, we infer Phoenix would likely encounter directionally consistent background wind in any of the three regions.

  7. Phoenix Color Targets

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2008-01-01

    These images of three Phoenix color targets were taken on sols 1 and 2 by the Surface Stereo Imager (SSI) on board the Phoenix lander. The bottom target was imaged in approximate color (SSI's red, green, and blue filters: 600, 530, and 480 nanometers), while the others were imaged with an infrared filter (750 nanometers). All of them will be imaged many times over the mission to monitor the color calibration of the camera. The two at the top show grains 2 to 3 millimeters in size that were likely lifted to the Phoenix deck during landing. Each of the large color chips on each target contains a strong magnet to protect the interior material from Mars' magnetic dust.

    The Phoenix Mission is led by the University of Arizona, Tucson, on behalf of NASA. Project management of the mission is by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif. Spacecraft development is by Lockheed Martin Space Systems, Denver.

  8. City of Phoenix - Energize Phoenix Program

    SciTech Connect

    Laloudakis, Dimitrios J.

    2014-09-29

    Energize Phoenix (EPHX) was designed as an ambitious, large-scale, three-year pilot program to provide energy efficiency upgrades in buildings, along Phoenix’s new Light Rail Corridor – part of a federal effort to reduce energy consumption and stimulate job growth, while simultaneously reducing the country’s carbon footprint and promoting a shift towards a green economy. The program was created through a 2010 competitive grant awarded to the City of Phoenix who managed the program in partnership with Arizona State University (ASU), the state’s largest university, and Arizona Public Service (APS), the state’s largest electricity provider. The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Better Buildings Neighborhood Program (BBNP) and the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act (ARRA) of 2009 provided $25M in funding for the EPHX program. The Light Rail Corridor runs through the heart of downtown Phoenix, making most high-rise and smaller commercial buildings eligible to participate in the EPHX program, along with a diverse mix of single and multi-family residential buildings. To ensure maximum impact and deeper market penetration, Energize Phoenix was subdivided into three unique parts: i. commercial rebate program, ii. commercial financing program, and iii. residential program Each component was managed by the City of Phoenix in partnership with APS. Phoenix was fortunate to partner with APS, which already operated robust commercial and residential rebate programs within its service territory. Phoenix tapped into the existing utility contractor network, provided specific training to over 100 contracting firms, and leveraged the APS rebate program structure (energy efficiency funding) to launch the EPHX commercial and residential rebate programs. The commercial finance program was coordinated and managed through a contract with National Bank of Arizona, NBAZ, which also provided project capital leveraging EPHX finance funds. Working in unison, approved contractors

  9. Soil on Phoenix's MECA

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2008-01-01

    This image shows soil delivery to NASA's Phoenix Mars Lander's Microscopy, Electrochemistry and Conductivity Analyzer (MECA). The image was taken by the lander's Surface Stereo Imager on the 131st Martian day, or sol, of the mission (Oct. 7, 2008).

    At the bottom of the image is the chute for delivering samples to MECA's microscopes. It is relatively clean due to the Phoenix team using methods such as sprinkling to minimize cross-contamination of samples. However, the cumulative effect of several sample deliveries can be seen in the soil piles on either side of the chute.

    On the right side are the four chemistry cells with soil residue piled up on exposed surfaces. The farthest cell has a large pile of material from an area of the Phoenix workspace called 'Stone Soup.' This area is deep in the trough at a polygon boundary, and its soil was so sticky it wouldn't even go through the funnel.

    One of Phoenix's solar panels is shown in the background of this image.

    The Phoenix Mission is led by the University of Arizona, Tucson, on behalf of NASA. Project management of the mission is by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif. Spacecraft development is by Lockheed Martin Space Systems, Denver.

  10. Aqueous extracts of a Mars analogue regolith that mimics the Phoenix landing site do not inhibit spore germination or growth of model spacecraft contaminants Bacillus subtilis 168 and Bacillus pumilus SAFR-032

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nicholson, Wayne L.; McCoy, Lashelle E.; Kerney, Krystal R.; Ming, Douglas W.; Golden, D. C.; Schuerger, Andrew C.

    2012-08-01

    Because Mars is a primary target for life detection and habitability assessment missions, its exploration is also by necessity a Planetary Protection issue. The recent finding of significant levels of perchlorate (ClO4-) in regolith sampled from the Phoenix landing site raises the question of its potential biotoxicity to putative indigenous martian life, microbial forward contaminants from Earth, or future human visitors. To address this issue, an analogue regolith was constructed based on regolith chemistry data from the Phoenix landing site. A Mars Aqueous Regolith Extract (MARE) was prepared from the Phoenix analogue regolith and analyzed by ion chromatography. The MARE contained (mg/L) the cations Na+ (1411 ± 181), Mg2+ (1051 ± 160), Ca2+ (832 ± 125), and K+ (261 ± 29), and the anions SO42-(5911±993), ClO4-(5316±1767), Cl(171±25) and F- (2.0 ± 0.4). Nitrogen-containing species NO3-(773±113) and NO2-(6.9±2.3) were also present as a result of regolith preparation procedures, but their relevance to Mars is at present unknown. The MARE was tested for potential toxic effects on two model spacecraft contaminants, the spore-forming bacteria Bacillus subtilis strain 168 and Bacillus pumilus strain SAFR-032. In B. subtilis, spore germination and initial vegetative growth (up to ˜5 h) was not inhibited in a rich complex medium prepared with the MARE, but growth after 5 h was significantly suppressed in medium prepared using the MARE. Both B. subtilis and B. pumilus exhibited significantly higher rates of spore germination and growth in the MARE vs. DW with no additions (likely due to endogenous spore nutrients), but germination and growth was further stimulated by addition of glucose and a combination of buffered inorganic salts (K2HPO4, KH2PO4, (NH4)2SO4, and MgSO4). The data indicate that the aqueous environment in the regolith from the Phoenix landing site containing high levels of perchlorate does not pose a significant barrier to growth of putative

  11. Soil on Phoenix Deck

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2008-01-01

    This image, taken by the Surface Stereo Imager (SSI) of NASA's Phoenix Lander, shows Martian soil piled on top of the spacecraft's deck and some of its instruments. Visible in the upper-left portion of the image are several wet chemistry cells of the lander's Microscopy, Electrochemistry, and Conductivity Analyzer (MECA). The instrument on the lower right of the image is the Thermal and Evolved-Gas Analyzer. The excess sample delivered to the MECA's sample stage can be seen on the deck in the lower left portion of the image.

    This image was taken on Martian day, or sol, 142, on Saturday, Oct. 19, 2008. Phoenix landed on Mars' northern plains on May 25, 2008.

    The Phoenix Mission is led by the University of Arizona, Tucson, on behalf of NASA. Project management of the mission is by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif. Spacecraft development is by Lockheed Martin Space Systems, Denver.

  12. Soil on Phoenix's TEGA

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2008-01-01

    This image shows soil on the doors of the Thermal and Evolved Gas Analyzer (TEGA) onboard NASA's Phoenix Mars Lander. The image was taken by the lander's Robotic Arm Camera on the 131st Martian day, or sol, of the mission (Oct. 7, 2008). This sample delivered to TEGA was named 'Rosy Red.'

    The Phoenix Mission is led by the University of Arizona, Tucson, on behalf of NASA. Project management of the mission is by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif. Spacecraft development is by Lockheed Martin Space Systems, Denver.

  13. Phoenix Lander Work Area

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2008-01-01

    This image shows NASA's Phoenix Mars Lander Robotic Arm work area with an overlay. The pink area is available for digging, the green area is reserved for placing the Thermal and Electrical Conductivity Probe (TECP) instrument. Soil can be dumped in the violet area.

    Images were displayed using NASA Ames 'Viz' visualization software.

    The Phoenix Mission is led by the University of Arizona, Tucson, on behalf of NASA. Project management of the mission is by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif. Spacecraft development is by Lockheed Martin Space Systems, Denver.

  14. Phoenix's Wet Chemistry Lab

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2008-01-01

    This is an illustration of soil analysis on NASA's Phoenix Mars Lander's Wet Chemistry Lab (WCL) on board the Microscopy, Electrochemistry, and Conductivity Analyzer (MECA) instrument. By dissolving small amounts of soil in water, WCL will attempt to determine the pH, the abundance of minerals such as magnesium and sodium cations or chloride, bromide and sulfate anions, as well as the conductivity and redox potential.

    The Phoenix Mission is led by the University of Arizona, Tucson, on behalf of NASA. Project management of the mission is by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif. Spacecraft development is by Lockheed Martin Space Systems, Denver.

  15. Phoenix's Wet Chemistry Lab

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2008-01-01

    This is an illustration of the analytical procedure of NASA's Phoenix Mars Lander's Wet Chemistry Lab (WCL) on board the Microscopy, Electrochemistry, and Conductivity Analyzer (MECA) instrument. By dissolving small amounts of soil in water, WCL can determine the pH, the abundance of minerals such as magnesium and sodium cations or chloride, bromide and sulfate anions, as well as the conductivity and redox potential.

    The Phoenix Mission is led by the University of Arizona, Tucson, on behalf of NASA. Project management of the mission is by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif. Spacecraft development is by Lockheed Martin Space Systems, Denver.

  16. Phoenix Robotic Arm Rasp

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2008-01-01

    This photograph shows the rasp protruding from the back of the scoop on NASA's Phoenix Mars Lander's Robotic Arm engineering model in the Payload Interoperability Testbed at the University of Arizona, Tucson.

    This is the position the rasp will assume when it drills into the Martian soil to acquire an icy soil sample for analysis.

    The Phoenix Mission is led by the University of Arizona, Tucson, on behalf of NASA. Project management of the mission is led by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif. Spacecraft development is by Lockheed Martin Space Systems, Denver.

  17. Clumps in Phoenix Scoop

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2008-01-01

    This sample of Martian soil was collected by the NASA's Phoenix Mars Lander during the 14th Martian day after landing (June 8, 2008) for later delivery to the lander's Optical Microscope. The Robotic Arm Camera took the picture of the contents of the arm's scoop, about 9 centimeters (3.5 inches) wide.

    The Phoenix Mission is led by the University of Arizona, Tucson, on behalf of NASA. Project management of the mission is by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif. Spacecraft development is by Lockheed Martin Space Systems, Denver.

  18. Animation of Panorama of Phoenix Landing Area Looking Southeast

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2008-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Click on image for animation

    This is an animation of panoramic images taken by NASA's Phoenix Mars Lander's Surface Stereo Imager on Sol 15 (June 9, 2008), the 15th Martian day after landing. The panorama looks to the southeast and shows rocks casting shadows, polygons on the surface and as the image looks to the horizon, Phoenix's backshell gleams in the distance.

    The Phoenix Mission is led by the University of Arizona, Tucson, on behalf of NASA. Project management of the mission is by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif. Spacecraft development is by Lockheed Martin Space Systems, Denver.

  19. PHOENIX. Higher Wage Careers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bismarck State Coll., ND.

    This document outlines the curriculum plan for the one-semester vocational-technical training component of PHOENIX: A Model Program for Higher-Wage Potential Careers offered by Bismarck State College (North Dakota) which prepares and/or retrains individuals for higher-wage technical careers. The comprehensive model for the program is organized…

  20. The Phoenix Mars Mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tamppari, Leslie K.; Smith, Peter H.

    2008-01-01

    This slide presentation details the Phoenix Mission which was designed to enhance our understanding of water and the potential for habitability on the north polar regions of Mars. The slides show the instruments and the robotics designed to scrape Martian surface material, and analyze it in hopes of identifying water in the form of ice, and other chemicals.

  1. Phoenix Robotic Arm

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2007-01-01

    A vital instrument on NASA's Phoenix Mars Lander is the robotic arm, which will dig into the icy soil and bring samples back to the science deck of the spacecraft for analysis. In September 2006 at a Lockheed Martin Space Systems clean room facility near Denver, spacecraft technician Billy Jones inspects the arm during the assembly phase of the mission.

    Using the robotic arm -- built by the Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena -- the Phoenix mission will study the history of water and search for complex organic molecules in the ice-rich soil.

    The Phoenix mission is led by Principal Investigator Peter H. Smith of the University of Arizona, Tucson, with project management at NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory and development partnership with Lockheed Martin Space Systems. International contributions for Phoenix are provided by the Canadian Space Agency, the University of Neuchatel (Switzerland), the University of Copenhagen, and the Max Planck Institute in Germany. JPL is a division of the California Institute of Technology in Pasadena.

  2. Phoenix's 'Dodo' Trench

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2008-01-01

    This image was taken by NASA's Phoenix Mars Lander's Robotic Arm Camera (RAC) on the ninth Martian day of the mission, or Sol 9 (June 3, 2008). The center of the image shows a trench informally called 'Dodo' after the second dig. 'Dodo' is located within the previously determined digging area, informally called 'Knave of Hearts.' The light square to the right of the trench is the Robotic Arm's Thermal and Electrical Conductivity Probe (TECP). The Robotic Arm has scraped to a bright surface which indicated the Arm has reached a solid structure underneath the surface, which has been seen in other images as well.

    The Phoenix Mission is led by the University of Arizona, Tucson, on behalf of NASA. Project management of the mission is by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif. Spacecraft development is by Lockheed Martin Space Systems, Denver.

  3. Phoenix's La Mancha Trench

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2008-01-01

    This false color image, taken by NASA's Phoenix Mars Lander's Surface Stereo Imager, was taken on the 131st Martian day, or sol, of the mission (Oct. 7, 2008). The image shows color variations of the trench, informally named 'La Mancha,' and reveals the ice layer beneath the soil surface. The trench's depth is about 5 centimeters deep.

    The color outline of the shadow at the bottom of the image is a result of sun movement with the combined use of infrared, green, and blue filters.

    The Phoenix Mission is led by the University of Arizona, Tucson, on behalf of NASA. Project management of the mission is by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif. Spacecraft development is by Lockheed Martin Space Systems, Denver.

  4. Underneath the Phoenix Lander

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2008-01-01

    The Robotic Arm Camera on NASA's Phoenix Mars Lander took this image on Oct. 18, 2008, during the 142nd Martian day, or sol, since landing. The flat patch in the center of the image has the informal name 'Holy Cow,' based on researchers' reaction when they saw the initial image of it only a few days after the May 25, 2008 landing. Researchers first saw this flat patch in an image taken by the Robotic Arm Camera on May 30, the fifth Martian day of the mission.

    The Phoenix mission is led by the University of Arizona, Tucson, on behalf of NASA. Project management of the mission is by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif. Spacecraft development is by Lockheed Martin Space Systems, Denver.

  5. Phoenix's Wet Chemistry Laboratory Units

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2008-01-01

    This image shows four Wet Chemistry Laboratory units, part of the Microscopy, Electrochemistry, and Conductivity Analyzer (MECA) instrument on board NASA's Phoenix Mars Lander. This image was taken before Phoenix's launch on August 4, 2007.

    The Phoenix Mission is led by the University of Arizona, Tucson, on behalf of NASA. Project management of the mission is by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif. Spacecraft development is by Lockheed Martin Space Systems, Denver.

  6. Phoenix Opens its Eyes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2008-01-01

    This image, one of the first captured by NASA's Phoenix Mars Lander, shows the vast plains of the northern polar region of Mars. The flat landscape is strewn with tiny pebbles and shows polygonal cracking, a pattern seen widely in Martian high latitudes and also observed in permafrost terrains on Earth. The polygonal cracking is believed to have resulted from seasonal contraction and expansion of surface ice.

    Phoenix touched down on the Red Planet at 4:53 p.m. Pacific Time (7:53 p.m. Eastern Time), May 25, 2008, in an arctic region called Vastitas Borealis, at 68 degrees north latitude, 234 degrees east longitude.

    This is an approximate-color image taken shortly after landing by the spacecraft's Surface Stereo Imager, inferred from two color filters, a violet, 450-nanometer filter and an infrared, 750-nanometer filter.

    The Phoenix Mission is led by the University of Arizona, Tucson, on behalf of NASA. Project management of the mission is by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif. Spacecraft development is by Lockheed Martin Space Systems, Denver.

  7. Telecommunications Relay Support of the Mars Phoenix Lander Mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Edwards, Charles D., Jr.; Erickson, James K.; Gladden, Roy E.; Guinn, Joseph R.; Ilott, Peter A.; Jai, Benhan; Johnston, Martin D.; Kornfeld, Richard P.; Martin-Mur, Tomas J.; McSmith, Gaylon W.; Thomas, Reid C.; Varghese, Phil; Signori, Gina; Schmitz, Peter

    2010-01-01

    The Phoenix Lander, first of NASA's Mars Scout missions, arrived at the Red Planet on May 25, 2008. From the moment the lander separated from its interplanetary cruise stage shortly before entry, the spacecraft could no longer communicate directly with Earth, and was instead entirely dependent on UHF relay communications via an international network of orbiting Mars spacecraft, including NASA's 2001 Mars Odyssey (ODY) and Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter (MRO) spacecraft, as well as ESA's Mars Express (MEX) spacecraft. All three orbiters captured critical event telemetry and/or tracking data during Phoenix Entry, Descent and Landing. During the Phoenix surface mission, ODY and MRO provided command and telemetry services, far surpassing the original data return requirements. The availability of MEX as a backup relay asset enhanced the robustness of the surface relay plan. In addition to telecommunications services, Doppler tracking observables acquired on the UHF link yielded an accurate position for the Phoenix landing site.

  8. Assessing Habitability: Lessons from the Phoenix Mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stoker, Carol R.

    2013-01-01

    The Phoenix mission's key objective was to search for a habitable zone. The Phoenix lander carried a robotic arm with digging scoop to collect soil and icy material for analysis with an instrument payload that included volatile mineral and organic analysis(3) and soil ionic chemistry analysis (4). Results from Phoenix along with theoretical modeling and other previous mission results were used to evaluate the habitability of the landing site by considering four factors that characterize the environments ability to support life as we know it: the presence of liquid water, the presence of an energy source to support metabolism, the presence of nutrients containing the fundamental building blocks of life, and the absence of environmental conditions that are toxic to or preclude life. Phoenix observational evidence for the presence of liquid water (past or present) includes clean segregated ice, chemical etching of soil grains, calcite minerals in the soil and variable concentrations of soluble salts5. The maximum surface temperature measured was 260K so unfrozen water can form only in adsorbed films or saline brines but warmer climates occur cyclically on geologically short time scales due to variations in orbital parameters. During high obliquity periods, temperatures allowing metabolism extend nearly a meter into the subsurface. Phoenix discovered 1%w/w perchlorate salt in the soil, a chemical energy source utilized by a wide range of microbes. Nutrient sources including C, H, N, O, P and S compounds are supplied by known atmospheric sources or global dust. Environmental conditions are within growth tolerance for terrestrial microbes. Summer daytime temperatures are sufficient for metabolic activity, the pH is 7.8 and is well buffered and the projected water activity of a wet soil will allow growth. In summary, martian permafrost in the north polar region is a viable location for modern life. Stoker et al. presented a formalism for comparing the habitability of

  9. How Phoenix Creates Color Images (Animation)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2008-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Click on image for animation

    This simple animation shows how a color image is made from images taken by Phoenix.

    The Surface Stereo Imager captures the same scene with three different filters. The images are sent to Earth in black and white and the color is added by mission scientists.

    By contrast, consumer digital cameras and cell phones have filters built in and do all of the color processing within the camera itself.

    The Phoenix Mission is led by the University of Arizona, Tucson, on behalf of NASA. Project management of the mission is by NASAaE(TM)s Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif. Spacecraft development is by Lockheed Martin Space Systems, Denver.

  10. Phoenix's Laser Beam in Action on Mars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2008-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Click on image to view the animation

    The Surface Stereo Imager camera aboard NASA's Phoenix Mars Lander acquired a series of images of the laser beam in the Martian night sky. Bright spots in the beam are reflections from ice crystals in the low level ice-fog. The brighter area at the top of the beam is due to enhanced scattering of the laser light in a cloud. The Canadian-built lidar instrument emits pulses of laser light and records what is scattered back.

    The Phoenix Mission is led by the University of Arizona, Tucson, on behalf of NASA. Project management of the mission is by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif. Spacecraft development is by Lockheed Martin Space Systems, Denver.

  11. Soil Fills Phoenix Laboratory Cell

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2008-01-01

    This image shows four of the eight cells in the Thermal and Evolved-Gas Analyzer, or TEGA, on NASA's Phoenix Mars Lander. TEGA's ovens, located underneath the cells, heat soil samples so the released gases can be analyzed.

    Left to right, the cells are numbered 7, 6, 5 and 4. Phoenix's Robotic Arm delivered soil most recently to cell 6 on the 137th Martian day, or sol, of the mission (Oct. 13, 2008).

    Phoenix's Robotic Arm Camera took this image at 3:03 p.m. local solar time on Sol 138 (Oct. 14, 2008).

    Phoenix landed on Mars' northern plains on May 25, 2008.

    The Phoenix Mission is led by the University of Arizona, Tucson, on behalf of NASA. Project management of the mission is by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif. Spacecraft development is by Lockheed Martin Space Systems, Denver.

  12. Wind-Related Topography in Phoenix's Region of Mars (Animation)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2008-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Click on image for animation

    This movie shifts from a global zoom indicating the Phoenix landing area on Mars to a topographical map indicating relative elevations in the landing region. The elevations could affect wind patterns at the site.

    In particular, Phoenix is in a broad, shallow valley. The edge of the valley, about 150 meters (500 feet) above the floor, may provide enough of a slope to the east of Phoenix to explain winds coming from the east during nights at the site. Cooler, denser air could be sinking down the slope and toward the lander.

    Atmospheric scientists on the Phoenix team are analyzing wind patterns to distiguish effects of nearby topography from larger-scale movement of the atmosphere in the polar region.

    The elevation information for this topographical mapping comes from the Mars Orbiter Laser Altimeter on NASA's Mars Global Surveyor orbiter. The blue-coded area is the valley floor. Orange and yellow indicate relatively higher elevations.

    The Phoenix Mission is led by the University of Arizona, Tucson, on behalf of NASA. Project management of the mission is by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif. Spacecraft development is by Lockheed Martin Space Systems, Denver. JPL managed the Mars Global Surveyor mission for the NASA Science Mission Directorate.

  13. 'Dodo-Goldilocks' Trench Dug by Phoenix

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2008-01-01

    This color image was acquired by NASA's Phoenix Mars Lander's Surface Stereo Imager on the 19th day of the mission, or Sol 19 (June 13, 2008), after the May 25, 2008, landing. This image shows one trench informally called 'Dodo-Goldilocks' after two digs (dug on Sol 18, or June 12, 2008) by Phoenix's Robotic Arm. The trench is 22 centimeters (8.7 inches) wide and 35 centimeters (13.8 inches) long. At its deepest point, the trench is 7 to 8 centimeters (2.7 to 3 inches) deep.

    White material, possibly ice, is located only at the upper portion of the trench, indicating that it is not continuous throughout the excavated site. According to scientists, the trench might be exposing a ledge, or only a portion of a slab, of the white material.

    The Phoenix Mission is led by the University of Arizona, Tucson, on behalf of NASA. Project management of the mission is by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif. Spacecraft development is by Lockheed Martin Space Systems, Denver.

  14. Zenith Movie showing Phoenix's Lidar Beam (Animation)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2008-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Click on image for animation

    A laser beam from the Canadian-built lidar instrument on NASA's Phoenix Mars Lander can be seen in this contrast-enhanced sequence of 10 images taken by Phoenix's Surface Stereo Imager on July 26, 2008, during early Martian morning hours of the mission's 61st Martian day after landing.

    The view is almost straight up and includes about 1.5 kilometer (about 1 mile) of the length of the beam. The camera, from its position close to the lidar on the lander deck, took the images through a green filter centered on light with wavelength 532 nanometers, the same wavelength of the laser beam. The movie has been artificially colored to to approximately match the color that would be seen looking through this filter on Mars. Contrast is enhanced to make the beam more visible.

    The lidar beam can be seen extending from the lower right to the upper right, near the zenith, as it reflects off particles suspended in the atmosphere. Particles that scatter the beam directly into the camera can be seen to produce brief sparkles of light. In the background, dust can be seen drifting across the sky pushed by winds aloft.

    The Phoenix Mission is led by the University of Arizona, Tucson, on behalf of NASA. Project management of the mission is by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif. Spacecraft development is by Lockheed Martin Space Systems, Denver.

  15. Phoenix Checks out its Work Area

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2008-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Click on image for animation

    This animation shows a mosaic of images of the workspace reachable by the scoop on the robotic arm of NASA's Phoenix Mars Lander, along with some measurements of rock sizes.

    Phoenix was able to determine the size of the rocks based on three-dimensional views from stereoscopic images taken by the lander's 7-foot mast camera, called the Surface Stereo Imager. The stereo pair of images enable depth perception, much the way a pair of human eyes enable people to gauge the distance to nearby objects.

    The rock measurements were made by a visualization tool known as Viz, developed at NASA's Ames Research Laboratory. The shadow cast by the camera on the Martian surface appears somewhat disjointed because the camera took the images in the mosaic at different times of day.

    Scientists do not yet know the origin or composition of the flat, light-colored rocks on the surface in front of the lander.

    The Phoenix Mission is led by the University of Arizona, Tucson, on behalf of NASA. Project management of the mission is by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif. Spacecraft development is by Lockheed Martin Space Systems, Denver.

  16. Phoenix `07 MET Pressure sensor: Instrument

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Polkko, J.; Kahanpää, H.; Harri, A.-M.; Schmidt, W.; Genzer, M.; Mäkelä, M.; Savijarvi, H.; Kauhanen, J.

    2008-09-01

    Abstract The Phoenix '07 Lander landed successfully on the Martian northern polar region 25.5.2008. The mission is part of the National Aeronautics and Space Administration's (NASA's) Scout program. The seminal questions for the Phoenix mission are: (1) can the Martian arctic support life, (2) what is the history of water at the landing site, and (3) how is the Martian climate affected by polar dynamics. These translate into practical science goals and tasks of characterizing the surface, analyzing samples of the soil and ice, and to observing and monitoring the atmospheric conditions and phenomena. Meteorology experiment (MET) onboard the Phoenix '07 lander will provide the first surface based observations of atmospheric pressure, temperature and wind in the Martian polar region above the polar circle. The MET instrument also includes a lidar for detecting dust and ice particles in the air column above the lander. Pressure observations are crucial for the success of the MET experiment. The Martian atmosphere goes through a large scale atmospheric pressure cycle due to the annual condensation and sublimation of the atmospheric carbon dioxide. Pressure also exhibits short period variations associated with dust storms, tides and other atmospheric events. A series of pressure measurements can hence tell us about the large scale state and dynamics of the atmosphere. The shorter time scale phenomena are also important in contributing to our understanding of mixing and transport of heat, dust and water vapour. The pressure observations are performed by a FMI (Finnish Meteorological Institute) instrument, based on micro machined Barocap capacitic pressure sensor heads manufactured by Vaisala Inc. Similar instruments have been used in several earlier missions (Mars-96, Mars Polar Lander, Beagle-2 and Huygens), Phoenix being the first successful landing on Mars. A similar instrument is included also in the Mars Science Laboratory '09 rover. Pressure sensor technology

  17. Animation of Panorama of Phoenix's Solar Panel and Robotic Arm

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2008-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Click on image for animation

    This is an animation of panorama images of NASA's Phoenix Mars Lander's solar panel and the lander's Robotic Arm with a sample in the scoop. The image was taken just before the sample was delivered to the Optical Microscope.

    The images making up this animation were taken by the lander's Surface Stereo Imager looking west during Phoenix's Sol 16 (June 10, 2008), or the 16th Martian day after landing. This view is a part of the 'mission success' panorama that will show the whole landing site in color.

    The Phoenix Mission is led by the University of Arizona, Tucson, on behalf of NASA. Project management of the mission is by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif. Spacecraft development is by Lockheed Martin Space Systems, Denver.

  18. Animation of the Phoenix Cluster

    NASA Video Gallery

    This animation shows how large numbers of stars form in the Phoenix Cluster. It begins by showing several galaxies in the cluster and hot gas (in red). This hot gas contains more normal matter than...

  19. Greening America's Capitals - Phoenix, AZ

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This report shows design concepts to make pedestrians and bicyclists safer while maintaining on-street parking and providing space for a future streetcar or trolley in Phoenix, AZ. It also shows green infrastructure strategies for arid places.

  20. Phoenix Society for Burn Survivors

    MedlinePlus

    ... Medical Professionals Phoenix Society is the leader in connecting the burn recovery community and creating resources for survivors. Since 1977, we have partnered with survivors, families, health care professionals, burn centers, and the fire ...

  1. Animation of Phoenix's Wrist Unlatching

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2008-01-01

    This animation shows what happened underneath Phoenix's Robotic Arm wrist on Sol 3. The pin that goes through the loop is what holds the wrist in place. The rotation of the wrist pops the pin free.

    The Phoenix Mission is led by the University of Arizona, Tucson, on behalf of NASA. Project management of the mission is by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif. Spacecraft development is by Lockheed Martin Space Systems, Denver.

  2. Phoenix Telemetry Processor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stanboli, Alice

    2013-01-01

    Phxtelemproc is a C/C++ based telemetry processing program that processes SFDU telemetry packets from the Telemetry Data System (TDS). It generates Experiment Data Records (EDRs) for several instruments including surface stereo imager (SSI); robotic arm camera (RAC); robotic arm (RA); microscopy, electrochemistry, and conductivity analyzer (MECA); and the optical microscope (OM). It processes both uncompressed and compressed telemetry, and incorporates unique subroutines for the following compression algorithms: JPEG Arithmetic, JPEG Huffman, Rice, LUT3, RA, and SX4. This program was in the critical path for the daily command cycle of the Phoenix mission. The products generated by this program were part of the RA commanding process, as well as the SSI, RAC, OM, and MECA image and science analysis process. Its output products were used to advance science of the near polar regions of Mars, and were used to prove that water is found in abundance there. Phxtelemproc is part of the MIPL (Multi-mission Image Processing Laboratory) system. This software produced Level 1 products used to analyze images returned by in situ spacecraft. It ultimately assisted in operations, planning, commanding, science, and outreach.

  3. Comparing Baltimore and Phoenix

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    The 'zoom lens' aboard NASA's Terra spacecraft acquired these views of two U.S. cities: Baltimore, Maryland (left), and Phoenix, Arizona (right). Acquired by the Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER), red in these false-colored images indicates vegetation. The turquoise pixels show paved areas while darker greens and browns show bare earth and rock surfaces. The 'true' constructed nature of these cities is not easy to see. Ecologists now accept human beings and our activities as a significant factor in studying the Earth's ecology. ASTER data are being used to better understand urban ecology, in particular how humans build their cities and affect the surrounding environment. At the recent American Geophysical Union (AGU) meeting in Boston, Will Stefanov of Arizona State University presented the first set of ASTER images of the urban 'skeletons' of the amount of built structures in twelve cities around the world. He also discussed the Urban Environmental Monitoring project, in which scientists are examining 100 urban centers to look for common features (or lack of them) in global city structure as well as to monitor their changes over time.

  4. Site Investigation Report. 161st Air Refueling Group, Arizona National Guard, Sky Harbor International Airport and Papago Military Reservation, Phoenix, Arizona. Volume 1. Report, Tables and Figures

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1992-11-01

    Site 5. Ammunition Dumo SI activities consisted of conducting geophysical surveys to ascertain the location of suspected historical ammunition disposal...the Toxic Substances Control Act (TSCA), the Safe Drinking Water Act (SDWA) , the Clean Air Act (CAA), the Clean Water Act (CV;7A), and the Marine ...Treaty Acv Federal Insecticide, Fungi’:ide, 3nd Rodenticide Acc Wild and Scenic Rivers Act Clean Air Act M4arine Mammal Protection Act Marine

  5. Discovering Diversity Downtown: Questioning Phoenix

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Talmage, Craig A.; Dombrowski, Rosemarie; Pstross, Mikulas; Peterson, C. Bjørn; Knopf, Richard C.

    2015-01-01

    Applied community learning experiences for university students are promising endeavors in downtown urban environments. Past research is applied to help better comprehend a community engagement initiative conducted in downtown Phoenix, Arizona. The initiative aimed to illuminate the socio-cultural diversity of the downtown area utilizing…

  6. Phoenix Mars Lander in Testing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2006-01-01

    NASA's next Mars-bound spacecraft, the Phoenix Mars Lander, was partway through assembly and testing at Lockheed Martin Space Systems, Denver, in September 2006, progressing toward an August 2007 launch from Florida. In this photograph, spacecraft specialists work on the lander after its fan-like circular solar arrays have been spread open for testing. The arrays will be in this configuration when the spacecraft is active on the surface of Mars.

    Phoenix will land in icy soils near the north polar permanent ice cap of Mars and explore the history of the water in these soils and any associated rocks, while monitoring polar climate. It will dig into the surface, test scooped-up samples for carbon-bearing compounds and serve as NASA's first exploration of a potential modern habitat on Mars.

    Phoenix mission is led by Principal Investigator Peter H. Smith of the University of Arizona, Tucson, with project management at NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory and development partnership with Lockheed Martin Space Systems. International contributions for Phoenix are provided by the Canadian Space Agency, the University of Neuchatel (Switzerland), the University of Copenhagen, and the Max Planck Institute in Germany. JPL is a division of the California Institute of Technology in Pasadena.

  7. Schematic Animation of Phoenix's Microscope Station

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2008-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Click on image for animation

    This animation shows the workings of the microscope station of the Microscopy, Electrochemistry and Conductivity Analyzer (MECA) instrument suite of NASA's Phoenix Mars Lander.

    Samples are delivered to the horizontal portion of the sample wheel (yellow) that pokes outside an opening in the box enclosure. The wheel rotates to present the sample to the microscopes. The Optical Microscope (red) can see particles a little smaller than one-tenth the diameter of a human hair. The Atomic Force Microscope (pink) can see particles forty time smaller. The samples are on a variety of substrate surfaces, the small circles on the beveled edge of the sample wheel. For scale, the diameter of the wheel is about 14 centimeters (5.5 inches). Each substrate is a circle 3 millimeters (0.1 inch) in diameter.

    The Phoenix Mission is led by the University of Arizona, Tucson, on behalf of NASA. Project management of the mission is by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif. Spacecraft development is by Lockheed Martin Space Systems, Denver.

  8. Vertical Distribution of Water at Phoenix

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tamppari, L. K.; Lemmon, M. T.

    2011-01-01

    Phoenix results, combined with coordinated observations from the Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter of the Phoenix lander site, indicate that the water vapor is nonuniform (i.e., not well mixed) up to a calculated cloud condensation level. It is important to understand the mixing profile of water vapor because (a) the assumption of a well-mixed atmosphere up to a cloud condensation level is common in retrievals of column water abundances which are in turn used to understand the seasonal and interannual behavior of water, (b) there is a long history of observations and modeling that conclude both that water vapor is and is not well-mixed, and some studies indicate that the water vapor vertical mixing profile may, in fact, change with season and location, (c) the water vapor in the lowest part of the atmosphere is the reservoir that can exchange with the regolith and higher amounts may have an impact on the surface chemistry, and (d) greater water vapor abundances close to the surface may enhance surface exchange thereby reducing regional transport, which in turn has implications to the net transport of water vapor over seasonal and annual timescales.

  9. Phoenix Deepens Trenches on Mars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2008-01-01

    The Surface Stereo Imager on NASA's Phoenix Mars Lander took this false color image on Oct. 21, 2008, during the 145th Martian day, or sol, since landing. The white areas seen in these trenches are part of an ice layer beneath the soil.

    The trench on the upper left, called 'Upper Cupboard,' is about 60 centimeters (24 inches) long and 3 centimeters (1 inch) deep. The trench in the middle, called 'Ice Man,' is about 30 centimeters (12 inches) long and 3 centimeters (1 inch) deep. The trench on the right, called 'La Mancha,' is about 31 centimeters (12 inches) and 5 centimeters (2 inches) deep.

    The Phoenix mission is led by the University of Arizona, Tucson, on behalf of NASA. Project management of the mission is by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif. Spacecraft development is by Lockheed Martin Space Systems, Denver.

  10. Phoenix Deepens Trenches on Mars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2008-01-01

    The Surface Stereo Imager on NASA's Phoenix Mars Lander took this false color image on Oct. 21, 2008, during the 145th Martian day, or sol, since landing. The bluish-white areas seen in these trenches are part of an ice layer beneath the soil.

    The trench on the upper left, called 'Dodo-Goldilocks,' is about 38 centimeters (15 inches) long and 4 centimeters (1.5 inches) deep. The trench on the right, called 'Upper Cupboard,' is about 60 centimeters (24 inches) long and 3 centimeters (1 inch) deep. The trench in the lower middle is called 'Stone Soup.'

    The Phoenix mission is led by the University of Arizona, Tucson, on behalf of NASA. Project management of the mission is by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif. Spacecraft development is by Lockheed Martin Space Systems, Denver.

  11. Phoenix Scoop Inverted Showing Rasp

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2008-01-01

    This image taken by the Surface Stereo Imager on Sol 49, or the 49th Martian day of the mission (July 14, 2008), shows the silver colored rasp protruding from NASA's Phoenix Mars Lander's Robotic Arm scoop. The scoop is inverted and the rasp is pointing up.

    Shown with its forks pointing toward the ground is the thermal and electrical conductivity probe, at the lower right. The Robotic Arm Camera is pointed toward the ground.

    The Phoenix Mission is led by the University of Arizona, Tucson, on behalf of NASA. Project management of the mission is led by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif. Spacecraft development is by Lockheed Martin Space Systems, Denver.

  12. Working End of Robotic Arm on Phoenix

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2007-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Annotated Version

    This illustration shows some of the components on and near the end of the robotic arm on NASA's Phoenix Mars Lander. Primary and secondary blades on the scoop will aid in the collection of soil samples. A powered rasp will allow the arm to sample an icy layer expected to be about as hard as concrete. The thermal and electrical conductivity probe, which is one part of the Microscopy, Electrochemistry and Conductivity Analyzer, will assess how heat and electrons move through the soil from one spike to another of a four-spike electronic fork that will be pushed into the soil at different stages of digging by the arm.

  13. Images from Phoenix's MECA Instruments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2008-01-01

    The image on the upper left is from NASA's Phoenix Mars Lander's Optical Microscope after a sample informally called 'Sorceress' was delivered to its silicon substrate on the 38th Martian day, or sol, of the mission (July 2, 2008).

    A 3D representation of the same sample is on the right, as seen by Phoenix's Atomic Force Microscope. This is 200 times greater magnification than the view from the Optical Microscope, and the most highly magnified image ever seen from another world.

    The image shows four round pits, only 5 microns in depth, that were micromachined into the silicon substrate, which is the background plane shown in red. This image has been processed to reflect the levelness of the substrate.

    A Martian particle only one micrometer, or one millionth of a meter, across is held in the upper left pit.

    The rounded particle shown at the highest magnification ever seen from another world is a particle of the dust that cloaks Mars. Such dust particles color the Martian sky pink, feed storms that regularly envelop the planet and produce Mars' distinctive red soil.

    The Optical Microscope and the Atomic Force Microscope are part of Phoenix's Microscopy, Electrochemistry and Conductivity Analyzer instrument.

    The AFM was developed by a Swiss-led consortium, with Imperial College London producing the silicon substrate that holds sampled particles.

    The Phoenix Mission is led by the University of Arizona, Tucson, on behalf of NASA. Project management of the mission is by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif. Spacecraft development is by Lockheed Martin Space Systems, Denver.

  14. Simulating the Phoenix Lander meteorological conditions with a Mars GCM

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Daerden, F.; Neary, L.; Whiteway, J.; Dickinson, C.; Komguem, L.; McConnell, J. C.; Kaminski, J. W.

    2012-04-01

    An updated version of the GEM-Mars Global Circulation Model [1] is applied for the simulation of the meteorological conditions at the Phoenix lander site for the time period of the surface operations (Ls=76-150). The simulation results for pressure and temperature at the surface are compared to data from the Phoenix Meteorological Station (MET). The vertical profiles of dust and temperature are compared to Phoenix LIDAR measurements and data from orbit (CRISM and MCS on MRO). The simulated conditions in the PBL are compared to those obtained in a dedicated PBL-Aeolian dust model [2] which was successfully applied to drive a detailed microphysical model [3] for the interpretation of clouds and precipitation observed by the LIDAR on Phoenix [4,5]. [1] Moudden, Y. and J.C. McConnell (2005): A new model for multiscale modeling of the Martian atmosphere, GM3, J. Geophys. Res. 110, E04001, doi:10.1029/2004JE002354 [2] Davy, R., P. A. Taylor, W. Weng, and P.-Y. Li (2009), A model of dust in the Martian lower atmosphere, J. Geophys. Res., 114, D04108, doi:10.1029/2008JD010481. [3] Daerden, F., J.A. Whiteway, R. Davy, C. Verhoeven, L. Komguem, C. Dickinson, P. A. Taylor, and N. Larsen (2010), Simulating Observed Boundary Layer Clouds on Mars, Geophys. Res. Lett., 37, L04203, doi:10.1029/2009GL041523 [4] Whiteway, J., M. Daly, A. Carswell, T. Duck, C. Dickinson, L. Komguem, and C. Cook (2008), Lidar on the Phoenix mission to Mars, J. Geophys. Res., 113, E00A08, doi:10.1029/2007JE003002. [5] Whiteway, J., et al. (2009), Mars water ice clouds and precipitation, Science, 325, 68 - 70.

  15. Work on Phoenix Science Deck

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2007-01-01

    Lockheed Martin Space Systems technicians Jim Young (left) and Jack Farmerie (right) work on the science deck of NASA's Phoenix Mars Lander.

    The spacecraft was built in a 100,000-class clean room near Denver under NASA's planetary protection practices to keep organics from being taken to Mars. The lander's robotic arm, built by the Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, is seen at the top of the picture. The color and grey dots will be used to calibrate the spacecraft's Surface Stereoscopic Imager camera once the spacecraft has landed on the red planet.

    The Phoenix mission is led by Principal Investigator Peter H. Smith of the University of Arizona, Tucson, with project management at NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory and development partnership with Lockheed Martin Space Systems. International contributions for Phoenix are provided by the Canadian Space Agency, the University of Neuchatel (Switzerland), the University of Copenhagen, and the Max Planck Institute in Germany. JPL is a division of the California Institute of Technology in Pasadena.

  16. Phoenix Robotic Arm connects with `Alice'

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2008-01-01

    NASA's Phoenix Mars Lander's Robotic Arm comes into contact with a rock informally named 'Alice' near the 'Snow White' trench.

    This image was acquired by Phoenix's NASA's Surface Stereo Imager on July 13 during the 48th Martian day, or sol, since Phoenix landed.

    For scale, the width of the scoop at the end of the arm is about 8.5 centimeters (3.3 inches).

    The Phoenix Mission is led by the University of Arizona, Tucson, on behalf of NASA. Project management of the mission is by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif. Spacecraft development is by Lockheed Martin Space Systems, Denver.

  17. 1. Site of Mormon Flat Dam looking upstream. Photographer unknown, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. Site of Mormon Flat Dam looking upstream. Photographer unknown, 1923. Source: Salt River Project. - Mormon Flat Dam, On Salt River, Eastern Maricopa County, east of Phoenix, Phoenix, Maricopa County, AZ

  18. Adsorption Driven Regolith-Atmospheric Water Vapor Transfer on Mars: Analysis of Phoenix TECP and MSL REMS Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Farris, H. N.; Conner, M. B.; Chevrier, V. F.; Rivera-Valentin, E. G.

    2016-09-01

    BET adsorption theory is implemented to explain sol-to-sol dependencies of temperature and humidity at the Phoenix landing site and along the MSL traverse and thus, the implications for transient, adsorbed, liquid water at the surface.

  19. Resurrecting Phoenix: Lessons in COIN Operations

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-05-16

    rallied 10 Mark Moyar, Phoenix and the Birds of Prey (Annapolis, MD: Naval Institute Press, 1997). P...Strategic Studies Institute: U.S. Army War College, 1995. Moyer, Mark. Phoenix and the birds of prey. Naval Institute Press: Annapolis, MD, 1997

  20. Overview of the Phoenix Entry, Descent and Landing System Architecture

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Grover, Myron R., III; Cichy, Benjamin D.; Desai, Prasun N.

    2008-01-01

    NASA s Phoenix Mars Lander began its journey to Mars from Cape Canaveral, Florida in August 2007, but its journey to the launch pad began many years earlier in 1997 as NASA s Mars Surveyor Program 2001 Lander. In the intervening years, the entry, descent and landing (EDL) system architecture went through a series of changes, resulting in the system flown to the surface of Mars on May 25th, 2008. Some changes, such as entry velocity and landing site elevation, were the result of differences in mission design. Other changes, including the removal of hypersonic guidance, the reformulation of the parachute deployment algorithm, and the addition of the backshell avoidance maneuver, were driven by constant efforts to augment system robustness. An overview of the Phoenix EDL system architecture is presented along with rationales driving these architectural changes.

  1. View from Above of Phoenix's Stowed Robotic Arm Camera

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2008-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Click on image for animation

    This artist's animation of an imaginary camera zooming in from above shows the location of the Robotic Arm Camera on NASA's Phoenix Mars Lander as it acquires an image of the scoop at the end of the arm. Located just beneath the Robotic Arm Camera lens, the scoop is folded in the stowed position, with its open end facing the Robotic Arm Camera.

    The last frame in the animation shows the first image taken by the Robotic Arm Camera, one day after Phoenix landed on Mars. In the center of the image is the robotic scoop the lander will use to dig into the surface, collect samples and touch water ice on Mars for the first time. The scoop is in the stowed position, awaiting deployment of the robotic arm.

    The Phoenix Mission is led by the University of Arizona, Tucson, on behalf of NASA. Project management of the mission is by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif. Spacecraft development is by Lockheed Martin Space Systems, Denver.

  2. Phoenix's Probe Inserted in Martian Soil

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2008-01-01

    The Phoenix Mars lander's robotic-arm camera took this image of the spacecraft's thermal and electrical-conductivity probe (TECP) inserted into Martian soil on day 149 of the mission. Phoenix landed on Mars' northern plains on May 25, 2008, landing.

    The robotic-arm camera acquired this image at 16:02:41 local solar time. The camera pointing was elevation -72.6986 degrees and azimuth 2.1093 degrees.

    The Phoenix mission is led by the University of Arizona, Tucson, on behalf of NASA. Project management of the mission is by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif. Spacecraft development is by Lockheed Martin Space Systems, Denver.

  3. The Phoenix Program and Contemporary Counterinsurgency

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-01-01

    Counterinsurgency Lessons from Vietnam for the Future,” Military Review, March–April 2006, p. 17. 7 Mark Moyar, Phoenix and the Birds of Prey: The CIA’s...director for operations, and the CIA’s director of central intelligence. 10 Moyar, Phoenix and the Birds of Prey, pp. 37–38. 11 Moyar, Phoenix and...the Birds of Prey, p. 42. 12 Douglas S. Blaufarb, The Counterinsurgency Era: U.S. Doctrine and Performance, 1950 to the Present, New York: The Free

  4. Rasp Tool on Phoenix Robotic Arm Model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2008-01-01

    This close-up photograph taken at the Payload Interoperability Testbed at the University of Arizona, Tucson, shows the motorized rasp protruding from the bottom of the scoop on the engineering model of NASA's Phoenix Mars Lander's Robotic Arm.

    The rasp will be placed against the hard Martian surface to cut into the hard material and acquire an icy soil sample for analysis by Phoenix's scientific instruments.

    The Phoenix Mission is led by the University of Arizona, Tucson, on behalf of NASA. Project management of the mission is led by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif. Spacecraft development is by Lockheed Martin Space Systems, Denver.

  5. Phoenix - The First Mars Scout Mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goldstein, Barry; Shotwell, Robert

    2008-01-01

    As the first of the new Mars Scouts missions, the Phoenix project was selected by NASA in August of 2003. Four years later, almost to the day, Phoenix was launched from Cape Canaveral Air Station and successfully injected into an interplanetary trajectory on its way to Mars. On May 25, 2008 Phoenix conducted the first successful powered decent on Mars in over 30 years. This paper will highlight some of the key changes since the 2008 IEEE paper of the same name, as well as performance through cruise, landing at the north pole of Mars and some of the preliminary results of the surface mission.

  6. False Color Terrain Model of Phoenix Workspace

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2008-01-01

    This is a terrain model of Phoenix's Robotic Arm workspace. It has been color coded by depth with a lander model for context. The model has been derived using images from the depth perception feature from Phoenix's Surface Stereo Imager (SSI). Red indicates low-lying areas that appear to be troughs. Blue indicates higher areas that appear to be polygons.

    The Phoenix Mission is led by the University of Arizona, Tucson, on behalf of NASA. Project management of the mission is by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif. Spacecraft development is by Lockheed Martin Space Systems, Denver.

  7. Animated Optical Microscope Zoom in from Phoenix Launch to Martian Surface

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2008-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Click on image for animation

    This animated camera view zooms in from NASA's Phoenix Mars Lander launch site all the way to Phoenix's Microscopy and Electrochemistry and C Eonductivity Analyzer (MECA) aboard the spacecraft on the Martian surface. The final frame shows the soil sample delivered to MECA as viewed through the Optical Microscope (OM) on Sol 17 (June 11, 2008), or the 17th Martian day.

    The Phoenix Mission is led by the University of Arizona, Tucson, on behalf of NASA. Project management of the mission is by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif. Spacecraft development is by Lockheed Martin Space Systems, Denver.

  8. The Goals and Approach of the Phoenix Mission for Evaluating the Habitabiity of the Northern Plains on Mars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stoker, Carol R.

    2006-01-01

    The first goal of the Mars Exploration program, as defined by the Mars Exploration Payload Analysis Group (MEPAG) is to determine if life ever arose on Mars [1]. The Phoenix landing site was chosen to sample near surface ground ice in the Northern Plains discovered by the GRS experiment on Mars Odyssey [2]. A goal of Phoenix is to determine whether this environment was habitable for life at some time in its history.

  9. Vertical Water Vapor Distribution at Phoenix

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tamppari, L. K.; Lemmon, M. T.

    2016-09-01

    The Phoenix SSI camera data along with radiative transfer modeling are used to retrieve the vertical water vapor profile. Preliminary results indicate that water vapor is often confined near the surface.

  10. Astronaut Alvin Drew Speaks With Phoenix Students

    NASA Video Gallery

    From NASA's International Space Station Mission Control Center, NASA astronaut Alvin Drew participates in a Digital Learning Network (DLN) event with students at Monterey Park in Phoenix. The DLN c...

  11. Phoenix v. 1.0-SNAPSHOT

    SciTech Connect

    Bastian, Mark; Trigueros, Jose V.

    2016-09-21

    Phoenix is a Java Virtual Machine (JVM) based library for performing mathematical and astrodynamics calculations. It consists of two primary sub-modules, phoenix-math and phoenix-astrodynamics. The mathematics package has a variety of mathematical classes for performing 3D transformations, geometric reasoning, and numerical analysis. The astrodynamics package has various classes and methods for computing locations, attitudes, accesses, and other values useful for general satellite modeling and simulation. Methods for computing celestial locations, such as the location of the Sun and Moon, are also included. Phoenix is meant to be used as a library within the context of a larger application. For example, it could be used for a web service, desktop client, or to compute simple values in a scripting environment.

  12. A case study in resort climatology of Phoenix, Arizona, USA.

    PubMed

    Hartz, Donna A; Brazel, Anthony J; Heisler, Gordon M

    2006-09-01

    Tourists often use weather data as a factor for determining vacation timing and location. Accuracy and perceptions of weather information may impact these decisions. This study: (a) examines air temperature and dew points from seven exclusive resorts in the Phoenix metropolitan area and compares them with official National Weather Service data for the same period, and (b) utilizes a comfort model called OUTCOMES-OUTdoor COMfort Expert System-in a seasonal appraisal of two resorts, one mesic and one xeric, compared with the urban Sky Harbor International Airport first-order weather station site in the central urban area of Phoenix, Arizona, USA (lat. 33.43 degrees N; long. 112.02 degrees W; elevation at 335 m). Temperature and humidity recording devices were placed within or immediately adjacent to common-use areas of the resorts, the prime recreational sites used by guests on most resort properties. Recorded data were compared with that of the official weather information from the airport station, a station most accessible to potential tourists through media and Web sites, to assess predicted weather for vacation planning. For the most part, Sky Harbor's recorded air temperatures and often dew points were higher than those recorded at the resorts. We extrapolate our findings to a year-round estimate of human outdoor comfort for weather-station sites typical of resort landscapes and the Sky Harbor location using the OUTCOMES model to refine ideas on timing of comfortable conditions at resorts on a diurnal and seasonal basis.

  13. Mars 2007 Phoenix Scout Mission Organic Free Blank: Method to Distinguish Mars Organics from Terrestrial Organics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ming, D. W.; Morris, R. V.; Woida, R.; Sutter, B.; Lauer, H. V.; Shinohara, C.; Golden, D. C.; Boynton, W. V.; Arvidson, R. E.; Stewart, R. L.; Tamppari, L. K.; Gross, M.; Smith, P.

    2008-01-01

    The Mars 2007 Phoenix Scout Mission successfully launched on August 4, 2007, for a 10-month journey to Mars. The Phoenix spacecraft is scheduled to land on May 25, 2008. The primary mission objective is to study the history of water and evaluate the potential for past and present habitability in Martian arctic ice-rich soil [1]. Phoenix will land near 68 N latitude on polygonal terrain presumably created by ice layers that are expected to be a few centimeters under loose soil materials [2,3]. The Phoenix Mission will assess the potential for habitability by searching for organic molecules in ice or icy soils at the landing site. Organic molecules are necessary building blocks for life, although their presence in the ice or soil does not indicate life itself. Phoenix will search for organic molecules by heating soil/ice samples in the Thermal and Evolved-Gas Analyzer (TEGA, [4]). TEGA consists of 8 differential scanning calorimeter (DSC) ovens integrated with a magnetic-sector mass spectrometer with a mass range of 2-140 daltons [4]. Endothermic and exothermic reactions are recorded by the TEGA DSC as samples are heated from ambient to approx.1000 C. Evolved gases, including organic molecules and fragments if present, are simultaneously measured by the mass spectrometer during heating.

  14. Zeroing In on Phoenix's Final Destination

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2008-01-01

    This image shows the latest estimate, marked by a green crosshair, of the location of NASA's Phoenix Mars Lander. Radio communications between Phoenix and spacecraft flying overhead have allowed engineers to narrow the lander's location to an area about 300 meters (984) long by 100 meters (328 feet) across, or about three football fields long and one football field wide.

    During landing, Phoenix traveled across the field of view shown here from the upper left to the lower right. The area outlined in blue represents the area where Phoenix was predicted to land before arriving on Mars. During Phoenix's descent through the Martian atmosphere to the surface of the Red Planet, continuous measurements of the distance the spacecraft traveled enabled engineers to narrow its location further to the circular area outlined in red.

