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Sample records for phosphatase non-receptor type

  1. Protein tyrosine phosphatase non-receptor type 22 gene variants at position 1858 are associated with type 1 and type 2 diabetes in Estonian population.

    PubMed

    Douroudis, K; Prans, E; Haller, K; Nemvalts, V; Rajasalu, T; Tillmann, V; Kisand, K; Uibo, R

    2008-11-01

    Protein tyrosine phosphatase non-receptor type 22 (PTPN22) is considered an important regulator of T-cell activation. Polymorphisms within the PTPN22 gene have been suggested to confer susceptibility to autoimmune endocrine disorders. To evaluate the impact of a functional variation in the PTPN22 gene in type 1 (T1D) and type 2 diabetes (T2D), the PTPN22 C1858T single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) was studied in the population of Estonian origin, including 170 T1D patients, 244 T2D patients and 230 controls. Using two methods for PTPN22 C1858T detection in parallel, we found that not only T1D but also T2D is associated with the PTPN22 1858T allele. The role of PTPN22 gene in the pathogenesis of T2D is yet unclear and needs further investigation.

  2. Role of protein tyrosine phosphatase non-receptor type 7 in the regulation of TNF-α production in RAW 264.7 macrophages.

    PubMed

    Seo, Huiyun; Lee, In-Seon; Park, Jae Eun; Park, Sung Goo; Lee, Do Hee; Park, Byoung Chul; Cho, Sayeon

    2013-01-01

    Protein tyrosine phosphatases play key roles in a diverse range of cellular processes such as differentiation, cell proliferation, apoptosis, immunological signaling, and cytoskeletal function. Protein tyrosine phosphatase non-receptor type 7 (PTPN7), a member of the phosphatase family, specifically inactivates mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs). Here, we report that PTPN7 acts as a regulator of pro-inflammatory TNF-α production in RAW 264.7 cells that are stimulated with lipopolysaccharide (LPS) that acts as an endotoxin and elicits strong immune responses in animals. Stimulation of RAW 264.7 cells with LPS leads to a transient decrease in the levels of PTPN7 mRNA and protein. The overexpression of PTPN7 inhibits LPS-stimulated production of TNF-α. In addition, small interfering RNA (siRNA) analysis showed that knock-down of PTPN7 in RAW 264.7 cells increased TNF-α production. PTPN7 has a negative regulatory function to extracellular signal regulated kinase 1/2 (ERK1/2) and p38 that increase LPS-induced TNF-α production in macrophages. Thus, our data presents PTPN7 as a negative regulator of TNF-α expression and the inflammatory response in macrophages.

  3. Decreased expression of protein tyrosine phosphatase non-receptor type 12 is involved in the proliferation and recurrence of bladder transitional cell carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Piao, Yongrui; Liu, Xiankui; Lin, Zhenhua; Jin, Zhehu; Jin, Xuanshun; Yuan, Kuichang; Wu, Wenyuan

    2015-09-01

    Protein tyrosine phosphatase non-receptor type 12 (PTPN12) has been shown to be involved in the development of a number of types of carcinoma. However, the effect of PTPN12 on the proliferation and recurrence of human bladder transitional cell carcinoma (TCC) is unclear. The present study aimed to investigate the expression and function of PTPN12 in human TCC. Samples from 164 patients with TCC, in addition to 146 patients undergoing bladder surgery for indications other than TCC, were examined. PTPN12 protein expression was examined using immunohistochemistry and western blotting, and PTPN12 mRNA expression was examined using reverse transcription-quantitative polymerase chain reaction. PTPN12 expression was increased following transfection with the PTPN12-expressing, pcDEF3 vector, and PTPN12 expression was decreased by RNA interference, in four TCC cell lines. The proliferation of TCC cells was analyzed by a WST-1 assay and in xenografts on BALB/C nude mice. The effect of PTPN12 on tumor recurrence was analyzed by adhesion, migration and invasion assays in TCC cell lines. PTPN12 expression was significantly decreased in TCC tissues compared with that in normal urothelium, and the level of PTPN12 expression was negatively correlated with tumor size, pathological grade, clinical stage and tumor recurrence. Furthermore, decreased expression of PTPN12 significantly enhanced the proliferation of TCC cells in vitro and in vivo. TCC cells with lower levels of PTPN12 exhibited greater adhesion, migration and invasion. In conclusion, PTPN12 expression is downregulated in human TCC. Restoring PTPN12 activity may represent a novel therapeutic strategy for this disease.

  4. A RP-UFLC Assay for Protein Tyrosine Phosphatases: Focus on Protein Tyrosine Phosphatase Non-Receptor Type 2 (PTPN2)

    PubMed Central

    Duval, Romain; Bui, Linh-Chi; Berthelet, Jérémy; Dairou, Julien; Mathieu, Cécile; Guidez, Fabien; Dupret, Jean-Marie; Cools, Jan; Chomienne, Christine; Rodrigues-Lima, Fernando

    2015-01-01

    Protein tyrosine phosphatases (PTPs) are involved in numerous signaling pathways and dysfunctions of certain of these enzymes have been linked to several human diseases including cancer and autoimmune diseases. PTPN2 is a PTP mainly expressed in hematopoietic cells and involved in growth factor and JAK/STAT signaling pathways. Loss of function analyses in patients with mutation/deletion of the PTPN2 gene and knock-out mouse models indicate that PTPN2 acts as a tumor suppressor in T-cell malignancies and as a regulator of inflammation and immunity. The use of sensitive and quantitative assays is of prime importance to better characterize the biochemical properties of PTPN2 and its biological roles. We report a highly sensitive non-radioactive assay that allows the measurement of the activity of purified PTPN2 and of endogenous PTPN2 immunoprecipitated on agarose beads. The assay relies on separation and quantitation by reverse-phase ultra fast liquid chromatography (RP-UFLC) of a fluorescein-labeled phosphotyrosine peptide substrate derived from the sequence of STAT1. The applicability and reliability of this approach is supported by kinetic and mechanistic studies using PTP inhibitors. More broadly, our PTPN2 assay provides the basis for the design of flexible methods for the measurement of other PTPs. PMID:26040922

  5. A RP-UFLC Assay for Protein Tyrosine Phosphatases: Focus on Protein Tyrosine Phosphatase Non-Receptor Type 2 (PTPN2).

    PubMed

    Duval, Romain; Bui, Linh-Chi; Berthelet, Jérémy; Dairou, Julien; Mathieu, Cécile; Guidez, Fabien; Dupret, Jean-Marie; Cools, Jan; Chomienne, Christine; Rodrigues-Lima, Fernando

    2015-06-04

    Protein tyrosine phosphatases (PTPs) are involved in numerous signaling pathways and dysfunctions of certain of these enzymes have been linked to several human diseases including cancer and autoimmune diseases. PTPN2 is a PTP mainly expressed in hematopoietic cells and involved in growth factor and JAK/STAT signaling pathways. Loss of function analyses in patients with mutation/deletion of the PTPN2 gene and knock-out mouse models indicate that PTPN2 acts as a tumor suppressor in T-cell malignancies and as a regulator of inflammation and immunity. The use of sensitive and quantitative assays is of prime importance to better characterize the biochemical properties of PTPN2 and its biological roles. We report a highly sensitive non-radioactive assay that allows the measurement of the activity of purified PTPN2 and of endogenous PTPN2 immunoprecipitated on agarose beads. The assay relies on separation and quantitation by reverse-phase ultra fast liquid chromatography (RP-UFLC) of a fluorescein-labeled phosphotyrosine peptide substrate derived from the sequence of STAT1. The applicability and reliability of this approach is supported by kinetic and mechanistic studies using PTP inhibitors. More broadly, our PTPN2 assay provides the basis for the design of flexible methods for the measurement of other PTPs.

  6. Protein Tyrosine Phosphatase Non-receptor 22 Gene C1858T Polymorphism in Patients with Coexistent Type 2 Diabetes and Hashimoto’s Thyroiditis

    PubMed Central

    Bulut, Funda; Erol, Deniz; Elyas, Halit; Doğan, Halil; Özdemir, Fethi Ahmet; Keskin, Lezan

    2014-01-01

    Background: A protein tyrosine phosphatase non-receptor type 22 (PTPN22) C1858T gene polymorphism has been reported to be associated with both Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) and Hashimoto’s thyroiditis (HT) separately. However, no study has been conducted to explore the C1858T polymorphism in T2DM and HT coexistent cases up to now. Aims: The study aimed to determine whether a relationship exists or not between the PTPN22 C1858T polymorphism and this coexistent patient group. Study Design: Case-control study. Methods: Peripheral blood samples from 135 T2DM patients, 102 patients with coexistent T2DM+HT, 71 HT patients and 135 healthy controls were collected into ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA) anticoagulant tubes and genomic DNA was extracted. The PTPN22 C1858T polymorphism was analyzed using polymerase chain reaction (PCR) restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) methods. Results: Statistically significant differences were not observed between the patient and control groups. This study demonstrated a statistically significant association between both the CT genotype and the T allele in the female patient group with coexistent T2DM+HT (CT genotype: p=0.04; T allele: p=0.045) with a statistically significant association between the CT genotype and the mean values of body mass index (BMI) and free T3 levels (FT3) (BMI: p=0.044 and FT3: p=0.021) that was detected in the patient group with coexistent T2DM+HT. The minor genotype TT was observed in none of the groups in this study. The CT genotype frequency was [number (frequency): 5 (3.8%), 7 (6.86%), 5 (7.04%), 3 (2.22%), while the T allele frequency was 5 (1.86%), 7 (3.44%), 5 (3.53%) and 3 (1.12%)] in the T2DM, T2DM+HT, HT and control groups, respectively. Conclusion: Our data suggest that the PTPN22 1858T allele and the CT genotype are associated with increased risk in female patients for coexistent T2DM+HT. The CT genotype was associated with high mean BMI and free T3 values in the patient group

  7. pTyr421 cortactin is overexpressed in colon cancer and is dephosphorylated by curcumin: involvement of non-receptor type 1 protein tyrosine phosphatase (PTPN1).

    PubMed

    Radhakrishnan, Vijayababu M; Kojs, Pawel; Young, Gavin; Ramalingam, Rajalakshmy; Jagadish, Bhumasamudram; Mash, Eugene A; Martinez, Jesse D; Ghishan, Fayez K; Kiela, Pawel R

    2014-01-01

    Cortactin (CTTN), first identified as a major substrate of the Src tyrosine kinase, actively participates in branching F-actin assembly and in cell motility and invasion. CTTN gene is amplified and its protein is overexpressed in several types of cancer. The phosphorylated form of cortactin (pTyr(421)) is required for cancer cell motility and invasion. In this study, we demonstrate that a majority of the tested primary colorectal tumor specimens show greatly enhanced expression of pTyr(421)-CTTN, but no change at the mRNA level as compared to healthy subjects, thus suggesting post-translational activation rather than gene amplification in these tumors. Curcumin (diferulolylmethane), a natural compound with promising chemopreventive and chemosensitizing effects, reduced the indirect association of cortactin with the plasma membrane protein fraction in colon adenocarcinoma cells as measured by surface biotinylation, mass spectrometry, and Western blotting. Curcumin significantly decreased the pTyr(421)-CTTN in HCT116 cells and SW480 cells, but was ineffective in HT-29 cells. Curcumin physically interacted with PTPN1 tyrosine phosphatases to increase its activity and lead to dephosphorylation of pTyr(421)-CTTN. PTPN1 inhibition eliminated the effects of curcumin on pTyr(421)-CTTN. Transduction with adenovirally-encoded CTTN increased migration of HCT116, SW480, and HT-29. Curcumin decreased migration of HCT116 and SW480 cells which highly express PTPN1, but not of HT-29 cells with significantly reduced endogenous expression of PTPN1. Curcumin significantly reduced the physical interaction of CTTN and pTyr(421)-CTTN with p120 catenin (CTNND1). Collectively, these data suggest that curcumin is an activator of PTPN1 and can reduce cell motility in colon cancer via dephosphorylation of pTyr(421)-CTTN which could be exploited for novel therapeutic approaches in colon cancer therapy based on tumor pTyr(421)-CTTN expression.

  8. Genotype-Phenotype Associations of the CD-Associated Single Nucleotide Polymorphism within the Gene Locus Encoding Protein Tyrosine Phosphatase Non-Receptor Type 22 in Patients of the Swiss IBD Cohort

    PubMed Central

    Biedermann, Luc; Rossel, Jean-Benoit; Sulz, Michael C.; Frei, Pascal; Scharl, Sylvie; Vavricka, Stephan R.; Fried, Michael; Rogler, Gerhard; Scharl, Michael

    2016-01-01

    Background Protein tyrosine phosphatase non-receptor type 22 (PTPN22) plays an important role in immune cell function and intestinal homeostasis. The single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) rs2476601 within the PTPN22 gene locus results in aberrant function of PTPN22 protein and protects from Crohn’s disease (CD). Here, we investigated associations of PTPN22 SNP rs2476601 in inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) patients in the Swiss IBD Cohort Study (SIBDCS). Methods 2’028 SIBDCS patients (1173 CD and 855 ulcerative colitis (UC) patients) were included. The clinical characteristics were analysed for an association with the presence of the PTPN22 SNP rs2476601 genotypes ‘homozygous variant’ (AA), ‘heterozygous’ (GA) and ‘homozygous wild-type’ (GG). Results 13 patients (0.6%) were homozygous variant (AA) for the PTPN22 polymorphism, 269 (13.3%) heterozygous variant (GA) and 1’746 (86.1%) homozygous wild-type (GG). In CD, AA and GA genotypes were associated with less use of steroids and antibiotics, and reduced prevalence of vitamin D and calcium deficiency. In UC the AA and GA genotype was associated with increased use of azathioprine and anti-TNF antibodies, but significantly less patients with the PTPN22 variant featured malabsorption syndrome (p = 0.026). Conclusion Our study for the first time addressed how presence of SNP rs2476601 within the PTPN22 gene affects clinical characteristics in IBD-patients. Several factors that correlate with more severe disease were found to be less common in CD patients carrying the A-allele, pointing towards a protective role for this variant in affected CD patients. In UC patients however, we found the opposite trend, suggesting a disease-promoting effect of the A-allele. PMID:27467733

  9. Sprouty-related Ena/Vasodilator-stimulated Phosphoprotein Homology 1-Domain-containing Protein (SPRED1), a Tyrosine-Protein Phosphatase Non-receptor Type 11 (SHP2) Substrate in the Ras/Extracellular Signal-regulated Kinase (ERK) Pathway*

    PubMed Central

    Quintanar-Audelo, Martina; Yusoff, Permeen; Sinniah, Saravanan; Chandramouli, Sumana; Guy, Graeme R.

    2011-01-01

    SHP2 is a tyrosine phosphatase involved in the activation of the Ras/ERK signaling pathway downstream of a number of receptor tyrosine kinases. One of the proposed mechanisms involving SHP2 in this context is to dephosphorylate and inactivate inhibitors of the Ras/ERK pathway. Two protein families bearing a unique, common domain, Sprouty and SPRED proteins, are possible candidates because they have been reported to inhibit the Ras/ERK pathway upon FGF activation. We tested whether any of these proteins are likely substrates of SHP2. Our findings indicate that Sprouty2 binds to the C-terminal tail of SHP2, which is an unlikely substrate binding site, whereas SPRED proteins bind to the tyrosine phosphatase domain that is known to be the binding site for its substrates. Overexpressed SHP2 was able to dephosphorylate SPREDs but not Sprouty2. Finally, we found two tyrosine residues on SPRED1 that are required, when phosphorylated, to inhibit Ras/ERK activation and identified Tyr-420 as a specific dephosphorylation target of SHP2. The evidence obtained indicates that SPRED1 is a likely substrate of SHP2, whose tyrosine dephosphorylation is required to attenuate the inhibitory action of SPRED1 in the Ras/ERK pathway. PMID:21531714

  10. Type 2C Protein Phosphatases in Fungi ▿ †

    PubMed Central

    Ariño, Joaquín; Casamayor, Antonio; González, Asier

    2011-01-01

    Type 2C Ser/Thr phosphatases are a remarkable class of protein phosphatases, which are conserved in eukaryotes and involved in a large variety of functional processes. Unlike in other Ser/Thr phosphatases, the catalytic polypeptide is not usually associated with regulatory subunits, and functional specificity is achieved by encoding multiple isoforms. For fungi, most information comes from the study of type 2C protein phosphatase (PP2C) enzymes in Saccharomyces cerevisiae, where seven PP2C-encoding genes (PTC1 to -7) with diverse functions can be found. More recently, data on several Candida albicans PP2C proteins became available, suggesting that some of them can be involved in virulence. In this work we review the available literature on fungal PP2Cs and explore sequence databases to provide a comprehensive overview of these enzymes in fungi. PMID:21076010

  11. Methods to distinguish various types of protein phosphatase activity

    SciTech Connect

    Brautigan, D.L.; Shriner, C.L.

    1988-01-01

    To distinguish the action of protein Tyr(P) and protein Ser(P)/Thr(P) phosphatases on /sup 32/P-labeled phosphoproteins in subcellular fractions different inhibitors and activators are utilized. Comparison of the effects of added compounds provides a convenient, indirect method to characterize dephosphorylation reactions. Protein Tyr(P) phosphatases are specifically inhibited by micromolar Zn2+ or vanadate, and show maximal activity in the presence of EDTA. The other class of cellular phosphatases, specific for protein Ser(P) and Thr(P) residues, are inhibited by fluoride and EDTA. In this class of enzymes two major functional types can be distinguished: those sensitive to inhibition by the heat-stable protein inhibitor-2 and not stimulated by polycations, and those not sensitive to inhibition and stimulated by polycations. Preparation of /sup 32/P-labeled Tyr(P) and Ser(P) phosphoproteins also is presented for the direct measurement of phosphatase activities in preparations by the release of acid-soluble (/sup 32/P)phosphate.

  12. Substrate analysis of Arabidopsis PP2C-type protein phosphatases.

    PubMed

    Umbrasaite, Julija; Schweighofer, Alois; Meskiene, Irute

    2011-01-01

    Protein phosphorylation by protein kinases can be reversed by the action of protein phosphatases. In plants, the Ser/Thr-specific phosphatases dominate among the protein phosphatase families with the type 2C protein phosphatases (PP2Cs) being the most abundant among them. PP2Cs are monomeric enzymes that require metal cations for their activity and are insensitive to known phosphatase inhibitors. PP2Cs were shown to counteract the mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAP kinase/MAPK) activities in plants and to regulate developmental and stress signaling pathways. Studies of PP2C activities can be performed in vitro using recombinant proteins. The potential substrates of PP2Cs can be tested for dephosphorylation by the phosphatase in vitro. We have found that the stress-induced PP2Cs from alfalfa and Arabidopsis interact with stress-activated MAPKs in yeast two-hybrid (Y2H) screens. Consequently, recombinant MAPKs were employed as substrates for dephosphorylation by selected PP2Cs from different family clusters. The members of the PP2C phosphatase family demonstrated specificity toward the substrate already in vitro, supporting the notion that protein phosphatases are specific enzymes. The PP2C from Arabidopsis thaliana cluster B, Arabidopsis PP2C-type phosphatase (AP2C1), and its homolog from Medicago sativa, Medicago PP2C-type phosphatase (MP2C), were able to dephosphorylate and inactivate MAPKs, whereas the ABSCISIC ACID (ABA)-INSENSITIVE 2 (ABI2) and HOMOLOGY TO ABI1 (HAB1) PP2Cs from the distinct Arabidopsis cluster A were not able to do so. The method described here can be used for the determination of PP2C protein activity and for studying the effect of mutations introduced into their catalytic domains.

  13. Type II phosphoinositide 5-phosphatases have unique sensitivities towards fatty acid composition and head group phosphorylation.

    PubMed

    Schmid, Annette C; Wise, Helen M; Mitchell, Christina A; Nussbaum, Robert; Woscholski, Rüdiger

    2004-10-08

    The catalytic properties of the type II phosphoinositide 5-phosphatases of Lowe's oculocerebrorenal syndrome, INPP5B, Synaptojanin1, Synaptojanin2 and SKIP were analysed with respect to their substrate specificity and enzymological properties. Our data reveal that all phosphatases have unique substrate specificities as judged by their corresponding KM and VMax values. They also possessed an exclusive sensitivity towards fatty acid composition, head group phosphorylation and micellar presentation. Thus, the biological function of these enzymes will not just be determined by their corresponding regulatory domains, but will be distinctly influenced by their catalytic properties as well. This suggests that the phosphatase domains fulfil a unique catalytic function that cannot be fully compensated by other phosphatases.

  14. Ginkgolic acids induce neuronal death and activate protein phosphatase type-2C.

    PubMed

    Ahlemeyer, B; Selke, D; Schaper, C; Klumpp, S; Krieglstein, J

    2001-10-26

    The standardized extract from Ginkgo biloba (EGb 761) is used for the treatment of dementia. Because of allergenic and genotoxic effects, ginkgolic acids are restricted in EGb 761 to 5 ppm. The question arises whether ginkgolic acids also have neurotoxic effects. In the present study, ginkgolic acids caused death of cultured chick embryonic neurons in a concentration-dependent manner, in the presence and in the absence of serum. Ginkgolic acids-induced death showed features of apoptosis as we observed chromatin condensation, shrinkage of the nucleus and reduction of the damage by the protein synthesis inhibitor cycloheximide, demonstrating an active type of cell death. However, DNA fragmentation detected by the terminal-transferase-mediated ddUTP-digoxigenin nick-end labeling (TUNEL) assay and caspase-3 activation, which are also considered as hallmarks of apoptosis, were not seen after treatment with 150 microM ginkgolic acids in serum-free medium, a dose which increased the percentage of neurons with chromatin condensation and shrunken nuclei to 88% compared with 25% in serum-deprived, vehicle-treated controls. This suggests that ginkgolic acid-induced death showed signs of apoptosis as well as of necrosis. Ginkgolic acids specifically increased the activity of protein phosphatase type-2C, whereas other protein phosphatases such as protein phosphatases 1A, 2A and 2B, tyrosine phosphatase, and unspecific acid- and alkaline phosphatases were inhibited or remained unchanged, suggesting protein phosphatase 2C to play a role in the neurotoxic effect mediated by ginkgolic acids.

  15. Role of bone-type tissue-nonspecific alkaline phosphatase and PHOSPO1 in vascular calcification.

    PubMed

    Bobryshev, Yuri V; Orekhov, Alexander N; Sobenin, Igor; Chistiakov, Dimitry A

    2014-01-01

    Matrix vesicle (MV)-mediated mineralization is important for bone ossification. However, under certain circumstances such as atherosclerosis, mineralization may occur in the arterial wall. Bone-type tissue-nonspecific alkaline phosphatase (TNAP) hydrolyzes inorganic pyrophosphate (PPi) and generates inorganic phosphate (Pi), which is essential for MV-mediated hydroxyapatite formation. MVs contain another phosphatase, PHOSPHO1, that serves as an additional supplier of Pi. Activation of bone-type tissue-nonspecific alkaline phosphatase (TNAP) in vascular smooth muscle cells precedes vascular calcification. By degrading PPi, TNAP plays a procalcific role changing the Pi/PPi ratio toward mineralization. A pathologic role of bone-type TNAP and PHOSPHO1 make them to be attractive targets for cardiovascular therapy.

  16. CTL0511 from Chlamydia trachomatis Is a Type 2C Protein Phosphatase with Broad Substrate Specificity

    PubMed Central

    Claywell, Ja E.

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Protein phosphorylation has become increasingly recognized for its role in regulating bacterial physiology and virulence. Chlamydia spp. encode two validated Hanks'-type Ser/Thr protein kinases, which typically function with cognate protein phosphatases and appear capable of global protein phosphorylation. Consequently, we sought to identify a Ser/Thr protein phosphatase partner for the chlamydial kinases. CTL0511 from Chlamydia trachomatis L2 434/Bu, which has homologs in all sequenced Chlamydia spp., is a predicted type 2C Ser/Thr protein phosphatase (PP2C). Recombinant maltose-binding protein (MBP)-tagged CTL0511 (rCTL0511) hydrolyzed p-nitrophenyl phosphate (pNPP), a generic phosphatase substrate, in a MnCl2-dependent manner at physiological pH. Assays using phosphopeptide substrates revealed that rCTL0511 can dephosphorylate phosphorylated serine (P-Ser), P-Thr, and P-Tyr residues using either MnCl2 or MgCl2, indicating that metal usage can alter substrate preference. Phosphatase activity was unaffected by PP1, PP2A, and PP3 phosphatase inhibitors, while mutation of conserved PP2C residues significantly inhibited activity. Finally, phosphatase activity was detected in elementary body (EB) and reticulate body (RB) lysates, supporting a role for protein dephosphorylation in chlamydial development. These findings support that CTL0511 is a metal-dependent protein phosphatase with broad substrate specificity, substantiating a reversible phosphorylation network in C. trachomatis. IMPORTANCE Chlamydia spp. are obligate intracellular bacterial pathogens responsible for a variety of diseases in humans and economically important animal species. Our work demonstrates that Chlamydia spp. produce a PP2C capable of dephosphorylating P-Thr, P-Ser, and P-Tyr and that Chlamydia trachomatis EBs and RBs possess phosphatase activity. In conjunction with the chlamydial Hanks'-type kinases Pkn1 and PknD, validation of CTL0511 fulfills the enzymatic requirements for a

  17. Dephosphorylation of cyclin-dependent kinases by type 2C protein phosphatases

    PubMed Central

    Cheng, Aiyang; Ross, Karen E.; Kaldis, Philipp; Solomon, Mark J.

    1999-01-01

    Activating phosphorylation of cyclin-dependent protein kinases (CDKs) is necessary for their kinase activity and cell cycle progression. This phosphorylation is carried out by the Cdk-activating kinase (CAK); in contrast, little is known about the corresponding protein phosphatase. We show that type 2C protein phosphatases (PP2Cs) are responsible for this dephosphorylation of Cdc28p, the major budding yeast CDK. Two yeast PP2Cs, Ptc2p and Ptc3p, display Cdc28p phosphatase activity in vitro and in vivo, and account for ∼90% of Cdc28p phosphatase activity in yeast extracts. Overexpression of PTC2 or PTC3 results in synthetic lethality in strains temperature-sensitive for yeast CAK1, and disruptions of PTC2 and PTC3 suppress the growth defect of a cak1 mutant. Furthermore, PP2C-like enzymes are the predominant phosphatases toward human Cdk2 in HeLa cell extracts, indicating that the substrate specificity of PP2Cs toward CDKs is evolutionarily conserved. PMID:10580002

  18. Extracellular regulation of type IIa receptor protein tyrosine phosphatases: mechanistic insights from structural analyses

    PubMed Central

    Coles, Charlotte H.; Jones, E. Yvonne; Aricescu, A. Radu

    2016-01-01

    The receptor protein tyrosine phosphatases (RPTPs) exhibit a wide repertoire of cellular signalling functions. In particular, type IIa RPTP family members have recently been highlighted as hubs for extracellular interactions in neurons, regulating neuronal extension and guidance, as well as synaptic organisation. In this review, we will discuss the recent progress of structural biology investigations into the architecture of type IIa RPTP ectodomains and their interactions with extracellular ligands. Structural insights, in combination with biophysical and cellular studies, allow us to begin to piece together molecular mechanisms for the transduction and integration of type IIa RPTP signals and to propose hypotheses for future experimental validation. PMID:25234613

  19. A PP6-type phosphatase holoenzyme directly regulates PIN phosphorylation and auxin efflux in Arabidopsis.

    PubMed

    Dai, Mingqiu; Zhang, Chen; Kania, Urszula; Chen, Fang; Xue, Qin; McCray, Tyra; Li, Gang; Qin, Genji; Wakeley, Michelle; Terzaghi, William; Wan, Jianmin; Zhao, Yunde; Xu, Jian; Friml, Jirí; Deng, Xing Wang; Wang, Haiyang

    2012-06-01

    The directional transport of the phytohormone auxin depends on the phosphorylation status and polar localization of PIN-FORMED (PIN) auxin efflux proteins. While PINIOD (PID) kinase is directly involved in the phosphorylation of PIN proteins, the phosphatase holoenzyme complexes that dephosphorylate PIN proteins remain elusive. Here, we demonstrate that mutations simultaneously disrupting the function of Arabidopsis thaliana FyPP1 (for Phytochrome-associated serine/threonine protein phosphatase1) and FyPP3, two homologous genes encoding the catalytic subunits of protein phosphatase6 (PP6), cause elevated accumulation of phosphorylated PIN proteins, correlating with a basal-to-apical shift in subcellular PIN localization. The changes in PIN polarity result in increased root basipetal auxin transport and severe defects, including shorter roots, fewer lateral roots, defective columella cells, root meristem collapse, abnormal cotyledons (small, cup-shaped, or fused cotyledons), and altered leaf venation. Our molecular, biochemical, and genetic data support the notion that FyPP1/3, SAL (for SAPS DOMAIN-LIKE), and PP2AA proteins (RCN1 [for ROOTS CURL IN NAPHTHYLPHTHALAMIC ACID1] or PP2AA1, PP2AA2, and PP2AA3) physically interact to form a novel PP6-type heterotrimeric holoenzyme complex. We also show that FyPP1/3, SAL, and PP2AA interact with a subset of PIN proteins and that for SAL the strength of the interaction depends on the PIN phosphorylation status. Thus, an Arabidopsis PP6-type phosphatase holoenzyme acts antagonistically with PID to direct auxin transport polarity and plant development by directly regulating PIN phosphorylation.

  20. Crystal structures and biochemical studies of human lysophosphatidic acid phosphatase type 6.

    PubMed

    Li, Jun; Dong, Yu; Lü, Xingru; Wang, Lu; Peng, Wei; Zhang, Xuejun C; Rao, Zihe

    2013-07-01

    Lysophosphatidic acid (LPA) is an important bioactive phospholipid involved in cell signaling through Gprotein-coupled receptors pathways. It is also involved in balancing the lipid composition inside the cell, and modulates the function of lipid rafts as an intermediate in phospholipid metabolism. Because of its involvement in these important processes, LPA degradation needs to be regulated as precisely as its production. Lysophosphatidic acid phosphatase type 6 (ACP6) is an LPA-specific acid phosphatase that hydrolyzes LPA to monoacylglycerol (MAG) and phosphate. Here, we report three crystal structures of human ACP6 in complex with malonate, L-(+)-tartrate and tris, respectively. Our analyses revealed that ACP6 possesses a highly conserved Rossmann-foldlike body domain as well as a less conserved cap domain. The vast hydrophobic substrate-binding pocket, which is located between those two domains, is suitable for accommodating LPA, and its shape is different from that of other histidine acid phosphatases, a fact that is consistent with the observed difference in substrate preferences. Our analysis of the binding of three molecules in the active site reveals the involvement of six conserved and crucial residues in binding of the LPA phosphate group and its catalysis. The structure also indicates a water-supplying channel for substrate hydrolysis. Our structural data are consistent with the fact that the enzyme is active as a monomer. In combination with additional mutagenesis and enzyme activity studies, our structural data provide important insights into substrate recognition and the mechanism for catalytic activity of ACP6.

  1. Genetic interaction network of the Saccharomyces cerevisiae type 1 phosphatase Glc7

    PubMed Central

    Logan, Michael R; Nguyen, Thao; Szapiel, Nicolas; Knockleby, James; Por, Hanting; Zadworny, Megan; Neszt, Michael; Harrison, Paul; Bussey, Howard; Mandato, Craig A; Vogel, Jackie; Lesage, Guillaume

    2008-01-01

    Background Protein kinases and phosphatases regulate protein phosphorylation, a critical means of modulating protein function, stability and localization. The identification of functional networks for protein phosphatases has been slow due to their redundant nature and the lack of large-scale analyses. We hypothesized that a genome-scale analysis of genetic interactions using the Synthetic Genetic Array could reveal protein phosphatase functional networks. We apply this approach to the conserved type 1 protein phosphatase Glc7, which regulates numerous cellular processes in budding yeast. Results We created a novel glc7 catalytic mutant (glc7-E101Q). Phenotypic analysis indicates that this novel allele exhibits slow growth and defects in glucose metabolism but normal cell cycle progression and chromosome segregation. This suggests that glc7-E101Q is a hypomorphic glc7 mutant. Synthetic Genetic Array analysis of glc7-E101Q revealed a broad network of 245 synthetic sick/lethal interactions reflecting that many processes are required when Glc7 function is compromised such as histone modification, chromosome segregation and cytokinesis, nutrient sensing and DNA damage. In addition, mitochondrial activity and inheritance and lipid metabolism were identified as new processes involved in buffering Glc7 function. An interaction network among 95 genes genetically interacting with GLC7 was constructed by integration of genetic and physical interaction data. The obtained network has a modular architecture, and the interconnection among the modules reflects the cooperation of the processes buffering Glc7 function. Conclusion We found 245 genes required for the normal growth of the glc7-E101Q mutant. Functional grouping of these genes and analysis of their physical and genetic interaction patterns bring new information on Glc7-regulated processes. PMID:18627629

  2. Mutations in the glucose-6-phosphatase gene that cause glycogen storage disease Type 1a

    SciTech Connect

    Lei, K.J.; Shelly, L.L.; Pan, C.J.; Sidbury, J.B.; Chou, J.Y. )

    1993-10-22

    Glycogen storage disease (GSD) type 1a is caused by the deficiency of d-glucose-6-phosphatase (G6Pase), the key enzyme in glucose homeostasis. Despite both a high incidence and morbidity, the molecular mechanisms underlying this deficiency have eluded characterization. In the present study, the molecular and biochemical characterization of the human G6Pase complementary DNA, its gene, and the expressed protein, which is indistinguishable from human microsomal G6Pase are reported. Several mutations in the G6Pase gene of affected individuals that completely inactivate the enzyme have been identified. These results establish the molecular basis of this disease and open the way for future gene therapy.

  3. Changes in Bone Alkaline Phosphatase and Procollagen Type-1 C-Peptide after Static and Dynamic Exercises

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kubo, Keitaro; Yuki, Kazuhito; Ikebukuro, Toshihiro

    2012-01-01

    We investigated the effects of two types of nonweight-bearing exercise on changes in bone-specific alkaline phosphatase (BAP) and pro-collagen type 1 C-peptide (P1P). BAP is a specific marker of bone synthesis, whereas P1P reflects synthesis of type 1 collagen in other organs as well as bone. Eight participants performed static and dynamic…

  4. Hydroxyindole Carboxylic Acid-Based Inhibitors for Receptor-Type Protein Tyrosine Protein Phosphatase Beta

    PubMed Central

    Zeng, Li-Fan; Zhang, Ruo-Yu; Bai, Yunpeng; Wu, Li; Gunawan, Andrea M.

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Aims: Protein tyrosine phosphatases (PTPs) play an important role in regulating a wide range of cellular processes. Understanding the role of PTPs within these processes has been hampered by a lack of potent and selective PTP inhibitors. Generating potent and selective probes for PTPs remains a significant challenge because of the highly conserved and positively charged PTP active site that also harbors a redox-sensitive Cys residue. Results: We describe a facile method that uses an appropriate hydroxyindole carboxylic acid to anchor the inhibitor to the PTP active site and relies on the secondary binding elements introduced through an amide-focused library to enhance binding affinity for the target PTP and to impart selectivity against off-target phosphatases. Here, we disclose a novel series of hydroxyindole carboxylic acid-based inhibitors for receptor-type tyrosine protein phosphatase beta (RPTPβ), a potential target that is implicated in blood vessel development. The representative RPTPβ inhibitor 8b-1 (L87B44) has an IC50 of 0.38 μM and at least 14-fold selectivity for RPTPβ over a large panel of PTPs. Moreover, 8b-1 also exhibits excellent cellular activity and augments growth factor signaling in HEK293, MDA-MB-468, and human umbilical vein endothelial cells. Innovation: The bicyclic salicylic acid pharmacophore-based focused library approach may provide a potential solution to overcome the bioavailability issue that has plagued the PTP drug discovery field for many years. Conclusion: A novel method is described for the development of bioavailable PTP inhibitors that utilizes bicyclic salicylic acid to anchor the inhibitors to the active site and peripheral site interactions to enhance binding affinity and selectivity. Antioxid. Redox Signal. 20, 2130–2140. PMID:24180557

  5. Alkaline phosphatase determines polyphosphate-induced mineralization in a cell-type independent manner.

    PubMed

    Mikami, Yoshikazu; Tsuda, Hiromasa; Akiyama, Yuko; Honda, Masaki; Shimizu, Noriyoshi; Suzuki, Naoto; Komiyama, Kazuo

    2016-11-01

    Polyphosphate [Poly(P)] has positive effects on osteoblast mineralization; however, the underlying mechanism remains unclear. In addition, it is unknown whether Poly(P) promotes mineralization in soft tissues. We investigated this by using various cells. Poly(P) concentrations of 1 and 0.5 mg/mL yielded high levels of mineralization in ROS17/2.8 osteoblast cells. Similarly, Poly(P) induced mineralization in cell types expressing alkaline phosphatase (ALP), namely, ATDC5 and MC3T3-E1, but not in CHO, C3H10T1/2, C2C12, and 3T3-L1 cells. Furthermore, forced expression of ALP caused Poly(P)-induced mineralization in CHO cells. These results suggest that ALP determines Poly(P)-induced mineralization in a cell-type independent manner.

  6. Changes in the activities of protein phosphatase type 1 and type 2A in sea urchin embryos during early development.

    PubMed

    Kawamoto, M; Fujiwara, A; Yasumasu, I

    2000-08-01

    In the eggs and embryos of sea urchins, the activity of protein phosphatase type 2A (PP2A) increased during the developmental period between fertilization and the morula stage, decreased after the prehatching blastula stage and increased again after hatching. The PP2A activity changed keeping pace with alteration to the activities of cAMP-dependent protein kinase (A kinase), Ca2+/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase (CaM kinase) and casein kinase. Probably, PP2A contributes to the quick turning off of cellular signals because of protein phosphorylation. The activity of protein phosphatase type 1 (PP1) was not detectable up to the morula stage and appreciably increased thereafter. In the isolated nucleus fraction, specific activities of PP1 and PP2A were higher than in whole embryos at all stages in early development. Exponential increase in the number of nuclei because of egg cleavage probably makes PP1 activity detectable in whole embryos after the morula stage. In isolated nuclei, the activities of PP1 and PP2A appreciably decreased after hatching, whereas the activities of A kinase, Ca2+/phospholipid-dependent protein kinase (C kinase) and CaM kinase, as well as casein kinase, became higher. In nuclei, cellular signals caused by protein phosphorylation after hatching do not seem to be turned off by these protein kinases so quickly as before hatching. The PP1 and PP2A in nuclei also seem to contribute to the elimination of signal noise.

  7. Protein tyrosine phosphatase receptor type O regulates development and function of the sensory nervous system.

    PubMed

    Gonzalez-Brito, Manuel R; Bixby, John L

    2009-12-01

    The roles of protein tyrosine phosphatases (PTPs) in differentiation and axon targeting by dorsal root ganglion (DRG) neurons are essentially unknown. The type III transmembrane PTP, PTPRO, is expressed in DRG neurons, and is implicated in the guidance of motor and retinal axons. We examined the role of PTPRO in DRG development and function using PTPRO(-/-) mice. The number of peptidergic nociceptive neurons in the DRG of PTPRO(-/-) mice was significantly decreased, while the total number of sensory neurons appeared unchanged. In addition, spinal pathfinding by both peptidergic and proprioceptive neurons was abnormal in PTPRO(-/-) mice. Lastly, PTPRO(-/-) mice performed abnormally on tests of thermal pain and sensorimotor coordination, suggesting that both nociception and proprioception were perturbed. Our data indicate that PTPRO is required for peptidergic differentiation and process outgrowth of sensory neurons, as well as mature sensory function, and provide the first evidence that RPTPs regulate DRG development.

  8. Differential regulation of S6 phosphorylation by insulin and epidermal growth factor in Swiss mouse 3T3 cells: insulin activation of type 1 phosphatase.

    PubMed Central

    Olivier, A R; Ballou, L M; Thomas, G

    1988-01-01

    Insulin and epidermal growth factor (EGF) induce distinct kinetics of S6 kinase activation and S6 phosphorylation in Swiss 3T3 cells. Both events are differentially regulated by specific phosphatases. The major S6 phosphatase in cell extracts was identified as a type 1 enzyme by its chromatographic properties, its sensitivity to inhibitor 2, and its substrate specificity. This enzyme is different from the major S6 kinase phosphatase, which is a type 2A enzyme. Insulin at physiological concentrations causes up to a 2-fold activation of a type 1 S6 phosphatase, whereas at higher concentrations this effect is significantly diminished. EGF alone has little effect on this enzyme, and with both agents together the total phosphatase activity remains basal. The results are consistent with the phosphorylation state of S6 observed in vivo and suggest a role of phosphatase type 1 in the regulation of protein synthesis. Images PMID:2838844

  9. Glycation Contributes to Interaction Between Human Bone Alkaline Phosphatase and Collagen Type I.

    PubMed

    Halling Linder, Cecilia; Enander, Karin; Magnusson, Per

    2016-03-01

    Bone is a biological composite material comprised primarily of collagen type I and mineral crystals of calcium and phosphate in the form of hydroxyapatite (HA), which together provide its mechanical properties. Bone alkaline phosphatase (ALP), produced by osteoblasts, plays a pivotal role in the mineralization process. Affinity contacts between collagen, mainly type II, and the crown domain of various ALP isozymes were reported in a few in vitro studies in the 1980s and 1990s, but have not attracted much attention since, although such interactions may have important implications for the bone mineralization process. The objective of this study was to investigate the binding properties of human collagen type I to human bone ALP, including the two bone ALP isoforms B1 and B2. ALP from human liver, human placenta and E. coli were also studied. A surface plasmon resonance-based analysis, supported by electrophoresis and blotting, showed that bone ALP binds stronger to collagen type I in comparison with ALPs expressed in non-mineralizing tissues. Further, the B2 isoform binds significantly stronger to collagen type I in comparison with the B1 isoform. Human bone and liver ALP (with identical amino acid composition) displayed pronounced differences in binding, revealing that post-translational glycosylation properties govern these interactions to a large extent. In conclusion, this study presents the first evidence that glycosylation differences in human ALPs are of crucial importance for protein-protein interactions with collagen type I, although the presence of the ALP crown domain may also be necessary. Different binding affinities among the bone ALP isoforms may influence the mineral-collagen interface, mineralization kinetics, and degree of bone matrix mineralization, which are important factors determining the material properties of bone.

  10. Identification of a Mammalian-type Phosphatidylglycerophosphate Phosphatase in the Eubacterium Rhodopirellula baltica*

    PubMed Central

    Teh, Phildrich G.; Chen, Mark J.; Engel, James L.; Worby, Carolyn A.; Manning, Gerard; Dixon, Jack E.; Zhang, Ji

    2013-01-01

    Cardiolipin is a glycerophospholipid found predominantly in the mitochondrial membranes of eukaryotes and in bacterial membranes. Cardiolipin interacts with protein complexes and plays pivotal roles in cellular energy metabolism, membrane dynamics, and stress responses. We recently identified the mitochondrial phosphatase, PTPMT1, as the enzyme that converts phosphatidylglycerolphosphate (PGP) to phosphatidylglycerol, a critical step in the de novo biosynthesis of cardiolipin. Upon examination of PTPMT1 evolutionary distribution, we found a PTPMT1-like phosphatase in the bacterium Rhodopirellula baltica. The purified recombinant enzyme dephosphorylated PGP in vitro. Moreover, its expression restored cardiolipin deficiency and reversed growth impairment in a Saccharomyces cerevisiae mutant lacking the yeast PGP phosphatase, suggesting that it is a bona fide PTPMT1 ortholog. When ectopically expressed, this bacterial PGP phosphatase was localized in the mitochondria of yeast and mammalian cells. Together, our results demonstrate the conservation of function between bacterial and mammalian PTPMT1 orthologs. PMID:23293031

  11. Teaching resources. Protein phosphatases.

    PubMed

    Salton, Stephen R

    2005-03-01

    This Teaching Resource provides lecture notes and slides for a class covering the structure and function of protein phosphatases and is part of the course "Cell Signaling Systems: A Course for Graduate Students." The lecture begins with a discussion of the importance of phosphatases in physiology, recognized by the award of a Nobel Prize in 1992, and then proceeds to describe the two types of protein phosphatases: serine/threonine and tyrosine phosphatases. The information covered includes the structure, regulation, and substrate specificity of protein phosphatases, with an emphasis on their importance in disease and clinical settings.

  12. Functional diversity of mammalian type 2C protein phosphatase isoforms: new tales from an old family.

    PubMed

    Lu, Gang; Wang, Yibin

    2008-02-01

    1. The Type 2C protein phosphatases (PP2C) represent a highly conserved gene family in the mammalian genome. Recent studies have revealed that PP2C isoforms possess unique patterns of tissue and subcellular distribution associated with diverse functionalities. 2. The functional importance of PP2C isoforms has been shown in a plethora of signalling networks controlling cell differentiation, proliferation, growth, survival and metabolism. However, little is known about the regulatory mechanisms of PP2C at the molecular level. It is uncertain how PP2C isoforms are recruited, activated and inactivated during signalling transduction processes. 3. In the present paper, an overview of the critical functions of individual PP2C isoforms in regulating cellular signalling events will be provided, along with our perspectives on the challenging issues to be addressed. It is clear that a better understanding of the complex biological effects elicited by specific signalling pathways involving PP2C isoforms has great potential for developing novel therapies for a variety of human diseases, including cancer, diabetes and neural disorders, as well as cardiovascular diseases.

  13. Protein tyrosine phosphatase 1B inhibitory activities of ursane- and lupane-type triterpenes from Sorbus pohuashanensis.

    PubMed

    Li, Dongxia; Li, Wei; Higai, Koji; Koike, Kazuo

    2014-04-01

    Protein tyrosine phosphatase 1B (PTP1B) is a non-transmembrane protein tyrosine phosphatase, and has received much attention as a molecular target for the treatment of insulin resistance diseases because of its critical roles in negatively regulating insulin- and leptin-signaling cascades. Six ursane-type triterpenes, 3β-acetoxy-urs-12-ene-28-oic acid (1), pomolic acid-3β-acetate (2), pomolic acid (3), ursolaldehyde (4), euscaphic acid (5) and 3β-acetoxy-urs-11-en-28,13-olide (6), and a lupane-type triterpene, betulinic acid (7), from the fruits of Sorbus pohuashanensis, exhibited significant PTP1B inhibitory activity, with IC50 values ranging from 3.5 to 54.8 μM. Kinetics analyses revealed that compounds 2, 3, and 7 are non-competitive PTP1B inhibitors, and compounds 1 and 6 are mixed-type PTP1B inhibitors.

  14. Structural Basis for the Catalytic Activity of Human Serine/Threonine Protein Phosphatase type 5 (PP5)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Swingle, Mark R.; Ciszak, Ewa M.; Honkanen, Richard E.

    2004-01-01

    Serine/threonine protein phosphatase-5 (PP5) is a member of the PPP-gene family of protein phosphatases that is widely expressed in mammalian tissues and is highly conserved among eukaryotes. PP5 associates with several proteins that affect signal transduction networks, including the glucocorticoid receptor (GR)-heat shock protein-90 (Hsp90)-heterocomplex, the CDC16 and CDC27 subunits of the anaphase-promoting complex, elF2alpha kinase, the A subunit of PP2A, the G12-alpha / G13-alpha subunits of heterotrimeric G proteins and DNA-PK. The catalytic domain of PP5 (PP5c) shares 35-45% sequence identity with the catalytic domains of other PPP-phosphatases, including protein phosphatase-1 (PP1), -2A (PP2A), -2B / calcineurin (PP2B), -4 (PP4), -6 (PP6), and -7 (PP7). Like PP1, PP2A and PP4, PP5 is also sensitive to inhibition by okadaic acid, microcystin, cantharidin, tautomycin, and calyculin A. Here we report the crystal structure of the PP5 catalytic domain (PP5c) at a resolution of 1.6 angstroms. From this structure we propose a mechanism for PP5-mediated hydrolysis of phosphoprotein substrates, which requires the precise positioning of two metal ions within a conserved Asp(sup 271)-M(sub 1):M(sub 2)-W(sup 1)-His(sup 304)-Asp(sup 274) catalytic motif. The structure of PP5c provides a possible structural basis for explaining the exceptional catalytic proficiency of protein phosphatases, which are among the most powerful known catalysts. Resolution of the entire C-terminus revealed a novel subdomain, and the structure of the PP5c should also aid development of type-specific inhibitors.

  15. Identification of a novel PP2C-type mitochondrial phosphatase.

    PubMed

    Joshi, Mandar; Jeoung, Nam Ho; Popov, Kirill M; Harris, Robert A

    2007-04-27

    A novel phosphatase has been cloned and partially characterized. It has a mitochondrial leader sequence and its amino acid sequence places it in the PP2C family like two known mitochondrial phosphatases. Western blot analysis of subcellular fractions and confocal microscopy of 3T3L1 preadipocytes expressing the GFP-tagged protein confirm its mitochondrial localization. Western blot analysis indicates that the protein is expressed in several mouse tissues, with highest expression in brain, heart, liver, and kidney. The recombinant protein exhibits Mn(2+)-dependent phosphoserine phosphatase activity against the branched-chain alpha-keto acid dehydrogenase complex, suggesting the enzyme may play a role in regulation of branched chain amino acid catabolism. Whether there are other mitochondrial substrates for the enzyme is not known.

  16. Molecular cloning of magnesium-independent type 2 phosphatidic acid phosphatases from airway smooth muscle.

    PubMed

    Tate, R J; Tolan, D; Pyne, S

    1999-07-01

    Members of the type 2 phosphatidic acid phosphatase (PAP2) family catalyse the dephosphorylation of phosphatidic acid (PA), lysophosphatidate and sphingosine 1-phosphate. Here, we demonstrate the presence of a Mg(2+)-independent and N-ethymaleimide-insensitive PAP2 activity in cultured guinea-pig airway smooth muscle (ASM) cells. Two PAP2 cDNAs of 923 and 926 base pairs were identified and subsequently cloned from these cells. The ORF of the 923 base pair cDNA encoded a protein of 285 amino acids (Mr = 32.1 kDa), which had 94% homology with human PAP2a (hPAP2a) and which probably represents a guinea-pig specific PAP2a (gpPAP2a1). The ORF of the 926 base pair cDNA encoded a protein of 286 amino acids (Mr = 32.1 kDa) which had 84% and 91% homology with hPAP2a and gpPAP2a1, respectively. This protein, termed gpPAP2a2, has two regions (aa 21-33 and 51-74) of marked divergence and altered hydrophobicity compared with hPAP2a and gpPAP2a1. This occurs in the predicted first and second transmembrane domains and at the extremes of the first outer loop. Other significant differences between gpPAP2a1/2 and hPAP2a, hPAP2b and hPAP2c occur at the cytoplasmic C-terminal. Transient expression of gpPAP2a2 in Cos-7 cells resulted in an approx. 4-fold increase in Mg(2+)-independent PAP activity, thereby confirming that gpPAP2a2 is another catalytically active member of an extended PAP2 family.

  17. A PP6-Type Phosphatase Holoenzyme Directly Regulates PIN Phosphorylation and Auxin Efflux in Arabidopsis[C][W

    PubMed Central

    Dai, Mingqiu; Zhang, Chen; Kania, Urszula; Chen, Fang; Xue, Qin; Mccray, Tyra; Li, Gang; Qin, Genji; Wakeley, Michelle; Terzaghi, William; Wan, Jianmin; Zhao, Yunde; Xu, Jian; Friml, Jiří; Deng, Xing Wang; Wang, Haiyang

    2012-01-01

    The directional transport of the phytohormone auxin depends on the phosphorylation status and polar localization of PIN-FORMED (PIN) auxin efflux proteins. While PINIOD (PID) kinase is directly involved in the phosphorylation of PIN proteins, the phosphatase holoenzyme complexes that dephosphorylate PIN proteins remain elusive. Here, we demonstrate that mutations simultaneously disrupting the function of Arabidopsis thaliana FyPP1 (for Phytochrome-associated serine/threonine protein phosphatase1) and FyPP3, two homologous genes encoding the catalytic subunits of protein phosphatase6 (PP6), cause elevated accumulation of phosphorylated PIN proteins, correlating with a basal-to-apical shift in subcellular PIN localization. The changes in PIN polarity result in increased root basipetal auxin transport and severe defects, including shorter roots, fewer lateral roots, defective columella cells, root meristem collapse, abnormal cotyledons (small, cup-shaped, or fused cotyledons), and altered leaf venation. Our molecular, biochemical, and genetic data support the notion that FyPP1/3, SAL (for SAPS DOMAIN-LIKE), and PP2AA proteins (RCN1 [for ROOTS CURL IN NAPHTHYLPHTHALAMIC ACID1] or PP2AA1, PP2AA2, and PP2AA3) physically interact to form a novel PP6-type heterotrimeric holoenzyme complex. We also show that FyPP1/3, SAL, and PP2AA interact with a subset of PIN proteins and that for SAL the strength of the interaction depends on the PIN phosphorylation status. Thus, an Arabidopsis PP6-type phosphatase holoenzyme acts antagonistically with PID to direct auxin transport polarity and plant development by directly regulating PIN phosphorylation. PMID:22715043

  18. Type I glycogen storage diseases: disorders of the glucose-6-phosphatase complex.

    PubMed

    Chou, Janice Yang; Matern, Dietrich; Mansfield, Brian C; Chen, Yuan-Tsong

    2002-03-01

    Glycogen storage disease type I (GSD-I) is a group of autosomal recessive disorders with an incidence of 1 in 100,000. The two major subtypes are GSD-Ia (MIM232200), caused by a deficiency of glucose-6-phosphatase (G6Pase), and GSD-Ib (MIM232220), caused by a deficiency in the glucose-6-phosphate transporter (G6PT). Both G6Pase and G6PT are associated with the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) membrane. G6PT translocates glucose-6-phosphate (G6P) from the cytoplasm into the lumen of the ER, where G6Pase hydrolyses the G6P into glucose and phosphate. Together G6Pase and G6PT maintain glucose homeostasis. G6Pase is expressed in gluconeogenic tissues, the liver, kidney, and intestine. However G6PT, which transports G6P efficiently only in the presence of G6Pase, is expressed ubiquitously. This suggests that G6PT may play other roles in tissues lacking G6Pase. Both GSD-Ia and GSD-Ib patients manifest phenotypic G6Pase deficiency, characterized by growth retardation, hypoglycemia, hepatomegaly, nephromegaly, hyperlipidemia, hyperuricemia, and lactic academia and the current treatment is a dietary therapy. GSD-Ib patients also suffer from chronic neutropenia and functional deficiencies of neutrophils and monocytes, which is treated with granulocyte colony stimulating factor to restore myeloid function. The GSD-Ia and GSD-Ib genes have been cloned. To date, 76 G6Pase and 69 G6PT mutations have been identified in GSD-I patients. A database of the residual enzymatic activity retained by the G6Pase missense mutants is facilitating the correlation of the disease phenotype with the patients' genotype. While the molecular basis for the GSD-I disorders are now known and symptomatic therapies are available, many aspects of the diseases are still poorly understood, and there are no cures. Recently developed animal models of the disorders are now being exploited to delineate the disease more precisely and develop new, more causative therapies.

  19. A PP2C-type phosphatase dephosphorylates the PII signaling protein in the cyanobacterium Synechocystis PCC 6803.

    PubMed

    Irmler, A; Forchhammer, K

    2001-11-06

    The family of the PII signal transduction proteins contains the most highly conserved signaling proteins in nature. The cyanobacterial PII-homologue transmits signals of the cellular nitrogen status and carbon status through phosphorylation of a seryl-residue. To identify the enzyme responsible for dephosphorylation of the phosphorylated PII protein in Synechocystis PCC 6803, prospective phosphatase encoding genes were inactivated by targeted insertion of kanamycin resistance cassettes. Disruption of ORF sll1771 generates a mutant unable to dephosphorylate PII under various experimental conditions. On the basis of conserved signature motifs, the sll1771 product (termed PphA) is a member of the protein phosphatase 2C (PP2C) superfamily, which is characterized by Mg(2+)/Mn(2+)-dependent catalytic activity. Biochemical analysis of overexpressed and purified PphA confirms its PP2C-type enzymatic properties and demonstrated its reactivity toward the phosphorylated PII protein. Thus, PphA is the first protein phosphatase in Synechocystis PCC 6803 for which the physiological substrate and function is known.

  20. Normal Function of the Yeast TOR Pathway Requires the Type 2C Protein Phosphatase Ptc1▿ †

    PubMed Central

    González, Asier; Ruiz, Amparo; Casamayor, Antonio; Ariño, Joaquín

    2009-01-01

    Yeast ptc1 mutants are rapamycin and caffeine sensitive, suggesting a functional connection between Ptc1 and the TOR pathway that is not shared by most members of the type 2C phosphatase family. Genome-wide profiling revealed that the ptc1 mutation largely attenuates the transcriptional response to rapamycin. The lack of Ptc1 significantly prevents the nuclear translocation of Gln3 and Msn2 transcription factors to the nucleus, as well as the dephosphorylation of the Npr1 kinase, in response to rapamycin. This could explain the observed decrease in both the basal and rapamycin-induced expression of several genes subjected to nitrogen catabolite repression (GAT1, MEP1, and GLN1) and stress response element (STRE)-driven promoters. Interestingly, this decrease is abolished in the absence of the Sit4 phosphatase. Epitasis analysis indicates that the mutation of SIT4 or TIP41, encoding a Tap42-interacting protein, abolishes the sensitivity of the ptc1 strain to rapamycin and caffeine. All of these results suggest that Ptc1 is required for normal TOR signaling, possibly by regulating a step upstream of Sit4 function. According to this hypothesis, we observe that the mutation of PTC1 drastically diminishes the rapamycin-induced interaction between Tap42 and Tip41, and this can be explained by lower-than-normal levels of Tip41 in ptc1 cells. Ptc1 is not necessary for the normal expression of the TIP41 gene; instead, its absence dramatically affects the stability of Tip41. The lack of Ptc1 partially abolishes the rapamycin-induced dephosphorylation of Tip41, which may further decrease Tap42 binding. Reduced Tip41 levels contribute to the ptc1 phenotypes, although additional Ptc1 targets must exist. All of these results provide the first evidence showing that a type 2C protein phosphatase is required for the normal functioning of the TOR pathway. PMID:19273591

  1. Dephosphorylation of human cyclin-dependent kinases by protein phosphatase type 2C alpha and beta 2 isoforms.

    PubMed

    Cheng, A; Kaldis, P; Solomon, M J

    2000-11-03

    We previously reported that the activating phosphorylation on cyclin-dependent kinases in yeast (Cdc28p) and in humans (Cdk2) is removed by type 2C protein phosphatases. In this study, we characterize this PP2C-like activity in HeLa cell extract and determine that it is due to PP2C beta 2, a novel PP2C beta isoform, and to PP2C alpha. PP2C alpha and PP2C beta 2 co-purified with Mg(2+)-dependent Cdk2/Cdk6 phosphatase activity in DEAE-Sepharose, Superdex-200, and Mono Q chromatographies. Moreover, purified recombinant PP2C alpha and PP2C beta 2 proteins efficiently dephosphorylated monomeric Cdk2/Cdk6 in vitro. The dephosphorylation of Cdk2 and Cdk6 by PP2C isoforms was inhibited by the binding of cyclins. We found that the PP2C-like activity in HeLa cell extract, partially purified HeLa PP2C alpha and PP2C beta 2 isoforms, and the recombinant PP2Cs exhibited a comparable substrate preference for a phosphothreonine containing substrate, consistent with the conservation of threonine residues at the site of activating phosphorylation in CDKs.

  2. Evolutionary and Structural Analyses of Mammalian Haloacid Dehalogenase-type Phosphatases AUM and Chronophin Provide Insight into the Basis of Their Different Substrate Specificities*

    PubMed Central

    Seifried, Annegrit; Knobloch, Gunnar; Duraphe, Prashant S.; Segerer, Gabriela; Manhard, Julia; Schindelin, Hermann; Schultz, Jörg; Gohla, Antje

    2014-01-01

    Mammalian haloacid dehalogenase (HAD)-type phosphatases are an emerging family of phosphatases with important functions in physiology and disease, yet little is known about the basis of their substrate specificity. Here, we characterize a previously unexplored HAD family member (gene annotation, phosphoglycolate phosphatase), which we termed AUM, for aspartate-based, ubiquitous, Mg2+-dependent phosphatase. AUM is a tyrosine-specific paralog of the serine/threonine-specific protein and pyridoxal 5′-phosphate-directed HAD phosphatase chronophin. Comparative evolutionary and biochemical analyses reveal that a single, differently conserved residue in the cap domain of either AUM or chronophin is crucial for phosphatase specificity. We have solved the x-ray crystal structure of the AUM cap fused to the catalytic core of chronophin to 2.65 Å resolution and present a detailed view of the catalytic clefts of AUM and chronophin that explains their substrate preferences. Our findings identify a small number of cap domain residues that encode the different substrate specificities of AUM and chronophin. PMID:24338473

  3. Relation between α-isoform and phosphatase activity of Na+,K+-ATPase in rat skeletal muscle fiber types.

    PubMed

    Chaillou, M; Rigoard, P; Fares, M; Francois, C; Sottejeau, Y; Maixent, J M

    2011-07-25

    In skeletal muscle the relationship between Na+,K+-ATPase activity and isoform content remains controversial (9,6). It could be due to the fiber-type content, membrane isolation and analytical methods. We investigated the distribution of subunit α1 and α2 Na+,K+-ATPase catalytic isoforms and the Na+,K+-ATPase activity in isolated membranes from white ( type I and glycolitic fibers) and red (type II and oxidative fibers) skeletal muscles. Red Gastrocnemius and White Gastrocnemius muscles were sampled from 8 week-old female Wistar rats and crude membranes were performed. The Na+,K+-ATPase activity and membrane distribution of Na+,K+-ATPase α1 and α2 isoforms were assessed by ouabain sensitive K-phosphatase (Kpase) measurements and Western Blot respectively. The Na+,K+-ATPase activity was 6 fold lower in White Gastrocnemius membranes than in Red Gastrocnemius membranes. The α1 and α2-isoform levels are higher in RG than in White Gastrocnemius. The α1 and α2-subunit Red Gastrocnemius content was significantly higher than in WG. The correlation between crude membrane Kpase activity and both catalytic α-subunit of the Na+,K+-ATPase exist.These data suggest that the Na+,K+-ATPase phosphatase activity correlates with the α1 and α2 isoforms levels in Red Gastrocnemius and White Gastrocnemius and confirms the fiber-specific Na+,K+-ATPase catalytic α-subunits and α2-isoform as the major catalytic isoform in rat skeletal muscle.

  4. Crystal Structures of Type-II Inositol Polyphosphate 5-Phosphatase INPP5B with Synthetic Inositol Polyphosphate Surrogates Reveal New Mechanistic Insights for the Inositol 5-Phosphatase Family.

    PubMed

    Mills, Stephen J; Silvander, Camilla; Cozier, Gyles; Trésaugues, Lionel; Nordlund, Pär; Potter, Barry V L

    2016-03-08

    The inositol polyphosphate 5-phosphatase INPP5B hydrolyzes the 5-phosphate group from water- and lipid-soluble signaling messengers. Two synthetic benzene and biphenyl polyphosphates (BzP/BiPhPs), simplified surrogates of inositol phosphates and phospholipid headgroups, were identified by thermodynamic studies as potent INPP5B ligands. The X-ray structure of the complex between INPP5B and biphenyl 3,3',4,4',5,5'-hexakisphosphate [BiPh(3,3',4,4',5,5')P6, IC50 5.5 μM] was determined at 2.89 Å resolution. One inhibitor pole locates in the phospholipid headgroup binding site and the second solvent-exposed ring binds to the His-Tag of another INPP5B molecule, while a molecule of inorganic phosphate is also present in the active site. Benzene 1,2,3-trisphosphate [Bz(1,2,3)P3] [one ring of BiPh(3,3',4,4',5,5')P6] inhibits INPP5B ca. 6-fold less potently. Co-crystallization with benzene 1,2,4,5-tetrakisphosphate [Bz(1,2,4,5)P4, IC50 = 6.3 μM] yielded a structure refined at 2.9 Å resolution. Conserved residues among the 5-phosphatase family mediate interactions with Bz(1,2,4,5)P4 and BiPh(3,3',4,4',5,5')P6 similar to those with the polar groups present in positions 1, 4, 5, and 6 on the inositol ring of the substrate. 5-Phosphatase specificity most likely resides in the variable zone located close to the 2- and 3-positions of the inositol ring, offering insights to inhibitor design. We propose that the inorganic phosphate present in the INPP5B-BiPh(3,3',4,4',5,5')P6 complex mimics the postcleavage substrate 5-phosphate released by INPP5B in the catalytic site, allowing elucidation of two new key features in the catalytic mechanism proposed for the family of phosphoinositide 5-phosphatases: first, the involvement of the conserved Arg-451 in the interaction with the 5-phosphate and second, identification of the water molecule that initiates 5-phosphate hydrolysis. Our model also has implications for the proposed "moving metal" mechanism.

  5. Genetic basis of glycogen storage disease type 1a: Prevalent mutations at the glucose-6-phosphatase locus

    SciTech Connect

    Ke-Jian Lei; Hungwen Chen; Ji-Lan Liu

    1995-10-01

    Diagnosis of glycogen storage disease (GSD) type 1a currently is established by demonstrating the lack of glucose-6-phosphatase (G6Pase) activity in the patient`s biopsied liver specimen. Recent cloning of the G6Pase gene and identification of mutations within the gene that causes GSD type 1a allow for the development of a DNA-based diagnostic method. Using SSCP analysis and DNA sequencing, we characterized the G6Pase gene of 70 unrelated patients with enzymatically confirmed diagnosis of GSD type 1a and detected mutations in all except 17 alleles (88%). Sixteen mutations were uncovered that were shown by expression to abolish or greatly reduce G6Pase activity and that therefore are responsible for the GSD type la disorder. R83C and Q347X are the most prevalent mutations found in Caucasians, 130X and R83C are most prevalent in Hispanics, and R83H is most prevalent in Chinese. The Q347X mutation has thus far been identified only in Caucasian patients, and the 130X mutation has been identified only in Hispanic patients. Our results demonstrate that the DNA-based analysis can accurately, rapidly, and noninvasively detect the majority of mutations in GSD type 1a. This DNA-based diagnosis now permits prenatal diagnosis among at-risk patients and serves as a database in screening and counseling patients clinically suspected of having this disease. 22 refs., 2 figs., 4 tabs.

  6. Cloning, sequence, and developmental expression of a type 5, tartrate-resistant, acid phosphatase of rat bone.

    PubMed

    Ek-Rylander, B; Bill, P; Norgård, M; Nilsson, S; Andersson, G

    1991-12-25

    Tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase (TRAP) is a characteristic constituent of osteoclasts and some mononuclear preosteoclasts and, therefore, used as a histochemical and biochemical marker for osteoclasts and bone resorption. We now report the isolation of a 1397-base pair (bp) full-length TRAP/tartrate-resistant acid ATPase (TrATPase) cDNA clone from a neonatal rat calvaria lambda gt11 cDNA library. The cDNA clone consists of a 92-bp untranslated 5'-flank, an open reading frame of 981 bp and a 324-bp untranslated 3'-poly(A)-containing region. The deduced protein sequence of 327 amino acids contains a putative cleavable signal sequence of 21 amino acids. The mature polypeptide of 306 amino acids has a calculated Mr of 34,350 Da and a pI of 9.18, and it contains two potential N-glycosylation sites and the lysosomal targeting sequence DKRFQ. At the protein level, the sequence displays 89-94% homology to TRAP enzymes from human placenta, beef spleen, and uteroferrin and identity to the N terminus of purified rat bone TRAP/TrATPase. An N-terminal amino acid segment is strikingly homologous to the corresponding region in lysosomal and prostatic acid phosphatases. The cDNA recognized a 1.5-kilobase mRNA in long bones and calvaria, and in vitro translation using, as template, mRNA transcribed from the full-length insert yielded an immunoprecipitated product of 34 kDa. In neonatal rats, TRAP/TrATPase mRNA was highly expressed in skeletal tissues, with much lower (less than 10%) levels detected in spleen, thymus, liver, skin, brain, kidney, brain, lung, and heart. In situ hybridization demonstrated specific labeling of osteoclasts at endostal surfaces and bone trabeculae of long bones. Thus, despite the apparent similarity of this osteoclastic TRAP/TrATPase with type 5, tartrate-resistant and purple, acid phosphatases expressed in other mammalian tissues, this gene appears to be preferentially expressed at skeletal sites.

  7. PTPL1: a large phosphatase with a split personality.

    PubMed

    Abaan, Ogan D; Toretsky, Jeffrey A

    2008-06-01

    Protein tyrosine phosphatase, PTPL1, (also known as PTPN13, FAP-1, PTP-BAS, PTP1E) is a non-receptor type PTP and, at 270 kDa, is the largest phosphatase within this group. In addition to the well-conserved PTP domain, PTPL1 contains at least 7 putative macromolecular interaction domains. This structural complexity indicates that PTPL1 may modulate diverse cellular functions, perhaps exerting both positive and negative effects. In accordance with this idea, while certain studies suggest that PTPL1 can act as a tumor-promoting gene other experimental studies have suggested that PTPL1 may function as a tumor suppressor. The role of PTPL1 in the cancer cell is therefore likely to be both complex and context dependent with possible roles including the modulation of growth, stress-response, and cytoskeletal remodeling pathways. Understanding the nature of molecular complexes containing PTPL1, its interaction partners, substrates, regulation and subcellular localization are key to unraveling the complex personality of this protein phosphatase.

  8. Modulation of abscisic acid signaling in vivo by an engineered receptor-insensitive protein phosphatase type 2C allele.

    PubMed

    Dupeux, Florine; Antoni, Regina; Betz, Katja; Santiago, Julia; Gonzalez-Guzman, Miguel; Rodriguez, Lesia; Rubio, Silvia; Park, Sang-Youl; Cutler, Sean R; Rodriguez, Pedro L; Márquez, José A

    2011-05-01

    The plant hormone abscisic acid (ABA) plays a crucial role in the control of the stress response and the regulation of plant growth and development. ABA binding to PYRABACTIN RESISTANCE1 (PYR1)/PYR1-LIKE (PYL)/REGULATORY COMPONENTS OF ABA RECEPTORS intracellular receptors leads to inhibition of key negative regulators of ABA signaling, i.e. clade A protein phosphatases type 2C (PP2Cs) such as ABA-INSENSITIVE1 and HYPERSENSITIVE TO ABA1 (HAB1), causing the activation of the ABA signaling pathway. To gain further understanding on the mechanism of hormone perception, PP2C inhibition, and its implications for ABA signaling, we have performed a structural and functional analysis of the PYR1-ABA-HAB1 complex. Based on structural data, we generated a gain-of-function mutation in a critical residue of the phosphatase, hab1(W385A), which abolished ABA-dependent receptor-mediated PP2C inhibition without impairing basal PP2C activity. As a result, hab1(W385A) caused constitutive inactivation of the protein kinase OST1 even in the presence of ABA and PYR/PYL proteins, in contrast to the receptor-sensitive HAB1, and therefore hab1(W385A) qualifies as a hypermorphic mutation. Expression of hab1(W385A) in Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) plants leads to a strong, dominant ABA insensitivity, which demonstrates that this conserved tryptophan residue can be targeted for the generation of dominant clade A PP2C alleles. Moreover, our data highlight the critical role of molecular interactions mediated by tryptophan-385 equivalent residues for clade A PP2C function in vivo and the mechanism of ABA perception and signaling.

  9. Up-regulation of phosphoinositide metabolism in tobacco cells constitutively expressing the human type I inositol polyphosphate 5-phosphatase

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Perera, Imara Y.; Love, John; Heilmann, Ingo; Thompson, William F.; Boss, Wendy F.; Brown, C. S. (Principal Investigator)

    2002-01-01

    To evaluate the impact of suppressing inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate (InsP(3)) in plants, tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum) cells were transformed with the human type I inositol polyphosphate 5-phosphatase (InsP 5-ptase), an enzyme which specifically hydrolyzes InsP(3). The transgenic cell lines showed a 12- to 25-fold increase in InsP 5-ptase activity in vitro and a 60% to 80% reduction in basal InsP(3) compared with wild-type cells. Stimulation with Mas-7, a synthetic analog of the wasp venom peptide mastoparan, resulted in an approximately 2-fold increase in InsP(3) in both wild-type and transgenic cells. However, even with stimulation, InsP(3) levels in the transgenic cells did not reach wild-type basal values, suggesting that InsP(3) signaling is compromised. Analysis of whole-cell lipids indicated that phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate (PtdInsP(2)), the lipid precursor of InsP(3), was greatly reduced in the transgenic cells. In vitro assays of enzymes involved in PtdInsP(2) metabolism showed that the activity of the PtdInsP(2)-hydrolyzing enzyme phospholipase C was not significantly altered in the transgenic cells. In contrast, the activity of the plasma membrane PtdInsP 5 kinase was increased by approximately 3-fold in the transgenic cells. In vivo labeling studies revealed a greater incorporation of (32)P into PtdInsP(2) in the transgenic cells compared with the wild type, indicating that the rate of PtdInsP(2) synthesis was increased. These studies show that the constitutive expression of the human type I InsP 5-ptase in tobacco cells leads to an up-regulation of the phosphoinositide pathway and highlight the importance of PtdInsP(2) synthesis as a regulatory step in this system.

  10. Myeloid cell-specific inositol polyphosphate-4-phosphatase type I knockout mice impair bacteria clearance in a murine peritonitis model.

    PubMed

    Morioka, Shin; Nigorikawa, Kiyomi; Sasaki, Junko; Hazeki, Kaoru; Kasuu, Yoshihiro; Sasaki, Takehiko; Hazeki, Osamu

    2016-08-01

    Phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K)/Akt signaling has been implicated in the anti-inflammatory response in a mouse model of endotoxemia and sepsis. The present study focused on the role of inositol polyphosphate-4-phosphatase type I (Inpp4a), which dephosphorylates PtdIns(3,4)P2 to PtdIns(3)P, in bacterial infections. We prepared myeloid cell-specific Inpp4a-conditional knockout mice. Macrophages from these mice showed increased Akt phosphorylation and reduced production of inflammatory cytokines in response to LPS or Escherichia coli in vitro The Inpp4a knockout mice survived for a shorter time than wild type mice after i.p. infection with E. coli, with less production of inflammatory cytokines. Additionally, E. coli clearance from blood and lung was significantly impaired in the knockout mice. A likely mechanism is that the Inpp4a-catalyzed dephosphorylation of PtdIns(3,4)P2 down-regulates Akt pathways, which, in turn, increases the production of inflammatory mediators. This mechanism at least fits the decreased E. coli clearance and short survival in the Inpp4a knockout mice.

  11. Polymorphism of the phosphoserine phosphatase gene in Streptococcus thermophilus and its potential use for typing and monitoring of population diversity.

    PubMed

    Ricciardi, Annamaria; De Filippis, Francesca; Zotta, Teresa; Facchiano, Angelo; Ercolini, Danilo; Parente, Eugenio

    2016-11-07

    The phosphoserine phosphatase gene (serB) of Streptococcus thermophilus is the most polymorphic gene among those used in Multilocus Sequence Typing schemes for this species and has been used for both genotyping of isolates and for evaluation of population diversity. However, the information on the potential of this gene as a marker for diversity in S. thermophilus species is still fragmentary. In this study, we evaluated serB nucleotide polymorphism and its potential impact on protein structure using data from traditional sequencing. In addition we evaluated the ability of serB targeted high-throughput sequencing in studying the diversity of S. thermophilus populations in cheese and starter cultures. Data based on traditional cultivation based techniques and sequencing provided evidence that the distribution of serB alleles varies significantly in some environments (commercial starter cultures, traditional starter cultures, cheese). Mutations had relatively little impact on predicted protein structure and were not found in domains that are predicted to be important for its functionality. Cultivation independent, serB targeted high-throughput sequencing provided evidence for significantly different alleles distribution in different cheese types and detected fluctuations in alleles abundance in a mixed strain starter reproduced by backslopping. Notwithstanding some shortcomings of this method that are discussed here, the cultivation independent approach appears to be more sensitive than cultivation based approaches based on isolation and traditional sequencing.

  12. Electrochemical sandwich-type biosensors for α-1 antitrypsin with carbon nanotubes and alkaline phosphatase labeled antibody-silver nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Gangbing; Lee, Hye Jin

    2017-03-15

    A novel sandwich-type biosensor was developed for the electrochemical detection of α-1 antitrypsin (AAT, a recognized biomarker for Alzheimer's disease). The biosensor was composed of 3, 4, 9, 10-perylene tetracarboxylic acid/carbon nanotubes (PTCA-CNTs) as a sensing platform and alkaline phosphatase-labeled AAT antibody functionalized silver nanoparticles (ALP-AAT Ab-Ag NPs) as a signal enhancer. CNTs offer high surface area and good electrical conductivity. Importantly, Ag NPs could increase the amount of ALP on the sensing surface and the ALP could dephosphorylate 4-amino phenyl phosphate (APP) enzymatically to produce electroactive species 4-aminophenol (AP). For detecting AAT based on the sandwich-type biosensor, the results show that the peak current value of AP using ALP-AAT Ab-Ag NPs as signal enhancer is much higher than that by using ALP-AAT Ab bioconjugate (without Ag NPs), the biosensor exhibited desirable performance for AAT determination with a wide linearity in the range from 0.05 to 20.0pM and a low detection limit of 0.01pM. Finally, the developed sensor was successfully applied to the analysis of AAT concentration in serum samples.

  13. Identification of Plasmodium falciparum Translation Initiation eIF2β Subunit: Direct Interaction with Protein Phosphatase Type 1

    PubMed Central

    Tellier, Géraldine; Lenne, Astrid; Cailliau-Maggio, Katia; Cabezas-Cruz, Alejandro; Valdés, James J.; Martoriati, Alain; Aliouat, El M.; Gosset, Pierre; Delaire, Baptiste; Fréville, Aline; Pierrot, Christine; Khalife, Jamal

    2016-01-01

    Protein phosphatase 1 (PP1c) is one of the main phosphatases whose function is shaped by many regulators to confer a specific location and a selective function for this enzyme. Here, we report that eukaryotic initiation factor 2β of Plasmodium falciparum (PfeIF2β) is an interactor of PfPP1c. Sequence analysis of PfeIF2β revealed a deletion of 111 amino acids when compared to its human counterpart and the presence of two potential binding motifs to PfPP1 (29FGEKKK34, 103KVAW106). As expected, we showed that PfeIF2β binds PfeIF2γ and PfeIF5, confirming its canonical interaction with partners of the translation complex. Studies of the PfeIF2β-PfPP1 interaction using wild-type, single and double mutated versions of PfeIF2β revealed that both binding motifs are critical. We next showed that PfeIF2β is able to induce Germinal Vesicle Break Down (GVBD) when expressed in Xenopus oocytes, an indicator of its capacity to regulate PP1. Only combined mutations of both binding motifs abolished the interaction with PP1 and the induction of GVBD. In P. falciparum, although the locus is accessible for genetic manipulation, PfeIF2β seems to play an essential role in intraerythrocytic cycle as no viable knockout parasites were detectable. Interestingly, as for PfPP1, the subcellular fractionation of P. falciparum localized PfeIF2β in cytoplasm and nuclear extracts, suggesting a potential effect on PfPP1 in both compartments and raising the question of a non-canonical function of PfeIf2β in the nucleus. Hence, the role played by PfeIF2β in blood stage parasites could occur at multiple levels involving the binding to proteins of the translational complex and to PfPP1. PMID:27303372

  14. Low molecular weight silk fibroin increases alkaline phosphatase and type I collagen expression in MG63 cells.

    PubMed

    Kim, Jwa-Young; Choi, Je-Yong; Jeong, Jae-Hwan; Jang, Eun-Sik; Kim, An-Sook; Kim, Seong-Gon; Kweon, Hae Yong; Jo, You-Young; Yeo, Joo-Hong

    2010-01-01

    Silk fibroin, produced by the silkworm Bombyx mori, has been widely studied as a scaffold in tissue engineering. Although it has been shown to be slowly biodegradable, cellular responses to degraded silk fibroin fragments are largely unknown. In this study, silk fibroin was added to MG-63 cell cultures, and changes in gene expression in the MG-63 cells were screened by DNA microarray analysis. Genes showing a significant (2-fold) change were selected and their expression changes confirmed by quantitative RT-PCR and western blotting. DNA microarray results showed that alkaline phosphatase (ALP), collagen type-I alpha-1, fibronectin, and transforming growth factor-beta1 expressions significantly increased. The effect of degraded silk fibroin on osteoblastogenic gene expression was confirmed by observing up-regulation of ALP activity in MG-63 cells. The finding that small fragments of silk fibroin are able to increase the expression of osteoblastogenic genes suggests that controlled degradation of silk fibroin might accelerate new bone formation. [BMB reports 2010; 43(1): 52-56].

  15. The type II secretion system (Xcp) of Pseudomonas putida is active and involved in the secretion of phosphatases.

    PubMed

    Putker, Florian; Tommassen-van Boxtel, Ria; Stork, Michiel; Rodríguez-Herva, José J; Koster, Margot; Tommassen, Jan

    2013-10-01

    The genome of the Gram-negative bacterium Pseudomonas putida harbours a complete set of xcp genes for a type II protein secretion system (T2SS). This study shows that expression of these genes is induced under inorganic phosphate (Pi ) limitation and that the system enables the utilization of various organic phosphate sources. A phosphatase of the PhoX family, previously designated UxpB, was identified, which was produced under low Pi conditions and transported across the cell envelope in an Xcp-dependent manner demonstrating that the xcp genes encode an active T2SS. The signal sequence of UxpB contains a twin-arginine translocation (Tat) motif as well as a lipobox, and both processing by leader peptidase II and Tat dependency were experimentally confirmed. Two different tat gene clusters were detected in the P. putida genome, of which one, named tat-1, is located adjacent to the uxpB and xcp genes. Both Tat systems appeared to be capable of transporting the UxpB protein. However, expression of the tat-1 genes was strongly induced by low Pi levels, indicating a function of this system in survival during Pi starvation.

