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Sample records for phosphatidylglycerol phosphatidic acid

  1. Phosphatidic acid and neurotransmission

    PubMed Central

    Raben, Daniel M.; Barber, Casey N.

    2016-01-01

    Lipids play a vital role in the health and functioning of neurons and interest in the physiological role of neuronal lipids is certainly increasing. One neuronal function in which neuronal lipids appears to play key roles in neurotransmission. Our understanding of the role of lipids in the synaptic vesicle cycle and neurotransmitter release is becoming increasingly more important. Much of the initial research in this area has highlighted the major roles played by the phosphoinositides (PtdIns), diacylglycerol (DAG), and phosphatidic acid (PtdOH). Of these, PtdOH has not received as much attention as the other lipids although its role and metabolism appears to be extremely important. This lipid has been shown to play a role in modulating both exocytosis and endocytosis although its precise role in either process is not well defined. The currently evidence suggest this lipid likely participates in key processes by altering membrane architecture necessary for membrane fusion, mediating the penetration of membrane proteins, serving as a precursor for other important SV cycling lipids, or activating essential enzymes. In this review, we address the sources of PtdOH, the enzymes involved in its production, the regulation of these enzymes, and its potential roles in neurotransmission in the central nervous system. PMID:27671966

  2. Phosphatidic acid and neurotransmission.

    PubMed

    Raben, Daniel M; Barber, Casey N

    2017-01-01

    Lipids play a vital role in the health and functioning of neurons and interest in the physiological role of neuronal lipids is certainly increasing. One neuronal function in which neuronal lipids appears to play key roles in neurotransmission. Our understanding of the role of lipids in the synaptic vesicle cycle and neurotransmitter release is becoming increasingly more important. Much of the initial research in this area has highlighted the major roles played by the phosphoinositides (PtdIns), diacylglycerol (DAG), and phosphatidic acid (PtdOH). Of these, PtdOH has not received as much attention as the other lipids although its role and metabolism appears to be extremely important. This lipid has been shown to play a role in modulating both exocytosis and endocytosis although its precise role in either process is not well defined. The currently evidence suggest this lipid likely participates in key processes by altering membrane architecture necessary for membrane fusion, mediating the penetration of membrane proteins, serving as a precursor for other important SV cycling lipids, or activating essential enzymes. In this review, we address the sources of PtdOH, the enzymes involved in its production, the regulation of these enzymes, and its potential roles in neurotransmission in the central nervous system. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Phosphatidic Acid Synthesis in Bacteria

    PubMed Central

    Yao, Jiangwei; Rock, Charles O.

    2012-01-01

    Membrane phospholipid synthesis is a vital facet of bacterial physiology. Although the spectrum of phospholipid headgroup structures produced by bacteria is large, the key precursor to all of these molecules is phosphatidic acid (PtdOH). Glycerol-3-phosphate derived from the glycolysis via glycerol-phosphate synthase is the universal source for the glycerol backbone of PtdOH. There are two distinct families of enzymes responsible for the acylation of the 1-position of glycerol-3-phosphate. The PlsB acyltransferase was discovered in Escherichia coli, and homologs are present in many eukaryotes. This protein family primarily uses acyl-acyl carrier protein (ACP) endproducts of fatty acid synthesis as acyl donors, but may also use acyl-CoA derived from exogenous fatty acids. The second protein family, PlsY, is more widely distributed in bacteria and utilizes the unique acyl donor, acyl-phosphate, which is produced from acyl-ACP by the enzyme PlsX. The acylation of the 2-position is carried out by members of the PlsC protein family. All PlsCs use acyl-ACP as the acyl donor, although the PlsCs of the γ-proteobacteria also may use acyl-CoA. Phospholipid headgroups are precursors in the biosynthesis of other membrane-associated molecules and the diacylglycerol product of these reactions is converted to PtdOH by one of two distinct families of lipid kinases. The central importance of the de novo and recycling pathways to PtdOH in cell physiology suggest these enzymes are suitable targets for the development of antibacterial therapeutics in Gram-positive pathogens. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled Phospholipids and Phospholipid Metabolism. PMID:22981714

  4. Phosphatidic acid modulation of Kv channel voltage sensor function.

    PubMed

    Hite, Richard K; Butterwick, Joel A; MacKinnon, Roderick

    2014-10-06

    Membrane phospholipids can function as potent regulators of ion channel function. This study uncovers and investigates the effect of phosphatidic acid on Kv channel gating. Using the method of reconstitution into planar lipid bilayers, in which protein and lipid components are defined and controlled, we characterize two effects of phosphatidic acid. The first is a non-specific electrostatic influence on activation mediated by electric charge density on the extracellular and intracellular membrane surfaces. The second is specific to the presence of a primary phosphate group, acts only through the intracellular membrane leaflet and depends on the presence of a particular arginine residue in the voltage sensor. Intracellular phosphatidic acid accounts for a nearly 50 mV shift in the midpoint of the activation curve in a direction consistent with stabilization of the voltage sensor's closed conformation. These findings support a novel mechanism of voltage sensor regulation by the signaling lipid phosphatidic acid.

  5. Phosphatidylglycerol Synthesis in Spinach Chloroplasts: Characterization of the Newly Synthesized Molecule

    PubMed Central

    Sparace, Salvatore A.; Mudd, J. Brian

    1982-01-01

    Intact chloroplasts from spinach (Spinacia oleracea L., hybrid 424) readily incorporate [14C]glycerol-3-phosphate and [14C]acetate into diacylglycerol, monoacylglycerol, diacylglycrol, free fatty acids (only when acetate is the precursor), phosphatidic acid, phosphatidylcholine, and most notably phosphatidylglycerol. The fraction of phosphatidylglycerol synthesized is greatly increased by the presence of manganese chloride in the reaction mixture. Glycerol-3-phosphate-labeled phosphatidylglycerol is equally labeled in the two glycerol moieties of the molecule. Acetate-labeled phosphatidylglycerol is equally labeled in both acyl groups. Position one contains primarily oleate, linoleate and small amounts of palmitate. Position two contains primarily palmitate. No radioactive trans-Δ3-hexadecenoate was detected. The labeling patterns indicate that the radioactive phosphatidylglycerol is the product of de novo chloroplast lipid biosynthesis and furthermore, phosphatidylglycerol may be a substrate for fatty acid desaturation. Images Fig. 1 PMID:16662664

  6. The Fatty Acid Composition of Phosphatidylglycerol and Sulfoquinovosyldiacylglycerol of Higher Plants in Relation to Chilling Sensitivity

    PubMed Central

    Kenrick, Janette R.; Bishop, David G.

    1986-01-01

    The fatty acid composition of phosphatidylglycerol and sulfoquinovosyldiacylglycerol has been measured in the leaves of 27 species of higher plants from six families whose members differed in their degrees of chilling sensitivity. The content of high melting point fatty acids (represented by the sum of hexadecanoic, trans-3-hexadecenoic and octadecanoic acids) in phosphatidylglycerols varied little between members of the same plant family and was not obviously related to the relative chilling sensitivity of members of that family. The saturated fatty acid content (hexadecanoic + octadecanoic acids) of sulfoquinovosyldiacylglycerols also appeared to be characteristic of a plant family, although some exceptions were found. In one case, (Carica papaya) the content of saturated fatty acids in sulfoquinovosyldiacylglycerol was sufficiently high to suggest that this lipid could undergo phase separations above 0°C. It is concluded that the content of high melting point fatty acids in leaf phosphatidylglycerol is not a direct indication of the chilling sensitivity of a plant, but rather may be a reflection of the genetic origin of that plant. PMID:16664962

  7. Accumulation of phosphatidic acid increases vancomycin resistance in Escherichia coli.

    PubMed

    Sutterlin, Holly A; Zhang, Sisi; Silhavy, Thomas J

    2014-09-01

    In Gram-negative bacteria, lipopolysaccharide (LPS) contributes to the robust permeability barrier of the outer membrane, preventing entry of toxic molecules such as antibiotics. Mutations in lptD, the beta-barrel component of the LPS transport and assembly machinery, compromise LPS assembly and result in increased antibiotic sensitivity. Here, we report rare vancomycin-resistant suppressors that improve barrier function of a subset of lptD mutations. We find that all seven suppressors analyzed mapped to the essential gene cdsA, which is responsible for the conversion of phosphatidic acid to CDP-diacylglycerol in phospholipid biosynthesis. These cdsA mutations cause a partial loss of function and, as expected, accumulate phosphatidic acid. We show that this suppression is not confined to mutations that cause defects in outer membrane biogenesis but rather that these cdsA mutations confer a general increase in vancomycin resistance, even in a wild-type cell. We use genetics and quadrupole time of flight (Q-TOF) liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS) to show that accumulation of phosphatidic acid by means other than cdsA mutations also increases resistance to vancomycin. We suggest that increased levels of phosphatidic acid change the physical properties of the outer membrane to impede entry of vancomycin into the periplasm, hindering access to its target, an intermediate required for the synthesis of the peptidoglycan cell wall. Copyright © 2014, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  8. Phosphatidic acid modulation of Kv channel voltage sensor function

    PubMed Central

    Hite, Richard K; Butterwick, Joel A; MacKinnon, Roderick

    2014-01-01

    Membrane phospholipids can function as potent regulators of ion channel function. This study uncovers and investigates the effect of phosphatidic acid on Kv channel gating. Using the method of reconstitution into planar lipid bilayers, in which protein and lipid components are defined and controlled, we characterize two effects of phosphatidic acid. The first is a non-specific electrostatic influence on activation mediated by electric charge density on the extracellular and intracellular membrane surfaces. The second is specific to the presence of a primary phosphate group, acts only through the intracellular membrane leaflet and depends on the presence of a particular arginine residue in the voltage sensor. Intracellular phosphatidic acid accounts for a nearly 50 mV shift in the midpoint of the activation curve in a direction consistent with stabilization of the voltage sensor's closed conformation. These findings support a novel mechanism of voltage sensor regulation by the signaling lipid phosphatidic acid. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.04366.001 PMID:25285449

  9. Nuclear translocation of proteins and the effect of phosphatidic acid.

    PubMed

    Yao, Hongyan; Wang, Geliang; Wang, Xuemin

    2014-01-01

    Transport of proteins containing a nuclear localization signal (NLS) into the nucleus is mediated by nuclear transport receptors called importins, typically dimmers of a cargo-binding α-subunit and a β-subunit that mediates translocation through the nuclear pore complexes (NPCs). However, how proteins without canonical NLS move into the nucleus is not well understood. Recent results indicate that phospholipids, such as phosphatidic acid, play important roles in the intracellular translocation of proteins between the nucleus and cytoplasm.

  10. Putting the pH into phosphatidic acid signaling

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    The lipid phosphatidic acid (PA) has important roles in cell signaling and metabolic regulation in all organisms. New evidence indicates that PA also has an unprecedented role as a pH biosensor, coupling changes in pH to intracellular signaling pathways. pH sensing is a property of the phosphomonoester headgroup of PA. A number of other potent signaling lipids also contain headgroups with phosphomonoesters, implying that pH sensing by lipids may be widespread in biology. PMID:22136116

  11. Nuclear translocation of proteins and the effect of phosphatidic acid

    PubMed Central

    Yao, Hongyan; Wang, Geliang; Wang, Xuemin

    2014-01-01

    Transport of proteins containing a nuclear localization signal (NLS) into the nucleus is mediated by nuclear transport receptors called importins, typically dimmers of a cargo-binding α-subunit and a β-subunit that mediates translocation through the nuclear pore complexes (NPCs). However, how proteins without canonical NLS move into the nucleus is not well understood. Recent results indicate that phospholipids, such as phosphatidic acid, play important roles in the intracellular translocation of proteins between the nucleus and cytoplasm. PMID:25482760

  12. Phosphatidic Acid and Lipid Sensing by mTOR

    PubMed Central

    Foster, David A.

    2013-01-01

    Mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) has been implicated as a sensor of nutrient sufficiency for dividing cells and is activated by essential amino acids and glucose. However, cells also require lipids for membrane biosynthesis. A central metabolite in the synthesis of membrane phospholipids is phosphatidic acid (PA), which is required for the stability and activity of mTOR complexes. While PA is commonly generated by the phospholipase D-catalyzed hydrolysis of phosphatidylcholine, PA is also generated by diacylglycerol kinases and lysophosphatidic acid acyltransferases, which are at the center of phospholipid biosynthesis. It is proposed that the responsiveness of mTOR/TOR to PA evolved as a means for sensing lipid precursors for membrane biosynthesis prior to doubling the mass of a cell and dividing. PMID:23507202

  13. Liposomes as carriers of macrolides: preferential association of erythromycin A and azithromycin with liposomes of phosphatidylglycerol containing unsaturated fatty acid(s).

    PubMed

    Stuhne-Sekalec, L; Stanacev, N Z; Djokic, S

    1991-01-01

    To assess the most favourable phospholipid composition of a liposomal carrier for antibiotics, small multilamellar liposomes were prepared from phosphatidylcholine, phosphatidylethanolamine and phosphatidylglycerol of varying fatty acid composition in the presence of erythromycin A and azithromycin. Crude liposomes were subjected to Sepharose CL-4B column chromatography, and liposomes containing antibiotics were well separated from free antibiotics. These experiments established that the greatest association of antibiotics was achieved with liposomes prepared from phosphatidylglycerol rather than phosphatidylcholine or phosphatidylethanolamine. Furthermore, the composition of fatty acids in phosphatidylglycerol liposomes influenced the amount of antibiotics associated with liposomes; the highest amount was obtained with dioleoylphosphatidylglycerol followed by phosphatidylglycerol of fatty acid composition similar to that of egg yolk lecithin. It was established that purified liposomes, prepared from [3H]phosphatidylglycerol containing unsaturated fatty acid(s) bind about 25 per cent of originally present antibiotic. Both antibiotics, erythromycin A and azithromycin, were similar in respect to the amount of their association with liposomes. Determination of the size of phosphatidylglycerol/antibiotic liposomes established that the mean diameter of liposomes containing antibiotics was 200-350 nm, very close to that of liposomes without them.

  14. Turnover of Phosphatidic Acid and Sodium Extrusion from Mammalian Erythrocytes

    PubMed Central

    Kirschner, Leonard B.; Barker, Jennifer

    1964-01-01

    Phosphatidic acid (PA) from swine and beef RBCs was isolated by chromatography on silicic acid columns. It comprised about 1 per cent of the total lipid phosphate in RBCs, but was eluted nearly pure from columns. An uncharacterized inositide accounted for 5 to 10 per cent of the phosphate in the PA-containing fraction. When cells were incubated with HP32O4 =, the fraction containing PA became more radioactive than any of the other fractions obtained. However, analysis of the labeled material by paper chromatography showed that most of the P32 was in the inositide, not in PA. With the assumption of kinetic homogeneity for cellular PA, compartmental analysis of the kinetics of tracer incorporation showed that PA turnover is 3 to 4 orders of magnitude too slow to account for sodium extrusion by these cells. PMID:14192545

  15. Phosphatidic acid induces EHD3-containing membrane tubulation and is required for receptor recycling.

    PubMed

    Henmi, Yuji; Oe, Natsuko; Kono, Nozomu; Taguchi, Tomohiko; Takei, Kohji; Tanabe, Kenji

    2016-03-01

    EHD3 is localized on the tubular structures of early endosomes, and it regulates their trafficking pathway. However, the regulatory mechanism of EHD3-containing tubular structures remains poorly understood. An in vitro liposome co-sedimentation assay revealed that EHD3 interacted with phosphatidic acid through its helical domain and this interaction induced liposomal tubulations. Additionally, inhibiting phosphatidic acid synthesis with diacylglycerol kinase inhibitor or lysophosphatidic acid acyltransferase inhibitor significantly reduced the number of EHD3-containing tubules and impaired their trafficking from early endosomes. These results suggest that EHD3 and phosphatidic acid cooperatively regulate membrane deformation and trafficking from early endosomes. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. [Cyclic phosphatidic acids and their analogues--unique lipid mediators].

    PubMed

    Grzelczyk, Anna; Koziołkiewicz, Maria

    2012-01-01

    Lysophosphatidic acid (1-acyl-2-sn-glycerol-3-phosphate; LPA) and its naturally occurring analog, cyclic phosphatidic acid (1-acyl-sn-glycerol-2,3-cyclic phosphate; cPA) belong to a group of bioactive glycerophospholipids, which attract attention of many scientists because of their biological functions. Among these two compounds LPA is known better; information about unique biological properties of cPA appeared for the first time in the 90's. The synthesis of various, chemically modified analogues of cPA was performed to highlight mechanisms of the compound actions. Both native cPA and its derivatives emerge into the limelight because of their anti-cancer activities. Knowledge about pathways of biosynthesis and biodegradation of LPA and cPA as well as understanding of mechanisms of their action are increasing gradually. Previous studies have shown that both the metabolism and signaling cascades of these compounds have numerous common points. What is even more interesting, LPA and cPA seem to induce opposite biological activities.

  17. Phosphatidic acid inhibits ceramide 1-phosphate-stimulated macrophage migration.

    PubMed

    Ouro, Alberto; Arana, Lide; Rivera, Io-Guané; Ordoñez, Marta; Gomez-Larrauri, Ana; Presa, Natalia; Simón, Jorge; Trueba, Miguel; Gangoiti, Patricia; Bittman, Robert; Gomez-Muñoz, Antonio

    2014-12-15

    Ceramide 1-phosphate (C1P) was recently demonstrated to potently induce cell migration. This action could only be observed when C1P was applied exogenously to cells in culture, and was inhibited by pertussis toxin. However, the mechanisms involved in this process are poorly understood. In this work, we found that phosphatidic acid (PA), which is structurally related to C1P, displaced radiolabeled C1P from its membrane-binding site and inhibited C1P-stimulated macrophage migration. This effect was independent of the saturated fatty acid chain length or the presence of a double bond in each of the fatty acyl chains of PA. Treatment of RAW264.7 macrophages with exogenous phospholipase D (PLD), an enzyme that produces PA from membrane phospholipids, also inhibited C1P-stimulated cell migration. Likewise, PA or exogenous PLD inhibited C1P-stimulated extracellularly regulated kinases (ERK) 1 and 2 phosphorylation, leading to inhibition of cell migration. However, PA did not inhibit C1P-stimulated Akt phosphorylation. It is concluded that PA is a physiological regulator of C1P-stimulated macrophage migration. These actions of PA may have important implications in the control of pathophysiological functions that are regulated by C1P, including inflammation and various cellular processes associated with cell migration such as organogenesis or tumor metastasis. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Phosphatidic Acid-Mediated Signaling Regulates Microneme Secretion in Toxoplasma.

    PubMed

    Bullen, Hayley E; Jia, Yonggen; Yamaryo-Botté, Yoshiki; Bisio, Hugo; Zhang, Ou; Jemelin, Natacha Klages; Marq, Jean-Baptiste; Carruthers, Vern; Botté, Cyrille Y; Soldati-Favre, Dominique

    2016-03-09

    The obligate intracellular lifestyle of apicomplexan parasites necessitates an invasive phase underpinned by timely and spatially controlled secretion of apical organelles termed micronemes. In Toxoplasma gondii, extracellular potassium levels and other stimuli trigger a signaling cascade culminating in phosphoinositide-phospholipase C (PLC) activation, which generates the second messengers diacylglycerol (DAG) and IP3 and ultimately results in microneme secretion. Here we show that a delicate balance between DAG and its downstream product, phosphatidic acid (PA), is essential for controlling microneme release. Governing this balance is the apicomplexan-specific DAG-kinase-1, which interconverts PA and DAG, and whose depletion impairs egress and causes parasite death. Additionally, we identify an acylated pleckstrin-homology (PH) domain-containing protein (APH) on the microneme surface that senses PA during microneme secretion and is necessary for microneme exocytosis. As APH is conserved in Apicomplexa, these findings highlight a potentially widely used mechanism in which key lipid mediators regulate microneme exocytosis. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Tracking Diacylglycerol and Phosphatidic Acid Pools in Budding Yeast

    PubMed Central

    Ganesan, Suriakarthiga; Shabits, Brittney N.; Zaremberg, Vanina

    2015-01-01

    Phosphatidic acid (PA) and diacylglycerol (DAG) are key signaling molecules and important precursors for the biosynthesis of all glycerolipids found in eukaryotes. Research conducted in the model organism Saccharomyces cerevisiae has been at the forefront of the identification of the enzymes involved in the metabolism and transport of PA and DAG. Both these lipids can alter the local physical properties of membranes by introducing negative curvature, but the anionic nature of the phosphomonoester headgroup in PA sets it apart from DAG. As a result, the mechanisms underlying PA and DAG interaction with other lipids and proteins are notoriously different. This is apparent from the analysis of the protein domains responsible for recognition and binding to each of these lipids. We review the current evidence obtained using the PA-binding proteins and domains fused to fluorescent proteins for in vivo tracking of PA pools in yeast. In addition, we present original results for visualization of DAG pools in yeast using the C1 domain from mammalian PKCδ. An emerging first cellular map of the distribution of PA and DAG pools in actively growing yeast is discussed. PMID:27081314

  20. Regulation of the Electric Charge in Phosphatidic Acid Domains

    SciT

    Wang, Wenjie; Anderson, Nathaniel A.; Travesset, Alex

    Although a minor component of the lipidome, phosphatidic acid (PA) plays a crucial role in nearly all signaling pathways involving cell membranes, in part because of its variable electrical charge in response to environmental conditions. To investigate how charge is regulated in domains of PA, we applied surface-sensitive X-ray reflectivity and fluorescence near-totalreflection techniques to determine the binding of divalent ions (Ca2+ at various pH values) to 1,2-dimyristoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphate (DMPA) and to the simpler lipid dihexadecyl phosphate (DHDP) spread as monolayers at the air/water interface. We found that the protonation state of PA is controlled not only by the pKa andmore » local pH but also by the strong affinity to PA driven by electrostatic correlations from divalent ions and the cooperative effect of the two dissociable protons, which dramatically enhance the surface charge. A precise theoretical model is presented providing a general framework to predict the protonation state of PA. Implications for recent experiments on charge regulation by hydrogen bonding and the role of pH in PA signaling are discussed in detail.« less

  1. Phosphatidic acid - a simple phospholipid with multiple faces.

    PubMed

    Zegarlińska, Jolanta; Piaścik, Magda; Sikorski, Aleksander F; Czogalla, Aleksander

    2018-01-01

    Phosphatidic acid (PA) is the simplest glycerophospholipid naturally occurring in living organisms, and even though its content among other cellular lipids is minor, it is drawing more and more attention due to its multiple biological functions. PA is a precursor for other phospholipids, acts as a lipid second messenger and, due to its structural properties, is also a modulator of membrane shape. Although much is known about interaction of PA with its effectors, the molecular mechanisms remain unresolved to a large degree. Throughout many of the well-characterized PA cellular sensors, no conserved binding domain can be recognized. Moreover, not much is known about the cellular dynamics of PA and how it is distributed among subcellular compartments. Remarkably, PA can play distinct roles within each of these compartments. For example, in the nucleus it behaves as a mitogen, influencing gene expression regulation, and in the Golgi membrane it plays a role in membrane trafficking. Here, we discuss how a biophysical experimental approach enabled PA behavior to be described in the context of a lipid bilayer and to what extent various physicochemical conditions may modulate the functional properties of this lipid. Understanding these aspects would help to unravel specific mechanisms of PA-driven membrane transformations and protein recruitment and thus would lead to a clearer picture of the biological role of PA.

  2. Pharmacological evaluation of a novel cyclic phosphatidic acid derivative 3-S-cyclic phosphatidic acid (3-S-cPA).

    PubMed

    Nozaki, Emi; Gotoh, Mari; Tanaka, Ryo; Kato, Masaru; Suzuki, Takahiro; Nakazaki, Atsuo; Hotta, Harumi; Kobayashi, Susumu; Murakami-Murofushi, Kimiko

    2012-05-15

    Cyclic phosphatidic acid (cPA) is a naturally occurring phospholipid mediator possessing cyclic phosphate ring, which is necessary for its specific biological activities. To stabilize cyclic phosphate ring of cPA, we synthesized a series of cPA derivatives. We have shown that racemic 3-S-cPA, with a phosphate oxygen atom replaced with a sulfur atom at the sn-3, was a more effective autotaxin (ATX) inhibitor than cPA. In this study, we showed that racemic 3-S-cPA also had potent biological activities such as inhibition of cancer cell migration, suppression of the nociceptive reflex, and attenuation of ischemia-induced delayed neuronal cell death in the hippocampal CA1. Moreover, we synthesized both enantiomers of palmitoleoyl derivative of 3-S-cPA, and found that the chirality of 3-S-cPA is not involved in ATX inhibition. Based on these findings, racemic 3-S-cPA is suggested as an effective therapeutic compound like cPA. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Phosphatidylglycerol and Chilling Sensitivity in Plants

    PubMed Central

    Roughan, P. Grattan

    1985-01-01

    The hypothesis that molecular species of thylakoid phosphatidylglycerol containing two saturated fatty acids (disaturated phosphatidylglycerol) confer chilling sensitivity upon plants was tested by analyzing the fatty acid composition of phosphatidylglycerols isolated from leaves of a range of plants expected to have different sensitivities to chilling temperatures. `Saturated' fatty acids (palmitate plus stearate plus hexadeca-trans-3-enoate) as a proportion of total phosphatidylglycerol fatty acids varied from 51 to 80 mole per cent in the plants analyzed but appeared to be rigidly fixed for a given plant species, being unaffected by leaf maturity or by environment. Hexadeca-trans-3-enoate occurred only at the sn-2 position, whereas C-18 fatty acids occurred only at the sn-1 position of thylakoid phosphatidylglycerol. Therefore, the proportion of disaturated molecular species could be predicted accurately from the total fatty acids of phosphatidylglycerol. Disaturated molecular species accounted for <25% of the total phosphatidylglycerol from leaves of chilling-resistant plants and for 50 to 60% of the phosphatidylglycerol in leaves from some of the most chilling-sensitive plants. However, not all chilling-sensitive plants contained high proportions of disaturated phosphatidylglycerol; solanaceous and other 16:3-plants and C4 grasses may be important exceptions. Nonetheless, proportions of disaturated phosphatidylglycerol increased concomitantly with increasing chilling sensitivity of plants within a genus. PMID:16664127

  4. Purification, characterization, and bioinformatics studies of phosphatidic acid phosphohydrolase from Lagenaria siceraria

    Phosphatidic acid phosphohydrolase (PAP), EC 3.1.3.4, is the penultimate step in the Kennedy pathway of triacyl glycerol (TAG) synthesis leading to the formation of diacyl glycerol (DAG), which is a key intermediate in TAG synthesis. We partially purified a soluble PAP from mid maturing seeds of bot...

  5. Channeling of eukaryotic diacylglycerol into the biosynthesis of plastidial phosphatidylglycerol.

    PubMed

    Fritz, Markus; Lokstein, Heiko; Hackenberg, Dieter; Welti, Ruth; Roth, Mary; Zähringer, Ulrich; Fulda, Martin; Hellmeyer, Wiebke; Ott, Claudia; Wolter, Frank P; Heinz, Ernst

    2007-02-16

    Plastidial glycolipids contain diacylglycerol (DAG) moieties, which are either synthesized in the plastids (prokaryotic lipids) or originate in the extraplastidial compartment (eukaryotic lipids) necessitating their transfer into plastids. In contrast, the only phospholipid in plastids, phosphatidylglycerol (PG), contains exclusively prokaryotic DAG backbones. PG contributes in several ways to the functions of chloroplasts, but it is not known to what extent its prokaryotic nature is required to fulfill these tasks. As a first step toward answering this question, we produced transgenic tobacco plants that contain eukaryotic PG in thylakoids. This was achieved by targeting a bacterial DAG kinase into chloroplasts in which the heterologous enzyme was also incorporated into the envelope fraction. From lipid analysis we conclude that the DAG kinase phosphorylated eukaryotic DAG forming phosphatidic acid, which was converted into PG. This resulted in PG with 2-3 times more eukaryotic than prokaryotic DAG backbones. In the newly formed PG the unique Delta3-trans-double bond, normally confined to 3-trans-hexadecenoic acid, was also found in sn-2-bound cis-unsaturated C18 fatty acids. In addition, a lipidomics technique allowed the characterization of phosphatidic acid, which is assumed to be derived from eukaryotic DAG precursors in the chloroplasts of the transgenic plants. The differences in lipid composition had only minor effects on measured functions of the photosynthetic apparatus, whereas the most obvious phenotype was a significant reduction in growth.

  6. Characterization of a soluble phosphatidic acid phosphatase in bitter melon (Momordica charantia).

    PubMed

    Cao, Heping; Sethumadhavan, Kandan; Grimm, Casey C; Ullah, Abul H J

    2014-01-01

    Momordica charantia is often called bitter melon, bitter gourd or bitter squash because its fruit has a bitter taste. The fruit has been widely used as vegetable and herbal medicine. Alpha-eleostearic acid is the major fatty acid in the seeds, but little is known about its biosynthesis. As an initial step towards understanding the biochemical mechanism of fatty acid accumulation in bitter melon seeds, this study focused on a soluble phosphatidic acid phosphatase (PAP, 3-sn-phosphatidate phosphohydrolase, EC 3.1.3.4) that hydrolyzes the phosphomonoester bond in phosphatidate yielding diacylglycerol and P(i). PAPs are typically categorized into two subfamilies: Mg(2+)-dependent soluble PAP and Mg(2+)-independent membrane-associated PAP. We report here the partial purification and characterization of an Mg(2+)-independent PAP activity from developing cotyledons of bitter melon. PAP protein was partially purified by successive centrifugation and UNOsphere Q and S columns from the soluble extract. PAP activity was optimized at pH 6.5 and 53-60 °C and unaffected by up to 0.3 mM MgCl2. The K(m) and Vmax values for dioleoyl-phosphatidic acid were 595.4 µM and 104.9 ηkat/mg of protein, respectively. PAP activity was inhibited by NaF, Na(3)VO(4), Triton X-100, FeSO4 and CuSO4, but stimulated by MnSO4, ZnSO4 and Co(NO3)2. In-gel activity assay and mass spectrometry showed that PAP activity was copurified with a number of other proteins. This study suggests that PAP protein is probably associated with other proteins in bitter melon seeds and that a new class of PAP exists as a soluble and Mg(2+)-independent enzyme in plants.

  7. [Effect of phosphatidic acid on the reaction of linoleic acid oxidation by 5-lipooxygenase from potatoes].

    PubMed

    Skaterna, T D; Kharchenko, O V

    2008-01-01

    Influence of anionogenic phospholipid of phosphatidic acid (PA) on oxidation of linoleic acid by 5-lipoxygenase (5-LO) from Solanum tuberosum was studied. The influence of PA was studied in micellar system which consisted of mixed micelles of linolenic acid (LK), Lubrol PX and different quantity of enzyme effector PA. The reaction was initiated by addition of 5-LO. It was established that 5-LO had two pHopt. in the presence of 50 microM phosphatidic acid: pH 5.0 and 6.9. In concentration of 50 microM PA was able to activate 5-LO 15 times at pH 5.0. The reaction maximum velocity (Vmax) coincided with Vmax of lipoxygenase reaction without the effector at pH 6.9 under such conditions. It was found that 30-50 microM phospholipid in the reaction mixture decreased the concentration of half saturation by the substrate by 43-67%. The enzyme demonstrated positive cooperation in respect of the substrate, the reaction is described by the Hill equation. Hill coefficient value (h) of the substrate was 3.34 +/- 0.22 (pH 6.9) and 5.61 +/- 0.88 (pH 5.0), that is with the change of pH to acidic region the number of substrate molecules increased and they could interact with the enzyme molecule. In case of substrate insufficiency the enzyme demonstrated positive cooperation of PA, it added from 4 to 3 effectors' molecules at pH 5.0, that is the phospholipid acted as the allosteric regulator of 5-LO. A comparative analysis of the influence of 4-hydroxy-TEMPO displayed, that the level of nonenzymatic processes in the case of physiological pH values was lower by 15-50% in the presence of PA in the range of 30-80 microM than without the effector.

  8. Direct atomic force microscopic evidence of hydrogen bonding interaction in phosphatidic acid Langmuir-Blodgett bilayer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chunbo, Yuan; Ying, Wu; Yueming, Sun; Zuhong, Lu; Juzheng, Liu

    1997-12-01

    Molecularly resolved atomic force microscopic images of phosphatidic acid Langmuir-Blodgett bilayers show that phosphate groups in polar region of the films are packing in a distorted hexagonal organization with long-range orientational and positional order. Intermolecular hydrogen bonding interactions, which should be responsible for the ordering and stability of bilayers, are visualized directly between adjacent phosphate groups in the polar region of the bilayer. Some adjacent phosphatidic acid molecules link each other through the formation of intermolecular hydrogen bonds between phosphate groups in polar region to form local supramolecules, which provide the bilayer's potential as a functionized film in the investigation on the lateral conductions of protons in the biological bilayers.

  9. Cooperation of MICAL-L1, syndapin2, and phosphatidic acid in tubular recycling endosome biogenesis.

    PubMed

    Giridharan, Sai Srinivas Panapakkam; Cai, Bishuang; Vitale, Nicolas; Naslavsky, Naava; Caplan, Steve

    2013-06-01

    Endocytic transport necessitates the generation of membrane tubules and their subsequent fission to transport vesicles for sorting of cargo molecules. The endocytic recycling compartment, an array of tubular and vesicular membranes decorated by the Eps15 homology domain protein, EHD1, is responsible for receptor and lipid recycling to the plasma membrane. It has been proposed that EHD dimers bind and bend membranes, thus generating recycling endosome (RE) tubules. However, recent studies show that molecules interacting with CasL-Like1 (MICAL-L1), a second, recently identified RE tubule marker, recruits EHD1 to preexisting tubules. The mechanisms and events supporting the generation of tubular recycling endosomes were unclear. Here, we propose a mechanism for the biogenesis of RE tubules. We demonstrate that MICAL-L1 and the BAR-domain protein syndapin2 bind to phosphatidic acid, which we identify as a novel lipid component of RE. Our studies demonstrate that direct interactions between these two proteins stabilize their association with membranes, allowing for nucleation of tubules by syndapin2. Indeed, the presence of phosphatidic acid in liposomes enhances the ability of syndapin2 to tubulate membranes in vitro. Overall our results highlight a new role for phosphatidic acid in endocytic recycling and provide new insights into the mechanisms by which tubular REs are generated.

  10. Phospholipase D Signaling Pathways and Phosphatidic Acid as Therapeutic Targets in Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Bruntz, Ronald C.; Lindsley, Craig W.

    2014-01-01

    Phospholipase D is a ubiquitous class of enzymes that generates phosphatidic acid as an intracellular signaling species. The phospholipase D superfamily plays a central role in a variety of functions in prokaryotes, viruses, yeast, fungi, plants, and eukaryotic species. In mammalian cells, the pathways modulating catalytic activity involve a variety of cellular signaling components, including G protein–coupled receptors, receptor tyrosine kinases, polyphosphatidylinositol lipids, Ras/Rho/ADP-ribosylation factor GTPases, and conventional isoforms of protein kinase C, among others. Recent findings have shown that phosphatidic acid generated by phospholipase D plays roles in numerous essential cellular functions, such as vesicular trafficking, exocytosis, autophagy, regulation of cellular metabolism, and tumorigenesis. Many of these cellular events are modulated by the actions of phosphatidic acid, and identification of two targets (mammalian target of rapamycin and Akt kinase) has especially highlighted a role for phospholipase D in the regulation of cellular metabolism. Phospholipase D is a regulator of intercellular signaling and metabolic pathways, particularly in cells that are under stress conditions. This review provides a comprehensive overview of the regulation of phospholipase D activity and its modulation of cellular signaling pathways and functions. PMID:25244928

  11. Cooperation of MICAL-L1, syndapin2, and phosphatidic acid in tubular recycling endosome biogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Giridharan, Sai Srinivas Panapakkam; Cai, Bishuang; Vitale, Nicolas; Naslavsky, Naava; Caplan, Steve

    2013-01-01

    Endocytic transport necessitates the generation of membrane tubules and their subsequent fission to transport vesicles for sorting of cargo molecules. The endocytic recycling compartment, an array of tubular and vesicular membranes decorated by the Eps15 homology domain protein, EHD1, is responsible for receptor and lipid recycling to the plasma membrane. It has been proposed that EHD dimers bind and bend membranes, thus generating recycling endosome (RE) tubules. However, recent studies show that molecules interacting with CasL-Like1 (MICAL-L1), a second, recently identified RE tubule marker, recruits EHD1 to preexisting tubules. The mechanisms and events supporting the generation of tubular recycling endosomes were unclear. Here, we propose a mechanism for the biogenesis of RE tubules. We demonstrate that MICAL-L1 and the BAR-domain protein syndapin2 bind to phosphatidic acid, which we identify as a novel lipid component of RE. Our studies demonstrate that direct interactions between these two proteins stabilize their association with membranes, allowing for nucleation of tubules by syndapin2. Indeed, the presence of phosphatidic acid in liposomes enhances the ability of syndapin2 to tubulate membranes in vitro. Overall our results highlight a new role for phosphatidic acid in endocytic recycling and provide new insights into the mechanisms by which tubular REs are generated. PMID:23596323

  12. Phospholipase D signaling pathways and phosphatidic acid as therapeutic targets in cancer.

    PubMed

    Bruntz, Ronald C; Lindsley, Craig W; Brown, H Alex

    2014-10-01

    Phospholipase D is a ubiquitous class of enzymes that generates phosphatidic acid as an intracellular signaling species. The phospholipase D superfamily plays a central role in a variety of functions in prokaryotes, viruses, yeast, fungi, plants, and eukaryotic species. In mammalian cells, the pathways modulating catalytic activity involve a variety of cellular signaling components, including G protein-coupled receptors, receptor tyrosine kinases, polyphosphatidylinositol lipids, Ras/Rho/ADP-ribosylation factor GTPases, and conventional isoforms of protein kinase C, among others. Recent findings have shown that phosphatidic acid generated by phospholipase D plays roles in numerous essential cellular functions, such as vesicular trafficking, exocytosis, autophagy, regulation of cellular metabolism, and tumorigenesis. Many of these cellular events are modulated by the actions of phosphatidic acid, and identification of two targets (mammalian target of rapamycin and Akt kinase) has especially highlighted a role for phospholipase D in the regulation of cellular metabolism. Phospholipase D is a regulator of intercellular signaling and metabolic pathways, particularly in cells that are under stress conditions. This review provides a comprehensive overview of the regulation of phospholipase D activity and its modulation of cellular signaling pathways and functions. Copyright © 2014 by The American Society for Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics.

  13. Age-related changes in cyclic phosphatidic acid-induced hyaluronic acid synthesis in human fibroblasts.

    PubMed

    Sano, Katsura; Gotoh, Mari; Dodo, Kyoko; Tajima, Noriaki; Shimizu, Yoshibumi; Murakami-Murofushi, Kimiko

    2018-01-01

    Hyaluronic acid is a major component of the extracellular matrix, which is important for skin hydration. As aging brings skin dehydration, we aimed to clarify the mRNA expression of hyaluronic acid-related proteins in human skin fibroblasts from donors of various ages (range 0.7-69 years). Previously, we reported that cyclic phosphatidic acid (cPA), a unique phospholipid mediator, stimulated the expression of HAS2 and increased hyaluronic acid synthesis in human skin fibroblasts (donor age: 3 days). In this study, we measured the mRNA expression of hyaluronic acid-related proteins: hyaluronan synthase (HAS) 1-3, hyaluronidase-1, -2, and hyaluronic acid-binding protein (versican). In addition, we tested whether cPA could increase hyaluronic acid synthesis in skin fibroblasts derived from donors of various ages. The expression of HAS1, 3, hyaluronidase-1, and -2 did not change with aging. However, the mRNA expression of versican decreased with aging. Although it is thought that the amount of hyaluronic acid in the dermis decreases with aging, the mRNA expression of HAS2 was increased. But the amount of hyaluronic acid secreted by fibroblasts did not increase with aging. This suggests that the activity and/or protein expression of HAS2 decrease with aging. Furthermore, we observed that cPA caused the increase of hyaluronic acid synthesis at any age, and this effect was increased with aging. These results suggest that aging made the fibroblasts more sensitive to cPA treatment. Therefore, cPA represents a suitable candidate for the health maintenance and improvement of the skin by increasing the level of hyaluronic acid in the dermis.

  14. Differences in phosphatidic acid signalling and metabolism between ABA and GA treatments of barley aleurone cells.

    PubMed

    Villasuso, Ana Laura; Di Palma, Maria A; Aveldaño, Marta; Pasquaré, Susana J; Racagni, Graciela; Giusto, Norma M; Machado, Estela E

    2013-04-01

    Phosphatidic acid (PA) is the common lipid product in abscisic acid (ABA) and gibberellic acid (GA) response. In this work we investigated the lipid metabolism in response to both hormones. We could detect an in vivo phospholipase D activity (PLD, EC 3.1.4.4). This PLD produced [(32)P]PA (phosphatidic acid) rapidly (minutes) in the presence of ABA, confirming PA involvement in signal transduction, and transiently, indicating rapid PA removal after generation. The presence of PA removal by phosphatidate phosphatase 1 and 2 isoforms (E.C. 3.1.3.4) was verified in isolated aleurone membranes in vitro, the former but not the latter being specifically responsive to the presence of GA or ABA. The in vitro DGPP phosphatase activity was not modified by short time incubation with GA or ABA while the in vitro PA kinase - that allows the production of 18:2-DGPP from 18:2-PA - is stimulated by ABA. The long term effects (24 h) of ABA or GA on lipid and fatty acid composition of aleurone layer cells were then investigated. An increase in PC and, to a lesser extent, in PE levels is the consequence of both hormone treatments. ABA, in aleurone layer cells, specifically activates a PLD whose product, PA, could be the substrate of PAP1 and/or PAK activities. Neither PLD nor PAK activation can be monitored by GA treatment. The increase in PAP1 activity monitored after ABA or GA treatment might participate in the increase in PC level observed after 24 h hormone incubation. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  15. Secondary ion emission from phosphatidic acid sandwich films under atomic and molecular primary ion bombardment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stapel, D.; Benninghoven, A.

    2001-11-01

    Secondary ion yields increase considerably when changing from atomic to molecular primary ions. Since secondary ion emission from deeper layers could result in a pronounced yield increase, the secondary ion emission depth of molecular fragments was investigated. A phosphatidic acid Langmuir-Blodgett (LB) sandwich system was applied. The well-defined layer structure of the applied sample allows the assignment of different depths of origin to the selected fragment ions. At least 93% of the detected characteristic molecular fragment ions originate from the first and second layers. This holds true for all applied atomic and molecular primary ions.

  16. Orchestrating phospholipid biosynthesis: Phosphatidic acid conducts and Opi1p performs.

    PubMed

    Salsaa, Michael; Case, Kendall; Greenberg, Miriam L

    2017-11-10

    Phosphatidic acid (PA) and the conserved integral ER membrane protein Scs2p regulate localization of the transcriptional repressor Opi1p, which controls expression of phospholipid biosynthesis genes, but the mechanisms conducting Opi1p localization are not fully understood. A new study suggests the existence of a distinct pool of PA in the ER that is required for regulation of Opi1p localization and thus phospholipid metabolism in yeast. © 2017 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  17. The PDZ domain of the guanine nucleotide exchange factor PDZGEF directs binding to phosphatidic acid during brush border formation.

    PubMed

    Consonni, Sarah V; Brouwer, Patricia M; van Slobbe, Eleonora S; Bos, Johannes L

    2014-01-01

    PDZGEF is a guanine nucleotide exchange factor for the small G protein Rap. It was recently found that PDZGEF contributes to establishment of intestinal epithelial polarity downstream of the kinase Lkb1. By binding to phosphatidic acid enriched at the apical membrane, PDZGEF locally activates Rap2a resulting in induction of brush border formation via a pathway that includes the polarity players TNIK, Mst4 and Ezrin. Here we show that the PDZ domain of PDZGEF is essential and sufficient for targeting PDZGEF to the apical membrane of polarized intestinal epithelial cells. Inhibition of PLD and consequently production of phosphatidic acid inhibitis targeting of PDZGEF to the plasma membrane. Furthermore, localization requires specific positively charged residues within the PDZ domain. We conclude that local accumulation of PDZGEF at the apical membrane during establishment of epithelial polarity is mediated by electrostatic interactions between positively charged side chains in the PDZ domain and negatively charged phosphatidic acid.

  18. The PDZ Domain of the Guanine Nucleotide Exchange Factor PDZGEF Directs Binding to Phosphatidic Acid during Brush Border Formation

    PubMed Central

    Consonni, Sarah V.; Brouwer, Patricia M.; van Slobbe, Eleonora S.; Bos, Johannes L.

    2014-01-01

    PDZGEF is a guanine nucleotide exchange factor for the small G protein Rap. It was recently found that PDZGEF contributes to establishment of intestinal epithelial polarity downstream of the kinase Lkb1. By binding to phosphatidic acid enriched at the apical membrane, PDZGEF locally activates Rap2a resulting in induction of brush border formation via a pathway that includes the polarity players TNIK, Mst4 and Ezrin. Here we show that the PDZ domain of PDZGEF is essential and sufficient for targeting PDZGEF to the apical membrane of polarized intestinal epithelial cells. Inhibition of PLD and consequently production of phosphatidic acid inhibitis targeting of PDZGEF to the plasma membrane. Furthermore, localization requires specific positively charged residues within the PDZ domain. We conclude that local accumulation of PDZGEF at the apical membrane during establishment of epithelial polarity is mediated by electrostatic interactions between positively charged side chains in the PDZ domain and negatively charged phosphatidic acid. PMID:24858808

  19. Saturated phosphatidic acids mediate saturated fatty acid-induced vascular calcification and lipotoxicity.

    PubMed

    Masuda, Masashi; Miyazaki-Anzai, Shinobu; Keenan, Audrey L; Okamura, Kayo; Kendrick, Jessica; Chonchol, Michel; Offermanns, Stefan; Ntambi, James M; Kuro-O, Makoto; Miyazaki, Makoto

    2015-10-26

    Recent evidence indicates that saturated fatty acid-induced (SFA-induced) lipotoxicity contributes to the pathogenesis of cardiovascular and metabolic diseases; however, the molecular mechanisms that underlie SFA-induced lipotoxicity remain unclear. Here, we have shown that repression of stearoyl-CoA desaturase (SCD) enzymes, which regulate the intracellular balance of SFAs and unsaturated FAs, and the subsequent accumulation of SFAs in vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs), are characteristic events in the development of vascular calcification. We evaluated whether SMC-specific inhibition of SCD and the resulting SFA accumulation plays a causative role in the pathogenesis of vascular calcification and generated mice with SMC-specific deletion of both Scd1 and Scd2. Mice lacking both SCD1 and SCD2 in SMCs displayed severe vascular calcification with increased ER stress. Moreover, we employed shRNA library screening and radiolabeling approaches, as well as in vitro and in vivo lipidomic analysis, and determined that fully saturated phosphatidic acids such as 1,2-distearoyl-PA (18:0/18:0-PA) mediate SFA-induced lipotoxicity and vascular calcification. Together, these results identify a key lipogenic pathway in SMCs that mediates vascular calcification.

  20. Enzymes involved in plastid-targeted phosphatidic acid synthesis are essential for Plasmodium yoelii liver-stage development.

    PubMed

    Lindner, Scott E; Sartain, Mark J; Hayes, Kiera; Harupa, Anke; Moritz, Robert L; Kappe, Stefan H I; Vaughan, Ashley M

    2014-02-01

    Malaria parasites scavenge nutrients from their host but also harbour enzymatic pathways for de novo macromolecule synthesis. One such pathway is apicoplast-targeted type II fatty acid synthesis, which is essential for late liver-stage development in rodent malaria. It is likely that fatty acids synthesized in the apicoplast are ultimately incorporated into membrane phospholipids necessary for exoerythrocytic merozoite formation. We hypothesized that these synthesized fatty acids are being utilized for apicoplast-targeted phosphatidic acid synthesis, the phospholipid precursor. Phosphatidic acid is typically synthesized in a three-step reaction utilizing three enzymes: glycerol 3-phosphate dehydrogenase, glycerol 3-phosphate acyltransferase and lysophosphatidic acid acyltransferase. The Plasmodium genome is predicted to harbour genes for both apicoplast- and cytosol/endoplasmic reticulum-targeted phosphatidic acid synthesis. Our research shows that apicoplast-targeted Plasmodium yoelii glycerol 3-phosphate dehydrogenase and glycerol 3-phosphate acyltransferase are expressed only during liver-stage development and deletion of the encoding genes resulted in late liver-stage growth arrest and lack of merozoite differentiation. However, the predicted apicoplast-targeted lysophosphatidic acid acyltransferase gene was refractory to deletion and was expressed solely in the endoplasmic reticulum throughout the parasite life cycle. Our results suggest that P. yoelii has an incomplete apicoplast-targeted phosphatidic acid synthesis pathway that is essential for liver-stage maturation. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  1. Suppression of DS1 Phosphatidic Acid Phosphatase Confirms Resistance to Ralstonia solanacearum in Nicotiana benthamiana

    PubMed Central

    Nakano, Masahito; Nishihara, Masahiro; Yoshioka, Hirofumi; Takahashi, Hirotaka; Sawasaki, Tatsuya; Ohnishi, Kouhei; Hikichi, Yasufumi; Kiba, Akinori

    2013-01-01

    Nicotiana benthamiana is susceptible to Ralstonia solanacearum. To analyze molecular mechanisms for disease susceptibility, we screened a gene-silenced plant showing resistance to R. solanacearum, designated as DS1 (Disease suppression 1). The deduced amino acid sequence of DS1 cDNA encoded a phosphatidic acid phosphatase (PAP) 2. DS1 expression was induced by infection with a virulent strain of R. solanacearum in an hrp-gene-dependent manner. DS1 rescued growth defects of the temperature-sensitive ∆lpp1∆dpp1∆pah1 mutant yeast. Recombinant DS1 protein showed Mg2+-independent PAP activity. DS1 plants showed reduced PAP activity and increased phosphatidic acid (PA) content. After inoculation with R. solanacearum, DS1 plants showed accelerated cell death, over-accumulation of reactive oxygen species (ROS), and hyper-induction of PR-4 expression. In contrast, DS1-overexpressing tobacco plants showed reduced PA content, greater susceptibility to R. solanacearum, and reduced ROS production and PR-4 expression. The DS1 phenotype was partially compromised in the plants in which both DS1 and NbCoi1 or DS1 and NbrbohB were silenced. These results show that DS1 PAP may affect plant immune responses related to ROS and JA cascades via regulation of PA levels. Suppression of DS1 function or DS1 expression could rapidly activate plant defenses to achieve effective resistance against Ralstonia solanacearum. PMID:24073238

  2. Enzymes involved in plastid-targeted phosphatidic acid synthesis are essential for Plasmodium yoelii liver stage development

    PubMed Central

    Lindner, Scott E.; Sartain, Mark J.; Hayes, Kiera; Harupa, Anke; Moritz, Robert L.; Kappe, Stefan H. I.; Vaughan, Ashley M.

    2014-01-01

    SUMMARY Malaria parasites scavenge nutrients from their host but also harbor enzymatic pathways for de novo macromolecule synthesis. One such pathway is apicoplast-targeted type II fatty acid synthesis, which is essential for late liver stage development in rodent malaria. It is likely that fatty acids synthesized in the apicoplast are ultimately incorporated into membrane phospholipids necessary for exoerythrocytic merozoite formation. We hypothesized that these synthesized fatty acids are being utilized for apicoplast-targeted phosphatidic acid synthesis, the phospholipid precursor. Phosphatidic acid is typically synthesized in a three-step reaction utilizing three enzymes: glycerol 3-phosphate dehydrogenase, glycerol 3-phosphate acyltransferase and lysophosphatidic acid acyltransferase. The Plasmodium genome is predicted to harbor genes for both apicoplast- and cytosol/endoplasmic reticulum-targeted phosphatidic synthesis. Our research shows that apicoplast-targeted P. yoelii glycerol 3-phosphate dehydrogenase and glycerol 3-phosphate acyltransferase are expressed only during liver stage development and deletion of the encoding genes resulted in late liver stage growth arrest and lack of merozoite differentiation. However, the predicted apicoplast-targeted lysophosphatidic acid acyltransferase gene was refractory to deletion and was expressed solely in the endoplasmic reticulum throughout the parasite lifecycle. Our results suggest that P. yoelii has an incomplete apicoplast-targeted phosphatidic acid synthesis pathway that is essential for liver stage maturation. PMID:24330260

  3. Orally administered phosphatidic acids and lysophosphatidic acids ameliorate aspirin-induced stomach mucosal injury in mice.

    PubMed

    Tanaka, Tamotsu; Morito, Katsuya; Kinoshita, Masafumi; Ohmoto, Mayumi; Urikura, Mai; Satouchi, Kiyoshi; Tokumura, Akira

    2013-04-01

    Recent investigations revealed that lysophosphatidic acid (LPA), a phospholipid with a growth factor-like activity, plays an important role in the integrity of the gastrointestinal tract epithelium. This paper attempts to clarify the effect of orally administered phosphatidic acid (PA) and LPA on aspirin-induced gastric lesions in mice. Phospholipids, a free fatty acid, a diacylglycerol and a triglyceride at 1 mM (5.7 μmol/kg body weight) or 0.1 mM were orally administered to mice 0.5 h before oral administration of aspirin (1.7 mmol/kg). The total length of lesions formed on the stomach wall was measured as a lesion index. Formation of LPA from PA in the mouse stomach was examined by in vitro (in stomach lavage fluid), ex vivo (in an isolated stomach) and in vivo (in the stomach of a living mouse) examinations of phospholipase activity. Palmitic acid, dioleoyl-glycerol, olive oil and lysophosphatidylcholine did not affect the aspirin-induced lesions. In contrast, phosphatidylcholine (1 mM), LPA (1 mM) and PA (0.1, 1 mM) significantly reduced the lesion index. Evidence for formation of LPA from PA in the stomach by gastric phospholipase A2 was obtained by in vitro, ex vivo and in vivo experiments. An LPA-specific receptor, LPA2, was found to be localized on the gastric surface-lining cells of mice. Pretreatment with PA-rich diets may prevent nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug-induced stomach ulcers.

  4. Lipin 2 binds phosphatidic acid by the electrostatic hydrogen bond switch mechanism independent of phosphorylation.

    PubMed

    Eaton, James M; Takkellapati, Sankeerth; Lawrence, Robert T; McQueeney, Kelley E; Boroda, Salome; Mullins, Garrett R; Sherwood, Samantha G; Finck, Brian N; Villén, Judit; Harris, Thurl E

    2014-06-27

    Lipin 2 is a phosphatidic acid phosphatase (PAP) responsible for the penultimate step of triglyceride synthesis and dephosphorylation of phosphatidic acid (PA) to generate diacylglycerol. The lipin family of PA phosphatases is composed of lipins 1-3, which are members of the conserved haloacid dehalogenase superfamily. Although genetic alteration of LPIN2 in humans is known to cause Majeed syndrome, little is known about the biochemical regulation of its PAP activity. Here, in an attempt to gain a better general understanding of the biochemical nature of lipin 2, we have performed kinetic and phosphorylation analyses. We provide evidence that lipin 2, like lipin 1, binds PA via the electrostatic hydrogen bond switch mechanism but has a lower rate of catalysis. Like lipin 1, lipin 2 is highly phosphorylated, and we identified 15 phosphosites. However, unlike lipin 1, the phosphorylation of lipin 2 is not induced by insulin signaling nor is it sensitive to inhibition of the mammalian target of rapamycin. Importantly, phosphorylation of lipin 2 does not negatively regulate either membrane binding or PAP activity. This suggests that lipin 2 functions as a constitutively active PA phosphatase in stark contrast to the high degree of phosphorylation-mediated regulation of lipin 1. This knowledge of lipin 2 regulation is important for a deeper understanding of how the lipin family functions with respect to lipid synthesis and, more generally, as an example of how the membrane environment around PA can influence its effector proteins. © 2014 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  5. Phosphatidic acid (PA)-preferring phospholipase A1 regulates mitochondrial dynamics.

    PubMed

    Baba, Takashi; Kashiwagi, Yuriko; Arimitsu, Nagisa; Kogure, Takeshi; Edo, Ayumi; Maruyama, Tomohiro; Nakao, Kazuki; Nakanishi, Hiroki; Kinoshita, Makoto; Frohman, Michael A; Yamamoto, Akitsugu; Tani, Katsuko

    2014-04-18

    Recent studies have suggested that phosphatidic acid (PA), a cone-shaped phospholipid that can generate negative curvature of lipid membranes, participates in mitochondrial fusion. However, precise mechanisms underling the production and consumption of PA on the mitochondrial surface are not fully understood. Phosphatidic acid-preferring phospholipase A1 (PA-PLA1)/DDHD1 is the first identified intracellular phospholipase A1 and preferentially hydrolyzes PA in vitro. Its cellular and physiological functions have not been elucidated. In this study, we show that PA-PLA1 regulates mitochondrial dynamics. PA-PLA1, when ectopically expressed in HeLa cells, induced mitochondrial fragmentation, whereas its depletion caused mitochondrial elongation. The effects of PA-PLA1 on mitochondrial morphology appear to counteract those of MitoPLD, a mitochondrion-localized phospholipase D that produces PA from cardiolipin. Consistent with high levels of expression of PA-PLA1 in testis, PA-PLA1 knock-out mice have a defect in sperm formation. In PA-PLA1-deficient sperm, the mitochondrial structure is disorganized, and an abnormal gap structure exists between the middle and principal pieces. A flagellum is bent at that position, leading to a loss of motility. Our results suggest a possible mechanism of PA regulation of the mitochondrial membrane and demonstrate an in vivo function of PA-PLA1 in the organization of mitochondria during spermiogenesis.

  6. Levels of Arabidopsis thaliana Leaf Phosphatidic Acids, Phosphatidylserines, and Most Trienoate-Containing Polar Lipid Molecular Species Increase during the Dark Period of the Diurnal Cycle.