    Using radio signals to home in on Phoenix's final location is sort of like trying to find a kitten by listening to the sound of its meows. As NASA's Odyssey spacecraft passes overhead, it receives radio transmissions from the lander. When Odyssey passes overhead again along a slightly different path, it receives new radio signals. With each successive pass, it is able to 'fix' the location of Phoenix a little more precisely.

    Meanwhile, NASA's Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter has taken actual images of the spacecraft on the surface, enabling scientists to match the lander's location to geologic features seen from orbit.

    The large crater to the right is 'Heimdall crater,' the slopes of which are visible in images of the parachute that lowered Phoenix to the surface, taken by the High Resolution Imaging Science Experiment instrument on the Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter. The map shown here is made up of topography data taken by NASA's Mars Global Surveyor. It shows exaggerated differences in the height of the terrain.

    The Phoenix Mission is led by the University of Arizona, Tucson, on behalf of NASA. Project management of the

  15. Sustainable Phoenix: Lessons from the Dutch Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lara, Jesus J.

    In only fifty years, the Phoenix metropolitan area has expanded from a small desert town into one of the largest urban areas in the United States. Today, it has one of the fastest rates of growth in the nation with an annual rate of 4.5%. This area has grown during a period in urban development that largely ignored local topography, climate, culture, and history. The result has been a sprawling metropolitan area with an ever increasing ecological footprint and a standardized urban design and infrastructure that works against its environmental setting rather than with it. Currently, the city of Phoenix is going through a process of urban revitalization with an increasing demand for urban living and commerce. This research explores sustainable urban design and its potential applications in the metropolitan Phoenix area through an investigation of the Dutch model. The Dutch have successfully dealt with sustainable urban design approaches and their practices represent an unusual learning opportunity for Phoenix. The Netherlands' experience suggests three strategies/themes for rendering Phoenix a more sustainable urban form. These include the strategic planning and development of urban extensions, compact infill, and modernizing infrastructure.

  16. Deep 'Stone Soup' Trenching by Phoenix (Stereo)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2008-01-01

    Digging by NASA's Phoenix Mars Lander on Aug. 23, 2008, during the 88th sol (Martian day) since landing, reached a depth about three times greater than in any trench Phoenix has excavated. The deep trench, informally called 'Stone Soup' is at the borderline between two of the polygon-shaped hummocks that characterize the arctic plain where Phoenix landed.

    Stone Soup is in the center foreground of this stereo view, which appears three dimensional when seen through red-blue glasses. The view combines left-eye and right-eye images taken by the lander's Surface Stereo Imager on Sol 88 after the day's digging. The trench is about 25 centimeters (10 inches) wide and about 18 centimeters (7 inches) deep.

    When digging trenches near polygon centers, Phoenix has hit a layer of icy soil, as hard as concrete, about 5 centimeters or 2 inches beneath the ground surface. In the Stone Soup trench at a polygon margin, the digging has not yet hit an icy layer like that.

    Stone Soup is toward the left, or west, end of the robotic arm's work area on the north side of the lander.

    The Phoenix Mission is led by the University of Arizona, Tucson, on behalf of NASA. Project management of the mission is by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif. Spacecraft development is by Lockheed Martin Space Systems, Denver.

  17. Martian Dust Collected by Phoenix's Arm

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2008-01-01

    This image from NASA's Phoenix Lander's Optical Microscope shows particles of Martian dust lying on the microscope's silicon substrate. The Robotic Arm sprinkled a sample of the soil from the Snow White trench onto the microscope on July 2, 2008, the 38th Martian day, or sol, of the mission after landing.

    Subsequently, the Atomic Force Microscope, or AFM, zoomed in one of the fine particles, creating the first-ever image of a particle of Mars' ubiquitous fine dust, the most highly magnified image ever seen from another world.

    The Atomic Force Microscope was developed by a Swiss-led consortium in collaboration with Imperial College London. The AFM is part of Phoenix's Microscopy, Electrochemistry and Conductivity Analyzer instrument.

    The Phoenix Mission is led by the University of Arizona, Tucson, on behalf of NASA. Project management of the mission is by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif. Spacecraft development is by Lockheed Martin Space Systems, Denver.

  18. Phoenix Deepens Trenches on Mars (3D)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2008-01-01

    The Surface Stereo Imager on NASA's Phoenix Mars Lander took this anaglyph on Oct. 21, 2008, during the 145th Martian day, or sol. Phoenix landed on Mars' northern plains on May 25, 2008.

    The trench on the upper left, called 'Upper Cupboard,' is about 60 centimeters (24 inches) long and 3 centimeters (1 inch) deep. The trench in the middle,called 'Ice Man,' is about 30 centimeters (12 inches) long and 3 centimeters (1 inch) deep. The trench on the right, called 'La Mancha,' is about 31 centimeters (12 inches) and 5 centimeters (2 inches) deep.

    The Phoenix mission is led by the University of Arizona, Tucson, on behalf of NASA. Project management of the mission is by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif. Spacecraft development is by Lockheed Martin Space Systems, Denver.

  19. Phoenix Deepens Trenches on Mars (3D)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2008-01-01

    The Surface Stereo Imager on NASA's Phoenix Mars Lander took this anaglyph on Oct. 21, 2008, during the 145th Martian day, or sol. Phoenix landed on Mars' northern plains on May 25, 2008.

    The trench on the upper left, called 'Dodo-Goldilocks,' is about 38 centimeters (15 inches) long and 4 centimeters (1.5 inches) deep. The trench on the right, called 'Upper Cupboard,' is about 60 centimeters (24 inches) long and 3 centimeters (1 inch) deep. The trench in the lower middle is called 'Stone Soup.'

    The Phoenix mission is led by the University of Arizona, Tucson, on behalf of NASA. Project management of the mission is by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif. Spacecraft development is by Lockheed Martin Space Systems, Denver.

  20. Assessment of Mars Phoenix EDL Performance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Oberhettinger, David; Skulsky, Eli D.; Bailey, Erik S.

    2011-01-01

    Entry, Descent, and Landing (EDL) is an especially risky phase of a planetary mission, and detailed information on the performance of a lander's EDL design is critical to mitigating the risks of future missions. 12However, the study of actual EDL performance and comparison with the pre-entry predictions has not typically been given a high priority following spacecraft landings, mainly for budgetary reasons. Because Mars Phoenix inherited hardware and design elements from a similar mission that appears to have failed during Mars EDL, NASA was particularly interested in identifying the reasons for the Phoenix mission success. Therefore, NASA sponsored a reconstruction and analysis of the downlinked Phoenix telemetry that would tell the story of this critical event sequence--focusing on the 14 minutes from cruise stage separation to landing--and identify lessons learned.

  1. Dust Storm Moving Near Phoenix Lander

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2008-01-01

    This series of images show the movement of several dust storms near NASA's Phoenix Mars Lander. These images were taken by the lander's Surface Stereo Imager (SSI) on the 137th Martian day, or sol, of the mission (Oct. 13, 2008).

    These images were taken about 50 seconds apart, showing the formation and movement of dust storms for nearly an hour. Phoenix scientists are still figuring out the exact distances these dust storms occurred from the lander, but they estimate them to be about 1 to 2 kilometers (.6 or 1.2 miles) away.

    The Phoenix Mission is led by the University of Arizona, Tucson, on behalf of NASA. Project management of the mission is by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif. Spacecraft development is by Lockheed Martin Space Systems, Denver.

  2. 'Rosy Red' Soil in Phoenix's Scoop

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2008-01-01

    This image shows fine-grained material inside the Robotic Arm scoop as seen by the Robotic Arm Camera (RAC) aboard NASA's Phoenix Mars Lander on June 25, 2008, the 30th Martian day, or sol, of the mission.

    The image shows fine, fluffy, red soil particles collected in a sample called 'Rosy Red.' The sample was dug from the trench named 'Snow White' in the area called 'Wonderland.' Some of the Rosy Red sample was delivered to Phoenix's Optical Microscope and Wet Chemistry Laboratory for analysis.

    The RAC provides its own illumination, so the color seen in RAC images is color as seen on Earth, not color as it would appear on Mars.

    The Phoenix Mission is led by the University of Arizona, Tucson, on behalf of NASA. Project management of the mission is by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif. Spacecraft development is by Lockheed Martin Space Systems, Denver.

  3. Phoenix Lowered into Thermal Vacuum Chamber

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2007-01-01

    NASA's Phoenix Mars Lander was lowered into a thermal vacuum chamber at Lockheed Martin Space Systems, Denver, in December 2006.

    The spacecraft was folded in its aeroshell and underwent environmental testing that simulated the extreme conditions the spacecraft will see during its nine-and-a-half-month cruse to Mars.

    The Phoenix mission is led by Principal Investigator Peter H. Smith of the University of Arizona, Tucson, with project management at NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory and development partnership with Lockheed Martin Space Systems. International contributions for Phoenix are provided by the Canadian Space Agency, the University of Neuchatel (Switzerland), the University of Copenhagen, and the Max Planck Institute in Germany. JPL is a division of the California Institute of Technology in Pasadena.

  4. Phoenix's La Mancha Trench in 3D

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2008-01-01

    This anaglyph, taken by NASA's Phoenix Mars Lander's Surface Stereo Imager, was taken on the 131st Martian day, or sol, of the mission (Oct. 7, 2008). The anaglyph highlights the depth of the trench, informally named 'La Mancha,' and reveals the ice layer beneath the soil surface. The trench's depth is about 5 centimeters deep.

    The Phoenix Mission is led by the University of Arizona, Tucson, on behalf of NASA. Project management of the mission is by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif. Spacecraft development is by Lockheed Martin Space Systems, Denver.

  5. Color view to Northwest of Phoenix

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2008-01-01

    This approximate color (SSI's red, green, and blue filters: 600, 530, and 480 nanometers) view was obtained on sol 2 by the Surface Stereo Imager (SSI) on board the Phoenix lander. The view is toward the northwest, showing polygonal terrain near the lander and out to the horizon.

    The Phoenix Mission is led by the University of Arizona, Tucson, on behalf of NASA. Project management of the mission is by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif. Spacecraft development is by Lockheed Martin Space Systems, Denver.

  6. Phoenix Deploying its Robotic Arm Elbow

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2008-01-01

    This animated gif is compiled of images from Phoenix's Stereo Surface Imager (SSI) taken on Sol 3. It shows the stair-step motion used to unstow the arm from a protective covering called the biobarrier. The last two moves allow the arm to stand straight up.

    The Phoenix Mission is led by the University of Arizona, Tucson, on behalf of NASA. Project management of the mission is by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif. Spacecraft development is by Lockheed Martin Space Systems, Denver.

  7. Martian Soil Inside Phoenix's Robotic Arm Scoop

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2008-01-01

    This image from NASA's Phoenix Mars Lander's Robotic Arm Camera (RAC) shows material from the Martian surface captured by the Robotic Arm (RA) scoop during its first test dig and dump on the seventh Martian day of the mission, or Sol 7 (June 1, 2008). The test sample shown was taken from the digging area informally known as 'Knave of Hearts.'

    The Phoenix Mission is led by the University of Arizona, Tucson, on behalf of NASA. Project management of the mission is by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif. Spacecraft development is by Lockheed Martin Space Systems, Denver.

  8. Phoenix Carries Soil to Wet Chemistry Lab

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2008-01-01

    This image taken by the Surface Stereo Imager on NASA's Phoenix Mars Lander shows the lander's Robotic Arm scoop positioned over the Wet Chemistry Lab delivery funnel on Sol 29, the 29th Martian day after landing, or June 24, 2008. The soil will be delivered to the instrument on Sol 30.

    This image has been enhanced to brighten the scene.

    The Phoenix Mission is led by the University of Arizona, Tucson, on behalf of NASA. Project management of the mission is by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif. Spacecraft development is by Lockheed Martin Space Systems, Denver.

  9. Rasped Soil Sample in Phoenix Scoop

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2008-01-01

    This image, taken by NASA's Phoenix Mars Lander's Robotic Arm Camera on Sol 50, the 50th day of the mission, July 15, 2008, shows material collected in the lander's scoop from the rasping activity on the Martian surface.

    The collected material, believed to be icy soil, is near the bottom of the image. The width of the scoop is 8.5 centimeters (3.3 inches).

    The Phoenix Mission is led by the University of Arizona, Tucson, on behalf of NASA. Project management of the mission is led by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif. Spacecraft development is by Lockheed Martin Space Systems, Denver.

  10. Phoenix 'Gets the Scoop' on the Scoop

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2008-01-01

    This is the first image taken by the Robotic Arm Camera on NASA's Phoenix Mars Lander, one day after landing. In the center of the image is the robotic scoop the lander will use to dig into the surface, collect samples and touch water ice on Mars for the first time. The scoop is in the stowed position, awaiting deployment of the robotic arm.

    The Phoenix Mission is led by the University of Arizona, Tucson, on behalf of NASA. Project management of the mission is by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif. Spacecraft development is by Lockheed Martin Space Systems, Denver.

  11. Phoenix Violence Prevention Initiative, Phase II Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Waits, Mary Jo; Johnson, Ryan; Kornreich, Toby; Klym, Mark; Leland, Karen

    In 1996, drawing from religious, educational, social services, media, neighborhoods, nonprofits, and health-providing sectors of the community, the Phoenix Violence Prevention Initiative (PVPI) was conceived. During Phase One of the initiative, the following seven points regarding prevention and prevention design strategies were assembled: (1)…

  12. Phoenix Award Winners: Books Worth Remembering.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Piehl, Kathy

    1998-01-01

    Describes the Phoenix Award, which honors children's books which did not receive an award at publication (20 years in the past), but have withstood the test of time. Presents an annotated bibliography of winning titles under the categories of: Fantasy/Science Fiction; Historical Fiction (British, Depression Era, World War II, Other Wars, Other…

  13. Phoenix Conductivity Probe Inserted into Martian Soil

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2008-01-01

    NASA's Phoenix Mars Lander inserted the four needles of its thermal and conductivity probe into Martian soil during the 98th Martian day, or sol, of the mission and left it in place until Sol 99 (Sept. 4, 2008).

    The Robotic Arm Camera on Phoenix took this image on the morning of Sol 99 while the probe's needles were in the ground. The science team informally named this soil target 'Gandalf.'

    The thermal and conductivity probe measures how fast heat and electricity move from one needle to an adjacent one through the soil or air between the needles. Conductivity readings can be indicators about water vapor, water ice and liquid water.

    The probe is part of Phoenix's Microscopy, Electrochemistry and Conductivity suite of instruments.

    The Phoenix Mission is led by the University of Arizona, Tucson, on behalf of NASA. Project management of the mission is by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif. Spacecraft development is by Lockheed Martin Space Systems, Denver.

  14. Temperature Measurements Taken by Phoenix Spacecraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2008-01-01

    This chart plots the minimum daily atmospheric temperature measured by NASA's Phoenix Mars Lander spacecraft since landing on Mars. As the temperature increased through the summer season, the atmospheric humidity also increased. Clouds, ground fog, and frost were observed each night after the temperature started dropping.

  15. Faculty Web Grade Entry: University of Phoenix

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Elisala, Tandy R.

    2005-01-01

    The University of Phoenix is a large, private, four-year university with a commitment to providing timely and efficient student services. With continued growth and process improvement opportunities utilizing technology, the institution had an opportunity to automate and streamline grade processing. This article focuses on the Faculty Web Grade…

  16. Digibaro pressure instrument onboard the Phoenix Lander

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harri, A.-M.; Polkko, J.; Kahanpää, H. H.; Schmidt, W.; Genzer, M. M.; Haukka, H.; Savijarv1, H.; Kauhanen, J.

    2009-04-01

    The Phoenix Lander landed successfully on the Martian northern polar region. The mission is part of the National Aeronautics and Space Administration's (NASA's) Scout program. Pressure observations onboard the Phoenix lander were performed by an FMI (Finnish Meteorological Institute) instrument, based on a silicon diaphragm sensor head manufactured by Vaisala Inc., combined with MDA data processing electronics. The pressure instrument performed successfully throughout the Phoenix mission. The pressure instrument had 3 pressure sensor heads. One of these was the primary sensor head and the other two were used for monitoring the condition of the primary sensor head during the mission. During the mission the primary sensor was read with a sampling interval of 2 s and the other two were read less frequently as a check of instrument health. The pressure sensor system had a real-time data-processing and calibration algorithm that allowed the removal of temperature dependent calibration effects. In the same manner as the temperature sensor, a total of 256 data records (8.53 min) were buffered and they could either be stored at full resolution, or processed to provide mean, standard deviation, maximum and minimum values for storage on the Phoenix Lander's Meteorological (MET) unit.The time constant was approximately 3s due to locational constraints and dust filtering requirements. Using algorithms compensating for the time constant effect the temporal resolution was good enough to detect pressure drops associated with the passage of nearby dust devils.

  17. Phoenix College Institutional Effectiveness, 1999-2000.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Phoenix Coll., AZ.

    This report presents Phoenix College's (PC's) 1999-2000 institutional effectiveness annual report. The 1998-99 academic year was most notable for an important upswing in enrollment, the opening of the Fannin Library, and a continued increase in the diversity of students. Enrollment increases were noted in both fall and spring semesters, with a…

  18. Phoenix Mars Lander with Solar Arrays Open

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2006-01-01

    NASA's next Mars-bound spacecraft, the Phoenix Mars Lander, was partway through assembly and testing at Lockheed Martin Space Systems, Denver, in September 2006, progressing toward an August 2007 launch from Florida. In this photograph, spacecraft specialists work on the lander after its fan-like circular solar arrays have been spread open for testing. The arrays will be in this configuration when the spacecraft is active on the surface of Mars.

    Phoenix will land in icy soils near the north polar permanent ice cap of Mars and explore the history of the water in these soils and any associated rocks, while monitoring polar climate. It will dig into the surface, test scooped-up samples for carbon-bearing compounds and serve as NASA's first exploration of a potential modern habitat on Mars.

    The Phoenix mission is led by Principal Investigator Peter H. Smith of the University of Arizona, Tucson, with project management at NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory and development partnership with Lockheed Martin Space Systems. International contributions for Phoenix are provided by the Canadian Space Agency, the University of Neuchatel (Switzerland), the University of Copenhagen, and the Max Planck Institute in Germany. JPL is a division of the California Institute of Technology in Pasadena.

  19. Phoenix Lander on Mars with Surrounding Terrain, Polar Projection

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2008-01-01

    This view is a polar projection that combines more than 500 exposures taken by the Surface Stereo Imager camera on NASA's Mars Phoenix Lander and projects them as if looking down from above.

    The black circle on the spacecraft is where the camera itself is mounted on the lander, out of view in images taken by the camera. North is toward the top of the image. The lander's meteorology mast extends above the southwest horzon and is topped by the telltale wind gauge.

    The ground surface around the lander has polygonal patterning similar to patterns in permafrost areas on Earth. The landing site is at 68.22 degrees north latitude, 234.25 degrees east longitude on Mars.

    This view in approximately true color comprises more than 100 different Stereo Surface Imager pointings, with images taken through three different filters at each pointing. The images were taken throughout the period from the 13th Martian day, or sol, after landing to the 47th sol (June 5 through July 12, 2008). The lander's Robotic Arm is cut off in this mosaic view because component images were taken when the arm was out of the frame.

    The Phoenix Mission is led by the University of Arizona, Tucson, on behalf of NASA. Project management of the mission is by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif. Spacecraft development is by Lockheed Martin Space Systems, Denver.

  20. Martian Arctic Dust Devil, Phoenix Sol 104

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2008-01-01

    The Surface Stereo Imager on NASA's Phoenix Mars Lander caught this dust devil in action west-southwest of the lander at 11:16 a.m. local Mars time on Sol 104, or the 104th Martian day of the mission, Sept. 9, 2008.

    Dust devils have not been detected in any Phoenix images from earlier in the mission, but at least six were observed in a dozen images taken on Sol 104.

    Dust devils are whirlwinds that often occur when the Sun heats the surface of Mars, or some areas on Earth. The warmed surface heats the layer of atmosphere closest to it, and the warm air rises in a whirling motion, stirring dust up from the surface like a miniature tornado.

    The dust devil visible in the center of this image just below the horizon is estimated to be about 400 meters (about 1,300 feet) from Phoenix, and 4 meters (13 feet) in diameter. It is much smaller than dust devils that have been observed by NASA's Mars Exploration Rover Spirit much closer to the equator. It is closer in size to dust devils seen from orbit in the Phoenix landing region, though still smaller than those.

    The image has been enhanced to make the dust devil easier to see.

    The Phoenix Mission is led by the University of Arizona, Tucson, on behalf of NASA. Project management of the mission is by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif. Spacecraft development is by Lockheed Martin Space Systems, Denver.

  1. More Soil Delivered to Phoenix Lab

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2008-01-01

    This image, taken by NASA's Phoenix Mars Lander's Surface Stereo Imager, documents the delivery of a soil sample from the 'Snow White' trench to the Wet Chemistry Laboratory. A small pile of soil is visible on the lower edge of the second cell from the top.This deck-mounted lab is part of Phoenix's Microscopy, Electrochemistry and Conductivity Analyzer (MECA).

    The delivery was made on Sept. 12, 2008, which was Sol 107 (the 107th Martian day) of the mission, which landed on May 25, 2008.

    The Wet Chemistry Laboratory mixes Martian soil with an aqueous solution from Earth as part of a process to identify soluble nutrients and other chemicals in the soil. Preliminary analysis of this soil confirms that it is alkaline, and composed of salts and other chemicals such as perchlorate, sodium, magnesium, chloride and potassium. This data validates prior results from that same location, said JPL's Michael Hecht, the lead scientist for MECA.

    In the coming days, the Phoenix team will also fill the final four of eight single-use ovens on another soil-analysis instrument, the Thermal and Evolved Gas Analyzer, or TEGA. The team's strategy is to deliver as many samples as possible before the power produced by Phoenix's solar panels declines due to the end of the Martian summer.

    The Phoenix Mission is led by the University of Arizona, Tucson, on behalf of NASA. Project management of the mission is by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif. Spacecraft development is by Lockheed Martin Space Systems, Denver.

  2. Phoenix - the First Mars Scout Mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goldstein, Barry; Shotwell, Robert

    2008-01-01

    As the first of the new Mars Scouts missions, the Phoenix project was selected by NASA in August of 2003. Four years later, almost to the day, Phoenix was launched from Cape Canaveral Air Station and successfully injected into an interplanetary trajectory on its way to Mars. This paper will highlight some of the key changes since the 2006 IEEE paper of the same name, as well as activities, challenges and problems encountered on the way to the launch pad. Phoenix Follows the water responding directly to the recently published data from Dr. William Boynton, PI (and Phoenix co-I) of the Mars Odyssey Gamma Ray Spectrometer (GRS). GRS data indicate extremely large quantities of water ice (up to 50% by mass) within the upper 50 cm of the northern polar regolith. Phoenix will land within the north polar region at 68.2 N, 233.4 W identified by GRS to harbor near surface water ice and provide in-situ confirmation of this extraordinary find. Our mission will investigate water in all its phases, and will investigate the history of water as evidenced in the soil characteristics that will be carefully examined by the powerful suite of onboard instrumentation. Access to the critical subsurface region expected to contain this information is made possible by a third generation robotic arm capable of excavating the expected Martian regolith to a depth of 1m. Phoenix has four primary science objectives: 1) Determine the polar climate and weather, interaction with the surface, and composition of the lower atmosphere around 70 N for at least 90 sols focusing on water, ice, dust, noble gases, and CO2. Determine the atmospheric characteristics during descent through the atmosphere. 2) Characterize the geomorphology and active processes shaping the northern plains and the physical properties of the near surface regolith focusing on the role of water. 3) Determine the aqueous mineralogy and chemistry as well as the adsorbed gases and organic content of the regolith. Verify the Odyssey

  3. Overnight Changes Recorded by Phoenix Conductivity Probe

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2008-01-01

    This graph presents simplified data from overnight measurements by the Thermal and Electrical Conductivity Probe on NASA's Phoenix Mars Lander from noon of the mission's 70th Martian day, or sol, to noon the following sol (Aug. 5 to Aug. 6, 2008).

    The graph shows that water disappeared from the atmosphere overnight, at the same time that electrical measurements detected changes consistent with addition of water to the soil.

    Water in soil appears to increase overnight, when water in the atmosphere disappears.

    The Phoenix Mission is led by the University of Arizona, Tucson, on behalf of NASA. Project management of the mission is by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif. Spacecraft development is by Lockheed Martin Space Systems, Denver.

  4. Astronomical research at the Hopkins Phoenix Observatory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hopkins, J. L.

    1985-01-01

    After trying astrophotography and radio astronomy it was decided that the best way to do meaningful astronomical research at a small private observatory was by doing photoelectric photometry. Having the observatory located in the back yard of a private residence affors the luxury of observing any time the sky conditions permit. Also modest equipment is all that is needed to do accurate UBV photometry of stars 8th magnitude and brighter. Since beginning in 1980 the Hopkins Phoenix Observatory has published papers on several RS CVn star systems, 31 Cygni, 22 Vul, 18 Tau Per, and has followed the 1982-1984 eclipse of Epsilon Aurigae from its start to the present with over 1000 UBV measurements. In addition the Hopkins Phoenix Observatory has developed several pieces of photometry equipment including the HPO PEPH-101 photometer head and photon counting electronics.

  5. Phoenix Robotic Arm's Workspace After 90 Sols

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2008-01-01

    During the first 90 Martian days, or sols, after its May 25, 2008, landing on an arctic plain of Mars, NASA's Phoenix Mars Lander dug several trenches in the workspace reachable with the lander's robotic arm.

    The lander's Surface Stereo Imager camera recorded this view of the workspace on Sol 90, early afternoon local Mars time (overnight Aug. 25 to Aug. 26, 2008). The shadow of the the camera itself, atop its mast, is just left of the center of the image and roughly a third of a meter (one foot) wide.

    The workspace is on the north side of the lander. The trench just to the right of center is called 'Neverland.'

    The Phoenix Mission is led by the University of Arizona, Tucson, on behalf of NASA. Project management of the mission is by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif. Spacecraft development is by Lockheed Martin Space Systems, Denver.

  6. Phoenix--the first Mars Scout mission.

    PubMed

    Shotwell, Robert

    2005-01-01

    NASA has initiated the first of a new series of missions to augment the current Mars Program. In addition to the systematic series of planned, directed missions currently comprising the Mars Program plan, NASA has started a series of Mars Scout missions that are low cost, price fixed, Principal [correction of Principle] Investigator-led projects. These missions are intended to provide an avenue for rapid response to discoveries made as a result of the primary Mars missions, as well as allow more risky technologies and approaches to be applied in the investigation of Mars. The first in this new series is the Phoenix mission which was selected as part of a highly competitive process. Phoenix will use the Mars 2001 Lander that was discontinued in 2000 and apply a new set of science objectives and mission objectives and will validate this soft lander architecture for future applications. This paper will provide an overview of both the Program and the Project.

  7. Phoenix Robotic Arm Scoop with Rasp

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2008-01-01

    This drawing shows a side view of NASA's Phoenix Mars Lander's scoop with various tools for acquiring soil, icy soil and ice samples.

    The front blade, at left, is for scraping. A secondary blade can scrape hard materials.

    The motorized rasp, protruding at the bottom on the image, can penetrate the hard icy soil and acquire the cuttings produced through the rear chamber of the scoop. The rasp is a tungsten carbide cutting bit mounted within a pivoting housing that allows the bit to protrude during sample acquisition.

    The Phoenix Mission is led by the University of Arizona, Tucson, on behalf of NASA. Project management of the mission is led by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif. Spacecraft development is by Lockheed Martin Space Systems, Denver.

  8. Phoenix Mars Lander's Chemistry Lab in a Box

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2007-01-01

    The wet chemistry laboratory on NASA's Phoenix Mars Lander has four teacup-size beakers. This photograph shows one of them. The laboratory is part of the spacecraft's Microscopy, Electrochemistry and Conductivity Analyzer.

    Each beaker will be used only once, for assessing soluble chemicals in a sample of Martian soil by mixing water with the sample to a soupy consistency and keeping it warm enough to remain liquid during the analysis.

    On the inner surface of the beaker are 26 sensors, mostly electrodes behind selectively permeable membranes or gels. Some sensors will give information about the acidity or alkalinity of the soil sample. Others will gauge concentrations of such ions as chlorides, bromides, magnesium, calcium and potassium. Comparisons of the concentrations of water-soluble ions in soil samples from different depths below the surface of the landing site may provide clues to the history of the water in the soil.

  9. Sprinkle Test by Phoenix's Robotic Arm (Movie)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2008-01-01

    NASA's Phoenix Mars Lander used its Robotic Arm during the mission's 15th Martian day since landing (June 9, 2008) to test a 'sprinkle' method for delivering small samples of soil to instruments on the lander deck. This sequence of four images from the spacecraft's Surface Stereo Imager covers a period of 20 minutes from beginning to end of the activity.

    In the single delivery of a soil sample to a Phoenix instrument prior to this test, the arm brought the scooped up soil over the instrument's opened door and turned over the scoop to release the soil. The sprinkle technique, by contrast, holds the scoop at a steady angle and vibrates the scoop by running the motorized rasp located beneath the scoop. This gently jostles some material out of the scoop to the target below.

    For this test, the target was near the upper end the cover of the Microscopy, Electrochemistry and Conductivity Analyzer instrument suite, or MECA. The cover is 20 centimeters (7.9 inches) across. The scoop is about 8.5 centimeters (3.3 inches) across.

    Based on the test's success in delivering a small quantity and fine-size particles, the Phoenix team plans to use the sprinkle method for delivering samples to MECA and to the Thermal and Evolved-Gas Analyzer, or TEGA. The next planned delivery is to MECA's Optical Microscope, via the port in the MECA cover visible at the bottom of these images.

    The Phoenix Mission is led by the University of Arizona, Tucson, on behalf of NASA. Project management of the mission is by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif. Spacecraft development is by Lockheed Martin Space Systems, Denver.

  10. Merged dust climatology in Phoenix, Arizona based on satellite and station data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lei, Hang; Wang, Julian X. L.; Tong, Daniel Q.; Lee, Pius

    2016-11-01

    In order to construct climate quality long-term dust storm dataset, merged dust storm climatology in Phoenix is developed based on three data sources: regular meteorological records, in situ air quality measurements, and satellite remote sensing observations. The result presented in this paper takes into account the advantages of each dataset and integrates individual analyses demonstrated and presented in previous studies that laid foundation to reconstruct a consistent and continuous time series of dust frequency. A key for the merging procedure is to determine analysis criteria suitable for each individual data source. A practical application to historic records of dust storm activities over the Phoenix area is presented to illustrate detailed steps, advantages, and limitations of the newly developed process. Three datasets are meteorological records from the Sky Harbor station, satellite observed aerosol optical depth data from moderate resolution imaging spectroradiometer, and the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency Air Quality System particulate matter data of eight sites surrounding Phoenix. Our purpose is to construct dust climatology over the Phoenix region for the period 1948-2012. Data qualities of the reconstructed dust climatology are assessed based on the availability and quality of the input data. The period during 2000-2012 has the best quality since all datasets are well archived. The reconstructed climatology shows that dust storm activities over the Phoenix region have large interannual variability. However, seasonal variations show a skewed distribution with higher frequency of dust storm activities in July and August and relatively quiet during the rest of months. Combining advantages of all the available datasets, this study presents a merged product that provides a consistent and continuous time series of dust storm activities suitable for climate studies.

  11. Digging Movie from Phoenix's Sol 18

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2008-01-01

    The Surface Stereo Imager on NASA's Phoenix Mars Lander recorded the images combined into this movie of the lander's Robotic Arm enlarging and combining the two trenches informally named 'Dodo' (left) and 'Goldilocks.'

    The 21 images in this sequence were taken over a period of about 2 hours during Phoenix's Sol 18 (June 13, 2008), or the 18th Martian day since landing.

    The main purpose of the Sol 18 dig was to dig deeper for learning the depth of a hard underlying layer. A bright layer, possibly ice, was increasingly exposed as the digging progressed. Further digging and scraping in the combined Dodo-Goldilocks trench was planned for subsequent sols.

    The combined trench is about 20 centimeters (about 8 inches) wide. The depth at the end of the Sol 18 digging is 5 to 6 centimeters (about 2 inches).

    The Goldilocks trench was the source of soil samples 'Baby Bear' and 'Mama Bear,' which were collected on earlier sols and delivered to instruments on the lander deck. The Dodo trench was originally dug for practice in collecting and depositing soil samples.

    The Phoenix Mission is led by the University of Arizona, Tucson, on behalf of NASA. Project management of the mission is by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif. Spacecraft development is by Lockheed Martin Space Systems, Denver.

  12. Martian Dust Devil Movie, Phoenix Sol 104

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2008-01-01

    The Surface Stereo Imager on NASA's Phoenix Mars Lander caught this dust devil in action west of the lander in four frames shot about 50 seconds apart from each other between 11:53 a.m. and 11:56 a.m. local Mars time on Sol 104, or the 104th Martian day of the mission, Sept. 9, 2008.

    Dust devils have not been detected in any Phoenix images from earlier in the mission, but at least six were observed in a dozen images taken on Sol 104.

    Dust devils are whirlwinds that often occur when the Sun heats the surface of Mars, or some areas on Earth. The warmed surface heats the layer of atmosphere closest to it, and the warm air rises in a whirling motion, stirring dust up from the surface like a miniature tornado.

    The dust devil visible in this sequence was about 1,000 meters (about 3,300 feet) from the lander when the first frame was taken, and had moved to about 1,700 meters (about 5,600 feet) away by the time the last frame was taken about two and a half minutes later. The dust devil was moving westward at an estimated speed of 5 meters per second (11 miles per hour), which is similar to typical late-morning wind speed and direction indicated by the telltale wind gauge on Phoenix.

    This dust devil is about 5 meters (16 feet) in diameter. This is much smaller than dust devils that have been observed by NASA's Mars Exploration Rover Spirit much closer to the equator. It is closer in size to dust devils seen from orbit in the Phoenix landing region, though still smaller than those..

    The image has been enhanced to make the dust devil easier to see. Some of the frame-to-frame differences in the appearance of foreground rocks is because each frame was taken through a different color filter.

    The Phoenix Mission is led by the University of Arizona, Tucson, on behalf of NASA. Project management of the mission is by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif. Spacecraft development is by Lockheed Martin Space Systems, Denver.

  13. Phoenix Lander on Mars with Surrounding Terrain, Vertical Projection

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2008-01-01

    This view is a vertical projection that combines more than 500 exposures taken by the Surface Stereo Imager camera on NASA's Mars Phoenix Lander and projects them as if looking down from above.

    The black circle on the spacecraft is where the camera itself is mounted on the lander, out of view in images taken by the camera. North is toward the top of the image. The height of the lander's meteorology mast, extending toward the southwest, appears exaggerated because that mast is taller than the camera mast.

    This view in approximately true color covers an area about 30 meters by 30 meters (about 100 feet by 100 feet). The landing site is at 68.22 degrees north latitude, 234.25 degrees east longitude on Mars.

    The ground surface around the lander has polygonal patterning similar to patterns in permafrost areas on Earth.

    This view comprises more than 100 different Stereo Surface Imager pointings, with images taken through three different filters at each pointing. The images were taken throughout the period from the 13th Martian day, or sol, after landing to the 47th sol (June 5 through July 12, 2008). The lander's Robotic Arm is cut off in this mosaic view because component images were taken when the arm was out of the frame.

    The Phoenix Mission is led by the University of Arizona, Tucson, on behalf of NASA. Project management of the mission is by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif. Spacecraft development is by Lockheed Martin Space Systems, Denver.

  14. University of Phoenix Lets Students Find Answers Virtually

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wasley, Paula

    2008-01-01

    This article talks about a software designed by the University of Phoenix for its business, information-technology, education, and health-care courses. Through the university's "virtual organizations"--online teaching tools designed to simulate the experience of working at a typical corporation, school, or government agency, Phoenix students can…

  15. Selected Hydrologic Applications of LANDSAT-2 Data: an Evaluation. [Snowmelt in the American River Basin and soil moisture studies at the Phoenix, Arizona Test Site and at Luverne, Minnesota

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wiesnet, D. R.; Mcginnis, D. F., Jr.; Matson, M. (Principal Investigator)

    1978-01-01

    The author has identified the following significant results. Estimates of soil moisture were obtained from visible, near-IR gamma ray and microwave data. Attempts using GOES thermal-IR were unsuccessful due to resolutions (8 km). Microwaves were the most effective at soil moisture estimates, with and without vegetative cover. Gamma rays provided only one value for the test site, produced by many data points obtained from overlapping 150 meter diameter circles. Even though the resulting averaged value was near the averaged field moisture value, this method suffers from atmospheric contaminants, the need to fly at low altitudes, and the necessity of prior calibration of a given site. Visible and near-IR relationships are present for bare fields but appear to be limited to soil moisture levels between 5 and 20%. The densely vegetated alfalfa fields correlated with near-IR reflectance only; soil moisture values from wheat fields showed no relation to either or near-IR MSS data.

  16. Chemistry Lab for Phoenix Mars Lander

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2007-01-01

    The science payload of NASA's Phoenix Mars Lander includes a multi-tool instrument named the Microscopy, Electrochemistry, and Conductivity Analyzer (MECA). The instrument's wet chemistry laboratory, prominent in this photograph, will measure a range of chemical properties of Martian soil samples, such as the presence of dissolved salts and the level of acidity or alkalinity. Other tools that are parts of the instrument are microscopes that will examine samples' mineral grains and a probe that will check the soil's thermal and electrical properties.

  17. Microscopes for NASA's Phoenix Mars Lander

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2007-01-01

    One part of the Microscopy, Electrochemistry, and Conductivity Analyzer instrument for NASA's Phoenix Mars Lander is a pair of telescopes with a special wheel (on the right in this photograph) for presenting samples to be inspected with the microscopes. A horizontally mounted optical microscope (on the left in this photograph) and an atomic force microscope will examine soil particles and possibly ice particles.

    The shapes and the size distributions of soil particles may tell scientists about environmental conditions the material has experienced. Tumbling rounds the edges. Repeated wetting and freezing causes cracking. Clay minerals formed during long exposure to water have distinctive, platy particles shapes.

  18. The Phoenix Mars Lander Robotic Arm

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bonitz, Robert; Shiraishi, Lori; Robinson, Matthew; Carsten, Joseph; Volpe, Richard; Trebi-Ollennu, Ashitey; Arvidson, Raymond E.; Chu, P. C.; Wilson, J. J.; Davis, K. R.

    2009-01-01

    The Phoenix Mars Lander Robotic Arm (RA) has operated for over 150 sols since the Lander touched down on the north polar region of Mars on May 25, 2008. During its mission it has dug numerous trenches in the Martian regolith, acquired samples of Martian dry and icy soil, and delivered them to the Thermal Evolved Gas Analyzer (TEGA) and the Microscopy, Electrochemistry, and Conductivity Analyzer (MECA). The RA inserted the Thermal and Electrical Conductivity Probe (TECP) into the Martian regolith and positioned it at various heights above the surface for relative humidity measurements. The RA was used to point the Robotic Arm Camera to take images of the surface, trenches, samples within the scoop, and other objects of scientific interest within its workspace. Data from the RA sensors during trenching, scraping, and trench cave-in experiments have been used to infer mechanical properties of the Martian soil. This paper describes the design and operations of the RA as a critical component of the Phoenix Mars Lander necessary to achieve the scientific goals of the mission.

  19. View of Phoenix, Arizona metropolitan area

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1973-01-01

    A near vertical view of the Phoenix, Arizona metropolitan area is seen in this Skyalb 3 Earth Resources Experiments Package S190-B (five-inch earth terrain camera) photograph taken from the Skylab space station in earth orbit. Also in the picture are Scottsdale, Paradise Valley, Tempe, Mesa, Laveen, Komatke, Salt River Indian Reseravation, and part of the Gila River Indian Reservation. Features which can be detected from the photograph include: cultural patterns defined by commercial, industrial, agricultural and residential areas; transportation networks consisting of major corridors, primary, secondary, and feeder streets; major urban developments on the area such as airports, Squaw Peak CIty Park, Turf Paradise Race Track and the State Fair grounds.

  20. Project Phoenix and beyond. Pesek Lecture.

    PubMed

    Tarter, J

    1997-01-01

    Although there are no federally funded projects at this time, SETI (the search for extraterrestrial intelligence) is a vigorous exploratory science. There are currently eight observational programs on telescopes around the world, of which the Phoenix Project is the most comprehensive. Most of these projects are rooted in the conclusions of the pioneering studies of the early 1970's that are summarized in the Cyclops Report. Technology has experienced an exponential growth over the past two and a half decades. It is reasonable to reassess the Cyclops conclusions as SETI enters the next century. Listening for radio signals is still the preferred method of searching, however new technologies are making searches at other wavelengths possible and are modifying the ways in which the radio searches can and should be conducted. It may be economically feasible to undertake the construction of very large telescopes that can simultaneously provide multiple beams on the sky for use by SETI and the radioastronomy community.

  1. Arch construction at south end, looking east with Phoenix Iron ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Arch construction at south end, looking east with Phoenix Iron Company foundry in background. - Gay Street Bridge, Spanning French Creek at Gay Street (State Route 113), Phoenixville, Chester County, PA

  2. Phoenix Production Company – Sheldon Dome Field NPDES Permit

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Under NPDES permit WY-0024953, Phoenix Production Company is authorized to discharge from its Sheldon Dome Field wastewater treatment facility in Fremont County, Wyoming, to an unnamed ephemeral tributary of Dry Creek, which is tributary to the Wind River.

  3. Phoenix Production Company – Rolff Lake Unit NPDES Permit

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Under NPDES permit WY-002494, Phoenix Production Company is authorized to discharge from its Rolff Lake Unit wastewater treatment facility in Fremont County, Wyoming, to an unnamed ephemeral tributary of Dry Creek, which is tributary to the Wind River.

  4. RadNet Air Data From Phoenix, AZ

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This page presents radiation air monitoring and air filter analysis data for Phoenix, AZ from EPA's RadNet system. RadNet is a nationwide network of monitoring stations that measure radiation in air, drinking water and precipitation.

  5. View of Phoenix's Surroundings as of Sol 2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2008-01-01

    This is a cylindrical mosaic of all data, as of the end of sol 2, from the right eye of the Surface Stereo Imager (SSI) instrument on board the Phoenix lander.

    The Phoenix Mission is led by the University of Arizona, Tucson, on behalf of NASA. Project management of the mission is by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif. Spacecraft development is by Lockheed Martin Space Systems, Denver.

  6. Color Image of Phoenix Heat Shield and Bounce Mark

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2008-01-01

    This shows a color image from Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter's High Resolution Imaging Science Experiment camera. It shows the Phoenix heat shield and bounce mark on the Mars surface.

    The Phoenix Mission is led by the University of Arizona, Tucson, on behalf of NASA. Project management of the mission is by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif. Spacecraft development is by Lockheed Martin Space Systems, Denver.

  7. Phoenix Missile Hypersonic Testbed (PMHT): System Concept Overview

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, Thomas P.

    2007-01-01

    A viewgraph presentation of the Phoenix Missile Hypersonic Testbed (PMHT) is shown. The contents include: 1) Need and Goals; 2) Phoenix Missile Hypersonic Testbed; 3) PMHT Concept; 4) Development Objectives; 5) Possible Research Payloads; 6) Possible Research Program Participants; 7) PMHT Configuration; 8) AIM-54 Internal Hardware Schematic; 9) PMHT Configuration; 10) New Guidance and Armament Section Profiles; 11) Nomenclature; 12) PMHT Stack; 13) Systems Concept; 14) PMHT Preflight Activities; 15) Notional Ground Path; and 16) Sample Theoretical Trajectories.

  8. 3D Visualization for Phoenix Mars Lander Science Operations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Edwards, Laurence; Keely, Leslie; Lees, David; Stoker, Carol

    2012-01-01

    Planetary surface exploration missions present considerable operational challenges in the form of substantial communication delays, limited communication windows, and limited communication bandwidth. A 3D visualization software was developed and delivered to the 2008 Phoenix Mars Lander (PML) mission. The components of the system include an interactive 3D visualization environment called Mercator, terrain reconstruction software called the Ames Stereo Pipeline, and a server providing distributed access to terrain models. The software was successfully utilized during the mission for science analysis, site understanding, and science operations activity planning. A terrain server was implemented that provided distribution of terrain models from a central repository to clients running the Mercator software. The Ames Stereo Pipeline generates accurate, high-resolution, texture-mapped, 3D terrain models from stereo image pairs. These terrain models can then be visualized within the Mercator environment. The central cross-cutting goal for these tools is to provide an easy-to-use, high-quality, full-featured visualization environment that enhances the mission science team s ability to develop low-risk productive science activity plans. In addition, for the Mercator and Viz visualization environments, extensibility and adaptability to different missions and application areas are key design goals.

  9. Assessment of Debris Flow Hazards, North Mountain, Phoenix, AZ

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reavis, K. J.; Wasklewicz, T. A.

    2014-12-01

    Urban sprawl in many western U.S. cities has expanded development onto alluvial fans. In the case of metropolitan Phoenix, AZ (MPA), urban sprawl has led to an exponential outward growth into surrounding mountainous areas and onto alluvial fans. Building on alluvial fans places humans at greater risk to flooding and debris flow hazards. Recent research has shown debris flows often supply large quantities of material to many alluvial fans in MPA. However, the risk of debris flows to built environments is relatively unknown. We use a 2D debris flow modeling approach, aided by high-resolution airborne LiDAR and terrestrial laser scanning (TLS) topographic data, to examine debris flow behavior in a densely populated portion of the MPA to assess the risk and vulnerability of debris flow damage to the built infrastructure. A calibrated 2D debris flow model is developed for a "known" recent debris flow at an undeveloped site in MPA. The calibrated model and two other model scenarios are applied to a populated area with historical evidence of debris flow activity. Results from the modeled scenarios show evidence of debris flow damage to houses built on the alluvial fan. Debris flow inundation is also evident on streets on the fan. We use housing values and building damage to estimate the costs assocaited with various modeled debris flow scenarios.

  10. Phoenix Union High School District #210 Adult Academy Evaluation Report, 1980-81. Research Services Report No. 33:08:80/81:010.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Norris, Carol A.; Wheeler, Linda

    The Adult Reading Academy, a federally-funded service of the Phoenix Union High School District, serves native- and foreign-born adult students who are deficient in the basic skills of reading, writing, arithmetic, and oral communication. In 1980/81, the program served 476 students at 17 sites. Approximately 24 percent of the clients served were…

  11. Aerodynamics for the Mars Phoenix Entry Capsule

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Edquist, Karl T.; Desai, Prasun N.; Schoenenberger, Mark

    2008-01-01

    Pre-flight aerodynamics data for the Mars Phoenix entry capsule are presented. The aerodynamic coefficients were generated as a function of total angle-of-attack and either Knudsen number, velocity, or Mach number, depending on the flight regime. The database was constructed using continuum flowfield computations and data from the Mars Exploration Rover and Viking programs. Hypersonic and supersonic static coefficients were derived from Navier-Stokes solutions on a pre-flight design trajectory. High-altitude data (free-molecular and transitional regimes) and dynamic pitch damping characteristics were taken from Mars Exploration Rover analysis and testing. Transonic static coefficients from Viking wind tunnel tests were used for capsule aerodynamics under the parachute. Static instabilities were predicted at two points along the reference trajectory and were verified by reconstructed flight data. During the hypersonic instability, the capsule was predicted to trim at angles as high as 2.5 deg with an on-axis center-of-gravity. Trim angles were predicted for off-nominal pitching moment (4.2 deg peak) and a 5 mm off-axis center-ofgravity (4.8 deg peak). Finally, hypersonic static coefficient sensitivities to atmospheric density were predicted to be within uncertainty bounds.

  12. EnviroAtlas - Metrics for Phoenix, AZ

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    These EnviroAtlas web services support research and online mapping activities related to EnviroAtlas (https://www.epa.gov/enviroatlas). The layers in these web services depict ecosystem services at the census block group level for the community of Phoenix, Arizona. These layers illustrate the ecosystems and natural resources that are associated with clean air (https://enviroatlas.epa.gov/arcgis/rest/services/Communities/ESC_PAZ_CleanAir/MapServer); clean and plentiful water (https://enviroatlas.epa.gov/arcgis/rest/services/Communities/ESC_PAZ_CleanPlentifulWater/MapServer); natural hazard mitigation (https://enviroatlas.epa.gov/arcgis/rest/services/Communities/ESC_PAZ_NaturalHazardMitigation/MapServer); climate stabilization (https://enviroatlas.epa.gov/arcgis/rest/services/Communities/ESC_PAZ_ClimateStabilization/MapServer); food, fuel, and materials (https://enviroatlas.epa.gov/arcgis/rest/services/Communities/ESC_PAZ_FoodFuelMaterials/MapServer); recreation, culture, and aesthetics (https://enviroatlas.epa.gov/arcgis/rest/services/Communities/ESC_PAZ_RecreationCultureAesthetics/MapServer); and biodiversity conservation (https://enviroatlas.epa.gov/arcgis/rest/services/Communities/ESC_PAZ_BiodiversityConservation/MapServer), and factors that place stress on those resources. EnviroAtlas allows the user to interact with a web-based, easy-to-use, mapping application to view and analyze multiple ecosystem services for the conterminous United States as well as deta

  13. Entry, Descent, and Landing Performance of the Mars Phoenix Lander

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Desai, Prasun N.; Prince, Jill L.; Wueen, Eric M.; Cruz, Juan R.; Grover, Myron R.

    2008-01-01

    On May 25, 2008, the Mars Phoenix Lander successfully landed on the northern arctic plains of Mars. An overview of a preliminary reconstruction analysis performed on each entry, descent, and landing phase to assess the performance of Phoenix as it descended is presented and a comparison to pre-entry predictions is provided. The landing occurred 21 km further downrange than the predicted landing location. Analysis of the flight data revealed that the primary cause of Phoenix s downrange landing was a higher trim total angle of attack during the hypersonic phase of the entry, which resulted in Phoenix flying a slightly lifting trajectory. The cause of this higher trim attitude is not known at this time. Parachute deployment was 6.4 s later than prediction. This later deployment time was within the variations expected and is consistent with a lifting trajectory. The parachute deployment and inflation process occurred as expected with no anomalies identified. The subsequent parachute descent and powered terminal landing also behaved as expected. A preliminary reconstruction of the landing day atmospheric density profile was found to be lower than the best apriori prediction, ranging from a few percent less to a maximum of 8%. A comparison of the flight reconstructed trajectory parameters shows that the actual Phoenix entry, descent, and landing was close to pre-entry predictions. This reconstruction investigation is currently ongoing and the results to date are in the process of being refined.

  14. 76 FR 23787 - Voluntary Termination of Foreign-Trade Subzone 75D, STMicroelectronics, Inc., Phoenix, AZ

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-04-28

    ...., Phoenix, AZ Pursuant to its authority under the Foreign-Trade Zones Act of June 18, 1934, as amended (19 U... issued a grant of authority to the City of Phoenix (grantee of FTZ 75) authorizing the establishment of Foreign-Trade Subzone 75D at the STMicroelectronics, Inc., facility in Phoenix, Arizona (Board Order...

  15. 78 FR 56859 - Foreign-Trade Zone 75-Phoenix, Arizona, Authorization of Limited Production Activity, Honeywell...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-09-16

    ... Foreign-Trade Zones Board Foreign-Trade Zone 75--Phoenix, Arizona, Authorization of Limited Production Activity, Honeywell Aerospace, Inc. (Aircraft Engines, Systems and Components), Phoenix and Tempe, Arizona On May 3, 2013, the City of Phoenix, grantee of FTZ 75, submitted a notification of...

  16. 75 FR 63139 - Approval and Promulgation of Implementation Plans-Maricopa County (Phoenix) PM-10 Nonattainment...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-10-14

    ... AGENCY 40 CFR Part 52 Approval and Promulgation of Implementation Plans--Maricopa County (Phoenix) PM-10... County (Phoenix) nonattainment area (Maricopa area). Specifically, EPA proposed to disapprove provisions... County (Phoenix) nonattainment area (Maricopa area). These requirements apply to the Maricopa...

  17. 52. VIEW SHOWING SITE OF ARIZONA FALL POWER PLANT, LOOKING ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    52. VIEW SHOWING SITE OF ARIZONA FALL POWER PLANT, LOOKING EAST. CURRENT LOCATION OF THE REAL-TIME WATER QUALITY MONITORING STATION Photographer: James Eastwood, July 1990 - Arizona Canal, North of Salt River, Phoenix, Maricopa County, AZ

  18. Team Huddle Before Lifting Phoenix into Test Chamber

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2007-01-01

    Spacecraft specialists huddle to discuss the critical lift of NASA's Phoenix Mars Lander into a thermal vacuum chamber.

    In December 2006, the spacecraft was in a cruise configuration prior to going into environmental testing at a Lockheed Martin Space Systems facility near Denver. At all stages of assembly and testing, the spacecraft is handled with extreme care and refinement.

    The Phoenix mission is led by Principal Investigator Peter H. Smith of the University of Arizona, Tucson, with project management at NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory and development partnership with Lockheed Martin Space Systems. International contributions for Phoenix are provided by the Canadian Space Agency, the University of Neuchatel (Switzerland), the University of Copenhagen, and the Max Planck Institute in Germany. JPL is a division of the California Institute of Technology in Pasadena.

  19. Martian Arctic Dust Devil and Phoenix Meteorology Mast

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2008-01-01

    The Surface Stereo Imager on NASA's Phoenix Mars Lander caught this dust devil in action west-southwest of the lander at 11:16 a.m. local Mars time on Sol 104, or the 104th Martian day of the mission, Sept. 9, 2008.

    Dust devils have not been detected in any Phoenix images from earlier in the mission, but at least six were observed in a dozen images taken on Sol 104.

    Dust devils are whirlwinds that often occur when the Sun heats the surface of Mars, or some areas on Earth. The warmed surface heats the layer of atmosphere closest to it, and the warm air rises in a whirling motion, stirring dust up from the surface like a miniature tornado.

    The vertical post near the left edge of this image is the mast of the Meteorological Station on Phoenix. The dust devil visible at the horizon just to the right of the mast is estimated to be 600 to 700 meters (about 2,000 to 2,300 feet) from Phoenix, and 4 to 5 meters (10 to 13 feet) in diameter. It is much smaller than dust devils that have been observed by NASA's Mars Exploration Rover Spirit much closer to the equator. It is closer in size to dust devils seen from orbit in the Phoenix landing region, though still smaller than those.

    The image has been enhanced to make the dust devil easier to see.

    The Phoenix Mission is led by the University of Arizona, Tucson, on behalf of NASA. Project management of the mission is by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif. Spacecraft development is by Lockheed Martin Space Systems, Denver.