  16. Wild-type p53-induced phosphatase 1 is a prognostic marker and therapeutic target in bladder transitional cell carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Zhi-Peng; Chen, Shu-Yuan; Tian, Ye

    2017-01-01

    Wild-type p53-induced phosphatase (Wip1) is an established oncogene and is associated with development of multiple forms of human cancer. However, the expression and role of Wip1 in human bladder transitional cell carcinoma (TCC) remains to be elucidated. In the present study, immunohistochemistry demonstrated that Wip1 was overexpressed in bladder TCC tissues compared with corresponding normal bladder tissues in 106 bladder TCC cases (P<0.0001). Furthermore, high expression levels of Wip1 were significantly associated with increasing tumor size (P=0.002), pathological grade (P=0.025), clinical T stage (P=0.001) and lymph nodal metastasis (P=0.003). Kaplan-Meier survival analysis identified that patients with high Wip1 expression levels exhibited a lower overall survival time (P<0.0001), and Cox proportional hazards regression model analysis demonstrated that Wip1 expression was an independent prognostic factor in patients with bladder TCC (P=0.025). In addition, downregulation of Wip1 expression by transfection with small interfering RNA in bladder cancer cells inhibited cell proliferation, invasion and migration (P<0.05), along with the upregulation of p53 protein levels (P<0.05). These findings suggest that Wip1 may function as a potential prognostic marker and therapeutic target in bladder cancer. PMID:28356972

  17. Red cell acid phosphatase types and GC polymorphisms in Mérida, Oaxaca, León, and Saltillo, Mexico.

    PubMed

    Lisker, R; Ramírez, E; Peñaloza, R; Salamanca, F

    1994-12-01

    Red cell acid phosphatase types and GC polymorphisms were studied in Mérida and Oaxaca, Mexico. GC polymorphisms were also investigated in León and Saltillo. The ACP*A, ACP*B, and ACP*C gene frequencies were 0.215, 0.770, and 0.015 respectively, in Mérida and 0.205, 0.788, and 0.002, respectively, in Oaxaca. In Oaxaca the ACP*R gene had a frequency of 0.005. The results are similar to other Mestizo groups studied in Mexico; it is concluded that the ACP*C and ACP*R genes were introduced by admixture of native Amerindians with whites and blacks, respectively. The GC*1S, GC*1F, and GC*2 gene frequencies were 0.489, 0.289 and 0.222, respectively, in León; 0.500, 0.272, and 0.228, respectively, in Mérida; 0.454, 0.337, and 0.209, respectively, in Oaxaca; and 0.505, 0.356, and 0.139, respectively, in Saltillo. These results are similar to what has been obtained in other Mestizo populations and Indian groups in Mexico, probably because the main ethnic component in both is Amerindian.

  18. A High Level of Intestinal Alkaline Phosphatase Is Protective Against Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus Irrespective of Obesity.

    PubMed

    Malo, Madhu S

    2015-12-01

    Mice deficient in intestinal alkaline phosphatase (IAP) develop type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). We hypothesized that a high level of IAP might be protective against T2DM in humans. We determined IAP levels in the stools of 202 diabetic patients and 445 healthy non-diabetic control people. We found that compared to controls, T2DM patients have approx. 50% less IAP (mean +/- SEM: 67.4 +/- 3.2 vs 35.3 +/- 2.5 U/g stool, respectively; p < 0.000001) indicating a protective role of IAP against T2DM. Multiple logistic regression analyses showed an independent association between the IAP level and diabetes status. With each 25 U/g decrease in stool IAP, there is a 35% increased risk of diabetes. The study revealed that obese people with high IAP (approx. 65 U/g stool) do not develop T2DM. Approx. 65% of the healthy population have < 65.0 U/g stool IAP, and predictably, these people might have 'the incipient metabolic syndrome', including 'incipient diabetes', and might develop T2DM and other metabolic disorders in the near future. In conclusion, high IAP levels appear to be protective against diabetes irrespective of obesity, and a 'temporal IAP profile' might be a valuable tool for predicting 'the incipient metabolic syndrome', including 'incipient diabetes'.

  19. The role of Saccharomyces cerevisiae type 2A phosphatase in the actin cytoskeleton and in entry into mitosis.

    PubMed Central

    Lin, F C; Arndt, K T

    1995-01-01

    We have prepared a temperature-sensitive Saccharomyces cerevisiae type 2A phosphatase (PP2A) mutant, pph21-102. At the restrictive temperature, the pph21-102 cells arrested predominantly with small or aberrant buds, and their actin cytoskeleton and chitin deposition were abnormal. The involvement of PP2A in bud growth may be due to the role of PP2A in actin distribution during the cell cycle. Moreover, after a shift to the non-permissive temperature, the pph21-102 cells were blocked in G2 and had low activity of Clb2-Cdc28 kinase. Expression of Clb2 from the S.cerevisiae ADH promoter in pph21-102 cells was able to partially bypass the G2 arrest in the first cell cycle, but was not able to stimulate passage through a second mitosis. These cells had higher total amounts of Clb2-Cdc28 kinase activity, but the Clb2-normalized specific activity was lower in the pph21-102 cells compared with wild-type cells. Unlike wild-type strains, a PP2A-deficient strain was sensitive to the loss of MIH1, which is a homolog of the Schizosaccharomyces pombe mitotic inducer cdc25+. Furthermore, the cdc28F19 mutation cured the synthetic defects of a PP2A-deficient strain containing a deletion of MIH1. These results suggest that PP2A is required during G2 for the activation of Clb-Cdc28 kinase complexes for progression into mitosis. Images PMID:7796803

  20. Type 2C Protein Phosphatase Is a Key Regulator of Antiviral Extreme Resistance Limiting Virus Spread

    PubMed Central

    Seo, Jang-Kyun; Kwon, Sun-Jung; Cho, Won Kyong; Choi, Hong-Soo; Kim, Kook-Hyung

    2014-01-01

    Effector-triggered immunity (ETI) is an active immune response triggered by interactions between host resistance proteins and their cognate effectors. Although ETI is often associated with the hypersensitive response (HR), various R genes mediate an HR-independent process known as extreme resistance (ER). In the soybean-Soybean mosaic virus (SMV) pathosystem, the strain-specific CI protein of SMV functions as an effector of Rsv3-mediated ER. In this study, we used the soybean (Rsv3)-SMV (CI) pathosystem to gain insight into the molecular signaling pathway involved in ER. We used genome-wide transcriptome analysis to identify a subset of the type 2C protein phophatase (PP2C) genes that are specifically up-regulated in Rsv3-mediated ER. Gain-of-function analysis of the most significantly expressed soybean PP2C gene, GmPP2C3a, showed that ABA-induced GmPP2C3a functions as a key regulator of Rsv3-mediated ER. Our results further suggest that the primary mechanism of ER against viruses is the inhibition of viral cell-to-cell movement by callose deposition in an ABA signaling-dependent manner. PMID:25082428

  1. Pueraria mirifica extract and puerarin enhance proliferation and expression of alkaline phosphatase and type I collagen in primary baboon osteoblasts.

    PubMed

    Tiyasatkulkovit, Wacharaporn; Malaivijitnond, Suchinda; Charoenphandhu, Narattaphol; Havill, Lorena M; Ford, Allen L; VandeBerg, John L

    2014-10-15

    Phytoestrogen-rich Pueraria mirifica (PM) tuberous extract is a promising candidate for the development of anti-osteoporosis drugs for postmenopausal women, but its action has never been validated in humans or in non-human primates, which are more closely related to humans than rodents. In vitro study of non-human primate osteoblasts is thus fundamental to prepare for in vivo studies of phytoestrogen effects on primate bone. This study aimed to establish a culture system of baboon primary osteoblasts and to investigate the effects of PM extract and its phytoestrogens on these cells. Primary osteoblasts from adult baboon fibulae exhibited osteoblast characteristics in regard to proliferation, differentiation, mineralization, and estrogen receptor expression. They responded to 17β-estradiol by increased proliferation rate and mRNA levels of alkaline phosphatase (ALP), type I collagen, and osteocalcin. After being exposed for 48 h to 100 μg/ml PM extract, 1000 nM genistein, or 1000 nM puerarin, primary baboon osteoblasts markedly increased the rate of proliferation and mRNA levels of ALP and type I collagen without changes in Runx2, osterix, or osteocalcin expression. PM extract, genistein, and puerarin also decreased the RANKL/OPG ratio, suggesting that they could decrease osteoclast-mediated bone resorption. However, neither PM extract nor its phytoestrogens altered calcium deposition in osteoblast culture. In conclusion, we have established baboon primary osteoblast culture, which is a new tool for bone research and drug discovery. Furthermore, the present results provide substantial support for the potential of PM extract and its phytoestrogens to be developed as therapeutic agents against bone fragility.

  2. PrpJ, a PP2C-type protein phosphatase located on the plasma membrane, is involved in heterocyst maturation in the cyanobacterium Anabaena sp. PCC 7120.

    PubMed

    Jang, Jichan; Wang, Li; Jeanjean, Robert; Zhang, Cheng-Cai

    2007-04-01

    Protein phosphatases play important roles in the regulation of cell growth, division and differentiation. The cyanobacterium Anabaena PCC 7120 is able to differentiate heterocysts specialized in nitrogen fixation. To protect the nitrogenase from inactivation by oxygen, heterocyst envelope possesses a layer of polysaccharide and a layer of glycolipids. In the present study, we characterized All1731 (PrpJ), a protein phosphatase from Anabaena PCC 7120. prpJ was constitutively expressed in both vegetative cells and heterocysts. Under diazotrophic conditions, the mutant DeltaprpJ (S20) did not grow, lacked only one of the two heterocyst glycolipids, and fragmented extensively at the junctions between developing cells and vegetative cells. No heterocyst glycolipid layer could be observed in the mutant by electron microscopy. The inactivation of prpJ affected the expression of hglE(A) and nifH, two genes necessary for the formation of the glycolipid layer of heterocysts and the nitrogenase respectively. PrpJ displayed a phosphatase activity characteristic of PP2C-type protein phosphatases, and was localized on the plasma membrane. The function of prpJ establishes a new control point for heterocyst maturation because it regulates the synthesis of only one of the two heterocyst glycolipids while all other genes so far analysed regulate the synthesis of both heterocyst glycolipids.

  3. Structural units important for activity of a novel-type phosphoserine phosphatase from Hydrogenobacter thermophilus TK-6 revealed by crystal structure analysis.

    PubMed

    Chiba, Yoko; Horita, Shoichiro; Ohtsuka, Jun; Arai, Hiroyuki; Nagata, Koji; Igarashi, Yasuo; Tanokura, Masaru; Ishii, Masaharu

    2013-04-19

    Novel-type serine-synthesizing enzymes, termed metal-independent phosphoserine phosphatases (iPSPs), were recently identified and characterized from Hydrogenobacter thermophilus, a chemolithoautotrophic bacterium belonging to the order Aquificales. iPSPs are cofactor-dependent phosphoglycerate mutase (dPGM)-like phosphatases that have significant amino acid sequence similarity to dPGMs but lack phosphoglycerate mutase activity. Genes coding dPGM-like phosphatases have been identified in a broad range of organisms; however, predicting the function of the corresponding proteins based on sequence information alone is difficult due to their diverse substrate preferences. Here, we determined the crystal structure of iPSP1 from H. thermophilus in the apo-form and in complex with its substrate L-phosphoserine to find structural units important for its phosphatase activity toward L-phosphoserine. Structural and biochemical characterization of iPSP1 revealed that the side chains of His(85) and C-terminal region characteristic of iPSP1 are responsible for the PSP activity. The importance of these structural units for PSP activity was confirmed by high PSP activity observed in two novel dPGM-like proteins from Cyanobacteria and Chloroflexus in which the two structural units were conserved. We anticipate that our present findings will facilitate understanding of the serine biosynthesis pathways of organisms that lack gene(s) encoding conventional PSPs, as the structural information revealed here will help to identify iPSP from sequence databases.

  4. Interactions between Type III receptor tyrosine phosphatases and growth factor receptor tyrosine kinases regulate tracheal tube formation in Drosophila.

    PubMed

    Jeon, Mili; Scott, Matthew P; Zinn, Kai

    2012-06-15

    The respiratory (tracheal) system of the Drosophila melanogaster larva is an intricate branched network of air-filled tubes. Its developmental logic is similar in some ways to that of the vertebrate vascular system. We previously described a unique embryonic tracheal tubulogenesis phenotype caused by loss of both of the Type III receptor tyrosine phosphatases (RPTPs), Ptp4E and Ptp10D. In Ptp4E Ptp10D double mutants, the linear tubes in unicellular and terminal tracheal branches are converted into bubble-like cysts that incorporate apical cell surface markers. This tube geometry phenotype is modulated by changes in the activity or expression of the epidermal growth factor receptor (Egfr) tyrosine kinase (TK). Ptp10D physically interacts with Egfr. Here we demonstrate that the Ptp4E Ptp10D phenotype is the consequence of the loss of negative regulation by the RPTPs of three growth factor receptor TKs: Egfr, Breathless and Pvr. Reducing the activity of any of the three kinases by tracheal expression of dominant-negative mutants suppresses cyst formation. By competing dominant-negative and constitutively active kinase mutants against each other, we show that the three RTKs have partially interchangeable activities, so that increasing the activity of one kinase can compensate for the effects of reducing the activity of another. This implies that SH2-domain downstream effectors that are required for the phenotype are likely to be able to interact with phosphotyrosine sites on all three receptor TKs. We also show that the phenotype involves increases in signaling through the MAP kinase and Rho GTPase pathways.

  5. Interactions between Type III receptor tyrosine phosphatases and growth factor receptor tyrosine kinases regulate tracheal tube formation in Drosophila

    PubMed Central

    Jeon, Mili; Scott, Matthew P.; Zinn, Kai

    2012-01-01

    Summary The respiratory (tracheal) system of the Drosophila melanogaster larva is an intricate branched network of air-filled tubes. Its developmental logic is similar in some ways to that of the vertebrate vascular system. We previously described a unique embryonic tracheal tubulogenesis phenotype caused by loss of both of the Type III receptor tyrosine phosphatases (RPTPs), Ptp4E and Ptp10D. In Ptp4E Ptp10D double mutants, the linear tubes in unicellular and terminal tracheal branches are converted into bubble-like cysts that incorporate apical cell surface markers. This tube geometry phenotype is modulated by changes in the activity or expression of the epidermal growth factor receptor (Egfr) tyrosine kinase (TK). Ptp10D physically interacts with Egfr. Here we demonstrate that the Ptp4E Ptp10D phenotype is the consequence of the loss of negative regulation by the RPTPs of three growth factor receptor TKs: Egfr, Breathless and Pvr. Reducing the activity of any of the three kinases by tracheal expression of dominant-negative mutants suppresses cyst formation. By competing dominant-negative and constitutively active kinase mutants against each other, we show that the three RTKs have partially interchangeable activities, so that increasing the activity of one kinase can compensate for the effects of reducing the activity of another. This implies that SH2-domain downstream effectors that are required for the phenotype are likely to be able to interact with phosphotyrosine sites on all three receptor TKs. We also show that the phenotype involves increases in signaling through the MAP kinase and Rho GTPase pathways. PMID:23213447

  6. Overexpression of a phosphatidic acid phosphatase type 2 leads to an increase in triacylglycerol production in oleaginous Rhodococcus strains.

    PubMed

    Hernández, Martín A; Comba, Santiago; Arabolaza, Ana; Gramajo, Hugo; Alvarez, Héctor M

    2015-03-01

    Oleaginous Rhodococcus strains are able to accumulate large amounts of triacylglycerol (TAG). Phosphatidic acid phosphatase (PAP) enzyme catalyzes the dephosphorylation of phosphatidic acid (PA) to yield diacylglycerol (DAG), a key precursor for TAG biosynthesis. Studies to establish its role in lipid metabolism have been mainly focused in eukaryotes but not in bacteria. In this work, we identified and characterized a putative PAP type 2 (PAP2) encoded by the ro00075 gene in Rhodococcus jostii RHA1. Heterologous expression of ro00075 in Escherichia coli resulted in a fourfold increase in PAP activity and twofold in DAG content. The conditional deletion of ro00075 in RHA1 led to a decrease in the content of DAG and TAG, whereas its overexpression in both RHA1 and Rhodococcus opacus PD630 promoted an increase up to 10 to 15 % by cellular dry weight in TAG content. On the other hand, expression of ro00075 in the non-oleaginous strain Rhodococcus fascians F7 promoted an increase in total fatty acid content up to 7 % at the expense of free fatty acid (FFA), DAG, and TAG fractions. Moreover, co-expression of ro00075/atf2 genes resulted in a fourfold increase in total fatty acid content by a further increase of the FFA and TAG fractions. The results of this study suggest that ro00075 encodes for a PAP2 enzyme actively involved in TAG biosynthesis. Overexpression of this gene, as single one or with an atf gene, provides an alternative approach to increase the biosynthesis and accumulation of bacterial oils as a potential source of raw material for biofuel production.

  7. Phosphatase inhibitors remove the run-down of γ-aminobutyric acid type A receptors in the human epileptic brain

    PubMed Central

    Palma, E.; Ragozzino, D. A.; Di Angelantonio, S.; Spinelli, G.; Trettel, F.; Martinez-Torres, A.; Torchia, G.; Arcella, A.; Di Gennaro, G.; Quarato, P. P.; Esposito, V.; Cantore, G.; Miledi, R.; Eusebi, F.

    2004-01-01

    The properties of γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) type A receptors (GABAA receptors) microtransplanted from the human epileptic brain to the plasma membrane of Xenopus oocytes were compared with those recorded directly from neurons, or glial cells, in human brains slices. Cell membranes isolated from brain specimens, surgically obtained from six patients afflicted with drug-resistant temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE) were injected into frog oocytes. Within a few hours, these oocytes acquired GABAA receptors that generated GABA currents with an unusual run-down, which was inhibited by orthovanadate and okadaic acid. In contrast, receptors derived from membranes of a nonepileptic hippocampal uncus, membranes from mouse brain, or recombinant rat α1β2γ2-GABA receptors exhibited a much less pronounced GABA-current run-down. Moreover, the GABAA receptors of pyramidal neurons in temporal neocortex slices from the same six epileptic patients exhibited a stronger run-down than the receptors of rat pyramidal neurons. Interestingly, the GABAA receptors of neighboring glial cells remained substantially stable after repetitive activation. Therefore, the excessive GABA-current run-down observed in the membrane-injected oocytes recapitulates essentially what occurs in neurons, rather than in glial cells. Quantitative RT-PCR analyses from the same TLE neocortex specimens revealed that GABAA-receptor β1, β2, β3, and γ2 subunit mRNAs were significantly overexpressed (8- to 33-fold) compared with control autopsy tissues. Our results suggest that an abnormal GABA-receptor subunit transcription in the TLE brain leads to the expression of run-down-enhanced GABAA receptors. Blockage of phosphatases stabilizes the TLE GABAA receptors and strengthens GABAergic inhibition. It may be that this process can be targeted to develop new treatments for intractable epilepsy. PMID:15218107

  8. A High Level of Intestinal Alkaline Phosphatase Is Protective Against Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus Irrespective of Obesity☆

    PubMed Central

    Malo, Madhu S.

    2015-01-01

    Mice deficient in intestinal alkaline phosphatase (IAP) develop type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). We hypothesized that a high level of IAP might be protective against T2DM in humans. We determined IAP levels in the stools of 202 diabetic patients and 445 healthy non-diabetic control people. We found that compared to controls, T2DM patients have approx. 50% less IAP (mean +/− SEM: 67.4 +/− 3.2 vs 35.3 +/− 2.5 U/g stool, respectively; p < 0.000001) indicating a protective role of IAP against T2DM. Multiple logistic regression analyses showed an independent association between the IAP level and diabetes status. With each 25 U/g decrease in stool IAP, there is a 35% increased risk of diabetes. The study revealed that obese people with high IAP (approx. 65 U/g stool) do not develop T2DM. Approx. 65% of the healthy population have < 65.0 U/g stool IAP, and predictably, these people might have ‘the incipient metabolic syndrome’, including ‘incipient diabetes’, and might develop T2DM and other metabolic disorders in the near future. In conclusion, high IAP levels appear to be protective against diabetes irrespective of obesity, and a ‘temporal IAP profile’ might be a valuable tool for predicting ‘the incipient metabolic syndrome’, including ‘incipient diabetes’. PMID:26844282

  9. TYPE-ONE PROTEIN PHOSPHATASE4 Regulates Pavement Cell Interdigitation by Modulating PIN-FORMED1 Polarity and Trafficking in Arabidopsis1

    PubMed Central

    Guo, Xiaola; Qin, Qianqian; Yan, Jia; Niu, Yali; Huang, Bingyao; Guan, Liping; Li, Yuan; Ren, Dongtao; Li, Jia; Hou, Suiwen

    2015-01-01

    In plants, cell morphogenesis is dependent on intercellular auxin accumulation. The polar subcellular localization of the PIN-FORMED (PIN) protein is crucial for this process. Previous studies have shown that the protein kinase PINOID (PID) and protein phosphatase6-type phosphatase holoenzyme regulate the phosphorylation status of PIN1 in root tips and shoot apices. Here, we show that a type-one protein phosphatase, TOPP4, is essential for the formation of interdigitated pavement cell (PC) pattern in Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) leaf. The dominant-negative mutant topp4-1 showed severely inhibited interdigitated PC growth. Expression of topp4-1 gene in wild-type plants recapitulated the PC defects in the mutant. Genetic analyses suggested that TOPP4 and PIN1 likely function in the same pathway to regulate PC morphogenesis. Furthermore, colocalization, in vitro and in vivo protein interaction studies, and dephosphorylation assays revealed that TOPP4 mediated PIN1 polar localization and endocytic trafficking in PCs by acting antagonistically with PID to modulate the phosphorylation status of PIN1. In addition, TOPP4 affects the cytoskeleton pattern through the Rho of Plant GTPase-dependent auxin-signaling pathway. Therefore, we conclude that TOPP4-regulated PIN1 polar targeting through direct dephosphorylation is crucial for PC morphogenesis in the Arabidopsis leaf. PMID:25560878

  10. Type I glycogen storage diseases: disorders of the glucose-6-phosphatase/glucose-6-phosphate transporter complexes.

    PubMed

    Chou, Janice Y; Jun, Hyun Sik; Mansfield, Brian C

    2015-05-01

    Disorders of the glucose-6-phosphatase (G6Pase)/glucose-6-phosphate transporter (G6PT) complexes consist of three subtypes: glycogen storage disease type Ia (GSD-Ia), deficient in the liver/kidney/intestine-restricted G6Pase-α (or G6PC); GSD-Ib, deficient in a ubiquitously expressed G6PT (or SLC37A4); and G6Pase-β deficiency or severe congenital neutropenia syndrome type 4 (SCN4), deficient in the ubiquitously expressed G6Pase-β (or G6PC3). G6Pase-α and G6Pase-β are glucose-6-phosphate (G6P) hydrolases with active sites lying inside the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) lumen and as such are dependent upon the G6PT to translocate G6P from the cytoplasm into the lumen. The tissue expression profiles of the G6Pase enzymes dictate the disease's phenotype. A functional G6Pase-α/G6PT complex maintains interprandial glucose homeostasis, while a functional G6Pase-β/G6PT complex maintains neutrophil/macrophage energy homeostasis and functionality. G6Pase-β deficiency is not a glycogen storage disease but biochemically it is a GSD-I related syndrome (GSD-Irs). GSD-Ia and GSD-Ib patients manifest a common metabolic phenotype of impaired blood glucose homeostasis not shared by GSD-Irs. GSD-Ib and GSD-Irs patients manifest a common myeloid phenotype of neutropenia and neutrophil/macrophage dysfunction not shared by GSD-Ia. While a disruption of the activity of the G6Pase-α/G6PT complex readily explains why GSD-Ia and GSD-Ib patients exhibit impaired glucose homeostasis, the basis for neutropenia and myeloid dysfunction in GSD-Ib and GSD-Irs are only now starting to be understood. Animal models of all three disorders are now available and are being exploited to both delineate the disease more precisely and develop new treatment approaches, including gene therapy.

  11. A temperature-sensitive splicing mutation in the bimG gene of Aspergillus produces an N-terminal fragment which interferes with type 1 protein phosphatase function.

    PubMed Central

    Hughes, M; Arundhati, A; Lunness, P; Shaw, P J; Doonan, J H

    1996-01-01

    Progression through anaphase requires high levels of type 1 protein phosphatase (PP1) activity in a variety of eukaryotes, including Aspergillus nidulans. A conditional lethal, temperature-sensitive mutant in one of the Aspergillus PP1 genes, bimG, prevents the normal completion of anaphase when cells are grown at restrictive temperature and this has been shown to be due to a reduction in type 1 phosphatase activity. We show that the bimG11 allele is recessive to the wild-type allele in heterozygous diploids, implying that the mutation is due to loss of function at restrictive temperature, but molecular disruption of the wild-type bimG gene shows that the gene is not essential and has no discernable phenotype under laboratory conditions. Sequence comparison of wild-type and mutant alleles reveals a single base pair difference between the two genes, within the 5' splicing site of the second intron. We demonstrate that the conditional lethal phenotype of bimG11 strains is due to impaired splicing of the mutant mRNA and that this leads to the production of a truncated protein comprising an intact N-subdomain and a modified C-terminus. Over-expression of this truncated form of PP1 in a wild-type haploid produces a lethal phenotype and reduced PP1 activity, supporting the idea that a toxic interfering protein is produced. PP1, therefore, may have at least two spatially separated sites, both of which are required for function. Temperature-sensitive splicing mutations may provide a novel means of engineering conditional versions of other proteins, particularly other phosphatases. Images PMID:8887549

  12. High yield expression of serine/threonine protein phosphatase type 5, and a fluorescent assay suitable for use in the detection of catalytic inhibitors

    PubMed Central

    Ni, Li; Swingle, Mark S.; Bourgeois, Austin C.B; Honkanen, Richard E.

    2008-01-01

    Protein phosphatase type 5 (PP5) belongs to the PPP-family of serine/threonine protein phosphatases and is expressed in most, if not all, human tissues. Although the physiological roles played by PP5 are not yet clear, PP5 is found in association with several proteins that influence intracellular signaling networks initiated by hormones (i.e. glucocorticoids) or cellular stress (i.e. hypoxia, oxidative stress). Recently, studies conducted with siRNA and antisense oligonucleotides indicate that PP5 plays an important role in the regulation of stress-induced signaling cascades that influence both cell growth and the onset of apoptosis. Therefore, the identification of small molecule inhibitors of PP5 is desired for use in studies to further define the biological/pathological roles of PP5. Such inhibitors may also prove useful for development into novel antitumor agents. Here we describe methods to express and purify large amounts of biologically active PP5c, an inhibitor-titration based assay to determine the amount of PP5 in solution, and a fluorescent phosphatase assay that can be used to screen chemical libraries and natural extracts for the presence of catalytic inhibitors. PMID:17939754

  13. Regulatory protein phosphorylation in Mycoplasma pneumoniae. A PP2C-type phosphatase serves to dephosphorylate HPr(Ser-P).

    PubMed

    Halbedel, Sven; Busse, Julia; Schmidl, Sebastian R; Stülke, Jörg

    2006-09-08

    Among the few regulatory events in the minimal bacterium Mycoplasma pneumoniae is the phosphorylation of the HPr phosphocarrier protein of the phosphotransferase system. In the presence of glycerol, HPr is phosphorylated in an ATP-dependent manner by the HPr kinase/phosphorylase. The role of the latter enzyme was studied by constructing a M. pneumoniae hprK mutant defective in HPr kinase/phosphorylase. This mutant strain no longer exhibited HPr kinase activity but, surprisingly, still had phosphatase activity toward serine-phosphorylated HPr (HPr(Ser-P)). An inspection of the genome sequence revealed the presence of a gene (prpC) encoding a presumptive protein serine/threonine phosphatase of the PP2C family. The phosphatase PrpC was purified and its biochemical activity in HPr(Ser-P) dephosphorylation demonstrated. Moreover, a prpC mutant strain was isolated and found to be impaired in HPr(Ser-P) dephosphorylation. Homologues of PrpC are present in many bacteria possessing HPr(Ser-P), suggesting that PrpC may play an important role in adjusting the cellular HPr phosphorylation state and thus controlling the diverse regulatory functions exerted by the different forms of HPr.

  14. Role of serine threonine protein phosphatase type 5 (PP5) in the regulation of stress induced signaling networks and cancer

    PubMed Central

    Golden, Teresa; Swingle, Mark; Honkanen, Richard E.

    2008-01-01

    Although the aberrant actions of protein kinases have long been known to contribute to tumor promotion and carcinogenesis, roles for proteins phosphatases in the development of human cancer have only emerged in the last decade. In this review, we discuss the data obtained from studies examining the biological and pathological roles of a serine/threonine protein phosphate, PP5, which suggest that PP5 is a potentially important regulator of both hormone- and stress-induced networks that enable a cell to respond appropriately to genomic stress. PMID:18253812

  15. FERONIA interacts with ABI2-type phosphatases to facilitate signaling cross-talk between abscisic acid and RALF peptide in Arabidopsis

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Jia; Yu, Feng; Liu, Ying; Du, Changqing; Li, Xiushan; Zhu, Sirui; Wang, Xianchun; Lan, Wenzhi; Rodriguez, Pedro L.; Liu, Xuanming; Li, Dongping; Chen, Liangbi; Luan, Sheng

    2016-01-01

    Receptor-like kinase FERONIA (FER) plays a crucial role in plant response to small molecule hormones [e.g., auxin and abscisic acid (ABA)] and peptide signals [e.g., rapid alkalinization factor (RALF)]. It remains unknown how FER integrates these different signaling events in the control of cell growth and stress responses. Under stress conditions, increased levels of ABA will inhibit cell elongation in the roots. In our previous work, we have shown that FER, through activation of the guanine nucleotide exchange factor 1 (GEF1)/4/10-Rho of Plant 11 (ROP11) pathway, enhances the activity of the phosphatase ABA Insensitive 2 (ABI2), a negative regulator of ABA signaling, thereby inhibiting ABA response. In this study, we found that both RALF and ABA activated FER by increasing the phosphorylation level of FER. The FER loss-of-function mutant displayed strong hypersensitivity to both ABA and abiotic stresses such as salt and cold conditions, indicating that FER plays a key role in ABA and stress responses. We further showed that ABI2 directly interacted with and dephosphorylated FER, leading to inhibition of FER activity. Several other ABI2-like phosphatases also function in this pathway, and ABA-dependent FER activation required PYRABACTIN RESISTANCE (PYR)/PYR1-LIKE (PYL)/REGULATORY COMPONENTS OF ABA RECEPTORS (RCAR)–A-type protein phosphatase type 2C (PP2CA) modules. Furthermore, suppression of RALF1 gene expression, similar to disruption of the FER gene, rendered plants hypersensitive to ABA. These results formulated a mechanism for ABA activation of FER and for cross-talk between ABA and peptide hormone RALF in the control of plant growth and responses to stress signals. PMID:27566404

  16. Structural Genomics of Protein Phosphatases

    SciTech Connect

    Almo,S.; Bonanno, J.; Sauder, J.; Emtage, S.; Dilorenzo, T.; Malashkevich, V.; Wasserman, S.; Swaminathan, S.; Eswaramoorthy, S.; et al

    2007-01-01

    The New York SGX Research Center for Structural Genomics (NYSGXRC) of the NIGMS Protein Structure Initiative (PSI) has applied its high-throughput X-ray crystallographic structure determination platform to systematic studies of all human protein phosphatases and protein phosphatases from biomedically-relevant pathogens. To date, the NYSGXRC has determined structures of 21 distinct protein phosphatases: 14 from human, 2 from mouse, 2 from the pathogen Toxoplasma gondii, 1 from Trypanosoma brucei, the parasite responsible for African sleeping sickness, and 2 from the principal mosquito vector of malaria in Africa, Anopheles gambiae. These structures provide insights into both normal and pathophysiologic processes, including transcriptional regulation, regulation of major signaling pathways, neural development, and type 1 diabetes. In conjunction with the contributions of other international structural genomics consortia, these efforts promise to provide an unprecedented database and materials repository for structure-guided experimental and computational discovery of inhibitors for all classes of protein phosphatases.

  17. The Human Adenovirus Type 5 E4orf4 Protein Targets Two Phosphatase Regulators of the Hippo Signaling Pathway

    PubMed Central

    Mui, Melissa Z.; Zhou, Yiwang; Blanchette, Paola; Chughtai, Naila; Knight, Jennifer F.; Gruosso, Tina; Papadakis, Andreas I.; Huang, Sidong; Park, Morag; Gingras, Anne-Claude

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT When expressed alone at high levels, the human adenovirus E4orf4 protein exhibits tumor cell-specific p53-independent toxicity. A major E4orf4 target is the B55 class of PP2A regulatory subunits, and we have shown recently that binding of E4orf4 inhibits PP2AB55 phosphatase activity in a dose-dependent fashion by preventing access of substrates (M. Z. Mui et al., PLoS Pathog 9:e1003742, 2013, http://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.ppat.1003742). While interaction with B55 subunits is essential for toxicity, E4orf4 mutants exist that, despite binding B55 at high levels, are defective in cell killing, suggesting that other essential targets exist. In an attempt to identify additional targets, we undertook a proteomics approach to characterize E4orf4-interacting proteins. Our findings indicated that, in addition to PP2AB55 subunits, ASPP-PP1 complex subunits were found among the major E4orf4-binding species. Both the PP2A and ASPP-PP1 phosphatases are known to positively regulate effectors of the Hippo signaling pathway, which controls the expression of cell growth/survival genes by dephosphorylating the YAP transcriptional coactivator. We find here that expression of E4orf4 results in hyperphosphorylation of YAP, suggesting that Hippo signaling is affected by E4orf4 interactions with PP2AB55 and/or ASPP-PP1 phosphatases. Furthermore, knockdown of YAP1 expression was seen to enhance E4orf4 killing, again consistent with a link between E4orf4 toxicity and inhibition of the Hippo pathway. This effect may in fact contribute to the cancer cell specificity of E4orf4 toxicity, as many human cancer cells rely heavily on the Hippo pathway for their enhanced proliferation. IMPORTANCE The human adenovirus E4orf4 protein has been known for some time to induce tumor cell-specific death when expressed at high levels; thus, knowledge of its mode of action could be of importance for development of new cancer therapies. Although the B55 form of the phosphatase PP2A has long been

  18. The kinetic analysis of the substrate specificity of motif 5 in a HAD hydrolase-type phosphosugar phosphatase of Arabidopsis thaliana.

    PubMed

    Caparrós-Martín, José A; McCarthy-Suárez, Iva; Culiáñez-Macià, Francisco A

    2014-09-01

    The Arabidopsis thaliana gene AtSgpp (locus tag At2g38740), encodes a protein whose sequence motifs and expected structure reveal that it belongs to the HAD hydrolases subfamily I, with the C1-type cap domain (Caparrós-Martín et al. in Planta 237:943-954, 2013). In the presence of Mg(2+) ions, the enzyme has a phosphatase activity over a wide range of phosphosugar substrates. AtSgpp promiscuity is preferentially detectable on D-ribose-5-phosphate, 2-deoxy-D-ribose-5-phosphate, 2-deoxy-D-glucose-6-phosphate, D-mannose-6-phosphate, D-fructose-1-phosphate, D-glucose-6-phosphate, DL-glycerol-3-phosphate, and D-fructose-6-phosphate. Site-directed mutagenesis analysis of the putative signature sequence motif-5 (IAGKH), which defines its specific chemistry, brings to light the active-site residues Ala-69 and His-72. Mutation A69M, changes the pH dependence of AtSgpp catalysis, and mutant protein AtSgpp-H72K was inactive in phosphomonoester dephosphorylation. It was also observed that substitutions I68M and K71R slightly affect the substrate specificity, while the replacement of the entire motif for that of homologous DL-glycerol-3-phosphatase AtGpp (MMGRK) does not switch AtSgpp activity to the specific targeting for DL-glycerol-3-phosphate.

  19. Protein phosphatase type 2C PP2CA together with ABI1 inhibits SnRK2.4 activity and regulates plant responses to salinity

    PubMed Central

    Krzywińska, Ewa; Kulik, Anna; Bucholc, Maria; Fernandez, Maria A.; Rodriguez, Pedro L.; Dobrowolska, Grażyna

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Protein phosphatases 2C (PP2Cs) are important regulators of plant responses to abiotic stress. It is established that clade A PP2Cs inhibit ABA-activated SNF1-related protein kinases 2 (SnRK2s). Our recently published results show that ABI1, a member of clade A of PP2C is also a negative regulator of SnRK2.4, a kinase not activated in response to ABA. Here, we show that another member of this clade - PP2CA, interacts with and inhibits SnRK2.4. The salt-induced SnRK2.4/SnRK2.10 activity is higher in abi1–2 pp2ca-1 mutant than in wild type or single abi1 or pp2ca mutants, indicating that both phosphatases are inhibitors of SnRK2.4 and are at least partially redundant. Moreover, PP2CA together with ABI1 and SnRK2.4 regulates root growth in response to salinity. PMID:27901636

  20. Mutations in the glucose-6-phosphatase gene are associated with glycogen storage disease types 1a and 1aSP but not 1b and 1c.

    PubMed

    Lei, K J; Shelly, L L; Lin, B; Sidbury, J B; Chen, Y T; Nordlie, R C; Chou, J Y

    1995-01-01

    Glycogen storage disease (GSD) type 1, which is caused by the deficiency of glucose-6-phosphatase (G6Pase), is an autosomal recessive disease with heterogenous symptoms. Two models of G6Pase catalysis have been proposed to explain the observed heterogeneities. The translocase-catalytic unit model proposes that five GSD type 1 subgroups exist which correspond to defects in the G6Pase catalytic unit (1a), a stabilizing protein (1aSP), the glucose-6-P (1b), phosphate/pyrophosphate (1c), and glucose (1d) translocases. Conversely, the conformation-substrate-transport model suggests that G6Pase is a single multifunctional membrane channel protein possessing both catalytic and substrate (or product) transport activities. We have recently demonstrated that mutations in the G6Pase catalytic unit cause GSD type 1a. To elucidate whether mutations in the G6Pase gene are responsible for other GSD type 1 subgroups, we characterized the G6Pase gene of GSD type 1b, 1c, and 1aSP patients. Our results show that the G6Pase gene of GSD type 1b and 1c patients is normal, consistent with the translocase-catalytic unit model of G6Pase catalysis. However, a mutation in exon 2 that converts an Arg at codon 83 to a Cys (R83C) was identified in both G6Pase alleles of the type 1aSP patient. The R83C mutation was also demonstrated in one homozygous and five heterogenous GSD type 1a patients, indicating that type 1aSP is a misclassification of GSD type 1a. We have also analyzed the G6Pase gene of seven additional type 1a patients and uncovered two new mutations that cause GSD type 1a.

  1. Protein-Protein Interactions in Crystals of the Human Receptor-Type Protein Tyrosine Phosphatase ICA512 Ectodomain

    SciTech Connect

    Primo M. E.; Jakoncic J.; Noguera M.E.; Risso V.A.; Sosa L.; Sica M.P.; Solimena M.; Poskus E. and Ermacora M.

    2011-09-15

    ICA512 (or IA-2) is a transmembrane protein-tyrosine phosphatase located in secretory granules of neuroendocrine cells. Initially, it was identified as one of the main antigens of autoimmune diabetes. Later, it was found that during insulin secretion, the cytoplasmic domain of ICA512 is cleaved and relocated to the nucleus, where it stimulates the transcription of the insulin gene. The role of the other parts of the receptor in insulin secretion is yet to be unveiled. The structures of the intracellular pseudocatalytic and mature extracellular domains are known, but the transmembrane domain and several intracellular and extracellular parts of the receptor are poorly characterized. Moreover the overall structure of the receptor remains to be established. We started to address this issue studying by X-ray crystallography the structure of the mature ectodomain of ICA512 (ME ICA512) and variants thereof. The variants and crystallization conditions were chosen with the purpose of exploring putative association interfaces, metal binding sites and all other structural details that might help, in subsequent works, to build a model of the entire receptor. Several structural features were clarified and three main different association modes of ME ICA512 were identified. The results provide essential pieces of information for the design of new experiments aimed to assess the structure in vivo.

  2. Protein-Protein Interactions in Crystals of the Human Receptor-Type Protein Tyrosine Phosphatase ICA512 Ectodomain

    PubMed Central

    Primo, María E.; Jakoncic, Jean; Noguera, Martín E.; Risso, Valeria A.; Sosa, Laura; Sica, Mauricio P.; Solimena, Michele; Poskus, Edgardo; Ermácora, Mario R.

    2011-01-01

    ICA512 (or IA-2) is a transmembrane protein-tyrosine phosphatase located in secretory granules of neuroendocrine cells. Initially, it was identified as one of the main antigens of autoimmune diabetes. Later, it was found that during insulin secretion, the cytoplasmic domain of ICA512 is cleaved and relocated to the nucleus, where it stimulates the transcription of the insulin gene. The role of the other parts of the receptor in insulin secretion is yet to be unveiled. The structures of the intracellular pseudocatalytic and mature extracellular domains are known, but the transmembrane domain and several intracellular and extracellular parts of the receptor are poorly characterized. Moreover the overall structure of the receptor remains to be established. We started to address this issue studying by X-ray crystallography the structure of the mature ectodomain of ICA512 (ME ICA512) and variants thereof. The variants and crystallization conditions were chosen with the purpose of exploring putative association interfaces, metal binding sites and all other structural details that might help, in subsequent works, to build a model of the entire receptor. Several structural features were clarified and three main different association modes of ME ICA512 were identified. The results provide essential pieces of information for the design of new experiments aimed to assess the structure in vivo. PMID:21935384

  3. Protein tyrosine phosphatase PTP1 negatively regulates Dictyostelium STATa and is required for proper cell-type proportioning.

    PubMed

    Early, A; Gamper, M; Moniakis, J; Kim, E; Hunter, T; Williams, J G; Firtel, R A

    2001-04-01

    The protein tyrosine phosphatase PTP1, which mediates reversible phosphorylation on tyrosine, has been shown to play an important regulatory role during Dictyostelium development. Mutants lacking PTP1 develop more rapidly than normal, while strains that overexpress PTP1 display aberrant morphology. However, the signalling pathways involved have not been characterised. In reexamining these strains, we have found that there is an inverse correlation between levels of PTP1 activity, the extent of tyrosine phosphorylation on Dictyostelium STATa after treatment with cAMP, and the proportion of the slug population exhibiting STATa nuclear enrichment in vivo. This suggests that PTP1 acts to attenuate the tyrosine phosphorylation of STATa and downstream STATa-mediated pathways. Consistent with this, we show that when PTP1 is overexpressed, there is increased expression of a prestalk cell marker at the slug posterior, a phenocopy of STATa null slugs. In ptp1 null strains, STATa tyrosine phosphorylation and nuclear enrichment in the slug anterior is increased. There is also a change in the prestalk to prespore cell ratio. Synergy experiments suggest that this is due to a cell-autonomous defect in forming the subset of prespore cells that are located in the anterior prespore region.

  4. The YCR079w gene confers a rapamycin-resistant function and encodes the sixth type 2C protein phosphatase in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    PubMed

    Ruan, Haihua; Yan, Zhihui; Sun, Hao; Jiang, Linghuo

    2007-03-01

    Type 2C protein phosphatase (PP2C) is a monomeric enzyme and requires Mg(2+) or Mn(2+) for its activity. Up to now, seven PP2C-like genes have been identified in the genome of Saccharomyces cerevisiae. However, the protein encoded by the sixth PP2C-like gene, YCR079w, has not been demonstrated to have PP2C activity. In this study, we show that YCR079w confers a rapamycin-resistant function in yeast cells, and we also demonstrate that the YCR079w-encoded protein exhibits characteristics of a typical PP2C. Therefore, YCR079w encodes the sixth PP2C, PTC6, in budding yeast.

  5. A novel serine/threonine protein phosphatase type 5 from second-generation merozoite of Eimeria tenella is associated with diclazuril-induced apoptosis.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Bian-hua; Wang, Hong-wei; Zhao, Zhen-sheng; Liu, Mei; Yan, Wen-chao; Zhao, Jing; Zhang, Zhe; Xue, Fei-qun

    2013-04-01

    Screening the anticoccidial drug targets is very important for developing novel drugs and revealing the molecular basis of drug resistance in coccidia. Due to high effectivity and safety, diclazuril was used widely in the poultry industry. To assess the roles of the serine/threonine protein phosphatase type 5 of second-generation merozoites in Eimeria tenella (EtPP5) in the anticoccidial activity of diclazuril against chicken coccidiosis, EtPP5 was cloned using reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction and rapid amplification of cDNA ends. Ultrastructural changes in second-generation merozoites and mRNA expression level of EtPP5 were monitored by transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and quantitative real-time PCR, respectively. The results showed that the full length of the cloned EtPP5 cDNA (2,495 bp) encompassed a 1,647-bp open reading frame encoding a polypeptide of 548 residues with an estimated molecular mass of 60.82 kDa and a theoretical isoelectric point of 5.89. Molecular analysis of EtPP5 reveals the presence of a C-terminal phosphatase domain and an extended N-terminal tetratricopeptide repeat motif, a typical feature of protein phosphatases. The cDNA sequence has been submitted to the GenBank database with accession number JX987508. EtPP5 shared 89% homology with the published sequence of a PP5 ortholog of Toxoplasma gondii at the amino acid level (GenBank XP_002364442.1). TEM observed that diclazuril induced ultrastructural changes in second-generation merozoites. Quantitative real-time PCR analysis showed that compared with the control group, the level of EtPP5 mRNA expression was significantly downregulated by 51.4% by diclazuril treatment. The high similarity of EtPP5 to previously described PP5 of other organisms, as well as its downregulated expression and connection with apoptosis in the second-generation merozoites induced by diclazuril, suggests that it could act an important role in understanding the signaling mechanism underlining the

  6. Sac phosphatase domain proteins.

    PubMed Central

    Hughes, W E; Cooke, F T; Parker, P J

    2000-01-01

    Advances in our understanding of the roles of phosphatidylinositol phosphates in controlling cellular functions such as endocytosis, exocytosis and the actin cytoskeleton have included new insights into the phosphatases that are responsible for the interconversion of these lipids. One of these is an entirely novel class of phosphatase domain found in a number of well characterized proteins. Proteins containing this Sac phosphatase domain include the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae proteins Sac1p and Fig4p. The Sac phosphatase domain is also found within the mammalian phosphoinositide 5-phosphatase synaptojanin and the yeast synaptojanin homologues Inp51p, Inp52p and Inp53p. These proteins therefore contain both Sac phosphatase and 5-phosphatase domains. This review describes the Sac phosphatase domain-containing proteins and their actions, with particular reference to the genetic and biochemical insights provided by study of the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. PMID:10947947

  7. Identification of Open Stomata1-Interacting Proteins Reveals Interactions with Sucrose Non-fermenting1-Related Protein Kinases2 and with Type 2A Protein Phosphatases That Function in Abscisic Acid Responses1[OPEN

    PubMed Central

    Waadt, Rainer; Manalansan, Bianca; Rauniyar, Navin; Munemasa, Shintaro; Booker, Matthew A.; Brandt, Benjamin; Waadt, Christian; Nusinow, Dmitri A.; Kay, Steve A.; Kunz, Hans-Henning; Schumacher, Karin; DeLong, Alison; Yates, John R.; Schroeder, Julian I.

    2015-01-01

    The plant hormone abscisic acid (ABA) controls growth and development and regulates plant water status through an established signaling pathway. In the presence of ABA, pyrabactin resistance/regulatory component of ABA receptor proteins inhibit type 2C protein phosphatases (PP2Cs). This, in turn, enables the activation of Sucrose Nonfermenting1-Related Protein Kinases2 (SnRK2). Open Stomata1 (OST1)/SnRK2.6/SRK2E is a major SnRK2-type protein kinase responsible for mediating ABA responses. Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) expressing an epitope-tagged OST1 in the recessive ost1-3 mutant background was used for the copurification and identification of OST1-interacting proteins after osmotic stress and ABA treatments. These analyses, which were confirmed using bimolecular fluorescence complementation and coimmunoprecipitation, unexpectedly revealed homo- and heteromerization of OST1 with SnRK2.2, SnRK2.3, OST1, and SnRK2.8. Furthermore, several OST1-complexed proteins were identified as type 2A protein phosphatase (PP2A) subunits and as proteins involved in lipid and galactolipid metabolism. More detailed analyses suggested an interaction network between ABA-activated SnRK2-type protein kinases and several PP2A-type protein phosphatase regulatory subunits. pp2a double mutants exhibited a reduced sensitivity to ABA during seed germination and stomatal closure and an enhanced ABA sensitivity in root growth regulation. These analyses add PP2A-type protein phosphatases as another class of protein phosphatases to the interaction network of SnRK2-type protein kinases. PMID:26175513

  8. Identification of inositol polyphosphate 4-phosphatase type II as a novel tumor resistance biomarker in human laryngeal cancer HEp-2 cells.

    PubMed

    Kim, Jae-Sung; Yun, Hong Shik; Um, Hong-Duck; Park, Jong Kuk; Lee, Kee-Ho; Kang, Chang-Mo; Lee, Su-Jae; Hwang, Sang-Gu

    2012-11-01

    Although tumor resistance remains a significant impediment to successful radiotherapy, associated regulatory markers and detailed molecular mechanisms underlying this phenomenon are not well defined. In this study, we identified inositol polyphosphate 4-phosphatase type II (INPP4B) as a novel marker of radioresistance by systematically analyzing Unigene libraries of laryngeal cancer. INPP4B was highly expressed in radioresistant laryngeal cancer cells and was induced by treatment with either radiation or anticancer drugs in various types of cancer cells. Ectopic INPP4B overexpression increased radioresistance and anticancer drug resistance by suppressing apoptosis in HEp-2 cells. Conversely, INPP4B depletion with small interfering RNA resensitized HEp-2 as well as A549 and H1299 cells to radiation- and anticancer drug-induced apoptosis. Furthermore, radiation-induced INPP4B expression was blocked by inhibition of extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK). INPP4B depletion significantly attenuated radiation-induced increases in Akt phosphorylation, indicating an association of INPP4B-mediated radioresistance with Akt survival signaling. Taken together, our data suggest that ERK-dependent induction of INPP4B triggers the development of a tumor-resistance phenotype via Akt signaling and identify INPP4B as a potentially important target molecule for resolving the radioresistance of cancer cells.

  9. The protein tyrosine phosphatase PTPN22 controls forkhead box protein 3 T regulatory cell induction but is dispensable for T helper type 1 cell polarization

    PubMed Central

    Fousteri, G; Jofra, T; Debernardis, I; Stanford, S M; Laurenzi, A; Bottini, N; Battaglia, M

    2014-01-01

    Protein tyrosine phosphatases (PTPs) regulate T cell receptor (TCR) signalling and thus have a role in T cell differentiation. Here we tested whether the autoimmune predisposing gene PTPN22 encoding for a PTP that inhibits TCR signalling affects the generation of forkhead box protein 3 (FoxP3)+ T regulatory (Treg) cells and T helper type 1 (Th1) cells. Murine CD4+ T cells isolated from Ptpn22 knock-out (Ptpn22KO) mice cultured in Treg cell polarizing conditions showed increased sensitivity to TCR activation compared to wild-type (WT) cells, and subsequently reduced FoxP3 expression at optimal-to-high levels of activation. However, at lower levels of TCR activation, Ptpn22KO CD4+ T cells showed enhanced expression of FoxP3. Similar experiments in humans revealed that at optimal levels of TCR activation PTPN22 knock-down by specific oligonucleotides compromises the differentiation of naive CD4+ T cells into Treg cells. Notably, in vivo Treg cell conversion experiments in mice showed delayed kinetic but overall increased frequency and number of Treg cells in the absence of Ptpn22. In contrast, the in vitro and in vivo generation of Th1 cells was comparable between WT and Ptpn22KO mice, thus suggesting PTPN22 as a FoxP3-specific regulating factor. Together, these results propose PTPN22 as a key factor in setting the proper threshold for FoxP3+ Treg cell differentiation. PMID:24905474

  10. Ectopic expression of inhibitors of protein phosphatase type 1 (PP1) can be used to analyze roles of PP1 in Drosophila development.

    PubMed Central

    Bennett, Daimark; Szöor, Balázs; Gross, Sascha; Vereshchagina, Natalia; Alphey, Luke

    2003-01-01

    We have identified two proteins that bind with high specificity to type 1 serine/threonine protein phosphatase (PP1) and have exploited their inhibitory properties to develop an efficient and flexible strategy for conditional inactivation of PP1 in vivo. We show that modest overexpression of Drosophila homologs of I-2 and NIPP1 (I-2Dm and NIPP1Dm) reduces the level of PP1 activity and phenotypically resembles known PP1 mutants. These phenotypes, which include lethality, abnormal mitotic figures, and defects in muscle development, are suppressed by coexpression of PP1, indicating that the effect is due specifically to loss of PP1 activity. Reactivation of I-2Dm:PP1c complexes suggests that inhibition of PP1 activity in vivo does not result in a compensating increase in synthesis of active PP1. PP1 mutants enhance the wing overgrowth phenotype caused by ectopic expression of the type II TGF beta superfamily signaling receptor Punt. Using I-2Dm, which has a less severe effect than NIPP1Dm, we show that lowering the level of PP1 activity specifically in cells overexpressing Punt is sufficient for wing overgrowth and that the interaction between PP1 and Punt requires the type I receptor Thick-veins (Tkv) but is not strongly sensitive to the level of the ligand, Decapentaplegic (Dpp), nor to that of the other type I receptors. This is consistent with a role for PP1 in antagonizing Punt by preventing phosphorylation of Tkv. These studies demonstrate that inhibitors of PP1 can be used in a tissue- and developmental-specific manner to examine the developmental roles of PP1. PMID:12750335

  11. Minimal hepatic glucose-6-phosphatase-α activity required to sustain survival and prevent hepatocellular adenoma formation in murine glycogen storage disease type Ia.

    PubMed

    Lee, Young Mok; Kim, Goo-Young; Pan, Chi-Jiunn; Mansfield, Brian C; Chou, Janice Y

    2015-06-01

    Glycogen storage disease type Ia (GSD-Ia), characterized by impaired glucose homeostasis and chronic risk of hepatocellular adenoma (HCA), is caused by a deficiency in glucose-6-phosphatase-α (G6Pase-α or G6PC) activity. In a previous 70-90 week-study, we showed that a recombinant adeno-associated virus (rAAV) vector-mediated gene transfer that restores more than 3% of wild-type hepatic G6Pase-α activity in G6pc (-/-) mice corrects hepatic G6Pase-α deficiency with no evidence of HCA. We now examine the minimal hepatic G6Pase-α activity required to confer therapeutic efficacy. We show that rAAV-treated G6pc (-/-) mice expressing 0.2% of wild-type hepatic G6Pase-α activity suffered from frequent hypoglycemic seizures at age 63-65 weeks but mice expressing 0.5-1.3% of wild-type hepatic G6Pase-α activity (AAV-LL mice) sustain 4-6 h of fast and grow normally to age 75-90 weeks. Despite marked increases in hepatic glycogen accumulation, the AAV-LL mice display no evidence of hepatic abnormalities, hepatic steatosis, or HCA. Interprandial glucose homeostasis is maintained by the G6Pase-α/glucose-6-phosphate transporter (G6PT) complex, and G6PT-mediated microsomal G6P uptake is the rate-limiting step in endogenous glucose production. We show that hepatic G6PT activity is increased in AAV-LL mice. These findings are encouraging for clinical studies of G6Pase-α gene-based therapy for GSD-Ia.

  12. Effects of protein tyrosine phosphatase-PEST are reversed by Akt in T cells.

    PubMed

    Arimura, Yutaka; Shimizu, Kazuhiko; Koyanagi, Madoka; Yagi, Junji

    2014-12-01

    T cell activation is regulated by a balance between phosphorylation and dephosphorylation that is under the control of kinases and phosphatases. Here, we examined the role of a non-receptor-type protein tyrosine phosphatase, PTP-PEST, using retrovirus-mediated gene transduction into murine T cells. Based on observations of vector markers (GFP or Thy1.1), exogenous PTP-PEST-positive CD4(+) T cells appeared within 2 days after gene transduction; the percentage of PTP-PEST-positive cells tended to decrease during a resting period in the presence of IL-2 over the next 2 days. These vector markers also showed much lower expression intensities, compared with control cells, suggesting a correlation between the percent reduction and the low marker expression intensity. A catalytically inactive PTP-PEST mutant also showed the same tendency, and stepwise deletion mutants gradually lost their ability to induce the above phenomenon. On the other hand, these PTP-PEST-transduced cells did not have an apoptotic phenotype. No difference in the total cell numbers was found in the wells of a culture plate containing VEC- and PTP-PEST-transduced T cells. Moreover, serine/threonine kinase Akt, but not the anti-apoptotic molecules Bcl-2 and Bcl-XL, reversed the phenotype induced by PTP-PEST. We discuss the novel mechanism by which Akt interferes with PTP-PEST.

  13. [Changes of activity and expression of protein phosphatase type 2A during the apoptosis of NB4 and MR2 cells induced by arsenic trioxide].

    PubMed

    Xu, Xi-Hui; Ouyang, Jian; Xie, Pin-Hao; Chen, Jun-Hao

    2008-10-01

    This study was aimed to investigate the change of expression and activity of protein phosphatases type 2A (PP2A) during the apoptosis of NB4 and MR2 cells induced by Arsenic trioxide (ATO). NB4 and MR2 cells were incubated with Okadaic acid (OKA) (0.5 nmol/L), ATO (0.5 - 2.0 micromol/L), and the combination of OKA and ATO at the same doses as in the single-agent treatment respectively. Then the proliferation of NB4 and MR2 cells was determined by MTT assay, the morphologic changes of cells were evaluated by Wright's staining, the apoptosis rates were detected by flow cytometry. At last, the activities of PP2A were evaluated by the serine/threonine phosphatase assay system, and the levels of PP2A subunits were detected by Western blot analysis. The results showed that ATO inhibited proliferation of NB4 and MR2 cells, and the inhibition rates of ATO on the two cells significantly increased after the addition of OKA. OKA could augment the apoptosis of NB4 and MR2 cells induced by ATO. During the apoptosis of NB4 and MR2 cells, the activity of PP2A decreased with increasing concentration of ATO, and OKA augmented the inhibitory effect of ATO on the activity. The level of PP2A structural subunit (PP2A-A) decreased during ATO-induced apoptosis of NB4 and MR2 cells, that expressions of B and C subunits of PP2A were relatively unaltered. It is concluded that the activity of PP2A decreases with increasing concentration of ATO during the apoptosis of NB4 and MR2 cells, and the decrease of the activity of PP2A maybe is related to the repression of expression of PP2A -A subunit; the inhibition of the activity of PP2A can promote the ATO induced apoptosis of NB4 and MRL cells.

  14. In Vivo Zinc Finger Nuclease-mediated Targeted Integration of a Glucose-6-phosphatase Transgene Promotes Survival in Mice With Glycogen Storage Disease Type IA.

    PubMed

    Landau, Dustin J; Brooks, Elizabeth Drake; Perez-Pinera, Pablo; Amarasekara, Hiruni; Mefferd, Adam; Li, Songtao; Bird, Andrew; Gersbach, Charles A; Koeberl, Dwight D

    2016-04-01

    Glycogen storage disease type Ia (GSD Ia) is caused by glucose-6-phosphatase (G6Pase) deficiency in association with severe, life-threatening hypoglycemia that necessitates lifelong dietary therapy. Here we show that use of a zinc-finger nuclease (ZFN) targeted to the ROSA26 safe harbor locus and a ROSA26-targeting vector containing a G6PC donor transgene, both delivered with adeno-associated virus (AAV) vectors, markedly improved survival of G6Pase knockout (G6Pase-KO) mice compared with mice receiving the donor vector alone (P < 0.04). Furthermore, transgene integration has been confirmed by sequencing in the majority of the mice treated with both vectors. Targeted alleles were 4.6-fold more common in livers of mice with GSD Ia, as compared with normal littermates, at 8 months following vector administration (P < 0.02). This suggests a selective advantage for vector-transduced hepatocytes following ZFN-mediated integration of the G6Pase vector. A short-term experiment also showed that 3-month-old mice receiving the ZFN had significantly-improved biochemical correction, in comparison with mice that received the donor vector alone. These data suggest that the use of ZFNs to drive integration of G6Pase at a safe harbor locus might improve vector persistence and efficacy, and lower mortality in GSD Ia.

  15. Delivery of glucose-6-phosphatase in a canine model for glycogen storage disease, type Ia, with adeno-associated virus (AAV) vectors.

    PubMed

    Beaty, R M; Jackson, M; Peterson, D; Bird, A; Brown, T; Benjamin, D K; Juopperi, T; Kishnani, P; Boney, A; Chen, Y T; Koeberl, D D

    2002-08-01

    Therapy in glycogen storage disease type Ia (GSD Ia), an inherited disorder of carbohydrate metabolism, relies on nutritional support that postpones but fails to prevent long-term complications of GSD Ia. In the canine model for GSD Ia, we evaluated the potential of intravenously delivered adeno-associated virus (AAV) vectors for gene therapy. In three affected canines, liver glycogen was reduced following hepatic expression of canine glucose-6-phosphatase (G6Pase). Two months after AAV vector administration, one affected dog had normalization of fasting glucose, cholesterol, triglycerides, and lactic acid. Concatamerized AAV vector DNA was confirmed by Southern blot analysis of liver DNA isolated from treated dogs, as head-to-tail, head-to-head, and tail-to-tail concatamers. Six weeks after vector administration, the level of vector DNA signal in each dog varied from one to five copies per cell, consistent with variation in the efficiency of transduction within the liver. AAV vector administration in the canine model for GSD Ia resulted in sustained G6Pase expression and improvement in liver histology and in biochemical parameters.

  16. In Vivo Zinc Finger Nuclease-mediated Targeted Integration of a Glucose-6-phosphatase Transgene Promotes Survival in Mice With Glycogen Storage Disease Type IA

    PubMed Central

    Landau, Dustin J; Brooks, Elizabeth Drake; Perez-Pinera, Pablo; Amarasekara, Hiruni; Mefferd, Adam; Li, Songtao; Bird, Andrew; Gersbach, Charles A; Koeberl, Dwight D

    2016-01-01

    Glycogen storage disease type Ia (GSD Ia) is caused by glucose-6-phosphatase (G6Pase) deficiency in association with severe, life-threatening hypoglycemia that necessitates lifelong dietary therapy. Here we show that use of a zinc-finger nuclease (ZFN) targeted to the ROSA26 safe harbor locus and a ROSA26-targeting vector containing a G6PC donor transgene, both delivered with adeno-associated virus (AAV) vectors, markedly improved survival of G6Pase knockout (G6Pase-KO) mice compared with mice receiving the donor vector alone (P < 0.04). Furthermore, transgene integration has been confirmed by sequencing in the majority of the mice treated with both vectors. Targeted alleles were 4.6-fold more common in livers of mice with GSD Ia, as compared with normal littermates, at 8 months following vector administration (P < 0.02). This suggests a selective advantage for vector-transduced hepatocytes following ZFN-mediated integration of the G6Pase vector. A short-term experiment also showed that 3-month-old mice receiving the ZFN had significantly-improved biochemical correction, in comparison with mice that received the donor vector alone. These data suggest that the use of ZFNs to drive integration of G6Pase at a safe harbor locus might improve vector persistence and efficacy, and lower mortality in GSD Ia. PMID:26865405

  17. Inositol Polyphosphate-4-Phosphatase Type I Negatively Regulates Phagocytosis via Dephosphorylation of Phagosomal PtdIns(3,4)P2.

    PubMed

    Nigorikawa, Kiyomi; Hazeki, Kaoru; Sasaki, Junko; Omori, Yumio; Miyake, Mikiko; Morioka, Shin; Guo, Ying; Sasaki, Takehiko; Hazeki, Osamu

    2015-01-01

    Phagocytosis is a highly conserved process whereby phagocytic cells engulf pathogens and apoptotic bodies. The present study focused on the role of inositol polyphosphate-4-phosphatase type I (Inpp4a) in phagocytosis. Raw264.7 cells that express shRNA against Inpp4a (shInpp4a cells) showed significantly increased phagocytic activity. The introduction of shRNA-resistant human Inpp4a abolished this increase. Macrophages from Inpp4a knockout mice showed similar increases in the phagocytic activity. Inpp4a was recruited to the phagosome membrane by a mechanism other than the direct interaction with Rab5. PtdIns(3,4)P2 increased on the phagosome of shInpp4a cells, while PtdIns(3)P significantly decreased. The results indicate that Inpp4a negatively regulates the phagocytic activity of macrophages as a member of the sequential dephosphorylation system that metabolizes phagosomal PtdIns(3,4,5)P3 to PtdIns(3)P.

  18. Inositol Polyphosphate-4-Phosphatase Type I Negatively Regulates Phagocytosis via Dephosphorylation of Phagosomal PtdIns(3,4)P2

    PubMed Central

    Nigorikawa, Kiyomi; Hazeki, Kaoru; Sasaki, Junko; Omori, Yumio; Miyake, Mikiko; Morioka, Shin; Guo, Ying; Sasaki, Takehiko; Hazeki, Osamu

    2015-01-01

    Phagocytosis is a highly conserved process whereby phagocytic cells engulf pathogens and apoptotic bodies. The present study focused on the role of inositol polyphosphate-4-phosphatase type I (Inpp4a) in phagocytosis. Raw264.7 cells that express shRNA against Inpp4a (shInpp4a cells) showed significantly increased phagocytic activity. The introduction of shRNA-resistant human Inpp4a abolished this increase. Macrophages from Inpp4a knockout mice showed similar increases in the phagocytic activity. Inpp4a was recruited to the phagosome membrane by a mechanism other than the direct interaction with Rab5. PtdIns(3,4)P2 increased on the phagosome of shInpp4a cells, while PtdIns(3)P significantly decreased. The results indicate that Inpp4a negatively regulates the phagocytic activity of macrophages as a member of the sequential dephosphorylation system that metabolizes phagosomal PtdIns(3,4,5)P3 to PtdIns(3)P. PMID:26535897

  19. T-cell epitopes in type 1 diabetes autoantigen tyrosine phosphatase IA-2: potential for mimicry with rotavirus and other environmental agents.

    PubMed Central

    Honeyman, M. C.; Stone, N. L.; Harrison, L. C.

    1998-01-01

    The tyrosine phosphatase IA-2 is a molecular target of pancreatic islet autoimmunity in type 1 diabetes. T-cell epitope peptides in autoantigens have potential diagnostic and therapeutic applications, and they may hold clues to environmental agents with similar sequences that could trigger or exacerbate autoimmune disease. We identified 13 epitope peptides in IA-2 by measuring peripheral blood T-cell proliferation to 68 overlapping, synthetic peptides encompassing the intracytoplasmic domain of IA-2 in six at-risk type 1 diabetes relatives selected for HLA susceptibility haplotypes. The dominant epitope, VIVMLTPLVEDGVKQC (aa 805-820), which elicited the highest T-cell responses in all at-risk relatives, has 56% identity and 100% similarity over 9 amino acids (aa) with a sequence in VP7, a major immunogenic protein of human rotavirus. Both peptides bind to HLA-DR4(*0401) and are deduced to present identical aa to the T-cell receptor. The contiguous sequence of VP7 has 75% identity and 92% similarity over 12 aa with a known T-cell epitope in glutamic acid decarboxylase (GAD), another autoantigen in type 1 diabetes. This dominant IA-2 epitope peptide also has 75-45% identity and 88-64% similarity over 8-14 aa to sequences in Dengue, cytomegalovirus, measles, hepatitis C, and canine distemper viruses, and the bacterium Haemophilus influenzae. Three other IA-2 epitope peptides are 71-100% similar over 7-12 aa to herpes, rhino-, hanta- and flaviviruses. Two others are 80-82% similar over 10-11 aa to sequences in milk, wheat, and bean proteins. Further studies should now be carried out to directly test the hypothesis that T-cell activation by rotavirus and possibly other viruses, and dietary proteins, could trigger or exacerbate beta-cell autoimmunity through molecular mimicry with IA-2 and (for rotavirus) GAD. PMID:9606176

  20. Structure of Acid phosphatases.

    PubMed

    Araujo, César L; Vihko, Pirkko T

    2013-01-01

    Acid phosphatases are enzymes that have been studied extensively due to the fact that their dysregulation is associated with pathophysiological conditions. This characteristic has been exploited for the development of diagnostic and therapeutic methods. As an example, prostatic acid phosphatase was the first marker for metastatic prostate cancer diagnosis and the dysregulation of tartrate resistant acid phosphatase is associated with abnormal bone resorption linked to osteoporosis. The pioneering crystallization studies on prostatic acid phosphatase and mammalian tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase conformed significant milestones towards the elucidation of the mechanisms followed by these enzymes (Schneider et al., EMBO J 12:2609-2615, 1993). Acid phosphatases are also found in nonmammalian species such as bacteria, fungi, parasites, and plants, and most of them share structural similarities with mammalian acid phosphatase enzymes. Acid phosphatase (EC 3.1.3.2) enzymes catalyze the hydrolysis of phosphate monoesters following the general equation. Phosphate monoester + H2O -->/<-- alcohol + phosphate. The general classification "acid phosphatase" relies only on the optimum acidic pH for the enzymatic activity in assay conditions using non-physiological substrates. These enzymes accept a wide range of substrates in vitro, ranging from small organic molecules to phosphoproteins, constituting a heterogeneous group of enzymes from the structural point of view. These structural differences account for the divergence in cofactor dependences and behavior against substrates, inhibitors, and activators. In this group only the tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase is a metallo-enzyme whereas the other members do not require metal-ion binding for their catalytic activity. In addition, tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase and erythrocytic acid phosphatase are not inhibited by L-(+)-tartrate ion while the prostatic acid phosphatase is tartrate-sensitive. This is an important

  1. Protein tyrosine phosphatases as potential therapeutic targets

    PubMed Central

    He, Rong-jun; Yu, Zhi-hong; Zhang, Ruo-yu; Zhang, Zhong-yin

    2014-01-01

    Protein tyrosine phosphorylation is a key regulatory process in virtually all aspects of cellular functions. Dysregulation of protein tyrosine phosphorylation is a major cause of human diseases, such as cancers, diabetes, autoimmune disorders, and neurological diseases. Indeed, protein tyrosine phosphorylation-mediated signaling events offer ample therapeutic targets, and drug discovery efforts to date have brought over two dozen kinase inhibitors to the clinic. Accordingly, protein tyrosine phosphatases (PTPs) are considered next-generation drug targets. For instance, PTP1B is a well-known targets of type 2 diabetes and obesity, and recent studies indicate that it is also a promising target for breast cancer. SHP2 is a bona-fide oncoprotein, mutations of which cause juvenile myelomonocytic leukemia, acute myeloid leukemia, and solid tumors. In addition, LYP is strongly associated with type 1 diabetes and many other autoimmune diseases. This review summarizes recent findings on several highly recognized PTP family drug targets, including PTP1B, Src homology phosphotyrosyl phosphatase 2(SHP2), lymphoid-specific tyrosine phosphatase (LYP), CD45, Fas associated phosphatase-1 (FAP-1), striatal enriched tyrosine phosphatases (STEP), mitogen-activated protein kinase/dual-specificity phosphatase 1 (MKP-1), phosphatases of regenerating liver-1 (PRL), low molecular weight PTPs (LMWPTP), and CDC25. Given that there are over 100 family members, we hope this review will serve as a road map for innovative drug discovery targeting PTPs. PMID:25220640

  2. A Type 2C Protein Phosphatase FgPtc3 Is Involved in Cell Wall Integrity, Lipid Metabolism, and Virulence in Fusarium graminearum

    PubMed Central

    Jiang, Jinhua; Yun, Yingzi; Yang, Qianqian; Shim, Won-Bo; Wang, Zhengyi; Ma, Zhonghua

    2011-01-01

    Type 2C protein phosphatases (PP2Cs) play important roles in regulating many biological processes in eukaryotes. Currently, little is known about functions of PP2Cs in filamentous fungi. The causal agent of wheat head blight, Fusarium graminearum, contains seven putative PP2C genes, FgPTC1, -3, -5, -5R, -6, -7 and -7R. In order to investigate roles of these PP2Cs, we constructed deletion mutants for all seven PP2C genes in this study. The FgPTC3 deletion mutant (ΔFgPtc3-8) exhibited reduced aerial hyphae formation and deoxynivalenol (DON) production, but increased production of conidia. The mutant showed increased resistance to osmotic stress and cell wall-damaging agents on potato dextrose agar plates. Pathogencity assays showed that ΔFgPtc3-8 is unable to infect flowering wheat head. All of the defects were restored when ΔFgPtc3-8 was complemented with the wild-type FgPTC3 gene. Additionally, the FgPTC3 partially rescued growth defect of a yeast PTC1 deletion mutant under various stress conditions. Ultrastructural and histochemical analyses showed that conidia of ΔFgPtc3-8 contained an unusually high number of large lipid droplets. Furthermore, the mutant accumulated a higher basal level of glycerol than the wild-type progenitor. Quantitative real-time PCR assays showed that basal expression of FgOS2, FgSLT2 and FgMKK1 in the mutant was significantly higher than that in the wild-type strain. Serial analysis of gene expression in ΔFgPtc3-8 revealed that FgPTC3 is associated with various metabolic pathways. In contrast to the FgPTC3 mutant, the deletion mutants of FgPTC1, FgPTC5, FgPTC5R, FgPTC6, FgPTC7 or FgPTC7R did not show aberrant phenotypic features when grown on PDA medium or inoculated on wheat head. These results indicate FgPtc3 is the key PP2C that plays a critical role in a variety of cellular and biological functions, including cell wall integrity, lipid and secondary metabolisms, and virulence in F. graminearum. PMID:21980420

  3. Crystallization and preliminary crystallographic analysis of the kinase-recruitment domain of the PP2C-type phosphatase RsbU.

    PubMed

    Dutta, Sujit; Lewis, Richard J

    2003-01-01

    The general stress response of Bacillus subtilis provides a protective resistance to a variety of pressures. The key molecule is a subunit of RNA polymerase, sigma(B), which confers promoter specificity and is regulated by two signalling modules. Each module comprises protein kinases and phosphatases and 'switch' protein substrates for the kinase and phosphatase. The phosphorylation state of the switch molecules indirectly controls the activity of sigma(B). The binding of the kinase RsbT to the phosphatase RsbU stimulates its enzymatic activity towards its substrate, phosphorylated RsbV. To understand how these enzymes interact, thus regulating transcription, crystallization of the kinase-recruitment domain of RsbU in a form suitable for high-resolution structure determination is reported.

  4. The glucose-6-phosphatase system.

    PubMed Central

    van Schaftingen, Emile; Gerin, Isabelle

    2002-01-01

    Glucose-6-phosphatase (G6Pase), an enzyme found mainly in the liver and the kidneys, plays the important role of providing glucose during starvation. Unlike most phosphatases acting on water-soluble compounds, it is a membrane-bound enzyme, being associated with the endoplasmic reticulum. In 1975, W. Arion and co-workers proposed a model according to which G6Pase was thought to be a rather unspecific phosphatase, with its catalytic site oriented towards the lumen of the endoplasmic reticulum [Arion, Wallin, Lange and Ballas (1975) Mol. Cell. Biochem. 6, 75--83]. Substrate would be provided to this enzyme by a translocase that is specific for glucose 6-phosphate, thereby accounting for the specificity of the phosphatase for glucose 6-phosphate in intact microsomes. Distinct transporters would allow inorganic phosphate and glucose to leave the vesicles. At variance with this substrate-transport model, other models propose that conformational changes play an important role in the properties of G6Pase. The last 10 years have witnessed important progress in our knowledge of the glucose 6-phosphate hydrolysis system. The genes encoding G6Pase and the glucose 6-phosphate translocase have been cloned and shown to be mutated in glycogen storage disease type Ia and type Ib respectively. The gene encoding a G6Pase-related protein, expressed specifically in pancreatic islets, has also been cloned. Specific potent inhibitors of G6Pase and of the glucose 6-phosphate translocase have been synthesized or isolated from micro-organisms. These as well as other findings support the model initially proposed by Arion. Much progress has also been made with regard to the regulation of the expression of G6Pase by insulin, glucocorticoids, cAMP and glucose. PMID:11879177

  5. Multifaceted Modulation of K+ Channels by Protein-tyrosine Phosphatase ϵ Tunes Neuronal Excitability*

    PubMed Central

    Ebner-Bennatan, Sharon; Patrich, Eti; Peretz, Asher; Kornilov, Polina; Tiran, Zohar; Elson, Ari; Attali, Bernard

    2012-01-01

    Non-receptor-tyrosine kinases (protein-tyrosine kinases) and non-receptor tyrosine phosphatases (PTPs) have been implicated in the regulation of ion channels, neuronal excitability, and synaptic plasticity. We previously showed that protein-tyrosine kinases such as Src kinase and PTPs such as PTPα and PTPϵ modulate the activity of delayed-rectifier K+ channels (IK). Here we show cultured cortical neurons from PTPϵ knock-out (EKO) mice to exhibit increased excitability when compared with wild type (WT) mice, with larger spike discharge frequency, enhanced fast after-hyperpolarization, increased after-depolarization, and reduced spike width. A decrease in IK and a rise in large-conductance Ca2+-activated K+ currents (mBK) were observed in EKO cortical neurons compared with WT. Parallel studies in transfected CHO cells indicate that Kv1.1, Kv1.2, Kv7.2/7.3, and mBK are plausible molecular correlates of this multifaceted modulation of K+ channels by PTPϵ. In CHO cells, Kv1.1, Kv1.2, and Kv7.2/7.3 K+ currents were up-regulated by PTPϵ, whereas mBK channel activity was reduced. The levels of tyrosine phosphorylation of Kv1.1, Kv1.2, Kv7.3, and mBK potassium channels were increased in the brain cortices of neonatal and adult EKO mice compared with WT, suggesting that PTPϵ in the brain modulates these channel proteins. Our data indicate that in EKO mice, the lack of PTPϵ-mediated dephosphorylation of Kv1.1, Kv1.2, and Kv7.3 leads to decreased IK density and enhanced after-depolarization. In addition, the deficient PTPϵ-mediated dephosphorylation of mBK channels likely contributes to enhanced mBK and fast after-hyperpolarization, spike shortening, and consequent increase in neuronal excitability observed in cortical neurons from EKO mice. PMID:22722941

  6. Evolution of alkaline phosphatases in primates.

    PubMed Central

    Goldstein, D J; Rogers, C; Harris, H

    1982-01-01

    Alkaline phosphatase [orthophosphoric-monoester phosphohydrolase (alkaline optimum), EC 3.1.3.1] in placenta, intestine, liver, kidney, bone, and lung from a variety of primate species has been characterized by quantitative inhibition, thermostability, and immunological studies. Characteristic human placental-type alkaline phosphatase occurs in placentas of great apes (chimpanzee and orangutan) but not in placentas of other primates, including gibbon. It is also present in trace amounts in human lung but not in lung or other tissues of various Old and New World monkeys. However, a distinctive alkaline phosphatase resembling it occurs in substantial amounts in lungs from Old World monkeys but not New World monkeys. It appears that duplication of alkaline phosphatase genes and mutations of genetic elements controlling their tissue expression have occurred relatively recently in mammalian evolution. Images PMID:6950431

  7. Crystal structure of lipid phosphatase Escherichia coli phosphatidylglycerophosphate phosphatase B.

    PubMed

    Fan, Junping; Jiang, Daohua; Zhao, Yan; Liu, Jianfeng; Zhang, Xuejun Cai

    2014-05-27

    Membrane-integrated type II phosphatidic acid phosphatases (PAP2s) are important for numerous bacterial to human biological processes, including glucose transport, lipid metabolism, and signaling. Escherichia coli phosphatidylglycerol-phosphate phosphatase B (ecPgpB) catalyzes removing the terminal phosphate group from a lipid carrier, undecaprenyl pyrophosphate, and is essential for transport of many hydrophilic small molecules across the membrane. We determined the crystal structure of ecPgpB at a resolution of 3.2 Å. This structure shares a similar folding topology and a nearly identical active site with soluble PAP2 enzymes. However, the substrate binding mechanism appears to be fundamentally different from that in soluble PAP2 enzymes. In ecPgpB, the potential substrate entrance to the active site is located in a cleft formed by a V-shaped transmembrane helix pair, allowing lateral movement of the lipid substrate entering the active site from the membrane lipid bilayer. Activity assays of point mutations confirmed the importance of the catalytic residues and potential residues involved in phosphate binding. The structure also suggests an induced-fit mechanism for the substrate binding. The 3D structure of ecPgpB serves as a prototype to study eukaryotic PAP2 enzymes, including human glucose-6-phosphatase, a key enzyme in the homeostatic regulation of blood glucose concentrations.

  8. Assessment and kinetics of soil phosphatase in Brazilian Savanna systems.

    PubMed

    Ferreira, Adão S; Espíndola, Suéllen P; Campos, Maria Rita C

    2016-05-31

    The activity and kinetics of soil phosphatases are important indicators to evaluate soil quality in specific sites such as the Cerrado (Brazilian Savanna). This study aimed to determine the activity and kinetic parameters of soil phosphatase in Cerrado systems. Soil phosphatase activity was assessed in samples of native Cerrado (NC), no-tillage (NT), conventional tillage (CT) and pasture with Brachiaria brizantha (PBb) and evaluated with acetate buffer (AB), tris-HCl buffer (TB), modified universal buffer (MUB) and low MUB. The Michaelis-Menten equation and Eadie-Hofstee model were applied to obtain the kinetic parameters of soil phosphatase using different concentrations of p-nitrophenol phosphate (p-NPP). MUB showed the lowest soil phosphatase activity in all soils whereas AB in NC and NT presented the highest. Low MUB decreased interferences in the assessment of soil phosphatase activity when compared to MUB, suggesting that organic acids interfere on the soil phosphatase activity. In NC and NT, soil phosphatase activity performed with TB was similar to AB and low MUB. Km values from the Michaels-Menten equation were higher in NC than in NT, which indicate a lower affinity of phosphatase activity for the substrate in NC. Vmax values were also higher in NC than in NT. The Eadie-Hofstee model suggests that NC had more phosphatase isoforms than NT. The study showed that buffer type is of fundamental importance when assessing soil phosphatase activity in Cerrado soils.

  9. Relationship of spermatoscopy, prostatic acid phosphatase activity and prostate-specific antigen (p30) assays with further DNA typing in forensic samples from rape cases.