    PubMed

    Maatta, Sara; Scheu, Brad; Roth, Mary R; Tamura, Pamela; Li, Maoyin; Williams, Todd D; Wang, Xuemin; Welti, Ruth

    2012-01-01

    Previous work has demonstrated that plant leaf polar lipid fatty acid composition varies during the diurnal (dark-light) cycle. Fatty acid synthesis occurs primarily during the light, but fatty acid desaturation continues in the absence of light, resulting in polyunsaturated fatty acids reaching their highest levels toward the end of the dark period. In this work, Arabidopsis thaliana were grown at constant (21°C) temperature with 12-h light and 12-h dark periods. Collision induced dissociation time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MS) demonstrated that 16:3 and 18:3 fatty acid content in membrane lipids of leaves are higher at the end of the dark than at the end of the light period, while 16:1, 16:2, 18:0, and 18:1 content are higher at the end of the light period. Lipid profiling of membrane galactolipids, phospholipids, and lysophospholipids by electrospray ionization triple quadrupole MS indicated that the monogalactosyldiacylglycerol, phosphatidylglycerol, and phosphatidylcholine classes include molecular species whose levels are highest at end of the light period and others that are highest at the end of the dark period. The levels of phosphatidic acid (PA) and phosphatidylserine classes were higher at the end of the dark period, and molecular species within these classes either followed the class pattern or were not significantly changed in the diurnal cycle. Phospholipase D (PLD) is a family of enzymes that hydrolyzes phospholipids to produce PA. Analysis of several PLD mutant lines suggests that PLDζ2 and possibly PLDα1 may contribute to diurnal cycling of PA. The polar lipid compositional changes are considered in relation to recent data that demonstrate phosphatidylcholine acyl editing.

  7. Chronic administration of docosahexaenoic acid or eicosapentaenoic acid, but not arachidonic acid, alone or in combination with uridine, increases brain phosphatide and synaptic protein levels in gerbils.

    PubMed

    Cansev, M; Wurtman, R J

    2007-08-24

    Synthesis of phosphatidylcholine, the most abundant brain membrane phosphatide, requires three circulating precursors: choline; a pyrimidine (e.g. uridine); and a polyunsaturated fatty acid. Supplementing a choline-containing diet with the uridine source uridine-5'-monophosphate (UMP) or, especially, with UMP plus the omega-3 fatty acid docosahexaenoic acid (given by gavage), produces substantial increases in membrane phosphatide and synaptic protein levels within gerbil brain. We now compare the effects of various polyunsaturated fatty acids, given alone or with UMP, on these synaptic membrane constituents. Gerbils received, daily for 4 weeks, a diet containing choline chloride with or without UMP and/or, by gavage, an omega-3 (docosahexaenoic or eicosapentaenoic acid) or omega-6 (arachidonic acid) fatty acid. Both of the omega-3 fatty acids elevated major brain phosphatide levels (by 18-28%, and 21-27%) and giving UMP along with them enhanced their effects significantly. Arachidonic acid, given alone or with UMP, was without effect. After UMP plus docosahexaenoic acid treatment, total brain phospholipid levels and those of each individual phosphatide increased significantly in all brain regions examined (cortex, striatum, hippocampus, brain stem, and cerebellum). The increases in brain phosphatides in gerbils receiving an omega-3 (but not omega-6) fatty acid, with or without UMP, were accompanied by parallel elevations in levels of pre- and post-synaptic proteins (syntaxin-3, PSD-95 and synapsin-1) but not in those of a ubiquitous structural protein, beta-tubulin. Hence administering omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids can enhance synaptic membrane levels in gerbils, and may do so in patients with neurodegenerative diseases, especially when given with a uridine source, while the omega-6 polyunsaturated fatty acid arachidonic acid is ineffective.

  8. Chronic administration of docosahexaenoic acid or eicosapentaenoic acid, but not arachidonic acid, alone or in combination with uridine, increases brain phosphatide and synaptic protein levels in gerbils

    PubMed Central

    Cansev, M.; Wurtman, R. J.

    2007-01-01

    Synthesis of phosphatidylcholine, the most abundant brain membrane phosphatide, requires three circulating precursors: choline; a pyrimidine (e.g., uridine); and a polyunsaturated fatty acid. Supplementing a choline-containing diet with the uridine source uridine-5′-monophosphate (UMP) or, especially, with UMP plus the omega-3 fatty acid docosahexaenoic acid (given by gavage), produces substantial increases in membrane phosphatide and synaptic protein levels within gerbil brain. We now compare the effects of various polyunsaturated fatty acids, given alone or with UMP, on these synaptic membrane constituents. Gerbils received, daily for 4 weeks, a diet containing choline chloride with or without UMP and/or, by gavage, an omega-3 (docosahexaenoic or eicosapentaenoic acid) or omega-6 (arachidonic acid) fatty acid. Both of the omega-3 fatty acids elevated major brain phosphatide levels (by 18-28%, and 21-27%) and giving UMP along with them enhanced their effects significantly. Arachidonic acid, given alone or with UMP, was without effect. After UMP plus docosahexaenoic acid treatment, total brain phospholipids levels and those of each individual phosphatide increased significantly in all brain regions examined (cortex, striatum, hippocampus, brain stem, and cerebellum). The increases in brain phosphatides in gerbils receiving an omega-3 (but not omega-6) fatty acid, with or without UMP, were accompanied by parallel elevations in levels of pre- and post-synaptic proteins (syntaxin-3, PSD-95 and Synapsin-1) but not in those of a ubiquitous structural protein, β-tubulin. Hence administering omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids can enhance synaptic membrane levels in gerbils, and may do so in patients with neurodegenerative diseases, especially when given with a uridine source, while the omega-6 polyunsaturated fatty acid arachidonic acid is ineffective. PMID:17683870

  9. Interactions between the PDZ domains of Bazooka (Par-3) and phosphatidic acid: in vitro characterization and role in epithelial development.

    PubMed

    Yu, Cao Guo; Harris, Tony J C

    2012-09-01

    Bazooka (Par-3) is a conserved polarity regulator that organizes molecular networks in a wide range of cell types. In epithelia, it functions as a plasma membrane landmark to organize the apical domain. Bazooka is a scaffold protein that interacts with proteins through its three PDZ (postsynaptic density 95, discs large, zonula occludens-1) domains and other regions. In addition, Bazooka has been shown to interact with phosphoinositides. Here we show that the Bazooka PDZ domains interact with the negatively charged phospholipid phosphatidic acid immobilized on solid substrates or in liposomes. The interaction requires multiple PDZ domains, and conserved patches of positively charged amino acid residues appear to mediate the interaction. Increasing or decreasing levels of diacylglycerol kinase or phospholipase D-enzymes that produce phosphatidic acid-reveal a role for phosphatidic acid in Bazooka embryonic epithelial activity but not its localization. Mutating residues implicated in phosphatidic acid binding revealed a possible role in Bazooka localization and function. These data implicate a closer connection between Bazooka and membrane lipids than previously recognized. Bazooka polarity landmarks may be conglomerates of proteins and plasma membrane lipids that modify each other's activities for an integrated effect on cell polarity.

  10. Interactions between the PDZ domains of Bazooka (Par-3) and phosphatidic acid: in vitro characterization and role in epithelial development

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Cao Guo; Harris, Tony J. C.

    2012-01-01

    Bazooka (Par-3) is a conserved polarity regulator that organizes molecular networks in a wide range of cell types. In epithelia, it functions as a plasma membrane landmark to organize the apical domain. Bazooka is a scaffold protein that interacts with proteins through its three PDZ (postsynaptic density 95, discs large, zonula occludens-1) domains and other regions. In addition, Bazooka has been shown to interact with phosphoinositides. Here we show that the Bazooka PDZ domains interact with the negatively charged phospholipid phosphatidic acid immobilized on solid substrates or in liposomes. The interaction requires multiple PDZ domains, and conserved patches of positively charged amino acid residues appear to mediate the interaction. Increasing or decreasing levels of diacylglycerol kinase or phospholipase D—enzymes that produce phosphatidic acid—reveal a role for phosphatidic acid in Bazooka embryonic epithelial activity but not its localization. Mutating residues implicated in phosphatidic acid binding revealed a possible role in Bazooka localization and function. These data implicate a closer connection between Bazooka and membrane lipids than previously recognized. Bazooka polarity landmarks may be conglomerates of proteins and plasma membrane lipids that modify each other's activities for an integrated effect on cell polarity. PMID:22833561

  11. Synthesis and pharmacological evaluation of the stereoisomers of 3-carba cyclic-phosphatidic acid.

    PubMed

    Gupte, Renuka; Siddam, Anjaih; Lu, Yan; Li, Wei; Fujiwara, Yuko; Panupinthu, Nattapon; Pham, Truc-Chi; Baker, Daniel L; Parrill, Abby L; Gotoh, Mari; Murakami-Murofushi, Kimiko; Kobayashi, Susumu; Mills, Gordon B; Tigyi, Gabor; Miller, Duane D

    2010-12-15

    Cyclic phosphatidic acid (CPA) is a naturally occurring analog of lysophosphatidic acid (LPA) in which the sn-2 hydroxy group forms a five-membered ring with the sn-3 phosphate. Here, we describe the synthesis of R-3-CCPA and S-3-CCPA along with their pharmacological properties as inhibitors of lysophospholipase D/autotaxin, agonists of the LPA(5) GPCR, and blockers of lung metastasis of B16-F10 melanoma cells in a C57BL/6 mouse model. S-3CCPA was significantly more efficacious in the activation of LPA(5) compared to the R-stereoisomer. In contrast, no stereoselective differences were found between the two isomers toward the inhibition of autotaxin or lung metastasis of B16-F10 melanoma cells in vivo. These results extend the potential utility of these compounds as potential lead compounds warranting evaluation as cancer therapeutics. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Development of a Novel Tetravalent Synthetic Peptide That Binds to Phosphatidic Acid.

    PubMed

    Ogawa, Rina; Nagao, Kohjiro; Taniuchi, Kentaro; Tsuchiya, Masaki; Kato, Utako; Hara, Yuji; Inaba, Takehiko; Kobayashi, Toshihide; Sasaki, Yoshihiro; Akiyoshi, Kazunari; Watanabe-Takahashi, Miho; Nishikawa, Kiyotaka; Umeda, Masato

    2015-01-01

    We employed a multivalent peptide-library screening technique to identify a peptide motif that binds to phosphatidic acid (PA), but not to other phospholipids such as phosphatidylcholine (PC), phosphatidylethanolamine (PE), and phosphatidylserine (PS). A tetravalent peptide with the sequence motif of MARWHRHHH, designated as PAB-TP (phosphatidic acid-binding tetravalent peptide), was shown to bind as low as 1 mol% of PA in the bilayer membrane composed of PC and cholesterol. Kinetic analysis of the interaction between PAB-TP and the membranes containing 10 mol% of PA showed that PAB-TP associated with PA with a low dissociation constant of KD = 38 ± 5 nM. Coexistence of cholesterol or PE with PA in the membrane enhanced the PAB-TP binding to PA by increasing the ionization of the phosphomonoester head group as well as by changing the microenvironment of PA molecules in the membrane. Amino acid replacement analysis demonstrated that the tryptophan residue at position 4 of PAB-TP was involved in the interaction with PA. Furthermore, a series of amino acid substitutions at positions 5 to 9 of PAB-TP revealed the involvement of consecutive histidine and arginine residues in recognition of the phosphomonoester head group of PA. Our results demonstrate that the recognition of PA by PAB-TP is achieved by a combination of hydrophobic, electrostatic and hydrogen-bond interactions, and that the tetravalent structure of PAB-TP contributes to the high affinity binding to PA in the membrane. The novel PA-binding tetravalent peptide PAB-TP will provide insight into the molecular mechanism underlying the recognition of PA by PA-binding proteins that are involved in various cellular events.

  13. Phosphatidic acid is a major phospholipid class in reproductive organs of Arabidopsis thaliana.

    PubMed

    Yunus, Ian Sofian; Cazenave-Gassiot, Amaury; Liu, Yu-Chi; Lin, Ying-Chen; Wenk, Markus R; Nakamura, Yuki

    2015-01-01

    Phospholipids are the crucial components of biological membranes and signal transduction. Among different tissues, flower phospholipids are one of the least characterized features of plant lipidome. Here, we report that floral reproductive organs of Arabidopsis thaliana contain high levels of phosphatidic acid (PA), a known lipid second messenger. By using floral homeotic mutants enriched with specific floral organs, lipidomics study showed increased levels of PA species in ap3-3 mutant with enriched pistils. Accompanied gene expression study for 7 diacylglycerol kinases and 11 PA phosphatases revealed distinct floral organ specificity, suggesting an active phosphorylation/dephosphorylation between PA and diacylglycerol in flowers. Our results suggest that PA is a major phospholipid class in floral reproductive organs of A. thaliana.

  14. Monitoring Phosphatidic Acid Signaling in Breast Cancer Cells Using Genetically Encoded Biosensors.

    PubMed

    Lu, Maryia; Tay, Li Wei Rachel; He, Jingquan; Du, Guangwei

    2016-01-01

    Phospholipids are important signaling molecules that regulate cell proliferation, death, migration, and metabolism. Many phospholipid signaling cascades are altered in breast cancer. To understand the functions of phospholipid signaling molecules, genetically encoded phospholipid biosensors have been developed to monitor their spatiotemporal dynamics. Compared to other phospholipids, much less is known about the subcellular production and cellular functions of phosphatidic acid (PA), partially due to the lack of a specific and sensitive PA biosensor in the past. This chapter describes the use of a newly developed PA biosensor, PASS, in two applications: regular fluorescent microscopy and fluorescence lifetime imaging microscopy-Förster/fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FLIM-FRET). These protocols can be also used with other phospholipid biosensors.

  15. Concentrated Phosphatidic Acid in Cereal Brans as Potential Protective Agents against Indomethacin-Induced Stomach Ulcer.

    PubMed

    Afroz, Sheuli; Ikoma, Teru; Yagi, Ayano; Kogure, Kentaro; Tokumura, Akira; Tanaka, Tamotsu

    2016-09-21

    One of complications associated with long-term use of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) is peptic ulcer. Recently, we found that orally administered phosphatidic acid (PA) ameliorated aspirin-induced stomach lesions in mice. In this study, we identified PA-rich food sources and examined the effects of the food materials on indomethacin-induced stomach ulcer. Among examined, buckwheat (Fagopyrum esculentum) bran contained the highest level of PA (188 mg/100 g). PA was the richest phospholipid (25%) in the lipid fraction of the buckwheat bran. Administration of the lipid extracts of buckwheat bran significantly ameliorated indomethacin-induced stomach lesions in mice. In contrast, wheat (Triticum durum) bran lipids (PA, 4%) and soybean (Glycine max) lipids (PA, 3%) were not associated with ameliorative effects. These results indicated that PA-rich lipids can be used as an effective supplement for prevention of NSAID-induced stomach ulcer.

  16. Identification of novel phosphatidic acid-binding proteins in the rat brain.

    PubMed

    Park, ChiHu; Kang, Du-Seock; Shin, Geon-Hoon; Seo, Jeongkon; Kim, Hyein; Suh, Pann-Ghill; Bae, Chang-Dae; Shin, Joo-Ho

    2015-05-19

    Phosphatidic acid (PA) is an abundant negatively-charged phospholipid and has long been considered to be an important signaling molecule in diverse cellular events. Thus, the identification of proteins that specifically interact with PA is of considerable interest to understand the regulatory roles of PA. Herein, lipid-affinity purification and mass spectrometric analysis reveals 43 proteins, 19 known and 24 novel, as PA-binding proteins. A lipid-protein overlay assay confirmed that GDI1, PACSIN1, and DPYSL2 interact with not only with PA but also with other phospholipids. These results might be helpful for deciphering the functional effect of PA in the brain. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Tips on the analysis of phosphatidic acid by the fluorometric coupled enzyme assay.

    PubMed

    Hassaninasab, Azam; Han, Gil-Soo; Carman, George M

    2017-06-01

    The fluorometric coupled enzyme assay to measure phosphatidic acid (PA) involves the solubilization of extracted lipids in Triton X-100, deacylation, and the oxidation of PA-derived glycerol-3-phosphate to produce hydrogen peroxide for conversion of Amplex Red to resorufin. The enzyme assay is sensitive, but plagued by high background fluorescence from the peroxide-containing detergent and incomplete heat inactivation of lipoprotein lipase. These problems affecting the assay reproducibility were obviated by the use of highly pure Triton X-100 and by sufficient heat inactivation of the lipase enzyme. The enzyme assay could accurately measure the PA content from the subcellular fractions of yeast cells. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. RAPESEED PHOSPHATIDYLCHOLINE HYDROLYSIS TO PHOSPHATIDIC ACID USING PLANT EXTRACTS WITH PHOPSPHOLIPASE D.

    PubMed

    Pasker, Beata; Sosada, Marian; Fraś, Paweł; Boryczka, Monika; Górecki, Michał; Zych, Maria

    2015-01-01

    Phosphatidic acid (PA) has a crucial role in cell membrane structure and function. For that reason it has a possible application in the treatment of some health disorders in humans, can be used as a natural and non toxic emulsifier and the component of drug carriers in pharmaceuticals and cosmetics as well as a component for synthesis of some new phospholipids. PA is short-lived in the cell and is difficult to extract directly from the biological material. PA may be easily prepared by hydrolysis of phospholipids, especially phosphatidylcholine (PC), using cabbage phospholipase D (PLD). Hydrolytic activity of purified by us PLD extracts from cabbage towards rapeseed phosphatidylcholine (RPC) was investigated. Hydrolysis was carried out in the biphasic system (water/diethyl ether) at pH 6,5 and temp 30°C. Influence of enzymatic extracts from three cabbage varieties, reaction time, Ca2+ concentration and enzyme extracts/PC ratio, on activity towards RPC resulting in rapeseed phosphatidic acid (RPA) formation were examined. Our study shows that the PLD extracts from savoy cabbage (PLDsc), white cabbage (PLDwc) and brussels sprouts (PLDbs) used in experiments exhibit hydrolytic activity towards RPC resulting in rapeseed RPA with different yield. The highest activity towards RPC shows PLD extract from PLDsc with the RPC conversion degree to RPA (90%) was observed at 120 mM Ca2+ concentration, reaction time 60 min and ratio of PLD extract to RPC 6 : 1 (w/w). Our study shows that purified by us PLDsc extracts exhibit hydrolytic activity towards RPC giving new RPA with satisfying conversion degree for use in pharmacy, cosmetics and as a standard in analytical chemistry.

  19. Phosphatidic acid and phosphatidylinositol labelling in adipose tissue. The role of endogenously formed adenosine.

    PubMed

    Schimmel, R J; Honeyman, T W; McMahon, K K

    1983-05-15

    Incorporation of [32P]Pi into phosphatidic acid and phosphatidylinositol of hamster epididymal adipocytes was partially inhibited by 3-isobutyl-1-methylxanthine. This effect of 3-isobutyl-1-methylxanthine was antagonized by isopropyl-N6-phenyladenosine but not by 2',5'-dideoxyadenosine, prostaglandin E1 or clonidine. N6-Phenylisopropyladenosine did not affect incorporation of [32P]Pi into phosphatidic acid or phosphatidylinositol when 3-isobutyl-1-methylxanthine was not present. In contrast with 3-isobutyl-1-methylxanthine inhibition of [32P]Pi incorporation into phospholipids, which was blocked only by N6-phenylisopropyladenosine, accelerated lipolysis was blocked by prostaglandin E1, clonidine and 2',5'-dideoxyadenosine as well as by N6-phenylisopropyladenosine. Phospholipid labelling was also decreased in the presence of adenosine deaminase, but not in the presence of isoprenaline (isoproterenol). The stimulatory effect of N6-phenylisopropyladenosine on [32P]Pi incorporation into phospholipids in cells exposed to 3-isobutyl-1-methylxanthine was evident as soon as 3 min after addition of the adenosine analogue and maximum 10 min after its addition. As observed by others, [32P]Pi incorporation into phospholipids was increased by the alpha 1-selective agonist methoxamine. The stimulatory effect of methoxamine occurred with a time course similar to that of N6-phenylisopropyladenosine and was present at nearly equal magnitude in the absence or presence of 3-isobutyl-1-methylxanthine. The inhibitory effects of 3-isobutyl-1-methylxanthine and adenosine deaminase on phospholipid labelling are attributed to blockade of the action, or to the enzymic removal, of adenosine formed in and released from the fat-cells during their incubation. Supporting this view is the selective reversal of the actions of 3-isobutyl-1-methylxanthine and of adenosine deaminase by N6-phenylisopropyladenosine. These findings suggest an important role for endogenous adenosine in regulation of

  20. Phosphatidate Phosphatase Activity Plays Key Role in Protection against Fatty Acid-induced Toxicity in Yeast*

    PubMed Central

    Fakas, Stylianos; Qiu, Yixuan; Dixon, Joseph L.; Han, Gil-Soo; Ruggles, Kelly V.; Garbarino, Jeanne; Sturley, Stephen L.; Carman, George M.

    2011-01-01

    The PAH1-encoded phosphatidate (PA) phosphatase in Saccharomyces cerevisiae is a pivotal enzyme that produces diacylglycerol for the synthesis of triacylglycerol (TAG) and simultaneously controls the level of PA used for phospholipid synthesis. Quantitative lipid analysis showed that the pah1Δ mutation caused a reduction in TAG mass and an elevation in the mass of phospholipids and free fatty acids, changes that were more pronounced in the stationary phase. The levels of unsaturated fatty acids in the pah1Δ mutant were unaltered, although the ratio of palmitoleic acid to oleic acid was increased with a similar change in the fatty acid composition of phospholipids. The pah1Δ mutant exhibited classic hallmarks of apoptosis in stationary phase and a marked reduction in the quantity of cytoplasmic lipid droplets. Cells lacking PA phosphatase were sensitive to exogenous fatty acids in the order of toxicity palmitoleic acid > oleic acid > palmitic acid. In contrast, the growth of wild type cells was not inhibited by fatty acid supplementation. In addition, wild type cells supplemented with palmitoleic acid exhibited an induction in PA phosphatase activity and an increase in TAG synthesis. Deletion of the DGK1-encoded diacylglycerol kinase, which counteracts PA phosphatase in controlling PA content, suppressed the defect in lipid droplet formation in the pah1Δ mutant. However, the sensitivity of the pah1Δ mutant to palmitoleic acid was not rescued by the dgk1Δ mutation. Overall, these findings indicate a key role of PA phosphatase in TAG synthesis for protection against fatty acid-induced toxicity. PMID:21708942

  1. Identification of novel phosphatidic acid binding domain on sphingosine kinase 1 of Arabidopsis thaliana.

    PubMed

    Pandit, Shatakshi; Dalal, Vikram; Mishra, Girish

    2018-07-01

    Phosphatidic acid (PA) is an important lipid signaling molecule which interacts with Arabidopsis thaliana Sphingosine kinase1 (AtSPHK1) during several abiotic stresses particularly drought stress as a result of Abscisic acid (ABA) signaling in guard cells. PA molecules respond by generating lipid signal and/or by binding and translocating target proteins to membrane. However, site of interaction and role of PA binding to AtSPHK1 is not clear yet. Owing to the importance of AtSPHK1 during stress signaling it is imperative to decipher the site of PA interaction with AtSPHK1. To identify the PA binding region of AtSPHK1, various deletion fragments from N-terminal and C-terminal region were prepared. Results from protein lipid overlay assay using various truncated proteins of AtSPHK1 suggested the involvement of N-terminal region, between 110 and 205 amino acids, in binding with PA. In-silico analyses performed to build homologous structure of AtSPHK1 revealed that PA docking occurs in the hydrophobic cavity of DAG-Kinase domain. Deletion of amino acids 182 VSGDGI 187 perturbed PA-AtSPHK1 binding, indicating an essential role of these six amino acids in PA-AtSPHK1 binding. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  2. Lipid sensing by mTOR complexes via de novo synthesis of phosphatidic acid

    PubMed Central

    Menon, Deepak; Salloum, Darin; Bernfeld, Elyssa; Gorodetsky, Elizabeth; Akselrod, Alla; Frias, Maria A.; Sudderth, Jessica; Chen, Pei-Hsuan; DeBerardinis, Ralph; Foster, David A.

    2017-01-01

    mTOR, the mammalian target of rapamycin, integrates growth factor and nutrient signals to promote a transformation from catabolic to anabolic metabolism, cell growth, and cell cycle progression. Phosphatidic acid (PA) interacts with the FK506-binding protein–12-rapamycin-binding (FRB) domain of mTOR, which stabilizes both mTOR complexes: mTORC1 and mTORC2. We report here that mTORC1 and mTORC2 are activated in response to exogenously supplied fatty acids via the de novo synthesis of PA, a central metabolite for membrane phospholipid biosynthesis. We examined the impact of exogenously supplied fatty acids on mTOR in KRas-driven cancer cells, which are programmed to utilize exogenous lipids. The induction of mTOR by oleic acid was dependent upon the enzymes responsible for de novo synthesis of PA. Suppression of the de novo synthesis of PA resulted in G1 cell cycle arrest. Although it has long been appreciated that mTOR is a sensor of amino acids and glucose, this study reveals that mTOR also senses the presence of lipids via production of PA. PMID:28223357

  3. Lipid sensing by mTOR complexes via de novo synthesis of phosphatidic acid.

    PubMed

    Menon, Deepak; Salloum, Darin; Bernfeld, Elyssa; Gorodetsky, Elizabeth; Akselrod, Alla; Frias, Maria A; Sudderth, Jessica; Chen, Pei-Hsuan; DeBerardinis, Ralph; Foster, David A

    2017-04-14

    mTOR, the mammalian target of rapamycin, integrates growth factor and nutrient signals to promote a transformation from catabolic to anabolic metabolism, cell growth, and cell cycle progression. Phosphatidic acid (PA) interacts with the FK506-binding protein-12-rapamycin-binding (FRB) domain of mTOR, which stabilizes both mTOR complexes: mTORC1 and mTORC2. We report here that mTORC1 and mTORC2 are activated in response to exogenously supplied fatty acids via the de novo synthesis of PA, a central metabolite for membrane phospholipid biosynthesis. We examined the impact of exogenously supplied fatty acids on mTOR in KRas-driven cancer cells, which are programmed to utilize exogenous lipids. The induction of mTOR by oleic acid was dependent upon the enzymes responsible for de novo synthesis of PA. Suppression of the de novo synthesis of PA resulted in G 1 cell cycle arrest. Although it has long been appreciated that mTOR is a sensor of amino acids and glucose, this study reveals that mTOR also senses the presence of lipids via production of PA. © 2017 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  4. Cyclic phosphatidic acid and lysophosphatidic acid induce hyaluronic acid synthesis via CREB transcription factor regulation in human skin fibroblasts.

    PubMed

    Maeda-Sano, Katsura; Gotoh, Mari; Morohoshi, Toshiro; Someya, Takao; Murofushi, Hiromu; Murakami-Murofushi, Kimiko

    2014-09-01

    Cyclic phosphatidic acid (cPA) is a naturally occurring phospholipid mediator and an analog of the growth factor-like phospholipid lysophosphatidic acid (LPA). cPA has a unique cyclic phosphate ring at the sn-2 and sn-3 positions of its glycerol backbone. We showed before that a metabolically stabilized cPA derivative, 2-carba-cPA, relieved osteoarthritis pathogenesis in vivo and induced hyaluronic acid synthesis in human osteoarthritis synoviocytes in vitro. This study focused on hyaluronic acid synthesis in human fibroblasts, which retain moisture and maintain health in the dermis. We investigated the effects of cPA and LPA on hyaluronic acid synthesis in human fibroblasts (NB1RGB cells). Using particle exclusion and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays, we found that both cPA and LPA dose-dependently induced hyaluronic acid synthesis. We revealed that the expression of hyaluronan synthase 2 messenger RNA and protein is up-regulated by cPA and LPA treatment time dependently. We then characterized the signaling pathways up-regulating hyaluronic acid synthesis mediated by cPA and LPA in NB1RGB cells. Pharmacological inhibition and reporter gene assays revealed that the activation of the LPA receptor LPAR1, Gi/o protein, phosphatidylinositol-3 kinase (PI3K), extracellular-signal-regulated kinase (ERK), and cyclic adenosine monophosphate response element-binding protein (CREB) but not nuclear factor κB induced hyaluronic acid synthesis by the treatment with cPA and LPA in NB1RGB cells. These results demonstrate for the first time that cPA and LPA induce hyaluronic acid synthesis in human skin fibroblasts mainly through the activation of LPAR1-Gi/o followed by the PI3K, ERK, and CREB signaling pathway. Copyright © 2014 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Lysophosphatidic acids, cyclic phosphatidic acids and autotaxin as promising targets in therapies of cancer and other diseases.

    PubMed

    Gendaszewska-Darmach, Edyta

    2008-01-01

    Lysophospholipids have long been recognized as membrane phospholipid metabolites, but only recently lysophosphatidic acids (LPA) have been demonstrated to act on specific G protein-coupled receptors. The widespread expression of LPA receptors and coupling to several classes of G proteins allow LPA-dependent regulation of numerous processes, such as vascular development, neurogenesis, wound healing, immunity, and cancerogenesis. Lysophosphatidic acids have been found to induce many of the hallmarks of cancer including cellular processes such as proliferation, survival, migration, invasion, and neovascularization. Furthermore, autotaxin (ATX), the main enzyme converting lysophosphatidylcholine into LPA was identified as a tumor cell autocrine motility factor. On the other hand, cyclic phosphatidic acids (naturally occurring analogs of LPA generated by ATX) have anti-proliferative activity and inhibit tumor cell invasion and metastasis. Research achievements of the past decade suggest implementation of preclinical and clinical evaluation of LPA and its analogs, LPA receptors, as well as autotaxin as potential therapeutic targets.

  6. Diacylglycerol, phosphatidic acid, and their metabolic enzymes in synaptic vesicle recycling.

    PubMed

    Tu-Sekine, Becky; Goldschmidt, Hana; Raben, Daniel M

    2015-01-01

    The synaptic vesicle (SV) cycle includes exocytosis of vesicles loaded with a neurotransmitter such as glutamate, coordinated recovery of SVs by endocytosis, refilling of vesicles, and subsequent release of the refilled vesicles from the presynaptic bouton. SV exocytosis is tightly linked with endocytosis, and variations in the number of vesicles, and/or defects in the refilling of SVs, will affect the amount of neurotransmitter available for release (Sudhof, 2004). There is increasing interest in the roles synaptic vesicle lipids and lipid metabolizing enzymes play in this recycling. Initial emphasis was placed on the role of polyphosphoinositides in SV cycling as outlined in a number of reviews (Lim and Wenk, 2009; Martin, 2012; Puchkov and Haucke, 2013; Rohrbough and Broadie, 2005). Other lipids are now recognized to also play critical roles. For example, PLD1 (Humeau et al., 2001; Rohrbough and Broadie, 2005) and some DGKs (Miller et al., 1999; Nurrish et al., 1999) play roles in neurotransmission which is consistent with the critical roles for phosphatidic acid (PtdOH) and diacylglycerol (DAG) in the regulation of SV exo/endocytosis (Cremona et al., 1999; Exton, 1994; Huttner and Schmidt, 2000; Lim and Wenk, 2009; Puchkov and Haucke, 2013; Rohrbough and Broadie, 2005). PLD generates phosphatidic acid by catalyzing the hydrolysis of phosphatidylcholine (PtdCho) and in some systems this PtdOH is de-phosphorylated to generate DAG. In contrast, DGK catalyzes the phosphorylation of DAG thereby converting it into PtdOH. While both enzymes are poised to regulate the levels of DAG and PtdOH, therefore, they both lead to the generation of PtdOH and could have opposite effects on DAG levels. This is particularly important for SV cycling as PtdOH and DAG are both needed for evoked exocytosis (Lim and Wenk, 2009; Puchkov and Haucke, 2013; Rohrbough and Broadie, 2005). Two lipids and their involved metabolic enzymes, two sphingolipids have also been implicated in

  7. Phosphatidic acid binding inhibits RGS1 activity to affect specific signaling pathways in Arabidopsis.

    PubMed

    Roy Choudhury, Swarup; Pandey, Sona

    2017-05-01

    Modulation of the active versus inactive forms of the Gα protein is critical for the signaling processes mediated by the heterotrimeric G-protein complex. We have recently established that in Arabidopsis, the regulator of G-protein signaling (RGS1) protein and a lipid-hydrolyzing enzyme, phospholipase Dα1 (PLDα1), both act as GTPase-activity accelerating proteins (GAPs) for the Gα protein to attenuate its activity. RGS1 and PLDα1 interact with each other, and RGS1 inhibits the activity of PLDα1 during regulation of a subset of responses. In this study, we present evidence that this regulation is bidirectional. Phosphatidic acid (PA), a second messenger typically derived from the lipid-hydrolyzing activity of PLDα1, is a molecular target of RGS1. PA binds and inhibits the GAP activity of RGS1. A conserved lysine residue in RGS1 (Lys 259 ) is directly involved in RGS1-PA binding. Introduction of this RGS1 protein variant in the rgs1 mutant background makes plants hypersensitive to a subset of abscisic acid-mediated responses. Our data point to the existence of negative feedback loops between these two regulatory proteins that precisely modulate the level of active Gα, consequently generating a highly controlled signal-response output. © 2017 The Authors The Plant Journal © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  8. Phospholipase D and phosphatidic acid mediate heat stress induced secondary metabolism in Ganoderma lucidum.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yong-Nan; Lu, Xiao-Xiao; Chen, Dai; Lu, Ya-Ping; Ren, Ang; Shi, Liang; Zhu, Jing; Jiang, Ai-Liang; Yu, Han-Shou; Zhao, Ming-Wen

    2017-11-01

    Phospholipid-mediated signal transduction plays a key role in responses to environmental changes, but little is known about the role of phospholipid signalling in microorganisms. Heat stress (HS) is one of the most important environmental factors. Our previous study found that HS could induce the biosynthesis of the secondary metabolites, ganoderic acids (GA). Here, we performed a comprehensive mass spectrometry-based analysis to investigate HS-induced lipid remodelling in Ganoderma lucidum. In particular, we observed a significant accumulation of phosphatidic acid (PA) on HS. Further genetic tests in which pld-silencing strains were constructed demonstrated that the accumulation of PA is dependent on HS-activated phospholipase D (PLD) hydrolysing phosphatidylethanolamine. Furthermore, we determined the role of PLD and PA in HS-induced secondary metabolism in G. lucidum. Exogenous 1-butanol, which decreased PLD-mediated formation of PA, reverses the increased GA biosynthesis that was elicited by HS. The pld-silenced strains partly blocked HS-induced GA biosynthesis, and this block can be reversed by adding PA. Taken together, our results suggest that PLD and PA are involved in the regulation of HS-induced secondary metabolism in G. lucidum. Our findings provide key insights into how microorganisms respond to heat stress and then consequently accumulate secondary metabolites by phospholipid remodelling. © 2017 Society for Applied Microbiology and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  9. Rapid mitogenic regulation of the mTORC1 inhibitor, DEPTOR, by phosphatidic acid.

    PubMed

    Yoon, Mee-Sup; Rosenberger, Christina L; Wu, Cong; Truong, Nga; Sweedler, Jonathan V; Chen, Jie

    2015-05-07

    The mammalian target of rapamycin complex 1 (mTORC1) is regulated, in part, by the endogenous inhibitor DEPTOR. However, the mechanism of DEPTOR regulation with regard to rapid mTORC1 activation remains unknown. We report that DEPTOR is rapidly and temporarily dissociated from mTORC1 upon mitogenic stimulation, suggesting a mechanism underlying acute mTORC1 activation. This mitogen-stimulated DEPTOR dissociation is blocked by inhibition or depletion of the mTORC1 regulator, phospholipase D (PLD), and recapitulated with the addition of the PLD product phosphatidic acid (PA). Our mass spectrometry analysis has independently identified DEPTOR as an mTOR binding partner dissociated by PA. Interestingly, only PA species with unsaturated fatty acid chains, such as those produced by PLD, are capable of displacing DEPTOR and activating mTORC1, with high affinity for the FRB domain of mTOR. Our findings reveal a mechanism of mTOR regulation and provide a molecular explanation for the exquisite specificity of PA function. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. A Role for Phosphatidic Acid in the Formation of “Supersized” Lipid Droplets

    PubMed Central

    Krahmer, Natalie; Ferguson, Charles; Kapterian, Tamar S.; Lin, Ruby C.; Dawes, Ian W.; Brown, Andrew J.; Li, Peng; Huang, Xun; Parton, Robert G.; Wenk, Markus R.; Walther, Tobias C.; Yang, Hongyuan

    2011-01-01

    Lipid droplets (LDs) are important cellular organelles that govern the storage and turnover of lipids. Little is known about how the size of LDs is controlled, although LDs of diverse sizes have been observed in different tissues and under different (patho)physiological conditions. Recent studies have indicated that the size of LDs may influence adipogenesis, the rate of lipolysis and the oxidation of fatty acids. Here, a genome-wide screen identifies ten yeast mutants producing “supersized” LDs that are up to 50 times the volume of those in wild-type cells. The mutated genes include: FLD1, which encodes a homologue of mammalian seipin; five genes (CDS1, INO2, INO4, CHO2, and OPI3) that are known to regulate phospholipid metabolism; two genes (CKB1 and CKB2) encoding subunits of the casein kinase 2; and two genes (MRPS35 and RTC2) of unknown function. Biochemical and genetic analyses reveal that a common feature of these mutants is an increase in the level of cellular phosphatidic acid (PA). Results from in vivo and in vitro analyses indicate that PA may facilitate the coalescence of contacting LDs, resulting in the formation of “supersized” LDs. In summary, our results provide important insights into how the size of LDs is determined and identify novel gene products that regulate phospholipid metabolism. PMID:21829381

  11. Identification and physiological characterization of phosphatidic acid phosphatase enzymes involved in triacylglycerol biosynthesis in Streptomyces coelicolor

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Phosphatidic acid phosphatase (PAP, EC 3.1.3.4) catalyzes the dephosphorylation of phosphatidate yielding diacylglycerol (DAG), the lipid precursor for triacylglycerol (TAG) biosynthesis. Despite the importance of PAP activity in TAG producing bacteria, studies to establish its role in lipid metabolism have been so far restricted only to eukaryotes. Considering the increasing interest of bacterial TAG as a potential source of raw material for biofuel production, we have focused our studies on the identification and physiological characterization of the putative PAP present in the TAG producing bacterium Streptomyces coelicolor. Results We have identified two S. coelicolor genes, named lppα (SCO1102) and lppβ (SCO1753), encoding for functional PAP proteins. Both enzymes mediate, at least in part, the formation of DAG for neutral lipid biosynthesis. Heterologous expression of lppα and lppβ genes in E. coli resulted in enhanced PAP activity in the membrane fractions of the recombinant strains and concomitantly in higher levels of DAG. In addition, the expression of these genes in yeast complemented the temperature-sensitive growth phenotype of the PAP deficient strain GHY58 (dpp1lpp1pah1). In S. coelicolor, disruption of either lppα or lppβ had no effect on TAG accumulation; however, the simultaneous mutation of both genes provoked a drastic reduction in de novo TAG biosynthesis as well as in total TAG content. Consistently, overexpression of Lppα and Lppβ in the wild type strain of S. coelicolor led to a significant increase in TAG production. Conclusions The present study describes the identification of PAP enzymes in bacteria and provides further insights on the genetic basis for prokaryotic oiliness. Furthermore, this finding completes the whole set of enzymes required for de novo TAG biosynthesis pathway in S. coelicolor. Remarkably, the overexpression of these PAPs in Streptomyces bacteria contributes to a higher productivity of this single

  12. Comparative Characterization of Phosphatidic Acid Sensors and Their Localization during Frustrated Phagocytosis.

    PubMed

    Kassas, Nawal; Tanguy, Emeline; Thahouly, Tamou; Fouillen, Laetitia; Heintz, Dimitri; Chasserot-Golaz, Sylvette; Bader, Marie-France; Grant, Nancy J; Vitale, Nicolas

    2017-03-10

    Phosphatidic acid (PA) is the simplest phospholipid naturally existing in living organisms, but it constitutes only a minor fraction of total cell lipids. PA has attracted considerable attention because it is a phospholipid precursor, a lipid second messenger, and a modulator of membrane shape, and it has thus been proposed to play key cellular functions. The dynamics of PA in cells and in subcellular compartments, however, remains an open question. The recent generation of fluorescent probes for PA, by fusing GFP to PA-binding domains, has provided direct evidence for PA dynamics in different intracellular compartments. Here, three PA sensors were characterized in vitro, and their preferences for different PA species in particular lipidic environments were compared. In addition, the localization of PA in macrophages during frustrated phagocytosis was examined using these PA sensors and was combined with a lipidomic analysis of PA in intracellular compartments. The results indicate that the PA sensors display some preferences for specific PA species, depending on the lipid environment, and the localization study in macrophages revealed the complexity of intracellular PA dynamics. © 2017 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  13. Dioleoyl-phosphatidic acid selectively binds to α-synuclein and strongly induces its aggregation.

    PubMed

    Mizuno, Satoru; Sasai, Hirotaka; Kume, Aiko; Takahashi, Daisuke; Satoh, Mamoru; Kado, Sayaka; Sakane, Fumio

    2017-03-01

    α-Synuclein (α-syn), which causally links to Parkinson's disease, binds to vesicles containing phosphatidic acid (PA). However, the effects of the fatty acyl chains of PA on its ability to bind to α-syn protein remain unclear. Intriguingly, we reveal that among several PA species, 18:1/18:1-PA is the most strongly bound PA to the α-syn protein. Moreover, 18:1/18:1-PA more strongly enhances secondary structural changes from the random coil form to the α-helical form than 16:0/18:1-PA. Furthermore, 18:1/18:1-PA more markedly accelerates generation of multimeric and proteinase K-resistant α-syn protein compared to 16:0/18:1-PA. These results indicate that among phospholipids examined so far, 18:1/18:1-PA demonstrates the strongest binding to α-syn, as well as the most effective enhancement of its secondary structural changes and aggregation formation. © 2017 Federation of European Biochemical Societies.

  14. The molecular basis of leukocyte adhesion involving phosphatidic acid and phospholipase D.

    PubMed

    Speranza, Francis; Mahankali, Madhu; Henkels, Karen M; Gomez-Cambronero, Julian

    2014-10-17

    Defining how leukocytes adhere to solid surfaces, such as capillary beds, and the subsequent migration through the extracellular matrix, is a central biological issue. We show here that phospholipase D (PLD) and its enzymatic reaction product, phosphatidic acid (PA), regulate cell adhesion of immune cells (macrophages and neutrophils) to collagen and have defined the underlying molecular mechanism in a spatio-temporal manner that coincides with PLD activity timing. A rapid (t½ = 4 min) and transient activation of the PLD1 isoform occurs upon adhesion, and a slower (t½ = 7.5 min) but prolonged (>30 min) activation occurs for PLD2. Importantly, PA directly binds to actin-related protein 3 (Arp3) at EC50 = 22 nm, whereas control phosphatidylcholine did not bind. PA-activated Arp3 hastens actin nucleation with a kinetics of t½ = 3 min at 300 nm (compared with controls of no PA, t½ = 5 min). Thus, PLD and PA are intrinsic components of cell adhesion, which reinforce each other in a positive feedback loop and react from cues from their respective solid substrates. In nascent adhesion, PLD1 is key, whereas a sustained adhesion in mature or established focal points is dependent upon PLD2, PA, and Arp3. A prolonged adhesion could effectively counteract the reversible intrinsic nature of this cellular process and constitute a key player in chronic inflammation. © 2014 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  15. A central role for phosphatidic acid as a lipid mediator of regulated exocytosis in apicomplexa.

    PubMed

    Bullen, Hayley E; Soldati-Favre, Dominique

    2016-08-01

    Lipids are commonly known for the structural roles they play, however, the specific contribution of different lipid classes to wide-ranging signalling pathways is progressively being unravelled. Signalling lipids and their associated effector proteins are emerging as significant contributors to a vast array of effector functions within cells, including essential processes such as membrane fusion and vesicle exocytosis. Many phospholipids have signalling capacity, however, this review will focus on phosphatidic acid (PA) and the enzymes implicated in its production from diacylglycerol (DAG) and phosphatidylcholine (PC): DGK and PLD respectively. PA is a negatively charged, cone-shaped lipid identified as a key mediator in specific membrane fusion and vesicle exocytosis events in a variety of mammalian cells, and has recently been implicated in specialised secretory organelle exocytosis in apicomplexan parasites. This review summarises the recent work implicating a role for PA regulation in exocytosis in various cell types. We will discuss how these signalling events are linked to pathogenesis in the phylum Apicomplexa. © 2016 Federation of European Biochemical Societies.

  16. Analysis of Phosphatidic Acid Binding and Regulation of PIPKI In Vitro and in Intact Cells.

    PubMed

    Tay, L W R; Wang, Z; Du, G

    2017-01-01

    Phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate [PI(4,5)P2] is a lipid second messenger that regulates a wide array of essential cellular events, such as signal transduction, vesicle trafficking, actin cytoskeleton dynamics, adhesion, and motility. To control the spatiotemporal production of PI(4,5)P2, the activity of type 1 phosphotidylinositol-4-phosphate-5-kinases (PIPKIs) is tightly regulated by small GTPases and another signaling lipid, phosphatidic acid (PA). It is of interest that PI(4,5)P2 is also a critical cofactor for the activation of the PA-generating enzyme, phospholipase D (PLD). It has been proposed that the reciprocal stimulation of PLD and PIPKI enzymes enables a rapid feedforward stimulation loop for the localized and acute generation of signaling lipids that are critical for the regulation of actin cytoskeletal reorganization and membrane trafficking. Here, we outline the methods for the expression and purification of PIPKIγ from bacteria, determination of direct PA binding, and activation of PIPKIγ using in vitro liposomes assays, and examination of actin cytoskeletal reorganization promoted by the PA-PIPKIγ signaling in intact cells using fluorescent microscopy. © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Structural basis of intramitochondrial phosphatidic acid transport mediated by Ups1-Mdm35 complex.

    PubMed

    Yu, Fang; He, Fangyuan; Yao, Hongyan; Wang, Chengyuan; Wang, Jianchuan; Li, Jianxu; Qi, Xiaofeng; Xue, Hongwei; Ding, Jianping; Zhang, Peng

    2015-07-01

    Ups1 forms a complex with Mdm35 and is critical for the transport of phosphatidic acid (PA) from the mitochondrial outer membrane to the inner membrane. We report the crystal structure of the Ups1-Mdm35-PA complex and the functional characterization of Ups1-Mdm35 in PA binding and transfer. Ups1 features a barrel-like structure consisting of an antiparallel β-sheet and three α-helices. Mdm35 adopts a three-helical clamp-like structure to wrap around Ups1 to form a stable complex. The β-sheet and α-helices of Ups1 form a long tunnel-like pocket to accommodate the substrate PA, and a short helix α2 acts as a lid to cover the pocket. The hydrophobic residues lining the pocket and helix α2 are critical for PA binding and transfer. In addition, a hydrophilic patch on the surface of Ups1 near the PA phosphate-binding site also plays an important role in the function of Ups1-Mdm35. Our study reveals the molecular basis of the function of Ups1-Mdm35 and sheds new light on the mechanism of intramitochondrial phospholipid transport by the MSF1/PRELI family proteins. © 2015 The Authors.

  18. Phosphatidic Acid Produced by Phospholipase D Promotes RNA Replication of a Plant RNA Virus

    PubMed Central

    Hyodo, Kiwamu; Taniguchi, Takako; Manabe, Yuki; Kaido, Masanori; Mise, Kazuyuki; Sugawara, Tatsuya; Taniguchi, Hisaaki; Okuno, Tetsuro

    2015-01-01

    Eukaryotic positive-strand RNA [(+)RNA] viruses are intracellular obligate parasites replicate using the membrane-bound replicase complexes that contain multiple viral and host components. To replicate, (+)RNA viruses exploit host resources and modify host metabolism and membrane organization. Phospholipase D (PLD) is a phosphatidylcholine- and phosphatidylethanolamine-hydrolyzing enzyme that catalyzes the production of phosphatidic acid (PA), a lipid second messenger that modulates diverse intracellular signaling in various organisms. PA is normally present in small amounts (less than 1% of total phospholipids), but rapidly and transiently accumulates in lipid bilayers in response to different environmental cues such as biotic and abiotic stresses in plants. However, the precise functions of PLD and PA remain unknown. Here, we report the roles of PLD and PA in genomic RNA replication of a plant (+)RNA virus, Red clover necrotic mosaic virus (RCNMV). We found that RCNMV RNA replication complexes formed in Nicotiana benthamiana contained PLDα and PLDβ. Gene-silencing and pharmacological inhibition approaches showed that PLDs and PLDs-derived PA are required for viral RNA replication. Consistent with this, exogenous application of PA enhanced viral RNA replication in plant cells and plant-derived cell-free extracts. We also found that a viral auxiliary replication protein bound to PA in vitro, and that the amount of PA increased in RCNMV-infected plant leaves. Together, our findings suggest that RCNMV hijacks host PA-producing enzymes to replicate. PMID:26020241

  19. Phosphatidic acid in neuronal development: a node for membrane and cytoskeleton rearrangements.

    PubMed

    Ammar, Mohamed-Raafet; Kassas, Nawal; Bader, Marie-France; Vitale, Nicolas

    2014-12-01

    Phosphatidic acid (PA) is the simplest phospholipid naturally existing in all-living organisms. It constitutes only a minor fraction of the total cell lipids but has attracted considerable attention being both a lipid second messenger and a modulator of membrane shape. The pleiotropic functions of PA are the direct consequence of its very simple chemical structure consisting of only two acyl chains linked by ester bonds to two adjacent hydroxyl groups of glycerol, whose remaining hydroxyl group is esterified with a phosphomonoester group. Hence the small phosphate head group of PA gives it the shape of a cone providing flexibility and negative curvatures in the context of a lipid bilayer. In addition, the negatively charged phosphomonoester headgroup of PA is unique because it can potentially carry one or two negative charges playing a role in the recruitment of positively charged molecules to biomembranes. In consequence, PA has been proposed to play various key cellular functions. In the brain, a fine balance between cell growth, migration and differentiation, and cell death is required to sculpt the nervous system during development. In this review, we will summarize the various functions that have been proposed for PA in neuronal development. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  20. Cyclic phosphatidic acid treatment suppress cuprizone-induced demyelination and motor dysfunction in mice.

    PubMed

    Yamamoto, Shinji; Gotoh, Mari; Kawamura, Yuuki; Yamashina, Kota; Yagishita, Sosuke; Awaji, Takeo; Tanaka, Motomu; Maruyama, Kei; Murakami-Murofushi, Kimiko; Yoshikawa, Keisuke

    2014-10-15

    Multiple sclerosis is a chronic demyelinating disease of the central nervous system leading to progressive cognitive and motor dysfunction, which is characterized by neuroinflammation, demyelination, astrogliosis, loss of oligodendrocytes, and axonal pathologies. Cyclic phosphatidic acid (cPA) is a naturally occurring phospholipid mediator with a unique cyclic phosphate ring structure at the sn-2 and sn-3 positions of the glycerol backbone. cPA elicits a neurotrophin-like action and protects hippocampal neurons from ischemia-induced delayed neuronal death. In this study, we investigated the effects of cPA on cuprizone-induced demyelination, which is a model of multiple sclerosis. Mice were fed a diet containing 0.2% cuprizone for 5 weeks, which induces severe demyelination, astrocyte and microglial activation, and motor dysfunction. Simultaneous administration of cPA effectively attenuated cuprizone-induced demyelination, glial activation, and motor dysfunction. These data indicate that cPA may be a useful treatment to reduce the extent of demyelination and the severity of motor dysfunction in multiple sclerosis. cPA is a potential lead compound in the development of drugs for the treatment of this devastating disease. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Modular Synthesis of Biologically Active Phosphatidic Acid Probes Using Click Chemistry

    PubMed Central

    Smith, Matthew D.; Sudhahar, Christopher G.; Gong, Denghuang; Stahelin, Robert V.

    2018-01-01

    Phosphatidic acid (PA) is an important signaling lipid that plays roles in a range of biological processes including both physiological and pathophysiological events. PA is one of a number of signaling lipids that can act as site-specific ligands for protein receptors in binding events that enforce membrane-association and generally regulate both receptor function and subcellular localization. However, elucidation of the full scope of PA activities has proven problematic, primarily due to the lack of a consensus sequence among PA-binding receptors. Thus, experimental approaches, such as those employing lipid probes, are necessary for characterizing interactions at the molecular level. Herein, we describe an efficient modular approach to the synthesis of a range of PA probes that employs a late stage introduction of reporter groups. This strategy was exploited in the synthesis of PA probes bearing fluorescent and photoaffinity tags as well as a bifunctional probe containing both a photoaffinity moiety and an azide as a secondary handle for purification purposes. To discern the ability of these PA analogues to mimic the natural lipid in protein binding properties, each compound was incorporated into vesicles for binding studies using a known PA receptor, the C2 domain of PKCα. In these studies, each compound exhibited binding properties that were comparable to those of synthetic PA, indicating their viability as probes for effectively studying the activities of PA in cellular processes. PMID:19668861

  2. Factor VII and protein C are phosphatidic acid-binding proteins.

    PubMed

    Tavoosi, Narjes; Smith, Stephanie A; Davis-Harrison, Rebecca L; Morrissey, James H

    2013-08-20

    Seven proteins in the human blood clotting cascade bind, via their GLA (γ-carboxyglutamate-rich) domains, to membranes containing exposed phosphatidylserine (PS), although with membrane binding affinities that vary by 3 orders of magnitude. Here we employed nanodiscs of defined phospholipid composition to quantify the phospholipid binding specificities of these seven clotting proteins. All bound preferentially to nanobilayers in which PS headgroups contained l-serine versus d-serine. Surprisingly, however, nanobilayers containing phosphatidic acid (PA) bound substantially more of two of these proteins, factor VIIa and activated protein C, than did equivalent bilayers containing PS. Consistent with this finding, liposomes containing PA supported higher proteolytic activity by factor VIIa and activated protein C toward their natural substrates (factors X and Va, respectively) than did PS-containing liposomes. Moreover, treating activated human platelets with phospholipase D enhanced the rates of factor X activation by factor VIIa in the presence of soluble tissue factor. We hypothesize that factor VII and protein C bind preferentially to the monoester phosphate of PA because of its accessibility and higher negative charge compared with the diester phosphates of most other phospholipids. We further found that phosphatidylinositol 4-phosphate, which contains a monoester phosphate attached to its myo-inositol headgroup, also supported enhanced enzymatic activity of factor VIIa and activated protein C. We conclude that factor VII and protein C bind preferentially to monoester phosphates, which may have implications for the function of these proteases in vivo.

  3. Diacylglycerol kinase ζ generates dipalmitoyl-phosphatidic acid species during neuroblastoma cell differentiation.

    PubMed

    Mizuno, Satoru; Kado, Sayaka; Goto, Kaoru; Takahashi, Daisuke; Sakane, Fumio

    2016-12-01

    Phosphatidic acid (PA) is one of the phospholipids composing the plasma membrane and acts as a second messenger to regulate a wide variety of important cellular events, including mitogenesis, migration and differentiation. PA consists of various molecular species with different acyl chains at the sn- 1 and sn -2 positions. However, it has been poorly understood what PA molecular species are produced during such cellular events. Here we identified the PA molecular species generated during retinoic acid (RA)-induced neuroblastoma cell differentiation using a newly established liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry (LC/MS) method. Intriguingly, the amount of 32:0-PA species was dramatically and transiently increased in Neuro-2a neuroblastoma cells 24-48 h after RA-treatment. In addition, 30:0- and 34:0-PA species were also moderately increased. Moreover, similar results were obtained when Neuro-2a cells were differentiated for 24 h by serum starvation. MS/MS analysis revealed that 32:0-PA species contains two palmitic acids (16:0 s). RT-PCR analysis showed that diacylglycerol kinase (DGK) δ and DGKζ were highly expressed in Neuro-2a cells. The silencing of DGKζ expression significantly decreased the production of 32:0-PA species, whereas DGKδ-siRNA did not. Moreover, neurite outgrowth was also markedly attenuated by the deficiency of DGKζ. Taken together, these results indicate that DGKζ exclusively generates very restricted PA species, 16:0/16:0-PA, and up-regulates neurite outgrowth during the initial/early stage of neuroblastoma cell differentiation.

  4. Biosynthesis of the unique trans-delta 3-hexadecenoic acid component of chloroplast phosphatidylglycerol: evidence concerning its site and mechanism of formation.

    PubMed

    Ohnishi, M; Thompson, G A

    1991-08-01

    As in most higher plants, chloroplast membranes of the green alga Dunaliella salina contain phosphatidylglycerol (PG) that is rich in trans-delta 3-hexadecenoic acid (16:1t), a fatty acid found nowhere else in the cell. After labeling D. salina with exogenous [3H]myristic acid [( 3H]14:0), the cis-unsaturated fatty acids of monogalactosyldiacylglycerol and sulfoquinovosyldiacylglycerol as well as PG had higher specific radioactivities in chloroplast envelopes than in thylakoids. In contrast, 16:1t was very slow to become radioactive, and its specific radioactivity was several times higher in isolated thylakoids than in envelopes after brief (3-20 min) labeling with [3H]14:0. Analysis of individual PG molecular species revealed that the fatty acid paired with 16:1t was also labeled slowly. Thus linoleate (18:2) released from a 16:1t-containing PG had a 350-fold (at 3 min) to 20-fold (at 60 min) lower specific radioactivity than did 18:2 from a palmitate (16:0)-containing PG. The findings suggest that the substrates for trans-desaturation are 16:0-containing PG molecular species which are readily labeled from [3H]14:0 in the envelope but are diluted by the large pool of thylakoid PG before penetrating to the desaturation site. By examining the labeling patterns of individual PG molecular species classes, it was concluded that D. salina 16:1t is formed from 16:0 linked to 18:2/16:0 PG and 18:3/16:0 PG by a trans-desaturase located within the inner recesses of the thylakoid compartment.

  5. Temperature and Light modulate the trans-delta3-hexadecenoic acid content of phosphatidylglycerol: light-harvesting complex II organization and non-photochemical quenching.