  20. The RR Lyrae variable population in the Phoenix dwarf galaxy

    SciTech Connect

    Ordoñez, Antonio J.; Sarajedini, Ata; Yang, Soung-Chul E-mail: ata@astro.ufl.edu

    2014-05-10

    We present the first detailed study of the RR Lyrae variable population in the Local Group dSph/dIrr transition galaxy, Phoenix, using previously obtained HST/WFPC2 observations of the galaxy. We utilize template light curve fitting routines to obtain best fit light curves for RR Lyrae variables in Phoenix. Our technique has identified 78 highly probable RR Lyrae stars (54 ab-type; 24 c-type) with about 40 additional candidates. We find mean periods for the two populations of (P {sub ab}) = 0.60 ± 0.03 days and (P{sub c} ) = 0.353 ± 0.002 days. We use the properties of these light curves to extract, among other things, a metallicity distribution function for ab-type RR Lyrae. Our analysis yields a mean metallicity of ([Fe/H]) = –1.68 ± 0.06 dex for the RRab stars. From the mean period and metallicity calculated from the ab-type RR Lyrae, we conclude that Phoenix is more likely of intermediate Oosterhoff type; however the morphology of the Bailey diagram for Phoenix RR Lyraes appears similar to that of an Oosterhoff type I system. Using the RRab stars, we also study the chemical enrichment law for Phoenix. We find that our metallicity distribution is reasonably well fitted by a closed-box model. The parameters of this model are compatible with the findings of Hidalgo et al., further supporting the idea that Phoenix appears to have been chemically enriched as a closed-box-like system during the early stage of its formation and evolution.

  1. Establishment, management, and maintenance of the phoenix islands protected area.

    PubMed

    Rotjan, Randi; Jamieson, Regen; Carr, Ben; Kaufman, Les; Mangubhai, Sangeeta; Obura, David; Pierce, Ray; Rimon, Betarim; Ris, Bud; Sandin, Stuart; Shelley, Peter; Sumaila, U Rashid; Taei, Sue; Tausig, Heather; Teroroko, Tukabu; Thorrold, Simon; Wikgren, Brooke; Toatu, Teuea; Stone, Greg

    2014-01-01

    The Republic of Kiribati's Phoenix Islands Protected Area (PIPA), located in the equatorial central Pacific, is the largest and deepest UNESCO World Heritage site on earth. Created in 2008, it was the first Marine Protected Area (MPA) of its kind (at the time of inception, the largest in the world) and includes eight low-lying islands, shallow coral reefs, submerged shallow and deep seamounts and extensive open-ocean and ocean floor habitat. Due to their isolation, the shallow reef habitats have been protected de facto from severe exploitation, though the surrounding waters have been continually fished for large pelagics and whales over many decades. PIPA was created under a partnership between the Government of Kiribati and the international non-governmental organizations-Conservation International and the New England Aquarium. PIPA has a unique conservation strategy as the first marine MPA to use a conservation contract mechanism with a corresponding Conservation Trust established to be both a sustainable financing mechanism and a check-and-balance to the oversight and maintenance of the MPA. As PIPA moves forward with its management objectives, it is well positioned to be a global model for large MPA design and implementation in similar contexts. The islands and shallow reefs have already shown benefits from protection, though the pending full closure of PIPA (and assessments thereof) will be critical for determining success of the MPA as a refuge for open-ocean pelagic and deep-sea marine life. As global ocean resources are continually being extracted to support a growing global population, PIPA's closure is both timely and of global significance.

  2. Dinosaur or Phoenix: Nuclear Bombers in the 21st Century

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-04-12

    REPORT DATE 02-04-10 2. REPORT TYPE Master’s Thesis 3. DATES COVERED 31-07-09 to 16-06-10 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Dinosaur or Phoenix: Nuclear...WARFIGHTING SCHOOL DINOSAUR OR PHOENIX: NUCLEAR BOMBERS IN THE 21ST CENTURY by John W. Morehead Colonel, United States Air Force A paper...can argue Secretary Gates’ decision to halt development of a follow-on bomber indicates the DOD views nuclear bombers as dinosaurs no longer needed as

  3. Geomorphic Map of Region Around Phoenix Mars Lander

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2008-01-01

    This map shows shows a color-coded interpretation of geomorphic units categories based on surface textures and contours in the region where NASA's Phoenix Mars Lander has studied an arctic Martian plain. It covers an area about 65 kilometers by 65 kilometers (40 miles by 40 miles).

    The Phoenix Mission is led by the University of Arizona, Tucson, on behalf of NASA. Project management of the mission is by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif. Spacecraft development is by Lockheed Martin Space Systems, Denver.

  4. Color Image of Phoenix Lander on Mars Surface

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2008-01-01

    This is an enhanced-color image from Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter's High Resolution Imaging Science Experiment (HiRISE) camera. It shows the Phoenix lander with its solar panels deployed on the Mars surface. The spacecraft appears more blue than it would in reality.

    The blue/green and red filters on the HiRISE camera were used to make this picture.

    The Phoenix Mission is led by the University of Arizona, Tucson, on behalf of NASA. Project management of the mission is by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif. Spacecraft development is by Lockheed Martin Space Systems, Denver.

  5. Earthshots: Satellite images of environmental change - Phoenix, Arizona, USA

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Adamson, Thomas

    2013-01-01

    Phoenix doesn’t have many cloudy days, so it’s perfect for studying urban growth with satellite images. Scientists and city planners study population growth and urban expansion in fast-growing cities like Phoenix to determine the changes that have occurred over time and to see how those changes impact the surrounding environment, affect the availability of natural resources such as water, and alter the landscape and how it’s used. That information can help people plan for future changes as cities continue to grow.

  6. Thermal Design Validation of the Mars Scout Phoenix Payload

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tsuyuki, Glenn T.; Lee, Chern-Jiin

    2007-01-01

    This slide presentation reviews the validation of the thermal design for the Mars Scout Phoenix Payload. It includes a description of the Phoenix Mission, the science objectives, the timeline, and the flight system and payloads that were on the lander. The initial responsibility for the development and validation the thermal design was with the developers. This process lacked overall system engineering, there was a difference of thermal expertise, and the number of institutions involved complicated the interactions. The revised approach for payload thermal design validation is described.

  7. Permafrost as a habitable environment on Mars: Insights from the Phoenix Mars Mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stoker, C.

    2011-12-01

    The Phoenix mission landed in the northern plains of Mars (68.2°N, 234.3°E) in May 2009, at a location with ground ice within 10 cm of the surface(1). A mission objective was to determine whether conditions at the surface or near subsurface could supporting living organisms with capabilities similar to terrestrial microbes, either at present or in the recent past(2). The lander carried a robotic arm with digging scoop to collect soil and icy material and performed volatile mineral and organic analysis(3) and wet chemical analysis(4). Results from Phoenix along with theoretical modeling and other previous mission results can be used to evaluate the habitability of the landing site(2). Factors that characterize the environments' ability to support life as we know it are the presence of liquid water, the presence of an energy source to support metabolism, the presence of nutrients containing the fundamental building blocks of life, and the absence of environmental conditions that are toxic to or preclude life. Phoenix observational evidence for the presence of liquid water (past or present) includes clean segregated ice(1), chemical etching of soil grains(2), calcite minerals in the soil(3), and variable concentrations of soluble salts(5). The present maximum surface temperature measured is 260K(6) so unfrozen water can form only in adsorbed films or saline brines but warmer climates occur cyclically on geologically short time scales due to variations in orbital parameters. During the most clement periods, temperatures allowing metabolism extend nearly a meter into the subsurface(7). Energy to drive metabolism is available from sunlight, beneath semi-transparent soil grains that can provide shielding from UV radiation. Phoenix also discovered perchlorate(4),a chemical energy source utilized by a wide range of microbes, occurs in high soil concentrations. Biologically available C, H, N, O, P and S compounds are supplied by known atmospheric sources or global dust

  8. Genetic erosion of Phoenix dactylifera L.: Perceptible, probable or possible?

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Genetic diversity of date palm (Phoenix dactylefera L.) encompasses genetic differences among and within species, subspecies, populations, cultivars, and individual clones in traditional oases and plantations. Components of this diversity can be estimated, throughout the tree’s ontogeny, at the phen...

  9. The Flight of the Phoenix: Interpersonal Aspects of Project Management

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Huffman, Brian J.; Kilian, Claire McCarty

    2012-01-01

    Although many classroom exercises use movies to focus on management and organizational behavior issues, none of those do so in the context of project management. This article presents such an exercise using "The Flight of the Phoenix", an incredibly rich story for any management class, which provides clear examples of organizational behavior…

  10. Vaccination Coverage among Kindergarten Children in Phoenix, Arizona

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Frimpong, Jemima A.; Rivers, Patrick A.; Bae, Sejong

    2008-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate school immunization records and document the immunization coverage and compliance level of children enrolled in kindergarten in Phoenix during the 2001-2002 school year. The purpose was to obtain information on: 1) immunization status by age two; 2) under-immunization in kindergarten; 3) administration error; and 4)…

  11. Public School Choice and Student Mobility in Metropolitan Phoenix

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Powers, Jeanne M.; Topper, Amelia M.; Silver, Michael

    2012-01-01

    Arizona's interdistrict open enrollment and charter schools laws allow families to send their children to the public schools of their choice. We assessed how public school choice affected elementary school enrollments in 27 metropolitan Phoenix school districts. Student mobility rates varied widely between districts and by location. The higher…

  12. Giving Teens a Chance: Karl Kendall--Phoenix Public Library

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Library Journal, 2004

    2004-01-01

    Karl Kendall knows that while comic books, computers, and daily movies will grab teens' interest, what they long for most is respect. As head of Teen Central, a 4,000 square foot space on the fourth floor of Phoenix's Burton Barr Central Library, Kendall provides teens with a place where their ideas and opinions are listened to, their talents…

  13. University of Phoenix Says Test Scores Vindicate Its Academic Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blumenstyk, Goldie

    2008-01-01

    The University of Phoenix is often derided by traditional academics for caring more about its bottom line than about academic quality, and every year, the annual report issued by its parent company focuses more on profits than student performance. This article reports that the institution that has become the largest private university in North…

  14. Unemployed Native Americans in a Work Orientation Program in Phoenix.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McIntosh, Billie Jane

    The unemployment rate for Native Americans is 49% nationwide and 54% in Arizona. The Job Training Partnership Act (JPTA) program at the Phoenix Indian Center trains Native American adults to enter the urban work force. The Center offers work orientation programs, individual counseling, and work experience programs. The majority of the participants…

  15. Summary of the Evaluation of the Phoenix Pilot Drug Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Emrich, Robert L.; Green, Patricia

    The goal of the Phoenix Pilot Drug Program is to provide a drug/alcohol free educational environment which will enable students to reduce their drug/alcohol usage and function in a regular school program. To determine the degree to which the program is accomplishing these short-term goals, and also to examine the adequacy of the counseling…

  16. Phoenix Indian School: The Second Half-Century.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parker, Dorothy R.

    This book recounts the Phoenix Indian School's history from 1935 to its closing in 1990. In the 1930s, the Bureau of Indian Affairs' philosophy of assimilation declined in importance, as evidenced by termination of the boarding school's militaristic discipline, greater recognition of tribal traditions, and early experimentation in bilingual…

  17. Comparison of the Phoenix Mars Lander WCL soil analyses with Antarctic Dry Valley soils, Mars meteorite EETA79001 sawdust, and a Mars simulant

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stroble, Shannon T.; McElhoney, Kyle M.; Kounaves, Samuel P.

    2013-08-01

    The results of the Mars Phoenix Lander's Wet Chemistry Laboratory (WCL) for the analyses of the soluble ionic species present in the soil at the northern polar plains of Mars are compared to soil from the Antarctic Dry Valleys (ADVs), martian meteorite EETA79001 sawdust, and a Mars simulant. The ADV soil was compared to the Phoenix site by averaging the samples at analogous 0-5 cm depths and also all the samples from the pavement to the ice-table. Results from each analysis reveal similar ion concentrations ranging plus or minus one order-of-magnitude for all ions except perchlorate (ClO4-), which was three orders-of-magnitude greater in the Phoenix soil. The pH and solution electrical conductivity were also found to be similar for the ADV and Mars soils. The ADV profiles confirm that ClO4- gradients are sensitive indicators for the presence and form of liquid H2O on both Earth and Mars. The Phoenix and meteorite samples contained similar species and ratios but the meteorite concentrations were on average ˜4% of those for the Phoenix soil. The only exception was the ˜16% higher level of Ca2+ in the meteorite due to the CaCO3 druse. The ADV results imply that the Phoenix site is significantly more arid than University Valley, and has been for a greater period of time, as evidenced by the lack of salt gradients and the age of the soils. A Mars simulant was also formulated according to a MINEQL equilibrium model of the WCL results, and its analysis provides confidence that the soluble composition and parent salts at the Phoenix site are reasonably constrained. Overall, comparison of these samples of soil and sawdust indicates that not only does the martian meteorite EETA79001 contain similar soluble ionic species as the martian soil from the northern polar plains, but also that the soils from the ADV are similar to both, thus strengthening the argument for the ADV as a suitable terrestrial Mars analog environment.

  18. Phoenix Water Vapor Measurements using the SSI Camera

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tamppari, Leslie; Lemmon, Mark T.

    2016-10-01

    The Phoenix and Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter (MRO) spacecraft participated together in an observation campaign that was a coordinated effort to study the Martian atmosphere. These coordinated observations were designed to provide near-simultaneous observations of the same column of atmosphere over the Phoenix lander. Seasonal coverage was obtained at Ls=5-10° resolution and diurnal coverage was obtained as often as possible and with as many times of day as possible. One key aspect of this observation set was the means to compare the amount of water measured in the whole column (via the MRO Compact Reconnaissance Imaging Spectrometer for Mars (CRISM; Murchie et al., 2007) and the Phoenix Surface Stereo Imager (SSI) with that measured at the surface (via the Phoenix Thermal and Electrical Conductivity probe (TECP; Zent et al., 2008) which contained a humidity sensor). This comparison, along with the Phoenix LIDAR observations of the depth to which aerosols are mixed (Whiteway et al., 2008, 2009), provides clues to the water vapor mixing ratio profile. Tamppari et al. (2009) showed that examination of a subset of these coordinated observations indicate that the water vapor is not well mixed in the atmosphere up to a cloud condensation height at the Phoenix location during northern summer, and results indicated that a large amount of water must be confined to the lowest 0.5-1 km. This is contrary to the typical assumption that water vapor is "well-mixed."Following a similar approach to Titov et al. (2000), we use the Phoenix SSI camera [Lemmon et al., 2008] filters to detect water vapor: LA = 930.7 nm (broad), R4 = 935.5 nm (narrow), and R5 = 935.7 nm (narrow). We developed a hybrid DISORT-spherical model (DISORT model, Stamnes et al. 1988) to model the expected absorption due to a prescribed water vapor content and profile, to search for matches to the observations. Improvements to the model have been made and recent analysis using this model and comparisons to

  19. RS-34 Phoenix (Peacekeeper Post Boost Propulsion System) Utilization Study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Esther, Elizabeth A.; Kos, Larry; Burnside, Christopher G.; Bruno, Cy

    2013-01-01

    The Advanced Concepts Office (ACO) at the NASA Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) in conjunction with Pratt & Whitney Rocketdyne conducted a study to evaluate potential in-space applications for the Rocketdyne produced RS-34 propulsion system. The existing RS-34 propulsion system is a remaining asset from the de-commissioned United States Air Force Peacekeeper ICBM program, specifically the pressure-fed storable bipropellant Stage IV Post Boost Propulsion System, renamed Phoenix. MSFC gained experience with the RS-34 propulsion system on the successful Ares I-X flight test program flown in October 2009. RS-34 propulsion system components were harvested from stages supplied by the USAF and used on the Ares I-X Roll control system (RoCS). The heritage hardware proved extremely robust and reliable and sparked interest for further utilization on other potential in-space applications. MSFC is working closely with the USAF to obtain RS-34 stages for re-use opportunities. Prior to pursuit of securing the hardware, MSFC commissioned the Advanced Concepts Office to understand the capability and potential applications for the RS-34 Phoenix stage as it benefits NASA, DoD, and commercial industry. As originally designed, the RS-34 Phoenix provided in-space six-degrees-of freedom operational maneuvering to deploy multiple payloads at various orbital locations. The RS-34 Phoenix Utilization Study sought to understand how the unique capabilities of the RS-34 Phoenix and its application to six candidate missions: 1) small satellite delivery (SSD), 2) orbital debris removal (ODR), 3) ISS re-supply, 4) SLS kick stage, 5) manned GEO servicing precursor mission, and an Earth-Moon L-2 Waypoint mission. The small satellite delivery and orbital debris removal missions were found to closely mimic the heritage RS-34 mission. It is believed that this technology will enable a small, low-cost multiple satellite delivery to multiple orbital locations with a single boost. For both the small

  20. RS-34 Phoenix (Peacekeeper Post Boost Propulsion System) Utilization Study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Esther, Elizabeth A.; Kos, Larry; Bruno, Cy

    2012-01-01

    The Advanced Concepts Office (ACO) at the NASA Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) in conjunction with Pratt & Whitney Rocketdyne conducted a study to evaluate potential in-space applications for the Rocketdyne produced RS-34 propulsion system. The existing RS-34 propulsion system is a remaining asset from the decommissioned United States Air Force Peacekeeper ICBM program; specifically the pressure-fed storable bipropellant Stage IV Post Boost Propulsion System, renamed Phoenix. MSFC gained experience with the RS-34 propulsion system on the successful Ares I-X flight test program flown in October 2009. RS-34 propulsion system components were harvested from stages supplied by the USAF and used on the Ares I-X Roll control system (RoCS). The heritage hardware proved extremely robust and reliable and sparked interest for further utilization on other potential in-space applications. Subsequently, MSFC is working closely with the USAF to obtain all the remaining RS-34 stages for re-use opportunities. Prior to pursuit of securing the hardware, MSFC commissioned the Advanced Concepts Office to understand the capability and potential applications for the RS-34 Phoenix stage as it benefits NASA, DoD, and commercial industry. Originally designed, the RS-34 Phoenix provided in-space six-degrees-of freedom operational maneuvering to deploy multiple payloads at various orbital locations. The RS-34 Phoenix Utilization Study sought to understand how the unique capabilities of the RS-34 Phoenix and its application to six candidate missions: 1) small satellite delivery (SSD), 2) orbital debris removal (ODR), 3) ISS re-supply, 4) SLS kick stage, 5) manned GEO servicing precursor mission, and an Earth-Moon L-2 Waypoint mission. The small satellite delivery and orbital debris removal missions were found to closely mimic the heritage RS-34 mission. It is believed that this technology will enable a small, low-cost multiple satellite delivery to multiple orbital locations with a single

  1. Analysis of the Phoenix Mission's Thermal and Electrical Conductivity Probe (TECP) Relative Humidity Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fischer, E.; Martinez, G.; Renno, N. O.; Tamppari, L.; Zent, A.

    2015-12-01

    With funding from NASA's Mars Data Analysis Program, we plan to enhance the scientific return of the Phoenix mission by producing and archiving high-level relative humidity (RH) data from the measurements made by the Thermal and Electrical Conductivity Probe (TECP). Values of temperature and RH covered in the pre-flight calibration [1] overlap only partially with the environmental conditions found at the Phoenix landing site [2,3]. In particular, there is no overlap at dawn, when temperatures are the lowest and the expected RH is the highest [4] and in the middle of the day, when temperatures are relatively high and the expected RH is very low [5]. Here we plan to produce high-level RH data by calibrating an Engineering Model of the TECP in the Michigan Mars Environmental Chamber (MMEC). The MMEC is capable of simulating the entire range of environmental conditions found at the Phoenix landing site. The MMEC is a cylindrical chamber with internal diameter of 64 cm and length of 160 cm. It is capable of simulating temperatures ranging from 145 to 500 K, CO2 pressures ranging from 10 to 105 Pa, and relative humidity ranging from nearly 0 to 100% [6]. The analysis of high-level RH data has the potential to shed light on the formation of liquid brines at Mars' polar latitudes, where it is most likely to occur [7]. In addition, the RH sensor aboard Curiosity is similar to that on the TECP [8], allowing a direct comparison of the near-surface RH measurements at these two different locations on the surface of Mars. REFERENCES: [1] Zent, A. P., et al, 2009, JGR (1991-2012) 114.E3. [2] Tamppari, L. K., et al. 2010, JGR, 115, E00E17. [3] Davy, R., et al., 2010, JGR, 115, E00E13. [4] Whiteway, J., et al., 2009, Science, 325, 68-70. [5] Savijärvi, H., and A. Määttänen, 2010, Q. J. R. Meteorol. Soc., 136, 1497-1505. [6] Fischer, E., et al., 2014, GRL, 41, 4456-4462. [7] Martínez, G., and Rennó, N., 2013, Space Sci. Rev., 175, 29-51. [8] Harri, A-M., et al., 2014, JGR 119

  2. Census Cities experiment in urban change detection. [mapping of land use changes in San Francisco, Washington D.C., Phoenix, Tucson, Boston, New Haven, Cedar Rapids, and Pontiac

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wray, J. R. (Principal Investigator); Milazzo, V. A.

    1974-01-01

    The author has identified the following significant results. Mapping of 1970 and 1972 land use from high-flight photography has been completed for all test sites: San Francisco, Washington, Phoenix, Tucson, Boston, New Haven, Cedar Rapids, and Pontiac. Area analysis of 1970 and 1972 land use has been completed for each of the mandatory urban areas. All 44 sections of the 1970 land use maps of the San Francisco test site have been officially released through USGS Open File at 1:62,500. Five thousand copies of the Washington one-sheet color 1970 land use map, census tract map, and point line identification map are being printed by USGS Publication Division. ERTS-1 imagery for each of the eight test sites is being received and analyzed. Color infrared photo enlargements at 1:100,000 of ERTS-1 MSS images of Phoenix taken on October 16, 1972 and May 2, 1973 are being analyzed to determine to what level land use and land use changes can be identified and to what extent the ERTS-1 imagery can be used in updating the 1970 aircraft photo-derived land use data base. Work is proceeding on the analysis of ERTS-1 imagery by computer manipulation of ERTS-1 MSS data in digital format. ERTS-1 CCT maps at 1:24,000 are being analyzed for two dates over Washington and Phoenix. Anniversary tape sets have been received at Purdue LARS for some additional urban test sites.

  3. Compressed natural gas fuel may be the future for Phoenix

    SciTech Connect

    Berg, T.

    1994-08-01

    It's the law: the future must include cleaner air, and alternative fuels for vehicular engines is one way to achieve it. In Phoenix, a city beset by moderate air quality problems, equipment managers of the Public Works Department's (PWD) fleet say their future seems to be with compressed natural gas (CNG). CNG fuels a pair of refuse packer trucks that have been operating for a year with few, if any, problems. The object of buying and running them, was to see if one can run an alternate fuels vehicle on a regular route. Can the trucks adapt, can the drivers adapt So far the answer is yes. The trucks are among an assortment of municipal vehicles running on CNG and propane. CNG makes sense for Phoenix because it's modestly priced and readily available locally.

  4. Phoenix: Preliminary design of a high speed civil transport

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Aguilar, Joseph; Davis, Steven; Jett, Brian; Ringo, Leslie; Stob, John; Wood, Bill

    1992-01-01

    The goal of the Phoenix Design Project was to develop a second generation high speed civil transport (HSCT) that will meet the needs of the traveler and airline industry beginning in the 21st century. The primary emphasis of the HSCT is to take advantage of the growing needs of the Pacific Basin and the passengers who are involved in that growth. A passenger load of 150 persons, a mission range of 5150 nautical miles, and a cruise speed of Mach 2.5 constitutes the primary design points of this HSCT. The design concept is made possible with the use of a well designed double delta wing and four mixed flow engines. Passenger comfort, compatibility with existing airport infrastructure, and cost competitive with current subsonic aircraft make the Phoenix a viable aircraft for the future.

  5. Sediment transport in the nearshore area of Phoenix Island

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, Rijun; Ma, Fang; Wu, Jianzheng; Zhang, Wei; Jiang, Shenghui; Xu, Yongchen; Zhu, Longhai; Wang, Nan; Liu, Aijiang

    2016-10-01

    Based on the measured data, suspended sediment concentration, surface sediment grain size, current and waves, the sediment transport mechanisms and pathways in the Phoenix Island area were analyzed using methods of flux decomposition and Grain Size Trend Analysis (GSTA). The results show that net suspended sediment is mainly transported by average current, Stokes drift, and gravitational circulation. The transport direction of suspended sediment is varying and basically following the direction of residual tidal currents. Surface sediment transport pathways are primarily parallel to the coastline along with two convergent centers. Waves and longshore currents have a significant influence on sediment transport, but the influence is limited due to a steep and deep underwater bank. Tidal current is the main controlling factor for sediment transport, especially in the deep water area. Neither suspended nor surface sediment is transported towards the southwest. The South Shandong Coastal Current (SSCC) has little effect on sediment transport processes in the nearshore area of Phoenix Island.

  6. Phoenix Again Carries Soil to Wet Chemistry Lab

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2008-01-01

    This image taken by the Surface Stereo Imager on NASA's Phoenix Mars Lander shows the lander's Robotic Arm scoop positioned over the Wet Chemistry Lab Cell 1 delivery funnel on Sol 41, the 42nd Martian day after landing, or July 6, 2008, after a soil sample was delivered to the instrument.

    The instrument's Cell 1 is second one from the foreground of the image. The first cell, Cell 0, received a soil sample two weeks earlier.

    This image has been enhanced to brighten the scene.

    The Phoenix Mission is led by the University of Arizona, Tucson, on behalf of NASA. Project management of the mission is by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif. Spacecraft development is by Lockheed Martin Space Systems, Denver.

  7. Environmental Assurance Program for the Phoenix Mars Mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Man, Kin F.; Natour, Maher C.; Hoffman, Alan R.

    2008-01-01

    The Phoenix Mars mission involves delivering a stationary science lander on to the surface of Mars in the polar region within the latitude band 65 deg N to 72 deg N. Its primary objective is to perform in-situ and remote sensing investigations that will characterize the chemistry of the materials at the local surface, subsurface, and atmosphere. The Phoenix spacecraft was launched on August 4, 2007 and will arrive at Mars in May 2008. The lander includes a suite of seven (7) science instruments. This mission is baselined for up to 90 sols (Martian days) of digging, sampling, and analysis. Operating at the Mars polar region creates a challenging environment for the Phoenix landed subsystems and instruments with Mars surface temperature extremes between -120 deg C to 25 deg C and diurnal thermal cycling in excess of 145 deg C. Some engineering and science hardware inside the lander were qualification tested up to 80 deg C to account for self heating. Furthermore, many of the hardware for this mission were inherited from earlier missions: the lander from the Mars Surveyor Program 2001 (MSP'01) and instruments from the MSP'01 and the Mars Polar Lander. Ensuring all the hardware was properly qualified and flight acceptance tested to meet the environments for this mission required defining and implementing an environmental assurance program that included a detailed heritage review coupled with tailored flight acceptance testing. A heritage review process with defined acceptance success criteria was developed and is presented in this paper together with the lessons learned in its implementation. This paper also provides a detailed description of the environmental assurance program of the Phoenix Mars mission. This program includes assembly/subsystem and system level testing in the areas of dynamics, thermal, and electromagnetic compatibility, as well as venting/pressure, dust, radiation, and meteoroid analyses to meet the challenging environment of this mission.

  8. Phoenix Mars Scout UHF Relay-Only Operations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lewicki, Christopher A.; Krajewski, Joel; Ilott, Peter; Dates, Jason

    2006-01-01

    The Phoenix Mars Scout Lander will launch in August 2007 and land on the northern plains of Mars in May of 2008. In a departure from traditional planetary surface mission operations, it will have no direct-to-Earth communications capability and will rely entirely on Mars-orbiting relays in order to facilitate command and control as well as the return of science and engineering data. The Mars Exploration Rover missions have demonstrated the robust data-return capability using this architecture, and also have demonstrated the capability of using this method for command and control. The Phoenix mission will take the next step and incorporate this as the sole communications link. Operations for 90 Sols will need to work within the constraints of Odyssey and Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter communications availability, anomalies must be diagnosed and responded to through an intermediary and on-board fault responses must be tolerant to loss of a relay. These and other issues pose interesting challenges and changes in paradigm for traditional space operations and spacecraft architecture, and the approach proposed for the Phoenix mission is detailed herein.

  9. UHF Relay Antenna Measurements on Phoenix Mars Lander Mockup

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ilott, Peter; Harrel, Jefferson; Arnold, Bradford; Bliznyuk, Natalia; Nielsen, Rick; Dawson, David; McGee, Jodi

    2006-01-01

    The Phoenix Lander, a NASA Discovery mission which lands on Mars in the spring of 2008, will rely entirely on UHF relay links between it and Mars orbiting assets, (Odyssey and Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter (MRO)), to communicate with the Earth. As with the Mars Exploration Rover (MER) relay system, non directional antennas will be used to provide roughly emispherical coverage of the Martian sky. Phoenix lander deck object pattern interference and obscuration are significant, and needed to be quantified to answer system level design and operations questions. This paper describes the measurement campaign carried out at the SPAWAR (Space and Naval Warfare Research) Systems Center San Diego (SSC-SD) hemispherical antenna range, using a Phoenix deck mockup and engineering model antennas. One goal of the measurements was to evaluate two analysis tools, the time domain CST, and the moment method WIPL-D software packages. These would subsequently be used to provide pattern analysis for configurations that would be difficult and expensive to model and test on Earth.

  10. Influence of exposure error and effect modification by socioeconomic status on the association of acute cardiovascular mortality with particulate matter in Phoenix.

    PubMed

    Wilson, William E; Mar, Therese F; Koenig, Jane Q

    2007-12-01

    Using ZIP code-level mortality data, the association of cardiovascular mortality with PM(2.5) and PM(10-2.5), measured at a central monitoring site, was determined for three populations at different distances from the monitoring site but with similar numbers of deaths and therefore similar statistical power. The % risk and statistical significance for the association of mortality with PM(2.5) fell off with distance from the monitor, as would be expected if exposure error increased with distance. However, the % risk for PM(10-2.5) increased in going from the population in Central Phoenix, where the monitoring site was located, to a population in a Middle Ring around Phoenix and fell off in an Outer Ring population. The % risks for the Outer Ring were low for each of the six lag days (0-5) and for the 6-day moving average. The lag structures for PM(2.5) and PM(10-2.5) also differed for the Central Phoenix and Middle Ring populations. These differences led us to examine the socioeconomic status (SES) of the populations. On the basis of education and income, the population in Central Phoenix had a lower SES than the Middle Ring. Thus, the differences between Central Phoenix and the Middle Ring may be due to effect modification by SES and differences in exposure error. However, the effect modification by SES may be different for thoracic coarse particulate matter (PM) than for fine PM. This study provides new information on the association of PM(10-2.5) with cardiovascular mortality. In the Middle Ring, the % risk per 10 microg/m3 increase in PM(10-2.5) concentration (lower and upper 95% confidence levels) for lag day 1 was 3.4 (1.0, 5.8) and for the 6-day distributed-lag was 3.8 (0.3, 7.5). The differences in lag structure for PM(2.5) and PM(10-2.5) provide evidence that the two particle size classes have health effects that are different and independent. This study also helps explain the high % risks for PM(2.5) found for Central Phoenix, 6.6 (1.1, 12.5) for lag day 1

  11. Visualizing the Operations of the Phoenix Mars Lander

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schwehr, K.; Andres, P.; Craig, J.; Deen, R.; de Jong, E.; Fortino, N.; Gorgian, Z.; Kuramura, K.; Lemmon, M.; Levoe, S.; Leung, C.; Lutz, N.; Ollerenshaw, R.; Smith, P.; Stetson, M.; Suzuki, S.; Phoenix Science Team

    2008-12-01

    With the successful landing of the Phoenix Mars Lander comes the task of visualizing the spacecraft, its operations and surrounding environment. The JPL Solar System Visualization team has brought together a wide range of talents and software to provide a suit of visualizations that shed light on the operations of this visitor to another world. The core set of tools range from web-based production tracking (Image Products Release Website), to custom 3D transformation software, through to studio quality 2D and 3D video production. We will demonstrate several of the key technologies that bring together these visualizations. Putting the scientific results of Phoenix in context requires managing the classic powers-of-10 problem. Everything from the location of polar dust storms down to the Atomic Force Microscope must be brought together in a context that communicates to both the scientific and public audiences. We used Lightwave to blend 2D and 3D visualizations into a continuous series of zooms using both simulations and actual data. Beyond the high-powered industrial strength solutions, we have strived to bring as much power down to the average computer user's standard view of the computer: the web browser. Zooming and Interactive Mosaics (ZIM) tool is a JavaScript web tool for displaying high-resolution panoramas in a spacecraft-centric view. This tool allows the user to pan and zoom through the mosaic, indentifying feature and target names, all the while maintaining a contextual frame-of-reference. Google Earth presents the possibility of taking hyperlinked web browser interaction into the 3D geo-browser modality. Until Google releases a Mars mode to Google Earth, we are forced to wrap the Earth in a Mars texture. However, this can still provide a suitable background for exploring interactive visualizations. These models range over both regional and local scales, with the lander positioned on Mars and the local environment mapped into pseudo-"Street View" modes

  12. ON THE EXTENDED STRUCTURE OF THE PHOENIX DWARF GALAXY

    SciTech Connect

    Hidalgo, Sebastian L.; Aparicio, Antonio; MartInez-Delgado, David; Gallart, Carme E-mail: antapaj@iac.e E-mail: carme@iac.e

    2009-11-01

    We present the star formation history (SFH) and its variations with galactocentric distance for the Local Group dwarf galaxy of Phoenix. They have been derived from a (F555W, F814W) color-magnitude diagram obtained from WFPC2-HST data, which reaches the oldest main-sequence turnoffs. The IAC-star and IAC-pop codes and the MinnIAC suite have been used to obtain the star formation rate as a function of time and metallicity, psi(t, z). We find that Phoenix has had ongoing but gradually decreasing star formation over nearly a Hubble time. The highest level of star formation occurred from the formation of the galaxy till 10.5 Gyr ago, when 50% of the total star formation had already taken place. From that moment, star formation continues at a significant level until 6 Gyr ago (an additional 35% of the stars are formed in this time interval), and at a very low level till the present time. The chemical enrichment law shows a trend of slowly increasing metallicity as a function of time until 6-8 Gyr ago, when metallicity starts to increase steeply to the current value. We have paid particular attention to the study of the variations of the SFH as a function of radius. Young stars are found in the inner region of the galaxy only, but intermediate-age and old stars can be found at all galactocentric distances. The distribution of mass density in alive stars and its evolution with time has been studied. This study shows that star formation started at all galactocentric distances in Phoenix at an early epoch. If stars form in situ in Phoenix, the star formation onset took place all over the galaxy (up to a distance of about 400 pc from the center), but preferentially out of center regions. After that, our results are compatible with a scenario in which the star formation region envelope slowly shrinks as time goes on, possibly as a natural result of pressure support reduction as gas supply diminishes. As a consequence, the star formation stopped first (about 7-8 Gyr ago) in

  13. Phosphorus in Phoenix: a budget and spatial representation of phosphorus in an urban ecosystem.

    PubMed

    Metson, Geneviève S; Hale, Rebecca L; Iwaniec, David M; Cook, Elizabeth M; Corman, Jessica R; Galletti, Christopher S; Childers, Daniel L

    2012-03-01

    As urban environments dominate the landscape, we need to examine how limiting nutrients such as phosphorus (P) cycle in these novel ecosystems. Sustainable management of P resources is necessary to ensure global food security and to minimize freshwater pollution. We used a spatially explicit budget to quantify the pools and fluxes of P in the Greater Phoenix Area in Arizona, USA, using the boundaries of the Central Arizona-Phoenix Long-Term Ecological Research site. Inputs were dominated by direct imports of food and fertilizer for local agriculture, while most outputs were small, including water, crops, and material destined for recycling. Internally, fluxes were dominated by transfers of food and feed from local agriculture and the recycling of human and animal excretion. Spatial correction of P dynamics across the city showed that human density and associated infrastructure, especially asphalt, dominated the distribution of P pools across the landscape. Phosphorus fluxes were dominated by agricultural production, with agricultural soils accumulating P. Human features (infrastructure, technology, and waste management decisions) and biophysical characteristics (soil properties, water fluxes, and storage) mediated P dynamics in Phoenix. P cycling was most notably affected by water management practices that conserve and recycle water, preventing the loss of waterborne P from the ecosystem. P is not intentionally managed, and as a result, changes in land use and demographics, particularly increased urbanization and declining agriculture, may lead to increased losses of P from this system. We suggest that city managers should minimize cross-boundary fluxes of P to the city. Reduced P fluxes may be accomplished through more efficient recycling of waste, therefore decreasing dependence on external nonrenewable P resources and minimizing aquatic pollution. Our spatial approach and consideration of both pools and fluxes across a heterogeneous urban ecosystem increases the

  14. Thermal and Evolved Gas Behavior of Calcite Under Mars Phoenix TEGA Operating Conditions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ming, D.W.; Niles, P.B.; Morris, R.V.; Boynton, W.V.; Golden, D.C.; Lauer, H.V.; Sutter, B.

    2009-01-01

    The Mars Phoenix Scout Mission with its diverse instrument suite successfully examined several soils on the Northern plains of Mars. The Thermal and Evolved Gas Analyzer (TEGA) was employed to detect organic and inorganic materials by coupling a differential scanning calorimeter (DSC) with a magnetic-sector mass spectrometer (MS). Martian soil was heated up to 1000 C in the DSC ovens and evolved gases from mineral decomposition products were examined with the MS. TEGA s DSC has the capability to detect endothermic and exothermic reactions during heating that are characteristic of minerals present in the Martian soil. Initial TEGA results indicated the presence of endothermic peaks with onset temperatures that ranged from 675 C to 750 C with corresponding CO2 release. This result suggests the presence of calcite (CaCO3. CaO + CO2). Organic combustion to CO2 is not likely since this mostly occurs at temperatures below 550 C. Fe-carbonate and Mg-carbonate are not likely because their decomposition temperatures are less than 600 C. TEGA enthalpy determinations suggest that calcite, may occur in the Martian soil in concentrations of approx.1 to 5 wt. %. The detection of calcite could be questioned based on previous results that suggest Mars soils are mostly acidic. However, the Phoenix landing site soil pH was measured at pH 8.3 0.5, which is typical of terrestrial soils where pH is controlled by calcite solubility. The range of onset temperatures and calcite concentration as calculated by TEGA is poorly con-strained in part because of limited thermal data of cal-cite at reduced pressures. TEGA operates at <30 mbar while most calcite literature thermal data was obtained at 1000 mbar or higher pressures.

  15. Comparison of Phoenix Meteorological Data with Viking Data Using Model MLAM

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schmidt, Walter; Harri, Ari-Matti; Kauhanen, Janne; Merikallio, Sini; Savijärvi, Hannu

    2010-05-01

    During 151 Martian days in 2008 the Canadian Meteorology experiment (MET) [1] on board NASA's Phoenix '07 Lander was providing for the first time surface based observations of atmospheric pressure, temperature and wind as well as dust and ice particles in the Martian Northern polar regions, 20 degrees north of the location of Viking Lander 2, the until then northernmost meteorological observatory on Mars. Using the Mars Limited Area Model (MLAM), jointly developed by the Helsinki University and the Finnish Meteorological Institute to study mesoscale phenomena in the Martian Atmosphere [2], the observations can be put into a larger context suitable for comparison with long term measurements at the Viking landing site three decades earlier. The seasonal variations observed at both latitudes are very similar though the onset of winter dominated climate is faster at higher latitudes. In case the re-activation efforts of Phoenix should be successful, first results for the Martian Spring at high latitudes will be shown, too. The meteorological observations over a long period of time and at different latitudes are important for the preparation of the planned future Martian landing missions Mars Science Laboratory (MSL) 2011, the ESA - NASA ExoMars program 2016-2018 and the Finnish-Russian-Spanish MetNet mission after 2011, where different meteorological stations will be deployed at low and high latitudes and low and high altitudes. Mission optimization makes reliable climate estimates mandatory. References [1] Taylor, P. A., D. C. Catling, M. Daly, C. S. Dickinson, H. P. Gunnlaugsson, A.-M. Harri, and C. F. Lange (2008), J. Geophys. Res., 113, E00A10 [2] Kauhanen, J., Siili, T., Järvenoja, S. and Savijärvi, H. (2008), J. Geophys. Res., 113, E00A14

  16. Coral mortality associated with thermal fluctuations in the Phoenix Islands, 2002-2005

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Obura, D.; Mangubhai, S.

    2011-09-01

    The Phoenix Islands (Republic of Kiribati, 172-170°W and 2.5-5°S) experience intra- and inter-annual sea surface temperature variability of ≈2°C and have few local anthropogenic impacts. From July 2002, a thermal stress event occurred, which peaked at 21 Degree Heating Weeks (DHW) in January 2003 and persisted for 4 years. Such thermal stress was greater than any thermal event reported in the coral reef literature. Reef surveys were conducted in July 2000, June 2002, and May 2005, for six of the eight islands. Sampling was stratified by exposure (windward, leeward, and lagoon) and depth (5, 10, 15, and 25 m). The thermal stress event caused mass coral mortality, and coral cover declined by approximately 60% between 2002 and 2005. However, mortality varied among sites (12-100%) and among islands (42-79%) and varied in accordance with the presence of a lagoon, island size, and windward vs. leeward exposure. Leeward reefs experienced the highest and most consistent decline in coral cover. Island size and the presence of a lagoon showed positive correlations with coral mortality, most likely because of the longer water residence time enhancing heating. Windward reefs showed cooler conditions than leeward reefs. Recently dead corals were observed at depths >35 m on windward and >45 m on leeward reefs. Between-island variation in temperature had no effect on between-island variation in coral mortality. Mortality levels reported here were comparable to those reported for the most extreme thermal stress events of 9-10 DHW in other regions. These results highlight the high degree of acclimation and/or adaptation of the corals in the Phoenix Islands to their local temperature regime, and their consequent vulnerability to anomalous events. Moreover, the results suggest the need to adjust thermal stress calculations to reflect local temperature variation.

  17. 76 FR 51461 - Notice of Release From Quitclaim Deed and Federal Grant Assurance Obligations for Phoenix-Mesa...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-18

    ... Obligations for Phoenix-Mesa Gateway Airport, Mesa, AZ AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration, DOT. ACTION... airport property at Phoenix-Mesa Gateway, Mesa, Arizona, from all conditions contained in the Quitclaim... FAA must be mailed or delivered to Mr. Walter Fix, Phoenix-Gateway Airport Authority, 5835 S....

  18. 76 FR 51462 - Notice of Release of an Easement Restriction at Phoenix-Mesa Gateway Airport, Mesa, AZ

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-18

    ... TRANSPORTATION Federal Aviation Administration Notice of Release of an Easement Restriction at Phoenix-Mesa... acres of property abutting Phoenix-Mesa Gateway, Mesa, Arizona, from all conditions contained in a grant..., Phoenix-Gateway Airport Authority, 5835 S. Sossaman Road, Mesa, Arizona 85212, Telephone: (480)...

  19. 77 FR 5782 - Notice of Petition for Waiver of Hill PHOENIX From the Department of Energy Commercial...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-02-06

    ...This notice announces receipt of and publishes the Hill PHOENIX Inc. (Hill PHOENIX) petition for waiver (hereafter, ``petition'') from the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) test procedure for determining the energy consumption of commercial refrigerators, freezers and refrigerator-freezers. Through this notice, DOE also solicits comments with respect to the Hill PHOENIX...

  20. 77 FR 26039 - Notice of Availability of the Final Environmental Impact Statement for the Phoenix Copper Leach...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-05-02

    ... Impact Statement for the Phoenix Copper Leach Project, Lander County, NV AGENCY: Bureau of Land... Phoenix Copper Leach Project and by this notice is announcing its availability. DATES: The BLM will not... Phoenix Copper Leach Project are available for public inspection at the BLM, 50 Bastian Road,...

  1. Phoenix Union Bilingual Program. Content Analysis Schedule for Bilingual Education Programs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nafus, C.; Shore, Marietta Saravia

    This content analysis schedule for the Phoenix Union Bilingual Program of Phoenix, Arizona, presents information on the history, funding, and scope of the project in its third year. Included are sociolinguistic process variables such as the native and dominant languages of students and their interaction. Information is provided on staff selection…

  2. Cave Buttes Dam Master Plan, Phoenix, Arizona and Vicinity (Including New River).

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1982-03-01

    93 0. Hiking and Equestrian Trails............. . . . . . ......... 93 P. Landscape Planting Criteria...Name Location Acreage Activities Provided Phoenix Mountains Immediately north 9,711 Picnicking; hiking; Preserve of the Phoenix bicycling and equestrian ...8217 facilities; equestrian Aqueduct of’ the center Central Arizona Project 4i8 I. APPLICATION OF PUBLIC LAW 89-72 AND OTHER LEGISLATIVE OR ADMINISTRATIVE

  3. Carpological analysis of Phoenix (Arecaceae): contributions to the taxonomy and evolutionary history of the genus

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The main purpose of this study was, first, to analyze the morphology of seeds of Phoenix spp. and relevant cultivars and to assess the taxonomic value of the information generated as a means of studying the systematics and evolutionary history of the genus Phoenix. We then analyzed seed morphologica...

  4. 78 FR 78298 - Proposed Establishment of Class E Airspace; Phoenix, AZ

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-12-26

    ...This action proposes to establish Class E airspace at the Phoenix VHF Omni-Directional Radio Range Tactical Air Navigation Aid (VORTAC), Phoenix, AZ, to facilitate vectoring of Instrument Flight Rules (IFR) aircraft under control of Albuquerque Air Route Traffic Control Center (ARTCC). The FAA is proposing this action to enhance the safety and management of aircraft operations within the......

  5. A comprehensive sustainability appraisal of water governance in Phoenix, AZ.

    PubMed

    Larson, Kelli L; Wiek, Arnim; Withycombe Keeler, Lauren

    2013-02-15

    In Phoenix, Arizona and other metropolitan areas, water governance challenges include variable climate conditions, growing demands, and continued groundwater overdraft. Based on an actor-oriented examination of who does what with water and why, along with how people interact with hydro-ecological systems and man-made infrastructure, we present a sustainability appraisal of water governance for the Phoenix region. Broadly applicable to other areas, our systems approach to sustainable water governance overcomes prevailing limitations to research and management by: employing a comprehensive and integrative perspective on water systems; highlighting the activities, intentions, and rules that govern various actors, along with the values and goals driving decisions; and, establishing a holistic set of principles for social-ecological system integrity and interconnectivity, resource efficiency and maintenance, livelihood sufficiency and opportunity, civility and democratic governance, intra- and inter-generational equity, and finally, precaution and adaptive capacity. This study also contributes to reforming and innovating governance regimes by illuminating how these principles are being met, or not, in the study area. What is most needed in metropolitan Phoenix is enhanced attention to ecosystem functions and resource maintenance as well as social equity and public engagement in water governance. Overall, key recommendations entail: addressing interconnections across hydrologic units and sub-systems (e.g., land and water), increasing decentralized initiatives for multiple purposes (e.g., ecological and societal benefits of green infrastructure), incorporating justice goals into decisions (e.g., fair allocations and involvement), and building capacity through collaborations and social learning with diverse interests (e.g., scientists, policymakers, and the broader public).

  6. Land use mapping and modelling for the Phoenix Quadrangle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Place, J. L. (Principal Investigator)

    1974-01-01

    The author has identified the following significant results. The mapping of generalized land use (level 1) from ERTS 1 images was shown to be feasible with better than 95% accuracy in the Phoenix quadrangle. The accuracy of level 2 mapping in urban areas is still a problem. Updating existing maps also proved to be feasible, especially in water categories and agricultural uses; however, expanding urban growth has presented with accuracy. ERTS 1 film images indicated where areas of change were occurring, thus aiding focusing-in for more detailed investigation. ERTS color composite transparencies provided a cost effective source of information for land use mapping of very large regions at small map scales.

  7. Atmospheric Condensation in the Mars Phoenix TECP and MET Data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zent, A. P.

    2015-01-01

    A new calibration function for the humidity sensor in the Thermal and Electrical Conductivity Probe (TECP), a component of the Microscopy, Electrochemistry, and Conductivity Analyzer (MECA) on the Phoenix Mars mission has been developed. The data is now cast in terms of Frost Point (T(sub f)) and some flight data, taken when the atmosphere is independently known to be saturated, is included in the calibration data set. Combined with data from the Meteorology Mast air temperature sensors, a very sensitive detection of atmospheric saturation becomes possible (Figure 1).

  8. Evaluation of the BD Phoenix system for identification of a wide spectrum of clinically important yeast species: a comparison with Vitek 2-YST.

    PubMed

    Won, Eun Jeong; Shin, Jong Hee; Kim, Mi-Na; Choi, Min Ji; Joo, Min Young; Kee, Seung Jung; Shin, Myung Geun; Suh, Soon Pal; Ryang, Dong Wook

    2014-08-01

    The Phoenix Yeast ID and Vitek 2-YST panels were compared using 351 molecularly identified yeast isolates. The Phoenix showed a comparable rate of correct identification for 4 common (Phoenix, 98%; Vitek, 94%) and 45 uncommon species (Phoenix, 70%; Vitek, 64%) and had a shorter mean identification time (6-7 h).

  9. Disbalance between mortality and non-fatal vascular events in the CHAMPION-PHOENIX trial: the cangrelor efficacy challenge.

    PubMed

    Serebruany, Victor L; Pokov, Alex N; Fortmann, Seth D; DiNicolantonio, James J

    2014-01-01

    The recently published, largest trial with cangrelor, the Cangrelor versus Standard Therapy to Achieve Optimal Management of Platelet Inhibition (CHAMPION)-PHOENIX, suggested that the experimental agent significantly reduced the rate of stent thrombosis (ST) and myocardial infarction (MI) during PCI at 48 hours (h) and 30 days. However, the declared impressive cangrelor vascular non-fatal benefit was contradicted by identical deaths at 48 h, and a trend toward excess mortality at 30 days. We analysed the mismatch between outcomes in the CHAMPION-PHOENIX trial. The trial reported identical mortality (18 death in each arm; odds ratio [OR] 1.00 (0.52-1.92); p>0.999) at 48 h, but more deaths, 60 vs 55, after cangrelor at 30 days. There was a significant reduction of ST from 0.8% (n=46) of the patients in the cangrelor group versus 1.4% (n=74) in the clopidogrel group (odds ratio, 0.62; 95% CI, 0.43 to 0.90; p= 0.01) at 48 h, and a persistent but less impressive ST prevention benefit OR of 0.68 (0.50=0.92, p = 0.01) at 30 days. There were also 48 less MI's following cangrelor usage enforced by a significant difference (odds ratio 0.80 (0.67-0.97) p = 0.02), which was also less prevalent at 30 days (OR 0.82 (0.68-0.98), p = 0.03). The reported ST/MI advantage should result in at least a trend towards numerically less deaths after cangrelor at 30 days follow-up, which was opposite of the results reported in CHAMPION-PHOENIX trial. Efficacy of cangrelor is challenged by the disproportional "reduction" of ST and MI conflicting with identical mortality at 48 h and worsened at day 30 fatalities. The dissociation between vascular mortality and non-fatal vascular ischaemic occlusions, unless compensated by some other unreported cause(s) of death, should be explored and explained. Unadjudicated 30-day outcomes, and all ST types should be fully disclosed. The ongoing FDA cangrelor review should focus on appropriate event count and/or possible mismatch between site-reported and

  10. After Rasping by Phoenix in 'Snow White' Trench, Sol 60

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2008-01-01

    NASA's Phoenix Mars Lander used the motorized rasp on the back of its robotic arm scoop during the mission's 60th Martian day, or sol, (July 26, 2008) to penetrate a hard layer at the bottom of a trench informally called 'Snow White.' This view, taken by the lander's Surface Stereo Imager and presented in approximately true color, shows the trench later the same sol.

    Most of the 16 holes left by a four-by-four array of rasp placements are visible in the central area of the image.

    A total 3 cubic centimeters, or about half a teaspoon, of material was collected in the scoop. Material in the scoop was collected both by the turning rasp, which threw material into the scoop through an opening at the back of the scoop, and by the scoop's front blade, which was run over the rasped area to pick up more shavings.

    The Phoenix Mission is led by the University of Arizona, Tucson, on behalf of NASA. Project management of the mission is by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif. Spacecraft development is by Lockheed Martin Space Systems, Denver.

  11. Phoenix Lander Self Portrait on Mars, Vertical Projection

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2008-01-01

    This view is a vertical projection that combines hundreds of exposures taken by the Surface Stereo Imager camera on NASA's Mars Phoenix Lander and projects them as if looking down from above.

    The black circle is where the camera itself is mounted on the lander, out of view in images taken by the camera. North is toward the top of the image.

    This view comprises more than 100 different Stereo Surface Imager pointings, with images taken through three different filters at each pointing. The images were taken throughout the period from the 13th Martian day, or sol, after landing to the 47th sol (June 5 through July 12, 2008). The lander's Robotic Arm appears cut off in this mosaic view because component images were taken when the arm was out of the frame.

    The Phoenix Mission is led by the University of Arizona, Tucson, on behalf of NASA. Project management of the mission is by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif. Spacecraft development is by Lockheed Martin Space Systems, Denver.

  12. VLA, PHOENIX and BATSE observations of an X1 flare

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Willson, Robert F.; Aschwanden, Marcus J.; Benz, Arnold O.

    1992-01-01

    We present observations of an X1 flare detected simultaneously with the Very Large Array (VLA), the PHOENIX Digital Radio Spectrometer, and the Burst and Transient Source Experiment (BATSE) aboard the Gamma Ray Observatory (GRO). The VLA was used to produce snapshot maps of the impulsive burst emission in the higher corona on timescales of 1.7 seconds at both 20 and 01 cm. Our results indicate electron acceleration several minutes before the onset of the hard X-ray burst detected by BATSE. Comparisons with high spectral and spatial observations by PHOENIX reveal a variety of radio bursts at 20 cm, such as type III bursts, intermediate drift bursts, and quasi-periodic pulsations during different stages of the X1 flare. From the drift rates of these radio bursts we derive information on local density scale heights, the speed of radio exciters, and the local magnetic field. Radio emission at 90 cm shows a type IV burst moving outward with a constant velocity of 240 km/sec. The described X1 flare is unique in the sense that it appeared at the east limb (N06/E88 providing the most accurate information on the vertical structure of different flare tracers visible in radio wavelengths.

  13. VLA, PHOENIX, and BATSE observations of an X1 flare

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Willson, Robert F.; Aschwanden, Markus J.; Benz, Arnold O.

    1992-02-01

    We present observations of an X1 flare (18 Jul. 1991) detected simultaneously with the Very Large Array (VLA), the PHOENIX Digital Radio Spectrometer and the Burst and Transient Source Experiment (BATSE) aboard the Gamma Ray Observatory (GRO). The VLA was used to produce snapshot maps of the impulsive acceleration in the higher corona several minutes before the onset of the hard x ray burst detected by BATSE. Comparisons with high spectral and temporal observations by PHOENIX reveal a variety of radio bursts at 20 cm, such as type 3 bursts, intermediate drift bursts, and quasi-periodic pulsations during different stages of the X1 flare. From the drift rates of these radio bursts we derive information on local density scale heights, the speed of radio exciters, and the local magnetic field. Radio emission at 90 cm shows a type 4 burst moving outward with a constant velocity of 240 km/s. The described X1 flare is unique in the sense that it appeared at the east limb (N06/E88), providing the most accurate information on the vertical structure of different flare tracers visible in radio wavelengths.