    PubMed

    Romero-Montoya, Lydia; Martínez-Rodríguez, Hugo; Pérez, Miguel Antonio; Argüello-García, Raúl

    2011-03-20

    In the forensic laboratory the biological analyses for rape investigation commonly include vaginal swabs as sample material combined to biochemical tests including sperm cytology (SC) and detection of acid phosphatase activity (AP) and prostate-specific antigen (PSA, p30) for the conclusive identification of semen components. Most reports comparing these tests relied on analysis of semen samples or donor swabs taken under controlled conditions; however their individual or combined efficacy under real live sampling conditions in different laboratories is largely unknown. We carried out SC, APA and PSA analyses in vaginal swabs collected from casework rapes submitted to Mexican Forensic Laboratories at Texcoco and Toluca. On the basis of positive and negative results from each assay and sample, data were classified into eight categories (I-VIII) and compared with those obtained in the two only similar studies reported in Toronto, Canada and Hong Kong, China. SC and APA assays had the higher overall positivity in Toluca and Texcoco samples respectively and otherwise PSA had a lower but very similar positivity between these two laboratories. When compared to the previous studies some similarities were found, namely similar frequencies (at a ratio of approximately 1 out of 3) of samples being positive or negative by all techniques (Categories I and VI respectively) and a comparable overall positivity of APA and SC but higher than that of PSA. Indeed the combined results of using SC, APA and PSA tests was considered as conclusive for semen detection from approximately 1 out of 3 cases (Category I) to approximately 1 out of 2 cases in a scenario where at least SC is positive, strongly presumptive in 2 out of 3 cases (with at least one test positive) and the remainder 1 out of 3 cases (Category VI) suggested absence of semen. By determining Y-STR polymorphisms (12-loci) in additional samples obtained at Toluca laboratory, complete DNA profiles were determined from all

  10. Mefloquine neurotoxicity is mediated by non-receptor tyrosine kinase.

    PubMed

    Milatovic, Dejan; Jenkins, Jerry W; Hood, Jonathan E; Yu, Yingchun; Rongzhu, Lu; Aschner, Michael

    2011-10-01

    Among several available antimalarial drugs, mefloquine has proven to be effective against drug-resistant Plasmodium falciparum and remains the drug of choice for both therapy and chemoprophylaxis. However, mefloquine is known to cause adverse neurological and/or psychiatric symptoms, which offset its therapeutic advantage. The exact mechanisms leading to the adverse neurological effects of mefloquine are poorly defined. Alterations in neurotransmitter release and calcium homeostasis, the inhibition of cholinesterases and the interaction with adenosine A(2A) receptors have been hypothesized to play prominent roles in mediating the deleterious effects of this drug. Our recent data have established that mefloquine can also trigger oxidative damage and subsequent neurodegeneration in rat cortical primary neurons. Furthermore, we have utilized a system biology-centered approach and have constructed a pathway model of cellular responses to mefloquine, identifying non-receptor tyrosine kinase 2 (Pyk2) as a critical target in mediating mefloquine neurotoxicity. In this study, we sought to establish an experimental validation of Pyk2 using gene-silencing techniques (siRNA). We have examined whether the downregulation of Pyk2 in primary rat cortical neurons alters mefloquine neurotoxicity by evaluating cell viability, apoptosis and oxidative stress. Results from our study have confirmed that mefloquine neurotoxicity is associated with apoptotic response and oxidative injury, and we have demonstrated that mefloquine affects primary rat cortical neurons, at least in part, via Pyk2. The implication of these findings may prove beneficial in suppressing the neurological side effects of mefloquine and developing effective therapeutic modalities to offset its adverse effects.

  11. The PP2C-type phosphatase AP2C1, which negatively regulates MPK4 and MPK6, modulates innate immunity, jasmonic acid, and ethylene levels in Arabidopsis.

    PubMed

    Schweighofer, Alois; Kazanaviciute, Vaiva; Scheikl, Elisabeth; Teige, Markus; Doczi, Robert; Hirt, Heribert; Schwanninger, Manfred; Kant, Merijn; Schuurink, Robert; Mauch, Felix; Buchala, Antony; Cardinale, Francesca; Meskiene, Irute

    2007-07-01

    Wound signaling pathways in plants are mediated by mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs) and stress hormones, such as ethylene and jasmonates. In Arabidopsis thaliana, the transmission of wound signals by MAPKs has been the subject of detailed investigations; however, the involvement of specific phosphatases in wound signaling is not known. Here, we show that AP2C1, an Arabidopsis Ser/Thr phosphatase of type 2C, is a novel stress signal regulator that inactivates the stress-responsive MAPKs MPK4 and MPK6. Mutant ap2c1 plants produce significantly higher amounts of jasmonate upon wounding and are more resistant to phytophagous mites (Tetranychus urticae). Plants with increased AP2C1 levels display lower wound activation of MAPKs, reduced ethylene production, and compromised innate immunity against the necrotrophic pathogen Botrytis cinerea. Our results demonstrate a key role for the AP2C1 phosphatase in regulating stress hormone levels, defense responses, and MAPK activities in Arabidopsis and provide evidence that the activity of AP2C1 might control the plant's response to B. cinerea.

  12. Structure-function analysis of 2-keto-3-deoxy-D-glycero-D-galactonononate-9-phosphate phosphatase defines specificity elements in type C0 haloalkanoate dehalogenase family members.

    PubMed

    Lu, Zhibing; Wang, Liangbing; Dunaway-Mariano, Debra; Allen, Karen N

    2009-01-09

    The phosphotransferases of the haloalkanoate dehalogenase superfamily (HADSF) act upon a wide range of metabolites in all eukaryotes and prokaryotes and thus constitute a significant force in cell function. The challenge posed for biochemical function assignment of HADSF members is the identification of the structural determinants that target a specific metabolite. The "8KDOP" subfamily of the HADSF is defined by the known structure and catalytic activity of 2-keto-3-deoxy-8-phospho-d-manno-octulosonic acid (KDO-8-P) phosphatase. Homologues of this enzyme have been uniformly annotated as KDO-8-P phosphatase. One such gene, BT1713, from the Bacteroides thetaiotaomicron genome was recently found to encode the enzyme 2-keto-3-deoxy-d-glycero-d-galacto-9-phosphonononic acid (KDN-9-P) phosphatase in the biosynthetic pathway of the 9-carbon alpha-keto acid, 2-keto-3-deoxy-d-glycero-d-galactonononic acid (KDN). To find the structural elements that provide substrate-specific interactions and to allow identification of genomic sequence markers, the x-ray crystal structures of BT1713 liganded to the cofactor Mg(2+)and complexed with tungstate or VO(3)(-)/Neu5Ac were determined to 1.1, 1.85, and 1.63 A resolution, respectively. The structures define the active site to be at the subunit interface and, as confirmed by steady-state kinetics and site-directed mutagenesis, reveal Arg-64(*), Lys-67(*), and Glu-56 to be the key residues involved in sugar binding that are essential for BT1713 catalytic function. Bioinformatic analyses of the differentially conserved residues between BT1713 and KDO-8-P phosphatase homologues guided by the knowledge of the structure-based specificity determinants define Glu-56 and Lys-67(*) to be the key residues that can be used in future annotations.

  13. Structure-Function Analysis of 2-Keto-3-Deoxy-D-Glycero-D-Galacto-Nononate-9-Phosphate Phosphatase Defines Specificity Elements in Type C0 had Family Members

    SciTech Connect

    Lu, Z.; Wang, L; Dunaway-Mariano, D; Allen, K

    2009-01-01

    The phosphotransferases of the haloalkanoate dehalogenase superfamily (HADSF) act upon a wide range of metabolites in all eukaryotes and prokaryotes and thus constitute a significant force in cell function. The challenge posed for biochemical function assignment of HADSF members is the identification of the structural determinants that target a specific metabolite. The '8KDOP' subfamily of the HADSF is defined by the known structure and catalytic activity of 2-keto-3-deoxy-8-phospho-d-manno-octulosonic acid (KDO-8-P) phosphatase. Homologues of this enzyme have been uniformly annotated as KDO-8-P phosphatase. One such gene, BT1713, from the Bacteroides thetaiotaomicron genome was recently found to encode the enzyme 2-keto-3-deoxy-d-glycero-d-galacto-9-phosphonononic acid (KDN-9-P) phosphatase in the biosynthetic pathway of the 9-carbon ?-keto acid, 2-keto-3-deoxy-d-glycero-d-galactonononic acid (KDN). To find the structural elements that provide substrate-specific interactions and to allow identification of genomic sequence markers, the x-ray crystal structures of BT1713 liganded to the cofactor Mg2+and complexed with tungstate or Formula/Neu5Ac were determined to 1.1, 1.85, and 1.63 A resolution, respectively. The structures define the active site to be at the subunit interface and, as confirmed by steady-state kinetics and site-directed mutagenesis, reveal Arg-64*, Lys-67*, and Glu-56 to be the key residues involved in sugar binding that are essential for BT1713 catalytic function. Bioinformatic analyses of the differentially conserved residues between BT1713 and KDO-8-P phosphatase homologues guided by the knowledge of the structure-based specificity determinants define Glu-56 and Lys-67* to be the key residues that can be used in future annotations.

  14. Phosphoryl transfer from α-d-glucose 1-phosphate catalyzed by Escherichia coli sugar-phosphate phosphatases of two protein superfamily types.

    PubMed

    Wildberger, Patricia; Pfeiffer, Martin; Brecker, Lothar; Rechberger, Gerald N; Birner-Gruenberger, Ruth; Nidetzky, Bernd

    2015-03-01

    The Cori ester α-d-glucose 1-phosphate (αGlc 1-P) is a high-energy intermediate of cellular carbohydrate metabolism. Its glycosidic phosphomonoester moiety primes αGlc 1-P for flexible exploitation in glucosyl and phosphoryl transfer reactions. Two structurally and mechanistically distinct sugar-phosphate phosphatases from Escherichia coli were characterized in this study for utilization of αGlc 1-P as a phosphoryl donor substrate. The agp gene encodes a periplasmic αGlc 1-P phosphatase (Agp) belonging to the histidine acid phosphatase family. Had13 is from the haloacid dehydrogenase-like phosphatase family. Cytoplasmic expression of Agp (in E. coli Origami B) gave a functional enzyme preparation (kcat for phosphoryl transfer from αGlc 1-P to water, 40 s(-1)) that was shown by mass spectrometry to exhibit no free cysteines and the native intramolecular disulfide bond between Cys(189) and Cys(195). Enzymatic phosphoryl transfer from αGlc 1-P to water in H2 (18)O solvent proceeded with complete (18)O label incorporation into the phosphate released, consistent with catalytic reaction through O-1-P, but not C-1-O, bond cleavage. Hydrolase activity of both enzymes was not restricted to a glycosidic phosphomonoester substrate, and d-glucose 6-phosphate was converted with a kcat similar to that of αGlc 1-P. By examining phosphoryl transfer from αGlc 1-P to an acceptor substrate other than water (d-fructose or d-glucose), we discovered that Agp exhibited pronounced synthetic activity, unlike Had13, which utilized αGlc 1-P mainly for phosphoryl transfer to water. By applying d-fructose in 10-fold molar excess over αGlc 1-P (20 mM), enzymatic conversion furnished d-fructose 1-phosphate as the main product in a 55% overall yield. Agp is a promising biocatalyst for use in transphosphorylation from αGlc 1-P.

  15. Analysis of Smad Phosphatase Activity In Vitro.

    PubMed

    Shen, Tao; Qin, Lan; Lin, Xia

    2016-01-01

    Phosphorylation of Smad1/5/8 at the C-terminal SXS motif by BMP type I receptors is one of the most critical events in BMP signaling. Conversely, protein phosphatases that dephosphorylate phospho-Smad1/5/8 can consequently prevent or terminate BMP signaling. PPM1H is an undercharacterized phosphatase in the PPM family. We recently demonstrated that PPM1H can dephosphorylate Smad1 in the cytoplasm and block BMP signaling responses in cellular assays. Here we describe in vitro method showing that PPM1H is a bona fide phosphatase for Smad1/5/8. PPM1H is produced as GST fusion protein in E. coli, and purified against glutathione sepharose beads. Bacterially purified recombinant PPM1H possesses phosphatase activity toward artificial substrate para-nitrophenyl phosphate (pNPP). Recombinant PPM1H also dephosphorylates immuno-purified phosphorylated Smad1 in test tubes. These direct in vitro phosphatase assays provide convincing evidence demonstrating the role of PPM1H as a specific phosphatase for P-Smad1.

  16. Phospholemman-dependent regulation of the cardiac Na/K-ATPase activity is modulated by inhibitor-1 sensitive type-1 phosphatase.

    PubMed

    El-Armouche, Ali; Wittköpper, Katrin; Fuller, William; Howie, Jacqueline; Shattock, Michael J; Pavlovic, Davor

    2011-12-01

    Cardiac Na/K-ATPase (NKA) is regulated by its accessory protein phospholemman (PLM). Whereas kinase-induced PLM phosphorylation has been shown to mediate NKA stimulation, the role of endogenous phosphatases is presently unknown. We investigated the role of protein phosphatase-1 (PP-1) on PLM phosphorylation and NKA activity in rat cardiomyocytes and failing human hearts. Incubation of rat cardiomyocytes with the chemical PP-1/PP-2A inhibitor okadaic acid or the specific PP-1-inhibitor peptide (I-1ct) identified PLM phosphorylation at Ser-68 as the main substrate for PP-1. Moreover, myocytes adenovirally overexpressing PP-1 inhibitor-1 protein (I-1,Ad-I-1/eGFP) showed a 70% increase in PLM Ser-68 phosphorylation and 65% increase in NKA current, compared with enhanced green fluorescence protein (eGFP)-infected controls (Ad-eGFP), using Western blotting and voltage clamping, respectively. Notably, in left ventricular myocardium from patients with heart failure, PLM Ser-68 phosphorylation was ≈ 50% lower (n=7) than in nonfailing controls (n=7). We provide the first physiological and biochemical evidence that PLM phosphorylation and cardiac Na/K-ATPase activity are negatively regulated by PP-1 and that this regulatory mechanism could be counteracted by I-1. This novel mechanism is markedly perturbed in failing hearts favoring PLM dephosphorylation and NKA deactivation and thus may contribute to maladaptive hypertrophy and arrhythmogenesis via chronically higher intracellular Na and Ca concentrations.

  17. Role of Non-receptor Protein Tyrosine Kinases During Phospholipase C-γ1 Related Uterine Contractions in the Rat

    PubMed Central

    Phillippe, Mark; Sweet, Leigh M.; Bradley, Diana F.; Engle, Daniel

    2011-01-01

    Activated phospholipase Cγ1 (PLC-γ1), produced in response to tyrosine phosphorylation, appears to play an important role during uterine contractions. These studies sought to determine which non-receptor protein tyrosine kinases (PTKs) are involved in the tyrosine phosphorylation and activation of PLC-γ1 in uterine tissue from the rat. In vitro uterine contraction studies were performed utilizing isoform specific PTK inhibitors. Western blots were performed utilizing antibodies to phosphotyrosine-PLC-γ1, total PLC-γ1, c-Src kinase and Lck kinase. Spontaneous, stretch-stimulated, and bpV(phen) (a tyrosine phosphatase inhibitor) enhanced uterine contractions were significantly suppressed in response to Damnacanthal (a Lck kinase inhibitor) and PP1 (a c-Src kinase inhibitor); whereas, several other PTK isoform inhibitors had no significant effect. Damnacanthal and PP1 also significantly suppressed bpV(phen)-enhanced tyrosine phosphorylation of PLC-γ1 compared to other PTK isoform inhibitors. Western blots confirmed expression of the Lck and c-Src kinases in uterine tissue. In conclusion, the Lck and c-Src kinases appear to play an important role in regulating tyrosine phosphorylation of PLC-γ1 and contractile activity in the rat uterus. PMID:19208792

  18. 3-hydroxybenzene 1,2,4-trisphosphate, a novel second messenger mimic and unusual substrate for type-I myo-inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate 5-phosphatase: Synthesis and physicochemistry.

    PubMed

    Mills, Stephen J; Dozol, Hélène; Vandeput, Fabrice; Backers, Katrien; Woodman, Timothy; Erneux, Christophe; Spiess, Bernard; Potter, Barry V L

    2006-11-01

    3-Hydroxybenzene 1,2,4-trisphosphate 4 is a new myo-inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate analogue based on the core structure of benzene 1,2,4-trisphosphate 2 with an additional hydroxyl group at position-3, and is the first noninositol based compound to be a substrate for inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate 5-phosphatase. In physicochemical studies on 2, when three equivalents of protons were added, the (31)P NMR spectrum displayed monophasic behaviour in which phosphate-1 and phosphate-2 behaved independently in most of the studied pH range. For compound 4, phosphate-2 and phosphate-4 interacted with the 3-OH group, which does not titrate at physiological pH, displaying complex biphasic behaviour which demonstrated co-operativity between these groups. Phosphate-1 and phosphate-2 strongly interacted with each other and phosphate-4 experienced repulsion because of the interaction of the 3-OH group. Benzene 1,2,4-trisphosphate 2 is resistant to inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate type I 5-phosphatase catalysed dephosphorylation. However, surprisingly, 3-hydroxybenzene 1,2,4-trisphosphate 4 was dephosphorylated by this 5-phosphatase to give the symmetrical 2,3-dihydroxybenzene 1,4-bisphosphate 16. The extra hydroxyl group is shown to form a hydrogen bond with the vicinal phosphate groups at -15 degrees C, and (1)H NMR titration of the ring and hydroxyl protons in 4 shows the OH proton to be strongly stabilized as soon as the phosphate groups are deprotonated. The effect of the phenolic 3-OH group in compound 4 confirms a critical role for the 6-OH group of the natural messenger in the dephosphorylation mechanism that persists even in radically modified analogues.

  19. Differences in the release of 5'-nucleotidase and alkaline phosphatase from plasma membrane of several cell types by PI-PLC.

    PubMed

    Zekri, M; Harb, J; Bernard, S; Poirier, G; Devaux, C; Meflah, K

    1989-01-01

    1. We have compared the effect of phosphatidyl inositol specific phospholipase C (PI-PLC) on the attachment of both 5'-nucleotidase and alkaline phosphatase to the liver plasma membrane from different species. 2. Our results demonstrate differences in the susceptibilities of both enzymes to PI-PLC treatment in relation to their origin. 3. These results were confirmed by immunoblotting using polyclonal anti-5'-nucleotidase antibodies. 4. In addition, in a single animal, susceptibility of both enzymes to PI-PLC treatment is different from one tissue to another. 5. The different percentages of released enzymes could be explained either by a polymorphism in the anchoring of these proteins at the cell surface membrane, or by a different steric hindrance or environment at the cleavage site itself.

  20. Type 2C protein phosphatase Ptc6 participates in activation of the Slt2-mediated cell wall integrity pathway in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    PubMed

    Sharmin, Dilruba; Sasano, Yu; Sugiyama, Minetaka; Harashima, Satoshi

    2015-04-01

    The phosphorylation status of cellular proteins results from an equilibrium between the activities of protein kinases and protein phosphatases (PPases). Reversible protein phosphorylation is an important aspect of signal transduction that regulate many biological processes in eukaryotic cells. The Saccharomyces cerevisiae genome encodes 40 PPases, including seven members of the protein phosphatase 2C subfamily (PTC1 to PTC7). In contrast to other PPases, the cellular roles of PTCs have not been investigated in detail. Here, we sought to determine the cellular role of PTC6 in S. cerevisiae with disruption of PTC genes. We found that cells with Δptc6 disruption were tolerant to the cell wall-damaging agents Congo red (CR) and calcofluor white (CFW); however, cells with simultaneous disruption of PTC1 and PTC6 were very sensitive to these agents. Thus, simultaneous disruption of PTC1 and PTC6 gave a synergistic response to cell wall damaging agents. The level of phosphorylated Slt2 increased significantly after CR treatment in Δptc1 cells and more so in Δptc1Δptc6 cells; therefore, deletion of PTC6 enhanced Slt2 phosphorylation in the Δptc1 disruptant. The level of transcription of KDX1 upon exposure to CR increased to a greater extent in the Δptc1Δptc6 double disruptant than the Δptc1 single disruptant. The Δptc1Δptc6 double disruptant cells showed normal vacuole formation under standard growth conditions, but fragmented vacuoles were present in the presence of CR or CFW. Our analyses indicate that S. cerevisiae PTC6 participates in the negative regulation of Slt2 phosphorylation and vacuole morphogenesis under cell wall stress conditions.

  1. [Roles of phosphatases in pathogen infection: a review].

    PubMed

    Zhu, Pei; Li, Xinqiang; Li, Zhenlun

    2012-02-01

    Phosphatases play a key role not only in cell physiological functions of an organism, but also in host-pathogen interactions. Many studies demonstrated that some Gram-negative pathogenic bacteria could evade host immunity and promote pathogenicity by injecting phosphatases into host cells through type III secretion system. However, there were few reports about pathogenic fungi evading the immunity of hosts. Our researches indicated that the entomogenic fungus Metarhizium anisopliae could dephosphorylate the signal transduction substance of locust humoral immunity specifically in vitro by secreting extracellular protein tyrosine phosphatase, which implied that the fungus might interfere with the immune defense of locust. To provide reference for further studies of the functions of phosphatases, we reviewed the types of phosphatases and their roles in pathogen infection.

  2. Phosphatidyl glycerophosphate phosphatase.

    PubMed

    Chang, Y Y; Kennedy, E P

    1967-09-01

    An enzyme (phosphatidyl glycerophosphate phosphatase) that catalyzes the formation of phosphatidyl glycerol from phosphatidyl glycerophosphate has been rendered soluble by treatment of the particulate fraction of E. coli with Triton X-100 in the presence of EDTA, and has been partially purified. The enzyme is specific for phosphatidyl glycerophosphate and does not catalyze the hydrolysis of other simple phosphomonoesters. It requires Mg(++) for activity and is inhibited by sulfhydryl agents. Some other properties of the enzyme are also described.

  3. ROBUSTNESS OF MORPHOGEN GRADIENTS WITH "BUCKET BRIGADE" TRANSPORT THROUGH MEMBRANE-ASSOCIATED NON-RECEPTORS.

    PubMed

    Lei, Jinzhi; Wang, Dongyong; Song, You; Nie, Qing; Wan, Frederic Y M

    2013-05-01

    Robust multiple-fate morphogen gradients are essential for embryo development. Here, we analyze mathematically a model of morphogen gradient (such as Dpp in Drosophila wing imaginal disc) formation in the presence of non-receptors with both diffusion of free morphogens and the movement of morphogens bound to non-receptors. Under the assumption of rapid degradation of unbound morphogen, we introduce a method of functional boundary value problem and prove the existence, uniqueness and linear stability of a biologically acceptable steady-state solution. Next, we investigate the robustness of this steady-state solution with respect to significant changes in the morphogen synthesis rate. We prove that the model is able to produce robust biological morphogen gradients when production and degradation rates of morphogens are large enough and non-receptors are abundant. Our results provide mathematical and biological insight to a mechanism of achieving stable robust long distance morphogen gradients. Key elements of this mechanism are rapid turnover of morphogen to non-receptors of neighoring cells resulting in significant degradation and transport of non-receptor-morphogen complexes, the latter moving downstream through a "bucket brigade" process.

  4. Genetic Variations of PTPN2 and PTPN22: Role in the Pathogenesis of Type 1 Diabetes and Crohn's Disease.

    PubMed

    Sharp, Robert C; Abdulrahim, Muna; Naser, Ebraheem S; Naser, Saleh A

    2015-01-01

    Genome wide association studies have identified several genes that might be associated with increase susceptibility to Type 1 Diabetes (T1D) and Crohn's disease. Both Crohn's disease and T1D have a profound impact on the lives of patients and it is pivotal to investigate the genetic role in patients acquiring these diseases. Understanding the effect of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP's) in key genes in patients suffering from T1D and Crohn's disease is crucial to finding an effective treatment and generating novel therapeutic drugs. This review article is focused on the impact of SNP's in PTPN2 (protein tyrosine phosphatase, non-receptor type 2) and PTPN22 (protein tyrosine phosphatase non-receptor type 22) on the development of Crohn's disease and T1D. The PTPN2 gene mutation in T1D patients play a direct role in the destruction of beta cells while in Crohn's disease patients, it modulates the innate immune responses. The PTPN22 gene mutations also play a role in both diseases by modulating intracellular signaling. Examining the mechanism through which these genes increase the susceptibility to both diseases and gaining a better understanding of their structure and function is of vital importance to understand the etiology and pathogenesis of Type 1 Diabetes and Crohn's disease.

  5. LZAP Inhibits p38 MAPK (p38) Phosphorylation and Activity by Facilitating p38 Association with the Wild-Type p53 Induced Phosphatase 1 (WIP1)

    PubMed Central

    An, Hanbing; Lu, Xinyuan; Liu, Dan; Yarbrough, Wendell G.

    2011-01-01

    LZAP (Cdk5rap3, C53) is a putative tumor suppressor that inhibits RelA, Chk1 and Chk2 and activates p53. LZAP is lost in a portion of human head and neck squamous cell carcinoma and experimental loss of LZAP expression is associated with enhanced invasion, xenograft tumor growth and angiogenesis. p38 MAPK can increase or decrease proliferation and cell death depending on cellular context. LZAP has no known enzymatic activity, implying that its biological functions are likely mediated by its protein-protein interactions. To gain further insight into LZAP activities, we searched for LZAP-associated proteins (LAPs). Here we show that the LZAP binds p38, alters p38 cellular localization, and inhibits basal and cytokine-stimulated p38 activity. Expression of LZAP inhibits p38 phosphorylation in a dose-dependent fashion while loss of LZAP enhances phosphorylation and activation with resultant phosphorylation of p38 downstream targets. Mechanistically, the ability of LZAP to alter p38 phosphorylation depended, at least partially, on the p38 phosphatase, Wip1. Expression of LZAP increased both LZAP and Wip1 binding to p38. Taken together, these data suggest that LZAP activity includes inhibition of p38 phosphorylation and activation. PMID:21283629

  6. LZAP inhibits p38 MAPK (p38) phosphorylation and activity by facilitating p38 association with the wild-type p53 induced phosphatase 1 (WIP1).

    PubMed

    An, Hanbing; Lu, Xinyuan; Liu, Dan; Yarbrough, Wendell G

    2011-01-24

    LZAP (Cdk5rap3, C53) is a putative tumor suppressor that inhibits RelA, Chk1 and Chk2 and activates p53. LZAP is lost in a portion of human head and neck squamous cell carcinoma and experimental loss of LZAP expression is associated with enhanced invasion, xenograft tumor growth and angiogenesis. p38 MAPK can increase or decrease proliferation and cell death depending on cellular context. LZAP has no known enzymatic activity, implying that its biological functions are likely mediated by its protein-protein interactions. To gain further insight into LZAP activities, we searched for LZAP-associated proteins (LAPs). Here we show that the LZAP binds p38, alters p38 cellular localization, and inhibits basal and cytokine-stimulated p38 activity. Expression of LZAP inhibits p38 phosphorylation in a dose-dependent fashion while loss of LZAP enhances phosphorylation and activation with resultant phosphorylation of p38 downstream targets. Mechanistically, the ability of LZAP to alter p38 phosphorylation depended, at least partially, on the p38 phosphatase, Wip1. Expression of LZAP increased both LZAP and Wip1 binding to p38. Taken together, these data suggest that LZAP activity includes inhibition of p38 phosphorylation and activation.

  7. Cap-domain closure enables diverse substrate recognition by the C2-type haloacid dehalogenase-like sugar phosphatase Plasmodium falciparum HAD1.

    PubMed

    Park, Jooyoung; Guggisberg, Ann M; Odom, Audrey R; Tolia, Niraj H

    2015-09-01

    Haloacid dehalogenases (HADs) are a large enzyme superfamily of more than 500,000 members with roles in numerous metabolic pathways. Plasmodium falciparum HAD1 (PfHAD1) is a sugar phosphatase that regulates the methylerythritol phosphate (MEP) pathway for isoprenoid synthesis in malaria parasites. However, the structural determinants for diverse substrate recognition by HADs are unknown. Here, crystal structures were determined of PfHAD1 in complex with three sugar phosphates selected from a panel of diverse substrates that it utilizes. Cap-open and cap-closed conformations are observed, with cap closure facilitating substrate binding and ordering. These structural changes define the role of cap movement within the major subcategory of C2 HAD enzymes. The structures of an HAD bound to multiple substrates identifies binding and specificity-determining residues that define the structural basis for substrate recognition and catalysis within the HAD superfamily. While the substrate-binding region of the cap domain is flexible in the open conformations, this region becomes ordered and makes direct interactions with the substrate in the closed conformations. These studies further inform the structural and biochemical basis for catalysis within a large superfamily of HAD enzymes with diverse functions.

  8. A SHPing tale: perspectives on the regulation of SHP-1 and SHP-2 tyrosine phosphatases by the C-terminal tail.

    PubMed

    Poole, Alastair W; Jones, Matthew L

    2005-11-01

    Protein tyrosine phosphorylation is a ubiquitous signalling mechanism and is regulated by a balance between the action of kinases and phosphatases. The SH2 domain-containing phosphatases SHP-1 and SHP-2 are the best studied of the classical non-receptor tyrosine phosphatases, but it is intriguing that despite their close sequence and structural homology these two phosphatases play quite different cellular roles. In particular, whereas SHP-1 plays a largely negative signalling role suppressing cellular activation, SHP-2 plays a largely positive signalling role. Major sequence differences between the two molecules are apparent in the approximately 100 amino acid residues at the extreme C-terminus of the proteins, beyond the phosphatase catalytic domain. Here we review how the differences in the tails of these proteins may regulate their activities and explain some of their functional differences.

  9. Evolutionarily conserved regulatory mechanisms of abscisic acid signaling in land plants: characterization of ABSCISIC ACID INSENSITIVE1-like type 2C protein phosphatase in the liverwort Marchantia polymorpha.

    PubMed

    Tougane, Ken; Komatsu, Kenji; Bhyan, Salma Begum; Sakata, Yoichi; Ishizaki, Kimitsune; Yamato, Katsuyuki T; Kohchi, Takayuki; Takezawa, Daisuke

    2010-03-01

    Abscisic acid (ABA) is postulated to be a ubiquitous hormone that plays a central role in seed development and responses to environmental stresses of vascular plants. However, in liverworts (Marchantiophyta), which represent the oldest extant lineage of land plants, the role of ABA has been least emphasized; thus, very little information is available on the molecular mechanisms underlying ABA responses. In this study, we isolated and characterized MpABI1, an ortholog of ABSCISIC ACID INSENSITIVE1 (ABI1), from the liverwort Marchantia polymorpha. The MpABI1 cDNA encoded a 568-amino acid protein consisting of the carboxy-terminal protein phosphatase 2C (PP2C) domain and a novel amino-terminal regulatory domain. The MpABI1 transcript was detected in the gametophyte, and its expression level was increased by exogenous ABA treatment in the gemma, whose growth was strongly inhibited by ABA. Experiments using green fluorescent protein fusion constructs indicated that MpABI1 was mainly localized in the nucleus and that its nuclear localization was directed by the amino-terminal domain. Transient overexpression of MpABI1 in M. polymorpha and Physcomitrella patens cells resulted in suppression of ABA-induced expression of the wheat Em promoter fused to the beta -glucuronidase gene. Transgenic P. patens expressing MpABI1 and its mutant construct, MpABI1-d2, lacking the amino-terminal domain, had reduced freezing and osmotic stress tolerance, and associated with reduced accumulation of ABA-induced late embryogenesis abundant-like boiling-soluble proteins. Furthermore, ABA-induced morphological changes leading to brood cells were not prominent in these transgenic plants. These results suggest that MpABI1 is a negative regulator of ABA signaling, providing unequivocal molecular evidence of PP2C-mediated ABA response mechanisms functioning in liverworts.

  10. Deletion of PHO13, encoding haloacid dehalogenase type IIA phosphatase, results in upregulation of the pentose phosphate pathway in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    PubMed

    Kim, Soo Rin; Xu, Haiqing; Lesmana, Anastashia; Kuzmanovic, Uros; Au, Matthew; Florencia, Clarissa; Oh, Eun Joong; Zhang, Guochang; Kim, Kyoung Heon; Jin, Yong-Su

    2015-03-01

    The haloacid dehalogenase (HAD) superfamily is one of the largest enzyme families, consisting mainly of phosphatases. Although intracellular phosphate plays important roles in many cellular activities, the biological functions of HAD enzymes are largely unknown. Pho13 is 1 of 16 putative HAD enzymes in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Pho13 has not been studied extensively, but previous studies have identified PHO13 to be a deletion target for the generation of industrially attractive phenotypes, namely, efficient xylose fermentation and high tolerance to fermentation inhibitors. In order to understand the molecular mechanisms underlying the improved xylose-fermenting phenotype produced by deletion of PHO13 (pho13Δ), we investigated the response of S. cerevisiae to pho13Δ at the transcriptomic level when cells were grown on glucose or xylose. Transcriptome sequencing analysis revealed that pho13Δ resulted in upregulation of the pentose phosphate (PP) pathway and NADPH-producing enzymes when cells were grown on glucose or xylose. We also found that the transcriptional changes induced by pho13Δ required the transcription factor Stb5, which is activated specifically under NADPH-limiting conditions. Thus, pho13Δ resulted in the upregulation of the PP pathway and NADPH-producing enzymes as a part of an oxidative stress response mediated by activation of Stb5. Because the PP pathway is the primary pathway for xylose, its upregulation by pho13Δ might explain the improved xylose metabolism. These findings will be useful for understanding the biological function of S. cerevisiae Pho13 and the HAD superfamily enzymes and for developing S. cerevisiae strains with industrially attractive phenotypes.

  11. Induction of bone-type alkaline phosphatase in human vascular smooth muscle cells: roles of tumor necrosis factor-alpha and oncostatin M derived from macrophages.

    PubMed

    Shioi, Atsushi; Katagi, Miwako; Okuno, Yasuhisa; Mori, Katsuhito; Jono, Shuichi; Koyama, Hidenori; Nishizawa, Yoshiki

    2002-07-12

    Inflammatory cells such as macrophages and T lymphocytes play an important role in vascular calcification associated with atherosclerosis and cardiac valvular disease. In particular, macrophages activated with cytokines derived from T lymphocytes such as interferon-gamma (IFN-gamma) may contribute to the development of vascular calcification. Moreover, we have shown the stimulatory effect of 1alpha,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 (1,25(OH)2D3) on in vitro calcification through increasing the expression of alkaline phosphatase (ALP), an ectoenzyme indispensable for bone mineralization, in vascular smooth muscle cells. Therefore, we hypothesized that macrophages may induce calcifying phenotype, especially the expression of ALP in human vascular smooth muscle cells (HVSMCs) in the presence of IFN-gamma and 1,25(OH)2D3. To test this hypothesis, we used cocultures of HVSMCs with human monocytic cell line (THP-1) or peripheral blood monocytes (PBMCs) in the presence of IFN-gamma and 1,25(OH)2D3. THP-1 cells or PBMCs induced ALP activity and its gene expression in HVSMCs and the cells with high expression of ALP calcified their extracellular matrix by the addition of beta-glycerophosphate. Thermostability and immunoassay showed that ALP induced in HVSMCs was bone-specific enzyme. We further identified tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha) and oncostatin M (OSM) as major factors inducing ALP in HVSMCs in the culture supernatants of THP-1 cells. TNF-alpha and OSM, only when applied together, increased ALP activities and in vitro calcification in HVSMCs in the presence of IFN-gamma and 1,25(OH)2D3. These results suggest that macrophages may contribute to the development of vascular calcification through producing various inflammatory mediators, especially TNF-alpha and OSM.

  12. Downregulation of protein tyrosine phosphatase PTPL1 alters cell cycle and upregulates invasion-related genes in prostate cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Castilla, Carolina; Flores, M Luz; Conde, José M; Medina, Rafael; Torrubia, Francisco J; Japón, Miguel A; Sáez, Carmen

    2012-04-01

    PTPL1, a non-receptor type protein tyrosine phosphatase, has been involved in the regulation of apoptosis and invasiveness of various tumour cell types, but its role in prostate cancer remained to be investigated. We report here that downregulation of PTPL1 by small interfering RNA in PC3 cells decreases cell proliferation and concomitantly reduces the expression of cell cycle-related proteins such as cyclins E and B1, PCNA, PTTG1 and phospho-histone H3. PTPL1 downregulation also increases the invasion ability of PC3 cells through Matrigel coated membranes. cDNA array of PTPL1-silenced PC3 cells versus control cells showed an upregulation of invasion-related genes such as uPA, uPAR, tPA, PAI-1, integrin α6 and osteopontin. This increased expression was also confirmed in PTPL1-silenced DU145 prostate cancer cells by quantitative real time PCR and western blot. These findings suggest that PTPL1 is an important mediator of central cellular processes such as proliferation and invasion.

  13. Acid phosphatase and protease activities in immobilized rat skeletal muscles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Witzmann, F. A.; Troup, J. P.; Fitts, R. H.

    1982-01-01

    The effect of hind-limb immobilization on selected Iysosomal enzyme activities was studied in rat hing-limb muscles composed primarily of type 1. 2A, or 2B fibers. Following immobilization, acid protease and acid phosphatase both exhibited signifcant increases in their activity per unit weight in all three fiber types. Acid phosphatase activity increased at day 14 of immobilization in the three muscles and returned to control levels by day 21. Acid protease activity also changed biphasically, displaying a higher and earlier rise than acid phosphatase. The pattern of change in acid protease, but not acid phosphatase, closely parallels observed muscle wasting. The present data therefore demonstrate enhanced proteolytic capacity of all three fiber types early during muscular atrophy. In addition, the data suggest a dependence of basal hydrolytic and proteolytic activities and their adaptive response to immobilization on muscle fiber composition.

  14. Phosphatase activities analyzed by in vivo expressions.

    PubMed

    Schweighofer, Alois; Ayatollahi, Zahra; Meskiene, Irute

    2009-01-01

    Protein phosphatases act to reverse phosphorylation-related modifications induced by protein kinases. Type 2C protein phosphatases (PP2C) are monomeric Ser/Thr phosphatases that require a metal for their activity and are abundant in prokaryotes and eukaryotes. In plants, such as Medicago and Arabidopsis PP2Cs control several essential processes, including ABA signaling, development, and wound-induced mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) pathways. In vitro assays with recombinant proteins and yeast two-hybrid systems usually provide initial information about putative PP2C substrates; however, these observations have to be verified in vivo. Therefore, a method for transient expression in isolated Arabidopsis suspension cell protoplasts was developed to assay PP2C action in living cells. This system has proven to be very useful in producing active enzymes and their substrates and in performing enzymatic reactions in vivo. Transient gene expression in isolated cells enabled assembly of functional protein kinase cascades and the creation of phosphorylated targets for PP2Cs. The method is based on the co-transformation and transient co-expression of different PP2C proteins with MAPK. It shows that epitope-tagged PP2C and MAPK proteins exhibit high enzymatic activities and produce substantial protein amounts easily monitored by Western blot analysis. Additionally, PP2C phosphatase activities can be directly tested in protein extracts from protoplasts, suggesting a possibility for analysis of activities of new PP2C family members.

  15. Molecular Evolution of Phosphoprotein Phosphatases in Drosophila

    PubMed Central

    Miskei, Márton; Ádám, Csaba; Kovács, László; Karányi, Zsolt; Dombrádi, Viktor

    2011-01-01

    Phosphoprotein phosphatases (PPP), these ancient and important regulatory enzymes are present in all eukaryotic organisms. Based on the genome sequences of 12 Drosophila species we traced the evolution of the PPP catalytic subunits and noted a substantial expansion of the gene family. We concluded that the 18–22 PPP genes of Drosophilidae were generated from a core set of 8 indispensable phosphatases that are present in most of the insects. Retropositons followed by tandem gene duplications extended the phosphatase repertoire, and sporadic gene losses contributed to the species specific variations in the PPP complement. During the course of these studies we identified 5, up till now uncharacterized phosphatase retrogenes: PpY+, PpD5+, PpD6+, Pp4+, and Pp6+ which are found only in some ancient Drosophila. We demonstrated that all of these new PPP genes exhibit a distinct male specific expression. In addition to the changes in gene numbers, the intron-exon structure and the chromosomal localization of several PPP genes was also altered during evolution. The G−C content of the coding regions decreased when a gene moved into the heterochromatic region of chromosome Y. Thus the PPP enzymes exemplify the various types of dynamic rearrangements that accompany the molecular evolution of a gene family in Drosophilidae. PMID:21789237

  16. Mutual regulation of ntcA and hetR during heterocyst differentiation requires two similar PP2C-type protein phosphatases, PrpJ1 and PrpJ2, in Anabaena sp. strain PCC 7120.

    PubMed

    Jang, Jichan; Shi, Lei; Tan, Hui; Janicki, Annick; Zhang, Cheng-Cai

    2009-10-01

    The filamentous cyanobacterium Anabaena sp. strain PCC 7120 can form heterocysts for N(2) fixation. Initiation of heterocyst differentiation depends on mutual regulation of ntcA and hetR. Control of hetR expression by NtcA is partially mediated by nrrA, but other factors must be involved in this regulation. Anabaena has two closely related PP2C-type protein phosphatases, PrpJ1 (formerly PrpJ) and PrpJ2; PrpJ1 is involved in heterocyst maturation. In this study, we show that PrpJ2, like PrpJ1, has Mn(2+)-dependent phosphatase activity. We further demonstrate that whereas prpJ2 is dispensable for cell growth under different nitrogen regimens tested, a double mutant with both prpJ1 and prpJ2 disrupted did not initiate heterocyst differentiation. Ectopic expression of hetR in the double mutant could rescue the failure to initiate heterocyst development, but the heterocysts formed, like those of a prpJ1 single mutant, were not mature. The expression of prpJ2 was enhanced during heterocyst development, and the upregulation of the gene was directly under the control of NtcA. Upregulation of both ntcA and hetR was affected in the double mutant. We propose that PrpJ1 and PrpJ2 together are required for mutual regulation of ntcA and hetR and are thus involved in regulation of the initiation of heterocyst differentiation.

  17. Direct determination of phosphatase activity from physiological substrates in cells.

    PubMed

    Ren, Zhongyuan; Do, Le Duy; Bechkoff, Géraldine; Mebarek, Saida; Keloglu, Nermin; Ahamada, Saandia; Meena, Saurabh; Magne, David; Pikula, Slawomir; Wu, Yuqing; Buchet, René

    2015-01-01

    A direct and continuous approach to determine simultaneously protein and phosphate concentrations in cells and kinetics of phosphate release from physiological substrates by cells without any labeling has been developed. Among the enzymes having a phosphatase activity, tissue non-specific alkaline phosphatase (TNAP) performs indispensable, multiple functions in humans. It is expressed in numerous tissues with high levels detected in bones, liver and neurons. It is absolutely required for bone mineralization and also necessary for neurotransmitter synthesis. We provided the proof of concept that infrared spectroscopy is a reliable assay to determine a phosphatase activity in the osteoblasts. For the first time, an overall specific phosphatase activity in cells was determined in a single step by measuring simultaneously protein and substrate concentrations. We found specific activities in osteoblast like cells amounting to 116 ± 13 nmol min(-1) mg(-1) for PPi, to 56 ± 11 nmol min(-1) mg(-1) for AMP, to 79 ± 23 nmol min(-1) mg(-1) for beta-glycerophosphate and to 73 ± 15 nmol min(-1) mg(-1) for 1-alpha-D glucose phosphate. The assay was also effective to monitor phosphatase activity in primary osteoblasts and in matrix vesicles. The use of levamisole--a TNAP inhibitor--served to demonstrate that a part of the phosphatase activity originated from this enzyme. An IC50 value of 1.16 ± 0.03 mM was obtained for the inhibition of phosphatase activity of levamisole in osteoblast like cells. The infrared assay could be extended to determine any type of phosphatase activity in other cells. It may serve as a metabolomic tool to monitor an overall phosphatase activity including acid phosphatases or other related enzymes.

  18. Multifaceted modulation of K+ channels by protein-tyrosine phosphatase ε tunes neuronal excitability.

    PubMed

    Ebner-Bennatan, Sharon; Patrich, Eti; Peretz, Asher; Kornilov, Polina; Tiran, Zohar; Elson, Ari; Attali, Bernard

    2012-08-10

    Non-receptor-tyrosine kinases (protein-tyrosine kinases) and non-receptor tyrosine phosphatases (PTPs) have been implicated in the regulation of ion channels, neuronal excitability, and synaptic plasticity. We previously showed that protein-tyrosine kinases such as Src kinase and PTPs such as PTPα and PTPε modulate the activity of delayed-rectifier K(+) channels (I(K)). Here we show cultured cortical neurons from PTPε knock-out (EKO) mice to exhibit increased excitability when compared with wild type (WT) mice, with larger spike discharge frequency, enhanced fast after-hyperpolarization, increased after-depolarization, and reduced spike width. A decrease in I(K) and a rise in large-conductance Ca(2+)-activated K(+) currents (mBK) were observed in EKO cortical neurons compared with WT. Parallel studies in transfected CHO cells indicate that Kv1.1, Kv1.2, Kv7.2/7.3, and mBK are plausible molecular correlates of this multifaceted modulation of K(+) channels by PTPε. In CHO cells, Kv1.1, Kv1.2, and Kv7.2/7.3 K(+) currents were up-regulated by PTPε, whereas mBK channel activity was reduced. The levels of tyrosine phosphorylation of Kv1.1, Kv1.2, Kv7.3, and mBK potassium channels were increased in the brain cortices of neonatal and adult EKO mice compared with WT, suggesting that PTPε in the brain modulates these channel proteins. Our data indicate that in EKO mice, the lack of PTPε-mediated dephosphorylation of Kv1.1, Kv1.2, and Kv7.3 leads to decreased I(K) density and enhanced after-depolarization. In addition, the deficient PTPε-mediated dephosphorylation of mBK channels likely contributes to enhanced mBK and fast after-hyperpolarization, spike shortening, and consequent increase in neuronal excitability observed in cortical neurons from EKO mice.

  19. [Alkaline phosphatase in Amoeba proteus].

    PubMed

    Sopina, V A

    2005-01-01

    In free-living Amoeba proteus (strain B), 3 phosphatase were found after disc-electrophoresis of 10 microg of protein in PAGE and using 1-naphthyl phosphate as a substrate a pH 9.0. These phosphatases differed in their electrophoretic mobilities - "slow" (1-3 bands), "middle" (one band) and "fast" (one band). In addition to 1-naphthyl phosphate, "slow" phosphatases were able to hydrolyse 2-naphthyl phosphate and p-nitrophenyl phosphate. They were slightly activated by Mg2+, completely inhibited by 3 chelators (EDTA, EGTA and 1,10-phenanthroline), L-cysteine, sodium dodecyl sulfate and Fe2+, Zn2+ and Mn2+ (50 mM), considerably inactivated by orthovanadate, molybdate, phosphatase inhibitor cocktail 1, p-nitrophenyl phosphate, Na2HPO4, DL-dithiothreitol and urea and partly inhibited by H2O2, DL-phenylalanine, 2-mercaptoethanol, phosphatase inhibitor cocktail 2 and Ca2+. Imidazole, L-(+)-tartrate, okadaic acid, NaF and sulfhydryl reagents -p-(hydroxy-mercuri)benzoate and N-ethylmaleimide - had no influence on the activity of "slow" phosphatases. "Middle" and "fast" phosphatases, in contrast to "slow" ones, were not inactivated by 3 chelators. The "middle" phosphatase differed from the "fast" one by smaller resistance to urea, Ca2+, Mn2+, phosphates and H2O2 and greater resistance to dithiothreitol and L-(+)-tartrate. In addition, the "fast" phosphatase was inhibited by L-cysteine but the "middle" one was activated by it. Of 5 tested ions (Mg2+, Cu2+, Mn2+, Ca2+ and Zn2+), only Zn2+ reactivated "slow" phosphatases after their inactivation by EDTA treatment. The reactivation of apoenzyme was only partial (about 35 %). Thus, among phosphatases found in amoebae at pH 9.0, only "slow" ones are Zn-metalloenzymes and may be considered as alkaline phosphatases (EC 3.1.3.1). It still remains uncertain, to which particular phosphatase class "middle" and "fast" phosphatases (pH 9.0) may belong.

  20. A protein tyrosine phosphatase 1B activity inhibitor from the fruiting bodies of Ganoderma lucidum (Fr.) Karst and its hypoglycemic potency on streptozotocin-induced type 2 diabetic mice.

    PubMed

    Teng, Bao-Song; Wang, Chen-Dong; Yang, Hong-Jie; Wu, Jia-Sheng; Zhang, Dan; Zheng, Min; Fan, Zhao-Hua; Pan, Deng; Zhou, Ping

    2011-06-22

    Inhibition of protein tyrosine phosphatase 1B (PTP1B) activity has been considered to be a promising therapy approach to treat type 2 diabetes. In this work, a novel PTP1B activity inhibitor, named FYGL (Fudan-Yueyang-G. lucidum), was screened from the fruiting bodies of Ganoderma lucidum and showed an efficient PTP1B inhibitory potency with IC₅₀ = 5.12 ± 0.05 μg/mL. FYGL is a water-soluble macromolecular proteoglycan with a protein to polysaccharide ratio of 17:77 and a viscosity-average molecular weight (M(η)) of 2.6 × 10⁵. The type 2 diabetic mice treated orally by FYGL showed an obvious decrease in plasma glucose level compared with the diabetic controls without drug treatment, comparable with that of diabetic mice treated with metformin, a clinical drug. The toxicity of FYGL is very low. The results indicate that FYGL may serve as a drug candidate or a health-care food for diabetic therapy or protection.

  1. Cytochemical characterization of yolk granule acid phosphatase during early development of the oyster Crassostrea gigas (Thunberg)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Yiyan; Sun, Hushan; Wang, Yanjie; Yan, Dongchun; Wang, Lei

    2015-03-01

    In this study, a cytochemical method and transmission electron microscopy was used to examine acid phosphatase activities of yolk granules throughout the early developmental stages of the Pacific oyster Crassostrea gigas. This study aimed to investigate the dynamic change of yolk granule acid phosphatase, and the mechanisms underlying its involvement in yolk degradation during the early developmental stages of molluscs. Three types of yolk granules (YGI, YGII, and YGIII) that differed in electron density and acid phosphatase reaction were identified in early cleavage, morula, blastula, gastrula, trochophore, and veliger stages. The morphological heterogeneities of the yolk granules were related to acid phosphatase activity and degrees of yolk degradation, indicating the association of acid phosphatase with yolk degradation in embryos and larvae of molluscs. Fusion of yolk granules was observed during embryogenesis and larval development of C. gigas. The fusion of YGI (free of acid phosphatase reaction) with YGII (rich in acid phosphatase reaction) could be the way by which yolk degradation is triggered.

  2. Insights into protein interaction networks reveal non-receptor kinases as significant druggable targets for psoriasis.

    PubMed

    Sundarrajan, Sudharsana; Lulu, Sajitha; Arumugam, Mohanapriya

    2015-07-25

    Psoriasis is a chronic disease of the skin characterized by hyper proliferation and inflammation of the epidermis and dermal components of the skin. T-cell-dependent inflammatory process in skin governs the pathogenesis of psoriasis. An in-silico search strategy was utilized to identify psoriatic therapeutic drug targets. The gene expression profiling of psoriatic skin identified a total of 427 differentially expressed genes (DEGs). Gene ontology investigation of DEGs identified genes involved in calcium binding, apoptosis, keratinisation, lipid transportation and homeostasis apart from immune mediated processes. The protein interaction networks identified proteins involved in various signaling mechanisms with high degree of interconnections. The gene modules derived from the main network were enriched with rich kinome. These sub-networks were dominated by the presence of non-receptor kinase family members which are major signal transmitters in immune response. The computational approach has aided in the identification of non-receptor kinases as potential targets for psoriasis drug development.

  3. Regulation of alkaline phosphatase expression in human choriocarcinoma cell lines.

    PubMed Central

    Hamilton, T A; Tin, A W; Sussman, H H

    1979-01-01

    The coincident expression of two structurally distinct isoenzymes of human alkaline phosphatase was demonstrated in two independently derived gestational choriocarcinoma cell lines. These proteins were shown to have enzymatic, antigenic, and physical-chemical properties resembling those of isoenzymes from term placenta and adult liver. The regulation of these isoenzymes has been studied during the exposure of both cell lines to 5-bromodeoxyuridine and dibutyryl cyclic AMP. The responses of the alkaline phosphatase isoenzymes to these agents have also been compared with the response of another protein phenotypic to placenta, the alpha subunit of chorionic gonadotropin. The results show that (i) the separate structural genes coding for placental and liver alkaline phosphatases are regulated in a noncoordinate fashion; (ii) both alkaline phosphatase genes respond independently of the alpha subunit; and (iii) the induction of the placental type isoenzyme occurs via at least two independent pathways. Images PMID:218197

  4. Cloning and characterization of a novel human phosphatidic acid phosphatase type 2, PAP2d, with two different transcripts PAP2d_v1 and PAP2d_v2.

    PubMed

    Sun, Liyun; Gu, Shaohua; Sun, Yaqiong; Zheng, Dan; Wu, Qihan; Li, Xin; Dai, Jianfeng; Dai, Jianliang; Ji, Chaoneng; Xie, Yi; Mao, Yumin

    2005-04-01

    This study reports the cloning and characterization of a novel human phosphatidic acid phosphatase type 2 isoform cDNAs (PAP2d) from the foetal brain cDNA library. The PAP2d gene is localized on chromosome 1p21.3. It contains six exons and spans 112 kb of the genomic DNA. By large-scale cDNA sequencing we found two splice variants of PAP2d, PAP2d_v1 and PAP2d_v2. The PAP2d_v1 cDNA is 1722 bp in length and spans an open reading frame from nucleotide 56 to 1021, encoding a 321aa protein. The PAP2d_v2 cDNA is 1707 bp in length encoding a 316aa protein from nucleotide 56-1006. The PAP2d_v1 cDNA is 15 bp longer than the PAP2d_v2 cDNA in the terminal of the fifth exon and it creates different ORF. Both of the proteins contain a well-conserved PAP2 motif. The PAP2d_v1 is mainly expressed in human brain, lung, kidney, testis and colon, while PAP2d_v2 is restricted to human placenta, skeletal muscle, and kidney. The two splice variants are co-expressed only in kidney.

  5. Role of Chondroitin Sulfate (CS) Modification in the Regulation of Protein-tyrosine Phosphatase Receptor Type Z (PTPRZ) Activity: PLEIOTROPHIN-PTPRZ-A SIGNALING IS INVOLVED IN OLIGODENDROCYTE DIFFERENTIATION.

    PubMed

    Kuboyama, Kazuya; Fujikawa, Akihiro; Suzuki, Ryoko; Tanga, Naomi; Noda, Masaharu

    2016-08-26

    Protein-tyrosine phosphatase receptor type Z (PTPRZ) is predominantly expressed in the developing brain as a CS proteoglycan. PTPRZ has long (PTPRZ-A) and short type (PTPRZ-B) receptor forms by alternative splicing. The extracellular CS moiety of PTPRZ is required for high-affinity binding to inhibitory ligands, such as pleiotrophin (PTN), midkine, and interleukin-34; however, its functional significance in regulating PTPRZ activity remains obscure. We herein found that protein expression of CS-modified PTPRZ-A began earlier, peaking at approximately postnatal days 5-10 (P5-P10), and then that of PTN peaked at P10 at the developmental stage corresponding to myelination onset in the mouse brain. Ptn-deficient mice consistently showed a later onset of the expression of myelin basic protein, a major component of the myelin sheath, than wild-type mice. Upon ligand application, PTPRZ-A/B in cultured oligodendrocyte precursor cells exhibited punctate localization on the cell surface instead of diffuse distribution, causing the inactivation of PTPRZ and oligodendrocyte differentiation. The same effect was observed with the removal of CS chains with chondroitinase ABC but not polyclonal antibodies against the extracellular domain of PTPRZ. These results indicate that the negatively charged CS moiety prevents PTPRZ from spontaneously clustering and that the positively charged ligand PTN induces PTPRZ clustering, potentially by neutralizing electrostatic repulsion between CS chains. Taken altogether, these data indicate that PTN-PTPRZ-A signaling controls the timing of oligodendrocyte precursor cell differentiation in vivo, in which the CS moiety of PTPRZ receptors maintains them in a monomeric active state until its ligand binding.

  6. Moraxella catarrhalis synthesizes an autotransporter that is an acid phosphatase.

    PubMed

    Hoopman, Todd C; Wang, Wei; Brautigam, Chad A; Sedillo, Jennifer L; Reilly, Thomas J; Hansen, Eric J

    2008-02-01

    Moraxella catarrhalis O35E was shown to synthesize a 105-kDa protein that has similarity to both acid phosphatases and autotransporters. The N-terminal portion of the M. catarrhalis acid phosphatase A (MapA) was most similar (the BLAST probability score was 10(-10)) to bacterial class A nonspecific acid phosphatases. The central region of the MapA protein had similarity to passenger domains of other autotransporter proteins, whereas the C-terminal portion of MapA resembled the translocation domain of conventional autotransporters. Cloning and expression of the M. catarrhalis mapA gene in Escherichia coli confirmed the presence of acid phosphatase activity in the MapA protein. The MapA protein was shown to be localized to the outer membrane of M. catarrhalis and was not detected either in the soluble cytoplasmic fraction from disrupted M. catarrhalis cells or in the spent culture supernatant fluid from M. catarrhalis. Use of the predicted MapA translocation domain in a fusion construct with the passenger domain from another predicted M. catarrhalis autotransporter confirmed the translocation ability of this MapA domain. Inactivation of the mapA gene in M. catarrhalis strain O35E reduced the acid phosphatase activity expressed by this organism, and this mutation could be complemented in trans with the wild-type mapA gene. Nucleotide sequence analysis of the mapA gene from six M. catarrhalis strains showed that this protein was highly conserved among strains of this pathogen. Site-directed mutagenesis of a critical histidine residue (H233A) in the predicted active site of the acid phosphatase domain in MapA eliminated acid phosphatase activity in the recombinant MapA protein. This is the first description of an autotransporter protein that expresses acid phosphatase activity.

  7. Receptor-Type Protein-Tyrosine Phosphatase ζ and Colony Stimulating Factor-1 Receptor in the Intestine: Cellular Expression and Cytokine- and Chemokine Responses by Interleukin-34 and Colony Stimulating Factor-1

    PubMed Central

    Zwicker, Stephanie; Bureik, Daniela; Bosma, Madeleen; Martinez, Gisele Lago; Almer, Sven

    2016-01-01

    Differential intestinal expression of the macrophage growth factors colony stimulating factor-1 (CSF-1), interleukin (IL)-34, and their shared CSF-1 receptor (CSF-1R) in inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) has been shown. Diverse expression between CSF-1 and IL-34, suggest that IL-34 may signal via an alternate receptor. Receptor-type protein-tyrosine phosphatase ζ (PTPRZ1, RPTP-ζ), an additional IL-34 receptor, was recently identified. Here, we aimed to assess PTPRZ1 expression in IBD and non-IBD intestinal biopsies. Further, we aimed to investigate cellular PTPRZ1 and CSF-1R expression, and cytokine- and chemokine responses by IL-34 and CSF-1. The expression of PTPRZ1 was higher in non-IBD colon compared to ileum. PTPRZ1 expression was not altered with inflammation in IBD, however, correlated to IL34, CSF1, and CSF1R. The expression patterns of PTPRZ1 and CSF-1R differed in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs), monocytes, macrophages, and intestinal epithelial cell line. PBMCs and monocytes of the same donors responded differently to IL-34 and CSF-1 with altered expression of tumor-necrosis factor α (TNF-α), IL-1β, interferon γ (IFN-γ), IL-13, IL-8, and monocyte chemotactic protein-1 (MCP-1) levels. This study shows that PTPRZ1 was expressed in bowel tissue. Furthermore, CSF-1R protein was detected in an intestinal epithelial cell line and donor dependently in primary PBMCs, monocytes, and macrophages, and first hints also suggest an expression in these cells for PTPRZ1, which may mediate IL-34 and CSF-1 actions. PMID:27898738

  8. Mitochondrial type 2C protein phosphatases CaPtc5p, CaPtc6p, and CaPtc7p play vital roles in cellular responses to antifungal drugs and cadmium in Candida albicans.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Yunying; Feng, Jinrong; Li, Jing; Jiang, Linghuo

    2012-12-01

    Type 2C protein phosphatases (PP2C) are monomeric enzymes that require magnesium or manganese ions for their activities. There are seven PP2C genes in Candida albicans. Here, we demonstrate that CaPTC5 encodes a mitochondrial PP2C enzyme. Expression of CaPTC5 transcripts remains constant during the serum-induced hyphal development. Deletion of CaPTC5 does not affect the in vitro filamentation but renders C. albicans cells sensitive to terbinafine and cadmium, and this sensitivity is complemented by the Saccharomyces cerevisiae ScPTC5. Deletion of CaPTC6 does not have any additive effect on, but deletion of CaPTC7 blocks, the terbinafine sensitivity owing to deletion of CaPTC5. In addition, we have shown that deletion of CaPTC6 also renders C. albicans cells sensitive to cadmium, while deletion of CaPTC7 leads to a high cadmium tolerance, and this tolerance is abolished by further deletion of CaPTC5 or CaPTC6. Furthermore, double deletion of CaPTC6 and CaPTC7 renders C. albicans cells more tolerant to azoles, but deletion of CaPTC5 and CaPTC7 slightly increases the azole sensitivity of C. albicans cells. Our results demonstrate that three mitochondrial PP2C genes CaPTC5, CaPTC6 and CaPTC7 interact differentially in the response of C. albicans cells to antifungal drugs and cadmium.

  9. Receptor-Type Protein-Tyrosine Phosphatase ζ and Colony Stimulating Factor-1 Receptor in the Intestine: Cellular Expression and Cytokine- and Chemokine Responses by Interleukin-34 and Colony Stimulating Factor-1.

    PubMed

    Zwicker, Stephanie; Bureik, Daniela; Bosma, Madeleen; Martinez, Gisele Lago; Almer, Sven; Boström, Elisabeth A

    2016-01-01

    Differential intestinal expression of the macrophage growth factors colony stimulating factor-1 (CSF-1), interleukin (IL)-34, and their shared CSF-1 receptor (CSF-1R) in inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) has been shown. Diverse expression between CSF-1 and IL-34, suggest that IL-34 may signal via an alternate receptor. Receptor-type protein-tyrosine phosphatase ζ (PTPRZ1, RPTP-ζ), an additional IL-34 receptor, was recently identified. Here, we aimed to assess PTPRZ1 expression in IBD and non-IBD intestinal biopsies. Further, we aimed to investigate cellular PTPRZ1 and CSF-1R expression, and cytokine- and chemokine responses by IL-34 and CSF-1. The expression of PTPRZ1 was higher in non-IBD colon compared to ileum. PTPRZ1 expression was not altered with inflammation in IBD, however, correlated to IL34, CSF1, and CSF1R. The expression patterns of PTPRZ1 and CSF-1R differed in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs), monocytes, macrophages, and intestinal epithelial cell line. PBMCs and monocytes of the same donors responded differently to IL-34 and CSF-1 with altered expression of tumor-necrosis factor α (TNF-α), IL-1β, interferon γ (IFN-γ), IL-13, IL-8, and monocyte chemotactic protein-1 (MCP-1) levels. This study shows that PTPRZ1 was expressed in bowel tissue. Furthermore, CSF-1R protein was detected in an intestinal epithelial cell line and donor dependently in primary PBMCs, monocytes, and macrophages, and first hints also suggest an expression in these cells for PTPRZ1, which may mediate IL-34 and CSF-1 actions.

  10. Influence of triethyl phosphate on phosphatase activity in shooting range soil: Isolation of a zinc-resistant bacterium with an acid phosphatase.

    PubMed

    Story, Sandra; Brigmon, Robin L

    2017-03-01

    Phosphatase-mediated hydrolysis of organic phosphate may be a viable means of stabilizing heavy metals via precipitation as a metal phosphate in bioremediation applications. We investigated the effect of triethyl phosphate (TEP) on soil microbial-phosphatase activity in a heavy-metal contaminated soil. Gaseous TEP has been used at subsurface sites for bioremediation of organic contaminants but not applied in heavy-metal contaminated areas. Little is known about how TEP affects microbial activity in soils and it is postulated that TEP can serve as a phosphate source in nutrient-poor groundwater and soil/sediments. Over a 3-week period, TEP amendment to microcosms containing heavy-metal contaminated soil resulted in increased activity of soil acid-phosphatase and repression of alkaline phosphatase, indicating a stimulatory effect on the microbial population. A soil-free enrichment of microorganisms adapted to heavy-metal and acidic conditions was derived from the TEP-amended soil microcosms using TEP as the sole phosphate source and the selected microbial consortium maintained a high acid-phosphatase activity with repression of alkaline phosphatase. Addition of 5mM zinc to soil-free microcosms had little effect on acid phosphatase but inhibited alkaline phosphatase. One bacterial member from the consortium, identified as Burkholderia cepacia sp., expressed an acid-phosphatase activity uninhibited by high concentrations of zinc and produced a soluble, indigo pigment under phosphate limitation. The pigment was produced in a phosphate-free medium and was not produced in the presence of TEP or phosphate ion, indicative of purple acid-phosphatase types that are pressed by bioavailable phosphate. These results demonstrate that TEP amendment was bioavailable and increased overall phosphatase activity in both soil and soil-free microcosms supporting the possibility of positive outcomes in bioremediation applications.

  11. Acid phosphatase and lipid peroxidation in human cataractous lens epithelium.

    PubMed

    Vasavada, A R; Thampi, P; Yadav, S; Rawal, U M

    1993-12-01

    The anterior lens epithelial cells undergo a variety of degenerative and proliferative changes during cataract formation. Acid phosphatase is primarily responsible for tissue regeneration and tissue repair. The lipid hydroperoxides that are obtained by lipid peroxidation of polysaturated or unsaturated fatty acids bring about deterioration of biological membranes at cellular and tissue levels. Acid phosphatase and lipid peroxidation activities were studied on the lens epithelial cells of nuclear cataract, posterior subcapsular cataract, mature cataract, and mixed cataract. Of these, mature cataractous lens epithelium showed maximum activity for acid phosphatase (516.83 moles of p-nitrophenol released/g lens epithelium) and maximum levels of lipid peroxidation (86.29 O.D./min/g lens epithelium). In contrast, mixed cataractous lens epithelium showed minimum activity of acid phosphatase (222.61 moles of p-nitrophenol released/g lens epithelium) and minimum levels of lipid peroxidation (54.23 O.D./min/g lens epithelium). From our study, we correlated the maximum activity of acid phosphatase in mature cataractous lens epithelium with the increased areas of superimposed cells associated with the formation of mature cataract. Likewise, the maximum levels of lipid peroxidation in mature cataractous lens epithelium was correlated with increased permeability of the plasma membrane. Conversely, the minimum levels of lipid peroxidation in mixed cataractous lens epithelium makes us presume that factors other than lipid peroxidation may also account for the formation of mixed type of cataract.

  12. Phosphotyrosine Substrate Sequence Motifs for Dual Specificity Phosphatases

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Bryan M.; Keasey, Sarah L.; Tropea, Joseph E.; Lountos, George T.; Dyas, Beverly K.; Cherry, Scott; Raran-Kurussi, Sreejith; Waugh, David S.; Ulrich, Robert G.

    2015-01-01

    Protein tyrosine phosphatases dephosphorylate tyrosine residues of proteins, whereas, dual specificity phosphatases (DUSPs) are a subgroup of protein tyrosine phosphatases that dephosphorylate not only Tyr(P) residue, but also the Ser(P) and Thr(P) residues of proteins. The DUSPs are linked to the regulation of many cellular functions and signaling pathways. Though many cellular targets of DUSPs are known, the relationship between catalytic activity and substrate specificity is poorly defined. We investigated the interactions of peptide substrates with select DUSPs of four types: MAP kinases (DUSP1 and DUSP7), atypical (DUSP3, DUSP14, DUSP22 and DUSP27), viral (variola VH1), and Cdc25 (A-C). Phosphatase recognition sites were experimentally determined by measuring dephosphorylation of 6,218 microarrayed Tyr(P) peptides representing confirmed and theoretical phosphorylation motifs from the cellular proteome. A broad continuum of dephosphorylation was observed across the microarrayed peptide substrates for all phosphatases, suggesting a complex relationship between substrate sequence recognition and optimal activity. Further analysis of peptide dephosphorylation by hierarchical clustering indicated that DUSPs could be organized by substrate sequence motifs, and peptide-specificities by phylogenetic relationships among the catalytic domains. The most highly dephosphorylated peptides represented proteins from 29 cell-signaling pathways, greatly expanding the list of potential targets of DUSPs. These newly identified DUSP substrates will be important for examining structure-activity relationships with physiologically relevant targets. PMID:26302245

  13. New Functions of the Inositol Polyphosphate 5-Phosphatases in Cancer.

    PubMed

    Erneux, Christophe; Ghosh, Somadri; Ramos, Ana Raquel; Edimo, William's Elong

    2016-01-01

    Inositol polyphosphate 5-phosphatases act on inositol phosphates and phosphoinositides as substrates. They are 10 different isoenzymes and several splice variants in the human genome that are involved in a series of human pathologies such as the Lowe syndrome, the Joubert and MORM syndromes, breast cancer, glioblastoma, gastric cancer and several other type of cancers. Inositol 5-phosphatases can be amplified in human cancer cells, whereas the 3- and 4- phosphatase tumor suppressor PTEN and INPP4B, repectively are often repressed or deleted. The inositol 5-phosphatases are critically involved in a complex network of higly regulated phosphoinositides, affecting the lipid content of PI(3, 4, 5)P3, PI(4, 5)P2 and PI(3, 4)P2. This has an impact on the normal behavior of many intracellular target proteins e.g. protein kinase B (PKB/Akt) or actin binding proteins and final biological responses. The production of PI(3, 4P)2 by dephosphorylation of the substrate PI(3, 4, 5)P3 is particularly important as it produces a new signal messenger in the control of cell migration, invasion and endocytosis. New inhibitors/activators of inositol 5- phosphatases have recently been identified for the possible control of their activity in several human pathologies such as inflamation and cancer.

  14. Serum N-telopeptide of type I collagen and bone alkaline phosphatase and their relationship in patients with non-small cell lung carcinoma and bone metastases. Preliminary results.

    PubMed

    Lumachi, Franco; Marino, Filippo; Fanti, Giovanni; Chiara, Giordano B; Basso, Stefano M M

    2011-11-01

    Lung cancer represents the most common malignancy in Western countries and the presence of bone metastasis (BMs) may significantly worsen the prognosis. Several urinary and serum markers are altered in patients with BMs from non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). The aim of this study was to assess the usefulness of two serum markers of bone remodeling in patients with NSCLC and BMs. Thirty-five patients (24 men, 11 women, median age 63 years, range 51-72 years) with NSCLC were examined. There were 16 patients with confirmed BMs (Group A), and 19 age-matched (63.5±4.9 vs. 63.7±4.4 years; p=0.88) patients without BMs (Group B). Serum levels of bone resorption marker cross-linked amino-terminal telopeptide of type I collegen (NTx), and bone formation marker bone alkaline phosphatase (BAP) were measured in both groups by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Both NTx (33.5±7.2 vs. 25.6±3.1 nM bone collagen equivalent, BCE/l) and BAP (51.7±6.0 vs. 40.7±7.3 U/l) serum levels were significantly (p<0.001) different between groups (A vs. B). Using a cut-off value of 30 nM BCE/l (TNx) and 50 U/l (BAP), the sensitivity was 56.2% and 37.5%, respectively (Odds ratio, OR=0.47, 95% confidence interval, CI 0.11-1.91, p=0.48), while the specificity was 89.5% and 84.2% (OR=0.62, 95% CI 0.09-4.26, p=0.50), respectively. No correlation was found between age and both NTx (R=-0.34, p=0.08) and BAP (R=-0.10, p=0.61) among patients with BMs. In conclusion, in patients with NSCLC and BMs both NTx and BAP are specific markers of bone remodeling, but their usefulness is limited in early diagnosis of metastatic disease.

  15. Expression of PH Domain Leucine-rich Repeat Protein Phosphatase, Forkhead Homeobox Type O 3a and RAD51, and their Relationships with Clinicopathologic Features and Prognosis in Ovarian Serous Adenocarcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Jun; Wang, Jun-Chao; Li, Yue-Hong; Wang, Rui-Xue; Fan, Xiao-Mei

    2017-01-01

    Background: Ovarian serous adenocarcinoma can be divided into low- and high-grade tumors, which exhibit substantial differences in pathogenesis, clinicopathology, and prognosis. This study aimed to investigate the differences in the PH domain leucine-rich repeat protein phosphatase (PHLPP), forkhead homeobox type O 3a (FoxO3a), and RAD51 protein expressions, and their associations with prognosis in patients with low- and high-grade ovarian serous adenocarcinomas. Methods: The PHLPP, FoxO3a, and RAD51 protein expressions were examined in 94 high- and 26 low-grade ovarian serous adenocarcinomas by immunohistochemistry. The differences in expression and their relationships with pathological features and prognosis were analyzed. Results: In high-grade serous adenocarcinomas, the positive rates of PHLPP and FoxO3a were 24.5% and 26.6%, while in low-grade tumors, they were 23.1% and 26.9%, respectively (P < 0.05 vs. the control specimens; low- vs. high-grade: P > 0.05). The positive rates of RAD51 were 70.2% and 65.4% in high- and low-grade serous adenocarcinomas, respectively (P < 0.05 vs. the control specimens; low- vs. high-grade: P > 0.05). Meanwhile, in high-grade tumors, Stage III/IV tumors and lymph node and omental metastases were significantly associated with lower PHLPP and FoxO3a and higher RAD51 expression. The 5-year survival rates of patients with PHLPP- and FoxO3a-positive high-grade tumors (43.5% and 36.0%) were significantly higher than in patients with PHLPP-negative tumors (5.6% and 7.2%, respectively; P < 0.05). Similarly, the 5-year survival rate of RAD51-positive patients (3.0%) was significantly lower than in negative patients (42.9%; P < 0.05). In low-grade tumors, the PHLPP, FoxO3a, and RAD51 expressions were not significantly correlated with lymph node metastasis, omental metastasis, Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics stage, or prognosis. Conclusions: Abnormal PHLPP, FoxO3a, and RAD51 protein expressions may be involved in the development

  16. Inositol 5-phosphatases: insights from the Lowe syndrome protein OCRL.

    PubMed

    Pirruccello, Michelle; De Camilli, Pietro

    2012-04-01

    The precise regulation of phosphoinositide lipids in cellular membranes is crucial for cellular survival and function. Inositol 5-phosphatases have been implicated in a variety of disorders, including various cancers, obesity, type 2 diabetes, neurodegenerative diseases and rare genetic conditions. Despite the obvious impact on human health, relatively little structural and biochemical information is available for this family. Here, we review recent structural and mechanistic work on the 5-phosphatases with a focus on OCRL, whose loss of function results in oculocerebrorenal syndrome of Lowe and Dent 2 disease. Studies of OCRL emphasize how the actions of 5-phosphatases rely on both intrinsic and extrinsic membrane recognition properties for full catalytic function. Additionally, structural analysis of missense mutations in the catalytic domain of OCRL provides insight into the phenotypic heterogeneity observed in Lowe syndrome and Dent disease.

  17. Phosphatase Wip1 in Immunity: An Overview and Update

    PubMed Central

    Shen, Xiao-Fei; Zhao, Yang; Jiang, Jin-Peng; Guan, Wen-Xian; Du, Jun-Feng

    2017-01-01

    Wild-type p53-induced phosphatase 1 (Wip1) is a newly identified serine/threonine phosphatase, which belongs to the PP2C family. Due to its involvement in stress-induced networks and overexpression in human tumors, primary studies have mainly focused on the role of Wip1 in tumorigenesis. It now has also been implicated in regulating several other physiological processes such as organism aging and neurogenesis. Recent evidence highlights a new role of Wip1 in controlling immune response through regulating immune cell development and function, as well as through the interplay with inflammatory signaling pathways such NF-κB and p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase. In this short review, we will give an overview of Wip1 in immunity to better understand this important phosphatase. PMID:28144241

  18. Fps/Fes and Fer non-receptor protein-tyrosine kinases regulate collagen- and ADP-induced platelet aggregation.

    PubMed

    Senis, Y A; Sangrar, W; Zirngibl, R A; Craig, A W B; Lee, D H; Greer, P A

    2003-05-01

    Fps/Fes and Fer proto-oncoproteins are structurally related non-receptor protein-tyrosine kinases implicated in signaling downstream from cytokines, growth factors and immune receptors. We show that Fps/Fes and Fer are expressed in human and mouse platelets, and are activated following stimulation with collagen and collagen-related peptide (CRP), suggesting a role in GPVI receptor signaling. Fer was also activated following stimulation with thrombin and a protease-activated receptor4 (PAR4)-activating peptide, suggesting a role in signaling downstream from the G protein-coupled PAR4. There were no detectable perturbations in CRP-induced activation of Syk, PLCgamma2, cortactin, Erk, Jnk, Akt or p38 in platelets from mice lacking Fps/Fes, Fer, or both kinases. Platelets lacking Fps/Fes, from a targeted fps/fes null strain of mice, showed increased rates and amplitudes of collagen-induced aggregation, relative to wild-type platelets. P-Selectin expression was also elevated on the surface of Fps/Fes-null platelets in response to CRP. Fer-deficient platelets, from mice targeted with a kinase-inactivating mutation, disaggregated more rapidly than wild-type platelets in response to ADP. This report provides the first evidence that Fps/Fes and Fer are expressed in platelets and become activated downstream from the GPVI collagen receptor, and that Fer is activated downstream from a G-protein coupled receptor. Furthermore, using targeted mouse models we show that deficiency in Fps/Fes or Fer resulted in disregulated platelet aggregation and disaggregation, demonstrating a role for these kinases in regulating platelet functions.

  19. Alkaline phosphatase of Physarum polycephalum is insoluble.

    PubMed

    Furuhashi, Kiyoshi

    2008-02-01

    The plasmodia of Physarum polycephalum grow as multinucleated cells in the presence of sufficient humidity and nutriment. Under non-illuminating conditions, stresses such as low temperature or high concentrations of salts transform the plasmodia into spherules whereas dehydration induces sclerotization. Some phosphatases including protein phosphatase and acid phosphatase have been purified from the plasmodia, but alkaline phosphatase remains to be elucidated. Phosphatase of the plasmodia, spherules and sclerotia was visualized by electrophoresis gel-staining assay using 5-bromo-4-chloro-3-indolyl phosphate. Insoluble fractions of the sclerotia were abundant in phosphatase activity. The phosphatase which was extracted by nonionic detergent was subjected to column chromatography and preparative electrophoresis. Purified phosphatase showed the highest activity at pH 8.8, indicating that this enzyme belongs to alkaline phosphatase. The apparent molecular mass from sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis under non-reducing condition was estimated to be 100 kDa whereas that under reducing was 105 kDa. An amount of 1% sodium dodecyl sulfate or 0.5 M NaCl had no effects on the activity although the phosphatase showed heat instability, Mg(2+)-dependency and sensitivity to 2-glycerophosphate or NaF. The extracting conditions and enzymatic properties suggest that this alkaline phosphatase which is in a membrane-bound form plays important roles in phosphate metabolism.

  20. Protein tyrosine phosphatase: enzymatic assays.

    PubMed

    Montalibet, Jacqueline; Skorey, Kathryn I; Kennedy, Brian P

    2005-01-01

    Activity assays for tyrosine phosphatases are based on the hydrolysis of a arylphosphate moiety from a synthetic substrate yielding a spectroscopically active product. Many different substrates can be used for these assays with p-nitrophenyl phosphate (pNPP), fluorescein diphosphate (FDP), and 6,8-difluoro-4-methylumbellyferyl phosphate (DiFMUP) being the most efficient and versatile. Equally, larger molecules such as phosphotyrosyl peptides can also be used to mimic more natural substrates. Activity assays include the determinations of the rate of dephosphorylation and calculations of kinetic constants such as k(cat) and K(M). These assays are useful to identify and characterize tyrosine phosphatases and are commonly used to evaluate the efficiency of inhibitors.

  1. The RCN1-encoded A subunit of protein phosphatase 2A increases phosphatase activity in vivo

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Deruere, J.; Jackson, K.; Garbers, C.; Soll, D.; Delong, A.; Evans, M. L. (Principal Investigator)

    1999-01-01

    Protein phosphatase 2A (PP2A), a heterotrimeric serine/threonine-specific protein phosphatase, comprises a catalytic C subunit and two distinct regulatory subunits, A and B. The RCN1 gene encodes one of three A regulatory subunits in Arabidopsis thaliana. A T-DNA insertion mutation at this locus impairs root curling, seedling organ elongation and apical hypocotyl hook formation. We have used in vivo and in vitro assays to gauge the impact of the rcn1 mutation on PP2A activity in seedlings. PP2A activity is decreased in extracts from rcn1 mutant seedlings, and this decrease is not due to a reduction in catalytic subunit expression. Roots of mutant seedlings exhibit increased sensitivity to the phosphatase inhibitors okadaic acid and cantharidin in organ elongation assays. Shoots of dark-grown, but not light-grown seedlings also show increased inhibitor sensitivity. Furthermore, cantharidin treatment of wild-type seedlings mimics the rcn1 defect in root curling, root waving and hypocotyl hook formation assays. In roots of wild-type seedlings, RCN1 mRNA is expressed at high levels in root tips, and accumulates to lower levels in the pericycle and lateral root primordia. In shoots, RCN1 is expressed in the apical hook and the basal, rapidly elongating cells in etiolated hypocotyls, and in the shoot meristem and leaf primordia of light-grown seedlings. Our results show that the wild-type RCN1-encoded A subunit functions as a positive regulator of the PP2A holoenzyme, increasing activity towards substrates involved in organ elongation and differential cell elongation responses such as root curling.