    PubMed

    Gray, Gordon R; Ivanov, Alexander G; Król, Marianna; Williams, John P; Kahn, Mobashoher U; Myscich, Elizabeth G; Huner, Norman P A

    2005-08-01

    The interaction of light and temperature in the modulation of the trans-delta3-hexadecenoic acid (trans-16:1) content of phosphatidylglycerol (PG) in winter rye (Secale cereale L.) was assessed and related to the organization of light-harvesting complex II (LHCII). Increasing the growth irradiance from 50 to 800 micromol m(-2) s(-1) at 20 degrees C resulted in a 1.8-fold increase in the trans-16:1 content in PG which favoured a greater preponderance of oligomeric LHCII, measured in vitro as the ratio of oligomer : monomer. Similar irradiance-dependent increases were observed during growth at 5 degrees C; however, 1.4-fold lower trans-16:1 contents and lower LHCII oligomer : monomer ratios were observed compared with growth at 20 degrees C and the same irradiance. These trends were also observed under natural field conditions. Thus, the accumulation of trans-16:1, as well as the organization of LHCII are modulated by both growth irradiance and growth temperature in an independent but additive manner. We also examined how changes in the supramolecular organization of LHCII affected the capacity for non-photochemical quenching (q(N)) and photoprotection via antenna quenching (q(O)). While q(O) was positively correlated with q(N), there was no correlation with either LHCII organization or xanthophyll cycle activity under the steady-state growth conditions examined.

  6. Binding of phosphatidic acid to 14-3-3 proteins hampers their ability to activate the plant plasma membrane H+-ATPase.

    PubMed

    Camoni, Lorenzo; Di Lucente, Cristina; Pallucca, Roberta; Visconti, Sabina; Aducci, Patrizia

    2012-08-01

    Phosphatidic acid is a phospholipid second messenger implicated in various cellular processes in eukaryotes. In plants, production of phosphatidic acid is triggered in response to a number of biotic and abiotic stresses. Here, we show that phosphatidic acid binds to 14-3-3 proteins, a family of regulatory proteins which bind client proteins in a phosphorylation-dependent manner. Binding of phosphatidic acid involves the same 14-3-3 region engaged in protein target binding. Consequently, micromolar phosphatidic acid concentrations significantly hamper the interaction of 14-3-3 proteins with the plasma membrane H(+)-ATPase, a well characterized plant 14-3-3 target, thus inhibiting the phosphohydrolitic enzyme activity. Moreover, the proton pump is inhibited when endogenous PA production is triggered by phospholipase D and the G protein agonist mastoparan-7. Hence, our data propose a possible mechanism involving PA that regulates 14-3-3-mediated cellular processes in response to stress. Copyright © 2012 International Union of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  7. Activation of Src and release of intracellular calcium by phosphatidic acid during Xenopus laevis fertilization.

    PubMed

    Bates, Ryan C; Fees, Colby P; Holland, William L; Winger, Courtney C; Batbayar, Khulan; Ancar, Rachel; Bergren, Todd; Petcoff, Douglas; Stith, Bradley J

    2014-02-01

    We report a new step in the fertilization in Xenopus laevis which has been found to involve activation of Src tyrosine kinase to stimulate phospholipase C-γ (PLC-γ) which increases inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate (IP3) to release intracellular calcium ([Ca](i)). Molecular species analysis and mass measurements suggested that sperm activate phospholipase D (PLD) to elevate phosphatidic acid (PA). We now report that PA mass increased 2.7 fold by 1 min after insemination and inhibition of PA production by two methods inhibited activation of Src and PLCγ, increased [Ca](i) and other fertilization events. As compared to 14 other lipids, PA specifically bound Xenopus Src but not PLCγ. Addition of synthetic PA activated egg Src (an action requiring intact lipid rafts) and PLCγ as well as doubling the amount of PLCγ in rafts. In the absence of elevated [Ca](i), PA addition elevated IP3 mass to levels equivalent to that induced by sperm (but twice that achieved by calcium ionophore). Finally, PA induced [Ca](i) release that was blocked by an IP3 receptor inhibitor. As only PLD1b message was detected, and Western blotting did not detect PLD2, we suggest that sperm activate PLD1b to elevate PA which then binds to and activates Src leading to PLCγ stimulation, IP3 elevation and [Ca](i) release. Due to these and other studies, PA may also play a role in membrane fusion events such as sperm-egg fusion, cortical granule exocytosis, the elevation of phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate and the large, late increase in sn 1,2-diacylglycerol in fertilization. © 2013 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Phosphatidic Acid Sequesters Sec18p from cis-SNARE Complexes to Inhibit Priming.

    PubMed

    Starr, Matthew L; Hurst, Logan R; Fratti, Rutilio A

    2016-10-01

    Yeast vacuole fusion requires the activation of cis-SNARE complexes through priming carried out by Sec18p/N-ethylmaleimide sensitive factor and Sec17p/α-SNAP. The association of Sec18p with vacuolar cis-SNAREs is regulated in part by phosphatidic acid (PA) phosphatase production of diacylglycerol (DAG). Inhibition of PA phosphatase activity blocks the transfer of membrane-associated Sec18p to SNAREs. Thus, we hypothesized that Sec18p associates with PA-rich membrane microdomains before transferring to cis-SNARE complexes upon PA phosphatase activity. Here, we examined the direct binding of Sec18p to liposomes containing PA or DAG. We found that Sec18p preferentially bound to liposomes containing PA compared with those containing DAG by approximately fivefold. Additionally, using a specific PA-binding domain blocked Sec18p binding to PA-liposomes and displaced endogenous Sec18p from isolated vacuoles. Moreover, the direct addition of excess PA blocked the priming activity of isolated vacuoles in a manner similar to chemically inhibiting PA phosphatase activity. These data suggest that the conversion of PA to DAG facilitates the recruitment of Sec18p to cis-SNAREs. Purified vacuoles from yeast lacking the PA phosphatase Pah1p showed reduced Sec18p association with cis-SNAREs and complementation with plasmid-encoded PAH1 or recombinant Pah1p restored the interaction. Taken together, this demonstrates that regulating PA concentrations by Pah1p activity controls SNARE priming by Sec18p. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  9. The mechanistic and ergogenic effects of phosphatidic acid in skeletal muscle.

    PubMed

    Shad, Brandon James; Smeuninx, Benoit; Atherton, Philip James; Breen, Leigh

    2015-12-01

    Skeletal muscle mass plays a vital role in locomotion, whole-body metabolic health, and is a positive predictor of longevity. It is well established the mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) is a central regulator of skeletal muscle protein turnover. The pursuit to find novel nutrient compounds or functional food sources that possess the ability to activate mTOR and promote skeletal muscle protein accretion has been on going. Over the last decade, a key role has been proposed for the phospholipid phosphatidic acid (PA) in mTOR activation. Mechanical load-induced (i.e., resistance exercise) intramuscular PA can directly bind to and activate mTOR. In addition, PA provided exogenously in cell culture heightens mTOR activity, albeit indirectly. Thus, endogenously generated PA and exogenous provision of PA appear to act through distinct mechanisms that converge on mTOR and, potentially, may amplify muscle protein synthesis. In support of this notion, limited evidence from humans suggests that resistance exercise training combined with oral supplemental PA enhances strength gains and muscle hypertrophy. However, the precise mechanisms underpinning the augmented muscle remodelling response with supplemental PA remain elusive. In this review, we will critically examine available evidence from cell cultures and animal and human experimental models to provide an overview of the mechanisms through which endogenous and exogenous PA may act to promote muscle anabolism, and discuss the potential for PA as a therapeutic tool to maintain or restore skeletal muscle mass in the context of ageing and disease.

  10. Activation of Src and release of intracellular calcium by phosphatidic acid during Xenopus laevis fertilization

    PubMed Central

    Bates, Ryan C.; Fees, Colby P.; Holland, William L.; Winger, Courtney C.; Batbayar, Khulan; Ancar, Rachel; Bergren, Todd; Petcoff, Douglas; Stith, Bradley J.

    2014-01-01

    We report a new step in the fertilization in Xenopus laevis which has been found to involve activation of Src tyrosine kinase to stimulate phospholipase C-γ (PLC- γ) which increases inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate (IP3) to release intracellular calcium ([Ca]i). Molecular species analysis and mass measurements suggested that sperm activate phospholipase D (PLD) to elevate phosphatidic acid (PA). We now report that PA mass increased 2.7 fold by 1 minute after insemination and inhibition of PA production by two methods inhibited activation of Src and PLCγ, increased [Ca]i and other fertilization events. As compared to 14 other lipids, PA strongly bound Xenopus Src but not PLCγ. Addition of synthetic PA activated egg Src (an action requiring intact lipid rafts) and PLCγ as well as doubling the amount of PLCγ in rafts. In the absence of elevated [Ca]i, PA addition elevated IP3 mass to levels equivalent to that induced by sperm (but twice that achieved by calcium ionophore). Finally, PA induced [Ca]i release that was blocked by an IP3 receptor inhibitor. As only PLD1b message was detected, and Western blotting did not detect PLD2, we suggest that sperm activate PLD1b to elevate PA which then binds to and activates Src leading to PLCγ stimulation, IP3 elevation and [Ca]i release. Due to these and other studies, PA may also play a role in membrane fusion events such as sperm-egg fusion, cortical granule exocytosis, the elevation of phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate and the large, late increase in sn 1,2-diacylglycerol in fertilization. PMID:24269904

  11. Effect of Phosphatidic Acid on Biomembrane: Experimental and Molecular Dynamics Simulations Study.

    PubMed

    Kwolek, Urszula; Kulig, Waldemar; Wydro, Paweł; Nowakowska, Maria; Róg, Tomasz; Kepczynski, Mariusz

    2015-08-06

    We consider the impact of phosphatidic acid (namely, 1,2-dioleoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphate, DOPA) on the properties of a zwitterionic (1,2-dipalmitoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine, DPPC) bilayer used as a model system for protein-free cell membranes. For this purpose, experimental measurements were performed using differential scanning calorimetry and the Langmuir monolayer technique at physiological pH. Moreover, atomistic-scale molecular dynamics (MD) simulations were performed to gain information on the mixed bilayer's molecular organization. The results of the monolayer studies clearly showed that the DPPC/DOPA mixtures are nonideal and the interactions between lipid species change from attractive, at low contents of DOPA, to repulsive, at higher contents of that component. In accordance with these results, the MD simulations demonstrated that both monoanionic and dianionic forms of DOPA have an ordering and condensing effect on the mixed bilayer at low concentrations. For the DOPA monoanions, this is the result of both (i) strong electrostatic interactions between the negatively charged oxygen of DOPA and the positively charged choline groups of DPPC and (ii) conformational changes of the lipid acyl chains, leading to their tight packing according to the so-called "umbrella model", in which large headgroups of DPPC shield the hydrophobic part of DOPA (the conical shape lipid) from contact with water. In the case of the DOPA dianions, cation-mediated clustering was observed. Our results provide a detailed molecular-level description of the lipid organization inside the mixed zwitterionic/PA membranes, which is fully supported by the experimental data.

  12. Measuring phosphatidic acid phosphatase (EC 3.1.3.4) activity using two phosphomolybdate-based colorimetric methods

    Phosphatidate phosphatase (3-sn-phosphatidate phosphohydrolase, EC 3.1.3.4), which is also known as PAP, catalyzes the dephosphorylation of phosphatidate (PtdOH) to form diacylglycerol (DAG) and inorganic phosphate. In eukaryotes, PAP driven reaction is the committed step in the synthesis of triacyl...

  13. The Mitotic and Metabolic Effects of Phosphatidic Acid in the Primary Muscle Cells of Turbot (Scophthalmus maximus)

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Tingting; Wang, Xuan; Zhou, Huihui; Jiang, Haowen; Mai, Kangsen; He, Gen

    2018-01-01

    Searching for nutraceuticals and understanding the underlying mechanism that promote fish growth is at high demand for aquaculture industry. In this study, the modulatory effects of soy phosphatidic acids (PA) on cell proliferation, nutrient sensing, and metabolic pathways were systematically examined in primary muscle cells of turbot (Scophthalmus maximus). PA was found to stimulate cell proliferation and promote G1/S phase transition through activation of target of rapamycin signaling pathway. The expression of myogenic regulatory factors, including myoD and follistatin, was upregulated, while that of myogenin and myostatin was downregulated by PA. Furthermore, PA increased intracellular free amino acid levels and enhanced protein synthesis, lipogenesis, and glycolysis, while suppressed amino acid degradation and lipolysis. PA also was found to increased cellular energy production through stimulated tricarboxylic acid cycle and oxidative phosphorylation. Our results identified PA as a potential nutraceutical that stimulates muscle cell proliferation and anabolism in fish. PMID:29780359

  14. The Mitotic and Metabolic Effects of Phosphatidic Acid in the Primary Muscle Cells of Turbot (Scophthalmus maximus).

    PubMed

    Wang, Tingting; Wang, Xuan; Zhou, Huihui; Jiang, Haowen; Mai, Kangsen; He, Gen

    2018-01-01

    Searching for nutraceuticals and understanding the underlying mechanism that promote fish growth is at high demand for aquaculture industry. In this study, the modulatory effects of soy phosphatidic acids (PA) on cell proliferation, nutrient sensing, and metabolic pathways were systematically examined in primary muscle cells of turbot ( Scophthalmus maximus ). PA was found to stimulate cell proliferation and promote G1/S phase transition through activation of target of rapamycin signaling pathway. The expression of myogenic regulatory factors, including myoD and follistatin , was upregulated, while that of myogenin and myostatin was downregulated by PA. Furthermore, PA increased intracellular free amino acid levels and enhanced protein synthesis, lipogenesis, and glycolysis, while suppressed amino acid degradation and lipolysis. PA also was found to increased cellular energy production through stimulated tricarboxylic acid cycle and oxidative phosphorylation. Our results identified PA as a potential nutraceutical that stimulates muscle cell proliferation and anabolism in fish.

  15. Effects of phosphatidic acid supplementation on muscle thickness and strength in resistance-trained men.

    PubMed

    Gonzalez, Adam M; Sell, Katie M; Ghigiarelli, Jamie J; Kelly, Christopher F; Shone, Edward W; Accetta, Matthew R; Baum, Jamie B; Mangine, Gerald T

    2017-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of phosphatidic acid (PA) supplementation on muscle thickness and strength following an 8 week supervised resistance-training program. Fifteen resistance trained men (22.8 ± 3.5 years; 80.6 ± 8.7 kg; 178.1 ± 5.6 cm; 14.6% ± 8.8% body fat) were randomly assigned to a group that either consumed 750 mg of PA or a placebo (PL). Testing was carried out before (PRE) and after (POST) training/supplementation for muscle thickness and strength. Muscle thickness of the rectus femoris (RF), vastus lateralis (VL), biceps brachii (BB), and triceps brachii (TB) muscles were measured via ultrasonography, along with 1 repetition maximum (1RM) of squat, deadlift, and bench press. Analysis of covariance (ANCOVA), using PRE values as the covariate, did not reveal any group differences for measures of muscle thickness in the RF (PA: 3.6% ± 5.2%; PL: 3.2% ± 4.2%, p = 0.97), VL (PA: 23.4% ± 18.1%, PL: 12.5% ± 15.4%, p = 0.37), BB (PA: 3.7% ± 6.4%, PL: 9.6% ± 12.4%, p = 0.86), or TB (PA: 15.1% ± 17.9%, PL: 10.7% ± 19.3%, p = 0.79). Likewise, no group differences were observed in changes in squat (PA: 8.4% ± 4.1%, PL: 8.1% ± 4.2%, p = 0.79), deadlift (PA: 10.1% ± 10.1%, PL: 8.9% ± 9.5%, p = 0.66), or bench press (PA: 5.7% ± 5.5%, PL: 5.1% ± 3.0%, p = 0.76) exercises. Collectively, however, all participants experienced significant (p < 0.05) improvements in each measure of muscle thickness and strength. Results of this study suggest that PA supplementation, in combination with a 3 days·week -1 resistance-training program for 8 weeks, did not have a differential effect compared with PL on changes in muscle thickness or 1RM strength.

  16. Protective and therapeutic role of 2-carba-cyclic phosphatidic acid in demyelinating disease.

    PubMed

    Yamamoto, Shinji; Yamashina, Kota; Ishikawa, Masaki; Gotoh, Mari; Yagishita, Sosuke; Iwasa, Kensuke; Maruyama, Kei; Murakami-Murofushi, Kimiko; Yoshikawa, Keisuke

    2017-07-21

    Multiple sclerosis is a neuroinflammatory demyelinating and neurodegenerative disease of the central nervous system characterized by recurrent and progressive demyelination/remyelination cycles, neuroinflammation, oligodendrocyte loss, demyelination, and axonal degeneration. Cyclic phosphatidic acid (cPA) is a natural phospholipid mediator with a unique cyclic phosphate ring structure at the sn-2 and sn-3 positions of the glycerol backbone. We reported earlier that cPA elicits a neurotrophin-like action and protects hippocampal neurons from ischemia-induced delayed neuronal death. We designed, chemically synthesized, and metabolically stabilized derivatives of cPA: 2-carba-cPA (2ccPA), a synthesized compound in which one of the phosphate oxygen molecules is replaced with a methylene group at the sn-2 position. In the present study, we investigated whether 2ccPA exerts protective effects in oligodendrocytes and suppresses pathology in the two most common mouse models of multiple sclerosis. To evaluate whether 2ccPA has potential beneficial effects on the pathology of multiple sclerosis, we investigated the effects of 2ccPA on oligodendrocyte cell death in vitro and administrated 2ccPA to mouse models of experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE) and cuprizone-induced demyelination. We demonstrated that 2ccPA suppressed the CoCl 2 -induced increase in the Bax/Bcl-2 protein expression ratio and phosphorylation levels of p38MAPK and JNK protein. 2ccPA treatment reduced cuprizone-induced demyelination, microglial activation, NLRP3 inflammasome, and motor dysfunction. Furthermore, 2ccPA treatment reduced autoreactive T cells and macrophages, spinal cord injury, and pathological scores in EAE, the autoimmune multiple sclerosis mouse model. We demonstrated that 2ccPA protected oligodendrocytes via suppression of the mitochondrial apoptosis pathway. Also, we found beneficial effects of 2ccPA in the multiperiod of cuprizone-induced demyelination and the pathology of EAE

  17. Phosphatidic acid as a second messenger in human polymorphonuclear leukocytes. Effects on activation of NADPH oxidase.

    PubMed Central

    Agwu, D E; McPhail, L C; Sozzani, S; Bass, D A; McCall, C E

    1991-01-01

    Receptor-mediated agonists, such as FMLP, induce an early, phospholipase D (PLD)-mediated accumulation of phosphatidic acid (PA) which may play a role in the activation of NADPH oxidase in human PMN. We have determined the effect of changes in PA production on O2 consumption in intact PMN and the level of NADPH oxidase activity measured in a cell-free assay. Pretreatment of cells with various concentrations of propranolol enhanced (less than or equal to 200 microM) or inhibited (greater than 300 microM) PLD-induced production of PA (mass and radiolabel) in a manner that correlated with enhancement or inhibition of O2 consumption in PMN stimulated with 1 microM FMLP in the absence of cytochalasin B. The concentration-dependent effects of propranolol on FMLP-induced NADPH oxidase activation was confirmed by direct assay of the enzyme in subcellular fractions. In PA extracted from cells pretreated with 200 microM propranolol before stimulation with 1 microM FMLP, phospholipase A1 (PLA1)-digestion for 90 min, followed by quantitation of residual PA, showed that a minimum of 44% of PA in control (undigested) sample was diacyl-PA; alkylacyl-PA remained undigested by PLA1. Propranolol was also observed to have a concentration-dependent enhancement of mass of 1,2-DG formed in PMN stimulated with FMLP. DG levels reached a maximum at 300 microM propranolol and remained unchanged up to 500 microM propranolol. However, in contrast to PA levels, the level of DG produced did not correlate with NADPH oxidase activation. Exogenously added didecanoyl-PA activated NADPH oxidase in a concentration-dependent manner (1-300 microM) in a reconstitution assay using membrane and cytosolic fractions from unstimulated PMN. In addition, PA synergized with SDS for oxidase activation. Taken together, these results indicate that PA plays a second messenger role in the activation of NADPH oxidase in human PMN and that regulation of phospholipase D is a key step in the activation pathway. Images

  18. Overexpression of a phosphatidic acid phosphatase type 2 leads to an increase in triacylglycerol production in oleaginous Rhodococcus strains.

    PubMed

    Hernández, Martín A; Comba, Santiago; Arabolaza, Ana; Gramajo, Hugo; Alvarez, Héctor M

    2015-03-01

    Oleaginous Rhodococcus strains are able to accumulate large amounts of triacylglycerol (TAG). Phosphatidic acid phosphatase (PAP) enzyme catalyzes the dephosphorylation of phosphatidic acid (PA) to yield diacylglycerol (DAG), a key precursor for TAG biosynthesis. Studies to establish its role in lipid metabolism have been mainly focused in eukaryotes but not in bacteria. In this work, we identified and characterized a putative PAP type 2 (PAP2) encoded by the ro00075 gene in Rhodococcus jostii RHA1. Heterologous expression of ro00075 in Escherichia coli resulted in a fourfold increase in PAP activity and twofold in DAG content. The conditional deletion of ro00075 in RHA1 led to a decrease in the content of DAG and TAG, whereas its overexpression in both RHA1 and Rhodococcus opacus PD630 promoted an increase up to 10 to 15 % by cellular dry weight in TAG content. On the other hand, expression of ro00075 in the non-oleaginous strain Rhodococcus fascians F7 promoted an increase in total fatty acid content up to 7 % at the expense of free fatty acid (FFA), DAG, and TAG fractions. Moreover, co-expression of ro00075/atf2 genes resulted in a fourfold increase in total fatty acid content by a further increase of the FFA and TAG fractions. The results of this study suggest that ro00075 encodes for a PAP2 enzyme actively involved in TAG biosynthesis. Overexpression of this gene, as single one or with an atf gene, provides an alternative approach to increase the biosynthesis and accumulation of bacterial oils as a potential source of raw material for biofuel production.

  19. A Novel Phosphatidic Acid-Protein-tyrosine Phosphatase D2 Axis Is Essential for ERBB2 Signaling in Mammary Epithelial Cells*

    PubMed Central

    Ramesh, Mathangi; Krishnan, Navasona; Muthuswamy, Senthil K.; Tonks, Nicholas K.

    2015-01-01

    We used a loss-of-function screen to investigate the role of classical protein-tyrosine phosphatases (PTPs) in three-dimensional mammary epithelial cell morphogenesis and ERBB2 signaling. The study revealed a novel role for PTPD2 as a positive regulator of ERBB2 signaling. Suppression of PTPD2 attenuated the ERBB2-induced multiacinar phenotype in three-dimensional cultures specifically by inhibiting ERBB2-mediated loss of polarity and lumen filling. In contrast, overexpression of PTPD2 enhanced the ERBB2 phenotype. We also found that a lipid second messenger, phosphatidic acid, bound PTPD2 in vitro and enhanced its catalytic activity. Small molecule inhibitors of phospholipase D (PLD), an enzyme that produces phosphatidic acid in cells, also attenuated the ERBB2 phenotype. Exogenously added phosphatidic acid rescued the PLD-inhibition phenotype, but only when PTPD2 was present. These findings illustrate a novel pathway involving PTPD2 and the lipid second messenger phosphatidic acid that promotes ERBB2 function. PMID:25681440

  20. cAMP regulates DEP domain-mediated binding of the guanine nucleotide exchange factor Epac1 to phosphatidic acid at the plasma membrane.

    PubMed

    Consonni, Sarah V; Gloerich, Martijn; Spanjaard, Emma; Bos, Johannes L

    2012-03-06

    Epac1 is a cAMP-regulated guanine nucleotide exchange factor for the small G protein Rap. Upon cAMP binding, Epac1 undergoes a conformational change that results in its release from autoinhibition. In addition, cAMP induces the translocation of Epac1 from the cytosol to the plasma membrane. This relocalization of Epac1 is required for efficient activation of plasma membrane-located Rap and for cAMP-induced cell adhesion. This translocation requires the Dishevelled, Egl-10, Pleckstrin (DEP) domain, but the molecular entity that serves as the plasma membrane anchor and the possible mechanism of regulated binding remains elusive. Here we show that Epac1 binds directly to phosphatidic acid. Similar to the cAMP-induced Epac1 translocation, this binding is regulated by cAMP and requires the DEP domain. Furthermore, depletion of phosphatidic acid by inhibition of phospholipase D1 prevents cAMP-induced translocation of Epac1 as well as the subsequent activation of Rap at the plasma membrane. Finally, mutation of a single basic residue within a polybasic stretch of the DEP domain, which abolishes translocation, also prevents binding to phosphatidic acid. From these results we conclude that cAMP induces a conformational change in Epac1 that enables DEP domain-mediated binding to phosphatidic acid, resulting in the tethering of Epac1 at the plasma membrane and subsequent activation of Rap.

  1. A novel phosphatidic acid-protein-tyrosine phosphatase D2 axis is essential for ERBB2 signaling in mammary epithelial cells.

    PubMed

    Ramesh, Mathangi; Krishnan, Navasona; Muthuswamy, Senthil K; Tonks, Nicholas K

    2015-04-10

    We used a loss-of-function screen to investigate the role of classical protein-tyrosine phosphatases (PTPs) in three-dimensional mammary epithelial cell morphogenesis and ERBB2 signaling. The study revealed a novel role for PTPD2 as a positive regulator of ERBB2 signaling. Suppression of PTPD2 attenuated the ERBB2-induced multiacinar phenotype in three-dimensional cultures specifically by inhibiting ERBB2-mediated loss of polarity and lumen filling. In contrast, overexpression of PTPD2 enhanced the ERBB2 phenotype. We also found that a lipid second messenger, phosphatidic acid, bound PTPD2 in vitro and enhanced its catalytic activity. Small molecule inhibitors of phospholipase D (PLD), an enzyme that produces phosphatidic acid in cells, also attenuated the ERBB2 phenotype. Exogenously added phosphatidic acid rescued the PLD-inhibition phenotype, but only when PTPD2 was present. These findings illustrate a novel pathway involving PTPD2 and the lipid second messenger phosphatidic acid that promotes ERBB2 function. © 2015 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  2. Phosphatidic acid interacts with a MYB transcription factor and regulates its nuclear localization and function in Arabidopsis.

    PubMed

    Yao, Hongyan; Wang, Geliang; Guo, Liang; Wang, Xuemin

    2013-12-01

    Phosphatidic acid (PA) has emerged as a class of cellular mediators involved in various cellular and physiological processes, but little is known about its mechanism of action. Here we show that PA interacts with werewolf (WER), a R2R3 MYB transcription factor involved in root hair formation. The PA-interacting region is confined to the end of the R2 subdomain. The ablation of the PA binding motif has no effect on WER binding to DNA, but abolishes its nuclear localization and its function in regulating epidermal cell fate. Inhibition of PA production by phospholipase Dζ also suppresses WER's nuclear localization, root hair formation, and elongation. These results suggest a role for PA in promoting protein nuclear localization.

  3. Phosphatidic Acid Interacts with a MYB Transcription Factor and Regulates Its Nuclear Localization and Function in Arabidopsis[C][W

    PubMed Central

    Yao, Hongyan; Wang, Geliang; Guo, Liang; Wang, Xuemin

    2013-01-01

    Phosphatidic acid (PA) has emerged as a class of cellular mediators involved in various cellular and physiological processes, but little is known about its mechanism of action. Here we show that PA interacts with WEREWOLF (WER), a R2R3 MYB transcription factor involved in root hair formation. The PA-interacting region is confined to the end of the R2 subdomain. The ablation of the PA binding motif has no effect on WER binding to DNA, but abolishes its nuclear localization and its function in regulating epidermal cell fate. Inhibition of PA production by phospholipase Dζ also suppresses WER’s nuclear localization, root hair formation, and elongation. These results suggest a role for PA in promoting protein nuclear localization. PMID:24368785

  4. Phosphatidic Acid Produced by RalA-activated PLD2 Stimulates Caveolae-mediated Endocytosis and Trafficking in Endothelial Cells.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Ying; Sverdlov, Maria S; Toth, Peter T; Huang, Long Shuang; Du, Guangwei; Liu, Yiyao; Natarajan, Viswanathan; Minshall, Richard D

    2016-09-23

    Caveolae are the primary route for internalization and transendothelial transport of macromolecules, such as insulin and albumin. Caveolae-mediated endocytosis is activated by Src-dependent caveolin-1 (Cav-1) phosphorylation and subsequent recruitment of dynamin-2 and filamin A (FilA), which facilitate vesicle fission and trafficking, respectively. Here, we tested the role of RalA and phospholipase D (PLD) signaling in the regulation of caveolae-mediated endocytosis and trafficking. The addition of albumin to human lung microvascular endothelial cells induced the activation of RalA within minutes, and siRNA-mediated down-regulation of RalA abolished fluorescent BSA uptake. Co-immunoprecipitation studies revealed that albumin induced the association between RalA, Cav-1, and FilA; however, RalA knockdown with siRNA did not affect FilA recruitment to Cav-1, suggesting that RalA was not required for FilA and Cav-1 complex formation. Rather, RalA probably facilitates caveolae-mediated endocytosis by activating downstream effectors. PLD2 was shown to be activated by RalA, and inhibition of PLD2 abolished Alexa-488-BSA uptake, indicating that phosphatidic acid (PA) generated by PLD2 may facilitate caveolae-mediated endocytosis. Furthermore, using a PA biosensor, GFP-PASS, we observed that BSA induced an increase in PA co-localization with Cav-1-RFP, which could be blocked by a dominant negative PLD2 mutant. Total internal reflection fluorescence microscopy studies of Cav-1-RFP also showed that fusion of caveolae with the basal plasma membrane was dependent on PLD2 activity. Thus, our results suggest that the small GTPase RalA plays an important role in promoting invagination and trafficking of caveolae, not by potentiating the association between Cav-1 and FilA but by stimulating PLD2-mediated generation of phosphatidic acid. © 2016 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  5. The phosphatidic acid-binding, polybasic domain is responsible for the differences in the phosphoregulation of lipins 1 and 3.

    PubMed

    Boroda, Salome; Takkellapati, Sankeerth; Lawrence, Robert T; Entwisle, Samuel W; Pearson, Jennifer M; Granade, Mitchell E; Mullins, Garrett R; Eaton, James M; Villén, Judit; Harris, Thurl E

    2017-12-15

    Lipins 1, 2, and 3 are Mg 2+ -dependent phosphatidic acid phosphatases and catalyze the penultimate step of triacylglycerol synthesis. We have previously investigated the biochemistry of lipins 1 and 2 and shown that di-anionic phosphatidic acid (PA) augments their activity and lipid binding and that lipin 1 activity is negatively regulated by phosphorylation. In the present study, we show that phosphorylation does not affect the catalytic activity of lipin 3 or its ability to associate with PA in vitro The lipin proteins each contain a conserved polybasic domain (PBD) composed of nine lysine and arginine residues located between the conserved N- and C-terminal domains. In lipin 1, the PBD is the site of PA binding and sensing of the PA electrostatic charge. The specific arrangement and number of the lysines and arginines of the PBD vary among the lipins. We show that the different PBDs of lipins 1 and 3 are responsible for the presence of phosphoregulation on the former but not the latter enzyme. To do so, we generated lipin 1 that contained the PBD of lipin 3 and vice versa. The lipin 1 enzyme with the lipin 3 PBD lost its ability to be regulated by phosphorylation but remained downstream of phosphorylation by mammalian target of rapamycin. Conversely, the presence of the lipin 1 PBD in lipin 3 subjected the enzyme to negative intramolecular control by phosphorylation. These results indicate a mechanism for the observed differences in lipin phosphoregulation in vitro . © 2017 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  6. Hydrophilic interaction liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry of (lyso)phosphatidic acids, (lyso)phosphatidylserines and other lipid classes.

    PubMed

    Cífková, Eva; Hájek, Roman; Lísa, Miroslav; HolĿapek, Michal

    2016-03-25

    The goal of this work is a systematic optimization of hydrophilic interaction liquid chromatography (HILIC) separation of acidic lipid classes (namely phosphatidic acids-PA, lysophosphatidic acids-LPA, phosphatidylserines-PS and lysophosphatidylserines-LPS) and other lipid classes under mass spectrometry (MS) compatible conditions. The main parameters included in this optimization are the type of stationary phases used in HILIC, pH of the mobile phase, the type and concentration of mobile phase additives. Nine HILIC columns with different chemistries (unmodified silica, modified silica using diol, 2-picolylamine, diethylamine and 1-aminoanthracene and hydride silica) are compared with the emphasis on peak shapes of acidic lipid classes. The optimization of pH is correlated with the theoretical calculation of acidobasic equilibria of studied lipid classes. The final method using the hydride column, pH 4 adjusted by formic acid and the gradient of acetonitrile and 40 mmol/L of aqueous ammonium formate provides good peak shapes for all analyzed lipid classes including acidic lipids. This method is applied for the identification of lipids in real samples of porcine brain and kidney extracts. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Regulation of lipid droplet and membrane biogenesis by the acidic tail of the phosphatidate phosphatase Pah1p

    PubMed Central

    Karanasios, Eleftherios; Barbosa, Antonio Daniel; Sembongi, Hiroshi; Mari, Muriel; Han, Gil-Soo; Reggiori, Fulvio; Carman, George M.; Siniossoglou, Symeon

    2013-01-01

    Lipins are evolutionarily conserved phosphatidate phosphatases that perform key functions in phospholipid, triglyceride, and membrane biogenesis. Translocation of lipins on membranes requires their dephosphorylation by the Nem1p-Spo7p transmembrane phosphatase complex through a poorly understood mechanism. Here we identify the carboxy-terminal acidic tail of the yeast lipin Pah1p as an important regulator of this step. Deletion or mutations of the tail disrupt binding of Pah1p to the Nem1p-Spo7p complex and Pah1p membrane translocation. Overexpression of Nem1p-Spo7p drives the recruitment of Pah1p in the vicinity of lipid droplets in an acidic tail–dependent manner and induces lipid droplet biogenesis. Genetic analysis shows that the acidic tail is essential for the Nem1p-Spo7p–dependent activation of Pah1p but not for the function of Pah1p itself once it is dephosphorylated. Loss of the tail disrupts nuclear structure, INO1 gene expression, and triglyceride synthesis. Similar acidic sequences are present in the carboxy-terminal ends of all yeast lipin orthologues. We propose that acidic tail–dependent binding and dephosphorylation of Pah1p by the Nem1p-Spo7p complex is an important determinant of its function in lipid and membrane biogenesis. PMID:23657815

  8. Evidence from in vivo manipulations of lipid composition in mutants that the delta 3-trans-hexadecenoic acid-containing phosphatidylglycerol is involved in the biogenesis of the light-harvesting chlorophyll a/b-protein complex of Chlamydomonas reinhardtii.

    PubMed

    Dubertret, G; Mirshahi, A; Mirshahi, M; Gerard-Hirne, C; Tremolieres, A

    1994-12-01

    The phosphatidylglycerol containing the unusual delta 3-trans hexadecenoic fatty acid is specifically found in photosynthetic membranes of eukaryotic organisms. Its involvement in the biogenesis and the structure of the light-harvesting chlorophyll a/b-protein complex has been evidenced by in vivo targeting this lipid to photosynthetic membranes of Chlamydomonas reinhardtii mutants lacking this lipid. In the mf1 and mf2 mutants, this deficiency results in (a) the absence of the oligomeric light-harvesting complex of photosystem 2; (b) an extensive destacking of thylakoid membranes; (c) a very low 77-K fluorescence emission in the photosystem-2 region. We show in this paper that these deficiencies result from modifications in the pigment and polypeptide compositions of the photosystem-2 light-harvesting complex; it contains less chlorophyll b and some of its constitutive polypeptides are absent or reduced in amount, while immunologically related polypeptides of lower molecular mass accumulate. The direct involvement of the lack of trans-C16: 1-phosphatidylglycerol in these deficiencies is evidenced by the partial restoration of normal characteristics of the light-harvesting complex (pigment and polypeptide composition, oligomerization) after liposome-mediated, in vivo incorporation of this lipid into the photosynthetic membranes of the mf2 mutant. Trans-C16:1-phosphatidylglycerol, therefore, is involved in the biogenesis of the photosystem-2 light-harvesting chlorophyll a/b-protein complex through a mechanism that may prevent degradation processes. Its contribution to the structural conformation of neosynthesized monomers and to their organization into stable oligomeric form is discussed.

  9. Hepatic Gluconeogenesis Is Enhanced by Phosphatidic Acid Which Remains Uninhibited by Insulin in Lipodystrophic Agpat2−/− Mice*

    PubMed Central

    Sankella, Shireesha; Garg, Abhimanyu; Horton, Jay D.; Agarwal, Anil K.

    2014-01-01

    In this study we examined the role of phosphatidic acid (PA) in hepatic glucose production (HGP) and development of hepatic insulin resistance in mice that lack 1-acylglycerol-3-phosphate O-acyltransferase 2 (AGPAT2). Liver lysophosphatidic acid and PA levels were increased ∼2- and ∼5-fold, respectively, in male Agpat2−/− mice compared with wild type mice. In the absence of AGPAT2, the liver can synthesize PAs by activating diacylglycerol kinase or phospholipase D, both of which were elevated in the livers of Agpat2−/− mice. We found that PAs C16:0/18:1 and C18:1/20:4 enhanced HGP in primary WT hepatocytes, an effect that was further enhanced in primary hepatocytes from Agpat2−/− mice. Lysophosphatidic acids C16:0 and C18:1 failed to increase HGP in primary hepatocytes. The activation of HGP was accompanied by an up-regulation of the key gluconeogenic enzymes glucose-6-phosphatase and phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase. This activation was suppressed by insulin in the WT primary hepatocytes but not in the Agpat2−/− primary hepatocytes. Thus, the lack of normal insulin signaling in Agpat2−/− livers allows unrestricted PA-induced gluconeogenesis significantly contributing to the development of hyperglycemia in these mice. PMID:24425876

  10. Phospholipase D and the Maintenance of Phosphatidic Acid Levels for Regulation of Mammalian Target of Rapamycin (mTOR)*

    PubMed Central

    Foster, David A.; Salloum, Darin; Menon, Deepak; Frias, Maria A.

    2014-01-01

    Phosphatidic acid (PA) is a critical metabolite at the heart of membrane phospholipid biosynthesis. However, PA also serves as a critical lipid second messenger that regulates several proteins implicated in the control of cell cycle progression and cell growth. Three major metabolic pathways generate PA: phospholipase D (PLD), diacylglycerol kinase (DGK), and lysophosphatidic acid acyltransferase (LPAAT). The LPAAT pathway is integral to de novo membrane phospholipid biosynthesis, whereas the PLD and DGK pathways are activated in response to growth factors and stress. The PLD pathway is also responsive to nutrients. A key target for the lipid second messenger function of PA is mTOR, the mammalian/mechanistic target of rapamycin, which integrates both nutrient and growth factor signals to control cell growth and proliferation. Although PLD has been widely implicated in the generation of PA needed for mTOR activation, it is becoming clear that PA generated via the LPAAT and DGK pathways is also involved in the regulation of mTOR. In this minireview, we highlight the coordinated maintenance of intracellular PA levels that regulate mTOR signals stimulated by growth factors and nutrients, including amino acids, lipids, glucose, and Gln. Emerging evidence indicates compensatory increases in one source of PA when another source is compromised, highlighting the importance of being able to adapt to stressful conditions that interfere with PA production. The regulation of PA levels has important implications for cancer cells that depend on PA and mTOR activity for survival. PMID:24990952

  11. Hepatic gluconeogenesis is enhanced by phosphatidic acid which remains uninhibited by insulin in lipodystrophic Agpat2-/- mice.

    PubMed

    Sankella, Shireesha; Garg, Abhimanyu; Horton, Jay D; Agarwal, Anil K

    2014-02-21

    In this study we examined the role of phosphatidic acid (PA) in hepatic glucose production (HGP) and development of hepatic insulin resistance in mice that lack 1-acylglycerol-3-phosphate O-acyltransferase 2 (AGPAT2). Liver lysophosphatidic acid and PA levels were increased ∼2- and ∼5-fold, respectively, in male Agpat2(-/-) mice compared with wild type mice. In the absence of AGPAT2, the liver can synthesize PAs by activating diacylglycerol kinase or phospholipase D, both of which were elevated in the livers of Agpat2(-/-) mice. We found that PAs C16:0/18:1 and C18:1/20:4 enhanced HGP in primary WT hepatocytes, an effect that was further enhanced in primary hepatocytes from Agpat2(-/-) mice. Lysophosphatidic acids C16:0 and C18:1 failed to increase HGP in primary hepatocytes. The activation of HGP was accompanied by an up-regulation of the key gluconeogenic enzymes glucose-6-phosphatase and phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase. This activation was suppressed by insulin in the WT primary hepatocytes but not in the Agpat2(-/-) primary hepatocytes. Thus, the lack of normal insulin signaling in Agpat2(-/-) livers allows unrestricted PA-induced gluconeogenesis significantly contributing to the development of hyperglycemia in these mice.

  12. [Changes of the phosphatides and their fatty acids in the retina and in the fasciculus opticus after retinal detachment: investigations of human and animal retinae (author's transl)].

    PubMed

    Weiss, H; Kosmath, B; Graf, A

    1976-02-04

    In this study the effect of an experimentally provoked retinal detachment on the pattern of the phosphatides and fatty acids of the retina and the optic nerve of adult rabbits was investigated. The analysis was performed one month, and 4 months after the operation, and the values were related to the findings in control animals of the same age, and of the age of one day and 30 days respectively. In this way changes in the total lipide, in the phosphatides and in their fatty acids could be revealed, with a tendency towards the developmental stage of the 20th up to the 30th day of life. Between retina and optic nerve no difference was found neither temporally nor regarding the quantitative reaction. In the detached human retinae the same reactions can be proved as in the animal experiment. The relationship of these findings to the recovery of the operatively reatached human retina is discussed.

  13. Guillain-Barré Syndrome: A Variant Consisting of Facial Diplegia and Paresthesia with Left Facial Hemiplegia Associated with Antibodies to Galactocerebroside and Phosphatidic Acid.

    PubMed

    Nishiguchi, Sho; Branch, Joel; Tsuchiya, Tsubasa; Ito, Ryoji; Kawada, Junya

    2017-10-02

    BACKGROUND A rare variant of Guillain-Barré syndrome (GBS) consists of facial diplegia and paresthesia, but an even more rare association is with facial hemiplegia, similar to Bell's palsy. This case report is of this rare variant of GBS that was associated with IgG antibodies to galactocerebroside and phosphatidic acid. CASE REPORT A 54-year-old man presented with lower left facial palsy and paresthesia of his extremities, following an upper respiratory tract infection. Physical examination confirmed lower left facial palsy and paresthesia of his extremities with hyporeflexia of his lower limbs and sensory loss of all four extremities. The differential diagnosis was between a variant of GBS and Bell's palsy. Following initial treatment with glucocorticoids followed by intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIG), his sensory abnormalities resolved. Serum IgG antibodies to galactocerebroside and phosphatidic acid were positive in this patient, but not other antibodies to glycolipids or phospholipids were found. Five months following discharge from hospital, his left facial palsy had improved. CONCLUSIONS A case of a rare variant of GBS is presented with facial diplegia and paresthesia and with unilateral facial palsy. This rare variant of GBS may which may mimic Bell's palsy. In this case, IgG antibodies to galactocerebroside and phosphatidic acid were detected.

  14. Interaction of the Spo20 membrane-sensor motif with phosphatidic acid and other anionic lipids, and influence of the membrane environment.

    PubMed

    Horchani, Habib; de Saint-Jean, Maud; Barelli, Hélène; Antonny, Bruno

    2014-01-01

    The yeast protein Spo20 contains a regulatory amphipathic motif that has been suggested to recognize phosphatidic acid, a lipid involved in signal transduction, lipid metabolism and membrane fusion. We have investigated the interaction of the Spo20 amphipathic motif with lipid membranes using a bioprobe strategy that consists in appending this motif to the end of a long coiled-coil, which can be coupled to a GFP reporter for visualization in cells. The resulting construct is amenable to in vitro and in vivo experiments and allows unbiased comparison between amphipathic helices of different chemistry. In vitro, the Spo20 bioprobe responded to small variations in the amount of phosphatidic acid. However, this response was not specific. The membrane binding of the probe depended on the presence of phosphatidylethanolamine and also integrated the contribution of other anionic lipids, including phosphatidylserine and phosphatidyl-inositol-(4,5)bisphosphate. Inverting the sequence of the Spo20 motif neither affected the ability of the probe to interact with anionic liposomes nor did it modify its cellular localization, making a stereo-specific mode of phosphatidic acid recognition unlikely. Nevertheless, the lipid binding properties and the cellular localization of the Spo20 alpha-helix differed markedly from that of another amphipathic motif, Amphipathic Lipid Packing Sensor (ALPS), suggesting that even in the absence of stereo specific interactions, amphipathic helices can act as subcellular membrane targeting determinants in a cellular context.

  15. Guillain-Barré Syndrome: A Variant Consisting of Facial Diplegia and Paresthesia with Left Facial Hemiplegia Associated with Antibodies to Galactocerebroside and Phosphatidic Acid

    PubMed Central

    Nishiguchi, Sho; Branch, Joel; Tsuchiya, Tsubasa; Ito, Ryoji; Kawada, Junya

    2017-01-01

    Patient: Male, 54 Final Diagnosis: Guillain-Barré syndrome Symptoms: Paresthesia of extremities • unilateral facial palsy Medication: — Clinical Procedure: — Specialty: Neurology Objective: Unusual clinical course Background: A rare variant of Guillain-Barré syndrome (GBS) consists of facial diplegia and paresthesia, but an even more rare association is with facial hemiplegia, similar to Bell’s palsy. This case report is of this rare variant of GBS that was associated with IgG antibodies to galactocerebroside and phosphatidic acid. Case Report: A 54-year-old man presented with lower left facial palsy and paresthesia of his extremities, following an upper respiratory tract infection. Physical examination confirmed lower left facial palsy and paresthesia of his extremities with hyporeflexia of his lower limbs and sensory loss of all four extremities. The differential diagnosis was between a variant of GBS and Bell’s palsy. Following initial treatment with glucocorticoids followed by intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIG), his sensory abnormalities resolved. Serum IgG antibodies to galactocerebroside and phosphatidic acid were positive in this patient, but not other antibodies to glycolipids or phospholipids were found. Five months following discharge from hospital, his left facial palsy had improved. Conclusions: A case of a rare variant of GBS is presented with facial diplegia and paresthesia and with unilateral facial palsy. This rare variant of GBS may which may mimic Bell’s palsy. In this case, IgG antibodies to galactocerebroside and phosphatidic acid were detected. PMID:28966341

  16. S6K is a morphogenic protein with a mechanism involving Filamin-A phosphorylation and phosphatidic acid binding.

    PubMed

    Henkels, Karen M; Mallets, Elizabeth R; Dennis, Patrick B; Gomez-Cambronero, Julian

    2015-04-01

    Change of cell shape in vivo plays many roles that are central to life itself, such as embryonic development, inflammation, wound healing, and pathologic processes such as cancer metastasis. Nonetheless, the spatiotemporal mechanisms that control the concerted regulation of cell shape remain understudied. Here, we show that ribosomal S6K, which is normally considered a protein involved in protein translation, is a morphogenic protein. Its presence in cells alters the overall organization of the cell surface and cell circularity [(4π × area)/(perimeter)(2)] from 0.47 ± 0.06 units in mock-treated cells to 0.09 ± 0.03 units in S6K-overexpressing macrophages causing stellation and arborization of cell shape. This effect was partially reversed in cells expressing a kinase-inactive S6K mutant and was fully reversed in cells silenced with small interference RNA. Equally important is that S6K is itself regulated by phospholipids, specifically phosphatidic acid, whereby 300 nM 1,2-dioleoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphate (DOPA), but not the control 1,2-dioleoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine (DOPC), binds directly to S6K and causes an ∼ 2.9-fold increase in S6K catalytic activity. This was followed by an increase in Filamin A (FLNA) functionality as measured by phospho-FLNA (S(2152)) expression and by a subsequent elevation of actin nucleation. This reliance of S6K on phosphatidic acid (PA), a curvature-inducing phospholipid, explained the extra-large perimeter of cells that overexpressed S6K. Furthermore, the diversity of the response to S6K in several unrelated cell types (fibroblasts, leukocytes, and invasive cancer cells) that we report here indicates the existence of an underlying common mechanism in mammalian cells. This new signaling set, PA-S6K-FLNA-actin, sheds light for the first time into the morphogenic pathway of cytoskeletal structures that are crucial for adhesion and cell locomotion during inflammation and metastasis. © FASEB.

  17. Phosphatidic acid induces decidualization by stimulating Akt-PP2A binding in human endometrial stromal cells.

    PubMed

    Lee, So Young; Lee, Yun Young; Choi, Joong Sub; Yoon, Mee-Sup; Han, Joong-Soo

    2016-11-01

    Decidualization of human endometrial stromal cells (hESCs) is crucial for successful uterine implantation and maintaining pregnancy. We previously reported that phospholipase D1 (PLD1) is required for cAMP-induced decidualization of hESCs. However, the mechanism by which phosphatidic acid (PA), the product of PLD1 action, might regulate decidualization is not known. We confirmed that PA induced decidualization of hESCs by observing morphological changes and measuring increased levels of decidualization markers such as IGFBP1 and prolactin transcripts (P < 0.05). Treatment with PA reduced phosphorylation of Akt and consequently that of FoxO1, which led to the increased IGFBP1 and prolactin mRNA levels (P < 0.05). Conversely, PLD1 knockdown rescued Akt phosphorylation. Binding of PP2A and Akt increased in response to cAMP or PA, suggesting that their binding is directly responsible for the inactivation of Akt during decidualization. Consistent with this observation, treatment with okadaic acid, a PP2A inhibitor, also inhibited cAMP-induced decidualization by blocking Akt dephosphorylation. © 2016 The Authors. The FEBS Journal published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of Federation of European Biochemical Societies.

  18. The Phosphatidic Acid Binding Site of the Arabidopsis Trigalactosyldiacylglycerol 4 (TGD4) Protein Required for Lipid Import into Chloroplasts*

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Zhen; Anderson, Nicholas Scott; Benning, Christoph

    2013-01-01

    Chloroplast membrane lipid synthesis relies on the import of glycerolipids from the ER. The TGD (TriGalactosylDiacylglycerol) proteins are required for this lipid transfer process. The TGD1, -2, and -3 proteins form a putative ABC (ATP-binding cassette) transporter transporting ER-derived lipids through the inner envelope membrane of the chloroplast, while TGD4 binds phosphatidic acid (PtdOH) and resides in the outer chloroplast envelope. We identified two sequences in TGD4, amino acids 1–80 and 110–145, which are necessary and sufficient for PtdOH binding. Deletion of both sequences abolished PtdOH binding activity. We also found that TGD4 from 18:3 plants bound specifically and with increased affinity PtdOH. TGD4 did not interact with other proteins and formed a homodimer both in vitro and in vivo. Our results suggest that TGD4 is an integral dimeric β-barrel lipid transfer protein that binds PtdOH with its N terminus and contains dimerization domains at its C terminus. PMID:23297418

  19. Mass Spectrometry Analysis of Wild-Type and Knock-in Q140/Q140 Huntington's Disease Mouse Brains Reveals Changes in Glycerophospholipids Including Alterations in Phosphatidic Acid and Lyso-Phosphatidic Acid.

    PubMed

    Vodicka, Petr; Mo, Shunyan; Tousley, Adelaide; Green, Karin M; Sapp, Ellen; Iuliano, Maria; Sadri-Vakili, Ghazaleh; Shaffer, Scott A; Aronin, Neil; DiFiglia, Marian; Kegel-Gleason, Kimberly B

    2015-01-01

    Huntington's disease (HD) is a neurodegenerative disease caused by a CAG expansion in the HD gene, which encodes the protein Huntingtin. Huntingtin associates with membranes and can interact directly with glycerophospholipids in membranes. We analyzed glycerophospholipid profiles from brains of 11 month old wild-type (WT) and Q140/Q140 HD knock-in mice to assess potential changes in glycerophospholipid metabolism. Polar lipids from cerebellum, cortex, and striatum were extracted and analyzed by liquid chromatography and negative ion electrospray tandem mass spectrometry analysis (LC-MS/MS). Gene products involved in polar lipid metabolism were studied using western blotting, immuno-electron microscopy and qPCR. Significant changes in numerous species of glycerophosphate (phosphatidic acid, PA) were found in striatum, cerebellum and cortex from Q140/Q140 HD mice compared to WT mice at 11 months. Changes in specific species could also be detected for other glycerophospholipids. Increases in species of lyso-PA (LPA) were measured in striatum of Q140/Q140 HD mice compared to WT. Protein levels for c-terminal binding protein 1 (CtBP1), a regulator of PA biosynthesis, were reduced in striatal synaptosomes from HD mice compared to wild-type at 6 and 12 months. Immunoreactivity for CtBP1 was detected on membranes of synaptic vesicles in striatal axon terminals in the globus pallidus. These novel results identify a potential site of molecular pathology caused by mutant Huntingtin that may impart early changes in HD.

  20. Quantitation of phosphatidic acid and lysophosphatidic acid molecular species using hydrophilic interaction liquid chromatography coupled to electrospray ionization high resolution mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Triebl, Alexander; Trötzmüller, Martin; Eberl, Anita; Hanel, Pia; Hartler, Jürgen; Köfeler, Harald C

    2014-06-20

    A method for a highly selective and sensitive identification and quantitation of lysophosphatidic acid (LPA) and phosphatidic acid (PA) molecular species was developed using hydrophilic interaction liquid chromatography (HILIC) followed by negative-ion electrospray ionization high resolution mass spectrometry. Different extraction methods for the polar LPA and PA species were compared and a modified Bligh & Dyer extraction by addition of 0.1M hydrochloric acid resulted in a ≈1.2-fold increase of recovery for the 7 PA and a more than 15-fold increase for the 6 LPA molecular species of a commercially available natural mix compared to conventional Bligh & Dyer extraction. This modified Bligh & Dyer extraction did not show any artifacts resulting from hydrolysis of natural abundant phospholipids. The developed HILIC method is able to separate all PA and LPA species from major polar membrane lipid classes which might have suppressive effects on the minor abundant lipid classes of interest. The elemental compositions of intact lipid species are provided by the high mass resolution of 100,000 and high mass accuracy below 3ppm of the Orbitrap instrument. Additionally, tandem mass spectra were generated in a parallel data dependent acquisition mode in the linear ion trap to provide structural information at molecular level. Limits of quantitation were identified at 45fmol on column and the dynamic range reaches 20pmol on column, covering the range of natural abundance well. By applying the developed method to mouse brain it can be shown that phosphatidic acid contains less unsaturated fatty acids with PA 34:1 and PA 36:1 as the major species. In contrast, for LPA species a high content of polyunsaturated fatty acids (LPA 20:4 and LPA 22:6) was quantified. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Live-cell imaging of phosphatidic acid dynamics in pollen tubes visualized by Spo20p-derived biosensor.

    PubMed

    Potocký, Martin; Pleskot, Roman; Pejchar, Přemysl; Vitale, Nicolas; Kost, Benedikt; Zárský, Viktor

    2014-07-01

    Although phosphatidic acid (PA) is structurally the simplest membrane phospholipid, it has been implicated in the regulation of many cellular events, including cytoskeletal dynamics, membrane trafficking and stress responses. Plant PA shows rapid turnover but the information about its spatio-temporal distribution in plant cells is missing. Here we demonstrate the use of a lipid biosensor that enables us to monitor PA dynamics in plant cells. The biosensor consists of a PA-binding domain of yeast SNARE Spo20p fused to fluorescent proteins. Live-cell imaging of PA dynamics in transiently transformed tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum) pollen tubes was performed using confocal laser scanning microscopy. In growing pollen tubes, PA shows distinct annulus-like fluorescence pattern in the plasma membrane behind the extreme tip. Coexpression studies with markers for other plasmalemma signaling lipids phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate and diacylglycerol revealed limited colocalization at the shoulders of the apex. PA distribution and concentrations show distinct responses to various lipid signaling inhibitors. Fluorescence recovery after photobleaching (FRAP) analysis suggests high PA turnover in the plasma membrane. Our data show that a biosensor based on the Spo20p-PA binding domain is suitable for live-cell imaging of PA also in plant cells. In tobacco pollen tubes, distinct subapical PA maximum corroborates its involvement in the regulation of endocytosis and actin dynamics. © 2014 The Authors. New Phytologist © 2014 New Phytologist Trust.

  2. Question 7: Biosynthesis of Phosphatidic Acid in Liposome Compartments Toward the Self-Reproduction of Minimal Cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuruma, Yutetsu

    2007-10-01

    Self-reproduction is one of main properties that define living cells. In order to explore the self-reproduction process for the study of early cells, and to develop a research line somehow connected to the origin of life, we have built up a constructive ‘synthetic cells (minimal cells)’ approach. The minimal cells approach consists in the investigation of the minimal number of elements to accomplish simple cell-like processes like self-reproduction. Such approach belongs to the field of synthetic biology. The minimal cells are reconstructed from a totally reconstituted cell-free protein synthesis system (PURESYSTEM) and liposome compartments as containers. Based on this approach, we synthesized two membrane proteins (enzymes), GPAT and LPAAT, which are involved in the phosphatidic acid biosynthesis in bacteria. Both membrane proteins were successfully synthesized by PURESYSTEM encapsulated inside POPC liposomes. Additionally, the enzymatic activity of GPAT was restored by mixing the expressed enzyme with lipid and by forming liposomes in situ. Through these experimental evidences, here we present a possible model to achieve self-reproduction in minimal cells. Our results would contribute to the idea that early cells could have been built by an extremely small number of genes.

  3. Arabidopsis phospholipase D alpha 1-derived phosphatidic acid regulates microtubule organization and cell development under microtubule-interacting drugs treatment.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Qun; Qu, Yana; Wang, Qing; Song, Ping; Wang, Peipei; Jia, Qianru; Guo, Jinhe

    2017-01-01

    Phospholipase D (PLD) and its product phosphatidic acid (PA) are emerging as essential regulators of cytoskeleton organization in plants. However, the underlying molecular mechanisms of PA-mediated microtubule reorganization in plants remain largely unknown. In this study, we used pharmacological and genetic approaches to analyze the function of Arabidopsis thaliana PLDα1 in the regulation of microtubule organization and cell development in response to microtubule-affecting drugs. Treatment with the microtubule-stabilizing drug paclitaxel resulted in less growth inhibition and decreased rightward slant of roots, longitudinal alignment of microtubules, and enhanced length of hypocotyl epidermal cells in the pldα1 mutant, the phenotype of which was rescued by exogenous application of PA. Moreover, the pldα1 mutant was sensitive to the microtubule-disrupting drugs oryzalin and propyzamide in terms of seedling survival ratio, left-skewing angle of roots and microtubule organization. In addition, both disruption and stabilization of microtubules induced by drugs activated PLDα1 activity. Our findings demonstrate that in A. thaliana, PLDα1/PA might regulate cell development by modulating microtubule organization in an activity-dependent manner.