  14. Vulnerability assessment of climate-induced water shortage in Phoenix.

    PubMed

    Gober, Patricia; Kirkwood, Craig W

    2010-12-14

    Global warming has profound consequences for the climate of the American Southwest and its overallocated water supplies. This paper uses simulation modeling and the principles of decision making under uncertainty to translate climate information into tools for vulnerability assessment and urban climate adaptation. A dynamic simulation model, WaterSim, is used to explore future water-shortage conditions in Phoenix. Results indicate that policy action will be needed to attain water sustainability in 2030, even without reductions in river flows caused by climate change. Challenging but feasible changes in lifestyle and slower rates of population growth would allow the region to avoid shortage conditions and achieve groundwater sustainability under all but the most dire climate scenarios. Changes in lifestyle involve more native desert landscaping and fewer pools in addition to slower growth and higher urban densities. There is not a single most likely or optimal future for Phoenix. Urban climate adaptation involves using science-based models to anticipate water shortage and manage climate risk.

  15. Analysis of Effectiveness of Phoenix Entry Reaction Control System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dyakonov, Artem A.; Glass, Christopher E.; Desai, Prasun, N.; VanNorman, John W.

    2008-01-01

    Interaction between the external flowfield and the reaction control system (RCS) thruster plumes of the Phoenix capsule during entry has been investigated. The analysis covered rarefied, transitional, hypersonic and supersonic flight regimes. Performance of pitch, yaw and roll control authority channels was evaluated, with specific emphasis on the yaw channel due to its low nominal yaw control authority. Because Phoenix had already been constructed and its RCS could not be modified before flight, an assessment of RCS efficacy along the trajectory was needed to determine possible issues and to make necessary software changes. Effectiveness of the system at various regimes was evaluated using a hybrid DSMC-CFD technique, based on DSMC Analysis Code (DAC) code and General Aerodynamic Simulation Program (GASP), the LAURA (Langley Aerothermal Upwind Relaxation Algorithm) code, and the FUN3D (Fully Unstructured 3D) code. Results of the analysis at hypersonic and supersonic conditions suggest a significant aero-RCS interference which reduced the efficacy of the thrusters and could likely produce control reversal. Very little aero-RCS interference was predicted in rarefied and transitional regimes. A recommendation was made to the project to widen controller system deadbands to minimize (if not eliminate) the use of RCS thrusters through hypersonic and supersonic flight regimes, where their performance would be uncertain.

  16. The Thermal Electrical Conductivity Probe (TECP) for Phoenix

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zent, Aaron P.; Hecht, Michael H.; Cobos, Doug R.; Campbell, Gaylon S.; Campbell, Colin S.; Cardell, Greg; Foote, Marc C.; Wood, Stephen E.; Mehta, Manish

    2009-01-01

    The Thermal and Electrical Conductivity Probe (TECP) is a component of the Microscopy, Electrochemistry, and Conductivity Analyzer (MECA) payload on the Phoenix Lander. TECP will measure the temperature, thermal conductivity and volumetric heat capacity of the regolith. It will also detect and quantify the population of mobile H2O molecules in the regolith, if any, throughout the polar summer, by measuring the electrical conductivity of the regolith, as well as the dielectric permittivity. In the vapor phase, TECP is capable of measuring the atmospheric H2O vapor abundance, as well as augment the wind velocity measurements from the meteorology instrumentation. TECP is mounted near the end of the 2.3 m Robotic Arm, and can be placed either in the regolith material or held aloft in the atmosphere. This paper describes the development and calibration of the TECP. In addition, substantial characterization of the instrument has been conducted to identify behavioral characteristics that might affect landed surface operations. The greatest potential issue identified in characterization tests is the extraordinary sensitivity of the TECP to placement. Small gaps alter the contact between the TECP and regolith, complicating data interpretation. Testing with the Phoenix Robotic Arm identified mitigation techniques that will be implemented during flight. A flight model of the instrument was also field tested in the Antarctic Dry Valleys during the 2007-2008 International Polar year. 2

  17. Morning Frost in Trench Dug by Phoenix, Sol 113

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2008-01-01

    This image from the Surface Stereo Imager on NASA's Phoenix Mars Lander shows morning frost inside the 'Snow White' trench dug by the lander, in addition to subsurface ice exposed by use of a rasp on the floor of the trench.

    The camera took this image at about 9 a.m. local solar time during the 113th Martian day of the mission (Sept. 18, 2008). Bright material near and below the four-by-four set of rasp holes in the upper half of the image is water-ice exposed by rasping and scraping in the trench earlier the same morning. Other bright material especially around the edges of the trench, is frost. Earlier in the mission, when the sun stayed above the horizon all night, morning frost was not evident in the trench.

    This image is presented in approximately true color.

    The trench is 4 to 5 centimeters (about 2 inches) deep, about 23 centimeters (9 inches) wide.

    Phoenix landed on a Martian arctic plain on May 25, 2008. The mission is led by the University of Arizona, Tucson, on behalf of NASA. Project management of the mission is led by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif. Spacecraft development was by Lockheed Martin Space Systems, Denver.

  18. Thermal and Evolved Gas Analysis of Geologic Samples Containing Organic Materials: Implications for the 2007 Mars Phoenix Scout Mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lauer, H. V., Jr.; Ming, Douglas W.; Golden, D. C.; Boynton, W. V.

    2006-01-01

    The Thermal and Evolved Gas Analyzer (TEGA) instrument scheduled to fly onboard the 2007 Mars Phoenix Scout Mission will perform differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and evolved gas analysis (EGA) of soil samples and ice collected from the surface and subsurface at a northern landing site on Mars. We have been developing a sample characterization data library using a laboratory DSC integrated with a quadrupole mass spectrometer to support the interpretations of TEGA data returned during the mission. The laboratory TEGA test-bed instrument has been modified to operate under conditions similar to TEGA, i.e., reduced pressure (e.g., 100 torr) and reduced carrier gas flow rates. We have previously developed a TEGA data library for a variety of volatile-bearing mineral phases, including Fe-oxyhydroxides, phyllosilicates, carbonates, and sulfates. Here we examine the thermal and evolved gas properties of samples that contain organics. One of the primary objectives of the Phoenix Scout Mission is to search for habitable zones by assessing organic or biologically interesting materials in icy soil. Nitrogen is currently the carrier gas that will be used for TEGA. In this study, we examine two possible modes of detecting organics in geologic samples; i.e., pyrolysis using N2 as the carrier gas and combustion using O2 as the carrier gas.

  19. Phoenix Mars Scout Parachute Flight Behavior and Observations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Adams, Douglas S.; Witkowski, Allen; Kandis, Mike

    2011-01-01

    The data returned from the successful Phoenix Mars Scout mission are analyzed in order to determine characteristics and behaviors of the supersonic parachute that was used to slow the entry body during its descent to the surface. At least one significant drag reduction event was observed when the vehicle was traveling at Mach 1.6; this is consistent with previously reported terrestrial high altitude testing and is likely associated with an area oscillation of the parachute. The parachute is shown to possess some lateral instability relative to the anti-velocity vector that is also at a level that is consistent with the same historic data. Ramifications of the lateral instability and, in particular, the unsteadiness in the parachute drag are discussed as energizing elements of the entry body wrist mode. The apparent coefficient of drag for the parachute is calculated and shown to have relatively small variations on an average basis over the supersonic portion of flight.

  20. Behavioral management at the Phoenix Zoo: new strategies and perspectives.

    PubMed

    Tresz, Hilda

    2006-01-01

    It all started with a seemingly simple decision to re-evaluate and document the Phoenix Zoo's behavioral management protocol. The purpose of this project was to present proactive standards for the care and psychological well-being of our living collection, while meeting or exceeding the guidelines of the Animal Welfare Act (U. S. Department of Agriculture Animal and Plant Health and Inspection Service, Animal Care, 1999). Preparing the protocol was a catalyst to re-evaluate the zoo's philosophy and application of behavioral management. It suggested a restructuring of collection management and the rethinking of future goals and practices. Gradually, the process became more focused and organized. Behavioral enrichment, training, animal behavior issues, and exhibit architecture were embraced as essential components for providing quality of life. Staff from all levels worked side-by-side on assignments. Our way of thinking and working was changing.

  1. Vegetative community control of freshwater availability: Phoenix Islands case study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Engels, M.; Heinse, R.

    2014-12-01

    On small low islands with limited freshwater resources, terrestrial plant communities play a large role in moderating freshwater availability. Freshwater demands of vegetative communities are variable depending on the composition of the community. Hence, changes to community structure from production crop introductions, non-native species invasions, and climate change, may have significant implications for freshwater availability. Understanding how vegetative community changes impact freshwater availability will allow for better management and forecasting of limited freshwater supplies. To better understand these dynamics, we investigated three small tropical atolls in the Phoenix Island Protected Area, Kiribati. Despite their close proximity, these islands receive varying amounts of rainfall, are host to different plant communities and two of the islands have abandoned coconut plantations. Using electromagnetic induction, ground penetrating radar, soil samples, climate and satellite data, we present preliminary estimates of vegetative water demand for different tropical plant communities.

  2. Regional Land Use Mapping: the Phoenix Pilot Project

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Anderson, J. R.; Place, J. L.

    1971-01-01

    The Phoenix Pilot Program has been designed to make effective use of past experience in making land use maps and collecting land use information. Conclusions reached from the project are: (1) Land use maps and accompanying statistical information of reasonable accuracy and quality can be compiled at a scale of 1:250,000 from orbital imagery. (2) Orbital imagery used in conjunction with other sources of information when available can significantly enhance the collection and analysis of land use information. (3) Orbital imagery combined with modern computer technology will help resolve the problem of obtaining land use data quickly and on a regular basis, which will greatly enhance the usefulness of such data in regional planning, land management, and other applied programs. (4) Agreement on a framework or scheme of land use classification for use with orbital imagery will be necessary for effective use of land use data.

  3. Ground truth report 1975 Phoenix microwave experiment. [Joint Soil Moisture Experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Blanchard, B. J.

    1975-01-01

    Direct measurements of soil moisture obtained in conjunction with aircraft data flights near Phoenix, Arizona in March, 1975 are summarized. The data were collected for the Joint Soil Moisture Experiment.

  4. Relationship between particulate matter and childhood asthma - basis of a future warning system for Central Phoenix

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dimitrova, R.; Lurponglukana, N.; Fernando, H. J. S.; Runger, G. C.; Hyde, P.; Hedquist, B. C.; Anderson, J.; Bannister, W.; Johnson, W.

    2011-10-01

    Statistically significant correlations between increase of asthma attacks in children and elevated concentrations of particulate matter of diameter 10 microns and less (PM10) were determined for metropolitan Phoenix, Arizona. Interpolated concentrations from a five-site network provided spatial distribution of PM10 that was mapped onto census tracts with population health records. The case-crossover statistical method was applied to determine the relationship between PM10 concentration and asthma attacks. For children ages 5-17, a significant relationship was discovered between the two, while children ages 0-4 exhibited virtually no relationship. The risk of adverse health effects was expressed as a function of the change from the 25th to 75th percentiles of mean level PM10 (36 μg m-3). This increase in concentration was associated with a 12.6% (95% CI: 5.8%, 19.4%) increase in the log odds of asthma attacks among children ages 5-17. Neither gender nor other demographic variables were significant. The results are being used to develop an asthma early warning system for the study area.

  5. Relationship between particulate matter and childhood asthma - basis of a future warning system for central Phoenix

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dimitrova, R.; Lurponglukana, N.; Fernando, H. J. S.; Runger, G. C.; Hyde, P.; Hedquist, B. C.; Anderson, J.; Bannister, W.; Johnson, W.

    2012-03-01

    Statistically significant correlations between increase of asthma attacks in children and elevated concentrations of particulate matter of diameter 10 microns and less (PM10) were determined for metropolitan Phoenix, Arizona. Interpolated concentrations from a five-site network provided spatial distribution of PM10 that was mapped onto census tracts with population health records. The case-crossover statistical method was applied to determine the relationship between PM10 concentration and asthma attacks. For children ages 5-17, a significant relationship was discovered between the two, while children ages 0-4 exhibited virtually no relationship. The risk of adverse health effects was expressed as a function of the change from the 25th to 75th percentiles of mean level PM10 (36 μg m-3). This increase in concentration was associated with a 12.6% (95% CI: 5.8%, 19.4%) increase in the log odds of asthma attacks among children ages 5-17. Neither gender nor other demographic variables were significant. The results are being used to develop an asthma early warning system for the study area.

  6. Solar energy system performance evaluation - final report for Honeywell OTS 45, Salt River Project, Phoenix, Arizona

    SciTech Connect

    Mathur, A K

    1983-09-01

    This report describes the operation and technical performance of the Solar Operational Test Site (OTS 45) at Salt River Project in Phoenix, Arizona, based on the analysis of data collected between April 1981 and March 31, 1982. The following topics are discussed: system description, performance assessment, operating energy, energy savings, system maintenance, and conclusions. The solar energy system at OTS 45 is a hydronic heating and cooling system consisting of 8208 square feet of liquid-cooled flat-plate collectors; a 2500-gallon thermal storage tank; two 25-ton capacity organic Rankine-cycle-engine-assisted water chillers; a forced-draft cooling tower; and associated piping, pumps, valves, controls and heat rejection equipment. The solar system has eight basic modes of operation and several combination modes. The system operation is controlled automatically by a Honeywell-designed microprocessor-based control system, which also provides diagnostics. Based on the instrumented test data monitored and collected during the 8 months of the Operational Test Period, the solar system collected 1143 MMBtu of thermal energy of the total incident solar energy of 3440 MMBtu and provided 241 MMBtu for cooling and 64 MMBtu for heating. The projected net annual electrical energy savings due to the solar system was approximately 40,000 kWh(e).

  7. Radial Velocity of the Phoenix Dwarf Galaxy: Linking Stars and H I Gas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gallart, C.; Martínez-Delgado, D.; Gómez-Flechoso, M. A.; Mateo, M.

    2001-05-01

    We present the first radial velocity measurement of the stellar component of the Local Group dwarf galaxy Phoenix, using the FORS1 instrument at the VLT's Unit Telescope 1 (Antu). From the spectra of 31 red giant branch stars, we derive a heliocentric optical radial velocity for Phoenix of Vsolar=-52+/-6 km s-1. On the basis of this velocity, and taking into account the results of a series of semianalytical and numerical simulations, we discuss the possible association of the H I clouds observed in the Phoenix vicinity. We conclude that the characteristics of the H I cloud with heliocentric velocity -23 km s-1 are consistent with this gas having been associated with Phoenix in the past and being lost by the galaxy after the last event of star formation in the galaxy, about 100 Myr ago. Two possible scenarios are discussed: the ejection of the gas by the energy released by the supernovae (SNe) produced in that last event of star formation and a ram pressure stripping scenario. We derive that the kinetic energy necessary to eject the gas is ESNe~2×1051 ergs and that the number of SNe necessary to transfer this amount of kinetic energy to the gas cloud is ~20. This is consistent with the number of SNe expected for the last event of star formation in Phoenix, according to the star formation history derived by Martínez-Delgado, Gallart, & Aparicio. The drawback of this scenario is the regular appearance of the H I cloud and its anisotropic distribution with respect to the stellar component. Another possibility is that the H I gas was stripped as a consequence of ram pressure by the intergalactic medium. In our simulations, the structure of the gas remains quite smooth as it is stripped from Phoenix, keeping a distribution similar to that of the observed H I cloud. Both in the SNe ejection case and in the ram pressure sweeping scenario, the distances and relative velocities imply that the H I cloud is not gravitationally bound to Phoenix, since this would require a

  8. The Domestication Syndrome in Phoenix dactylifera Seeds: Toward the Identification of Wild Date Palm Populations.

    PubMed

    Gros-Balthazard, Muriel; Newton, Claire; Ivorra, Sarah; Pierre, Marie-Hélène; Pintaud, Jean-Christophe; Terral, Jean-Frédéric

    2016-01-01

    Investigating crop origins is a priority to understand the evolution of plants under domestication, develop strategies for conservation and valorization of agrobiodiversity and acquire fundamental knowledge for cultivar improvement. The date palm (Phoenix dactylifera L.) belongs to the genus Phoenix, which comprises 14 species morphologically very close, sometimes hardly distinguishable. It has been cultivated for millennia in the Middle East and in North Africa and constitutes the keystone of oasis agriculture. Yet, its origins remain poorly understood as no wild populations are identified. Uncultivated populations have been described but they might represent feral, i.e. formerly cultivated, abandoned forms rather than truly wild populations. In this context, this study based on morphometrics applied to 1625 Phoenix seeds aims to (1) differentiate Phoenix species and (2) depict the domestication syndrome observed in cultivated date palm seeds using other Phoenix species as a "wild" reference. This will help discriminate truly wild from feral forms, thus providing new insights into the evolutionary history of this species. Seed size was evaluated using four parameters: length, width, thickness and dorsal view surface. Seed shape was quantified using outline analyses based on the Elliptic Fourier Transform method. The size and shape of seeds allowed an accurate differentiation of Phoenix species. The cultivated date palm shows distinctive size and shape features, compared to other Phoenix species: seeds are longer and elongated. This morphological shift may be interpreted as a domestication syndrome, resulting from the long-term history of cultivation, selection and human-mediated dispersion. Based on seed attributes, some uncultivated date palms from Oman may be identified as wild. This opens new prospects regarding the possible existence and characterization of relict wild populations and consequently for the understanding of the date palm origins. Finally, we

  9. The Domestication Syndrome in Phoenix dactylifera Seeds: Toward the Identification of Wild Date Palm Populations

    PubMed Central

    Gros-Balthazard, Muriel; Newton, Claire; Ivorra, Sarah; Pierre, Marie-Hélène; Terral, Jean-Frédéric

    2016-01-01

    Investigating crop origins is a priority to understand the evolution of plants under domestication, develop strategies for conservation and valorization of agrobiodiversity and acquire fundamental knowledge for cultivar improvement. The date palm (Phoenix dactylifera L.) belongs to the genus Phoenix, which comprises 14 species morphologically very close, sometimes hardly distinguishable. It has been cultivated for millennia in the Middle East and in North Africa and constitutes the keystone of oasis agriculture. Yet, its origins remain poorly understood as no wild populations are identified. Uncultivated populations have been described but they might represent feral, i.e. formerly cultivated, abandoned forms rather than truly wild populations. In this context, this study based on morphometrics applied to 1625 Phoenix seeds aims to (1) differentiate Phoenix species and (2) depict the domestication syndrome observed in cultivated date palm seeds using other Phoenix species as a “wild” reference. This will help discriminate truly wild from feral forms, thus providing new insights into the evolutionary history of this species. Seed size was evaluated using four parameters: length, width, thickness and dorsal view surface. Seed shape was quantified using outline analyses based on the Elliptic Fourier Transform method. The size and shape of seeds allowed an accurate differentiation of Phoenix species. The cultivated date palm shows distinctive size and shape features, compared to other Phoenix species: seeds are longer and elongated. This morphological shift may be interpreted as a domestication syndrome, resulting from the long-term history of cultivation, selection and human-mediated dispersion. Based on seed attributes, some uncultivated date palms from Oman may be identified as wild. This opens new prospects regarding the possible existence and characterization of relict wild populations and consequently for the understanding of the date palm origins. Finally, we

  10. Weekly periodicity of environmental variables in Phoenix, Arizona

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shutters, Shade T.; Balling, Robert C.

    Though there is no known meteorological cause for weekly cycling of environmental variables, weekly cycles have been discovered at local to global scales, particularly in areas affected by human urbanization. To uncover such cycles in Phoenix, AZ, and to highlight possible mechanisms for their existence, data from several public domain sources were collected and analyzed for cycles in three categories of variables: meteorological, pollution, and human activity measured as vehicle traffic flows. Results indicated that many meteorological and pollution variables do exhibit weekly periodicity and that these cycles are likely due to the weekly pattern of human traffic flows. Atmospheric concentrations of O 3 and NO X gases exhibit a high degree of negative correlation, supporting recent research that suggests anthropogenic NO X gases are effective scavengers of ozone in urban cores. Results further suggest that vehicle-generated NO X gases may be a significant generator of atmospheric nitrate particulates. Finally, both traffic flow and NO X gas concentrations display a strong correlation with wind speed in the urban core, though this study does not speculate on a mechanism for this relationship.

  11. Phoenix Mars Mission--the thermal evolved gas analyzer.

    PubMed

    Hoffman, John H; Chaney, Roy C; Hammack, Hilton

    2008-10-01

    The Phoenix spacecraft that was launched to Mars in August 2007 landed safely on the Martian northern arctic region on May 25, 2008. It carried six experiments to study the history of water on the planet and search for organic molecules in the icy subsurface Martian soil. The spacecraft is a lander with an arm and scoop designed to dig a trench though the top soil to reach an expected ice layer near the surface. One of the instruments on board is the thermal evolved gas analyzer (TEGA), which consists of two components, a set of eight very small ovens that will heat samples of the ice soil mixtures from the trench to release imbedded gases and mineral decomposition products, and a mass spectrometer that serves as the analysis tool for the evolved gases, and also for measurements of the composition and isotopic ratios of the gases that comprise the atmosphere of Mars. The mass spectrometer is a miniature magnetic sector instrument controlled by microprocessor-driven power supplies. One feature is the gas enrichment cell that will increase the partial pressures of the noble gases in an atmosphere sample by removing all the active gases, carbon dioxide, and nitrogen, to improve the accuracy of their isotopic ratio measurements.

  12. The Phoenix TECP Relative Humidity Sensor: Revised Results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zent, Aaron

    2014-01-01

    The original calibration function of the RH sensor on the Phoenix mission's Thermal and Electrical Conductivity Sensor (TECP), has been revised to correct the erroneously-published original calibration equation, to demonstrate the value of this unique data set, and to improve characterization of H2O exchange between the martian regolith and atmosphere. TECP returned two data streams, the temperature of the electronics analog board (Tb) and the digital 12-bit output of the RH sensor (DN), both of which are required to uniquely specify the H2O abundance. Because the original flight instrument calibration was performed against a pair of hygrometers that measured frost point (Tf), the revised calibration equation is also cast in terms of frost point. The choice of functional form for the calibration function is minimally constrained. A series of profiles across the calibration data cloud at constant DN and Tb does not reveal any evidence of a complex functional form. Therefore, a series of polynomials in both DN and Tb was investigated, along with several non-linear functions of DN and Tb.

  13. Velocity Variations in the Phoenix-Hermus Star Stream

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carlberg, R. G.; Grillmair, C. J.

    2016-10-01

    Measurements of velocity and density perturbations along stellar streams in the Milky Way provide a time-integrated measure of dark matter substructure at larger galactic radius than the complementary instantaneous inner-halo strong lensing detection of dark matter sub-halos in distant galaxies. An interesting case to consider is the proposed Phoenix-Hermus star stream, which is long, thin, and on a nearly circular orbit, making it a particular good target to study for velocity variations along its length. In the presence of dark matter sub-halos, the stream velocities are significantly perturbed in a manner that is readily understood with the impulse approximation. A set of simulations shows that only sub-halos above a few 107 M ⊙ lead to reasonably long-lived observationally detectable velocity variations of amplitude of order 1 km s-1, with an average of about one visible hit per (two-armed) stream over a 3 Gyr interval. An implication is that globular clusters themselves will not have a visible impact on the stream. Radial velocities have the benefit of being completely insensitive to distance errors. Distance errors scatter individual star velocities perpendicular and tangential to the mean orbit, but their mean values remain unbiased. Calculations like these help build the quantitative case to acquire large, fairly deep, precision velocity samples of stream stars.

  14. Land use mapping and modelling for the Phoenix Quadrangle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Place, J. L. (Principal Investigator)

    1973-01-01

    The author has identified the following significant results. In comparing the land use changes from the overlay as detected from ERTS-1 and the high altitude change overlay, total areas of change were of the same magnitude. The greatest variations were a result of differences in dates and areas of coverage between ERTS-1 images and aerial photographs. Separation of citrus from other agricultural land has been moderately successful in the ERTS-1 1:100,000 scale Level 2 land use mapping around Phoenix, although accuracy estimates are not yet available. No feeding operations have been detected from ERTS-1 so far. Preliminary indications are that commercial and services, industrial, and institutional land are not separable from each other using present image interpretation techniques. Urban open areas such as parks and golf courses are readily detectable, particularly when local maps are consulted even though out-of-date. Strip and clustered settlements may be detected depending upon their size and contrast with the surrounding area on the ERTS-1 image.

  15. The Phoenix galaxy as seen by NuSTAR

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Masini, A.; Comastri, A.; Puccetti, S.; Baloković, M.; Gandhi, P.; Guainazzi, M.; Bauer, F. E.; Boggs, S. E.; Boorman, P. G.; Brightman, M.; Christensen, F. E.; Craig, W. W.; Farrah, D.; Hailey, C. J.; Harrison, F. A.; Koss, M. J.; LaMassa, S. M.; Ricci, C.; Stern, D.; Walton, D. J.; Zhang, W. W.

    2017-01-01

    Aims: We study the long-term variability of the well-known Seyfert 2 galaxy Mrk 1210 (also known as UGC 4203, or the Phoenix galaxy). Methods: The source was observed by many X-ray facilities in the last 20 yr. Here we present a NuSTAR observation and put the results in the context of previously published observations. Results: NuSTAR observed Mrk 1210 in 2012 for 15.4 ks. The source showed Compton-thin obscuration similar to that observed by Chandra, Suzaku, BeppoSAX and XMM-Newton over the past two decades, but different from the first observation by ASCA in 1995, in which the active nucleus was caught in a low flux state or was obscured by Compton-thick matter with a reflection-dominated spectrum. Thanks to the high-quality hard X-ray spectrum obtained with NuSTAR and exploiting the long-term spectral coverage spanning 16.9 yr, we can precisely disentangle the transmission and reflection components and put constraints on both the intrinsic long-term variability and hidden nucleus scenarios. In the former case, the distance between the reflector and the source must be at least 2 pc, while in the latter the eclipsing cloud may be identified with a water maser-emitting clump.

  16. Navigation Challenges of the Mars Phoenix Lander Mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Portock, Brian M.; Kruizinga, Gerhard; Bonfiglio, Eugene; Raofi, Behzad; Ryne, Mark

    2008-01-01

    The Mars Phoenix Lander mission was launched on August 4th, 2007. To land safely at the desired landing location on the Mars surface, the spacecraft trajectory had to be controlled to a set of stringent atmospheric entry and landing conditions. The landing location needed to be controlled to an elliptical area with dimensions of 100km by 20km. The two corresponding critical components of the atmospheric entry conditions are the entry flight path angle (target: -13.0 deg +/-0.21 deg) and the entry time (within +/-30 seconds). The purpose of this paper is to describe the navigation strategies used to overcome the challenges posed during spacecraft operations, which included an attitude control thruster calibration campaign, a trajectory control strategy, and a trajectory reconstruction strategy. Overcoming the navigation challenges resulted in final Mars atmospheric entry conditions just 0.007 deg off in entry flight path angle and 14.9 sec early in entry time. These entry dispersions in addition to the entry, descent, and landing trajectory dispersion through the atmosphere, lead to a final landing location just 7 km away from the desired landing target.

  17. Land use mapping and modelling for the Phoenix Quadrangle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Place, J. L. (Principal Investigator)

    1974-01-01

    The author has identified the following significant results. Changes in the land use in the Phoenix (1:250,000 scale) Quadrangle in Arizona have been mapped using only the images from ERTS-1, tending to verify the utility of a land use classification system proposed for use with ERTS images. Seasonal changes were studied on successive ERTS-1 images, particularly large scale color composite transparencies for August, October, February, and May, and this seasonal variation aided delineation of land use boundaries. Types of equipment used to aid interpretation included color additive viewer, a twenty-power magnifier, a density slicer, and a diazo copy machine. A Zoom Transfer Scope was used for scale and photogrammetric adjustments. Types of changes detected have been: (1) cropland or rangeland developed as new residential areas; (2) rangeland converted to new cropland or to new reservoirs; and (3) possibly new activity by the mining industries. A map of land use previously compiled from air photos was updated in this manner. ERTS-1 images complemented air photos: the photos gave detail on a one-shot basis; the ERTS-1 images provided currency and revealed seasonal variation in vegetation which aided interpretation of land use.

  18. Mars Phoenix Entry, Descent, and Landing Simulation Design and Modelling Analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Prince, Jill L.; Desai, Prasun N.; Queen, Eric M.; Grover, Myron R.

    2008-01-01

    The 2007 Mars Phoenix Lander was launched in August of 2007 on a ten month cruise to reach the northern plains of Mars in May 2008. Its mission continues NASA s pursuit to find evidence of water on Mars. Phoenix carries upon it a slew of science instruments to study soil and ice samples from the northern region of the planet, an area previously undiscovered by robotic landers. In order for these science instruments to be useful, it was necessary for Phoenix to perform a safe entry, descent, and landing (EDL) onto the surface of Mars. The EDL design was defined through simulation and analysis of the various phases of the descent. An overview of the simulation and various models developed to characterize the EDL performance is provided. Monte Carlo statistical analysis was performed to assess the performance and robustness of the Phoenix EDL system and are presented in this paper. Using these simulation and modelling tools throughout the design and into the operations phase, the Mars Phoenix EDL was a success on May 25, 2008.

  19. Web-Based Geographic Information System Tool for Accessing Hanford Site Environmental Data

    SciTech Connect

    Triplett, Mark B.; Seiple, Timothy E.; Watson, David J.; Charboneau, Briant L.; Morse, John G.

    2014-11-15

    Data volume, complexity, and access issues pose severe challenges for analysts, regulators and stakeholders attempting to efficiently use legacy data to support decision making at the U.S. Department of Energy’s (DOE) Hanford Site. DOE has partnered with the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) on the PHOENIX (PNNL-Hanford Online Environmental Information System) project, which seeks to address data access, transparency, and integration challenges at Hanford to provide effective decision support. PHOENIX is a family of spatially-enabled web applications providing quick access to decades of valuable scientific data and insight through intuitive query, visualization, and analysis tools. PHOENIX realizes broad, public accessibility by relying only on ubiquitous web-browsers, eliminating the need for specialized software. It accommodates a wide range of users with intuitive user interfaces that require little or no training to quickly obtain and visualize data. Currently, PHOENIX is actively hosting three applications focused on groundwater monitoring, groundwater clean-up performance reporting, and in-tank monitoring. PHOENIX-based applications are being used to streamline investigative and analytical processes at Hanford, saving time and money. But more importantly, by integrating previously isolated datasets and developing relevant visualization and analysis tools, PHOENIX applications are enabling DOE to discover new correlations hidden in legacy data, allowing them to more effectively address complex issues at Hanford.

  20. VizieR Online Data Catalog: Phoenix dwarf galaxy RV and [Fe/H] catalog (Kacharov+, 2017)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kacharov, N.; Battaglia, G.; Rejkuba, M.; Cole, A. A.; Carrera, R.; Fraternali, F.; Wilkinson, M. I.; Gallart, C. G.; Irwin, M.; Tolstoy, E.

    2017-01-01

    This catalogue provides photometry, radial velocities, metallicities, and the Ca triplet (CaT) equivalent widths of 228 stars in the field of the Phoenix dwarf galaxy observed with the FORS2 spectrograph at the VLT. 194 stars are confirmed Phoenix members. (1 data file).

  1. 76 FR 66956 - Notice of Availability of the Draft Environmental Impact Statement for the Phoenix Copper Leach...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-10-28

    ... Copper Leach Project, Lander County, NV AGENCY: Bureau of Land Management, Interior. ACTION: Notice of... Phoenix Copper Leach Project (Proposed Project) and by this notice is announcing the opening of the... Phoenix Copper Leach Project Draft EIS within 45 days following the date the Environmental...

  2. Review: Ajwa date (Phoenix dactylifera)- an emerging plant in pharmacological research.

    PubMed

    Mallhi, Tauqeer Hussain; Qadir, Muhammad Imran; Ali, Muhammad; Ahmad, Bashir; Khan, Yusra Habib; Rehman, Attaur

    2014-05-01

    Date Fruits are consumed in Arab areas for a long time as a part of essential diet. Phoenix dactylifera belongs to family Arecaceae and its leaves, barks, pits, fruits and pollens have anticancer, antioxidant, hepatoprotective, antidiabetic, antihypertensive, antiulcertavie, anti-inflammatory, antiproliferative, antimutagenic, antidiarheal, antibacterial, antifungal and antiviral potential. Besides these, Dates also increase level of estrogen, testosterone, RBCs, Hb, PCV, reticulocytes and platelet counts. It can also cure lead induced heamotoxicity, side effects of methylprednisolon, male and female infertility. It has also cerebroprotective, neuroprotective and haemopoietic activity. Phoenix dactylifera can be used for number of complications if further evaluated and isolated. The present paper is an overview of pharmacological properties of Phoenix dactylifera reported in literature.

  3. Independent Review Support for Phoenix Mars Mission Robotic Arm Brush Motor Failure

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McManamen, John P.; Pellicciotti, Joseph; DeKramer, Cornelis; Dube, Michael J.; Peeler, Deborah; Muirhead, Brian K.; Sevilla, Donald R.; Sabahi, Dara; Knopp, Michael D.

    2007-01-01

    The Phoenix Project requested the NASA Engineering and Safety Center (NESC) perform an independent peer review of the Robotic Arm (RA) Direct Current (DC) motor brush anomalies that originated during the Mars Exploration Rover (MER) Project and recurred during the Phoenix Project. The request was to evaluate the Phoenix Project investigation efforts and provide an independent risk assessment. This includes a recommendation for additional work and assessment of the flight worthiness of the RA DC motors. Based on the investigation and findings contained within this report, the IRT concurs with the risk assessment Failure Cause / Corrective Action (FC/CA) by the project, "Failure Effect Rating "3"; Major Degradation or Total Loss of Function, Failure Cause/Corrective Action Rating Currently "4"; Unknown Cause, Uncertainty in Corrective Action."

  4. Entry, Descent, and Landing Operations Analysis for the Mars Phoenix Lander

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Prince, Jill L.; Desai, Prasun N.; Queen, Eric M.; Grover, Myron R.

    2008-01-01

    The Mars Phoenix lander was launched August 4, 2007 and remained in cruise for ten months before landing in the northern plains of Mars in May 2008. The one-month Entry, Descent, and Landing (EDL) operations phase prior to entry consisted of daily analyses, meetings, and decisions necessary to determine if trajectory correction maneuvers and environmental parameter updates to the spacecraft were required. An overview of the Phoenix EDL trajectory simulation and analysis that was performed during the EDL approach and operations phase is described in detail. The evolution of the Monte Carlo statistics and footprint ellipse during the final approach phase is also provided. The EDL operations effort accurately delivered the Phoenix lander to the desired landing region on May 25, 2008.

  5. 3D Modeling of Spectra and Light Curves of Hot Jupiters with PHOENIX; a First Approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiménez-Torres, J. J.

    2016-04-01

    A detailed global circulation model was used to feed the PHOENIX code and calculate 3D spectra and light curves of hot Jupiters. Cloud free and dusty radiative fluxes for the planet HD179949b were modeled to show differences between them. The PHOENIX simulations can explain the broad features of the observed 8 μm light curves, including the fact that the planet-star flux ratio peaks before the secondary eclipse. The PHOENIX reflection spectrum matches the Spitzer secondary-eclipse depth at 3.6 μm and underpredicts eclipse depths at 4.5, 5.8 and 8.0 μm. These discrepancies result from the chemical composition and suggest the incorporation of different metallicities in future studies.

  6. The Phoenix stream: A cold stream in the southern hemisphere

    DOE PAGES

    Balbinot, E.

    2016-03-17

    In this study, we report the discovery of a stellar stream in the Dark Energy Survey (DES) Year 1 (Y1A1) data. The discovery was made through simple color-magnitude filters and visual inspection of the Y1A1 data. We refer to this new object as the Phoenix stream, after its resident constellation. After subtraction of the background stellar population we detect a clear signal of a simple stellar population. By fitting the ridge line of the stream in color-magnitude space, we find that a stellar population with agemore » $$\\tau=11.5\\pm0.5$$ Gyr and $[Fe/H]<-1.6$ located 17.5$$\\pm$$0.9 kpc from the Sun gives an adequate description of the stream stellar population. The stream is detected over an extension of 8$$^{\\circ}.$$1 (2.5 kpc) and has a width of $$\\sim$$54 pc assuming a Gaussian profile, indicating that a globular cluster is a probable progenitor. There is no known globular cluster within 5 kpc compatible with being the progenitor of the stream, assuming that the stream traces its orbit. We examined overdensities along the stream, however no obvious counterpart bound stellar system is visible in the coadded images. We also find overdensities along the stream that appear to be symmetrically distributed - consistent with the epicyclic overdensity scenario for the formation of cold streams - as well as a misalignment between the Northern and Southern part of stream. Despite the close proximity we find no evidence that this stream and the halo cluster NGC 1261 have a common accretion origin linked to the recently found EriPhe overdensity (Li et al. 2016).« less

  7. The Phoenix stream: A cold stream in the southern hemisphere

    SciTech Connect

    Balbinot, E.

    2016-03-17

    In this study, we report the discovery of a stellar stream in the Dark Energy Survey (DES) Year 1 (Y1A1) data. The discovery was made through simple color-magnitude filters and visual inspection of the Y1A1 data. We refer to this new object as the Phoenix stream, after its resident constellation. After subtraction of the background stellar population we detect a clear signal of a simple stellar population. By fitting the ridge line of the stream in color-magnitude space, we find that a stellar population with age $\\tau=11.5\\pm0.5$ Gyr and $[Fe/H]<-1.6$ located 17.5$\\pm$0.9 kpc from the Sun gives an adequate description of the stream stellar population. The stream is detected over an extension of 8$^{\\circ}.$1 (2.5 kpc) and has a width of $\\sim$54 pc assuming a Gaussian profile, indicating that a globular cluster is a probable progenitor. There is no known globular cluster within 5 kpc compatible with being the progenitor of the stream, assuming that the stream traces its orbit. We examined overdensities along the stream, however no obvious counterpart bound stellar system is visible in the coadded images. We also find overdensities along the stream that appear to be symmetrically distributed - consistent with the epicyclic overdensity scenario for the formation of cold streams - as well as a misalignment between the Northern and Southern part of stream. Despite the close proximity we find no evidence that this stream and the halo cluster NGC 1261 have a common accretion origin linked to the recently found EriPhe overdensity (Li et al. 2016).

  8. The Phoenix Stream: A Cold Stream in the Southern Hemisphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Balbinot, E.; Yanny, B.; Li, T. S.; Santiago, B.; Marshall, J. L.; Finley, D. A.; Pieres, A.; Abbott, T. M. C.; Abdalla, F. B.; Allam, S.; Benoit-Lévy, A.; Bernstein, G. M.; Bertin, E.; Brooks, D.; Burke, D. L.; Carnero Rosell, A.; Carrasco Kind, M.; Carretero, J.; Cunha, C. E.; da Costa, L. N.; DePoy, D. L.; Desai, S.; Diehl, H. T.; Doel, P.; Estrada, J.; Flaugher, B.; Frieman, J.; Gerdes, D. W.; Gruen, D.; Gruendl, R. A.; Honscheid, K.; James, D. J.; Kuehn, K.; Kuropatkin, N.; Lahav, O.; March, M.; Martini, P.; Miquel, R.; Nichol, R. C.; Ogando, R.; Romer, A. K.; Sanchez, E.; Schubnell, M.; Sevilla-Noarbe, I.; Smith, R. C.; Soares-Santos, M.; Sobreira, F.; Suchyta, E.; Tarle, G.; Thomas, D.; Tucker, D.; Walker, A. R.; DES Collaboration

    2016-03-01

    We report the discovery of a stellar stream in the Dark Energy Survey Year 1 (Y1A1) data. The discovery was made through simple color-magnitude filters and visual inspection of the Y1A1 data. We refer to this new object as the Phoenix stream, after its resident constellation. After subtraction of the background stellar population we detect a clear signal of a simple stellar population. By fitting the ridge line of the stream in color-magnitude space, we find that a stellar population with age τ = 11.5 ± 0.5 Gyr and [Fe/H] < -1.6, located 17.5 ± 0.9 kpc from the Sun, gives an adequate description of the stream stellar population. The stream is detected over an extension of 8.°1 (2.5 kpc) and has a width of ˜54 pc assuming a Gaussian profile, indicating that a globular cluster (GC) is a probable progenitor. There is no known GC within 5 kpc that is compatible with being the progenitor of the stream, assuming that the stream traces its orbit. We examined overdensities (ODs) along the stream, however, no obvious counterpart-bound stellar system is visible in the coadded images. We also find ODs along the stream that appear to be symmetrically distributed—consistent with the epicyclic OD scenario for the formation of cold streams—as well as a misalignment between the northern and southern part of stream. Despite the close proximity we find no evidence that this stream and the halo cluster NGC 1261 have a common accretion origin linked to the recently found EriPhe OD.

  9. Rhizosphere effects of PAH-contaminated soil phytoremediation using a special plant named Fire Phoenix.

    PubMed

    Liu, Rui; Xiao, Nan; Wei, Shuhe; Zhao, Lixing; An, Jing

    2014-03-01

    The rhizosphere effect of a special phytoremediating species known as Fire Phoenix on the degradation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) was investigated, including changes of the enzymatic activity and microbial communities in rhizosphere soil. The study showed that the degradation rate of Σ8PAHs by Fire Phoenix was up to 99.40% after a 150-day culture. The activity of dehydrogenase (DHO), peroxidase (POD) and catalase (CAT) increased greatly, especially after a 60-day culture, followed by a gradual reduction with an increase in the planting time. The activity of these enzymes was strongly correlated to the higher degradation performance of Fire Phoenix growing in PAH-contaminated soils, although it was also affected by the basic characteristics of the plant species itself, such as the excessive, fibrous root systems, strong disease resistance, drought resistance, heat resistance, and resistance to barren soil. The activity of polyphenoloxidase (PPO) decreased during the whole growing period in this study, and the degradation rate of Σ8PAHs in the rhizosphere soil after having planted Fire Phoenix plants had a significant (R(2)=0.947) negative correlation with the change in the activity of PPO. Using an analysis of the microbial communities, the results indicated that the structure of microorganisms in the rhizosphere soil could be changed by planting Fire Phoenix plants, namely, there was an increase in microbial diversity compared with the unplanted soil. In addition, the primary advantage of Fire Phoenix was to promote the growth of flora genus Gordonia sp. as the major bacteria that can effectively degrade PAHs.

  10. The chloroplast DNA locus psbZ-trnfM as a potential barcode marker in Phoenix L. (Arecaceae).

    PubMed

    Ballardini, Marco; Mercuri, Antonio; Littardi, Claudio; Abbas, Summar; Couderc, Marie; Ludeña, Bertha; Pintaud, Jean-Christophe

    2013-12-30

    The genus Phoenix (Arecaceae) comprises 14 species distributed from Cape Verde Islands to SE Asia. It includes the economically important species Phoenix dactylifera. The paucity of differential morphological and anatomical useful characters, and interspecific hybridization, make identification of Phoenix species difficult. In this context, the development of reliable DNA markers for species and hybrid identification would be of great utility. Previous studies identified a 12 bp polymorphic chloroplast minisatellite in the trnG (GCC)-trnfM (CAU) spacer, and showed its potential for species identification in Phoenix. In this work, in order to develop an efficient DNA barcode marker for Phoenix, a longer cpDNA region (700 bp) comprising the mentioned minisatellite, and located between the psbZ and trnfM (CAU) genes, was sequenced. One hundred and thirty-six individuals, representing all Phoenix species except P. andamanensis,were analysed. The minisatellite showed 2-7 repetitions of the 12 bp motif, with 1-3 out of seven haplotypes per species. Phoenix reclinata and P. canariensis had species-specific haplotypes. Additional polymorphisms were found in the flanking regions of the minisatellite, including substitutions, indels and homopolymers. All this information allowed us to identify unambiguously eight out of the 13 species, and overall 80% of the individuals sampled. Phoenix rupicola and P. theophrasti had the same haplotype, and so had P. atlantica, P. dactylifera, and P. sylvestris (the "date palm complex" sensu Pintaud et al. 2013). For these species, additional molecular markers will be required for their unambiguous identification. The psbZ-trnfM (CAU) region therefore could be considered as a good basis for the establishment of a DNA barcoding system in Phoenix, and is potentially useful for the identification of the female parent in Phoenix hybrids.

  11. American Flag and Mini-DVD Attached to Deck of Phoenix

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2008-01-01

    This image, released on Memorial Day, May 26, 2008, shows the American flag and a mini-DVD on the Phoenix's deck, which is about 3 ft. above the Martian surface. The mini-DVD from the Planetary Society contains a message to future Martian explorers, science fiction stories and art inspired by the Red Planet, and the names of more than a quarter million earthlings.

    The Phoenix Mission is led by the University of Arizona, Tucson, on behalf of NASA. Project management of the mission is by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif. Spacecraft development is by Lockheed Martin Space Systems, Denver.

  12. The Mars Phoenix Communications Brownout during Entry into the Martian Atmosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morabito, D.; Kornfeld, R.; Bruvold, K.; Craig, L.; Edquist, K.

    2009-11-01

    Propagation of radio signals through sufficiently dense plasma will become disrupted during a space vehicle's hypersonic entry phase into a planetary atmosphere. The Mars Phoenix communication links were found to experience varying levels of reduced received signal strength (brownout) during the spacecraft's entry into the Martian atmosphere on May 25, 2008. These fades were attributed to charged particles generated inside the entry vehicle's high-temperature shock layer during the hypersonic entry. This article presents the results of the analysis of the UHF carrier signal power emitted by Phoenix as received by three orbiting relay satellites during the period around peak heating: Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter, Mars Odyssey, and Mars Express.

  13. A New Chapter: Elderly Urban Indians and Political Activism in Phoenix.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liebow, Edward B.

    Life history interviews with 22 elderly Indians (16 women, 6 men, aged 60 to 81) in Phoenix suggest that for many of them the Indian Senior Center offers a sociable arena where they assume activist roles, directly addressing aging-related issues concerning health care, transportation, and emotional stress management. They engage in fund-raising…

  14. What Phoenix Doesn't Teach Us about For-Profit Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kinser, Kevin

    2006-01-01

    The University of Phoenix is a unique institution, and its presence has certainly influenced postsecondary education. It has played a significant role in the recognition and accreditation of institutions with campuses in many states, and its accelerated, career-oriented programs represent a real innovation in teaching working adults. From a policy…

  15. Greater Phoenix Forward: Sustaining and Enhancing the Human-Services Infrastructure

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morrison Institute for Public Policy, Arizona State University, 2008

    2008-01-01

    This report provides descriptive data for understanding the status of human services in Greater Phoenix, describes provocative issues that certain populations and providers face, and offers a starting point for determining Maricopa Valley's aspirations for tomorrow's human-services infrastructure. This report describes an array of populations that…

  16. Phoenix Conductivity Probe after Extraction from Martian Soil on Sol 99

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2008-01-01

    NASA's Phoenix Mars Lander inserted the four needles of its thermal and conductivity probe into Martian soil during the 98th Martian day, or sol, of the mission and left it in place until Sol 99 (Sept. 4, 2008).

    The Surface Stereo Imager on Phoenix took this image on the morning of Sol 99 after the probe was lifted away from the soil. This imaging served as a check of whether soil had stuck to the needles.

    The thermal and conductivity probe measures how fast heat and electricity move from one needle to an adjacent one through the soil or air between the needles. Conductivity readings can be indicators about water vapor, water ice and liquid water.

    The probe is part of Phoenix's Microscopy, Electrochemistry and Conductivity suite of instruments.

    The Phoenix Mission is led by the University of Arizona, Tucson, on behalf of NASA. Project management of the mission is by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif. Spacecraft development is by Lockheed Martin Space Systems, Denver.

  17. An Extraordinary Partnership between Arizona State University and the City of Phoenix

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Friedman, Debra

    2009-01-01

    The Arizona State University Downtown Phoenix campus is a grand-scale exemplar of a city-university partnership. Its demonstrated impacts are economic, social, and educational, transforming both the city and the university. The magnitude of the investment of $223 million by the citizens of a city in a state university is unparalleled in higher…

  18. A Needs Assessment of Phoenix South Catchment Area Children: The Responses of Parents, Neighbors, and Teachers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Balk, David

    Summarized in this document are results from a survey conducted from 1975 to 1977 with parents, neighbors, and fifth-grade teachers as part of a needs assessment of Phoenix, Arizona, South Catchment Area children. A questionnaire consisting of 34 items, generated from studies reviewed in the area of children's behavioral symptoms and strengths,…

  19. SOURCE APPORTIONMENT OF PHOENIX PM2.5 AEROSOL WITH THE UNMIX RECEPTOR MODEL

    EPA Science Inventory

    The multivariate receptor model Unmix has been used to analyze a 3-yr PM2.5 ambient aerosol data set collected in Phoenix, AZ, beginning in 1995. The analysis generated source profiles and overall percentage source contribution estimates (SCE) for five source categories: ga...

  20. ASSOCIATIONS BETWEEN AIR POLLUTION AND MORTALITY IN PHOENIX, 1995-1997

    EPA Science Inventory

    We evaluated the association between mortality outcomes in elderly individuals and particulate matter (PM) of varying aerodynamic diameters (in micrometers) [PM10, PM2.5, and PMCF (PM10 minus PM2.5)], and selected particulate and gaseous phase pollutants in Phoenix, Arizona, us...

  1. Identification and antimicrobial susceptibility testing of Staphylococcus vitulinus by the BD phoenix automated microbiology system.

    PubMed

    Cirković, Ivana; Hauschild, Tomasz; Jezek, Petr; Dimitrijević, Vladimir; Vuković, Dragana; Stepanović, Srdjan

    2008-08-01

    This study evaluated the performance of the BD Phoenix system for the identification (ID) and antimicrobial susceptibility testing (AST) of Staphylococcus vitulinus. Of the 10 S. vitulinus isolates included in the study, 2 were obtained from the Czech Collection of Microorganisms, 5 from the environment, 2 from human clinical samples, and 1 from an animal source. The results of conventional biochemical and molecular tests were used for the reference method for ID, while antimicrobial susceptibility testing performed in accordance with Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute recommendations and PCR for the mecA gene were the reference for AST. Three isolates were incorrectly identified by the BD Phoenix system; one of these was incorrectly identified to the genus level, and two to the species level. The results of AST by the BD Phoenix system were in agreement with those by the reference method used. While the results of susceptibility testing compared favorably, the 70% accuracy of the Phoenix system for identification of this unusual staphylococcal species was not fully satisfactory.

  2. Where Phoenix Union High School System Students Live and Attend School. 1976-1977.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Phoenix Union High School District, AZ. Dept. of Research and Planning.

    In 1969-70 the Research and Planning Department established Phoenix Union High School System study area boundaries that are contiguous with census tracts, elementary school and district boundaries, high school and district boundaries, area transportation study boundaries, and natural and man-made obstacles. Students were identified by these study…

  3. Status of the PHOENIX electron cyclotron resonance charge breeder at ISOLDE, CERN.

    PubMed

    Barton, Charles; Cederkall, Joakim; Delahaye, Pierre; Kester, Oliver; Lamy, Thierry; Marie-Jeanne, Mélanie

    2008-02-01

    We report here on the last progresses made with the PHOENIX electron cyclotron resonance charge breeder test bench at ISOLDE. Recently, an experiment was performed to test the trapping of (61)Fe daughter nuclides from the decay of (61)Mn nuclides. Preliminary results are given.

  4. 75 FR 16748 - Expansion of Foreign-Trade Zone 75, Phoenix, Arizona

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-02

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE Foreign-Trade Zones Board Expansion of Foreign-Trade Zone 75, Phoenix, Arizona Pursuant to its authority under the Foreign-Trade Zones Act of June 18, 1934, as amended (19 U.S.C. 81a-81u), the...

  5. Industrial Design: A Phoenix Reborn from the Ashes of Technology Education--A Case History

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Greenwald, Martin; Feigler, Denis

    2009-01-01

    Like the "phoenix," technology education (TE) can, under the right circumstances, give life to new programs--curricula with different emphases and directions from technology education, yet sharing a common heritage: the belief that applied technology will continue to shape the world. How that shaping process takes place--and the problems that it…

  6. Phoenix dactylifera L. spathe essential oil: Chemical composition and repellent activity against the yellow fever mosquito

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Date palm, Phoenix dactylifera L. (Arecaceae), grows commonly in the Arabian Peninsula and is traditionally used to treat various diseases. The aim of the present study was to identify chemical composition of the essential oil and to investigate the repellent activity. The essential oil of P. dacty...

  7. Phoenix Ranks 11th on EPAs Energy Star Top Cities List

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    SAN FRANCISCO - Today, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) released its seventh-annual list of the top 25 U.S. metropolitan areas with the most Energy Star certified buildings in 2014. This year, Phoenix ranks 11 th with 165 bui

  8. Arpaio Doesn't Control Anything: A Summer with El Hormiguero in Phoenix, Arizona

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carrillo, Juan F.

    2013-01-01

    Drawing from observations and interview data, this essay examines the role of "hormiguero agency" in nurturing empowered identities amongst Latin@s in Phoenix, Arizona. Specific links are made to how dehumanizing state level policies are resisted in multiple spaces, including schools, activist organizations, and within underground…

  9. Historical Evidence of the Spanish introduction of Date Palm (Phoenix dactylifera L., Arecaceae) into the Americas

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    America’s date palm (Phoenix dactylifera L.) groves can be found from 36o N Lat. (USA) to 21o S Lat. (Chile) and from 63o W Long. (Venezuela) to 117o W Long. (USA), at elevations from sea level 2000 m (Colombia). However, successful production of ripe dates is possible only in the arid regions of Pe...

  10. Effectiveness of Computer Based Education: The UNC Phoenix System. Staff Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jelden, D. L.

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate college student attitudes toward the PHOENIX computer-based education system and to gauge the instructional effectiveness of computer-assisted instruction (CAI) achievement and testing in a variety of disciplines in a university setting. Data for the study were obtained from 400 students enrolled in five…

  11. 78 FR 48413 - Foreign-Trade Zone 75-Phoenix, Arizona, Authorization of Production Activity, Orbital Sciences...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-08

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE Foreign-Trade Zones Board Foreign-Trade Zone 75--Phoenix, Arizona, Authorization of Production Activity, Orbital Sciences Corporation, (Satellites and Spacecraft Launch Vehicles); Gilbert, Arizona On April...