  2. Inositol polyphosphate phosphatases in human disease.

    PubMed

    Hakim, Sandra; Bertucci, Micka C; Conduit, Sarah E; Vuong, David L; Mitchell, Christina A

    2012-01-01

    Phosphoinositide signalling molecules interact with a plethora of effector proteins to regulate cell proliferation and survival, vesicular trafficking, metabolism, actin dynamics and many other cellular functions. The generation of specific phosphoinositide species is achieved by the activity of phosphoinositide kinases and phosphatases, which phosphorylate and dephosphorylate, respectively, the inositol headgroup of phosphoinositide molecules. The phosphoinositide phosphatases can be classified as 3-, 4- and 5-phosphatases based on their specificity for dephosphorylating phosphates from specific positions on the inositol head group. The SAC phosphatases show less specificity for the position of the phosphate on the inositol ring. The phosphoinositide phosphatases regulate PI3K/Akt signalling, insulin signalling, endocytosis, vesicle trafficking, cell migration, proliferation and apoptosis. Mouse knockout models of several of the phosphoinositide phosphatases have revealed significant physiological roles for these enzymes, including the regulation of embryonic development, fertility, neurological function, the immune system and insulin sensitivity. Importantly, several phosphoinositide phosphatases have been directly associated with a range of human diseases. Genetic mutations in the 5-phosphatase INPP5E are causative of the ciliopathy syndromes Joubert and MORM, and mutations in the 5-phosphatase OCRL result in Lowe's syndrome and Dent 2 disease. Additionally, polymorphisms in the 5-phosphatase SHIP2 confer diabetes susceptibility in specific populations, whereas reduced protein expression of SHIP1 is reported in several human leukaemias. The 4-phosphatase, INPP4B, has recently been identified as a tumour suppressor in human breast and prostate cancer. Mutations in one SAC phosphatase, SAC3/FIG4, results in the degenerative neuropathy, Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease. Indeed, an understanding of the precise functions of phosphoinositide phosphatases is not only

  3. Inhibition of renal alkaline phosphatase by cimetidine.

    PubMed

    Minai-Tehrani, Dariush; Khodai, Somayeh; Aminnaseri, Somayeh; Minoui, Saeed; Sobhani-Damavadifar, Zahra; Alavi, Sana; Osmani, Raheleh; Ahmadi, Shiva

    2011-08-01

    Alkaline phosphatase (ALP) belongs to hydrolase group of enzymes. It is responsible for removing phosphate groups from many types of molecules, including nucleotides and proteins. Cimetidine (trade name Tagamet) is an antagonist of histamine H2-receptor that inhibits the production of gastric acid. Cimetidine is used for the treatment of gastrointestinal diseases. In this study the inhibitory effect of cimetidine on mouse renal ALP activity was investigated. Our results showed that cimetidine can inhibit ALP by uncompetitive inhibition. In the absence of inhibitor the V(max) and K(m) of the enzyme were found to be 13.7 mmol/mg prot.min and 0.25 mM, respectively. Both the Vmax and Km of the enzyme decreased with increasing cimetidine concentrations (0- 1.2 mM). The Ki and IC(50) of cimetidine were determined to be about 0.5 mM and 0.52 mM, respectively.

  4. Mutations responsible for 3-phosphoserine phosphatase deficiency.

    PubMed

    Veiga-da-Cunha, Maria; Collet, Jean-François; Prieur, Benoît; Jaeken, Jaak; Peeraer, Yves; Rabbijns, Anja; Van Schaftingen, Emile

    2004-02-01

    We report the identification of the mutations in the only known case of L-3-phosphoserine phosphatase deficiency, a recessively inherited condition. The two mutations correspond to the replacement of the semiconserved Asp32 residue by an asparagine and of the extremely conserved Met52 by a threonine. The effects of both mutations were studied on the human recombinant enzyme, expressed in Escherichia coli. Met52Thr almost abolished the enzymatic activity, whereas the Asp32Asn mutation caused a 50% decrease in Vmax. In addition, L-serine, which inhibits the conversion of [(14)C] phosphoserine to serine when catalysed by the wild-type enzyme, had a lesser inhibitory effect on the Asp32Asn mutant, indicating a reduction in the rate of phosphoenzyme hydrolysis. These modifications in the properties of the enzyme are consistent with the modification in the kinetic properties observed in fibroblasts from the patient.

  5. Fluorescence labelling of phosphatase activity in digestive glands of carnivorous plants.

    PubMed

    Płachno, B J; Adamec, L; Lichtscheidl, I K; Peroutka, M; Adlassnig, W; Vrba, J

    2006-11-01

    A new ELF (enzyme labelled fluorescence) assay was applied to detect phosphatase activity in glandular structures of 47 carnivorous plant species, especially Lentibulariaceae, in order to understand their digestive activities. We address the following questions: (1) Are phosphatases produced by the plants and/or by inhabitants of the traps? (2) Which type of hairs/glands is involved in the production of phosphatases? (3) Is this phosphatase production a common feature among carnivorous plants or is it restricted to evolutionarily advanced species? Our results showed activity of the phosphatases in glandular structures of the majority of the plants tested, both from the greenhouse and from sterile culture. In addition, extracellular phosphatases can also be produced by trap inhabitants. In Utricularia, activity of phosphatase was detected in internal glands of 27 species from both primitive and advanced sections and different ecological groups. Further positive reactions were found in Genlisea, Pinguicula, Aldrovanda, Dionaea, Drosera, Drosophyllum, Nepenthes, and Cephalotus. In Utricularia and Genlisea, enzymatic secretion was independent of stimulation by prey. Byblis and Roridula are usually considered as "proto-carnivores", lacking digestive enzymes. However, we found high activity of phosphatases in both species. Thus, they should be classified as true carnivores. We suggest that the inflorescence of Byblis and some Pinguicula species might also be an additional "carnivorous organ", which can trap a prey, digest it, and finally absorb available nutrients.

  6. [Protein phosphatases: structure and function].

    PubMed

    Bulanova, E G; Budagian, V M

    1994-01-01

    The process of protein and enzyme systems phosphorylation is necessary for cell growth, differentiation and preparation for division and mitosis. The conformation changes of protein as a result of phosphorylation lead to increased enzyme activity and enhanced affinity to substrates. A large group of enzymes--protein kinases--is responsible for phosphorylation process in cell, which are divided into tyrosine- and serine-threonine-kinases depending on their ability to phosphorylate appropriate amino acid residues. In this review has been considered the functional importance and structure of protein phosphatases--enzymes, which are functional antagonists of protein kinases.

  7. Phosphatidylinositolphosphate phosphatase activities and cancer

    PubMed Central

    Rudge, Simon A.; Wakelam, Michael J. O.

    2016-01-01

    Signaling through the phosphoinositide 3-kinase pathways mediates the actions of a plethora of hormones, growth factors, cytokines, and neurotransmitters upon their target cells following receptor occupation. Overactivation of these pathways has been implicated in a number of pathologies, in particular a range of malignancies. The tight regulation of signaling pathways necessitates the involvement of both stimulatory and terminating enzymes; inappropriate activation of a pathway can thus result from activation or inhibition of the two signaling arms. The focus of this review is to discuss, in detail, the activities of the identified families of phosphoinositide phosphatase expressed in humans, and how they regulate the levels of phosphoinositides implicated in promoting malignancy. PMID:26302980

  8. Biochemistry and structure of phosphoinositide phosphatases.

    PubMed

    Kim, Young Jun; Jahan, Nusrat; Bahk, Young Yil

    2013-01-01

    Phosphoinositides are the phosphorylated derivatives of phosphatidylinositol, and play a very significant role in a diverse range of signaling processes in eukaryotic cells. A number of phosphoinositide-metabolizing enzymes, including phosphoinositide-kinases and phosphatases are involved in the synthesis and degradation of these phospholipids. Recently, the function of various phosphatases in the phosphatidylinositol signaling pathway has been of great interest. In the present review we summarize the structural insights and biochemistry of various phosphatases in regulating phosphoinositide metabolism.

  9. Insulin-receptor phosphotyrosyl-protein phosphatases.

    PubMed Central

    King, M J; Sale, G J

    1988-01-01

    Calmodulin-dependent protein phosphatase has been proposed to be an important phosphotyrosyl-protein phosphatase. The ability of the enzyme to attack autophosphorylated insulin receptor was examined and compared with the known ability of the enzyme to act on autophosphorylated epidermal-growth-factor (EGF) receptor. Purified calmodulin-dependent protein phosphatase was shown to catalyse the complete dephosphorylation of phosphotyrosyl-(insulin receptor). When compared at similar concentrations, 32P-labelled EGF receptor was dephosphorylated at greater than 3 times the rate of 32P-labelled insulin receptor; both dephosphorylations exhibited similar dependence on metal ions and calmodulin. Native phosphotyrosyl-protein phosphatases in cell extracts were also characterized. With rat liver, heart or brain, most (75%) of the native phosphatase activity against both 32P-labelled insulin and EGF receptors was recovered in the particulate fraction of the cell, with only 25% in the soluble fraction. This subcellular distribution contrasts with results of previous studies using artificial substrates, which found most of the phosphotyrosyl-protein phosphatase activity in the soluble fraction of the cell. Properties of particulate and soluble phosphatase activity against 32P-labelled insulin and EGF receptors are reported. The contribution of calmodulin-dependent protein phosphatase activity to phosphotyrosyl-protein phosphatase activity in cell fractions was determined by utilizing the unique metal-ion dependence of calmodulin-dependent protein phosphatase. Whereas Ni2+ (1 mM) markedly activated the calmodulin-dependent protein phosphatase, it was found to inhibit potently both particulate and soluble phosphotyrosyl-protein phosphatase activity. In fractions from rat liver, brain and heart, total phosphotyrosyl-protein phosphatase activity against both 32P-labelled receptors was inhibited by 99.5 +/- 6% (mean +/- S.E.M., 30 observations) by Ni2+. Results of Ni2+ inhibition

  10. The relationship between the MMP system, adrenoceptors and phosphoprotein phosphatases

    PubMed Central

    Rietz, A; Spiers, JP

    2012-01-01

    The MMPs and their inhibitors [tissue inhibitor of MMPs (TIMPs) ] form the mainstay of extracellular matrix homeostasis. They are expressed in response to numerous stimuli including cytokines and GPCR activation. This review highlights the importance of adrenoceptors and phosphoprotein phosphatases (PPP) in regulating MMPs in the cardiovascular system, which may help explain some of the beneficial effects of targeting the adrenoceptor system in tissue remodelling and will establish emerging crosstalk between these three systems. Although α- and β-adrenoceptor activation increases MMP but decreases TIMP expression, MMPs are implicated in the growth stimulatory effects of adrenoceptor activation through transactivation of epidermal growth factor receptor. Furthermore, they have recently been found to catalyse the proteolysis of β-adrenoceptors and modulate vascular tone. While the mechanisms underpinning these effects are not well defined, reversible protein phosphorylation by kinases and phosphatases may be key. In particular, PPP (Ser/Thr phosphatases) are not only critical in resensitization and internalization of adrenoceptors but also modulate MMP expression. The interrelationship is complex as isoprenaline (ISO) inhibits okadaic acid [phosphoprotein phosphatase type 1/phosphoprotein phosphatase type 2A (PP2A) inhibitor]-mediated MMP expression. While this may be simply due to its ability to transiently increase PP2A activity, there is evidence for MMP-9 that ISO prevents okadaic acid-mediated expression of MMP-9 through a β-arrestin, NF-κB-dependent pathway, which is abolished by knock-down of PP2A. It is essential that crosstalk between MMPs, adrenoceptors and PPP are investigated further as it will provide important insight into how adrenoceptors modulate cardiovascular remodelling, and may identify new targets for pharmacological manipulation of the MMP system. PMID:22364165

  11. Protein phosphatase 2A: a highly regulated family of serine/threonine phosphatases implicated in cell growth and signalling.

    PubMed Central

    Janssens, V; Goris, J

    2001-01-01

    Protein phosphatase 2A (PP2A) comprises a family of serine/threonine phosphatases, minimally containing a well conserved catalytic subunit, the activity of which is highly regulated. Regulation is accomplished mainly by members of a family of regulatory subunits, which determine the substrate specificity, (sub)cellular localization and catalytic activity of the PP2A holoenzymes. Moreover, the catalytic subunit is subject to two types of post-translational modification, phosphorylation and methylation, which are also thought to be important regulatory devices. The regulatory ability of PTPA (PTPase activator), originally identified as a protein stimulating the phosphotyrosine phosphatase activity of PP2A, will also be discussed, alongside the other regulatory inputs. The use of specific PP2A inhibitors and molecular genetics in yeast, Drosophila and mice has revealed roles for PP2A in cell cycle regulation, cell morphology and development. PP2A also plays a prominent role in the regulation of specific signal transduction cascades, as witnessed by its presence in a number of macromolecular signalling modules, where it is often found in association with other phosphatases and kinases. Additionally, PP2A interacts with a substantial number of other cellular and viral proteins, which are PP2A substrates, target PP2A to different subcellular compartments or affect enzyme activity. Finally, the de-regulation of PP2A in some specific pathologies will be touched upon. PMID:11171037

  12. HuPho: the human phosphatase portal.

    PubMed

    Liberti, Susanna; Sacco, Francesca; Calderone, Alberto; Perfetto, Livia; Iannuccelli, Marta; Panni, Simona; Santonico, Elena; Palma, Anita; Nardozza, Aurelio P; Castagnoli, Luisa; Cesareni, Gianni

    2013-01-01

    Phosphatases and kinases contribute to the regulation of protein phosphorylation homeostasis in the cell. Phosphorylation is a key post-translational modification underlying the regulation of many cellular processes. Thus, a comprehensive picture of phosphatase function and the identification of their target substrates would aid a systematic approach to a mechanistic description of cell signalling. Here we present a website designed to facilitate the retrieval of information about human protein phosphatases. To this end we developed a search engine to recover and integrate information annotated in several publicly available web resources. In addition we present a text-mining-assisted annotation effort aimed at extracting phosphatase related data reported in the scientific literature. The HuPho (human phosphatases) website can be accessed at http://hupho.uniroma2.it.

  13. The significance of inhibitor-resistant alkaline phosphatase in the cytochemical demonstration of transport adenosine triphosphatase.

    PubMed

    Firth, J A; Marland, B Y

    1975-08-01

    The hydrolysis of disodium p-nitrophenyl phosphate at pH 9.0 by slices of formaldehydee-fixed rat renal cortex was investigated by colorimetric estimation of the nitrophenol liberated. It was found that three types of activity could be identified on the basis of their responses to inhibitors and cations: (a) alkaline phosphatase sensitive to inhibition by L-tetramisole; (b) potassium-dependent phosphatase, probably identifiable with the phosphatase component of sodium-potassium-dependent transport adenosine triphosphatase (?Na-K-ATPase); and (c) alkaline phosphatase insensitive to L-tetramisole. It was found that in the presence of strontium ions, as used in Na-K-ATPase cytochemistry, the activities of the second and third types of enzyme were approximately equal. The implications of these findings for the cytochemical demonstration of Na-K-ATPase are discussed.

  14. Improvement of an acid phosphatase/DHAP-dependent aldolase cascade reaction by using directed evolution.

    PubMed

    van Herk, Teunie; Hartog, Aloysius F; Babich, Lara; Schoemaker, Hans E; Wever, Ron

    2009-09-04

    To enhance the phosphorylating activity of the bacterial nonspecific acid phosphatase from Salmonella enterica ser. typhimurium LT2 towards dihydroxyacetone (DHA), a mutant library was generated from the native enzyme. Three different variants that showed enhanced activity were identified after one round of epPCR. The single mutant V78L was the most active and showed an increase in the maximal DHAP concentration to 25 % higher than that of the wild-type enzyme at pH 6.0. This variant is 17 times more active than the wild-type acid phosphatase from Salmonella enterica ser. typhimurium LT2 in the acid phosphatase/aldolase cascade reaction at pH 6.0 and is also six times more active than the phosphatase from Shigella flexneri that we previously used.

  15. Specificity of a protein phosphatase inhibitor from rabbit skeletal muscle.

    PubMed Central

    Cohen, P; Nimmo, G A; Antoniw, J F

    1977-01-01

    A hear-stable protein, which is a specific inhibitor of protein phosphatase-III, was purified 700-fold from skeletal muscle by a procedure that involved heat-treatment at 95 degrees C, chromatography on DEAE-cellulose and gel filtration on Sephadex G-100. The final step completely resolved the protein phosphatase inhibitor from the protein inhibitor of cyclic AMP-dependent protein kinase. The phosphorylase phosphatase, beta-phosphorylase kinase phosphatase, glycogen synthase phosphatase-1 and glycogen synthase phosphatase-2 activities of protein phosphatase-III [Antoniw, J. F., Nimmo, H. G., Yeaman, S. J. & Cohen, P.(1977) Biochem.J. 162, 423-433] were inhibited in a very similar manner by the protein phosphatase inhibitor and at least 95% inhibition was observed at high concentrations of inhibitor. The two forms of protein phosphatase-III, termed IIIA and IIIB, were equally susceptible to the protein phosphatase inhibitor. The protein phosphatase inhibitor was at least 200 times less effective in inhibiting the activity of protein phosphatase-I and protein phosphatase-II. The high degree of specificity of the inhibitor for protein phosphatase-III was used to show that 90% of the phosphorylase phosphatase and glycogen synthase phosphatase activities measured in muscle extracts are catalysed by protein phosphatase-III. Protein phosphatase-III was tightly associated with the protein-glycogen complex that can be isolated from skeletal muscle, whereas the protein phosphatase inhibitor and protein phosphatase-II were not. The results provide further evidence that the enzyme that catalyses the dephosphorylation of the alpha-subunit of phosphorylase kinase (protein phosphatase-II) and the enzyme that catalyses the dephosphorylation of the beta-subunit of phosphorylase kinase (protein phosphatase-III) are distinct. The results suggest that the protein phosphatase inhibitor may be a useful probe for differentiating different classes of protein phosphatases in mammalian

  16. Protein tyrosine phosphatase SHP2 promotes invadopodia formation through suppression of Rho signaling

    PubMed Central

    Tsai, Wan-Chen; Chen, Chien-Lin; Chen, Hong-Chen

    2015-01-01

    Invadopodia are actin-enriched membrane protrusions that are important for extracellular matrix degradation and invasive cell motility. Src homolog domain-containing phosphatase 2 (SHP2), a non-receptor protein tyrosine phosphatase, has been shown to play an important role in promoting cancer metastasis, but the underlying mechanism is unclear. In this study, we found that depletion of SHP2 by short-hairpin RNA suppressed invadopodia formation in several cancer cell lines, particularly in the SAS head and neck squamous cell line. In contrast, overexpression of SHP2 promoted invadopodia formation in the CAL27 head and neck squamous cell line, which expresses low levels of endogenous SHP2. The depletion of SHP2 in SAS cells significantly decreased their invasive motility. The suppression of invadopodia formation by SHP2 depletion was restored by the Clostridium botulinum C3 exoenzyme (a Rho GTPase inhibitor) or Y27632 (a specific inhibitor for Rho-associated kinase). Together, our results suggest that SHP2 may promote invadopodia formation through inhibition of Rho signaling in cancer cells. PMID:26204488

  17. Protein Phosphatase Methyl-Esterase PME-1 Protects Protein Phosphatase 2A from Ubiquitin/Proteasome Degradation.

    PubMed

    Yabe, Ryotaro; Miura, Akane; Usui, Tatsuya; Mudrak, Ingrid; Ogris, Egon; Ohama, Takashi; Sato, Koichi

    2015-01-01

    Protein phosphatase 2A (PP2A) is a conserved essential enzyme that is implicated as a tumor suppressor based on its central role in phosphorylation-dependent signaling pathways. Protein phosphatase methyl esterase (PME-1) catalyzes specifically the demethylation of the C-terminal Leu309 residue of PP2A catalytic subunit (PP2Ac). It has been shown that PME-1 affects the activity of PP2A by demethylating PP2Ac, but also by directly binding to the phosphatase active site, suggesting loss of PME-1 in cells would enhance PP2A activity. However, here we show that PME-1 knockout mouse embryonic fibroblasts (MEFs) exhibit lower PP2A activity than wild type MEFs. Loss of PME-1 enhanced poly-ubiquitination of PP2Ac and shortened the half-life of PP2Ac protein resulting in reduced PP2Ac levels. Chemical inhibition of PME-1 and rescue experiments with wild type and mutated PME-1 revealed methyl-esterase activity was necessary to maintain PP2Ac protein levels. Our data demonstrate that PME-1 methyl-esterase activity protects PP2Ac from ubiquitin/proteasome degradation.

  18. Structural relationship between a bacterial developmental protein and eukaryotic PP2C protein phosphatases.

    PubMed

    Adler, E; Donella-Deana, A; Arigoni, F; Pinna, L A; Stragler, P

    1997-01-01

    Bacillus subtilis SpoIIE is a Ser protein phosphatase whose action on the phosphoprotein SpoIIAA triggers the cell type-specific activation of a sporulation transcription factor. Here we report that SpoIIE displays sequence similarity to the PP2C family of eukaryotic Ser/Thr protein phosphatases, and that residues common to these proteins are required for the function of both SpoIIE and TPD1, a yeast PP2C. These findings suggest that SpoIIE and the PP2C protein phosphatases are structurally related, and reveal a striking formal similarity between the SpoIIAA regulatory circuit and that of mammalian mitochondrial pyruvate dehydrogenase. This similarity may reflect an evolutionarily conserved mechanism of biological regulation based on the interplay of His protein kinase-like Ser kinases and PP2C-like protein phosphatases.

  19. Multiple Functions of the Eya Phosphotyrosine Phosphatase

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Eyes absent (Eya), a protein conserved from plants to humans and best characterized as a transcriptional coactivator, is also the prototype for a novel class of eukaryotic aspartyl protein tyrosine phosphatases. This minireview discusses recent breakthroughs in elucidating the substrates and cellular events regulated by Eya's tyrosine phosphatase function and highlights some of the complexities, new questions, and surprises that have emerged from efforts to understand how Eya's unusual multifunctionality influences developmental regulation and signaling. PMID:26667035

  20. Assessing the biological activity of the glucan phosphatase laforin

    PubMed Central

    Romá-Mateo, Carlos; Raththagala, Madushi; Gentry, Mathew S.; Sanz, Pascual

    2017-01-01

    Summary Glucan phosphatases are a recently discovered family of enzymes that dephosphorylate either starch or glycogen and are essential for proper starch metabolism in plants and glycogen metabolism in humans. Mutations in the gene encoding the only human glucan phosphatase, laforin, result in the fatal, neurodegenerative, epilepsy known as Lafora disease. Here, we describe phosphatase assays to assess both generic laforin phosphatase activity and laforin’s unique glycogen phosphatase activity. PMID:27514803

  1. Identification of the adipocyte acid phosphatase as a PAO-sensitive tyrosyl phosphatase.

    PubMed Central

    Shekels, L. L.; Smith, A. J.; Van Etten, R. L.; Bernlohr, D. A.

    1992-01-01

    We have partially purified an 18-kDa cytoplasmic protein from 3T3-L1 cells, which dephosphorylates pNPP and the phosphorylated adipocyte lipid binding protein (ALBP), and have identified it by virtue of kinetic and immunological criteria as an acid phosphatase (EC 3.1.3.2). The cytoplasmic acid phosphatase was inactivated by phenylarsine oxide (PAO) (Kinact = 10 microM), and the inactivation could be reversed by the dithiol, 2,3-dimercaptopropanol (Kreact = 23 microM), but not the monothiol, 2-mercaptoethanol. Cloning of the human adipocyte acid phosphatase revealed that two isoforms exist, termed HAAP alpha and HAAP beta (human adipocyte acid phosphatase), which are distinguished by a 34-amino acid isoform-specific domain. Sequence analysis shows HAAP alpha and HAAP beta share 74% and 90% identity with the bovine liver acid phosphatase, respectively, and 99% identity with both isoenzymes of the human red cell acid phosphatase but no sequence similarity to the protein tyrosine phosphatases (EC 3.1.3.48). HAAP beta has been cloned into Escherichia coli, expressed, and purified as a glutathione S-transferase fusion protein. Recombinant HAAP beta was shown to dephosphorylate pNPP and phosphoALBP and to be inactivated by PAO and inhibited by vanadate (Ki = 17 microM). These results describe the adipocyte acid phosphatase as a cytoplasmic enzyme containing conformationally vicinal cysteine residues with properties that suggest it may dephosphorylate tyrosyl phosphorylated cellular proteins. PMID:1304913

  2. Missense substitutions reflecting regulatory control of transmitter phosphatase activity in two-component signalling.

    PubMed

    Huynh, TuAnh Ngoc; Noriega, Chris E; Stewart, Valley

    2013-05-01

    Negative control in two-component signal transduction results from sensor transmitter phosphatase activity for phospho-receiver dephosphorylation. A hypothetical mechanism for this reaction involves a catalytic residue in the H-box active-site region. However, a complete understanding of transmitter phosphatase regulation is hampered by the abundance of kinase-competent, phosphatase-defective missense substitutions (K(+) P(-) phenotype) outside of the active-site region. For the Escherichia coli NarX sensor, a model for the HisKA_3 sequence family, DHp domain K(+) P(-) mutants defined two classes. Interaction mutants mapped to the active site-distal base of the DHp helix 1, whereas conformation mutants were affected in the X-box region of helix 2. Thus, different types of perturbations can influence transmitter phosphatase activity indirectly. By comparison, K(+) P(-) substitutions in the HisKA sensors EnvZ and NtrB additionally map to a third region, at the active site-proximal top of the DHp helix 1, independently identified as important for DHp-CA domain interaction in this sensor class. Moreover, the NarX transmitter phosphatase activity was independent of nucleotides, in contrast to the activity for many HisKA family sensors. Therefore, distinctions involving both the DHp and the CA domains suggest functional diversity in the regulation of HisKA and HisKA_3 transmitter phosphatase activities.

  3. An acid phosphatase assay for quantifying the growth of adherent and nonadherent cells.

    PubMed

    Yang, T T; Sinai, P; Kain, S R

    1996-10-01

    We describe an acid phosphatase assay for determination of cell growth based on quantification of cytosolic acid phosphatase activity. The assay is based on the hydrolysis of the p-nitrophenyl phosphate by intracellular acid phosphatases in viable cells to produce p-nitrophenol. For all cell types examined, absorbance of p-nitrophenol at 405 nm is directly proportional to the cell number in the range of 10(3)-10(5) cells. The assay can quantify as few as 1000 cells per well in 96-well microtiter plates. The acid phosphatase assay was used to count various adherent and nonadherent cells, including human tumors, L6, and HT-2 cells. We also demonstrate the utility of this assay for analysis of growth factor and cytokine bioactivity on mammalian cells in culture. In comparison to [3H]thymidine incorporation, the acid phosphatase assay has similar sensitivity but a wider linear response range. The method also shows higher sensitivity and reproducibility in comparison to cell proliferation assays based on the reduction of tetrazolium salts. Because of the ease of use, sensitivity, and low cost, the acid phosphatase method is especially suited to applications where a large number of samples are assayed.

  4. Purification of a protein phosphatase from Acanthamoeba that dephosphorylates and activates myosin II.

    PubMed

    McClure, J A; Korn, E D

    1983-12-10

    The actin-activated ATPase activity of myosin II from Acanthamoeba castellanii is inhibited by phosphorylation of 3 serine residues near the carboxyl end of the heavy chain of the molecule. We have purified a protein phosphatase from Acanthamoeba using myosin II as a substrate. This phosphatase has a molecular weight of 39,000 by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and an isoelectric point in urea of 5.2. The enzyme also is active against other phosphoserine protein substrates such as turkey gizzard smooth muscle myosin light chain, but not against a synthetic phosphotyrosine protein substrate. It does not hydrolyze ATP or p-nitrophenol phosphate. No effector has been found to increase substantially the activity of the enzyme as isolated, but it is inhibited by ATP, pyrophosphate, and NaF. This inhibition is reduced in the presence of MnCl2. The Mg2+-dependent actin-activated ATPase of myosin II is activated by dephosphorylation of phosphorylated myosin II by the phosphatase. Its broad substrate specificity, molecular weight, and response to protein phosphatase inhibitors suggest that the Acanthamoeba protein phosphatase is a type 2A phosphatase (Cohen, P. (1982) Nature (Lond.) 206, 613-620).

  5. Aquatic plant nutrients, moss phosphatase activities and tissue composition in four upland streams in northern England

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ellwood, N. T. W.; Haile, S. M.; Whitton, B. A.

    2008-02-01

    SummaryA study was made of the water chemistry, tissue nutrients and surface phosphatase activities of the 2-cm apices of three mosses in four upland streams in northern England, UK. This was part of a project to optimize methods for assessing nutrient fractions in environments with highly variable water chemistry. Aqueous N and P fractions showed the greatest variability followed by moss phosphatase activities, with nutrient composition of the shoot apices the least variable. There was no consistent pattern as to which aqueous N or P fraction was the most variable. The ratio between total inorganic N and total filtrable P ranged over three orders of magnitude in some streams. The interrelations between tissue N and P concentrations, tissue N:P ratio, phosphatase activities and aqueous variables showed: Significant +ve relationship between tissue N and aqueous NO 3-N in some populations, but not between tissue P and aqueous P concentration; Significant +ve relationships between phosphatase activities and aqueous organic N, but none with aqueous organic P; Significant +ve relationships between phosphodiesterase:phosphomonoesterase activities and aqueous organic N; Significant -ve relationships between phosphatase activities and tissue P concentration; Significant +ve relationships between phosphatase activities and tissue N:P. Both types of biological measurement are valuable for monitoring ambient nutrients in upland streams. Neither is clearly better than the other, so both should be included in surveys.

  6. Dairy products and the French paradox: Could alkaline phosphatases play a role?

    PubMed

    Lallès, Jean-Paul

    2016-07-01

    The French paradox - high saturated fat consumption but low incidence of cardiovascular disease (CVD) and mortality - is still unresolved and continues to be a matter of debate and controversy. Recently, it was hypothesised that the high consumption of dairy products, and especially cheese by the French population might contribute to the explanation of the French paradox, in addition to the "(red) wine" hypothesis. Most notably this would involve milk bioactive peptides and biomolecules from cheese moulds. Here, we support the "dairy products" hypothesis further by proposing the "alkaline phosphatase" hypothesis. First, intestinal alkaline phosphatase (IAP), a potent endogenous anti-inflammatory enzyme, is directly stimulated by various components of milk (e.g. casein, calcium, lactose and even fat). This enzyme dephosphorylates and thus detoxifies pro-inflammatory microbial components like lipopolysaccharide, making them unable to trigger inflammatory responses and generate chronic low-grade inflammation leading to insulin resistance, glucose intolerance, type-2 diabetes, metabolic syndrome and obesity, known risk factors for CVD. Various vitamins present in high amounts in dairy products (e.g. vitamins A and D; methyl-donors: folate and vitamin B12), and also fermentation products such as butyrate and propionate found e.g. in cheese, all stimulate intestinal alkaline phosphatase. Second, moulded cheeses like Roquefort contain fungi producing an alkaline phosphatase. Third, milk itself contains a tissue nonspecific isoform of alkaline phosphatase that may function as IAP. Milk alkaline phosphatase is present in raw milk and dairy products increasingly consumed in France. It is deactivated by pasteurization but it can partially reactivate after thermal treatment. Experimental consolidation of the "alkaline phosphatase" hypothesis will require further work including: systematic alkaline phosphatase activity measurements in dairy products, live dairy ferments and

  7. Acid phosphatase/phosphotransferases from enteric bacteria.

    PubMed

    Mihara, Y; Utagawa, T; Yamada, H; Asano, Y

    2001-01-01

    We have investigated the enzymatic phosphorylation of nucleosides and found that Morganella morganii phoC acid phosphatase exhibits regioselective pyrophosphate (PP(i))-nucleoside phosphotransferase activity. In this study, we isolated genes encoding an acid phosphatase with regioselective phosphotransferase activity (AP/PTase) from Providencia stuartii, Enterobacter aerogenes, Escherichia blattae and Klebsiella planticola, and compared the primary structures and enzymatic characteristics of these enzymes with those of AP/PTase (PhoC acid phosphatase) from M. morganii. The enzymes were highly homologous in primary structure with M. morganii AP/PTase, and are classified as class A1 acid phosphatases. The synthesis of inosine-5'-monophosphate (5'-IMP) by E. coli overproducing each acid phosphatase was investigated. The P. stuartii enzyme, which is most closely related to the M. morganii enzyme, exhibited high 5'-IMP productivity, similar to the M. morganii enzyme. The 5'-IMP productivities of the E. aerogenes, E. blattae and K. planticola enzymes were inferior to those of the former two enzymes. This result underlines the importance of lower K(m) values for efficient nucleotide production. As these enzymes exhibited a very high degree of homology at the amino acid sequence level, it is likely that local sequence differences in the binding pocket are responsible for the differences in the nucleoside-PP(i) phosphotransferase reaction.

  8. The histidine phosphatase superfamily: structure and function.

    PubMed

    Rigden, Daniel J

    2008-01-15

    The histidine phosphatase superfamily is a large functionally diverse group of proteins. They share a conserved catalytic core centred on a histidine which becomes phosphorylated during the course of the reaction. Although the superfamily is overwhelmingly composed of phosphatases, the earliest known and arguably best-studied member is dPGM (cofactor-dependent phosphoglycerate mutase). The superfamily contains two branches sharing very limited sequence similarity: the first containing dPGM, fructose-2,6-bisphosphatase, PhoE, SixA, TIGAR [TP53 (tumour protein 53)-induced glycolysis and apoptosis regulator], Sts-1 and many other activities, and the second, smaller, branch composed mainly of acid phosphatases and phytases. Human representatives of both branches are of considerable medical interest, and various parasites contain superfamily members whose inhibition might have therapeutic value. Additionally, several phosphatases, notably the phytases, have current or potential applications in agriculture. The present review aims to draw together what is known about structure and function in the superfamily. With the benefit of an expanding set of histidine phosphatase superfamily structures, a clearer picture of the conserved elements is obtained, along with, conversely, a view of the sometimes surprising variation in substrate-binding and proton donor residues across the superfamily. This analysis should contribute to correcting a history of over- and mis-annotation in the superfamily, but also suggests that structural knowledge, from models or experimental structures, in conjunction with experimental assays, will prove vital for the future description of function in the superfamily.

  9. Structure-Function Analysis of the 3' Phosphatase Component of T4 Polynucleotide Kinase/phosphatase

    SciTech Connect

    Zhu,H.; Smith, P.; Wang, L.; Shuman, S.

    2007-01-01

    T4 polynucleotide kinase/phosphatase (Pnkp) exemplifies a family of bifunctional enzymes with 5'-kinase and 3' phosphatase activities that function in nucleic acid repair. T4 Pnkp is a homotetramer of a 301-aa polypeptide, which consists of an N-terminal kinase domain of the P-loop phosphotransferase superfamily and a C-terminal phosphatase domain of the DxD acylphosphatase superfamily. The homotetramer is formed via pairs of phosphatase-phosphatase and kinase-kinase homodimer interfaces. Here we identify four side chains-Asp187, Ser211, Lys258, and Asp277-that are required for 3' phosphatase activity. Alanine mutations at these positions abolished phosphatase activity without affecting kinase function or tetramerization. Conservative substitutions of asparagine or glutamate for Asp187 did not revive the 3' phosphatase, nor did arginine or glutamine substitutions for Lys258. Threonine in lieu of Ser211 and glutamate in lieu of Asp277 restored full activity, whereas asparagine at position 277 had no salutary effect. We report a 3.0 A crystal structure of the Pnkp tetramer, in which a sulfate ion is coordinated between Arg246 and Arg279 in a position that we propose mimics one of the penultimate phosphodiesters (5'NpNpNp-3') of the polynucleotide 3'-PO(4) substrate. The amalgam of mutational and structural data engenders a plausible catalytic mechanism for the phosphatase that includes covalent catalysis (via Asp165), general acid-base catalysis (via Asp167), metal coordination (by Asp165, Asp277 and Asp278), and transition state stabilization (via Lys258, Ser211, backbone amides, and the divalent cation). Other critical side chains play architectural roles (Arg176, Asp187, Arg213, Asp254). To probe the role of oligomerization in phosphatase function, we introduced six double-alanine cluster mutations at the phosphatase-phosphatase domain interface, two of which (R297A-Q295A and E292A-D300A) converted Pnkp from a tetramer to a dimer and ablated phosphatase activity.

  10. Structure-function analysis of the 3' phosphatase component of T4 polynucleotide kinase/phosphatase.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Hui; Smith, Paul; Wang, Li Kai; Shuman, Stewart

    2007-09-15

    T4 polynucleotide kinase/phosphatase (Pnkp) exemplifies a family of bifunctional enzymes with 5'-kinase and 3' phosphatase activities that function in nucleic acid repair. T4 Pnkp is a homotetramer of a 301-aa polypeptide, which consists of an N-terminal kinase domain of the P-loop phosphotransferase superfamily and a C-terminal phosphatase domain of the DxD acylphosphatase superfamily. The homotetramer is formed via pairs of phosphatase-phosphatase and kinase-kinase homodimer interfaces. Here we identify four side chains-Asp187, Ser211, Lys258, and Asp277-that are required for 3' phosphatase activity. Alanine mutations at these positions abolished phosphatase activity without affecting kinase function or tetramerization. Conservative substitutions of asparagine or glutamate for Asp187 did not revive the 3' phosphatase, nor did arginine or glutamine substitutions for Lys258. Threonine in lieu of Ser211 and glutamate in lieu of Asp277 restored full activity, whereas asparagine at position 277 had no salutary effect. We report a 3.0 A crystal structure of the Pnkp tetramer, in which a sulfate ion is coordinated between Arg246 and Arg279 in a position that we propose mimics one of the penultimate phosphodiesters (5'NpNpNp-3') of the polynucleotide 3'-PO(4) substrate. The amalgam of mutational and structural data engenders a plausible catalytic mechanism for the phosphatase that includes covalent catalysis (via Asp165), general acid-base catalysis (via Asp167), metal coordination (by Asp165, Asp277 and Asp278), and transition state stabilization (via Lys258, Ser211, backbone amides, and the divalent cation). Other critical side chains play architectural roles (Arg176, Asp187, Arg213, Asp254). To probe the role of oligomerization in phosphatase function, we introduced six double-alanine cluster mutations at the phosphatase-phosphatase domain interface, two of which (R297A-Q295A and E292A-D300A) converted Pnkp from a tetramer to a dimer and ablated phosphatase activity.

  11. AKAP phosphatase complexes in the heart.

    PubMed

    Redden, John M; Dodge-Kafka, Kimberly L

    2011-10-01

    Directed protein phosphorylation is indisputably critical for a multitude of cellular processes. A growing body of research demonstrates A kinase anchoring proteins (AKAPs) to mediate a significant number of phosphorylation events in the heart. By acting as molecular tethers for the regulatory subunit of protein kinase A, AKAPs focus kinase activity onto specific substrate. In the time since their discovery, the AKAP model has evolved in appreciation of the broader role these scaffolds play in coordinating multiple signaling enzymes to efficiently regulate dynamic cellular processes. The focus of this review is on the emerging role of AKAPs in regulating the 3 main cardiac phosphatases: Protein Phosphatase 1 by AKAP18 and Yotiao, and Protein Phosphatases 2A and 2B by muscle specific A-kinase anchoring protein.

  12. CDC25 phosphatases as potential human oncogenes.

    PubMed

    Galaktionov, K; Lee, A K; Eckstein, J; Draetta, G; Meckler, J; Loda, M; Beach, D

    1995-09-15

    Cyclin-dependent kinases (CDKs) are activated by CDC25 phosphatases, which remove inhibitory phosphate from tyrosine and threonine residues. In human cells, CDC25 proteins are encoded by a multigene family, consisting of CDC25A, CDC25B, and CDC25C. In rodent cells, human CDC25A or CDC25B but not CDC25C phosphatases cooperate with either Ha-RASG12V or loss of RB1 in oncogenic focus formation. Such transformants were highly aneuploid, grew in soft agar, and formed high-grade tumors in nude mice. Overexpression of CDC25B was detected in 32 percent of human primary breast cancers tested. The CDC25 phosphatases may contribute to the development of human cancer.

  13. Generic phosphatase activity detection using zinc mediated aggregation modulation of polypeptide-modified gold nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Selegård, Robert; Enander, Karin; Aili, Daniel

    2014-11-01

    A challenge in the design of plasmonic nanoparticle-based colorimetric assays is that the change in colloidal stability, which generates the colorimetric response, is often directly linked to the biomolecular recognition event. New assay strategies are hence required for every type of substrate and enzyme of interest. Here, a generic strategy for monitoring of phosphatase activity is presented where substrate recognition is completely decoupled from the nanoparticle stability modulation mechanism, which enables detection of a wide range of enzymes using different natural substrates with a single simple detection scheme. Phosphatase activity generates inorganic phosphate that forms an insoluble complex with Zn2+. In a sample containing a preset concentration of Zn2+, phosphatase activity will markedly reduce the concentration of dissolved Zn2+ from the original value, which in turn affects the aggregation of gold nanoparticles functionalized with a designed Zn2+ responsive polypeptide. The change in nanoparticle stability thus provides a rapid and sensitive readout of the phosphatase activity. The assay is not limited to a particular enzyme or enzyme substrate, which is demonstrated using three completely different phosphatases and five different substrates, and thus constitutes a highly interesting system for drug screening and diagnostics.A challenge in the design of plasmonic nanoparticle-based colorimetric assays is that the change in colloidal stability, which generates the colorimetric response, is often directly linked to the biomolecular recognition event. New assay strategies are hence required for every type of substrate and enzyme of interest. Here, a generic strategy for monitoring of phosphatase activity is presented where substrate recognition is completely decoupled from the nanoparticle stability modulation mechanism, which enables detection of a wide range of enzymes using different natural substrates with a single simple detection scheme

  14. Saccharomyces cerevisiae protein phosphatase 2A performs an essential cellular function and is encoded by two genes.

    PubMed Central

    Sneddon, A A; Cohen, P T; Stark, M J

    1990-01-01

    Two genes (PPH21 and PPH22) encoding the yeast homologues of protein serine-threonine phosphatase 2A have been cloned from a Saccharomyces cerevisiae genomic library using a rabbit protein phosphatase 2A cDNA as a hybridization probe. The PPH genes are genetically linked on chromosome IV and are predicted to encode polypeptides each with 74% amino acid sequence identity to rabbit type 2A protein phosphatase, indicating once again the extraordinarily high degree of sequence conservation shown by protein-phosphatases from different species. The two PPH genes show less than 10% amino acid sequence divergence from each other and while disruption of either PPH gene alone is without any major effect, the double disruption is lethal. This indicates that protein phosphatase 2A activity is an essential cellular function in yeast. Measurement of type 2A protein phosphatase activity in yeast strains lacking one or other of the genes indicates that they account for most, if not all, protein phosphatase 2A activity in the cell. Images Fig. 5. PMID:2176150

  15. R3 receptor tyrosine phosphatases: conserved regulators of receptor tyrosine kinase signaling and tubular organ development.

    PubMed

    Jeon, Mili; Zinn, Kai

    2015-01-01

    R3 receptor tyrosine phosphatases (RPTPs) are characterized by extracellular domains composed solely of long chains of fibronectin type III repeats, and by the presence of a single phosphatase domain. There are five proteins in mammals with this structure, two in Drosophila and one in Caenorhabditis elegans. R3 RPTPs are selective regulators of receptor tyrosine kinase (RTK) signaling, and a number of different RTKs have been shown to be direct targets for their phosphatase activities. Genetic studies in both invertebrate model systems and in mammals have shown that R3 RPTPs are essential for tubular organ development. They also have important functions during nervous system development. R3 RPTPs are likely to be tumor suppressors in a number of types of cancer.

  16. R3 receptor tyrosine phosphatases: conserved regulators of receptor tyrosine kinase signaling and tubular organ development

    PubMed Central

    Jeon, Mili; Zinn, Kai

    2014-01-01

    Summary R3 receptor tyrosine phosphatases (RPTPs) are characterized by extracellular domains composed solely of long chains of fibronectin type III repeats, and by the presence of a single phosphatase domain. There are five proteins in mammals with this structure, two in Drosophila, and one in Caenorhabditis elegans. R3 RPTPs are selective regulators of receptor tyrosine kinase (RTK) signaling, and a number of different RTKs have been shown to be direct targets for their phosphatase activities. Genetic studies in both invertebrate model systems and in mammals have shown that R3 RPTPs are essential for tubular organ development. They also have important functions during nervous system development. R3 RPTPs are likely to be tumor suppressors in a number of types of cancer. PMID:25242281

  17. The inhibitory effect of metals and other ions on acid phosphatase activity from Vigna aconitifolia seeds.

    PubMed

    Srivastava, Pramod Kumar; Anand, Asha

    2015-01-01

    Sensitivity of acid phosphatase from Vigna aconitifolia seeds to metal ions, fluoride, and phosphate was examined. All the effectors had different degree of inhibitory effect on the enzyme. Among metal ions, molybdate and ferric ion were observed to be most potent inhibitors and both exhibited mixed type of inhibition. Acid phosphatase activity was inhibited by Cu2+ in a noncompetitive manner. Zn and Mn showed mild inhibition on the enzyme activity. Inhibition kinetics analysis explored molybdate as a potent inhibitor for acid phosphatase in comparison with other effectors used in this study. Fluoride was the next most strong inhibitor for the enzyme activity, and caused a mixed type of inhibition. Phosphate inhibited the enzyme competitively, which demonstrates that inhibition due to phosphate is one of the regulatory factors for enzyme activity.

  18. [Comparative effects of fluoride on three enzymes, hydrolyzing pyrophosphate - acid and alkaline phosphatases and inorganic pyrophosphatase].

    PubMed

    Kasho, V N; Baĭkov, A A; Avaeva, S M

    1982-08-01

    The effects of fluoride on the activities of acid phosphatase (EC 3.1.3.2) from potato and alkaline phosphatase (EC 3.1.3.1) from E. coli during pyrophosphate and p-nitrophenylphosphate hydrolysis and on the activities of inorganic pyrophosphatase (EC 3.6.1.1) from baker's yeast during pyrophosphate hydrolysis were compared. For both phosphatases the type of interaction was found to be independent on the nature of substrate. For acid phosphatase and inorganic pyrophosphatase the inhibition was of non-competitive and uncompetitive types, respectively. In the case of alkaline phosphatase fluoride increased the rate of p-nitrophenol release during p-nitrophenylphosphate hydrolysis at pH greater than or equal to 7.9 without affecting the rate of phosphate release, which is indicative of fluorophosphate formation in the course of the transphosphorylation reaction. The data obtained suggest the existence of essential differences in the mechanisms of fluoride effects on the three enzymes under study.

  19. Glycerol-3-phosphatase of Corynebacterium glutamicum.

    PubMed

    Lindner, Steffen N; Meiswinkel, Tobias M; Panhorst, Maren; Youn, Jung-Won; Wiefel, Lars; Wendisch, Volker F

    2012-06-15

    Formation of glycerol as by-product of amino acid production by Corynebacterium glutamicum has been observed under certain conditions, but the enzyme(s) involved in its synthesis from glycerol-3-phosphate were not known. It was shown here that cg1700 encodes an enzyme active as a glycerol-3-phosphatase (GPP) hydrolyzing glycerol-3-phosphate to inorganic phosphate and glycerol. GPP was found to be active as a homodimer. The enzyme preferred conditions of neutral pH and requires Mg²⁺ or Mn²⁺ for its activity. GPP dephosphorylated both L- and D-glycerol-3-phosphate with a preference for the D-enantiomer. The maximal activity of GPP was estimated to be 31.1 and 1.7 U mg⁻¹ with K(M) values of 3.8 and 2.9 mM for DL- and L-glycerol-3-phosphate, respectively. For physiological analysis a gpp deletion mutant was constructed and shown to lack the ability to produce detectable glycerol concentrations. Vice versa, gpp overexpression increased glycerol accumulation during growth in fructose minimal medium. It has been demonstrated previously that intracellular accumulation of glycerol-3-phosphate is growth inhibitory as shown for a recombinant C. glutamicum strain overproducing glycerokinase and glycerol facilitator genes from E. coli in media containing glycerol. In this strain, overexpression of gpp restored growth in the presence of glycerol as intracellular glycerol-3-phosphate concentrations were reduced to wild-type levels. In C. glutamicum wild type, GPP was shown to be involved in utilization of DL-glycerol-3-phosphate as source of phosphorus, since growth with DL-glycerol-3-phosphate as sole phosphorus source was reduced in the gpp deletion strain whereas it was accelerated upon gpp overexpression. As GPP homologues were found to be encoded in the genomes of many other bacteria, the gpp homologues of Escherichia coli (b2293) and Bacillus subtilis (BSU09240, BSU34970) as well as gpp1 from the plant Arabidosis thaliana were overexpressed in E. coli MG1655 and

  20. Phosphatase hydrolysis of organic phosphorus compounds

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Phosphatases are diverse groups of enzymes that deserve special attention because of the significant roles they play in mineralizing organic phosphorus (P) into inorganic available form. For getting more insight on the enzymatically hydrolysis of organic P, in this work, we compared the catalytic pa...

  1. Assaying inositol and phosphoinositide phosphatase enzymes.

    PubMed

    Donahue, Janet L; Ercetin, Mustafa; Gillaspy, Glenda E

    2013-01-01

    One critical aspect of phosphoinositide signaling is the turnover of signaling molecules in the pathway. These signaling molecules include the phosphatidylinositol phosphates (PtdInsPs) and inositol phosphates (InsPs). The enzymes that catalyze the breakdown of these molecules are thus important potential regulators of signaling, and in many cases the activity of such enzymes needs to be measured and compared to other enzymes. PtdInsPs and InsPs are broken down by sequential dephosphorylation reactions which are catalyzed by a set of specific phosphatases. Many of the phosphatases can act on both PtdInsP and InsP substrates. The protocols described in this chapter detail activity assays that allow for the measurement of PtdInsP and InsP phosphatase activities in vitro starting with native or recombinant enzymes. Three different assays are described that have different equipment requirements and allow one to test a range of PtdInsP and InsP phosphatases that act on different substrates.

  2. Phosphatase activities as biosignatures of extant life

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kobayashi, K.; Itoh, Y.; Edazawa, Y.; Moroi, A.; Takano, Y.

    It has been recognized that terrestrial biosphere expands to such extreme environments as deep subsurface lithosphere high temperature hot springs and stratosphere Possible extraterrestrial biospheres in Mars Europa and Titan are being discussed Many biosignatures or biomarkers have been proposed to detect microbial activities in such extreme environments Phosphate esters are essential for the terrestrial life since they are constituents of nucleic acids and cell mebranes Thus all the terrestrial organisms have phosphatases that are enzymes catalyzing hydrolysis of phosphate esters We analyzed phosphatase activities in the samples obtained in extreme environments such as submarine hydrothermal systems and discussed whether they can be used as biosignatures for extant life Core samples and chimney samples were collected at the Suiyo Seamount Izu-Bonin Arc the Pacific Ocean in 2001 and 2002 and in South Mariana hydrothermal systems the Pacific Oceanas in 2003 both in a part of the Archaean Park Project Phosphatase activity in solid rock samples was measured spectrometrically by using 25 mM p-nitrophenyl phosphate pH 8 0 or pH 6 5 as a substrate as follows Pulverized samples were incuvated with substrate solution for an hour and then production rate of p-nitrophenol was calculated with absorbance at 410 nm Phosphatase activity in extracts was measured fluorometrically by using 4-methylumberyferryl phosphate as a substrate Concentration of amino acids and their enantiomeric ratio were determined by HPLC after HF digestion of the

  3. The Non-receptor Tyrosine Kinase Tec Controls Assembly and Activity of the Noncanonical Caspase-8 Inflammasome

    PubMed Central

    Zwolanek, Florian; Riedelberger, Michael; Stolz, Valentina; Jenull, Sabrina; Istel, Fabian; Köprülü, Afitap Derya; Ellmeier, Wilfried; Kuchler, Karl

    2014-01-01

    Tec family kinases are intracellular non-receptor tyrosine kinases implicated in numerous functions, including T cell and B cell regulation. However, a role in microbial pathogenesis has not been described. Here, we identified Tec kinase as a novel key mediator of the inflammatory immune response in macrophages invaded by the human fungal pathogen C. albicans. Tec is required for both activation and assembly of the noncanonical caspase-8, but not of the caspase-1 inflammasome, during infections with fungal but not bacterial pathogens, triggering the antifungal response through IL-1β. Furthermore, we identify dectin-1 as the pathogen recognition receptor being required for Syk-dependent Tec activation. Hence, Tec is a novel innate-specific inflammatory kinase, whose genetic ablation or inhibition by small molecule drugs strongly protects mice from fungal sepsis. These data demonstrate a therapeutic potential for Tec kinase inhibition to combat invasive microbial infections by attenuating the host inflammatory response. PMID:25474208

  4. Structural and functional characterization of the 2H-phosphatase domain of Sts-2 reveals an acid-dependent phosphatase activity.

    PubMed

    Chen, Yunting; Jakoncic, Jean; Carpino, Nick; Nassar, Nicolas

    2009-03-03

    The suppressors of T cell receptor (TCR) signaling 1 and 2 (Sts-1 and -2, respectively) are multidomain proteins that negatively regulate the signaling of membrane-bound receptors, including TCR and the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR). Sts-1 was recently shown to be a new type of protein tyrosine phosphatase (PTP), with the phosphatase activity located within its C-terminal phosphoglycerate mutase (PGM) homology domain and key for the regulation of TCR signaling in T cells. The activity of the related Sts-2 enzyme is significantly less than that of Sts-1. Here we investigate the phosphatase activity of the PGM domain of Sts-2, Sts-2(PGM). The crystal structure of Sts-2(PGM) is remarkably similar to Sts-1(PGM), including conservation of all catalytic residues. Insight into mechanistic details is provided by the structures of the apo, tungstate-bound, and phosphate-bound enzyme. The active site shows stringent specificity, with the k(cat) optimum at pH 5.0 suggesting that Sts-2 might function as an acid-dependent phosphatase. Mutation of active site residues Gln372, Ala446, Glu481, Ser552, and Ser582 to their equivalents in Sts-1 increases the phosphatase activity of Sts-2(PGM) toward model substrates. Overall, our data demonstrate that Sts-2(PGM) adopts the conformation of an active phosphatase whose activity is fundamentally different from that of Sts-1 despite the strong structural homology. They also demonstrate that nonconserved active site residues are responsible for the difference in activity between the two isoforms. These differences reflect possible distinct physiological substrates.

  5. Promoting Uranium Immobilization by the Activities of Microbial Phosphatases

    SciTech Connect

    Robert J. Martinez; Melanie J. Beazley; Samuel M. Webb; Martial Taillefert; and Patricia A. Sobecky

    2007-04-19

    precipitation of U(VI) must be mediated by biological activity as less than 3% soluble U(VI) was removed either from the abiotic or the heat-killed cell controls. Interestingly, the pH has a strong effect on growth and U(VI) biomineralization rates by Rahnella. Thermodynamic modeling identifies autunite-type minerals [Ca(UO2)2(PO4)2] as the precipitate likely formed in the synthetic FRC groundwater conditions at all pH investigated. Extended X-ray absorption fine structure measurements have recently confirmed that the precipitate found in these incubations is an autunite and meta-autunite-type mineral. A kinetic model of U biomineralization at the different pH indicates that hydrolysis of organophosphate can be described using simple Monod kinetics and that uranium precipitation is accelerated when monohydrogen phosphate is the main orthophosphate species in solution. Overall, these experiments and ongoing soil slurry incubations demonstrate that the biomineralization of U(VI) through the activity of phosphatase enzymes can be expressed in a wide range of geochemical conditions pertaining to the FRC site.

  6. [Leucocyte alkaline phosphatase in normal and pathological pregnancy (author's transl)].

    PubMed

    Stark, K H; Zaki, I; Sobolewski, K

    1981-01-01

    The activities of leucocyte alkaline phosphatase were determined in 511 patients with normal and pathological pregnancy. Mean values were compared and the enzyme followed up, and the conclusion was drawn that leucocyte alkaline phosphatase was no safe indicator of foetal condition. No direct relationship were found to exist between leucocyte alkaline phosphatase, total oestrogens, HSAP, HLAP, HPL, and oxytocinase.

  7. Tyrosine phosphatase activity in mitochondria: presence of Shp-2 phosphatase in mitochondria.

    PubMed

    Salvi, M; Stringaro, A; Brunati, A M; Agostinelli, E; Arancia, G; Clari, G; Toninello, A

    2004-09-01

    Tyrosine phosphorylation by unidentified enzymes has been observed in mitochondria, with recent evidence indicating that non-receptorial tyrosine kinases belonging to the Src family, which represent key players in several transduction pathways, are constitutively present in mitochondria. The extent of protein phosphorylation reflects a coordination balance between the activities of specific kinases and phophatases. The present study demonstrates that purified rat brain mitochondria possess endogenous tyrosine phosphatase activity. Mitochondrial phosphatases were found to be capable of dephosphorylating different exogenous substrates, including paranitrophenylphosphate, (32)P-poly(Glu-Tyr)(4:1) and (32)P-angiotensin. These activities are strongly inhibited by peroxovanadate, a well-known inhibitor of tyrosine phosphatases, but not by inhibitors of alkali or Ser/Thr phosphatases, and mainly take place in the intermembrane space and outer mitochondrial membrane. Using a combination of approaches, we identified the tyrosine phosphatase Shp-2 in mitochondria. Shp-2 plays a crucial role in a number of intracellular signalling cascades and is probably involved in several human diseases. It thus represents the first tyrosine phosphatase shown to be present in mitochondria.

  8. Protein phosphatase and kinase activities possibly involved in exocytosis regulation in Paramecium tetraurelia.

    PubMed

    Kissmehl, R; Treptau, T; Hofer, H W; Plattner, H

    1996-07-01

    In Paramecium tetraurelia cells synchronous exocytosis induced by aminoethyldextran (AED) is accompanied by an equally rapid dephosphorylation of a 63 kDa phosphoprotein (PP63) within 80 ms. In vivo, rephosphorylation occurs within a few seconds after AED triggering. In homogenates (P)P63 can be solubilized in all three phosphorylation states (phosphorylated, dephosphorylated and rephosphorylated) and thus tested in vitro. By using chelators of different divalent cations, de- and rephosphorylation of PP63 and P63 respectively can be achieved by an endogenous protein phosphatase/kinase system. Dephosphorylation occurs in the presence of EDTA, whereas in the presence of EGTA this was concealed by phosphorylation by endogenous kinase(s), thus indicating that phosphorylation of P63 is calcium-independent. Results obtained with protein phosphatase inhibitors (okadaic acid, calyculin A) allowed us to exclude a protein serine/threonine phosphatase of type I (with selective sensitivity in Paramecium). Protein phosphatase 2C is also less likely to be a candidate because of its requirement for high Mg2+ concentrations. According to previous evidence a protein serine/threonine phosphatase of type 2B (calcineurin; CaN) is possibly involved. We have now found that bovine brain CaN dephosphorylates PP63 in vitro. Taking into account the specific requirements of this phosphatase in vitro, with p-nitrophenyl phosphate as a substrate, we have isolated a cytosolic phosphatase of similar characteristics by combined preparative gel electrophoresis and affinity-column chromatography. In Paramecium this phosphatase also dephosphorylates PP63 in vitro (after 32P labelling in vivo). Using various combinations of ion exchange, affinity and hydrophobic interaction chromatography we have also isolated three different protein kinases from the soluble fraction, i.e. a cAMP-dependent protein kinase (PKA), a cGMP-dependent protein kinase (PKG) and a casein kinase. Among the kinases tested, PKA

  9. Mechanism of RNA 2',3'-cyclic phosphate end healing by T4 polynucleotide kinase-phosphatase.

    PubMed

    Das, Ushati; Shuman, Stewart

    2013-01-07

    T4 polynucleotide kinase-phosphatase (Pnkp) exemplifies a family of enzymes with 5'-kinase and 3'-phosphatase activities that function in nucleic acid repair. The polynucleotide 3'-phosphatase reaction is executed by the Pnkp C-terminal domain, which belongs to the DxDxT acylphosphatase superfamily. The 3'-phosphatase reaction entails formation and hydrolysis of a covalent enzyme-(Asp165)-phosphate intermediate, driven by general acid-base catalyst Asp167. We report that Pnkp also has RNA 2'-phosphatase activity that requires Asp165 and Asp167. The physiological substrate for Pnkp phosphatase is an RNA 2',3'-cyclic phosphate end (RNA > p), but the pathway of cyclic phosphate removal and its enzymic requirements are undefined. Here we find that Pnkp reactivity with RNA > p requires Asp165, but not Asp167. Whereas wild-type Pnkp transforms RNA > p to RNA(OH), mutant D167N converts RNA > p to RNA 3'-phosphate, which it sequesters in the phosphatase active site. In support of the intermediacy of an RNA phosphomonoester, the reaction of mutant S211A with RNA > p results in transient accumulation of RNAp en route to RNA(OH). Our results suggest that healing of 2',3'-cyclic phosphate ends is a four-step processive reaction: RNA > p + Pnkp → RNA-(3'-phosphoaspartyl)-Pnkp → RNA(3')p + Pnkp → RNA(OH) + phosphoaspartyl-Pnkp → P(i) + Pnkp.

  10. PEST family phosphatases in immunity, autoimmunity, and autoinflammatory disorders.

    PubMed

    Veillette, André; Rhee, Inmoo; Souza, Cleiton Martins; Davidson, Dominique

    2009-03-01

    The proline-, glutamic acid-, serine- and threonine-rich (PEST) family of protein tyrosine phosphatases (PTPs) includes proline-enriched phosphatase (PEP)/lymphoid tyrosine phosphatase (LYP), PTP-PEST, and PTP-hematopoietic stem cell fraction (HSCF). PEP/LYP is a potent inhibitor of T-cell activation, principally by suppressing the activity of Src family protein tyrosine kinases (PTKs). This function seems to be dependent, at least in part, on the ability of PEP to bind C-terminal Src kinase (Csk), a PTK also involved in inactivating Src kinases. Interestingly, a polymorphism of LYP in humans (R620W) is a significant risk factor for autoimmune diseases including type 1 diabetes, rheumatoid arthritis, and lupus. The R620W mutation may be a 'gain-of-function' mutation. In non-hematopoietic cells, PTP-PEST is a critical regulator of adhesion and migration. This effect correlates with the aptitude of PTP-PEST to dephosphorylate cytoskeletal proteins such as Cas, focal adhesion associated-kinase (FAK), Pyk2, and PSTPIP. While not established, a similar function may also exist in immune cells. Additionally, overexpression studies provided an indication that PTP-PEST may be a negative regulator of lymphocyte activation. Interestingly, mutations in a PTP-PEST- and PTP-HSCF-interacting protein, PSTPIP1, were identified in humans with pyogenic sterile arthritis, pyoderma gangrenosum, and acne (PAPA) syndrome and familial recurrent arthritis, two autoinflammatory diseases. These mutations abrogate the ability of PSTPIP1 to bind PTP-PEST and PTP-HSCF, suggesting that these two PTPs may be negative regulators of inflammation.

  11. Exploiting Acid Phosphatases in the Synthesis of Phosphorylated Monoalcohols and Diols

    PubMed Central

    Tasnádi, Gábor; Lukesch, Michael; Zechner, Michaela; Jud, Wolfgang; Hall, Mélanie; Ditrich, Klaus; Baldenius, Kai; Hartog, Aloysius F.; Wever, Ron

    2015-01-01

    Abstract A set of phosphatases was evaluated for their potential to catalyze the regio‐ and stereoselective phosphorylation of alcohols using a high‐energy inorganic phosphate donor, such as di‐, tri‐ and polyphosphate. Parameters such as type and amount of phosphate donor and pH of the reaction were investigated in order to minimize the thermodynamically favored hydrolysis of the phosphate donor and the formed phosphate ester. Diols were monophosphorylated with high selectivities. This biocatalytic phosphorylation method provides selectively activated and/or protected synthetic intermediates for further chemical and/or enzymatic transformations and is applicable to a large scale (6.86 g) in a flow setup with immobilized phosphatase.

  12. Stereochemistry of phospho group transfer catalyzed by a mutant alkaline phosphatase

    SciTech Connect

    Butler-Ransohoff, J.E.; Kendall, D.A.; Freeman, S.; Knowles, J.R.; Kaiser, E.T.

    1988-06-28

    The stereochemical course of the phospho group transfer catalyzed by mutant (S102C) alkaline phosphatase from Escherichia coli was investigated by using /sup 31/P nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy. Transphosphorylation from 4-nitrophenyl (R/sub P/)-/sup 17/O, /sup 16/O, /sup 18/O)phosphate to (S)-propane-1,2-diol occurs with overall retention of configuration at phosphorus. This result is consistent with the view that the hydrolysis of substrates by this mutant enzyme proceeds by way of a covalent phosphoenzyme intermediate in the same manner as the wild-type alkaline phosphatase.

  13. Regulation of protein phosphatase 2A (PP2A) tumor suppressor function by PME-1.

    PubMed

    Kaur, Amanpreet; Westermarck, Jukka

    2016-12-15

    Protein phosphatase 2A (PP2A) plays a major role in maintaining cellular signaling homeostasis by dephosphorylation of a variety of signaling proteins and acts as a tumor suppressor. Protein phosphatase methylesterase-1 (PME-1) negatively regulates PP2A activity by highly complex mechanisms that are reviewed here. Importantly, recent studies have shown that PME-1 promotes oncogenic MAPK/ERK and AKT pathway activities in various cancer types. In human glioma, high PME-1 expression correlates with tumor progression and kinase inhibitor resistance. We discuss the emerging cancer-associated function of PME-1 and its potential clinical relevance.

  14. Outer membrane protein e of Escherichia coli K-12 is co-regulated with alkaline phosphatase.

    PubMed Central

    Tommassen, J; Lugtenberg, B

    1980-01-01

    Outer membrane protein e is induced in wild-type cells, just like alkaline phosphatase and some other periplasmic proteins, by growth under phosphatase limitation. nmpA and nmpB mutants, which synthesize protein e constitutively, are shown also to produce the periplasmic enzyme alkaline phosphatase constitutively. Alternatively, individual phoS, phoT, and phoR mutants as well as pit pst double mutants, all of which are known to produce alkaline phosphatase constitutively, were found to be constitutive for protein e. Also, the periplasmic space of most nmpA mutants and of all nmpB mutants grown in excess phosphate was found to contain, in addition to alkaline phosphatase, at least two new proteins, a phenomenon known for individual phoT and phoR mutants as well as for pit pst double mutants. The other nmpA mutants as well as phoS mutants lacked one of these extra periplasmic proteins, namely the phosphate-binding protein. From these data and from the known positions of the mentioned genes on the chromosomal map, it is concluded that nmpB mutants are identical to phoR mutants. Moreover, some nmpA mutants were shown to be identical to phoS mutants, whereas other nmpA mutants are likely to contain mutations in one of the genes phoS, phoT, or pst. Images PMID:6995425

  15. Cloning and sequencing of cDNA and genomic DNA encoding PDM phosphatase of Fusarium moniliforme.

    PubMed

    Yoshida, Hiroshi; Iizuka, Mari; Narita, Takao; Norioka, Naoko; Norioka, Shigemi

    2006-12-01

    PDM phosphatase was purified approximately 500-fold through six steps from the extract of dried powder of the culture filtrate of Fusarium moniliforme. The purified preparation appeared homogeneous on SDS-PAGE although the protein band was broad. Amino acid sequence information was collected on tryptic peptides from this preparation. cDNA cloning was carried out based on the information. A full-length cDNA was obtained and sequenced. The sequence had an open reading frame of 651 amino acid residues with a molecular mass of 69,988 Da. Cloning and sequencing of the genomic DNA corresponding to the cDNA was also conducted. The deduced amino acid sequence could account for many but not all of the tryptic peptides, suggesting presence of contaminant protein(s). SDS-PAGE analysis after chemical deglycosylation showed two proteins with molecular masses of 58 and 68 kDa. This implied that the 58 kDa protein had been copurified with PDM phosphatase. Homology search showed that PDM phosphatase belongs to the purple acid phosphatase family, which is widely distributed in the biosphere. Sequence data of fungal purple acid phosphatases were collected from the database. Processing of the data revealed presence of two types, whose evolutionary relationships were discussed.

  16. NLRP3 tyrosine phosphorylation is controlled by protein tyrosine phosphatase PTPN22

    PubMed Central

    Spalinger, Marianne R.; Kasper, Stephanie; Gottier, Claudia; Lang, Silvia; Atrott, Kirstin; Vavricka, Stephan R.; Scharl, Sylvie; Gutte, Petrus M.; Grütter, Markus G.; Beer, Hans-Dietmar; Contassot, Emmanuel; Chan, Andrew C.; Dai, Xuezhi; Rawlings, David J.; Mair, Florian; Becher, Burkhard; Falk, Werner; Fried, Michael; Rogler, Gerhard

    2016-01-01

    Inflammasomes form as the result of the intracellular presence of danger-associated molecular patterns and mediate the release of active IL-1β, which influences a variety of inflammatory responses. Excessive inflammasome activation results in severe inflammatory conditions, but physiological IL-1β secretion is necessary for intestinal homeostasis. Here, we have described a mechanism of NLRP3 inflammasome regulation by tyrosine phosphorylation of NLRP3 at Tyr861. We demonstrated that protein tyrosine phosphatase non-receptor 22 (PTPN22), variants in which are associated with chronic inflammatory disorders, dephosphorylates NLRP3 upon inflammasome induction, allowing efficient NLRP3 activation and subsequent IL-1β release. In murine models, PTPN22 deficiency resulted in pronounced colitis, increased NLRP3 phosphorylation, but reduced levels of mature IL-1β. Conversely, patients with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) that carried an autoimmunity-associated PTPN22 variant had increased IL-1β levels. Together, our results identify tyrosine phosphorylation as an important regulatory mechanism for NLRP3 that prevents aberrant inflammasome activation. PMID:27043286

  17. Evaluation of APHA and AOAC methods for phosphatase in cheese.

    PubMed

    Murthy, G K; Cox, S

    1988-01-01

    Varieties of market cheese were analyzed for alkaline phosphatase by the modified rapid colorimetric method of the American Public Health Association (APHA) and the official AOAC method, 16.304-16.306. In the APHA method, 5 g cheese (pH less than 7.0) is macerated with 2 mL 1:1 carbonate buffer, or 2 mL water (for cheese with pH greater than 7.0). Addition of 0.1 mL magnesium acetate (1 mg magnesium) to test portions of cheese extracts yielded reproducible and quantitative recovery of added phosphatase. In the AOAC method, macerating 0.5 g cheese with 1 mL borate buffer before adding milk phosphatase improved recovery among cheeses. Addition of magnesium ion increased phosphatase activity in some cheeses. Phosphatases in blue mold-ripened and Swiss cheeses were inactivated by heat faster than was milk phosphatase, yet milk phosphatase added to various soft cheeses was completely inactivated at 60 degrees C for 10 min. The lability of phosphatase was due to the heat-denaturing effect of NaCl present in finished cheeses. Some Mexican style soft cheeses contained both heat-labile and heat-stable phosphatases. These data suggest that the phosphatase test to differentiate milk and microbial phosphatases on the basis of repasteurization and analysis of cheese is no longer valid.

  18. [ATPase and phosphatase activity of drone brood].

    PubMed

    Bodnarchuk, L I; Stakhman, O S

    2004-01-01

    Most researches on insect enzymes concern carbohydrate and nitrogenous exchange. Data on ATPase activity for larval material of drone brood are absent in the available literature. The drone brood is one of the least investigated apiproducts. Allowing for the important role of ATPase in the vital functions of the insect cells our work was aimed at the study of ATPase of the drone blood activity and that of alkaline and acid phosphatases. When studying liophylised preparations of the drone brood homogenate we have found out high activity of Mg2+, Na+, K+-, Ca2+- and Mg2+-ATPase and of alkaline and acid phosphatase, that is the possible explanation of the high-intensity power and plastic processes proceeding during growth and development of larvae.

  19. New functional aspects of the atypical protein tyrosine phosphatase VHZ.

    PubMed

    Kuznetsov, Vyacheslav I; Hengge, Alvan C

    2013-11-12

    LDP3 (VHZ) is the smallest classical protein tyrosine phosphatase (PTP) known to date and was originally misclassified as an atypical dual-specificity phosphatase. Kinetic isotope effects with steady-state and pre-steady-state kinetics of VHZ and mutants with p-nitrophenol phosphate have revealed several unusual properties. VHZ is significantly more active than previously reported but remains one of the least active PTPs. Highly unusual for a PTP, VHZ possesses two acidic residues (E134 and D65) in the active site. D65 occupies the position corresponding to the typical general acid in the PTP family. However, VHZ primarily utilizes E134 as the general acid, with D65 taking over this role when E134 is mutated. This unusual behavior is facilitated by two coexisting, but unequally populated, substrate binding modes. Unlike most classical PTPs, VHZ exhibits phosphotransferase activity. Despite the presence of the Q-loop that normally prevents alcoholysis of the phosphoenzyme intermediate in other classical PTPs, VHZ readily phosphorylates ethylene glycol. Although mutations of Q-loop residues affect this phosphotransferase activity, mutations on the IPD loop that contains the general acid exert more control over this process. A single P68V substitution on this loop completely abolishes phosphotransferase activity. The ability of native VHZ to catalyze transphosphorylation may lead to an imbalance of intracellular phosphorylation, which could explain the correlation of its overexpression with several types of cancer.

  20. Mammalian intestinal alkaline phosphatase acts as highly active exopolyphosphatase.

    PubMed

    Lorenz, B; Schröder, H C

    2001-06-11

    Recent results revealed that inorganic polyphosphates (polyP), being energy-rich linear polymers of orthophosphate residues known from bacteria and yeast, also exist in higher eukaryotes. However, the enzymatic basis of their metabolism especially in mammalian cells is still uncertain. Here we demonstrate for the first time that alkaline phosphatase from calf intestine (CIAP) is able to cleave polyP molecules up to a chain length of about 800. The enzyme acts as an exopolyphosphatase degrading polyP in a processive manner. The pH optimum is in the alkaline range. Divalent cations are not required for catalytic activity but inhibit the degradation of polyP. The rate of hydrolysis of short-chain polyP by CIAP is comparable to that of the standard alkaline phosphatase (AP) substrate p-nitrophenyl phosphate. The specific activity of the enzyme decreases with increasing chain length of the polymer both in the alkaline and in the neutral pH range. The K(m) of the enzyme also decreases with increasing chain length. The mammalian tissue non-specific isoform of AP was not able to hydrolyze polyP under the conditions applied while the placental-type AP and the bacterial (Escherichia coli) AP displayed polyP-degrading activity.

  1. Structural Stability of Human Protein Tyrosine Phosphatase ρ Catalytic Domain: Effect of Point Mutations

    PubMed Central

    Knapp, Stefan; Alfano, Ivan; Ardini, Matteo; Stefanini, Simonetta; Chiaraluce, Roberta

    2012-01-01

    Protein tyrosine phosphatase ρ (PTPρ) belongs to the classical receptor type IIB family of protein tyrosine phosphatase, the most frequently mutated tyrosine phosphatase in human cancer. There are evidences to suggest that PTPρ may act as a tumor suppressor gene and dysregulation of Tyr phosphorylation can be observed in diverse diseases, such as diabetes, immune deficiencies and cancer. PTPρ variants in the catalytic domain have been identified in cancer tissues. These natural variants are nonsynonymous single nucleotide polymorphisms, variations of a single nucleotide occurring in the coding region and leading to amino acid substitutions. In this study we investigated the effect of amino acid substitution on the structural stability and on the activity of the membrane-proximal catalytic domain of PTPρ. We expressed and purified as soluble recombinant proteins some of the mutants of the membrane-proximal catalytic domain of PTPρ identified in colorectal cancer and in the single nucleotide polymorphisms database. The mutants show a decreased thermal and thermodynamic stability and decreased activation energy relative to phosphatase activity, when compared to wild- type. All the variants show three-state equilibrium unfolding transitions similar to that of the wild- type, with the accumulation of a folding intermediate populated at ∼4.0 M urea. PMID:22389709

  2. Role of Protein Tyrosine Phosphatases in Plants

    PubMed Central

    Shankar, Alka; Agrawal, Nisha; Sharma, Manisha; Pandey, Amita; Pandey, Girdhar K.

    2015-01-01

    Reversible protein phosphorylation is a crucial regulatory mechanism that controls many biological processes in eukaryotes. In plants, phosphorylation events primarily occur on serine (Ser) and threonine (Thr) residues, while in certain cases, it was also discovered on tyrosine (Tyr) residues. In contrary to plants, extensive reports on Tyr phosphorylation regulating a large numbers of biological processes exist in animals. Despite of such prodigious function in animals, Tyr phosphorylation is a least studied mechanism of protein regulation in plants. Recently, various chemical analytical procedures have strengthened the view that Tyr phosphorylation is equally prevalent in plants as in animals. However, regardless of Tyr phosphorylation events occuring in plants, no evidence could be found for the existence of gene encoding for Tyr phosphorylation i.e. the typical Tyr kinases. Various methodologies have suggested that plant responses to stress signals and developmental processes involved modifications in protein Tyr phosphorylation. Correspondingly, various reports have established the role of PTPs (Protein Tyrosine Phosphatases) in the dephosphorylation and inactivation of mitogen activated protein kinases (MAPKs) hence, in the regulation of MAPK signaling cascade. Besides this, many dual specificity protein phosphatases (DSPs) are also known to bind starch and regulate starch metabolism through reversible phosphorylation. Here, we are emphasizing the significant progress on protein Tyr phosphatases to understand the role of these enzymes in the regulation of post-translational modification in plant physiology and development. PMID:26962298

  3. Two potential fish glycerol-3-phosphate phosphatases.

    PubMed

    Raymond, James A

    2015-06-01

    Winter-acclimated rainbow smelt (Osmerus mordax Mitchill) produce high levels of glycerol as an antifreeze. A common pathway to glycerol involves the enzyme glycerol-3-phosphate phosphatase (GPP), but no GPP has yet been identified in fish or any other animal. Here, two phosphatases assembled from existing EST libraries (from winter-acclimated smelt and cold-acclimated smelt hepatocytes) were found to resemble a glycerol-associated phosphatase from a glycerol-producing alga, Dunaliella salina, and a recently discovered GPP from a bacterium, Mycobacterium tuberculosis. Recombinant proteins were generated and were found to have GPP activity on the order of a few μMol Pi/mg enzyme/min. The two enzymes have acidic pH optima (~5.5) similar to that previously determined for GPP activity in liver tissue, with about 1/3 of their peak activities at neutral pH. The two enzymes appear to account for the GPP activity of smelt liver, but due to their reduced activities at neutral pH, their contributions to glycerol production in vivo remain unclear. Similar enzymes may be active in a glycerol-producing insect, Dendroctonus ponderosae.

  4. Tyrosine phosphorylation of glutamate receptors by non-receptor tyrosine kinases: roles in depression-like behavior

    PubMed Central

    Mao, Li-Min; Wang, John Q.

    2016-01-01

    Several key members of the non-receptor tyrosine kinase (nRTK) family are abundantly present within excitatory synapses in the mammalian brain. These neuron-enriched nRTKs interact with glutamate receptors and phosphorylate the receptors at tyrosine sites. The N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor is a direct substrate of nRTKs and has been extensively investigated in its phosphorylation responses to nRTKs. The α-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methylisoxazole-4-propionic acid receptor is the other glutamate receptor subtype that is subject to nRTK-mediated tyrosine phosphorylation. Recently, group I metabotropic glutamate receptors (mGluR1/5) were found to be sensitive to nRTKs. Robust tyrosine phosphorylation may occur in C-terminal tails of mGluR5. Tyrosine phosphorylation of glutamate receptors is either constitutive or induced activity-dependently by changing cellular and/or synaptic input. Through inducing tyrosine phosphorylation, nRTKs regulate trafficking, subcellular distribution, and function of modified receptors. Available data show that nRTK-glutamate receptor interactions and tyrosine phosphorylation of the receptors undergo drastic adaptations in mood disorders such as major depressive disorder. The remodeling of the nRTK-glutamate receptor interplay contributes to the long-lasting pathophysiology and symptomology of depression. This review summarizes the recent progress in tyrosine phosphorylation of glutamate receptors and analyzes the role of nRTKs in regulating glutamate receptors and depression-like behavior. PMID:26942227

  5. Probing Mechanistic Similarities Between Response Regulator Signaling Proteins and HAD Phosphatases

    PubMed Central

    Immormino, Robert M.; Starbird, Chrystal; Silversmith, Ruth E.; Bourret, Robert B.

    2015-01-01

    Response regulator signaling proteins and phosphatases of the haloacid dehalogenase (HAD) superfamily share strikingly similar folds, active site geometries, and reaction chemistry. Proteins from both families catalyze the transfer of a phosphoryl group from a substrate to one of their own aspartyl residues, and subsequent hydrolysis of the phosphoprotein. Notable differences include an additional Asp that functions as an acid/base catalyst and an active site well-structured prior to phosphorylation in HAD phosphatases. Both features contribute to substantially faster reactions than for response regulators. To investigate mechanisms underlying the functional differences between response regulators and HAD phosphatases, we characterized five double mutants of the response regulator CheY designed to mimic HAD phosphatases. Each mutant contained the extra Asp paired with a phosphatase-inspired substitution to potentially position the Asp properly. Only CheY DR (Arg as anchor) exhibited enhanced rates of both autophosphorylation with phosphoramidate and autodephosphorylation compared to wild type CheY. Crystal structures of CheY DR complexed with MoO42− or WO42− revealed active site hydrogen-bonding networks similar to those in HAD·substrate complexes, with the extra Asp positioned for direct interaction with a leaving group (phosphorylation) or nucleophile (dephosphorylation). However, CheY DR reaction kinetics did not exhibit the pH sensitivities expected for acid/base catalysis. Biochemical analysis indicated CheY DR had an enhanced propensity to adopt the active conformation without phosphorylation, but a crystal structure revealed unphosphorylated CheY DR was not locked in the active conformation. Thus, the enhanced reactivity of CheY DR reflected partial acquisition of catalytic and structural features of HAD phosphatases. PMID:25928369

  6. Primary structure of rat secretory acid phosphatase and comparison to other acid phosphatases.

    PubMed

    Roiko, K; Jänne, O A; Vihko, P

    1990-05-14

    Overlapping cDNA clones encoding rat prostatic acid phosphatase (rPAP) were isolated by using two human prostatic acid phosphatase (hPAP)-encoding cDNAs to screen rat prostatic cDNA libraries. The isolated cDNAs encompassed a total of 1626 nucleotides (nt), of which 1143 nt corresponded to the protein coding sequence encoding a mature polypeptide of 350 amino acids (aa) and a 31-aa long signal peptide-like sequence. The deduced Mr of the mature rPAP was 40,599. RNA blot analysis indicated the presence of three mRNA species (4.9, 2.3 and 1.5 kb in size) in the rat prostate. The deduced aa sequences of rPAP and hPAP show 75% identity, whereas the similarity between rPAP and human lysosomal acid phosphatase (hLAP) is only 45%. Furthermore, the sequence similarity between rPAP and rat lysosomal acid phosphatase (rLAP) is 46% at the aa level. Similar to hPAP, but unlike hLAP and rLAP, the rPAP sequence lacks a membrane-anchoring domain indicating the secretory character of this phosphatase. All six cysteines present in the overlapping areas of the mature rPAP, hPAP, rLAP and hLAP proteins are positionally conserved, suggesting that these residues are important for the tertiary structure of acid phosphatases (APs). The previously reported active site residues, two arginines and one histidine, are also conserved in these APs.