  4. Cell death-inducing stresses are required for defense activation in DS1-phosphatidic acid phosphatase-silenced Nicotiana benthamiana.

    PubMed

    Nakano, Masahito; Yoshioka, Hirofumi; Ohnishi, Kouhei; Hikichi, Yasufumi; Kiba, Akinori

    2015-07-20

    We previously identified DS1 plants that showed resistance to compatible Ralstonia solanacearum with accelerated defense responses. Here, we describe activation mechanisms of defense responses in DS1 plants. After inoculation with incompatible R. solanacearum 8107, DS1 plants showed hyperinduction of hypersensitive response (HR) and reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation. Transient expression of PopP1 and AvrA induced hyperinduction of HR and ROS generation. Furthermore, Pseudomonas cichorii (Pc) and a type III secretion system (TTSS)-deficient mutant of P. cichorii showed accelerated induction of HR and ROS generation. Chitin and flg22 did not induce either HR or ROS hyperaccumulation; however, INF1 accelerated HR and ROS in DS1 plants. Activation of these defense responses was closely associated with increased phosphatidic acid (PA) content. Our results show that DS1 plants exhibit PA-mediated sensitization of plant defenses and that cell death-inducing stress is required to achieve full activation of defense responses. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  5. The brown adipocyte protein CIDEA promotes lipid droplet fusion via a phosphatidic acid-binding amphipathic helix

    PubMed Central

    Barneda, David; Planas-Iglesias, Joan; Gaspar, Maria L; Mohammadyani, Dariush; Prasannan, Sunil; Dormann, Dirk; Han, Gil-Soo; Jesch, Stephen A; Carman, George M; Kagan, Valerian; Parker, Malcolm G; Ktistakis, Nicholas T; Klein-Seetharaman, Judith; Dixon, Ann M; Henry, Susan A; Christian, Mark

    2015-01-01

    Maintenance of energy homeostasis depends on the highly regulated storage and release of triacylglycerol primarily in adipose tissue, and excessive storage is a feature of common metabolic disorders. CIDEA is a lipid droplet (LD)-protein enriched in brown adipocytes promoting the enlargement of LDs, which are dynamic, ubiquitous organelles specialized for storing neutral lipids. We demonstrate an essential role in this process for an amphipathic helix in CIDEA, which facilitates embedding in the LD phospholipid monolayer and binds phosphatidic acid (PA). LD pairs are docked by CIDEA trans-complexes through contributions of the N-terminal domain and a C-terminal dimerization region. These complexes, enriched at the LD–LD contact site, interact with the cone-shaped phospholipid PA and likely increase phospholipid barrier permeability, promoting LD fusion by transference of lipids. This physiological process is essential in adipocyte differentiation as well as serving to facilitate the tight coupling of lipolysis and lipogenesis in activated brown fat. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.07485.001 PMID:26609809

  6. Synthesis of enantiopure 2-carba-cyclic phosphatidic acid and effects of its chirality on biological functions.

    PubMed

    Nozaki, Emi; Gotoh, Mari; Hotta, Harumi; Hanazawa, Shuwa; Kobayashi, Susumu; Murakami-Murofushi, Kimiko

    2011-04-01

    Cyclic phosphatidic acid (cPA) is a naturally occurring phospholipid mediator, which has a quite unique cyclic phosphate ring at sn-2 and sn-3 positions of the glycerol backbone. We have designed and chemically synthesized several metabolically stabilized derivatives of cPA. 2-Carba-cPA (2ccPA) is one of the synthesized compounds in which the phosphate oxygen was replaced with a methylene group at the sn-2 position, and it showed much more potent biological activities than natural cPA. Here, we developed a new method of 2ccPA enantiomeric synthesis. And we examined the effects of 2ccPA enantiomers on autotaxin (ATX) activity, cancer cell invasion and nociceptive reflex. As well as racemic-2ccPA, both enantiomers showed inhibitory effects on ATX activity, cancer cell invasion and nociceptive reflex. As their effects were not significantly different from each other, the chirality of 2ccPA may not be critical for these biological functions of 2ccPA. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Long-chain bases, phosphatidic acid, MAPKs, and reactive oxygen species as nodal signal transducers in stress responses in Arabidopsis

    PubMed Central

    Saucedo-García, Mariana; Gavilanes-Ruíz, Marina; Arce-Cervantes, Oscar

    2015-01-01

    Due to their sessile condition, plants have developed sensitive, fast, and effective ways to contend with environmental changes. These mechanisms operate as informational wires conforming extensive and intricate networks that are connected in several points. The responses are designed as pathways orchestrated by molecules that are transducers of protein and non-protein nature. Their chemical nature imposes selective features such as specificity, formation rate, and generation site to the informational routes. Enzymes such as mitogen-activated protein kinases and non-protein, smaller molecules, such as long-chain bases, phosphatidic acid, and reactive oxygen species are recurrent transducers in the pleiotropic responses to biotic and abiotic stresses in plants. In this review, we considered these four components as nodal points of converging signaling pathways that start from very diverse stimuli and evoke very different responses. These pleiotropic effects may be explained by the potentiality that every one of these four mediators can be expressed from different sources, cellular location, temporality, or magnitude. Here, we review recent advances in our understanding of the interplay of these four specific signaling components in Arabidopsis cells, with an emphasis on drought, cold and pathogen stresses. PMID:25763001

  8. Release of Cyclic Phosphatidic Acid from Gelatin-based Hydrogels Inhibit Colon Cancer Cell Growth and Migration

    PubMed Central

    Tsukahara, Tamotsu; Murakami-Murofushi, Kimiko

    2012-01-01

    Microparticle and nanoparticle formulations are widely used to improve the bioavailability of low-solubility drugs and as vehicles for organ- and tissue-specific targeted drug delivery. We investigated the effect of a novel, controlled-release form of a bioactive lipid, cyclic phosphatidic acid (cPA), on human colon cancer cell line functions. We encapsulated cPA in gelatin-based hydrogels and examined its ability to inhibit the viability and migration of HT-29 and DLD-1 cells in vitro and the LPA-induced activity of the transcription factor peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPARγ). The hydrogel delivery system prolonged cPA release into the culture medium. Accordingly, cPA-hydrogel microspheres substantially inhibited LPA-induced PPARγ activity and cell growth and migration compared with that of cells cultured with cPA alone. Thus, hydrogel microspheres are a potential system for stable and efficient delivery of bioactive lipids such as cPA and may offer a new strategy for targeted colon cancer treatment. PMID:23008752

  9. Phosphatidic acid phospholipase A1 mediates ER–Golgi transit of a family of G protein–coupled receptors

    PubMed Central

    Kunduri, Govind; Yuan, Changqing; Parthibane, Velayoudame; Nyswaner, Katherine M.; Kanwar, Ritu; Nagashima, Kunio; Britt, Steven G.; Mehta, Nickita; Kotu, Varshika; Porterfield, Mindy; Tiemeyer, Michael; Dolph, Patrick J.; Acharya, Usha

    2014-01-01

    The coat protein II (COPII)–coated vesicular system transports newly synthesized secretory and membrane proteins from the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) to the Golgi complex. Recruitment of cargo into COPII vesicles requires an interaction of COPII proteins either with the cargo molecules directly or with cargo receptors for anterograde trafficking. We show that cytosolic phosphatidic acid phospholipase A1 (PAPLA1) interacts with COPII protein family members and is required for the transport of Rh1 (rhodopsin 1), an N-glycosylated G protein–coupled receptor (GPCR), from the ER to the Golgi complex. In papla1 mutants, in the absence of transport to the Golgi, Rh1 is aberrantly glycosylated and is mislocalized. These defects lead to decreased levels of the protein and decreased sensitivity of the photoreceptors to light. Several GPCRs, including other rhodopsins and Bride of sevenless, are similarly affected. Our findings show that a cytosolic protein is necessary for transit of selective transmembrane receptor cargo by the COPII coat for anterograde trafficking. PMID:25002678

  10. Quantitative determination of cyclic phosphatidic acid and its carba analog in mouse organs and plasma using LC-MS/MS.

    PubMed

    Shimizu, Yoshibumi; Ishikawa, Masaki; Gotoh, Mari; Fukasawa, Keiko; Yamamoto, Shinji; Iwasa, Kensuke; Yoshikawa, Keisuke; Murakami-Murofushi, Kimiko

    2018-02-15

    Cyclic phosphatidic acid (cPA), an analog of lysophosphatidic acid, is involved in the regulation of many cellular processes. A sensitive and specific method to quantify the molecular species of cPA is important for studying the physiological and pathophysiological roles of cPA. Here, we developed a liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS)-based quantification method for the simultaneous detection of cPA species having various fatty acids (16:0, 18:0, 18:1, and 18:2) as well as 2-carba-cPA, a chemically synthesized analog of cPA. Chromatography was performed using a reversed-phase C18 column. cPA species were detected using a triple quadrupole mass spectrometer. cPA 17:0 was used as an internal standard. Intra- and interday precision values (CV%) were within 10%. The linear range of detection for each cPA species was 0.01 μg/mL to 5 μg/mL, with correlation coefficients of 0.998 or higher. The developed method was applied to the quantification of cPA species in mouse plasma and organs. The concentrations of cPA 16:0, 18:0, and 18:1 were revealed to be significantly reduced in the brains of cuprizone-treated mice, a model of multiple sclerosis, compared with control mice. These findings could be important for understanding the roles of cPA in the neurodegenerative processes associated with multiple sclerosis. Copyright © 2018 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Phospholipase D and the maintenance of phosphatidic acid levels for regulation of mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR).

    PubMed

    Foster, David A; Salloum, Darin; Menon, Deepak; Frias, Maria A

    2014-08-15

    Phosphatidic acid (PA) is a critical metabolite at the heart of membrane phospholipid biosynthesis. However, PA also serves as a critical lipid second messenger that regulates several proteins implicated in the control of cell cycle progression and cell growth. Three major metabolic pathways generate PA: phospholipase D (PLD), diacylglycerol kinase (DGK), and lysophosphatidic acid acyltransferase (LPAAT). The LPAAT pathway is integral to de novo membrane phospholipid biosynthesis, whereas the PLD and DGK pathways are activated in response to growth factors and stress. The PLD pathway is also responsive to nutrients. A key target for the lipid second messenger function of PA is mTOR, the mammalian/mechanistic target of rapamycin, which integrates both nutrient and growth factor signals to control cell growth and proliferation. Although PLD has been widely implicated in the generation of PA needed for mTOR activation, it is becoming clear that PA generated via the LPAAT and DGK pathways is also involved in the regulation of mTOR. In this minireview, we highlight the coordinated maintenance of intracellular PA levels that regulate mTOR signals stimulated by growth factors and nutrients, including amino acids, lipids, glucose, and Gln. Emerging evidence indicates compensatory increases in one source of PA when another source is compromised, highlighting the importance of being able to adapt to stressful conditions that interfere with PA production. The regulation of PA levels has important implications for cancer cells that depend on PA and mTOR activity for survival. © 2014 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  12. The Antifungal Plant Defensin HsAFP1 Is a Phosphatidic Acid-Interacting Peptide Inducing Membrane Permeabilization

    PubMed Central

    Cools, Tanne L.; Vriens, Kim; Struyfs, Caroline; Verbandt, Sara; Ramada, Marcelo H. S.; Brand, Guilherme D.; Bloch, Carlos; Koch, Barbara; Traven, Ana; Drijfhout, Jan W.; Demuyser, Liesbeth; Kucharíková, Soňa; Van Dijck, Patrick; Spasic, Dragana; Lammertyn, Jeroen; Cammue, Bruno P. A.; Thevissen, Karin

    2017-01-01

    HsAFP1, a plant defensin isolated from coral bells (Heuchera sanguinea), is characterized by broad-spectrum antifungal activity. Previous studies indicated that HsAFP1 binds to specific fungal membrane components, which had hitherto not been identified, and induces mitochondrial dysfunction and cell membrane permeabilization. In this study, we show that HsAFP1 reversibly interacts with the membrane phospholipid phosphatidic acid (PA), which is a precursor for the biosynthesis of other phospholipids, and to a lesser extent with various phosphatidyl inositol phosphates (PtdInsP’s). Moreover, via reverse ELISA assays we identified two basic amino acids in HsAFP1, namely histidine at position 32 and arginine at position 52, as well as the phosphate group in PA as important features enabling this interaction. Using a HsAFP1 variant, lacking both amino acids (HsAFP1[H32A][R52A]), we showed that, as compared to the native peptide, the ability of this variant to bind to PA and PtdInsP’s is reduced (≥74%) and the antifungal activity of the variant is reduced (≥2-fold), highlighting the link between PA/PtdInsP binding and antifungal activity. Using fluorescently labelled HsAFP1 in confocal microscopy and flow cytometry assays, we showed that HsAFP1 accumulates at the cell surface of yeast cells with intact membranes, most notably at the buds and septa. The resulting HsAFP1-induced membrane permeabilization is likely to occur after HsAFP1’s internalization. These data provide novel mechanistic insights in the mode of action of the HsAFP1 plant defensin. PMID:29209301

  13. The effect of cyclic phosphatidic acid on the proliferation and differentiation of mouse cerebellar granule precursor cells during cerebellar development.

    PubMed

    Konakazawa, Misa; Gotoh, Mari; Murakami-Murofushi, Kimiko; Hamano, Ayana; Miyamoto, Yasunori

    2015-07-21

    The proliferation and differentiation of cerebellar granule cell precursors (GCPs) are highly regulated spatiotemporally during development. We focused on cyclic phosphatidic acid (cPA) as a lipid mediator with a cyclic phosphate group as a regulatory factor of GCPs. While its structure is similar to that of lysophosphatidic acid (LPA), its function is very unique. cPA is known to be present in the cerebellum at high levels, but its function has not been fully elucidated. In this study, we examined the role of cPA on the proliferation and differentiation of GCPs. A cell cycle analysis of GCPs revealed that cPA reduced the number of phospho-histone H3 (Phh3)-positive cells and bromodeoxy uridine (BrdU)-incorporated cells and increased an index of the cell cycle exit. We next analyzed the effect of cPA on GCP differentiation using Tuj1 as a neuronal marker of final differentiation. The results show that cPA increased the number of Tuj1-positive cells. Further analysis of the proliferation of GCPs showed that cPA suppressed Sonic hedgehog (Shh)-dependent proliferation, but did not suppress insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1)-dependent proliferation. P2Y5 (LPA6), an LPA receptor, is highly expressed in GCPs. The knockdown of P2Y5 suppressed the inhibitory effect of cPA on the proliferation of GCPs, suggesting that P2Y5 is a candidate receptor for cPA. Thus, cPA suppresses the Shh-dependent proliferation of GCPs and promotes the differentiation of GCPs through P2Y5. These results demonstrate that cPA plays a critical role in the development of GCPs. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Antinociceptive effect of cyclic phosphatidic acid and its derivative on animal models of acute and chronic pain.

    PubMed

    Kakiuchi, Yasutaka; Nagai, Jun; Gotoh, Mari; Hotta, Harumi; Murofushi, Hiromu; Ogawa, Tomoyo; Ueda, Hiroshi; Murakami-Murofushi, Kimiko

    2011-05-14

    Cyclic phosphatidic acid (cPA) is a structural analog of lysophosphatidic acid (LPA), but possesses different biological functions, such as the inhibition of autotaxin (ATX), an LPA-synthesizing enzyme. As LPA is a signaling molecule involved in nociception in the peripheral and central systems, cPA is expected to possess analgesic activity. We characterized the effects of cPA and 2-carba-cPA (2ccPA), a chemically stable cPA analog, on acute and chronic pain. (1) The systemic injection of 2ccPA significantly inhibited somato-cardiac and somato-somatic C-reflexes but not the corresponding A-reflexes in anesthetized rats. (2) 2ccPA reduced sensitivity measured as the paw withdrawal response to electrical stimulation applied to the hind paws of mice through the C-fiber, but not Aδ or Aβ. (3) In mice, pretreatment with 2ccPA dose-dependently inhibited the second phase of formalin-induced licking and biting responses. (4) In mice, pretreatment and repeated post-treatments with 2ccPA significantly attenuated thermal hyperalgesia and mechanical allodynia following partial ligation of the sciatic nerve. (5) In rats, repeated post-treatments with 2ccPA also significantly attenuated thermal hyperalgesia and mechanical allodynia following chronic sciatic nerve constriction. Our results suggest that cPA and its stable analog 2ccPA inhibit chronic and acute inflammation-induced C-fiber stimulation, and that the central effects of 2ccPA following repeated treatments attenuate neuropathic pain.

  15. Zn2+-dependent surface behavior of diacylglycerol pyrophosphate and its mixtures with phosphatidic acid at different pHs

    PubMed Central

    Villasuso, Ana L.; Wilke, Natalia; Maggio, Bruno; Machado, Estela

    2014-01-01

    Diacylglycerol pyrophosphate (DGPP) is a minor lipid that attenuates the phosphatidic acid (PA) signal, and also DGPP itself would be a signaling lipid. Diacylglycerol pyrophosphate is an anionic phospholipid with a pyrophosphate group attached to diacylglycerol that was shown to respond to changes of pH, thus affecting the surface organization of DGPP and their interaction with PA. In this work, we have investigated how the presence of Zn2+ modulates the surface organization of DGPP and its interaction with PA at acidic and basic pHs. Both lipids formed expanded monolayers at pHs 5 and 8. At pH 5, monolayers formed by DGPP became stiffer when Zn2+was added to the subphase, while the surface potential decreased. At this pH, Zn2+ induced a phase transition from an expanded to a condensed-phase state in monolayers formed by PA. Conversely, at pH 8 the effects induced by the presence of Zn2+ on the surface behaviors of the pure lipids were smaller. Thus, the interaction of the bivalent cation with both lipids was modulated by pH and by the ionization state of the polar head groups. Mixed monolayers of PA and DGPP showed a non-ideal behavior and were not affected by the presence of Zn2+ at pH 8. This could be explained considering that when mixed, the lipids formed a closely packed monolayer that could not be further modified by the cation. Our results indicate that DGPP and PA exhibit expanded- and condensed-phase states depending on pH, on the proportion of each lipid in the film and on the presence of Zn2+. This may have implications for a possible role of DGPP as a signaling lipid molecule. PMID:25120554

  16. Protection of Neuroblastoma Neuro2A Cells from Hypoxia-Induced Apoptosis by Cyclic Phosphatidic Acid (cPA)

    PubMed Central

    Murofushi, Hiromu; Murakami-Murofushi, Kimiko

    2012-01-01

    Cyclic phosphatidic acid (cPA) is a naturally occurring phospholipid mediator with a unique cyclic phosphate ring at the sn-2 and sn-3 positions of its glycerol backbone. We have previously shown that cPA significantly suppresses ischemia-induced delayed neuronal death and the accumulation of glial fibrillary acidic protein in the CA1 region of the rat hippocampus. These results indicated that the systemic administration of cPA can protect hippocampal neurons against ischemia-induced delayed neuronal cell death. In the current study, we investigated the effects of cPA on neuronal cell death caused by hypoxia in vitro and the molecular mechanisms underlying these effects. We used cobalt chloride (CoCl2) to expose cells to hypoxic conditions in vitro. Treating mouse neuroblastoma (Neuro2A) cells with CoCl2 induced nuclear DNA condensation and phosphatidylserine exposure. However, adding cPA led to the suppression of CoCl2-induced apoptosis in a cPA dose-dependent manner and attenuated the increase in the Bax/Bcl-2 ratio caused by CoCl2. Quantitative PCR analysis showed that Neuro2A cells strongly express the LPA1, LPA2, and LPA6, which are G-protein coupled receptors that can be activated by cPA. To date, LPA1 and LPA2 have been reported to exhibit antiapoptotic activity. Therefore, to assess the roles of LPA1 and LPA2 on cPA-induced neuroprotective functions, Ki16425, a selective LPA1 and LPA3 antagonist, was adopted to know the LPA1 function and siRNA was used to knockdown the expression of LPA2. On the basis of our results, we propose that cPA-induced protection of Neuro2A cells from CoCl2-induced hypoxia damage is mediated via LPA2. PMID:23251428

  17. Protection of neuroblastoma Neuro2A cells from hypoxia-induced apoptosis by cyclic phosphatidic acid (cPA).

    PubMed

    Gotoh, Mari; Sano-Maeda, Katsura; Murofushi, Hiromu; Murakami-Murofushi, Kimiko

    2012-01-01

    Cyclic phosphatidic acid (cPA) is a naturally occurring phospholipid mediator with a unique cyclic phosphate ring at the sn-2 and sn-3 positions of its glycerol backbone. We have previously shown that cPA significantly suppresses ischemia-induced delayed neuronal death and the accumulation of glial fibrillary acidic protein in the CA1 region of the rat hippocampus. These results indicated that the systemic administration of cPA can protect hippocampal neurons against ischemia-induced delayed neuronal cell death. In the current study, we investigated the effects of cPA on neuronal cell death caused by hypoxia in vitro and the molecular mechanisms underlying these effects. We used cobalt chloride (CoCl(2)) to expose cells to hypoxic conditions in vitro. Treating mouse neuroblastoma (Neuro2A) cells with CoCl(2) induced nuclear DNA condensation and phosphatidylserine exposure. However, adding cPA led to the suppression of CoCl(2)-induced apoptosis in a cPA dose-dependent manner and attenuated the increase in the Bax/Bcl-2 ratio caused by CoCl(2). Quantitative PCR analysis showed that Neuro2A cells strongly express the LPA(1), LPA(2), and LPA(6), which are G-protein coupled receptors that can be activated by cPA. To date, LPA(1) and LPA(2) have been reported to exhibit antiapoptotic activity. Therefore, to assess the roles of LPA(1) and LPA(2) on cPA-induced neuroprotective functions, Ki16425, a selective LPA(1) and LPA(3) antagonist, was adopted to know the LPA(1) function and siRNA was used to knockdown the expression of LPA(2). On the basis of our results, we propose that cPA-induced protection of Neuro2A cells from CoCl(2)-induced hypoxia damage is mediated via LPA(2).

  18. Characterization of a soluble phosphatidic acid phosphatase in bitter melon (Momordica charantia)

    Momordica charantia is often called bitter melon, bitter gourd or bitter squash because its fruit has a bitter taste. The fruit has been widely used as vegetable and herbal medicine. Alpha-eleostearic acid is the major fatty acid in the seeds, but little is known about its biosynthesis. As an initia...

  19. Rapid phosphatidic acid accumulation in response to low temperature stress in Arabidopsis is generated through diacylglycerol kinase.

    PubMed

    Arisz, Steven A; van Wijk, Ringo; Roels, Wendy; Zhu, Jian-Kang; Haring, Michel A; Munnik, Teun

    2013-01-01

    Phosphatidic acid (PtdOH) is emerging as an important signaling lipid in abiotic stress responses in plants. The effect of cold stress was monitored using (32)P-labeled seedlings and leaf discs of Arabidopsis thaliana. Low, non-freezing temperatures were found to trigger a very rapid (32)P-PtdOH increase, peaking within 2 and 5 min, respectively. In principle, PtdOH can be generated through three different pathways, i.e., (1) via de novo phospholipid biosynthesis (through acylation of lyso-PtdOH), (2) via phospholipase D hydrolysis of structural phospholipids, or (3) via phosphorylation of diacylglycerol (DAG) by DAG kinase (DGK). Using a differential (32)P-labeling protocol and a PLD-transphosphatidylation assay, evidence is provided that the rapid (32)P-PtdOH response was primarily generated through DGK. A simultaneous decrease in the levels of (32)P-PtdInsP, correlating in time, temperature dependency, and magnitude with the increase in (32)P-PtdOH, suggested that a PtdInsP-hydrolyzing PLC generated the DAG in this reaction. Testing T-DNA insertion lines available for the seven DGK genes, revealed no clear changes in (32)P-PtdOH responses, suggesting functional redundancy. Similarly, known cold-stress mutants were analyzed to investigate whether the PtdOH response acted downstream of the respective gene products. The hos1, los1, and fry1 mutants were found to exhibit normal PtdOH responses. Slight changes were found for ice1, snow1, and the overexpression line Super-ICE1, however, this was not cold-specific and likely due to pleiotropic effects. A tentative model illustrating direct cold effects on phospholipid metabolism is presented.

  20. Rapid phosphatidic acid accumulation in response to low temperature stress in Arabidopsis is generated through diacylglycerol kinase

    PubMed Central

    Arisz, Steven A.; van Wijk, Ringo; Roels, Wendy; Zhu, Jian-Kang; Haring, Michel A.; Munnik, Teun

    2013-01-01

    Phosphatidic acid (PtdOH) is emerging as an important signaling lipid in abiotic stress responses in plants. The effect of cold stress was monitored using 32P-labeled seedlings and leaf discs of Arabidopsis thaliana. Low, non-freezing temperatures were found to trigger a very rapid 32P-PtdOH increase, peaking within 2 and 5 min, respectively. In principle, PtdOH can be generated through three different pathways, i.e., (1) via de novo phospholipid biosynthesis (through acylation of lyso-PtdOH), (2) via phospholipase D hydrolysis of structural phospholipids, or (3) via phosphorylation of diacylglycerol (DAG) by DAG kinase (DGK). Using a differential 32P-labeling protocol and a PLD-transphosphatidylation assay, evidence is provided that the rapid 32P-PtdOH response was primarily generated through DGK. A simultaneous decrease in the levels of 32P-PtdInsP, correlating in time, temperature dependency, and magnitude with the increase in 32P-PtdOH, suggested that a PtdInsP-hydrolyzing PLC generated the DAG in this reaction. Testing T-DNA insertion lines available for the seven DGK genes, revealed no clear changes in 32P-PtdOH responses, suggesting functional redundancy. Similarly, known cold-stress mutants were analyzed to investigate whether the PtdOH response acted downstream of the respective gene products. The hos1, los1, and fry1 mutants were found to exhibit normal PtdOH responses. Slight changes were found for ice1, snow1, and the overexpression line Super-ICE1, however, this was not cold-specific and likely due to pleiotropic effects. A tentative model illustrating direct cold effects on phospholipid metabolism is presented. PMID:23346092

  1. Phosphatidic acid (PA) binds PP2AA1 to regulate PP2A activity and PIN1 polar localization.

    PubMed

    Gao, Hong-Bo; Chu, Yu-Jia; Xue, Hong-Wei

    2013-09-01

    Phospholipase D (PLD) exerts broad biological functions in eukaryotes through regulating downstream effectors by its product, phosphatidic acid (PA). Protein kinases and phosphatases, such as mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR), Protein Phosphatase 1 (PP1) and Protein Phosphatase 2C (PP2C), are PA-binding proteins that execute crucial regulatory functions in both animals and plants. PA participates in many signaling pathways by modulating the enzymatic activity and/or subcellular localization of bound proteins. In this study, we demonstrated that PLD-derived PA interacts with the scaffolding A1 subunit of Protein Phosphatase 2A (PP2A) and regulates PP2A-mediated PIN1 dephosphorylation in Arabidopsis. Genetic and pharmacological studies showed that both PA and PP2A participate in the regulation of auxin distribution. In addition, both the phosphorylation status and polar localization of PIN1 protein were affected by PLD inhibitors. Exogenous PA triggered the membrane accumulation of PP2AA1 and enhanced the PP2A activity at membrane, while PLD inhibition resulted in the reduced endosomal localization and perinuclear aggregation of PP2AA1. These results demonstrate the important role of PLD-derived PA in normal PP2A-mediated PIN dephosphorylation and reveal a novel mechanism, in which PA recruits PP2AA1 to the membrane system and regulates PP2A function on membrane-targeted proteins. As PA and PP2A are conserved among eukaryotes, other organisms might use similar mechanisms to mediate multiple biological processes.

  2. Phosphorylation of Dgk1 Diacylglycerol Kinase by Casein Kinase II Regulates Phosphatidic Acid Production in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    PubMed

    Qiu, Yixuan; Hassaninasab, Azam; Han, Gil-Soo; Carman, George M

    2016-12-16

    In the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae, Dgk1 diacylglycerol (DAG) kinase catalyzes the CTP-dependent phosphorylation of DAG to form phosphatidic acid (PA). The enzyme in conjunction with Pah1 PA phosphatase controls the levels of PA and DAG for the synthesis of triacylglycerol and membrane phospholipids, the growth of the nuclear/endoplasmic reticulum membrane, and the formation of lipid droplets. Little is known about how DAG kinase activity is regulated by posttranslational modification. In this work, we examined the phosphorylation of Dgk1 DAG kinase by casein kinase II (CKII). When phosphate groups were globally reduced using nonspecific alkaline phosphatase, Triton X-100-solubilized membranes from DGK1-overexpressing cells showed a 7.7-fold reduction in DAG kinase activity; the reduced enzyme activity could be increased 5.5-fold by treatment with CKII. Dgk1(1-77) expressed heterologously in Escherichia coli was phosphorylated by CKII on a serine residue, and its phosphorylation was dependent on time as well as on the concentrations of CKII, ATP, and Dgk1(1-77). We used site-specific mutagenesis, coupled with phosphorylation analysis and phosphopeptide mapping, to identify Ser-45 and Ser-46 of Dgk1 as the CKII target sites, with Ser-46 being the major phosphorylation site. In vivo, the S46A and S45A/S46A mutations of Dgk1 abolished the stationary phase-dependent stimulation of DAG kinase activity. In addition, the phosphorylation-deficient mutations decreased Dgk1 function in PA production and in eliciting pah1Δ phenotypes, such as the expansion of the nuclear/endoplasmic reticulum membrane, reduced lipid droplet formation, and temperature sensitivity. This work demonstrates that the CKII-mediated phosphorylation of Dgk1 regulates its function in the production of PA. © 2016 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  3. Effects of cyclic phosphatidic acid on delayed neuronal death following transient ischemia in rat hippocampal CA1.

    PubMed

    Gotoh, Mari; Hotta, Harumi; Murakami-Murofushi, Kimiko

    2010-12-15

    Cyclic phosphatidic acid (cPA) is a lipid mediator that elicits a neurotrophin-like action in embryonic hippocampal neurons in vitro. In this study, we investigated the effects of cPA and 2-O-carba-oleoyl-cPA (2ccPA), a metabolically stabilized cPA derivative, on ischemia-induced delayed neuronal death in the rat hippocampal CA1 region. Transient occlusion for 8 min of bilateral carotid arteries besides permanent ligation of bilateral vertebral arteries was performed and morphological changes of the neurons were examined histologically 5 days after occlusion. cPA or 2ccPA was continuously administered for 5 days by means of an osmotic pump that was implanted subcutaneously before occlusion. Five days after occlusion, delayed neuronal death occurred in approximately 85% of the CA1 hippocampal neurons in the 0.2-2% bovine serum albumin vehicle control group. However, administration of cPA significantly increased the number of undamaged neurons in a dose-dependent manner. At the most effective concentration (18 μg/kg/5d), the number of undamaged neurons was increased to 4 times of that in the vehicle control group. 2ccPA also showed a neuroprotective effect, but it was less potent than that of natural cPA. These results indicate that systemic administration of both cPA and 2ccPA can protect neurons from ischemia-induced delayed neuronal death in the hippocampus. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. TGD4 involved in endoplasmic reticulum-to-chloroplast lipid trafficking is a phosphatidic acid binding protein

    SciT

    Wang Z.; Xu C.; Benning, C.

    The synthesis of galactoglycerolipids, which are prevalent in photosynthetic membranes, involves enzymes at the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) and the chloroplast envelope membranes. Genetic analysis of trigalactosyldiacylglycerol (TGD) proteins in Arabidopsis has demonstrated their role in polar lipid transfer from the ER to the chloroplast. The TGD1, 2, and 3 proteins resemble components of a bacterial-type ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporter, with TGD1 representing the permease, TGD2 the substrate binding protein, and TGD3 the ATPase. However, the function of the TGD4 protein in this process is less clear and its location in plant cells remains to be firmly determined. The predicted C-terminalmore » {beta}-barrel structure of TGD4 is weakly similar to proteins of the outer cell membrane of Gram-negative bacteria. Here, we show that, like TGD2, the TGD4 protein when fused to DsRED specifically binds phosphatidic acid (PtdOH). As previously shown for tgd1 mutants, tgd4 mutants have elevated PtdOH content, probably in extraplastidic membranes. Using highly purified and specific antibodies to probe different cell fractions, we demonstrated that the TGD4 protein was present in the outer envelope membrane of chloroplasts, where it appeared to be deeply buried within the membrane except for the N-terminus, which was found to be exposed to the cytosol. It is proposed that TGD4 is either directly involved in the transfer of polar lipids, possibly PtdOH, from the ER to the outer chloroplast envelope membrane or in the transfer of PtdOH through the outer envelope membrane.« less

  5. The role of phosphoinositide 3-kinase and phosphatidic acid in the regulation of mammalian target of rapamycin following eccentric contractions

    PubMed Central

    O’Neil, T K; Duffy, L R; Frey, J W; Hornberger, T A

    2009-01-01

    Resistance exercise induces a hypertrophic response in skeletal muscle and recent studies have begun to shed light on the molecular mechanisms involved in this process. For example, several studies indicate that signalling by the mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) is necessary for a hypertrophic response. Furthermore, resistance exercise has been proposed to activate mTOR signalling through an upstream pathway involving the phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K) and protein kinase B (PKB); however, this hypothesis has not been thoroughly tested. To test this hypothesis, we first evaluated the temporal pattern of signalling through PI3K–PKB and mTOR following a bout of resistance exercise with eccentric contractions (EC). Our results indicated that the activation of signalling through PI3K–PKB is a transient event (<15 min), while the activation of mTOR is sustained for a long duration (>12 h). Furthermore, inhibition of PI3K–PKB activity did not prevent the activation of mTOR signalling by ECs, indicating that PI3K–PKB is not part of the upstream regulatory pathway. These observations led us to investigate an alternative pathway for the activation of mTOR signalling involving the synthesis of phosphatidic acid (PA) by phospholipase D (PLD). Our results demonstrate that ECs induce a sustained elevation in [PA] and inhibiting the synthesis of PA by PLD prevented the activation of mTOR. Furthermore, we determined that similar to ECs, PA activates mTOR signalling through a PI3K–PKB-independent mechanism. Combined, the results of this study indicate that the activation of mTOR following eccentric contractions occurs through a PI3K–PKB-independent mechanism that requires PLD and PA. PMID:19470781

  6. Seipin is involved in the regulation of phosphatidic acid metabolism at a subdomain of the nuclear envelope in yeast.

    PubMed

    Wolinski, Heimo; Hofbauer, Harald F; Hellauer, Klara; Cristobal-Sarramian, Alvaro; Kolb, Dagmar; Radulovic, Maja; Knittelfelder, Oskar L; Rechberger, Gerald N; Kohlwein, Sepp D

    2015-11-01

    Yeast Fld1 and Ldb16 resemble mammalian seipin, implicated in neutral lipid storage. Both proteins form a complex at the endoplasmic reticulum-lipid droplet (LD) interface. Malfunction of this complex either leads to LD clustering or to the generation of supersized LD (SLD) in close vicinity to the nuclear envelope, in response to altered phospholipid (PL) composition. We show that similar to mutants lacking Fld1, deletion of LDB16 leads to abnormal proliferation of a subdomain of the nuclear envelope, which is tightly associated with clustered LD. The human lipin-1 ortholog, the PAH1 encoded phosphatidic acid (PA) phosphatase, and its activator Nem1 are highly enriched at this site. The specific accumulation of PA-binding marker proteins indicates a local enrichment of PA in the fld1 and ldb16 mutants. Furthermore, we demonstrate that clustered LD in fld1 or ldb16 mutants are transformed to SLD if phosphatidylcholine synthesis is compromised by additional deletion of the phosphatidylethanolamine methyltransferase, Cho2. Notably, treatment of wild-type cells with oleate induced a similar LD clustering and nuclear membrane proliferation phenotype as observed in fld1 and ldb16 mutants. These data suggest that the Fld1-Ldb16 complex affects PA homeostasis at an LD-forming subdomain of the nuclear envelope. Lack of Fld1-Ldb16 leads to locally elevated PA levels that induce an abnormal proliferation of nER membrane structures and the clustering of associated LD. We suggest that the formation of SLD is a consequence of locally altered PL metabolism at this site. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  7. Phosphatidic acid binding proteins display differential binding as a function of membrane curvature stress and chemical properties.

    PubMed

    Putta, Priya; Rankenberg, Johanna; Korver, Ruud A; van Wijk, Ringo; Munnik, Teun; Testerink, Christa; Kooijman, Edgar E

    2016-11-01

    Phosphatidic acid (PA) is a crucial membrane phospholipid involved in de novo lipid synthesis and numerous intracellular signaling cascades. The signaling function of PA is mediated by peripheral membrane proteins that specifically recognize PA. While numerous PA-binding proteins are known, much less is known about what drives specificity of PA-protein binding. Previously, we have described the ionization properties of PA, summarized in the electrostatic-hydrogen bond switch, as one aspect that drives the specific binding of PA by PA-binding proteins. Here we focus on membrane curvature stress induced by phosphatidylethanolamine and show that many PA-binding proteins display enhanced binding as a function of negative curvature stress. This result is corroborated by the observation that positive curvature stress, induced by lyso phosphatidylcholine, abolishes PA binding of target proteins. We show, for the first time, that a novel plant PA-binding protein, Arabidopsis Epsin-like Clathrin Adaptor 1 (ECA1) displays curvature-dependence in its binding to PA. Other established PA targets examined in this study include, the plant proteins TGD2, and PDK1, the yeast proteins Opi1 and Spo20, and, the mammalian protein Raf-1 kinase and the C2 domain of the mammalian phosphatidylserine binding protein Lact as control. Based on our observations, we propose that liposome binding assays are the preferred method to investigate lipid binding compared to the popular lipid overlay assays where membrane environment is lost. The use of complex lipid mixtures is important to elucidate further aspects of PA binding proteins. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  8. Structural evidence of the species-dependent albumin binding of the modified cyclic phosphatidic acid with cytotoxic properties.

    PubMed

    Sekula, Bartosz; Ciesielska, Anna; Rytczak, Przemyslaw; Koziołkiewicz, Maria; Bujacz, Anna

    2016-07-01

    Cyclic phosphatidic acids (cPAs) are naturally occurring, very active signalling molecules, which are involved in several pathological states, such as cancer, diabetes or obesity. As molecules of highly lipidic character found in the circulatory system, cPAs are bound and transported by the main extracellular lipid binding protein-serum albumin. Here, we present the detailed interactions between human serum albumin (HSA) and equine serum albumin (ESA) with a derivative of cPA, 1-O-myristoyl-sn-glycerol-2,3-cyclic phosphorodithioate (Myr-2S-cPA). Initial selection of the ligand used for the structural study was made by the analysis of the therapeutically promising properties of the sulfur containing analogues of cPA in respect to the unmodified lysophospholipids (LPLs). Substitution of one or two non-bridging oxygen atoms in the phosphate group with one or two sulfur atoms increases the cytotoxic effect of cPAs up to 60% on the human prostate cancer (PC) cells. Myr-2S-cPA reduces cancer cell viability in a dose-dependent manner, with IC50 value of 29.0 μM after 24 h incubation, which is almost 30% lower than IC50 of single substituted phosphorothioate cPA. Although, the structural homology between HSA and ESA is big, their crystal complexes with Myr-2S-cPA demonstrate significantly different mode of binding of this LPL analogue. HSA binds three molecules of Myr-2S-cPA, whereas ESA only one. Moreover, none of the identified Myr-2S-cPA binding sites overlap in both albumins. © 2016 The Author(s).

  9. Structural evidence of the species-dependent albumin binding of the modified cyclic phosphatidic acid with cytotoxic properties

    PubMed Central

    Sekula, Bartosz; Ciesielska, Anna; Rytczak, Przemyslaw; Koziołkiewicz, Maria; Bujacz, Anna

    2016-01-01

    Cyclic phosphatidic acids (cPAs) are naturally occurring, very active signalling molecules, which are involved in several pathological states, such as cancer, diabetes or obesity. As molecules of highly lipidic character found in the circulatory system, cPAs are bound and transported by the main extracellular lipid binding protein–serum albumin. Here, we present the detailed interactions between human serum albumin (HSA) and equine serum albumin (ESA) with a derivative of cPA, 1-O-myristoyl-sn-glycerol-2,3-cyclic phosphorodithioate (Myr-2S-cPA). Initial selection of the ligand used for the structural study was made by the analysis of the therapeutically promising properties of the sulfur containing analogues of cPA in respect to the unmodified lysophospholipids (LPLs). Substitution of one or two non-bridging oxygen atoms in the phosphate group with one or two sulfur atoms increases the cytotoxic effect of cPAs up to 60% on the human prostate cancer (PC) cells. Myr-2S-cPA reduces cancer cell viability in a dose-dependent manner, with IC50 value of 29.0 μM after 24 h incubation, which is almost 30% lower than IC50 of single substituted phosphorothioate cPA. Although, the structural homology between HSA and ESA is big, their crystal complexes with Myr-2S-cPA demonstrate significantly different mode of binding of this LPL analogue. HSA binds three molecules of Myr-2S-cPA, whereas ESA only one. Moreover, none of the identified Myr-2S-cPA binding sites overlap in both albumins. PMID:27129297

  10. Characterization of phosphatidic acid phosphatase activity in the oleaginous yeast Yarrowia lipolytica and its role in lipid biosynthesis.

    PubMed

    Hardman, Derell; McFalls, Daniel; Fakas, Stylianos

    2017-02-01

    Phosphatidic acid phosphatase (PAP) catalyses the committed step of triacylglycerol (TAG) biosynthesis and thus regulates the amounts of TAG produced by the cell. TAG is the target of biotechnological processes developed for the production of food lipids or biofuels. These processes are using oleaginous microorganisms like the yeast Yarrowia lipolytica as the TAG producers. Thus manipulating key enzymatic activities like PAP in Y. lipolytica could drive lipid biosynthesis towards TAG production and increase TAG yields. In this study, PAP activity in Y. lipolytica was characterized in detail and its role in lipid biosynthesis was addressed. PAP activity increased 2.5-fold with the addition of Mg 2+ (1 mm) in the assay mixture, which means that most of the PAP activity was due to Mg 2+ -dependent PAP enzymes (e.g. Pah1, App1). In contrast, N-ethylmaleimide (NEM) potently inhibited PAP activity, indicating the presence of NEM-sensitive PAP enzymes (e.g. App1, Lpp1). Localization studies revealed that the majority of PAP activity resides in the membrane fraction, while the cytosolic fraction harbours only a small amount of activity. PAP activity was regulated in a growth-dependent manner, being induced at the early exponential phase and declining thereafter. PAP activity did not correlate with TAG synthesis, which increased as cells progressed from the exponential phase to the early stationary phase. In stationary phase, TAG was mobilized with the concomitant synthesis of sterols and sterol esters. These results provide the first insights into the role of PAP in lipid biosynthesis by Y. lipolytica. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  11. The basic amino acids in the coiled-coil domain of CIN85 regulate its interaction with c-Cbl and phosphatidic acid during epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) endocytosis.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Xiudan; Zhang, Jing; Liao, Kan

    2014-07-08

    During EGFR internalization CIN85 bridges EGFR-Cbl complex, endocytic machinery and fusible membrane through the interactions of CIN85 with c-Cbl, endophilins and phosphatidic acid. These protein-protein and protein-lipid interactions are mediated or regulated by the positively charged C-terminal coiled-coil domain of CIN85. However, the details of CIN85-lipid interaction remain unknown. The present study suggested a possible electric interaction between the negative charge of phosphatidic acid and the positive charge of basic amino acids in coiled-coil domain. Mutations of the basic amino acids in the coiled-coil domain, especially K645, K646, R648 and R650, into neutral amino acid alanine completely blocked the interaction of CIN85 with c-Cbl or phosphatidic acid. However, they did not affect CIN85-endophilin interaction. In addition, CIN85 was found to associate with the internalized EGFR endosomes. It interacted with several ESCRT (Endosomal Sorting Complex Required for Transport) component proteins for ESCRT assembly on endosomal membrane. Mutations in the coiled-coil domain (deletion of the coiled-coil domain or point mutations of the basic amino acids) dissociated CIN85 from endosomes. These mutants bound the ESCRT components in cytoplasm to prevent them from assembly on endosomal membrane and inhibited EGFR sorting for degradation. As an adaptor protein, CIN85 interacts with variety of partners through several domains. The positive charges of basic amino acids in the coiled-coil domain are not only involved in the interaction with phosphatidic acid, but also regulate the interaction of CIN85 with c-Cbl. CIN85 also interacts with ESCRT components for protein sorting in endosomes. These CIN85-protein and CIN85-lipid interactions enable CIN85 to link EGFR-Cbl endocytic complex with fusible membrane during EGFR endocytosis and subsequently to facilitate ESCRT formation on endosomal membrane for EGFR sorting and degradation.

  12. The basic amino acids in the coiled-coil domain of CIN85 regulate its interaction with c-Cbl and phosphatidic acid during epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) endocytosis

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background During EGFR internalization CIN85 bridges EGFR-Cbl complex, endocytic machinery and fusible membrane through the interactions of CIN85 with c-Cbl, endophilins and phosphatidic acid. These protein-protein and protein-lipid interactions are mediated or regulated by the positively charged C-terminal coiled-coil domain of CIN85. However, the details of CIN85-lipid interaction remain unknown. The present study suggested a possible electric interaction between the negative charge of phosphatidic acid and the positive charge of basic amino acids in coiled-coil domain. Results Mutations of the basic amino acids in the coiled-coil domain, especially K645, K646, R648 and R650, into neutral amino acid alanine completely blocked the interaction of CIN85 with c-Cbl or phosphatidic acid. However, they did not affect CIN85-endophilin interaction. In addition, CIN85 was found to associate with the internalized EGFR endosomes. It interacted with several ESCRT (Endosomal Sorting Complex Required for Transport) component proteins for ESCRT assembly on endosomal membrane. Mutations in the coiled-coil domain (deletion of the coiled-coil domain or point mutations of the basic amino acids) dissociated CIN85 from endosomes. These mutants bound the ESCRT components in cytoplasm to prevent them from assembly on endosomal membrane and inhibited EGFR sorting for degradation. Conclusions As an adaptor protein, CIN85 interacts with variety of partners through several domains. The positive charges of basic amino acids in the coiled-coil domain are not only involved in the interaction with phosphatidic acid, but also regulate the interaction of CIN85 with c-Cbl. CIN85 also interacts with ESCRT components for protein sorting in endosomes. These CIN85-protein and CIN85-lipid interactions enable CIN85 to link EGFR-Cbl endocytic complex with fusible membrane during EGFR endocytosis and subsequently to facilitate ESCRT formation on endosomal membrane for EGFR sorting and degradation. PMID

  13. Increasing cellular level of phosphatidic acid enhances FGF-1 production in long term-cultured rat astrocytes.

    PubMed

    Nagayasu, Yuko; Morita, Shin-Ya; Hayashi, Hideki; Miura, Yutaka; Yokoyama, Kazuki; Michikawa, Makoto; Ito, Jin-Ichi

    2014-05-14

    We found in a previous study that both mRNA expression and release of fibroblast growth factor 1 (FGF-1) are greater in rat astrocytes that are long term-cultured for one month (W/M cells) than in the cells cultured for one week (W/W cells). However, FGF-1 does not enhance phosphorylation of Akt, MEK, and ERK in W/M cells, while it does in W/W cells. In this work we studied the mechanism to cause these differences between W/W and W/M cells in culture. As it is known that long term culture generates oxidative stress, we characterized the stresses which W/M cells undergo in comparison with W/W cells. The levels of superoxide dismutase 1 (SOD1) and mitochondrial Bax were higher in W/M cells than in W/W cells. W/M cells recovered their ability to respond to FGF-1 to enhance phosphorylation of Akt, MEK, and ERK in the presence of antioxidants. Oxidative stress induced by hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) had no effect on mRNA expression of FGF-1 in W/W cells, although H2O2 enhances release of FGF-1 from W/W cells without inducing apoptosis. The influence of cell density was studied on mRNA expression of FGF-1 and cellular response to FGF-1, as an increasing cell density is observed in W/M cells. The increasing cell density enhanced mRNA expression of FGF-1 in W/W cells without suppression of responses to FGF-1. The decrease in cell density lowered the FGF-1 mRNA expression in W/M cells without recovery of the response to FGF-1 to enhance phosphorylation of Akt, MEK, and ERK. These findings suggest that oxidative stress attenuate sensitivity to FGF-1 and higher cell density may enhance FGF-1 expression in W/M cells. In addition, we found that the cellular level of phosphatidic acid (PA) increased in H2O2-treated W/W and W/M cells and decreased by the treatment with antioxidants, and that PA enhances the mRNA expression of FGF-1 in the W/W cells. These findings suggest that the increasing PA production may enhance FGF-1 expression to protect astrocytes against oxidative stress

  14. The Recombinant Sea Urchin Immune Effector Protein, rSpTransformer-E1, Binds to Phosphatidic Acid and Deforms Membranes

    PubMed Central

    Lun, Cheng Man; Samuel, Robin L.; Gillmor, Susan D.; Boyd, Anthony; Smith, L. Courtney

    2017-01-01

    The purple sea urchin, Strongylocentrotus purpuratus, possesses a sophisticated innate immune system that functions without adaptive capabilities and responds to pathogens effectively by expressing the highly diverse SpTransformer gene family (formerly the Sp185/333 gene family). The swift gene expression response and the sequence diversity of SpTransformer cDNAs suggest that the encoded proteins have immune functions. Individual sea urchins can express up to 260 distinct SpTransformer proteins, and their diversity suggests that different versions may have different functions. Although the deduced proteins are diverse, they share an overall structure of a hydrophobic leader, a glycine-rich N-terminal region, a histidine-rich region, and a C-terminal region. Circular dichroism analysis of a recombinant SpTransformer protein, rSpTransformer-E1 (rSpTrf-E1) demonstrates that it is intrinsically disordered and transforms to α helical in the presence of buffer additives and binding targets. Although native SpTrf proteins are associated with the membranes of perinuclear vesicles in the phagocyte class of coelomocytes and are present on the surface of small phagocytes, they have no predicted transmembrane region or conserved site for glycophosphatidylinositol linkage. To determine whether native SpTrf proteins associate with phagocyte membranes through interactions with lipids, when rSpTrf-E1 is incubated with lipid-embedded nylon strips, it binds to phosphatidic acid (PA) through both the glycine-rich region and the histidine-rich region. Synthetic liposomes composed of PA and phosphatidylcholine show binding between rSpTrf-E1 and PA by fluorescence resonance energy transfer, which is associated with leakage of luminal contents suggesting changes in lipid organization and perhaps liposome lysis. Interactions with liposomes also change membrane curvature leading to liposome budding, fusion, and invagination, which is associated with PA clustering induced by rSpTrf-E1

  15. Repeated intraperitoneal injections of liposomes containing phosphatidic acid and cardiolipin reduce amyloid-β levels in APP/PS1 transgenic mice.

    PubMed

    Ordóñez-Gutiérrez, Lara; Re, Francesca; Bereczki, Erika; Ioja, Eniko; Gregori, Maria; Andersen, Alina J; Antón, Marta; Moghimi, S Moein; Pei, Jin-Jing; Masserini, Massimo; Wandosell, Francisco

    2015-02-01

    The accumulation of extracellular amyloid-beta (Aβ) peptide and intracellular neurofibrillary tangles in the brain are two major neuropathological hallmarks of Alzheimer's disease (AD). It is thought that an equilibrium exists between Aβ in the brain and in the peripheral blood and thus, it was hypothesized that shifting this equilibrium towards the blood by enhancing peripheral clearance might reduce Aβ levels in the brain: the 'sink effect'. We tested this hypothesis by intraperitoneally injecting APP/PS1 transgenic mice with small unilamellar vesicles containing either phosphatidic acid or cardiolipin over 3weeks. This treatment reduced significantly the amount of Aβ in the plasma and the brain levels of Aβ were lighter affected. Nevertheless, this dosing regimen did modulate tau phosphorylation and glycogen synthase kinase 3 activities in the brain, suggesting that the targeting of circulating Aβ may be therapeutically relevant in AD. Intraperitoneal injection of small unilamellar vesicles containing phosphatidic acid or cardiolipin significantly reduced the amount of amyloid-beta (Aß) peptide in the plasma in a rodent model. Brain levels of Aß were also affected - although to a lesser extent - suggesting that targeting of circulating Aß may be therapeutically relevant of Alzheimer's disease. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Cation effects on phosphatidic acid monolayers at various pH conditions.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Ting; Cathcart, Matthew G; Vidalis, Andrew S; Allen, Heather C

    2016-10-01

    The impact of pH and cations on phase behavior, stability, and surface morphology for dipalmitoylphosphatidic acid (DPPA) monolayers was investigated. At pH<10, DPPA monolayers on water are predominantly populated by neutral species and display the highest packing density. Cations are found to expand and stabilize the monolayer in the following order of increasing magnitude at pH 5.6: Na + >K + ∼Mg 2+ >Ca 2+ . Additionally, cation complexation is tied to the pH and protonation state of DPPA, which are the primary factors controlling the monolayer surface behavior. The binding affinity of cations to the headgroup and thus deprotonation capability of the cation, ranked in the order of Ca 2+ >Mg 2+ >Na + >K + , is found to be well explained by the law of matching water affinities. Nucleation of surface 3D lipid structures is observed from Ca 2+ , Mg 2+ , and Na + , but not from K + , consistent with the lowest binding affinity of K + . Unraveling cation and pH effects on DPPA monolayers is useful in further understanding the surface properties of complex systems such as organic-coated marine aerosols where organic films are directly influenced by the pH and ionic composition of the underlying aqueous phase. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Phosphatidic acid regulates signal output by G protein coupled receptors through direct interaction with phospholipase C-beta(1).

    PubMed

    Litosch, Irene; Pujari, Rajeshree; Lee, Shawn J

    2009-09-01

    Phosphatidic acid (PA), generated downstream of monomeric Rho GTPases via phospholipase D (PLD) and additionally by diacylglycerol kinases (DGK), both stimulates phospholipase C-beta(1) (PLC-beta(1)) and potentiates stimulation of PLC-beta(1) activity by Galpha(q) in vitro. PA is a potential candidate for integrating signaling by monomeric and heterotrimeric G proteins to regulate signal output by G protein coupled receptors (GPCR), and we have sought to understand the mechanisms involved. We previously identified the region spanning residues 944-957, lying within the PLC-beta(1) C-terminus alphaA helix and flexible loop of the Galpha(q) binding domain, as required for stimulation of lipase activity by PA in vitro. Regulation by PA does not require residues essential for stimulation by Galpha(q) or GTPase activating activity. The present studies evaluated shorter alanine/glycine replacement mutants and finally point mutations to identify Tyr(952) and Ile(955) as key determinants for regulation by PA, assessed by both in vitro enzymatic and cell-based co-transfection assays. Replacement of Tyr(952) and Ile(955), PLC-beta(1) (Y952G/I955G), results in an 85% loss in stimulation by PA relative to WT-PLC-beta(1) in vitro. COS 7 cells co-transfected with PLC-beta(1) (Y952G/I955G) demonstrate a 10-fold increase in the EC(50) for stimulation and a 60% decrease in maximum stimulation by carbachol via Galpha(q) linked m1 muscarinic receptors, relative to cells co-transfected with WT-PLC-beta(1) but otherwise similar conditions. Residues required for regulation by PA are not essential for stimulation by G protein subunits. WT-PLC-beta(1) and PLC-beta(1) (Y952G/I955G) activity is increased comparably by co-transfection with Galpha(q) and neither is markedly affected by co-transfection with Gbeta(1)gamma(2). Inhibiting PLD-generated PA production by 1-butanol has little effect on maximum stimulation, but shifts the EC(50) for agonist stimulation of WT-PLC-beta(1) by 10-fold

  18. Separation of the Stern and diffuse layer in coarse-grained models: The cases of phosphatidyl serine, phosphatidic acid, and PIP2 monolayers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vangaveti, S.; Travesset, A.

    2014-12-01

    We present here a method to separate the Stern and diffuse layer in general systems into two regions that can be analyzed separately. The Stern layer can be described in terms of Bjerrum pairing and the diffuse layer in terms of Poisson-Boltzmann theory (monovalent) or strong coupling theory plus a slowly decaying tail (divalent). We consider three anionic phospholipids: phosphatidyl serine, phosphatidic acid, and phosphatidylinositol(4,5)bisphosphate (PIP2), which we describe within a minimal coarse-grained model as a function of ionic concentration. The case of mixed lipid systems is also considered, which shows a high level of binding cooperativity as a function of PIP2 localization. Implications for existing experimental systems of lipid heterogeneities are also discussed.

  19. Separation of the Stern and diffuse layer in coarse-grained models: the cases of phosphatidyl serine, phosphatidic acid, and PIP2 monolayers.

    PubMed

    Vangaveti, S; Travesset, A

    2014-12-28

    We present here a method to separate the Stern and diffuse layer in general systems into two regions that can be analyzed separately. The Stern layer can be described in terms of Bjerrum pairing and the diffuse layer in terms of Poisson-Boltzmann theory (monovalent) or strong coupling theory plus a slowly decaying tail (divalent). We consider three anionic phospholipids: phosphatidyl serine, phosphatidic acid, and phosphatidylinositol(4,5)bisphosphate (PIP2), which we describe within a minimal coarse-grained model as a function of ionic concentration. The case of mixed lipid systems is also considered, which shows a high level of binding cooperativity as a function of PIP2 localization. Implications for existing experimental systems of lipid heterogeneities are also discussed.

  20. Phospholipase D and phosphatidic acid in plant defence response: from protein–protein and lipid–protein interactions to hormone signalling

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Jian

    2015-01-01

    Phospholipase Ds (PLDs) and PLD-derived phosphatidic acids (PAs) play vital roles in plant hormonal and environmental responses and various cellular dynamics. Recent studies have further expanded the functions of PLDs and PAs into plant–microbe interaction. The molecular diversities and redundant functions make PLD–PA an important signalling complex regulating lipid metabolism, cytoskeleton dynamics, vesicle trafficking, and hormonal signalling in plant defence through protein–protein and protein–lipid interactions or hormone signalling. Different PLD–PA signalling complexes and their targets have emerged as fast-growing research topics for understanding their numerous but not yet established roles in modifying pathogen perception, signal transduction, and downstream defence responses. Meanwhile, advanced lipidomics tools have allowed researchers to reveal further the mechanisms of PLD–PA signalling complexes in regulating lipid metabolism and signalling, and their impacts on jasmonic acid/oxylipins, salicylic acid, and other hormone signalling pathways that essentially mediate plant defence responses. This review attempts to summarize the progress made in spatial and temporal PLD/PA signalling as well as PLD/PA-mediated modification of plant defence. It presents an in-depth discussion on the functions and potential mechanisms of PLD–PA complexes in regulating actin filament/microtubule cytoskeleton, vesicle trafficking, and hormonal signalling, and in influencing lipid metabolism-derived metabolites as critical signalling components in plant defence responses. The discussion puts PLD–PA in a broader context in order to guide future research. PMID:25680793

  1. Identification and functional characterization of the Arabidopsis Snf1-related protein kinase SnRK2.4 phosphatidic acid-binding domain.