  12. A Curriculum for Prevention: Qualitative Assessment of WHEEL Club Phoenix Project

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Szecsy, Elsie; Jensen, Bryant

    2007-01-01

    This study describes perspectives of participants in a substance abuse and HIV prevention (HIVP) program targeted to middle school students and families in an urban Phoenix, Arizona, school district. Data collection and analyses complement past quasi-experimental, pre/post designs which found the program to be successful in terms of increasing…

  13. Geologie study off gravels of the Agua Fria River, Phoenix, AZ

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Langer, W.H.; Dewitt, E.; Adams, D.T.; O'Briens, T.

    2010-01-01

    The annual consumption of sand and gravel aggregate in 2006 in the Phoenix, AZ metropolitan area was about 76 Mt (84 million st) (USGS, 2009), or about 18 t (20 st) per capita. Quaternary alluvial deposits in the modern stream channel of the Agua Fria River west of Phoenix are mined and processed to provide some of this aggregate to the greater Phoenix area. The Agua Fria drainage basin (Fig. 1) is characterized by rugged mountains with high elevations and steep stream gradients in the north, and by broad alluvial filled basins separated by elongated faultblock mountain ranges in the south. The Agua Fria River, the basin’s main drainage, flows south from Prescott, AZ and west of Phoenix to the Gila River. The Waddel Dam impounds Lake Pleasant and greatly limits the flow of the Agua Fria River south of the lake. The southern portion of the watershed, south of Lake Pleasant, opens out into a broad valley where the river flows through urban and agricultural lands to its confluence with the Gila River, a tributary of the Colorado River.

  14. Hearing Before the United States Commission on Civil Rights (Phoenix, Arizona, November 17-18, 1972).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Commission on Civil Rights, Washington, DC.

    The U.S. Commission on Civil Rights held two days of hearings in Phoenix to investigate the civil rights status of Arizona Indian Tribes, to ascertain the nature and extent of their problems, and to try to arrive at a means to rectify those problems. The testimony offered at the public session came from representatives of local, state, Federal and…

  15. Recurrent Isolation of Extremotolerant Bacteria from the Clean Room Where Phoenix Spacecraft Components Were Assembled

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ghosh, Sudeshna; Osman, Shariff; Vaishampayan, Parag; Venkateswaran, Kasthuri

    2010-04-01

    The microbial burden of the Phoenix spacecraft assembly environment was assessed in a systematic manner via several cultivation-based techniques and a suite of NASA-certified, cultivation-independent biomolecule-based detection assays. Extremotolerant bacteria that could potentially survive conditions experienced en route to Mars or on the planet's surface were isolated with a series of cultivation-based assays that promoted the growth of a variety of organisms, including spore formers, mesophilic heterotrophs, anaerobes, thermophiles, psychrophiles, alkaliphiles, and bacteria resistant to UVC radiation and hydrogen peroxide exposure. Samples were collected from the clean room where Phoenix was housed at three different time points, before (1P), during (2P), and after (3P) Phoenix's presence at the facility. There was a reduction in microbial burden of most bacterial groups, including spore formers, in samples 2P and 3P. Analysis of 262 isolatisolattivable bacterial populations accompanied by a reduction in diversity during 2P and 3P. It is suggested that this shift was a result of increased cleaning when Phoenix was present in the assembly facility and that certain species, such as Acinetobacter johnsonii and Brevundimonas diminuta, may be better adapted to environmental conditions found during 2P and 3P. In addition, problematic bacteria resistant to multiple extreme conditions, such as Bacillus pumilus, were able to survive these periods of increased cleaning.

  16. Ethnographic Evaluation of the MESA Program at a South-Central Phoenix High School.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jaramillo, James A.

    MESA (Mathematics, Engineering, and Science Achievement) is a program designed to increase the number of underrepresented ethnic groups in professions related to mathematics, engineering, and the physical sciences. This paper describes and evaluates the MESA program at Jarama High School, Phoenix (Arizona), using informal interviews and…

  17. Prolate rotation and metallicity gradient in the transforming dwarf galaxy Phoenix

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kacharov, Nikolay; Battaglia, Giuseppina; Rejkuba, Marina; Cole, Andrew A.; Carrera, Ricardo; Fraternali, Filippo; Wilkinson, Mark I.; Gallart, Carme G.; Irwin, Mike; Tolstoy, Eline

    2017-04-01

    Transition type dwarf galaxies are thought to be systems undergoing the process of transformation from a star-forming into a passively evolving dwarf, which makes them particularly suitable to study evolutionary processes driving the existence of different dwarf morphological types. Here we present results from a spectroscopic survey of ∼200 individual red giant branch stars in the Phoenix dwarf, the closest transition type with a comparable luminosity to 'classical' dwarf galaxies. We measure a systemic heliocentric velocity Vhelio = -21.2 ± 1.0 km s-1. Our survey reveals the clear presence of prolate rotation that is aligned with the peculiar spatial distribution of the youngest stars in Phoenix. We speculate that both features might have arisen from the same event, possibly an accretion of a smaller system. The evolved stellar population of Phoenix is relatively metal-poor (<[Fe/H] > = -1.49 ± 0.04 dex) and shows a large metallicity spread (σ[Fe/H] = 0.51 ± 0.04 dex), with a pronounced metallicity gradient of -0.13 ± 0.01 dex arcmin-1 similar to luminous, passive dwarf galaxies. We also report a discovery of an extremely metal-poor star candidate in Phoenix and discuss the importance of correcting for spatial sampling when interpreting the chemical properties of galaxies with metallicity gradients. This study presents a major leap forward in our knowledge of the internal kinematics of the Phoenix transition type dwarf galaxy and the first wide area spectroscopic survey of its metallicity properties. A table containing the measured velocities, metallicities, and CaT equivalent widths of all spectroscopic targets is available online at the CDS.

  18. Influence of Noise Barriers on Near-Road and On-Road Air Quality: Results from Phoenix

    EPA Science Inventory

    The presentation describes field study results quantifying the impact of roadside barriers under real-world conditions in Phoenix, Arizona. Public health concerns regarding adverse health effects for populations spending significant amounts of time near high traffic roadways has ...

  19. MEDIA ADVISORY: EPA Administrator to Visit Fresno, Phoenix for high-speed rail groundbreaking, American Meteorological Society annual meeting

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    On Wednesday, Administrator McCarthy will travel to Phoenix, Ariz. for a Presidential Town Hall at the American Meteorological Society's (AMS) 95 th annual meeting. The growing body of science on climate change and extreme weather underpins Presi

  20. Zooming in on Landing Site

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2008-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Click on the image for movie of Zooming in on Landing Site

    This animation zooms in on the area on Mars where NASA's Phoenix Mars Lander will touchdown on May 25, 2008. The image was taken by the High Resolution Imaging Science Experiment (HiRISE) camera on NASA's Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter.

    The first shot shows the spacecraft's landing ellipse in green, the area where Phoenix has a high probability of landing. It then zooms in to show the region's arctic terrain. This polar landscape is relatively free of rocks, with only about 1 to 2 rocks 1.5 meters (4.9 feet) or larger in an area about as big as two football fields.

    NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, a division of the California Institute of Technology in Pasadena, manages the Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter for NASA's Science Mission Directorate, Washington. Lockheed Martin Space Systems, Denver, is the prime contractor for the project and built the spacecraft. The High Resolution Imaging Science Experiment is operated by the University of Arizona, Tucson, and the instrument was built by Ball Aerospace & Technologies Corp., Boulder, Colo.

  1. Multibody Modeling and Simulation for the Mars Phoenix Lander Entry, Descent and Landing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Queen, Eric M.; Prince, Jill L.; Desai, Prasun N.

    2008-01-01

    A multi-body flight simulation for the Phoenix Mars Lander has been developed that includes high fidelity six degree-of-freedom rigid-body models for the parachute and lander system. The simulation provides attitude and rate history predictions of all bodies throughout the flight, as well as loads on each of the connecting lines. In so doing, a realistic behavior of the descending parachute/lander system dynamics can be simulated that allows assessment of the Phoenix descent performance and identification of potential sensitivities for landing. This simulation provides a complete end-to-end capability of modeling the entire entry, descent, and landing sequence for the mission. Time histories of the parachute and lander aerodynamic angles are presented. The response of the lander system to various wind models and wind shears is shown to be acceptable. Monte Carlo simulation results are also presented.

  2. Observations of atmospheric tides on Mars at the season and latitude of the Phoenix atmospheric entry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Withers, Paul; Catling, D. C.

    2010-12-01

    We report on the atmospheric structure derived from atmospheric entry of NASA's Phoenix Mars probe using Phoenix Atmospheric Structure Experiment (ASE) data complemented by Mars Climate Sounder (MCS) temperature-pressure profiles. Oscillations in temperature, caused by thermal tides, have vertical wavelengths of tens of kilometres. Their amplitudes are much larger in individual profiles than in dayside and nightside zonal mean MCS profiles which is inconsistent with sole control by the migrating diurnal tide. In the fixed local time reference frame of dayside MCS observations, temperature varies by >15 K with longitudinal wavenumber 3, which could arise from non-migrating tides produced by the interaction of surface topography with the migrating diurnal tide.

  3. Identification of Phoenix dactylifera L. varieties based on amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP) markers.

    PubMed

    Diaz, Susana; Pire, Carmen; Ferrer, Juan; Bonete, Maria José

    2003-01-01

    The amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP) technique was applied to identify palm varieties. Fluorescence labelled primers were used in selective amplifications and the amplified fragments were detected on capillary gel electrophoresis using an automated DNA sequencer with the analysis fragment option. This is a rapid and efficient technique for detecting a large number of DNA markers on the date palm. Phoenix dactylifera L. varieties Bou-Fegous, Medjool, and E-528 from Estación Phoenix (Elche), Spain, were analysed, yielding a total of 310 AFLP fragments derived from five primer combinations. The process for regenerating the date palm cultivars from in vitro tissue culture should yield individuals phenotypically and genetically identical to the explant they are derived from. The AFLP markers obtained were successfully used for comparing and identifying vitroplants of palm.

  4. An evaluation of climate change in Phoenix using an automatic synoptic climatological approach

    SciTech Connect

    Cheng, S.; Kalkstein, L.S. . Dept. of Geography)

    1993-06-01

    The authors develop an automatic synoptic climatological categorization for summer and winter in Phoenix by means of principal components analysis and clustering analysis, for the purpose of determining climatic trends over the past 40 years. The categorization is used to determine if the frequencies of occurrences of the coldest and warmest air masses have changed and if the physical characteristics of these air masses have shown signs of modification in both seasons from 1948--1991. It appears that the frequencies of the hottest air masses in summer and the warmest air masses in winter and the coolest air masses in summer have decreased. In addition, mean temperature within each of the selected four air mass groups have increased 0.9--3.0 C from 1948 to 1991, and temperatures at 2:00 AM and 8:00 PM have increased changes are very closely related to the growth of the Phoenix metropolitan area and increased urban sprawl.

  5. From Mars to Media: The Phoenix Mars Mission and the Challenges of Real-Time, Multimedia Science Communication and Public Education

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buxner, S.; Bitter, C.

    2008-12-01

    Although the Mars Exploration Rovers, Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter, and Mars Odyssey Missions set the standard for science communication and public education about Mars, the Phoenix Mission was presented with robust new communication challenges and opportunities. The new frontier includes Web 2.0, international forums, internal and external blogs, social networking sites, as well as the traditional media and education outlets for communicating science and information. We will explore the highlights and difficulties of managing the 'message from Mars' in our current multimedia saturated world while balancing authentic science discoveries, public expectations, and communication demands. Our goal is to create a more science savvy public and a more communication oriented science community for the future. The key issues are helping the public and our scientists distinguish between information and knowledge and managing the content that connects the two.

  6. Phoenix is required for mechanosensory hair cell regeneration in the zebrafish lateral line.

    PubMed

    Behra, Martine; Bradsher, John; Sougrat, Rachid; Gallardo, Viviana; Allende, Miguel L; Burgess, Shawn M

    2009-04-01

    In humans, the absence or irreversible loss of hair cells, the sensory mechanoreceptors in the cochlea, accounts for a large majority of acquired and congenital hearing disorders. In the auditory and vestibular neuroepithelia of the inner ear, hair cells are accompanied by another cell type called supporting cells. This second cell population has been described as having stem cell-like properties, allowing efficient hair cell replacement during embryonic and larval/fetal development of all vertebrates. However, mammals lose their regenerative capacity in most inner ear neuroepithelia in postnatal life. Remarkably, reptiles, birds, amphibians, and fish are different in that they can regenerate hair cells throughout their lifespan. The lateral line in amphibians and in fish is an additional sensory organ, which is used to detect water movements and is comprised of neuroepithelial patches, called neuromasts. These are similar in ultra-structure to the inner ear's neuroepithelia and they share the expression of various molecular markers. We examined the regeneration process in hair cells of the lateral line of zebrafish larvae carrying a retroviral integration in a previously uncharacterized gene, phoenix (pho). Phoenix mutant larvae develop normally and display a morphologically intact lateral line. However, after ablation of hair cells with copper or neomycin, their regeneration in pho mutants is severely impaired. We show that proliferation in the supporting cells is strongly decreased after damage to hair cells and correlates with the reduction of newly formed hair cells in the regenerating phoenix mutant neuromasts. The retroviral integration linked to the phenotype is in a novel gene with no known homologs showing high expression in neuromast supporting cells. Whereas its role during early development of the lateral line remains to be addressed, in later larval stages phoenix defines a new class of proteins implicated in hair cell regeneration.

  7. [Comparison of microdilution method and Phoenix automated system for testing antimicrobial susceptibilities of Enterococcus strains].

    PubMed

    Gülmez, Dolunay; Hasçelik, Gülşen

    2011-01-01

    Enterococcus spp. are important pathogens which are intrinsically resistant to most of the commonly used antimicrobial agents such as aminoglycosides and cephalosporins. Accurate determination of resistance is important to ensure appropriate antimicrobial therapy. This study was undertaken to compare the susceptibility results obtained by Phoenix system (Becton Dickinson, USA) with reference microdilution method. We included 1248 Enterococcus spp. (903 Enterococcus faecalis, 345 Enterococcus faecium) strains isolated from clinical samples between 2005-2007 in routine microbiology laboratory of Hacettepe University Hospital. The strains were identified and the antimicrobial susceptibilities were determined by the Phoenix system. Antimicrobial susceptibilities to ampicillin, teicoplanin, vancomycin, gentamicin and streptomycin were also studied by microdilution method according to Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute (CLSI) guidelines. Evaluation revealed excellent agreement for all of the antibiotics with category agreement rates of > 97%. Among 1248 strains, 76 revealed discordant results. Very major error rates were 1.5% for ampicillin, 1.3% for gentamicin, and 0.9% for streptomycin. Major error rates were 1.4% for streptomycin, 0.6% for ampicillin and vancomycin and 0.3% for gentamicin. Minor error rates were found as 0.2% for vancomycin, and 0.1% for teicoplanin. Resistance rates obtained by microdilution were as follows; high level streptomycin 44%, high level gentamicin 29.7%, ampicillin 25.6%, vancomycin 2.2% and teicoplanin 2.2%. Resistance rates were higher in E.faecium than E.faecalis and 96.4% of the vancomycin resistant enterococcus isolates were identified as E.faecium. In conclusion, based on the data obtained, Phoenix system is reliable for testing susceptibilities of Enterococcus spp. to these antimicrobials. Since isolation of vancomycin resistant enterococci has an important impact in terms of hospital infection control, vancomycin

  8. Date palm (Phoenix dactylifera)dispersal to the Americas: Historical evidence of the Spanish introduction

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Date palm (Phoenix dactylifera) groves are found in the Americas from the south-west USA (36°N lat.) to Chile (21°S lat.) and eastward to the Caribbean Islands; from Venezuela, 63°W long. to 117°W long. (USA) and at elevations from 0-2,000 m. However, successful production of ripe dates is possible ...

  9. PHOENIX IR Spectra of CO in the Sun and the Stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ayres, T. R.; Valenti, J. A.; Hinkle, K. H.; Johns-Krull, C. M.; Wiedemann, G. R.

    1998-05-01

    We report high-resolution (R ~ 5*E(4) ) spectra of the 2143 cm(-1) (4.7 mu m) interval---containing lines from the fundamental (Delta v =1) bands of carbon monoxide---in the Sun and other late-type stars, obtained with the PHOENIX cryogenic infrared spectrometer. The solar work was conducted at the McMath-Pierce telescope during the period 21--26 April 1997, while the stellar observations were obtained on the night of 6 December 1997 at the Kitt Peak 2.1-m. Comparisons of spatially-averaged spectra from the long-slit observations of the Sun with very high-resolution Fourier transform spectrometer scans permitted an evalution of the PHOENIX instrumental profile (affected by flexing of the grating owing to unequal thermal coefficients of the epoxy replica and the silicon substrate). The profile information subsequently was applied in comparisons of the stellar data sets with CO spectra synthesized using a variety of prototype thermal structure models. On the stellar side, we concentrated on bright K-type giants whose broad CO profiles are fully resolved at PHOENIX resolution. Our intent was to test the degree of thermal heterogeneity in the outer layers of the red giant atmospheres; analogous to the ``thermal bifurcation'' effects deduced in the solar context (namely, the dichotomy between classical hot chromosphere and the controversial cool ``COmosphere''). Our spectral analyses provide a preview of the power of PHOENIX for high-resolution infrared spectroscopy of stars; to be realized in the coming months when the original grating is replaced with an improved version. [-2mm] The observations were obtained at the National Optical Astronomy Observatories, which is operated by AURA, Inc., under a cooperative agreement with the National Science Foundation. This work was supported by NSF grant AST-9618505.

  10. Phoenix : Complex Adaptive System of Systems (CASoS) engineering version 1.0.

    SciTech Connect

    Moore, Thomas W.; Quach, Tu-Thach; Detry, Richard Joseph; Conrad, Stephen Hamilton; Kelic, Andjelka; Starks, Shirley J.; Beyeler, Walter Eugene; Brodsky, Nancy S.; Verzi, Stephen J.; Brown, Theresa Jean; Glass, Robert John, Jr.; Sunderland, Daniel J.; Mitchell, Michael David; Ames, Arlo Leroy; Maffitt, S. Louise; Finley, Patrick D.; Russell, Eric Dean; Zagonel, Aldo A.; Reedy, Geoffrey E.; Mitchell, Roger A.; Corbet, Thomas Frank, Jr.; Linebarger, John Michael

    2011-08-01

    Complex Adaptive Systems of Systems, or CASoS, are vastly complex ecological, sociological, economic and/or technical systems which we must understand to design a secure future for the nation and the world. Perturbations/disruptions in CASoS have the potential for far-reaching effects due to pervasive interdependencies and attendant vulnerabilities to cascades in associated systems. Phoenix was initiated to address this high-impact problem space as engineers. Our overarching goals are maximizing security, maximizing health, and minimizing risk. We design interventions, or problem solutions, that influence CASoS to achieve specific aspirations. Through application to real-world problems, Phoenix is evolving the principles and discipline of CASoS Engineering while growing a community of practice and the CASoS engineers to populate it. Both grounded in reality and working to extend our understanding and control of that reality, Phoenix is at the same time a solution within a CASoS and a CASoS itself.

  11. Evolution of sex chromosomes prior to speciation in the dioecious Phoenix species.

    PubMed

    Cherif, E; Zehdi-Azouzi, S; Crabos, A; Castillo, K; Chabrillange, N; Pintaud, J-C; Salhi-Hannachi, A; Glémin, S; Aberlenc-Bertossi, F

    2016-08-01

    Understanding the driving forces and molecular processes underlying dioecy and sex chromosome evolution, leading from hermaphroditism to the occurrence of male and female individuals, is of considerable interest in fundamental and applied research. The genus Phoenix, belonging to the Arecaceae family, consists uniquely of dioecious species. Phylogenetic data suggest that the genus Phoenix has diverged from a hermaphroditic ancestor which is also shared with its closest relatives. We have investigated the cessation of recombination in the sex-determination region within the genus Phoenix as a whole by extending the analysis of P. dactylifera SSR sex-related loci to eight other species within the genus. Phylogenetic analysis of a date palm sex-linked PdMYB1 gene in these species has revealed that sex-linked alleles have not clustered in a species-dependent way but rather in X and Y-allele clusters. Our data show that sex chromosomes evolved from a common autosomal origin before the diversification of the extant dioecious species.

  12. Discovery of a stellar overdensity in Eridanus-Phoenix in the dark energy survey

    SciTech Connect

    Li, T. S.; Balbinot, E.; Mondrik, N.; Marshall, J. L.; Yanny, B.; Bechtol, K.; Drlica-Wagner, A.; Oscar, D.; Santiago, B.; Simon, J. D.; Vivas, A. K.; Walker, A. R.; Wang, M. Y.; Abbott, T. M. C.; Abdalla, F. B.; Benoit-Lévy, A.; Bernstein, G. M.; Bertin, E.; Brooks, D.; Burke, D. L.; Rosell, A. Carnero; Kind, M. Carrasco; Carretero, J.; Costa, L. N. da; DePoy, D. L.; Desai, S.; Diehl, H. T.; Doel, P.; Estrada, J.; Finley, D. A.; Flaugher, B.; Frieman, J.; Gruen, D.; Gruendl, R. A.; Gutierrez, G.; Honscheid, K.; James, D. J.; Kuehn, K.; Kuropatkin, N.; Lahav, O.; Maia, M. A. G.; March, M.; Martini, P.; Ogando, R.; Plazas, A. A.; Reil, K.; Romer, A. K.; Roodman, A.; Sanchez, E.; Scarpine, V.; Schubnell, M.; Sevilla-Noarbe, I.; Smith, R. C.; Soares-Santos, M.; Sobreira, F.; Suchyta, E.; Swanson, M. E. C.; Tarle, G.; Tucker, D.; Zhang, Y.

    2016-01-27

    We report the discovery of an excess of main sequence turn-off stars in the direction of the constellations of Eridanus and Phoenix from the first year data of the Dark Energy Survey (DES). The Eridanus-Phoenix (EriPhe) overdensity is centered around l~285 deg and b~-60 deg and spans at least 30 deg in longitude and 10 deg in latitude. The Poisson significance of the detection is at least 9 sigma. The stellar population in the overdense region is similar in brightness and color to that of the nearby globular cluster NGC 1261, indicating that the heliocentric distance of EriPhe is about d~16 kpc. The extent of EriPhe in projection is therefore at least ~4 kpc by ~3 kpc. On the sky, this overdensity is located between NGC 1261 and a new stellar stream discovered by DES at a similar heliocentric distance, the so-called Phoenix Stream. Given their similar distance and proximity to each other, it is possible that these three structures may be kinematically associated. Alternatively, the EriPhe overdensity is morphologically similar to the Virgo overdensity and the Hercules-Aquila cloud, which also lie at a similar Galactocentric distance. These three overdensities lie along a polar plane separated by ~120 deg and may share a common origin. Spectroscopic follow-up observations of the stars in EriPhe are required to fully understand the nature of this overdensity.

  13. Discovery of a Stellar Overdensity in Eridanus-Phoenix in the Dark Energy Survey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, T. S.; Balbinot, E.; Mondrik, N.; Marshall, J. L.; Yanny, B.; Bechtol, K.; Drlica-Wagner, A.; Oscar, D.; Santiago, B.; Simon, J. D.; Vivas, A. K.; Walker, A. R.; Wang, M. Y.; Abbott, T. M. C.; Abdalla, F. B.; Benoit-Lévy, A.; Bernstein, G. M.; Bertin, E.; Brooks, D.; Burke, D. L.; Carnero Rosell, A.; Carrasco Kind, M.; Carretero, J.; da Costa, L. N.; DePoy, D. L.; Desai, S.; Diehl, H. T.; Doel, P.; Estrada, J.; Finley, D. A.; Flaugher, B.; Frieman, J.; Gruen, D.; Gruendl, R. A.; Gutierrez, G.; Honscheid, K.; James, D. J.; Kuehn, K.; Kuropatkin, N.; Lahav, O.; Maia, M. A. G.; March, M.; Martini, P.; Ogando, R.; Plazas, A. A.; Reil, K.; Romer, A. K.; Roodman, A.; Sanchez, E.; Scarpine, V.; Schubnell, M.; Sevilla-Noarbe, I.; Smith, R. C.; Soares-Santos, M.; Sobreira, F.; Suchyta, E.; Swanson, M. E. C.; Tarle, G.; Tucker, D.; Zhang, Y.; DES Collaboration

    2016-02-01

    We report the discovery of an excess of main-sequence turnoff stars in the direction of the constellations of Eridanus and Phoenix from the first-year data of the Dark Energy Survey (DES). The Eridanus-Phoenix (EriPhe) overdensity is centered around l˜ 285^\\circ and b˜ -60^\\circ and spans at least 30° in longitude and 10° in latitude. The Poisson significance of the detection is at least 9σ . The stellar population in the overdense region is similar in brightness and color to that of the nearby globular cluster NGC 1261, indicating that the heliocentric distance of EriPhe is about d˜ 16 {{kpc}}. The extent of EriPhe in projection is therefore at least ˜4 kpc by ˜3 kpc. On the sky, this overdensity is located between NGC 1261 and a new stellar stream discovered by DES at a similar heliocentric distance, the so-called Phoenix Stream. Given their similar distance and proximity to each other, it is possible that these three structures may be kinematically associated. Alternatively, the EriPhe overdensity is morphologically similar to the Virgo overdensity and the Hercules-Aquila cloud, which also lie at a similar Galactocentric distance. These three overdensities lie along a polar plane separated by ˜120° and may share a common origin. Spectroscopic follow-up observations of the stars in EriPhe are required to fully understand the nature of this overdensity.

  14. Natural history of Javeta pallida Baly, 1858 on Phoenix palms in India (Chrysomelidae, Cassidinae, Coelaenomenoderini)

    PubMed Central

    Shameem, Koormath Mohammed; Prathapan, Kaniyarikkal Divakaran; Nasser, Mannankadiyan; Chaboo, Caroline Simmrita

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Members of the Old World hispine tribe, Coelaenomenoderini, are documented on host plants of Arecaceae, Cyperaceae, and Zingiberales. A few species are renowned pests of oil palm, especially in Africa. The host plants and natural history of Javeta pallida Baly, 1858, the only Indian species of the tribe, is reported for the first time. These beetles can densely infest indigenous wild date palms, Phoenix sylvestris (L.) Roxb. (Arecaceae), and also use the introduced date palm, Phoenix dactylifera L., which is an expanding crop in India. Javeta females lay single eggs and cover each with an ootheca. All larval stages mine the leaves and pupation occurs within the larval mine. Adults are exophagous, leaving linear feeding trenches. Natural and induced infestations of Javeta pallida on these two palms were observed and the potential of Javeta pallida as a pest of date palm in India is discussed. Javeta pallida completed development on Phoenix palms in 52–88 days (mean 66.38 days) with egg period 11–15 days (mean 12.8 days), larval period 21–54 days (mean 33.02 days) and pupal period 17–23 days (mean 20.52 days). Elasmus longiventris Verma and Hayat and Pediobius imbreus Walker (Hymenoptera: Eulophidae) parasitize the larva and pupa of Javeta pallida. PMID:27408585

  15. Project Phoenix: A Summary of SETI Observations and Results, 1995 - 2004

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Backus, P. R.; Project Phoenix Team

    2004-05-01

    Project Phoenix was a Search for Extraterrestrial Intelligence (SETI) that observed nearly 800 stars within about 80 parsecs over the available frequencies in the microwave spectrum from 1200 to 3000 MHz with a resolution of 0.7 Hz. The search had three major observing campaigns using the Parkes 64 meter, the NRAO 140 Foot, and the Arecibo 305 meter antennas. Phoenix used real time signal detection and immediate verification of possible ETI signals. The search looked for narrowband signals that were continuously present, or pulsed regularly, and allowed for frequency drift rates of up to about 1 Hz per second. A database of terrestrial signals found in the previous week was used to match against detections for each observation. Candidate signals, i.e., those not in the database, were checked immediately with a "pseudo-interferometric" observation using a second, distant antenna, or by simple on-off observations if the second antenna was unavailable. While millions of signals were detected, all proved to be from terrestrial technology. In conclusion, we can set upper limits on the power of narrowband transmitters in the vicinity of nearby stars. Project Phoenix was the privately-funded continuation of the NASA Targeted Search SETI program and we gratefully acknowledge the use of NASA equipment on long term loan through 2002. The search was supported by contributions from Bernard M. Oliver, William and Rosemary Hewlett, Gordon and Betty Moore, the David and Lucile Packard Foundation, and the Paul G. Allen Foundation.

  16. Discovery of a stellar overdensity in Eridanus-Phoenix in the dark energy survey

    DOE PAGES

    Li, T. S.; Balbinot, E.; Mondrik, N.; ...

    2016-01-27

    We report the discovery of an excess of main sequence turn-off stars in the direction of the constellations of Eridanus and Phoenix from the first year data of the Dark Energy Survey (DES). The Eridanus-Phoenix (EriPhe) overdensity is centered around l~285 deg and b~-60 deg and spans at least 30 deg in longitude and 10 deg in latitude. The Poisson significance of the detection is at least 9 sigma. The stellar population in the overdense region is similar in brightness and color to that of the nearby globular cluster NGC 1261, indicating that the heliocentric distance of EriPhe is aboutmore » d~16 kpc. The extent of EriPhe in projection is therefore at least ~4 kpc by ~3 kpc. On the sky, this overdensity is located between NGC 1261 and a new stellar stream discovered by DES at a similar heliocentric distance, the so-called Phoenix Stream. Given their similar distance and proximity to each other, it is possible that these three structures may be kinematically associated. Alternatively, the EriPhe overdensity is morphologically similar to the Virgo overdensity and the Hercules-Aquila cloud, which also lie at a similar Galactocentric distance. These three overdensities lie along a polar plane separated by ~120 deg and may share a common origin. Spectroscopic follow-up observations of the stars in EriPhe are required to fully understand the nature of this overdensity.« less

  17. McMurdo Dry Valleys, Antarctica - A Mars Phoenix Mission Analog

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tamppari, L. K.; Anderson, R. M.; Archer, D.; Douglas, S.; Kounaves, S. P.; McKay, C. P.; Ming, Douglas W.; Moore, Q.; Quinn, J. E.; Smith, P. H.; Stroble, S.; Zent, A. P.

    2010-01-01

    The Phoenix mission (PHX; May 25 - Nov. 2, 2008) studied the north polar region of Mars (68deg N) to understand the history of water and potential for habitability. Phoenix carried with it a wet chemistry lab (WCL) capable of determining the basic solution chemistry of the soil and the pH value, a thermal and evolved-gas analyzer capable of determining the mineralogy of the soil and detecting ice, microscopes capable of seeing soil particle shapes, sizes and colors at very high resolution, and a soil probe (TECP) capable of detecting unfrozen water in the soil. PHX coincided with an international effort to study the Earth s polar regions named the International Polar Year (IPY; 2007-2008). The best known Earth analog to the Martian high-northern plains, where Phoenix landed, are the McMurdo Dry Valleys (MDV), Antarctica (Fig. 1). Thus, the IPY afforded a unique opportunity to study the MDV with the same foci - history of water and habitability - as PHX. In austral summer 2007, our team took engineering models of WCL and TECP into the MDV and performed analgous measurements. We also collected sterile samples and analyzed them in our home laboratories using state-of-the-art tools. While PHX was not designed to perform biologic analyses, we were able to do so with the MDV analog samples collected.

  18. Natural history of Javeta pallida Baly, 1858 on Phoenix palms in India (Chrysomelidae, Cassidinae, Coelaenomenoderini).

    PubMed

    Shameem, Koormath Mohammed; Prathapan, Kaniyarikkal Divakaran; Nasser, Mannankadiyan; Chaboo, Caroline Simmrita

    2016-01-01

    Members of the Old World hispine tribe, Coelaenomenoderini, are documented on host plants of Arecaceae, Cyperaceae, and Zingiberales. A few species are renowned pests of oil palm, especially in Africa. The host plants and natural history of Javeta pallida Baly, 1858, the only Indian species of the tribe, is reported for the first time. These beetles can densely infest indigenous wild date palms, Phoenix sylvestris (L.) Roxb. (Arecaceae), and also use the introduced date palm, Phoenix dactylifera L., which is an expanding crop in India. Javeta females lay single eggs and cover each with an ootheca. All larval stages mine the leaves and pupation occurs within the larval mine. Adults are exophagous, leaving linear feeding trenches. Natural and induced infestations of Javeta pallida on these two palms were observed and the potential of Javeta pallida as a pest of date palm in India is discussed. Javeta pallida completed development on Phoenix palms in 52-88 days (mean 66.38 days) with egg period 11-15 days (mean 12.8 days), larval period 21-54 days (mean 33.02 days) and pupal period 17-23 days (mean 20.52 days). Elasmus longiventris Verma and Hayat and Pediobius imbreus Walker (Hymenoptera: Eulophidae) parasitize the larva and pupa of Javeta pallida.

  19. Comparison of BD phoenix to vitek 2, microscan MICroSTREP, and Etest for antimicrobial susceptibility testing of Streptococcus pneumoniae.

    PubMed

    Mittman, Scott A; Huard, Richard C; Della-Latta, Phyllis; Whittier, Susan

    2009-11-01

    The performance of the BD Phoenix Automated Microbiology System (BD Diagnostic Systems) was compared to those of the Vitek 2 (bioMérieux), the MicroScan MICroSTREP plus (Siemens), and Etest (bioMérieux) for antibiotic susceptibility tests (AST) of 311 clinical isolates of Streptococcus pneumoniae. The overall essential agreement (EA) between each test system and the reference microdilution broth reference method for S. pneumoniae AST results was >95%. For Phoenix, the EAs of individual antimicrobial agents ranged from 90.4% (clindamycin) to 100% (vancomycin and gatifloxacin). The categorical agreements (CA) of Phoenix, Vitek 2, MicroScan, and Etest for penicillin were 95.5%, 94.2%, 98.7%, and 97.7%, respectively. The overall CA for Phoenix was 99.3% (1 very major error [VME] and 29 minor errors [mEs]), that for Vitek 2 was 98.8% (7 VMEs and 28 mEs), and those for MicroScan and Etest were 99.5% each (19 and 13 mEs, respectively). The average times to results for Phoenix, Vitek 2, and the manual methods were 12.1 h, 9.8 h, and 24 h, respectively. From these data, the Phoenix AST results demonstrated a high degree of agreement with all systems evaluated, although fewer VMEs were observed with the Phoenix than with the Vitek 2. Overall, both automated systems provided reliable AST results for the S. pneumoniae-antibiotic combinations in half the time required for the manual methods, rendering them more suitable for the demands of expedited reporting in the clinical setting.

  20. Phoenix Lander's Thermal Evolved Gas Analyzer: Differential Scanning Calorimeter and Mass Spectrometer Database Development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sutter, B.; Lauer, H. V.; Golden, D. C.; Ming, D. W.; Boynton, W. V.

    2008-01-01

    The Mars Scout Phoenix lander will land in the north polar region of Mars in May, 2008. One objective of the Phoenix lander is to search for evidence of past life in the form of molecular organics that may be preserved in the subsurface soil. The Thermal Evolved Gas Analyzer (TEGA) was developed to detect these organics by coupling a simultaneous differential thermal analyzer (SDTA) with a mass spectrometer. Martian soil will be heated to approx.1000 C and potential organic decomposition products such as CO2, CH4 etc. will be examined for with the MS. TEGA s SDTA will also assess the presence of endothermic and exothermic reactions that are characteristic of soil organics and minerals as the soil is heated. The MS in addition to detecting organic decompositon products, will also assess the levels of soil inorganic volatiles such as H2O, SO2, and CO2. Organic detection has a high priority for this mission; however, TEGA has the ability to provide valuable insight into the mineralogical composition of the soil. The overall goal of this work is to develop a TEGA database of minerals that will serve as a reference for the interpretation of Phoenix-TEGA. Previous databases for the ill-fated Mars Polar Lander (MPL)-TEGA instrument only went to 725 C. Furthermore, the MPL-TEGA could only detect CO2 and H2O while the Phoenix-TEGA MS can examine up to 144 atomic mass units. The higher temperature Phoenix-TEGA SDTA coupled with the more capable MS indicates that a higher temperature database is required for TEGA interpretation. The overall goal of this work is to develop a differential scanning calorimeter (DSC) database of minerals along with corresponding MS data of evolved gases that can used to interpret TEGA data during and after mission operations. While SDTA and DSC measurement techniques are slightly different (SDTA does not use a reference pan), the results are fundamentally similar and thus DSC is a useful technique in providing comparative data for the TEGA

  1. Evaluation of VITEK 2, MicroScan, and Phoenix for identification of clinical isolates and reference strains.

    PubMed

    Jin, Won-Young; Jang, Sook-Jin; Lee, Min-Jung; Park, Geon; Kim, Min-Jung; Kook, Joong-Ki; Kim, Dong-Min; Moon, Dae-Soo; Park, Young-Jin

    2011-08-01

    To compare the identification accuracies of VITEK 2 (bioMérieux), MicroScan (Siemens Healthcare), and Phoenix (Becton Dickinson), microbial identification was performed on 160 clinical isolates and 50 reference strains on each of these 3 systems, using the appropriate identification kit provided by each system. Of the 142 clinical isolates that were identified at the species level, VITEK 2, MicroScan, and Phoenix correctly identified 93.7%, 82.4%, and 93.0%, and incorrectly identified 2.1%, 7.0%, and 0%, respectively. In the reference strain tests, VITEK 2, MicroScan, and Phoenix correctly identified 55.3%, 54.4%, and 78.0% of the reference strains at the species level and incorrectly identified 10.6%, 13.0%, and 6.0% of the reference strains, respectively. In conclusion, the identification rate of VITEK 2, Phoenix, and MicroScan was high or acceptable on clinical isolates. Phoenix showed a significantly higher performance than VITEK 2 or MicroScan in identifying the reference strains.

  2. Comparison of the BD Phoenix system with the cefoxitin disk diffusion test for detection of methicillin resistance in Staphylococcus aureus and coagulase-negative staphylococci.

    PubMed

    Mencacci, Antonella; Montecarlo, Ines; Gonfia, Francesca; Moretti, Amedeo; Cardaccia, Angela; Farinelli, Senia; Pagliochini, Maria Rita; Giuliani, Angela; Basileo, Michela; Pasticci, Maria Bruna; Bistoni, Francesco

    2009-07-01

    The BD Phoenix system was compared to the cefoxitin disk diffusion test for detection of methicillin (meticillin) resistance in 1,066 Staphylococcus aureus and 1,121 coagulase-negative staphylococcus (CoNS) clinical isolates. The sensitivity for Phoenix was 100%. The specificities were 99.86% for S. aureus and 88.4% for CoNS.

  3. The Impact of Family Math/Family Science upon the Attitudes and Behaviors of Participants in the Valley of Phoenix from Fall of 1991 to Spring of 1993.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jaramillo, James A.

    The Education Resources Center (ERC) is a community-based organization that serves students from various elementary schools united by the Phoenix Coalition for Youth and Families (PCYF). The PCYF Project was authorized to organize agencies and schools in the lower socio-economic areas of inner-city Phoenix into one collaborative arrangement. This…

  4. Results from the Phoenix Urban Heat Island (UHI) experiment: effects at the local, neighbourhood and urban scales

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    di Sabatino, S.; Leo, L. S.; Hedquist, B. C.; Carter, W.; Fernando, H. J. S.

    2009-04-01

    This paper reports on the analysis of results from a large urban heat island experiment (UHI) performed in Phoenix (AZ) in April 2008. From 1960 to 2000, the city of Phoenix experienced a minimum temperature rise of 0.47 °C per decade, which is one of the highest rates in the world for a city of this size (Golden, 2004). Contemporaneously, the city has recorded a rapid enlargement and large portion of the land and desert vegetation have been replaced by buildings, asphalt and concrete (Brazel et al., 2007, Emmanuel and Fernando, 2007). Besides, model predictions show that minimum air temperatures for Phoenix metropolitan area in future years might be even higher than 38 °C. In order to make general statements and mitigation strategies of the UHI phenomenon in Phoenix and other cities in hot arid climates, a one-day intensive experiment was conducted on the 4th-5th April 2008 to collect surface and ambient temperatures within various landscapes in Central Phoenix. Inter alia, infrared thermography (IRT) was used for UHI mapping. The aim was to investigate UHI modifications within the city of Phoenix at three spatial scales i.e. the local (Central Business District, CBD), the neighborhood and the city scales. This was achieved by combining IRT measurements taken at ground level by mobile equipment (automobile-mounted and pedicab) and at high elevation by a helicopter. At local scale detailed thermographic images of about twenty building façades and several street canyons were collected. In total, about two thousand images were taken during the 24-hour campaign. Image analysis provides detailed information on building surface and pavement temperatures at fine resolution (Hedquist et al. 2009, Di Sabatino et al. 2009). This unique dataset allows us several investigations on local air temperature dependence on albedo, building thermal inertia, building shape and orientation and sky view factors. Besides, the mosaic of building façade temperatures are being analyzed

  5. Multicenter evaluation of the BD Phoenix Automated Microbiology System for antimicrobial susceptibility testing of Streptococcus species.

    PubMed

    Richter, Sandra S; Howard, Wanita J; Weinstein, Melvin P; Bruckner, David A; Hindler, Janet F; Saubolle, Michael; Doern, Gary V

    2007-09-01

    This multicenter study evaluated the BD Phoenix Automated Microbiology System STREP panel (BD Diagnostic Systems). Antimicrobial susceptibility testing (AST) with 13 agents was performed on 2,013 streptococci (938 Streptococcus pneumoniae isolates; 396 group B streptococci [GBS]; 369 viridans group streptococci [VGS]; 290 beta-hemolytic streptococcus groups A, C, and G; and 20 other streptococci) with the Phoenix system and a broth microdilution reference method. Clinical and challenge isolates were tested against cefepime, cefotaxime (CTX), ceftriaxone (CTR), clindamycin (CLI), erythromycin (ERY), gatifloxacin, levofloxacin, linezolid, meropenem, penicillin (PEN), tetracycline (TET), trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole, and vancomycin. Clinical isolates with major errors or very major errors (VMEs) were retested in duplicate by both methods. The final results for clinical isolates showed the following trends. For all of the organism-antimicrobial agent combinations tested, categorical agreement (CA) was 92 to 100%, with one exception-VGS-PEN (87% CA; all errors were minor). For S. pneumoniae, there was one major error with CLI (0.1%) and one or two VMEs with CTX (4%), CTR (4.5%), ERY (0.9%), and TET (0.7%). For groups A, C, and G, the CA was 97 to 100% and the only VMEs were resolved by additional reference laboratory testing. For GBS, there was only one VME (TET, 0.3%) and D-zone testing of 23 isolates with CLI major errors (one isolate unavailable) revealed inducible CLI resistance. For VGS, the major error rates were 0 to 3% and VMEs occurred with seven agents (3.5 to 7.1%). The mean times required for organism groups to generate results ranged from 8.4 to 9.4 h. The Phoenix system provided reliable and rapid AST results for most of the organism-antimicrobial agent combinations tested.

  6. Revisiting haboobs in the southwestern United States: An observational case study of the 5 July 2011 Phoenix dust storm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Raman, Aishwarya; Arellano, Avelino F.; Brost, John J.

    2014-06-01

    Convectively-driven dust storms (or haboobs) are common phenomena in the southwestern United States. However, studies about haboobs in this region are limited. Here, we investigate the state and fate of a massive haboob that hit Phoenix, Arizona on 5 July 2011 using satellite, radar, and ground-based observations. This haboob was a result of strong outflow boundaries (with peak wind gusts of 29 m s-1) from storms that were initiated in the southeast of Tucson. In particular, we find three major outflow systems (based on radar data) that were generated by forward propagating storms, ultimately merging near Phoenix. This resulted in peak hourly PM10 and PM2.5 concentrations of 1974 μg m-3 and 907 μg m-3 at US EPA stations near Phoenix. The high PM concentration is consistent in space and time with the dust wall movement based on our analysis of radar data on hydrometeor classification. Enhanced aerosol loadings over metropolitan Phoenix were also observed on 6 July from NASA Terra/Aqua MODIS aerosol optical depth (AOD) retrievals (AOD > 0.8). We infer from CALIOP vertical feature masks and HYSPLIT back trajectories that remnants of the haboob were transported to northwest of Phoenix on 6 July at 2-4 km above ground level. Ratios of PM2.5 to PM10 from IMPROVE stations also imply low-level transport to the east of Phoenix on 8 July. Finally, we find that this haboob, which had local and regional impacts, is atypical of other dust events in this region. We note from this analysis that extreme events such as this haboob require an integrated air quality observing system to provide a more comprehensive assessment of these events.

  7. Organic Combustion in the Presence of Ca-Carbonate and Mg-Perchlorate: A Possible Source for the Low Temperature CO2 Release Seen in Mars Phoenix Thermal and Evolved Gas Analyzer Data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Archer, Douglas; Ming, D.; Niles, P.; Sutter, B.; Lauer, H.

    2012-01-01

    Two of the most important discoveries of the Phoenix Lander were the detection of approx.0.6% perchlorate [1] and 3-5% carbonate [2] in landing site soils. The Thermal and Evolved Gas Analyzer (TEGA) instrument on the Phoenix lander could heat samples up to approx.1000 C and monitor evolved gases with a mass spectrometer. TEGA detected a low (approx.350 C) and high (approx.750 C) temperature CO2 release. The high temp release was attributed to the thermal decomposition of Ca-carbonate (calcite). The low temperature CO2 release could be due to desorption of CO2, decomposition of a different carbonate mineral, or the combustion of organic material. A new hypothesis has also been proposed that the low temperature CO2 release could be due to the early breakdown of calcite in the presence of the decomposition products of certain perchlorate salts [3]. We have investigated whether or not this new hypothesis is also compatible with organic combustion. Magnesium perchlorate is stable as Mg(ClO4)2-6H2O on the martian surface [4]. During thermal decomposition, this perchlorate salt releases H2O, Cl2, and O2 gases. The Cl2 can react with water to form HCl which then reacts with calcite, releasing CO2 below the standard thermal decomposition temperature of calcite. However, when using concentrations of perchlorate and calcite similar to what was detected by Phoenix, the ratio of high:low temperature CO2 evolved is much larger in the lab, indicating that although this process might contribute to the low temp CO2 release, it cannot account for all of it. While H2O and Cl2 cause calcite decomposition, the O2 evolved during perchlorate decomposition can lead to the combustion of any reduced carbon present in the sample [5]. We investigate the possible contribution of organic molecules to the low temperature CO2 release seen on Mars.

  8. Analysis of Phoenix Anomalies and IV and V Findings Applied to the GRAIL Mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Larson, Steve

    2012-01-01

    Analysis of patterns in IV&V findings and their correlation with post-launch anomalies allowed GRAIL to make more efficient use of IV&V services . Fewer issues. . Higher fix rate. . Better communication. . Increased volume of potential issues vetted, at lower cost. . Hard to make predictions of post-launch performance based on IV&V findings . Phoenix made sound fix/use as-is decisions . Things that were fixed eliminated some problems, but hard to quantify. . Broad predictive success in one area, but inverse relationship in others.

  9. Crater Morphology in the Phoenix Landing Ellipse: Insights Into Net Erosion and Ice Table Depth

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Noe Dobrea, E. Z.; Stoker, C. R.; McKay, C. P.; Davila, A. F.; Krco, M.

    2015-01-01

    Icebreaker [1] is a Discovery class mission being developed for future flight opportunities. Under this mission concept, the Icebreaker payload is carried on a stationary lander, and lands in the same landing ellipse as Phoenix. Samples are acquired from the subsurface using a drilling system that penetrates into materials which may include loose or cemented soil, icy soil, pure ice, rocks, or mixtures of these. To avoid the complexity of mating additional strings, the drill is single-string, limiting it to a total length of 1 m.

  10. Debris flows from small catchments of the Ma Ha Tuak Range, metropolitan Phoenix, Arizona

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dorn, Ronald I.

    2010-08-01

    Debris flows debauch from tiny but steep mountain catchments throughout metropolitan Phoenix, Arizona, USA. Urban growth in the past half-decade has led to home construction directly underneath hundreds of debris-flow channels, but debris flows are not recognized as a potential hazard at present. One of the first steps in a hazard assessment is to determine occurrence rates. The north flank of the Ma Ha Tuak Range, just 10 km from downtown Phoenix, was selected to determine the feasibility of using the varnish microlaminations (VML) method to date every debris-flow levee from 127 catchment areas. Only 152 of the 780 debris-flow levees yielded VML ages in a first round of sampling; this high failure rate is due to erosion of VML by microcolonial fungi. The temporal pattern of preserved debris-flow levees indicates anomalously high production of debris flows at about 8.1 ka and about 2.8 ka, corresponding to Northern Hemisphere climatic anomalies. Because many prior debris flows are obliterated by newer events, the minimum overall occurrence rates of 1.3 debris flows per century for the last 60 ka, 2.2 flows/century for the latest Pleistocene, and 5 flows/century for the last 8.1 ka has little meaning in assessment of a contemporary hazard. This is because newer debris flows have obliterated an unknown number of past deposits. More meaningful to a hazards analysis is the estimate that 56 flows have occurred in the last 100 years on the north side of the range, an estimate that is consistent with direct observations of three small debris flows resulting events from a January 18-22, 2010 storm producing 70 mm of precipitation in the Ma Ha Tuak Range, and a 500 m long debris flow in a northern metropolitan Phoenix location that received over 150 mm of precipitation in this same storm. These findings support the need for a more extensive hazard assessment of debris flows in metropolitan Phoenix.

  11. Comparative Evaluation of the BD Phoenix Yeast ID Panel and Remel RapID Yeast Plus System for Yeast Identification.

    PubMed

    Grant, Michelle L; Parajuli, Shobha; Deleon-Gonsalves, Raquel; Potula, Raghava; Truant, Allan L

    2016-01-01

    Becton Dickinson Phoenix Yeast ID Panel was compared to the Remel RapID Yeast Plus System using 150 recent clinical yeast isolates and the API 20C AUX system to resolve discrepant results. The concordance rate between the Yeast ID Panel and the RapID Yeast Plus System (without arbitration) was 93.3% with 97.3% (146/150) and 95.3% (143/150) of the isolates correctly identified by the Becton Dickinson Phoenix and the Remel RapID, respectively, with arbitration.

  12. Comparative Evaluation of the BD Phoenix Yeast ID Panel and Remel RapID Yeast Plus System for Yeast Identification

    PubMed Central

    Grant, Michelle L.; Parajuli, Shobha; Deleon-Gonsalves, Raquel; Potula, Raghava; Truant, Allan L.

    2016-01-01

    Becton Dickinson Phoenix Yeast ID Panel was compared to the Remel RapID Yeast Plus System using 150 recent clinical yeast isolates and the API 20C AUX system to resolve discrepant results. The concordance rate between the Yeast ID Panel and the RapID Yeast Plus System (without arbitration) was 93.3% with 97.3% (146/150) and 95.3% (143/150) of the isolates correctly identified by the Becton Dickinson Phoenix and the Remel RapID, respectively, with arbitration. PMID:27366167

  13. Evaluation of the automated phoenix system for potential routine use in the clinical microbiology laboratory.

    PubMed

    Donay, J-L; Mathieu, D; Fernandes, P; Prégermain, C; Bruel, P; Wargnier, A; Casin, I; Weill, F X; Lagrange, P H; Herrmann, J L

    2004-04-01

    A comparative study was designed to evaluate the identification (ID) and antimicrobial susceptibility testing (AST) performances of the BD Phoenix Automated Microbiology System (Becton Dickinson Diagnostic Systems [BD], Pont de Claix, France). A total of 305 single clinical isolates were collected, and comparisons were made with routine manual methods in use in our microbiology laboratories. The percentages of correct IDs were 93.3, 89.4, 91.8, and 85.7% for enterobacteria, nonfermenting gram-negative bacilli, staphylococci, and streptococci-enterococci, respectively. The median ID time was 3 h, and the median time for AST was 10 h 30 min. AST results showed variable percentages of errors for the different antibiotics. None of the enterobacteria and 0.3% of Pseudomonas aeruginosa isolates showed a very major error (VME). Only one strain of Staphylococcus aureus showed a VME with oxacillin. We demonstrate here the efficiency of the Phoenix system, which can be used for the majority of strains encountered in a university-based laboratory, for ID and AST.

  14. What a Tangled Web We Weave: Hermus as the Northern Extension of the Phoenix Stream

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grillmair, Carl J.; Carlberg, Raymond G.

    2016-04-01

    We investigate whether the recently discovered Phoenix stream may be part of a much longer stream that includes the previously discovered Hermus stream. Using a simple model of the Galaxy with a disk, bulge, and a spherical dark matter halo, we show that a nearly circular orbit, highly inclined with respect to the disk, can be found that fits the positions, orientations, and distances of both streams. While the two streams are somewhat misaligned in the sense that they do not occupy the same plane, nodal precession due to the Milky Way disk potential naturally brings the orbit into line with each stream in the course of half an orbit. We consequently consider a common origin for the two streams as plausible. Based on our best-fitting orbit, we make predictions for the positions, distances, radial velocities, and proper motions along each stream. If our hypothesis is borne out by measurements, then at ≈183° (≈235° with respect to the Galactic center) and ≈76 kpc in length, Phoenix-Hermus would become the longest cold stream yet found. This would make it a particularly valuable new probe of the shape and mass of the Galactic halo out to ≈20 kpc.

  15. A biometeorology study of climate and heat-related morbidity in Phoenix from 2001 to 2006.

    PubMed

    Golden, Jay S; Hartz, Donna; Brazel, Anthony; Luber, George; Phelan, Patrick

    2008-07-01

    Heat waves kill more people in the United States than hurricanes, tornadoes, earthquakes, and floods combined. Recently, international attention focused on the linkages and impacts of human health vulnerability to urban climate when Western Europe experienced over 30,000 excess deaths during the heat waves of the summer of 2003-surpassing the 1995 heat wave in Chicago, Illinois, that killed 739. While Europe dealt with heat waves, in the United States, Phoenix, Arizona, established a new all-time high minimum temperature for the region on July 15, 2003. The low temperature of 35.5 degrees C (96 degrees F) was recorded, breaking the previous all-time high minimum temperature record of 33.8 degrees C (93 degrees F). While an extensive literature on heat-related mortality exists, greater understanding of influences of heat-related morbidity is required due to climate change and rapid urbanization influences. We undertook an analysis of 6 years (2001-2006) of heat-related dispatches through the Phoenix Fire Department regional dispatch center to examine temporal, climatic and other non-spatial influences contributing to high-heat-related medical dispatch events. The findings identified that there were no significant variations in day-of-week dispatch events. The greatest incidence of heat-related medical dispatches occurred between the times of peak solar irradiance and maximum diurnal temperature, and during times of elevated human comfort indices (combined temperature and relative humidity).