  7. Phosphoinositide phosphatases: just as important as the kinases.

    PubMed

    Dyson, Jennifer M; Fedele, Clare G; Davies, Elizabeth M; Becanovic, Jelena; Mitchell, Christina A

    2012-01-01

    Phosphoinositide phosphatases comprise several large enzyme families with over 35 mammalian enzymes identified to date that degrade many phosphoinositide signals. Growth factor or insulin stimulation activates the phosphoinositide 3-kinase that phosphorylates phosphatidylinositol (4,5)-bisphosphate [PtdIns(4,5)P(2)] to form phosphatidylinositol (3,4,5)-trisphosphate [PtdIns(3,4,5)P(3)], which is rapidly dephosphorylated either by PTEN (phosphatase and tensin homologue deleted on chromosome 10) to PtdIns(4,5)P(2), or by the 5-phosphatases (inositol polyphosphate 5-phosphatases), generating PtdIns(3,4)P(2). 5-phosphatases also hydrolyze PtdIns(4,5)P(2) forming PtdIns(4)P. Ten mammalian 5-phosphatases have been identified, which regulate hematopoietic cell proliferation, synaptic vesicle recycling, insulin signaling, and embryonic development. Two 5-phosphatase genes, OCRL and INPP5E are mutated in Lowe and Joubert syndrome respectively. SHIP [SH2 (Src homology 2)-domain inositol phosphatase] 2, and SKIP (skeletal muscle- and kidney-enriched inositol phosphatase) negatively regulate insulin signaling and glucose homeostasis. SHIP2 polymorphisms are associated with a predisposition to insulin resistance. SHIP1 controls hematopoietic cell proliferation and is mutated in some leukemias. The inositol polyphosphate 4-phosphatases, INPP4A and INPP4B degrade PtdIns(3,4)P(2) to PtdIns(3)P and regulate neuroexcitatory cell death, or act as a tumor suppressor in breast cancer respectively. The Sac phosphatases degrade multiple phosphoinositides, such as PtdIns(3)P, PtdIns(4)P, PtdIns(5)P and PtdIns(3,5)P(2) to form PtdIns. Mutation in the Sac phosphatase gene, FIG4, leads to a degenerative neuropathy. Therefore the phosphatases, like the lipid kinases, play major roles in regulating cellular functions and their mutation or altered expression leads to many human diseases.

  8. Dephosphorylation of the two regulatory components of myosin phosphatase, MBS and CPI17.

    PubMed

    Takizawa, Norio; Niiro, Naohisa; Ikebe, Mitsuo

    2002-03-27

    Dephosphorylation of the two key regulatory factors of myosin light chain phosphatase (MLCP), CPI17 and MBS (myosin binding subunit) of MLCP was studied. While Thr38 phosphorylated CPI17 is quite susceptible to protein phosphatases, phosphorylated MBS was highly resistant to dephosphorylation. Type 2A, 2B and 2C protein phosphatases (PP2A, PP2B and PP2C), but not type 1 (PP1), dephosphorylated CPI17. The majority of the CPI17 phosphatase activity in smooth muscle was attributed to PP2A and PP2C. Phospholipids inhibited dephosphorylation of MBS and arachidonic acid (AA) inhibited PP2A activity against both MBS and CPI17, raising the possibility that AA favors the preservation of active MLCP. Consistently, while the phosphorylation of CPI17 was promptly decreased when the agonist was removed, the phosphorylation of MBS was unchanged in intact smooth muscle fiber. The results suggest that MBS phosphorylation mediated regulation of MLCP is not suitable for regulating rapid change in myosin phosphorylation. On the other hand, phosphorylated CPI17 is readily dephosphorylated thus likely to play a role in regulating fast phosphorylation-dephosphorylation cycle in cells.

  9. The influence of complexing pharmaceutical compositions on alkaline phosphatase

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Atyaksheva, L. F.; Chukhrai, E. S.; Stepina, N. D.; Novikova, N. N.; Yur'eva, E. A.

    2011-06-01

    It is established that the pharmaceutical compositions xydiphon, medifon, succimer, and EDTA, which are used as complexing agents for accelerating the excretion of heavy metals from human organism, at certain concentrations inhibit enzyme alkaline phosphatase (AP). It is concluded that xydiphon and EDTA have a noticeable effect on AP activity at concentrations over 0.01 mM; medifon and succimer, at concentrations of over 0.3-0.5 mM. The enzyme's inhibition constants and type of inhibition are determined. Xydiphon is found to manifest the highest affinity to AP ( K I = 0.35 mM). It is shown by kinetic analysis that dissociative chemoinactivation of the enzyme takes place under the action of complexing agents. The corresponding kinetic parameters are calculated.

  10. Discovery and functional characterization of a novel small molecule inhibitor of the intracellular phosphatase, SHIP2

    PubMed Central

    Suwa, A; Yamamoto, T; Sawada, A; Minoura, K; Hosogai, N; Tahara, A; Kurama, T; Shimokawa, T; Aramori, I

    2009-01-01

    Background and purpose: The lipid phosphatase known as SH2 domain-containing inositol 5′-phosphatase 2 (SHIP2) plays an important role in the regulation of the intracellular insulin signalling pathway. Recent studies have suggested that inhibition of SHIP2 could produce significant benefits in treatment of type 2 diabetes. However, there were no small molecule SHIP2 inhibitors and we, therefore, aimed to identify this type of compound. Experimental approach: The phosphatase assay with malachite green was used for high-throughput screening. The pharmacological profiles of suitable compounds were further characterized in phosphatase assays, cellular assays and oral administration in normal and diabetic (db/db) mice. Key results: During high-throughput screening, AS1949490 was identified as a potent SHIP2 inhibitor (IC50= 0.62 µM for SHIP2). This compound was also selective for SHIP2 relative to other intracellular phosphatases. In L6 myotubes, AS1949490 increased the phosphorylation of Akt, glucose consumption and glucose uptake. In FAO hepatocytes, AS1949490 suppressed gluconeogenesis. Acute administration of AS1949490 inhibited the expression of gluconeogenic genes in the livers of normal mice. Chronic treatment of diabetic db/db mice with AS1949490 significantly lowered the plasma glucose level and improved glucose intolerance. These in vivo effects were based in part on the activation of intracellular insulin signalling pathways in the liver. Conclusions and implications: This is the first report of a small molecule inhibitor of SHIP2. This compound will help to elucidate the physiological functions of SHIP2 and its involvement in various diseases, such as type 2 diabetes. PMID:19694723

  11. Auxiliary phosphatases in two-component signal transduction.

    PubMed

    Silversmith, Ruth E

    2010-04-01

    Signal termination in two-component systems occurs by loss of the phosphoryl group from the response regulator protein. This review explores our current understanding of the structures, catalytic mechanisms and means of regulation of the known families of phosphatases that catalyze response regulator dephosphorylation. The CheZ and CheC/CheX/FliY families, despite different overall structures, employ identical catalytic strategies using an amide side chain to orient a water molecule for in-line attack of the aspartyl phosphate. Spo0E phosphatases contain sequence and structural features that suggest a strategy similar to the chemotaxis phosphatases but the mechanism used by the Rap phosphatases is not yet elucidated. Identification of features shared by phosphatase families may aid in the identification of currently unrecognized classes of response regulator phosphatases.

  12. Effect of Bacteria and Amoebae on Rhizosphere Phosphatase Activity

    PubMed Central

    Gould, W. Douglas; Coleman, David C.; Rubink, Amy J.

    1979-01-01

    The contributions of various components of soil microflora and microfauna to rhizosphere phosphatase activity were determined with hydroponic cultures. Three treatments were employed: (i) plants alone (Bouteloua gracilis (H.B.K.) Lag. ex Steud.) (ii) plants plus bacteria (Pseudomonas sp.), and (iii) plants plus bacteria plus amoebae (Acanthamoeba sp.). No alkaline phosphatase was detected, but an appreciable amount of acid phosphatase activity (120 to 500 nmol of p-nitrophenylphosphate hydrolyzed per h per plant) was found in the root culture solutions. The presence of bacteria or bacteria and amoebae increased the amount of acid phosphatase in solution, and properties of additional activity were identical to properties of plant acid phosphatase. The presence of bacteria or bacteria and amoebae increased both solution and root phosphatase activities at most initial phosphate concentrations. PMID:16345390

  13. Carboxyarabinitol-1-P phosphatase of Phaseolus vulgaris

    SciTech Connect

    Kobza, J.; Moore, B.d.; Seemann, J.R. )

    1990-05-01

    The activity of carboxyarabinitol-1-P (CA1P) phosphatase was detected in clarified stromal extracts by the generation of {sup 14}C-carboxyarabinitol from {sup 14}C-CA1P. Carboxyribitol-1-P dependent activity was 3% of the CA1P dependent activity, indicating the enzyme was specific for CA1P. Inclusion of DTT in the assay was required for maximum velocity, but it appears that the enzyme is not regulated by thioredoxin in vivo. Activity o f the CA1P phosphatase was stimulated by RuBP, NADPH and FBP, though the latter two metabolites were required at nonphysiological concentrations in order to achieve significant stimulation. Contrary to a previous report on purified tobacco enzyme, ATP stimulated the CA1P phosphatase activity. In the presence of 1 mM RuBP or ATP, rates of 2 or 3 {mu}mol mg{sup {minus}1} Chl h{sup {minus}1}, respectively, were observed at 1 mM CA1P. These rates were 3-4 fold higher than the rate observed in the absence of effectors and are 2-4 times the in vivo rate of degradation of CA1P during dark/light transitions. The rates from bean were about 7 fold higher than rates reported for the enzyme from tobacco. Changes in the levels of ATP and RuBP associated with dark/light transitions could modulate the enzyme activity in vivo, but it remains to be established if this is the only mechanism for the required regulation of the enzyme.

  14. Genetic and chemical reductions in protein phosphatase activity alter auxin transport, gravity response, and lateral root growth

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rashotte, A. M.; DeLong, A.; Muday, G. K.; Brown, C. S. (Principal Investigator)

    2001-01-01

    Auxin transport is required for important growth and developmental processes in plants, including gravity response and lateral root growth. Several lines of evidence suggest that reversible protein phosphorylation regulates auxin transport. Arabidopsis rcn1 mutant seedlings exhibit reduced protein phosphatase 2A activity and defects in differential cell elongation. Here we report that reduced phosphatase activity alters auxin transport and dependent physiological processes in the seedling root. Root basipetal transport was increased in rcn1 or phosphatase inhibitor-treated seedlings but showed normal sensitivity to the auxin transport inhibitor naphthylphthalamic acid (NPA). Phosphatase inhibition reduced root gravity response and delayed the establishment of differential auxin-induced gene expression across a gravity-stimulated root tip. An NPA treatment that reduced basipetal transport in rcn1 and cantharidin-treated wild-type plants also restored a normal gravity response and asymmetric auxin-induced gene expression, indicating that increased basipetal auxin transport impedes gravitropism. Increased auxin transport in rcn1 or phosphatase inhibitor-treated seedlings did not require the AGR1/EIR1/PIN2/WAV6 or AUX1 gene products. In contrast to basipetal transport, root acropetal transport was normal in phosphatase-inhibited seedlings in the absence of NPA, although it showed reduced NPA sensitivity. Lateral root growth also exhibited reduced NPA sensitivity in rcn1 seedlings, consistent with acropetal transport controlling lateral root growth. These results support the role of protein phosphorylation in regulating auxin transport and suggest that the acropetal and basipetal auxin transport streams are differentially regulated.

  15. Mutagenesis of putative catalytic and regulatory residues of Streptomyces chromofuscus phospholipase D differentially modifies phosphatase and phosphodiesterase activities.

    PubMed

    Zambonelli, Carlo; Casali, Monica; Roberts, Mary F

    2003-12-26

    Phospholipase D from Streptomyces chromofuscus (sc-PLD) is a member of the diverse family of metallo-phosphodiesterase/phosphatase enzymes that also includes purple acid phosphatases, protein phosphatases, and nucleotide phosphodiesterases. Whereas iron is an essential cofactor for scPLD activity, Mn2+ is also found in the enzyme. A third metal ion, Ca2+, has been shown to enhance scPLD catalytic activity although it is not an essential cofactor. Sequence alignment of scPLD with known phosphodiesterases and phosphatases requiring metal ions suggested that His-212, Glu-213, and Asp-389 could be involved in Mn2+ binding. H212A, E213A, and D389A were prepared to test this hypothesis. These three mutant enzymes and wild type scPLD show similar metal content but considerably different catalytic properties, suggesting different roles for each residue. His-212 appears involved in binding the phosphate group of substrates, whereas Glu-213 acts as a ligand for Ca2+. D389A showed a greatly reduced phosphodiesterase activity but almost unaltered ability to hydrolyze the phosphate group in p-nitrophenyl phosphate suggesting it had a critical role in aligning groups at the active site to control phosphodiesterase versus phosphatase activities. We propose a model for substrate and cofactor binding to the catalytic site of scPLD based on these results and on sequence alignment to purple acid phosphatases of known structure.

  16. Desialylated alkaline phosphatase: activation by 4-nitrophenol.

    PubMed

    Nayudu, P R

    1984-01-01

    Mouse ileal alkaline phosphatase is a sialyl enzyme (12-14 moles per mole of enzyme). When partially desialylated by treatment with neuraminidase, the enzyme loses most of its activity, associated with reduced apparent Vmax and Km. Part of that loss, however, is recovered as the product 4-nitrophenol's concentration builds up in the cuvette. Experimental results are presented to demonstrate that the activation is due to the binding of 4-nitrophenol as a ligand by the partially desialylated enzyme and that both the loss of activity by sialic acid removal and activation by ligand-binding are correlated with changes in protein conformation.

  17. Regulated protein kinases and phosphatases in cell cycle decisions.

    PubMed

    Novak, Bela; Kapuy, Orsolya; Domingo-Sananes, Maria Rosa; Tyson, John J

    2010-12-01

    Many aspects of cell physiology are controlled by protein kinases and phosphatases, which together determine the phosphorylation state of targeted substrates. Some of these target proteins are themselves kinases or phosphatases or other components of a regulatory network characterized by feedback and feed-forward loops. In this review we describe some common regulatory motifs involving kinases, phosphatases, and their substrates, focusing particularly on bistable switches involved in cellular decision processes. These general principles are applied to cell cycle transitions, with special emphasis on the roles of regulated phosphatases in orchestrating progression from one phase to the next of the DNA replication-division cycle.

  18. Functional size of the thylakoid phosphatases determined by radiation inactivation.

    PubMed

    Hsu, L H; Tzeng, C M; Pan, R L

    1993-02-22

    Radiation inactivation technique was employed to determine the functional size of phosphatases from thylakoid membrane. The enzymatic activities of phosphatases decayed in a simple function with the increase of radiation dosage. D37 values of 18.8 +/- 2.4-14.1 +/- 1.5 Mrad were obtained, using phosphoserine, phosphothreonine, p-nitrophenol phosphate, and phospho-histone V-S, respectively, as substrates. The molecular masses of 48.2 +/- 6.3-61 +/- 5.7 kDa were yielded by target theory analysis. We thus speculate that the thylakoid alkaline phosphatase is probably a monomer while acid phosphatase is functionally a dimer in situ.

  19. Evaluating transition state structures of vanadium-phosphatase protein complexes using shape analysis.

    PubMed

    Sánchez-Lombardo, Irma; Alvarez, Santiago; McLauchlan, Craig C; Crans, Debbie C

    2015-06-01

    Shape analysis of coordination complexes is well-suited to evaluate the subtle distortions in the trigonal bipyramidal (TBPY-5) geometry of vanadium coordinated in the active site of phosphatases and characterized by X-ray crystallography. Recent studies using the tau (τ) analysis support the assertion that vanadium is best described as a trigonal bipyramid, because this geometry is the ideal transition state geometry of the phosphate ester substrate hydrolysis (C.C. McLauchlan, B.J. Peters, G.R. Willsky, D.C. Crans, Coord. Chem. Rev. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ccr.2014.12.012 ; D.C. Crans, M.L. Tarlton, C.C. McLauchlan, Eur. J. Inorg. Chem. 2014, 4450-4468). Here we use continuous shape measures (CShM) analysis to investigate the structural space of the five-coordinate vanadium-phosphatase complexes associated with mechanistic transformations between the tetrahedral geometry and the five-coordinate high energy TBPY-5 geometry was discussed focusing on the protein tyrosine phosphatase 1B (PTP1B) enzyme. No evidence for square pyramidal geometries was observed in any vanadium-protein complexes. The shape analysis positioned the metal ion and the ligands in the active site reflecting the mechanism of the cleavage of the organic phosphate in a phosphatase. We identified the umbrella distortions to be directly on the reaction path between tetrahedral phosphate and the TBPY-5-types of high-energy species. The umbrella distortions of the trigonal bipyramid are therefore identified as being the most relevant types of transition state structures for the phosphoryl group transfer reactions for phosphatases and this may be related to the possibility that vanadium is an inhibitor for enzymes that support both exploded and five-coordinate transition states.

  20. PhpA, a tyrosine phosphatase of Myxococcus xanthus, is involved in the production of exopolysaccharide.

    PubMed

    Mori, Yumi; Maeda, Miri; Takegawa, Kaoru; Kimura, Yoshio

    2012-10-01

    Protein-tyrosine phosphorylation plays a significant role in multiple cellular functions in bacteria. Bacterial tyrosine phosphatases catalyse the dephosphorylation of tyrosyl-phosphorylated proteins. Myxococcus xanthus PhpA shares homology with DNA polymerase and histidinol phosphatase family members. Recombinant His-tagged PhpA requires Mn(2+) or Co(2+) for phosphatase activity, and shows strict specificity for phosphorylated tyrosine residues. The k(m) values of PhpA for p-nitrophenyl phosphate (pNPP) and phosphotyrosine peptide, RRLIEDAEpYAARG, were 803 and 139 µM, respectively. The phosphatase activity of PhpA was inhibited by sodium orthovanadate with a k(i) of 33 µM. phpA gene expression was observed under both vegetative and developmental conditions, but peaked during late fruiting body formation. A phpA mutant exhibited an elevated level of tyrosine phosphorylation of a 79 kDa protein and cytoplasmic tyrosine kinase, BtkA. In M. xanthus, exopolysaccharide (EPS) is essential for cell-cell adhesion and fruiting body formation. phpA mutant cells exhibited enhanced capacity for cell-cell agglutination in agglutination buffer. Under starvation conditions, phpA mutation caused early aggregation and sporulation. The EPS production assay showed that the phpA mutant produced an increased amount of EPS in comparison with the wild-type. These results indicate that PhpA may negatively regulate the production of EPS in M. xanthus.

  1. Alendronate induces anti-migratory effects and inhibition of neutral phosphatases in UMR106 osteosarcoma cells.

    PubMed

    Molinuevo, M Silvina; Bruzzone, Liliana; Cortizo, Ana M

    2007-05-07

    Bisphosphonates are nonhydrolysable pyrophosphate analogues that prevent bone loss in several types of cancer. However, the mechanisms of anticancer action of bisphosphonates are not completely known. We have previously shown that nitrogen-containing bisphosphonates directly inhibit alkaline phosphatase of UMR106 rat osteosarcoma cells. In this study, we evaluated the effects of alendronate on the migration of UMR106 osteosarcoma using a model of multicellular cell spheroids, as well as the alendronate effect on neutral phosphatases. Alendronate significantly inhibited the migration of osteoblasts in a dose-dependent manner (10(-6)-10(-4) M). This effect was also dependent on calcium availability. The spheroid morphology and distribution of actin fibers were also affected by alendronate treatment. Alendronate dose-dependently inhibited neutral phosphatase activity in cell-free osteoblastic extracts as well as in osteoblasts in culture. Our results show that alendronate inhibits cell migration through mechanisms dependent on calcium, and that seem to involve inhibition of phosphotyrosine-neutral-phosphatases and disassembly of actin stress fibers.

  2. Functional interaction of vascular endothelial-protein-tyrosine phosphatase with the angiopoietin receptor Tie-2.

    PubMed

    Fachinger, G; Deutsch, U; Risau, W

    1999-10-21

    During development of the vertebrate vascular system essential signals are transduced via protein-tyrosine phosphorylation. Null-mutations of receptor-tyrosine kinase (RTK) genes expressed in endothelial cells (ECs) display early lethal vascular phenotypes. We aimed to identify endothelial protein-tyrosine phosphatases (PTPs), which should have similar importance in EC-biology. A murine receptor-type PTP was identified by a degenerated PCR cloning approach from endothelial cells (VE-PTP). By in situ hybridization this phosphatase was found to be specifically expressed in vascular ECs throughout mouse development. In experiments using GST-fusion proteins, as well as in transient transfections, trapping mutants of VE-PTP co-precipitated with the Angiopoietin receptor Tie-2, but not with the Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor receptor 2 (VEGFR-2/Flk-1). In addition, VE-PTP dephosphorylates Tie-2 but not VEGFR-2. We conclude that VE-PTP is a Tie-2 specific phosphatase expressed in ECs, and VE-PTP phosphatase activity serves to specifically modulate Angiopoietin/Tie-2 function. Based on its potential role as a regulator of blood vessel morphogenesis and maintainance, VE-PTP is a candidate gene for inherited vascular malformations similar to the Tie-2 gene.

  3. Novel Anticancer Agents Based on Targeting the Trimer Interface of the PRL Phosphatase.

    PubMed

    Bai, Yunpeng; Yu, Zhi-Hong; Liu, Sijiu; Zhang, Lujuan; Zhang, Ruo-Yu; Zeng, Li-Fan; Zhang, Sheng; Zhang, Zhong-Yin

    2016-08-15

    Phosphatase of regenerating liver (PRL) oncoproteins are phosphatases overexpressed in numerous types of human cancer. Elevated levels of PRL associate with metastasis and poor clinical outcomes. In principle, PRL phosphatases offer appealing therapeutic targets, but they remain underexplored due to the lack of specific chemical probes. In this study, we address this issue by exploiting a unique property of PRL phosphatases, namely, that they may function as homotrimers. Starting from a sequential structure-based virtual screening and medicinal chemistry strategy, we identified Cmpd-43 and several analogs that disrupt PRL1 trimerization. Biochemical and structural analyses demonstrate that Cmpd-43 and its close analogs directly bind the PRL1 trimer interface and obstruct PRL1 trimerization. Cmpd-43 also specifically blocks the PRL1-induced cell proliferation and migration through attenuation of both ERK1/2 and Akt activity. Importantly, Cmpd-43 exerted potent anticancer activity both in vitro and in vivo in a murine xenograft model of melanoma. Our results validate a trimerization-dependent signaling mechanism for PRL and offer proof of concept for trimerization inhibitors as candidate therapeutics to treat PRL-driven cancers. Cancer Res; 76(16); 4805-15. ©2016 AACR.

  4. Multiple forms of phosphatase from human brain: isolation and partial characterization of affi-gel blue nonbinding phosphatase activities.

    PubMed

    Cheng, L Y; Wang, J Z; Gong, C X; Pei, J J; Zaidi, T; Grundke-Iqbal, I; Iqbal, K

    2001-04-01

    Phosphatases extracted from a human brain were resolved into two main groups, namely affi-gel blue-binding phosphatases and affi-gel blue-nonbinding phosphatases. Affi-gel blue binding phosphatases were further separated into four different phosphatase activities, designated P1-P4, and described previously. In the present study we describe the affi-gel blue-nonbinding phosphatases which were separated into seven different phosphatase activities, designated P5-P11 by poly-(L-lysine)-agarose and aminohexyl Sepharose 4B chromatographies. These seven phosphatase activities were active toward nonprotein phosphoester. P7-P11 and to some extent P5 could also dephosphorylate a phosphoprotein. They displayed different enzyme kinetics. On the basis of activity peak, the apparent molecular mass as estimated by Sephadex G-200 column chromatography for P5 was 49 kDa; P6, 32 kDa; P7, 150 kDa; P8, 250 kDa; P9, 165 kDa; P10, 90 kDa and P11, 165 kDa. Immunoblot analysis indicated that P8-P11 may belong to PP2B family, whereas P7 may associate with PP2A. The phosphatases P7-P11 were found to be effective in the dephosphorylation of Alzheimer's disease abnormally hyperphosphorylated tau. The resulting dephosphorylated tau regained its activity in promoting the microtubule assembly, suggesting that P7-P11 might regulate the phosphorylation of tau protein in the brain.

  5. Phosphatase Specificity and Pathway Insulation in Signaling Networks

    PubMed Central

    Rowland, Michael A.; Harrison, Brian; Deeds, Eric J.

    2015-01-01

    Phosphatases play an important role in cellular signaling networks by regulating the phosphorylation state of proteins. Phosphatases are classically considered to be promiscuous, acting on tens to hundreds of different substrates. We recently demonstrated that a shared phosphatase can couple the responses of two proteins to incoming signals, even if those two substrates are from otherwise isolated areas of the network. This finding raises a potential paradox: if phosphatases are indeed highly promiscuous, how do cells insulate themselves against unwanted crosstalk? Here, we use mathematical models to explore three possible insulation mechanisms. One approach involves evolving phosphatase KM values that are large enough to prevent saturation by the phosphatase’s substrates. Although this is an effective method for generating isolation, the phosphatase becomes a highly inefficient enzyme, which prevents the system from achieving switch-like responses and can result in slow response kinetics. We also explore the idea that substrate degradation can serve as an effective phosphatase. Assuming that degradation is unsaturatable, this mechanism could insulate substrates from crosstalk, but it would also preclude ultrasensitive responses and would require very high substrate turnover to achieve rapid dephosphorylation kinetics. Finally, we show that adaptor subunits, such as those found on phosphatases like PP2A, can provide effective insulation against phosphatase crosstalk, but only if their binding to substrates is uncoupled from their binding to the catalytic core. Analysis of the interaction network of PP2A’s adaptor domains reveals that although its adaptors may isolate subsets of targets from one another, there is still a strong potential for phosphatase crosstalk within those subsets. Understanding how phosphatase crosstalk and the insulation mechanisms described here impact the function and evolution of signaling networks represents a major challenge for

  6. Identification and enzymatic characterization of acid phosphatase from Burkholderia gladioli

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background The genus Burkholderia is widespread in diverse ecological niches, the majority of known species are soil bacteria that exhibit different types of non-pathogenic interactions with plants. Burkholderia species are versatile organisms that solubilize insoluble minerals through the production of organic acids, which increase the availability of nutrients for the plant. Therefore these bacteria are promising candidates for biotechnological applications. Results Burkholderia sp. (R 3.25 isolate) was isolated from agricultural soil in Ponta Grossa-PR-Brazil and identified through analysis of the 16S rDNA as a strain classified as Burkholderia gladioli. The expression of membrane-bound acid phosphatase (MBAcP) was strictly regulated with optimal expression at a concentration of phosphorus 5 mM. The apparent optimum pH for the hydrolysis of p-nitrophenylphosphate (PNPP) was 6.0. The hydrolysis of PNPP by the enzyme exhibited a hyperbolic relationship with increasing concentration of substrate and no inhibition by excess of substrate was observed. Kinetic data revealed that the hydrolysis of PNPP exhibited cooperative kinetics with n = 1.3, Vm = 113.5 U/mg and K0.5 = 65 μM. The PNPPase activity was inhibited by vanadate, p-hydroxymercuribenzoate, arsenate and phosphate, however the activity was not inhibited by calcium, levamisole, sodium tartrate, EDTA, zinc, magnesium, cobalt, ouabain, oligomycin or pantoprazol. Conclusion The synthesis of membrane-bound non-specific acid phosphatase, strictly regulated by phosphate, and its properties suggest that this bacterium has a potential biotechnological application to solubilize phosphate in soils with low levels of this element, for specific crops. PMID:24713147

  7. Protein Phosphatase-1 Regulates Expression of Neuregulin-1

    PubMed Central

    Ammosova, Tatiana; Washington, Kareem; Rotimi, Jamie; Kumari, Namita; Smith, Kahli A.; Niu, Xiaomei; Jerebtsova, Marina; Nekhai, Sergei

    2016-01-01

    Protein phosphatase 1 (PP1), a cellular serine/threonine phosphatase, is targeted to cellular promoters by its major regulatory subunits, PP1 nuclear targeting subunit, nuclear inhibitor of PP1 (NIPP1) and RepoMan. PP1 is also targeted to RNA polymerase II (RNAPII) by NIPP1 where it can dephosphorylate RNAPII and cycle-dependent kinase 9 (CDK9). Here, we show that treatment of cells with a small molecule activator of PP1 increases the abundance of a neuregulin-1 (NRG-1)-derived peptide. NRG-1 mRNA and protein levels were increased in the cells stably or transiently expressing mutant NIPP1 (mNIPP1) that does not bind PP1, but not in the cells expressing NIPP1. Expression of mNIPP1 also activated the NRG-1 promoter in an NF-κB-dependent manner. Analysis of extracts from mNIPP1 expressing cells by glycerol gradient centrifugation showed a redistribution of PP1 and CDK9 between large and small molecular weight complexes, and increased CDK9 Thr-186 phosphorylation. This correlated with the increased CDK9 activity. Further, RNAPII co-precipitated with mNIPP1, and phosphorylation of RNAPII C-terminal domain (CTD) Ser-2 residues was greater in cells expressing mNIPP1. In mNIPP1 expressing cells, okadaic acid, a cell-permeable inhibitor of PP1, did not increase Ser-2 CTD phosphorylation inhibited by flavopiridol, in contrast to the NIPP1 expressing cells, suggesting that PP1 was no longer involved in RNAPII dephosphorylation. Finally, media conditioned with mNIPP1 cells induced the proliferation of wild type 84-31 cells, consistent with a role of neuregulin-1 as a growth promoting factor. Our study indicates that deregulation of PP1/NIPP1 holoenzyme activates NRG-1 expression through RNAPII and CDK9 phosphorylation in a NF-κB dependent manner. PMID:27918433

  8. Ozone inhalation in rats: effects on alkaline phosphatase and lactic dehydrogenase isoenzymes in lavage and plasma

    SciTech Connect

    Nachtman, J.P.; Moon, H.L.; Miles, R.C.

    1988-10-01

    Ozone is found in urban and rural atmospheres and is produced from a variety of natural and man-made sources. Animal studies conducted at typical ambient levels result in reproducible morphological, biochemical and functional effects. Ozone damages type I epithelial cells, induces proliferation of type II cells and produces inflammation of the terminal bronchiolar-alveolar duct region. Ozone increases lung oxygen utilization and increases glutathione metabolism. Ozone increases airway resistance. The authors measured lactic dehydrogenase (LD) isoenzymes to ascertain the tissue giving rise to the increased LD activity in lavage. They also assayed acid phosphatase, alkaline phosphatase, creatine kinase activities, and protein levels since these parameters were increased in rat lung lavage after particulate exposure. They determined white cell differential and red cell morphology parameters because previous investigators reported that ozone increased neutrophil/lymphocyte ratio.

  9. Characterization of protein phosphatase 2A acting on phosphorylated plasma membrane aquaporin of tulip petals.

    PubMed

    Azad, Abul Kalam; Sawa, Yoshihiro; Ishikawa, Takahiro; Shibata, Hitoshi

    2004-05-01

    A protein phosphatase holo-type enzyme (38, 65, and 75 kDa) preparation and a free catalytic subunit (38 kDa) purified from tulip petals were characterized as protein phosphatase 2A (PP2A) by immunological and biochemical approaches. The plasma membrane containing the putative plasma membrane aquaporin (PM-AQP) was prepared from tulip petals, phosphorylated in vitro, and used as the substrate for both of the purified PP2A preparations. Although both preparations dephosphorylated the phosphorylated PM-AQP at 20 degrees C, only the holo-type enzyme preparation acted at 5 degrees C on the phosphorylated PM-AQP with higher substrate specificity, suggesting that regulatory subunits are required for low temperature-dependent dephosphorylation of PM-AQP in tulip petals.

  10. A remote CheZ orthologue retains phosphatase function.

    PubMed

    Lertsethtakarn, Paphavee; Ottemann, Karen M

    2010-07-01

    Aspartyl-phosphate phosphatases underlie the rapid responses of bacterial chemotaxis. One such phosphatase, CheZ, was originally proposed to be restricted to beta and gamma proteobacter, suggesting only a small subset of microbes relied on this protein. A putative CheZ phosphatase was identified genetically in the epsilon proteobacter Helicobacter pylori (Mol Micro 61:187). H. pylori utilizes a chemotaxis system consisting of CheAY, three CheVs, CheW, CheY(HP) and the putative CheZ to colonize the host stomach. Here we investigate whether this CheZ has phosphatase activity. We phosphorylated potential targets in vitro using either a phosphodonor or the CheAY kinase and [gamma-(32)P]-ATP, and found that H. pylori CheZ (CheZ(HP)) efficiently dephosphorylates CheY(HP) and CheAY and has additional weak activity on CheV2. We detected no phosphatase activity towards CheV1 or CheV3. Mutations corresponding to Escherichia coli CheZ active site residues or deletion of the C-terminal region inactivate CheZ(HP) phosphatase activity, suggesting the two CheZs function similarly. Bioinformatics analysis suggests that CheZ phosphatases are found in all proteobacteria classes, as well as classes Aquificae, Deferribacteres, Nitrospira and Sphingobacteria, demonstrating that CheZ phosphatases are broadly distributed within Gram-negative bacteria.

  11. Biogeochemical drivers of phosphatase activity in salt marsh sediments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Freitas, Joana; Duarte, Bernardo; Caçador, Isabel

    2014-10-01

    Although nitrogen has become a major concern for wetlands scientists dealing with eutrophication problems, phosphorous represents another key element, and consequently its biogeochemical cycling has a crucial role in eutrophication processes. Microbial communities are a central component in trophic dynamics and biogeochemical processes on coastal systems, since most of the processes in sediments are microbial-mediated due to enzymatic action, including the mineralization of organic phosphorus carried out by acid phosphatase activity. In the present work, the authors investigate the biogeochemical sediment drivers that control phosphatase activities. Authors also aim to assess biogeochemical factors' influence on the enzyme-mediated phosphorous cycling processes in salt marshes. Plant rhizosediments and bare sediments were collected and biogeochemical features, including phosphatase activities, inorganic and organic phosphorus contents, humic acids content and pH, were assessed. Acid phosphatase was found to give the highest contribution for total phosphatase activity among the three pH-isoforms present in salt marsh sediments, favored by acid pH in colonized sediments. Humic acids also appear to have an important role inhibiting phosphatase activity. A clear relation of phosphatase activity and inorganic phosphorous was also found. The data presented reinforces the role of phosphatase in phosphorous cycling.

  12. Distinct phosphatase activity profiles in two strains of Trypanosoma cruzi.

    PubMed

    Morales-Neto, R; Hulshof, L; Ferreira, C V; Gadelha, F R

    2009-12-01

    Phosphorylation of parasite proteins plays a key role in the process of cell invasion by Trypanosoma cruzi, the etiologic agent of Chagas' disease. In this sense, characterization of parasite kinases and phosphatases could open new possibilities for the rational design of chemotherapeutic agents for the treatment of Chagas' disease. In this work, we analyzed phosphatase activities in T. cruzi homogenates from 2 strains belonging to different lineages and with different resistance to oxidative stress. Tulahuen 2 cells (Lineage I) showed higher phosphatase activities and specificity constants when compared to the Y strain (Lineage II). Tulahuen 2 had an optimum phosphatase activity at pH 4.0 and the Y strain at pH 7.0. In both cases, neutral–basic, but not acid, phosphatase activities were increased in the presence of Mg2+. Although calcium had an inhibitory effect at a pH of 7.0 and 8.0 in the Y strain, this inhibition was restricted to pH 8.0 in the other strain. Different substrates and acid phosphotyrosine and alkaline phosphatase inhibitors exhibited distinct effects on the phosphatase activity of both strains. Our results provide a better understanding of T. cruzi phosphatases and reinforce the notion of heterogeneity among T. cruzi populations.

  13. Autophagy Signaling in Prostate Cancer: Identification of a Novel Phosphatase

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-08-01

    tyrosine phosphatase sigma. Nat Genet, 1999. 21(3): p. 330-3. 16. Wallace, M.J., et al., Neuronal defects and posterior pituitary hypoplasia in mice...pituitary hypoplasia in mice lacking the receptor tyrosine phosphatase PTPsigma. Nat. Genet. 21, 334-338. Walsh, J. P., Caldwell, K. K. and Majerus, P. W

  14. Violacein cytotoxicity on human blood lymphocytes and effect on phosphatases.

    PubMed

    Bromberg, N; Justo, G Z; Haun, M; Durán, N; Ferreira, C V

    2005-10-01

    Given the importance of protein phosphorylation in the context of cellular functions, abnormal protein phosphatase activity has been implicated in several diseases, including cancer. These critical roles of protein phosphatases qualify them as potential targets for the development of medicinal compounds that possess distinct modes of action such as violacein. In this work, studies with this natural indolic pigment at a concentration of 10.0 micromol L(-1) demonstrated a 20% activation of total protein phosphatase extracted from human lymphocytes. Although no alteration was observed on protein tyrosine phosphatase (CD45), 30% of inhibition was achieved in cytoplasmatic protein phosphatase activity after incubation with 10.0 micromol L(-1) violacein. Additionally, 5.0 micromol L(-1) of violacein inhibited by 50% the serum tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase activity. Violacein presented toxic effect on lymphocytes with IC50 values of 3 and 10 micromol L(-1) for protein content and protein phosphatase activity, respectively. These findings suggest an important role for protein phosphatases in the mechanisms controlling proliferation and cell death.

  15. Functional characterization of lysophosphatidic acid phosphatase from Arabidopsis thaliana.

    PubMed

    Reddy, Venky Sreedhar; Rao, D K Venkata; Rajasekharan, Ram

    2010-04-01

    Lysophosphatidic acid (LPA) acts as a signaling molecule that regulates diverse cellular processes and it can rapidly be metabolized by phosphatase and acyltransferase. LPA phosphatase gene has not been identified and characterized in plants so far. The BLAST search revealed that the At3g03520 is similar to phospholipase family, and distantly related to bacterial phosphatases. The conserved motif, (J)4XXXNXSFD, was identified in both At3g03520 like phospholipases and acid phosphatases. In silico expression analysis of At3g03520 revealed a high expression during phosphate starvation and abiotic stresses. This gene was overexpressed in Escherichia coli and shown to posses LPA specific phosphatase activity. These results suggest that this gene possibly plays a role in signal transduction and storage lipid synthesis.

  16. Phosphoglucan phosphatase function sheds light on starch degradation.

    PubMed

    Silver, Dylan M; Kötting, Oliver; Moorhead, Greg B G

    2014-07-01

    Phosphoglucan phosphatases are novel enzymes that remove phosphates from complex carbohydrates. In plants, these proteins are vital components in the remobilization of leaf starch at night. Breakdown of starch is initiated through reversible glucan phosphorylation to disrupt the semi-crystalline starch structure at the granule surface. The phosphoglucan phosphatases starch excess 4 (SEX4) and like-SEX4 2 (LSF2) dephosphorylate glucans to provide access for amylases that release maltose and glucose from starch. Another phosphatase, LSF1, is a putative inactive scaffold protein that may act as regulator of starch degradative enzymes at the granule surface. Absence of these phosphatases disrupts starch breakdown, resulting in plants accumulating excess starch. Here, we describe recent advances in understanding the biochemical and structural properties of each of these starch phosphatases.

  17. Regulating the regulator: Insights into the cardiac protein phosphatase 1 interactome.

    PubMed

    Chiang, David Y; Heck, Albert J R; Dobrev, Dobromir; Wehrens, Xander H T

    2016-12-01

    Reversible phosphorylation of proteins is a delicate yet dynamic balancing act between kinases and phosphatases, the disturbance of which underlies numerous disease processes. While our understanding of protein kinases has grown tremendously over the past decades, relatively little is known regarding protein phosphatases. This may be because protein kinases are great in number and relatively specific in function, and thereby amenable to be studied in isolation, whereas protein phosphatases are much less abundant and more nonspecific in their function. To achieve subcellular localization and substrate specificity, phosphatases depend on partnering with a large number of regulatory subunits, protein scaffolds and/or other interactors. This added layer of complexity presents a significant barrier to their study, but holds the key to unexplored opportunities for novel pharmacologic intervention. In this review we focus on serine/threonine protein phosphatase type-1 (PP1), which plays an important role in cardiac physiology and pathophysiology. Although much work has been done to investigate the role of PP1 in cardiac diseases including atrial fibrillation and heart failure, most of these studies were limited to examining and manipulating the catalytic subunit(s) of PP1 without adequately considering the PP1 interactors, which give specificity to PP1's functions. To complement these studies, three unbiased methods have been developed and applied to the mapping of the PP1 interactome: bioinformatics approaches, yeast two-hybrid screens, and affinity-purification mass spectrometry. The application of these complementary methods has the potential to generate a detailed cardiac PP1 interactome, which is an important step in identifying novel and targeted pharmacological interventions.

  18. Phosphatidylinositol anchor of HeLa cell alkaline phosphatase

    SciTech Connect

    Jemmerson, R.; Low, M.G.

    1987-09-08

    Alkaline phosphatase from cancer cells, HeLa TCRC-1, was biosynthetically labeled with either /sup 3/H-fatty acids or (/sup 3/H)ethanolamine as analyzed by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and fluorography of immunoprecipitated material. Phosphatidylinositol-specific phospholipase C (PI-PLC) released a substantial proportion of the /sup 3/H-fatty acid label from immunoaffinity-purified alkaline phosphatase but had no effect on the radioactivity of (/sup 3/H)ethanolamine-labeled material. PI-PLC also liberated catalytically active alkaline phosphatase from viable cells, and this could be selectively blocked by monoclonal antibodies to alkaline phosphatase. However, the alkaline phosphatase released from /sup 3/H-fatty acid labeled cells by PI-PLC was not radioactive. By contrast, treatment with bromelain removed both the /sup 3/H-fatty acid and the (/sup 3/H)ethanolamine label from purified alkaline phosphatase. Subtilisin was also able to remove the (/sup 3/H)ethanolamine label from the purified alkaline phosphatase. The /sup 3/H radioactivity in alkaline phosphatase purified from (/sup 3/H)ethanolamine-labeled cells comigrated with authentic (/sup 3/H)ethanolamine by anion-exchange chromatography after acid hydrolysis. The data suggest that the /sup 3/H-fatty acid and (/sup 3/H)ethanolamine are covalently attached to the carboxyl-terminal segment since bromelain and subtilisin both release alkaline phosphatase from the membrane by cleavage at that end of the polypeptide chain. The data are consistent with findings for other proteins recently shown to be anchored in the membrane through a glycosylphosphatidylinositol structure and indicate that a similar structure contributes to the membrane anchoring of alkaline phosphatase.

  19. Functional interrelationships in the alkaline phosphatase superfamily: phosphodiesterase activity of Escherichia coli alkaline phosphatase.

    PubMed

    O'Brien, P J; Herschlag, D

    2001-05-15

    Escherichia coli alkaline phosphatase (AP) is a proficient phosphomonoesterase with two Zn(2+) ions in its active site. Sequence homology suggests a distant evolutionary relationship between AP and alkaline phosphodiesterase/nucleotide pyrophosphatase, with conservation of the catalytic metal ions. Furthermore, many other phosphodiesterases, although not evolutionarily related, have a similar active site configuration of divalent metal ions in their active sites. These observations led us to test whether AP could also catalyze the hydrolysis of phosphate diesters. The results described herein demonstrate that AP does have phosphodiesterase activity: the phosphatase and phosphodiesterase activities copurify over several steps; inorganic phosphate, a strong competitive inhibitor of AP, inhibits the phosphodiesterase and phosphatase activities with the same inhibition constant; a point mutation that weakens phosphate binding to AP correspondingly weakens phosphate inhibition of the phosphodiesterase activity; and mutation of active site residues substantially reduces both the mono- and diesterase activities. AP accelerates the rate of phosphate diester hydrolysis by 10(11)-fold relative to the rate of the uncatalyzed reaction [(k(cat)/K(m))/k(w)]. Although this rate enhancement is substantial, it is at least 10(6)-fold less than the rate enhancement for AP-catalyzed phosphate monoester hydrolysis. Mutational analysis suggests that common active site features contribute to hydrolysis of both phosphate monoesters and phosphate diesters. However, mutation of the active site arginine to serine, R166S, decreases the monoesterase activity but not the diesterase activity, suggesting that the interaction of this arginine with the nonbridging oxygen(s) of the phosphate monoester substrate provides a substantial amount of the preferential hydrolysis of phosphate monoesters. The observation of phosphodiesterase activity extends the previous observation that AP has a low level of

  20. Mechanism of the phosphatase component of Clostridium thermocellum polynucleotide kinase-phosphatase.

    PubMed

    Keppetipola, Niroshika; Shuman, Stewart

    2006-01-01

    Polynucleotide kinase-phosphatase (Pnkp) from Clostridium thermocellum catalyzes ATP-dependent phosphorylation of 5'-OH termini of DNA or RNA polynucleotides and Ni(2+)/Mn(2+)-dependent dephosphorylation of 2',3' cyclic phosphate, 2'-phosphate, and 3'-phosphate ribonucleotides. CthPnkp is an 870-amino-acid polypeptide composed of three domains: an N-terminal module similar to bacteriophage T4 polynucleotide kinase, a central module that resembles the dinuclear metallo-phosphoesterase superfamily, and a C-terminal ligase-like adenylyltransferase domain. Here we conducted a mutational analysis of CthPnkp that identified 11 residues required for Ni(2+)-dependent phosphatase activity with 2'-AMP and 3'-AMP. Eight of the 11 CthPnkp side chains were also required for Ni(2+)-dependent hydrolysis of p-nitrophenyl phosphate. The ensemble of essential side chains includes the conserved counterparts (Asp187, His189, Asp233, Arg237, Asn263, His264, His323, His376, and Asp392 in CthPnkp) of all of the amino acids that form the dinuclear metal-binding site and the phosphate-binding site of bacteriophage lambda phosphatase. Three residues (Asp236, His264, and Arg237) required for activity with 2'-AMP or 3'-AMP were dispensable for Ni(2+)-dependent hydrolysis of p-nitrophenyl phosphate. Our findings, together with available structural information, provide fresh insights to the metallophosphoesterase mechanism, including the roles of His264 and Asp236 in proton donation to the leaving group. Deletion analysis defined an autonomous phosphatase domain, CthPnkp-(171-424).

  1. Endocytosis of lysosomal acid phosphatase; involvement of mannose receptor and effect of lectins.

    PubMed

    Imai, K; Yoshimura, T

    1994-08-01

    Acid phosphatase and beta-glucosidase are unique among lysosomal enzymes in that they have both high mannose and complex type sugasr chains, whereas oligosaccharide chains of lysosomal enzymes in matrix are of high mannose type. We have previously shown that beta-glucosidase was endocytosed into macrophages via an unidentified receptor different from a mannose/fucose receptor (K. Imai, Cell Struct. Funct. 13, 325-332, 1988). Here, we show that uptake of acid phosphatase purified from rat liver lysosomes into rat macrophages was inhibited by ligands for a mannose/fucose receptor and was mediated via an apparently single binding site with Kuptake of 24.7 nM. These results indicate that acid phosphatase and beta-glucosidase recognize different types of receptors even if they have similar sugar chains. Polyvalent concanavalin A which binds both to the enzyme and to macrophages specifically stimulated the uptake in a dose dependent manner, whereas wheat germ agglutinin and phytohaemagglutinin did not.

  2. Giardia lamblia: Characterization of ecto-phosphatase activities.

    PubMed

    Amazonas, Juliana Natal; Cosentino-Gomes, Daniela; Werneck-Lacerda, Aline; Pinheiro, Ana Acácia de Sá; Lanfredi-Rangel, Adriana; De Souza, Wanderley; Meyer-Fernandes, José R

    2009-01-01

    Ecto-phosphatase activities of Giardia lamblia were characterized in intact cells, which are able to hydrolyze the artificial substrate p-nitrophenylphosphate (p-NPP) to p-nitrophenol (p-NP) at a rate of 8.4+/-0.8 nmol p-NP/h/10(7) cells. The ecto-phosphatase activities were inhibited at high pH as well as by classical inhibitors of acid phosphatases, such as sodium fluoride and sodium molybdate and by inorganic phosphate, the final product of the reaction. Experiments using a classical inhibitor of phosphotyrosine phosphatase, sodium orthovanadate, also showed that the ecto-phosphatase activity was inhibited in a dose-dependent manner. Different phosphorylated amino acids were used as substrates for the G. lamblia ecto-phosphatase activities the highest rate of phosphate release was achieved using phosphotyrosine. Not only p-NPP hydrolysis but also phosphotyrosine hydrolysis was inhibited by sodium orthovanadate. Phosphotyrosine but not phospho-serine or phospho-threonine inhibited the p-nitrophenylphosphatase activity. We also observed a positive correlation between the ecto-phosphatase activity and the capacity to encystation of G. lamblia trophozoites.

  3. Cracking the phosphatase code: docking interactions determine substrate specificity.

    PubMed

    Roy, Jagoree; Cyert, Martha S

    2009-12-08

    Phosphoserine- and phosphothreonine-directed phosphatases display remarkable substrate specificity, yet the sites that they dephosphorylate show little similarity in amino acid sequence. Studies reveal that docking interactions are key for the recognition of substrates and regulators by two conserved phosphatases, protein phosphatase 1 (PP1) and the Ca2+-calmodulin-dependent phosphatase calcineurin. In each case, a small degenerate sequence motif in the interacting protein directs low-affinity binding to a docking surface on the phosphatase that is distinct from the active site; several such interactions combine to confer overall binding specificity. Some docking surfaces are conserved, such as a hydrophobic groove on a face opposite the active site that serves as a major recognition surface for the "RVxF" motif of proteins that interact with PP1 and the "PxIxIT" motif of substrates of calcineurin. Secondary motifs combine with this primary targeting sequence to specify phosphatase binding. A comprehensive interactome for mammalian PP1 was described, analysis of which defines several PP1-binding motifs. Studies of "LxVP," a secondary calcineurin-binding sequence, establish that this motif is a conserved feature of calcineurin substrates and that the immunosuppressants FK506 and cyclosporin A inhibit the phosphatase by interfering with LxVP-mediated docking.

  4. On the influence of reaction conditions in activity determination of alkaline phosphatase on the molar absorptivity of 4-nitrophenol.

    PubMed

    Jung, K; Köhler, A

    1980-02-14

    In activity determination of alkaline phosphatase (AP), measuring temperature, type and concentration of buffer, and protein concentration in the test influence the molar absorptivity of 4-nitrophenol. Thus systematic errors of up to 3% may occur in activity determinations of AP if these influences are not taken into account.

  5. Attenuation of ribosomal protein S6 phosphatase activity in chicken embryo fibroblasts transformed by Rous sarcoma virus.

    PubMed Central

    Belandia, B; Brautigan, D; Martín-Pérez, J

    1994-01-01

    In chicken embryo fibroblasts, phosphorylation of the 40S ribosomal protein S6 increases during G1 but returns to basal level by mitosis. In contrast, in Rous sarcoma virus (RSV)-transformed fibroblasts, S6 remains highly phosphorylated throughout mitosis. This study investigated the mechanism by which RSV alters the pattern of S6 phosphorylation. Pulse-chase experiments demonstrate that phosphate turnover in S6 is rapid in normal cells and in cells infected with an RSV transformation-defective virus. In contrast, phosphate turnover in S6 is severely reduced in cells infected with temperature-sensitive RSV at a temperature permissive for transformation, indicating a diminished S6 phosphatase activity. Fractionation of cell lysates by DEAE chromatography showed an almost threefold lower S6 phosphatase activity in RSV-transformed versus normal cells. The S6 phosphatase was sensitive to inhibitor 2 and specifically recognized by an antibody to type 1 phosphatase (PP1). The S6 phosphatase activity recovered by immunoprecipitation of PP1 was threefold lower in transformed cells, but the steady-state level of expression and the rate of synthesis of PP1 were not altered by oncogenic transformation. Together, the results show that transformation by RSV reduced the S6-PP1 activity. Images PMID:8264587

  6. A bifunctional kinase-phosphatase in bacterial chemotaxis.

    PubMed

    Porter, Steven L; Roberts, Mark A J; Manning, Cerys S; Armitage, Judith P

    2008-11-25

    Phosphorylation-based signaling pathways employ dephosphorylation mechanisms for signal termination. Histidine to aspartate phosphosignaling in the two-component system that controls bacterial chemotaxis has been studied extensively. Rhodobacter sphaeroides has a complex chemosensory pathway with multiple homologues of the Escherichia coli chemosensory proteins, although it lacks homologues of known signal-terminating CheY-P phosphatases, such as CheZ, CheC, FliY or CheX. Here, we demonstrate that an unusual CheA homologue, CheA(3), is not only a phosphodonor for the principal CheY protein, CheY(6), but is also is a specific phosphatase for CheY(6)-P. This phosphatase activity accelerates CheY(6)-P dephosphorylation to a rate that is comparable with the measured stimulus response time of approximately 1 s. CheA(3) possesses only two of the five domains found in classical CheAs, the Hpt (P1) and regulatory (P5) domains, which are joined by a 794-amino acid sequence that is required for phosphatase activity. The P1 domain of CheA(3) is phosphorylated by CheA(4), and it subsequently acts as a phosphodonor for the response regulators. A CheA(3) mutant protein without the 794-amino acid region lacked phosphatase activity, retained phosphotransfer function, but did not support chemotaxis, suggesting that the phosphatase activity may be required for chemotaxis. Using a nested deletion approach, we showed that a 200-amino acid segment of CheA(3) is required for phosphatase activity. The phosphatase activity of previously identified nonhybrid histidine protein kinases depends on the dimerization and histidine phosphorylation (DHp) domains. However, CheA(3) lacks a DHp domain, suggesting that its phosphatase mechanism is different from that of other histidine protein kinases.

  7. Expression of a human placental alkaline phosphatase gene in transfected cells: Use as a reporter for studies of gene expression

    SciTech Connect

    Henthorn, P.; Zervos, P.; Raducha, M.; Harris, H.; Kadesch, T.

    1988-09-01

    The human placental alkaline phosphatase gene has been cloned and reintroduced into mammalian cells. When a plasmid carrying the gene under control of the simian virus 40 early promoter (pSV2Apap) is transfected into a variety of different cell types, placental alkaline phosphatase activity can readily be detected by using whole cell suspensions or cell lysates. Alkaline phosphatase activity can also be visualized directly in individual transfected cells by histochemical staining. The gene is appropriate for use as a reporter in studies of gene regulation since its expression is dependent on the presence of exogenous transcription control elements. The overall assay to detect the expression of the gene is quantitative, very rapid, and inexpensive. Cotransfections of cells with pSV2Apap and a related plasmid carrying the bacterial chloramphenicol acetyltransferase gene (pSV2Acat) indicate that transcription of these two genes is detected with roughly the same sensitivity.

  8. Rapidly diverging evolution of an atypical alkaline phosphatase (PhoAaty) in marine phytoplankton: insights from dinoflagellate alkaline phosphatases

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Xin; Wang, Lu; Shi, Xinguo; Lin, Senjie

    2015-01-01

    Alkaline phosphatase (AP) is a key enzyme that enables marine phytoplankton to scavenge phosphorus (P) from dissolved organic phosphorus (DOP) when inorganic phosphate is scarce in the ocean. Yet how the AP gene has evolved in phytoplankton, particularly dinoflagellates, is poorly understood. We sequenced full-length AP genes and corresponding complementary DNA (cDNA) from 15 strains (10 species), representing four classes of the core dinoflagellate lineage, Gymnodiniales, Prorocentrales, Suessiales, and Gonyaulacales. Dinoflagellate AP gene sequences exhibited high variability, containing variable introns, pseudogenes, single nucleotide polymorphisms and consequent variations in amino acid sequence, indicative of gene duplication events and consistent with the “birth-and-death” model of gene evolution. Further sequence comparison showed that dinoflagellate APs likely belong to an atypical type AP (PhoAaty), which shares conserved motifs with counterparts in marine bacteria, cyanobacteria, green algae, haptophytes, and stramenopiles. Phylogenetic analysis suggested that PhoAaty probably originated from an ancestral gene in bacteria and evolved divergently in marine phytoplankton. Because variations in AP amino acid sequences may lead to differential subcellular localization and potentially different metal ion requirements, the multiple types of APs in algae may have resulted from selection for diversifying strategies to utilize DOP in the P variable marine environment. PMID:26379645

  9. In vitro osteogenesis assays: influence of the primary cell source on alkaline phosphatase activity and mineralization.

    PubMed

    Hoemann, C D; El-Gabalawy, H; McKee, M D

    2009-06-01

    In trabecular bone fracture repair in vivo, osteogenesis occurs through endochondral ossification under hypoxic conditions, or through woven bone deposition in the vicinity of blood vessels. In vitro osteogenesis assays are routinely used to test osteoblastic responses to drugs, hormones, and biomaterials for bone and cartilage repair applications. These cell culture models recapitulate events that occur in woven bone synthesis, and are carried out using primary osteoblasts, osteoblast precursors such as bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stromal cells (BMSCs), or various osteoblast cell lines. With time in culture, cell differentiation is typically assessed by examining levels of alkaline phosphatase activity (an early osteoblast marker) and by evaluating the assembly of a collagen (type I)-containing fibrillar extracellular matrix that mineralizes. In this review, we have made a comparative analysis of published osteogenic assays using calvarial cells, calvaria-derived cell lines, and bone marrow stromal cells. In all of these cell types, alkaline phosphatase activity shows similar progression over time using a variety of osteogenic and mineralizing media conditions; however, levels of alkaline phosphatase activity are not proportional to observed mineralization levels.

  10. The yeast regulator of transcription protein Rtr1 lacks an active site and phosphatase activity.

    PubMed

    Xiang, Kehui; Manley, James L; Tong, Liang

    2012-07-10

    The activity of RNA polymerase II (Pol II) is controlled in part by the phosphorylation state of the C-terminal domain (CTD) of its largest subunit. Recent reports have suggested that yeast regulator of transcription protein, Rtr1, and its human homologue RPAP2, possess Pol II CTD Ser5 phosphatase activity. Here we report the crystal structure of Kluyveromyces lactis Rtr1, which reveals a new type of zinc finger protein and does not have any close structural homologues. Importantly, the structure does not show evidence of an active site, and extensive experiments to demonstrate its CTD phosphatase activity have been unsuccessful, suggesting that Rtr1 has a non-catalytic role in CTD dephosphorylation.

  11. Molecular Mimicry Regulates ABA Signaling by SnRK2 Kinases and PP2C Phosphatases

    SciTech Connect

    Soon, Fen-Fen; Ng, Ley-Moy; Zhou, X. Edward; West, Graham M.; Kovach, Amanda; Tan, M.H. Eileen; Suino-Powell, Kelly M.; He, Yuanzheng; Xu, Yong; Chalmers, Michael J.; Brunzelle, Joseph S.; Zhang, Huiming; Yang, Huaiyu; Jiang, Hualiang; Li, Jun; Yong, Eu-Leong; Cutler, Sean; Zhu, Jian-Kang; Griffin, Patrick R.; Melcher, Karsten; Xu, H. Eric

    2014-10-02

    Abscisic acid (ABA) is an essential hormone for plants to survive environmental stresses. At the center of the ABA signaling network is a subfamily of type 2C protein phosphatases (PP2Cs), which form exclusive interactions with ABA receptors and subfamily 2 Snfl-related kinase (SnRK2s). Here, we report a SnRK2-PP2C complex structure, which reveals marked similarity in PP2C recognition by SnRK2 and ABA receptors. In the complex, the kinase activation loop docks into the active site of PP2C, while the conserved ABA-sensing tryptophan of PP2C inserts into the kinase catalytic cleft, thus mimicking receptor-PP2C interactions. These structural results provide a simple mechanism that directly couples ABA binding to SnRK2 kinase activation and highlight a new paradigm of kinase-phosphatase regulation through mutual packing of their catalytic sites.

  12. Molecular Mimicry Regulates ABA Signaling by SnRK2 Kinases and PP2C Phosphatases

    PubMed Central

    Soon, Fen-Fen; Ng, Ley-Moy; Zhou, X. Edward; West, Graham M.; Kovach, Amanda; Tan, M. H. Eileen; Suino-Powell, Kelly M.; He, Yuanzheng; Xu, Yong; Chalmers, Michael J.; Brunzelle, Joseph S.; Zhang, Huiming; Yang, Huaiyu; Jiang, Hualiang; Li, Jun; Yong, Eu-Leong; Cutler, Sean; Zhu, Jian-Kang; Griffin, Patrick R.; Melcher, Karsten; Xu, H. Eric

    2013-01-01

    Abscisic acid (ABA) is an essential hormone for plants to survive environmental stresses. At the center of the ABA signaling network is a subfamily of type 2C protein phosphatases (PP2Cs), which form exclusive interactions with ABA receptors and subfamily 2 Snfl-related kinase (SnRK2s). Here, we report a SnRK2-PP2C complex structure, which reveals marked similarity in PP2C recognition by SnRK2 and ABA receptors. In the complex, the kinase activation loop docks into the active site of PP2C, while the conserved ABA-sensing tryptophan of PP2C inserts into the kinase catalytic cleft, thus mimicking receptor-PP2C interactions. These structural results provide a simple mechanism that directly couples ABA binding to SnRK2 kinase activation and highlight a new paradigm of kinase-phosphatase regulation through mutual packing of their catalytic sites. PMID:22116026

  13. Molecular mimicry regulates ABA signaling by SnRK2 kinases and PP2C phosphatases.

    PubMed

    Soon, Fen-Fen; Ng, Ley-Moy; Zhou, X Edward; West, Graham M; Kovach, Amanda; Tan, M H Eileen; Suino-Powell, Kelly M; He, Yuanzheng; Xu, Yong; Chalmers, Michael J; Brunzelle, Joseph S; Zhang, Huiming; Yang, Huaiyu; Jiang, Hualiang; Li, Jun; Yong, Eu-Leong; Cutler, Sean; Zhu, Jian-Kang; Griffin, Patrick R; Melcher, Karsten; Xu, H Eric

    2012-01-06

    Abscisic acid (ABA) is an essential hormone for plants to survive environmental stresses. At the center of the ABA signaling network is a subfamily of type 2C protein phosphatases (PP2Cs), which form exclusive interactions with ABA receptors and subfamily 2 Snfl-related kinase (SnRK2s). Here, we report a SnRK2-PP2C complex structure, which reveals marked similarity in PP2C recognition by SnRK2 and ABA receptors. In the complex, the kinase activation loop docks into the active site of PP2C, while the conserved ABA-sensing tryptophan of PP2C inserts into the kinase catalytic cleft, thus mimicking receptor-PP2C interactions. These structural results provide a simple mechanism that directly couples ABA binding to SnRK2 kinase activation and highlight a new paradigm of kinase-phosphatase regulation through mutual packing of their catalytic sites.

  14. Structural Basis for the Catalytic Activity of Human Serine/Threonine Protein Phosphatase-5

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Swingle, M. R.; Honkanen, R.; Ciszak, E. M.

    2004-01-01

    Serinehhreonine protein phosphatase-5 (PP5) affects many signaling networks that regulate cell growth and cellular responses to stress. Here we report the crystal structure of the PP5 catalytic domain (PP5c) at a resolution of 1.6 A. From this structure we resolved the mechanism for PP5-mediated hydrolysis of phosphoprotein substrates, which requires the precise positioning of two metal ions within a con served Aspn-271-M(sub 1):M(sub 2)-W(sup 1)-His-427-His-304-Asp-274 catalytic motif. The structure of PPSc provides a structural basis for explaining the exceptional catalytic proficiency of protein phosphatases, which are among the most powerful known catalysts. Resolution of the entire C-terminus revealed a novel subdomain, and the structure of the PP5c should also aid development of type-specific inhibitors.

  15. Phosphatidic acid phosphatase activity in subcellular fractions of normal and dystrophic human muscle.

    PubMed

    Kunze, D; Rüstow, B; Olthoff, D; Jung, K

    1985-03-15

    Biopsy samples from normal and dystrophic human muscle (Duchenne type) were fractionated by differential centrifugation and microsomes, mitochondria and cytosol were assayed for phosphatidic acid phosphatase (EC 3.1.3.4) and marker enzymes of mitochondria and cytosol. The activity of phosphatidic acid phosphatase was significantly lower in microsomes and higher in cytosol and mitochondria of dystrophic muscle than in the corresponding subcellular fractions of normal muscle. The results support an explanation of earlier findings that there is reduced G3P incorporation into diglycerides and phosphatidylcholine and a qualitative and quantitative change in the amount of phosphatidylcholine in dystrophic microsomes. The possible reasons for the reduction in the activity of only microsomal PA-P-ase were discussed.

  16. Retinal axon target selection in Drosophila is regulated by a receptor protein tyrosine phosphatase.

    PubMed

    Garrity, P A; Lee, C H; Salecker, I; Robertson, H C; Desai, C J; Zinn, K; Zipursky, S L

    1999-04-01

    Different Drosophila photoreceptors (R cells) connect to neurons in different optic lobe layers. R1-R6 axons project to the lamina; R7 and R8 axons project to separate layers of the medulla. We show a receptor tyrosine phosphatase, PTP69D, is required for lamina target specificity. In Ptp69D mutants, R1-R6 project through the lamina, terminating in the medulla. Genetic mosaics, transgene rescue, and immunolocalization indicate PTP69D functions in R1-R6 growth cones. PTP69D overexpression in R7 and R8 does not respecify their connections, suggesting PTP69D acts in combination with other factors to determine target specificity. Structure-function analysis indicates the extracellular fibronectin type III domains and intracellular phosphatase activity are required for targeting. We propose PTP69D promotes R1-R6 targeting in response to extracellular signals by dephosphorylating substrate(s) in R1-R6 growth cones.

  17. Synthesis, biological evaluation and molecular modeling studies on novel quinonoid inhibitors of CDC25 phosphatases.

    PubMed

    Evain-Bana, Emilie; Schiavo, Lucie; Bour, Christophe; Lanfranchi, Don Antoine; Berardozzi, Simone; Ghirga, Francesca; Bagrel, Denyse; Botta, Bruno; Hanquet, Gilles; Mori, Mattia

    2017-12-01

    The cell division cycle 25 phosphatases (CDC25A, B, and C; E.C. 3.1.3.48) are key regulator of the cell cycle in human cells. Their aberrant expression has been associated with the insurgence and development of various types of cancer, and with a poor clinical prognosis. Therefore, CDC25 phosphatases are a valuable target for the development of small molecule inhibitors of therapeutic relevance. Here, we used an integrated strategy mixing organic chemistry with biological investigation and molecular modeling to study novel quinonoid derivatives as CDC25 inhibitors. The most promising molecules proved to inhibit CDC25 isoforms at single digit micromolar concentration, becoming valuable tools in chemical biology investigations and profitable leads for further optimization. [Formula: see text].

  18. Identification of human pulmonary alkaline phosphatase isoenzymes.

    PubMed

    Capelli, A; Cerutti, C G; Lusuardi, M; Donner, C F

    1997-04-01

    An increase of alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity has been observed in the bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) of patients affected by pulmonary fibrosis in chronic interstitial lung disorders. To characterize the ALP isoenzymes in such cases, we used gel filtration, agarose gel electrophoresis, heat and amino acid inhibition assays, wheat-germ agglutinin (WGA) precipitation, and an immunoassay specific for the bone-isoform of ALP. Only one anodic band representing a high-molecular-weight isoform of ALP (Mr approximately 2,000 kDa) was observed on electrophoresis of BALF. The inhibition assay results were consistent for a tissue-nonspecific isoenzyme sensitive to a temperature of 56 degrees C (71.9 +/- 2.5% inhibition) and to homoarginine (65.7 +/- 1.9%), and resistant to L-phenylalanine and L-leucine. Less than 13% of ALP activity was heat-stable. After incubation of BALF specimens with glycosyl-phosphatidylinositol-phospholipase D plus Nonidet P-40, or with phosphatidylinositol-phospholipase C alone, an electrophoretic cathodic band (Mr approximately 220 kDa) appeared near the bone band of a standard serum. With the WGA assay, 84.4 +/- 3.3% of ALP precipitated and the band disappeared. After immunoassay for the bone isoform, a mean of less than 5% enzyme activity was measured. We conclude that the ALP found in BALF is a pulmonary isoform of a tissue nonspecific isoenzyme.

  19. Protein tyrosine phosphatases: structure-function relationships.

    PubMed

    Tabernero, Lydia; Aricescu, A Radu; Jones, E Yvonne; Szedlacsek, Stefan E

    2008-03-01

    Structural analysis of protein tyrosine phosphatases (PTPs) has expanded considerably in the last several years, producing more than 200 structures in this class of enzymes (from 35 different proteins and their complexes with ligands). The small-medium size of the catalytic domain of approximately 280 residues plus a very compact fold makes it amenable to cloning and overexpression in bacterial systems thus facilitating crystallographic analysis. The low molecular weight PTPs being even smaller, approximately 150 residues, are also perfect targets for NMR analysis. The availability of different structures and complexes of PTPs with substrates and inhibitors has provided a wealth of information with profound effects in the way we understand their biological functions. Developments in mammalian expression technology recently led to the first crystal structure of a receptor-like PTP extracellular region. Altogether, the PTP structural work significantly advanced our knowledge regarding the architecture, regulation and substrate specificity of these enzymes. In this review, we compile the most prominent structural traits that characterize PTPs and their complexes with ligands. We discuss how the data can be used to design further functional experiments and as a basis for drug design given that many PTPs are now considered strategic therapeutic targets for human diseases such as diabetes and cancer.

  20. Emerging Roles of Human Prostatic Acid Phosphatase

    PubMed Central

    Kong, Hoon Young; Byun, Jonghoe

    2013-01-01

    Prostate cancer is one of the most prevalent non-skin related cancers. It is the second leading cause of cancer deaths among males in most Western countries. If prostate cancer is diagnosed in its early stages, there is a higher probability that it will be completely cured. Prostatic acid phosphatase (PAP) is a non-specific phosphomonoesterase synthesized in prostate epithelial cells and its level proportionally increases with prostate cancer progression. PAP was the biochemical diagnostic mainstay for prostate cancer until the introduction of prostate-specific antigen (PSA) which improved the detection of early-stage prostate cancer and largely displaced PAP. Recently, however, there is a renewed interest in PAP because of its usefulness in prognosticating intermediate to high-risk prostate cancers and its success in the immunotherapy of prostate cancer. Although PAP is believed to be a key regulator of prostate cell growth, its exact role in normal prostate as well as detailed molecular mechanism of PAP regulation is still unclear. Here, many different aspects of PAP in prostate cancer are revisited and its emerging roles in other environment are discussed. PMID:24009853

  1. Universal phosphatase-coupled glycosyltransferase assay.

    PubMed

    Wu, Zhengliang L; Ethen, Cheryl M; Prather, Brittany; Machacek, Miranda; Jiang, Weiping

    2011-06-01

    A nonradioactive glycosyltransferase assay is described here. This method takes advantage of specific phosphatases that can be added into glycosyltransferase reactions to quantitatively release inorganic phosphate from the leaving groups of glycosyltransferase reactions. The released phosphate group is then detected using colorimetric malachite-based reagents. Because the amount of phosphate released is directly proportional to the sugar molecule transferred in a glycosyltransferase reaction, this method can be used to obtain accurate kinetic parameters of the glycosyltransferase. The assay can be performed in multiwell plates and quantitated by a plate reader, thus making it amenable to high-throughput screening. It has been successfully applied to all glycosyltransferases available to us, including glucosyltransferases, N-acetylglucosaminyltransferases, N-acetylgalactosyltransferases, galactosyltransferases, fucosyltransferases and sialyltransferases. As examples, we first assayed Clostridium difficile toxin B, a protein O-glucosyltransferase that specifically monoglucosylates and inactivates Rho family small GTPases; we then showed that human KTELC1, a homolog of Rumi from Drosophila, was able to hydrolyze UDP-Glc; and finally, we measured the kinetic parameters of human sialyltransferase ST6GAL1.

  2. Lily pollen alkaline phytase is a histidine phosphatase similar to mammalian multiple inositol polyphosphate phosphatase (MINPP).

    PubMed

    Mehta, Bakul Dhagat; Jog, Sonali P; Johnson, Steven C; Murthy, Pushpalatha P N

    2006-09-01

    Phytic acid is the most abundant inositol phosphate in cells; it constitutes 1-5% of the dry weight of cereal grains and legumes. Phytases are the primary enzymes responsible for the hydrolysis of phytic acid and thus play important roles in inositol phosphate metabolism. A novel alkaline phytase in lily pollen (LlALP) was recently purified in our laboratory. In this paper, we describe the cloning and characterization of LlALP cDNA from lily pollen. Two isoforms of alkaline phytase cDNAs, LlAlp1 and LlAlp2, which are 1467 and 1533 bp long and encode proteins of 487 and 511 amino acids, respectively, were identified. The deduced amino acid sequences contains the signature heptapeptide of histidine phosphatases, -RHGXRXP-, but shares < 25% identity to fungal histidine acid phytases. Phylogenetic analysis reveals that LlALP is most closely related to multiple inositol polyphosphate phosphatase (MINPP) from humans (25%) and rats (23%). mRNA corresponding to LlAlp1 and LlAlp2 were expressed in leaves, stem, petals and pollen grains. The expression profiles of LlAlp isoforms in anthers indicated that mRNA corresponding to both isoforms were present at all stages of flower development. The expression of LlAlp2 cDNA in Escherichia coli revealed the accumulation of the active enzyme in inclusion bodies and confirmed that the cDNA encodes an alkaline phytase. In summary, plant alkaline phytase is a member of the histidine phosphatase family that includes MINPP and exhibits properties distinct from bacterial and fungal phytases.

  3. Inositol phosphatase activity of the Escherichia coli agp-encoded acid glucose-1-phosphatase.

    PubMed

    Cottrill, Michael A; Golovan, Serguei P; Phillips, John P; Forsberg, Cecil W

    2002-09-01

    When screening an Escherichia coli gene library for myo-inositol hexakisphosphate (InsP6) phosphatases (phytases), we discovered that the agp-encoded acid glucose-1-phosphatase also possesses this activity. Purified Agp hydrolyzes glucose-1-phosphate, p-nitrophenyl phosphate, and InsP6 with pH optima, 6.5, 3.5, and 4.5, respectively, and was stable when incubated at pH values ranging from 3 to 10. Glucose-1-phosphate was hydrolyzed most efficiently at 55 degrees C. while InsP6 and p-nitrophenyl phosphate were hydrolyzed maximally at 60 degrees C. The Agp exhibited Km values of (0.39 mM, 13 mM, and 0.54 mM for the hydrolysis of glucose-1-phosphate, p-nitrophenyl phosphate, and InsP6, respectively. High-pressure liquid chromatography (HPLC) analysis of inositol phosphate hydrolysis products of Agp demonstrated that the enzyme catalyzes the hydrolysis of phosphate from each of InsP6, D-Ins(1,2,3,4,5)P5, Ins(1,3,4,5,6)P5, and Ins(1,2,3,4,6)P5, producing D/L-Ins(1,2,4,5,6)P5. D-Ins(1,2,4,5)P4, D/L-Ins(1,4,5,6)P4 and D/L-Ins(1,2,4,6)P4, respectively. These data support the contention that Agp is a 3-phosphatase.

  4. [Phosphatase activity of Bacillus subtilis IMV B-7023].

    PubMed

    Bulavenko, L V; Kurdysh, I K

    2005-01-01

    Phosphatase activity of two strains of bacteria - Bacillus subtilis IMV B-7023 and B. megaterium 12 is investigated. The phosphatase activity is found to reach 260 mkmol/g x hour for B. subtilis IMV B-7023 and 12-100 mkmol/g x hour for B. megaterium 12 at optimal temperature (55 degrees C) and pH (9.5-10.0). Synthesis of alkaline phosphatase is shown to reach its maximum values at the end of logarithmic phase of the culture growth. It is revealed that Mg2+, Ca2+ cations increase phosphotase activity of B. subtilis IMV B-7023, at the same time Cu2+, Mn2+, Zn2+ cations and inorganic phosphate decrease it. Dependence of the rate of phosphatase reaction of B. subtilis IMV B-7023 on substrate concentration is determined.

  5. Structure and Mechanism of the Phosphotyrosyl Phosphatase Activator

    SciTech Connect

    Chao,Y.; Xing, Y.; Chen, Y.; Xu, Y.; Lin, Z.; Li, Z.; Jeffrey, P.; Stock, J.; Shi, Y.

    2006-01-01

    Phosphotyrosyl phosphatase activator (PTPA), also known as PP2A phosphatase activator, is a conserved protein from yeast to human. Here we report the 1.9 {angstrom} crystal structure of human PTPA, which reveals a previously unreported fold consisting of three subdomains: core, lid, and linker. Structural analysis uncovers a highly conserved surface patch, which borders the three subdomains, and an associated deep pocket located between the core and the linker subdomains. The conserved surface patch and the deep pocket are responsible for binding to PP2A and ATP, respectively. PTPA and PP2A A-C dimer together constitute a composite ATPase. PTPA binding to PP2A results in a dramatic alteration of substrate specificity, with enhanced phosphotyrosine phosphatase activity and decreased phosphoserine phosphatase activity. This function of PTPA strictly depends on the composite ATPase activity. These observations reveal significant insights into the function and mechanism of PTPA and have important ramifications for understanding PP2A function.

  6. Phosphoinositide 5-phosphatases: How do they affect tumourigenesis?

    PubMed

    Miyazawa, Keiji

    2013-01-01

    The activity of biological molecules is often affected by their phosphorylation state. Regulatory phosphorylation operates as a binary switch and is usually controlled by counteracting kinases and phosphatases. However, phosphatidylinositol (PtdIns) has three phosphorylation sites on its inositol ring. The phosphorylation status of PtdIns is controlled by multiple kinases and phosphatases with distinct substrate specificities, serving as a 'lipid code' or 'phosphoinositide code'. Class I phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K) converts PtdIns(4,5)P₂ to PtdIns(3,4,5)P₃, which plays a pivotal role in signals controlling glucose uptake, cytoskeletal reorganization, cell proliferation and apoptosis. PI3K is pro-oncogenic, whereas phosphoinositide phosphatases that degrade PtdIns(3,4,5)P₃ are not always anti-oncogenic. Recent studies have revealed the unique characteristics of phosphoinositide 5-phosphatases.

  7. The effects of retinoic acid on alkaline phosphatase activity and tissue-non-specific alkaline phosphatase gene expression in human periodontal ligament cells and gingival fibroblasts.

    PubMed

    San Miguel, S M; Goseki-Sone, M; Sugiyama, E; Watanabe, H; Yanagishita, M; Ishikawa, I

    1998-10-01

    Alkaline phosphatase (ALP) in human periodontal ligament (HPDL) cells is classified as a tissue-non-specific alkaline phosphatase (TNSALP) by its enzymatic and immunological properties. Since retinoic acid (RA) has been shown as a potent inducer of TNSALP expression in various osteoblastic and fibroblastic cells, we investigated the effects of RA on the level of ALP activity and expression of TNSALP mRNAs in HPDL cells. Cultured cells were treated with desired RA concentrations (0, 10(-7), 10(-6), 10(-5) M) in medium containing 1% bovine serum albumin without serum. ALP activity was determined by the rate of hydrolysis of p-nitrophenyl phosphate and was also assayed in the presence of specific inhibitors. In order to identify the TNSALP mRNA type expressed by HPDL, a set of oligonucleotide primers corresponding to 2 types of human TNSALP mRNA (i.e. bone-type and liver-type) were designed, and mRNA isolated from HPDL was amplified by means of reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). After treatment with RA (10(-6) M) for 4 d, there was a significant increase in the ALP activity of HPDL cells. The use of inhibitors and thermal inactivation experiments showed that the increased ALP activity had properties of the TNSALP type. RT-PCR analysis revealed that bone-type mRNA was highly stimulated in HPDL cells by RA treatment, but the expression of liver-type mRNA was not detected. These results indicated that the upregulation of ALP activity in HPDL cells by RA was due to the increased transcription of bone-type mRNA of the TNSALP gene.

  8. Uranium Biomineralization by Natural Microbial Phosphatase Activities in the Subsurface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martinez, R.; Wu, C. H.; Beazley, M. J.; Andersen, G. L.; Hazen, T. C.; Taillefert, M.; Sobecky, P. A.