    PubMed

    Julkowska, Magdalena M; McLoughlin, Fionn; Galvan-Ampudia, Carlos S; Rankenberg, Johanna M; Kawa, Dorota; Klimecka, Maria; Haring, Michel A; Munnik, Teun; Kooijman, Edgar E; Testerink, Christa

    2015-03-01

    Phosphatidic acid (PA) is an important signalling lipid involved in various stress-induced signalling cascades. Two SnRK2 protein kinases (SnRK2.4 and SnRK2.10), previously identified as PA-binding proteins, are shown here to prefer binding to PA over other anionic phospholipids and to associate with cellular membranes in response to salt stress in Arabidopsis roots. A 42 amino acid sequence was identified as the primary PA-binding domain (PABD) of SnRK2.4. Unlike the full-length SnRK2.4, neither the PABD-YFP fusion protein nor the SnRK2.10 re-localized into punctate structures upon salt stress treatment, showing that additional domains of the SnRK2.4 protein are required for its re-localization during salt stress. Within the PABD, five basic amino acids, conserved in class 1 SnRK2s, were found to be necessary for PA binding. Remarkably, plants overexpressing the PABD, but not a non-PA-binding mutant version, showed a severe reduction in root growth. Together, this study biochemically characterizes the PA-SnRK2.4 interaction and shows that functionality of the SnRK2.4 PABD affects root development. © 2014 The Authors. Plant, Cell & Environment published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  2. Defective functionality of small, dense HDL3 subpopulations in ST segment elevation myocardial infarction: Relevance of enrichment in lysophosphatidylcholine, phosphatidic acid and serum amyloid A.

    PubMed

    Rached, Fabiana; Lhomme, Marie; Camont, Laurent; Gomes, Fernando; Dauteuille, Carolane; Robillard, Paul; Santos, Raul D; Lesnik, Philippe; Serrano, Carlos V; Chapman, M John; Kontush, Anatol

    2015-09-01

    Low plasma levels of high-density lipoprotein-cholesterol (HDL-C) are typical of acute myocardial infarction (MI) and predict risk of recurrent cardiovascular events. The potential relationships between modifications in the molecular composition and the functionality of HDL subpopulations in acute MI however remain indeterminate. ST segment elevation MI (STEMI) patients were recruited within 24h after diagnosis (n=16) and featured low HDL-C (-31%, p<0.05) and acute-phase inflammation (determined as marked elevations in C-reactive protein, serum amyloid A (SAA) and interleukin-6) as compared to age- and sex-matched controls (n=10). STEMI plasma HDL and its subpopulations (HDL2b, 2a, 3a, 3b, 3c) displayed attenuated cholesterol efflux capacity from THP-1 cells (up to -32%, p<0.01, on a unit phospholipid mass basis) vs. Plasma HDL and small, dense HDL3b and 3c subpopulations from STEMI patients exhibited reduced anti-oxidative activity (up to -68%, p<0.05, on a unit HDL mass basis). HDL subpopulations in STEMI were enriched in two proinflammatory bioactive lipids, lysophosphatidylcholine (up to 3.0-fold, p<0.05) and phosphatidic acid (up to 8.4-fold, p<0.05), depleted in apolipoprotein A-I (up to -23%, p<0.05) and enriched in SAA (up to +10.2-fold, p<0.05); such changes were most marked in the HDL3b subfraction. In vitro HDL enrichment in both lysophosphatidylcholine and phosphatidic acid exerted deleterious effects on HDL functionality. In the early phase of STEMI, HDL particle subpopulations display marked, concomitant alterations in both lipidome and proteome which are implicated in impaired HDL functionality. Such modifications may act synergistically to confer novel deleterious biological activities to STEMI HDL. Our present data highlight complex changes in the molecular composition and functionality of HDL particle subpopulations in the acute phase of STEMI, and for the first time, reveal that concomitant modifications in both the lipidome and proteome

  3. The Prion Protein N1 and N2 Cleavage Fragments Bind to Phosphatidylserine and Phosphatidic Acid; Relevance to Stress-Protection Responses.

    PubMed

    Haigh, Cathryn L; Tumpach, Carolin; Drew, Simon C; Collins, Steven J

    2015-01-01

    Internal cleavage of the cellular prion protein generates two well characterised N-terminal fragments, N1 and N2. These fragments have been shown to bind to anionic phospholipids at low pH. We sought to investigate binding with other lipid moieties and queried how such interactions could be relevant to the cellular functions of these fragments. Both N1 and N2 bound phosphatidylserine (PS), as previously reported, and a further interaction with phosphatidic acid (PA) was also identified. The specificity of this interaction required the N-terminus, especially the proline motif within the basic amino acids at the N-terminus, together with the copper-binding region (unrelated to copper saturation). Previously, the fragments have been shown to be protective against cellular stresses. In the current study, serum deprivation was used to induce changes in the cellular lipid environment, including externalisation of plasma membrane PS and increased cellular levels of PA. When copper-saturated, N2 could reverse these changes, but N1 could not, suggesting that direct binding of N2 to cellular lipids may be part of the mechanism by which this peptide signals its protective response.

  4. The Prion Protein N1 and N2 Cleavage Fragments Bind to Phosphatidylserine and Phosphatidic Acid; Relevance to Stress-Protection Responses

    PubMed Central

    Haigh, Cathryn L.; Tumpach, Carolin; Drew, Simon C.; Collins, Steven J.

    2015-01-01

    Internal cleavage of the cellular prion protein generates two well characterised N-terminal fragments, N1 and N2. These fragments have been shown to bind to anionic phospholipids at low pH. We sought to investigate binding with other lipid moieties and queried how such interactions could be relevant to the cellular functions of these fragments. Both N1 and N2 bound phosphatidylserine (PS), as previously reported, and a further interaction with phosphatidic acid (PA) was also identified. The specificity of this interaction required the N-terminus, especially the proline motif within the basic amino acids at the N-terminus, together with the copper-binding region (unrelated to copper saturation). Previously, the fragments have been shown to be protective against cellular stresses. In the current study, serum deprivation was used to induce changes in the cellular lipid environment, including externalisation of plasma membrane PS and increased cellular levels of PA. When copper-saturated, N2 could reverse these changes, but N1 could not, suggesting that direct binding of N2 to cellular lipids may be part of the mechanism by which this peptide signals its protective response. PMID:26252007

  5. Cyclic phosphatidic acid induces G0/G1 arrest, inhibits AKT phosphorylation, and downregulates cyclin D1 expression in colorectal cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Tsukahara, Tamotsu; Haniu, Hisao; Matsuda, Yoshikazu

    2015-03-01

    Lysophosphatidic acid (LPA) and its analogs are well-known mitogens for various cell types. Many reports have confirmed that several types of cancer cell produce LPA to promote survival, growth and tumorigenesis. This indicates that the interface between the LPA signaling pathway and the cell cycle signaling system is critical to the control of cancer cell proliferation. However, our previous study indicated that cyclic phosphatidic acid (cPA), which is structurally similar to LPA, inhibits the proliferation and migration of colon cancer cells. It has been reported that cPA shows several biological activities not shown by LPA. However, understanding of the detailed molecular and cellular mechanism underlying the regulation of the cell cycle by cPA is still in its infancy. In this study, we investigated the effect of cPA treatment on human DLD-1 colon cancer cells by analyzing cell cycle dynamics, gene expression, and AKT phosphorylation. Our findings indicate that cPA inhibits cell cycle progression in DLD-1 colon cancer cells via the downregulation of cyclin D1 and the inhibition of AKT phosphorylation.

  6. Structural and functional studies of a phosphatidic acid-binding antifungal plant defensin MtDef4: Identification of an RGFRRR motif governing fungal cell entry

    SciT

    Sagaram, Uma S.; El-Mounadi, Kaoutar; Buchko, Garry W.

    A highly conserved plant defensin MtDef4 potently inhibits the growth of a filamentous fungus Fusarium graminearum. MtDef4 is internalized by cells of F. graminearum. To determine its mechanism of fungal cell entry and antifungal action, NMR solution structure of MtDef4 has been determined. The analysis of its structure has revealed a positively charged patch on the surface of the protein consisting of arginine residues in its γ-core signature, a major determinant of the antifungal activity of MtDef4. Here, we report functional analysis of the RGFRRR motif of the γ-core signature of MtDef4. The replacement of RGFRRR to AAAARR or tomore » RGFRAA not only abolishes fungal cell entry but also results in loss of the antifungal activity of MtDef4. MtDef4 binds strongly to phosphatidic acid (PA), a precursor for the biosynthesis of membrane phospholipids and a signaling lipid known to recruit cytosolic proteins to membranes. Mutations of RGFRRR which abolish fungal cell entry of MtDef4 also impair its binding to PA. Our results suggest that RGFRRR motif is a translocation signal for entry of MtDef4 into fungal cells and that this positively charged motif likely mediates interaction of this defensin with PA as part of its antifungal action.« less

  7. Cyclic phosphatidic acid inhibits alkyl-glycerophosphate-induced downregulation of histone deacetylase 2 expression and suppresses the inflammatory response in human coronary artery endothelial cells.

    PubMed

    Tsukahara, Tamotsu; Haniu, Hisao; Matsuda, Yoshikazu

    2014-01-01

    Activation of the endothelium by alkyl-glycerophosphate (AGP) has been implicated in the development of atherosclerosis. Our previous study suggested that cyclic phosphatidic acid (cPA) inhibits arterial wall remodeling in a rat model in vivo. However, the mechanisms through which specific target genes are regulated during this process remain unclear. Here, we examined whether cPA inhibited AGP-induced expression of class I histone deacetylases (HDACs, namely HDAC1, HDAC2, HDAC3, and HDAC8), which may affect subsequent transcriptional activity of target genes. Our experimental results showed that human coronary artery endothelial cells (HCAECs) expressed high levels of HDAC2 and low levels HDAC1, HDAC3, and HDAC8. Moreover, AGP treatment induced downregulation of HDAC2 expression in HCAECs. However, cotreatment with cPA inhibited this downregulation of HDAC2 expression. Interestingly, treatment with AGP increased the expression and secretion of endogenous interleukin (IL)-6 and IL-8; however, this effect was inhibited when HCAECs were cotreated with cPA or the synthetic peroxisome proliferator-activator receptor gamma (PPARγ) antagonist T0070907. Thus, our data suggested that cPA may have beneficial effects in inflammation-related cardiovascular disease by controlling HDAC2 regulation.

  8. Binding of PLD2-Generated Phosphatidic Acid to KIF5B Promotes MT1-MMP Surface Trafficking and Lung Metastasis of Mouse Breast Cancer Cells.

    PubMed

    Wang, Ziqing; Zhang, Feng; He, Jingquan; Wu, Ping; Tay, Li Wei Rachel; Cai, Ming; Nian, Weiqi; Weng, Yuanyuan; Qin, Li; Chang, Jeffrey T; McIntire, Laura B; Di Paolo, Gilbert; Xu, Jianming; Peng, Junmin; Du, Guangwei

    2017-10-23

    Little is known about the cellular events promoting metastasis. We show that knockout of phospholipase D 2 (PLD2), which generates the signaling lipid phosphatidic acid (PA), inhibits lung metastases in the mammary tumor virus (MMTV)-Neu transgenic mouse breast cancer model. PLD2 promotes local invasion through the regulation of the plasma membrane targeting of MT1-MMP and its associated invadopodia. A liposome pull-down screen identifies KIF5B, the heavy chain of the motor protein kinesin-1, as a new PA-binding protein. In vitro assays reveal that PA specifically and directly binds to the C terminus of KIF5B. The binding between PLD2-generated PA and KIF5B is required for the vesicular association of KIF5B, surface localization of MT1-MMP, invadopodia, and invasion in cancer cells. Taken together, these results identify a role of PLD2-generated PA in the regulation of kinesin-1 motor functions and breast cancer metastasis and suggest PLD2 as a potential therapeutic target for metastatic breast cancer. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Short-term treatment with a 2-carba analog of cyclic phosphatidic acid induces lowering of plasma cholesterol levels in ApoE-deficient mice.

    PubMed

    Tsukahara, Tamotsu; Haniu, Hisao; Matsuda, Yoshikazu; Murakmi-Murofushi, Kimiko

    2016-04-22

    Plasma cholesterol levels are associated with an increased risk of developing atherosclerosis. An elevated low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) level is a hallmark of hypercholesterolemia in metabolic syndrome. Our previous study suggested that when acetylated LDL (AC-LDL) was co-applied with a PPARγ agonist, rosiglitazone (ROSI), many oil red O-positive macrophages could be observed. However, addition of cyclic phosphatidic acid (cPA) to ROSI-stimulated macrophages completely abolished oil red O-stained cells, indicating that cPA inhibits PPARγ-regulated AC-LDL uptake. This study aimed to determine whether metabolically stabilized cPA, in the form of a carba-derivative of cPA (2ccPA), could reduce plasma cholesterol levels and affect the expression of genes related to atherosclerosis in apolipoprotein E-knockout (apoE(-/-)) mice. 2ccPA reduced LDL-C levels in these mice (n = 3) from 460 to 330 mg/ml, from 420 to 350 mg/ml, and 420 to 281 mg/ml under a western-type diet. 2ccPA also reduced expression of lipid metabolism-related genes, cytokines, and chemokines in ApoE-deficient mice on a high-fat diet. Taken together, these results suggest that 2ccPA governs anti-atherogenic activities in the carotid arteries of apoE-deficient mice. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Binding of phosphatidic acid by NsD7 mediates the formation of helical defensin-lipid oligomeric assemblies and membrane permeabilization.

    PubMed

    Kvansakul, Marc; Lay, Fung T; Adda, Christopher G; Veneer, Prem K; Baxter, Amy A; Phan, Thanh Kha; Poon, Ivan K H; Hulett, Mark D

    2016-10-04

    Defensins are cationic antimicrobial peptides that serve as important components of host innate immune defenses, often by targeting cell membranes of pathogens. Oligomerization of defensins has been linked to their antimicrobial activity; however, the molecular basis underpinning this process remains largely unclear. Here we show that the plant defensin NsD7 targets the phospholipid phosphatidic acid (PA) to form oligomeric complexes that permeabilize PA-containing membranes. The crystal structure of the NsD7-PA complex reveals a striking double helix of two right-handed coiled oligomeric defensin fibrils, the assembly of which is dependent upon the interaction with PA at the interface between NsD7 dimers. Using site-directed mutagenesis, we demonstrate that key residues in this PA-binding site are required for PA-mediated NsD7 oligomerization and coil formation, as well as permeabilization of PA-containing liposomes. These data suggest that multiple lipids can be targeted to induce oligomerization of defensins during membrane permeabilization and demonstrate the existence of a "phospholipid code" that identifies target membranes for defensin-mediated attack as part of a first line of defense across multiple species.

  11. Detection of choline and phosphatidic acid (PA) catalyzed by phospholipase D (PLD) using MALDI-QIT-TOF/MS with 9-aminoacridine matrix.

    PubMed

    Park, Kyung-Eui; Kim, Jun-Dal; Nagashima, Yusuke; Kako, Koichiro; Daitoku, Hiroaki; Matsui, Motoki; Park, Gwi Gun; Fukamizu, Akiyoshi

    2014-01-01

    Phospholipase D (PLD) catalyzes the hydrolysis of phosphatidylcholine (PC), the most abundant phospholipids of plasma membrane, resulting in the production of choline and phosphatidic acid (PA). Choline is a precursor of the neurotransmitter acetylcholine, whereas PA functions as an intracellular lipid mediator of diverse biological functions. For assessing PLD activity in vitro, PLD-derived choline has been often analyzed with radioactive or non-radioactive methods. In this study, we have developed a new method for detecting choline and PA with MALDI-QIT-TOF/MS by using 9-aminoacridine as a matrix. The standard calibration curves showed that choline and PA could be detected with linearity over the range from 0.05 and 1 pmol, respectively. Importantly, this method enables the concomitant detection of choline and PA as a reaction product of PC hydrolysis by PLD2 proteins. Thus, our simple and direct method would be useful to characterize the enzymatic properties of PLD, thereby providing insight into mechanisms of PLD activation.

  12. RNA sequencing identifies upregulated kyphoscoliosis peptidase and phosphatidic acid signaling pathways in muscle hypertrophy generated by transgenic expression of myostatin propeptide.

    PubMed

    Miao, Yuanxin; Yang, Jinzeng; Xu, Zhong; Jing, Lu; Zhao, Shuhong; Li, Xinyun

    2015-04-09

    Myostatin (MSTN), a member of the transforming growth factor-β superfamily, plays a crucial negative role in muscle growth. MSTN mutations or inhibitions can dramatically increase muscle mass in most mammal species. Previously, we generated a transgenic mouse model of muscle hypertrophy via the transgenic expression of the MSTN N-terminal propeptide cDNA under the control of the skeletal muscle-specific MLC1 promoter. Here, we compare the mRNA profiles between transgenic mice and wild-type littermate controls with a high-throughput RNA sequencing method. The results show that 132 genes were significantly differentially expressed between transgenic mice and wild-type control mice; 97 of these genes were up-regulated, and 35 genes were down-regulated in the skeletal muscle. Several genes that had not been reported to be involved in muscle hypertrophy were identified, including up-regulated myosin binding protein H (mybph), and zinc metallopeptidase STE24 (Zmpste24). In addition, kyphoscoliosis peptidase (Ky), which plays a vital role in muscle growth, was also up-regulated in the transgenic mice. Interestingly, a pathway analysis based on grouping the differentially expressed genes uncovered that cardiomyopathy-related pathways and phosphatidic acid (PA) pathways (Dgki, Dgkz, Plcd4) were up-regulated. Increased PA signaling may increase mTOR signaling, resulting in skeletal muscle growth. The findings of the RNA sequencing analysis help to understand the molecular mechanisms of muscle hypertrophy caused by MSTN inhibition.

  13. Cyclic Phosphatidic Acid Inhibits Alkyl-Glycerophosphate-Induced Downregulation of Histone Deacetylase 2 Expression and Suppresses the Inflammatory Response in Human Coronary Artery Endothelial Cells

    PubMed Central

    Tsukahara, Tamotsu; Haniu, Hisao; Matsuda, Yoshikazu

    2014-01-01

    Activation of the endothelium by alkyl-glycerophosphate (AGP) has been implicated in the development of atherosclerosis. Our previous study suggested that cyclic phosphatidic acid (cPA) inhibits arterial wall remodeling in a rat model in vivo. However, the mechanisms through which specific target genes are regulated during this process remain unclear. Here, we examined whether cPA inhibited AGP-induced expression of class I histone deacetylases (HDACs, namely HDAC1, HDAC2, HDAC3, and HDAC8), which may affect subsequent transcriptional activity of target genes. Our experimental results showed that human coronary artery endothelial cells (HCAECs) expressed high levels of HDAC2 and low levels HDAC1, HDAC3, and HDAC8. Moreover, AGP treatment induced downregulation of HDAC2 expression in HCAECs. However, cotreatment with cPA inhibited this downregulation of HDAC2 expression. Interestingly, treatment with AGP increased the expression and secretion of endogenous interleukin (IL)-6 and IL-8; however, this effect was inhibited when HCAECs were cotreated with cPA or the synthetic peroxisome proliferator-activator receptor gamma (PPARγ) antagonist T0070907. Thus, our data suggested that cPA may have beneficial effects in inflammation-related cardiovascular disease by controlling HDAC2 regulation. PMID:25013374

  14. Structural and Functional Studies of a Phosphatidic Acid-Binding Antifungal Plant Defensin MtDef4: Identification of an RGFRRR Motif Governing Fungal Cell Entry

    PubMed Central

    Buchko, Garry W.; Berg, Howard R.; Kaur, Jagdeep; Pandurangi, Raghu S.; Smith, Thomas J.; Shah, Dilip M.

    2013-01-01

    MtDef4 is a 47-amino acid cysteine-rich evolutionary conserved defensin from a model legume Medicago truncatula. It is an apoplast-localized plant defense protein that inhibits the growth of the ascomycetous fungal pathogen Fusarium graminearum in vitro at micromolar concentrations. Little is known about the mechanisms by which MtDef4 mediates its antifungal activity. In this study, we show that MtDef4 rapidly permeabilizes fungal plasma membrane and is internalized by the fungal cells where it accumulates in the cytoplasm. Furthermore, analysis of the structure of MtDef4 reveals the presence of a positively charged γ-core motif composed of β2 and β3 strands connected by a positively charged RGFRRR loop. Replacement of the RGFRRR sequence with AAAARR or RGFRAA abolishes the ability of MtDef4 to enter fungal cells, suggesting that the RGFRRR loop is a translocation signal required for the internalization of the protein. MtDef4 binds to phosphatidic acid (PA), a precursor for the biosynthesis of membrane phospholipids and a signaling lipid known to recruit cytosolic proteins to membranes. Amino acid substitutions in the RGFRRR sequence which abolish the ability of MtDef4 to enter fungal cells also impair its ability to bind PA. These findings suggest that MtDef4 is a novel antifungal plant defensin capable of entering into fungal cells and affecting intracellular targets and that these processes are mediated by the highly conserved cationic RGFRRR loop via its interaction with PA. PMID:24324798

  15. Phospholipase D and phosphatidic acid in plant defence response: from protein-protein and lipid-protein interactions to hormone signalling.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Jian

    2015-04-01

    Phospholipase Ds (PLDs) and PLD-derived phosphatidic acids (PAs) play vital roles in plant hormonal and environmental responses and various cellular dynamics. Recent studies have further expanded the functions of PLDs and PAs into plant-microbe interaction. The molecular diversities and redundant functions make PLD-PA an important signalling complex regulating lipid metabolism, cytoskeleton dynamics, vesicle trafficking, and hormonal signalling in plant defence through protein-protein and protein-lipid interactions or hormone signalling. Different PLD-PA signalling complexes and their targets have emerged as fast-growing research topics for understanding their numerous but not yet established roles in modifying pathogen perception, signal transduction, and downstream defence responses. Meanwhile, advanced lipidomics tools have allowed researchers to reveal further the mechanisms of PLD-PA signalling complexes in regulating lipid metabolism and signalling, and their impacts on jasmonic acid/oxylipins, salicylic acid, and other hormone signalling pathways that essentially mediate plant defence responses. This review attempts to summarize the progress made in spatial and temporal PLD/PA signalling as well as PLD/PA-mediated modification of plant defence. It presents an in-depth discussion on the functions and potential mechanisms of PLD-PA complexes in regulating actin filament/microtubule cytoskeleton, vesicle trafficking, and hormonal signalling, and in influencing lipid metabolism-derived metabolites as critical signalling components in plant defence responses. The discussion puts PLD-PA in a broader context in order to guide future research. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Experimental Biology. All rights reserved. For permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  16. ESI-MS/MS and MALDI-IMS Localization Reveal Alterations in Phosphatidic Acid, Diacylglycerol, and DHA in Glioma Stem Cell Xenografts.

    PubMed

    Wildburger, Norelle C; Wood, Paul L; Gumin, Joy; Lichti, Cheryl F; Emmett, Mark R; Lang, Frederick F; Nilsson, Carol L

    2015-06-05

    Glioblastoma (GBM) is the most common adult primary brain tumor. Despite aggressive multimodal therapy, the survival of patients with GBM remains dismal. However, recent evidence has demonstrated the promise of bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (BM-hMSCs) as a therapeutic delivery vehicle for anti-glioma agents due to their ability to migrate or home to human gliomas. While several studies have demonstrated the feasibility of harnessing the homing capacity of BM-hMSCs for targeted delivery of cancer therapeutics, it is now also evident, based on clinically relevant glioma stem cell (GSC) models of GBMs, that BM-hMSCs demonstrate variable tropism toward these tumors. In this study, we compared the lipid environment of GSC xenografts that attract BM-hMSCs (N = 9) with those that do not attract (N = 9) to identify lipid modalities that are conducive to homing of BM-hMSC to GBMs. We identified lipids directly from tissue by matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization (MALDI) imaging mass spectrometry (IMS) and electrospray ionization-tandem mass spectrometry (ESI-MS/MS) of lipid extracts. Several species of signaling lipids, including phosphatidic acid (PA 36:2, PA 40:5, PA 42:5, and PA 42:7) and diacylglycerol (DAG 34:0, DAG 34:1, DAG 36:1, DAG 38:4, DAG 38:6, and DAG 40:6), were lower in attracting xenografts. Molecular lipid images showed that PA (36:2), DAG (40:6), and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) were decreased within tumor regions of attracting xenografts. Our results provide the first evidence for lipid signaling pathways and lipid-mediated tumor inflammatory responses in the homing of BM-hMSCs to GSC xenografts. Our studies provide new fundamental knowledge on the molecular correlates of the differential homing capacity of BM-hMSCs toward GSC xenografts.

  17. Cyclic phosphatidic acid inhibits the secretion of vascular endothelial growth factor from diabetic human coronary artery endothelial cells through peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma.

    PubMed

    Tsukahara, Tamotsu; Tsukahara, Ryoko; Haniu, Hisao; Matsuda, Yoshikazu; Murakami-Murofushi, Kimiko

    2015-09-05

    Atherosclerosis is a disease characterized by building up plaques formation and leads to a potentially serious condition in which arteries are clogged by fatty substances such as cholesterol. Increasing evidence suggests that atherosclerosis is accelerated in type 2 diabetes. Recent study reported that high level of alkyl glycerophosphate (AGP) was accumulated in atherosclerotic lesions. The presence of this phospholipid in mildly oxidized low-density lipoprotein (LDL) is likely to be involved in atherogenesis. It has been reported that the activation of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma plays a key role in developing atherosclerosis. Our previous result indicates that cyclic phosphatidic acid (cPA), one of bioactive lipids, potently suppresses neointima formation by inhibiting the activation of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPARγ). However, the detailed mechanism is still unclear. In this study, to elucidate the mechanism of the cPA-PPARγ axis in the coronary artery endothelium, especially in patients with type 2 diabetes, we investigated the proliferation, migration, and secretion of VEGF in human coronary artery endothelial cells from diabetes patients (D-HCAECs). AGP induced cell growth and migration; however, cPA suppressed the AGP-elicited growth and migration in D-HCAECs. Moreover, AGP increased VEGF secretion from D-HCAECs, and this event was attenuated by cPA. Taken together, these results suggest that cPA suppresses VEGF-stimulated growth and migration in D-HCAECs. These findings could be important for regulatory roles of PPARγ and VEGF in the vascular processes associated with diabetes and atherosclerosis. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Mechanical Stimulation Induces mTOR Signaling via an ERK-Independent Mechanism: Implications for a Direct Activation of mTOR by Phosphatidic Acid

    PubMed Central

    You, Jae Sung; Frey, John W.; Hornberger, Troy A.

    2012-01-01

    Signaling by mTOR is a well-recognized component of the pathway through which mechanical signals regulate protein synthesis and muscle mass. However, the mechanisms involved in the mechanical regulation of mTOR signaling have not been defined. Nevertheless, recent studies suggest that a mechanically-induced increase in phosphatidic acid (PA) may be involved. There is also evidence which suggests that mechanical stimuli, and PA, utilize ERK to induce mTOR signaling. Hence, we reasoned that a mechanically-induced increase in PA might promote mTOR signaling via an ERK-dependent mechanism. To test this, we subjected mouse skeletal muscles to mechanical stimulation in the presence or absence of a MEK/ERK inhibitor, and then measured several commonly used markers of mTOR signaling. Transgenic mice expressing a rapamycin-resistant mutant of mTOR were also used to confirm the validity of these markers. The results demonstrated that mechanically-induced increases in p70s6k T389 and 4E-BP1 S64 phosphorylation, and unexpectedly, a loss in total 4E-BP1, were fully mTOR-dependent signaling events. Furthermore, we determined that mechanical stimulation induced these mTOR-dependent events, and protein synthesis, through an ERK-independent mechanism. Similar to mechanical stimulation, exogenous PA also induced mTOR-dependent signaling via an ERK-independent mechanism. Moreover, PA was able to directly activate mTOR signaling in vitro. Combined, these results demonstrate that mechanical stimulation induces mTOR signaling, and protein synthesis, via an ERK-independent mechanism that potentially involves a direct interaction of PA with mTOR. Furthermore, it appears that a decrease in total 4E-BP1 may be part of the mTOR-dependent mechanism through which mechanical stimuli activate protein synthesis. PMID:23077579

  19. The role of diacylglycerol kinase ζ and phosphatidic acid in the mechanical activation of mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) signaling and skeletal muscle hypertrophy.

    PubMed

    You, Jae-Sung; Lincoln, Hannah C; Kim, Chan-Ran; Frey, John W; Goodman, Craig A; Zhong, Xiao-Ping; Hornberger, Troy A

    2014-01-17

    The activation of mTOR signaling is essential for mechanically induced changes in skeletal muscle mass, and previous studies have suggested that mechanical stimuli activate mTOR (mammalian target of rapamycin) signaling through a phospholipase D (PLD)-dependent increase in the concentration of phosphatidic acid (PA). Consistent with this conclusion, we obtained evidence which further suggests that mechanical stimuli utilize PA as a direct upstream activator of mTOR signaling. Unexpectedly though, we found that the activation of PLD is not necessary for the mechanically induced increases in PA or mTOR signaling. Motivated by this observation, we performed experiments that were aimed at identifying the enzyme(s) that promotes the increase in PA. These experiments revealed that mechanical stimulation increases the concentration of diacylglycerol (DAG) and the activity of DAG kinases (DGKs) in membranous structures. Furthermore, using knock-out mice, we determined that the ζ isoform of DGK (DGKζ) is necessary for the mechanically induced increase in PA. We also determined that DGKζ significantly contributes to the mechanical activation of mTOR signaling, and this is likely driven by an enhanced binding of PA to mTOR. Last, we found that the overexpression of DGKζ is sufficient to induce muscle fiber hypertrophy through an mTOR-dependent mechanism, and this event requires DGKζ kinase activity (i.e. the synthesis of PA). Combined, these results indicate that DGKζ, but not PLD, plays an important role in mechanically induced increases in PA and mTOR signaling. Furthermore, this study suggests that DGKζ could be a fundamental component of the mechanism(s) through which mechanical stimuli regulate skeletal muscle mass.

  20. Dissecting seipin function: the localized accumulation of phosphatidic acid at ER/LD junctions in the absence of seipin is suppressed by Sei1p(ΔNterm) only in combination with Ldb16p.

    PubMed

    Han, Sungwon; Binns, Derk D; Chang, Yu-Fang; Goodman, Joel M

    2015-12-04

    Seipin is required for the correct assembly of cytoplasmic lipid droplets. In the absence of the yeast seipin homolog Sei1p (formerly Fld1p), droplets are slow to bud from the endoplasmic reticulum, lack the normal component of proteins on their surface, are highly heterogeneous in size and shape, often bud into the nucleus, and promote local proliferation of the endoplasmic reticulum in which they become tangled. But the mechanism by which seipin catalyzes lipid droplet formation is still uncertain. Seipin prevents a localized accumulation of phosphatidic acid (PA puncta) at ER-droplet junctions. PA puncta were detected with three different probes: Opi1p, Spo20p(51-91) and Pah1p. A system of droplet induction was used to show that PA puncta were not present until droplets were formed; the puncta appeared regardless of whether droplets consisted of triacylglycerol or steryl ester. Deletion strains were used to demonstrate that a single phosphatidic acid-producing enzyme is not responsible for the generation of the puncta, and the puncta remain resistant to overexpression of enzymes that metabolize phosphatidic acid, suggesting that this lipid is trapped in a latent compartment. Suppression of PA puncta requires the first 14 amino acids of Sei1p (Nterm), a domain that is also important for initiation of droplet assembly. Consistent with recent evidence that Ldb16p and Sei1p form a functional unit, the PA puncta phenotype in the ldb16Δ sei1Δ strain was rescued by human seipin. Moreover, PA puncta in the sei1Δ strain expressing Sei1p(ΔNterm) was suppressed by overexpression of Ldb16p, suggesting a functional interaction of Nterm with this protein. Overexpression of both Sei1p and Ldb16p, but not Sei1p alone, is sufficient to cause a large increase in droplet number. However, Ldb16p alone increases triacylglycerol accumulation in the ldb16Δ sei1Δ background. We hypothesize that seipin prevents formation of membranes with extreme curvature at endoplasmic reticulum

  1. Interaction between repressor Opi1p and ER membrane protein Scs2p facilitates transit of phosphatidic acid from the ER to mitochondria and is essential for INO1 gene expression in the presence of choline

    PubMed Central

    Gaspar, Maria L.; Chang, Yu-Fang; Jesch, Stephen A.; Aregullin, Manuel; Henry, Susan A.

    2017-01-01

    In the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae, the Opi1p repressor controls the expression of INO1 via the Opi1p/Ino2p–Ino4p regulatory circuit. Inositol depletion favors Opi1p interaction with both Scs2p and phosphatidic acid at the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) membrane. Inositol supplementation, however, favors the translocation of Opi1p from the ER into the nucleus, where it interacts with the Ino2p–Ino4p complex, attenuating transcription of INO1. A strain devoid of Scs2p (scs2Δ) and a mutant, OPI1FFAT, lacking the ability to interact with Scs2p were utilized to examine the specific role(s) of the Opi1p–Scs2p interaction in the regulation of INO1 expression and overall lipid metabolism. Loss of the Opi1p–Scs2p interaction reduced INO1 expression and conferred inositol auxotrophy. Moreover, inositol depletion in strains lacking this interaction resulted in Opi1p being localized to sites of lipid droplet formation, coincident with increased synthesis of triacylglycerol. Supplementation of choline to inositol-depleted growth medium led to decreased TAG synthesis in all three strains. However, in strains lacking the Opi1p–Scs2p interaction, Opi1p remained in the nucleus, preventing expression of INO1. These data support the conclusion that a specific pool of phosphatidic acid, associated with lipid droplet formation in the perinuclear ER, is responsible for the initial rapid exit of Opi1p from the nucleus to the ER and is required for INO1 expression in the presence of choline. Moreover, the mitochondria-specific phospholipid, cardiolipin, was significantly reduced in both strains compromised for Opi1p–Scs2p interaction, indicating that this interaction is required for the transfer of phosphatidic acid from the ER to the mitochondria for cardiolipin synthesis. PMID:28924045

  2. An enzymic radiochemical method for determining phosphatidylglycerol in amniotic fluid

    SciT

    Siegel, L.; Walker, S.I.; Robin, N.I.

    We describe an enzymic quantification of phosphatidylglycerol in amniotic fluid. Phosphatidylglycerol is hydrolyzed in alkali and the resulting glycerol is then enzymatically phosphorylated with adenosine 5'-(gamma-/sup 32/P)triphosphate to yield glycero(/sup 32/P)phosphate. After removal of excess (gamma-/sup 32/P)ATP by charcoal, the radioactivity of the glycerophosphate is measured in a liquid scintillation counter. Triglyceride in the amniotic fluid is hydrolyzed by lipase before extraction and thus does not interfere with the analysis. This method is specific for phosphatidylglycerol. Preliminary studies suggest that a phosphatidylglycerol value greater than or equal to 10 nmol/mL correlates with fetal lung maturity.

  3. Positive effects of soy lecithin-derived phosphatidylserine plus phosphatidic acid on memory, cognition, daily functioning, and mood in elderly patients with Alzheimer's disease and dementia.

    PubMed

    Moré, Margret I; Freitas, Ulla; Rutenberg, David

    2014-12-01

    We report previously unpublished, early pilot studies performed with a brain-health food supplement containing a proprietary blend of 100 mg phosphatidylserine (PS) and 80 mg phosphatidic acid (PA) produced from soy lecithin. Serum analysis after single PS+PA ingestion was performed in healthy volunteers. A 3-month double-blind, placebo-controlled study assessed the influence of three PS+PA capsules/day, (300 mg PS + 240 mg PA/day) or placebo on memory and mood in functioning, non-depressive elderly people with memory problems, using the Wechsler Memory Scale and the List of Depressive Symptoms. Furthermore, a 2-month randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial assessed the effect of three PS+PA capsules/day (300 mg PS + 240 mg PA/day) or placebo on daily functioning, mental health, emotional state, and self-reported general condition in patients with Alzheimer's disease (AD). Serum PS peaked 90 min after ingestion, returning to baseline after 180 min. In the elderly, PS+PA [per protocol (PP) n = 31], unlike placebo (PP n = 26), significantly improved memory and prevented "winter blues" in a pre-post comparison. In the patients with AD, daily functioning (i.e., 7 activities of daily living) under PS+PA (PP n = 53) remained unchanged, but declined from 5.62 to 4.90 under placebo (PP n = 39; P = 0.035), with significant group difference (P = 0.021). The PS+PA group had 3.8% deterioration and 90.6% stability in daily functioning, compared to 17.9% and 79.5% under placebo, respectively (P = 0.066). Forty-nine percent of the PS+PA patients reported an improved general condition, compared to 26.3% under placebo (P = 0.084). Approximately, 43% of the PS+PA patients, but none under placebo, continued post-trial supplementation (while double-blinded). No negative side effects were observed. PS is efficiently absorbed after oral consumption. A positive influence of PS+PA on memory, mood, and cognition was demonstrated among elderly test

  4. Eight Weeks of Phosphatidic Acid Supplementation in Conjunction with Resistance Training Does Not Differentially Affect Body Composition and Muscle Strength in Resistance-Trained Men

    PubMed Central

    Andre, Thomas L.; Gann, Joshua J.; McKinley-Barnard, Sarah K.; Song, Joon J.; Willoughby, Darryn S.

    2016-01-01

    This study attempted to determine the effects of eight weeks of resistance training (RT) combined with phosphatidic acid (PA) supplementation at a dose of either 250 mg or 375 mg on body composition and muscle size and strength. Twenty-eight resistance-trained men were randomly assigned to ingest 375 mg [PA375 (n = 9)] or 250 mg [PA250 (n = 9)] of PA or 375 mg of placebo [PLC (n = 10)] daily for eight weeks with RT. Supplements were ingested 60 minutes prior to RT and in the morning on non-RT days. Participants’ body composition, muscle size, and lower-body muscle strength were determined before and after training/supplementation. Separate group x time ANOVAs for each criterion variable were used employing an alpha level of ≤ 0.05. Magnitude- based inferences were utilized to determine the likely or unlikely impact of PA on each criterion variable. A significant main effect for time was observed for improvements in total body mass (p = 0.003), lean mass (p = 0.008), rectus femoris cross-sectional area [RF CSA (p = 0.011)], and lower-body strength (p < 0.001), but no significant interactions were present (p > 0.05). Collectively, magnitude-based inferences determined both doses of PA to have a likely impact of increasing body mass (74.2%), lean mass (71.3%), RF CSA (92.2%), and very likely impact on increasing lower-body strength (98.1% beneficial). When combined with RT, it appears that PA has a more than likely impact on improving lower-body strength, whereas a likely impact exists for increasing muscle size and lean mass. Key points In response to eight weeks resistance training and PLC and PA (375 mg and 250 mg) supplementation, similar increases in lower-body muscle strength occurred in all three groups; however, the increases were not different between supplement groups. In response to eight weeks resistance training and PLC and PA (375 mg and 250 mg) supplementation, similar increases in lean mass occurred in all three groups; however, the increases were

  5. Phosphatidic acid synthesis in yeast

    PubMed Central

    Kuhn, N. J.; Lynen, F.

    1965-01-01

    1. The presence of palmitoyl-CoA–l-glycerol 1-phosphate palmitoyltransferase (EC2.3.1.15) has been demonstrated in a particulate fraction of baker's yeast. 2. The enzyme has been characterized, and its activity studied as a function of pH and concentration of substrates. 3. Inhibition by thiol poisons and protection by acyl-CoA have been used to obtain information on the active site. 4. By various methods of supplying acyl radicals, the species `palmitoyl-CoA' has been shown to be the true acyl donor to the transferase. PMID:14342236

  6. Interaction between repressor Opi1p and ER membrane protein Scs2p facilitates transit of phosphatidic acid from the ER to mitochondria and is essential for INO1 gene expression in the presence of choline.

    PubMed

    Gaspar, Maria L; Chang, Yu-Fang; Jesch, Stephen A; Aregullin, Manuel; Henry, Susan A

    2017-11-10

    In the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae , the Opi1p repressor controls the expression of INO1 via the Opi1p/Ino2p-Ino4p regulatory circuit. Inositol depletion favors Opi1p interaction with both Scs2p and phosphatidic acid at the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) membrane. Inositol supplementation, however, favors the translocation of Opi1p from the ER into the nucleus, where it interacts with the Ino2p-Ino4p complex, attenuating transcription of INO1 A strain devoid of Scs2p ( scs2 Δ) and a mutant, OPI1FFAT , lacking the ability to interact with Scs2p were utilized to examine the specific role(s) of the Opi1p-Scs2p interaction in the regulation of INO1 expression and overall lipid metabolism. Loss of the Opi1p-Scs2p interaction reduced INO1 expression and conferred inositol auxotrophy. Moreover, inositol depletion in strains lacking this interaction resulted in Opi1p being localized to sites of lipid droplet formation, coincident with increased synthesis of triacylglycerol. Supplementation of choline to inositol-depleted growth medium led to decreased TAG synthesis in all three strains. However, in strains lacking the Opi1p-Scs2p interaction, Opi1p remained in the nucleus, preventing expression of INO1 These data support the conclusion that a specific pool of phosphatidic acid, associated with lipid droplet formation in the perinuclear ER, is responsible for the initial rapid exit of Opi1p from the nucleus to the ER and is required for INO1 expression in the presence of choline. Moreover, the mitochondria-specific phospholipid, cardiolipin, was significantly reduced in both strains compromised for Opi1p-Scs2p interaction, indicating that this interaction is required for the transfer of phosphatidic acid from the ER to the mitochondria for cardiolipin synthesis. © 2017 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  7. The effects of phosphatidic acid supplementation on strength, body composition, muscular endurance, power, agility, and vertical jump in resistance trained men.

    PubMed

    Escalante, Guillermo; Alencar, Michelle; Haddock, Bryan; Harvey, Phillip

    2016-01-01

    Phosphatidic acid (PA) is a lipid messenger that has been shown to increase muscle protein synthesis via signaling stimulation of the mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR). MaxxTOR® (MT) is a supplement that contains PA as the main active ingredient but also contains other synergistic mTOR signaling substances including L-Leucine, Beta-Hydroxy-Beta-Methylbutyrate (HMB), and Vitamin D3. Eighteen healthy strength-trained males were randomly assigned to a group that either consumed MT (n = 8, 22.0 +/- 2.5 years; 175.8 +/- 11.5 cm; 80.3 +/- 15.1 kg) or a placebo (PLA) (n = 10, 25.6 +/- 4.2 years; 174.8 +/- 9.0 cm; 88.6 +/- 16.6 kg) as part of a double-blind, placebo controlled pre/post experimental design. All participants volunteered to complete the three day per week resistance training protocol for the eight week study duration. To determine the effects of MT, participants were tested on one repetition maximum (1RM) leg press strength (LP), 1RM bench press strength (BP), push-ups to failure (PU), vertical jump (VJ), pro-agility shuttle time (AG), peak power output (P), lean body mass (LBM), fat mass (FM), and thigh muscle mass (TMM). Subjects were placed and monitored on an isocaloric diet consisting of 25 protein, 50 carbohydrates, and 25 % fat by a registered dietitian. Separate two-way mixed factorial repeated measures ANOVA's (time [Pre, Post] x group [MT and PLA] were used to investigate strength, body composition, and other performance changes. Post-hoc tests were applied as appropriate. Analysis were performed via SPSS with significance at (p ≤ 0.05). There was a significant main effect (F(1,16) = 33.30, p < 0.001) for LBM where MT significantly increased LBM when compared to the PLA group (p < 0.001). Additionally, there was a significant main effect for LP (F(1,16) = 666.74, p < 0.001) and BP (F(1,16) = 126.36, p < 0.001) where both increased significantly more in MT than PLA group (p < 0.001). No

  8. A lecithin phosphatidylserine and phosphatidic acid complex (PAS) reduces symptoms of the premenstrual syndrome (PMS): Results of a randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blind clinical trial.

    PubMed

    Schmidt, Katja; Weber, Nicole; Steiner, Meir; Meyer, Nadin; Dubberke, Anne; Rutenberg, David; Hellhammer, Juliane

    2018-04-01

    Many women experience emotional and physical symptoms around the time of ovulation and more so before menstruation interfering with their daily normal life also known as premenstrual syndrome (PMS). Recent observational data suggest that supplementation with Lipogen's phosphatidylserine (PS) and phosphatidic acid (PA) complex (PAS) alleviates these PMS symptoms. The aim of this study was to confirm these observations on the effects of PAS on PMS symptom severity within a controlled clinical trial setting. Forty women aged 18-45 years with a diagnosis of PMS were assigned to either take PAS (containing 400 mg PS & 400 mg PA per day) or a matching placebo. The study comprised 5 on-site visits including 1 baseline menstrual cycle followed by 3 treatment cycles. Treatment intake was controlled for by using an electronic device, the Medication Event Monitoring System (MEMS ® ). Primary outcome of the study was the PMS symptoms severity as assessed by using the Daily Record of Severity of Problems (DRSP). Further, SIPS questionnaire (a German version of the Premenstrual Symptoms Screening Tool (PSST)), salivary hormone levels (cortisol awakening response (CAR) and evening cortisol levels) as well as serum levels (cortisol, estradiol, progesterone and corticosteroid binding globulin (CBG)) were assessed. PMS symptoms as assessed by the DRSP Total score showed a significantly better improvement (p = 0.001) over a 3 cycles PAS intake as compared to placebo. In addition, PAS treated women reported a greater improvement in physical (p = 0.002) and depressive symptoms (p = 0.068). They also reported a lower reduction of productivity (p = 0.052) and a stronger decrease in interference with relationships with others (p = 0.099) compared to the placebo group. No other DRSP scale or item showed significant results. Likewise, the reduction in the number of subjects fulfilling PMS or premenstrual dysphoric disorder (PMDD) criteria as classified by the SIPS did not

  9. Resistance Phenotypes Mediated by Aminoacyl-Phosphatidylglycerol Synthases

    PubMed Central

    Arendt, Wiebke; Hebecker, Stefanie; Jäger, Sonja; Nimtz, Manfred

    2012-01-01

    The specific aminoacylation of the phospholipid phosphatidylglycerol (PG) with alanine or with lysine catalyzed by aminoacyl-phosphatidylglycerol synthases (aaPGS) was shown to render various organisms less susceptible to antibacterial agents. This study makes use of Pseudomonas aeruginosa chimeric mutant strains producing lysyl-phosphatidylglycerol (L-PG) instead of the naturally occurring alanyl-phosphatidylglycerol (A-PG) to study the resulting impact on bacterial resistance. Consequences of such artificial phospholipid composition were studied in the presence of an overall of seven antimicrobials (β-lactams, a lipopeptide antibiotic, cationic antimicrobial peptides [CAMPs]) to quantitatively assess the effect of A-PG substitution (with L-PG, L-PG and A-PG, increased A-PG levels). For the employed Gram-negative P. aeruginosa model system, an exclusive charge repulsion mechanism does not explain the attenuated antimicrobial susceptibility due to PG modification. Additionally, the specificity of nine orthologous aaPGS enzymes was experimentally determined. The newly characterized protein sequences allowed for the establishment of a significant group of A-PG synthase sequences which were bioinformatically compared to the related group of L-PG synthesizing enzymes. The analysis revealed a diverse origin for the evolution of A-PG and L-PG synthases, as the specificity of an individual enzyme is not reflected in terms of a characteristic sequence motif. This finding is relevant for future development of potential aaPGS inhibitors. PMID:22267511

  10. Liposomes bi-functionalized with phosphatidic acid and an ApoE-derived peptide affect Aβ aggregation features and cross the blood-brain-barrier: implications for therapy of Alzheimer disease.

    PubMed

    Bana, Laura; Minniti, Stefania; Salvati, Elisa; Sesana, Silvia; Zambelli, Vanessa; Cagnotto, Alfredo; Orlando, Antonina; Cazzaniga, Emanuela; Zwart, Rob; Scheper, Wiep; Masserini, Massimo; Re, Francesca

    2014-10-01

    Targeting amyloid-β peptide (Aβ) within the brain is a strategy actively sought for therapy of Alzheimer's disease (AD). We investigated the ability of liposomes bi-functionalized with phosphatidic acid and with a modified ApoE-derived peptide (mApoE-PA-LIP) to affect Aβ aggregation/disaggregation features and to cross in vitro and in vivo the blood-brain barrier (BBB). Surface plasmon resonance showed that bi-functionalized liposomes strongly bind Aβ (kD=0.6 μM), while Thioflavin-T and SDS-PAGE/WB assays show that liposomes inhibit peptide aggregation (70% inhibition after 72 h) and trigger the disaggregation of preformed aggregates (60% decrease after 120 h incubation). Moreover, experiments with dually radiolabelled LIP suggest that bi-functionalization enhances the passage of radioactivity across the BBB either in vitro (permeability=2.5×10(-5) cm/min, 5-fold higher with respect to mono-functionalized liposomes) or in vivo in healthy mice. Taken together, our results suggest that mApoE-PA-LIP are valuable nanodevices with a potential applicability in vivo for the treatment of AD. From the clinical editor: Bi-functionalized liposomes with phosphatidic acid and a modified ApoE-derived peptide were demonstrated to influence Aβ aggregation/disaggregation as a potential treatment in an Alzheimer's model. The liposomes were able to cross the blood-brain barrier in vitro and in vivo. Similar liposomes may become clinically valuable nanodevices with a potential applicability for the treatment of Alzheimer's disease. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Nutritional modifiers of aging brain function: Increasing the formation of brain synapses by administering uridine and other phosphatide precursors

    PubMed Central

    Wurtman, R.J.; Cansev, M; Sakamoto, T; Ulus, I.H.

    2010-01-01

    Brain phosphatide synthesis requires three circulating compounds: docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), uridine and choline. Oral administration of these phosphatide precursors to experimental animals increases the levels of phosphatides and synaptic proteins in the brain and per brain cell, as well as the numbers of dendritic spines on hippocampal neurons. Arachidonic acid (AA) fails to reproduce these effects of DHA. If similar increases occur in human brain, giving these compounds to patients with diseases – like Alzheimer’s disease – which cause the loss of brain synapses – could be beneficial. PMID:21091953

  12. A single mutation that causes phosphatidylglycerol deficiency impairs synthesis of photosystem II cores in Chlamydomonas reinhardtii.

    PubMed

    Pineau, Bernard; Girard-Bascou, Jacqueline; Eberhard, Stephan; Choquet, Yves; Trémolières, Antoine; Gérard-Hirne, Catherine; Bennardo-Connan, Annick; Decottignies, Paulette; Gillet, Sylvie; Wollman, Francis-André

    2004-01-01

    Two mutants of Chlamydomonas reinhardtii, mf1 and mf2, characterized by a marked reduction in their phosphatidylglycerol content together with a complete loss in its Delta3-trans hexadecenoic acid-containing form, also lost photosystem II (PSII) activity. Genetic analysis of crosses between mf2 and wild-type strains shows a strict cosegregation of the PSII and lipid deficiencies, while phenotypic analysis of phototrophic revertant strains suggests that one single nuclear mutation is responsible for the pleiotropic phenotype of the mutants. The nearly complete absence of PSII core is due to a severely decreased synthesis of two subunits, D1 and apoCP47, which is not due to a decrease in translation initiation. Trace amounts of PSII cores that were detected in the mutants did not associate with the light-harvesting chlorophyll a/b-binding protein antenna (LHCII). We discuss the possible role of phosphatidylglycerol in the coupled process of cotranslational insertion and assembly of PSII core subunits.

  13. Effect of BN 52021, a specific antagonist of platelet activating factor (PAF-acether), on calcium movements and phosphatidic acid production induced by PAF-acether in human platelets

    SciT

    Simon, M.F.; Chap, H.; Braquet, P.

    1987-02-15

    /sup 32/P-labelled human platelets loaded with quin 2 and pretreated with aspirin were stimulated with 1-100 nM platelet activating factor (PAF-acether or 1-0-alkyl-2-acetyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine) in a medium containing the ADP-scavenging system creatine phosphate/creatine phosphokinase. Under these conditions, PAF-acether evoked a characteristic fluorescence change allowing to quantify elevations in cytoplasmic free Ca/sup 2 +/ from internal stores (Ca/sup 2 +/ mobilization) or from external medium (Ca/sup 2 +/ influx), as well as an increased production of phosphatidic acid, reflecting phospholipase C activation. These effects, which can be attributed to PAF-acether only and not to released products such as ADP or thromboxane A2,more » were strongly inhibited in a dose-dependent manner by BN 52021, a specific antagonist of PAF-acether isolated from Ginkgo biloba. As the drug remained inactive against the same effects elicited by thrombin, it is concluded that BN 52021 does not interfere directly with the mechanism of transmembrane signalling involving inositol-phospholipids or (and) some putative receptor-operated channels, but rather acts on the binding of PAF-acether to its presumed membrane receptor.« less

  14. Acetylglyceryl ether phosphorylcholine (AGEPC; platelet-activating factor)-induced stimulation of rabbit platelets: correlation between phosphatidic acid level, 45Ca2+ uptake, and (3H)serotonin secretion

    SciT

    Shukla, S.D.; Hanahan, D.J.

    1984-08-01

    When 32P-labeled rabbits platelet were incubated with 5 X 10(-10) M 1-O-alkyl-2-acetyl-sn-glyceryl-3-phosphorylcholine (AGEPC), either in the presence or absence (0.1 mM EGTA) of added Ca2+, there was a three- to five-fold increase in the (32P)phosphatidic acid (PA) pool within 15 to 20 s. This event was followed by a gradual decrease in the (32P)PA level to near basal level in 5 min. AGEPC effected this change in (32P)PA in a characteristic dose- and time-dependent manner. Polar head group analogs of AGEPC, such as AGEDME and AGEMME, also effected an increase in PA labeling at levels comparable to those previously reportedmore » for their activity toward rabbit platelets. Other analogs, i.e., lysoGEPC and the enantiomer, sn-1-AGEPC, which are inactive toward rabbit platelets, also showed no effect on the level of (32P)PA. The finding that the PA level in rabbit platelets could be manipulated by the addition of AGEPC, without any added Ca2+, provided an excellent model system for establishing a correlation between the uptake of Ca2+, serotonin release, and PA level. Thus, PA must be regarded as a sensitive indicator of a reaction mechanism important to the platelet response to AGEPC, and could be the focal point in promoting calcium uptake during the stimulation process.« less

  15. A Plastid Phosphatidylglycerol Lipase Contributes to the Export of Acyl Groups from Plastids for Seed Oil Biosynthesis.

    PubMed

    Wang, Kun; Froehlich, John E; Zienkiewicz, Agnieszka; Hersh, Hope Lynn; Benning, Christoph

    2017-07-01

    The lipid composition of thylakoid membranes inside chloroplasts is conserved from leaves to developing embryos. A finely tuned lipid assembly machinery is required to build these membranes during Arabidopsis thaliana development. Contrary to thylakoid lipid biosynthetic enzymes, the functions of most predicted chloroplast lipid-degrading enzymes remain to be elucidated. Here, we explore the biochemistry and physiological function of an Arabidopsis thylakoid membrane-associated lipase, PLASTID LIPASE1 (PLIP1). PLIP1 is a phospholipase A 1 In vivo, PLIP1 hydrolyzes polyunsaturated acyl groups from a unique chloroplast-specific phosphatidylglycerol that contains 16:1 Δ3trans as its second acyl group. Thus far, a specific function of this 16:1 Δ3trans -containing phosphatidylglycerol in chloroplasts has remained elusive. The PLIP1 gene is highly expressed in seeds, and plip1 mutant seeds contain less oil and exhibit delayed germination compared with the wild type. Acyl groups released by PLIP1 are exported from the chloroplast, reincorporated into phosphatidylcholine, and ultimately enter seed triacylglycerol. Thus, 16:1 Δ3trans uniquely labels a small but biochemically active plastid phosphatidylglycerol pool in developing Arabidopsis embryos, which is subject to PLIP1 activity, thereby contributing a small fraction of the polyunsaturated fatty acids present in seed oil. We propose that acyl exchange involving thylakoid lipids functions in acyl export from plastids and seed oil biosynthesis. © 2017 American Society of Plant Biologists. All rights reserved.

  16. Species differences in the effects of prostaglandins on inositol trisphosphate accumulation, phosphatidic acid formation, myosin light chain phosphorylation and contraction in iris sphincter of the mammalian eye: interaction with the cyclic AMP system.