  16. Analysis of Phoenix Anomalies and IV & V Findings Applied to the GRAIL Mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Larson, Steve

    2012-01-01

    NASA IV&V was established in 1993 to improve safety and cost-effectiveness of mission critical software. Since its inception the tools and strategies employed by IV&V have evolved. This paper examines how lessons learned from the Phoenix project were developed and applied to the GRAIL project. Shortly after selection, the GRAIL project initiated a review of the issues documented by IV&V for Phoenix. The motivation was twofold: the learn as much as possible about the types of issues that arose from the flight software product line slated for use on GRAIL, and to identify opportunities for improving the effectiveness of IV&V on GRAIL. The IV&V Facility provided a database dump containing 893 issues. These were categorized into 16 bins, and then analyzed according to whether the project responded by changing the affected artifacts or using as-is. The results of this analysis were compared to a similar assessment of post-launch anomalies documented by the project. Results of the analysis were discussed with the IV&V team assigned to GRAIL. These discussions led to changes in the way both the project and IV&V approached the IV&V task, and improved the efficiency of the activity.

  17. Radio variability in the Phoenix Deep Survey at 1.4 GHz

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hancock, P. J.; Drury, J. A.; Bell, M. E.; Murphy, T.; Gaensler, B. M.

    2016-09-01

    We use archival data from the Phoenix Deep Survey to investigate the variable radio source population above 1 mJy beam-1 at 1.4 GHz. Given the similarity of this survey to other such surveys we take the opportunity to investigate the conflicting results which have appeared in the literature. Two previous surveys for variability conducted with the Very Large Array (VLA) achieved a sensitivity of 1 mJy beam-1. However, one survey found an areal density of radio variables on time-scales of decades that is a factor of ˜4 times greater than a second survey which was conducted on time-scales of less than a few years. In the Phoenix deep field we measure the density of variable radio sources to be ρ = 0.98 deg-2 on time-scales of 6 months to 8 yr. We make use of Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer infrared cross-ids, and identify all variable sources as an active galactic nucleus of some description. We suggest that the discrepancy between previous VLA results is due to the different time-scales probed by each of the surveys, and that radio variability at 1.4 GHz is greatest on time-scales of 2-5 yr.

  18. Phoenix flagships: Conservation values and guanaco reintroduction in an anthropogenic landscape.

    PubMed

    Lindon, Adrien; Root-Bernstein, Meredith

    2015-09-01

    Multiple forms of valuation contribute to public acceptance of conservation projects. Here, we consider how esthetic, intrinsic, and utilitarian values contribute to public attitudes toward a proposed reintroduction of guanaco (Lama guanicoe) in a silvopastoral system of central Chile. The nexus among landscape perceptions and valuations, support for reintroductions, and management of anthropogenic habitats is of increasing interest due to the proliferation of conservation approaches combining some or all of these elements, including rewilding and reconciliation ecology, for example. We assessed attitudes and values through an online questionnaire for residents of Santiago, Chile, using multiple methods including photo-montages and Likert scale assessments of value-based statements. We also combined the questionnaire approach with key informant interviews. We find strong support for the reintroduction of guanacos into the Chilean silvopastoral system ('espinal') in terms of esthetic and intrinsic values but less in terms of utilitarian values. Respondents preferred a scenario of espinal with guanacos and expressed interest in visiting it, as well as support for the reintroduction project on the basis that guanacos are native to central Chile. We suggest that reintroduced guanacos could serve as a 'phoenix flagship species' for espinal conservation, that is, a flagship species that has gone regionally extinct and is known but not associated with the region in the cultural memory. We consider how the lack of local cultural identity can both help and weaken phoenix flagships, which we expect to become more common.

  19. Chemical composition and antioxidant activity of seed oil of two Algerian date palm cultivars (Phoenix dactylifera).

    PubMed

    Boukouada, Mustapha; Ghiaba, Zineb; Gourine, Nadhir; Bombarda, Isabelle; Saidi, Mokhtar; Yousfi, Mohamed

    2014-12-01

    The fatty acid composition of date seed oil from two different date palm (Phoenix dactylifera L.) cultivars, locally known as Degla-Baïdha and Tafezouine, were investigated. GC analysis revealed the presence of five dominant fatty acids: oleic C18:1 (46.51; 39.15%), lauric C12:0 (22.1; 28.5%), myristic C14:0 (10.7; 11.4%), palmitic C16:0 (9.6; 8.7%) and linoleic C18:2 (6.9; 6.1%). The oils was characterised by a low content of tocopherols (0.53; 1.41 μg/g). The antioxidant activity of the oils was investigated using the DPPH*(1,1-di-phenyl-2-picryl-hydrazyl) scavenging assay. The oils had a weak bleaching effect on DPPH* free radicals. This study showed that the qualities of the tested oils are highly comparable with those of some commercial seed oils of other plants. Furthermore, a statistical analysis using the hierarchy ascendant classification method was conducted in order to highlight the similarities and/or the differences regarding the contents of the main fatty acids found in some common plants and in the five most famous cultivars of Phoenix dactylifera of south eastern Algeria (Tafezouine, Degla-Baïdha, Deglet-Nour, Ghars, Tamdjouhert).

  20. Mars Phoenix Scout Thermal Evolved Gas Analyzer (TEGA) Database: Thermal Database Development and Analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sutter, B.; Archer, D.; Niles, P. B.; Stein, T. C.; Hamara, D.; Boynton, W. V.; Ming, D. W.

    2017-01-01

    The Mars Phoenix Scout Lander mission in 2008 examined the history of water, searched for organics, and evaluated the potential for past/present microbial habitability in a martian arctic ice-rich soil [1]. The Thermal Evolved Gas Analyzer (TEGA) instrument measured the isotopic composition of atmospheric CO2 and detected volatile bearing mineralogy (perchlorate, carbonate, hydrated mineral phases) in the martian soil [2-7]. The TEGA data are archived at the Planetary Data System (PDS) Geosciences Node but are reported in forms that require further processing to be of use to the non-TEGA expert. The soil and blank TEGA thermal data are reported as duty cycle and must be converted to differential power (mW) to allow for enthalpy calculations of exothermic/endothermic transitions. The exothermic/endothermic temperatures are also used to determine what phases (inorganic/organic) are present in the sample. The objectives of this work are to: 1) Describe how interpretable thermal data can be created from TEGA data sets on the PDS and 2) Provide additional thermal data interpretation of two Phoenix soils (Baby Bear, Wicked Witch) and include interpretations from three unreported soils (Rosy Red 1, 2, and Burning Coals).

  1. Bio-habitability Indicators on Polar Mars found by the 2007 Phoenix Mars Scout Mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Young, Suzanne M. M.

    2009-10-01

    The Phoenix Mars Scout landed on 25 May 2008 at the northern polar latitude of 68N and longitude 234E (areocentric). Analyses included excavating the Mars regolith with a robotic arm and delivering samples to payload instruments including a scanning calorimeter-mass spectrometer (TEGA) and an electrochemical analyzer, (WCL). This exciting mission has been used to inspire many students from junior high through graduate school. The instruments on board are often utilizing very basic physical and chemical properties to make small discoveries that feed into very large questions. Students can have some of the excitement of arriving at answers themselves or discovering how their lessons connect directly to some of NASA's largest initiatives. The work reported here addresses the implications of the Phoenix observations for the prospects of Mars biohability. TEGA confirmed the presence of water ice in the regolith, not bound as a chemical ligand. The salts by WCL offer evidence for the past presence of liquid water on Mars. Sources of bio-energy, key bio-elements and ions, and environmental toxicity and pH will also be discussed.

  2. A Genome-Wide Survey of Date Palm Cultivars Supports Two Major Subpopulations in Phoenix dactylifera.

    PubMed

    Mathew, Lisa S; Seidel, Michael A; George, Binu; Mathew, Sweety; Spannagl, Manuel; Haberer, Georg; Torres, Maria F; Al-Dous, Eman K; Al-Azwani, Eman K; Diboun, Ilhem; Krueger, Robert R; Mayer, Klaus F X; Mohamoud, Yasmin Ali; Suhre, Karsten; Malek, Joel A

    2015-05-08

    The date palm (Phoenix dactylifera L.) is one of the oldest cultivated trees and is intimately tied to the history of human civilization. There are hundreds of commercial cultivars with distinct fruit shapes, colors, and sizes growing mainly in arid lands from the west of North Africa to India. The origin of date palm domestication is still uncertain, and few studies have attempted to document genetic diversity across multiple regions. We conducted genotyping-by-sequencing on 70 female cultivar samples from across the date palm-growing regions, including four Phoenix species as the outgroup. Here, for the first time, we generate genome-wide genotyping data for 13,000-65,000 SNPs in a diverse set of date palm fruit and leaf samples. Our analysis provides the first genome-wide evidence confirming recent findings that the date palm cultivars segregate into two main regions of shared genetic background from North Africa and the Arabian Gulf. We identify genomic regions with high densities of geographically segregating SNPs and also observe higher levels of allele fixation on the recently described X-chromosome than on the autosomes. Our results fit a model with two centers of earliest cultivation including date palms autochthonous to North Africa. These results adjust our understanding of human agriculture history and will provide the foundation for more directed functional studies and a better understanding of genetic diversity in date palm.

  3. Detailed characterization of power flow and PRS performance on Phoenix. Memorandum report

    SciTech Connect

    Terry, R.E.; Whitney, K.G.; Davis, J.; Guiliani, J.L.; Rogerson, J.

    1996-05-03

    This study first constructs a complete model of the Phoenix pulser and its puff gas load, connects the model with experimental findings, and then suggests some means of improving the pulser`s K shell x-ray yield. A numerical study of energy coupling into a dummy resistive load showed that an output impedance of about 1 omega would minimize the reflected energy; from this result a thevenin equivalent circuit was constructed. Use of the transmission line model to study the Phoenix pre-pulse evolved to a study of early power flow and has produced a breakdown model that contains a detailed field map for the PRS load cavity, a mapping of the computed electric field values onto the grid of neutral gas density measurements, and a simple ionization model. Preliminary results from the breakdown model indicate ionization regions consistent with the observed `reversed` zippering, and a Boltzmann solution in those regions shows that at 40% of peak field the ionization would proceed in about 6 ns. A series of full 1D MHD studies, equipped with both CRE and time dependent ionization and excited state models, has refined the expected yields for Ar gas to about 18 kJ using a 4 cm long, shell of 0.375 mgm mass.

  4. Possible Calcite and Magnesium Perchlorate Interaction in the Mars Phoenix Thermal and Evolved Gas Analyzer (TEGA)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cannon, K. M.; Sutter, B.; Ming, D. W.; Boynton, W. V.; Quinn, R. C.

    2012-01-01

    The Mars Phoenix Lander's TEGA instrument detected a calcium carbonate phase decomposing at high temperatures (approx.700 C) from the Wicked Witch soil sample [1]. TEGA also detected a lower temperature CO2 release between 400 C and 680 C [1]. Possible explanations given for this lower temperature CO2 release include thermal decomposition of Mg or Fe carbonates, a zeolitictype desorption reaction, or combustion of organic compounds in the soil [2]. The detection of 0.6 wt % soluble perchlorate by the Wet Chemistry Laboratory (WCL) on Phoenix [3] has implications for the possibility of organic molecules in the soil. Ming et al. [4] demonstrated that perchlorates could have oxidized organic compounds to CO2 in TEGA, preventing detection of their characteristic mass fragments. Here, we propose that a perchlorate salt and calcium carbonate present in martian soil reacted to produce the 400 C - 680 C TEGA CO2 release. The parent salts of the perchlorate on Mars are unknown, but geochemical models using WCL data support the possible dominance of Mg-perchlorate salts [5]. Mg(ClO4)2 6H2O is the stable phase at ambient martian conditions [6], and breaks down at lower temperatures than carbonates giving off Cl2 and HCl gas [7,8]. Devlin and Herley [7] report two exotherms at 410-478 C and 473-533 C which correspond to the decomposition of Mg(ClO4)2.

  5. Morning Frost in Trench Dug by Phoenix, Sol 113 (False Color)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2008-01-01

    This image from the Surface Stereo Imager on NASA's Phoenix Mars Lander shows morning frost inside the 'Snow White' trench dug by the lander, in addition to subsurface ice exposed by use of a rasp on the floor of the trench.

    The camera took this image at about 9 a.m. local solar time during the 113th Martian day of the mission (Sept. 18, 2008). Bright material near and below the four-by-four set of rasp holes in the upper half of the image is water-ice exposed by rasping and scraping in the trench earlier the same morning. Other bright material especially around the edges of the trench, is frost. Earlier in the mission, when the sun stayed above the horizon all night, morning frost was not evident in the trench.

    This image is presented in false color that enhances the visibility of the frost.

    The trench is 4 to 5 centimeters (about 2 inches) deep, about 23 centimeters (9 inches) wide.

    Phoenix landed on a Martian arctic plain on May 25, 2008. The mission is led by the University of Arizona, Tucson, on behalf of NASA. Project management of the mission is led by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif. Spacecraft development was by Lockheed Martin Space Systems, Denver.

  6. A genome-wide survey of date palm cultivars supports two independent domestication events in Phoenix dactylifera

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The date palm (Phoenix dactylifera L.) is one of the oldest cultivated trees and is a key fruit crop in many arid regions of the world. There are hundreds of commercial cultivars with distinct fruit shapes, colors and sizes growing mainly from the west of North Africa to India. However, the origin o...

  7. Would Phoenix Dactyflera Pollen (palm seed) be considered as a treatment agent against Males’ infertility? A systematic review

    PubMed Central

    Fallahi, Soghra; Rajaei, Minoo; Malekzadeh, Kianoosh; Kalantar, Seyed Mehdi

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Oxidative stress is a key factor involved in male infertility, which is due to an unnatural increase in environmental free radicals. In the majority of cases, this has a negative effect on a male’s ability to impregnate a female. Currently, it is believed that spermatozoa can be protected against the damages induced by oxidative stress by saturating sperm with antioxidants. The antioxidant role of phoenix dactylifera pollen is capable of collecting the reactive oxygen and neutralizing it in and out of body cells. The present research provides a review of the antioxidant roles of phoenix dactylifera pollen on male infertility. Methods This research is based on English-Language studies and articles found by comprehensively reviewing electronic databases, websites, books, and academic articles over the last 10 years. Results The phenolic compounds of phoenix dactylifera pollen, due to the existing polyphenols, are strong chelators of heavy metals. Therefore, they are effective in eliminating environmental hydroxyl radicals. Moreover, these plants have high capacities of eliminating hydroxyl free radicals, picrylhydrazyl, diphenyl and phoenix dactylifera pollen and also inhibiting glutathione-S-transferase (GST). Conclusion Currently, the use of herbal antioxidants to neutralize reactive oxygen species (ROS) and reduce the negative effects of oxidative stress on body cells and tissues has attracted researchers’ attention. Various substances, such as flavonoids and catechins, perform their antioxidant role by increasing the concentration of glutathione peroxidase. The final product of this process is an increase in the number of motile sperm, which can have significant effects on fertility. PMID:26816585

  8. Deposition of extreme-tolerant bacterial strains isolated during different phases of phoenix spacecraft assembly in a public culture collection

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Extreme-tolerant bacteria (82 strains; 67 species) isolated during various assembly phases of the Phoenix spacecraft were permanently archived within the U.S. Department of Agriculture’s Agricultural Research Service Culture Collection in Peoria, Illinois. This represents the first microbial collect...

  9. Phoenix 2: a locally installable large-scale 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis pipeline with Web interface.

    PubMed

    Soh, Jung; Dong, Xiaoli; Caffrey, Sean M; Voordouw, Gerrit; Sensen, Christoph W

    2013-09-20

    We have developed Phoenix 2, a ribosomal RNA gene sequence analysis pipeline, which can be used to process large-scale datasets consisting of more than one hundred environmental samples and containing more than one million reads collectively. Rapid handling of large datasets is made possible by the removal of redundant sequences, pre-partitioning of sequences, parallelized clustering per partition, and subsequent merging of clusters. To build the pipeline, we have used a combination of open-source software tools and custom-developed Perl scripts. For our project we utilize hardware-accelerated searches, but it is possible to reconfigure the analysis pipeline for use with generic computing infrastructure only, with a considerable reduction in speed. The set of analysis results produced by Phoenix 2 is comprehensive, including taxonomic annotations using multiple methods, alpha diversity indices, beta diversity measurements, and a number of visualizations. To date, the pipeline has been used to analyze more than 1500 environmental samples from a wide variety of microbial communities, which are part of our Hydrocarbon Metagenomics Project (http://www.hydrocarbonmetagenomics.com). The software package can be installed as a local software suite with a Web interface. Phoenix 2 is freely available from http://sourceforge.net/projects/phoenix2.

  10. A Parent Volunteer Program for the 5th and 6th Grades To Teach Spanish: The Phoenix Experiment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Acquafredda, Miriam

    A Madison School District (Phoenix, Arizona) program in which parent volunteers teach Spanish to fifth and sixth graders is described. The program originated with the author, who as a parent volunteer had been teaching Spanish to her child's class. First, a brief account is given of the history of foreign languages in the elementary school (FLES)…

  11. A comparative climate analysis of heat-related emergency 911 dispatches: Chicago, Illinois and Phoenix, Arizona USA 2003 to 2006.

    PubMed

    Hartz, Donna A; Brazel, Anthony J; Golden, Jay S

    2013-09-01

    Research into the health impacts of heat has proliferated since 2000. Temperature increases could exacerbate the increased heat already experienced by urban populations due to urbanization. Heat-related mortality studies have found that hot southern cities in North America have not experienced the summer increases in mortality found in their more northern counterparts. Heat-related morbidity studies have not assessed this possible regional difference. This comparison study uses data from emergency 911 dispatches [referred to as heat-related dispatches (HRD)] identified by responders as heat-related for two United States cities located in different regions with very different climates: Chicago, Illinois in the upper midwest and Phoenix, Arizona in the southwest. Phoenix's climate is hot and arid. Chicago's climate is more temperate, but can also experience days with unusually high temperatures combined with high humidity. This study examines the relationships between rising HRD and daily temperatures: maximum (Tmax); apparent (ATmax): minimum (Tmin) and two energy balance indices (PET and UTCI). Phoenix had more HRD cumulatively, over a longer warm weather season, but did not experience the large spikes in HRD that occurred in Chicago, even though it was routinely subjected to much hotter weather conditions. Statistical analyses showed the strongest relationships to daily ATmax for both cities. Phoenix's lack of HRD spikes, similar to the summer mortality patterns for southern cities, suggests an avenue for future research to better understand the dynamics of possible physiological or behavioral adaption that seems to reduce residents' vulnerability to heat.

  12. A comparative climate analysis of heat-related emergency 911 dispatches: Chicago, Illinois and Phoenix, Arizona USA 2003 to 2006

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hartz, Donna A.; Brazel, Anthony J.; Golden, Jay S.

    2013-09-01

    Research into the health impacts of heat has proliferated since 2000. Temperature increases could exacerbate the increased heat already experienced by urban populations due to urbanization. Heat-related mortality studies have found that hot southern cities in North America have not experienced the summer increases in mortality found in their more northern counterparts. Heat-related morbidity studies have not assessed this possible regional difference. This comparison study uses data from emergency 911 dispatches [referred to as heat-related dispatches (HRD)] identified by responders as heat-related for two United States cities located in different regions with very different climates: Chicago, Illinois in the upper midwest and Phoenix, Arizona in the southwest. Phoenix's climate is hot and arid. Chicago's climate is more temperate, but can also experience days with unusually high temperatures combined with high humidity. This study examines the relationships between rising HRD and daily temperatures: maximum (Tmax); apparent (ATmax): minimum (Tmin) and two energy balance indices (PET and UTCI). Phoenix had more HRD cumulatively, over a longer warm weather season, but did not experience the large spikes in HRD that occurred in Chicago, even though it was routinely subjected to much hotter weather conditions. Statistical analyses showed the strongest relationships to daily ATmax for both cities. Phoenix's lack of HRD spikes, similar to the summer mortality patterns for southern cities, suggests an avenue for future research to better understand the dynamics of possible physiological or behavioral adaption that seems to reduce residents' vulnerability to heat.

  13. Service Networks and Patterns of Utilization: Mental Health Programs, Indian Health Service (IHS). Volume 8: Phoenix Area, 1966-1974.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Attneave, Carolyn L.; Beiser, Morton

    The eighth volume in a 10-volume report on the historical development (1966-1973) of the 8 administrative Area Offices of the Indian Health Service (IHS) Mental Health Programs, this report presents information on the Phoenix Area Office and the Tucson Sub-Area Office. Included in this document are: (1) The Context: Political and Geographic (the…

  14. 77 FR 71757 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; 90-Day Finding on a Petition To List Phoenix...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-12-04

    ... Property Owners Association (petitioner), requesting that the single existing grove of Phoenix dactylifera... its parent). Propagation is accomplished by removing offshoots (lateral shoot from the main stem of...'s parent taxon, the date palm; however, its origin is not known with certainty. The sphinx date...

  15. Boundary-Layer Evolution over Phoenix, Arizona, and the Premature Mixing of Pollutants in the Early Morning

    SciTech Connect

    Shaw, William J.; Doran, J C.; Coulter, Richard L.

    2005-02-01

    The 2001 Phoenix Sunrise campaign was a field measurement program to investigate the early-morning chemical and meteorological processes associated with the development of ozone pollution in Phoenix, Arizona. As part of that study, atmospheric structure was measured using wind profiling radars, sodars, and radiosondes at several locations in the Phoenix metropolitan area. Chemical measurements made by other investigators showed that vertical mixing of pollutants began prior to sunrise on a number of occasions. This was surprising, since we expected sustained mixing to occur only after sunrise and the onset of solar heating. We have used the meteorological measurements to identify a density current that commonly arrives in downtown Phoenix in the hour or two before sunrise when conditions are undisturbed. Both winds and cold advection associated with this feature act to destabilize the lower atmosphere, and the resulting mixing continues through the morning transition to convective conditions. Because photochemical production of ozone is non-linearly dependent on the concentrations of precursor species, this early mixing will need to be properly represented in combined meteorological and chemical models if they are to be fully successful in simulating ozone concentrations.

  16. A Study of the Physiological Factors Affecting the Nature of the Adult Learner in the Phoenix Air National Guard.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Torbert, James Brison

    An investigation reviewed current literature in the field of physiological factors affecting the adult learning environment. These findings were compared to the academic learning environment at the Phoenix Air National Guard. The end product was a set of recommendations for management to implement in order to improve the learning climate for the…

  17. BD Phoenix and Vitek 2 detection of mecA-mediated resistance in Staphylococcus aureus with cefoxitin.

    PubMed

    Junkins, Alan D; Lockhart, Shawn R; Heilmann, Kristopher P; Dohrn, Cassie L; Von Stein, Diana L; Winokur, Patricia L; Doern, Gary V; Richter, Sandra S

    2009-09-01

    The BD Phoenix (BD Diagnostics, Sparks, MD) and Vitek 2 (bioMérieux, Durham, NC) automated susceptibility testing systems have implemented the use of cefoxitin to enhance the detection of methicillin (meticillin)-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA). To assess the impact of this change, 620 clinically significant S. aureus isolates were tested in parallel on Phoenix PMIC/ID-102 panels and Vitek 2 AST-GP66 cards. The results for oxacillin and cefoxitin generated by the automated systems were compared to those generated by two reference methods: mecA gene detection and MICs of oxacillin previously determined by broth microdilution according to CLSI guidelines. Testing of isolates with discordant results was repeated to attain a majority or consensus final result. There was 100% final agreement between the results of the two reference methods. For the 448 MRSA and 172 methicillin-susceptible S. aureus isolates tested, the rates of categorical agreement of the results obtained with the automated systems with those obtained by the reference methods were 99.8% for the Phoenix panels and 99.7% for the Vitek 2 cards. A single very major error occurred on each instrument (0.2%) with different MRSA isolates. The only major error was attributed to the Vitek 2 system overcalling oxacillin resistance. In 16 instances (9 on the Phoenix system, 7 on the Vitek 2 system), an oxacillin MIC in the susceptible range was correctly changed to resistant by the expert system on the basis of the cefoxitin result. The inclusion of cefoxitin in the Phoenix and Vitek 2 panels has optimized the detection of MRSA by both systems.

  18. RS-34 Phoenix In-Space Propulsion System Applied to Active Debris Removal Mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Esther, Elizabeth A.; Burnside, Christopher G.

    2014-01-01

    In-space propulsion is a high percentage of the cost when considering Active Debris Removal mission. For this reason it is desired to research if existing designs with slight modification would meet mission requirements to aid in reducing cost of the overall mission. Such a system capable of rendezvous, close proximity operations, and de-orbit of Envisat class resident space objects has been identified in the existing RS-34 Phoenix. RS-34 propulsion system is a remaining asset from the de-commissioned United States Air Force Peacekeeper program; specifically the pressure-fed storable bi-propellant Stage IV Post Boost Propulsion System. The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) gained experience with the RS-34 propulsion system on the successful Ares I-X flight test program flown in the Ares I-X Roll control system (RoCS). The heritage hardware proved extremely robust and reliable and sparked interest for further utilization on other potential in-space applications. Subsequently, MSFC has obtained permission from the USAF to obtain all the remaining RS-34 stages for re-use opportunities. The MSFC Advanced Concepts Office (ACO) was commissioned to lead a study for evaluation of the Rocketdyne produced RS-34 propulsion system as it applies to an active debris removal design reference mission for resident space object targets including Envisat. Originally designed, the RS-34 Phoenix provided in-space six-degrees-of freedom operational maneuvering to deploy payloads at multiple orbital locations. The RS-34 Concept Study lead by sought to further understand application for a similar orbital debris design reference mission to provide propulsive capability for rendezvous, close proximity operations to support the capture phase of the mission, and deorbit of single or multiple large class resident space objects. Multiple configurations varying the degree of modification were identified to trade for dry mass optimization and

  19. Phoenix Risen

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bartlett, Thomas

    2009-01-01

    In 1974, John G. Sperling left a tenured position at San Jose State University with $26,000 in savings to start an academic program for working adults. In the beginning, he ran the operation out of his house. The program soon outgrew the house, Sperling relocated to Arizona, and the program adopted the name of that state's capital. Now the…

  20. Cangrelor: review of the drug and the CHAMPION programme (including PHOENIX).

    PubMed

    Marino, Marcello; Rizzotti, Diego; Leonardi, Sergio

    2014-01-01

    Platelet inhibition is the main goal of ancillary pharmacologic therapy during percutaneous coronary interventions (PCI). Thienopyridines and ticagrelor are oral drugs developed for this purpose. Cangrelor is an intravenous, non-thienopyridine antagonist of the P2Y12 receptor with a rapid, potent, predictable, and quickly reversible effect. Cangrelor has been studied in a broad population intended to receive PCI in the CHAMPION program, where it was compared with different clopidogrel regimens. The first two trials, CHAMPION PCI and PLATFORM, failed their primary objective, likely for challenges in the adjudication of PCI-related myocardial infarction. In a third trial that implemented the universal definition of MI, CHAMPION PHOENIX, a reduction of thrombotic events, including stent thrombosis, was observed. In the BRIDGE trial cangrelor has been studied in patients who had to prematurely interrupt antiplatelet therapy for surgery. Cangrelor appears a promising agent in patients who require PCI or when a rapid reversal is needed.

  1. Proceeding On : Parallelisation Of Critical Code Passages In PHOENIX/3D

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arkenberg, Mario; Wichert, Viktoria; Hauschildt, Peter H.

    2016-10-01

    Highly resolved state-of-the-art 3D atmosphere simulations will remain computationally extremely expensive for years to come. In addition to the need for more computing power, rethinking coding practices is necessary. We take a dual approach here, by introducing especially adapted, parallel numerical methods and correspondingly parallelising time critical code passages. In the following, we present our work on PHOENIX/3D.While parallelisation is generally worthwhile, it requires revision of time-consuming subroutines with respect to separability of localised data and variables in order to determine the optimal approach. Of course, the same applies to the code structure. The importance of this ongoing work can be showcased by recently derived benchmark results, which were generated utilis- ing MPI and OpenMP. Furthermore, the need for a careful and thorough choice of an adequate, machine dependent setup is discussed.

  2. Somatic Embryogenesis of Date Palm (Phoenix dactylifera L.) Through Cell Suspension Culture.

    PubMed

    Naik, Poornananda M; Al-Khayri, Jameel M

    2016-01-01

    Date palm (Phoenix dactylifera L.) is the oldest and most economically important plant species distributed in the hot arid regions of the world. Propagation of date palm by seeds produces heterogeneous offspring with inferior field performance and poor fruit quality. Traditionally, date palm is propagated by offshoots, but this method is inefficient for mass propagation because of limited availability of offshoots. Plant regeneration through tissue culture is able to provide technologies for the large-scale propagation of healthy true-to-type plants. The most commonly used technology approach is somatic embryogenesis which presents a great potential for the rapid propagation and genetic resource preservation of this species. Significant progress has been made in the development and optimization of this regeneration pathway through the establishment of embryogenic suspension cultures. This chapter focuses on the methods employed for the induction of callus from shoot tip explants, establishment of cell suspension culture, and subsequent somatic embryogenesis and plant regeneration.

  3. Summary of Results from the Mars Phoenix Lander's Thermal Evolved Gas Analyzer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sutter, B.; Ming, D. W.; Boynton, W. V.; Niles, P. B.; Hoffman, J.; Lauer, H. V.; Golden, D. C.

    2009-01-01

    The Mars Phoenix Scout Mission with its diverse instrument suite successfully examined several soils on the Northern plains of Mars. The Thermal and Evolved Gas Analyzer (TEGA) was employed to detect evolved volatiles and organic and inorganic materials by coupling a differential scanning calorimeter (DSC) with a magnetic-sector mass spectrometer (MS) that can detect masses in the 2 to 140 dalton range [1]. Five Martian soils were individually heated to 1000 C in the DSC ovens where evolved gases from mineral decompostion products were examined with the MS. TEGA s DSC has the capability to detect endothermic and exothermic reactions during heating that are characteristic of minerals present in the Martian soil.

  4. Heating Water with Solar Energy Costs Less at the Phoenix Federal Correctional Institution

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2004-09-01

    A large solar thermal system installed at the Phoenix Federal Correctional Institution (FCI) in 1998 heats water for the prison and costs less than buying electricity to heat that water. This renewable energy system provides 70% of the facility's annual hot water needs. The Federal Bureau of Prisons did not incur the up-front cost of this system because it was financed through an Energy Savings Performance Contract (ESPC). The ESPC payments are 10% less than the energy savings so that the prison saves an average of$6,700 per year, providing an immediate payback. The solar hot water system produces up to 50,000 gallons of hot water daily, enough to meet the needs of 1,250 inmates and staff who use the kitchen, shower, and laundry facilities.

  5. ESTSS at 20 years: "a phoenix gently rising from a lava flow of European trauma".

    PubMed

    Orner, Roderick J

    2013-01-01

    Roderick J. Ørner, who was President between 1997 and 1999, traces the phoenix-like origins of the European Society for Traumatic Stress Studies (ESTSS) from an informal business meeting called during the 1st European Conference on Traumatic Stress (ECOTS) in 1987 to its emergence into a formally constituted society. He dwells on the challenges of tendering a trauma society within a continent where trauma has been and remains endemic. ESTSS successes are noted along with a number of personal reflections on activities that give rise to concern for the present as well as its future prospects. Denial of survivors' experiences and turning away from survivors' narratives by reframing their experiences to accommodate helpers' theory-driven imperatives are viewed with alarm. Arguments are presented for making human rights, memory, and ethics core elements of a distinctive European psycho traumatology, which will secure current ESTSS viability and future integrity.

  6. Reconciling the Differences between the Measurements of CO2 Isotopes by the Phoenix and MSL Landers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Niles, P. B.; Mahaffy, P. R.; Atreya, S.; Pavlov, A. A.; Trainer, M.; Webster, C. R.; Wong, M.

    2014-01-01

    Precise stable isotope measurements of the CO2 in the martian atmosphere have the potential to provide important constraints for our understanding of the history of volatiles, the carbon cycle, current atmospheric processes, and the degree of water/rock interaction on Mars. There have been several different measurements by landers and Earth based systems performed in recent years that have not been in agreement. In particular, measurements of the isotopic composition of martian atmospheric CO2 by the Thermal and Evolved Gas Analyzer (TEGA) instrument on the Mars Phoenix Lander and the Sample Analysis at Mars (SAM) instrument on the Mars Science Laboratory (MSL) are in stark disagreement. This work attempts to use measurements of mass 45 and mass 46 of martian atmospheric CO2 by the SAM and TEGA instruments to search for agreement as a first step towards reaching a consensus measurement that might be supported by data from both instruments.

  7. Phoenix dactylifera L. leaf extract phytosynthesized gold nanoparticles; controlled synthesis and catalytic activity.

    PubMed

    Zayed, Mervat F; Eisa, Wael H

    2014-01-01

    A green synthesis route was reported to explore the reducing and capping potential of Phoenix dactylifera extract for the synthesis of gold nanoparticles. The processes of nucleation and growth of gold nanoparticles were followed by monitoring the absorption spectra during the reaction. The size and morphology of these nanoparticles was typically imaged using transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The particle size ranged between 32 and 45 nm and are spherical in shape. Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) analysis suggests that the synthesized gold nanoparticles might be stabilized through the interactions of hydroxyl and carbonyl groups in the carbohydrates, flavonoids, tannins and phenolic acids present in P. dactylifera. The as-synthesized Au colloids exhibited good catalytic activity for the degradation of 4-nitrophenol.

  8. Phoenix dactylifera L. leaf extract phytosynthesized gold nanoparticles; controlled synthesis and catalytic activity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zayed, Mervat F.; Eisa, Wael H.

    2014-03-01

    A green synthesis route was reported to explore the reducing and capping potential of Phoenix dactylifera extract for the synthesis of gold nanoparticles. The processes of nucleation and growth of gold nanoparticles were followed by monitoring the absorption spectra during the reaction. The size and morphology of these nanoparticles was typically imaged using transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The particle size ranged between 32 and 45 nm and are spherical in shape. Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) analysis suggests that the synthesized gold nanoparticles might be stabilized through the interactions of hydroxyl and carbonyl groups in the carbohydrates, flavonoids, tannins and phenolic acids present in P. dactylifera. The as-synthesized Au colloids exhibited good catalytic activity for the degradation of 4-nitrophenol.

  9. Ultrastructural localization of acid phosphatase in arbusculate coils of mycorrhizal Phoenix canariensis roots.

    PubMed

    Dreyer, Beatriz; Pérez-Gilabert, Manuela; Olmos, Enrique; Honrubia, Mario; Morte, Asunción

    2008-04-01

    Acid phosphatase (ACP) activity has been detected in roots of mycorrhizal and non-mycorrhizal Phoenix canariensis. This enzyme was ultrastructurally localized in arbusculate coils for the first time. This localization was carried out using a cerium-based method, which minimizes non-specific precipitation. The ACP was localized in inter- and intracellular hyphae, in the fungal cytoplasm as well as at the interface and the fungal cell wall and the periarbuscular membrane limiting it. The novel localization of an ACP in the arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) interface of arbusculate coils suggests that this enzyme may be involved in the phosphorus efflux from the mycorrhizal fungus to the host. The results presented in this article indicate that the role played by ACP in AM symbiosis may be more important than was previously thought and that arbusculate coils are highly relevant when considering nutrient transfer through AM symbiosis.

  10. Intercepted photosynthetically active radiation in wheat canopies estimated by spectral reflectance. [Phoenix, Arizona

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hatfield, J. L.; Asrar, G.; Kanemasu, E. T.

    1982-01-01

    The interception of photosynthetically active radiation (PAR) was evaluated relative to greenness and normalized difference (MSS 7-5/7+5) for five planting dates of wheat for 1978-79 and 1979-80 in Phoenix. Intercepted PAR was calculated from a model driven by leaf area index and stage of growth. Linear relationships were found between greenness and normalized difference with a separate model representing growth and senescence of the crop. Normalized difference was a significantly better model and would be easier to apply than the empirically derived greenness parameter. For the leaf area growth portion of the season the model between PAR interception and normalized difference was the same over years, however, for the leaf senescence the models showed more variability due to the lack of data on measured interception in sparse canopies. Normalized difference could be used to estimate PAR interception directly for crop growth models.

  11. Heating Water with Solar Energy Costs Less at the Phoenix Federal Correctional Institution

    SciTech Connect

    2004-09-01

    A large solar thermal system installed at the Phoenix Federal Correctional Institution (FCI) in 1998 heats water for the prison and costs less than buying electricity to heat that water. This renewable energy system provides 70% of the facility's annual hot water needs. The Federal Bureau of Prisons did not incur the up-front cost of this system because it was financed through an Energy Savings Performance Contract (ESPC). The ESPC payments are 10% less than the energy savings so that the prison saves an average of $6,700 per year, providing an immediate payback. The solar hot water system produces up to 50,000 gallons of hot water daily, enough to meet the needs of 1,250 inmates and staff who use the kitchen, shower, and laundry facilities. This publication details specifications of the parabolic trough solar system and highlights 5 years of measured performance data.

  12. A revised calibration function and results for the Phoenix mission TECP relative humidity sensor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zent, A. P.; Hecht, M. H.; Hudson, T. L.; Wood, S. E.; Chevrier, V. F.

    2016-04-01

    A new calibration function for the humidity sensor in the Thermal and Electrical Conductivity Probe (TECP) on the Phoenix (PHX) Mars mission has been developed. Two changes are incorporated: (1) it is now cast in terms of frost point (Tf) rather than relative humidity (RH), and (2) flight data, taken when the atmosphere is independently known to be saturated, are included in the calibration data set. Daytime (6:00 h-19:00 h) frost points ranged from 194 K to 209 K; the nighttime frost point ranged from 179 K to 206 K. The response of the sensor was smooth and continuous throughout. Daytime humidity exhibited large, high-frequency variance driven by turbulence, whereas nighttime humidity varied smoothly with the temperature of the atmosphere. Nighttime saturation of the atmosphere begins at Ls 101°, (Martian solar day (sol) 55), which is earlier than reported by either Compact Reconnaissance Imaging Spectrometer for Mars (CRISM) or solid-state imager (SSI). Early mornings are the most humid part of the sol after Ls 113° (sol 80), due to sublimation of surface ice that precipitates overnight. H2O is removed from the atmosphere into the regolith, mostly during the late afternoon, although this continues into the evening. The ground ice exposed by Phoenix operations masks the naturally occurring process in the early evening and may cause the atmosphere immediately around the lander to saturate somewhat earlier in the evening than it otherwise would have. The average H2O vapor density is close to the summertime value expected for equilibrium with ground ice. A discrepancy between the H2O column calculated from TECP data and the column measured by CRISM and SSI is likely due to comparable timescales between turbulent mixing through the planetary boundary layer and adsorptive drawdown of H2O. We find that RH is mostly < 5% (daytime) or > 95% (nighttime), and the transition between the two extremes is extremely rapid.

  13. Characterization of hydrogen peroxide-resistant Acinetobacter species isolated during the Mars Phoenix spacecraft assembly.

    PubMed

    Derecho, I; McCoy, K B; Vaishampayan, P; Venkateswaran, K; Mogul, R

    2014-10-01

    The microbiological inventory of spacecraft and the associated assembly facility surfaces represent the primary pool of forward contaminants that may impact the integrity of life-detection missions. Herein, we report on the characterization of several strains of hydrogen peroxide-resistant Acinetobacter, which were isolated during the Mars Phoenix lander assembly. All Phoenix-associated Acinetobacter strains possessed very high catalase specific activities, and the specific strain, A. gyllenbergii 2P01AA, displayed a survival against hydrogen peroxide (no loss in 100 mM H2O2 for 1 h) that is perhaps the highest known among Gram-negative and non-spore-forming bacteria. Proteomic characterizations reveal a survival mechanism inclusive of proteins coupled to peroxide degradation (catalase and alkyl hydroperoxide reductase), energy/redox management (dihydrolipoamide dehydrogenase), protein synthesis/folding (EF-G, EF-Ts, peptidyl-tRNA hydrolase, DnaK), membrane functions (OmpA-like protein and ABC transporter-related protein), and nucleotide metabolism (HIT family hydrolase). Together, these survivability and biochemical parameters support the hypothesis that oxidative tolerance and the related biochemical features are the measurable phenotypes or outcomes for microbial survival in the spacecraft assembly facilities, where the low-humidity (desiccation) and clean (low-nutrient) conditions may serve as selective pressures. Hence, the spacecraft-associated Acinetobacter, due to the conferred oxidative tolerances, may ultimately hinder efforts to reduce spacecraft bioburden when using chemical sterilants, thus suggesting that non-spore-forming bacteria may need to be included in the bioburden accounting for future life-detection missions.

  14. Martian airfall dust on smooth, inclined surfaces as observed on the Phoenix Mars Lander telltale mirror

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moores, John E.; Ha, Taesung; Lemmon, Mark T.; Gunnlaugsson, Haraldur Páll

    2015-10-01

    The telltale mirror, a smooth inclined surface raised over 1 m above the deck of the Phoenix Mars Lander, was observed by the Surface Stereo Imager (SSI) several times per sol during the Phoenix Mars Lander mission. These observations were combined with a radiative transfer model to determine the thickness of dust on the wind telltale mirror as a function of time. 239 telltale sequences were analyzed and dustiness was determined on a diurnal and seasonal basis. The thickness of accumulated dust did not follow any particular diurnal or seasonal trend. The dust thickness on the mirror over the mission was 0.82±0.39 μm, which suggests a similar thickness to the modal scattering particle diameter. This suggests that inclining a surface beyond the angle of repose and polishing it to remove surface imperfections is an effective way to mitigate the accumulation of dust to less than a micron over a wide range of meteorological conditions and could be beneficial for surfaces which can tolerate some dust but not thick accumulations, such as solar panels. However, such a surface will not remain completely dust free through this action alone and mechanical or electrical clearing must be employed to remove adhered dust if a pristine surface is required. The single-scattering phase function of the dust on the mirror was consistent with the single-scattering phase function of martian aerosol dust at 450 nm, suggesting that this result is inconsistent with models of the atmosphere which require vertically or horizontally separated components or broad size distributions to explain the scattering behavior of these aerosols in the blue. The single-scattering behavior of the dust on the mirror is also consistent with Hapke modeling of spherical particles. The presence of a monolayer of particles would tend to support the spherical conclusion: such particles would be most strongly adhered electrostatically.

  15. Outreach Opportunities for Early Career Scientists at the Phoenix ComiCon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Horodyskyj, L.; Walker, S. I.; Forrester, J. H.

    2014-12-01

    The Phoenix ComiCon (PCC) is a rapidly growing annual four-day pop culture event, featuring guests, costuming, exhibits, and discussion panels for popular sci-fi, fantasy, horror, and anime franchises. In 2013, PCC began experimenting with science discussion panels. The popularity of the science programming resulted in an expansion of the track for 2014, which Horodyskyj was responsible for coordinating. Thirty hours of programming were scheduled, including 25 discussion panels, NASA's FameLab, and a Mars room. Panelists included industry specialists, established scientists, STEM outreach enthusiasts, and early career scientists. The majority of the panelists were early career scientists recruited from planetary sciences and biology departments at ASU and UA. Panel topics included cosmology, biotechnology, artificial intelligence, space exploration, astrobiology, and the cross-linkages of each with pop culture. Formats consisted of Q&A, presentations, and interactive game shows. Although most panels were aimed at the general audience, some panels were more specialized. PCC 2014 attracted 77,818 attendees. The science programming received rave reviews from the audience, the PCC management, and the panelists themselves. Many panel rooms were filled to capacity and required crowd control to limit attendance. We observed the formation of science "groupies" who sought out the science panels exclusively and requested more information on other science public events in the Phoenix area. We distributed surveys to several select sessions to evaluate audience reasons for attending the science panels and their opinion of the scientists they observed. We will present the results of these surveys. As the PCC continues to grow at an exponential rate, the science programming will continue to expand. We will discuss ideas for continued expansion of the PCC science programming both to serve the public and as a unique public outreach opportunity for early career scientists.

  16. Suzaku observations of the type 2 QSO in the central galaxy of the Phoenix cluster

    SciTech Connect

    Ueda, Shutaro; Hayashida, Kiyoshi; Anabuki, Naohisa; Nakajima, Hiroshi; Koyama, Katsuji; Tsunemi, Hiroshi

    2013-11-20

    We report the Suzaku/XIS and HXD and Chandra/ACIS-I results on the X-ray spectra of the Phoenix cluster at the redshift z = 0.596. The spectrum of the intracluster medium (ICM) is well reproduced with the emissions from low-temperature (∼3.0 keV and ∼0.76 solar) and high-temperature (∼11 keV and ∼0.33 solar) plasmas; the former is localized at the cluster core, while the latter distributes over the cluster. In addition to these ICM emissions, a strongly absorbed power-law component is found, which is due to an active galactic nucleus (AGN) in the cluster center. The absorption column density and unobscured luminosity of the AGN are ∼3.2 × 10{sup 23} cm{sup –2} and ∼4.7 × 10{sup 45} erg s{sup –1} (2-10 keV), respectively. Furthermore, a neutral iron (Fe I) K-shell line is discovered for the first time with the equivalent width (EW) of ∼150 eV at the rest frame. The column density and the EW of the Fe I line are exceptionally large for such a high-luminosity AGN, and hence the AGN is classified as a type 2 quasi-stellar object (QSO). We speculate that a significant fraction of the ICM cooled gas would be consumed to maintain the torus and to activate the type 2 QSO. The Phoenix cluster has a massive starburst in the central galaxy, indicating that suppression in the cooling flow is less effective. This may be because the onset of the latest AGN feedback has occurred recently and has not yet been effective. Alternatively, the AGN feedback is predominantly in radiative mode, not in kinetic mode, and the torus may work as a shield to reduce its effect.

  17. Source apportionment of fine particulate matter in Phoenix, AZ, using positive matrix factorization

    SciTech Connect

    Steven G. Brown; Anna Frankel; Sean M. Raffuse; Paul T. Roberts; Hilary R. Hafner; Darcy J. Anderson

    2007-06-15

    Speciated particulate matter PM2.5 data collected as Part. of the Interagency Monitoring of Protected Visual Environments (IMPROVE) program in Phoenix, AZ, from April 2001 through October 2003 were analyzed using the multivariate receptor model, positive matrix factorization (PMF). Over 250 samples and 24 species were used, including the organic carbon and elemental carbon analytical temperature fractions from the thermal optical reflectance method. A two-step approach was used. First, the species excluding the carbon fractions were used, and initially eight factors were identified; non-soil potassium was calculated and included to better refine the burning factor. Next, the mass associated with the burning factor was removed, and the data set rerun with the carbon fractions. Results were very similar (i.e., within a few percent), but this step enabled a separation of the mobile factor into gasoline and diesel vehicle emissions. The identified factors were burning (on average 2% of the mass), secondary transport (7%), regional power generation (13%), dust (25%), nitrate (9%), industrial As/Pb/Se (2%), Cu/Ni/V (7%), diesel (9%), and general mobile (26%). Most of the long-range transport of emissions emanates from south of Phoenix in Southeastern Arizona, West Texas, and Mexico, which are significant source regions of SO{sub 2} emissions from coal- and oil-fired power plants. The overall contribution from mobile sources also increased, as some mass (OC and nitrate) from the nitrate and regional power generation factors were apportioned with the mobile factors. This approach allowed better apportionment of carbon as well as total mass. Additionally, the use of multiple supporting analyses, including air mass trajectories, activity trends, and emission inventory information, helped increase confidence in factor identification. 86 refs., 10 figs., 2 tabs.

  18. [Shall we report the carbapenem resistance in Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Acinetobacter baumannii strains detected by BD Phoenix system?].

    PubMed

    Oğünç, Dilara; Ongüt, Gözde; Ozen, Nevgün Sepin; Baysan, Betil Ozhak; Günseren, Filiz; Dağlar, Duygu; Demirbakan, Hadiye; Gültekin, Meral

    2010-04-01

    Imipenem and meropenem are broad spectrum antimicrobial agents that are especially useful in the treatment of nosocomially acquired Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Acinetobacter spp. infections. Previous reports have noted that susceptibility tests could show false resistance to imipenem. For this reason, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention has recommended that all carbapenem resistant or intermediate resistant isolates should be tested with an additional method to verify the results. This study was aimed to evaluate the imipenem and meropenem susceptibilities by disk diffusion, E-test and broth microdilution in P. aeruginosa and Acinetobacter baumannii strains found to be resistant or intermediate to imipenem-meropenem by BD Phoenix automated susceptibility testing system. Between January 2006-January 2007, 85 non-duplicate isolates of A. baumannii and 51 non-duplicate isolates of P. aeruginosa which were determined as resistant or intermediate resistant to imipenem and/or meropenem by BD Phoenix automated identification and susceptibility system (Becton Dickinson, Sparks, MD, USA) were collected in Akdeniz University Hospital Central Laboratory. All strains were tested by E-test (AB Biodisk, Sweden), disk diffusion and reference broth microdilution (BMD) method following CLSI recommendations. All 51 isolates of P. aeruginosa determined as imipenem and/or meropenem resistant or intermediate resistant by BD Phoenix, were found to be imipenem and/or meropenem resistant or intermediate resistant by the reference BMD method. Minor error rates were same for all testing systems (1.9%) except for the meropenem results of BD Phoenix system (5.9%). No major errors were produced by any system. For A. baumannii, only one very major error was detected for meropenem by BD Phoenix system. Number of minor errors determined for meropenem by all testing systems compared to the reference test, ranged from 2 (2.4%) to 3 (3.5%). It was concluded that carbapenem susceptibility test

  19. [Correlation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in PM10- phoenix tree leaves-soil system of a coking & chemical factory in Shanghai].

    PubMed

    Cheng, Jin-Ping; Zhao, Wen-Chang; Xie, Hai-Ying; Ma, Ying-Ge; Zhang, Jin; Ma, Jing; Li, Wei; Wang, Wen-Hua

    2007-08-01

    In order to study the distributions characteristics, sources and relationship of PAHs in PM10- phoenix tree leaves-soil system of a coking & chemical factory in Shanghai, the samples of PM10, phoenix tree leaves and soil around the factory were collected for a year. The concentration of PAHs were analyzed according to the USEPA method 8 000 series. The results showed that the average concentration of PAHs in PM10, phoenix tree leaves and soil were 101.11 ng/m3, 79.45 ng/g and 121.53 microg/g, respectively. Particulate phase (PM10) contained mainly carcinogenic and mutagenic PAHs, among which BaA, BghiP, Flu and BaP were found at significant concentrations. In phoenix tree leaves, Nap,Chy, BaP and BghiP presented a higher level of concentration. In soil, 3 and 4-ring PAHs presented a higher level. PAHs concentrations of phoenix tree leaves were very lower in May. Only Ace (0.16 ng/g) and Pyr (0.63 ng/g) were detected. In July and August the concentrations (39.19 ng/g and 150.94 ng/g, respectively) were uplifted significantly. It could be concluded PAHs was from petroleum and coal-fired compound source. There were very strong positive relationships of 16 PAHs level among phoenix tree leaves, soil and PM10 (p < 0.01).

  20. A Possible Organic Contribution to the Low Temperature CO2 Release Seen in Mars Phoenix Thermal and Evolved Gas Analyzer Data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Archer, P. D. Jr.; Lauer, H. V., Jr.; Sutter, B.; Ming, D. W.; Niles, P. B.; Boynton, W. V.

    2012-01-01

    Two of the most important discoveries of the Phoenix Mars Lander were the discovery of approx.0.6% perchlorate [1] and 3-5% carbonate [2] in the soils at the landing site in the martian northern plains. The Thermal and Evolved Gas Analyzer (TEGA) instrument was one of the tools that made this discovery. After soil samples were delivered to TEGA and transferred into small ovens, the samples could be heated up to approx.1000 C and the gases that evolved during heating were monitored by a mass spectrometer. A CO2 signal was detected at high temperature (approx.750 C) that has been attributed to calcium carbonate decomposition. In addition to this CO2 release, a lower temperature signal was seen. This lower temperature CO2 release was postulated to be one of three things: 1) desorption of CO2, 2) decomposition of a different carbonate mineral, or 3) CO2 released due to organic combustion. Cannon et al. [3] present another novel hypothesis involving the interaction of decomposition products of a perchlorate salt and calcium carbonate.

  1. Urban effects on regional climate: a case study in the Phoenix and Tucson ‘sun’ corridor

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Zhao Yang,; Francina Dominguez,; Hoshin Gupta,; Xubin Zeng,; Norman, Laura M.

    2016-01-01

    Land use and land cover change (LULCC) due to urban expansion alter the surface albedo, heat capacity, and thermal conductivity of the surface. Consequently, the energy balance in urban regions is different from that of natural surfaces. To evaluate the changes in regional climate that could arise due to projected urbanization in the Phoenix-Tucson corridor, Arizona, we applied the coupled WRF-NOAH-UCM (which includes a detailed urban radiation scheme) to this region. Land cover changes were represented using land cover data for 2005 and projections to 2050, and historical North American Regional Reanalysis (NARR) data were used to specify the lateral boundary conditions. Results suggest that temperature changes will be well defined, reflecting the urban heat island (UHI) effect within areas experiencing LULCC. Changes in precipitation are less robust, but seem to indicate reductions in precipitation over the mountainous regions northeast of Phoenix and decreased evening precipitation over the newly-urbanized area.

  2. Finite-key-size security of the Phoenix-Barnett-Chefles 2000 quantum-key-distribution protocol

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mafu, Mhlambululi; Garapo, Kevin; Petruccione, Francesco

    2014-09-01

    The postselection technique was introduced by Christandl, König, and Renner [Phys. Rev. Lett. 102, 020504 (2009), 10.1103/PhysRevLett.102.020504] in order to simplify the security of quantum-key-distribution schemes. Here, we present how it can be applied to study the security of the Phoenix-Barnett-Chefles 2000 trine-state protocol, a symmetric version of the Bennett 1992 protocol.

  3. Real-Time Modeling of Cross-Body Flow for Torpedo Tube Recovery of the Phoenix Autonomous Underwater Vehicle (AUV)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1998-03-01

    5. INVOCATION INSTRUCTIONS 201 LIST OF REFERENCES 203 INITIAL DISTRIBUTION LIST 207 -IX- LIST OF FIGURES Figure 1.1 The Phoenix AUV...205 206, 213, 207 215, 216, 210 211, 218, 212 213, 220, 214 217, 222, 223 218, 225, 219 221, 227, 222 229, 230, 224 225, 232, 226 228, 234...198, 205, 199, -1, , -1, 200, 207 , 201, -1, , -1, 209, 210, 204, -1, -1, 205, 212, 206, -1, -1, 207 , 214, 208, -1, -1, 210, 217, 211, -1

  4. Possibilities for the detection of hydrogen peroxide-water-based life on Mars by the Phoenix Lander

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Houtkooper, Joop M.; Schulze-Makuch, Dirk

    2009-04-01

    The Phoenix Lander landed on Mars on 25 May 2008. It has instruments on board to explore the geology and climate of subpolar Mars and to explore if life ever arose on Mars. Although the Phoenix mission is not a life detection mission per se, it will look for the presence of organic compounds and other evidence to support or discredit the notion of past or present life. The possibility of extant life on Mars has been raised by a reinterpretation of the Viking biology experiments [Houtkooper, J. M., Schulze-Makuch, D., 2007. A possible biogenic origin for hydrogen peroxide on Mars: the Viking results reinterpreted. International Journal of Astrobiology 6, 147-152]. The results of these experiments are in accordance with life based on a mixture of water and hydrogen peroxide instead of water. The near-surface conditions on Mars would give an evolutionary advantage to organisms employing a mixture of H 2O 2 and H 2O in their intracellular fluid: the mixture has a low freezing point, is hygroscopic and provides a source of oxygen. The H 2O 2-H 2O hypothesis also explains the Viking results in a logically consistent way. With regard to its compatibility with cellular contents, H 2O 2 is used for a variety of purposes in terran biochemistry. The ability of the anticipated organisms to withstand low temperatures and the relatively high water vapor content of the atmosphere in the Martian arctic, means that Phoenix will land in an area not inimical to H 2O 2-H 2O-based life. Phoenix has a suite of instruments which may be able to detect the signatures of such putative organisms.