    2011-12-01

    Soils and groundwater contaminated with heavy metals and radionuclides remain a legacy of Cold War nuclear weapons development. Due to the scale of environmental contamination, in situ sequestration of heavy metals and radionuclides remain the most cost-effective strategy for remediation. We are currently investigating a remediation approach that utilizes periplasmic and extracellular microbial phosphatase activity of soil bacteria capable promoting in situ uranium phosphate sequestration. Our studies focus on the contaminated soils from the DOE Field Research Center (ORFRC) in Oak Ridge, TN. We have previously demonstrated that ORFRC strains with phosphatase-positive phenotypes were capable of promoting the precpitation of >95% U(VI) as a low solubility phosphate mineral during growth on glycerol phosphate as a sole carbon and phosphorus source. Here we present culture-independent soil slurry studies aimed at understanding microbial community dynamics resulting from exogenous organophosphate additions. Soil slurries containing glycerol-2-phosphate (G2P) or glycerol-3-phosphate (G3P) and nitrate as the sole C, P and N sources were incubated under oxic growth conditions at pH 5.5 or pH 6.8. Following treatments, total DNA was extracted and prokaryotic diversity was assessed using high-density 16S oligonucleotide microarray (PhyloChip) analysis. Treatments at pH 5.5 and pH 6.8 amended with G2P required 36 days to accumulate 4.8mM and 2.2 mM phosphate, respectively. In contrast, treatments at pH 5.5 and pH 6.8 amended with G3P accumulated 8.9 mM and 8.7 mM phosphate, respectively, after 20 days. A total of 2120 unique taxa representing 46 phyla, 66 classes, 110 orders, and 186 families were detected among all treatment conditions. The phyla that significantly (P<0.05) increased in abundance relative to incubations lacking organophosphate amendments included: Crenarchaeota, Euryarchaeota, Bacteroidetes, and Proteobacteria. Members from the classes Bacteroidetes

  9. Leishmania amazonensis: characterization of an ecto-phosphatase activity.

    PubMed

    de Almeida-Amaral, Elmo Eduardo; Belmont-Firpo, Rodrigo; Vannier-Santos, Marcos André; Meyer-Fernandes, José Roberto

    2006-12-01

    We have characterized a phosphatase activity present on the external surface of Leishmania amazonensis, using intact living parasites. This enzyme hydrolyzes the substrate p-nitrophenylphosphate (p-NPP) at the rate of 25.70+/-1.17 nmol Pi x h(-1) x 10(-7)cells. The dependence on p-NPP concentration shows a normal Michaelis-Menten kinetics for this ecto-phosphatase activity present a V(max) of 31.93+/-3.04 nmol Pi x h(-1) x 10(-7)cells and apparent K(m) of 1.78+/-0.32 mM. Inorganic phosphate inhibited the ecto-phoshatase activity in a dose-dependent manner with the K(i) value of 2.60 mM. Experiments using classical inhibitor of acid phosphatase, such as ammonium molybdate, as well as inhibitors of phosphotyrosine phosphatase, such as sodium orthovanadate and [potassiumbisperoxo(1,10-phenanthroline)oxovanadate(V)] (bpV-PHEN), inhibited the ecto-phosphatase activity, with the K(i) values of 0.33 microM, 0.36 microM and 0.25 microM, respectively. Zinc chloride, another classical phosphotyrosine phosphatase inhibitor, also inhibited the ecto-phosphatase activity in a dose-dependent manner with K(i) 2.62 mM. Zinc inhibition was reversed by incubation with reduced glutathione (GSH) and cysteine, but not serine, showing that cysteine residues are important for enzymatic activity. Promastigote growth in a medium supplemented with 1mM sodium orthovanadate was completely inhibited as compared to the control medium. Taken together, these results suggest that L. amazonensis express a phosphohydrolase ectoenzyme with phosphotyrosine phosphatase activity.

  10. Uranium Biomineralization by Natural Microbial Phosphatase Activities in the Subsurface

    SciTech Connect

    Sobecky, Patricia A.

    2015-04-06

    In this project, inter-disciplinary research activities were conducted in collaboration among investigators at The University of Alabama (UA), Georgia Institute of Technology (GT), Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL), Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL), the DOE Joint Genome Institute (JGI), and the Stanford Synchrotron Radiation Light source (SSRL) to: (i) confirm that phosphatase activities of subsurface bacteria in Area 2 and 3 from the Oak Ridge Field Research Center result in solid U-phosphate precipitation in aerobic and anaerobic conditions; (ii) investigate the eventual competition between uranium biomineralization via U-phosphate precipitation and uranium bioreduction; (iii) determine subsurface microbial community structure changes of Area 2 soils following organophosphate amendments; (iv) obtain the complete genome sequences of the Rahnella sp. Y9-602 and the type-strain Rahnella aquatilis ATCC 33071 isolated from these soils; (v) determine if polyphosphate accumulation and phytate hydrolysis can be used to promote U(VI) biomineralization in subsurface sediments; (vi) characterize the effect of uranium on phytate hydrolysis by a new microorganism isolated from uranium-contaminated sediments; (vii) utilize positron-emission tomography to label and track metabolically-active bacteria in soil columns, and (viii) study the stability of the uranium phosphate mineral product. Microarray analyses and mineral precipitation characterizations were conducted in collaboration with DOE SBR-funded investigators at LBNL. Thus, microbial phosphorus metabolism has been shown to have a contributing role to uranium immobilization in the subsurface.

  11. Mitotic kinases and phosphatases cooperate to shape the right response.

    PubMed

    Vallardi, Giulia; Saurin, Adrian T

    2015-01-01

    Kinases and phosphatases, two sides of the same coin; are they opposing forces that switch signals on and off or enzymes that work together to give the right type of response at the right time? It depends on how close you stand when you view the big picture. Up close and detailed, and you'll see individual phosphorylation sites as binary switches - lights being toggled on/off by antagonistic forces. Take a step back and multiple copies of the same light are being toggled, perhaps leading to a range of intensities, or a flickering pattern, lights flashing in unison or at random. It depends what the signal requires. Stand even further back, let the story unfold, and you'll see a dazzling multicolour array of different lights. A coordinated sequence of color that appears to burst into life at different times in different places, with a pace that is both frantic and serene. This is a vision of mitosis and what a true spectacle it is.

  12. Quantitation of Alkaline Phosphatase Isoenzymes Using Agarose Containing Wheat Germ Lectin

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1989-07-01

    SIl Quantitation of Alkaline Phosphatase Isoenzymes Using Agarose Containing Wheat Germ Lectin A thesis submitted in partial fulfillment of the...16 Wheat Germ Lectin Electrophoresis to Quantitate Alkaline Phosphatase Isoenzymes ................ 16 Alkaline Phosphatase Isoenzyme...vs Polyacrylamide Gel Electrophoresis ......................... 40 Clinical Correlation Using Wheat Germ Lectin 45 Placental Alkaline Phosphatase

  13. Resolution and purification of three periplasmic phosphatases of Salmonella typhimurium.

    PubMed Central

    Kier, L D; Weppelman, R; Ames, B N

    1977-01-01

    A survey of Salmonella typhimurium enzymes possessing phosphatase or phosphodiesterase activity was made using several different growth conditions. These studies revealed the presence of three major enzymes, all of which were subsequently purified: a cyclic 2' ,3'-nucleotide phosphodiesterase (EC 3.1.4.d), an acid hexose phosphatase (EC 3.1.3.2), and a nonspecific acid phosphatase (EC 3.1.3.2). A fourth enzyme hydrolyzed bis-(p-nitrophenyl)phosphate but none of the other substrates tested. No evidence was found for the existence of an alkaline phosphatase (EC 3.1.3.1) or a specific 5'-nucleotidase (EC 3.1.3.5) in S. typhimurium LT2. All three phosphatases could be measured efficiently in intact cells, which suggested a periplasmic location; however, they were not readily released by osmotic shock procedures. The nonspecific acid phosphatase, which was purified to apparent homogeneity, yielded a single polypeptide band on both sodium dodecyl sulfate and acidic urea gel electrophoretic systems. Images PMID:192712

  14. OBSERVATIONS ON THE ACID PHOSPHATASES OF EUGLENA GRACILIS

    PubMed Central

    Blum, Jacob J.

    1965-01-01

    When a bleached strain of Euglena is maintained in a medium containing very low con centrations of phosphate, the acid phosphatase activity increases. The increase in acid phosphatase activity is prevented by Actinomycin D and by p-fluorophenylalanine (PFA), indicating that the increased activity is due to de novo synthesis of acid phosphatase. When phosphate is replenished, the acid phosphatase activity decreases to the level characteristic of uninduced cells before there is any appreciable cell division. When cell division resumes in the presence of PFA, the level of acid phosphatase activity remains approximately constant. This indicates that there are two different phosphatases: a constitutive enzyme, whose synthesis is insensitive to the presence of PFA, and an induced enzyme, whose synthesis is sensitive to PFA. These enzymes are not equally sensitive to changes in pH and in fluoride concentration, thus permitting them to be assayed individually in whole toluene-treated cells. Induced cells also acquire the ability to remove phosphate from the medium very rapidly. PMID:14326108

  15. Overexpression of Human Bone Alkaline Phosphatase in Pichia Pastoris

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Karr, Laurel; Malone, Christine, C.; Rose, M. Franklin (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    The Pichiapastoris expression system was utilized to produce functionally active human bone alkaline phosphatase in gram quantities. Bone alkaline phosphatase is a key enzyme in bone formation and biomineralization, yet important questions about its structural chemistry and interactions with other cellular enzymes in mineralizing tissues remain unanswered. A soluble form of human bone alkaline phosphatase was constructed by deletion of the 25 amino acid hydrophobic C-terminal region of the encoding cDNA and inserted into the X-33 Pichiapastoris strain. An overexpression system was developed in shake flasks and converted to large-scale fermentation. Alkaline phosphatase was secreted into the medium to a level of 32mgAL when cultured in shake flasks. Enzyme activity was 12U/mg measured by a spectrophotometric assay. Fermentation yielded 880mgAL with enzymatic activity of 968U/mg. Gel electrophoresis analysis indicates that greater than 50% of the total protein in the fermentation is alkaline phosphatase. A purification scheme has been developed using ammonium sulfate precipitation followed by hydrophobic interaction chromatography. We are currently screening crystallization conditions of the purified recombinant protein for subsequent X-ray diffraction analyses. Structural data should provide additional information on the role of alkaline phosphatase in normal bone mineralization and in certain bone mineralization anomalies.

  16. The cytochemistry of tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase. Technical considerations.

    PubMed

    Janckila, A J; Li, C Y; Lam, K W; Yam, L T

    1978-07-01

    Cytochemical demonstration of tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase activity is essential for the diagnosis of leukemic reticuloendotheliosis. In order to perform this test correctly and to interpret the results propertly, it is necessary to understand the technical details of the cytochemical methods thoroughly. The method using naphthol--ASBI phosphoric acid--fast garnet GBC is recommended for this purpose, and factors crucial to the cytochemical study, such as fixation, substrate, coupler, pH and temperature of incubation buffer, counterstains, and mounting media are examined and discussed. Conventional methods for acid phosphatase in the presence and absence of L(+) tartaric acid are also critically examined. The naphthol--ASBI phosphoric acid--fast garnet GBC method is sensitive, technically simple and easily reproducible. Its reaction product is highly chromogenic and is most suitable for cytochemical demonstration of acid phosphatase and tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase activity in cytologic preparations. The naphthol--ASBI phosphoric acid--pararosaniline method is highly specific and is best for histochemical demonstration of acid phosphatase and tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase in tissue sections.

  17. Characterization of a novel plant PP2C-like protein Ser/Thr phosphatase as a calmodulin-binding protein.

    PubMed

    Takezawa, Daisuke

    2003-09-26

    Protein phosphatases regulated by calmodulin (CaM) mediate the action of intracellular Ca2+ and modulate functions of various target proteins by dephosphorylation. In plants, however, the role of Ca2+ in the regulation of protein dephosphorylation is not well understood due to a lack of information on characteristics of CaM-regulated protein phosphatases. Screening of a cDNA library of the moss Physcomitrella patens by using 35S-labeled calmodulin as a ligand resulted in identification of a gene, PCaMPP, that encodes a protein serine/threonine phosphatase with 373 amino acids. PCaMPP had a catalytic domain with sequence similarity to type 2C protein phosphatases (PP2Cs) with six conserved metal-associating amino acid residues and also had an extra C-terminal domain. Recombinant GST fusion proteins of PCaMPP exhibited Mn2+-dependent phosphatase activity, and the activity was inhibited by pyrophosphate and 1 mm Ca2+ but not by okadaic acid, orthovanadate, or beta-glycerophosphate. Furthermore, the PCaMPP activity was increased 1.7-fold by addition of CaM at nanomolar concentrations. CaM binding assays using deletion proteins and a synthetic peptide revealed that the CaM-binding region resides within the basic amphiphilic amino acid region 324-346 in the C-terminal domain. The CaM-binding region had sequence similarity to amino acids in one of three alpha-helices in the C-terminal domain of human PP2Calpha, suggesting a novel role of the C-terminal domains for the phosphatase activity. These results provide the first evidence showing possible regulation of PP2C-related phosphatases by Ca2+/CaM in plants. Genes similar to PCaMPP were found in genomes of various higher plant species, suggesting that PCaMPP-type protein phosphatases are conserved in land plants.

  18. HAD superfamily phosphotransferase substrate diversification: structure and function analysis of HAD subclass IIB sugar phosphatase BT4131.

    PubMed

    Lu, Zhibing; Dunaway-Mariano, Debra; Allen, Karen N

    2005-06-21

    The BT4131 gene from the bacterium Bacteroides thetaiotaomicron VPI-5482 has been cloned and overexpressed in Escherichia coli. The protein, a member of the haloalkanoate dehalogenase superfamily (subfamily IIB), was purified to homogeneity, and its X-ray crystal structure was determined to1.9 A resolution using the molecular replacement phasing method. BT4131 was shown by an extensive substrate screen to be a broad-range sugar phosphate phosphatase. On the basis of substrate specificity and gene context, the physiological function of BT4131 in chitin metabolism has been tentatively assigned. Comparison of the BT4131 structure alpha/beta cap domain structure with those of other type IIB enzymes (phosphoglycolate phosphatase, trehalose-6-phosphate phosphatase, and proteins of unknown function known as PDB entries , , and ) identified two conserved loops (BT4131 residues 172-182 and 118-130) in the alphabetabeta(alphabetaalphabeta)alphabetabeta type caps and one conserved loop in the alphabetabetaalphabetabeta type caps, which contribute residues for contact with the substrate leaving group. In BT4131, the two loops contribute one polar and two nonpolar residues to encase the displaced sugar. This finding is consistent with the lax specificity BT4131 has for the ring size and stereochemistry of the sugar phosphate. In contrast, substrate docking showed that the high-specificity phosphoglycolate phosphatase (PDB entry ) uses a single substrate specificity loop to position three polar residues for interaction with the glycolate leaving group. We show how active site "solvent cages" derived from analysis of the structures of the type IIB HAD phosphatases could be used in conjunction with the identity of the residues stationed along the cap domain substrate specificity loops, as a means of substrate identification.

  19. A Malachite Green-Based Assay to Assess Glucan Phosphatase Activity

    PubMed Central

    Sherwood, Amanda R.; Paasch, Bradley C.; Worby, Carolyn A.; Gentry, Matthew S.

    2012-01-01

    With the recent discovery of a unique class of dual-specificity phosphatases that dephosphorylate glucans, we report an in vitro assay tailored for the detection of phosphatase activity against phosphorylated glucans. We demonstrate that in contrast to a general phosphatase assay utilizing a synthetic substrate, only phosphatases that possess glucan phosphatase activity liberate phosphate from the phosphorylated glucan amylopectin using the described assay. This assay is simple and cost-effective, providing reproducible results that clearly establish the presence or absence of glucan phosphatase activity. The assay described will be a useful tool in characterizing emerging members of the glucan phosphatase family. PMID:23201267

  20. [Phosphatase activity in Amoeba proteus at pH 9.0].

    PubMed

    Sopina, V A

    2007-01-01

    In the free-living amoeba Amoeba proteus (strain B), after PAAG disk-electrophoresis of the homogenate supernatant, at using 1-naphthyl phosphate as a substrate and pH 9.0, three forms of phosphatase activity were revealed; they were arbitrarily called "fast", "intermediate", and "slow" phosphatases. The fast phosphatase has been established to be a fraction of lysosomal acid phosphatase that preserves some low activity at alkaline pH. The question as to which particular class the intermediate phosphatase belongs to has remained unanswered: it can be both acid phosphatase and protein tyrosine phosphatase (PTP). Based on data of inhibitor analysis, large substrate specificity, results of experiments with reactivation by Zn ions after inactivation with EDTA, other than in the fast and intermediate phosphatases localization in the amoeba cell, it is concluded that only slow phosphatase can be classified as alkaline phosphatase (EC 3.1.3.1).

  1. Multiple forms of phosphatase from human brain: isolation and partial characterization of affi-gel blue binding phosphatases.

    PubMed

    Cheng, L Y; Wang, J Z; Gong, C X; Pei, J J; Zaidi, T; Grundke-Iqbal, I; Iqbal, K

    2000-01-01

    Implication of protein phosphatases in Alzheimer disease led us to a systemic investigation of the identification of these enzyme activities in human brain. Human brain phosphatases eluted from DEAE-Sephacel with 0.22 M NaCl were resolved into two main groups by affi-gel blue chromatography, namely affi-gel blue-binding phosphatases and affi-gel blue-nonbinding phosphatases. Affi-gel blue-binding phosphatases were further separated into four different phosphatases, designated P1, P2, P3, and P4 by calmodulin-Sepharose 4B and poly-(L-lysine)-agarose chromatographies. These four phosphatases exhibited activities towards nonprotein phosphoester and two of them, P1 and P4, could dephosphorylate phosphoproteins. The activities of the four phosphatases differed in pH optimum, divalent metal ion requirements, sensitivities to various inhibitors and substrate affinities. The apparent molecular masses as estimated by gel-filtration for P1, P2, P3, and P4 were 97, 45, 42, and 125 kDa, respectively. P1 is markedly similar to PP2B from bovine brain and rabbit skeletal muscle. P4 was labeled with anti-PP2A antibody and may represent a new subtype of PP2A. P1 and P4 were also effective in dephosphorylating Alzheimer disease abnormally hyperphosphorylated tau (AD P-tau). The resulting dephosphorylated AD P-tau had its activity restored in promoting assembly of microtubules in vitro. These results suggest that P1 and P4 might be involved in the regulation of phosphorylation of tau in human brain, especially in neurodegenerative conditions like Alzheimer's disease which are characterized by the abnormal hyperphosphorylation of this protein.

  2. Role of Protein Phosphatase 2A in Osteoblast Differentiation and Function

    PubMed Central

    Okamura, Hirohiko; Yoshida, Kaya; Morimoto, Hiroyuki; Teramachi, Jumpei; Ochiai, Kazuhiko; Haneji, Tatsuji; Yamamoto, Akihito

    2017-01-01

    The reversible phosphorylation of proteins plays hugely important roles in a variety of cellular processes, such as differentiation, proliferation, and apoptosis. These processes are strictly controlled by protein kinases (phosphorylation) and phosphatases (de-phosphorylation). Here we provide a brief history of the study of protein phosphorylation, including a summary of different types of protein kinases and phosphatases. One of the most physiologically important serine/threonine phosphatases is PP2A. This review provides a description of the phenotypes of various PP2A transgenic mice and further focuses on the known functions of PP2A in bone formation, including its role in osteoblast differentiation and function. A reduction in PP2A promotes bone formation and osteoblast differentiation through the regulation of bone-related transcription factors such as Osterix. Interestingly, downregulation of PP2A also stimulates adipocyte differentiation from undifferentiated mesenchymal cells under the appropriate adipogenic differentiation conditions. In osteoblasts, PP2A is also involved in the ability to control osteoclastogenesis as well as in the proliferation and metastasis of osteosarcoma cells. Thus, PP2A is considered to be a comprehensive factor in controlling the differentiation and function of cells derived from mesenchymal cells such as osteoblasts and adipocytes. PMID:28241467

  3. The SIT4 protein phosphatase functions in late G1 for progression into S phase.

    PubMed Central

    Sutton, A; Immanuel, D; Arndt, K T

    1991-01-01

    Saccharomyces cerevisiae strains containing temperature-sensitive mutations in the SIT4 protein phosphatase arrest in late G1 at the nonpermissive temperature. Order-of-function analysis shows that SIT4 is required in late G1 for progression into S phase. While the levels of SIT4 do not change in the cell cycle, SIT4 associates with two high-molecular-weight phosphoproteins in a cell-cycle-dependent fashion. In addition, we have identified a polymorphic gene, SSD1, that in some versions can suppress the lethality due to a deletion of SIT4 and can also partially suppress the phenotypic defects due to a null mutation in BCY1. The SSD1 protein is implicated in G1 control and has a region of similarity to the dis3 protein of Schizosaccharomyces pombe. We have also identified a gene, PPH2alpha, that in high copy number can partially suppress the growth defect of sit4 strains. The PPH2 alpha gene encodes a predicted protein that is 80% identical to the catalytic domain of mammalian type 2A protein phosphatases but also has an acidic amino-terminal extension not present in other phosphatases. Images PMID:1848673

  4. Chemiluminescence-based pesticide biosensor utilizing the intelligent evolved properties of the enzyme alkaline phosphatase

    SciTech Connect

    Ayyagari, M.; Kamtekar, S.; Pande, R.; Marx, K.; Kumar, J.

    1994-12-31

    A methodology is described for immobilizing the enzyme alkaline phosphatase onto a glass surface using a novel biotinylated copolymer, poly(3-undecylthiophene-co-3- methanoithiophene). A streptavidin conjugate of alkaline phosphatase is used in this study. The biotinylated polymer is attached to the silanized glass surface via hydrophobic interactions and the enzyme is interfaced with the polymer through the classical biotin- streptavidin interaction. Alkaline phosphatase catalyzes the dephosphorylation of a macrocyclic compound, chloro-3-(4-methoxy spiro) (1,2 dioxetane-3-2`-tricyclo-) (3.3.1.1 )-(decani-4-yl) phenyl phosphate, to a species which emits energy by chemiluminescence. This chemiluminescence signal can be detected with a photomultiplier tube for enzymatic catalysis with the biocatalyst both in solution and immobilized on a glass surface. The signal generation is inhibited by the organophosphorus based insecticides such as paraoxon as well as nerve agents. We demonstrate in this study that a number of organophosphorus based insecticides inhibit the enzyme-mediated generation of chemiluminescence signal. This is true for the enzyme conjugate both free in solution and immobilized on a glass surface. In solution, the inhibition resembles the case of a partially uncompetitive system. By this type of inhibition we are able to detect pesticides down to about 50 ppb for the enzyme in solution. The pesticide detection limit of immobilized enzyme is currently being investigated. The enzyme is capable of a number of measurement cycles without significant loss of signal level.

  5. Drosophila Dullard functions as a Mad phosphatase to terminate BMP signaling

    PubMed Central

    Urrutia, Hugo; Aleman, Abigail; Eivers, Edward

    2016-01-01

    Bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPs) are growth factors that provide essential signals for normal embryonic development and adult tissue homeostasis. A key step in initiating BMP signaling is ligand induced phosphorylation of receptor Smads (R-Smads) by type I receptor kinases, while linker phosphorylation of R-Smads has been shown to cause BMP signal termination. Here we present data demonstrating that the phosphatase Dullard is involved in dephosphorylating the Drosophila R-Smad, Mad, and is integral in controlling BMP signal duration. We show that a hypomorphic Dullard allele or Dullard knockdown leads to increased Mad phosphorylation levels, while Dullard overexpression resulted in reduced Mad phosphorylations. Co-immunoprecipitation binding assays demonstrate phosphorylated Mad and Dullard physically interact, while mutation of Dullard’s phosphatase domain still allowed Mad-Dullard interactions but abolished its ability to regulate Mad phosphorylations. Finally, we demonstrate that linker and C-terminally phosphorylated Mad can be regulated by one of two terminating mechanisms, degradation by proteasomes or dephosphorylation by the phosphatase Dullard. PMID:27578171

  6. Activation of SPS from darkened spinach leaves by an endogenous protein phosphatase

    SciTech Connect

    Huber, S.C.; Huber, J.L. )

    1990-05-01

    Sucrose-phosphate synthase from darkened spinach leaves has a low activation state but can undergo a time-dependent activation in desalted leaf extracts that is inhibited by Pi, molybdate, okadaic acid and vanadate, but stimulated by fluoride. SPS labeled in vivo with ({sup 32}P)Pi in excised leaves in the dark loses incorporated {sup 32}P with time when extracts are incubated at 25{degree}C. This loss is largely prevented by vanadate, suggesting that an endogenous protein phosphatase can use SPS as substrate. Changes in phosphorylation state are closely paralleled by changes in SPS activation state. The spontaneous activation achieved in the extracts can be reversed by addition of 2 mM MgATP. Feeding okadaic acid to darkened leaves prevents light activation of SPS suggesting that the endogenous protein phosphatase is similar to the type-1 enzyme of animal tissues. Overall, the results are consistent with the notion that light activation of SPS involves dephosphorylation of inhibitory phosphorylation site(s). Regulation of the protein phosphatase by Pi may be of physiological significance.

  7. Prostatic acid phosphatase is required for the antinociceptive effects of thiamine and benfotiamine.

    PubMed

    Hurt, Julie K; Coleman, Jennifer L; Fitzpatrick, Brendan J; Taylor-Blake, Bonnie; Bridges, Arlene S; Vihko, Pirkko; Zylka, Mark J

    2012-01-01

    Thiamine (Vitamin B1) is an essential vitamin that must be obtained from the diet for proper neurological function. At higher doses, thiamine and benfotiamine (S-benzoylthiamine O-monophosphate, BT)-a phosphorylated derivative of thiamine-have antinociceptive effects in animals and humans, although how these compounds inhibit pain is unknown. Here, we found that Prostatic acid phosphatase (PAP, ACPP) can dephosphorylate BT in vitro, in dorsal root ganglia (DRG) neurons and in primary-afferent axon terminals in the dorsal spinal cord. The dephosphorylated product S-benzoylthiamine (S-BT) then decomposes to O-benzoylthiamine (O-BT) and to thiamine in a pH-dependent manner, independent of additional enzymes. This unique reaction mechanism reveals that BT only requires a phosphatase for conversion to thiamine. However, we found that the antinociceptive effects of BT, thiamine monophosphate (TMP) and thiamine-a compound that is not phosphorylated-were entirely dependent on PAP at the spinal level. Moreover, pharmacokinetic studies with wild-type and Pap(-/-) mice revealed that PAP is not required for the conversion of BT to thiamine in vivo. Taken together, our study highlights an obligatory role for PAP in the antinociceptive effects of thiamine and phosphorylated thiamine analogs, and suggests a novel phosphatase-independent function for PAP.

  8. Structural elucidation of the NADP(H) phosphatase activity of staphylococcal dual-specific IMPase/NADP(H) phosphatase.

    PubMed

    Bhattacharyya, Sudipta; Dutta, Anirudha; Dutta, Debajyoti; Ghosh, Ananta Kumar; Das, Amit Kumar

    2016-02-01

    NADP(H)/NAD(H) homeostasis has long been identified to play a pivotal role in the mitigation of reactive oxygen stress (ROS) in the intracellular milieu and is therefore critical for the progression and pathogenesis of many diseases. NAD(H) kinases and NADP(H) phosphatases are two key players in this pathway. Despite structural evidence demonstrating the existence and mode of action of NAD(H) kinases, the specific annotation and the mode of action of NADP(H) phosphatases remains obscure. Here, structural evidence supporting the alternative role of inositol monophosphatase (IMPase) as an NADP(H) phosphatase is reported. Crystal structures of staphylococcal dual-specific IMPase/NADP(H) phosphatase (SaIMPase-I) in complex with the substrates D-myo-inositol-1-phosphate and NADP(+) have been solved. The structure of the SaIMPase-I-Ca(2+)-NADP(+) ternary complex reveals the catalytic mode of action of NADP(H) phosphatase. Moreover, structures of SaIMPase-I-Ca(2+)-substrate complexes have reinforced the earlier proposal that the length of the active-site-distant helix α4 and its preceding loop are the predisposing factors for the promiscuous substrate specificity of SaIMPase-I. Altogether, the evidence presented suggests that IMPase-family enzymes with a shorter α4 helix could be potential candidates for previously unreported NADP(H) phosphatase activity.

  9. Arabidopsis TH2 Encodes the Orphan Enzyme Thiamin Monophosphate Phosphatase[OPEN

    PubMed Central

    Niehaus, Thomas D.; Hasnain, Ghulam; Gidda, Satinder K.; Nguyen, Thuy N.D.; Anderson, Erin M.; Brown, Greg; Yakunin, Alexander F.; de Crécy-Lagard, Valérie; Gregory, Jesse F.

    2016-01-01

    To synthesize the cofactor thiamin diphosphate (ThDP), plants must first hydrolyze thiamin monophosphate (ThMP) to thiamin, but dedicated enzymes for this hydrolysis step were unknown and widely doubted to exist. The classical thiamin-requiring th2-1 mutation in Arabidopsis thaliana was shown to reduce ThDP levels by half and to increase ThMP levels 5-fold, implying that the THIAMIN REQUIRING2 (TH2) gene product could be a dedicated ThMP phosphatase. Genomic and transcriptomic data indicated that TH2 corresponds to At5g32470, encoding a HAD (haloacid dehalogenase) family phosphatase fused to a TenA (thiamin salvage) family protein. Like the th2-1 mutant, an insertional mutant of At5g32470 accumulated ThMP, and the thiamin requirement of the th2-1 mutant was complemented by wild-type At5g32470. Complementation tests in Escherichia coli and enzyme assays with recombinant proteins confirmed that At5g32470 and its maize (Zea mays) orthologs GRMZM2G148896 and GRMZM2G078283 are ThMP-selective phosphatases whose activity resides in the HAD domain and that the At5g32470 TenA domain has the expected thiamin salvage activity. In vitro and in vivo experiments showed that alternative translation start sites direct the At5g32470 protein to the cytosol and potentially also to mitochondria. Our findings establish that plants have a dedicated ThMP phosphatase and indicate that modest (50%) ThDP depletion can produce severe deficiency symptoms. PMID:27677881

  10. Identification of Aph1, a Phosphate-Regulated, Secreted, and Vacuolar Acid Phosphatase in Cryptococcus neoformans

    PubMed Central

    Lev, Sophie; Crossett, Ben; Cha, So Young; Desmarini, Desmarini; Li, Cecilia; Chayakulkeeree, Methee; Wilson, Christabel F.; Williamson, P. R.; Sorrell, Tania C.

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT Cryptococcus neoformans strains isolated from patients with AIDS secrete acid phosphatase, but the identity and role of the enzyme(s) responsible have not been elucidated. By combining a one-dimensional electrophoresis step with mass spectrometry, a canonically secreted acid phosphatase, CNAG_02944 (Aph1), was identified in the secretome of the highly virulent serotype A strain H99. We created an APH1 deletion mutant (Δaph1) and showed that Δaph1-infected Galleria mellonella and mice survived longer than those infected with the wild type (WT), demonstrating that Aph1 contributes to cryptococcal virulence. Phosphate starvation induced APH1 expression and secretion of catalytically active acid phosphatase in the WT, but not in the Δaph1 mutant, indicating that Aph1 is the major extracellular acid phosphatase in C. neoformans and that it is phosphate repressible. DsRed-tagged Aph1 was transported to the fungal cell periphery and vacuoles via endosome-like structures and was enriched in bud necks. A similar pattern of Aph1 localization was observed in cryptococci cocultured with THP-1 monocytes, suggesting that Aph1 is produced during host infection. In contrast to Aph1, but consistent with our previous biochemical data, green fluorescent protein (GFP)-tagged phospholipase B1 (Plb1) was predominantly localized at the cell periphery, with no evidence of endosome-mediated export. Despite use of different intracellular transport routes by Plb1 and Aph1, secretion of both proteins was compromised in a Δsec14-1 mutant. Secretions from the WT, but not from Δaph1, hydrolyzed a range of physiological substrates, including phosphotyrosine, glucose-1-phosphate, β-glycerol phosphate, AMP, and mannose-6-phosphate, suggesting that the role of Aph1 is to recycle phosphate from macromolecules in cryptococcal vacuoles and to scavenge phosphate from the extracellular environment. PMID:25227465

  11. [Phosphatase activity in Amoeba proteus at low pH].

    PubMed

    Sopina, V A

    2009-01-01

    In free-living Amoeba proteus (strain B), three forms of tartrate-sensitive phosphatase were revealed using PAGE of the supernatant of ameba homogenates obtained with 1% Triton X-100 or distilled water and subsequent staining of gels with 2-naphthyl phosphate as substrate (pH 4.0). The form with the highest mobility in the ameba supernatant was sensitive to all tested phosphatase activity modulators. Two other forms with the lower mobilities were completely or significantly inactivated not only by sodium L-(+)-tartrate, but also by L-(+)-tartaric acid, sodium orthovanadate, ammonium molybdate, EDTA, EGTA, o-phospho-L-tyrosine, DL-dithiotreitol, H2O2, 2-mercaptoethanol, and ions of heavy metals - Fe2+, Fe3+, and Cu2+. Based on results of inhibitory analysis, lysosome location in the ameba cell, and wide substrate specificity of these two forms, it has been concluded that they belong to nonspecific acid phosphomonoesterases (AcP, EC 3.1.3.2). This AcP is suggested to have both phosphomonoesterase and phosphotyrosyl-protein phosphatase activitis. Two ecto-phosphatases were revealed in the culture medium, in which amebas were cultivated. One of them was inhibited by the same reagents as the ameba tartrate-sensitive AcP and seems to be the AcP released into the culture medium in the process of exocytosis of the content of food vacuoles. In the culture medium, apart from this AcP, another phosphatase was revealed, which was not inhibited by any tested inhibitors of AcP and alkaline phosphatase. It cannot be ruled out that this phosphatase belong to the ecto-ATPases found in many protists; however, its ability to hydrolyze ATP has not yet been proven.

  12. Prostatic acid phosphatase degrades lysophosphatidic acid in seminal plasma.

    PubMed

    Tanaka, Masayuki; Kishi, Yasuhiro; Takanezawa, Yasukazu; Kakehi, Yoshiyuki; Aoki, Junken; Arai, Hiroyuki

    2004-07-30

    Lysophosphatidic acid (LPA) is a lipid mediator with multiple biological activities and is detected in various biological fluids, including human seminal plasma. Due to its cell proliferation stimulatory and anti-apoptotic activities, LPA has been implicated in the progression of some cancers such as ovarian cancer and prostate cancer. Here, we show that prostatic acid phosphatase, which is a non-specific phosphatase and which has been implicated in the progression of prostate cancer, inactivates LPA in human seminal plasma. Human seminal plasma contains both an LPA-synthetic enzyme, lysoPLD, which converts lysophospholipids to LPA and is responsible for LPA production in serum, and its major substrate, lysophosphatidylcholine. In serum, LPA accumulated during incubation at 37 degrees C. However, in seminal plasma, LPA did not accumulate. This discrepancy is explained by the presence of a strong LPA-degrading activity. Incubation of LPA with seminal plasma resulted in the disappearance of LPA and an accompanying accumulation of monoglyceride showing that LPA is degraded by phosphatase activity present in the seminal plasma. When seminal plasma was incubated in the presence of a phosphatase inhibitor, sodium orthovanadate, LPA accumulated, indicating that LPA is produced and degraded in the fluid. Biochemical characterization of the LPA-phosphatase activity identified two phosphatase activities in human seminal plasma. By Western blotting analysis in combination with several column chromatographies, the major activity was revealed to be identical to prostatic acid phosphatase. The present study demonstrates active LPA metabolism in seminal plasma and indicates the possible role of LPA signaling in male sexual organs including prostate cancer.

  13. Human pyridoxal phosphatase. Molecular cloning, functional expression, and tissue distribution.

    PubMed

    Jang, Young Min; Kim, Dae Won; Kang, Tae-Cheon; Won, Moo Ho; Baek, Nam-In; Moon, Byung Jo; Choi, Soo Young; Kwon, Oh-Shin

    2003-12-12

    Pyridoxal phosphatase catalyzes the dephosphorylation of pyridoxal 5'-phosphate (PLP) and pyridoxine 5'-phosphate. A human brain cDNA clone was identified to the PLP phosphatase on the basis of peptide sequences obtained previously. The cDNA predicts a 296-amino acid protein with a calculated Mr of 31698. The open reading frame is encoded by two exons located on human chromosome 22q12.3, and the exon-intron junction contains the GT/AG consensus splice site. In addition, a full-length mouse PLP phosphatase cDNA of 1978 bp was also isolated. Mouse enzyme encodes a protein of 292 amino acids with Mr of 31512, and it is localized on chromosome 15.E1. Human and mouse PLP phosphatase share 93% identity in protein sequence. A BLAST search revealed the existence of putative proteins in organism ranging from bacteria to mammals. Catalytically active human PLP phosphatase was expressed in Escherichia coli, and characteristics of the recombinant enzyme were similar to those of erythrocyte enzyme. The recombinant enzyme displayed Km and kcat values for pyridoxal of 2.5 microM and 1.52 s(-1), respectively. Human PLP phosphatase mRNA is differentially expressed in a tissue-specific manner. A single mRNA transcript of 2.1 kb was detected in all human tissues examined and was highly abundant in the brain. Obtaining the molecular properties for the human PLP phosphatase may provide new direction for investigating metabolic pathway involving vitamin B6.

  14. The role of the inositol polyphosphate 5-phosphatases in cellular function and human disease.

    PubMed

    Ooms, Lisa M; Horan, Kristy A; Rahman, Parvin; Seaton, Gillian; Gurung, Rajendra; Kethesparan, Dharini S; Mitchell, Christina A

    2009-04-01

    Phosphoinositides are membrane-bound signalling molecules that regulate cell proliferation and survival, cytoskeletal reorganization and vesicular trafficking by recruiting effector proteins to cellular membranes. Growth factor or insulin stimulation induces a canonical cascade resulting in the transient phosphorylation of PtdIns(4,5)P(2) by PI3K (phosphoinositide 3-kinase) to form PtdIns(3,4,5)P(3), which is rapidly dephosphorylated either by PTEN (phosphatase and tensin homologue deleted on chromosome 10) back to PtdIns(4,5)P(2), or by the 5-ptases (inositol polyphosphate 5-phosphatases), generating PtdIns(3,4)P(2). The 5-ptases also hydrolyse PtdIns(4,5)P(2), forming PtdIns4P. Ten mammalian 5-ptases have been identified, which share a catalytic mechanism similar to that of the apurinic/apyrimidinic endonucleases. Gene-targeted deletion of 5-ptases in mice has revealed that these enzymes regulate haemopoietic cell proliferation, synaptic vesicle recycling, insulin signalling, endocytosis, vesicular trafficking and actin polymerization. Several studies have revealed that the molecular basis of Lowe's syndrome is due to mutations in the 5-ptase OCRL (oculocerebrorenal syndrome of Lowe). Futhermore, the 5-ptases SHIP [SH2 (Src homology 2)-domain-containing inositol phosphatase] 2, SKIP (skeletal muscle- and kidney-enriched inositol phosphatase) and 72-5ptase (72 kDa 5-ptase)/Type IV/Inpp5e (inositol polyphosphate 5-phosphatase E) are implicated in negatively regulating insulin signalling and glucose homoeostasis in specific tissues. SHIP2 polymorphisms are associated with a predisposition to insulin resistance. Gene profiling studies have identified changes in the expression of various 5-ptases in specific cancers. In addition, 5-ptases such as SHIP1, SHIP2 and 72-5ptase/Type IV/Inpp5e regulate macrophage phagocytosis, and SHIP1 also controls haemopoietic cell proliferation. Therefore the 5-ptases are a significant family of signal-modulating enzymes that govern a

  15. Phosphoglycerate mutase, 2,3-bisphosphoglycerate phosphatase, creatine kinase and enolase activity and isoenzymes in breast carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Durany, N; Joseph, J; Jimenez, O M; Climent, F; Fernández, P L; Rivera, F; Carreras, J

    1999-01-01

    We have compared the levels of phosphoglycerate mutase (EC 5.4.2.1), 2,3-bisphosphoglycerate phosphatase (EC 3.1.3.13), creatine kinase (EC 2.7.3.2) and enolase (EC 4.2.1.11) activities and the distribution of their isoenzymes in normal breast tissue and in breast carcinoma. Tumour tissue had higher phosphoglycerate mutase and enolase activity than normal tissue. Creatine kinase activity was higher in seven out of 12 tumours. In contrast 2,3-bisphosphoglycerate phosphatase activity was lower. Phosphoglycerate mutase, enolase and 2,3-bisphosphoglycerate phosphatase presented greater changes in the oestrogen receptor-negative/progesterone receptor-negative breast carcinomas than in the steroid receptor-positive tumours. Determined by electrophoresis, type BB phosphoglycerate mutase, type BB creatine kinase and αα-enolase were the major isoenzymes detected in normal breast tissue. Types αγ and γγ enolase, types MB and MM phosphoglycerate mutase were detected in much lower proportions. In tumours a decrease of phosphoglycerate mutase isoenzymes possessing M-type subunit and some increase of enolase isoenzymes possessing γ-type subunit was observed. No detectable change was observed in the creatine kinase phenotype. © 2000 Cancer Research Campaign PMID:10638961

  16. Phosphoinositide 5- and 3-phosphatase activities of a voltage-sensing phosphatase in living cells show identical voltage dependence

    PubMed Central

    Keum, Dongil; Kim, Dong-Il; Suh, Byung-Chang

    2016-01-01

    Voltage-sensing phosphatases (VSPs) are homologs of phosphatase and tensin homolog (PTEN), a phosphatidylinositol 3,4-bisphosphate [PI(3,4)P2] and phosphatidylinositol 3,4,5-trisphosphate [PI(3,4,5)P3] 3-phosphatase. However, VSPs have a wider range of substrates, cleaving 3-phosphate from PI(3,4)P2 and probably PI(3,4,5)P3 as well as 5-phosphate from phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate [PI(4,5)P2] and PI(3,4,5)P3 in response to membrane depolarization. Recent proposals say these reactions have differing voltage dependence. Using Förster resonance energy transfer probes specific for different PIs in living cells with zebrafish VSP, we quantitate both voltage-dependent 5- and 3-phosphatase subreactions against endogenous substrates. These activities become apparent with different voltage thresholds, voltage sensitivities, and catalytic rates. As an analytical tool, we refine a kinetic model that includes the endogenous pools of phosphoinositides, endogenous phosphatase and kinase reactions connecting them, and four exogenous voltage-dependent 5- and 3-phosphatase subreactions of VSP. We show that apparent voltage threshold differences for seeing effects of the 5- and 3-phosphatase activities in cells are not due to different intrinsic voltage dependence of these reactions. Rather, the reactions have a common voltage dependence, and apparent differences arise only because each VSP subreaction has a different absolute catalytic rate that begins to surpass the respective endogenous enzyme activities at different voltages. For zebrafish VSP, our modeling revealed that 3-phosphatase activity against PI(3,4,5)P3 is 55-fold slower than 5-phosphatase activity against PI(4,5)P2; thus, PI(4,5)P2 generated more slowly from dephosphorylating PI(3,4,5)P3 might never accumulate. When 5-phosphatase activity was counteracted by coexpression of a phosphatidylinositol 4-phosphate 5-kinase, there was accumulation of PI(4,5)P2 in parallel to PI(3,4,5)P3 dephosphorylation

  17. Alkaline phosphatase revisited: hydrolysis of alkyl phosphates.

    PubMed

    O'Brien, Patrick J; Herschlag, Daniel

    2002-03-05

    Escherichia coli alkaline phosphatase (AP) is the prototypical two metal ion catalyst with two divalent zinc ions bound approximately 4 A apart in the active site. Studies spanning half a century have elucidated many structural and mechanistic features of this enzyme, rendering it an attractive model for investigating the potent catalytic power of bimetallic centers. Unfortunately, fundamental mechanistic features have been obscured by limitations with the standard assays. These assays generate concentrations of inorganic phosphate (P(i)) in excess of its inhibition constant (K(i) approximately 1 muM). This tight binding by P(i) has affected the majority of published kinetic constants. Furthermore, binding limits k(cat)/K(m) for reaction of p-nitrophenyl phosphate, the most commonly employed substrate. We describe a sensitive (32)P-based assay for hydrolysis of alkyl phosphates that avoids the complication of product inhibition. We have revisited basic mechanistic features of AP with these alkyl phosphate substrates. The results suggest that the chemical step for phosphorylation of the enzyme limits k(cat)/K(m). The pH-rate profile and additional results suggest that the serine nucleophile is active in its anionic form and has a pK(a) of < or = 5.5 in the free enzyme. An inactivating pK(a) of 8.0 is observed for binding of both substrates and inhibitors, and we suggest that this corresponds to ionization of a zinc-coordinated water molecule. Counter to previous suggestions, inorganic phosphate dianion appears to bind to the highly charged AP active site at least as strongly as the trianion. The dependence of k(cat)/K(m) on the pK(a) of the leaving group follows a Brønsted correlation with a slope of beta(lg) = -0.85 +/- 0.1, differing substantially from the previously reported value of -0.2 obtained from data with a less sensitive assay. This steep leaving group dependence is consistent with a largely dissociative transition state for AP-catalyzed hydrolysis of

  18. Phosphatase activity in Antarctica soil samples as a biosignature of extant life

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sato, Shuji; Itoh, Yuki; Takano, Yoshinori; Fukui, Manabu; Kaneko, Takeo; Kobayashi, Kensei

    Microbial activities have been detected in such extreme terrestrial environments as deep lithosphere, a submarine hydrothermal systems, stratosphere, and Antarctica. Microorganisms have adapted to such harsh environments by evolving their biomolecules. Some of these biomolecules such as enzymes might have different characteristics from those of organisms in ordinary environments. Many biosignatures (or biomarkers) have been proposed to detect microbial activities in such extreme environments. A number of techniques are proposed to evaluate biological activities in extreme environments including cultivation methods, assay of metabolism, and analysis of bioorganic compounds like amino acids and DNA. Enzyme activities are useful signature of extant life in extreme environments. Among many enzymes, phosphatase could be a good indicator of biological activities, since phosphate esters are essential for all the living terrestrial organisms. In addition, alkaline phosphatase is known as a typical zinc-containing metalloenzyme and quite stable in environments. We analyzed phosphatase activities in Antarctica soil samples to see whether they can be used as biosignatures for extant life. In addition, we characterized phosphatases extracted from the Antarctica soil samples, and compared with those obtained from other types of environments. Antarctica surface environments are quite severe environments for life since it is extremely cold and dry and exposed to strong UV and cosmic rays. We tried to evaluate biological activities in Antarctica by measuring phosphatase activities. Surface soil samples are obtained at the Sites 1-8 near Showa Base in Antarctica during the 47th Japan Antarctic exploration mission in 2005-6. Activities of acid phosphatase (ACP) and alkaline phosphatase (ALP) are measured spectrophotometrically after mixing the powdered sample and p-nitrophenyl phosphate solution (pH 6.5 for ACP, pH 8.0 for ALP). ALP was characterized after extraction from soils with

  19. Crystal structure and mutagenesis of a protein phosphatase-1:calcineurin hybrid elucidate the role of the beta12-beta13 loop in inhibitor binding.

    PubMed

    Maynes, Jason T; Perreault, Kathleen R; Cherney, Maia M; Luu, Hue Anh; James, Michael N G; Holmes, Charles F B

    2004-10-08

    Protein phosphatase-1 and protein phosphatase-2B (calcineurin) are eukaryotic serine/threonine phosphatases that share 40% sequence identity in their catalytic subunits. Despite the similarities in sequence, these phosphatases are widely divergent when it comes to inhibition by natural product toxins, such as microcystin-LR and okadaic acid. The most prominent region of non-conserved sequence between these phosphatases corresponds to the beta12-beta13 loop of protein phosphatase-1, and the L7 loop of toxin-resistant calcineurin. In the present study, mutagenesis of residues 273-277 of the beta12-beta13 loop of the protein phosphatase-1 catalytic subunit (PP-1c) to the corresponding residues in calcineurin (312-316), resulted in a chimeric mutant that showed a decrease in sensitivity to microcystin-LR, okadaic acid, and the endogenous PP-1c inhibitor protein inhibitor-2. A crystal structure of the chimeric mutant in complex with okadaic acid was determined to 2.0-A resolution. The beta12-beta13 loop region of the mutant superimposes closely with that of wild-type PP-1c bound to okadaic acid. Systematic mutation of each residue in the beta12-beta13 loop of PP-1c showed that a single amino acid change (C273L) was the most influential in mediating sensitivity of PP-1c to toxins. Taken together, these data indicate that it is an individual amino acid residue substitution and not a change in the overall beta12-beta13 loop conformation of protein phosphatase-1 that contributes to disrupting important interactions with inhibitors such as microcystin-LR and okadaic acid.

  20. Crystal structure of rat intestinal alkaline phosphatase--role of crown domain in mammalian alkaline phosphatases.

    PubMed

    Ghosh, Kaushik; Mazumder Tagore, Debarati; Anumula, Rushith; Lakshmaiah, Basanth; Kumar, P P B S; Singaram, Senthuran; Matan, Thangavelu; Kallipatti, Sanjith; Selvam, Sabariya; Krishnamurthy, Prasad; Ramarao, Manjunath

    2013-11-01

    Intestinal alkaline phosphatases (IAPs) are involved in the cleavage of phosphate prodrugs to liberate the drug for absorption in the intestine. To facilitate in vitro characterization of phosphate prodrugs, we have cloned, expressed, purified and characterized IAPs from rat and cynomolgus monkey (rIAP and cIAP respectively) which are important pre-clinical species for drug metabolism studies. The recombinant rat and monkey enzymes expressed in Sf9 insect cells (IAP-Ic) were found to be glycosylated and active. Expression of rat IAP in Escherichia coli (rIAP-Ec) led to ~200-fold loss of activity that was partially recovered by the addition of external Zn(2+) and Mg(2+) ions. Crystal structures of rIAP-Ec and rIAP-Ic were determined and they provide rationale for the discrepancy in enzyme activities. Rat IAP-Ic retains its activity in presence of both Zn(2+) and Mg(2+) whereas activity of most other alkaline phosphatases (APs) including the cIAP was strongly inhibited by excess Zn(2+). Based on our crystal structure, we hypothesized the residue Q317 in rIAP, present within 7 Å of the Mg(2+) at M3, to be important for this difference in activity. The Q317H rIAP and H317Q cIAP mutants showed reversal in effect of Zn(2+), corroborating the hypothesis. Further analysis of the two structures indicated a close linkage between glycosylation and crown domain stability. A triple mutant of rIAP, where all the three putative N-linked glycosylation sites were mutated showed thermal instability and reduced activity.

  1. Human prostatic acid phosphatase directly stimulates collagen synthesis and alkaline phosphatase content of isolated bone cells

    SciTech Connect

    Ishibe, M.; Rosier, R.N.; Puzas, J.E. )

    1991-10-01

    Human prostatic acid phosphatase (hPAP) directly enhances the differentiated characteristics of isolated bone cells in vitro. This enzyme, when added to cell cultures for 24 h in vitro stimulates collagen synthesis and the production of alkaline phosphatase. The effects are dose dependent, with statistically significant effects occurring from 0.1-100 nM hPAP. Concentrations higher than 100 nM do not evoke greater effects. The maximal effect of hPAP occurs between 12 and 24 h of exposure. The cells stimulated to the greatest degree are osteoprogenitor cells and osteoblasts. Fibroblasts isolated from the same tissue show a lesser sensitivity to hPAP. hPAP has no detectable effect on cell proliferation, as measured by radiolabeled thymidine incorporation or total DNA synthesis. None of the observations reported in this work can be attributed to contaminating proteins in the hPAP preparation. hPAP was radiolabeled with 125I and was used for affinity binding and cross-linking studies. Scatchard analysis of specific binding indicated the presence of 1.0 X 10(5) high affinity binding sites/cell, with a Kd of 6.5 nM. Cross-linking studies demonstrated the presence of one 320-kDa binding complex. The pH profile and kinetic determinations of Km and maximum velocity for hPAP were similar to those previously reported, except for the finding of positive cooperativity of the substrate with the enzyme under the conditions of our assay. We believe that the direct stimulation of bone-forming cells by hPAP may contribute to the sclerotic nature of skeletal bone around sites of neoplastic prostatic metastases and that the effect of the enzyme is probably mediated by a plasma membrane receptor.

  2. [Granulocyte alkaline phosphatase--a biomarker of chronic benzene exposure].

    PubMed

    Khristeva, V; Meshkov, T

    1994-01-01

    In tracing the cellular population status in the peripheral blood of workers, exposed to benzene, was included and cytochemical determination of the alkaline phosphatase activity in leucocytes. This enzyme is accepted as marker of the neutrophilic granulocytes, as maturation of the cells and their antibacterial activity are parallel to the cytochemical activity of the enzyme. 78 workers from the coke-chemical production from state firm "Kremikovtsi" and 41 workers from the production "Benzene" and "Isopropylbenzene"--Oil Chemical Plant, Burgas are included. The benzene concentrations in the air of the working places in all productions are in the range of 5 to 50 mg/m3. For cytochemical determination of the alkaline phosphatase activity is used the method of L. Kaplow and phosphatase index was calculated. It was established that in 98.4% of all examined the alkaline phosphatase activity is inhibited to different rate, as from 46.5% [61 workers] it is zero. In considerably lower percentage of workers were established and other deviations: leucocytosis or leucopenia, neutropenia, increased percent of band neutrophils and toxic granules. The results of the investigation of the granulocyte population show that from all indices, the activity of granulocyte alkaline phosphatase demonstrates most convincing the early myelotoxic effect of benzene.

  3. Thermal inactivation of alkali phosphatases under various conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Atyaksheva, L. F.; Tarasevich, B. N.; Chukhrai, E. S.; Poltorak, O. M.

    2009-02-01

    The thermal inactivation of alkali phosphatases from bacteria Escherichia coli (ECAP), bovine intestines (bovine IAP), and chicken intestines (chicken IAP) was studied in different buffer solutions and in the solid state. The conclusion was made that these enzymes had maximum stability in the solid state, and, in a carbonate buffer solution, their activity decreased most rapidly. It was found that the bacterial enzyme was more stable than animal phosphatases. It was noted that, for ECAP, four intermediate stages preceded the loss of enzyme activity, and, for bovine and chicken IAPs, three intermediate stages were observed. The activation energy of thermal inactivation of ECAP over the range 25-70°C was determined to be 80 kJ/mol; it corresponded to the dissociation of active dimers into inactive monomers. Higher activation energies (˜200 kJ/mol) observed at the initial stage of thermal inactivation of animal phosphatases resulted from the simultaneous loss of enzyme activity caused by dimer dissociation and denaturation. It was shown that the activation energy of denaturation of monomeric animal alkali phosphatases ranged from 330 to 380 kJ/mol depending on buffer media. It was concluded that the inactivation of solid samples of alkali phosphatases at 95°C was accompanied by an about twofold decrease in the content of β structures in protein molecules.

  4. The catalytic properties of alkaline phosphatases under various conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Atyaksheva, L. F.; Chukhrai, E. S.; Poltorak, O. M.

    2008-11-01

    A comparative study was performed to examine the catalytic properties of alkaline phosphatases from bacteria Escherichia coli and bovine and chicken intestines. The activity of enzyme dimers and tetramers was determined. The activity of the dimer was three or four times higher than that of the tetramer. The maximum activity and affinity for 4-nitrophenylphosphate was observed for the bacterial alkaline phosphatase ( K M = 1.7 × 10-5 M, V max = 1800 μmol/(min mg of protein) for dimers and V max = 420 μmol/(min mg of protein) for tetramers). The Michaelis constants were equal for two animal phosphatases in various buffer media (pH 8.5) ((3.5 ± 0.2) × 10-4 M). Five buffer systems were investigated: tris, carbonate, hepes, borate, and glycine buffers, and the lowest catalytic activity of alkaline phosphatases at equal pH was observed in the borate buffer (for enzyme from bovine intestine, V max = 80 μmol/(min mg of protein)). Cu2+ cations formed a complex with tris-(oxymethyl)-aminomethane ( tris-HCl buffer) and inhibited the intestine alkaline phosphatases by a noncompetitive mechanism.

  5. Studies on the catalytic mechanism of pig purple acid phosphatase.

    PubMed

    Wynne, C J; Hamilton, S E; Dionysius, D A; Beck, J L; de Jersey, J

    1995-05-10

    Several independent experiments failed to reveal any evidence in support of the involvement of a phosphoryl-enzyme intermediate in the catalytic mechanism of pig allantoic fluid purple acid phosphatase: (i) attempts to label enzyme with phosphate derived from [32P]p-nitrophenyl phosphate were unsuccessful; (ii) values of kcat for a series of phosphate derivative varied over a wide range, with the enzyme showing a marked preference for activated ester and anhydride substrates over those with a stable leaving group; (iii) burst titrations revealed a "burst" of p-nitrophenol from p-nitrophenyl phosphate only when the enzyme was added after the substrate, suggesting that this result was an artifact of the order of addition of reagents; (iv) transphosphorylation from p-nitrophenyl phosphate to acceptor alcohols could not be detected, even under conditions where a transphosphorylation to hydrolysis ratio as low as 0.015 could have been measured; (v) enzyme-catalyzed exchange of 180 between phosphate and water was demonstrated, although at a rate much slower than that observed for other phosphatases where the involvement of a phosphoryl-enzyme intermediate in the mechanism has been clearly established. The present results are compared with those obtained in similar studies on other phosphatases, particularly the highly homologous beef spleen purple acid phosphatase, and their implications for the catalytic mechanism of the purple acid phosphatases are discussed.

  6. Escherichia coli alkaline phosphatase. Kinetic studies with the tetrameric enzyme.

    PubMed

    Halford, S E; Schlesinger, M J; Gutfreund, H

    1972-03-01

    1. The stability of the tetrameric form of Escherichia coli alkaline phosphatase was examined by analytical ultracentrifugation. 2. The stopped-flow technique was used to study the hydrolysis of nitrophenyl phosphates by the alkaline phosphatase tetramer at pH7.5 and 8.3. In both cases transient product formation was observed before the steady state was attained. Both transients consisted of the liberation of 1mol of nitrophenol/2mol of enzyme subunits within the dead-time of the apparatus. The steady-state rates were identical with those observed with the dimer under the same conditions. 3. The binding of 2-hydroxy-5-nitrobenzyl phosphonate to the alkaline phosphatase tetramer was studied by the temperature-jump technique. The self-association of two dimers to form the tetramer is linked to a conformation change within the dimer. This accounts for the differences between the transient phases in the reactions of the dimer and the tetramer with substrate. 4. Addition of P(i) to the alkaline phosphatase tetramer caused it to dissociate into dimers. The tetramer is unable to bind this ligand. It is suggested that the tetramer undergoes a compulsory dissociation before the completion of its first turnover with substrate. 5. On the basis of these findings a mechanism is proposed for the involvement of the alkaline phosphatase tetramer in the physiology of E. coli.

  7. Characteristics of plasmalemma alkaline phosphatase of rat mesenteric artery.

    PubMed

    Kwan, C Y

    1983-01-01

    General characteristics of alkaline phosphatase activity of the plasma membrane-enriched fraction isolated from rat mesenteric arteries were investigated. The vascular smooth muscle plasmalemma alkaline phosphatase is a metalloenzyme which is strongly inhibited by chelating agents and this inhibition can be completely overcome by addition of Mg2+ or Ca2+. Zn2+ only partially reactivates the enzyme in the presence of low concentrations of EDTA. The enzymatic hydrolysis of p-nitrophenyl phosphate, beta-glycerophosphate, alpha-glycerophosphate, or 3'-adenosine monophosphate showed an optimal activity in the alkaline region between pH 9 and 11. The alkaline phosphatase activity is distinctly different from the plasmalemma ATPase and 5'-nucleotidase activities with respect to their pH dependence, influence by added divalent metal ions and stability against heat inactivation. Vanadate ion, being structurally similar to the transition state analog of the phosphoryl group, potently inhibits alkaline phosphatase with an apparent Ki of 1.5 microM. The altered alkaline phosphatase activity of vascular smooth muscle in relation to its possible physiological function and pathophysiological manifestation associated with hypertensive disease are discussed.

  8. Characterization of Human Bone Alkaline Phosphatase in Pichia Pastoris

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Malone, Christine C.; Ciszak, Eva; Karr, Laurel J.

    1999-01-01

    A soluble form of human bone alkaline phosphatase has been expressed in a recombinant strain of the methylotrophic yeast Pichia pastoris. We constructed a plasmid containing cDNA encoding for human bone alkaline phosphatase, with the hydrophobic carboxyl terminal portion deleted. Alkaline phosphatase was secreted into the medium to a level of 32mg/L when cultured in shake flasks, and enzyme activity was 12U/mg, as measured by a spectrophotometric assay. By conversion to a fermentation system, a yield of 880mg/L has been achieved with an enzyme activity of 968U/mg. By gel electrophoresis analysis, it appears that greater than 50% of the total protein in the fermentation media is alkaline phosphatase. Although purification procedures are not yet completely optimized, they are expected to include filtration, ion exchange and affinity chromatography. Our presentation will focus on the purification and crystallization results up to the time of the conference. Structural data should provide additional information on the role of alkaline phosphatase in normal bone mineralization and in certain bone mineralization anomalies.

  9. A Novel Inositol Pyrophosphate Phosphatase in Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    PubMed Central

    Steidle, Elizabeth A.; Chong, Lucy S.; Wu, Mingxuan; Crooke, Elliott; Fiedler, Dorothea; Resnick, Adam C.; Rolfes, Ronda J.

    2016-01-01

    Inositol pyrophosphates are high energy signaling molecules involved in cellular processes, such as energetic metabolism, telomere maintenance, stress responses, and vesicle trafficking, and can mediate protein phosphorylation. Although the inositol kinases underlying inositol pyrophosphate biosynthesis are well characterized, the phosphatases that selectively regulate their cellular pools are not fully described. The diphosphoinositol phosphate phosphohydrolase enzymes of the Nudix protein family have been demonstrated to dephosphorylate inositol pyrophosphates; however, the Saccharomyces cerevisiae homolog Ddp1 prefers inorganic polyphosphate over inositol pyrophosphates. We identified a novel phosphatase of the recently discovered atypical dual specificity phosphatase family as a physiological inositol pyrophosphate phosphatase. Purified recombinant Siw14 hydrolyzes the β-phosphate from 5-diphosphoinositol pentakisphosphate (5PP-IP5 or IP7) in vitro. In vivo, siw14Δ yeast mutants possess increased IP7 levels, whereas heterologous SIW14 overexpression eliminates IP7 from cells. IP7 levels increased proportionately when siw14Δ was combined with ddp1Δ or vip1Δ, indicating independent activity by the enzymes encoded by these genes. We conclude that Siw14 is a physiological phosphatase that modulates inositol pyrophosphate metabolism by dephosphorylating the IP7 isoform 5PP-IP5 to IP6. PMID:26828065

  10. Acid phosphatase activities during the germination of Glycine max seeds.

    PubMed

    dos Prazeres, Janaina Nicanuzia; Ferreira, Carmen Veríssima; Aoyama, Hiroshi

    2004-01-01

    In this paper, we describe a study concerning the determination of some characteristics of soybean seedlings and the detection of acid phosphatase activities towards different substrates during the germination. Enzyme activities with p-nitrophenylphosphate (pNPP) and inorganic pyrophosphate (PPi) as substrates were detected from the 5th and 7th days after germination, respectively. Acid phosphatase activities with tyrosine phosphate (TyrP), glucose-6-phosphate (G6P) and phosphoenol pyruvate (PEP) were also observed but to a lesser extent. Under the same conditions, no enzyme activity was detected with phytic acid (PhyAc) as substrate. The appearance of phosphatase activity was coincident with the decrease of inorganic phosphate content during germination; over the same period, the protein content increased up to the 5th day, decreased until the 8th day, and remained constant after this period. Relative to phosphatase activity in the cotyledons, the activities detected in the hypocotyl and roots were 82% and 38%, respectively. During storage the enzyme maintained about 63% of its activity for 3 months at 5 degrees C. The specificity constant (Vmax/Km) values for pNPP and PPi were 212 and 64 mu kat mM-1 mg-1, respectively. Amongst the substrates tested, PPi could be a potential physiological substrate for acid phosphatase during the germination of soybean seeds.

  11. A conserved phosphatase cascade that regulates nuclear membrane biogenesis.

    PubMed

    Kim, Youngjun; Gentry, Matthew S; Harris, Thurl E; Wiley, Sandra E; Lawrence, John C; Dixon, Jack E

    2007-04-17

    A newly emerging family of phosphatases that are members of the haloacid dehalogenase superfamily contains the catalytic motif DXDX(T/V). A member of this DXDX(T/V) phosphatase family known as Dullard was recently shown to be a potential regulator of neural tube development in Xenopus [Satow R, Chan TC, Asashima M (2002) Biochem Biophys Res Commun 295:85-91]. Herein, we demonstrate that human Dullard and the yeast protein Nem1p perform similar functions in mammalian cells and yeast cells, respectively. In addition to similarity in primary sequence, Dullard and Nem1p possess similar domains and show similar substrate preferences, and both localize to the nuclear envelope. Additionally, we show that human Dullard can rescue the aberrant nuclear envelope morphology of nem1Delta yeast cells, functionally replacing Nem1p. Finally, Nem1p, has been shown to deposphorylate the yeast phosphatidic acid phosphatase Smp2p [Santos-Rosa H, Leung J, Grimsey N, Peak-Chew S, Siniossoglou S (2005) EMBO J 24:1931-1941], and we show that Dullard dephosphorylates the mammalian phospatidic acid phosphatase, lipin. Therefore, we propose that Dullard participates in a unique phosphatase cascade regulating nuclear membrane biogenesis, and that this cascade is conserved from yeast to mammals.

  12. Establishment of hybridomas secreting monoclonal antibodies to placental alkaline phosphatase and development of an enzyme immunoassay for its determination.

    PubMed

    Kinoshita, Y; Okamoto, T; Mano, H; Furuhashi, Y; Goto, S; Tomoda, Y

    1990-06-01

    We established seven hybridomas secreting murine IgG monoclonal antibodies (MoAbs) to placental alkaline phosphatase (PLAP). The seven hybridomas were designated (1) 7C6, (2) 6G10, (3) 5B9, (4) 6D5, (5) 6B5, (6) 11G6 and (7) 3E10, respectively. The characteristics of these hybridomas were evaluated by radioimmunoassay (RIA) with 125I-PLAP. Their reactivity with the intestinal alkaline phosphatase, one of the alkaline phosphatase isozymes, was (1) 0.04, (2) 0.2, (3) 1.4, (4) 1.8, (5) 0, (6) 4.0 and (7) 6.2(%), respectively. None of them showed signs of cross-reactivity with the liver-type alkaline phosphatase, also one of the alkaline phosphatase isozymes, within a PLAP concentration of 2,000 IU/l. The subtype of 5B9 was IgG1, and that of the others was IgG2a. We then used 7C6, to develop a sensitive, specific and convenient enzyme immunoassay (EIA) for the determination of PLAP, and assayed sera from patients with various gynecologic diseases. The incidence of increased PLAP was 6.4% in patients with benign diseases, 21.5% in cervical cancer, 36.4% in endometrial carcinoma, and 39.5% in malignant ovarian tumors. The specificity for malignant diseases seemed to be higher than that of CA125. Among endometrial carcinomas, well-differentiated adenocarcinoma had the highest incidence of an increased concentration. Among malignant ovarian tumors, serous cystadenocarcinoma, endometrioid carcinoma, dysgerminoma and Krukenberg's tumor showed a higher incidence than the other types.

  13. [Effect of dental alloys on salivary alkaline and acid phosphatase, alpha amylase K+, Na+, and Cl-].

    PubMed

    Todorov, I; Saprjanova, M

    1977-04-01

    Comparative studied were performed in healthy subjects without metals in their oral cavities and in individuals having different metal alloys (gold, steel, amalgam) in their mouths and presenting with various complaints such as xerostomia, burning mucosa, etc. It was found that the contents of alkaline and acid phosphatases, alpha-amylase, K+, Na+ and Cl- in saliva increased significantly with the increase in total corrosion potential when non-precious metal alloys, especially different types of alloys, were present. Parallel to this, the frequency and the intensity of the complaints increased.

  14. Effect of perfluorooctane sulfonate on the conformation of wheat germ acid phosphatase.

    PubMed

    Xu, Dongmei; Jin, Jianchang; Shen, Tong; Wang, Yanhua

    2013-11-01

    Fluorescence spectroscopy was used to study the quenching mechanism, the type of force and the binding sites of perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) on wheat germ acid phosphatase (ACPase). The results showed that the quenching effect of PFOS on ACPase was mainly due to a static quenching mechanism that occurred via the formation of hydrogen bonds and van der Waals forces. The results from synchronous fluorescence spectroscopy demonstrated that PFOS interacts with ACPase close to the tryptophan residues. In addition, synchronous fluorescence spectroscopy also showed that PFOS increases the hydrophobicity of the microenvironment of the tyrosine residues, hence decreasing the local polarity.

  15. Regulation of PI3K effector signalling in cancer by the phosphoinositide phosphatases

    PubMed Central

    Rodgers, Samuel J.; Ferguson, Daniel T.; Mitchell, Christina A.

    2017-01-01

    Class I phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K) generates phosphatidylinositol 3,4,5-trisphosphate (PtdIns(3,4,5)P3) at the plasma membrane in response to growth factors, activating a signalling cascade that regulates many cellular functions including cell growth, proliferation, survival, migration and metabolism. The PI3K pathway is commonly dysregulated in human cancer, and drives tumorigenesis by promoting aberrant cell growth and transformation. PtdIns(3,4,5)P3 facilitates the activation of many pleckstrin homology (PH) domain-containing proteins including the serine/threonine kinase AKT. There are three AKT isoforms that are frequently hyperactivated in cancer through mutation, amplification or dysregulation of upstream regulatory proteins. AKT isoforms have converging and opposing functions in tumorigenesis. PtdIns(3,4,5)P3 signalling is degraded and terminated by phosphoinositide phosphatases such as phosphatase and tensin homologue (PTEN), proline-rich inositol polyphosphate 5-phosphatase (PIPP) (INPP5J) and inositol polyphosphate 4-phosphatase type II (INPP4B). PtdIns(3,4,5)P3 is rapidly hydrolysed by PIPP to generate phosphatidylinositol 3,4-bisphosphate (PtdIns(3,4)P2), which is further hydrolysed by INPP4B to form phosphatidylinositol 3-phosphate (PtdIns3P). PtdIns(3,4)P2 and PtdIns3P are also important signalling molecules; PtdIns(3,4)P2 together with PtdIns(3,4,5)P3 are required for maximal AKT activation and PtdIns3P activates PI3K-dependent serum and glucocorticoid-regulated kinase (SGK3) signalling. Loss of Pten, Pipp or Inpp4b expression or function promotes tumour growth in murine cancer models through enhanced AKT isoform-specific signalling. INPP4B inhibits PtdIns(3,4)P2-mediated AKT activation in breast and prostate cancer; however, INPP4B expression is increased in acute myeloid leukaemia (AML), melanoma and colon cancer where it paradoxically promotes cell proliferation, transformation and/or drug resistance. This review will discuss how PTEN, PIPP

  16. A glutamate switch controls voltage-sensitive phosphatase function.

    PubMed

    Liu, Lijun; Kohout, Susy C; Xu, Qiang; Müller, Simone; Kimberlin, Christopher R; Isacoff, Ehud Y; Minor, Daniel L

    2012-05-06

    The Ciona intestinalis voltage-sensing phosphatase (Ci-VSP) couples a voltage-sensing domain (VSD) to a lipid phosphatase that is similar to the tumor suppressor PTEN. How the VSD controls enzyme function has been unclear. Here, we present high-resolution crystal structures of the Ci-VSP enzymatic domain that reveal conformational changes in a crucial loop, termed the 'gating loop', that controls access to the active site by a mechanism in which residue Glu411 directly competes with substrate. Structure-based mutations that restrict gating loop conformation impair catalytic function and demonstrate that Glu411 also contributes to substrate selectivity. Structure-guided mutations further define an interaction between the gating loop and linker that connects the phosphatase to the VSD for voltage control of enzyme activity. Together, the data suggest that functional coupling between the gating loop and the linker forms the heart of the regulatory mechanism that controls voltage-dependent enzyme activation.

  17. [Interaction of two tumor suppressors: Phosphatase CTDSPL and Rb protein].

    PubMed

    Beniaminov, A D; Krasnov, G S; Dmitriev, A A; Puzanov, G A; Snopok, B A; Senchenko, V N; Kashuba, V I

    2016-01-01

    Earlier we established that CTDSPL gene encoding small carboxy-terminal domain serine phosphatase can be considered a classical tumor suppressor gene. Besides, transfection of tumor cell line MCF-7 with CTDSPL led to the content decrease of inactive phosphorylated form of another tumor suppressor, retinoblastoma protein (Rb), and subsequently to cell cycle arrest at the G1/S boundary. This result implied that small phosphatase CTDSPL is able to specifically dephosphorylate and activate Rb protein. In order to add some fuel to this hypothesis, in the present work we studied the interaction of two tumor suppressors CTDSPL and Rb in vitro. GST pool-down assay revealed that CTDSPL is able to precipitate Rb protein from MCF-7 cell extracts, while surface plasmon resonance technique showed that interaction of the two proteins is direct. Results of this study reassert that phosphatase CTDSPL and Rb could be involved in the common mechanism of cell cycle regulation.

  18. Cloning of the canine glucose-6-phosphatase gene

    SciTech Connect

    Kishnani, P.; Bao, Y.; Brix, A.E.

    1994-09-01

    Two Maltese puppies with massive hepatomegaly and failure to thrive were found to have a markedly reduced Glucose-6-phosphatase (G-6-Pase) activity in the liver and kidney. Deficiency of G-6-Pase activity causes type 1a glycogen storage disease in humans. To further study the mutation responsible for the disease in dog, we cloned G-6-Pase canine cDNA from normal mixed breed dog liver RNA using reverse transcriptase and PCR amplification using primers derived from the published murine G-6-Pase gene sequence. Sequencing revealed an open reading frame of 1071 nucleotides that encodes a predicted 357 amino acid polypeptide in the canine G-6-Pase gene, same as mouse and human. We found more than 90% sequence homology between dog and human G-6-Pase sequence. Hydropathy analysis of the deduced canine G-6-Pase polypeptide shows six transmembrane-spanning segments similar to those seen in human and mouse. Endoplasmic reticulum (ER) localization is similarly predicted by the presence of the ER protein retention signal KK positioned 3 and 4 amino acids from the carboxy terminal. Potential asparagine-linked glycosylation sites are identified at positions 96, 203, and 276. Northern blot analysis revealed increased G-6-Pase mRNA in the deficient dog liver compared to control. This could possibly reflect upregulation of transcription due to the persistent hypoglycemic state. Further studies are directed at the identification of the mutation involved in this deficient dog strain. Characterization of the G-6-Pase gene and protein in the deficient dog model can pave the way for new understanding in the pathophysiology of this disease and for the trials of novel therapeutic approaches including gene therapy.

  19. Small interfering RNA of alkaline phosphatase inhibits matrix mineralization.

    PubMed

    Kotobuki, Noriko; Matsushima, Asako; Kato, Youichi; Kubo, Yoko; Hirose, Motohiro; Ohgushi, Hajime

    2008-05-01

    To investigate the cascade of matrix mineralization, cells expressing high and low alkaline phosphatase (ALP) were separated from human osteoblast-like (HOS) cells by fluorescence-activated cell sorting with an ALP antibody. After these cells had been recloned from single cells and then cultured under osteogenic conditions, high-ALP-expressing HOS (H-HOS) cells showed matrix mineralization, but low-ALP-expressing HOS (L-HOS) cells did not. The interaction among osteogenic-related genes, such as runt-related transcription factor 2 (RUNX2), collagen type I alpha1 chain (COL1A1), tissue non-specific ALP, and osteocalcin (OCN), is well known as being related to matrix mineralization. Quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction revealed that the gene expression of ALP was higher in H-HOS cells than in L-HOS, whereas the gene expression of RUNX2, COL1A1, and OCN was lower in H-HOS cells than in L-HOS cells. When small interfering RNAs (siRNAs) of these osteogenic-related genes were introduced into H-HOS cells by transfection, only ALP siRNA inhibited matrix mineralization. Furthermore, the expression of not only the ALP gene, but also the COL1A1 and RUNX2 genes was influenced by the inhibition of ALP, although the expression of OCN was not affected by the inhibition of ALP. We have been able to confirm that the ALP gene is a strong candidate as the trigger of matrix mineralization. These results indicate the usefulness of cloned osteogenic cells in investigating the molecular mechanisms of matrix mineralization, the function of which can be modulated by using a variety of siRNAs.

  20. Structural basis of response regulator dephosphorylation by Rap phosphatases.

    PubMed

    Parashar, Vijay; Mirouze, Nicolas; Dubnau, David A; Neiditch, Matthew B

    2011-02-08

    Bacterial Rap family proteins have been most extensively studied in Bacillus subtilis, where they regulate activities including sporulation, genetic competence, antibiotic expression, and the movement of the ICEBs1 transposon. One subset of Rap proteins consists of phosphatases that control B. subtilis and B. anthracis sporulation by dephosphorylating the response regulator Spo0F. The mechanistic basis of Rap phosphatase activity was unknown. Here we present the RapH-Spo0F X-ray crystal structure, which shows that Rap proteins consist of a 3-helix bundle and a tetratricopeptide repeat domain. Extensive biochemical and genetic functional studies reveal the importance of the observed RapH-Spo0F interactions, including the catalytic role of a glutamine in the RapH 3-helix bundle that inserts into the Spo0F active site. We show that in addition to dephosphorylating Spo0F, RapH can antagonize sporulation by sterically blocking phosphoryl transfer to and from Spo0F. Our structure-function analysis of the RapH-Spo0F interaction identified Rap protein residues critical for Spo0F phosphatase activity. This information enabled us to assign Spo0F phosphatase activity to a Rap protein based on sequence alone, which was not previously possible. Finally, as the ultimate test of our newfound understanding of the structural requirements for Rap phosphatase function, a non-phosphatase Rap protein that inhibits the binding of the response regulator ComA to DNA was rationally engineered to dephosphorylate Spo0F. In addition to revealing the mechanistic basis of response regulator dephosphorylation by Rap proteins, our studies support the previously proposed T-loop-Y allostery model of receiver domain regulation that restricts the aromatic "switch" residue to an internal position when the β4-α4 loop adopts an active-site proximal conformation.

  1. Phosphatase inhibitors with anti-angiogenic effect in vitro.

    PubMed

    Sylvest, Lene; Bendiksen, Christine Dam; Houen, Gunnar

    2010-01-01

    Levamisole has previously been identified as an inhibitor of angiogenesis in vitro and in vivo, but the mechanism behind the anti-angiogenic behavior has not yet been established. However, one known effect of levamisole is the inhibition of alkaline phosphatase, and this fact encouraged us to test other phosphatase inhibitors for their anti-angiogenic effects by using the same method as used to identify levamisole: an ELISA-based co-culture angiogenesis assay giving quantitative and qualitative results. Historically, intracellular phosphatases have been associated with the downregulation of signaling pathways, and kinases with their upregulation, but lately, the phospatases have also been coupled to positive signaling, which is why inhibition of phosphatases has become associated with anti-tumorigenic and anti-angiogenic effects. The results obtained in this work reveal several agents with anti-angiogenic potential and give a strong indication that phosphatase inhibition is linked to anti-angiogenic activity. An apparent disruption of endothelial tube formation was seen for seven of eight phosphatase inhibitors tested in the angiogenesis assay. By looking at the morphological results, it was seen that most of the inhibitors impaired proliferation and elongation of the endothelial cells, which still had a differentiated appearance. One inhibitor, PTP inhibitor IV, seemed to impair endothelial cell differentiation and induced the same morphology as when cells were treated with levamisole, although at a 200 times lower concentration than that of levamisole. Hence, our work points out compounds with a potential that may be of use in the search for new medical products for the treatment of malignant tumors, or other conditions where angiogenesis plays a central role.

  2. Phosphatase activity on the cell wall of Fonsecaea pedrosoi.

    PubMed

    Kneipp, L F; Palmeira, V F; Pinheiro, A A S; Alviano, C S; Rozental, S; Travassos, L R; Meyer-Fernandes, J R

    2003-12-01

    The activity of a phosphatase was characterized in intact mycelial forms of Fonsecaea pedrosoi, a pathogenic fungus that causes chromoblastomycosis. At pH 5.5, this fungus hydrolyzed p-nitrophenylphosphate (p-NPP) to p-nitrophenol (p-NP) at a rate of 12.78 +/- 0.53 nmol p-NP per h per mg hyphal dry weight. The values of Vmax and apparent Km for p-NPP hydrolyses were measured as 17.89 +/- 0.92 nmol p-NP per h per mg hyphal dry weight and 1.57 +/- 0.26 mmol/l, respectively. This activity was inhibited at increased pH, a finding compatible with an acid phosphatase. The enzymatic activity was strongly inhibited by classical inhibitors of acid phosphatases such as sodium orthovanadate (Ki = 4.23 micromol/l), sodium molybdate (Ki = 7.53 micromol/l) and sodium fluoride (Ki = 126.78 micromol/l) in a dose-dependent manner. Levamizole (1 mmol/l) and sodium tartrate (10 mmol/l), had no effect on the enzyme activity. Cytochemical localization of the acid phosphatase showed electrondense cerium phosphate deposits on the cell wall, as visualized by transmission electron microscopy. Phosphatase activity in F. pedrosoi seems to be associated with parasitism, as sclerotic cells, which are the fungal forms mainly detected in chromoblastomycosis lesions, showed much higher activities than conidia and mycelia did. A strain of F. pedrosoi recently isolated from a human case of chromoblastomycosis also showed increased enzyme activity, suggesting that the expression of surface phosphatases may be stimulated by interaction with the host.

  3. MDP-1: A novel eukaryotic magnesium-dependent phosphatase.

    PubMed

    Selengut, J D; Levine, R L

    2000-07-18

    We report here the purification, cloning, expression, and characterization of a novel phosphatase, MDP-1. In the course of investigating the reported acid phosphatase activity of carbonic anhydrase III preparations, several discrete phosphatases were discerned. One of these, a magnesium-dependent species of 18.6 kDa, was purified to homogeneity and yielded several peptide sequences from which the parent gene was identified by database searching. Although orthologous genes were identified in fungi and plants as well as mammalian species, there was no apparent homology to any known family of phosphatases. The enzyme was expressed in Escherichia coli with a fusion tag and purified by affinity methods. The recombinant enzyme showed magnesium-dependent acid phosphatase activity comparable to the originally isolated rabbit protein. The enzyme catalyzes the rapid hydrolysis of p-nitrophenyl phosphate, ribose-5-phosphate, and phosphotyrosine. The selectivity for phosphotyrosine over phosphoserine or phosphothreonine is considerable, but the enzyme did not show activity toward five phosphotyrosine-containing peptides. None of the various substrates assayed (including various nucleotide, sugar, amino acid and peptide phosphates, phosphoinositides, and phosphodiesters) exhibited K(M) values lower than 1 mM, and many showed negligible rates of hydrolysis. The enzyme is inhibited by vanadate and fluoride but not by azide, cyanide, calcium, lithium, or tartaric acid. Chemical labeling, refolding, dialysis, and mutagenesis experiments suggest that the enzymatic mechanism is not dependent on cysteine, histidine, or nonmagnesium metal ions. In recognition of these observations, the enzyme has been given the name magnesium-dependent phosphatase-1 (MDP-1).