    PubMed

    Yousufzai, S Y; Chen, A L; Abdel-Latif, A A

    1988-12-01

    Comparative studies on the effects of prostaglandins (PGs) on 1,2-diacylglycerol, measured as phosphatidic acid (PA), and inositol trisphosphate (IP3) production, cyclic AMP (cAMP) formation, myosin light chain (MLC) phosphorylation and contraction in the iris sphincter smooth muscle of rabbit, bovine and other mammalian species were undertaken and functional and biochemical relationships between the IP3-Ca++ and cAMP second messenger systems were demonstrated. The findings obtained from these studies can be summarized as follows: 1) all PGs investigated, including PGE2, PGF2 alpha, PGF2 alpha-ester, PGE1 and PGA2 increased IP3 accumulation and PA formation, and the extent of stimulation was dependent on the animal species. Thus, PGF2 alpha-ester (1 microM), the most potent of the PGs, increased IP3 accumulation in rabbit and bovine sphincters by 33 and 58%, respectively, and increased PA formation by 67 and 56%, respectively. The PG increased IP3 accumulation in both rabbit and bovine sphincters very rapidly (T1/2 values about 26 sec) and in a dose-dependent manner. 2) The PG had no effect on MLC phosphorylation in the rabbit sphincter, but it increased that of the bovine by 36%. 3) The PG increased cAMP formation by 75% in the rabbit sphincter but it had no effect on that of the bovine. 4) The PG induced a maximal contractile response in the bovine sphincter but it had no effect on that of the rabbit. 5) In the bovine, PGA2 induced IP3 accumulation and contraction, without an effect on cAMP formation; however, in the rabbit, cat and dog it increased cAMP formation and had no effect on IP3 accumulation and contraction.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  17. Lipin-1 Phosphatidic Phosphatase Activity Modulates Phosphatidate Levels to Promote Peroxisome Proliferator-activated Receptor γ (PPARγ) Gene Expression during Adipogenesis*

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Peixiang; Takeuchi, Kazuharu; Csaki, Lauren S.; Reue, Karen

    2012-01-01

    Adipose tissue plays a key role in metabolic homeostasis. Disruption of the Lpin1 gene encoding lipin-1 causes impaired adipose tissue development and function in rodents. Lipin-1 functions as a phosphatidate phosphatase (PAP) enzyme in the glycerol 3-phosphate pathway for triglyceride storage and as a transcriptional coactivator/corepressor for metabolic nuclear receptors. Previous studies established that lipin-1 is required at an early step in adipocyte differentiation for induction of the adipogenic gene transcription program, including the key regulator peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ (PPARγ). Here, we investigate the requirement of lipin-1 PAP versus coactivator function in the establishment of Pparg expression during adipocyte differentiation. We demonstrate that PAP activity supplied by lipin-1, lipin-2, or lipin-3, but not lipin-1 coactivator activity, can rescue Pparg gene expression and lipogenesis during adipogenesis in lipin-1-deficient preadipocytes. In adipose tissue from lipin-1-deficient mice, there is an accumulation of phosphatidate species containing a range of medium chain fatty acids and an activation of the MAPK/extracellular signal-related kinase (ERK) signaling pathway. Phosphatidate inhibits differentiation of cultured adipocytes, and this can be rescued by the expression of lipin-1 PAP activity or by inhibition of ERK signaling. These results emphasize the importance of lipid intermediates as choreographers of gene regulation during adipogenesis, and the results highlight a specific role for lipins as determinants of levels of a phosphatidic acid pool that influences Pparg expression. PMID:22157014

  18. Identification of an Mg2+-independent soluble phosphatidate phosphatase in cottonseed (Gossypium hirsutum L.)

    Cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.) provides a major source of oil for food and feed industries, but little was known about the oil biosynthesis pathway in cottonseed. Towards understanding the biochemical pathway of oil accumulation in cottonseed, this study focused on phosphatidic acid phosphatase (PAP...

  19. Phosphatidylglycerol synthesis in castor bean endosperm. [Ricinus communis

    SciT

    Moore, T.S. Jr.

    1974-01-01

    The synthesis of phosphatidylglycerol in castor bean (Ricinus communis var. Hale) endosperm tissue was found to be located in both the endoplasmic reticulum and mitochondrial fractions separated on sucrose density gradients. The enzyme of both fractions attained maximum activity at 5 mM Mn/sup 2 +/, 0.075 percent Triton X-100, and pH 7.3. The addition of dithiothreitol produced little effect, but sulfhydryl inhibitors reduced activity in both systems. Cytidine diphosphate-diglyceride exhibited an apparent Michaelis constant for the endoplasmic reticulum enzyme of 2.8 ..mu..M and for the mitochondrial enzyme of 2.0 ..mu..M; the maximum reaction rate was achieved at about 20 ..mu..M.more » For the second substrate, glycerol-phosphate, the apparent Michaelis constant for both fractions was about 50 ..mu..M and maximum velocity was reached at 400 ..mu..M. The specific activity of the mitochondrial enzyme was generally twice that of the endoplasmic reticulum.« less

  20. Multiple sites of retardation of electron transfer in Photosystem II after hydrolysis of phosphatidylglycerol.

    PubMed

    Kim, Eun-Ha; Razeghifard, Reza; Anderson, Jan M; Chow, Wah Soon

    2007-01-01

    Phosphatidylglycerol (PG), containing the unique fatty acid Delta3, trans-16:1-hexadecenoic acid, is a minor but ubiquitous lipid component of thylakoid membranes of chloroplasts and cyanobacteria. We investigated its role in electron transfers and structural organization of Photosystem II (PSII) by treating Arabidopsis thaliana thylakoids with phospholipase A(2) to decrease the PG content. Phospholipase A(2) treatment of thylakoids (a) inhibited electron transfer from the primary quinone acceptor Q(A) to the secondary quinone acceptor Q(B), (b) retarded electron transfer from the manganese cluster to the redox-active tyrosine Z, (c) decreased the extent of flash-induced oxidation of tyrosine Z and dark-stable tyrosine D in parallel, and (d) inhibited PSII reaction centres such that electron flow to silicomolybdate in continuous light was inhibited. In addition, phospholipase A(2) treatment of thylakoids caused the partial dissociation of (a) PSII supercomplexes into PSII dimers that do not have the complete light-harvesting complex of PSII (LHCII); (b) PSII dimers into monomers; and (c) trimers of LHCII into monomers. Thus, removal of PG by phospholipase A(2) brings about profound structural changes in PSII, leading to inhibition/retardation of electron transfer on the donor side, in the reaction centre, and on the acceptor side. Our results broaden the simple view of the predominant effect being on the Q(B)-binding site.

  1. Involvement of phosphatidate phosphatase in the biosynthesis of triacylglycerols in Chlamydomonas reinhardtii * #

    PubMed Central

    Deng, Xiao-dong; Cai, Jia-jia; Fei, Xiao-wen

    2013-01-01

    Lipid biosynthesis is essential for eukaryotic cells, but the mechanisms of the process in microalgae remain poorly understood. Phosphatidic acid phosphohydrolase or 3-sn-phosphatidate phosphohydrolase (PAP) catalyzes the dephosphorylation of phosphatidic acid to form diacylglycerols and inorganic orthophosphates. This reaction is integral in the synthesis of triacylglycerols. In this study, the mRNA level of the PAP isoform CrPAP2 in a species of Chlamydomonas was found to increase in nitrogen-free conditions. Silencing of the CrPAP2 gene using RNA interference resulted in the decline of lipid content by 2.4%–17.4%. By contrast, over-expression of the CrPAP2 gene resulted in an increase in lipid content by 7.5%–21.8%. These observations indicate that regulation of the CrPAP2 gene can control the lipid content of the algal cells. In vitro CrPAP2 enzyme activity assay indicated that the cloned CrPAP2 gene exhibited biological activities. PMID:24302712

  2. Lysophosphatidic Acid Regulation and Roles in Human Prostate Cancer

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-08-01

    phosphatidic acid (PA), regulate pivotal processes related to the pathogenesis of cancer. We characterized a novel lipid kinase, designated...pathways. LPA is produced from phosphatidic acid 5 (PA) in activated platelets and ovarian and prostate cancer cells by phospholipase D and subsequent...lysophosphatidic acid (LPA) and phosphatidic acid (PA), regulate pivotal processes related to the pathogenesis of cancer. Here, we report characterization of a novel

  3. Automated enzymatic measurement of lecithin, sphingomyelin, and phosphatidylglycerol in amniotic fluid.

    PubMed

    Bradley, C A; Salhany, K E; Entman, S S; Aleshire, S L; Parl, F F

    1987-01-01

    We describe methods for automated enzymatic measurement of lecithin, sphingomyelin, and phosphatidylglycerol in amniotic fluid. Phospholipase C (EC 3.1.4.3) and sphingomyelin phosphodiesterase (EC 3.1.4.12) are reacted with lecithin and sphingomyelin, respectively, to liberate phosphocholine. Phosphocholine is then reacted with alkaline phosphatase, choline oxidase, peroxidase, and 4-aminoantipyrine to form a colored complex, for which the absorbance at 500 nm is measured with a centrifugal analyzer. Phosphatidylglycerol is hydrolyzed by phospholipase D (EC 3.1.4.4) to form glycerol, which is subsequently reacted with ATP and NAD+ in the presence of glycerol kinase and glycerol-3-phosphate dehydrogenase to yield NADH. The absorbance of the NADH formed is measured at 340 nm. These methods provide a simple, rapid, and accurate alternative to thin-layer chromatography for determination of phospholipids in amniotic fluid for assessment of fetal lung maturity.

  4. Phosphatidylglycerol molecular species of photosynthetic membranes analyzed by high-performance liquid chromatography: theoretical considerations.

    PubMed

    Xu, Y; Siegenthaler, P A

    1996-02-01

    A reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography technique was developed to separate, identify, and quantify individual phosphatidylglycerol (PG) molecular species in thylakoid membranes isolated from higher plant leaves. PG was first separated by thin-layer chromatography; then the dinitrobenzoyl derivatives of diacylglycerols produced after phospholipase C hydrolysis of PG were separated by a C18 reversed-phase column and detected at 254 nm. A linear response of the detector was observed in the range of 0.025 to 12 nmol of PG molecular species. It was established that there was an excellent correlation (r = 0.996) between the carbon and double-bond number in the aliphatic residues and the relative retention time of dinitrobenzoyl derivatives. A new equivalent carbon number value (ECN*) which takes into consideration the number of cis-(nc) and trans-(nt) double bonds per molecular species was defined as ECN* = CN - 2nc - nt, where CN is the number of carbon atoms in the aliphatic residues. The logarithm of the retention time increased linearily as a function of ECN* value. However, in this type of correlation, it may happen that two molecular species of PG having distinct relative retention times had the same ECN* value. In this case, the two molecular species can be identified by the linear correlation (r = 1) existing between the reciprocal of the relative retention time and the number of double bonds (0 < or = n < or = 3) in the separate 18:n/delta 3-trans-hexadecenoic acid -16:1(3t)- and 18:n/16:0 molecular species series. The advantages of this method are good separation, cohort elution time, quantitative precision, and predictable retention times of PG molecular species from chloroplast membranes. The method has been used routinely to identify the ten PG molecular species of thylakoid membranes in squash, potato, lettuce, and spinach leaf: 18:3/16:1(3t), 18:3/16:0, 18:2/16:1(3t), 18:2/16:0, 18:1/16:1(3t), 18:1/16:0, 18:0/16:1(3t), 18:0/16:0, 16

  5. Oral administration of circulating precursors for membrane phosphatides can promote the synthesis of new brain synapses

    PubMed Central

    Cansev, Mehmet; Wurtman, Richard J.; Sakamoto, Toshimasa; Ulus, Ismail H.

    2008-01-01

    Although cognitive performance in humans and experimental animals can be improved by administering the omega-3 fatty acid docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), the neurochemical mechanisms underlying this effect remain uncertain. In general, nutrients or drugs that modify brain function or behavior do so by affecting synaptic transmission, usually by changing the quantities of particular neurotransmitters present within synaptic clefts or by acting directly on neurotransmitter receptors or signal-transduction molecules. We find that DHA also affects synaptic transmission in mammalian brain: Brain cells of gerbils or rats receiving this fatty acid manifest increased levels of phosphatides and of specific pre- or post-synaptic proteins. They also exhibit increased numbers of dendritic spines on postsynaptic neurons. These actions are markedly enhanced in animals that have also received the other two circulating precursors for phosphatidylcholine – uridine (which gives rise to brain UTP and CTP), and choline (which gives rise to phosphocholine). The actions of DHA are reproduced by eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA), another omega-3 compound, but not by the omega-6 fatty acid arachidonic acid (AA). Administration of circulating phosphatide precursors can also increase neurotransmitter release (acetylcholine; dopamine) and affect animal behavior. Conceivably, this treatment might have use in patients with the synaptic loss that characterizes Alzheimer's disease or other neurodegenerative diseases, or occurs after stroke or brain injury. PMID:18631994

  6. Binding of Daptomycin to Anionic Lipid Vesicles Is Reduced in the Presence of Lysyl-Phosphatidylglycerol

    PubMed Central

    Khatib, Tala O.; Stevenson, Heather; Yeaman, Michael R.; Bayer, Arnold S.

    2016-01-01

    The cytoplasmic membrane of Staphylococcus aureus contains ∼20 mol% of the net cationic lipid lysyl-phosphatidylglycerol (LPG). Elevated fractions of LPG are associated with increased resistance to cationic antibiotics, including the lipopeptide daptomycin (DAP). Although the surface charge of the bacterial cytoplasmic membrane is altered by LPG, surface binding of DAP was found to be only moderately affected in anionic vesicles containing 20 mol% LPG. These results suggest that charge repulsion cannot fully explain LPG-mediated resistance to cationic peptides. PMID:27216066

  7. In Vivo and in Vitro Synthesis of Phosphatidylglycerol by an Escherichia coli Cardiolipin Synthase.

    PubMed

    Li, Chijun; Tan, Brandon K; Zhao, Jinshi; Guan, Ziqiang

    2016-11-25

    Phosphatidylglycerol (PG) makes up 5-20% of the phospholipids of Escherichia coli and is essential for growth in wild-type cells. PG is synthesized from the dephosphorylation of its immediate precursor, phosphatidylglycerol phosphate (PGP) whose synthase in E. coli is PgsA. Using genetic, biochemical, and highly sensitive mass spectrometric approaches, we identified an alternative mechanism for PG synthesis in E. coli that is PgsA independent. The reaction of synthesis involves the conversion of phosphatidylethanolamine and glycerol into PG and is catalyzed by ClsB, a phospholipase D-type cardiolipin synthase. This enzymatic reaction is demonstrated herein both in vivo and in vitro as well as by using the purified ClsB protein. When the growth medium was supplemented with glycerol, the expression of E. coli ClsB significantly increased PG and cardiolipin levels, with the growth deficiency of pgsA null strain also being complemented under such conditions. Identification of this alternative mechanism for PG synthesis not only expands our knowledge of bacterial anionic phospholipid biosynthesis, but also sheds light on the biochemical functions of the cls gene redundancy in E. coli and other bacteria. Finally, the PGP-independent PG synthesis in E. coli may also have important implications for the understanding of PG biosynthesis in eukaryotes that remains incomplete. © 2016 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  8. Neural Resilience to Traumatic Brain Injury: Identification of Bioactive Metabolites of Docosahexaenoic Acids Involved in Neuroprotection and Recovery

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-05-01

    and phosphatidic acid .18,19 Akt activation is known to be dependent on the PIP3 generation. However, interaction between Akt and membrane PS is also...binding domains for phosphatidylserine and phosphatidic acid . Phosphatidic acid regulates the translocation of Raf-1 in 12-O- tetradecanoylphorbol-13...AWARD NUMBER: W81XWH-11-2-0074 TITLE: Neural Resilience to Traumatic Brain Injury: identification of Bioactive Metabolites of Docosahexaenoic Acids

  9. Acid sphingomyelinase activity is regulated by membrane lipids and facilitates cholesterol transfer by NPC2[S

    PubMed Central

    Oninla, Vincent O.; Breiden, Bernadette; Babalola, Jonathan O.; Sandhoff, Konrad

    2014-01-01

    During endocytosis, membrane components move to intraluminal vesicles of the endolysosomal compartment for digestion. At the late endosomes, cholesterol is sorted out mainly by two sterol-binding proteins, Niemann-Pick protein type C (NPC)1 and NPC2. To study the NPC2-mediated intervesicular cholesterol transfer, we developed a liposomal assay system. (Abdul-Hammed, M., B. Breiden, M. A. Adebayo, J. O. Babalola, G. Schwarzmann, and K. Sandhoff. 2010. Role of endosomal membrane lipids and NPC2 in cholesterol transfer and membrane fusion. J. Lipid Res. 51: 1747–1760.) Anionic lipids stimulate cholesterol transfer between liposomes while SM inhibits it, even in the presence of anionic bis(monoacylglycero)phosphate (BMP). Preincubation of vesicles containing SM with acid sphingomyelinase (ASM) (SM phosphodiesterase, EC 3.1.4.12) results in hydrolysis of SM to ceramide (Cer), which enhances cholesterol transfer. Besides SM, ASM also cleaves liposomal phosphatidylcholine. Anionic phospholipids derived from the plasma membrane (phosphatidylglycerol and phosphatidic acid) stimulate SM and phosphatidylcholine hydrolysis by ASM more effectively than BMP, which is generated during endocytosis. ASM-mediated hydrolysis of liposomal SM was also stimulated by incorporation of diacylglycerol (DAG), Cer, and free fatty acids into the liposomal membranes. Conversely, phosphatidylcholine hydrolysis was inhibited by incorporation of cholesterol, Cer, DAG, monoacylglycerol, and fatty acids. Our data suggest that SM degradation by ASM is required for physiological secretion of cholesterol from the late endosomal compartment, and is a key regulator of endolysosomal lipid digestion. PMID:25339683

  10. Mice Deficient in lysophosphatidic acid acyltransferase delta (Lpaatδ)/acylglycerophosphate acyltransferase 4 (Agpat4) Have Impaired Learning and Memory.

    PubMed

    Bradley, Ryan M; Mardian, Emily B; Bloemberg, Darin; Aristizabal Henao, Juan J; Mitchell, Andrew S; Marvyn, Phillip M; Moes, Katherine A; Stark, Ken D; Quadrilatero, Joe; Duncan, Robin E

    2017-11-15

    We previously characterized LPAATδ/AGPAT4 as a mitochondrial lysophosphatidic acid acyltransferase that regulates brain levels of phosphatidylcholine (PC), phosphatidylethanolamine (PE), and phosphatidylinositol (PI). Here, we report that Lpaat δ -/- mice display impaired spatial learning and memory compared to wild-type littermates in the Morris water maze and our investigation of potential mechanisms associated with brain phospholipid changes. Marker protein immunoblotting suggested that the relative brain content of neurons, glia, and oligodendrocytes was unchanged. Relative abundance of the important brain fatty acid docosahexaenoic acid was also unchanged in phosphatidylserine, phosphatidylglycerol, and cardiolipin, in agreement with prior data on PC, PE and PI. In phosphatidic acid, it was increased. Specific decreases in ethanolamine-containing phospholipids were detected in mitochondrial lipids, but the function of brain mitochondria in Lpaat δ -/- mice was unchanged. Importantly, we found that Lpaat δ -/- mice have a significantly and drastically lower brain content of the N -methyl-d-asparate (NMDA) receptor subunits NR1, NR2A, and NR2B, as well as the α-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolepropionic acid (AMPA) receptor subunit GluR1, compared to wild-type mice. However, general dysregulation of PI-mediated signaling is not likely responsible, since phospho-AKT and phospho-mTOR pathway regulation was unaffected. Our findings indicate that Lpaat δ deficiency causes deficits in learning and memory associated with reduced NMDA and AMPA receptors. Copyright © 2017 American Society for Microbiology.

  11. The Saccharomyces cerevisiae Lipin Homolog is a Mg2+-dependent Phosphatidate Phosphatase Enzyme*

    PubMed Central

    Han, Gil-Soo; Wu, Wen-I; Carman, George M.

    2006-01-01

    Mg2+-dependent phosphatidate (PA) phosphatase (3-sn-phosphatidate phosphohydrolase, EC 3.1.3.4) catalyzes the dephosphorylation of PA to yield diacylglycerol and Pi. In this work, we identified the Saccharomyces cerevisiae PAH1 (previously known as SMP2) gene that encodes Mg2+-dependent PA phosphatase using amino acid sequence information derived from a purified preparation of the enzyme (Lin, Y.-P., and Carman, G.M. (1989) J. Biol. Chem. 264, 8641–8645). Overexpression of PAH1 in S. cerevisiae directed elevated levels of Mg2+-dependent PA phosphatase activity, whereas the pah1Δ mutation caused reduced levels of enzyme activity. Heterologous expression of PAH1 in Escherichia coli confirmed that Pah1p is a Mg2+-dependent PA phosphatase enzyme, and showed that its enzymological properties were very similar to those of the enzyme purified from S. cerevisiae. The PAH1-encoded enzyme activity was associated with both the membrane and cytosolic fractions of the cell, and the membrane-bound form of the enzyme was salt-extractable. Lipid analysis showed that mutants lacking PAH1 accumulated PA, and had reduced amounts of diacylglycerol and its derivative triacylglycerol. The PAH1-encoded Mg2+-dependent PA phosphatase shows homology to mammalian lipin, a fat-regulating protein whose molecular function is unknown. Heterologous expression of human LPIN1 in E. coli showed that lipin 1 is also a Mg2+-dependent PA phosphatase enzyme. PMID:16467296

  12. Genetic manipulation of membrane phospholipid composition in Escherichia coli: pgsA mutants defective in phosphatidylglycerol synthesis.

    PubMed Central

    Miyazaki, C; Kuroda, M; Ohta, A; Shibuya, I

    1985-01-01

    Unique mutants of Escherichia coli K-12, defective in phosphatidylglycerol synthesis, have been isolated from a temperature-sensitive strain incubated at its nonpermissive temperature. The parent strain had excess phosphatidylglycerol by harboring both the pss-1 allele [coding for a temperature-sensitive phosphatidylserine synthase (EC 2.7.8.8)] and the cls- allele (responsible for a defective cardiolipin synthase). The newly acquired mutations caused better growth at higher temperatures. One of the mutations (pgsA3) has been identified in the structural gene for phosphatidylglycerophosphate synthase [glycerophosphate phosphatidyltransferase (EC 2.7.8.5)]. Phospholipid compositions of these mutants were remarkable; phosphatidylethanolamine was the sole major lipid. In media with low osmotic pressures, these cells grew more slowly than the wild-type cells. They grew normally without recovering from the phospholipid abnormality in media appropriately supplemented with sucrose and MgCl2. Formation of cardiolipin and phosphoglycerol derivatives of membrane-derived oligosaccharides was reduced in a pgsA3 mutant. E. coli strains having the pgsA3, pss-1, and cls- mutations, either individually or in combination, constitute an empirical system in which the molar ratio of three major membrane phospholipids can be variously altered. Images PMID:2999767

  13. Host Pah1p phosphatidate phosphatase limits viral replication by regulating phospholipid synthesis

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Zhenlu; He, Guijuan; Catanzaro, Nicholas; Wu, Zujian; Xie, Lianhui

    2018-01-01

    Replication of positive-strand RNA viruses [(+)RNA viruses] takes place in membrane-bound viral replication complexes (VRCs). Formation of VRCs requires virus-mediated manipulation of cellular lipid synthesis. Here, we report significantly enhanced brome mosaic virus (BMV) replication and much improved cell growth in yeast cells lacking PAH1 (pah1Δ), the sole yeast ortholog of human LIPIN genes. PAH1 encodes Pah1p (phosphatidic acid phosphohydrolase), which converts phosphatidate (PA) to diacylglycerol that is subsequently used for the synthesis of the storage lipid triacylglycerol. Inactivation of Pah1p leads to altered lipid composition, including high levels of PA, total phospholipids, ergosterol ester, and free fatty acids, as well as expansion of the nuclear membrane. In pah1Δ cells, BMV replication protein 1a and double-stranded RNA localized to the extended nuclear membrane, there was a significant increase in the number of VRCs formed, and BMV genomic replication increased by 2-fold compared to wild-type cells. In another yeast mutant that lacks both PAH1 and DGK1 (encodes diacylglycerol kinase converting diacylglycerol to PA), which has a normal nuclear membrane but maintains similar lipid compositional changes as in pah1Δ cells, BMV replicated as efficiently as in pah1Δ cells, suggesting that the altered lipid composition was responsible for the enhanced BMV replication. We further showed that increased levels of total phospholipids play an important role because the enhanced BMV replication required active synthesis of phosphatidylcholine, the major membrane phospholipid. Moreover, overexpression of a phosphatidylcholine synthesis gene (CHO2) promoted BMV replication. Conversely, overexpression of PAH1 or plant PAH1 orthologs inhibited BMV replication in yeast or Nicotiana benthamiana plants. Competing with its host for limited resources, BMV inhibited host growth, which was markedly alleviated in pah1Δ cells. Our work suggests that Pah1p promotes

  14. Acid sphingomyelinase activity is regulated by membrane lipids and facilitates cholesterol transfer by NPC2.

    PubMed

    Oninla, Vincent O; Breiden, Bernadette; Babalola, Jonathan O; Sandhoff, Konrad

    2014-12-01

    During endocytosis, membrane components move to intraluminal vesicles of the endolysosomal compartment for digestion. At the late endosomes, cholesterol is sorted out mainly by two sterol-binding proteins, Niemann-Pick protein type C (NPC)1 and NPC2. To study the NPC2-mediated intervesicular cholesterol transfer, we developed a liposomal assay system. (Abdul-Hammed, M., B. Breiden, M. A. Adebayo, J. O. Babalola, G. Schwarzmann, and K. Sandhoff. 2010. Role of endosomal membrane lipids and NPC2 in cholesterol transfer and membrane fusion. J. Lipid Res. 51: 1747-1760.) Anionic lipids stimulate cholesterol transfer between liposomes while SM inhibits it, even in the presence of anionic bis(monoacylglycero)phosphate (BMP). Preincubation of vesicles containing SM with acid sphingomyelinase (ASM) (SM phosphodiesterase, EC 3.1.4.12) results in hydrolysis of SM to ceramide (Cer), which enhances cholesterol transfer. Besides SM, ASM also cleaves liposomal phosphatidylcholine. Anionic phospholipids derived from the plasma membrane (phosphatidylglycerol and phosphatidic acid) stimulate SM and phosphatidylcholine hydrolysis by ASM more effectively than BMP, which is generated during endocytosis. ASM-mediated hydrolysis of liposomal SM was also stimulated by incorporation of diacylglycerol (DAG), Cer, and free fatty acids into the liposomal membranes. Conversely, phosphatidylcholine hydrolysis was inhibited by incorporation of cholesterol, Cer, DAG, monoacylglycerol, and fatty acids. Our data suggest that SM degradation by ASM is required for physiological secretion of cholesterol from the late endosomal compartment, and is a key regulator of endolysosomal lipid digestion. Copyright © 2014 by the American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  15. In Vivo Lipid "Tag and Track" Approach Shows Acyl Editing of Plastid Lipids and Chloroplast Import of Phosphatidylglycerol Precursors in Arabidopsis thaliana.

    PubMed

    Hurlock, Anna K; Wang, Kun; Takeuchi, Tomomi; Horn, Patrick J; Benning, Christoph

    2018-06-19

    In plant lipid metabolism, the synthesis of many intermediates or end products often appears overdetermined with multiple synthesis pathways acting in parallel. Lipid metabolism is also dynamic with interorganelle transport, turnover, and remodeling of lipids. To explore this complexity in vivo, we developed an in vivo lipid "tag and track" method. Essentially, we probed lipid metabolism in Arabidopsis thaliana by expressing a coding sequence for a fatty acid desaturase from Physcomitrella patens (Δ6D). This enzyme places a double bond after the 6 th carbon from the carboxyl end of an acyl group attached to phosphatidylcholine at its sn-2 glyceryl position providing a subtle, but easily trackable modification of the glycerolipid. Phosphatidylcholine is a central intermediate in plant lipid metabolism as it is modified and converted to precursors for other lipids throughout the plant cell. Taking advantage of the exclusive location of Δ6D in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) and its known substrate specificity for one of the two acyl groups on phosphatidylcholine, we were able to "tag and track" the distribution of lipids within multiple compartments and their remodeling in transgenic lines of different genetic backgrounds. Key findings were the presence of ER-derived precursors in plastid phosphatidylglycerol and prevalent acyl editing of thylakoid lipids derived from multiple pathways. We expect that this "tag and track" method will serve as a tool to address several unresolved aspects of plant lipid metabolism, such as the nature and interaction of different subcellular glycerolipid pools during plant development or in response to adverse conditions. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  16. Phosphatidylglycerol directs binding and inhibitory action of EIIAGlc protein on the maltose transporter.

    PubMed

    Bao, Huan; Duong, Franck

    2013-08-16

    The signal-transducing protein EIIA(Glc) belongs to the phosphoenolpyruvate carbohydrate phosphotransferase system. In its dephosphorylated state, EIIA(Glc) is a negative regulator for several permeases, including the maltose transporter MalFGK2. How EIIA(Glc) is targeted to the membrane, how it interacts with the transporter, and how it inhibits sugar uptake remain obscure. We show here that acidic phospholipids together with the N-terminal tail of EIIA(Glc) are essential for the high affinity binding of the protein to the transporter. Using protein docking prediction and chemical cross-linking, we demonstrate that EIIA(Glc) binds to the MalK dimer, interacting with both the nucleotide-binding and the C-terminal regulatory domains. Dissection of the ATPase cycle reveals that EIIA(Glc) does not affect the binding of ATP but rather inhibits the capacity of MalK to cleave ATP. We propose a mechanism of maltose transport inhibition by this central amphitropic regulatory protein.

  17. Dietary supplementation with uridine-5'-monophosphate (UMP), a membrane phosphatide precursor, increases acetylcholine level and release in striatum of aged rat.

    PubMed

    Wang, Lei; Albrecht, Meredith A; Wurtman, Richard J

    2007-02-16

    The biosynthesis of brain membrane phosphatides, e.g., phosphatidylcholine (PtdCho), may utilize three circulating compounds: choline, uridine (a precursor for UTP, CTP, and CDP-choline), and a PUFA (e.g., docosahexaenoic acid); moreover, oral administration of the uridine source uridine-5'-monophosphate (UMP) can significantly increase levels of the phosphatides throughout the rodent brain. Since PtdCho can provide choline for acetylcholine (ACh) synthesis, we determined whether UMP administration also affects ACh levels in striatum and striatal extracellular fluid, in aged and young rats. Among aged animals consuming a UMP-containing diet (2.5%, w/w) for 1 or 6 weeks, baseline ACh levels in striatal dialysates rose from 73 fmol/min to 148 or 197 fmol/min (P<0.05). Consuming a lower dose (0.5%) for 1 week produced a smaller but still significant increase (from 75 to 92 fmol/min, P<0.05), and elevated striatal ACh content (by 16%; P<0.05). Dietary UMP (0.5%, 1 week) also amplified the increase in ACh caused by giving atropine (10 microM in the aCSF); atropine alone increased ACh concentrations from 81 to 386 fmol/min in control rats and from 137 to 680 fmol/min in those consuming UMP (P<0.05). Young rats eating the UMP-containing diet exhibited similar increases in basal ECF ACh (from 105 to 118 fmol/min) and in the increase produced by atropine (from 489 to 560 fmol/min; P<0.05). These data suggest that giving a uridine source may enhance some cholinergic functions, perhaps by increasing brain phosphatide levels.

  18. Phosphatidate Phosphatase Plays Role in Zinc-mediated Regulation of Phospholipid Synthesis in Yeast*

    PubMed Central

    Soto-Cardalda, Aníbal; Fakas, Stylianos; Pascual, Florencia; Choi, Hyeon-Son; Carman, George M.

    2012-01-01

    In the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae, the synthesis of phospholipids is coordinately regulated by mechanisms that control the homeostasis of the essential mineral zinc (Carman, G.M., and Han, G. S. (2007) Regulation of phospholipid synthesis in Saccharomyces cerevisiae by zinc depletion. Biochim. Biophys. Acta 1771, 322–330; Eide, D. J. (2009) Homeostatic and adaptive responses to zinc deficiency in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. J. Biol. Chem. 284, 18565–18569). The synthesis of phosphatidylcholine is balanced by the repression of CDP-diacylglycerol pathway enzymes and the induction of Kennedy pathway enzymes. PAH1-encoded phosphatidate phosphatase catalyzes the penultimate step in triacylglycerol synthesis, and the diacylglycerol generated in the reaction may also be used for phosphatidylcholine synthesis via the Kennedy pathway. In this work, we showed that the expression of PAH1-encoded phosphatidate phosphatase was induced by zinc deficiency through a mechanism that involved interaction of the Zap1p zinc-responsive transcription factor with putative upstream activating sequence zinc-responsive elements in the PAH1 promoter. The pah1Δ mutation resulted in the derepression of the CHO1-encoded phosphatidylserine synthase (CDP-diacylglycerol pathway enzyme) and loss of the zinc-mediated regulation of the enzyme. Loss of phosphatidate phosphatase also resulted in the derepression of the CKI1-encoded choline kinase (Kennedy pathway enzyme) but decreased the synthesis of phosphatidylcholine when cells were deficient of zinc. This result confirmed the role phosphatidate phosphatase plays in phosphatidylcholine synthesis via the Kennedy pathway. PMID:22128164

  19. Studying interfacial reactions of cholesterol sulfate in an unsaturated phosphatidylglycerol layer with ozone using field induced droplet ionization mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Ko, Jae Yoon; Choi, Sun Mi; Rhee, Young Min; Beauchamp, J L; Kim, Hugh I

    2012-01-01

    Field-induced droplet ionization (FIDI) is a recently developed ionization technique that can transfer ions from the surface of microliter droplets to the gas phase intact. The air-liquid interfacial reactions of cholesterol sulfate (CholSO(4)) in a 1-palmitoyl-2-oleoyl-sn-phosphatidylglycerol (POPG) surfactant layer with ozone (O(3)) are investigated using field-induced droplet ionization mass spectrometry (FIDI-MS). Time-resolved studies of interfacial ozonolysis of CholSO(4) reveal that water plays an important role in forming oxygenated products. An epoxide derivative is observed as a major product of CholSO(4) oxidation in the FIDI-MS spectrum after exposure of the droplet to O(3) for 5 s. The abundance of the epoxide product then decreases with continued O(3) exposure as the finite number of water molecules at the air-liquid interface becomes exhausted. Competitive oxidation of CholSO(4) and POPG is observed when they are present together in a lipid surfactant layer at the air-liquid interface. Competitive reactions of CholSO(4) and POPG with O(3) suggest that CholSO(4) is present with POPG as a well-mixed interfacial layer. Compared with CholSO(4) and POPG alone, the overall ozonolysis rates of both CholSO(4) and POPG are reduced in a mixed layer, suggesting the double bonds of both molecules are shielded by additional hydrocarbons from one another. Molecular dynamics simulations of a monolayer comprising POPG and CholSO(4) correlate well with experimental observations and provide a detailed picture of the interactions between CholSO(4), lipids, and water molecules in the interfacial region. © American Society for Mass Spectrometry, 2011

  20. Altered Lipid Synthesis by Lack of Yeast Pah1 Phosphatidate Phosphatase Reduces Chronological Life Span*

    PubMed Central

    Park, Yeonhee; Han, Gil-Soo; Mileykovskaya, Eugenia; Garrett, Teresa A.; Carman, George M.

    2015-01-01

    In Saccharomyces cerevisiae, Pah1 phosphatidate phosphatase, which catalyzes the dephosphorylation of phosphatidate to yield diacylglycerol, plays a crucial role in the synthesis of the storage lipid triacylglycerol. This evolutionarily conserved enzyme also plays a negative regulatory role in controlling de novo membrane phospholipid synthesis through its consumption of phosphatidate. We found that the pah1Δ mutant was defective in the utilization of non-fermentable carbon sources but not in oxidative phosphorylation; the mutant did not exhibit major changes in oxygen consumption rate, mitochondrial membrane potential, F1F0-ATP synthase activity, or gross mitochondrial morphology. The pah1Δ mutant contained an almost normal complement of major mitochondrial phospholipids with some alterations in molecular species. Although oxidative phosphorylation was not compromised in the pah1Δ mutant, the cellular levels of ATP in quiescent cells were reduced by 2-fold, inversely correlating with a 4-fold increase in membrane phospholipids. In addition, the quiescent pah1Δ mutant cells had 3-fold higher levels of mitochondrial superoxide and cellular lipid hydroperoxides, had reduced activities of superoxide dismutase 2 and catalase, and were hypersensitive to hydrogen peroxide. Consequently, the pah1Δ mutant had a shortened chronological life span. In addition, the loss of Tsa1 thioredoxin peroxidase caused a synthetic growth defect with the pah1Δ mutation. The shortened chronological life span of the pah1Δ mutant along with its growth defect on non-fermentable carbon sources and hypersensitivity to hydrogen peroxide was suppressed by the loss of Dgk1 diacylglycerol kinase, indicating that the underpinning of pah1Δ mutant defects was the excess synthesis of membrane phospholipids. PMID:26338708

  1. Yeast Pah1p Phosphatidate Phosphatase Is Regulated by Proteasome-mediated Degradation*

    PubMed Central

    Pascual, Florencia; Hsieh, Lu-Sheng; Soto-Cardalda, Aníbal; Carman, George M.

    2014-01-01

    Yeast PAH1-encoded phosphatidate phosphatase is the enzyme responsible for the production of the diacylglycerol used for the synthesis of triacylglycerol that accumulates in the stationary phase of growth. Paradoxically, the growth phase-mediated inductions of PAH1 and phosphatidate phosphatase activity do not correlate with the amount of Pah1p; enzyme abundance declined in a growth phase-dependent manner. Pah1p from exponential phase cells was a relatively stable protein, and its abundance was not affected by incubation with an extract from stationary phase cells. Recombinant Pah1p was degraded upon incubation with the 100,000 × g pellet fraction of stationary phase cells, although the enzyme was stable when incubated with the same fraction of exponential phase cells. MG132, an inhibitor of proteasome function, prevented degradation of the recombinant enzyme. Endogenously expressed and plasmid-mediated overexpressed levels of Pah1p were more abundant in the stationary phase of cells treated with MG132. Pah1p was stabilized in mutants with impaired proteasome (rpn4Δ, blm10Δ, ump1Δ, and pre1 pre2) and ubiquitination (hrd1Δ, ubc4Δ, ubc7Δ, ubc8Δ, and doa4Δ) functions. The pre1 pre2 mutations that eliminate nearly all chymotrypsin-like activity of the 20 S proteasome had the greatest stabilizing effect on enzyme levels. Taken together, these results supported the conclusion that Pah1p is subject to proteasome-mediated degradation in the stationary phase. That Pah1p abundance was stabilized in pah1Δ mutant cells expressing catalytically inactive forms of Pah1p and dgk1Δ mutant cells with induced expression of DGK1-encoded diacylglycerol kinase indicated that alteration in phosphatidate and/or diacylglycerol levels might be the signal that triggers Pah1p degradation. PMID:24563465

  2. Impaired Photosynthesis in Phosphatidylglycerol-Deficient Mutant of Cyanobacterium Anabaena sp. PCC7120 with a Disrupted Gene Encoding a Putative Phosphatidylglycerophosphatase1

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Feng; Yang, Zhenle; Kuang, Tingyun

    2006-01-01

    Phosphatidylglycerol (PG) is a ubiquitous phospholipid in thylakoid membranes of cyanobacteria and chloroplasts and plays an important role in the structure and function of photosynthetic membranes. The last step of the PG biosynthesis is dephosphorylation of phosphatidylglycerophosphate (PGP) catalyzed by PGP phosphatase. However, the gene-encoding PGP phosphatase has not been identified and cloned from cyanobacteria or higher plants. In this study, we constructed a PG-deficient mutant from cyanobacterium Anabaena sp. PCC7120 with a disrupted gene (alr1715, a gene for Alr1715 protein, GenBank accession no. BAB78081) encoding a putative PGP phosphatase. The obtained mutant showed an approximately 30% reduction in the cellular content of PG. Following the reduction in the PG content, the photoautotrophical growth of the mutant was restrained, and the cellular content of chlorophyll was decreased. The decreases in net photosynthetic and photosystem II (PSII) activities on a cell basis also occurred in this mutant. Simultaneously, the photochemical efficiency of PSII was considerably declined, and less excitation energy was transferred toward PSII. These findings demonstrate that the alr1715 gene of Anabaena sp. PCC7120 is involved in the biosynthesis of PG and essential for photosynthesis. PMID:16815953

  3. Yeast PAH1-encoded phosphatidate phosphatase controls the expression of CHO1-encoded phosphatidylserine synthase for membrane phospholipid synthesis.

    PubMed

    Han, Gil-Soo; Carman, George M

    2017-08-11

    The PAH1 -encoded phosphatidate phosphatase (PAP), which catalyzes the committed step for the synthesis of triacylglycerol in Saccharomyces cerevisiae , exerts a negative regulatory effect on the level of phosphatidate used for the de novo synthesis of membrane phospholipids. This raises the question whether PAP thereby affects the expression and activity of enzymes involved in phospholipid synthesis. Here, we examined the PAP-mediated regulation of CHO1 -encoded phosphatidylserine synthase (PSS), which catalyzes the committed step for the synthesis of major phospholipids via the CDP-diacylglycerol pathway. The lack of PAP in the pah1 Δ mutant highly elevated PSS activity, exhibiting a growth-dependent up-regulation from the exponential to the stationary phase of growth. Immunoblot analysis showed that the elevation of PSS activity results from an increase in the level of the enzyme encoded by CHO1 Truncation analysis and site-directed mutagenesis of the CHO1 promoter indicated that Cho1 expression in the pah1 Δ mutant is induced through the inositol-sensitive upstream activation sequence (UAS INO ), a cis -acting element for the phosphatidate-controlled Henry (Ino2-Ino4/Opi1) regulatory circuit. The abrogation of Cho1 induction and PSS activity by a CHO1 UAS INO mutation suppressed pah1 Δ effects on lipid synthesis, nuclear/endoplasmic reticulum membrane morphology, and lipid droplet formation, but not on growth at elevated temperature. Loss of the DGK1 -encoded diacylglycerol kinase, which converts diacylglycerol to phosphatidate, partially suppressed the pah1 Δ-mediated induction of Cho1 and PSS activity. Collectively, these data showed that PAP activity controls the expression of PSS for membrane phospholipid synthesis. © 2017 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  4. Phosphorylation Regulates the Ubiquitin-independent Degradation of Yeast Pah1 Phosphatidate Phosphatase by the 20S Proteasome*

    PubMed Central

    Hsieh, Lu-Sheng; Su, Wen-Min; Han, Gil-Soo; Carman, George M.

    2015-01-01

    Saccharomyces cerevisiae Pah1 phosphatidate phosphatase, which catalyzes the conversion of phosphatidate to diacylglycerol for triacylglycerol synthesis and simultaneously controls phosphatidate levels for phospholipid synthesis, is subject to the proteasome-mediated degradation in the stationary phase of growth. In this study, we examined the mechanism for its degradation using purified Pah1 and isolated proteasomes. Pah1 expressed in S. cerevisiae or Escherichia coli was not degraded by the 26S proteasome, but by its catalytic 20S core particle, indicating that its degradation is ubiquitin-independent. The degradation of Pah1 by the 20S proteasome was dependent on time and proteasome concentration at the pH optimum of 7.0. The 20S proteasomal degradation was conserved for human lipin 1 phosphatidate phosphatase. The degradation analysis using Pah1 truncations and its fusion with GFP indicated that proteolysis initiates at the N- and C-terminal unfolded regions. The folded region of Pah1, in particular the haloacid dehalogenase-like domain containing the DIDGT catalytic sequence, was resistant to the proteasomal degradation. The structural change of Pah1, as reflected by electrophoretic mobility shift, occurs through its phosphorylation by Pho85-Pho80, and the phosphorylation sites are located within its N- and C-terminal unfolded regions. Phosphorylation of Pah1 by Pho85-Pho80 inhibited its degradation, extending its half-life by ∼2-fold. The dephosphorylation of endogenously phosphorylated Pah1 by the Nem1-Spo7 protein phosphatase, which is highly specific for the sites phosphorylated by Pho85-Pho80, stimulated the 20S proteasomal degradation and reduced its half-life by 2.6-fold. These results indicate that the proteolysis of Pah1 by the 20S proteasome is controlled by its phosphorylation state. PMID:25809482

  5. Development of Complement Inhibitors to Limit Tissue as Adjuvants to Resuscitation

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-03-01

    phosphorylcholine-BSA (PC-BSA), phosphatidic acid (PA), phos- phatidylserine (PS), and phosphatidylglycerol (PG). A broadly reactive IgM anti-phospholipid mAb (our...and phosphatidic acid -containing liposomes at low pH in a Ca2-in- dependent manner (68) and that hypoxia sufficient to induce an intracellular pH...3, 3=, 5, 5= tetramethylbenzidine (KPL Chemicals, Rockville, MD) and the reaction stopped with 0.18 M sulfuric acid . The OD450 was determined and

  6. Low pH Enhances the Action of Maximin H5 against Staphylococcus aureus and Helps Mediate Lysylated Phosphatidylglycerol-Induced Resistance.

    PubMed

    Dennison, Sarah R; Morton, Leslie Hg; Harris, Frederick; Phoenix, David A

    2016-07-12

    Maximin H5 (MH5) is an amphibian antimicrobial peptide specifically targeting Staphylococcus aureus. At pH 6, the peptide showed an improved ability to penetrate (ΔΠ = 6.2 mN m(-1)) and lyse (lysis = 48%) Staphylococcus aureus membrane mimics, which incorporated physiological levels of lysylated phosphatidylglycerol (Lys-PG, 60%), compared to that at pH 7 (ΔΠ = 5.6 mN m(-1) and lysis = 40% at pH 7) where levels of Lys-PG are lower (40%). The peptide therefore appears to have optimal function at pH levels known to be optimal for the organism's growth. MH5 killed S. aureus (minimum inhibitory concentration of 90 μM) via membranolytic mechanisms that involved the stabilization of α-helical structure (approximately 45-50%) and showed similarities to the "Carpet" mechanism based on its ability to increase the rigidity (Cs(-1) = 109.94 mN m(-1)) and thermodynamic stability (ΔGmix = -3.0) of physiologically relevant S. aureus membrane mimics at pH 6. On the basis of theoretical analysis, this mechanism might involve the use of a tilted peptide structure, and efficacy was noted to vary inversely with the Lys-PG content of S. aureus membrane mimics for each pH studied (R(2) ∼ 0.97), which led to the suggestion that under biologically relevant conditions, low pH helps mediate Lys-PG-induced resistance in S. aureus to MH5 antibacterial action. The peptide showed a lack of hemolytic activity (<2% hemolysis) and merits further investigation as a potential template for development as an antistaphylococcal agent in medically and biotechnically relevant areas.

  7. Characterization of Enzymes Involved in Fatty Acid Elongation

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-04-11

    dihydroxyacetone reductase involved in phosphatidic acid biosynthesis [111]. Therefore, altered glycerophospholipid metabolism, along with reduced...2007 Title of Dissertation: "Characterization of Enzymes Involved in Fatty Acid Elongation" APPROVAL SHEET Ernest Maynard, P .D. Department of...Fatty Acid Elongation" is appropriately acknowledged and, beyond brief excerpts, is with the permission of the copyright owner. , /1:1 IJA"" 1< .IIVCf

  8. FATTY ACID DESATURASE4 of Arabidopsis encodes a protein distinct from characterized fatty acid desaturases.

    PubMed

    Gao, Jinpeng; Ajjawi, Imad; Manoli, Arthur; Sawin, Andrew; Xu, Changcheng; Froehlich, John E; Last, Robert L; Benning, Christoph

    2009-12-01

    Polar membrane glycerolipids occur in a mixture of molecular species defined by a polar head group and characteristic acyl groups esterified to a glycerol backbone. A molecular species of phosphatidylglycerol specific to chloroplasts of plants carries a Delta(3-trans) hexadecenoic acid in the sn-2 position of its core glyceryl moiety. The fad4-1 mutant of Arabidopsis thaliana missing this particular phosphatidylglycerol molecular species lacks the necessary fatty acid desaturase, or a component thereof. The overwhelming majority of acyl groups associated with membrane lipids in plants contains double bonds with a cis configuration. However, FAD4 is unusual because it is involved in the formation of a trans double bond introduced close to the carboxyl group of palmitic acid, which is specifically esterified to the sn-2 glyceryl carbon of phosphatidylglycerol. As a first step towards the analysis of this unusual desaturase reaction, the FAD4 gene was identified by mapping of the FAD4 locus and coexpression analysis with known lipid genes. FAD4 encodes a predicted integral membrane protein that appears to be unrelated to classic membrane bound fatty acid desaturases based on overall sequence conservation. However, the FAD4 protein contains two histidine motifs resembling those of metalloproteins such as fatty acid desaturases. FAD4 is targeted to the plastid. Overexpression of the cDNA in transgenic Arabidopsis led to increased accumulation of the Delta(3-trans) hexadecanoyl group in phosphatidylglycerol relative to wild type. Taken together these results are consistent with the hypothesis that FAD4 is the founding member of a novel class of fatty acid desaturases.

  9. Redundant roles of the phosphatidate phosphatase family in triacylglycerol synthesis in human adipocytes.

    PubMed

    Temprano, Ana; Sembongi, Hiroshi; Han, Gil-Soo; Sebastián, David; Capellades, Jordi; Moreno, Cristóbal; Guardiola, Juan; Wabitsch, Martin; Richart, Cristóbal; Yanes, Oscar; Zorzano, Antonio; Carman, George M; Siniossoglou, Symeon; Miranda, Merce

    2016-09-01

    In mammals, the evolutionary conserved family of Mg(2+)-dependent phosphatidate phosphatases (PAP1), involved in phospholipid and triacylglycerol synthesis, consists of lipin-1, lipin-2 and lipin-3. While mutations in the murine Lpin1 gene cause lipodystrophy and its knockdown in mouse 3T3-L1 cells impairs adipogenesis, deleterious mutations of human LPIN1 do not affect adipose tissue distribution. However, reduced LPIN1 and PAP1 activity has been described in participants with type 2 diabetes. We aimed to characterise the roles of all lipin family members in human adipose tissue and adipogenesis. The expression of the lipin family was analysed in adipose tissue in a cross-sectional study. Moreover, the effects of lipin small interfering RNA (siRNA)-mediated depletion on in vitro human adipogenesis were assessed. Adipose tissue gene expression of the lipin family is altered in type 2 diabetes. Depletion of every lipin family member in a human Simpson-Golabi-Behmel syndrome (SGBS) pre-adipocyte cell line, alters expression levels of adipogenic transcription factors and lipid biosynthesis genes in early stages of differentiation. Lipin-1 knockdown alone causes a 95% depletion of PAP1 activity. Despite the reduced PAP1 activity and alterations in early adipogenesis, lipin-silenced cells differentiate and accumulate neutral lipids. Even combinatorial knockdown of lipins shows mild effects on triacylglycerol accumulation in mature adipocytes. Overall, our data support the hypothesis of alternative pathways for triacylglycerol synthesis in human adipocytes under conditions of repressed lipin expression. We propose that induction of alternative lipid phosphate phosphatases, along with the inhibition of lipid hydrolysis, contributes to the maintenance of triacylglycerol content to near normal levels.

  10. A conserved tryptophan within the WRDPLVDID domain of yeast Pah1 phosphatidate phosphatase is required for its in vivo function in lipid metabolism.

    PubMed

    Park, Yeonhee; Han, Gil-Soo; Carman, George M

    2017-12-01

    PAH1 -encoded phosphatidate phosphatase, which catalyzes the dephosphorylation of phosphatidate to produce diacylglycerol at the endoplasmic reticulum membrane, plays a major role in controlling the utilization of phosphatidate for the synthesis of triacylglycerol or membrane phospholipids. The conserved N-LIP and haloacid dehalogenase-like domains of Pah1 are required for phosphatidate phosphatase activity and the in vivo function of the enzyme. Its non-conserved regions, which are located between the conserved domains and at the C terminus, contain sites for phosphorylation by multiple protein kinases. Truncation analyses of the non-conserved regions showed that they are not essential for the catalytic activity of Pah1 and its physiological functions ( e.g. triacylglycerol synthesis). This analysis also revealed that the C-terminal region contains a previously unrecognized WRDPLVDID domain (residues 637-645) that is conserved in yeast, mice, and humans. The deletion of this domain had no effect on the catalytic activity of Pah1 but caused the loss of its in vivo function. Site-specific mutational analyses of the conserved residues within WRDPLVDID indicated that Trp-637 plays a crucial role in Pah1 function. This work also demonstrated that the catalytic activity of Pah1 is required but is not sufficient for its in vivo functions. © 2017 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  11. Giving uridine and/or docosahexaenoic acid orally to rat dams during gestation and nursing increases synaptic elements in brains of weanling pups.

    PubMed

    Cansev, Mehmet; Marzloff, George; Sakamoto, Toshimasa; Ulus, Ismail H; Wurtman, Richard J

    2009-01-01

    Developing neurons synthesize substantial quantities of membrane phospholipids in producing new synapses. We investigated the effects of maternal uridine (as uridine-5'-monophosphate) and docosahexaenoic acid supplementation on pups' brain phospholipids, synaptic proteins and dendritic spine densities. Dams consumed neither, 1 or both compounds for 10 days before parturition and 20 days while nursing. By day 21, brains of weanlings receiving both exhibited significant increases in membrane phosphatides, various pre- and postsynaptic proteins (synapsin-1, mGluR1, PSD-95), and in hippocampal dendritic spine densities. Administering these phosphatide precursors to lactating mothers or infants could be useful for treating developmental disorders characterized by deficient synapses. 2009 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  12. Analysis of fatty acids by graphite plate laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Park, K H; Kim, H J

    2001-01-01

    Fatty acids obtained from triglycerides (trioelin, tripalmitin), foods (milk, corn oil), and phospholipids (phosphotidylcholine, phosphotidylserine, phosphatidic acid) upon alkaline hydrolysis were observed directly without derivatization by graphite plate laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (GPLDI-TOFMS). Mass-to-charge ratios predicted for sodium adducts of expected fatty acids (e.g. palmitic, oleic, linoleic and arachidonic acids) were observed without interference. Although at present no quantitation is possible, the graphite plate method enables a simple and rapid qualitative analysis of fatty acids. Copyright 2001 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  13. Formation of diacylglycerol by a phospholipase D-phosphatidate phosphatase pathway specific for phosphatidylcholine in endothelial cells.

    PubMed

    Martin, T W

    1988-10-14

    The conversion of phosphatidylcholine (PC) to diacylglycerol (DAG) was studied in sonicated endothelial cells and in subcellular fractions in the presence of 0.05% Triton X-100 and 2 mM EDTA. DAG formation occurred predominantly in an organelle fraction that sedimented at 15,000 x g. In parallel reactions with exogenous 1-oleoyl-2-[3H]oleoyl-PC (sn-2-[3H]DOPC) and phosphatidyl[3H]choline ([choline-3H]PC), [3H]DAG was formed by a reaction pathway in which [3H]choline was the only product derived from [choline-3H]PC. [3H]Choline was not formed secondarily from [3H]glycerophosphocholine or [3H]phosphocholine. Small amounts of [3H]phosphatidate ([3H]PA) were isolated from reactions with sn-2-[3H]DOPC at short incubation times, and substantial PA phosphatase activity was demonstrated. These data, taken together, supported a phospholipase D-PA phosphatase pathway of DAG formation. Kinetic data established that the low ratio of [3H]PA/[3H]DAG formed in reactions with sn-2-[3H]DOPC was due to a 15-fold higher Vmax and 7-fold lower apparent Km of the PA phosphatase. The [3H]PA/[3H]DAG product ratio was increased by addition of unlabeled PA or by selective extraction of phospholipase D with Triton X-100. The characteristics of the phospholipase D indicated a unique enzyme. Activity was optimal in the presence of EDTA and was almost totally dependent upon Triton X-100. The pH profile displayed a peak at 7.0. Of particular significance was the stringent substrate specificity. Phosphatidylinositol was not hydrolyzed, and activities towards phosphatidylethanolamine and sphingomyelin were at most 30- to 50-fold lower than those towards PC. Phospholipase D and PA phosphatase were identified in a number of rat tissues and other cells. The highest activities of phospholipase D were present in lung and endothelial cells. Phospholipase D was partially purified from rat lung by Triton X-100 extraction and anion exchange chromatography. When linked with PA phosphatase, the phospholipase

  14. PAH1-encoded Phosphatidate Phosphatase Plays a Role in the Growth Phase- and Inositol-mediated Regulation of Lipid Synthesis in Saccharomyces cerevisiae*

    PubMed Central

    Pascual, Florencia; Soto-Cardalda, Aníbal; Carman, George M.

    2013-01-01

    In the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae, the synthesis of phospholipids in the exponential phase of growth occurs at the expense of the storage lipid triacylglycerol. As exponential phase cells progress into the stationary phase, the synthesis of triacylglycerol occurs at the expense of phospholipids. Early work indicates a role of the phosphatidate phosphatase (PAP) in this metabolism; the enzyme produces the diacylglycerol needed for the synthesis of triacylglycerol and simultaneously controls the level of phosphatidate for the synthesis of phospholipids. Four genes (APP1, DPP1, LPP1, and PAH1) encode PAP activity in yeast, and it has been unclear which gene is responsible for the synthesis of triacylglycerol throughout growth. An analysis of lipid synthesis and composition, as well as PAP activity in various PAP mutant strains, showed the essential role of PAH1 in triacylglycerol synthesis throughout growth. Pah1p is a phosphorylated enzyme whose in vivo function is dependent on its dephosphorylation by the Nem1p-Spo7p protein phosphatase complex. nem1Δ mutant cells exhibited defects in triacylglycerol synthesis and lipid metabolism that mirrored those imparted by the pah1Δ mutation, substantiating the importance of Pah1p dephosphorylation throughout growth. An analysis of cells bearing PPAH1-lacZ and PPAH1-DPP1 reporter genes showed that PAH1 expression was induced throughout growth and that the induction in the stationary phase was stimulated by inositol supplementation. A mutant analysis indicated that the Ino2p/Ino4p/Opi1p regulatory circuit and transcription factors Gis1p and Rph1p mediated this regulation. PMID:24196957

  15. Oral supplementation with docosahexaenoic acid and uridine-5'-monophosphate increases dendritic spine density in adult gerbil hippocampus.

    PubMed

    Sakamoto, Toshimasa; Cansev, Mehmet; Wurtman, Richard J

    2007-11-28

    Docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), an omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid, is an essential component of membrane phosphatides and has been implicated in cognitive functions. Low levels of circulating or brain DHA are associated with various neurocognitive disorders including Alzheimer's disease (AD), while laboratory animals, including animal models of AD, can exhibit improved cognitive ability with a diet enriched in DHA. Various cellular mechanisms have been proposed for DHA's behavioral effects, including increases in cellular membrane fluidity, promotion of neurite extension and inhibition of apoptosis. However, there is little direct evidence that DHA affects synaptic structure in living animals. Here we show that oral supplementation with DHA substantially increases the number of dendritic spines in adult gerbil hippocampus, particularly when animals are co-supplemented with a uridine source, uridine-5'-monophosphate (UMP), which increases brain levels of the rate-limiting phosphatide precursor CTP. The increase in dendritic spines (>30%) is accompanied by parallel increases in membrane phosphatides and in pre- and post-synaptic proteins within the hippocampus. Hence, oral DHA may promote neuronal membrane synthesis to increase the number of synapses, particularly when co-administered with UMP. Our findings provide a possible explanation for the effects of DHA on behavior and also suggest a strategy to treat cognitive disorders resulting from synapse loss.