  5. Modeling of trace gases from the 1998 North Central Mexico forest fire smoke plume, as measured over Phoenix

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kotamarthi, V. R.; Doskey, P. V.; Springston, S. R.; Hyde, P.; Gaffney, J. S.; Marley, N. A.

    2006-04-01

    Forest fires in North and Central America have been frequent and extensive over the past few years. Though much research has addressed the effects of forest fires in tropical South America and Africa on regional and global-scale oxidants, the same is not true for North America. Here we show that one of the days during an intensive field campaign conducted over Phoenix, Arizona, in 1998 was substantially influenced by transport from forest fires in central and southern Mexico. We combined data collected from aircraft platforms, surface stations, and satellite with model results to establish that the origin of the air sampled over Phoenix on 20 May 1998, was from forest fires in Mexico. We also investigated the effect of the smoke layer on photolysis rates and hence photochemistry over a five-day travel period from the source region to Phoenix. The results show that a smoke layer could reduce photolysis rates of key tropospheric constituents significantly and decrease the oxidant formation rates during the first few days of the plume history. The ultimate effect of the smoke layer on the evolution of oxidants in the plume was, however, shown to be minimal.

  6. Reactive Sequencing for Autonomous Navigation Evolving from Phoenix Entry, Descent, and Landing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Grasso, Christopher A.; Riedel, Joseph E.; Vaughan, Andrew T.

    2010-01-01

    Virtual Machine Language (VML) is an award-winning advanced procedural sequencing language in use on NASA deep-space missions since 1997, and was used for the successful entry, descent, and landing (EDL) of the Phoenix spacecraft onto the surface of Mars. Phoenix EDL utilized a state-oriented operations architecture which executed within the constraints of the existing VML 2.0 flight capability, compatible with the linear "land or die" nature of the mission. The intricacies of Phoenix EDL included the planned discarding of portions of the vehicle, the complex communications management for relay through on-orbit assets, the presence of temporally indeterminate physical events, and the need to rapidly catch up four days of sequencing should a reboot of the spacecraft flight computer occur shortly before atmospheric entry. These formidable operational challenges led to new techniques for packaging and coordinating reusable sequences called blocks using one-way synchronization via VML sequencing global variable events. The coordinated blocks acted as an ensemble to land the spacecraft, while individually managing various elements in as simple a fashion as possible. This paper outlines prototype VML 2.1 flight capabilities that have evolved from the one-way synchronization techniques in order to implement even more ambitious autonomous mission capabilities. Target missions for these new capabilities include autonomous touch-and-go sampling of cometary and asteroidal bodies, lunar landing of robotic missions, and ultimately landing of crewed lunar vehicles. Close proximity guidance, navigation, and control operations, on-orbit rendezvous, and descent and landing events featured in these missions require elaborate abort capability, manifesting highly non-linear scenarios that are so complex as to overtax traditional sequencing, or even the sort of one-way coordinated sequencing used during EDL. Foreseeing advanced command and control needs for small body and lunar landing

  7. Learning to Live on a Mars Day: Fatigue Countermeasures during the Phoenix Mars Lander Mission

    PubMed Central

    Barger, Laura K.; Sullivan, Jason P.; Vincent, Andrea S.; Fiedler, Edna R.; McKenna, Laurence M.; Flynn-Evans, Erin E.; Gilliland, Kirby; Sipes, Walter E.; Smith, Peter H.; Brainard, George C.; Lockley, Steven W.

    2012-01-01

    Study Objectives: To interact with the robotic Phoenix Mars Lander (PML) spacecraft, mission personnel were required to work on a Mars day (24.65 h) for 78 days. This alien schedule presents a challenge to Earth-bound circadian physiology and a potential risk to workplace performance and safety. We evaluated the acceptability, feasibility, and effectiveness of a fatigue management program to facilitate synchronization with the Mars day and alleviate circadian misalignment, sleep loss, and fatigue. Design: Operational field study. Setting: PML Science Operations Center. Participants: Scientific and technical personnel supporting PML mission. Interventions: Sleep and fatigue education was offered to all support personnel. A subset (n = 19) were offered a short-wavelength (blue) light panel to aid alertness and mitigate/reduce circadian desynchrony. They were assessed using a daily sleep/work diary, continuous wrist actigraphy, and regular performance tests. Subjects also completed 48-h urine collections biweekly for assessment of the circadian 6-sulphatoxymelatonin rhythm. Measurements and Results: Most participants (87%) exhibited a circadian period consistent with adaptation to a Mars day. When synchronized, main sleep duration was 5.98 ± 0.94 h, but fell to 4.91 ± 1.22 h when misaligned (P < 0.001). Self-reported levels of fatigue and sleepiness also significantly increased when work was scheduled at an inappropriate circadian phase (P < 0.001). Prolonged wakefulness (≥ 21 h) was associated with a decline in performance and alertness (P < 0.03 and P < 0.0001, respectively). Conclusions: The ability of the participants to adapt successfully to the Mars day suggests that future missions should utilize a similar circadian rhythm and fatigue management program to reduce the risk of sleepiness-related errors that jeopardize personnel safety and health during critical missions. Citation: Barger LK; Sullivan JP; Vincent AS; Fiedler ER; McKenna LM; Flynn-Evans EE

  8. Ecosystem services and urban heat riskscape moderation: water, green spaces, and social inequality in Phoenix, USA.

    PubMed

    Jenerette, G Darrel; Harlan, Sharon L; Stefanov, William L; Martin, Chris A

    2011-10-01

    Urban ecosystems are subjected to high temperatures--extreme heat events, chronically hot weather, or both-through interactions between local and global climate processes. Urban vegetation may provide a cooling ecosystem service, although many knowledge gaps exist in the biophysical and social dynamics of using this service to reduce climate extremes. To better understand patterns of urban vegetated cooling, the potential water requirements to supply these services, and differential access to these services between residential neighborhoods, we evaluated three decades (1970-2000) of land surface characteristics and residential segregation by income in the Phoenix, Arizona, USA metropolitan region. We developed an ecosystem service trade-offs approach to assess the urban heat riskscape, defined as the spatial variation in risk exposure and potential human vulnerability to extreme heat. In this region, vegetation provided nearly a 25 degrees C surface cooling compared to bare soil on low-humidity summer days; the magnitude of this service was strongly coupled to air temperature and vapor pressure deficits. To estimate the water loss associated with land-surface cooling, we applied a surface energy balance model. Our initial estimates suggest 2.7 mm/d of water may be used in supplying cooling ecosystem services in the Phoenix region on a summer day. The availability and corresponding resource use requirements of these ecosystem services had a strongly positive relationship with neighborhood income in the year 2000. However, economic stratification in access to services is a recent development: no vegetation-income relationship was observed in 1970, and a clear trend of increasing correlation was evident through 2000. To alleviate neighborhood inequality in risks from extreme heat through increased vegetation and evaporative cooling, large increases in regional water use would be required. Together, these results suggest the need for a systems evaluation of the

  9. 1. AERIAL VIEW OF THE HIGHLINE PUMPING PLANT SITE ON ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. AERIAL VIEW OF THE HIGHLINE PUMPING PLANT SITE ON THE WESTERN CANAL, LOOKING NORTH. THE OLD PLANT IS ON THE RIGHT BANK, NEAREST THE CANAL. THE NEW PLANT IS ON THE LEFT BANK AT THE END OF THE INLET CANAL. THE KYRENE DITCH RUNS OUT OF THE BOTTOM OF THE PICTURE, AND PART OF THE SWITCHYARD FOR THE KYRENE STEAM PLANT IS VISIBLE AT LOWER RIGHT. c. 1955 - Highline Canal & Pumping Station, South side of Salt River between Tempe, Phoenix & Mesa, Tempe, Maricopa County, AZ

  10. Crucible of Creativity: Testing Public Outreach Activities at the Phoenix Comicon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Horodyskyj, L.

    2015-12-01

    The Phoenix Comicon (PCC) is a growing four-day pop culture event that features guests, costuming, exhibits, and discussion panels for popular sci-fi, fantasy, horror, and anime franchises. The 2014 and 2015 shows (which drew 75,000+ unique attendees each) featured a science programming track coordinated and organized by Horodyskyj. The track consisted of discussion panels, mixers, shows, interactive displays, and signature events (over 30 hours of programming each year). Topics ranged from planetary sciences to biotechnology to artificial intelligence and event staff were recruited from all levels of experience in academia, industry, and STEM outreach. The PCC science programming track for both 2014 and 2015 received very positive feedback from the audience, PCC management, and even scientists who participated in the event. Panelists and staff received frequent unsolicited praise about the content and events, and surveys showed requests for more science content in future years. Demand for good science programming, especially the kind that links the audience to local scientists, is high. The unique organizational structure of PCC, which draws heavily on the fan community rather than industry professionals, provides a rich test bed for public outreach activities generated by scientists themselves. In 2014, we tested science-based game shows, such as the bloody Exoplanet Survivor. In 2015, we ran a science interactivity booth and an interactive stage show about forensics based on the BBC series Sherlock. I will detail some of the successes and failures of these various events and what we're planning for 2016.

  11. Dietary Supplementation of Phoenix dactylifera Seeds Enhances Performance, Immune Response, and Antioxidant Status in Broilers

    PubMed Central

    El-Far, Ali H.; Ahmed, Hamada A.

    2016-01-01

    The date palm (Phoenix dactylifera) seeds were utilized in some traditional medical remedies and have been investigated for their possible health benefits. This proposed study wanted to assess the effect of date palm seeds (DPS) dietary supplementation in comparison to mannan-oligosaccharides (Bio-Mos®) and β-glucan over antioxidant and immunity events that have effect on growth and carcass performances of broilers. An aggregate of 180, one-day-old, chicks were raised in the wire-floored cages and allotted into control, Bio-Mos (0.1%  Bio-Mos), β-glucan (0.1%  β-glucan), DPS2 (2% date crushed seeds), DPS4 (4% date crushed seeds), and DPS6 (6% date crushed seeds) groups. Broilers in DPS2 and DPS4 groups showed significant variations (P < 0.05) in relative growth rate (RGR), feed conversion ratio (FCR), and efficiency of energy utilization in comparison to control group. Moreover, all DPS fed groups showed significant increases (P < 0.05) in serum reduced glutathione (GSH) values. Meanwhile, both serum interferon-gamma (IFN-γ) and interleukin-2 (IL-2) levels were significantly increased (P < 0.05) in DPS2. Consequently, obtained data revealed a substantial enhancement of performance, immunity, and antioxidant status by DPS supplementation in broiler that might be related to the antioxidant and immune-stimulant constituents of P. dactylifera seeds. PMID:28127417

  12. Direct and indirect abortion in the Roman Catholic tradition: a review of the Phoenix case.

    PubMed

    Coleman, Gerald D

    2013-06-01

    In Roman Catholic Moral Theology, a direct abortion is never permitted. An indirect abortion, in which a life threatening pathology is treated, and the treatment inadvertently leads to the death of the fetus, may be permissible in proportionately grave situations. In situations in which a mother's life is endangered by the pregnancy before the fetus is viable, there is some debate about whether the termination of the pregnancy is a direct or indirect abortion. In this essay a recent case from a Roman Catholic sponsored hospital in Phoenix is reviewed along with the justifications for and arguments against viewing the pregnancy termination as an indirect abortion. After review of several arguments on both sides of the debate, it is concluded that termination of the pregnancy itself as the means of saving the mother cannot be considered an indirect abortion and that the principle of "double effect" does not justify the termination. In addition, the importance of a breakdown in communication between the local bishop and the administration of the hospital is shown to have contributed to the ultimate loss of Catholic sponsorship of the hospital.

  13. Rhynchophorus ferrugineus attack affects a group of compounds rather than rearranging Phoenix canariensis metabolic pathways.

    PubMed

    Giovino, Antonio; Martinelli, Federico; Saia, Sergio

    2016-04-01

    The red palm weevil (RPW; Rhynchophorus ferrugineus) is spreading worldwide and severely harming many palm species. However, most studies on RPW focused on insect biology, and little information is available about the plant response to the attack. In the present experiment, we used metabolomics to study the alteration of the leaf metabolome of Phoenix canariensis at initial (1st stage) or advanced (2nd stage) attack by RPW compared with healthy (unattacked) plants. The leaf metabolome significantly varied among treatments. At the 1st stage of attack, plants showed a reprogramming of carbohydrate and organic acid metabolism; in contrast, peptides and lipid metabolic pathways underwent more changes during the 2nd than 1st stage of attack. Enrichment metabolomics analysis indicated that RPW attack mostly affected a particular group of compounds rather than rearranging plant metabolic pathways. Some compounds selectively affected during the 1st rather than 2nd stage (e.g. phenylalanine; tryptophan; cellobiose; xylose; quinate; xylonite; idonate; and iso-threonate; cellobiotol and arbutine) are upstream events in the phenylpropanoid, terpenoid and alkaloid biosynthesis. These compounds could be designated as potential markers of initial RPW attack. However, further investigation is needed to determine efficient early screening methods of RPW attack based on the concentrations of these molecules.

  14. Phoenix dactylifera mediated green synthesis of Cu2O particles for arsenite uptake from water.

    PubMed

    Amrani, Mokhtar Ali; Srikanth, Vadali V S S; Labhsetwar, Nitin K; Al-Fatesh, Ahmed S; Shaikh, Hamid

    2016-01-01

    In this study, an environmentally friendly, cost-effective, and single-step procedure is used for the synthesis of polycrystalline Cu2O particles with controlled morphologies. Simple sugars are extracted from date fruit pulp (Phoenix dactylifera) and used as a reducing agent for the formation of Cu2O particles in aqueous medium. The feasibility of this solution is compared with the standard glucose solution. The Cu2O particles are characterized by electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction, optical absorption and Raman scattering techniques. It is concluded that the morphology of the particles is mainly influenced by the solvents. The obtained Cu2O particles are then used as an adsorbent to uptake As(III) ions from water. The maximum adsorption capacity (Qmax) is estimated by Langmuir and Freundlich isotherms and it is found that Qmax = 14.3 mg g(-1). Adsorption kinetics study showed that the adsorption equilibrium could be achieved in 1 h and that the purified water meets the standards of World Health Organization (WHO) for acceptable amount of As(III) in drinking water. Adsorption kinetic models showed that the adsorption is chemisorption in nature.

  15. Identification of pheromone synergists for Rhynchophorus ferrugineus trapping systems from Phoenix canariensis palm volatiles.

    PubMed

    Vacas, Sandra; Abad-Payá, María; Primo, Jaime; Navarro-Llopis, Vicente

    2014-07-02

    Trapping systems for the red palm weevil, Rhynchophorus ferrugineus Olivier, rely on the use of natural plant odor sources to boost the attractiveness of the aggregation pheromone. The identification of the key odorants involved in attraction is essential in the development of a synthetic pheromone synergist to replace the nonstandardized use of plant material in traps. Canary Islands date palms (Phoenix canariensis) have become preferred hosts for R. ferrugineus in Europe; thus, the volatile profile of different P. canariensis plant materials, including healthy and infested tissues, is investigated in the present work by means of solid phase microextraction (SPME-GC-MS), aimed to identify pheromone synergists. The electroantennography (EAG) response of the compounds identified was recorded, as well as the preliminary field response of several EAG-active compounds. The so-called "palm esters" (ethyl acetate, ethyl propionate, ethyl butyrate, and propyl butyrate) elicit the strongest EAG responses but performed poorly in the field. Mixtures of esters and alcohols give evidence of better performance, but release rates need further optimization.

  16. Antileishmanial Activity of Date (Phoenix dactylifera L) Fruit and Pit Extracts In Vitro.

    PubMed

    Albakhit, Sedighe; Khademvatan, Shahram; Doudi, Monir; Foroutan-Rad, Masoud

    2016-10-01

    Leishmaniasis is considered as a major public health problem worldwide. Current drugs in treatment of leishmaniasis have some limitations; thus, the current study was aimed to assess the methanolic extracts of pit and fruit of Phoenix dactylifera against Leishmania major promastigotes. L major promastigotes were cultured in RPMI 1640 and incubated at 25°C ± 1°C for 24, 48, and 72 hours. For obtaining the IC50 (half maximal inhibitory concentration) value, MTT assay was employed. Furthermore, promastigotes were examined in terms of morphology under light microscope. About 48 hours after treatment, IC50s were estimated 23 μg/mL and 500 mg/mL for methanolic extracts of pit and fruit of P dactylifera, respectively. Both extracts exhibited a dose and time-dependent antileishmanial activity against L major parasites. Also, some visible morphological changes were seen. This finding revealed both date fruit and pit, are effective against L major promastigotes. Further studies should be designed in future based on apoptosis induction in vitro and in vivo.

  17. Antinociceptive and neuropharmacological activities of methanol extract of Phoenix sylvestris fruit pulp.

    PubMed

    Shajib, Md Shafiullah; Akter, Saleha; Ahmed, Tajnin; Imam, Mohammad Zafar

    2015-01-01

    Fruits of Phoenix sylvestris Roxb. (Arecaceae) are used to treat back pain, toothache, headache, arthritis, nervous debility and as sedative. The aim of this study was to evaluate the antinociceptive and neuropharmacological activities of methanol extract of P. sylvestris fruit pulp (MEPS). The antinociceptive activity of MEPS was evaluated by heat-induced (hot plate, tail immersion test) and chemical-induced pain models (acetic acid-induced writhing, formalin-induced nociception, glutamate-induced nociception and paw edema test). The effect of MEPS on central nervous system (CNS) was studied using hole cross test, open field test, sodium thiopental-induced sleeping time and elevated plus maze test. MEPS showed strong, significant and dose-dependent antinociceptive activity in all heat-induced and chemical-induced pain models at all experimental doses. Involvement of opioid receptor mediated analgesia was evident from the reversal of analgesic effect by naloxone. MEPS also showed reduced locomotor activity in both hole cross and open field tests. The increase in sleeping time in sodium thiopental-induced sleeping test and anxiolytic activity in elevated plus maze test were also significant. So, it is evident that MEPS possesses strong central and peripheral antinociceptive activity as well as CNS depressant, sedative and anxiolytic activity. The results justify the ethnomedicinal use of P. sylvestris fruit in different painful conditions and CNS disorders.

  18. Profiling microRNA expression during multi-staged date palm (Phoenix dactylifera L.) fruit development.

    PubMed

    Xin, Chengqi; Liu, Wanfei; Lin, Qiang; Zhang, Xiaowei; Cui, Peng; Li, Fusen; Zhang, Guangyu; Pan, Linlin; Al-Amer, Ali; Mei, Hailiang; Al-Mssallem, Ibrahim S; Hu, Songnian; Al-Johi, Hasan Awad; Yu, Jun

    2015-04-01

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs) play crucial roles in multiple stages of plant development and regulate gene expression at posttranscriptional and translational levels. In this study, we first identified 238 conserved miRNAs in date palm (Phoenix dactylifera) based on a high-quality genome assembly and defined 78 fruit-development-associated (FDA) miRNAs, whose expression profiles are variable at different fruit development stages. Using experimental data, we subsequently detected 276 novel P. dactylifera-specific FDA miRNAs and predicted their targets. We also revealed that FDA miRNAs function mainly in regulating genes involved in starch/sucrose metabolisms and other carbon metabolic pathways; among them, 221 FDA miRNAs exhibit negative correlation with their corresponding targets, which suggests their direct regulatory roles on mRNA targets. Our data define a comprehensive set of conserved and novel FDA miRNAs along with their expression profiles, which provide a basis for further experimentation in assigning discrete functions of these miRNAs in P. dactylifera fruit development.

  19. Characterization and determination of lignin in different types of Iraqi phoenix date palm pruning woods.

    PubMed

    Abdullah, Hilal M; Abdul Latif, Mohammed H; Attiya, Hanaa G

    2013-10-01

    This study aimed to find analytical data base for Iraqi phoenix date palm pruning woods, which produced by pruning process at the season of date palm production. Lignin has been extracted and purified for five types of Iraqi date palm using Klason lignin method. The weight of the extracted lignin ranged from 0.410 g to 0.720 g, and the lignin % ranged from 17.6 to 36. The other ingredients (waxes, oils, resin, and proteins of wood gums) % ranged from 20 to 29.5. FT-IR characterization showed that the (-OH) phenolic group appear in Ashrasi lignin structure only and disappear in other lignin samples, and the (4-O-5 inter monomeric lignin linkage) showed strong to moderate intensity peaks for all studied samples except the Austa omran sample has a weak intensity peaks. Also (DODO inter monomeric lignin linkage) showed strong intensity peaks for all studied samples except the Barban sample showed moderate intensity peaks. UV-vis characterization showed that the lowest absorption maximum (266 nm) corresponds to Barban lignin sample, while the highest absorption maximum (271 nm) corresponds to Sultani lignin sample.

  20. Sensitivity of summer climate to anthropogenic land-cover change over the Greater Phoenix, AZ, region

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Georgescu, M.; Miguez-Macho, G.; Steyaert, L.T.; Weaver, C.P.

    2008-01-01

    This work evaluates the first-order effect of land-use/land-cover change (LULCC) on the summer climate of one of the nation's most rapidly expanding metropolitan complexes, the Greater Phoenix, AZ, region. High-resolution-2-km grid spacing-Regional Atmospheric Modeling System (RAMS) simulations of three "wet" and three "dry" summers were carried out for two different land-cover reconstructions for the region: a circa 1992 representation based on satellite observations, and a hypothetical land-cover scenario where the anthropogenic landscape of irrigated agriculture and urban pixels was replaced with current semi-natural vegetation. Model output is evaluated with respect to observed air temperature, dew point, and precipitation. Our results suggest that development of extensive irrigated agriculture adjacent to the urban area has dampened any regional-mean warming due to urbanization. Consistent with previous observationally based work, LULCC produces a systematic increase in precipitation to the north and east of the city, though only under dry conditions. This is due to a change in background atmospheric stability resulting from the advection of both warmth from the urban core and moisture from the irrigated area. ?? 2008 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Towards a phoenix phase in aeolian research: shifting geophysical perspectives from fluvial dominance

    SciTech Connect

    Whicker, Jeffrey J; Field, Jason P; Breshears, David D

    2008-01-01

    Aeolian processes are a fundamental driver of earth surface dynamics, yet the importance of aeolian processes in a broader geosciences context may be overshadowed by an unbalanced emphasis on fluvial processes. Here we wish to highlight that aeolian and fluvial processes need to be considered in concert relative to total erosion and to potential interactions, that relative dominance and sensitivity to disturbance vary with mean annual precipitation, and that there are important scale-dependencies associated with aeolian-fluvial interactions. We build on previous literature to present relevant conceptual syntheses highlighting these issues. We then highlight the relative investments that have been made in aeolian research on dust emission and management relative to that in fluvial research on sediment production. Literature searches highlight that aeolian processes are greatly understudied relative to fluvial processes when considering total erosion in different environmental settings. Notably, within the USA, aeolian research was triggered by the Dust Bowl catastrophe of the 1930s, but the resultant research agencies have shifted to almost completely focusing on fluvial processes, based on number of remaining research stations and on monetary investments in control measures. However, numerous research issues associated with intensification of land use and climate change impacts require a rapid ramping up in aeolian research that improves information about aeolian processes relative to fluvial processes, which could herald a post-Dust Bowl Phoenix phase in which aeolian processes are recognized as broadly critical to geo- and environmental sciences.

  2. Project Phoenix: SETI Observations from 1200 to 1750 MHz with the Upgraded Arecibo Telescope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Backus, P. R.; Project Phoenix Team

    2001-05-01

    Project Phoenix, the privately funded continuation of NASA's Targeted Search SETI Program, has taken advantage of the wide frequency coverage made possible by the upgraded Arecibo Telescope. Our goal is to search for evidence of narrowband extraterrestrial radio signals from nearby stars in the microwave portion of the spectrum. The signal detection system processes a 20 MHz bandwidth with 28.74 million 1 Hz wide channels in each of two circular polarizations. The system is sensitive to signals that are continuously present, or pulsed regularly, even if their frequencies drift by up to about 1 Hz per second. A database of terrestrial signals found in the previous week is used to match against detections for each observation. Candidate signals, i.e., those not in the database, are checked immediately with a "pseudo-interferometric" observation between Arecibo and the 76 meter Lovell Telescope at the Jodrell Bank Observatory. Since 1998 October, we have conducted approximately 8 weeks of observations at L-Band, 1200 to 1750 MHz. Approximately 150 MHz of that range is too heavily occupied by terrestrial signals for effective observing. This paper will describe the results of the observations and the terrestrial signal environment in this frequency range.

  3. Project Phoenix: SETI Observations from 1200 to 1750 MHz with the Upgraded Arecibo Telescope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Backus, P. R.; Project Phoenix Team

    2002-12-01

    Project Phoenix, the privately funded continuation of NASA's Targeted Search SETI Program, has taken advantage of the wide frequency coverage made possible by the upgraded Arecibo Telescope. Our goal is to search for evidence of narrowband extraterrestrial radio signals from nearby stars in the microwave portion of the spectrum. The signal detection system processes a 20-MHz bandwidth with 1-Hz wide channels in each of two circular polarizations. The system is sensitive to signals that are continuously present, or pulsed regularly, even if their frequencies drift by up to about 1 Hz per second. A database of terrestrial signals found in the previous week is used to match against detections for each observation. Candidate signals, i.e., those not in the database, are checked immediately with a ``pseudo-interferometric'' observation between Arecibo and the 76-m Lovell Telescope at the Jodrell Bank Observatory. Since 1998 October, we have conducted approximately 8 weeks of observations at L-Band, 1200 to 1750 MHz. Approximately 180 MHz of that range is too heavily occupied by terrestrial signals for effective observing.

  4. Antinociceptive and neuropharmacological activities of methanol extract of Phoenix sylvestris fruit pulp

    PubMed Central

    Shajib, Md. Shafiullah; Akter, Saleha; Ahmed, Tajnin; Imam, Mohammad Zafar

    2015-01-01

    Fruits of Phoenix sylvestris Roxb. (Arecaceae) are used to treat back pain, toothache, headache, arthritis, nervous debility and as sedative. The aim of this study was to evaluate the antinociceptive and neuropharmacological activities of methanol extract of P. sylvestris fruit pulp (MEPS). The antinociceptive activity of MEPS was evaluated by heat-induced (hot plate, tail immersion test) and chemical-induced pain models (acetic acid-induced writhing, formalin-induced nociception, glutamate-induced nociception and paw edema test). The effect of MEPS on central nervous system (CNS) was studied using hole cross test, open field test, sodium thiopental-induced sleeping time and elevated plus maze test. MEPS showed strong, significant and dose-dependent antinociceptive activity in all heat-induced and chemical-induced pain models at all experimental doses. Involvement of opioid receptor mediated analgesia was evident from the reversal of analgesic effect by naloxone. MEPS also showed reduced locomotor activity in both hole cross and open field tests. The increase in sleeping time in sodium thiopental-induced sleeping test and anxiolytic activity in elevated plus maze test were also significant. So, it is evident that MEPS possesses strong central and peripheral antinociceptive activity as well as CNS depressant, sedative and anxiolytic activity. The results justify the ethnomedicinal use of P. sylvestris fruit in different painful conditions and CNS disorders. PMID:26483687

  5. Carbon and Oxygen Stable Isotope Measurements of Martian Atmospheric CO2 by the Phoenix Lander

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Niles, Paul B.; Boynton, W. V.; Hoffman, J. H.; Ming, D. W.; Hamara, D.

    2010-01-01

    Precise stable isotope measurements of the CO2 in the martian atmosphere have the potential to provide important constraints for our understanding of the history of volatiles, the carbon cycle, current atmospheric processes, and the degree of water/rock interaction on Mars [1]. The isotopic composition of the martian atmosphere has been measured using a number of different methods (Table 1), however a precise value (<1%) has yet to be achieved. Given the elevated Delta(sup 13)C values measured in carbonates in martian meteorites [2-4] it has been proposed that the martian atmosphere was enriched in 13C [8]. This was supported by measurements of trapped CO2 gas in EETA 79001[2] which showed elevated Delta(sup 13)C values (Table 1). More recently, Earth-based spectroscopic measurements of the martian atmosphere have measured the martian CO2 to be depleted in C-13 relative to CO2 in the terrestrial atmosphere[ 7, 9-11]. The Thermal and Evolved Gas Analyzer (TEGA) instrument on the Mars Phoenix Lander [12] included a magnetic-sector mass spectrometer (EGA) [13] which had the goal of measuring the isotopic composition of martian atmospheric CO2 to within 0.5%. The mass spectrometer is a miniature instrument intended to measure both the martian atmosphere as well as gases evolved from heating martian soils.

  6. Transcriptome analysis of Phoenix canariensis Chabaud in response to Rhynchophorus ferrugineus Olivier attacks

    PubMed Central

    Giovino, Antonio; Bertolini, Edoardo; Fileccia, Veronica; Al Hassan, Mohamad; Labra, Massimo; Martinelli, Federico

    2015-01-01

    Red Palm Weevil (RPW, Rhynchophorus ferrugineus Olivier) threatens most palm species worldwide. Until now, no studies have analyzed the gene regulatory networks of Phoenix canariensis (Chabaud) in response to RPW attacks. The aim of this study was to fill this knowledge gap. Providing this basic knowledge is very important to improve its management. Results: A deep transcriptome analysis was performed on fully expanded leaves of healthy non-infested trees and attacked trees at two symptom stages (middle and late infestation). A total of 54 genes were significantly regulated during middle stage. Pathway enrichment analysis showed that phenylpropanoid-related pathways were induced at this stage. More than 3300 genes were affected during late stage of attacks. Higher transcript abundances were observed for lipid fatty acid metabolism (fatty acid and glycerolipids), tryptophan metabolism, phenylpropanoid metabolism. Key RPW-modulated genes involved in innate response mediated by hormone crosstalk were observed belonging to auxin, jasmonate and salicylic acid (SA) pathways. Among transcription factors, some WRKYs were clearly induced. qRT-PCR validation confirmed the upregulation of key genes chosen as validation of transcriptomic analysis. Conclusion: A subset of these genes may be further analyzed in future studies to confirm their specificity to be induced by RPW infestations. PMID:26528297

  7. Allozyme variation and structure of the Canarian endemic palm tree Phoenix canariensis (Arecaceae): implications for conservation.

    PubMed

    González-Pérez, M A; Caujapé-Castells, J; Sosa, P A

    2004-09-01

    Electrophoretic analysis of 18 allozyme loci was used to estimate the levels and structuring of genetic variation within and among natural populations of the protected endemic palm species from the Canary Islands (Phoenix canariensis) to evaluate its genetic relationship with the widespread congener P. dactylifera, and to assess comparatively the genetic variation in the populations where the two species coexist with morphologically intermediate plants (mixed populations). Our survey revealed that the within-population component explains roughly 75% of the genetic variation levels detected in P. canariensis (A=1.59; P=41.8; He=0.158), which rank higher than those reported for other species of the Arecaceae. A Principal Component analysis (PCA) based on allele frequencies consistently separates populations of P. canariensis and P. dactylifera, and reveals a close genetic relationship between P. canariensis and the mixed populations. Reduced levels of genetic variation in P. canariensis with respect to P. dactylifera, the fact that the genetic makeup of the Canarian endemic (with no unique alleles) is a subset of that found in P. dactylifera, and the high genetic identity between both species strongly suggest that P. canariensis is recently derived from a common ancestor closely related to P. dactylifera.

  8. Mars 2007 Phoenix Scout mission Organic Free Blank: Method to distinguish Mars organics from terrestrial organics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ming, D. W.; Morris, R. V.; Woida, R.; Sutter, B.; Lauer, H. V.; Shinohara, C.; Golden, D. C.; Boynton, W. V.; Arvidson, R. E.; Stewart, R. L.; Tamppari, L. K.; Gross, M.; Smith, P.

    2008-10-01

    The Organic Free Blank (OFB) for the Mars 2007 Phoenix Scout mission provides an organic carbon null sample to compare against possible Martian organic signatures obtained by the Thermal and Evolved Gas Analyzer (TEGA). Major OFB requirements are an organic carbon content of <=10 ng C g-1 of sample, a nonporous structure, and strength and integrity that permits machining by the Robotic Arm (RA) Icy Soil Acquisition Device (ISAD). A specially fabricated form of commercial Macor™ (a machinable glass ceramic), made with nitrate salts replacing carbonate salts, was selected as the OFB material. The OFB has a total inorganic carbon content of approximately 1.6 μg C g-1 after fabrication, cleaning, and heat treatment in oxygen gas at 550°C. The detection limit for organic carbon is ~100 ng C g-1 of sample, or about a factor of 10 higher than the design goal. One scenario for OFB use on Mars is subsequent to the first TEGA detection of organic carbon. The OFB sample, acquired by the RA ISAD and delivered to TEGA, would come in contact with all surfaces in the sample transfer chain, collecting residual terrestrial contamination that accompanied the spacecraft to Mars. A second sample of the putative Martian organic-bearing material would then be obtained and analyzed by TEGA. Different organic contents and/or different mass spectrometer fragmentation patterns between the OFB material and the two Martian samples would indicate that the detected organic carbon is indigenous to Mars.

  9. Molecular Identification of Sex in Phoenix dactylifera Using Inter Simple Sequence Repeat Markers

    PubMed Central

    Al-Ameri, Abdulhafed A.; Al-Qurainy, Fahad; Gaafar, Abdel-Rhman Z.; Khan, Salim; Nadeem, M.

    2016-01-01

    Early sex identification of Date Palm (Phoenix dactylifera L.) at seedling stage is an economically desirable objective, which will significantly increase the profits of seed based cultivation. The utilization of molecular markers at this stage for early and rapid identification of sex is important due to the lack of morphological markers. In this study, a total of two hundred Inter Simple Sequence Repeat (ISSR) primers were screened among male and female Date palm plants to identify putative sex-specific marker, out of which only two primers (IS_A02 and IS_A71) were found to be associated with sex. The primer IS_A02 produced a unique band of size 390 bp and was found clearly in all female plants, while it was absent in all male plants. Contrary to this, the primer IS_A71 produced a unique band of size 380 bp and was clearly found in all male plants, whereas it was absent in all the female plants. Subsequently, these specific fragments were excised, purified, and sequenced for the development of sequence specific markers further in future for the implementation on dioecious Date Palm for sex determination. These markers are efficient, highly reliable, and reproducible for sex identification at the early stage of seedling. PMID:27419132

  10. Delivery of ibuprofen by natural macroporous sporopollenin exine capsules extracted from Phoenix dactylifera L.

    PubMed

    Alshehri, Saad M; Al-Lohedan, Hamad A; Chaudhary, Anis Ahmad; Al-Farraj, Eida; Alhokbany, Norah; Issa, Zuheir; Alhousine, Sami; Ahamad, Tansir

    2016-06-10

    Sporopollenin macroporous capsules (SMCs) were extracted from date palm (Phoenix dactylifera L.) spores and coated by a natural polymer composite (chitosan with glutaraldehyde). The polymer coated macroporous capsules SMC@poly were used in the in vitro-controlled delivery of ibuprofen. The materials obtained were characterized through spectral, thermal, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), and nitrogen adsorption-desorption isotherms. The IBU loading and releasing was studied by investigating the changes in various factors such as pH, temperature, and initial concentration. The results revealed that the loading of IBU increased when the concentration of IBU was decreased, following the Langmuir adsorption isotherm. The maximum loading of the IBU was observed at pH6.0 (97.2%, with 50mg/mL). The releasing results indicate that IBU was released faster when the pH was changed from 1.4 to 7.4. In addition, the cytotoxicity of the SMC, SMC@poly, and SMC@poly-IBU were tested against human intestinal Caco-2 cell line using MTT assay, and the results revea'led that all the materials in this study were biocompatible.

  11. Alma Observations of Massive Molecular Gas Filaments Encasing Radio Bubbles in the Phoenix Cluster

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Russell, H. R.; McDonald, M.; McNamara, B. R.; Fabian, A. C.; Nulsen, P. E. J.; Bayliss, M. B.; Benson, B. A.; Brodwin, M.; Carlstrom, J. E.; Edge, A. C.; Hlavacek-Larrondo, J.; Marrone, D. P.; Reichardt, C. L.; Vieira, J. D.

    2017-02-01

    We report new ALMA observations of the CO(3-2) line emission from the 2.1+/- 0.3× {10}10 {M}ȯ molecular gas reservoir in the central galaxy of the Phoenix cluster. The cold molecular gas is fueling a vigorous starburst at a rate of 500{--}800 {M}ȯ {{yr}}-1 and powerful black hole activity in the forms of both intense quasar radiation and radio jets. The radio jets have inflated huge bubbles filled with relativistic plasma into the hot, X-ray atmospheres surrounding the host galaxy. The ALMA observations show that extended filaments of molecular gas, each 10{--}20 {kpc} long with a mass of several billion solar masses, are located along the peripheries of the radio bubbles. The smooth velocity gradients and narrow line widths along each filament reveal massive, ordered molecular gas flows around each bubble, which are inconsistent with gravitational free-fall. The molecular clouds have been lifted directly by the radio bubbles, or formed via thermal instabilities induced in low-entropy gas lifted in the updraft of the bubbles. These new data provide compelling evidence for close coupling between the radio bubbles and the cold gas, which is essential to explain the self-regulation of feedback. The very feedback mechanism that heats hot atmospheres and suppresses star formation may also paradoxically stimulate production of the cold gas required to sustain feedback in massive galaxies.

  12. Phoenix dactylifera mediated green synthesis of Cu2O particles for arsenite uptake from water

    PubMed Central

    Amrani, Mokhtar Ali; Srikanth, Vadali V. S. S.; Labhsetwar, Nitin K.; Al- Fatesh, Ahmed S.; Shaikh, Hamid

    2016-01-01

    Abstract In this study, an environmentally friendly, cost-effective, and single-step procedure is used for the synthesis of polycrystalline Cu2O particles with controlled morphologies. Simple sugars are extracted from date fruit pulp (Phoenix dactylifera) and used as a reducing agent for the formation of Cu2O particles in aqueous medium. The feasibility of this solution is compared with the standard glucose solution. The Cu2O particles are characterized by electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction, optical absorption and Raman scattering techniques. It is concluded that the morphology of the particles is mainly influenced by the solvents. The obtained Cu2O particles are then used as an adsorbent to uptake As(III) ions from water. The maximum adsorption capacity (Q max) is estimated by Langmuir and Freundlich isotherms and it is found that Q max = 14.3 mg g–1. Adsorption kinetics study showed that the adsorption equilibrium could be achieved in 1 h and that the purified water meets the standards of World Health Organization (WHO) for acceptable amount of As(III) in drinking water. Adsorption kinetic models showed that the adsorption is chemisorption in nature. PMID:27933116

  13. Perchlorate induced low temperature carbonate decomposition in the Mars Phoenix Thermal and Evolved Gas Analyzer (TEGA)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cannon, K. M.; Sutter, B.; Ming, D. W.; Boynton, W. V.; Quinn, R.

    2012-07-01

    Simulated Thermal Evolved Gas Analyzer (TEGA) analyses have shown that a CO2 release detected between 400°C and 680°C by the Phoenix Lander's TEGA instrument may have been caused by a reaction between calcium carbonate and hydrated magnesium perchlorate. In our experiments a CO2 release beginning at 385 ± 12°C was attributed to calcite reacting with water vapor and HCl gas from the dehydration and thermal decomposition of Mg-perchlorate. The release of CO2 is consistent with the TEGA detection of CO2 released between 400 and 680°C, with the amount of CO2 increasing linearly with added perchlorate. X-ray diffraction (XRD) experiments confirmed CaCl2 formation from the reaction between calcite and HCl. These results have important implications for the Mars Science Laboratory (MSL) Curiosity rover. Heating soils may cause inorganic release of CO2; therefore, detection of organic fragments, not CO2 alone, should be used as definitive evidence for organics in Martian soils.

  14. The Rhynchophorus ferruginous disease of Phoenix canariensis: early detection through proximity thermal sensing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cammalleri, Carmelo; Capodici, Fulvio; Ciraolo, Giuseppe; Filardo, Giuseppe; La Loggia, Goffredo; Maltese, Antonino

    2011-11-01

    Phoenix canariensis represents one of the most relevant ornamental plants within Mediterranean environment. In the last few years the infestation of a curculio coleopteron, namely the Rhynchophorus ferrugineus, caused a widespread decimation of these palms. Unluckily damages caused by the insect are evident only in the advanced phase of the disease making futile almost any plant treatment. Early warning of this disease may represents the only way to setup efficient actions to fight the coleopteron in trees where it takes over, thus limiting its spreading in contiguous palms. This research aims to achieve the former result by processing: i) short and long-wave images of the crown acquired during day-time by a balloon platform, and ii) a time series of thermal images of the trunk recorded during night-time on the field. The research is based on the hypotheses that: j) the disease induces changes of both transpiration processes and crown shape, because the damages of vascular tissues; jj) the local increase of temperature within the trunk, due to anaerobic fermentation established within the palm, extends up enough to surface to be diachronically analyzed to localize the disease core.

  15. Nucleated succession by an endemic palm Phoenix pusilla enhances diversity of woody species in the arid Coromandel Coast of India

    PubMed Central

    Kinhal, Vijayalaxmi; Parthasarathy, N.

    2010-01-01

    Background and aims Phoenix pusilla, an endemic shrubby palm, was used as a model nurse plant in degraded tropical dry evergreen forest (TDEF) landscapes. This choice was informed by traditional ecological knowledge of the Irula tribe of south India. We tested whether the presence of P. pusilla in water-stressed arid regions improves conditions for other species to establish, resulting in nucleated succession. Success would point the way forward for establishing species-rich woodland in abandoned farm land on the south-eastern Coromandel Coast of India. Methodology Spatial associations of woody species in the natural landscape were studied. Experimental tests of nurse plant potential examined the extent to which P. pusilla (i) promoted seed germination, (ii) seedling emergence and (iii) establishment of two TDEF species, and (iv) ameliorated soil and microclimatic conditions over 8 months. Principal results Phoenix pusilla cooled the soil by up to 50 % and decreased radiation by up to 9-fold, especially in summer. Soil organic matter and water-holding capacity increased, as did seedling number and seedling height of tested TDEF species. The presence of P. pusilla favoured a greater abundance (20 %) of woody plants with a bias towards primary (11) rather than secondary (2) species, indicating species specificity of the effect. Conclusions Phoenix pusilla ameliorated abiotic stresses present in open ground to create a patchy species-rich mosaic. This nucleated succession created using P. pusilla provided an important refuge for primary TDEF species. This effect can be expected to have impact at the landscape scale and may prove useful in managing landscapes and in biodiversity conservation. The conservation value of these patchy landscapes deserves to be more widely recognized as they persist in populated areas and thus merit protection. The value of traditional tribal knowledge in identifying a highly effective nurse species is highlighted by this study. PMID

  16. Identification and characterization of gene-based SSR markers in date palm (Phoenix dactylifera L.)

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Date palm (Phoenix dactylifera L.) is an important tree in the Middle East and North Africa due to the nutritional value of its fruit. Molecular Breeding would accelerate genetic improvement of fruit tree through marker assisted selection. However, the lack of molecular markers in date palm restricts the application of molecular breeding. Results In this study, we analyzed 28,889 EST sequences from the date palm genome database to identify simple-sequence repeats (SSRs) and to develop gene-based markers, i.e. expressed sequence tag-SSRs (EST-SSRs). We identified 4,609 ESTs as containing SSRs, among which, trinucleotide motifs (69.7%) were the most common, followed by tetranucleotide (10.4%) and dinucleotide motifs (9.6%). The motif AG (85.7%) was most abundant in dinucleotides, while motifs AGG (26.8%), AAG (19.3%), and AGC (16.1%) were most common among trinucleotides. A total of 4,967 primer pairs were designed for EST-SSR markers from the computational data. In a follow up laboratory study, we tested a sample of 20 random selected primer pairs for amplification and polymorphism detection using genomic DNA from date palm cultivars. Nearly one-third of these primer pairs detected DNA polymorphism to differentiate the twelve date palm cultivars used. Functional categorization of EST sequences containing SSRs revealed that 3,108 (67.4%) of such ESTs had homology with known proteins. Conclusion Date palm EST sequences exhibits a good resource for developing gene-based markers. These genic markers identified in our study may provide a valuable genetic and genomic tool for further genetic research and varietal development in date palm, such as diversity study, QTL mapping, and molecular breeding. PMID:23241238

  17. A DISTANT RADIO MINI-HALO IN THE PHOENIX GALAXY CLUSTER

    SciTech Connect

    Van Weeren, R. J.; Andrade-Santos, F.; Forman, W. R.; Jones, C.; Intema, H. T.; Lal, D. V.; Brüggen, M.; De Gasperin, F.; Hoeft, M.; Nuza, S. E.; Röttgering, H. J. A.; Stroe, A.

    2014-05-10

    We report the discovery of extended radio emission in the Phoenix cluster (SPT-CL J2344-4243, z = 0.596) with the Giant Metrewave Radio Telescope (GMRT) at 610 MHz. The diffuse emission extends over a region of at least 400-500 kpc and surrounds the central radio source of the Brightest Cluster Galaxy, but does not appear to be directly associated with it. We classify the diffuse emission as a radio mini-halo, making it the currently most distant mini-halo known. Radio mini-halos have been explained by synchrotron emitting particles re-accelerated via turbulence, possibly induced by gas sloshing generated from a minor merger event. Chandra observations show a non-concentric X-ray surface brightness distribution, which is consistent with this sloshing interpretation. The mini-halo has a flux density of 17 ± 5 mJy, resulting in a 1.4 GHz radio power of (10.4 ± 3.5) × 10{sup 24} W Hz{sup –1}. The combined cluster emission, which includes the central compact radio source, is also detected in a shallow GMRT 156 MHz observation and together with the 610 MHz data we compute a spectral index of –0.84 ± 0.12 for the overall cluster radio emission. Given that mini-halos typically have steeper radio spectra than cluster radio galaxies, this spectral index should be taken as an upper limit for the mini-halo.

  18. Molecular phylogeny of date palm (Phoenix dactylifera L.) cultivars from Saudi Arabia by DNA fingerprinting.

    PubMed

    Al-Khalifah, N S; Askari, E

    2003-11-01

    Genetic diversity among 13 different cultivars of date palm (Phoenix dactylifera L.) of Saudi Arabia was studied using random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) markers. The screening of 140 RAPD primers allowed selection of 37 primers which revealed polymorphism, and the results were reproducible. All 13 genotypes were distinguishable by their unique banding patterns produced by 37 selected primers. Cluster analysis by the unweighted paired group method of arithmetic mean (UPGMA) showed two main clusters. Cluster A consisted of five cultivars (Shehel, Om-Kobar, Ajwa, Om-Hammam and Bareem) with 0.59-0.89 Nei and Li's coefficient in the similarity matrix. Cluster B consisted of seven cultivars (Rabeeha, Shishi, Nabtet Saif, Sugai, Sukkary Asfar, Sukkary Hamra and Nabtet Sultan) with a 0.66-0.85 Nei and Li's similarity range. Om-Hammam and Bareem were the two most closely related cultivars among the 13 cultivars with the highest value in the similarity matrix for Nei and Li's coefficient (0.89). Ajwa was closely related with Om-Hammam and Bareem with the second highest value in the similarity matrix (0.86). Sukkary Hamra and Nabtet Sultan were also closely related, with the third highest value in the similarity matrix (0.85). The cultivar Barny did not belong to any of the cluster groups. It was 34% genetically similar to the rest of the 12 cultivars. The average similarity among the 13 cultivars was more than 50%. As expected, most of the cultivars have a narrow genetic base. The results of the analysis can be used for the selection of possible parents to generate a mapping population. The variation detected among the closely related genotypes indicates the efficiency of RAPD markers over the morphological and isozyme markers for the identification and construction of genetic linkage maps.

  19. Model interpretation of cloud observations by the LIDAR on the Phoenix Mars lander

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Daerden, Frank; Whiteway, J. A.; Davy, R.; Komguem, L.; Dickinson, C.; Taylor, P. A.

    2010-05-01

    Phoenix LIDAR observations [Whiteway et al. 2009] of clouds and precipitation in the planetary boundary layer (PBL) on Mars have been interpreted by a microphysical model for Mars ice clouds in combination with a coupled PBL-Aeolian dust model [Davy et al. 2009, Daerden et al. 2010]. The model simulates nighttime clouds and fall streaks within the PBL that are similar in structure to the LIDAR observations. Sizes of precipitating crystals grow to sizes of 30-50 µm effective radius, comparable to ice crystals observed in precipitation from terrestrial cirrus clouds which are formed under similar meteorological conditions. The observed regular daily pattern of water ice cloud formation and precipitation in the PBL is indicative of a diurnal process in the local water cycle in which the combination of strong daytime vertical mixing and nighttime precipitation of large ice crystals acts to confine water to the PBL [Whiteway et al. 2009]. The simulations support this interpretation. This process may contribute to the seasonal variation of atmospheric humidity. References Daerden, F., J.A. Whiteway, R. Davy, C. Verhoeven, L. Komguem, C. Dickinson, P. A. Taylor, N. Larsen (2010), Simulating Observed Boundary Layer Clouds on Mars, Geophys. Res. Lett., in press Davy, R., P. A. Taylor, W. Weng, and P.-Y. Li (2009), A model of dust in the Martian lower atmosphere, J. Geophys. Res., 114, D04108, doi:10.1029/2008JD010481 Whiteway, J.A., L. Komguem, C. Dickinson, C. Cook, M. Illnicki, J. Seabrook, V. Popovici, T.J. Duck, R. Davy, P.A. Taylor, J. Pathak, D. Fisher, A.I. Carswell, M. Daly, V. Hipkin, L. Tamppari, N. Renno, J. Moores, M. Lemmon, F. Daerden, H. Smith (2009), Mars Water Ice Clouds and Precipitation, Science 325, 68

  20. A water policy and planning model for the Phoenix Metropolitan Area

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sampson, D. A.; Quay, R.

    2012-12-01

    City level water policy and management decisions are typically based on past experience and best "guess" estimates of future conditions. These analyses use a limited number of socio-economic, water supply, and water demand projections, often only a single one. Increasingly, however, water planners are beginning to realize that high uncertainty associated with population projections and water use trends, and with future water supply estimates, greatly limit their ability to adequately predict a city's water future. We suggest that water governance at the municipal level could greatly benefit from water planning tools that generate and analyze a large ensemble of possible future scenarios in population growth dynamics and water availability. We adapted our existing water supply model to create a demand-based water planning and analysis tool that can explore the potential effects of population growth, drought, climate change, and policy options on surface water supplies, water demand, and groundwater pumping for the Phoenix Metropolitan Area. Our advanced scenario framework can be used as a decision support tool (DST) by creating a broad spectrum of adaptive decision boundaries for a city's water planning horizon. This DST uses population estimates in conjunction with water use to estimate water demand, and legal rights in combination with estimates of groundwater, stream flows, and reservoir operations to estimate water supply. Policy options—water banking, the use of reclaimed water, etc.—permit evaluation of alternative governance strategies. In this contribution we compare and contrast two municipal water providers that have dramatically different growth projections and per capita water use, groundwater supplies, and water portfolios (one robust, the other not), examining potential, future water supply challenges under simulated climate change. Infrastructure elements for each water provider simulated. Presence of a state and rate are water-provider specific.

  1. Evaluation of the magnitude and frequency of floods in urban watersheds in Phoenix and Tucson, Arizona

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kennedy, Jeffrey R.; Paretti, Nicholas V.

    2014-01-01

    Flooding in urban areas routinely causes severe damage to property and often results in loss of life. To investigate the effect of urbanization on the magnitude and frequency of flood peaks, a flood frequency analysis was carried out using data from urbanized streamgaging stations in Phoenix and Tucson, Arizona. Flood peaks at each station were predicted using the log-Pearson Type III distribution, fitted using the expected moments algorithm and the multiple Grubbs-Beck low outlier test. The station estimates were then compared to flood peaks estimated by rural-regression equations for Arizona, and to flood peaks adjusted for urbanization using a previously developed procedure for adjusting U.S. Geological Survey rural regression peak discharges in an urban setting. Only smaller, more common flood peaks at the 50-, 20-, 10-, and 4-percent annual exceedance probabilities (AEPs) demonstrate any increase in magnitude as a result of urbanization; the 1-, 0.5-, and 0.2-percent AEP flood estimates are predicted without bias by the rural-regression equations. Percent imperviousness was determined not to account for the difference in estimated flood peaks between stations, either when adjusting the rural-regression equations or when deriving urban-regression equations to predict flood peaks directly from basin characteristics. Comparison with urban adjustment equations indicates that flood peaks are systematically overestimated if the rural-regression-estimated flood peaks are adjusted upward to account for urbanization. At nearly every streamgaging station in the analysis, adjusted rural-regression estimates were greater than the estimates derived using station data. One likely reason for the lack of increase in flood peaks with urbanization is the presence of significant stormwater retention and detention structures within the watershed used in the study.

  2. Patterns of pollen dispersal in a small population of the Canarian endemic palm (Phoenix canariensis).

    PubMed

    Saro, I; Robledo-Arnuncio, J J; González-Pérez, M A; Sosa, P A

    2014-09-01

    The genetic diversity of small populations is greatly influenced by local dispersal patterns and genetic connectivity among populations, with pollen dispersal being the major component of gene flow in many plants species. Patterns of pollen dispersal, mating system parameters and spatial genetic structure were investigated in a small isolated population of the emblematic palm Phoenix canariensis in Gran Canaria island (Canary Islands). All adult palms present in the study population (n=182), as well as 616 seeds collected from 22 female palms, were mapped and genotyped at 8 microsatellite loci. Mating system analysis revealed an average of 5.8 effective pollen donors (Nep) per female. There was strong variation in correlated paternity rates across maternal progenies (ranging from null to 0.9) that could not be explained by the location and density of local males around focal females. Paternity analysis revealed a mean effective pollen dispersal distance of ∼71 m, with ∼70% of effective pollen originating from a distance of <75 m, and 90% from <200 m. A spatially explicit mating model indicated a leptokurtic pollen dispersal kernel, significant pollen immigration (12%) from external palm groves and a directional pollen dispersal pattern that seems consistent with local altitudinal air movement. No evidence of inbreeding or genetic diversity erosion was found, but spatial genetic structure was detected in the small palm population. Overall, the results suggest substantial pollen dispersal over the studied population, genetic connectivity among different palm groves and some resilience to neutral genetic erosion and subsequently to fragmentation.