  4. Structural Basis of Response Regulator Dephosphorylation by Rap Phosphatases

    SciTech Connect

    V Parashar; N Mirouze; D Dubnau; M Neiditch

    2011-12-31

    Bacterial Rap family proteins have been most extensively studied in Bacillus subtilis, where they regulate activities including sporulation, genetic competence, antibiotic expression, and the movement of the ICEBs1 transposon. One subset of Rap proteins consists of phosphatases that control B. subtilis and B. anthracis sporulation by dephosphorylating the response regulator Spo0F. The mechanistic basis of Rap phosphatase activity was unknown. Here we present the RapH-Spo0F X-ray crystal structure, which shows that Rap proteins consist of a 3-helix bundle and a tetratricopeptide repeat domain. Extensive biochemical and genetic functional studies reveal the importance of the observed RapH-Spo0F interactions, including the catalytic role of a glutamine in the RapH 3-helix bundle that inserts into the Spo0F active site. We show that in addition to dephosphorylating Spo0F, RapH can antagonize sporulation by sterically blocking phosphoryl transfer to and from Spo0F. Our structure-function analysis of the RapH-Spo0F interaction identified Rap protein residues critical for Spo0F phosphatase activity. This information enabled us to assign Spo0F phosphatase activity to a Rap protein based on sequence alone, which was not previously possible. Finally, as the ultimate test of our newfound understanding of the structural requirements for Rap phosphatase function, a non-phosphatase Rap protein that inhibits the binding of the response regulator ComA to DNA was rationally engineered to dephosphorylate Spo0F. In addition to revealing the mechanistic basis of response regulator dephosphorylation by Rap proteins, our studies support the previously proposed T-loop-Y allostery model of receiver domain regulation that restricts the aromatic 'switch' residue to an internal position when the {beta}4-{alpha}4 loop adopts an active-site proximal conformation.

  5. Autophagy Signaling in Prostate Cancer: Identification of a Novel Phosphatase

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-01-01

    lacking protein tyrosine phosphatase sigma . Nat Genet, 1999. 21(3): p. 330-3. 18. Wallace, M.J., et al., Neuronal defects and posterior pituitary...targeting requires receptor protein tyrosine phosphatases sigma and delta. J Neurosci, 2006. 26(22): p. 5872-80. 20. Klionsky, D.J., Autophagy: from...were seeded in McCoy’s 5A with 10% FBS at 200,000 cells per well of six -well tissue culture plates. After 24 hours, control or PTPRS siRNAs were

  6. Phosphotyrosine as a substrate of acid and alkaline phosphatases.

    PubMed

    Apostoł, I; Kuciel, R; Wasylewska, E; Ostrowski, W S

    1985-01-01

    A new spectrophotometric method for following dephosphorylation of phosphotyrosine has been described. The absorption spectra of phosphotyrosine and tyrosine were plotted over the pH range from 3 to 9. The change in absorbance accompanying the conversion of phosphotyrosine to tyrosine was the greatest at 286 nm. The difference absorption coefficients were calculated for several pH values. Dephosphorylation of phosphotyrosine by acid phosphatases from human prostate gland, from wheat germ and potatoes obeys the Michaelis-Menten equation, whereas alkaline phosphatases calf intestine and E. coli are inhibited by excess of substrate.

  7. Effect of vanadium compounds on acid phosphatase activity.

    PubMed

    Vescina, C M; Sálice, V C; Cortizo, A M; Etcheverry, S B

    1996-01-01

    The direct effect of different vanadium compounds on acid phosphatase (ACP) activity was investigated. Vanadate and vanadyl but not pervanadate inhibited the wheat germ ACP activity. These vanadium derivatives did not alter the fibroblast Swiss 3T3 soluble fraction ACP activity. Using inhibitors of tyrosine phosphatases (PTPases), the wheat germ ACP was partially characterized as a PTPase. This study suggests that the inhibitory ability of different vanadium derivatives to modulate ACP activity seems to depend on the geometry around the vanadium atom more than on the oxidation state. Our results indicate a correlation between the PTPase activity and the sensitivity to vanadate and vanadyl cation.

  8. Reduced expression of CD45 Protein-Tyrosine Phosphatase Pr

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-05-08

    complex ( MHC ) I (28-14-8), MHC II (M5/114.15.2), CD44 (IM7), and Ly6G (1A8). Cells (1 106) were resuspended in Fc block (anti CD16/CD32 antibody diluted...enzyme (supplemental Fig. 3). Themajority of the phosphatases tested in this panel belong to the class of protein-tyrosine phosphatases (SHP-1, SHP- 2 ...and Sina Bavari‡ 2 From the ‡United States Army Medical Research Institute of Infectious Diseases, Frederick, Maryland 21702-5011, §Target Structure

  9. Attenuated virulence of a Francisella mutant lacking the lipid A 4′-phosphatase

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Xiaoyuan; Ribeiro, Anthony A.; Guan, Ziqiang; Abraham, Soman N.; Raetz, Christian R. H.

    2007-01-01

    Francisella tularensis causes tularemia, a highly contagious disease of animals and humans, but the virulence features of F. tularensis are poorly defined. F. tularensis and the related mouse pathogen Francisella novicida synthesize unusual lipid A molecules lacking the 4′-monophosphate group typically found in the lipid A of Gram-negative bacteria. LpxF, a selective phosphatase located on the periplasmic surface of the inner membrane, removes the 4′-phosphate moiety in the late stages of F. novicida lipid A assembly. To evaluate the relevance of the 4′-phosphatase to pathogenesis, we constructed a deletion mutant of lpxF and compared its virulence with wild-type F. novicida. Intradermal injection of 106 wild-type but not 108 mutant F. novicida cells is lethal to mice. The rapid clearance of the lpxF mutant is associated with a stronger local cytokine response and a greater influx of neutrophils compared with wild-type. The F. novicida mutant was highly susceptible to the cationic antimicrobial peptide polymyxin. LpxF therefore represents a kind of virulence factor that confers a distinct lipid A phenotype, preventing Francisella from activating the host innate immune response and preventing the bactericidal actions of cationic peptides. Francisella lpxF mutants may be useful for immunization against tularemia. PMID:17360489

  10. DNA polymorphism of alkaline phosphatase isozyme genes: Linkage disequilibria between placental and germ-cell alkaline phosphotase alleles

    SciTech Connect

    Beckman, G.; Beckman, L.; Sikstroem, C. ); Millan, J.L. )

    1992-11-01

    The use of human placental alkaline phosphatase (PLAP) cDNA as a probe allows the detection and identification of restriction DNA fragments derived from three homologous genes, i.e., intestinal alkaline phosphatase (AP), germ-cell AP (GCAP), and PLAP. In previous RFLP studies the authors have reported linkage disequilibria between an RsaI and two PstI (a and b) polymorphic restriction sites and electrophoretic types of PLAP. In this report they present evidence that, in spite of the strong correlation with PLAP types, PstI(b) is an RFLP of GCAP. The data indicate close linkage between the PLAP and GCAP loci. 18 refs., 2 figs., 3 tabs.

  11. Purinergic receptor-mediated rapid depletion of nuclear phosphorylated Akt depends on pleckstrin homology domain leucine-rich repeat phosphatase, calcineurin, protein phosphatase 2A, and PTEN phosphatases.

    PubMed

    Mistafa, Oras; Ghalali, Aram; Kadekar, Sandeep; Högberg, Johan; Stenius, Ulla

    2010-09-03

    Akt is an important oncoprotein, and data suggest a critical role for nuclear Akt in cancer development. We have previously described a rapid (3-5 min) and P2X7-dependent depletion of nuclear phosphorylated Akt (pAkt) and effects on downstream targets, and here we studied mechanisms behind the pAkt depletion. We show that cholesterol-lowering drugs, statins, or extracellular ATP, induced a complex and coordinated response in insulin-stimulated A549 cells leading to depletion of nuclear pAkt. It involved protein/lipid phosphatases PTEN, pleckstrin homology domain leucine-rich repeat phosphatase (PHLPP1 and -2), protein phosphatase 2A (PP2A), and calcineurin. We employed immunocytology, immunoprecipitation, and proximity ligation assay techniques and show that PHLPP and calcineurin translocated to the nucleus and formed complexes with Akt within 3 min. Also PTEN translocated to the nucleus and then co-localized with pAkt close to the nuclear membrane. An inhibitor of the scaffolding immunophilin FK506-binding protein 51 (FKBP51) and calcineurin, FK506, prevented depletion of nuclear pAkt. Furthermore, okadaic acid, an inhibitor of PP2A, prevented the nuclear pAkt depletion. Chemical inhibition and siRNA indicated that PHLPP, PP2A, and PTEN were required for a robust depletion of nuclear pAkt, and in prostate cancer cells lacking PTEN, transfection of PTEN restored the statin-induced pAkt depletion. The activation of protein and lipid phosphatases was paralleled by a rapid proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) translocation to the nucleus, a PCNA-p21(cip1) complex formation, and cyclin D1 degradation. We conclude that these effects reflect a signaling pathway for rapid depletion of pAkt that may stop the cell cycle.

  12. The Leishmania donovani histidine acid ecto-phosphatase LdMAcP: insight into its structure and function

    PubMed Central

    Papadaki, Amalia; Politou, Anastasia S.; Smirlis, Despina; Kotini, Maria P.; Kourou, Konstadina; Papamarcaki, Thomais; Boleti, Haralabia

    2015-01-01

    Acid ecto-phosphatase activity has been implicated in Leishmania donovani promastigote virulence. In the present study, we report data contributing to the molecular/structural and functional characterization of the L. donovani LdMAcP (L. donovani membrane acid phosphatase), member of the histidine acid phosphatase (HAcP) family. LdMAcP is membrane-anchored and shares high sequence identity with the major secreted L. donovani acid phosphatases (LdSAcPs). Sequence comparison of the LdMAcP orthologues in Leishmania sp. revealed strain polymorphism and species specificity for the L. donovani complex, responsible for visceral leishmaniasis (Khala azar), proposing thus a potential value of LdMAcP as an epidemiological or diagnostic tool. The extracellular orientation of the LdMAcP catalytic domain was confirmed in L. donovani promastigotes, wild-type (wt) and transgenic overexpressing a recombinant LdMAcP–mRFP1 (monomeric RFP1) chimera, as well as in transiently transfected mammalian cells expressing rLdMAcP–His. For the first time it is demonstrated in the present study that LdMAcP confers tartrate resistant acid ecto-phosphatase activity in live L. donovani promastigotes. The latter confirmed the long sought molecular identity of at least one enzyme contributing to this activity. Interestingly, the L. donovani rLdMAcP–mRFP1 promastigotes generated in this study, showed significantly higher infectivity and virulence indexes than control parasites in the infection of J774 mouse macrophages highlighting thereby a role for LdMAcP in the parasite's virulence. PMID:25695743

  13. Structural and functional basis of protein phosphatase 5 substrate specificity.

    PubMed

    Oberoi, Jasmeen; Dunn, Diana M; Woodford, Mark R; Mariotti, Laura; Schulman, Jacqualyn; Bourboulia, Dimitra; Mollapour, Mehdi; Vaughan, Cara K

    2016-08-09

    The serine/threonine phosphatase protein phosphatase 5 (PP5) regulates hormone- and stress-induced cellular signaling by association with the molecular chaperone heat shock protein 90 (Hsp90). PP5-mediated dephosphorylation of the cochaperone Cdc37 is essential for activation of Hsp90-dependent kinases. However, the details of this mechanism remain unknown. We determined the crystal structure of a Cdc37 phosphomimetic peptide bound to the catalytic domain of PP5. The structure reveals PP5 utilization of conserved elements of phosphoprotein phosphatase (PPP) structure to bind substrate and provides a template for many PPP-substrate interactions. Our data show that, despite a highly conserved structure, elements of substrate specificity are determined within the phosphatase catalytic domain itself. Structure-based mutations in vivo reveal that PP5-mediated dephosphorylation is required for kinase and steroid hormone receptor release from the chaperone complex. Finally, our data show that hyper- or hypoactivity of PP5 mutants increases Hsp90 binding to its inhibitor, suggesting a mechanism to enhance the efficacy of Hsp90 inhibitors by regulation of PP5 activity in tumors.

  14. Purification and characterization of two wheat-embryo protein phosphatases.

    PubMed

    Polya, G M; Haritou, M

    1988-04-15

    Two protein phosphatases (enzymes I and II) were extensively purified from wheat embryo by a procedure involving chromatography on DEAE-cellulose, phenyl-Sepharose CL-4B, DEAE-Sephacel and Ultrogel AcA 44. Preparations of enzyme I (Mr 197,000) are heterogeneous. Preparations of enzyme II (Mr 35,000) contain only one major polypeptide (Mr 17,500), which exactly co-purifies with protein phosphatase II on gel filtration and is not present in preparations of enzyme I. However, this major polypeptide has been identified as calmodulin. Calmodulin and protein phosphatase II can be separated by further chromatography on phenyl-Sepharose CL-4B. Protein phosphatases I and II do not require Mg2+ or Ca2+ for activity. Both enzymes catalyse the dephosphorylation of phosphohistone H1 (phosphorylated by wheat-germ Ca2+-dependent protein kinase) and of phosphocasein (phosphorylated by wheat-germ Ca2+-independent casein kinase), but neither enzyme dephosphorylates a range of non-protein phosphomonoesters tested. Both enzymes are inhibited by Zn2+, Hg2+, vanadate, molybdate, F-, pyrophosphate and ATP.

  15. Anion and divalent cation activation of phosphoglycolate phosphatase from leaves.

    PubMed

    Husic, H D; Tolbert, N E

    1984-02-15

    Phosphoglycolate (P-glycolate) phosphatase was purified 223-fold from spinach leaves by (NH4)2SO4 fractionation, DEAE-cellulose chromatography, and Sephadex G-200 chromatography. The partially purified enzyme had a broad pH optimum between 5.6 and 8.0 and was specific for the hydrolysis of P-glycolate with a Km (P-glycolate) of 26 microM. The enzyme was activated by divalent cations including Mg2+, Co2+, Mn2+, and Zn2+, and by anions including Cl-, Br-, NO-3, and HCOO-. Neither anions nor divalent cations activated the enzyme without the other. The P-glycolate phosphatase activities from tobacco leaves or the green algae, Chlamydomonas reinhardtii, also required Mg2+ and were activated by chloride. In addition, the enzyme was allosterically inhibited by ribose 5-phosphate. The activation of P-glycolate phosphatase by both anions and divalent cations and the inhibition by ribose 5-phosphate may be involved in the in vivo regulation of P-glycolate phosphatase activity.

  16. A human phospholipid phosphatase activated by a transmembrane control module.

    PubMed

    Halaszovich, Christian R; Leitner, Michael G; Mavrantoni, Angeliki; Le, Audrey; Frezza, Ludivine; Feuer, Anja; Schreiber, Daniela N; Villalba-Galea, Carlos A; Oliver, Dominik

    2012-11-01

    In voltage-sensitive phosphatases (VSPs), a transmembrane voltage sensor domain (VSD) controls an intracellular phosphoinositide phosphatase domain, thereby enabling immediate initiation of intracellular signals by membrane depolarization. The existence of such a mechanism in mammals has remained elusive, despite the presence of VSP-homologous proteins in mammalian cells, in particular in sperm precursor cells. Here we demonstrate activation of a human VSP (hVSP1/TPIP) by an intramolecular switch. By engineering a chimeric hVSP1 with enhanced plasma membrane targeting containing the VSD of a prototypic invertebrate VSP, we show that hVSP1 is a phosphoinositide-5-phosphatase whose predominant substrate is PI(4,5)P(2). In the chimera, enzymatic activity is controlled by membrane potential via hVSP1's endogenous phosphoinositide binding motif. These findings suggest that the endogenous VSD of hVSP1 is a control module that initiates signaling through the phosphatase domain and indicate a role for VSP-mediated phosphoinositide signaling in mammals.

  17. Effects of organic dairy manure amendment on soil phosphatase activities

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Organic dairy production is increasing in the U.S. due to concerns over environmental, human, and animal health. It is well known that the application of livestock manure to soil can influence enzyme activities involved in nutrient cycling and soil fertility, such as soil phosphatases; however, orga...

  18. Okadaic acid: the archetypal serine/threonine protein phosphatase inhibitor.

    PubMed

    Dounay, A B; Forsyth, C J

    2002-11-01

    As the first recognized member of the "okadaic acid class" of phosphatase inhibitors, the marine natural product okadaic acid is perhaps the most well-known member of a diverse array of secondary metabolites that have emerged as valuable probes for studying the roles of various cellular protein serine/threonine phosphatases. This review provides a historical perspective on the role that okadaic acid has played in stimulating a broad spectrum of modern scientific research as a result of the natural product's ability to bind to and inhibit important classes of protein serine / threonine phosphatases. The relationships between the structure and biological activities of okadaic acid are briefly reviewed, as well as the structural information regarding the particular cellular receptors protein phosphatases 1 (PP1) and 2A. Laboratory syntheses of okadaic acid and its analogs are thoroughly reviewed. Finally, an interpretation of the critical contacts observed between okadaic acid and PP1 by X-ray crystallography is provided, and specific molecular recognition hypotheses that are testable via the synthesis and assay of non-natural analogs of okadaic acid are suggested.

  19. New form of acid phosphatase during lysosome biogenesis.

    PubMed Central

    Rao, G R; Aithal, H N; Toback, F G; Getz, G S

    1981-01-01

    Lysosome formation was induced in cells of the renal medulla by feeding rats on a K+-deficient diet. The role of the endoplasmic reticulum in the production of acid phosphatase, a typical lysosomal enzyme, was examined. Lysosomal and microsomal fractions were prepared for study by differential centrifugation of homogenates of renal papilla and inner stripe of red medulla. Acid phosphatase activity in the microsomal fraction was distinguished from the activity in the lysosomal fraction in normal tissue by differences in pH optima, tartrate inhibition, distribution of multiple forms after polyacrylamide-gel electrophoresis and detergent-sensitivity. During progressive K+ depletion, acid phosphatase activity in both microsomal and lysosomal fractions of the tissue increased 3-fold. In the lysosomes, K+ depletion was associated with the appearance of a new band of acid phosphatase. The neuraminidase-sensitivity of this band on polyacrylamide-gel electrophoresis indicated that the enzyme protein had been modified by the addition of sialic acid residues. K+ depletion also altered the lysosomal enzyme so that thiol compounds were able to stimulate its activity. Images Fig. 4. PMID:7326004

  20. Specificity profiling of protein phosphatases toward phosphoseryl and phosphothreonyl peptides.

    PubMed

    Xiao, Qing; Luechapanichkul, Rinrada; Zhai, Yujing; Pei, Dehua

    2013-07-03

    A combinatorial library method was developed to systematically profile the substrate specificity of protein phosphatases toward phosphoseryl (pS) and phosphothreonyl (pT) peptides. Application of this method and a previously reported phosphotyrosyl (pY) library screening technique to dual-specificity phosphatase (DUSP) VH1 of vaccinia virus revealed that VH1 is highly active toward both pS/pT and pY peptides. VH1 exhibits different and more stringent sequence specificity toward pS/pT than pY substrates. Unlike previously characterized protein tyrosine phosphatases (PTPs), the activity and specificity of VH1 are primarily determined by the amino acid residues C-terminal to the pS, pT, or pY residue. In contrast, the mammalian VH1-related (VHR) DUSP has intrinsically low catalytic activity toward pS and pT substrates, suggesting that its primary physiological function is to dephosphorylate pY residues in substrate proteins. This method is applicable to other DUSPs and protein-serine/threonine phosphatases, and the substrate specificity data will be useful for identifying the physiological substrates of these enzymes.

  1. Effect of Poultry Manure Amendment on Soil Phosphatase Activity

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Animal manure has traditionally been used as a fertilizer source. Manure phosphorus (P) exists in many forms, not all of which are immediately available. Microbial and plant-derived phosphatases can mineralize some organic P forms. Increased understanding of effects of manure application on soil p...

  2. Phosphatase inhibitors activate normal and defective CFTR chloride channels.

    PubMed Central

    Becq, F; Jensen, T J; Chang, X B; Savoia, A; Rommens, J M; Tsui, L C; Buchwald, M; Riordan, J R; Hanrahan, J W

    1994-01-01

    The cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) chloride channel is regulated by phosphorylation and dephosphorylation at multiple sites. Although activation by protein kinases has been studied in some detail, the dephosphorylation step has received little attention. This report examines the mechanisms responsible for the dephosphorylation and spontaneous deactivation ("rundown") of CFTR chloride channels excised from transfected Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) and human airway epithelial cells. We report that the alkaline phosphatase inhibitors bromotetramisole, 3-isobutyl-1-methylxanthine, theophylline, and vanadate slow the rundown of CFTR channel activity in excised membrane patches and reduce dephosphorylation of CFTR protein in isolated membranes. It was also found that in unstimulated cells, CFTR channels can be activated by exposure to phosphatase inhibitors alone. Most importantly, exposure of mammalian cells to phosphatase inhibitors alone activates CFTR channels that have disease-causing mutations, provided the mutant channels are present in the plasma membrane (R117H, G551D, and delta F508 after cooling). These results suggest that CFTR dephosphorylation is dynamic and that membrane-associated phosphatase activity may be a potential therapeutic target for the treatment of cystic fibrosis. Images PMID:7522329

  3. Biocatalysis with Sol-Gel Encapsulated Acid Phosphatase

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kulkarni, Suhasini; Tran, Vu; Ho, Maggie K.-M.; Phan, Chieu; Chin, Elizabeth; Wemmer, Zeke; Sommerhalter, Monika

    2010-01-01

    This experiment was performed in an upper-level undergraduate biochemistry laboratory course. Students learned how to immobilize an enzyme in a sol-gel matrix and how to perform and evaluate enzyme-activity measurements. The enzyme acid phosphatase (APase) from wheat germ was encapsulated in sol-gel beads that were prepared from the precursor…

  4. Yeast Acid Phosphatases and Phytases: Production, Characterization and Commercial Prospects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaur, Parvinder; Satyanarayana, T.

    The element phosphorus is critical to all life forms as it forms the basic component of nucleic acids and ATP and has a number of indispensable biochemical roles. Unlike C or N, the biogeochemical cycling of phosphorus is very slow, and thus making it the growth-limiting element in most soils and aquatic systems. Phosphohydrolases (e.g. acid phosphatases and phytases) are enzymes that break the C-O-P ester bonds and provide available inorganic phosphorus from various inassimilable organic forms of phosphorus like phytates. These enzymes are of significant value in effectively combating phosphorus pollution. Although phytases and acid phosphatases are produced by various plants, animals and micro organisms, microbial sources are more promising for the production on a commercial scale. Yeasts being the simplest eukaryotes are ideal candidates for phytase and phos-phatase research due to their mostly non-pathogenic and GRAS status. They have not, however, been utilized to their full potential. This chapter focuses attention on the present state of knowledge on the production, characterization and potential commercial prospects of yeast phytases and acid phosphatases.

  5. Functional Diversity of Haloacid Dehalogenase Superfamily Phosphatases from Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    PubMed Central

    Kuznetsova, Ekaterina; Nocek, Boguslaw; Brown, Greg; Makarova, Kira S.; Flick, Robert; Wolf, Yuri I.; Khusnutdinova, Anna; Evdokimova, Elena; Jin, Ke; Tan, Kemin; Hanson, Andrew D.; Hasnain, Ghulam; Zallot, Rémi; de Crécy-Lagard, Valérie; Babu, Mohan; Savchenko, Alexei; Joachimiak, Andrzej; Edwards, Aled M.; Koonin, Eugene V.; Yakunin, Alexander F.

    2015-01-01

    The haloacid dehalogenase (HAD)-like enzymes comprise a large superfamily of phosphohydrolases present in all organisms. The Saccharomyces cerevisiae genome encodes at least 19 soluble HADs, including 10 uncharacterized proteins. Here, we biochemically characterized 13 yeast phosphatases from the HAD superfamily, which includes both specific and promiscuous enzymes active against various phosphorylated metabolites and peptides with several HADs implicated in detoxification of phosphorylated compounds and pseudouridine. The crystal structures of four yeast HADs provided insight into their active sites, whereas the structure of the YKR070W dimer in complex with substrate revealed a composite substrate-binding site. Although the S. cerevisiae and Escherichia coli HADs share low sequence similarities, the comparison of their substrate profiles revealed seven phosphatases with common preferred substrates. The cluster of secondary substrates supporting significant activity of both S. cerevisiae and E. coli HADs includes 28 common metabolites that appear to represent the pool of potential activities for the evolution of novel HAD phosphatases. Evolution of novel substrate specificities of HAD phosphatases shows no strict correlation with sequence divergence. Thus, evolution of the HAD superfamily combines the conservation of the overall substrate pool and the substrate profiles of some enzymes with remarkable biochemical and structural flexibility of other superfamily members. PMID:26071590

  6. Dephosphorylation of phosphopeptides by calcineurin (protein phosphatase 2B).

    PubMed

    Donella-Deana, A; Krinks, M H; Ruzzene, M; Klee, C; Pinna, L A

    1994-01-15

    38 (6-32 residues) enzymically phosphorylated synthetic peptides have been assayed as substrates for calcineurin, a Ca2+/calmodulin-dependent protein phosphatase (PP-2B) belonging to the family of Ser/Thr-specific enzymes but also active on phosphotyrosine residues. Many peptides reproduce, with suitable modifications, naturally occurring phosphoacceptor sites. While protein phosphatases 2A and 2C are also very active on short phosphopeptides, an extended N-terminal stretch appears to be a necessary, albeit not sufficient, condition for an optimal dephosphorylation, comparable to that of protein substrates, of both phosphoseryl and phosphotyrosyl peptides by calcineurin. This finding corroborates the view that higher-order structure is an important determinant for the substrate specificity of calcineurin. However, a number of shorter peptides are also appreciably dephosphorylated by this enzyme, their efficiency as substrates depending on local structural features. All the peptides that are appreciably dephosphorylated by calcineurin contain basic residue(s) on the N-terminal side. A basic residue located at position -3 relative to the phosphorylated residue plays a particularly relevant positive role in determining the dephosphorylation of short phosphopeptides. Acidic residue(s) adjacent to the C-terminal side of the phosphoamino acid are conversely powerful negative determinants, preventing the dephosphorylation of otherwise suitable peptide substrates. However, calcineurin displays an only moderate preference for phosphothreonyl peptides which are conversely strikingly preferred over their phosphoseryl counterparts by the other classes of Ser/Thr-specific protein phosphatases. Moreover calcineurin does not perceive as a strong negative determinant the motif Ser/Thr-Pro in peptides where this motif prevents dephosphorylation by the other classes of Ser/Thr protein phosphatases. Whenever tested on phosphotyrosyl peptides, calcineurin exhibits a specificity which

  7. Phosphatase acitivity as biosignatures in terrestrial extreme environments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kawai, Jun; Nakamoto, Saki; Hara, Masashi; Obayashi, Yumiko; Kaneko, Takeo; Mita, Hajime; Yoshimura, Yoshitaka; Takano, Yoshinori; Kobayashi, Kensei

    Since phosphate esters are essential for the terrestrial life, phosphatase activity can be a can-didate for biosignatures of biological activity. It has been recognized that terrestrial biosphere expands to such extreme environments as deep subsurface lithosphere, high temperature hot springs and stratosphere. We analyzed phosphatase activities in the samples obtained in ex-treme environments such as submarine hydrothermal systems and Antarctica , and discussed whether they can be used as biosignatures for extant life. Core samples and chimney samples were collected at Tarama Knoll in Okinawa Trough in 2009, both in a part of the Archaean Park Project. Surface soil samples are obtained at the Sites 1-8 near Showa Base in Antarctica during the 47th Japan Antarctic exploration mission in 2005-6. Alkaline Phosphatase activ-ity in sea water and in soil was measured spectrometrically by using 25 mM p-nitrophenyl phosphate (pH 8.0) as a substrate. Phosphatase activities in extracts were measured fluoro-metrically by using 4-methylumberyferryl phosphate as a substrate. Concentration of amino acids and their enantiomeric ratios were also determined by HPLC . Significant enzymatic ac-tivities were revealed in both some of the hydrothermal sub-vent systems and Antarctica soils, which is crucial evidence of vigorous microbial oasis. It is consistent with the fact that large enantiomeric excess of L-form amino acids were found in the same core sequences. Optimum temperatures of ALP in the chimney, Antarctica soil and YNU campus soil were 353 K, 313 K, and 333 K, respectively. The present results suggested that phosphatase activities,, together with amino acids, can be used as possible biosignatures for extant life.

  8. Protein tyrosine phosphatase PTPRB regulates Src phosphorylation and tumour progression in NSCLC.

    PubMed

    Qi, Yinliang; Dai, Yuanchang; Gui, Shuyu

    2016-10-01

    Protein tyrosine-phosphatases (PTPs) play important roles in various biological processes. Deregulation in PTP function has been implicated in carcinogenesis and tumour progression in many cancer types. However, the role of protein tyrosine phosphatase receptor type B (PTPRB) in non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) tumorigenesis has not been investigated. Lentiviral vector expressing PTPRB cDNA or shRNA was infected into A549 and H1299 cell lines, followed by cell proliferation, colony formation, soft agar and invasion assays. A549 xenograft mouse model was used to evaluate in vivo function of PTPRB. Quantitative polymerase chain reaction (PCR) was used to measure PTPRB expression in NSCLC patient samples. Kaplan Meier analysis was performed to assess association between PTPRB expression and patient overall survival (OS). Multivariate analysis was performed to evaluate prognostic significance of PTPRB. Overexpression of PTPRB reduced cell proliferation rate, colony formation efficiency, soft agar growth and cell invasion in A549 and H1299 cells, as well as tumour growth rate in A549 xenograft. Knockdown of PTPRB increased Src phosphorylation and cell invasion, which was reversed by Src inhibitor PP2. Additionally, PTPRB was down-regulated in NSCLC patient and was associated with patient OS. PTPRB regulates Src phosphorylation and tumorigenesis in NSCLC. PTPRB may serve as an independent prognostic biomarker for NSCLC patients.

  9. Pyrophosphate Stimulates Differentiation, Matrix Gene Expression and Alkaline Phosphatase Activity in Osteoblasts

    PubMed Central

    Pujari-Palmer, Michael; Pujari-Palmer, Shiuli; Lu, Xi; Lind, Thomas; Melhus, Håkan; Engstrand, Thomas; Karlsson-Ott, Marjam; Engqvist, Hakan

    2016-01-01

    Pyrophosphate is a potent mitogen, capable of stimulating proliferation in multiple cell types, and a critical participant in bone mineralization. Pyrophosphate can also affect the resorption rate and bioactivity of orthopedic ceramics. The present study investigated whether calcium pyrophosphate affected proliferation, differentiation and gene expression in early (MC3T3 pre-osteoblast) and late stage (SAOS-2 osteosarcoma) osteoblasts. Pyrophosphate stimulated peak alkaline phosphatase activity by 50% and 150% at 100μM and 0.1μM in MC3T3, and by 40% in SAOS-2. The expression of differentiation markers collagen 1 (COL1), alkaline phosphatase (ALP), osteopontin (OPN), and osteocalcin (OCN) were increased by an average of 1.5, 2, 2 and 3 fold, by high concentrations of sodium pyrophosphate (100μM) after 7 days of exposure in MC3T3. COX-2 and ANK expression did not differ significantly from controls in either treatment group. Though both high and low concentrations of pyrophosphate stimulate ALP activity, only high concentrations (100μM) stimulated osteogenic gene expression. Pyrophosphate did not affect proliferation in either cell type. The results of this study confirm that chronic exposure to pyrophosphate exerts a physiological effect upon osteoblast differentiation and ALP activity, specifically by stimulating osteoblast differentiation markers and extracellular matrix gene expression. PMID:27701417

  10. Formation and properties of organo-phosphatase complexes by abiotic and biotic polymerization of pyrogallol-phosphatase mixtures.

    PubMed

    Rao, Maria A; Del Gaudio, Stefania; Scelza, Rosalia; Gianfreda, Liliana

    2010-04-28

    In this paper, the catalytic efficacy of peroxidase and manganese oxide, both commonly present in soil, to catalyze the formation of pyrogallol-phosphatase complexes was compared. The influence of several factors (e.g., the concentration of pyrogallol, the amount of catalysts, the nature of manganese oxide, birnessite, or pyrolusite, the incubation time, and the pH) on the transformation of pyrogallol and the characteristics and properties of the pyrogallol-phosphatase interaction products were investigated. The pyrogallol transformation mediated by both catalysts was very fast and increased by increasing the catalyst concentration. The nature of the catalyst also influenced the size and the molecular mass of the formed complexes. When polymerization of pyrogallol occurred with high intensity, a loss of phosphatase activity occurred, and it strongly depended on the pH at which the process was carried out and the catalyst. In particular, with peroxidase, the phosphatase activity was much lower in either suspensions or supernatants and not measurable in the insoluble complexes as compared to that measured in the presence of manganese oxides.

  11. Isolation and characterization of a homogeneous isoenzyme of wheat germ acid phosphatase.

    PubMed

    Waymack, P P; Van Etten, R L

    1991-08-01

    An acid phosphatase (orthophosphoric monoester phosphohydrolase, acid optimum; EC 3.1.3.2) isoenzyme from wheat germ was purified 7000-fold to homogeneity. The effect of wheat germ sources and their relationship to the isoenzyme content and purification behavior of acid phosphatases was investigated. Extensive information about the purification and stabilization of the enzyme is provided. The instability of isoenzymes in the latter stages of purification appeared to be the result of surface inactivation together with a sensitivity to dilution that could be partially offset by addition of Triton X-100 during chromatographic procedures. Added sulfhydryl protecting reagents had no effect on activity or stability, which was greatest in the pH range 4-7. The purified isoenzyme was homogeneous by polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and exhibited the highest specific activity and turnover number reported for any acid phosphatase. The molecular weights of the pure isoenzyme and of related isoenzymes from wheat germ were found to be identical (58,000). The pure isoenzyme contained a single polypeptide chain and had a negligible carbohydrate content. The amino acid composition was determined. Of the various reasons that were considered to explain isoenzyme occurrence, a genetic basis was considered most likely. The enzyme was found to exhibit substrate inhibition with some substrates below pH 6, while above pH 8 it exhibited downwardly curving Lineweaver-Burk plots of the type that are generally described as "substrate activation". The observation of a phosphotransferase activity was consistent with the formation of a covalent phosphoenzyme intermediate, while inactivation by diethyl pyrocarbonate was consistent with the presence of an active site histidine.

  12. A novel cinnamic acid derivative that inhibits Cdc25 dual-specificity phosphatase activity.

    PubMed

    Aoyagi, Yoshimi; Masuko, Norio; Ohkubo, Shuichi; Kitade, Makoto; Nagai, Kentaro; Okazaki, Shinji; Wierzba, Konstanty; Terada, Tadafumi; Sugimoto, Yoshikazu; Yamada, Yuji

    2005-09-01

    The Cdc25 dual-specificity phosphatases are key regulators of cell cycle progression through activation of cyclin-dependent kinases (Cdk). Three homologs exist in humans: Cdc25A, Cdc25B, and Cdc25C. Cdc25A and Cdc25B have oncogenic properties and are overexpressed in some types of tumors. Compounds that inhibit Cdc25 dual-specificity phosphatase activity might thus be potent anticancer agents. We screened several hundred compounds in a library using an in vitro phosphatase assay, with colorimetric measurement of the conversion of p-nitrophenyl phosphate (pNPP) to p-nitrophenol by the catalytic domain of recombinant human Cdc25, and discovered TPY-835, which inhibits Cdc25A and Cdc25B activity (IC50 = 5.1 and 5.7 microM, respectively). TPY-835 had mixed inhibition kinetics for Cdc25A and Cdc25B. TPY-835 caused cell cycle arrest in the G1 phase in human lung cancer cells (A549 and SBC-5) but not cell cycle arrest in the G2/M phase. After treatment with TPY-835, the activation of Cdk2 was suppressed and phosphorylation of the retinoblastoma (Rb) protein was decreased in SBC-5 cells. In addition, TPY-835 induced an increase of the sub-G1 phase cell population after 48-72 h treatment. The growth inhibitory effects of TPY-835 against cisplatin (CDDP)-, camptothecin- and 5-FU-resistant cell lines are comparable to the growth inhibitory effect on their parental lines, thus indicating that TPY-835 did not show cross-resistance to these cell lines. These results suggest that TPY-835 is a promising candidate for constructing a novel class of antitumor agents that can control the cell cycle progression of cancer cells.

  13. Detection of endogenous alkaline phosphatase activity in intact cells by flow cytometry using the fluorogenic ELF-97 phosphatase substrate

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Telford, W. G.; Cox, W. G.; Stiner, D.; Singer, V. L.; Doty, S. B.

    1999-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The alkaline phosphatase (AP) substrate 2-(5'-chloro-2'-phosphoryloxyphenyl)-6-chloro-4-(3H)-quinazolinone (ELF((R))-97 for enzyme-labeled fluorescence) has been found useful for the histochemical detection of endogenous AP activity and AP-tagged proteins and oligonucleotide probes. In this study, we evaluated its effectiveness at detecting endogenous AP activity by flow cytometry. METHODS: The ELF-97 phosphatase substrate was used to detect endogenous AP activity in UMR-106 rat osteosarcoma cells and primary cultures of chick chondrocytes. Cells were labeled with the ELF-97 reagent and analyzed by flow cytometry using an argon ultraviolet (UV) laser. For comparison purposes, cells were also assayed for AP using a Fast Red Violet LB azo dye assay previously described for use in detecting AP activity by flow cytometry. RESULTS: The ELF-97 phosphatase substrate effectively detected endogenous AP activity in UMR-106 cells, with over 95% of the resulting fluorescent signal resulting from AP-specific activity (as determined by levamisole inhibition of AP activity). In contrast, less than 70% of the fluorescent signal from the Fast Red Violet LB (FRV) assay was AP-dependent, reflecting the high intrinsic fluorescence of the unreacted components. The ELF-97 phosphatase assay was also able to detect very low AP activity in chick chondrocytes that was undetectable by the azo dye method. CONCLUSIONS: The ELF-97 phosphatase assay was able to detect endogenous AP activity in fixed mammalian and avian cells by flow cytometry with superior sensitivity to previously described assays. This work also shows the applicability of ELF-97 to flow cytometry, supplementing its previously demonstrated histochemical applications. Copyright 1999 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  14. SENESCENCE-SUPPRESSED PROTEIN PHOSPHATASE Directly Interacts with the Cytoplasmic Domain of SENESCENCE-ASSOCIATED RECEPTOR-LIKE KINASE and Negatively Regulates Leaf Senescence in Arabidopsis1[OPEN

    PubMed Central

    Xiao, Dong; Cui, Yanjiao; Xu, Fan; Xu, Xinxin; Gao, Guanxiao; Wang, Yaxin; Guo, Zhaoxia; Wang, Dan; Wang, Ning Ning

    2015-01-01

    Reversible protein phosphorylation mediated by protein kinases and phosphatases plays an important role in the regulation of leaf senescence. We previously reported that the leucine-rich repeat receptor-like kinase SENESCENCE-ASSOCIATED RECEPTOR-LIKE KINASE (AtSARK) positively regulates leaf senescence in Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana). Here, we report the involvement of a protein serine/threonine phosphatase 2C-type protein phosphatase, SENESCENCE-SUPPRESSED PROTEIN PHOSPHATASE (SSPP), in the negative regulation of Arabidopsis leaf senescence. SSPP transcript levels decreased greatly during both natural senescence and SARK-induced precocious senescence. Overexpression of SSPP significantly delayed leaf senescence in Arabidopsis. Protein pull-down and bimolecular fluorescence complementation assays demonstrated that the cytosol-localized SSPP could interact with the cytoplasmic domain of the plasma membrane-localized AtSARK. In vitro assays showed that SSPP has protein phosphatase function and can dephosphorylate the cytosolic domain of AtSARK. Consistent with these observations, overexpression of SSPP effectively rescued AtSARK-induced precocious leaf senescence and changes in hormonal responses. All our results suggested that SSPP functions in sustaining proper leaf longevity and preventing early senescence by suppressing or perturbing SARK-mediated senescence signal transduction. PMID:26304848

  15. Crystallization and preliminary X-ray diffraction analysis of a high-affinity phosphate-binding protein endowed with phosphatase activity from Pseudomonas aeruginosa PAO1.

    PubMed

    Djeghader, Ahmed; Gotthard, Guillaume; Suh, Andrew; Gonzalez, Daniel; Scott, Ken; Chabriere, Eric; Elias, Mikael

    2013-10-01

    In prokaryotes, phosphate starvation induces the expression of numerous phosphate-responsive genes, such as the pst operon including the high-affinity phosphate-binding protein (PBP or pstS) and alkaline phosphatases such as PhoA. This response increases the cellular inorganic phosphate import efficiency. Notably, some Pseudomonas species secrete, via a type-2 secretion system, a phosphate-binding protein dubbed LapA endowed with phosphatase activity. Here, the expression, purification, crystallization and X-ray data collection at 0.87 Å resolution of LapA are described. Combined with biochemical and enzymatic characterization, the structure of this intriguing phosphate-binding protein will help to elucidate the molecular origin of its phosphatase activity and to decipher its putative role in phosphate uptake.

  16. Mammalian inositol polyphosphate 5-phosphatase II can compensate for the absence of all three yeast Sac1-like-domain-containing 5-phosphatases.

    PubMed Central

    O'Malley, C J; McColl, B K; Kong, A M; Ellis, S L; Wijayaratnam, A P; Sambrook, J; Mitchell, C A

    2001-01-01

    Phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate [PtdIns(4,5)P(2)] plays a complex role in generating intracellular signalling molecules, and also in regulating actin-binding proteins, vesicular trafficking and vacuolar fusion. Four inositol polyphosphate 5-phosphatases (hereafter called 5-phosphatases) have been identified in Saccharomyces cerevisiae: Inp51p, Inp52p, Inp53p and Inp54p. Each enzyme contains a 5-phosphatase domain which hydrolyses PtdIns(4,5)P(2), forming PtdIns4P, while Inp52p and Inp53p also express a polyphosphoinositide phosphatase domain within the Sac1-like domain. Disruption of any two yeast 5-phosphatases containing a Sac1-like domain results in abnormalities in actin polymerization, plasma membrane, vacuolar morphology and bud-site selection. Triple null mutant 5-phosphatase strains are non-viable. To investigate the role of PtdIns(4,5)P(2) in mediating the phenotype of double and triple 5-phosphatase null mutant yeast, we determined whether a mammalian PtdIns(4,5)P(2) 5-phosphatase, 5-phosphatase II, which lacks polyphosphoinositide phosphatase activity, could correct the phenotype of triple 5-phosphatase null mutant yeast and restore cellular PtdIns(4,5)P(2) levels to near basal values. Mammalian 5-phosphatase II expressed under an inducible promoter corrected the growth, cell wall, vacuolar and actin polymerization defects of the triple 5-phosphatase null mutant yeast strains. Cellular PtdIns(4,5)P(2) levels in various 5-phosphatase double null mutant strains demonstrated significant accumulation (4.5-, 3- and 2-fold for Deltainp51Deltainp53, Deltainp51Deltainp52 and Deltainp52Deltainp53 double null mutants respectively), which was corrected significantly following 5-phosphatase II expression. Collectively, these studies demonstrate the functional and cellular consequences of PtdIns(4,5)P(2) accumulation and the evolutionary conservation of function between mammalian and yeast PtdIns(4,5)P(2) 5-phosphatases. PMID:11311145

  17. Activation of the Non-receptor Tyrosine Kinase cSrc in Macrophage-rich Atherosclerotic Plaques of Human Carotid Arteries

    PubMed Central

    Toi, Sono; Shibata, Noriyuki; Sawada, Tatsuo; Kobayashi, Makio; Uchiyama, Shinichiro

    2007-01-01

    To determine the involvement of the non-receptor tyrosine kinase cSrc in plaque destabilization in carotid atherosclerosis (CAS), which is responsible for cerebral infarction, we performed quantitative and morphological detection of phosphorylated active cSrc (p-cSrc) and histopathological examination in CAS lesions. We examined carotid endarterectomy specimens obtained from 32 CAS patients. Each specimen was used for immunoblot and immunohistochemical analyses of p-cSrc, histopathological analysis, and image analysis of macrophage content. There was a strong positive correlation between cSrc activation on blots and macrophage content on sections. When we defined the macrophage-rich plaque (MRP) and the macrophage-poor plaque (MPP) as having macrophage content more and less than 5%, respectively, the p-cSrc density and the occurrence of plaque hemorrhage and thrombus formation were significantly increased in the MRP group (n=18) compared to the MPP group (n=14). p-cSrc immunoreactivity was localized in lesional endothelial cells, macrophages, and smooth muscle cells, which contained proinflammatory substances: the upstream oxidized low density lipoprotein, tissue factor and osteopontin, and the downstream active forms of extracellular signal-activated kinase and p38 and nuclear factor-κB. Our results suggest that cSrc activation in lesional cells contributes to plaque destabilization in CAS via persistent inflammation. PMID:18224247

  18. The activity and stability of the intrinsically disordered Cip/Kip protein family are regulated by non-receptor tyrosine kinases

    PubMed Central

    Otieno, Steve; Lelli, Moreno; Kriwacki, Richard W.

    2014-01-01

    The Cip/Kip family of cyclin-dependent kinase (Cdk) inhibitors includes p21Cip1, p27Kip1 and p57Kip2. Their kinase inhibitory activities are mediated by a homologous N-terminal kinase-inhibitory domain (KID). The Cdk inhibitory activity and stability of p27 have been shown to be regulated by a two-step phosphorylation mechanism involving a tyrosine residue within the KID and a threonine residue within the flexible C-terminus. We show that these residues are conserved in p21 and p57, suggesting that a similar phosphorylation cascade regulates these Cdk inhibitors. However, the presence of a cyclin binding motif within its C-terminus alters the regulatory interplay between p21 and Cdk2/cyclin A, and its responses to tyrosine phosphorylation and altered p21:Cdk2/cyclin A stoichiometry. We also show that the Cip/Kip proteins can be phosphorylated in vitro by representatives of many non-receptor tyrosine kinase (NRTK) sub-families, suggesting that NRTKs may generally regulate the activity and stability of these Cdk inhibitors. Our results further suggest that the Cip/Kip proteins integrate signals from various NRTK pathways and cell cycle regulation. PMID:25463440

  19. Utilization by Escherichia coli of a high-molecular-weight, linear polyphosphate: roles of phosphatases and pore proteins.

    PubMed Central

    Rao, N N; Torriani, A

    1988-01-01

    We observed that wild-type Escherichia coli utilized a linear polyphosphate with a chain length of 100 phosphate residues (poly-P100) as the sole source of phosphate in growth medium. A mutation in the gene phoA of alkaline phosphatase or phoB, the positive regulatory gene, prevented growth in this medium. Since no alkaline phosphatase activity was detected outside the wild-type cells, the periplasmic presence of the enzyme was necessary for the degradation of polyphosphate. A 90% reduction in the activity of periplasmic acid phosphatase with a pH optimum of 2.5 (delta appA mutants) did not affect polyphosphate utilization. Of the porins analyzed (OmpC, OmpF, and PhoE), the phoB-inducible porin PhoE was not essential since its absence did not prevent growth. To study how poly-P100 diffused into the cells, we used high-resolution 31P nuclear magnetic resonance (31P NMR) spectroscopy. The results suggest that poly-P100 entered the periplasm and remained in equilibrium between the periplasm and the medium. When present individually, porins PhoE and OmpF facilitated a higher permeability for poly-P100 than porin OmpC did. The degradation of polyphosphate by intact cells of E. coli observed by 31P NMR showed a time-dependent increase in cellular phosphate and a decrease in polyphosphate concentration. PMID:3053651

  20. Direct and indirect effects of ammonia, ammonium and nitrate on phosphatase activity and carbon fluxes from decomposing litter in peatland.

    PubMed

    Johnson, David; Moore, Lucy; Green, Samuel; Leith, Ian D; Sheppard, Lucy J

    2010-10-01

    Here we investigate the response of soils and litter to 5 years of experimental additions of ammonium (NH4), nitrate (NO3), and ammonia (NH3) to an ombrotrophic peatland. We test the importance of direct (via soil) and indirect (via litter) effects on phosphatase activity and efflux of CO2. We also determined how species representing different functional types responded to the nitrogen treatments. Our results demonstrate that additions of NO3, NH4 and NH3 all stimulated phosphatase activity but the effects were dependent on species of litter and mechanism (direct or indirect). Deposition of NH3 had no effect on efflux of CO2 from Calluna vulgaris litter, despite it showing signs of stress in the field, whereas both NO3 and NH4 reduced CO2 fluxes. Our results show that the collective impacts on peatlands of the three principal forms of nitrogen in atmospheric deposition are a result of differential effects and mechanisms on individual components.

  1. Functional characterization of the PP2C phosphatase CaPtc2p in the human fungal pathogen Candida albicans.

    PubMed

    Feng, Jinrong; Zhao, Jingwen; Li, Jing; Zhang, Lilin; Jiang, Linghuo

    2010-09-01

    Type 2C protein phosphatases (PP2C) are monomeric enzymes and their activities require the presence of magnesium or manganese ion. There are seven PP2C-like genes in Candida albicans. In this study, we demonstrate that CaPtc2p is a PP2C phosphatase. Surprisingly, in addition to the cytoplasmic localization, CaPtc2p is partially associated with mitochondria in yeast-form and filamentous cells of C. albicans. Expression of CaPTC2 is developmentally regulated during the serum-induced filamentation. Deletion of CaPTC2 renders C. albicans cells sensitive to SDS and azole antifungals, as well as the DNA methylation agent methylmethane sulphonate and the DNA synthesis inhibitor hydroxyurea. Therefore, CaPtc2p might fulfil multiple functions, including the regulation of mitochondrial physiology and checkpoint recovery from DNA damage in C. albicans cells.

  2. Protein tyrosine phosphatases PTPδ, PTPσ, and LAR: presynaptic hubs for synapse organization.

    PubMed

    Takahashi, Hideto; Craig, Ann Marie

    2013-09-01

    Synapse development requires differentiation of presynaptic neurotransmitter release sites and postsynaptic receptive apparatus coordinated by synapse organizing proteins. In addition to the well-characterized neurexins, recent studies identified presynaptic type IIa receptor-type protein tyrosine phosphatases (RPTPs) as mediators of presynaptic differentiation and triggers of postsynaptic differentiation, thus extending the roles of RPTPs from axon outgrowth and guidance. Similarly to neurexins, RPTPs exist in multiple isoforms generated by alternative splicing that interact in a splice-selective code with diverse postsynaptic partners. The parallel RPTP and neurexin hub design facilitates synapse self-assembly through cooperation, pairs presynaptic similarity with postsynaptic diversity, and balances excitation with inhibition. Upon mutation of individual genes in neuropsychiatric disorders, imbalance of this synaptic organizing network may contribute to impaired cognitive function.

  3. Protein tyrosine phosphatases PTPδ, PTPσ, and LAR: presynaptic hubs for synapse organization

    PubMed Central

    Takahashi, Hideto; Craig, Ann Marie

    2013-01-01

    Synapse development requires differentiation of presynaptic neurotransmitter release sites and postsynaptic receptive apparatus coordinated by synapse organizing proteins. In addition to the well-characterized neurexins, recent studies identified presynaptic type IIa receptor-type protein tyrosine phosphatases (RPTPs) as mediators of presynaptic differentiation and triggers of postsynaptic differentiation, thus extending the roles of RPTPs from axon outgrowth and guidance. Similarly to neurexins, RPTPs exist in multiple isoforms generated by alternative splicing that interact in a splice-selective code with diverse postsynaptic partners. The parallel RPTP and neurexin hub design facilitates synapse self-assembly through cooperation, pairs presynaptic similarity with postsynaptic diversity, and balances excitation with inhibition. Upon mutation of individual genes in neuropsychiatric disorders, imbalance of this synaptic organizing network may contribute to impaired cognitive function. PMID:23835198

  4. Enhancement of acid phosphatase secretion and Pi acquisition in Suaeda fruticosa on calcareous soil by high saline level.

    PubMed

    Labidi, Nehla; Snoussi, Sana; Ammari, Manel; Metoui, Wissal; Ben Yousfi, N; Hamrouni, Lamia; Abdelly, C

    2010-12-01

    The aim of this study was to identify the relationship between the adaptive processes of Suaeda fruticosa for Pi acquisition and the physic-chemical and biological characteristics of two soil types under moderate and high saline conditions. Four treatments were established in pots: namely SS100, SS600, CS100 and CS600 where SS stood for sandy soil and CS for calcareous soil, and the indexes 100 and 600 were NaCl concentrations (mM) in irrigation distilled water. Assuming that Pi per g of plant biomass is an indicator of plant efficiency for P acquisition, the results showed that Pi acquisition was easiest on SS100 and was difficult on CS100. The differences in Pi acquisition between plants on SS100 and CS100 could be attributed to the low root surface area (-30%) and to the low alkaline phosphatases (Pases) activities (-50%) in calcareous rhizospheric soil. The high salinity level had no effect on the efficiency of P acquisition on SS but increased this parameter on CS (+50%). In the latter soil type, high acid phosphatase activities were observed in rhizospheric soil at high salinity level. Acid phosphatase seemed to be secreted from the roots. The higher secretion of acid phosphatase in this soil was related to the root lipid peroxidation in response to elevated salinity associated with the augmentation of unsaturated acids which might induce an oxidative damage of the root membrane. Thus we can conclude that in deficient soil such as calcareous, the efficiency of P acquisition in S. fruticosa which was difficult at moderate salinity level can be enhanced by high salinity level.

  5. Repeated probing of Southwestern blots using alkaline phosphatase stripping.

    PubMed

    Jia, Yinshan; Jiang, Daifeng; Jarrett, Harry W

    2010-11-05

    Southwestern blotting is when a DNA sequence is used to probe DNA-binding proteins on an electrophoretic gel blot. It would be highly desirable to be able to probe a blot repeatedly with different DNA sequences. Alkaline phosphatase can remove 5'-phosphoryl groups from DNA and radiolabeled 5'-(32)P-DNA probes are commonly used in Southwestern blotting. Here is shown that once probed, the radioisotope signal on the blot can be effectively removed by brief digestion with alkaline phosphatase, and the blot can then be repeatedly probed at least six times with different DNA probes. This exceeds the repetitions possible with another commonly used method using SDS. The technique can be used with either one-dimensional or multi-dimensional Southwestern blots and does not have a large effect on the phosphorylation state of the blotted proteins. An alternative method using T4 polynucleotide kinase stripping is also introduced but was less well characterized.

  6. Inositol lipid phosphatases in membrane trafficking and human disease.

    PubMed

    Billcliff, Peter G; Lowe, Martin

    2014-07-15

    The specific interaction of phosphoinositides with proteins is critical for a plethora of cellular processes, including cytoskeleton remodelling, mitogenic signalling, ion channel regulation and membrane traffic. The spatiotemporal restriction of different phosphoinositide species helps to define compartments within the cell, and this is particularly important for membrane trafficking within both the secretory and endocytic pathways. Phosphoinositide homoeostasis is tightly regulated by a large number of inositol kinases and phosphatases, which respectively phosphorylate and dephosphorylate distinct phosphoinositide species. Many of these enzymes have been implicated in regulating membrane trafficking and, accordingly, their dysregulation has been linked to a number of human diseases. In the present review, we focus on the inositol phosphatases, concentrating on their roles in membrane trafficking and the human diseases with which they have been associated.

  7. Purification and Characterization of Acid Phosphatase V from Aspergillus nidulans

    PubMed Central

    Harsanyi, Zsolt; Dorn, Gordon L.

    1972-01-01

    Acid phosphatase V of Aspergillus nidulans was purified by ammonium sulfate precipitation, gel filtration, and ion-exchange chromatography. The enzyme demonstrated a charge microheterogeneity on starch and acrylamide gel electrophoresis, but proved to be homogeneous on ultracentrifugation and gel filtration. Phosphatase V was found to be a classic acid orthophosphoric monoester phosphohydrolase, and it cleaved p-nitrophenylphosphate, glucose-6-phosphate, and uridine-5′-monophosphate at maximal rates. It was inhibited by fluoride, borate, and molybdate ions, and demonstrated end-product inhibition by inorganic phosphate. Metallic ions or cofactors were not required for activity. The molecular weight was estimated to be 100,000, the S20,w was calculated to be 4.1, and the pH optimum was found to be 6.1. Images PMID:4552990

  8. Myosin phosphatase Fine-tunes Zebrafish Motoneuron Position during Axonogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Granato, Michael

    2016-01-01

    During embryogenesis the spinal cord shifts position along the anterior-posterior axis relative to adjacent tissues. How motor neurons whose cell bodies are located in the spinal cord while their axons reside in adjacent tissues compensate for such tissue shift is not well understood. Using live cell imaging in zebrafish, we show that as motor axons exit from the spinal cord and extend through extracellular matrix produced by adjacent notochord cells, these cells shift several cell diameters caudally. Despite this pronounced shift, individual motoneuron cell bodies stay aligned with their extending axons. We find that this alignment requires myosin phosphatase activity within motoneurons, and that mutations in the myosin phosphatase subunit mypt1 increase myosin phosphorylation causing a displacement between motoneuron cell bodies and their axons. Thus, we demonstrate that spinal motoneurons fine-tune their position during axonogenesis and we identify the myosin II regulatory network as a key regulator. PMID:27855159

  9. Hybrids of chemical derivatives of Escherichia coli alkaline phosphatase.

    PubMed

    Meighen, E; Yue, R

    1975-12-15

    The activities of hybrid dimers of alkaline phosphatase containing two chemically modified subunits have been investigated. One hybrid species was prepared by dissociation and reconstitution of a mixture of two variants produced by chemical modification of the native enzyme with succinic anhydride and tetranitromethane, respectively. The succinyl-nitrotyrosyl hybrid was separated from the other members of the hybrid set by DEAE-Sephadex chromatography and then converted to a succinyl-aminotyrosyl hybrid by reduction of the modified tyrosine residues with sodium dithionite. A comparison of the activities of these two hybrids with the activities of the succinyl, nitrotyrosyl and aminotyrosyl derivatives has shown that either the subunits of alkaline phosphatase function independently or if the subunits turnover alternately in a reciprocating mechanism, then the intrinsic activity of each subunit must be strongly dependent on its partner subunit.

  10. Human HAD phosphatases: structure, mechanism, and roles in health and disease.

    PubMed

    Seifried, Annegrit; Schultz, Jörg; Gohla, Antje

    2013-01-01

    Phosphatases of the haloacid dehalogenase (HAD) superfamily of hydrolases are an ancient and very large class of enzymes that have evolved to dephosphorylate a wide range of low- and high molecular weight substrates with often exquisite specificities. HAD phosphatases constitute approximately one-fifth of all human phosphatase catalytic subunits. While the overall sequence similarity between HAD phosphatases is generally very low, family members can be identified based on the presence of a characteristic Rossmann-like fold and the active site sequence DxDx(V/T). HAD phosphatases employ an aspartate residue as a nucleophile in a magnesium-dependent phosphoaspartyl transferase reaction. Although there is genetic evidence demonstrating a causal involvement of some HAD phosphatases in diseases such as cancer, cardiovascular, metabolic and neurological disorders, the physiological roles of many of these enzymes are still poorly understood. In this review, we discuss the structure and evolution of human HAD phosphatases, and summarize their known functions in health and disease.

  11. Detection of bacterial phosphatase activity by means of an original and simple test.

    PubMed Central

    Satta, G; Grazi, G; Varaldo, P E; Fontana, R

    1979-01-01

    A new test for the detection of bacterial phosphatase activity has been devised. The test is performed using agar media containing both methyl green (MG) and phenolphthalein diphosphate (PDP); in these media phosphatase-producing strains grow deep-green-stained colonies whereas non-producing strains do not. A total of 739 different strains were tested, including 593 staphylococci, 95 micrococci, 11 streptococci, 10 corynebacteria, 14 enterobacteria, and 16 candidae. All strains found phosphatase-positive according to the conventional phosphatase test displayed deep-green-stained colonies on MG-PDP media, whereas all phosphatase-negative strains showed unstained colonies on the same media. The main advantages of the present phosphatase test as compared with other conventional ones are that it is more simple to perform, it can reveal the phosphatase activity of colonies grown in deep agar, and can be incorporated into commercial multitest kits. PMID:87403

  12. The receptor tyrosine phosphatase Lar regulates adhesion between Drosophila male germline stem cells and the niche.

    PubMed

    Srinivasan, Shrividhya; Mahowald, Anthony P; Fuller, Margaret T

    2012-04-01

    The stem cell niche provides a supportive microenvironment to maintain adult stem cells in their undifferentiated state. Adhesion between adult stem cells and niche cells or the local basement membrane ensures retention of stem cells in the niche environment. Drosophila male germline stem cells (GSCs) attach to somatic hub cells, a component of their niche, through E-cadherin-mediated adherens junctions, and orient their centrosomes toward these localized junctional complexes to carry out asymmetric divisions. Here we show that the transmembrane receptor tyrosine phosphatase Leukocyte-antigen-related-like (Lar), which is best known for its function in axonal migration and synapse morphogenesis in the nervous system, helps maintain GSCs at the hub by promoting E-cadherin-based adhesion between hub cells and GSCs. Lar is expressed in GSCs and early spermatogonial cells and localizes to the hub-GSC interface. Loss of Lar function resulted in a reduced number of GSCs at the hub. Lar function was required cell-autonomously in germ cells for proper localization of Adenomatous polyposis coli 2 and E-cadherin at the hub-GSC interface and for the proper orientation of centrosomes in GSCs. Ultrastructural analysis revealed that in Lar mutants the adherens junctions between hub cells and GSCs lack the characteristic dense staining seen in wild-type controls. Thus, the Lar receptor tyrosine phosphatase appears to polarize and retain GSCs through maintenance of localized E-cadherin-based adherens junctions.

  13. Identification of proteins suppressing the functions of oncogenic phosphatase of regenerating liver 1 and 3

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Ju-Dong; Jung, Haiyoung; Min, Sang-Hyun

    2016-01-01

    The phosphatase of regenerating liver (PRL) family, including PRL-1, PRL-2, and PRL-3, comprises protein tyrosine phosphatases whose deregulation is associated with the tumorigenesis and metastasis of many types of cancer. However, the underlying mechanism is poorly understood. In this study, aiming to increase understanding of the molecular mechanisms underlying the functions of PRL-1 and PRL-3, a yeast two-hybrid system was employed to screen for their interacting proteins. Alignment with the NCBI BLAST database revealed 12 interactive proteins: Synaptic nuclear envelope protein 2, emerin, mannose 6-phosphate receptor-binding protein 1, low-density lipoprotein receptor-related protein 10, Rab acceptor 1, tumor protein D52-like 2, selectin P ligand (SELPLG), guanylate binding protein 1, transmembrane and ubiquitin-like domain-containing 2, NADH:ubiquinone oxidoreductase subunit B8, syndecan 4 and FK506-binding protein 8 (FKBP8). These proteins are associated with cell proliferation, apoptosis, immune response, cell fate specification and metabolic process in biological process categories, and involved in various signaling pathways, including Alzheimer's disease, Parkinson's disease, Huntington's disease, hypertrophic cardiomyopathy and cell adhesion molecules. Interactions of PRL-1 with the prey proteins SELPLG and FKBP8 were confirmed by immunoprecipitation or immunostaining. Furthermore, SELPLG and FKBP8 suppressed PRL-1− or PRL-3-mediated p53 activity. Identification of the proteins interacting with PRL family proteins may provide valuable information to better understand the mechanism of PRL-mediated signal transduction in cancer and other diverse diseases. PMID:27882103

  14. The PP1 phosphatase flapwing regulates the activity of Merlin and Moesin in Drosophila.

    PubMed

    Yang, Yang; Primrose, David A; Leung, Albert C; Fitzsimmons, Ross B; McDermand, Matt C; Missellbrook, Alison; Haskins, Julie; Smylie, AnneLiese S; Hughes, Sarah C

    2012-01-15

    The signalling activities of Merlin and Moesin, two closely related members of the protein 4.1 Ezrin/Radixin/Moesin family, are regulated by conformational changes. These changes are regulated in turn by phosphorylation. The same sterile 20 kinase-Slik co-regulates Merlin or Moesin activity whereby phosphorylation inactivates Merlin, but activates Moesin. Thus, the corresponding coordinate activation of Merlin and inactivation of Moesin would require coordinated phosphatase activity. We find that Drosophila melanogaster protein phosphatase type 1 β (flapwing) fulfils this role, co-regulating dephosphorylation and altered activity of both Merlin and Moesin. Merlin or Moesin are detected in a complex with Flapwing both in-vitro and in-vivo. Directed changes in flapwing expression result in altered phosphorylation of both Merlin and Moesin. These changes in the levels of Merlin and Moesin phosphorylation following reduction of flapwing expression are associated with concomitant defects in epithelial integrity and increase in apoptosis in developing tissues such as wing imaginal discs. Functionally, the defects can be partially recapitulated by over expression of proteins that mimic constitutively phosphorylated or unphosphorylated Merlin or Moesin. Our results suggest that changes in the phosphorylation levels of Merlin and Moesin lead to changes in epithelial organization.

  15. Cdc14 phosphatases preferentially dephosphorylate a subset of cyclin-dependent kinase (Cdk) sites containing phosphoserine.

    PubMed

    Bremmer, Steven C; Hall, Hana; Martinez, Juan S; Eissler, Christie L; Hinrichsen, Thomas H; Rossie, Sandra; Parker, Laurie L; Hall, Mark C; Charbonneau, Harry

    2012-01-13

    Mitotic cell division is controlled by cyclin-dependent kinases (Cdks), which phosphorylate hundreds of protein substrates responsible for executing the division program. Cdk inactivation and reversal of Cdk-catalyzed phosphorylation are universal requirements for completing and exiting mitosis and resetting the cell cycle machinery. Mechanisms that define the timing and order of Cdk substrate dephosphorylation remain poorly understood. Cdc14 phosphatases have been implicated in Cdk inactivation and are thought to be generally specific for Cdk-type phosphorylation sites. We show that budding yeast Cdc14 possesses a strong and unusual preference for phosphoserine over phosphothreonine at Pro-directed sites in vitro. Using serine to threonine substitutions in the Cdk consensus sites of the Cdc14 substrate Acm1, we demonstrate that phosphoserine specificity exists in vivo. Furthermore, it appears to be a conserved property of all Cdc14 family phosphatases. An invariant active site residue was identified that sterically restricts phosphothreonine binding and is largely responsible for phosphoserine selectivity. Optimal Cdc14 substrates also possessed a basic residue at the +3 position relative to the phosphoserine, whereas substrates lacking this basic residue were not effectively hydrolyzed. The intrinsic selectivity of Cdc14 may help establish the order of Cdk substrate dephosphorylation during mitotic exit and contribute to roles in other cellular processes.

  16. Characterization of a Unique Class C Acid Phosphatase from Clostridium perfringens▿

    PubMed Central

    Reilly, Thomas J.; Chance, Deborah L.; Calcutt, Michael J.; Tanner, John J.; Felts, Richard L.; Waller, Stephen C.; Henzl, Michael T.; Mawhinney, Thomas P.; Ganjam, Irene K.; Fales, William H.

    2009-01-01

    Clostridium perfringens is a gram-positive anaerobe and a pathogen of medical importance. The detection of acid phosphatase activity is a powerful diagnostic indicator of the presence of C. perfringens among anaerobic isolates; however, characterization of the enzyme has not previously been reported. Provided here are details of the characterization of a soluble recombinant form of this cell-associated enzyme. The denatured enzyme was ∼31 kDa and a homodimer in solution. It catalyzed the hydrolysis of several substrates, including para-nitrophenyl phosphate, 4-methylumbelliferyl phosphate, and 3′ and 5′ nucleoside monophosphates at pH 6. Calculated Kms ranged from 0.2 to 0.6 mM with maximum velocity ranging from 0.8 to 1.6 μmol of Pi/s/mg. Activity was enhanced in the presence of some divalent cations but diminished in the presence of others. Wild-type enzyme was detected in all clinical C. perfringens isolates tested and found to be cell associated. The described enzyme belongs to nonspecific acid phosphatase class C but is devoid of lipid modification commonly attributed to this class. PMID:19363079

  17. Negative control of BAK1 by protein phosphatase 2A during plant innate immunity.

    PubMed

    Segonzac, Cécile; Macho, Alberto P; Sanmartín, Maite; Ntoukakis, Vardis; Sánchez-Serrano, José Juan; Zipfel, Cyril

    2014-09-17

    Recognition of pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs) by surface-localized pattern-recognition receptors (PRRs) activates plant innate immunity, mainly through activation of numerous protein kinases. Appropriate induction of immune responses must be tightly regulated, as many of the kinases involved have an intrinsic high activity and are also regulated by other external and endogenous stimuli. Previous evidences suggest that PAMP-triggered immunity (PTI) is under constant negative regulation by protein phosphatases but the underlying molecular mechanisms remain unknown. Here, we show that protein Ser/Thr phosphatase type 2A (PP2A) controls the activation of PRR complexes by modulating the phosphostatus of the co-receptor and positive regulator BAK1. A potential PP2A holoenzyme composed of the subunits A1, C4, and B'η/ζ inhibits immune responses triggered by several PAMPs and anti-bacterial immunity. PP2A constitutively associates with BAK1 in planta. Impairment in this PP2A-based regulation leads to increased steady-state BAK1 phosphorylation, which can poise enhanced immune responses. This work identifies PP2A as an important negative regulator of plant innate immunity that controls BAK1 activation in surface-localized immune receptor complexes.

  18. Negative control of BAK1 by protein phosphatase 2A during plant innate immunity

    PubMed Central

    Segonzac, Cécile; Macho, Alberto P; Sanmartín, Maite; Ntoukakis, Vardis; Sánchez-Serrano, José Juan; Zipfel, Cyril

    2014-01-01

    Recognition of pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs) by surface-localized pattern-recognition receptors (PRRs) activates plant innate immunity, mainly through activation of numerous protein kinases. Appropriate induction of immune responses must be tightly regulated, as many of the kinases involved have an intrinsic high activity and are also regulated by other external and endogenous stimuli. Previous evidences suggest that PAMP-triggered immunity (PTI) is under constant negative regulation by protein phosphatases but the underlying molecular mechanisms remain unknown. Here, we show that protein Ser/Thr phosphatase type 2A (PP2A) controls the activation of PRR complexes by modulating the phosphostatus of the co-receptor and positive regulator BAK1. A potential PP2A holoenzyme composed of the subunits A1, C4, and B’η/ζ inhibits immune responses triggered by several PAMPs and anti-bacterial immunity. PP2A constitutively associates with BAK1 in planta. Impairment in this PP2A-based regulation leads to increased steady-state BAK1 phosphorylation, which can poise enhanced immune responses. This work identifies PP2A as an important negative regulator of plant innate immunity that controls BAK1 activation in surface-localized immune receptor complexes. PMID:25085430

  19. HSP105 Recruits Protein Phosphatase 2A To Dephosphorylate β-Catenin

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Nancy; Kakunda, Michael; Pham, Victoria; Lill, Jennie R.; Du, Pan; Wongchenko, Matthew; Yan, Yibing; Firestein, Ron

    2015-01-01

    The Wnt/β-catenin pathway causes accumulation of β-catenin in the cytoplasm and its subsequent translocation into the nucleus to initiate the transcription of the target genes. Without Wnt stimulation, β-catenin forms a complex with axin (axis inhibitor), adenomatous polyposis coli (APC), casein kinase 1α (CK1α), and glycogen synthase kinase 3β (GSK3β) and undergoes phosphorylation-dependent ubiquitination. Phosphatases, such as protein phosphatase 2A (PP2A), interestingly, also are components of this degradation complex; therefore, a balance must be reached between phosphorylation and dephosphorylation. How this balance is regulated is largely unknown. Here we show that a heat shock protein, HSP105, is a previously unidentified component of the β-catenin degradation complex. HSP105 is required for Wnt signaling, since depletion of HSP105 compromises β-catenin accumulation and target gene transcription upon Wnt stimulation. Mechanistically, HSP105 depletion disrupts the integration of PP2A into the β-catenin degradation complex, favoring the hyperphosphorylation and degradation of β-catenin. HSP105 is overexpressed in many types of tumors, correlating with increased nuclear β-catenin protein levels and Wnt target gene upregulation. Furthermore, overexpression of HSP105 is a prognostic biomarker that correlates with poor overall survival in breast cancer patients as well as melanoma patients participating in the BRIM2 clinical study. PMID:25645927

  20. Insulin controls subcellular localization and multisite phosphorylation of the phosphatidic acid phosphatase, lipin 1.

    PubMed

    Harris, Thurl E; Huffman, Todd A; Chi, An; Shabanowitz, Jeffrey; Hunt, Donald F; Kumar, Anil; Lawrence, John C

    2007-01-05

    Brain, liver, kidney, heart, and skeletal muscle from fatty liver dystrophy (fld/fld) mice, which do not express lipin 1 (lipin), contained much less Mg(2+)-dependent phosphatidic acid phosphatase (PAP) activity than tissues from wild type mice. Lipin harboring the fld(2j) (Gly(84) --> Arg) mutation exhibited relatively little PAP activity. These results indicate that lipin is a major PAP in vivo and that the loss of PAP activity contributes to the fld phenotype. PAP activity was readily detected in immune complexes of lipin from 3T3-L1 adipocytes, where the protein was found both as a microsomal form and a soluble, more highly phosphorylated, form. Fifteen phosphorylation sites were identified by mass spectrometric analyses. Insulin increased the phosphorylation of multiple sites and promoted a gel shift that was due in part to phosphorylation of Ser(106). In contrast, epinephrine and oleic acid promoted dephosphorylation of lipin. The PAP-specific activity of lipin was not affected by the hormones or by dephosphorylation of lipin with protein phosphatase 1. However, the ratio of soluble to microsomal lipin was markedly increased in response to insulin and decreased in response to epinephrine and oleic acid. The results suggest that insulin and epinephrine control lipin primarily by changing localization rather than intrinsic PAP activity.

  1. Purification and characterization of a Bacillus licheniformis phosphatase specific for D-alpha-glycerophosphate.

    PubMed

    Skraly, F A; Cameron, D C

    1998-01-01

    Bacillus licheniformis ("Ford's type") was found to contain a novel enzyme, D-alpha-glycerophosphatase. The enzyme is highly specific for D-alpha-glycerophosphate, effecting little or no hydrolysis of L-alpha- or beta-glycerophosphate or other similar compounds. All other known alpha-glycerophosphatases preferentially hydrolyze the L isomer. The products of the D-alpha-glycerophosphatase reaction were identified as glycerol and inorganic phosphate. The enzyme is a monomer with an apparent molecular mass of approximately 25 kDa. As with most phosphatases, it requires divalent magnesium for activity, but unlike the nonspecific acid and alkaline phosphatases, its optimum pH is around neutral. Its K(m) for D-alpha-glycerophosphate in the presence of 1 mM Mg2+ was found to be 4.3 mM. D-alpha-glycerophosphatase was produced in B. licheniformis fermentations whether or not high levels of phosphate were present; the same was true of glycerol formation. D-alpha-glycerophosphatase is not strongly inhibited by inorganic phosphate and would therefore be capable of catalyzing the formation of glycerol in the presence of high levels of phosphate. The D-alpha-glycerophosphatase of B. licheniformis is similar in characteristics to L-alpha-glycerophosphatases known to synthesize glycerol in vivo, suggesting that D-alpha-glycerophosphatase may be the final enzyme in the fermentative glycerol formation pathway of B. licheniformis.

  2. Enhanced insulin signaling in density-enhanced phosphatase-1 (DEP-1) knockout mice

    PubMed Central

    Krüger, Janine; Brachs, Sebastian; Trappiel, Manuela; Kintscher, Ulrich; Meyborg, Heike; Wellnhofer, Ernst; Thöne-Reineke, Christa; Stawowy, Philipp; Östman, Arne; Birkenfeld, Andreas L.; Böhmer, Frank D.; Kappert, Kai

    2015-01-01

    Objective Insulin resistance can be triggered by enhanced dephosphorylation of the insulin receptor or downstream components in the insulin signaling cascade through protein tyrosine phosphatases (PTPs). Downregulating density-enhanced phosphatase-1 (DEP-1) resulted in an improved metabolic status in previous analyses. This phenotype was primarily caused by hepatic DEP-1 reduction. Methods Here we further elucidated the role of DEP-1 in glucose homeostasis by employing a conventional knockout model to explore the specific contribution of DEP-1 in metabolic tissues. Ptprj−/− (DEP-1 deficient) and wild-type C57BL/6 mice were fed a low-fat or high-fat diet. Metabolic phenotyping was combined with analyses of phosphorylation patterns of insulin signaling components. Additionally, experiments with skeletal muscle cells and muscle tissue were performed to assess the role of DEP-1 for glucose uptake. Results High-fat diet fed-Ptprj−/− mice displayed enhanced insulin sensitivity and improved glucose tolerance. Furthermore, leptin levels and blood pressure were reduced in Ptprj−/− mice. DEP-1 deficiency resulted in increased phosphorylation of components of the insulin signaling cascade in liver, skeletal muscle and adipose tissue after insulin challenge. The beneficial effect on glucose homeostasis in vivo was corroborated by increased glucose uptake in skeletal muscle cells in which DEP-1 was downregulated, and in skeletal muscle of Ptprj−/− mice. Conclusion Together, these data establish DEP-1 as novel negative regulator of insulin signaling. PMID:25830095

  3. Differential effects of protein phosphatases in the recycling of metabotropic glutamate receptor 5.

    PubMed

    Mahato, P K; Pandey, S; Bhattacharyya, S

    2015-10-15

    The major excitatory neurotransmitter Glutamate acts on both ionotropic and metabotropic glutamate receptors (mGluRs) in the central nervous system. mGluR5, a member of the group I mGluR family is widely expressed throughout the brain and plays important roles in a variety of neuronal processes including various forms of synaptic plasticity. This receptor is also involved in various neuropsychiatric disorders, viz., Fragile X syndrome, autism etc. It has been reported that mGluR5 undergoes desensitization and subsequently internalization on ligand exposure in various cell types. However, the downstream events after the internalization and the molecular players involved in the post-endocytic events of this receptor have not been studied. In the present study, we find that subsequent to internalization mGluR5 enters the recycling compartment. After that the receptor recycles back to the cell surface. We also show here that the recycling of mGluR5 is dependent on protein phosphatases. Our data suggest that mGluR5 recycling is completely dependent on the activity of PP2A whereas, PP2B has partial effect on this process. Thus our study suggests that mGluR5 recycles back to the cell surface after ligand-dependent internalization and protein phosphatases that have been implicated in various forms of synaptic plasticity have differential effects on the recycling of mGluR5.

  4. Membrane interaction and functional plasticity of inositol polyphosphate 5-phosphatases.

    PubMed

    Braun, Werner; Schein, Catherine H

    2014-05-06

    In this issue of Structure, Trésaugues and colleagues determined the interaction of membrane-bound phosphoinositides with three clinically significant human inositol polyphosphate 5-phosphatases (I5Ps). A comparison to the structures determined with soluble substrates revealed differences in the binding mode and suggested how the I5Ps and apurinic endonuclease (APE1) activities evolved from the same metal-binding active center.

  5. Hypervalent Organochalcogenanes as Inhibitors of Protein Tyrosine Phosphatases

    PubMed Central

    Piovan, Leandro; Wu, Li; Zhang, Zhong-Yin; Andrade, Leandro H.

    2011-01-01

    A series of organochalcogenanes was synthesized and evaluated as protein tyrosine phosphatases (PTPs) inhibitors. The results indicate that organochalcogenanes inactivate the PTPs in a time- and concentration-dependent fashion, most likely through covalent modification of the active site sulfur-moiety by the chalcogen atom. Consequently, organochalcogenanes represent a new class of mechanism-based probes to modulate the PTP-mediated cellular processes. PMID:21240419

  6. Targeting the Reversibly Oxidized Protein Tyrosine Phosphatase Superfamily

    PubMed Central

    Boivin, Benoit; Yang, Ming; Tonks, Nicholas K.

    2010-01-01

    Controlled production of reactive oxygen species leads to reversible oxidation of protein tyrosine phosphatases (PTPs) and has emerged as an important tier of regulation over phosphorylation-dependent signal transduction. We present a modified cysteinyl-labeling assay that detects reversible oxidation of members of each of the different PTP subclasses. Here, we describe the methods for enriching reversibly oxidized PTPs from complex protein extracts, illustrating the procedure in IMR90 fibroblasts. PMID:20807953

  7. phoD Alkaline Phosphatase Gene Diversity in Soil

    PubMed Central

    Kertesz, Michael A.; Bünemann, Else K.

    2015-01-01

    Phosphatase enzymes are responsible for much of the recycling of organic phosphorus in soils. The PhoD alkaline phosphatase takes part in this process by hydrolyzing a range of organic phosphoesters. We analyzed the taxonomic and environmental distribution of phoD genes using whole-genome and metagenome databases. phoD alkaline phosphatase was found to be spread across 20 bacterial phyla and was ubiquitous in the environment, with the greatest abundance in soil. To study the great diversity of phoD, we developed a new set of primers which targets phoD genes in soil. The primer set was validated by 454 sequencing of six soils collected from two continents with different climates and soil properties and was compared to previously published primers. Up to 685 different phoD operational taxonomic units were found in each soil, which was 7 times higher than with previously published primers. The new primers amplified sequences belonging to 13 phyla, including 71 families. The most prevalent phoD genes identified in these soils were affiliated with the orders Actinomycetales (13 to 35%), Bacillales (1 to 29%), Gloeobacterales (1 to 18%), Rhizobiales (18 to 27%), and Pseudomonadales (0 to 22%). The primers also amplified phoD genes from additional orders, including Burkholderiales, Caulobacterales, Deinococcales, Planctomycetales, and Xanthomonadales, which represented the major differences in phoD composition between samples, highlighting the singularity of each community. Additionally, the phoD bacterial community structure was strongly related to soil pH, which varied between 4.2 and 6.8. These primers reveal the diversity of phoD in soil and represent a valuable tool for the study of phoD alkaline phosphatase in environmental samples. PMID:26253682

  8. Low serum alkaline phosphatase activity in Kikuchi-Fujimoto disease

    PubMed Central

    Inamo, Yasuji

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Various laboratory findings are helpful in making a diagnosis of Kikuchi-Fujimoto disease (KFD); however, they are not specific. We found decreased serum alkaline phosphatase (SAP) activity in children with KFD. The levels of SAP fell in the acute phase and recovered during convalescence. We conclude that low SAP activity is a characteristic of KFD and may be an auxiliary diagnostic marker for the disease. PMID:28248884

  9. Crystallization of recombinant Haemophilus influenzaee (P4) acid phosphatase

    SciTech Connect

    Ou, Zhonghui; Felts, Richard L.; Reilly, Thomas J.; Nix, Jay C.; Tanner, John J.