  16. Preliminary Analysis of Lipids and Fatty Acids of Green Bacteria and Chloroflexus aurantiacus

    PubMed Central

    Kenyon, Christine N.; Gray, Alane M.

    1974-01-01

    The complex lipids and fatty acids of the seven type species of green bacteria and three strains of Chloroflexus aurantiacus were analyzed. The green bacteria contained lipids that behaved as cardiolipin and phosphatidylglycerol on thin-layer chromatography. They did not contain phosphatidylethanolamine or phosphatidylserine. Similarly, Chloroflexus contained lipids that behaved as phosphatidylglycerol and phosphatidylinositol on thin-layer chromatography and did not contain phosphatidylethanolamine or phosphatidylserine. The green bacteria contained glycolipids I and II of Constantopoulos and Bloch (monogalactosyldiglyceride and a galactose- and rhamnose-containing diglyceride). Chloroflexus exhibited galactose-containing glycolipids that behaved identically with the mono- and digalactosyldiglycerides of spinach on thin-layer chromatography, and each contained galactose as well as at least one other sugar. The fatty acids of both groups of bacteria consisted entirely of saturated and monounsaturated fatty acids. In the green bacteria, myristic, palmitic, and hexadecenoic acids predominated. In Chloroflexus, palmitic, stearic, and oleic acids predominated. The positions of the double bonds in the monounsaturated fatty acids of Chloroflexus indicated synthesis by the anaerobic pathway. The lipid analyses suggest a close relationship between the green bacteria and Chloroflexus and further suggest that these groups of photosynthetic bacteria are more closely related to the blue-green algae than are the purple bacteria. Images PMID:4421249

  17. Environmental Influences on the Photooxidation of Manganese by a Zinc Porphyrin Sensitizer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wohlgemuth, Roland; Otvos, John W.; Calvin, Melvin

    1982-08-01

    The photosensitized oxidation of a membrane-bound Mn(III) tetrapyridylporphyrin derivative by a Zn tetrapyridylporphyrin derivative, which is confined to the membrane, has been achieved in negatively charged membranes consisting of phosphatidylglycerol or phosphatidic acid. At the same time, the zwitterionic electron acceptor, propylviologen sulfonate (PVS0), is reduced in the aqueous phase. The same reaction cannot be obtained with zwitterionic or cationic membranes, nor does this photosensitized reaction take place in a homogeneous solution with Mn(III) tetrapyridylporphyrin and Zn tetrapyridylporphyrin. These results show that the organization of donor, sensitizer, and acceptor at an appropriately selected interface allows reactions that would not occur in homogeneous solutions.

  18. Environmental influences on the photooxidation of manganese by a zinc porphyrin sensitizer

    PubMed Central

    Wohlgemuth, Roland; Otvos, John W.; Calvin, Melvin

    1982-01-01

    The photosensitized oxidation of a membrane-bound Mn(III) tetrapyridylporphyrin derivative by a Zn tetrapyridylporphyrin derivative, which is confined to the membrane, has been achieved in negatively charged membranes consisting of phosphatidylglycerol or phosphatidic acid. At the same time, the zwitterionic electron acceptor, propylviologen sulfonate (PVS0), is reduced in the aqueous phase. The same reaction cannot be obtained with zwitterionic or cationic membranes, nor does this photosensitized reaction take place in a homogeneous solution with Mn(III) tetrapyridylporphyrin and Zn tetrapyridylporphyrin. These results show that the organization of donor, sensitizer, and acceptor at an appropriately selected interface allows reactions that would not occur in homogeneous solutions. PMID:16593221

  19. Incorporation of Extracellular Fatty Acids by a Fatty Acid Kinase-Dependent Pathway in Staphylococcus aureus

    PubMed Central

    Parsons, Joshua B.; Frank, Matthew W.; Jackson, Pamela; Subramanian, Chitra; Rock, Charles O.

    2014-01-01

    Summary Acyl-CoA and acyl-acyl carrier protein (ACP) synthetases activate exogenous fatty acids for incorporation into phospholipids in Gram-negative bacteria. However, Gram-positive bacteria utilize an acyltransferase pathway for the biogenesis of phosphatidic acid that begins with the acylation of sn-glycerol-3-phosphate by PlsY using an acyl-phosphate (acyl-PO4) intermediate. PlsX generates acyl-PO4 from the acyl-ACP end-products of fatty acid synthesis. The plsX gene of Staphylococcus aureus was inactivated and the resulting strain was both a fatty acid auxotroph and required de novo fatty acid synthesis for growth. Exogenous fatty acids were only incorporated into the 1-position and endogenous acyl groups were channeled into the 2-position of the phospholipids in strain PDJ39 (ΔplsX). Extracellular fatty acids were not elongated. Removal of the exogenous fatty acid supplement led to the rapid accumulation of intracellular acyl-ACP and the abrupt cessation of fatty acid synthesis. Extracts from the ΔplsX strain exhibited an ATP-dependent fatty acid kinase activity, and the acyl-PO4 was converted to acyl-ACP when purified PlsX is added. These data reveal the existence of a novel fatty acid kinase pathway for the incorporation of exogenous fatty acids into S. aureus phospholipids. PMID:24673884

  20. Characteristic lipids of Bordetella pertussis: simple fatty acid composition, hydroxy fatty acids, and an ornithine-containing lipid.

    PubMed Central

    Kawai, Y; Moribayashi, A

    1982-01-01

    The lipids and fatty acids of Bordetella pertussis (phases I to IV) were analyzed by thin-layer chromatography, gas-liquid chromatography, and mass spectrometry and compared with those of B. parapertussis and B. bronchiseptica. The major lipid components of the three species were phosphatidylethanolamine, cardiolipin, phosphatidylglycerol, lysophosphatidylethanolamine, and an ornithine-containing lipid. The ornithine-containing lipid was characteristic of the genus Bordetella. The fatty acid composition of the total extractable cellular lipids of B. pertussis was mostly hexadecanoic and hexadecenoic acids (90%) in a ratio of about 1:1. The hexadecenoic acid of B. pertussis was in the cis-9 form. The fatty acid composition of the residual bound lipids was distinctly different from that of the extractable lipids, and residual bound lipids being mainly 3-hydroxytetradecanoic, tetradecanoic, and 3-hydroxydecanoic acids, with 3-hydroxydodecanoic acid occurring in some strains. It was determined that the 3-hydroxy fatty acids were derived from lipid A. The fatty acid composition of the total extractable cellular lipids of B. parapertussis and B. bronchiseptica, mainly composed of hexadecanoic and heptadecacyclopropanoic acid, differed from that of B. pertussis. Although the fatty acid composition of the residual bound lipids of B. parapertussis was similar to that of the residual bound lipids of B. pertussis, 2-hydroxydodecanoic acid was detected only in the bound lipids of B. bronchiseptica. Images PMID:6284719

  1. Characteristic lipids of Bordetella pertussis: simple fatty acid composition, hydroxy fatty acids, and an ornithine-containing lipid.

    PubMed

    Kawai, Y; Moribayashi, A

    1982-08-01

    The lipids and fatty acids of Bordetella pertussis (phases I to IV) were analyzed by thin-layer chromatography, gas-liquid chromatography, and mass spectrometry and compared with those of B. parapertussis and B. bronchiseptica. The major lipid components of the three species were phosphatidylethanolamine, cardiolipin, phosphatidylglycerol, lysophosphatidylethanolamine, and an ornithine-containing lipid. The ornithine-containing lipid was characteristic of the genus Bordetella. The fatty acid composition of the total extractable cellular lipids of B. pertussis was mostly hexadecanoic and hexadecenoic acids (90%) in a ratio of about 1:1. The hexadecenoic acid of B. pertussis was in the cis-9 form. The fatty acid composition of the residual bound lipids was distinctly different from that of the extractable lipids, and residual bound lipids being mainly 3-hydroxytetradecanoic, tetradecanoic, and 3-hydroxydecanoic acids, with 3-hydroxydodecanoic acid occurring in some strains. It was determined that the 3-hydroxy fatty acids were derived from lipid A. The fatty acid composition of the total extractable cellular lipids of B. parapertussis and B. bronchiseptica, mainly composed of hexadecanoic and heptadecacyclopropanoic acid, differed from that of B. pertussis. Although the fatty acid composition of the residual bound lipids of B. parapertussis was similar to that of the residual bound lipids of B. pertussis, 2-hydroxydodecanoic acid was detected only in the bound lipids of B. bronchiseptica.

  2. The relative proportions of different lipid classes and their fatty acid compositions change with culture age in the cariogenic dental pathogen Streptococcus mutans UA159.

    PubMed

    Custer, Jenny E; Goddard, Bryan D; Matter, Stephen F; Kaneshiro, Edna S

    2014-06-01

    The oral cariogenic bacterial pathogen Streptococcus mutans strain UA159 has become an important research organism strain since its genome was sequenced. However, there is a paucity of information on its lipidome using direct analytical biochemical approaches. We here report on comprehensive analyses of the major lipid classes and their fatty acids in cells grown in batch standing cultures. Using 2-D high-performance thin-layer chromatography lipid class composition changes were detected with culture age. More lipid components were detected in the stationary-phase compared to log-phase cells. The major lipids identified included 1,3-bis(sn-3'-phosphatidyl)-sn-glycerol (phosphatidylglycerol), 1,3-diphosphatidylglycerol (cardiolipin), aminoacyl-phosphatidylglycerol, monoglucosyldiacylglycerol, diglucosyldiacylglycerol, diglucosylmonoacylglycerol and, glycerophosphoryldiglucosyldiacylglycerol. Culture age also affected the fatty acid composition of the total polar lipid fraction. Thus, the major lipid classes detected in log-phase and stationary-phase cells were isolated and their fatty acids were analyzed by gas-liquid chromatography to determine the basis for the fatty acid compositional changes in the total polar lipid fraction. The analyses showed that the relative proportions of these acids changed with culture age within individual lipid classes. Hence fatty acid changes in the total polar lipid fraction reflected changes in both lipid class composition and fatty acid compositions within individual lipid classes.

  3. Acyl chain conformational ordering of individual components in liquid-crystalline bilayers of mixtures of phosphatidylcholines and phosphatidic acids. A comparative FTIR and 2H NMR study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ziegler, Wolfgang; Blume, Alfred

    1995-09-01

    The conformational ordering of the acyl chains of all possible binary 1:1 mixtures containing the phospholipids DMPC, DMPA, DPPC, and DPPA was investigated using FTIR and 2H NMR spectroscopy. One of the components was always labelled with perdeuterated chains to be able to observe the individual behaviour of the two components. From the temperature dependence of the frequencies of the symmetric and antisymmetric CH 2- and CD 2-stretching vibrations the transition temperatures were determined. The integral intensities of the conformation sensitive CH 2-wagging bands at ca. 1368 cm -1(gtg' and gtg sequences), 1356 cm -1 (double gauche), and 1342 cm -1 (end gauche) can be converted to numbers of gauche conformers per acyl chain using calibration factors published by Senak et al. J. Phys. Chem. 95 (1991) 2565. The 2H NMR quadrupolar splittings of the CD 2-segments of the perdeuterated lipid components are affected not only by trans-gauche isomerizations but also by long axis rotations and restricted wobbling motions of the acyl chains. The values of the average gauche probability overlinep3 from FTIR spectroscopy and the average order parameters overlineSCD, the order parameter of the terminal methyl groups SCDCD 3 and the average order parameter for the plateau region overlineSCDPlat of components in the mixtures are compared to those of the pure lipids evaluated in a previous publication Tuchtenhagen et al. Eur. Biophys. J. 23 (1994) 323. The conformational behaviour of lipids in mixtures is mainly influenced by head groups interactions, PAs always being more ordered than the corresponding PCs. Depending on absolute chain length and on chain length differences between the two components different conformational behaviour is observed for the two components in the mixtures, indicating non-ideal mixing and formation of micro-domains in the liquid-crystalline phase. Increases in order at the chain ends with a concomitant decrease in probabilities for end gauche conformations give hints to chain interdigitation in the liquid-crystalline phase.

  4. A Plastidial Lysophosphatidic Acid Acyltransferase from Oilseed Rape1

    PubMed Central

    Bourgis, Fabienne; Kader, Jean-Claude; Barret, Pierre; Renard, Michel; Robinson, David; Robinson, Colin; Delseny, Michel; Roscoe, Thomas J.

    1999-01-01

    The biosynthesis of phosphatidic acid, a key intermediate in the biosynthesis of lipids, is controlled by lysophosphatidic acid (LPA, or 1-acyl-glycerol-3-P) acyltransferase (LPAAT, EC 2.3.1.51). We have isolated a cDNA encoding a novel LPAAT by functional complementation of the Escherichia coli mutant plsC with an immature embryo cDNA library of oilseed rape (Brassica napus). Transformation of the acyltransferase-deficient E. coli strain JC201 with the cDNA sequence BAT2 alleviated the temperature-sensitive phenotype of the plsC mutant and conferred a palmitoyl-coenzyme A-preferring acyltransferase activity to membrane fractions. The BAT2 cDNA encoded a protein of 351 amino acids with a predicted molecular mass of 38 kD and an isoelectric point of 9.7. Chloroplast-import experiments showed processing of a BAT2 precursor protein to a mature protein of approximately 32 kD, which was localized in the membrane fraction. BAT2 is encoded by a minimum of two genes that may be expressed ubiquitously. These data are consistent with the identity of BAT2 as the plastidial enzyme of the prokaryotic glycerol-3-P pathway that uses a palmitoyl-ACP to produce phosphatidic acid with a prokaryotic-type acyl composition. The homologies between the deduced protein sequence of BAT2 with prokaryotic and eukaryotic microsomal LAP acytransferases suggest that seed microsomal forms may have evolved from the plastidial enzyme. PMID:10398728

  5. Effects of Substituted Pyridazinones (San 6706, San 9774, San 9785) on Glycerolipids and Their Associated Fatty Acids in the Leaves of Vicia faba and Hordeum vulgare1

    PubMed Central

    Khan, Mobashsher-Uddin; Lem, Nora W.; Chandorkar, Kashinath R.; Williams, John P.

    1979-01-01

    The fatty acids of the major glycerolipids from the leaves of Vicia faba and Hordeum vulgare plants treated with three different concentrations of pyridazinone derivatives were analyzed. These compounds showed multiple effects on the levels of lipids and pigments. At low concentrations, the primary effect of San 9785 was on the level of linolenic acid (18:3) in the galactolipids of V. faba, whereas the effect of San 6706 was primarily on the trans-Δ3-hexadecenoic acid (16:1) content in phosphatidylglycerol. At higher concentrations, the two compounds reduced the content of both fatty acids in the leaves. The results appear to indicate a differential effect of these herbicides on fatty acid accumulation and a difference in susceptibility of two fatty acids in the species examined. Electron microscopic studies revealed that two herbicides caused different abnormalities in V. faba chloroplast ultrastructure. Images PMID:16660953

  6. Stimulation by unsaturated fatty acid of squalene uptake in rat liver microsomes.

    PubMed

    Chin, J; Bloch, K

    1985-07-01

    Supernatant protein factor (SPF) and anionic phospholipids such as phosphatidylglycerol (PG) stimulate squalene epoxidase activity in rat liver microsomes by promoting [3H]squalene uptake as well as substrate translocation (Chin, J., and K. Bloch. 1984. J. Biol. Chem. 259: 11735-11738). This process is postulated to be membrane-mediated and not carrier-mediated. Here we show that treatment of PG with phospholipase A2 in the presence of bovine serum albumin abolishes the stimulatory effect of SPF on epoxidase activity. Disaturated fatty acyl-PGs are not as effective as egg yolk lecithin PG in the SPF effect. These findings suggest an important role for the unsaturated fatty acid moiety of PG. We also show that at submicellar concentrations, cis-unsaturated fatty acids stimulate microsomal epoxidase activity whereas saturated fatty acids do not. This effect is due to an increase in substrate uptake which in turn may facilitate substrate availability to the enzyme.

  7. Small molecule inhibitor of lipoteichoic acid synthesis is an antibiotic for Gram-positive bacteria

    PubMed Central

    Richter, Stefan G.; Elli, Derek; Kim, Hwan Keun; Hendrickx, Antoni P. A.; Sorg, Joseph A.; Schneewind, Olaf; Missiakas, Dominique

    2013-01-01

    The current epidemic of infections caused by antibiotic-resistant Gram-positive bacteria requires the discovery of new drug targets and the development of new therapeutics. Lipoteichoic acid (LTA), a cell wall polymer of Gram-positive bacteria, consists of 1,3-polyglycerol-phosphate linked to glycolipid. LTA synthase (LtaS) polymerizes polyglycerol-phosphate from phosphatidylglycerol, a reaction that is essential for the growth of Gram-positive bacteria. We screened small molecule libraries for compounds inhibiting growth of Staphylococcus aureus but not of Gram-negative bacteria. Compound 1771 [2-oxo-2-(5-phenyl-1,3,4-oxadiazol-2-ylamino)ethyl 2-naphtho[2,1-b]furan-1-ylacetate] blocked phosphatidylglycerol binding to LtaS and inhibited LTA synthesis in S. aureus and in Escherichia coli expressing ltaS. Compound 1771 inhibited the growth of antibiotic-resistant Gram-positive bacteria and prolonged the survival of mice with lethal S. aureus challenge, validating LtaS as a target for the development of antibiotics. PMID:23401520

  8. Structure-based mechanism of lipoteichoic acid synthesis by Staphylococcus aureus LtaS

    PubMed Central

    Lu, Duo; Wörmann, Mirka E.; Zhang, Xiaodong; Schneewind, Olaf; Gründling, Angelika; Freemont, Paul S.

    2009-01-01

    Staphylococcus aureus synthesizes polyglycerol-phosphate lipoteichoic acid (LTA) from phosphatidylglycerol. LtaS, a predicted membrane protein with 5 N-terminal transmembrane helices followed by a large extracellular part (eLtaS), is required for staphylococcal growth and LTA synthesis. Here, we report the first crystal structure of the eLtaS domain at 1.2-Å resolution and show that it assumes a sulfatase-like fold with an α/β core and a C-terminal part composed of 4 anti-parallel β-strands and a long α-helix. Overlaying eLtaS with sulfatase structures identified active site residues, which were confirmed by alanine substitution mutagenesis and in vivo enzyme function assays. The cocrystal structure with glycerol-phosphate and the coordination of a Mn2+ cation allowed us to propose a reaction mechanism, whereby the active site threonine of LtaS functions as nucleophile for phosphatidylglycerol hydrolysis and formation of a covalent threonine–glycerolphosphate intermediate. These results will aid in the development of LtaS-specific inhibitors for S. aureus and many other Gram-positive pathogens. PMID:19168632

  9. Inhibition of TRPV1 channels by a naturally occurring omega-9 fatty acid reduces pain and itch

    PubMed Central

    Morales-Lázaro, Sara L.; Llorente, Itzel; Sierra-Ramírez, Félix; López-Romero, Ana E.; Ortíz-Rentería, Miguel; Serrano-Flores, Barbara; Simon, Sidney A.; Islas, León D.; Rosenbaum, Tamara

    2016-01-01

    The transient receptor potential vanilloid 1 (TRPV1) ion channel is mainly found in primary nociceptive afferents whose activity has been linked to pathophysiological conditions including pain, itch and inflammation. Consequently, it is important to identify naturally occurring antagonists of this channel. Here we show that a naturally occurring monounsaturated fatty acid, oleic acid, inhibits TRPV1 activity, and also pain and itch responses in mice by interacting with the vanilloid (capsaicin)-binding pocket and promoting the stabilization of a closed state conformation. Moreover, we report an itch-inducing molecule, cyclic phosphatidic acid, that activates TRPV1 and whose pruritic activity, as well as that of histamine, occurs through the activation of this ion channel. These findings provide insights into the molecular basis of oleic acid inhibition of TRPV1 and also into a way of reducing the pathophysiological effects resulting from its activation. PMID:27721373

  10. RodZ and PgsA Play Intertwined Roles in Membrane Homeostasis of Bacillus subtilis and Resistance to Weak Organic Acid Stress

    PubMed Central

    van Beilen, Johan; Blohmke, Christoph J.; Folkerts, Hendrik; de Boer, Richard; Zakrzewska, Anna; Kulik, Wim; Vaz, Fred M.; Brul, Stanley; Ter Beek, Alexander

    2016-01-01

    Weak organic acids like sorbic and acetic acid are widely used to prevent growth of spoilage organisms such as Bacilli. To identify genes involved in weak acid stress tolerance we screened a transposon mutant library of Bacillus subtilis for sorbic acid sensitivity. Mutants of the rodZ (ymfM) gene were found to be hypersensitive to the lipophilic weak organic acid. RodZ is involved in determining the cell’s rod-shape and believed to interact with the bacterial actin-like MreB cytoskeleton. Since rodZ lies upstream in the genome of the essential gene pgsA (phosphatidylglycerol phosphate synthase) we hypothesized that expression of the latter might also be affected in rodZ mutants and hence contribute to the phenotype observed. We show that both genes are co-transcribed and that both the rodZ::mini-Tn10 mutant and a conditional pgsA mutant, under conditions of minimal pgsA expression, were sensitive to sorbic and acetic acid. Both strains displayed a severely altered membrane composition. Compared to the wild-type strain, phosphatidylglycerol and cardiolipin levels were lowered and the average acyl chain length was elongated. Induction of rodZ expression from a plasmid in our transposon mutant led to no recovery of weak acid susceptibility comparable to wild-type levels. However, pgsA overexpression in the same mutant partly restored sorbic acid susceptibility and fully restored acetic acid sensitivity. A construct containing both rodZ and pgsA as on the genome led to some restored growth as well. We propose that RodZ and PgsA play intertwined roles in membrane homeostasis and tolerance to weak organic acid stress. PMID:27818647

  11. Mutations in the Prokaryotic Pathway Rescue the fatty acid biosynthesis1 Mutant in the Cold.

    PubMed

    Gao, Jinpeng; Wallis, James G; Browse, John

    2015-09-01

    The Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) fatty acid biosynthesis1 (fab1) mutant has increased levels of the saturated fatty acid 16:0 due to decreased activity of 3-ketoacyl-acyl carrier protein (ACP) synthase II. In fab1 leaves, phosphatidylglycerol, the major chloroplast phospholipid, contains up to 45% high-melting-point molecular species (molecules that contain only 16:0, 16:1-trans, and 18:0), a trait associated with chilling-sensitive plants, compared with less than 10% in wild-type Arabidopsis. Although they do not exhibit typical chilling sensitivity, when exposed to low temperatures (2°C-6°C) for long periods, fab1 plants do suffer collapse of photosynthesis, degradation of chloroplasts, and eventually death. A screen for suppressors of this low-temperature phenotype has identified 11 lines, some of which contain additional alterations in leaf-lipid composition relative to fab1. Here, we report the identification of two suppressor mutations, one in act1, which encodes the chloroplast acyl-ACP:glycerol-3-phosphate acyltransferase, and one in lpat1, which encodes the chloroplast acyl-ACP:lysophosphatidic acid acyltransferase. These enzymes catalyze the first two steps of the prokaryotic pathway for glycerolipid synthesis, so we investigated whether other mutations in this pathway would rescue the fab1 phenotype. Both the gly1 mutation, which reduces glycerol-3-phosphate supply to the prokaryotic pathway, and fad6, which is deficient in the chloroplast 16:1/18:1 fatty acyl desaturase, were discovered to be suppressors. Analyses of leaf-lipid compositions revealed that mutations at all four of the suppressor loci result in reductions in the proportion of high-melting-point molecular species of phosphatidylglycerol relative to fab1. We conclude that these reductions are likely the basis for the suppressor phenotypes. © 2015 American Society of Plant Biologists. All Rights Reserved.

  12. Isolation of Lysophosphatidic Acid Phosphatase from Developing Peanut Cotyledons1

    PubMed Central

    Shekar, Sunil; Tumaney, Ajay W.; Rao, T.J.V. Sreenivasa; Rajasekharan, Ram

    2002-01-01

    The soluble fraction of immature peanut (Arachis hypogaea) was capable of dephosphorylating [3H]lysophosphatidic acid (LPA) to generate monoacylglycerol (MAG). The enzyme responsible for the generation of MAG, LPA phosphatase, has been identified in plants and purified by successive chromatography separations on octyl-Sepharose, Blue Sepharose, Superdex-75, and heparin-agarose to apparent homogeneity from developing peanuts. This enzyme was purified 5,048-fold to a final specific activity of 858 nmol min−1 mg−1. The enzyme has a native molecular mass of approximately 39 kD determined by gel filtration and migrates as a single band on sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis with a subunit molecular mass of 39 ± 1.5 kD. The Km values for oleoyl-, stearoyl-, and palmitoyl-sn-glycerol-3-phosphate were determined to be 28.6, 39.3, and 47.9 μm, respectively. The LPA phosphatase was specific to LPA and did not utilize any other substrate such as glycerol-3-phosphate, phosphatidic acid, or p-nitrophenylphosphate. The enzyme activity was stimulated by the low concentrations of detergents such as Triton X-100 and octylglucoside. Cations had no effect on the enzyme activity. Fatty acids, sphingosine, and sphingomyelin at low concentrations stimulated the enzyme activity. The identification of LPA phosphatase in plants demonstrates the existence of MAG biosynthetic machinery in plants. PMID:11891254

  13. Effect of growth temperature on the positional distribution of eicosapentaenoic acid and trans hexadecenoic acid in the phospholipids of a Vibrio species of bacterium.

    PubMed

    Henderson, R J; Millar, R M; Sargent, J R

    1995-02-01

    Phosphatidylethanolamine (PE) and phosphatidylglycerol (PG) were isolated from a Vibrio species of bacterium, known to produce eicosapentaenoic acid (20:5n-3) and trans-hexadecenoic acid (16:1n-7), and subjected to phospholipase A2 degradation to determine the positional distribution of component fatty acids. At the two growth temperatures studied (20 and 5 degrees C), both 20:5n-3 and trans 16:1 n-7 were located mainly at position sn-2 in PE. Increases in the proportions of 20:5n-3 and trans 16:1n-7 in position sn-2 with decreasing growth temperature were balanced mainly by decreases in the level of iso-15:0. In PG, trans 16:1n-7 was located predominantly in position sn-1, although the difference between the two positions was not as great as in PE. Eicosapentaenoic acid was preferentially located in position sn-2 of PG, particularly at 5 degrees C when it comprised 29.9% of the total fatty acids in this position. It is concluded that trans 16:1n-7/20:5n-3 is not a major molecular species of phospholipid in this species of Vibrio and that changes in the levels of molecular species of PE containing iso-15:0 may feature in thermal acclimation.

  14. Changes in fatty acid composition in plant tissues expressing a mammalian delta9 desaturase.

    PubMed

    Moon, H; Hazebroek, J; Hildebrand, D F

    2000-05-01

    Plant tissues expressing a mammalian stearoyl-CoA delta9 desaturase were reported to accumulate delta9 hexadecenoic acid (16:1), normally very minor in most plant tissues. The transgenic plants were thoroughly analyzed for alterations of individual lipids in different subcellular sites. Western blot analysis indicated that the animal desaturase was targeted to the microsomes. The delta9 16:1 was incorporated into both the sn-1 and sn-2 positions of all the major membrane lipids tested, indicating that the endoplasmic reticulum acyltransferases do not exclude unsaturated C16 fatty acids from the sn-2 position. In addition to increases in monounsaturated and decreases in saturated fatty acids, accumulation of 16:1 was accompanied by a reduction in 18:3 in all the lipids tested except phosphatidylglycerol, and increases in 18:2 in phospholipids. Total C16 fatty acid content in the galactolipids of the transgenics was significantly higher than that in the control, but those in the phospholipids were unchanged. In transgenics, delta11 18:1 was detected in the sn-1 position of the lipids tested except phosphatidylinositol and phosphatidylserine. Introduction of the animal desaturase, controlled by a seed-specific phaseolin promoter, into soybean somatic embryo resulted in a significant reduction in saturated fatty acids. Such effects were greater in cotyledons than hypocotyl-radicles. This study demonstrated that the animal desaturase can be used to decrease the levels of saturated fatty acids in a crop plant.

  15. Phospholipid and fatty acid compositions of Rhizobium leguminosarum biovar trifolii ANU843 in relation to flavone-activated pSym nod gene expression.

    PubMed

    Orgambide, G G; Huang, Z H; Gage, D A; Dazzo, F B

    1993-11-01

    The phospholipid and associated fatty acid compositions of the bacterial symbiont of clover, Rhizobium leguminosarum biovar trifolii wild-type ANU843, was analyzed by two-dimensional silica thin-layer chromatography, fast atom bombardment-mass spectrometry, flame-ionization detection gas-liquid chromatography and combined gas-liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry. The phospholipid composition included phosphatidylethanolamine (15%), N-methylphosphatidylethanolamine (47%), N,N-dimethylphosphatidylethanolamine (9%), phosphatidylglycerol (19%), cardiolipin (5%) and phosphatidylcholine (2%). Fatty acid composition included predominantly cis-11-octadecenoic acid, lower levels of cis-9-hexadecenoic acid, hexadecanoic acid, 11-methyl-11-octadecenoic acid, octadecanoic acid, 11,12-methyleneoctadecanoic acid, eicosanoic acid and traces of branched, and di- and triunsaturated fatty acids. The influence of expression of the "nodulation" genes encoding symbiotic functions on the composition of these membrane lipids was examined in wild-type cells grown with or without the flavone inducer, 4',7-dihydroxyflavone and in mutated cells lacking the entire symbiotic plasmid where these genes reside, or containing single transposon insertions in selected nodulation genes. No significant changes in phospholipid or associated fatty acid compositions were detected by the above methods of analysis.

  16. Canola Oil Fuel Cell Demonstration: Volume 3 - Technical, Commercialization, and Application Issues Associated with Harvested Biomass

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-08-17

    Hydratable and non-hydratable phosphatides are removed from the oil using a degumming solution (0.1 percent of 0.85 wt percent phosphoric acid aqueous...solution or 2500 ppm citric acid may be used) followed by the addition of soft water equal to 75 percent of the phosphatide content in the crude oil...converted to water-soluble phosphatidic acid through the addition of phosphoric acid , and hydratable phosphatides are formed from the addition of soft

  17. Influence of Nutritional Factors on Lipid Metabolism.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1980-12-01

    phosphohydrolase, catalyzing the formation of dlacylglyd6rol from phosphatidic acid (Table 1) (80). Other enzymes itxV61vWd Iti triacylglycerol synthesis...novo from glucose or preformed from the diet). The availability of the acyl acceptor, phosphatidic acid , does not appear to be the predominant...differ- ence in hepatocyte phosphatidic acid levels while triacylhlycerol synthesis was depressed 80%. Further evidence that phosphatidic acid

  18. Examination of Triacylglycerol Biosynthetic Pathways via De Novo Transcriptomic and Proteomic Analyses in an Unsequenced Microalga

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-10-17

    analysis results. The components of the TAG biosynthetic pathway, including glycerol-3-phosphate acyl- transferase (GPAT), lyso- phosphatidic acid ...acyltransferase (LPAAT), phosphatidic acid phosphatase (PAP), lyso-phosphati- dylcholine acyltransferase (LPAT), and diacylglycerol acyltransfer- ase (DGAT...transfer to position one of G3P results in the formation of lyso- phosphatidic acid (LPA), in a reaction catalyzed by GPAT. Subsequent acyl transfer to

  19. Synthetic Analogs of Phospholipid Metabolites as Antimalarials.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1979-07-01

    phosphatidic acid analogs containing ether and phosphonate groups; completely non-hydrolyzable lecithin analogs containing phosphinate and ether groups...The phosphatidic acid and lecithin target compounds were successfully synthesized and submitted, together with a number of intermediates. A model of a... Phosphatidic acid analogs ......................... 5 Z.Z Lecithin Analogs .................................. 6 2.3 Analogs of Cytidine Diphosphate

  20. Evidence for differential activation of arachidonic acid metabolism in formylpeptide- and macrophage-activation-factor-stimulated guinea-pig macrophages.

    PubMed Central

    Homma, Y; Hashimoto, T; Nagai, Y; Takenawa, T

    1985-01-01

    Alterations of phospholipid and arachidonic acid metabolism were studied by treatment of guinea-pig peritoneal-exudate macrophages with chemotactic peptide, formylmethionyl-leucylphenylalanine (fMet-Leu-Phe) and macrophage activation factor (MAF). The chemotactic peptide caused a rapid rearrangement in inositol phospholipids, including a breakdown of polyphosphoinositides within 30s, followed by a resultant formation of phosphatidylinositol (PI), diacylglycerol, phosphatidic acid and non-esterified arachidonic acid within 5 min. In addition to these sequential alterations, arachidonic acid was released mainly from PI. On the other hand, MAF induced a slow liberation of arachidonic acid, mainly from phosphatidylethanolamine (PE) and phosphatidylcholine (PC) by phospholipase A2 after the incubation period of 30 min, but not any rapid changes in phospholipids. Treatment of macrophages for 15 min with fMet-Leu-Phe produced the leukotrienes (LTs) B4, C4 and D4, prostaglandins (PG) E2 and F2 alpha and thromboxane (TX) B2. In contrast, MAF could not stimulate the production of arachidonic acid metabolites during the incubation period of 15 min, but could enhance that of PGE2, PGF2 alpha, TXB2 and hydroxyeicosatetraenoic acids at 6 h. However, the stimulated formation of LTs was not detected at any time. These results indicate that the effects of fMet-Leu-Phe on both phospholipid and arachidonic acid metabolism are very different from those mediated by MAF. PMID:3931627

  1. Guidelines for the Use of Protein Domains in Acidic Phospholipid Imaging.

    PubMed

    Platre, Matthieu Pierre; Jaillais, Yvon

    2016-01-01

    Acidic phospholipids are minor membrane lipids but critically important for signaling events. The main acidic phospholipids are phosphatidylinositol phosphates (PIPs also known as phosphoinositides), phosphatidylserine (PS), and phosphatidic acid (PA). Acidic phospholipids are precursors of second messengers of key signaling cascades or are second messengers themselves. They regulate the localization and activation of many proteins, and are involved in virtually all membrane trafficking events. As such, it is crucial to understand the subcellular localization and dynamics of each of these lipids within the cell. Over the years, several techniques have emerged in either fixed or live cells to analyze the subcellular localization and dynamics of acidic phospholipids. In this chapter, we review one of them: the use of genetically encoded biosensors that are based on the expression of specific lipid binding domains (LBDs) fused to fluorescent proteins. We discuss how to design such sensors, including the criteria for selecting the lipid binding domains of interest and to validate them. We also emphasize the care that must be taken during data analysis as well as the main limitations and advantages of this approach.

  2. Changes in actin dynamics are involved in salicylic acid signaling pathway.

    PubMed

    Matoušková, Jindřiška; Janda, Martin; Fišer, Radovan; Sašek, Vladimír; Kocourková, Daniela; Burketová, Lenka; Dušková, Jiřina; Martinec, Jan; Valentová, Olga

    2014-06-01

    Changes in actin cytoskeleton dynamics are one of the crucial players in many physiological as well as non-physiological processes in plant cells. Positioning of actin filament arrays is necessary for successful establishment of primary lines of defense toward pathogen attack, depolymerization leads very often to the enhanced susceptibility to the invading pathogen. On the other hand it was also shown that the disruption of actin cytoskeleton leads to the induction of defense response leading to the expression of PATHOGENESIS RELATED proteins (PR). In this study we show that pharmacological actin depolymerization leads to the specific induction of genes in salicylic acid pathway but not that involved in jasmonic acid signaling. Life imaging of leafs of Arabidopsis thaliana with GFP-tagged fimbrin (GFP-fABD2) treated with 1 mM salicylic acid revealed rapid disruption of actin filaments resembling the pattern viewed after treatment with 200 nM latrunculin B. The effect of salicylic acid on actin filament fragmentation was prevented by exogenous addition of phosphatidic acid, which binds to the capping protein and thus promotes actin polymerization. The quantitative evaluation of actin filament dynamics is also presented. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. A Central Role for Triacylglycerol in Membrane Lipid Breakdown, Fatty Acid β-Oxidation, and Plant Survival under Extended Darkness.

    PubMed

    Fan, Jilian; Yu, Linhui; Xu, Changcheng

    2017-07-01

    Neutral lipid metabolism is a key aspect of intracellular homeostasis and energy balance and plays a vital role in cell survival under adverse conditions, including nutrient deprivation in yeast and mammals, but the role of triacylglycerol (TAG) metabolism in plant stress response remains largely unknown. By thoroughly characterizing mutants defective in SUGAR-DEPENDENT1 (SDP1) triacylglycerol lipase or PEROXISOMAL ABC TRANSPORTER 1 (PXA1), here we show that TAG is a key intermediate in the mobilization of fatty acids from membrane lipids for peroxisomal β-oxidation under prolonged dark treatment. Disruption of SDP1 increased TAG accumulation in cytosolic lipid droplets and markedly enhanced plant tolerance to extended darkness. We demonstrate that blocking TAG hydrolysis enhances plant tolerance to dark treatment via two distinct mechanisms. In pxa1 mutants, in which free fatty acids accumulated rapidly under extended darkness, SDP1 disruption resulted in a marked decrease in levels of cytotoxic lipid intermediates such as free fatty acids and phosphatidic acid, suggesting a buffer function of TAG accumulation against lipotoxicity under fatty acid overload. In the wild type, in which free fatty acids remained low and unchanged under dark treatment, disruption of SDP1 caused a decrease in reactive oxygen species production and hence the level of lipid peroxidation, indicating a role of TAG in protection against oxidative damage. Overall, our findings reveal a crucial role for TAG metabolism in membrane lipid breakdown, fatty acid turnover, and plant survival under extended darkness. © 2017 American Society of Plant Biologists. All Rights Reserved.

  4. Chloroplast biogenesis at cold-hardening temperatures. Kinetics of trans-Δ3-hexadecenoic acid accumulation and the assembly of LHCII.

    PubMed

    Krol, M; Huner, N P; Williams, J P; Maissan, E

    1988-02-01

    Etiolated seedlings developed at cold-hardening temperatures (5°C) exhibited etioplasts with considerable vesiculation of internal membranes compared to etioplasts developed at 20°C regardless of the osmotic concentration employed during sample preparation. This vesiculation disappeared during exposure to continuous light at 5°C. This transformation of 5°C and 20°C etioplasts to chloroplasts under continuous light at 5° and 20°C respectively proceeded normally with the initial development of non-appressed lamellae and the subsequent appearance of granal stacks. However, chloroplasts developed at 5°C exhibited fewer lamellae per granum than chloroplasts developed at 20°C.Although the polypeptide complements of etioplasts and chloroplasts developed at 5° or 20°C were not significantly different, monomeric light harvesting complex (LHCII3) was assembled into oligomeric light harvesting complex (LHCII1) during chloroplast biogenesis at 20°C (oligomer:monomer =1.8) whereas monomeric LHCII predominated at 5°C (oligomer:monomer =0.3). Low temperature fluorescence emission spectra of isolated thylakoids indicated that both the F685/F735 and F695/F735 were significantly higher after greening at 5°C than at 20°C. In addition, chloroplast biogenesis at 5°C was associated with a low ratio of trans-Δ3-hexadecenoic acid (0.5) in phosphatidylglycerol whereas at 20°C biogenesis was associated with a high ratio (1.6). Comparative kinetics indicated that the maximization of the trans-Δ3-hexadecenoic acid level precedes the assembly of monomeric LHCII into oligomeric LHCII during biogenesis at 20°C. It is suggested that low developmental temperatures modulate the assembly of LHCII by reducing the trans-Δ3-hexadecenoic acid content of phosphatidylglycerol such that monomeric or some intermediate form of LHCII predominates.

  5. Light-Induced Changes in Fatty Acid Profiles of Specific Lipid Classes in Several Freshwater Phytoplankton Species

    PubMed Central

    Wacker, Alexander; Piepho, Maike; Harwood, John L.; Guschina, Irina A.; Arts, Michael T.

    2016-01-01

    We tested the influence of two light intensities [40 and 300 μmol PAR / (m2s)] on the fatty acid composition of three distinct lipid classes in four freshwater phytoplankton species. We chose species of different taxonomic classes in order to detect potentially similar reaction characteristics that might also be present in natural phytoplankton communities. From samples of the bacillariophyte Asterionella formosa, the chrysophyte Chromulina sp., the cryptophyte Cryptomonas ovata and the zygnematophyte Cosmarium botrytis we first separated glycolipids (monogalactosyldiacylglycerol, digalactosyldiacylglycerol, and sulfoquinovosyldiacylglycerol), phospholipids (phosphatidylcholine, phosphatidylethanolamine, phosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylinositol, and phosphatidylserine) as well as non-polar lipids (triacylglycerols), before analyzing the fatty acid composition of each lipid class. High variation in the fatty acid composition existed among different species. Individual fatty acid compositions differed in their reaction to changing light intensities in the four species. Although no generalizations could be made for species across taxonomic classes, individual species showed clear but small responses in their ecologically-relevant omega-3 and omega-6 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) in terms of proportions and of per tissue carbon quotas. Knowledge on how lipids like fatty acids change with environmental or culture conditions is of great interest in ecological food web studies, aquaculture, and biotechnology, since algal lipids are the most important sources of omega-3 long-chain PUFA for aquatic and terrestrial consumers, including humans. PMID:27014290

  6. Exogenous salicylic acid protects phospholipids against cadmium stress in flax (Linum usitatissimum L.).

    PubMed

    Belkadhi, Aïcha; De Haro, Antonio; Obregon, Sara; Chaïbi, Wided; Djebali, Wahbi

    2015-10-01

    Salicylic acid (SA) promotes plant defense responses against toxic metal stresses. The present study addressed the hypothesis that 8-h SA pretreatment, would alter membrane lipids in a way that would protect against Cd toxicity. Flax seeds were pre-soaked for 8h in SA (0, 250 and 1000µM) and then subjected, at seedling stage, to cadmium (Cd) stress. At 100µM CdCl2, significant decreases in the percentages of phosphatidylcholine (PC), phosphatidylglycerol (PG), phosphatidylethanolamine (PE) and monogalactosyldiacylglycerol (MGDG) and changes in their relative fatty acid composition were observed in Cd-treated roots in comparison with controls. However, in roots of 8-h SA pretreated plantlets, results showed that the amounts of PC and PE were significantly higher as compared to non-pretreated plantlets. Additionally, in both lipid classes, the proportion of linolenic acid (18:3) increased upon the pretreatment with SA. This resulted in a significant increase in the fatty acid unsaturation ratio of the root PC and PE classes. As the exogenous application of SA was found to be protective of flax lipid metabolism, the possible mechanisms of protection against Cd stress in flax roots were discussed. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. The ABC transporter Rv1272c of Mycobacterium tuberculosis enhances the import of long-chain fatty acids in Escherichia coli.

    PubMed

    Martin, Audrey; Daniel, Jaiyanth

    2018-02-05

    Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb), which causes tuberculosis, is capable of accumulating triacylglycerol (TAG) by utilizing fatty acids from host cells. ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporters are involved in transport processes in all organisms. Among the classical ABC transporters in Mtb none have been implicated in fatty acid import. Since the transport of fatty acids from the host cell is important for dormancy-associated TAG synthesis in the pathogen, mycobacterial ABC transporter(s) could potentially be involved in this process. Based on sequence identities with a bacterial ABC transporter that mediates fatty acid import for TAG synthesis, we identified Rv1272c, a hitherto uncharacterized ABC-transporter in Mtb that also shows sequence identities with a plant ABC transporter involved in fatty acid transport. We expressed Rv1272c in E. coli and show that it enhances the import of radiolabeled fatty acids. We also show that Rv1272c causes a significant increase in the metabolic incorporation of radiolabeled long-chain fatty acids into cardiolipin, a tetra-acylated phospholipid, and phosphatidylglycerol in E. coli. This is the first report on the function of Rv1272c showing that it displays a long-chain fatty acid transport function. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Increased hepatic beta-oxidation of docosahexaenoic acid, elongation of eicosapentaenoic acid, and acylation of lysophosphatidate in rats fed a docosahexaenoic acid-enriched diet.

    PubMed

    Kanazawa, A; Shirota, Y; Fujimoto, K

    1997-07-01

    Rats were fed a diet supplemented with corn oil (n-3 deficient), soy oil, or a mixture containing 8% 22:6n-3 ethyl ester for 6 wk. The hepatic capacities for the beta-oxidation and synthesis of 22:6n-3, in addition to the acylation of lysophosphatidate, were tested in vitro. In rats that were fed a 22:6n-3-enriched diet, both the beta-oxidation of 22:6n-3 and elongation of 20:5n-3 were enhanced compared to those in rats fed the other diets. Acylation of lysophosphatidate was also enhanced in rats fed a 22:6n-3-enriched diet, while the rate of dephosphorylation of phosphatidate was not changed. The amount of 22:6n-3 in the liver was much less than that consumed in a docosahexaenoic acid-enriched diet. These results suggest that a significant amount of dietary 22:6n-3 was degraded via beta-oxidation, and that a portion of the retroconverted 20:5n-3 was recycled for the synthesis of 22:6n-3. The recycling of 20:5n-3 might contribute to the low level of 22:6n-3 in rats fed an n-3-deficient diet.

  9. Adjusting membrane lipids under salt stress: the case of the moderate halophilic organism Halobacillus halophilus.

    PubMed

    Lopalco, Patrizia; Angelini, Roberto; Lobasso, Simona; Köcher, Saskia; Thompson, Melanie; Müller, Volker; Corcelli, Angela

    2013-04-01

    The lipid composition of Halobacillus halophilus was investigated by combined thin-layer chromatography and matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry analyses of the total lipid extract. Main polar lipids were found to be sulfoquinovosyldiacylglycerol and phosphatidylglycerol, while cardiolipin was a minor lipid together with phosphatidic acid, alanyl-phosphatidylglycerol and two not yet fully identified lipid components. In addition the analyses of residual lipids, associated with denatured proteins after the lipid extraction, revealed the presence of significant amounts of cardiolipin, indicating that it is a not readily extractable phospholipid. Post decay source mass spectrometry analyses allowed the determination of acyl chains of main lipid components. On increasing the culture medium salinity, an increase in the shorter chains and the presence of chain unsaturations were observed. These changes in the lipid core structures might compensate for the increase in packing and rigidity of phospholipid and sulfoglycolipid polar heads in high-salt medium, therefore contributing to the homeostasis of membrane fluidity and permeability in salt stress conditions. © 2012 Society for Applied Microbiology and Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  10. Aspartic acid

    MedlinePlus

    ... we eat. Aspartic acid is also called asparaginic acid. Aspartic acid helps every cell in the body work. It ... release Normal nervous system function Plant sources of aspartic acid include: avocado, asparagus, and molasses. Animal sources of ...

  11. A Central Role for Triacylglycerol in Membrane Lipid Breakdown, Fatty Acid β-Oxidation, and Plant Survival under Extended Darkness1[OPEN

    PubMed Central

    2017-01-01

    Neutral lipid metabolism is a key aspect of intracellular homeostasis and energy balance and plays a vital role in cell survival under adverse conditions, including nutrient deprivation in yeast and mammals, but the role of triacylglycerol (TAG) metabolism in plant stress response remains largely unknown. By thoroughly characterizing mutants defective in SUGAR-DEPENDENT1 (SDP1) triacylglycerol lipase or PEROXISOMAL ABC TRANSPORTER 1 (PXA1), here we show that TAG is a key intermediate in the mobilization of fatty acids from membrane lipids for peroxisomal β-oxidation under prolonged dark treatment. Disruption of SDP1 increased TAG accumulation in cytosolic lipid droplets and markedly enhanced plant tolerance to extended darkness. We demonstrate that blocking TAG hydrolysis enhances plant tolerance to dark treatment via two distinct mechanisms. In pxa1 mutants, in which free fatty acids accumulated rapidly under extended darkness, SDP1 disruption resulted in a marked decrease in levels of cytotoxic lipid intermediates such as free fatty acids and phosphatidic acid, suggesting a buffer function of TAG accumulation against lipotoxicity under fatty acid overload. In the wild type, in which free fatty acids remained low and unchanged under dark treatment, disruption of SDP1 caused a decrease in reactive oxygen species production and hence the level of lipid peroxidation, indicating a role of TAG in protection against oxidative damage. Overall, our findings reveal a crucial role for TAG metabolism in membrane lipid breakdown, fatty acid turnover, and plant survival under extended darkness. PMID:28572457

  12. Omics-based approaches reveal phospholipids remodeling of Rhizopus oryzae responding to furfural stress for fumaric acid-production from xylose.

    PubMed

    Pan, Xinrong; Liu, Huanhuan; Liu, Jiao; Wang, Cheng; Wen, Jianping

    2016-12-01

    In order to relieve the toxicity of furfural on Rhizopus oryzae fermentation, the molecular mechanism of R. oryzae responding to furfural stress for fumaric acid-production was investigated by omics-based approaches. In metabolomics analysis, 29 metabolites including amino acid, sugars, polyols and fatty acids showed significant changes for maintaining the basic cell metabolism at the cost of lowering fumaric acid production. To further uncover the survival mechanism, lipidomics was carried out, revealing that phosphatidylcholine, phosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylinositol and polyunsaturated acyl chains might be closely correlated with R. oryzae's adapting to furfural stress. Based on the above omics analysis, lecithin, inositol and soybean oil were exogenously supplemented separately with an optimized concentration in the presence of furfural, which increased fumaric acid titer from 5.78g/L to 10.03g/L, 10.05g/L and 12.13g/L (increased by 73.5%, 73.8% and 110%, respectively). These findings provide a methodological guidance for hemicellulose-fumaric acid development. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Lipid class and fatty acid composition of a little-known and rarely collected alga Exophyllum wentii Weber-van Bosse from Bali Island, Indonesia.

    PubMed

    Illijas, Muhammad I; Indy, Jeane R; Yasui, Hajime; Itabashi, Yutaka

    2009-01-01

    The lipid class and fatty acid composition of a little-known and rarely collected alga Exophyllum wentii from Bali Island, Indonesia were determined for fresh and frozen-thawed samples using thin-layer chromatography, gas-liquid chromatography, and high-performance liquid chromatography. Glycoglycerolipids, which mainly consisted of mongalactosyldiacylglycerols (MGDG) and digalactosyldiacylglycerols (DGDG), were the predominant lipid components, accounting for 67% and 56% of the total polar lipid content in the fresh and frozen-thawed samples, respectively. Phospholipids, including phosphatidylcholines (PC) and phosphatidylglycerols (PG), were detected with lesser amounts in both samples (16-17% of the total polar lipid content). Free fatty acids (FFA), sterols and triacylglycerols (TAG) were also detected in minor quantities; however, the FFA content in the frozen-thawed sample increased to up to 20% of the total lipid content, suggesting that hydrolysis of the membrane lipids had occurred. A crude enzyme preparation from the alga showed activities for hydrolyzing the acyl groups of the phospholipids and glycoglycerolipids. Palmitic acid (16:0) and arachidonic acid (20:4n-6) were the major fatty acids in both the total lipid and in individual polar lipid classes as well as the dominant fatty acids released from the membrane lipids by enzymatic hydrolysis. The high level of 20:4n-6 (29%) in the total lipid and the presence of considerable amounts of PC (11% of the total polar lipid) and PG (6.2%) support classification of E. wentii into the Division Rhodophyta.

  14. Acid Rain

    Bricker, Owen P.; Rice, Karen C.

    1995-01-01

    Although acid rain is fading as a political issue in the United States and funds for research in this area have largely disappeared, the acidity of rain in the Eastern United States has not changed significantly over the last decade, and it continues to be a serious environmental problem. Acid deposition (commonly called acid rain) is a term applied to all forms of atmospheric deposition of acidic substances - rain, snow, fog, acidic dry particulates, aerosols, and acid-forming gases. Water in the atmosphere reacts with certain atmospheric gases to become acidic. For example, water reacts with carbon dioxide in the atmosphere to produce a solution with a pH of about 5.6. Gases that produce acids in the presence of water in the atmosphere include carbon dioxide (which converts to carbonic acid), oxides of sulfur and nitrogen (which convert to sulfuric and nitric acids}, and hydrogen chloride (which converts to hydrochloric acid). These acid-producing gases are released to the atmosphere through natural processes, such as volcanic emissions, lightning, forest fires, and decay of organic matter. Accordingly, precipitation is slightly acidic, with a pH of 5.0 to 5.7 even in undeveloped areas. In industrialized areas, most of the acid-producing gases are released to the atmosphere from burning fossil fuels. Major emitters of acid-producing gases include power plants, industrial operations, and motor vehicles. Acid-producing gases can be transported through the atmosphere for hundreds of miles before being converted to acids and deposited as acid rain. Because acids tend to build up in the atmosphere between storms, the most acidic rain falls at the beginning of a storm, and as the rain continues, the acids "wash out" of the atmosphere.

  15. Broad Range Amino Acid Specificity of RNA-dependent Lipid Remodeling by Multiple Peptide Resistance Factors*

    PubMed Central

    Roy, Hervé; Ibba, Michael

    2009-01-01

    Aminoacylphosphatidylglycerol synthases (aaPGSs) are multiple peptide resistance factors that transfer amino acids from aminoacyl-tRNAs to phosphatidylglycerol (PG) in the cytoplasmic membrane. Aminoacylation of PG is used by bacteria to decrease the net negative charge of the cell envelope, diminishing affinity for charged molecules and allowing for adaptation to environmental changes. Lys-PGS, which transfers lysine to PG, is essential for the virulence of certain pathogens, providing resistance to both host cationic antimicrobial peptides and therapeutic antibiotics. Ala-PGS was also recently described, but little is known about the possible activities of other members of the highly diverse aaPGS family of proteins. Systematic deletion of the predicted membrane-inserted domains of several aaPGSs revealed that the carboxyl-terminal hydrophilic domain alone is sufficient for aminoacylphosphatidylglycerol transferase catalytic activity. In contrast to previously characterized aaPGSs, the Enterococcus faecium enzyme used an expanded repertoire of amino acids to modify PG with Ala, Arg, or Lys. Reexamination of previously characterized aaPGSs also revealed broader than anticipated substrate specificity, for example Bacillus subtilis Lys-PGS was shown to also catalyze Ala-PG synthesis. The relaxed substrate specificities of these aaPGSs allows for more elaborate remodeling of membrane lipids than previously thought, potentially providing bacteria that harbor these enzymes resistance to a broad spectrum of antibiotics and environmental stresses. PMID:19734140

  16. Acid Rain.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Openshaw, Peter

    1987-01-01

    Provides some background information on acid deposition. Includes a historical perspective, describes some effects of acid precipitation, and discusses acid rain in the United Kingdom. Contains several experiments that deal with the effects of acid rain on water quality and soil. (TW)

  17. Structurally divergent lysophosphatidic acid acyltransferases with high selectivity for saturated medium chain fatty acids from Cuphea seeds.

    PubMed

    Kim, Hae Jin; Silva, Jillian E; Iskandarov, Umidjon; Andersson, Mariette; Cahoon, Rebecca E; Mockaitis, Keithanne; Cahoon, Edgar B

    2015-12-01

    Lysophosphatidic acid acyltransferase (LPAT) catalyzes acylation of the sn-2 position on lysophosphatidic acid by an acyl CoA substrate to produce the phosphatidic acid precursor of polar glycerolipids and triacylglycerols (TAGs). In the case of TAGs, this reaction is typically catalyzed by an LPAT2 from microsomal LPAT class A that has high specificity for C18 fatty acids containing Δ9 unsaturation. Because of this specificity, the occurrence of saturated fatty acids in the TAG sn-2 position is infrequent in seed oils. To identify LPATs with variant substrate specificities, deep transcriptomic mining was performed on seeds of two Cuphea species producing TAGs that are highly enriched in saturated C8 and C10 fatty acids. From these analyses, cDNAs for seven previously unreported LPATs were identified, including cDNAs from Cuphea viscosissima (CvLPAT2) and Cuphea avigera var. pulcherrima (CpuLPAT2a) encoding microsomal, seed-specific class A LPAT2s and a cDNA from C. avigera var. pulcherrima (CpuLPATB) encoding a microsomal, seed-specific LPAT from the bacterial-type class B. The activities of these enzymes were characterized in Camelina sativa by seed-specific co-expression with cDNAs for various Cuphea FatB acyl-acyl carrier protein thioesterases (FatB) that produce a variety of saturated medium-chain fatty acids. CvLPAT2 and CpuLPAT2a expression resulted in accumulation of 10:0 fatty acids in the Camelina sativa TAG sn-2 position, indicating a 10:0 CoA specificity that has not been previously described for plant LPATs. CpuLPATB expression generated TAGs with 14:0 at the sn-2 position, but not 10:0. Identification of these LPATs provides tools for understanding the structural basis of LPAT substrate specificity and for generating altered oil functionalities. © 2015 The Authors The Plant Journal © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  18. Remodeling of the Vibrio cholerae membrane by incorporation of exogenous fatty acids from host and aquatic environments

    PubMed Central

    Giles, David K.; Hankins, Jessica V.; Guan, Ziqiang; Trent, M. Stephen

    2011-01-01

    Summary The Gram-negative bacteria Vibrio cholerae poses significant public health concerns by causing an acute intestinal infection afflicting millions of people each year. V. cholerae motility, as well as virulence factor expression and outer membrane protein production, have been shown to be affected by bile (Childers & Klose, 2007). The current study examines the effects of bile on V. cholerae phospholipids. Bile exposure caused significant alterations to the phospholipid profile of V. cholerae but not of other enteric pathogens. These changes consisted of a quantitative increase and migratory difference in cardiolipin, decreases in phosphatidylglycerol and phosphatidylethanolamine, and the dramatic appearance of an unknown phospholipid determined to be lyso-phosphatidylethanolamine. Major components of bile were not responsible for the observed changes, but long chain polyunsaturated fatty acids, which are minor components of bile, were shown to be incorporated into phospholipids of V. cholerae. Although the bile-induced phospholipid profile was independent of the V. cholerae virulence cascade, we identified another relevant environment in which V. cholerae assimilates unique fatty acids into its membrane phospholipids—marine sediment. Our results suggest that Vibrio species possess unique machinery conferring the ability to take up a wider range of exogenous fatty acids than other enteric bacteria. PMID:21255114

  19. Stabilization of polymer lipid complexes prepared with lipids of lactic acid bacteria upon preservation and internalization into eukaryotic cells.