  3. The Complete Chloroplast Genome Sequence of Date Palm (Phoenix dactylifera L.)

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Meng; Zhang, Xiaowei; Liu, Guiming; Yin, Yuxin; Chen, Kaifu; Yun, Quanzheng; Zhao, Duojun; Al-Mssallem, Ibrahim S.; Yu, Jun

    2010-01-01

    Background Date palm (Phoenix dactylifera L.), a member of Arecaceae family, is one of the three major economically important woody palms—the two other palms being oil palm and coconut tree—and its fruit is a staple food among Middle East and North African nations, as well as many other tropical and subtropical regions. Here we report a complete sequence of the data palm chloroplast (cp) genome based on pyrosequencing. Methodology/Principal Findings After extracting 369,022 cp sequencing reads from our whole-genome-shotgun data, we put together an assembly and validated it with intensive PCR-based verification, coupled with PCR product sequencing. The date palm cp genome is 158,462 bp in length and has a typical quadripartite structure of the large (LSC, 86,198 bp) and small single-copy (SSC, 17,712 bp) regions separated by a pair of inverted repeats (IRs, 27,276 bp). Similar to what has been found among most angiosperms, the date palm cp genome harbors 112 unique genes and 19 duplicated fragments in the IR regions. The junctions between LSC/IRs and SSC/IRs show different features of sequence expansion in evolution. We identified 78 SNPs as major intravarietal polymorphisms within the population of a specific cp genome, most of which were located in genes with vital functions. Based on RNA-sequencing data, we also found 18 polycistronic transcription units and three highly expression-biased genes—atpF, trnA-UGC, and rrn23. Conclusions Unlike most monocots, date palm has a typical cp genome similar to that of tobacco—with little rearrangement and gene loss or gain. High-throughput sequencing technology facilitates the identification of intravarietal variations in cp genomes among different cultivars. Moreover, transcriptomic analysis of cp genes provides clues for uncovering regulatory mechanisms of transcription and translation in chloroplasts. PMID:20856810

  4. The MECA Wet Chemistry Laboratory on the 2007 Phoenix Mars Scout Lander

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kounaves, Samuel P.; Hecht, Michael H.; West, Steven J.; Morookian, John-Michael; Young, Suzanne M. M.; Quinn, Richard; Grunthaner, Paula; Wen, Xiaowen; Weilert, Mark; Cable, Casey A.; Fisher, Anita; Gospodinova, Kalina; Kapit, Jason; Stroble, Shannon; Hsu, Po-Chang; Clark, Benton C.; Ming, Douglas W.; Smith, Peter H.

    2009-03-01

    To analyze and interpret the chemical record, the 2007 Phoenix Mars Lander includes four wet chemistry cells. These Wet Chemistry Laboratories (WCLs), part of the Microscopy, Electrochemistry, and Conductivity Analyzer (MECA) package, each consist of a lower "beaker" containing sensors designed to analyze the chemical properties of the regolith and an upper "actuator assembly" for adding soil, water, reagents, and stirring. The beaker contains an array of sensors and electrodes that include six membrane-based ion selective electrodes (ISE) to measure Ca2+, Mg2+, K+, Na+, NO3-/ClO4-, and NH4+; two ISEs for H+ (pH); a Ba2+ ISE for titrimetric determination of SO42-; two Li+ ISEs as reference electrodes; three solid crystal pellet ISEs for Cl-, Br-, and I-; an iridium oxide electrode for pH; a carbon ring electrode for conductivity; a Pt electrode for oxidation reduction potential (Eh); a Pt and two Ag electrodes for determination of Cl-, Br-, and I- using chronopotentiometry (CP); a Au electrode for identifying redox couples using cyclic voltammetry (CV); and a Au microelectrode array that could be used for either CV or to indicate the presence of several heavy metals, including Cu2+, Cd2+, Pb2+, Fe2/3+, and Hg2+ using anodic stripping voltammetry (ASV). The WCL sensors and analytical procedures have been calibrated and characterized using standard solutions, geological Earth samples, Mars simulants, and cuttings from a Martian meteorite. Sensor characteristics such as limits of detection, interferences, and implications of the Martian environment are also being studied. A sensor response library is being developed to aid in the interpretation of the data.

  5. The MECA Wet Chemistry Laboratory on the 2007 Phoenix Mars Scout Lander

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kounaves, Samuel P.; Hecht, Michael H.; West, Steven J.; Morookian, John-Michael; Young, Suzanne M. M.; Quinn, Richard; Grunthaner, Paula; Wen, Xiaowen; Weilert, Mark; Cable, Casey A.; Fisher, Anita; Gospodinova, Kalina; Kapit, Jason; Stroble, Shannon; Hsu, Po-Chang; Clark, Benton C.; Ming, Douglas W.; Smith, Peter H.

    2009-02-01

    To analyze and interpret the chemical record, the 2007 Phoenix Mars Lander includes four wet chemistry cells. These Wet Chemistry Laboratories (WCLs), part of the Microscopy, Electrochemistry, and Conductivity Analyzer (MECA) package, each consist of a lower ``beaker'' containing sensors designed to analyze the chemical properties of the regolith and an upper ``actuator assembly'' for adding soil, water, reagents, and stirring. The beaker contains an array of sensors and electrodes that include six membrane-based ion selective electrodes (ISE) to measure Ca2+, Mg2+, K+, Na+, NO3 -/ClO4 -, and NH4 +; two ISEs for H+ (pH); a Ba2+ ISE for titrimetric determination of SO4 2- two Li+ ISEs as reference electrodes; three solid crystal pellet ISEs for Cl-, Br-, and I- an iridium oxide electrode for pH; a carbon ring electrode for conductivity; a Pt electrode for oxidation reduction potential (Eh); a Pt and two Ag electrodes for determination of Cl-, Br-, and I- using chronopotentiometry (CP); a Au electrode for identifying redox couples using cyclic voltammetry (CV); and a Au microelectrode array that could be used for either CV or to indicate the presence of several heavy metals, including Cu2+, Cd2+, Pb2+, Fe2/3+, and Hg2+ using anodic stripping voltammetry (ASV). The WCL sensors and analytical procedures have been calibrated and characterized using standard solutions, geological Earth samples, Mars simulants, and cuttings from a Martian meteorite. Sensor characteristics such as limits of detection, interferences, and implications of the Martian environment are also being studied. A sensor response library is being developed to aid in the interpretation of the data.

  6. Metabolism of spacecraft cleaning reagents by Mars Odyssey and Phoenix-associated Acinetobacter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mogul, Rakesh; Barding, Gregory; Baki, Ryan; Perkins, Nicole; Lee, Sooji; Lalla, Sid; Campos, Alexa; Sripong, Kimberly; Madrid, Steve

    2016-07-01

    The metabolomic and proteomic properties that promote microbial survival in spacecraft assembly facilities are important aspects to planetary protection and astrobiology. In this presentation, we will provide molecular and biological evidence that the spacecraft-associated Acinetobacter metabolize/degrade spacecraft cleaning reagents such as ethanol, 2-propanol, and Kleenol-30. Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) studies on A. radioresistens 50v1 (Mars Odyssey) show that the metabolome is dependent upon growth conditions and that ^{13}C-labeled ethanol is incorporated into metabolites such as TCA/glyoxylate cycle intermediates, amino acids, monosaccharides, and disaccharides (e.g., trehalose). In fact, plate count assays show that ethanol is a sole carbon source under minimal conditions for several Mars Phoenix and Odyssey-associated Acinetobacter strains, which may explain why the Acinetobacter are among the most abundant genera found in spacecraft assembly facilities. Biochemical analyses support the enzymatic oxidation of ethanol and 2-propanol by a membrane-bound and NAD+/PQQ-dependent alcohol dehydrogenase, with current kinetic data providing similar apparent K _{M} and maximum growth rate values of ˜5 and 8 mM ethanol, respectively. Preliminary GC-MS analysis also suggests that Kleenol-30 is degraded by A. radioresistens 50v1 when grown in ethanol mixtures. Under minimal conditions, A. radioresistens 50v1 (˜10 ^{8} cfu/mL) also displays a remarkable oxidative extremotolerance (˜2-log reduction in 10 mM hydrogen peroxide), which suggests crucial roles for metabolites associated with oxidative stress (e.g., trehalose) and the observed appreciable catalase specific activities. In conclusion, these results provide key insights into the survival strategies of spacecraft-associated Acinetobacter and emphasize the importance of characterizing the carbon metabolism of forward contaminants.

  7. A provider-based water planning and management model--WaterSim 4.0--for the Phoenix Metropolitan Area.

    PubMed

    Sampson, D A; Escobar, V; Tschudi, M K; Lant, T; Gober, P

    2011-10-01

    Uncertainty in future water supplies for the Phoenix Metropolitan Area (Phoenix) are exacerbated by the near certainty of increased, future water demands; water demand may increase eightfold or more by 2030 for some communities. We developed a provider-based water management and planning model for Phoenix termed WaterSim 4.0. The model combines a FORTRAN library with Microsoft C# to simulate the spatial and temporal dynamics of current and projected future water supply and demand as influenced by population demographics, climatic uncertainty, and groundwater availability. This paper describes model development and rationale. Water providers receive surface water, groundwater, or both depending on their portfolio. Runoff from two riverine systems supplies surface water to Phoenix while three alluvial layers that underlie the area provide groundwater. Water demand was estimated using two approaches. One approach used residential density, population projections, water duties, and acreage. A second approach used per capita water consumption and separate population growth estimates. Simulated estimates of initial groundwater for each provider were obtained as outputs from the Arizona Department of Water Resources (ADWR) Salt River Valley groundwater flow model (GFM). We compared simulated estimates of water storage with empirical estimates for modeled reservoirs as a test of model performance. In simulations we modified runoff by 80%-110% of the historical estimates, in 5% intervals, to examine provider-specific responses to altered surface water availability for 33 large water providers over a 25-year period (2010-2035). Two metrics were used to differentiate their response: (1) we examined groundwater reliance (GWR; that proportion of a providers' portfolio dependent upon groundwater) from the runoff sensitivity analysis, and (2) we used 100% of the historical runoff simulations to examine the cumulative groundwater withdrawals for each provider. Four groups of water

  8. Phoenix 07 MET Pressure Sensor: Instrument, Observations and Their Interpretation Using FMIs Mars Limited Area Model MLAM

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schmidt, W.; Harri, A.-M.; Kahanpää, H.; Kauhanen, J.; Merikallio, S.; Polkko, J.; Savijärvi, H.; Siili, T.; Taylor, P.; Mäkelä, M.

    2009-04-01

    The Phoenix '07 Lander landed successfully in the Martian northern polar region on May 25, 2008. The mission is part of the National Aeronautics and Space Administration's (NASA's) Scout program. Its Canadian Meteorology experiment (MET) [1] was providing the first surface based observations of atmospheric pressure, temperature and wind as well as dust and ice particles in the Martian polar region above the polar circle. The pressure observations were performed by an FMI instrument, based on micro machined Barocap capacitive pressure sensor heads manufactured by Vaisala Inc. Similar instruments have been used in several earlier missions (Mars-96, Mars Polar Lander, Beagle-2 and Huygens), Phoenix being the first successful landing on Mars. A similar instrument will be included in the Mars Science Laboratory '09 rover. Pressure sensor technology, characteristics and data processing will be presented together with data of the first months on Mars. The Mars Limited Area Model (MLAM) has been jointly developed by the Helsinki University and the Finnish Meteorological Institute to study mesoscale phenomena in the Martian Atmosphere [2]. It is based on the hydro-static dynamical core of the HIgh Resolution Limited Area Model (HIRLAM), an operational weather prediction model-analysis system used by several European countries. To support the Phoenix mission to high Martian latitudes, the model was optimized in its grid definition and the way carbon dioxide and water ice development is treated. The MLAM based simulations were used to understand the conditions leading to the meteorological conditions as observed by Phoenix. Initial comparisons of model runs for the actual landing location and season were in good agreement with the first pressure, temperature and wind data received from the instruments. The results of more detailed studies will be presented, covering several months of data and conclusions drawn from the model comparisons. References: [1] Michelangeli, D.V., et

  9. Rapid and accurate direct antibiotic susceptibility testing of blood culture broths using MALDI Sepsityper combined with the BD Phoenix automated system.

    PubMed

    Hazelton, Briony; Thomas, Lee C; Olma, Thomas; Kok, Jen; O'Sullivan, Matthew; Chen, Sharon C-A; Iredell, Jonathan R

    2014-12-01

    Antibiotic susceptibility testing with the BD Phoenix system on bacterial cell pellets generated from blood culture broths using the Bruker MALDI Sepsityper kit was evaluated. Seventy-six Gram-negative isolates, including 12 with defined multi-resistant phenotypes, had antibiotic susceptibility testing (AST) performed by Phoenix on the cell pellet in parallel with conventional methods. In total, 1414/1444 (97.9 %) of susceptibility tests were concordant, with only 1 (0.07 %) very major error. This novel method has the potential to reduce the turnaround time for AST results by up to a day for Gram-negative bacteraemias.

  10. The U.S. Department of Energy Office of Indian Energy Policy and Programs Phoenix, Arizona, Roundtable Summary

    SciTech Connect

    none,

    2011-04-05

    The Phoenix, Arizona, Roundtable on Tribal Energy Policy convened at 8:30 a.m., Tuesday, April 5th, at the downtown Phoenix Hyatt. The meeting was hosted by the Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Indian Energy Policy and Programs (DOE Office of Indian Energy) and facilitated by the Udall Foundation’s U.S. Institute for Environmental Conflict Resolution (U.S. Institute). Approximately thirty-eight people attended the meeting, including representatives of ten different tribes, as well as representatives of the Colorado Indian Tribes, the All Indian Pueblo Council and the Inter-Tribal Council of Arizona. Interested state, federal, university, NGO and industry representatives also were present. A full list of attendees is at the end of this summary. DOE representatives were Tracey LeBeau, Directory of the DOE Office of Indian Energy, Pilar Thomas, Deputy Director-Policy of the DOE Office of Indian Energy, and David Conrad, Director of Tribal and Intergovernmental Affairs, DOE Office of Congressional and Intergovernmental Affairs.

  11. The Mars Phoenix Thermal Evolved-Gas Analysis: The Role of an Organic Free Blank in the Search for Organics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lauer, H. V., Jr.; Ming, Douglas W.; Sutter, B.; Golden, D. C.; Morris, Richard V.; Boynton, W. V.

    2008-01-01

    The Thermal Evolved-Gas Analyzer (TEGA) instrument onboard the 2007 Phoenix Lander will perform differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and evolved-gas analysis of soil samples collected from the surface. Data from the instrument will be compared with Mars analog mineral standards, collected under TEGA Mars-like conditions to identify the volatile-bearing mineral phases [1] (e.g., Fe-oxyhydroxides, phyllosilicates, carbonates, and sulfates) found in the Martian soil. Concurrently, the instrument will be looking for indications of organics that might also be present in the soil. Organic molecules are necessary building blocks for life, although their presence in the ice or soil does not indicate life itself. The spacecraft will certainly bring organic contaminants to Mars even though numerous steps were taken to minimize contamination during the spacecraft assembly and testing. It will be essential to distinguish possible Mars organics from terrestrial contamination when TEGA instrument begins analyzing icy soils. To address the above, an Organic Free Blank (OFB) was designed, built, tested, and mounted on the Phoenix spacecraft providing a baseline for distinguishing Mars organics from terrestrial organic contamination. Our objective in this report is to describe some of the considerations used in selecting the OFB material and then report on the processing and analysis of the final candidate material

  12. Spatio-Temporal Analysis of Urban Heat Island and Urban Metabolism by Satellite Imagery over the Phoenix Metropolitan Area

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Q.; Zhan, S.; Kuai, X.; Zhan, Q.

    2015-12-01

    The goal of this research is to combine DMSP-OLS nighttime light data with Landsat imagery and use spatio-temporal analysis methods to evaluate the relationships between urbanization processes and temperature variation in Phoenix metropolitan area. The urbanization process is a combination of both land use change within the existing urban environment as well as urban sprawl that enlarges the urban area through the transformation of rural areas to urban structures. These transformations modify the overall urban climate environment, resulting in higher nighttime temperatures in urban areas compared to the surrounding rural environment. This is a well-known and well-studied phenomenon referred to as the urban heat island effect (UHI). What is unknown is the direct relationship between the urbanization process and the mechanisms of the UHI. To better understand this interaction, this research focuses on using nighttime light satellite imagery to delineate and detect urban extent changes and utilizing existing land use/land cover map or newly classified imagery from Landsat to analyze the internal urban land use variations. These data are combined with summer and winter land surface temperature data extracted from Landsat. We developed a time series of these combined data for Phoenix, AZ from 1992 to 2013 to analyze the relationships among land use change, land surface temperature and urban growth.

  13. Anticipatory Water Management in Phoenix using Advanced Scenario Planning and Analyses: WaterSim 5

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sampson, D. A.; Quay, R.; White, D. D.; Gober, P.; Kirkwood, C.

    2013-12-01

    Complexity, uncertainty, and variability are inherent properties of linked social and natural processes; sustainable resource management must somehow consider all three. Typically, a decision support tool (using scenario analyses) is used to examine management alternatives under suspected trajectories in driver variables (i.e., climate forcing's, growth or economic projections, etc.). This traditional planning focuses on a small set of envisioned scenarios whose outputs are compared against one-another in order to evaluate their differing impacts on desired metrics. Human cognition typically limits this to three to five scenarios. However, complex and highly uncertain issues may require more, often much more, than five scenarios. In this case advanced scenario analysis provides quantitative or qualitative methods that can reveal patterns and associations among scenario metrics for a large ensemble of scenarios. From this analysis, then, a smaller set of heuristics that describe the complexity and uncertainty revealed provides a basis to guide planning in an anticipatory fashion. Our water policy and management model, termed WaterSim, permits advanced scenario planning and analysis for the Phoenix Metropolitan Area. In this contribution we examine the concepts of advanced scenario analysis on a large scale ensemble of scenarios using our work with WaterSim as a case study. For this case study we created a range of possible water futures by creating scenarios that encompasses differences in water supplies (our surrogates for climate change, drought, and inherent variability in riverine flows), population growth, and per capital water consumption. We used IPCC estimates of plausible, future, alterations in riverine runoff, locally produced and vetted estimates of population growth projections, and empirical trends in per capita water consumption for metropolitan cities. This ensemble consisted of ~ 30, 700 scenarios (~575 k observations). We compared and contrasted

  14. A Revised Calibration Function and Results for the Phoenix Mission TECP Relative Humidity Sensor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zent, A.

    2014-12-01

    The original calibration function of the RH sensor on the Phoenix Thermal and Electrical Conductivity Sensor (TECP) has been revised in order to extend the range of the valid calibration, and to improve accuracy. The original function returned non-physical RH values at the lowest temperatures. To resolve this, and because the original calibration was performed against a pair of hygrometers that measured frost point (Tf), the revised calibration equation is also cast in terms of frost point. Because of the complexity of maintaining very low temperatures and high RH in the laboratory, no calibration data exists at T < 203K. However, sensor response duringf the mission was smooth and continuous down to 181 K. Therefore we have opted to include flight data in the calibration data set; selection was limited to data acquired during periods when the atmosphere is known to have been saturated. Tf remained below 210 K throughout the mission(P < 0.75 Pa). RH, conversely, ranged from 1 to well under 0.01 diurnally, due to ~50 K temperature variations. To first order, both vapor pressure and its variance are greater during daylight hours. Variance in overnight humidity is almost entirely explained by temperature, while atmospheric turbulence contributes substantial variance to daytime humidity. Likewise, data gathered with the TECP aloft reflect higher H2O abundances than at the surface, as well as greater variance. There is evidence for saturation of the atmosphere overnight throughout much of the mission. In virtually every overnight observation, once the atmosphere cooled to Tf, water vapor begins to decrease, and tracks air temperature. There is no evidence for substantial decreases in water vapor prior to saturation, as expected for adsorptive exchange. Likewise, there is no evidence of local control of vapor by phases such as perchlorate hydrates hydrated minerals. The daytime average H2O pressure does not change substantially over the course of the mission, although the

  15. A Revised Calibration Function and Results for the Phoenix Mission TECP Relative Humidity Sensor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zent, Aaron

    2014-01-01

    The original calibration function of the R(sub H) sensor on the Phoenix Thermal and Electrical Conductivity Sensor (TECP) has been revised in order to extend the range of the valid calibration, and to improve accuracy. The original function returned non-physical R(sub H) values at the lowest temperatures. To resolve this, and because the original calibration was performed against a pair of hygrometers that measured frost point (T(sub f)), the revised calibration equation is also cast in terms of frost point. Because of the complexity of maintaining very low temperatures and high R(sub H) in the laboratory, no calibration data exists at T is greater than 203K. However, sensor response during the mission was smooth and continuous down to 181 K. Therefore we have opted to include flight data in the calibration data set; selection was limited to data acquired during periods when the atmosphere is known to have been saturated. T(sub f) remained below 210 K throughout the mission(P is greater than 0.75 Pa). R(sub H), conversely, ranged from 1 to well under 0.01 diurnally, due to approximately 50 K temperature variations. To first order, both vapor pressure and its variance are greater during daylight hours. Variance in overnight humidity is almost entirely explained by temperature, while atmospheric turbulence contributes substantial variance to daytime humidity. Likewise, data gathered with the TECP aloft reflect higher H2O abundances than at the surface, as well as greater variance. There is evidence for saturation of the atmosphere overnight throughout much of the mission. In virtually every overnight observation, once the atmosphere cooled to T(sub f), water vapor begins to decrease, and tracks air temperature. There is no evidence for substantial decreases in water vapor prior to saturation, as expected for adsorptive exchange. Likewise, there is no evidence of local control of vapor by phases such as perchlorate hydrates hydrated minerals. The daytime average H2O

  16. Small and Large-scale Drivers of Denitrification Patterns in "Accidental" Urban Wetlands in Phoenix, Arizona

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suchy, A. K.; Palta, M. M.; Childers, D. L.; Stromberg, J. C.

    2014-12-01

    Understanding spatial and temporal patterns of microbial conversion of nitrate (NO3-) to nitrogen (N) gas (denitrification) is important for predicting permanent losses of reactive N from systems. In many landscapes, wetlands serve as hotpots of denitrification by providing optimal condition for denitrifiers (sub-oxic, carbon-rich sediments). Much research on denitrification has occurred in non-urban or highly managed urban wetlands. However, in urban landscapes N-rich stormwater is often discharged into areas not designed or managed to reduce N loads. "Accidental" wetlands forming at these outfalls may have the capacity to remove NO3-; however, these "accidental" urban wetlands can contain novel soils and vegetation, and are subject to unique hydrologic conditions that could create spatial and temporal patterns of denitrification that differ from those predicted in non-urban counterparts. We performed denitrification enzyme assays (measuring denitrification potential, or DP) on soil samples taken from nine wetlands forming at storm drain outfalls in Phoenix, AZ. The wetlands ranged from perennially flooded, to intermittently flooded (~9 months/year), to ephemerally flooded (2-3 weeks/year). To assess spatial variation in carbon availability to denitrifiers, samples were taken from 3-4 dominant vegetation patch types within each wetland. To assess temporal variation in DP, samples were taken across three seasons differing in rainfall pattern. We found small- and large-scale spatiotemporal patterns in DP that have important implications for management of urban wetlands for stormwater quality. DP varied among plant patches and was typically highest in patches of Ludwigia peploides, indicating that plant species type may mediate within-wetland variations in carbon availability, and therefore NO3- removal capacity. We found a range of responses in DP among wetlands to season, which appeared to be driven in part by flood regime: DP in perennially-flooded wetlands was

  17. Influence of urban form on landscape pattern and connectivity in metropolitan regions: a comparative case study of Phoenix, AZ, USA, and Izmir, Turkey.

    PubMed

    Park, Sohyun; Hepcan, Çiğdem C; Hepcan, Şerif; Cook, Edward A

    2014-10-01

    Although ecological connectivity conservation in urban areas has recently been recognized as an important issue, less is known about its relationship to urban form and landscape pattern. This study investigates how urban morphology influences regional ecosystem pattern and landscape connectivity. Two metropolitan landscapes, Phoenix, AZ, USA, and Izmir, Turkey, were compared, both of which are fast-growing regions in their national context. A wide range of variables were considered for identifying natural and urban properties. The natural characteristics include typology of urban ecosystems, urban to natural cover ratio, dominant habitat type, urban biodiversity, landscape context, and connectivity conservation efforts. Urban parameters examine urban form, urban extent, urban cover proportion, growth rate, populations, urban gradient, major drivers of urbanization, urban density, and mode/approach of urban development. Twelve landscape metrics were measured and compared across the natural patches. Results show that there is little difference in landscape connectivity in the rural zones of Phoenix and Izmir, although Phoenix has slightly higher connectivity values. The connectivity variance in urbanized areas, however, is significantly dependent on the region. For example, Phoenix urban zones have substantially lower connectivity than either urban or suburban zones in Izmir. Findings demonstrate that small and compact urban settlements with more dense populations are more likely to conserve landscape connectivity compared to multiple-concentric but amalgamated urban form spreading all over the landscape (aka urban sprawl).

  18. Historical Archaeology of the United States Industrial Indian School at Phoenix: Investigations of a Turn of the Century Trash Dump. Anthropological Field Studies Number 42.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lindauer, Owen; Ferguson, Deborah; Glass, Margaret; Hatfield, Virginia; McKenna, Jeanette A.; Dering, Phil

    The Phoenix Indian School served as a coeducational, federal educational institution for American Indian primary and secondary students between 1891 and 1990. Covering 10 blocks and enrolling over 600 Indian children aged 8-18, this boarding school used education to assimilate students into Anglo-American culture. This monograph describes…

  19. Not for School, but for Life: Lessons from the Historical Archaeology of the Phoenix Indian School. Office of Cultural Resource Management Report #95.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lindauer, Owen

    The Phoenix Indian School, which served as a coeducational federal boarding school for American Indian students between 1891 and 1990, was partially excavated in 1995. Drawing upon written records, books, student recollections, and the school newspaper, this report summarizes what was learned from the excavation about life at the school. The first…

  20. Analysis of the K-12 Component of the Central Arizona-Phoenix Long-Term Ecological Research (CAP LTER) Project 1998 to 2002

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Banks, Debra L.; Elser,Monica; Saltz, Charlene

    2005-01-01

    The Central Arizona-Phoenix Long-Term Ecological Research (CAP LTER) project includes training elementary and secondary teachers. This training component, Ecology Explorers (EE), prepares teachers in grades 4 through 12 to teach about ecological principles and processes. The EE pedagogy employs scientific inquiry and data collection protocols.…

  1. Stakeholder Views on the Roles, Challenges, and Future Prospects of Korean and Chinese Heritage Language-Community Language Schools in Phoenix: A Comparative Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    You, Byeong-keun; Liu, Na

    2011-01-01

    This study examines stakeholders' perspectives on Korean and Chinese heritage language and community language (HL-CL) schools and education in the Phoenix Metropolitan Area, Arizona. It investigates and compares the roles, major challenges, and future prospects of Korean and Chinese HL-CL schools as viewed by principals, teachers, and parents. To…

  2. Change in land use in the Phoenix (1:250,000) Quadrangle, Arizona between 1970 and 1973: ERTS as an aid in a nationwide program for mapping general land use. [Phoenix Quadrangle, Arizona

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Place, J. L.

    1974-01-01

    Changes in land use between 1970 and 1973 in the Phoenix (1:250,000 scale) Quadrangle in Arizona have been mapped using only the images from ERTS-1, tending to verify the utility of a standard land use classification system proposed for use with ERTS images. Types of changes detected have been: (1) new residential development of former cropland and rangeland; (2) new cropland from the desert; and (3) new reservoir fill-up. The seasonal changing of vegetation patterns in ERTS has complemented air photos in delimiting the boundaries of some land use types. ERTS images, in combination with other sources of information, can assist in mapping the generalized land use of the fifty states by the standard 1:250,000 quadrangles. Several states are already working cooperatively in this type of mapping.

  3. Tissue and cellular localization of tannins in Tunisian dates (Phoenix dactylifera L.) by light and transmission electron microscopy.

    PubMed

    Hammouda, Hédi; Alvarado, Camille; Bouchet, Brigitte; Kalthoum-Chérif, Jamila; Trabelsi-Ayadi, Malika; Guyot, Sylvain

    2014-07-16

    A histological approach including light microscopy and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) was used to provide accurate information on the localization of condensed tannins in the edible tissues and in the stone of date fruits (Phoenix dactylifera L.). Light microscopy was carried out on fresh tissues after staining by 4-dimethylaminocinnamaldehyde (DMACA) for a specific detection of condensed tannins. Thus, whether under light microscopy or transmission electron microscopy (TEM), results showed that tannins are not located in the epidermis but more deeply in the mesocarp in the vacuole of very large cells. Regarding the stones, tannins are found in a specific cell layer located at 50 μm from the sclereid cells of the testa.

  4. Date (Phoenix dactylifera L.) fruit soluble phenolics composition and anti-atherogenic properties in nine Israeli varieties.

    PubMed

    Borochov-Neori, Hamutal; Judeinstein, Sylvie; Greenberg, Amnon; Volkova, Nina; Rosenblat, Mira; Aviram, Michael

    2013-05-08

    Date (Phoenix dactylifera L.) fruit soluble phenolics composition and anti-atherogenic properties were examined in nine diverse Israeli grown varieties. Ethanol and acetone extracts of 'Amari', 'Barhi', 'Deglet Noor', 'Deri', 'Hadrawi', 'Hallawi', 'Hayani', 'Medjool', and 'Zahidi' fruit were analyzed for phenolics composition by RP-HPLC and tested for anti-atherogenicity by measuring their effects on LDL susceptibility to copper ion- and free radical-induced oxidation, and on serum-mediated cholesterol efflux from macrophages. The most frequently detected phenolics were hydroxybenzoates, hydroxycinnamates, and flavonols. Significant differences in phenolics composition were established between varieties as well as extraction solvents. All extracts inhibited LDL oxidation, and most extracts also stimulated cholesterol removal from macrophages. Considerable varietal differences were measured in the levels of the bioactivities. Also, acetone extracts exhibited a significantly higher anti-atherogenic potency for most varieties. The presence of soluble ingredients with anti-atherogenic capacities in dates and the possible involvement of phenolics are discussed.

  5. ESTSS at 20 years: “a phoenix gently rising from a lava flow of European trauma”

    PubMed Central

    Ørner, Roderick J.

    2013-01-01

    Roderick J. Ørner, who was President between 1997 and 1999, traces the phoenix-like origins of the European Society for Traumatic Stress Studies (ESTSS) from an informal business meeting called during the 1st European Conference on Traumatic Stress (ECOTS) in 1987 to its emergence into a formally constituted society. He dwells on the challenges of tendering a trauma society within a continent where trauma has been and remains endemic. ESTSS successes are noted along with a number of personal reflections on activities that give rise to concern for the present as well as its future prospects. Denial of survivors’ experiences and turning away from survivors’ narratives by reframing their experiences to accommodate helpers’ theory-driven imperatives are viewed with alarm. Arguments are presented for making human rights, memory, and ethics core elements of a distinctive European psycho traumatology, which will secure current ESTSS viability and future integrity. PMID:23755328

  6. Spatial patterns of air pollutants and social groups: a distributive environmental justice study in the phoenix metropolitan region of USA.

    PubMed

    Pope, Ronald; Wu, Jianguo; Boone, Christopher

    2016-11-01

    Quantifying spatial distribution patterns of air pollutants is imperative to understand environmental justice issues. Here we present a landscape-based hierarchical approach in which air pollution variables are regressed against population demographics on multiple spatiotemporal scales. Using this approach, we investigated the potential problem of distributive environmental justice in the Phoenix metropolitan region, focusing on ambient ozone and particulate matter. Pollution surfaces (maps) are evaluated against the demographics of class, age, race (African American, Native American), and ethnicity (Hispanic). A hierarchical multiple regression method is used to detect distributive environmental justice relationships. Our results show that significant relationships exist between the dependent and independent variables, signifying possible environmental inequity. Although changing spatiotemporal scales only altered the overall direction of these relationships in a few instances, it did cause the relationship to become nonsignificant in many cases. Several consistent patterns emerged: people aged 17 and under were significant predictors for ambient ozone and particulate matter, but people 65 and older were only predictors for ambient particulate matter. African Americans were strong predictors for ambient particulate matter, while Native Americans were strong predictors for ambient ozone. Hispanics had a strong negative correlation with ambient ozone, but a less consistent positive relationship with ambient particulate matter. Given the legacy conditions endured by minority racial and ethnic groups, and the relative lack of mobility of all the groups, our findings suggest the existence of environmental inequities in the Phoenix metropolitan region. The methodology developed in this study is generalizable with other pollutants to provide a multi-scaled perspective of environmental justice issues.

  7. Monitoring cropping patterns using sequential Landsat imagery: An adaptive threshold approach and its application in Phoenix, AZ

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fan, C.; Zheng, B.; Myint, S. W.; Aggarwal, R.

    2014-12-01

    Cropping intensity is the number of crops grown per year per unit area of cropland. Since 1970s, the Phoenix Active Management Area (AMA) has undergone rapid urbanization mostly via land conversions from agricultural prime lands to urban land use. Agricultural intensification, or multiple cropping, has been observed globally as a positive response to the growing land pressure as a consequence of urbanization and exploding population. Nevertheless, increased cropping intensity has associated local, regional, and global environmental outcomes such as degradation of water quality and soil fertility. Quantifying spatio-temporal patterns of cropping intensity can serve as a first step towards understanding these environmental problems and developing effective and sustainable cropping strategies. In this study, an adaptive threshold method was developed to measure the cropping intensity in the Phoenix AMA from 1995 to 2010 at five-year intervals. The method has several advantages in terms of (1) minimization of errors arising from missing data and noise; (2) ability to distinguish growing cycles from multiple small false peaks in a vegetation index time series; (3) flexibility when dealing with temporal profiles with diffing numbers of observations. The adaptive threshold approach measures the cropping intensity effectively with overall accuracies higher than 97%. Results indicate a dramatic decline in the area of total croplands, single crops, and double crops. A small land conversion was witnessed from single crops into double crops from 1995 to 2000, whereas a reverse trend was observed from 2005 to 2010. Changes in cropping intensity can affect local water consumption. Therefore, joint investigation of cropping patterns and agricultural water use can provide implications for future water demand, which is an increasingly critical issue in this rapidly expanding desert city.

  8. Searching for 300, 000 Degree Gas in the Core of the Phoenix Cluster with HST-COS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McDonald, Michael

    2013-10-01

    The high central density of the intracluster medium in some galaxy clusters suggests that the hot 10,000,000K gas should cool completely in less than a Hubble time. In these clusters, simple cooling models predict 100-1000 solar masses per year of cooling gas should fuel massive starbursts in the central galaxy. The fact that the typical central cluster galaxy is a massive, "red and dead" elliptical galaxy, with little evidence for a cool ISM, has led to the realization of the "cooling flow problem". It is now thought that mechanical feedback from the central supermassive blackhole, in the form of radio-blown bubbles, is offsetting cooling, leading to an exceptionally precise {residuals of less than 10 percent} balance between cooling and feedback in nearly every galaxy cluster in the local Universe. In the recently-discovered Phoenix cluster, where z=0.596, we observe an 800 solar mass per year starburst within the central galaxy which accounts for about 30 percent of the classical cooling prediction for this system. We speculate that this may represent the first "true" cooling flow, with the factor of 3 difference between cooling and star formation being attributed to star formation efficiency, rather than a problem with cooling. In order to test these predictions, we propose far-UV spectroscopic observations of the OVI 1032A emission line, which probes 10^5.5K gas, in the central galaxy of the Phoenix cluster. If detected at the expected levels, this would provide compelling evidence that the starburst is, indeed, fueled by runaway cooling of the intracluster medium, confirming the presence of the first, bonafide cooling flow.

  9. Spatial patterns of air pollutants and social groups: a distributive environmental justice study in the phoenix metropolitan region of USA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pope, Ronald; Wu, Jianguo; Boone, Christopher

    2016-11-01

    Quantifying spatial distribution patterns of air pollutants is imperative to understand environmental justice issues. Here we present a landscape-based hierarchical approach in which air pollution variables are regressed against population demographics on multiple spatiotemporal scales. Using this approach, we investigated the potential problem of distributive environmental justice in the Phoenix metropolitan region, focusing on ambient ozone and particulate matter. Pollution surfaces (maps) are evaluated against the demographics of class, age, race (African American, Native American), and ethnicity (Hispanic). A hierarchical multiple regression method is used to detect distributive environmental justice relationships. Our results show that significant relationships exist between the dependent and independent variables, signifying possible environmental inequity. Although changing spatiotemporal scales only altered the overall direction of these relationships in a few instances, it did cause the relationship to become nonsignificant in many cases. Several consistent patterns emerged: people aged 17 and under were significant predictors for ambient ozone and particulate matter, but people 65 and older were only predictors for ambient particulate matter. African Americans were strong predictors for ambient particulate matter, while Native Americans were strong predictors for ambient ozone. Hispanics had a strong negative correlation with ambient ozone, but a less consistent positive relationship with ambient particulate matter. Given the legacy conditions endured by minority racial and ethnic groups, and the relative lack of mobility of all the groups, our findings suggest the existence of environmental inequities in the Phoenix metropolitan region. The methodology developed in this study is generalizable with other pollutants to provide a multi-scaled perspective of environmental justice issues.

  10. Two-center collaborative evaluation of performance of the BD phoenix automated microbiology system for identification and antimicrobial susceptibility testing of gram-negative bacteria.

    PubMed

    Menozzi, Maria Grazia; Eigner, Ulrich; Covan, Silvia; Rossi, Sabina; Somenzi, Pietro; Dettori, Giuseppe; Chezzi, Carlo; Fahr, Anne-Marie

    2006-11-01

    The performance of the BD Phoenix Automated Microbiology System (BD Diagnostic Systems, Sparks, MD) was assessed for identification (ID) and antimicrobial susceptibility testing (AST) of the majority of clinically encountered bacterial isolates in a European collaborative two-center trial. A total of 494 bacterial isolates including various species of the Enterobacteriaceae and 110 nonfermentative gram-negative bacteria were investigated: of these, 385 were single patient isolates, and 109 were challenge strains tested at one center. The performance of the Phoenix extended-spectrum beta-lactamase (ESBL) test was also evaluated for 203 strains of Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumoniae, and Klebsiella oxytoca included in the study. Forty-two antimicrobial drugs were tested, including members of the following drug classes: aminoglycosides, beta-lactam antibiotics, beta-lactam/beta-lactamase inhibitors, carbapenems, cephems, monobactams, folate antagonists, quinolones, and others. Phoenix system ID results were compared to those of the laboratories' routine ID systems (API 20E and API CHE, ATB ID32E, ID32GN, and VITEK 2 [bioMérieux, Marcy l'Etoile, France]); Phoenix AST results were compared to those of frozen standard broth microdilution (SBM) panels according to NCCLS (now CLSI) guidelines (NCCLS document M100-S9, approved standard M7-A4). Discrepant results were repeated in duplicate. Concordant IDs of 98.4 and 99.1% were observed for the Enterobacteriaceae and the nonfermentative group, respectively. For AST results, the overall essential agreement was 94.2%; the category agreement was 97.3%; and the very major error rate, major error rate, and minor error rate were 1.6, 0.6, and 1.9%, respectively. In terms of ESBL detection, Phoenix results were 98.5% concordant with those of the reference system, with 98.0% sensitivity and 98.7% specificity. In conclusion, the Phoenix ID results showed high agreement with results of the systems to which they were being

  11. Revegetation Study of Adobe Dam, Phoenix, Arizona. Task 3. Revision. Revegetation Methods for Arid Areas.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1983-08-18

    This report describes the site characteristics of the Adobe Dam Study Area. Task No. 5 & 7 Seeding Success on Topsoiled and Hard Topspoles Slopes at...Ddobe Dam". This report presents statisfied analysis of the relative success of several seeding methods used at the Adobe Dam site. Task No.6...to moisture stress , soil fertility and toxicity problems are also common on areas in need of revegetation. Several agencies deal successfully with

  12. ATR-FTIR characterization of organic functional groups and inorganic ions in ambient aerosols at a rural site

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Coury, Charity; Dillner, Ann M.

    An Attenuated Total Reflectance-Fourier Transform Infrared (ATR-FTIR) spectroscopic method was used to measure organic functional groups and inorganic ions at Tonto National Monument (TNM), an Interagency Monitoring of Protected Visual Environments (IMPROVE) sampling site in a rural area near Phoenix, Arizona. Functional groups and ions from common aerosol compound classes such as aliphatic and aromatic CH, methylene, methyl, aldehydes/ketones, carboxylic acids, ammonium sulfate and nitrate as well as functional groups from difficult to measure compound classes such as esters/lactones, acid anhydrides, carbohydrate hydroxyl and ethers, amino acids, and amines were quantified. On average, ˜33% of the PM 1.0 mass was composed of organic aerosol. The average (standard deviation) composition of the organic aerosol at TNM was 34% (6%) biogenic functional groups, 21% (5%) oxygenated functional groups, 28% (7%) aliphatic hydrocarbon functional groups (aliphatic CH, methylene and methyl) and 17% (1%) aromatic hydrocarbon functional groups. Compositional analysis, functional group correlations, and back trajectories were used to identify three types of events with source signatures: primary biogenic-influenced, urban-influenced, and regional background. The biogenic-influenced event had high concentrations of amino acids and carbohydrate hydroxyl and ether, as well as aliphatic CH and aromatic CH functional groups and qualitatively high levels of silicate. The urban-influenced events had back trajectories traveling directly from the Phoenix area and high concentrations of hydrocarbons, oxygenated functional groups, and inorganic ions. This aerosol characterization suggests that both primary emissions in Phoenix and secondary formation of aerosols from Phoenix emissions had a major impact on the aerosol composition and concentration at TNM. The regional background source had low concentrations of all functional groups, but had higher concentrations of biogenic functional

  13. Date (Phoenix dactylifera) Polyphenolics and Other Bioactive Compounds: A Traditional Islamic Remedy's Potential in Prevention of Cell Damage, Cancer Therapeutics and Beyond.

    PubMed

    Yasin, Bibi R; El-Fawal, Hassan A N; Mousa, Shaker A

    2015-12-17

    This review analyzes current studies of the therapeutic effects of Phoenix dactylifera, or date palm fruit, on the physiologic system. Specifically, we sought to summarize the effects of its application in preventing cell damage, improving cancer therapeutics and reducing damage caused by conventional chemotherapy. Phoenix dactylifera exhibits potent anti-oxidative properties both in vitro and in vivo. This allows the fruit to prevent depletion of intrinsic protection from oxidative cell damage and assist these defense systems in reducing cell damage. Macroscopically, this mechanism may be relevant to the prevention of various adverse drug events common to chemotherapy including hepatotoxicity, nephrotoxicity, gastrotoxicity, and peripheral neuropathy. While such effects have only been studied in small animal systems, research suggests a potential application to more complex mammalian systems and perhaps a solution to some problems of chemotherapy in hepato-compromised and nephro-compromised patients.

  14. Date (Phoenix dactylifera) Polyphenolics and Other Bioactive Compounds: A Traditional Islamic Remedy’s Potential in Prevention of Cell Damage, Cancer Therapeutics and Beyond

    PubMed Central

    Yasin, Bibi R.; El-Fawal, Hassan A. N.; Mousa, Shaker A.

    2015-01-01

    This review analyzes current studies of the therapeutic effects of Phoenix dactylifera, or date palm fruit, on the physiologic system. Specifically, we sought to summarize the effects of its application in preventing cell damage, improving cancer therapeutics and reducing damage caused by conventional chemotherapy. Phoenix dactylifera exhibits potent anti-oxidative properties both in vitro and in vivo. This allows the fruit to prevent depletion of intrinsic protection from oxidative cell damage and assist these defense systems in reducing cell damage. Macroscopically, this mechanism may be relevant to the prevention of various adverse drug events common to chemotherapy including hepatotoxicity, nephrotoxicity, gastrotoxicity, and peripheral neuropathy. While such effects have only been studied in small animal systems, research suggests a potential application to more complex mammalian systems and perhaps a solution to some problems of chemotherapy in hepato-compromised and nephro-compromised patients. PMID:26694370

  15. Mt Pamola, the Electromagnetic Field, EMF, Thunderbird, Mothman and Environmental Monitoring Signals Via the Southern Constellation Phoenix As Detectable In Potato Cave, Acton, MA.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pecora, Andrea S.; Pawa Matagamon, Sagamo

    2004-03-01

    Just below the peak of Mt Pamola in ME, at the juncture with the Knife Edge, downwardly arcing segments of Earths EMF, are manifested by a faint lotus-blossom-blue, neon-like glow at 3 pm some sunny afternoons. Similarly hued glows, and horizontal but variable-arced segmented trajectories, are somewhat periodically detectable under certain conditions in chambers at Acton, MA. These phenomena curiously have the filled-in profile that precisely matches the outline of the southern constellation Phoenix, which is never visible above the nighttime horizon locally. The stick-figure representation of the constellation Canis Major can also be detected in a chamber at Americas Stonehenge, two hours before it has arisen, at certain times. The sequence of phenomena visible at Acton correctly correlates with eclipses and other alignments of our solar system. Phoenix, a.k.a. Thunderbird and Mothman, is detectable elsewhere in MA.

  16. Phoenix 100 versus Vitek 2 in the identification of gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria: a comprehensive meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Chatzigeorgiou, Kalliopi-Stavroula; Sergentanis, Theodoros N; Tsiodras, Sotirios; Hamodrakas, Stavros J; Bagos, Pantelis G

    2011-09-01

    Phoenix 100 and Vitek 2 (operating with the current colorimetric cards) are commonly used in hospital laboratories for rapid identification of microorganisms. The present meta-analysis aims to evaluate and compare their performance on Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria. The MEDLINE database was searched up to October 2010 for the retrieval of relevant articles. Pooled correct identification rates were derived from random-effects models, using the arcsine transformation. Separate analyses were conducted at the genus and species levels; subanalyses and meta-regression were undertaken to reveal meaningful system- and study-related modifiers. A total of 29 (6,635 isolates) and 19 (4,363 isolates) articles were eligible for Phoenix and colorimetric Vitek 2, respectively. No significant differences were observed between Phoenix and Vitek 2 either at the genus (97.70% versus 97.59%, P = 0.919) or the species (92.51% versus 88.77%, P = 0.149) level. Studies conducted with conventional comparator methods tended to report significantly better results compared to those using molecular reference techniques. Speciation of Staphylococcus aureus was significantly more accurate in comparison to coagulase-negative staphylococci by both Phoenix (99.78% versus 88.42%, P < 0.00001) and Vitek 2 (98.22% versus 91.89%, P = 0.043). Vitek 2 also reached higher correct identification rates for Gram-negative fermenters versus nonfermenters at the genus (99.60% versus 95.90%, P = 0.004) and the species (97.42% versus 84.85%, P = 0.003) level. In conclusion, the accuracy of both systems seems modified by underlying sample- and comparator method-related parameters. Future simultaneous assessment of the instruments against molecular comparator procedures may facilitate interpretation of the current observations.

  17. Mega drought in the Colorado River Basin, water supply, and adaptive scenario planning for the Phoenix Metropolitan Area; simulations using WaterSim 5.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sampson, D. A.

    2015-12-01

    The Decision Center for a Desert City (DCDC), a boundary organization, bridges science and policy (to foster knowledge-based decision making); we study how decisions are made in the face of uncertainty. Our water policy and management model for the Phoenix Metropolitan Area (hereafter "Phoenix"), termed WaterSim, represents one such bridging mechanism. We evaluated the effect of varying the length of drought on water availability for Phoenix. We examined droughts (starting in 2000) lasting 15, 25, and 50 years. We picked a 60-year window of runoff estimates from the paleo reconstruction data for the Colorado River (CO) (1121 through 1180 A.D.), and the two local rivers (1391 through 1450 A.D.), and assumed that the proportional difference in median flow between these periods and the long-term record represented an estimate of potential drought reductions on river flows. This resulted in a 12%, and 19% reduction in flows for the CO River and the Salt-Verde (SV) Rivers, respectively. WaterSim uses 30-year trace periods from the historical flow records to simulate river flow for future projections. We used each 30-year trace from the historical record (1906 to present, CO River; 1945 to present SV Rivers) , and default settings, to simulate 60 year projections of Lake Mead elevation and the accompanying Colorado River water shortages to Phoenix. Overall, elevations for Lake Mead fell below the 1st shortage sharing tier (1075 ft) in 83% of the simulations; 74% of the simulations fell below the 2nd tier (1050 ft), and 64% fell below the 3rd (1025 ft). Length of drought, however, determined the shortage tiers met. Median elevations for droughts ending in 2015, 2025, and 2050 were 1036, 1019, and 967 feet msl, respectively. We present the plausible water futures with adaptive anticipatory scenario planning for the projected reductions in surface water availability to demonstrate decision points for water conservation measures to effectively manage shortage conditions.

  18. Two-Center Collaborative Evaluation of the Performance of the BD Phoenix Automated Microbiology System for Identification and Antimicrobial Susceptibility Testing of Enterococcus spp. and Staphylococcus spp.

    PubMed Central

    Fahr, Anne-Marie; Eigner, Ulrich; Armbrust, Martina; Caganic, Alexandra; Dettori, Giuseppe; Chezzi, Carlo; Bertoncini, Luca; Benecchi, Magda; Menozzi, Maria Grazia

    2003-01-01

    The performance of the BD Phoenix Automated Microbiology System (BD Diagnostic Systems, Sparks, Md.) was assessed for identification (ID) and antimicrobial susceptibility testing (AST) for the majority of clinically encountered bacterial isolates in a European collaborative two-center trial. A total of 469 bacterial isolates of the genera Staphylococcus (275 isolates), Enterococcus (179 isolates), and Streptococcus (15 isolates, for ID only) were investigated; of these, 367 were single patient isolates, and 102 were challenge strains tested at one center. Sixty-four antimicrobial drugs were tested, including the following drug classes: aminoglycosides, beta-lactam antibiotics, beta-lactam-beta-lactamase inhibitors, carbapenems, cephems, folate antagonists, quinolones, glycopeptides, macrolides-lincosamides-streptogramin B (MLS), and others. Phoenix ID results were compared to those of the laboratories' routine ID systems (API 32 Staph, API 32 Strep, and VITEK 2 [bioMérieux, Marcy l'Etoile, France]); Phoenix AST results were compared to those of frozen standard broth microdilution (SBM) panels according to NCCLS guidelines (NCCLS document M 100-S 9, approved standard M 7-A 4). Discrepant results were repeated in duplicate. Concordant IDs of 97.1, 98.9, and 100% were observed for staphylococci, enterococci, and streptococci, respectively. For AST results the overall essential agreement was 93.3%; the category agreement was 97.3%; and the very major error rate, major error rate, and minor error rate were 1.2, 1.9, and 1.3%, respectively. In conclusion, the Phoenix ID results showed high agreement with results of the systems to which they were being compared; the AST performance was highly equivalent to that of the SBM reference method. PMID:12624042

  19. Evaluation of the BD Phoenix SMIC/ID, a new streptococci identification and antimicrobial susceptibility panel, for potential routine use in a university-based clinical microbiology laboratory.

    PubMed

    Kanemitsu, Keiji; Kunishima, Hiroyuki; Inden, Ken; Hatta, Masumitsu; Harigae, Hideo; Ishizawa, Kenichi; Kaku, Mitsuo

    2005-10-01

    We evaluated the new BD Phoenix automated microbiology system (Becton Dickinson Diagnostic Systems, Sparks, MD) SMIC/ID-4 panel for routine identification (ID) and antimicrobial susceptibility testing (AST) of streptococci in a university-based laboratory. Clinical isolates of Streptococcus pneumoniae (n = 92), Streptococcus pyogenes (n = 24), and Streptococcus agalactiae (n = 10) were collected, and comparisons were made with the routine manual methods used in our microbiology laboratory for ID and susceptibility testing. ID concordance with manual methods was 85.9%, 95.8%, and 90.0% for S. pneumoniae, S. pyogenes, and S. agalactiae, respectively. With respect to AST concordance for S. pneumoniae and beta-hemolytic streptococci (S. pyogenes and S. agalactiae) using Phoenix and standard broth microdilution panels, overall essential agreement was 93.0% and 97.5%, respectively, whereas overall category agreement was 92.4% and 98.9%, respectively. Major and minor error rates for S. pneumoniae and beta-hemolytic streptococci were 0.5% and 0.3%, and 7.1% and 0.8%, respectively. Very major errors were not observed in this study. Mean time for ID and AST test completion was 13.6 +/- 1.6, 10.7 +/- 2.4, and 11.2 +/- 2.3 h for S. pneumoniae, S. pyogenes, and S. agalactiae, respectively. We have demonstrated that Phoenix ID results show high agreement with manual ID and that AST performance was equivalent to standard broth microdilution in less time.

  20. Spatiotemporal Patterns, Monitoring Network Design, and Environmental Justice of Air Pollution in the Phoenix Metropolitan Region: A Landscape Approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pope, Ronald L.

    Air pollution is a serious problem in most urban areas around the world, which has a number of negative ecological and human health impacts. As a result, it's vitally important to detect and characterize air pollutants to protect the health of the urban environment and our citizens. An important early step in this process is ensuring that the air pollution monitoring network is properly designed to capture the patterns of pollution and that all social demographics in the urban population are represented. An important aspect in characterizing air pollution patterns is scale in space and time which, along with pattern and process relationships, is a key subject in the field of landscape ecology. Thus, using multiple landscape ecological methods, this dissertation research begins by characterizing and quantifying the multi-scalar patterns of ozone (O3) and particulate matter (PM10) in the Phoenix, Arizona, metropolitan region. Results showed that pollution patterns are scale-dependent, O3 is a regionally-scaled pollutant at longer temporal scales, and PM10 is a locally-scaled pollutant with patterns sensitive to season. Next, this dissertation examines the monitoring network within Maricopa County. Using a novel multiscale indicator-based approach, the adequacy of the network was quantified by integrating inputs from various academic and government stakeholders. Furthermore, deficiencies were spatially defined and recommendations were made on how to strengthen the design of the network. A sustainability ranking system also provided new insight into the strengths and weaknesses of the network. Lastly, the study addresses the question of whether distinct social groups were experiencing inequitable exposure to pollutants - a key issue of distributive environmental injustice. A novel interdisciplinary method using multi-scalar ambient pollution data and hierarchical multiple regression models revealed environmental inequities between air pollutants and race, ethnicity