    2006-05-01

    Lipoprotein e (P4) is a class C acid phosphatase and a potential vaccine candidate for nontypeable H. influenzae infections. This paper reports the crystallization of recombinant e (P4) and the acquisition of a 1.7 Å resolution native X-ray diffraction data set. Haemophilus influenzae infects the upper respiratory tract of humans and can cause infections of the middle ear, sinuses and bronchi. The virulence of the pathogen is thought to involve a group of surface-localized macromolecular components that mediate interactions at the host–pathogen interface. One of these components is lipoprotein e (P4), which is a class C acid phosphatase and a potential vaccine candidate for nontypeable H. influenzae infections. This paper reports the crystallization of recombinant e (P4) and the acquisition of a 1.7 Å resolution native X-ray diffraction data set. The space group is P4{sub 2}2{sub 1}2, with unit-cell parameters a = 65.6, c = 101.4 Å, one protein molecule per asymmetric unit and 37% solvent content. This is the first report of the crystallization of a class C acid phosphatase.

  10. The role of phosphatases in the initiation of skeletal mineralization.

    PubMed

    Millán, José Luis

    2013-10-01

    Endochondral ossification is a carefully orchestrated process mediated by promoters and inhibitors of mineralization. Phosphatases are implicated, but their identities and functions remain unclear. Mutations in the tissue-nonspecific alkaline phosphatase (TNAP) gene cause hypophosphatasia, a heritable form of rickets and osteomalacia, caused by an arrest in the propagation of hydroxyapatite (HA) crystals onto the collagenous extracellular matrix due to accumulation of extracellular inorganic pyrophosphate (PPi), a physiological TNAP substrate and a potent calcification inhibitor. However, TNAP knockout (Alpl(-/-)) mice are born with a mineralized skeleton and have HA crystals in their chondrocyte- and osteoblast-derived matrix vesicles (MVs). We have shown that PHOSPHO1, a soluble phosphatase with specificity for two molecules present in MVs, phosphoethanolamine and phosphocholine, is responsible for initiating HA crystal formation inside MVs and that PHOSPHO1 and TNAP have nonredundant functional roles during endochondral ossification. Double ablation of PHOSPHO1 and TNAP function leads to the complete absence of skeletal mineralization and perinatal lethality, despite normal systemic phosphate and calcium levels. This strongly suggests that the Pi needed for initiation of MV-mediated mineralization is produced locally in the perivesicular space. As both TNAP and nucleoside pyrophosphohydrolase-1 (NPP1) behave as potent ATPases and pyrophosphatases in the MV compartment, our current model of the mechanisms of skeletal mineralization implicate intravesicular PHOSPHO1 function and Pi influx into MVs in the initiation of mineralization and the functions of TNAP and NPP1 in the extravesicular progression of mineralization.

  11. Crosstalk between kinases, phosphatases and miRNAs in cancer.

    PubMed

    Abrantes, Júlia L F; Tornatore, Thaís F; Pelizzaro-Rocha, Karin J; de Jesus, Marcelo B; Cartaxo, Rodrigo T; Milani, Renato; Ferreira-Halder, Carmen V

    2014-12-01

    Reversible phosphorylation of proteins, performed by kinases and phosphatases, is the major post translational protein modification in eukaryotic cells. This intracellular event represents a critical regulatory mechanism of several signaling pathways and can be related to a vast array of diseases, including cancer. Cancer research has produced increasing evidence that kinase and phosphatase activity can be compromised by mutations and also by miRNA silencing, performed by small non-coding and endogenously produced RNA molecules that lead to translational repression. miRNAs are believed to target about one-third of human mRNAs while a single miRNA may target about 200 transcripts simultaneously. Regulation of the phosphorylation balance by miRNAs has been a topic of intense research over the last years, spanning topics going as far as cancer aggressiveness and chemotherapy resistance. By addressing recent studies that have shown miRNA expression patterns as phenotypic signatures of cancers and how miRNA influence cellular processes such as apoptosis, cell cycle control, angiogenesis, inflammation and DNA repair, we discuss how kinases, phosphatases and miRNAs cooperatively act in cancer biology.

  12. Calcitonin releases acid phosphatase from rat ventral prostate explants.

    PubMed

    Latif, A; Nakhla, A M

    1994-01-01

    Inclusion of salmon calcitonin in the culture medium of rat ventral prostate explants diminished l-tartarate-sensitive acid phosphatase activity in the tissues with a concomitant increment of the enzyme activity in the medium. The effect of the hormone was dose-dependent for a dose range of 10(-12)-10(-6) M. Acid phosphatase activity in prostate explants decreased from 38.6 +/- 3.5 to 20.5 +/- 2.8, whereas it increased from 0.60 +/- 0.15 to 2.80 +/- 0.40 nmol p-nitrophenol liberated/mg protein/30 min in the culture medium. Tissues exposed to 10(-6) M salmon calcitonin had higher acetylcholinesterase activity (8.8 +/- 0.7) than non-exposed ones (6.2 +/- 0.5 mumol substrate hydrolyzed/g tissue/min). These results suggest that locally produced calcitonin causes a release for prostatic acid phosphatase from prostate tissues possibly through its interaction with the cholinergic system.

  13. Physiological aspects of alkaline phosphatase in selected cyanobacteria.

    PubMed

    Doonan, B B; Jensen, T E

    1980-01-01

    The alkaline phosphatase of Plectonema boryanum shows a considerable increase in activity following placement of the cells in a phosphate free medium. Five days of phosphate starvation result in a 14-fold increase of alkaline phosphatase activity. Growth in the presence of inhibitors of transcription and translation indicate that the synthesis of the enzyme is de novo. Orthophosphate causes an immediate inhibition of enzyme activity. Enzyme was extracted from P. boryanum with lysozyme or polymyxin B treatment in order to make comparative studies of cell bound and cell free enzyme. Of several enzyme specific inhibitors tested, mercuric chloride was the most effective. Temperature studies showed that the cell bound enzyme was most active at 40 degrees C while the cell free enzyme was most active at 70 degrees C. The pH optimum was 9 for the cell free enzyme, and 8.8 for the cell bound. The enzyme was tested to determine if it could hydrolyse a number of different organic compounds. It hydrolysed p-nitrophenol phosphate 100%, fructose-6-phosphate 45%, beta-glycerol phosphate 25% and other compounds to a lesser degree. Of seventeen other Cyanobacteria tested for alkaline phosphatase, all were positive, and of these eleven were inducible for the enzyme. Ten of the isolates released some of the enzyme into the culture medium. Michaelis constants for the enzyme were also determined.

  14. Phosphoregulators: Protein Kinases and Protein Phosphatases of Mouse

    PubMed Central

    Forrest, Alistair R.R.; Ravasi, Timothy; Taylor, Darrin; Huber, Thomas; Hume, David A.; Grimmond, Sean

    2003-01-01

    With the completion of the human and mouse genome sequences, the task now turns to identifying their encoded transcripts and assigning gene function. In this study, we have undertaken a computational approach to identify and classify all of the protein kinases and phosphatases present in the mouse gene complement. A nonredundant set of these sequences was produced by mining Ensembl gene predictions and publicly available cDNA sequences with a panel of InterPro domains. This approach identified 561 candidate protein kinases and 162 candidate protein phosphatases. This cohort was then analyzed using TribeMCL protein sequence similarity clustering followed by CLUSTALV alignment and hierarchical tree generation. This approach allowed us to (1) distinguish between true members of the protein kinase and phosphatase families and enzymes of related biochemistry, (2) determine the structure of the families, and (3) suggest functions for previously uncharacterized members. The classifications obtained by this approach were in good agreement with previous schemes and allowed us to demonstrate domain associations with a number of clusters. Finally, we comment on the complementary nature of cDNA and genome-based gene detection and the impact of the FANTOM2 transcriptome project. PMID:12819143

  15. In vitro enzymatic assays of protein tyrosine phosphatase 1B.

    PubMed

    Lubben, T; Clampit, J; Stashko, M; Trevillyan, J; Jirousek, M R

    2001-08-01

    Many hormone or growth factor receptors signal via the activation of protein-tyrosine kinases and phosphatases. Alteration of the phosphorylation state of tyrosine residues in certain proteins can directly regulate enzyme activity or cause formation of protein complexes necessary for transducing intracellular signals. Genetic and biochemical evidence also implicates protein-tyrosine phosphatases in several disease processes, including negative regulation of insulin receptor signaling at the level of the insulin receptor and perhaps in signaling at the IRS-1 level. The expression of protein tyrosine phosphatase-1B (PTP1B) is elevated in muscle and adipose tissue in insulin-resistant states both in man and rodents suggesting that PTP1B may play a role in the insulin-resistant state associated with diabetes and obesity. As described in this unit, PTP1B activity can be determined with the small molecule substrate, p-nitrophenyl phosphate (pNPP), in which the cleavage of the phosphate results in production of p-nitrophenol (pNP) and an increase in absorbance at 405 nm. Alternatively, PTP1B activity can be measured as described using model phosphotyrosyl-containing peptide substrates in which the release of free phosphate from the peptide is determined using a malachite green colorimetric assay.

  16. The role of serine/threonine protein phosphatases in exocytosis.

    PubMed Central

    Sim, Alistair T R; Baldwin, Monique L; Rostas, John A P; Holst, Jeff; Ludowyke, Russell I

    2003-01-01

    Modulation of exocytosis is integral to the regulation of cellular signalling, and a variety of disorders (such as epilepsy, hypertension, diabetes and asthma) are closely associated with pathological modulation of exocytosis. Emerging evidence points to protein phosphatases as key regulators of exocytosis in many cells and, therefore, as potential targets for the design of novel therapies to treat these diseases. Diverse yet exquisite regulatory mechanisms have evolved to direct the specificity of these enzymes in controlling particular cell processes, and functionally driven studies have demonstrated differential regulation of exocytosis by individual protein phosphatases. This Review discusses the evidence for the regulation of exocytosis by protein phosphatases in three major secretory systems, (1) mast cells, in which the regulation of exocytosis of inflammatory mediators plays a major role in the respiratory response to antigens, (2) insulin-secreting cells in which regulation of exocytosis is essential for metabolic control, and (3) neurons, in which regulation of exocytosis is perhaps the most complex and is essential for effective neurotransmission. PMID:12749763

  17. Centromeric binding and activity of Protein Phosphatase 4

    PubMed Central

    Lipinszki, Zoltan; Lefevre, Stephane; Savoian, Matthew S.; Singleton, Martin R.; Glover, David M.; Przewloka, Marcin R.

    2015-01-01

    The cell division cycle requires tight coupling between protein phosphorylation and dephosphorylation. However, understanding the cell cycle roles of multimeric protein phosphatases has been limited by the lack of knowledge of how their diverse regulatory subunits target highly conserved catalytic subunits to their sites of action. Phosphoprotein phosphatase 4 (PP4) has been recently shown to participate in the regulation of cell cycle progression. We now find that the EVH1 domain of the regulatory subunit 3 of Drosophila PP4, Falafel (Flfl), directly interacts with the centromeric protein C (CENP-C). Unlike other EVH1 domains that interact with proline-rich ligands, the crystal structure of the Flfl amino-terminal EVH1 domain bound to a CENP-C peptide reveals a new target-recognition mode for the phosphatase subunit. We also show that binding of Flfl to CENP-C is required to bring PP4 activity to centromeres to maintain CENP-C and attached core kinetochore proteins at chromosomes during mitosis. PMID:25562660

  18. Purple acid phosphatase of the human macrophage and osteoclast. Characterization, molecular properties, and crystallization of the recombinant di-iron-oxo protein secreted by baculovirus-infected insect cells.

    PubMed

    Hayman, A R; Cox, T M

    1994-01-14

    The purple phosphatases catalyze hydrolysis of phosphate esters (optimum pH approximately 5) and are resistant to inhibition by dextro-rotatory tartrate; their distinctive color is due to Fe(III)-phenolate charge-transfer transitions at their active site. Expression of human purple phosphatase, designated type 5 acid phosphatase, is restricted to osteoclasts and other activated cells of monohistiocytic lineage, but its biological rôle in relation to bone resorption and phagocytosis is unknown. To characterize this enzyme further, we have engineered the human type 5 acid phosphatase into a baculovirus vector expression system that enabled milligram quantities of purple protein to be purified from medium containing Sf9 host cells. The phosphatase cDNA was transcribed as a single RNA species of 1.5 kilobases as in human tissues. Tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase activity reacting with uteroferrin antisera appeared in the culture medium, from which up to 8 mg/liter was purified by two-step cation-exchange chromatography at pH 8.0. Two isoforms of approximately 36 kDa were identified by SDS-polyacrylamide electrophoresis and were converted to a single species of apparent molecular size 34 kDa upon treatment with N-glycosidase F, indicating secreted glycoforms of a single polypeptide. Mass spectroscopy showed that the mean molecular mass of the active, secreted glycoprotein was 35849 Da. The recombinant enzyme (specific activity, 190 mumol p-nitrophenol/min/mg at 37 degrees C) contained 2 iron atoms/molecule and formed purple, monoclinic crystals. Exposure to the ferric chelator, 1,2-dimethyl-3-hydroxypyrid-4-one, rapidly inactivated the enzyme, which was not inhibited by alpha, alpha'-bipyridyl, a ferrous chelator. That ferric iron is essential for enzymatic catalysis, was further indicated by the synergistic effects of the reductant, dithiothreitol, and bipyridyl on phosphatase activity. The recombinant purple phosphatase catalyzed the peroxidation of 5

  19. Combination of alkaline phosphatase anti-alkaline phosphatase (APAAP)- and avidin-biotin-alkaline phosphatase complex (ABAP)-techniques for amplification of immunocytochemical staining of human testicular tissue.

    PubMed

    Davidoff, M S; Schulze, W; Holstein, A F

    1991-01-01

    An amplification procedure was developed for the visualization of antigens in human testis using monoclonal antibodies against desmin and vimentin. The technique combines the high sensitive and specific APAAP- and ABAP-methods. Depending on the quality of the antibodies used and the processing of the material prior to the immunocytochemical staining the amplification technique may be applied either as a single APAAP and ABAP- or as a double APAAP and ABAP-combination. Especially after the double amplification reaction a distinct increase of the staining intensity of the vimentin- (in Sertoli cells, myofibroblasts of the lamina propria, and fibroblasts of the interstitium) and desmin- (in myofibroblasts of the lamina propria and smooth muscle cells of the blood vessels) like immunoreactivity was observed. If different diazonium salts were used for the visualization of the alkaline phosphatase activity (e.g. Fast Red TR Salt, Fast Blue BB Salt) desmin- and vimentin-like immunoreactivity can be demonstrated in the same tissue section in a double sequential staining approach. For double staining, the alkaline phosphatase technique may be combined successfully with a technique or a combination that uses peroxidase as a marker.

  20. Purification and characterization of a low-molecular-weight acid phosphatase--a phosphotyrosyl-protein phosphatase from bovine heart.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Z Y; Van Etten, R L

    1990-10-01

    A low-molecular-weight acid phosphatase that is representative of a group recently shown to be phosphotyrosyl protein phosphatases was purified to homogeneity from bovine heart. The enzyme was a monomer with a molecular mass of 18 kDa and had an isoelectric point of 7.0. The absorption coefficient, E1% 1cm was 9.65 at 280 nm. The enzyme had pH optima of 5.3 and 6.0 with the substrates p-nitrophenyl phosphate and tyrosine phosphate, respectively. When measured at pH 5 and 37 degrees C, the enzyme had specific activities of 114 and 86 mumol min-1 mg-1 for p-nitrophenyl phosphate and tyrosine O-phosphate, respectively, while the Km values were 0.38 and 14 mM. The enzyme was highly specific for aryl monophosphate esters and showed little or no activity toward aliphatic phosphate esters, with the remarkable exception of flavin mononucleotide (FMN) and certain of its structural analogs. As shown by 31P NMR data, the activity toward FMN was due to the hydrolysis of one of the eight components present in the (commercial) sample. Both molybdate and vanadate were potent inhibitors, with inhibition constants of 37 and 29 microM, respectively; tartrate and fluoride had little effect on enzymatic activity. A two-stage reversible denaturation of the enzyme by guanidine HCl was observed with midpoints of 0.25 and 1.75 M, respectively. The amino acid composition was homologous to the low-molecular-weight acid phosphatases from other tissue. The enzyme showed immunological cross-reactivity against low-molecular-weight human liver acid phosphatase. There were 7 or 8 accessible cysteines on the monomeric protein and at least one was essential for enzyme activity. The enzyme also had phosphotransferase activity, for example transferring phosphate from p-nitrophenyl phosphate to a wide variety of alcohol acceptors.

  1. Phosphatase activity of the voltage-sensing phosphatase, VSP, shows graded dependence on the extent of activation of the voltage sensor.

    PubMed

    Sakata, Souhei; Okamura, Yasushi

    2014-03-01

    The voltage-sensing phosphatase (VSP) consists of a voltage sensor and a cytoplasmic phosphatase region, and the movement of the voltage sensor is coupled to the phosphatase activity. However, its coupling mechanisms still remain unclear. One possible scenario is that the phosphatase is activated only when the voltage sensor is in a fully activated state. Alternatively, the enzymatic activity of single VSP proteins could be graded in distinct activated states of the voltage sensor, and partial activation of the voltage sensor could lead to partial activation of the phosphatase. To distinguish between these two possibilities, we studied a voltage sensor mutant of zebrafish VSP, where the voltage sensor moves in two steps as evidenced by analyses of charge movements of the voltage sensor and voltage clamp fluorometry. Measurements of the phosphatase activity toward phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate revealed that both steps of voltage sensor activation are coupled to the tuning of phosphatase activities, consistent with the idea that the phosphatase activity is graded by the magnitude of the movement of the voltage sensor.

  2. Identification of a non-purple tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase: an evolutionary link to Ser/Thr protein phosphatases?

    PubMed Central

    Hadler, Kieran S; Huber, Thomas; Cassady, A Ian; Weber, Jane; Robinson, Jodie; Burrows, Allan; Kelly, Gregory; Guddat, Luke W; Hume, David A; Schenk, Gerhard; Flanagan, Jack U

    2008-01-01

    Background Tartrate-resistant acid phosphatases (TRAcPs), also known as purple acid phosphatases (PAPs), are a family of binuclear metallohydrolases that have been identified in plants, animals and fungi. The human enzyme is a major histochemical marker for the diagnosis of bone-related diseases. TRAcPs can occur as a small form possessing only the ~35 kDa catalytic domain, or a larger ~55 kDa form possessing both a catalytic domain and an additional N-terminal domain of unknown function. Due to its role in bone resorption the 35 kDa TRAcP has become a promising target for the development of anti-osteoporotic chemotherapeutics. Findings A new human gene product encoding a metallohydrolase distantly related to the ~55 kDa plant TRAcP was identified and characterised. The gene product is found in a number of animal species, and is present in all tissues sampled by the RIKEN mouse transcriptome project. Construction of a homology model illustrated that six of the seven metal-coordinating ligands in the active site are identical to that observed in the TRAcP family. However, the tyrosine ligand associated with the charge transfer transition and purple color of TRAcPs is replaced by a histidine. Conlusion The gene product identified here may represent an evolutionary link between TRAcPs and Ser/Thr protein phosphatases. Its biological function is currently unknown but is unlikely to be associated with bone metabolism. PMID:18771593

  3. Tyrosine phosphatases as key regulators of StAR induction and cholesterol transport: SHP2 as a potential tyrosine phosphatase involved in steroid synthesis.

    PubMed

    Cooke, Mariana; Mele, Pablo; Maloberti, Paula; Duarte, Alejandra; Poderoso, Cecilia; Orlando, Ulises; Paz, Cristina; Cornejo Maciel, Fabiana; Podestá, Ernesto J

    2011-04-10

    The phospho-dephosphorylation of intermediate proteins is a key event in the regulation of steroid biosynthesis. In this regard, it is well accepted that steroidogenic hormones act through the activation of serine/threonine (Ser/Thr) protein kinases. Although many cellular processes can be regulated by a crosstalk between different kinases and phosphatases, the relationship of Ser/Thr phosphorylation and tyrosine (Tyr)-dephosphorylation is a recently explored field in the regulation of steroid synthesis. Indeed in steroidogenic cells, one of the targets of hormone-induced Ser/Thr phosphorylation is a protein tyrosine phosphatase. Whereas protein tyrosine phosphatases were initially regarded as household enzymes with constitutive activity, dephosphorylating all the substrates they encountered, evidence is now accumulating that protein tyrosine phosphatases are tightly regulated by various mechanisms. Here, we will describe the role of protein tyrosine phosphatases in the regulation of steroid biosynthesis, relating them to steroidogenic acute regulatory protein, arachidonic acid metabolism and mitochondrial rearrangement.

  4. Gallium nitrate inhibits alkaline phosphatase activity in a differentiating mesenchymal cell culture.

    PubMed

    Boskey, A L; Ziecheck, W; Guidon, P; Doty, S B

    1993-02-01

    The effect of gallium nitrate on alkaline phosphatase activity in a differentiating chick limb-bud mesenchymal cell culture was monitored in order to gain insight into the observation that rachitic rats treated with gallium nitrate failed to show the expected increase in serum alkaline phosphatase activity. Cultures maintained in media containing 15 microM gallium nitrate showed drastically decreased alkaline phosphatase activities in the absence of significant alterations in total protein synthesis and DNA content. However, addition of 15 microM gallium nitrate to cultures 18 h before assay for alkaline phosphatase activity had little effect. At the light microscopic and electron microscopic level, gallium-treated cultures differed morphologically from gallium-free cultures: with gallium present, there were fewer hypertrophic chondrocytes and cartilage nodules were flatter and further apart. Because of altered morphology, staining with an antibody against chick cartilage alkaline phosphatase appeared less extensive; however, all nodules stained equivalently relative to gallium-free controls. Histochemical staining for alkaline phosphatase activity was negative in gallium-treated cultures, demonstrating that the alkaline phosphatase protein present was not active. The defective alkaline phosphatase activity in cultures maintained in the presence of gallium was also evidenced when cultures were supplemented with the alkaline phosphatase substrate, beta-glycerophosphate (beta GP). The data presented suggest that gallium inhibits alkaline phosphatase activity in this culture system and that gallium causes alterations in the differentiation of mesenchymal cells into hypertrophic chondrocytes.

  5. Characterization of a tyrosine phosphatase activity in the oogenesis of Periplaneta americana.

    PubMed

    Oliveira, D M P; Machado, E A

    2006-09-01

    In this work, phosphatase activity was characterized in the ovary and the haemolymph of Periplaneta americana. The optimum pH for these activities was 4.0, and a temperature of 44 degrees C was ideal for the maximal enzyme activity. The phosphatase activities were inhibited by NaF, sodium tartrate, Pi, sodium orthovanadate, and ammonium molybdate. The ovarian phosphatase activity at pH 4.0 was almost exclusive against phosphotyrosine, with little or no effect on the residues of phosphoserine or phosphothreonine. These results indicate that this phosphatase activity is due to the presence of an acid tyrosine phosphatase. The phosphatase activities of acid extracts from P. americana ovaries (OEX) and an acid extract from P. americana haemolymph (HEX) were analyzed in non-denaturant gel electrophoresis using an analog substrate beta-naphtyl phosphate. The gel revealed two bands with phosphatase activity in the ovary and one band in the haemolymph; these bands were excised and submitted to a 10% SDS-PAGE showing a single 70-kDa polypeptide in both samples. Histochemistry of the ovary with alpha-naphtyl phosphate for localization of acid phosphatase activity showed mainly labeling associated to the oocyte peripheral vesicles, basal lamina, and between follicle cells. Electron microscopy analysis showed that acid phosphatase was localized in small peripheral vesicles in the oocyte, but not inside yolk granules. The possible role of this phosphatase during oogenesis and embryogenesis is also discussed in this article.

  6. Structural basis for the glucan phosphatase activity of Starch Excess4

    SciTech Connect

    Vander Kooi, Craig W.; Taylor, Adam O.; Pace, Rachel M.; Meekins, David A.; Guo, Hou-Fu; Kim, Youngjun; Gentry, Matthew S.

    2010-11-12

    Living organisms utilize carbohydrates as essential energy storage molecules. Starch is the predominant carbohydrate storage molecule in plants while glycogen is utilized in animals. Starch is a water-insoluble polymer that requires the concerted activity of kinases and phosphatases to solubilize the outer surface of the glucan and mediate starch catabolism. All known plant genomes encode the glucan phosphatase Starch Excess4 (SEX4). SEX4 can dephosphorylate both the starch granule surface and soluble phosphoglucans and is necessary for processive starch metabolism. The physical basis for the function of SEX4 as a glucan phosphatase is currently unclear. Herein, we report the crystal structure of SEX4, containing phosphatase, carbohydrate-binding, and C-terminal domains. The three domains of SEX4 fold into a compact structure with extensive interdomain interactions. The C-terminal domain of SEX4 integrally folds into the core of the phosphatase domain and is essential for its stability. The phosphatase and carbohydrate-binding domains directly interact and position the phosphatase active site toward the carbohydrate-binding site in a single continuous pocket. Mutagenesis of the phosphatase domain residue F167, which forms the base of this pocket and bridges the two domains, selectively affects the ability of SEX4 to function as a glucan phosphatase. Together, these results reveal the unique tertiary architecture of SEX4 that provides the physical basis for its function as a glucan phosphatase.

  7. Stress-activated protein kinase-mediated down-regulation of the cell integrity pathway mitogen-activated protein kinase Pmk1p by protein phosphatases.

    PubMed

    Madrid, Marisa; Núñez, Andrés; Soto, Teresa; Vicente-Soler, Jero; Gacto, Mariano; Cansado, José

    2007-11-01

    Fission yeast mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) Pmk1p is involved in morphogenesis, cytokinesis, and ion homeostasis as part of the cell integrity pathway, and it becomes activated under multiple stresses, including hyper- or hypotonic conditions, glucose deprivation, cell wall-damaging compounds, and oxidative stress. The only protein phosphatase known to dephosphorylate and inactivate Pmk1p is Pmp1p. We show here that the stress-activated protein kinase (SAPK) pathway and its main effector, Sty1p MAPK, are essential for proper deactivation of Pmk1p under hypertonic stress in a process regulated by Atf1p transcription factor. We demonstrate that tyrosine phosphatases Pyp1p and Pyp2p, and serine/threonine phosphatase Ptc1p, that negatively regulate Sty1p activity and whose expression is dependent on Sty1p-Atf1p function, are involved in Pmk1p dephosphorylation under osmostress. Pyp1p and Ptc1p, in addition to Pmp1p, also control the basal level of MAPK Pmk1p activity in growing cells and associate with, and dephosphorylate Pmk1p both in vitro and in vivo. Our results with Ptc1p provide the first biochemical evidence for a PP2C-type phosphatase acting on more than one MAPK in yeast cells. Importantly, the SAPK-dependent down-regulation of Pmk1p through Pyp1p, Pyp2p, and Ptc1p was not complete, and Pyp1p and Ptc1p phosphatases are able to negatively regulate MAPK Pmk1p activity by an alternative regulatory mechanism. Our data also indicate that Pmk1p phosphorylation oscillates as a function of the cell cycle, peaking at cell separation during cytokinesis, and that Pmp1p phosphatase plays a main role in regulating this process.

  8. Stress-activated Protein Kinase-mediated Down-Regulation of the Cell Integrity Pathway Mitogen-activated Protein Kinase Pmk1p by Protein Phosphatases

    PubMed Central

    Madrid, Marisa; Núñez, Andrés; Soto, Teresa; Vicente-Soler, Jero; Cansado, José

    2007-01-01

    Fission yeast mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) Pmk1p is involved in morphogenesis, cytokinesis, and ion homeostasis as part of the cell integrity pathway, and it becomes activated under multiple stresses, including hyper- or hypotonic conditions, glucose deprivation, cell wall-damaging compounds, and oxidative stress. The only protein phosphatase known to dephosphorylate and inactivate Pmk1p is Pmp1p. We show here that the stress-activated protein kinase (SAPK) pathway and its main effector, Sty1p MAPK, are essential for proper deactivation of Pmk1p under hypertonic stress in a process regulated by Atf1p transcription factor. We demonstrate that tyrosine phosphatases Pyp1p and Pyp2p, and serine/threonine phosphatase Ptc1p, that negatively regulate Sty1p activity and whose expression is dependent on Sty1p-Atf1p function, are involved in Pmk1p dephosphorylation under osmostress. Pyp1p and Ptc1p, in addition to Pmp1p, also control the basal level of MAPK Pmk1p activity in growing cells and associate with, and dephosphorylate Pmk1p both in vitro and in vivo. Our results with Ptc1p provide the first biochemical evidence for a PP2C-type phosphatase acting on more than one MAPK in yeast cells. Importantly, the SAPK-dependent down-regulation of Pmk1p through Pyp1p, Pyp2p, and Ptc1p was not complete, and Pyp1p and Ptc1p phosphatases are able to negatively regulate MAPK Pmk1p activity by an alternative regulatory mechanism. Our data also indicate that Pmk1p phosphorylation oscillates as a function of the cell cycle, peaking at cell separation during cytokinesis, and that Pmp1p phosphatase plays a main role in regulating this process. PMID:17761528

  9. MAPK Phosphatase AP2C3 Induces Ectopic Proliferation of Epidermal Cells Leading to Stomata Development in Arabidopsis

    PubMed Central

    Kazanaviciute, Vaiva; Magyar, Zoltan; Ayatollahi, Zahra; Unterwurzacher, Verena; Choopayak, Chonnanit; Boniecka, Justyna; Murray, James A. H.; Bogre, Laszlo; Meskiene, Irute

    2010-01-01

    In plant post-embryonic epidermis mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) signaling promotes differentiation of pavement cells and inhibits initiation of stomata. Stomata are cells specialized to modulate gas exchange and water loss. Arabidopsis MAPKs MPK3 and MPK6 are at the core of the signaling cascade; however, it is not well understood how the activity of these pleiotropic MAPKs is constrained spatially so that pavement cell differentiation is promoted only outside the stomata lineage. Here we identified a PP2C-type phosphatase termed AP2C3 (Arabidopsis protein phosphatase 2C) that is expressed distinctively during stomata development as well as interacts and inactivates MPK3, MPK4 and MPK6. AP2C3 co-localizes with MAPKs within the nucleus and this localization depends on its N-terminal extension. We show that other closely related phosphatases AP2C2 and AP2C4 are also MAPK phosphatases acting on MPK6, but have a distinct expression pattern from AP2C3. In accordance with this, only AP2C3 ectopic expression is able to stimulate cell proliferation leading to excess stomata development. This function of AP2C3 relies on the domains required for MAPK docking and intracellular localization. Concomitantly, the constitutive and inducible AP2C3 expression deregulates E2F-RB pathway, promotes the abundance and activity of CDKA, as well as changes of CDKB1;1 forms. We suggest that AP2C3 downregulates the MAPK signaling activity to help maintain the balance between differentiation of stomata and pavement cells. PMID:21203456

  10. Regulation of p27Kip1 phosphorylation and G1 cell cycle progression by protein phosphatase PPM1G

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Chuang; Wang, Gaohang; Wrighton, Katharine H; Lin, Han; Songyang, Zhou; Feng, Xin-Hua; Lin, Xia

    2016-01-01

    The cell cycle, an essential process leading to the cell division, is stringently controlled by the key cell cycle regulators, cyclin-CDK complexes, whose activity is further regulated by a variety of mechanisms. p27Kip1 is a cyclin-CDK inhibitor that arrests the cell cycle at the G1 phase by blocking the activation of cyclin E-CDK2 complex, preventing the improper entry to the cell cycle. Dysfunction of p27 has been frequently observed in many types of human cancers, resulting from p27 protein degradation and cytoplasmic mislocalization, which are highly regulated by the phosphorylation status of p27. Although the kinases that phosphorylate p27 have been extensively studied, phosphatases that dephosphorylate p27 remain to be elucidated. By using genomic phosphatase screening, we identified a PPM family phosphatase, PPM1G, which could reduce p27 phosphorylation at T198. We further confirmed that PPM1G is a novel p27 phosphatase by demonstrating that PPM1G can interact with and dephosphorylate p27 in cells and in vitro. Functionally, ectopic expression of PPM1G enhanced p27 protein stability and delayed cell cycle progression from G1 to S phase. In accordance, knockdown of PPM1G accelerated p27 degradation during G1 phase and rendered cells resistant to the cell cycle arrest induced by serum deprivation. Mechanistically, PPM1G inhibited the interaction of p27 to 14-3-3θ, a chaperone protein that facilitates p27 nuclear export. Knockdown of PPM1G promoted the cytoplasmic localization of p27. Taken together, our studies identified PPM1G as a novel regulator of p27 that dephosphorylates p27 at T198 site and, together with p27 kinases, PPM1G controls cell cycle progression by maintaining the proper level of p27 protein. PMID:27822412

  11. Enzymatic mineralization of hydrogels for bone tissue engineering by incorporation of alkaline phosphatase.

    PubMed

    Douglas, Timothy E L; Messersmith, Philip B; Chasan, Safak; Mikos, Antonios G; de Mulder, Eric L W; Dickson, Glenn; Schaubroeck, David; Balcaen, Lieve; Vanhaecke, Frank; Dubruel, Peter; Jansen, John A; Leeuwenburgh, Sander C G

    2012-08-01

    Alkaline phosphatase (ALP), an enzyme involved in mineralization of bone, is incorporated into three hydrogel biomaterials to induce their mineralization with calcium phosphate (CaP). These are collagen type I, a mussel-protein-inspired adhesive consisting of PEG substituted with catechol groups, cPEG, and the PEG/fumaric acid copolymer OPF. After incubation in Ca-GP solution, FTIR, EDS, SEM, XRD, SAED, ICP-OES, and von Kossa staining confirm CaP formation. The amount of mineral formed decreases in the order cPEG > collagen > OPF. The mineral:polymer ratio decreases in the order collagen > cPEG > OPF. Mineralization increases Young's modulus, most profoundly for cPEG. Such enzymatically mineralized hydrogel/CaP composites may find application as bone regeneration materials.

  12. RNAi screen for kinases and phosphatases that play a role in antigen presentation by dendritic cells.

    PubMed

    Moita, Catarina F; Chora, Ângelo; Hacohen, Nir; Moita, Luis F

    2012-07-01

    Effective CD8(+) T-cell responses against tumor or microbial antigens that are not directly expressed in antigen-presenting cells (APCs) depend on the cross-presentation of these antigens on MHC class I in APCs. To identify signaling molecules that regulate cross-presentation, we used lentiviral-based RNA interference to test the roles of hundreds of kinases and phosphatases in this process. Our study uncovered eight previously unknown genes, consisting of one positive and seven negative regulators of antigen cross-presentation. Depletion of Acvr1c, a type I receptor for TGF-β family of signaling molecules, led to an increase in CD80 and CD86 co-stimulator surface expression and secreted IL-12 in mouse bone marrow-derived DCs, as well as antigen-specific T-cell proliferation.

  13. Regulators of PP2C phosphatase activity function as abscisic acid sensors.

    PubMed

    Ma, Yue; Szostkiewicz, Izabela; Korte, Arthur; Moes, Danièle; Yang, Yi; Christmann, Alexander; Grill, Erwin

    2009-05-22

    The plant hormone abscisic acid (ABA) acts as a developmental signal and as an integrator of environmental cues such as drought and cold. Key players in ABA signal transduction include the type 2C protein phosphatases (PP2Cs) ABI1 and ABI2, which act by negatively regulating ABA responses. In this study, we identify interactors of ABI1 and ABI2 which we have named regulatory components of ABA receptor (RCARs). In Arabidopsis, RCARs belong to a family with 14 members that share structural similarity with class 10 pathogen-related proteins. RCAR1 was shown to bind ABA, to mediate ABA-dependent inactivation of ABI1 or ABI2 in vitro, and to antagonize PP2C action in planta. Other RCARs also mediated ABA-dependent regulation of ABI1 and ABI2, consistent with a combinatorial assembly of receptor complexes.

  14. Catalytic mechanism and kinase interactions of ABA-signaling PP2C phosphatases.

    PubMed

    Zhou, X Edward; Soon, Fen-Fen; Ng, Ley-Moy; Kovach, Amanda; Suino-Powell, Kelly M; Li, Jun; Yong, Eu-Leong; Zhu, Jian-Kang; Xu, H Eric; Melcher, Karsten

    2012-05-01

    Abscisic acid (ABA) is an essential hormone that controls plant growth, development and responses to abiotic stresses. ABA signaling is mediated by type 2C protein phosphatases (PP2Cs), including HAB1 and ABI2, which inhibit stress-activated SnRK2 kinases and whose activity is regulated by ABA and ABA receptors. Based on biochemical data and our previously determined crystal structures of ABI2 and the SnRK2.6-HAB1 complex, we present the catalytic mechanism of PP2C and provide new insight into PP2C-SnRK2 interactions and possible roles of other SnRK2 kinases in ABA signaling.

  15. Intestinal Alkaline Phosphatase Detoxifies Lipopolysaccharide and Prevents Inflammation in Response to the Gut Microbiota

    PubMed Central

    Bates, Jennifer M.; Akerlund, Janie; Mittge, Erika; Guillemin, Karen

    2009-01-01

    SUMMARY Vertebrates harbor abundant lipopolysaccharide (LPS) or endotoxin in their gut microbiota. Here we demonstrate that the brush border enzyme intestinal alkaline phosphatase (Iap), which dephosphorylates LPS, is induced during establishment of the microbiota and plays a crucial role in promoting mucosal tolerance to gut bacteria in zebrafish. We demonstrate that Iap deficient animals are hypersensitive to LPS toxicity through a mechanism mediated by Myd88 and Tumor Necrosis Factor Receptor (Tnfr). We further show that the endogenous microbiota establish the normal homeostatic level of neutrophils in the intestine through a process involving Myd88 and Tnfr. Iap deficient animals exhibit excessive intestinal neutrophil influx, similar to wild type animals exposed to LPS. When reared germ-free, however, the intestines of Iap deficient animals are devoid of neutrophils, demonstrating that Iap functions to prevent inflammatory responses to resident gut bacteria. PMID:18078689

  16. Inhibition of protein tyrosine phosphatase 1B by lignans from Myristica fragrans.

    PubMed

    Yang, Senugmi; Na, Min Kyun; Jang, Jun Pil; Kim, Kyung Ah; Kim, Bo Yeon; Sung, Nak Ju; Oh, Won Keun; Ahn, Jong Seog

    2006-08-01

    Inhibition of protein tyrosine phosphatase 1B (PTP1B) has been proposed as one of the drug targets for treating type 2 diabetes and obesity. Bioassay-guided fractionation of a MeOH extract of the semen of Myristica fragrans Houtt. (Myristicaceae) afforded PTP1B inhibitory compounds, meso-dihydroguaiaretic acid (1) and otobaphenol (2). Compounds 1 and 2 inhibited PTP1B with IC(50) values of 19.6 +/- 0.3 and 48.9 +/- 0.5 microM, respectively, in the manner of non-competitive inhibitors. Treatment with compound 1 on 32D cells overexpressing the insulin receptor (IR) resulted in a dose-dependent increase in the tyrosine phosphorylation of IR. These results indicate that compound 1 can act as an enhancing agent in intracellular insulin signaling, possibly through the inhibition of PTP1B activity.

  17. Canine serum thermostable alkaline phosphatase isoenzyme from a dog with hepatocellular carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Fukui, Yu-ichi; Sato, Jun; Sato, Reeko; Yasuda, Jun; Naito, Yoshihisa

    2006-10-01

    A dog histopathologically diagnosed with hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) showed very high serum alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity. A supernatant of ascitic fluid and tumor tissue extracted from the dog also showed much higher ALP activity than normal. ALP isoenzyme analysis of samples was performed using polyacrylamide gel disk electrophoresis, and a wide, broad abnormal band was observed. By various treatments, the abnormal band showed thermostability, which is a characteristic of tumor-associated ALP that has only been reported in humans. The thermostable ALP isoenzyme was not found in sera from 39 dogs with several types of tumor that originated from the liver, except for HCC, nor was it found in 10 dogs with hepatic diseases that did not include hepatic tumors. The thermostable ALP isoenzyme seemed to be associated with canine HCC.

  18. Enzymatic mineralization of hydrogels for bone tissue engineering by incorporation of alkaline phosphatase

    PubMed Central

    Douglas, Timothy E.L.; Messersmith, Philip B.; Chasan, Safak; Mikos, Antonios G.; de Mulder, Eric L.W.; Dickson, Glenn; Schaubroeck, David; Balcaen, Lieve; Vanhaecke, Frank; Dubruel, Peter; Jansen, John A.

    2013-01-01

    Alkaline Phosphatase (ALP), an enzyme involved in mineralization of bone, was incorporated into three hydrogel biomaterials to induce their mineralization with calcium phosphate (CaP). These were collagen type I, a mussel protein-inspired adhesive consisting of PEG substituted with catechol groups, cPEG, and the PEG-fumaric acid copolymer OPF. After incubation in calcium glycerophosphate (Ca-GP) solution, FTIR, EDS, SEM, XRD, SAED, ICP-OES and von Kossa staining confirmed CaP formation. The amount of mineral formed decreased in the order cPEG > collagen > OPF. Mineral:polymer ratio decreased in the order collagen > cPEG > OPF. Mineralization increased Young’s modulus, most profoundly for cPEG. Such enzymatically mineralized hydrogel-CaP composites could find application as bone regeneration materials. PMID:22648976

  19. Arabidopsis thaliana VTC4 encodes L-galactose-1-P phosphatase, a plant ascorbic acid biosynthetic enzyme.

    PubMed

    Conklin, Patricia L; Gatzek, Stephan; Wheeler, Glen L; Dowdle, John; Raymond, Marjorie J; Rolinski, Susanne; Isupov, Mikhail; Littlechild, Jennifer A; Smirnoff, Nicholas

    2006-06-09

    In plants, a proposed ascorbate (vitamin C) biosynthesis pathway occurs via GDP-D-mannose (GDP-D-Man), GDP-L-galactose (GDP-L-Gal), and L-galactose. However, the steps involved in the synthesis of L-Gal from GDP-L-Gal in planta are not fully characterized. Here we present evidence for an in vivo role for L-Gal-1-P phosphatase in plant ascorbate biosynthesis. We have characterized a low ascorbate mutant (vtc4-1) of Arabidopsis thaliana, which exhibits decreased ascorbate biosynthesis. Genetic mapping and sequencing of the VTC4 locus identified a mutation (P92L) in a gene with predicted L-Gal-1-P phosphatase activity (At3g02870). Pro-92 is within a beta-bulge that is conserved in related myo-inositol monophosphatases. The mutation is predicted to disrupt the positioning of catalytic amino acid residues within the active site. Accordingly, L-Gal-1-P phosphatase activity in vtc4-1 was approximately 50% of wild-type plants. In addition, vtc4-1 plants incorporate significantly more radiolabel from [2-(3)H]Man into L-galactosyl residues suggesting that the mutation increases the availability of GDP-L-Gal for polysaccharide synthesis. Finally, a homozygous T-DNA insertion line, which lacks a functional At3g02870 gene product, is also ascorbate-deficient (50% of wild type) and deficient in L-Gal-1-P phosphatase activity. Genetic complementation tests revealed that the insertion mutant and VTC4-1 are alleles of the same genetic locus. The significantly lower ascorbate and perturbed L-Gal metabolism in vtc4-1 and the T-DNA insertion mutant indicate that L-Gal-1-P phosphatase plays a role in plant ascorbate biosynthesis. The presence of ascorbate in the T-DNA insertion mutant suggests there is a bypass to this enzyme or that other pathways also contribute to ascorbate biosynthesis.

  20. Assay of phosphotyrosyl protein phosphatase using synthetic peptide 1142-1153 of the insulin receptor.

    PubMed

    King, M J; Sale, G J

    1988-09-12

    Synthetic peptide 1142-1153 of the insulin receptor was phosphorylated on tyrosine by the insulin receptor and found to be a potent substrate for dephosphorylation by rat liver particulate and soluble phosphotyrosyl protein phosphatases. Apparent Km values were approximately 5 microM. Vm values (nmol phosphate removed/min per mg protein) were 0.62 (particulate) and 0.2 (soluble). This corresponds to 80% of total activity being membrane-associated, indicating that membrane-bound phosphatases are important receptor phosphatases. The phosphatase activities were distinct from acid and alkaline phosphatase. In conclusion peptide 1142-1153 provides a useful tool for the further study and characterization of phosphotyrosyl protein phosphatases.

  1. Cooperative Electrostatic Interactions Drive Functional Evolution in the Alkaline Phosphatase Superfamily

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    It is becoming widely accepted that catalytic promiscuity, i.e., the ability of a single enzyme to catalyze the turnover of multiple, chemically distinct substrates, plays a key role in the evolution of new enzyme functions. In this context, the members of the alkaline phosphatase superfamily have been extensively studied as model systems in order to understand the phenomenon of enzyme multifunctionality. In the present work, we model the selectivity of two multiply promiscuous members of this superfamily, namely the phosphonate monoester hydrolases from Burkholderia caryophylli and Rhizobium leguminosarum. We have performed extensive simulations of the enzymatic reaction of both wild-type enzymes and several experimentally characterized mutants. Our computational models are in agreement with key experimental observables, such as the observed activities of the wild-type enzymes, qualitative interpretations of experimental pH-rate profiles, and activity trends among several active site mutants. In all cases the substrates of interest bind to the enzyme in similar conformations, with largely unperturbed transition states from their corresponding analogues in aqueous solution. Examination of transition-state geometries and the contribution of individual residues to the calculated activation barriers suggest that the broad promiscuity of these enzymes arises from cooperative electrostatic interactions in the active site, allowing each enzyme to adapt to the electrostatic needs of different substrates. By comparing the structural and electrostatic features of several alkaline phosphatases, we suggest that this phenomenon is a generalized feature driving selectivity and promiscuity within this superfamily and can be in turn used for artificial enzyme design. PMID:26091851

  2. Metastasis-associated phosphatase PRL-2 regulates tumor cell migration and invasion.

    PubMed

    Wang, Y; Lazo, J S

    2012-02-16

    The phosphatase of regenerating liver (PRL) family, comprising PRL-1, PRL-2 and PRL-3, is a group of prenylated phosphatases that are candidate cancer biomarkers and therapeutic targets. Although several studies have documented that altered expression of PRL-1 or PRL-3 can influence cell proliferation, migration and invasion, there is a dearth of knowledge about the biological functions of PRL-2. Thus, in the current study we have evaluated the role of PRL-2 in cell migration and invasion in human cancer cells. We found that four human lung cancer cells, including A549 cells, overexpress PRL-2 when compared with normal lung cells. PRL-2 knockdown by RNA interference markedly inhibited cell migration and invasion, and this inhibition can be restored by overexpressing the short interference RNA (siRNA)-resistant vector HA-PRL-2m. PRL-2 suppression by siRNA decreased p130Cas and vinculin expression, and decreased extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) phosphorylation, while increasing the phosphorylation of ezrin on tyrosine 146. We found no significant changes in total p53, Akt and c-Src expression levels or their phosphorylation status, suggesting that PRL-2 knockdown could inhibit tumor cell migration and invasion through a Src-independent p130Cas signaling pathway. Ectopic expression of wild-type PRL-2, a catalytic inactive C101S mutant and a C-terminal CAAX deletion revealed a requirement for both the PRL-2 catalytic functionality and prenylation site. Expression of wild-type but not mutant forms of PRL-2 caused ERK phosphorylation and nuclear translocation. These results support a model in which PRL-2 promotes cell migration and invasion through an ERK-dependent signaling pathway.

  3. FIG4 regulates lysosome membrane homeostasis independent of phosphatase function.

    PubMed

    Bharadwaj, Rajnish; Cunningham, Kathleen M; Zhang, Ke; Lloyd, Thomas E

    2016-02-15

    FIG4 is a phosphoinositide phosphatase that is mutated in several diseases including Charcot-Marie-Tooth Disease 4J (CMT4J) and Yunis-Varon syndrome (YVS). To investigate the mechanism of disease pathogenesis, we generated Drosophila models of FIG4-related diseases. Fig4 null mutant animals are viable but exhibit marked enlargement of the lysosomal compartment in muscle cells and neurons, accompanied by an age-related decline in flight ability. Transgenic animals expressing Drosophila Fig4 missense mutations corresponding to human pathogenic mutations can partially rescue lysosomal expansion phenotypes, consistent with these mutations causing decreased FIG4 function. Interestingly, Fig4 mutations predicted to inactivate FIG4 phosphatase activity rescue lysosome expansion phenotypes, and mutations in the phosphoinositide (3) phosphate kinase Fab1 that performs the reverse enzymatic reaction also causes a lysosome expansion phenotype. Since FIG4 and FAB1 are present together in the same biochemical complex, these data are consistent with a model in which FIG4 serves a phosphatase-independent biosynthetic function that is essential for lysosomal membrane homeostasis. Lysosomal phenotypes are suppressed by genetic inhibition of Rab7 or the HOPS complex, demonstrating that FIG4 functions after endosome-to-lysosome fusion. Furthermore, disruption of the retromer complex, implicated in recycling from the lysosome to Golgi, does not lead to similar phenotypes as Fig4, suggesting that the lysosomal defects are not due to compromised retromer-mediated recycling of endolysosomal membranes. These data show that FIG4 plays a critical noncatalytic function in maintaining lysosomal membrane homeostasis, and that this function is disrupted by mutations that cause CMT4J and YVS.

  4. Osseous plate alkaline phosphatase is anchored by GPI.

    PubMed

    Pizauro, J M; Ciancaglini, P; Leone, F A

    1994-02-01

    Alkaline phosphatase activity was released up to 100% from the membrane by using 0.1 U of phosphatidylinositol-specific phospholipase C from B. thuringiensis. The M(r) of solubilized enzyme was 145,000 by Sephacryl S-300 gel filtration and 66,000 by SDS-PAGE, suggesting a dimeric structure. Solubilization of the membrane-bound enzyme with phospholipase C did not destroy its ability to hydrolyze p-nitrophenyl phosphate (PNPP) (264.3 mumol min-1 mg-1),ATP (42.0 mumol min-1 mg-1) and pyrophosphate (28.4 mumol min-1 mg-1). The hydrolysis of ATP and PNPP by solubilized enzyme exhibited "Michaelian" kinetics with K0.5 = 70 and 979 microM, respectively. For pyrophosphate, K0.5 was 128 microM and site-site interactions were observed (n = 1.4). Magnesium ions were stimulatory (Kd = 1.5 mM) but zinc ions were powerful non-competitive inhibitors (Kd = 6.2 microM) of solubilized enzyme. Treatment of solubilized alkaline phosphatase with Chellex 100 reduced the original PNPPase activity to 5%. Cobalt (K0.5 = 10.1 microM), magnesium (K0.5 = 29.5 microM) and manganese ions (K0.5 = 5 microM) restored the activity of the apoenzyme with positive cooperativity, suggesting that phosphatidylinositol-specific phospholipase C-solubilized alkaline phosphatase is a metalloenzyme. The stimulation of the apoenzyme by calcium ions (K0.5 = 653 microM) was lower than that observed for the other ions (26%) and exhibited site-site interactions (n = 0.7). Zinc ions had no effect on the apoenzyme of the solubilized enzyme.

  5. FIG4 regulates lysosome membrane homeostasis independent of phosphatase function

    PubMed Central

    Bharadwaj, Rajnish; Cunningham, Kathleen M.; Zhang, Ke; Lloyd, Thomas E.

    2016-01-01

    FIG4 is a phosphoinositide phosphatase that is mutated in several diseases including Charcot-Marie-Tooth Disease 4J (CMT4J) and Yunis-Varon syndrome (YVS). To investigate the mechanism of disease pathogenesis, we generated Drosophila models of FIG4-related diseases. Fig4 null mutant animals are viable but exhibit marked enlargement of the lysosomal compartment in muscle cells and neurons, accompanied by an age-related decline in flight ability. Transgenic animals expressing Drosophila Fig4 missense mutations corresponding to human pathogenic mutations can partially rescue lysosomal expansion phenotypes, consistent with these mutations causing decreased FIG4 function. Interestingly, Fig4 mutations predicted to inactivate FIG4 phosphatase activity rescue lysosome expansion phenotypes, and mutations in the phosphoinositide (3) phosphate kinase Fab1 that performs the reverse enzymatic reaction also causes a lysosome expansion phenotype. Since FIG4 and FAB1 are present together in the same biochemical complex, these data are consistent with a model in which FIG4 serves a phosphatase-independent biosynthetic function that is essential for lysosomal membrane homeostasis. Lysosomal phenotypes are suppressed by genetic inhibition of Rab7 or the HOPS complex, demonstrating that FIG4 functions after endosome-to-lysosome fusion. Furthermore, disruption of the retromer complex, implicated in recycling from the lysosome to Golgi, does not lead to similar phenotypes as Fig4, suggesting that the lysosomal defects are not due to compromised retromer-mediated recycling of endolysosomal membranes. These data show that FIG4 plays a critical noncatalytic function in maintaining lysosomal membrane homeostasis, and that this function is disrupted by mutations that cause CMT4J and YVS. PMID:26662798

  6. Characterization of the protein tyrosine phosphatase PRL from Entamoeba histolytica.

    PubMed

    Ramírez-Tapia, Ana Lilia; Baylón-Pacheco, Lidia; Espíritu-Gordillo, Patricia; Rosales-Encina, José Luis

    2015-12-01

    Protein tyrosine phosphatase of regenerating liver (PRL) is a group of phosphatases that has not been broadly studied in protozoan parasites. In humans, PRLs are involved in metastatic cancer, the promotion of cell migration and invasion. PTPs have been increasingly recognized as important effectors of host-pathogen interactions. We characterized the only putative protein tyrosine phosphatase PRL (PTP EhPRL) in the eukaryotic human intestinal parasite Entamoeba histolytica. Here, we reported that the EhPRL protein possessed the classical HCX5R catalytic motif of PTPs and the CAAX box characteristic of the PRL family and exhibited 31-32% homology with the three human PRL isoforms. In amebae, the protein was expressed at low but detectable levels. The recombinant protein (rEhPRL) had enzymatic activity with the 3-o-methyl fluorescein phosphate (OMFP) substrate; this enzymatic activity was inhibited by the PTP inhibitor o-vanadate. Using immunofluorescence we showed that native EhPRL was localized to the cytoplasm and plasma membrane. When the trophozoites interacted with collagen, EhPRL relocalized over time to vesicle-like structures. Interaction with fibronectin increased the presence of the enzyme in the cytoplasm. Using RT-PCR, we demonstrated that EhPRL mRNA expression was upregulated when the trophozoites interacted with collagen but not with fibronectin. Trophozoites recovered from amoebic liver abscesses showed higher EhPRL mRNA expression levels than normal trophozoites. These results strongly suggest that EhPRL may play an important role in the biology and adaptive response of the parasite to the host environment during amoebic liver abscess development, thereby participating in the pathogenic mechanism.

  7. Phosphoprotein phosphatase of bovine spleen cell nuclei: physicochemical properties

    SciTech Connect

    Rezyapkin, V.I.; Leonova, L.E.; Komkova, A.I.

    1986-01-10

    The physicochemical properties of phosphoprotein phosphatase (EC 1.3.1.16) from bovine spleen cell nuclei were studied. The enzyme possesses broad substrate specificity and catalyzes the dephosphorylation of phosphocasein, ATP, ADP, and p-nitrophenyl phosphate (pNPP). K/sub m/ for ATP, ADP, and pNPP are equal to 0.44, 0.43, and 1.25 mM, respectively. M/sub r/ of the enzyme, according to the data of gel filtraction of Sephadex G-75 and electrophoresis in polyacrylamide gel of various concentrations is approx. 33,000. In electrophoresis in the presence of SDS, two protein bands with M/sub r/ 12,000 and 18,000 are detected. In the enzyme molecule, acid amino acid residues predominate; two free SH groups and two disulfide bridges are detected. Phosphoprotein phosphatase is a glycoprotein, containing approx. 22% carbonhydrates. The protein possesses a supplementary absorption maximum at 560 nm. Ammonium molybdate is a competitive inhibitor with K/sub i/ 0.37 ..mu..M, while sodium fluoride is a noncompetitive inhibitor with K/sub i/ 1.3 mM. Incubation in the presence of 2 mM phenylmethylsulfonyl fluoride for 25 h leads to a loss of approx. 46% of the enzymatic activity. Ammonium molybdate, sodium fluoride, and PMSF are reversible inhibitors. Modifications of the SH groups, NH/sub 2/ groups, and histidine leads to a decrease in the enzymatic activity. Incubation of phosphoprotein phosphatase with (..gamma..-/sup 32/P)ATP leads to the incorporation of 0.33 mole /sup 33/P per mole of the enzyme. The mechanism of hydrolysis of the phosphodiester bond, catalyzed by the enzyme, is discussed.

  8. A description of alkaline phosphatases from marine organisms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tian, Jiyuan; Jia, Hongbing; Yu, Juan

    2016-07-01

    Alkaline phosphatases (APs) are non-specific phosphohydrolases, and they are widely used in clinical diagnostics and biological studies. APs are widespread in nature and exhibit different structural formulations. Based on the diversity of biogenetic sources, APs exhibit temperature-propensity traits, and they are classified as psychrophilic, mesophilic, and thermophilic. In this article, the characteristics of psychrophilic APs from marine organisms were described, accompanied by a simple description of APs from other organisms. This review will facilitate better utilization of marine APs in the biotechnology field.

  9. Promoting Uranium Immobilization by the Activities of Microbial Phosphatases

    SciTech Connect

    Martinez, Robert J.; Beazley, Melanie J.; Wilson, Jarad J.; Taillefert, Martial; Sobecky, Patricia A.

    2005-04-05

    The overall goal of this project is to examine the role of nonspecific phosphohydrolases present in naturally occurring subsurface microorganisms for the purpose of promoting the immobilization of radionuclides through the production of uranium [U(VI)] phosphate precipitates. Specifically, we hypothesize that the precipitation of U(VI) phosphate minerals may be promoted through the microbial release and/or accumulation of PO{sub 4}{sup 3-}. During this phase of the project we have been conducting assays to determine the effects of pH, inorganic anions and organic ligands on U(VI) mineral formation and precipitation when FRC bacterial isolates were grown in simulated groundwater medium. The molecular characterization of FRC isolates has also been undertaken during this phase of the project. Analysis of a subset of gram-positive FRC isolates cultured from FRC soils (Areas 1, 2 and 3) and background sediments have indicated a higher percentage of isolates exhibiting phosphatase phenotypes (i.e., in particular those surmised to be PO{sub 4}{sup 3-}-irrepressible) relative to isolates from the reference site. A high percentage of strains that exhibited such putatively PO{sub 4}{sup 3-}-irrepressible phosphatase phenotypes were also resistant to the heavy metals lead and cadmium. Previous work on FRC strains, including Arthrobacter, Bacillus and Rahnella spp., has demonstrated differences in tolerance to U(VI) toxicity (200 {micro}M) in the absence of organophosphate substrates. For example, Arthrobacter spp. exhibited the greatest tolerance to U(VI) while the Rahnella spp. have been shown to facilitate the precipitation of U(VI) from solution and the Bacillus spp. demonstrate the greatest sensitivity to acidic conditions and high concentrations of U(VI). PCR-based detection of FRC strains are being conducted to determine if non-specific acid phosphatases of the known molecular classes [i.e., classes A, B and C] are present in these FRC isolates. Additionally, these

  10. Protein Phosphatase 2A Signaling in Human Prostate Cancer

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-06-01

    immunoblot and malachite green based assay, respectively. We observe that LNCaP- shPPP2CA cells have low PP2ACα expression (Figure 1A) and activity...regulated family of serine/threonine phosphatases implicated in cell growth and signalling. Biochem J 2001;353:417-39. (6) Jennbacken K, Gustavsson H...cancer cells - - - shPPP2CA. Expression and activity of catalytic subunit of PP2A (PP2ACα) was determined by immunoblot and melachite green - based

  11. Targeting Protein Tyrosine Phosphatases for Anticancer Drug Discovery

    PubMed Central

    Scott, Latanya. M.; Lawrence, Harshani. R.; Sebti, Saïd. M.; Lawrence, Nicholas. J.; Wu, Jie.

    2010-01-01

    Protein tyrosine phosphatases (PTPs) are a diverse family of enzymes encoded by 107 genes in the human genome. Together with protein tyrosine kinases (PTKs), PTPs regulate various cellular activities essential for the initiation and maintenance of malignant phenotypes. While PTK inhibitors are now used routinely for cancer treatment, the PTP inhibitor development field is still in the discovery phase. In this article, the suitability of targeting PTPs for novel anticancer drug discovery is discussed. Examples are presented for PTPs that have been targeted for anticancer drug discovery as well as potential new PTP targets for novel anticancer drug discovery. PMID:20337577

  12. Protein Phosphatase 2A Signaling in Human Prostate Cancer

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-06-01

    been shown to be involved in androgen-independent growth of human prostate cancer cells (Carson et al., 1999; Grethe and Porn -Ares, 2006; Murillo et... Porn -Ares MI. (2006). p38 MAPK regulates phosphorylation of Bad via PP2A- dependent suppression of the MEK1/2-ERK1/2 survival pathway in TNF-alpha...threonine phosphatases implicated in cell growth and sig- nalling. Biochem J 2001;353:417–39. 15. Grethe S, Porn -Ares MI. p38 MAPK regulates

  13. Simplified preparation of a phosphatase inhibitor and further studies of its action.

    PubMed

    Coburn, S P; Schaltenbrand, W E

    1978-05-01

    1-Pyrrolidinecarbothioic acid (2-pyridylmethylene) hydrazide chelates Zn2+ but not Mg2+. This compound is about twice as effective as EDTA for inhibiting alkaline phosphatase from calf mucosa, and approx. 1000-fold more effective than EDTA for inhibiting acid phosphatase from wheat germ. The compound did not inhibit pyridoxine kinase activity in human leucocytes at the highest concentration tested (33 micron). Therefore it may be a useful tool for either examining or eliminating the effects of phosphatases in complex enzyme systems.

  14. Key role of succinate dehydrogenase in insulin-induced inactivation of protein tyrosine phosphatases.

    PubMed

    Pomytkin, I A; Kolesova, O E

    2002-06-01

    We studied the role of mitochondria in insulin-induced inactivation of protein tyrosine phosphatases in the liver. The mitochondrial respiratory chain is an insulin-sensitive source of H(2)O(2)that acts as a physiological inhibitor of protein tyrosine phosphatases. Succinate dehydrogenase plays a key role in insulin-stimulated generation of H(2)O(2)and inactivation of liver protein tyrosine phosphatases.

  15. Effect of aluminum phosphate on alkaline phosphatase activity of polyurethane foam immobilized cyanobacteria.

    PubMed

    Ramalingam, N; Prasanna, B Gowtham

    2006-09-01

    The impact of insoluble phosphorus such as aluminum and rock phosphate on alkaline phosphatase activity of polyurethane foam immobilized cyanobacteria was assessed. Polyurethane foam immobilized Nodularia recorded the highest alkaline phosphatase activity of 9.04 (m. mol p-nitrophenol released h(-1) mg(-1) protein) in vitro. A higher concentration of aluminum phosphate was recorded a 25% reduction in alkaline phosphatase activity, ammonia content, and available phosphorus in culture filtrate of polyurethane foam immobilized cyanobacteria. In general, immobilized cyanobacteria exhibited a higher alkaline phosphatase activity in rock phosphate than aluminum phosphate.

  16. Alkaline Phosphatase Assay for Freshwater Sediments: Application to Perturbed Sediment Systems

    PubMed Central

    Sayler, Gary S.; Puziss, Marla; Silver, Martin

    1979-01-01

    The p-nitrophenyl phosphate hydrolysis-phosphatase assay was modified for use in freshwater sediment. Laboratory studies indicated that the recovery of purified alkaline phosphatase activity was 100% efficient in sterile freshwater sediments when optimized incubation and sonication conditions were used. Field studies of diverse freshwater sediments demonstrated the potential use of this assay for determining stream perturbation. Significant correlations between phosphatase and total viable cell counts, as well as adenosine triphosphate biomass, suggested that alkaline phosphatase activity has utility as an indicator of microbial population density and biomass in freshwater sediments. PMID:16345464

  17. Phosphatase of Chlamydomonas reinhardi: biochemical and cytochemical approach with specific mutants.

    PubMed Central

    Matagne, R F; Loppes, R; Deltour, R

    1976-01-01

    The unicellular alga Chlamydomonas reinhardi produces two constitutive acid phosphatases and three depressible phosphatases (a neutral and two alkaline ones) that can utilize napthyl phosphate as a substrate. Specific mutants depressible phosphatase were used to investigate biochemical properties and the cytochemical localization of these enzymes. The two constitutive phosphatases show similar pH optima (about 5.0) and Km values (2 x 10(-3) to 3.3 x 10(-3) M) but differ in their heat sensitivity and affinity for glycerophosphate. Images PMID:4437

  18. Trypanosoma rangeli: differential expression of ecto-phosphatase activities in response to inorganic phosphate starvation.

    PubMed

    Dick, Claudia Fernanda; Dos-Santos, André Luiz Araújo; Fonseca-de-Souza, André L; Rocha-Ferreira, Juliana; Meyer-Fernandes, José Roberto

    2010-04-01

    In this work, we showed that living cells of Trypanosoma rangeli express different ecto-phosphatase activities in response to different inorganic phosphate (Pi) concentrations in the culture medium. The ecto-phosphatase activity from T. rangeli grown at low-Pi concentration was inhibited by the increase of the pH, while the ecto-phosphatase of the cells grown at high Pi concentration was not modulated by the change of the pH of the medium. Okadaic acid inhibited only the ecto-phosphatase activity from cells grown at low-Pi concentration but not the ecto-phosphatase activity from cells grown at high-Pi concentration. Accordingly, phosphatase activity from T. rangeli grown at low Pi concentration was able to hydrolyze P-serine and P-threonine at high rate but not P-tyrosine. The phosphatase activity from T. rangeli grown at high-Pi concentration was able to hydrolyze P-serine, P-threonine and P-tyrosine with the same rate. The addition of anterior midgut homogenate of Rhodnius prolixus on the epimastigotes suspension inhibited the enzyme activity of T. rangeli grown at low-Pi concentration. On the other hand, anterior midgut homogenate had no effect in the ecto-phosphatase of T. rangeli maintained at high-Pi concentration. Altogether, the results described here indicate that ecto-phosphatase activities hydrolyzing phosphorylated compounds present in the extracellular medium of T. rangeli are regulated by the external Pi concentration.

  19. 1D-myo-inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate dephosphorylation by rat enterocytes involves an intracellular 5-phosphatase and non-specific phosphatase activity at the cell surface.

    PubMed Central

    Rubiera, C; Velasco, G; Michell, R H; Lazo, P S; Shears, S B

    1988-01-01

    We studied the dephosphorylation of Ins(1,4,5)P3 (inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate) by permeabilized rat intestinal epithelial cells incubated in a medium resembling intracellular ionic strength and pH. Saponin-permeabilized cells rapidly dephosphorylated Ins(1,4,5)P3 to a mixture of three InsP2 (inositol bisphosphate) isomers, namely Ins(1,4)P2, Ins(1,5)P2 and Ins(4,5)P2. These products were identified by h.p.l.c. analysis after dephosphorylation of both 3H- and 32P-labelled Ins(1,4,5)P3. Ins(1,4)P2 accumulated to about half of the concentration attained by Ins(1,5)P2 and Ins(4,5)P2. Ins(1,4,5)P3 dephosphorylation was inhibited, by up to 75%, by 10 mM-glucose 6-phosphate. In these conditions Ins(1,4)P2 became the predominant product, indicating that glucose 6-phosphate inhibited non-specific dephosphorylation of Ins(1,4,5)P3, at least at the 1- and 4-phosphate groups. Ins(1,4)P2 was further dephosphorylated, and the major InsP (inositol monophosphate) product was Ins4P. Most of the glucose 6-phosphate-inhibitable Ins(1,4,5)P3 phosphatase activity was exposed on the cell surface. The glucose 6-phosphate-insensitive Ins(1,4,5)P3 5-phosphatase activity was not detected until the cells were permeabilized with saponin. This intracellular 5-phosphatase activity was: (i) predominantly associated with the particulate portion of the cell; (ii) strongly inhibited by 10 mM-2,3-bisphosphoglycerate; (iii) insensitive to 50 mM-Li+. Therefore the Ins(1,4,5)P3 5-phosphatase activity in enterocytes appears similar to the 5-phosphatase that has been characterized in a number of cell types. PMID:2848503

  20. Characterization of the 2',3' cyclic phosphodiesterase activities of Clostridium thermocellum polynucleotide kinase-phosphatase and bacteriophage lambda phosphatase.

    PubMed

    Keppetipola, Niroshika; Shuman, Stewart

    2007-01-01

    Clostridium thermocellum polynucleotide kinase-phosphatase (CthPnkp) catalyzes 5' and 3' end-healing reactions that prepare broken RNA termini for sealing by RNA ligase. The central phosphatase domain of CthPnkp belongs to the dinuclear metallophosphoesterase superfamily exemplified by bacteriophage lambda phosphatase (lambda-Pase). CthPnkp is a Ni(2+)/Mn(2+)-dependent phosphodiesterase-monoesterase, active on nucleotide and non-nucleotide substrates, that can be transformed toward narrower metal and substrate specificities via mutations of the active site. Here we characterize the Mn(2+)-dependent 2',3' cyclic nucleotide phosphodiesterase activity of CthPnkp, the reaction most relevant to RNA repair pathways. We find that CthPnkp prefers a 2',3' cyclic phosphate to a 3',5' cyclic phosphate. A single H189D mutation imposes strict specificity for a 2',3' cyclic phosphate, which is cleaved to form a single 2'-NMP product. Analysis of the cyclic phosphodiesterase activities of mutated CthPnkp enzymes illuminates the active site and the structural features that affect substrate affinity and k(cat). We also characterize a previously unrecognized phosphodiesterase activity of lambda-Pase, which catalyzes hydrolysis of bis-p-nitrophenyl phosphate. lambda-Pase also has cyclic phosphodiesterase activity with nucleoside 2',3' cyclic phosphates, which it hydrolyzes to yield a mixture of 2'-NMP and 3'-NMP products. We discuss our results in light of available structural and functional data for other phosphodiesterase members of the binuclear metallophosphoesterase family and draw inferences about how differences in active site composition influence catalytic repertoire.

  1. Activity of alkaline phosphatase adsorbed and grafted on "polydopamine" films.

    PubMed

    Ball, Vincent

    2014-09-01

    The oxidation of dopamine in slightly basic solutions and in the presence of oxygen as an oxidant allows for the deposition of dopamine-eumelanin ("polydopamine") films on almost all kinds of materials allowing for an easy secondary functionalization. Molecules carrying nucleophilic groups like thiols and amines can be easily grafted on those films. Herein we show that alkaline phosphatase (ALP), as a model enzyme, adsorbs to "polydopamine" films and part of the adsorbed enzyme is rapidly desorbed in contact with Tris buffer. However a significant part of the enzyme remains irreversibly adsorbed and keeps some enzymatic activity for at least 2 weeks whereas ALP adsorbed on quartz slides is rapidly and quantitatively deactivated. In addition we estimated the Michaelis constant Km of the enzyme irreversibly bound to the "polydopamine" film. The Michaelis constant, and hence the affinity constant between paranitrophenol phosphate and ALP are almost identical between the enzyme bound on the film and the free enzyme in solution. Complementarily, it was found that "polydopamine" films display some phosphatase like catalytic activity.

  2. Characterization of Schistosome Tegumental Alkaline Phosphatase (SmAP)

    PubMed Central

    Bhardwaj, Rita; Skelly, Patrick J.

    2011-01-01

    Schistosomes are parasitic platyhelminths that currently infect over 200 million people globally. The parasites can live for years in a putatively hostile environment - the blood of vertebrates. We have hypothesized that the unusual schistosome tegument (outer-covering) plays a role in protecting parasites in the blood; by impeding host immunological signaling pathways we suggest that tegumental molecules help create an immunologically privileged environment for schistosomes. In this work, we clone and characterize a schistosome alkaline phosphatase (SmAP), a predicted ∼60 kDa glycoprotein that has high sequence conservation with members of the alkaline phosphatase protein family. The SmAP gene is most highly expressed in intravascular parasite life stages. Using immunofluorescence and immuno-electron microscopy, we confirm that SmAP is expressed at the host/parasite interface and in internal tissues. The ability of living parasites to cleave exogenous adenosine monophosphate (AMP) and generate adenosine is very largely abolished when SmAP gene expression is suppressed following RNAi treatment targeting the gene. These results lend support to the hypothesis that schistosome surface enzymes such as SmAP could dampen host immune responses against the parasites by generating immunosuppressants such as adenosine to promote their survival. This notion does not rule out other potential functions for the adenosine generated e.g. in parasite nutrition. PMID:21483710

  3. Inhibition of a protein tyrosine phosphatase using mesoporous oxides.

    PubMed

    Kapoor, S; Girish, T S; Mandal, S S; Gopal, B; Bhattacharyya, A J

    2010-03-11

    The feasibility of utilizing mesoporous matrices of alumina and silica for the inhibition of enzymatic activity is presented here. These studies were performed on a protein tyrosine phosphatase by the name chick retinal tyrosine phosphotase-2 (CRYP-2), a protein that is identical in sequence to the human glomerular epithelial protein-1 and involved in hepatic carcinoma. The inhibition of CRYP-2 is of tremendous therapeutic importance. Inhibition of catalytic activity was examined using the sustained delivery of p-nitrocatechol sulfate (pNCS) from bare and amine functionalized mesoporous silica (MCM-48) and mesoporous alumina (Al(2)O(3)). Among the various mesoporous matrices employed, amine functionalized MCM-48 exhibited the best release of pNCS and also inhibition of CRYP-2. The maximum speed of reaction v(max) (=160 +/- 10 micromol/mnt/mg) and inhibition constant K(i) (=85.0 +/- 5.0 micromol) estimated using a competitive inhibition model were found to be very similar to inhibition activities of protein tyrosine phosphatases using other methods.

  4. Regulation of FcεRI signaling by lipid phosphatases.

    PubMed

    Kuhny, Marcel; Zorn, Carolin N; Huber, Michael

    2014-01-01

    Mast cells (MCs) are tissue-resident sentinels of hematopoietic origin that play a prominent role in allergic diseases. They express the high-affinity receptor for IgE (FcεRI), which when cross-linked by multivalent antigens triggers the release of preformed mediators, generation of arachidonic acid metabolites, and the synthesis of cytokines and chemokines. Stimulation of the FcεRI with increasing antigen concentrations follows a characteristic bell-shaped dose-responses curve. At high antigen concentrations, the so-called supra-optimal conditions, repression of FcεRI-induced responses is facilitated by activation and incorporation of negative signaling regulators. In this context, the SH2-containing inositol-5'-phosphatase, SHIP1, has been demonstrated to be of particular importance. SHIP1 with its catalytic and multiple protein interaction sites provides several layers of control for FcεRI signaling. Regulation of SHIP1 function occurs on various levels, e.g., protein expression, receptor and membrane recruitment, competition for protein-protein interaction sites, and activating modifications enhancing the phosphatase function. Apart from FcεRI-mediated signaling, SHIP1 can be activated by diverse unrelated receptor systems indicating its involvement in the regulation of antigen-dependent cellular responses by autocrine feedback mechanisms or tissue-specific and/or (patho-) physiologically determined factors. Thus, pharmacologic engagement of SHIP1 may represent a beneficial strategy for patients suffering from acute or chronic inflammation or allergies.

  5. Protein kinase and phosphatase activities of thylakoid membranes

    SciTech Connect

    Michel, H.; Shaw, E.K.; Bennett, J.

    1987-01-01

    Dephosphorylation of the 25 and 27 kDa light-harvesting Chl a/b proteins (LHCII) of the thylakoid membranes is catalyzed by a phosphatase which differs from previously reported thylakoid-bound phosphatases in having an alkaline pH optimum (9.0) and a requirement for Mg/sup 2 +/ ions. Dephosphorylation of the 8.3 kDa psb H gene product requires a Mg/sup 2 +/ ion concentration more than 200 fold higher than that for dephosphorylation of LHC II. The 8.3 kDa and 27 kDa proteins appear to be phosphorylated by two distinct kinases, which differ in substrate specificity and sensitivity to inhibitors. The plastoquinone antagonist 2,5-dibromo-3-methyl-6-isopropyl-benzoquinone (DBMIB) inhibits phosphorylation of the 27 kDa LHC II much more readily than phosphorylation of the 8.3 kDa protein. A similar pattern of inhibition is seen for two synthetic oligopeptides (MRKSATTKKAVC and ATQTLESSSRC) which are analogs of the phosphorylation sites of the two proteins. Possible modes of action of DBMIB are discussed. 45 refs., 7 figs., 3 tabs.

  6. Evolution of the metazoan protein phosphatase 2C superfamily.

    PubMed

    Stern, Adi; Privman, Eyal; Rasis, Michal; Lavi, Sara; Pupko, Tal

    2007-01-01

    Members of the protein phosphatase 2C (PP2C) superfamily are Mg(2+)/Mn(2+)-dependent serine/threonine phosphatases, which are essential for regulation of cell cycle and stress signaling pathways in cells. In this study, a comprehensive genomic analysis of all available metazoan PP2C sequences was conducted. The phylogeny of PP2C was reconstructed, revealing the existence of 15 vertebrate families which arose following a series of gene duplication events. Relative dating of these duplications showed that they occurred in two active periods: before the divergence of bilaterians and before vertebrate diversification. PP2C families which duplicated during the first period take part in different signaling pathways, whereas PP2C families which diverged in the second period display tissue expression differences yet participate in similar signaling pathways. These differences were found to involve variation of expression in tissues which show higher complexity in vertebrates, such as skeletal muscle and the nervous system. Further analysis was performed with the aim of identifying the functional domains of PP2C. The conservation pattern across the entire PP2C superfamily revealed an extensive domain of more than 50 amino acids which is highly conserved throughout all PP2C members. Several insertion or deletion events were found which may have led to the specialization of each PP2C family.

  7. Therapeutic Potential of Targeting the Oncogenic SHP2 Phosphatase

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    The Src homology 2 domain containing protein tyrosine phosphatase-2 (SHP2) is an oncogenic phosphatase associated with various kinds of leukemia and solid tumors. Thus, there is substantial interest in developing SHP2 inhibitors as potential anticancer and antileukemia agents. Using a structure-guided and fragment-based library approach, we identified a novel hydroxyindole carboxylic acid-based SHP2 inhibitor 11a-1, with an IC50 value of 200 nM and greater than 5-fold selectivity against 20 mammalian PTPs. Structural and modeling studies reveal that the hydroxyindole carboxylic acid anchors the inhibitor to the SHP2 active site, while interactions of the oxalamide linker and the phenylthiophene tail with residues in the β5–β6 loop contribute to 11a-1’s binding potency and selectivity. Evidence suggests that 11a-1 specifically attenuates the SHP2-dependent signaling inside the cell. Moreover, 11a-1 blocks growth factor mediated Erk1/2 and Akt activation and exhibits excellent antiproliferative activity in lung cancer and breast cancer as well as leukemia cell lines. PMID:25003231

  8. Plant species richness increases phosphatase activities in an experimental grassland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hacker, Nina; Wilcke, Wolfgang; Oelmann, Yvonne

    2014-05-01

    Plant species richness has been shown to increase aboveground nutrient uptake requiring the mobilization of soil nutrient pools. For phosphorus (P) the underlying mechanisms for increased P release in soil under highly diverse grassland mixtures remain obscure because aboveground P storage and concentrations of inorganic and organic P in soil solution and differently reactive soil P pools are unrelated (Oelmann et al. 2011). The need of plants and soil microorganisms for P can increase the exudation of enzymes hydrolyzing organically bound P (phosphatases) which might represent an important release mechanism of inorganic P in a competitive environment such as highly diverse grassland mixtures. Our objectives were to test the effects of i) plant functional groups (legumes, grasses, non-leguminous tall and small herbs), and of (ii) plant species richness on microbial P (Pmic) and phosphatase activities in soil. In autumn 2013, we measured Pmic and alkaline phosphomonoesterase and phosphodiesterase activities in soil of 80 grassland mixtures comprising different community compositions and species richness (1, 2, 4, 8, 16, 60) in the Jena Experiment. In general, Pmic and enzyme activities were correlated (r = 0.59 and 0.46 for phosphomonoesterase and phosphodiesterase activities, respectively; p

  9. Dual Specificity Phosphatase 5 Is Essential for T Cell Survival

    PubMed Central

    Schauder, David M.; Cossette, Stephanie M.; Bordas, Michelle; Cui, Weiguo; Ramchandran, Ramani

    2016-01-01

    The mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) pathway regulates many key cellular processes such as differentiation, apoptosis, and survival. The final proteins in this pathway, ERK1/2, are regulated by dual specificity phosphatase 5 (DUSP5). DUSP5 is a nuclear, inducible phosphatase with high affinity and fidelity for ERK1/2. By regulating the final step in the MAPK signaling cascade, DUSP5 exerts strong regulatory control over a central cellular pathway. Like other DUSPs, DUSP5 plays an important role in immune function. In this study, we have utilized new knockout mouse reagents to explore its function further. We demonstrate that global loss of DUSP5 does not result in any gross phenotypic changes. However, loss of DUSP5 affects memory/effector CD8+ T cell populations in response to acute viral infection. Specifically, Dusp5-/- mice have decreased proportions of short-lived effector cells (SLECs) and increased proportions of memory precursor effector cells (MPECs) in response to infection. Further, we show that this phenotype is T cell intrinsic; a bone marrow chimera model restricting loss of DUSP5 to the CD8+ T cell compartment displays a similar phenotype. Dusp5-/- T cells also display increased proliferation, increased apoptosis, and altered metabolic profiles, suggesting that DUSP5 is a pro-survival protein in T cells. PMID:27936095

  10. Protein Phosphatase 1α Interacting Proteins in the Human Brain

    PubMed Central

    Esteves, Sara L.C.; Domingues, Sara C.; da Cruz e Silva, Odete A.B.; da Cruz e Silva, Edgar F.

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Protein Phosphatase 1 (PP1) is a major serine/threonine-phosphatase whose activity is dependent on its binding to regulatory subunits known as PP1 interacting proteins (PIPs), responsible for targeting PP1 to a specific cellular location, specifying its substrate or regulating its action. Today, more than 200 PIPs have been described involving PP1 in panoply of cellular mechanisms. Moreover, several PIPs have been identified that are tissue and event specific. In addition, the diver