    PubMed

    Alves, P; Hugo, A A; Szymanowski, F; Tymczyszyn, E E; Pérez, P F; Coelho, J F J; Simões, P N; Gómez-Zavaglia, A

    2014-11-01

    The physicochemical characterization of polymer liposome complexes (PLCs) prepared with lipids of lactic acid bacteria and poly(N,N-dimethylaminoethyl methacrylate) covalently bound to cholesterol (CHO-PDMAEMA) was carried out in an integrated approach, including their stability upon preservation and incorporation into eukaryotic cells. PLCs were prepared with different polymer:lipid molar ratios (0, 0.05 and 0.10). Zeta potential, particle size distribution and polydispersity index were determined. The optimal polymer:lipid ratio and the stability of both bare liposomes and PLCs were evaluated at 37 °C and at different pHs, as well as after storage at 4 °C, -80 °C and freeze-drying in the presence or absence of trehalose 250 mM. Internalization of PLCs by eukaryotic cells was assessed to give a complete picture of the system. Incorporation of CHO-PDMAEMA onto bacterial lipids (ratio 0.05 and 0.10) led to stabilization at 37 °C and pH 7. A slight decrease of pH led to their strong destabilization. Bacteria PLCs showed to be more stable than lecithin (LEC) PLCs (used for comparison) upon preservation at 4 and -80 °C. The harmful nature of the preservation processes led to a strong decrease in the stability of PLCs, bacterial formulations being more stable than LEC PLCs. The addition of trehalose to the suspension of liposomes stabilized LEC PLC and did not have effect on bacterial PLCs. In vitro studies on Raw 264.7 and Caco-2/TC7 cells demonstrated an efficient incorporation of PLCs into the cells. Preparations with higher stability were the ones that showed a better cell-uptake. The nature of the lipid composition is determinant for the stability of PLCs. Lipids from lactic acid bacteria are composed of glycolipids and phospholipids like cardiolipin and phosphatidylglycerol. The presence of negatively charged lipids strongly improves the interaction with the positively charged CHO-PDMAEMA, thus stabilizing liposomes. In addition, glycolipids and

  20. Effects of ozone and peroxyacetyl nitrate on polar lipids and fatty acids in leaves of morning glory and kidney bean. [Pharbitis nil; Phaseolus vulgaris

    SciT

    Nouchi, Isamu; Toyama, Susumu

    To compare the effects of ozone and peroxyacetyl nitrate (PAN) on leaf lipids, fatty acids and malondialdehyde (MDA), morning glory (Pharbitis nil Choisy cv Scarlet O'Hara) and kidney bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L. cv Gintebo) plants were exposed to either ozone (0.15 microliter per liter for 8 hours) or PAN (0.10 microliter per liter for up to 8 hours). Ozone increased phospholipids in morning glory and decreased in kidney bean at the initial stage (2-4 hours) of exposure, while it scarcely changed glycolipids, the unsaturated fatty acids, and MDA in both plants. A large reduction of glycolipids occurred 1 day aftermore » ozone exposure in both plants. PAN caused marked drops in phospholipids and glycolipids in kidney bean at relatively late stage (6-8 hours) of exposure, while it increased phosphatidic acid and decreased the unsaturated fatty acids, an increase which was accompanied by a large increase in MDA. These results suggest that ozone may not directly oxidize unsaturated fatty acids at the initial stage of exposure, but may alter polar lipid metabolism, particularly phospholipids. On the other hand, PAN may abruptly and considerably degrade phospholipids and glycolipids by peroxidation or hydrolysis at the late stage of exposure. The present study shows that ozone and PAN affect polar lipids in different manners.« less

  1. Salicylic acid induces vanillin synthesis through the phospholipid signaling pathway in Capsicum chinense cell cultures

    PubMed Central

    Rodas-Junco, Beatriz A; Cab-Guillen, Yahaira; Muñoz-Sanchez, J Armando; Vázquez-Flota, Felipe; Monforte-Gonzalez, Miriam; Hérnandez-Sotomayor, S M Teresa

    2013-01-01

    Signal transduction via phospholipids is mediated by phospholipases such as phospholipase C (PLC) and D (PLD), which catalyze hydrolysis of plasma membrane structural phospholipids. Phospholipid signaling is also involved in plant responses to phytohormones such as salicylic acid (SA). The relationships between phospholipid signaling, SA, and secondary metabolism are not fully understood. Using a Capsicum chinense cell suspension as a model, we evaluated whether phospholipid signaling modulates SA-induced vanillin production through the activation of phenylalanine ammonia lyase (PAL), a key enzyme in the biosynthetic pathway. Salicylic acid was found to elicit PAL activity and consequently vanillin production, which was diminished or reversed upon exposure to the phosphoinositide-phospholipase C (PI-PLC) signaling inhibitors neomycin and U73122. Exposure to the phosphatidic acid inhibitor 1-butanol altered PLD activity and prevented SA-induced vanillin production. Our results suggest that PLC and PLD-generated secondary messengers may be modulating SA-induced vanillin production through the activation of key biosynthetic pathway enzymes.

  2. Valproic Acid

    MedlinePlus

    ... and spinal cord and can also cause lower intelligence in babies exposed to valproic acid before birth. ... acid. Talk to your doctor about birth control methods that will work for you. If you become ...

  3. Aminocaproic Acid

    MedlinePlus

    Aminocaproic acid is used to control bleeding that occurs when blood clots are broken down too quickly. This ... before the baby is ready to be born). Aminocaproic acid is also used to control bleeding in the ...

  4. Amino acids

    MedlinePlus

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/002222.htm Amino acids To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Amino acids are organic compounds that combine to form proteins . ...

  5. Ethacrynic Acid

    MedlinePlus

    Ethacrynic acid, a 'water pill,' is used to treat swelling and fluid retention caused by various medical problems. It ... Ethacrynic acid comes as a tablet to take by mouth. It is usually taken once or twice a day ...

  6. Insights into the complex association of bovine factor Va with acidic-lipid-containing synthetic membranes.

    PubMed Central

    Cutsforth, G A; Koppaka, V; Krishnaswamy, S; Wu, J R; Mann, K G; Lentz, B R

    1996-01-01

    The mechanism of binding of blood coagulation cofactor factor Va to acidic-lipid-containing membranes has been addressed. Binding isotherms were generated at room temperature using the change in fluorescence anisotropy of pyrene-labeled bovine factor Va to detect binding to sonicated membrane vesicles containing either bovine brain phosphatidylserine (PS) or 1,2-dioleoyl-3-sn-phosphatidylglycerol (DOPG) in combination with 1-palmitoyl-2-oleoyl-3-sn-phosphatidylcholine (POPC). The composition of the membranes was varied from 0 to 40 mol% for PS/POPC and from 0 to 65 mol % for DOPG/POPC membranes. Fitting the data to a classical Langmuir adsorption model yielded estimates of the dissociation constant (Kd) and the stoichiometry of binding. The values of Kd defined in this way displayed a maximum at low acidic lipid content but were nearly constant at intermediate to high fractions of acidic lipid. Fitting the binding isotherms to a two-process binding model (nonspecific adsorption in addition to binding of acidic lipids to sites on the protein) suggested a significant acidic-lipid-independent binding affinity in addition to occupancy of three protein sites that bind PS in preference to DOPG. Both analyses indicated that interaction of factor Va with an acidic-lipid-containing membrane is much more complex than those of factor Xa or prothrombin. Furthermore, a change in the conformation of bound pyrene-labeled factor Va with surface concentration of acidic lipid was implied by variation of both the saturating fluorescence anisotropy and the binding parameters with the acidic lipid content of the membrane. Finally, the results cannot support the contention that binding occurs through nonspecific adsorption to a patch or domain of acidic lipids in the membrane. Factor Va is suggested to associate with membranes by a complex process that includes both acidic-lipid-specific and acidic-lipid-independent sites and a protein structure change induced by occupancy of acidic

  7. Serum lipids, hepatic glycerolipid metabolism and peroxisomal fatty acid oxidation in rats fed omega-3 and omega-6 fatty acids.

    PubMed Central

    Rustan, A C; Christiansen, E N; Drevon, C A

    1992-01-01

    Rats were fed, for 3 weeks, high-fat (20% w/w) diets containing sunflower-seed oil, linseed oil or fish oil. Chow-fed rats were used as a low-fat reference. The high-fat diets markedly reduced non-fasting-rat serum triacylglycerol as compared with the low-fat reference, and the highest reduction (85%) was observed with the fish-oil group, which was significantly lower than that of the other high-fat diets. The serum concentration of phospholipids was significantly reduced (30%) only in the fish-oil-fed animals, whereas serum non-esterified fatty acids were reduced 40-50% by both the fish-oil- and linseed-oil-fed groups. The liver content of triacylglycerol showed a 1.7-fold increase with the fish-oil diet and 2-2.5-fold with the other dietary groups when compared with rats fed a low-fat diet, whereas the hepatic content of phospholipids was unchanged. Peroxisomal fatty acid oxidation (acyl-CoA oxidase) was 2-fold increased for the rats fed fish oil; however this was not significantly higher when comparison was made with rats fed the linseed-oil diet. There was no difference in phosphatidate hydrolysis (microsomal and cytosolic fractions) among animals fed the various diets. Acyl-CoA:diacylglycerol acyltransferase activity was increased by all high-fat diets, but the fish-oil-diet-fed group showed a significantly lower enzyme activity than did rats fed the other high-fat diets. A linear correlation between acyl-CoA:diacylglycerol acyltransferase activity and liver triacylglycerol was observed, and the microsomal enzyme activity was decreased 40-50% by incubation in the presence of eicosapentaenoyl-CoA. CoA derivatives of arachidonic, linolenic and linoleic acid had no inhibitory effect when compared with the control. These results indicate that dietary fish oil may have greater triacylglycerol-lowering effect than other polyunsaturated diets, owing to decreased triacylglycerol synthesis caused by inhibition of acyl-CoA:diacylglycerol acyltransferase. In addition

  8. A Model for the Interfacial Kinetics of Phospholipase D Activity on Long-Chain Lipids

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-07-01

    we extend this model to account for the interaction between PLD and its reaction product, phosphatidic acid (PA), which is a long-chain lipid and... phosphatidic acid , and lecithin/ phosphatidic acid fixed monolayers: a Langmuit film balance study. J. Colloid Interface Sci. 79:319–338. 55. Morris, A...Dennis. 1988. Kinetic analysis of the Ca2þ-dependent, membrane-bound, macrophage phospholipase A2 and the effects of arachidonic acid . J. Biol. Chem. 263

  9. Paenibacillus aceti sp. nov., isolated from the traditional solid-state acetic acid fermentation culture of Chinese cereal vinegar.

    PubMed

    Li, Pan; Lin, Weifeng; Liu, Xiong; Li, Sha; Luo, Lixin; Lin, Wei-Tie

    2016-09-01

    A Gram-stain-negative, rod-shaped, motile, endospore-forming, facultatively anaerobic bacterium, designated strain L14T, was isolated from the traditional acetic acid fermentation culture of Chinese cereal vinegars. Phylogenetic analysis based on 16S rRNA gene sequences showed that strain L14T was affiliated to the genus Paenibacillus, most closely related to Paenibacillus motobuensis MC10T with 97.8 % similarity. Chemotaxonomic characterization supported the allocation of the strain to the genus Paenibacillus. The polar lipid profile of strain L14T contained the major compounds diphosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylethanolamine and phosphatidylglycerol. The predominant menaquinone was MK-7, and the major fatty acid components were anteiso-C15 : 0, iso-C15 : 0 and C16 : 0. The DNA G+C content of strain L14T was 49.9 mol%. The DNA-DNA relatedness value between strain L14T and P. motobuensis MC10T was 51.2 %. The results of physiological and biochemical tests allowed phenotypic differentiation of strain L14T from closely related species. On the basis of phenotypic and chemotaxonomic analyses, phylogenetic analysis and DNA-DNA relatedness values, strain L14T is considered to represent a novel species of the genus Paenibacillus, for which the name Paenibacillus aceti sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is L14T (=CGMCC 1.15420T=JCM 31170T).

  10. Caffeic acid phenethyl ester downregulates phospholipase D1 via direct binding and inhibition of NFκB transactivation

    SciT

    Park, Mi Hee; Kang, Dong Woo; Jung, Yunjin

    2013-12-06

    Highlights: •We found CAFÉ, a natural product that suppresses expression and activity of PLD1. •CAPE decreased PLD1 expression by inhibiting NFκB transactivation. •CAPE rapidly inhibited PLD activity via its binding to a Cys837 of PLD1. •PLD1 downregulation by CAPE inhibited invasion and proliferation of glioma cells. -- Abstract: Upregulation of phospholipase D (PLD) is functionally linked with oncogenic signals and tumorigenesis. Caffeic acid phenethyl ester (CAPE) is an active compound of propolis extract that exhibits anti-proliferative, anti-inflammatory, anti-oxidant, and antineoplastic properties. In this study, we demonstrated that CAPE suppressed the expression of PLD1 at the transcriptional level via inhibition ofmore » binding of NFκB to PLD1 promoter. Moreover, CAPE, but not its analogs, bound to a Cys837 residue of PLD1 and inhibited enzymatic activity of PLD. CAPE also decreased activation of matrix metalloproteinases-2 induced by phosphatidic acid, a product of PLD activity. Ultimately, CAPE-induced downregulation of PLD1 suppressed invasion and proliferation of glioma cells. Taken together, the results of this study indicate that CAPE might contribute to anti-neoplastic effect by targeting PLD1.« less

  11. Molecular Basis of Autophagic Cell Death in Prostate Cancer

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-03-01

    lipid-binding proteinwith high affinity for phosphatidic acid (PA) and cardiolipin (CL). Previously, it has been shown that PA directly interacted...lyceride), PI (phosphatidylinositol), DAG (diacylglycerol), PI4P (PtdIns(4)P), PA ( phosphatidic acid ), PI4,5P2 (PtdIns(4,5)P2), PS (phosphatidylserine...with high affinity for phosphatidic acid and cardiolipin and less affinity for various phosphoinositides. Functional genomics analysis identified 5

  12. Usnic acid.

    PubMed

    Ingólfsdóttir, K

    2002-12-01

    Since its first isolation in 1844, usnic acid [2,6-diacetyl-7,9-dihydroxy-8,9b-dimethyl-1,3(2H,9bH)-dibenzo-furandione] has become the most extensively studied lichen metabolite and one of the few that is commercially available. Usnic acid is uniquely found in lichens, and is especially abundant in genera such as Alectoria, Cladonia, Usnea, Lecanora, Ramalina and Evernia. Many lichens and extracts containing usnic acid have been utilized for medicinal, perfumery, cosmetic as well as ecological applications. Usnic acid as a pure substance has been formulated in creams, toothpaste, mouthwash, deodorants and sunscreen products, in some cases as an active principle, in others as a preservative. In addition to antimicrobial activity against human and plant pathogens, usnic acid has been shown to exhibit antiviral, antiprotozoal, antiproliferative, anti-inflammatory and analgesic activity. Ecological effects, such as antigrowth, antiherbivore and anti-insect properties, have also been demonstrated. A difference in biological activity has in some cases been observed between the two enantiomeric forms of usnic acid. Recently health food supplements containing usnic acid have been promoted for use in weight reduction, with little scientific support. The emphasis of the current review is on the chemistry and biological activity of usnic acid and its derivatives in addition to rational and ecologically acceptable methods for provision of this natural compound on a large scale.

  13. Reassessing the Potential Activities of Plant CGI-58 Protein

    PubMed Central

    Khatib, Abdallah; Arhab, Yani; Bentebibel, Assia; Abousalham, Abdelkarim; Noiriel, Alexandre

    2016-01-01

    Comparative Gene Identification-58 (CGI-58) is a widespread protein found in animals and plants. This protein has been shown to participate in lipolysis in mice and humans by activating Adipose triglyceride lipase (ATGL), the initial enzyme responsible for the triacylglycerol (TAG) catabolism cascade. Human mutation of CGI-58 is the cause of Chanarin-Dorfman syndrome, an orphan disease characterized by a systemic accumulation of TAG which engenders tissue disorders. The CGI-58 protein has also been shown to participate in neutral lipid metabolism in plants and, in this case, a mutation again provokes TAG accumulation. Although its roles as an ATGL coactivator and in lipid metabolism are quite clear, the catalytic activity of CGI-58 is still in question. The acyltransferase activities of CGI-58 have been speculated about, reported or even dismissed and experimental evidence that CGI-58 expressed in E. coli possesses an unambiguous catalytic activity is still lacking. To address this problem, we developed a new set of plasmids and site-directed mutants to elucidate the in vivo effects of CGI-58 expression on lipid metabolism in E. coli. By analyzing the lipid composition in selected E. coli strains expressing CGI-58 proteins, and by reinvestigating enzymatic tests with adequate controls, we show here that recombinant plant CGI-58 has none of the proposed activities previously described. Recombinant plant and mouse CGI-58 both lack acyltransferase activity towards either lysophosphatidylglycerol or lysophosphatidic acid to form phosphatidylglycerol or phosphatidic acid and recombinant plant CGI-58 does not catalyze TAG or phospholipid hydrolysis. However, expression of recombinant plant CGI-58, but not mouse CGI-58, led to a decrease in phosphatidylglycerol in all strains of E. coli tested, and a mutation of the putative catalytic residues restored a wild-type phenotype. The potential activities of plant CGI-58 are subsequently discussed. PMID:26745266

  14. Cloacibacillus evryensis gen. nov., sp. nov., a novel asaccharolytic, mesophilic, amino-acid-degrading bacterium within the phylum 'Synergistetes', isolated from an anaerobic sludge digester.

    PubMed

    Ganesan, Akila; Chaussonnerie, Sébastien; Tarrade, Anne; Dauga, Catherine; Bouchez, Théodore; Pelletier, Eric; Le Paslier, Denis; Sghir, Abdelghani

    2008-09-01

    A novel anaerobic, mesophilic, amino-acid-utilizing bacterium, strain 158T, was isolated from an anaerobic digester of a wastewater treatment plant. Cells of strain 158T were non-motile, rod-shaped (2.0-3.0 x 0.8-1.0 microm) and stained Gram-negative. Optimal growth occurred at 37 degrees C and pH 7.0 in an anaerobic basal medium containing 1 % Casamino acids. Strain 158T fermented arginine, histidine, lysine and serine and showed growth on yeast extract, brain-heart infusion (BHI) medium and tryptone, but not on carbohydrates, organic acids or alcohols. The end products of degradation were: acetate, butyrate, H2 and CO2 from arginine; acetate, propionate, butyrate, H2 and CO2 from lysine; and acetate, propionate, butyrate, valerate, H2 and CO2 from histidine, serine, BHI medium, Casamino acids and tryptone. The DNA G+C content was 55.8 mol%. The 16S rRNA gene sequence of strain 158T showed only 92.6 % sequence similarity with that of Synergistes jonesii, the only described species of the 'Synergistes' group. The major cellular fatty acids were iso-C(15:0) (16.63 %), iso-C(15:0) 3-OH (12.41 %) and C(17:1)omega6c (9.46 %) and the polar fatty acids were diphosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylethanolamine and phosphatidylmonomethylamine; these fatty acid profiles did not resemble those of any recognized bacterial species. Due to the considerable differences in genotypic, phenotypic and phylogenetic characteristics between strain 158T and those of its nearest relative, it is proposed that strain 158T represents a novel species in a new genus, Cloacibacillus evryensis gen. nov., sp. nov., in the phylum 'Synergistetes'. The type strain is 158T (=DSM 19522T=JCM 14828T).

  15. Predicting Essential Components of Signal Transduction Networks: A Dynamic Model of Guard Cell Abscisic Acid Signaling

    PubMed Central

    Li, Song; Assmann, Sarah M; Albert, Réka

    2006-01-01

    Plants both lose water and take in carbon dioxide through microscopic stomatal pores, each of which is regulated by a surrounding pair of guard cells. During drought, the plant hormone abscisic acid (ABA) inhibits stomatal opening and promotes stomatal closure, thereby promoting water conservation. Dozens of cellular components have been identified to function in ABA regulation of guard cell volume and thus of stomatal aperture, but a dynamic description is still not available for this complex process. Here we synthesize experimental results into a consistent guard cell signal transduction network for ABA-induced stomatal closure, and develop a dynamic model of this process. Our model captures the regulation of more than 40 identified network components, and accords well with previous experimental results at both the pathway and whole-cell physiological level. By simulating gene disruptions and pharmacological interventions we find that the network is robust against a significant fraction of possible perturbations. Our analysis reveals the novel predictions that the disruption of membrane depolarizability, anion efflux, actin cytoskeleton reorganization, cytosolic pH increase, the phosphatidic acid pathway, or K+ efflux through slowly activating K+ channels at the plasma membrane lead to the strongest reduction in ABA responsiveness. Initial experimental analysis assessing ABA-induced stomatal closure in the presence of cytosolic pH clamp imposed by the weak acid butyrate is consistent with model prediction. Simulations of stomatal response as derived from our model provide an efficient tool for the identification of candidate manipulations that have the best chance of conferring increased drought stress tolerance and for the prioritization of future wet bench analyses. Our method can be readily applied to other biological signaling networks to identify key regulatory components in systems where quantitative information is limited. PMID:16968132

  16. Substrate specificity and catalytic efficiency of aldo-keto reductases with phospholipid aldehydes

    PubMed Central

    Spite, Matthew; Baba, Shahid P.; Ahmed, Yonis; Barski, Oleg A.; Nijhawan, Kanchan; Petrash, J. Mark; Bhatnagar, Aruni; Srivastava, Sanjay

    2007-01-01

    Phospholipid oxidation generates several bioactive aldehydes that remain esterified to the glycerol backbone (‘core’ aldehydes). These aldehydes induce endothelial cells to produce monocyte chemotactic factors and enhance monocyte–endothelium adhesion. They also serve as ligands of scavenger receptors for the uptake of oxidized lipoproteins or apoptotic cells. The biochemical pathways involved in phospholipid aldehyde metabolism, however, remain largely unknown. In the present study, we have examined the efficacy of the three mammalian AKR (aldo-keto reductase) families in catalysing the reduction of phospholipid aldehydes. The model phospholipid aldehyde POVPC [1-palmitoyl-2-(5-oxovaleroyl)-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine] was efficiently reduced by members of the AKR1, but not by the AKR6 or the ARK7 family. In the AKR1 family, POVPC reductase activity was limited to AKR1A and B. No significant activity was observed with AKR1C enzymes. Among the active proteins, human AR (aldose reductase) (AKR1B1) showed the highest catalytic activity. The catalytic efficiency of human small intestinal AR (AKR1B10) was comparable with the murine AKR1B proteins 1B3 and 1B8. Among the murine proteins AKR1A4 and AKR1B7 showed appreciably lower catalytic activity as compared with 1B3 and 1B8. The human AKRs, 1B1 and 1B10, and the murine proteins, 1B3 and 1B8, also reduced C-7 and C-9 sn-2 aldehydes as well as POVPE [1-palmitoyl-2-(5-oxovaleroyl)-sn-glycero-3-phosphoethanolamine]. AKR1A4, B1, B7 and B8 catalysed the reduction of aldehydes generated in oxidized C16:0-20:4 phosphatidylcholine with acyl, plasmenyl or alkyl linkage at the sn-1 position or C16:0-20:4 phosphatidylglycerol or phosphatidic acid. AKR1B1 displayed the highest activity with phosphatidic acids; AKR1A4 was more efficient with long-chain aldehydes such as 5-hydroxy-8-oxo-6-octenoyl derivatives, whereas AKR1B8 preferred phosphatidylglycerol. These results suggest that proteins of the AKR1A and B families are

  17. Acid Precipitation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Likens, Gene E.

    1976-01-01

    Discusses the fact that the acidity of rain and snow falling on parts of the U.S. and Europe has been rising. The reasons are still not entirely clear and the consequences have yet to be well evaluated. (MLH)

  18. [Modeling of linoleyl hydroxamic acid influence on lipoxygenases in vitro].

    PubMed

    Skaterna, T D; Kopich, V M; Tserniuk, V M; Kharchenko, O V

    2009-01-01

    5-Lipoxygenase (5-LO) (1.13.11.12) demonstrates its activity in membrane-associated state. A system in vitro with increasing quantity of mixed micelle of nonionic detergent Lubrol PX and substrate--linoleic acid (LA) was used for understanding of 5-LO catalytic activity mechanism, which depends on the membrane environment. Physical parameters of micelles with molar ratio LA-Lubrol PX = 0.3:1 and micelles with 5-LO inhibitor--linoleyl hydroxamic acid (LHA), LA and Lubrol PX (0.03:0.3:1) were characterized by gel-filtration method on Sephadex G-200. It was determined, that Stock's radii were 4.83-5.79 nm for micelles with total LA--50-2000 microM and average molecular mass--177 000-212 000 Da. The presence of 10 microM LHA has no influence on physical parameters of the system. Influence of LHA on kinetic parameters of LA oxidation reaction catalized by potato tubers 5-LO in characterized mixed micelle system was also studied. Substrate dependences curves of 5-LO LA oxidation steady-state rates under conditions of the mixed micelle with ratio LA-lubrol PX = 0.3:1, LHA-LA-Lubrol PX = 0.03:0.3:1 and LHA-LA-Lubrol PX = 0.12:0.3:1 were typical of the substrate inhibition. The presence of inhibitor had no effect on the number of additional substrate molecules--LA which contact with enzyme-substrate complex and decreased V(max) essentially. To predict further inhibitor transformation in the cell the influence of 13-hydroperoxy- and 13-hydroxy LHA on potato tubers 5-LO and porcine leucocyte 12-LO was investigated. It was established that LHA oxidized forms displayed as no less effective inhibitors of the analyzed enzymes; 13-hydroperoxy LHA efficiency increased by an order (IC50 was 0.7 microM) for 12-LO. The possibility of 5-LO to oxidize inhibitor LHA under 50 microM phosphatidic acid at pH 5.0 was demonstrated.

  19. Singulisphaera rosea sp. nov., a planctomycete from acidic Sphagnum peat, and emended description of the genus Singulisphaera.

    PubMed

    Kulichevskaya, Irina S; Detkova, Ekaterina N; Bodelier, Paul L E; Rijpstra, W Irene C; Damsté, Jaap S Sinninghe; Dedysh, Svetlana N

    2012-01-01

    An aerobic, pink-pigmented, budding bacterium, designated strain S26(T), was isolated from an acidic Sphagnum peat bog of north-western Russia. Cells were non-motile and spherical, occurring singly, in pairs or in short chains, and were able to attach to surfaces by means of a holdfast material. Strain S26(T) was a moderately acidophilic, mesophilic organism capable of growth at pH 3.2-7.1 (optimum at pH 4.8-5.0) and at 4-33 °C (optimum at 20-26 °C). Most sugars, several organic acids and polyalcohols were the preferred growth substrates. The major fatty acids were C(16:0), C(18:1)ω9c and C(18:2)ω6c,12c. The major neutral lipids were n-C(31:9) hydrocarbon and squalene; the polar lipids were phosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylcholine and components with an unknown structure. The DNA G+C content of strain S26(T) was 62.2 mol%. 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis showed that strain S26(T) is a member of the order Planctomycetales. Among taxonomically characterized representatives of this order, highest levels of 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity (95.1-95.2%) were observed with strains of the non-filamentous, peat-inhabiting planctomycete Singulisphaera acidiphila. Strain S26(T) could be differentiated from Singulisphaera acidiphila based on pigmentation, significant differences in substrate utilization patterns, greater tolerance of acidic conditions and the presence of C(16:1)ω9c. Based on the data presented, strain S26(T) is considered to represent a novel species of the genus Singulisphaera, for which the name Singulisphaera rosea sp. nov. is proposed; the type strain is S26(T) (=DSM 23044(T)=VKM B-2599(T)).

  20. Lysinibacillus endophyticus sp. nov., an indole-3-acetic acid producing endophytic bacterium isolated from corn root (Zea mays cv. Xinken-5).

    PubMed

    Yu, Jiang; Guan, Xuejiao; Liu, Chongxi; Xiang, Wensheng; Yu, Zhenhua; Liu, Xiaobing; Wang, Guanghua

    2016-10-01

    A Gram-positive, aerobic, motile, rod-shaped bacterium, designated strain C9(T), was isolated from surface sterilised corn roots (Zea mays cv. Xinken-5) and found to be able to produce indole-3-acetic acid. A polyphasic taxonomic study was carried out to determine the status of strain C9(T). The major cellular fatty acids were found to contain iso-C15:0, anteiso-C15:0 and anteiso-C17:0, and the only menaquinone was identified as MK-7. The polar lipid profile was found to contain diphosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylethanolamine, two unidentified phospholipids and an unidentified lipid. The cell wall peptidoglycan was found to be of the A4α L-Lys-D-Asp type and the whole cell sugar was found to be glucose. Phylogenetic analysis based on the 16S rRNA gene sequence showed that strain C9(T) belongs to the genus Lysinibacillus and is closely related to Lysinibacillus chungkukjangi NBRC 108948(T) (98.1 % similarity) and Lysinibacillus sinduriensis DSM 27595(T) (98.0 %). However, the low levels of DNA-DNA relatedness and some differential phenotypic characteristics allowed the strain to be distinguished from its close relatives. Therefore, it is concluded that strain C9(T) represents a novel species of the genus Lysinibacillus, for which the name Lysinibacillus endophyticus sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is C9(T) (=DSM 100506(T) = CGMCC 1.15291(T)).

  1. Sedimentibacter acidaminivorans sp. nov., an anaerobic, amino-acid-utilizing bacterium isolated from marine subsurface sediment.

    PubMed

    Imachi, Hiroyuki; Sakai, Sanae; Kubota, Takaaki; Miyazaki, Masayuki; Saito, Yayoi; Takai, Ken

    2016-03-01

    A novel, anaerobic bacterium, strain MO-SEDI T , was isolated from a methanogenic microbial community, which was originally obtained from marine subsurface sediments collected from off the Shimokita Peninsula of Japan. Cells were Gram-stain-negative, non-motile, non-spore-forming rods, 0.4-1.4 μm long by 0.4-0.6 μm wide. The cells also formed long filaments of up to about 11 μm. The strain grew on amino acids (i.e. valine, leucine, isoleucine, methionine, glycine, phenylalanine, tryptophan, lysine and arginine), pyruvate and melezitose in the presence of yeast extract. Growth was observed at 4-37 °C (optimally at 30 °C), at pH 6.0 and 8.5 (optimally at 7.0-7.5) and in 0-60 g l - 1 NaCl (optimally 20 g NaCl l - 1 ). The G+C content of the DNA was 32.0 mol%. The polar lipids of strain MO-SEDI T were phosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidyl lipids and unknown lipids. The major cellular fatty acids (>10 % of the total) were C 14 : 0 , C 16 : 1 ω9 and C 16 : 0 dimethyl aldehyde. Comparative sequence analysis of the 16S rRNA gene showed that strain MO-SEDI T was affiliated with the genus Sedimentibacter within the phylum Firmicutes . It was related most closely to the type strain of Sedimentibacter saalensis (94 % sequence similarity). Based on the phenotypic and genetic characteristics, strain MO-SEDI T is considered to represent a novel species of the genus Sedimentibacter , for which the name Sedimentibacter acidaminivorans sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is MO-SEDI T ( = JCM 17293 T  = DSM 24004 T ).

  2. Acid Rain

    Bricker, Owen P.; Rice, Karen C.

    1993-01-01

    Acid deposition, or acid rain as it is more commonly referred to, has become a widely publicized environmental issue in the U.S. over the past decade. The term usually conjures up images of fish kills, dying forests, "dead" lakes, and damage to monuments and other historic artifacts. The primary cause of acid deposition is emission of S02 and NOx to the atmosphere during the combustion of fossil fuels. Oxidation of these compounds in the atmosphere forms strong acids - H2SO4 and HNO3 - which are returned to the Earth in rain, snow, fog, cloud water, and as dry deposition.Although acid deposition has only recently been recognized as an environmental problem in the U.S., it is not a new phenomenon (Cogbill & Likens 1974). As early as the middle of the 17th century in England, the deleterious effects of industrial emissions on plants, animals, and humans, and the atmospheric transport of pollutants between England and France had become issues of concern (Evelyn 1661, Graunt 1662). It is interesting that well over three hundred years ago in England, recommendations were made to move industry outside of towns and build higher chimneys to spread the pollution into "distant parts." Increasing the height of smokestacks has helped alleviate local problems, but has exacerbated others. In the U.S. the height of the tallest smokestack has more than doubled, and the average height of smokestacks has tripled since the 1950s (Patrick et al 1981). This trend occurred in most industrialized nations during the 20th century and has had the effect of transforming acid rain from a local urban problem into a problem of global scale.

  3. Acid Rain

    Bricker, Owen P.; Rice, Karen C.; Dietrich, W.E.; Sposito, Garrison

    1997-01-01

    Acid deposition, or acid rain as it is more commonly referred to, has become a widely publicized environmental issue in the U.S. over the past decade. The term usually conjures up images of fish kills, dying forests, "dead" lakes, and damage to monuments and other historic artifacts. The primary cause of acid deposition is emission of S02 and NOx to the atmosphere during the combustion of fossil fuels. Oxidation of these compounds in the atmosphere forms strong acids - H2SO4 and HNO3 - which are returned to the Earth in rain, snow, fog, cloud water, and as dry deposition.Although acid deposition has only recently been recognized as an environmental problem in the U.S., it is not a new phenomenon (Cogbill & Likens 1974). As early as the middle of the 17th century in England, the deleterious effects of industrial emissions on plants, animals, and humans, and the atmospheric transport of pollutants between England and France had become issues of concern (Evelyn 1661, Graunt 1662). It is interesting that well over three hundred years ago in England, recommendations were made to move industry outside of towns and build higher chimneys to spread the pollution into "distant parts." Increasing the height of smokestacks has helped alleviate local problems, but has exacerbated others. In the U.S. the height of the tallest smokestack has more than doubled, and the average height of smokestacks has tripled since the 1950s (Patrick et al 1981). This trend occurred in most industrialized nations during the 20th century and has had the effect of transforming acid rain from a local urban problem into a problem of global scale.

  4. Salicylic acids

    PubMed Central

    Hayat, Shamsul; Irfan, Mohd; Wani, Arif; Nasser, Alyemeni; Ahmad, Aqil

    2012-01-01

    Salicylic acid is well known phytohormone, emerging recently as a new paradigm of an array of manifestations of growth regulators. The area unleashed yet encompassed the applied agriculture sector to find the roles to strengthen the crops against plethora of abiotic and biotic stresses. The skipped part of integrated picture, however, was the evolutionary insight of salicylic acid to either allow or discard the microbial invasion depending upon various internal factors of two interactants under the prevailing external conditions. The metabolic status that allows the host invasion either as pathogenesis or symbiosis with possible intermediary stages in close systems has been tried to underpin here. PMID:22301975

  5. A two-helix motif positions the active site of lysophosphatidic acid acyltransferase for catalysis within the membrane bilayer

    PubMed Central

    Robertson, Rosanna M.; Yao, Jiangwei; Gajewski, Stefan; Kumar, Gyanendra; Martin, Erik W.; Rock, Charles O.; White, Stephen W.

    2017-01-01

    Phosphatidic acid is the central intermediate in membrane phospholipid synthesis and is generated by two acyltransferases in a pathway conserved in all life forms. The second step in this pathway is catalyzed by 1-acyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphate acyltransferase, called PlsC in bacteria. The crystal structure of PlsC from Thermotoga maritima reveals an unusual hydrophobic/aromatic N-terminal two-helix motif linked to an acyltransferase αβ domain that contains the catalytic HX4D motif. PlsC dictates the acyl chain composition of the 2-position of phospholipids, and the acyl chain selectivity ‘ruler’ is an appropriately placed and closed hydrophobic tunnel. This was confirmed by site-directed mutagenesis and membrane composition analysis of Escherichia coli cells expressing the mutated proteins. MD simulations reveal that the two-helix motif represents a novel substructure that firmly anchors the protein to one leaflet of the membrane. This binding mode allows the PlsC active site to acylate lysophospholipids within the membrane bilayer using soluble acyl donors. PMID:28714993

  6. Phospholipids and protein adaptation of Pseudomonas sp. to the xenoestrogen tributyltin chloride (TBT).

    PubMed

    Bernat, Przemysław; Siewiera, Paulina; Soboń, Adrian; Długoński, Jerzy

    2014-09-01

    A tributyltin (TBT)-resistant strain of Pseudomonas sp. isolated from an overworked car filter was tested for its adaptation to TBT. The isolate was checked for organotin degradation ability, as well as membrane lipid and cellular protein composition in the presence of TBT. The phospholipid profiles of bacteria, grown with and without increased amounts of TBT, were characterized using liquid chromatography/electrospray ionization/mass spectrometry. The strain reacted to the biocide by changing the composition of its phospholipids. TBT induced a twofold decline in the amounts of many molecular species of phosphatidylglycerol and an increase in the levels of phosphatidic acid (by 58%) and phosphatidylethanolamine (by 70%). An increase in the degree of saturation of phospholipid fatty acids of TBT exposed Pseudomonas sp. was observed. These changes in the phospholipid composition and concentration reflect the mechanisms which support optimal lipid ordering in the presence of toxic xenobiotic. In the presence of TBT the abundances of 16 proteins, including TonB-dependent receptors, porins and peroxidases were modified, which could indicate a contribution of some enzymes to TBT resistance.

  7. Formic acid

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    Formic acid ; CASRN 64 - 18 - 6 Human health assessment information on a chemical substance is included in the IRIS database only after a comprehensive review of toxicity data , as outlined in the IRIS assessment development process . Sections I ( Health Hazard Assessments for Noncarcinogenic Effect

  8. Dichloroacetic acid

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    Dichloroacetic acid ; CASRN 79 - 43 - 6 Human health assessment information on a chemical substance is included in the IRIS database only after a comprehensive review of toxicity data , as outlined in the IRIS assessment development process . Sections I ( Health Hazard Assessments for Noncarcinogeni

  9. Acrylic acid

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    Acrylic acid ( CASRN 79 - 10 - 7 ) Human health assessment information on a chemical substance is included in the IRIS database only after a comprehensive review of toxicity data , as outlined in the IRIS assessment development process . Sections I ( Health Hazard Assessments for Noncarcinogenic Eff

  10. Trichloroacetic acid

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    EPA / 635 / R - 09 / 003F www.epa.gov / iris TOXICOLOGICAL REVIEW OF TRICHLOROACETIC ACID ( CAS No . 76 - 03 - 9 ) In Support of Summary Information on the Integrated Risk Information System ( IRIS ) September 2011 U.S . Environmental Protection Agency Washington , DC ii DISCLAIMER This document has

  11. Benzoic acid

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    Benzoic acid ; CASRN 65 - 85 - 0 Human health assessment information on a chemical substance is included in the IRIS database only after a comprehensive review of toxicity data , as outlined in the IRIS assessment development process . Sections I ( Health Hazard Assessments for Noncarcinogenic Effec

  12. Phosphoric acid

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    Phosphoric acid ; CASRN 7664 - 38 - 2 Human health assessment information on a chemical substance is included in the IRIS database only after a comprehensive review of toxicity data , as outlined in the IRIS assessment development process . Sections I ( Health Hazard Assessments for Noncarcinogenic

  13. Cacodylic acid

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    Cacodylic acid ; CASRN 75 - 60 - 5 Human health assessment information on a chemical substance is included in the IRIS database only after a comprehensive review of toxicity data , as outlined in the IRIS assessment development process . Sections I ( Health Hazard Assessments for Noncarcinogenic Eff

  14. Selenious acid

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    Selenious acid ; CASRN 7783 - 00 - 8 Human health assessment information on a chemical substance is included in the IRIS database only after a comprehensive review of toxicity data , as outlined in the IRIS assessment development process . Sections I ( Health Hazard Assessments for Noncarcinogenic E

  15. Mefenamic Acid

    MedlinePlus

    Mefenamic acid comes as a capsule to take by mouth. It is usually taken with food every 6 hours as needed for up to 1 week. Follow ... pain vomit that is bloody or looks like coffee grounds black, tarry, or bloody stools slowed breathing ...

  16. Stearic Acid

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Young, Jay A.

    2004-01-01

    A chemical laboratory information profile (CLIP) is presented for the chemical, stearic acid. The profile lists the chemical's physical and harmful characteristics, exposure limits, and symptoms of major exposure, for the benefit of teachers and students, who use the chemical in the laboratory.

  17. Lysophosphatidic Acid Acyltransferase β (LPAATβ) Promotes the Tumor Growth of Human Osteosarcoma

    PubMed Central

    Rastegar, Farbod; Gao, Jian-Li; Shenaq, Deana; Luo, Qing; Shi, Qiong; Kim, Stephanie H.; Jiang, Wei; Wagner, Eric R.; Huang, Enyi; Gao, Yanhong; Shen, Jikun; Yang, Ke; He, Bai-Cheng; Chen, Liang; Zuo, Guo-Wei; Luo, Jinyong; Luo, Xiaoji; Bi, Yang; Liu, Xing; Li, Mi; Hu, Ning; Wang, Linyuan; Luther, Gaurav; Luu, Hue H.; Haydon, Rex C.; He, Tong-Chuan

    2010-01-01

    Background Osteosarcoma is the most common primary malignancy of bone with poorly characterized molecular pathways important in its pathogenesis. Increasing evidence indicates that elevated lipid biosynthesis is a characteristic feature of cancer. We sought to investigate the role of lysophosphatidic acid acyltransferase β (LPAATβ, aka, AGPAT2) in regulating the proliferation and growth of human osteosarcoma cells. LPAATβ can generate phosphatidic acid, which plays a key role in lipid biosynthesis as well as in cell proliferation and survival. Although elevated expression of LPAATβ has been reported in several types of human tumors, the role of LPAATβ in osteosarcoma progression has yet to be elucidated. Methodology/Principal Findings Endogenous expression of LPAATβ in osteosarcoma cell lines is analyzed by using semi-quantitative PCR and immunohistochemical staining. Adenovirus-mediated overexpression of LPAATβ and silencing LPAATβ expression is employed to determine the effect of LPAATβ on osteosarcoma cell proliferation and migration in vitro and osteosarcoma tumor growth in vivo. We have found that expression of LPAATβ is readily detected in 8 of the 10 analyzed human osteosarcoma lines. Exogenous expression of LPAATβ promotes osteosarcoma cell proliferation and migration, while silencing LPAATβ expression inhibits these cellular characteristics. We further demonstrate that exogenous expression of LPAATβ effectively promotes tumor growth, while knockdown of LPAATβ expression inhibits tumor growth in an orthotopic xenograft model of human osteosarcoma. Conclusions/Significance Our results strongly suggest that LPAATβ expression may be associated with the aggressive phenotypes of human osteosarcoma and that LPAATβ may play an important role in regulating osteosarcoma cell proliferation and tumor growth. Thus, targeting LPAATβ may be exploited as a novel therapeutic strategy for the clinical management of osteosarcoma. This is especially

  18. Paenibacillus qinlingensis sp. nov., an indole-3-acetic acid-producing bacterium isolated from roots of Sinopodophyllum hexandrum (Royle) Ying.

    PubMed

    Xin, Kaiyun; Li, Muhang; Chen, Chaoqiong; Yang, Xu; Li, Qiqi; Cheng, Juanli; Zhang, Lei; Shen, Xihui

    2017-04-01

    A novel indole-3-acetic acid-producing bacterium, designated TEGT-2T, was isolated from the roots of Sinopodophyllum hexandrum collected from the Qinling Mountains in shaanxi province, northwestern China, and was subjected to a taxonomic study by using a polyphasic approach. Cells of strain TEGT-2T were Gram-stain-positive, strictly aerobic, endospore-forming rods and motile by means of peritrichous flagella. Phylogenetic analyses based on 16S rRNA gene sequences showed that strain TEGT-2T was a member of the genus Paenibacillus, exhibiting the highest sequence similarity to Paenibacillus pectinilyticus KCTC 13222T (97.9 %), Paenibacillus frigoriresistens CCTCC AB 2011150T (97.3 %), Paenibacillus ferrarius CCTCC AB 2013369T (96.9 %) and Paenibacillus alginolyticus NBRC 15375T (96.5 %). The only menaquinone detected was MK-7, and the major fatty acid was anteiso-C15 : 0. The major polar lipids were diphosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylethanolamine, two unidentified aminophospholipids, two unidentified phospholipids, an unidentified aminolipid and two unidentified lipids. meso-Diaminopimelic acid was detected in the peptidoglycan. The DNA G+C content was 46.6 mol%. DNA-DNA relatedness values for strain TEGT-2T with respect to its closest phylogenetic relatives Paenibacilluspectinilyticus KCTC 13222T and Paenibacillus. frigoriresistens CCTCC AB 2011150T were lower than 40 %. Based on the phenotypic, phylogenetic and genotypic data, strain TEGT-2T is considered to represent a novel species of the genus Paenibacillus, for which the name Paenibacillus qinlingensis sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is TEGT-2T (=CCTCC AB 2015258T=KCTC 33806T).

  19. Hydroxycarboxylic acids and salts

    DOEpatents

    Kiely, Donald E; Hash, Kirk R; Kramer-Presta, Kylie; Smith, Tyler N

    2015-02-24

    Compositions which inhibit corrosion and alter the physical properties of concrete (admixtures) are prepared from salt mixtures of hydroxycarboxylic acids, carboxylic acids, and nitric acid. The salt mixtures are prepared by neutralizing acid product mixtures from the oxidation of polyols using nitric acid and oxygen as the oxidizing agents. Nitric acid is removed from the hydroxycarboxylic acids by evaporation and diffusion dialysis.

  20. Comparison of the Distribution of Unsaturated Fatty Acids at the Sn-2 Position of Phospholipids and Triacylglycerols in Marine Fishes and Mammals.

    PubMed

    Beppu, Fumiaki; Yasuda, Keiko; Okada, Ayako; Hirosaki, Yoshitsugu; Okazaki, Masako; Gotoh, Naohiro

    2017-11-01

    Highly unsaturated fatty acid (HUFA) binding at the sn-2 position of phospholipids (PL) becomes a resource for prostaglandin, leukotriene, resolvin, and protectin synthesis. Both triacylglycerol (TAG) and PL synthesis pathways in vivo are via phosphatidic acid; therefore, the distribution of fatty acid species at the sn-2 position must theoretically be the same for TAG and PL if rearrangement does not occur. However, it is known that little HUFA is located at the sn-2 position of TAG in marine mammals. Therefore, distribution of fatty acid species at the sn-2 position of TAG and PL was compared between marine fishes and mammals in this study. The composition of fatty acids binding at the sn-2 or sn-1,3 position of PL and TAG was analyzed via hydrolysis with enzymes and GC-FID. The results showed that 20:4n-6, 20:5n-3, 22:5n-3, and 22:6n-3 were primarily located at the sn-1,3 positions of TAG in marine mammals. Comparison of the binding positions of HUFA and 16:0 in PL and TAG suggested the existence of Lands' cycle in marine fishes and mammals. In conclusion, both marine fishes and mammals condensed HUFA as a source of eicosanoid at the sn-2 position of PL. Furthermore, abundance ratios for 22:5n-3 or 22:6n-3 at the sn-2 position (sn-2 ratio) in TAG and PL (calculated by the equation: [abundance ratio at sn-2 position of TAG]/[abundance ratio at sn-2 position of PL]) was less than 0.35 in marine mammals; however, it was greater than 0.80 in marine fishes. These differences suggested that the HUFA consisted of 22 carbon atoms and had different roles in marine fishes and mammals.

  1. Overexpression of human fatty acid transport protein 2/very long chain acyl-CoA synthetase 1 (FATP2/Acsvl1) reveals distinct patterns of trafficking of exogenous fatty acids

    SciT

    Melton, Elaina M.; Center for Cardiovascular Sciences, Albany Medical College, Albany, NY; Cerny, Ronald L.

    Highlights: •Roles of FATP2 in fatty acid transport/activation contribute to lipid homeostasis. •Use of 13C- and D-labeled fatty acids provide novel insights into FATP2 function. •FATP2-dependent trafficking of FA into phospholipids results in distinctive profiles. •FATP2 functions in the transport and activation pathways for exogenous fatty acids. -- Abstract: In mammals, the fatty acid transport proteins (FATP1 through FATP6) are members of a highly conserved family of proteins, which function in fatty acid transport proceeding through vectorial acylation and in the activation of very long chain fatty acids, branched chain fatty acids and secondary bile acids. FATP1, 2 and 4,more » for example directly function in fatty acid transport and very long chain fatty acids activation while FATP5 does not function in fatty acid transport but activates secondary bile acids. In the present work, we have used stable isotopically labeled fatty acids differing in carbon length and saturation in cells expressing FATP2 to gain further insights into how this protein functions in fatty acid transport and intracellular fatty acid trafficking. Our previous studies showed the expression of FATP2 modestly increased C16:0-CoA and C20:4-CoA and significantly increased C18:3-CoA and C22:6-CoA after 4 h. The increases in C16:0-CoA and C18:3-CoA suggest FATP2 must necessarily partner with a long chain acyl CoA synthetase (Acsl) to generate C16:0-CoA and C18:3-CoA through vectorial acylation. The very long chain acyl CoA synthetase activity of FATP2 is consistent in the generation of C20:4-CoA and C22:6-CoA coincident with transport from their respective exogenous fatty acids. The trafficking of exogenous fatty acids into phosphatidic acid (PA) and into the major classes of phospholipids (phosphatidylcholine (PC), phosphatidylethanolamine (PE), phosphatidylinositol (PI), and phosphatidyserine (PS)) resulted in distinctive profiles, which changed with the expression of FATP2. The

  2. Obeticholic Acid

    PubMed Central

    Smith, Susan M.; Pegram, Angela H.

    2017-01-01

    Objective: To review the pharmacology, efficacy, and safety of obeticholic acid (OCA) and determine its clinical role relative to other agents in the treatment of patients with primary biliary cholangitis (PBC). Data Sources: A PubMed search (1946 to November 2016) was conducted using the terms INT-747, obeticholic acid, OCA, farnesoid X receptor agonists, FXR agonists, primary biliary cirrhosis, and primary biliary cholangitis. Study Selection and Data Extraction: Phase II and III studies evaluating the use of OCA in PBC patients were included in this review. Data Synthesis: OCA, a farnesoid X receptor (FXR) agonist, is indicated for adult patients with PBC in combination with ursodeoxycholic acid (UDCA) or as monotherapy if unable to tolerate UDCA. Two clinical trials were identified evaluating OCA for the treatment of PBC. Study end points utilized biochemical markers (alkaline phosphatase [ALP] and bilirubin). A phase II study (n = 165) to determine efficacy and safety of OCA at 3 different doses (10 mg, 25 mg, 50 mg) demonstrated statistically significant reductions in ALP (P < .0001 for all OCA groups versus placebo) after 12 weeks. A phase III trial (n = 217) assessed lower OCA doses (5 mg and 10 mg) with a longer study duration (12 months). Statistically significant differences (P < .001) between the 5 to 10 mg group (46%) and the 10 mg group (47%) compared to the placebo group (10%) were found. The primary adverse effect reported in both trials was pruritus. Conclusions: OCA is the first FXR agonist approved for the treatment of PBC. Ongoing research to evaluate clinical outcomes with OCA is currently underway.

  3. Interchromosomal Associations that Alter Nf1 Gene Expression can Modify Clinical Manifestations of Neurofibromatosis 1

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-09-01

    intracellular portion of the EGFR and stimulates PLD2 activity. PLD2 catalyzes the hydrolysis of phosphatidylcholine (PC) to phosphatidic acid (PA) and...ARF4 can bind with EGFR and activate PLD2. The phosphatidic acid (PA) produced by PLD2 can recruit Sos, which can then colocalize and activate

  4. Investigation of Resonant AC-DC Magnetic Field Effects.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1987-07-31

    phosphatidylethanolamine with smaller amounts of phosphatidylinosital and phosphatidic acid . The fluidity of the acyl chain region of these lipids at room temperature...fusion and lipid lateral separation in phosphatidylcholine- phosphatidic acid vesicles. Biochem 25:6978-6987. Liboff AR (1985): Cyclotron resonance in

  5. Halosiccatus urmianus gen. nov., sp. nov., a haloarchaeon from a salt lake.

    PubMed

    Mehrshad, Maliheh; Amoozegar, Mohammad Ali; Makhdoumi, Ali; Fazeli, Seyed Abolhassan Shahzadeh; Farahani, Homa; Asadi, Basaer; Schumann, Peter; Ventosa, Antonio

    2016-02-01

    A novel, orange-pigmented, halophilic archaeon, strain DC8 T , was isolated from Urmia salt lake in north-west Iran. The cells of strain DC8 T were non-motile and pleomorphic, from small rods to triangular or disc shaped. The novel strain needed at least 2.5 M NaCl and 0.02 M MgCl 2 for growth. Optimal growth was achieved at 4.0 M NaCl and 0.1 M MgCl 2 . The optimum pH and temperature for growth were pH 7.5 and 45 °C, respectively, and it was able to grow over a pH range of 7.0 to 8.5 and a temperature range of 25 to 55 °C. Analysis of the 16S rRNA gene sequence showed that strain DC8 T was a member of the family Halobacteriaceae ; however, its similarity was as low as 90.1 %, 89.3 % and 89.1 % to the most closely related haloarchaeal taxa, including type species of members of the genera Halosimplex , Halobaculum and Halomicrobium , respectively. The G+C content of its DNA was 68.1 mol%. Polar lipid analyses revealed that strain DC8 T contained phosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylglycerol phosphate methyl ester, phosphatidylglycerol sulfate and phosphatidic acid. One unknown phospholipid, two major glycolipids and one minor glycolipid were also detected. The only quinone present was MK-8 (II-H 2 ). The physiological, biochemical and phylogenetic differences between strain DC8 T and other extremely halophilic archaeal genera with validly published names supported that this strain represents a novel species of a new genus within the family Halobacteriaceae , for which the name Halosiccatus urmianus gen. nov., sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is strain DC8 T ( = IBRC-M 10911 T  = CECT 8793 T ).

  6. Identification of lipid-phosphatidylserine (PS) as the target of unbiasedly selected cancer specific peptide-peptoid hybrid PPS1.

    PubMed

    Desai, Tanvi J; Toombs, Jason E; Minna, John D; Brekken, Rolf A; Udugamasooriya, Damith Gomika

    2016-05-24

    Phosphatidylserine (PS) is an anionic phospholipid maintained on the inner-leaflet of the cell membrane and is externalized in malignant cells. We previously launched a careful unbiased selection targeting biomolecules (e.g. protein, lipid or carbohydrate) distinct to cancer cells by exploiting HCC4017 lung cancer and HBEC30KT normal epithelial cells derived from the same patient, identifying HCC4017 specific peptide-peptoid hybrid PPS1. In this current study, we identified PS as the target of PPS1. We validated direct PPS1 binding to PS using ELISA-like assays, lipid dot blot and liposome based binding assays. In addition, PPS1 recognized other negatively charged and cancer specific lipids such as phosphatidic acid, phosphatidylinositol and phosphatidylglycerol. PPS1 did not bind to neutral lipids such as phosphatidylethanolamine found in cancer and phosphatidylcholine and sphingomyelin found in normal cells. Further we found that the dimeric version of PPS1 (PPS1D1) displayed strong cytotoxicity towards lung cancer cell lines that externalize PS, but not normal cells. PPS1D1 showed potent single agent anti-tumor activity and enhanced the efficacy of docetaxel in mice bearing H460 lung cancer xenografts. Since PS and anionic phospholipid externalization is common across many cancer types, PPS1 may be an alternative to overcome limitations of protein targeted agents.

  7. Phosphatidylserine Stimulates Ceramide 1-Phosphate (C1P) Intermembrane Transfer by C1P Transfer Proteins.

    PubMed

    Zhai, Xiuhong; Gao, Yong-Guang; Mishra, Shrawan K; Simanshu, Dhirendra K; Boldyrev, Ivan A; Benson, Linda M; Bergen, H Robert; Malinina, Lucy; Mundy, John; Molotkovsky, Julian G; Patel, Dinshaw J; Brown, Rhoderick E

    2017-02-10

    Genetic models for studying localized cell suicide that halt the spread of pathogen infection and immune response activation in plants include Arabidopsis accelerated-cell-death 11 mutant ( acd11 ). In this mutant, sphingolipid homeostasis is disrupted via depletion of ACD11, a lipid transfer protein that is specific for ceramide 1-phosphate (C1P) and phyto-C1P. The C1P binding site in ACD11 and in human ceramide-1-phosphate transfer protein (CPTP) is surrounded by cationic residues. Here, we investigated the functional regulation of ACD11 and CPTP by anionic phosphoglycerides and found that 1-palmitoyl-2-oleoyl-phosphatidic acid or 1-palmitoyl-2-oleoyl-phosphatidylglycerol (≤15 mol %) in C1P source vesicles depressed C1P intermembrane transfer. By contrast, replacement with 1-palmitoyl-2-oleoyl-phosphatidylserine stimulated C1P transfer by ACD11 and CPTP. Notably, "soluble" phosphatidylserine (dihexanoyl-phosphatidylserine) failed to stimulate C1P transfer. Also, none of the anionic phosphoglycerides affected transfer action by human glycolipid lipid transfer protein (GLTP), which is glycolipid-specific and has few cationic residues near its glycolipid binding site. These findings provide the first evidence for a potential phosphoglyceride headgroup-specific regulatory interaction site(s) existing on the surface of any GLTP-fold and delineate new differences between GLTP superfamily members that are specific for C1P versus glycolipid. © 2017 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  8. Lipid tubules Formed by Flow-Controlled Hydration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yuan, Jing; Hirst, Linda S.

    2007-03-01

    Self-assembled cylindrical tubules from lipid molecules have attracted considerable attention because of their interesting supramolecular structures and technological applications. Schnur et al. [1] reported the formation of tubular microstructures from a series of diacetylenic phospholipids after liposomes were cooled through their chain melting transition. After that, several methods have been developed to fabricate such unique microstructures mainly by means of deforming preformed Giant unilamellar vesicles. Here we present a simple strategy to construct lipid microtubules through a flow-controlled lipid hydration. Fluorescent microscopy and Confocal Laser Microscopy were used to visualize the formation and the structure of the lipid tubules. Tubules were found to develop following the direction of the dynamic flow with highly parallel alignment. At high flow speeds, partial cross-linking of the lipid tubules was observed. To demonstrate the generality of this method, different types of phospholipids, such as Phosphatidic Acid (PA), Phosphatidylserine (PS), Phosphatidylethanolamine (PE), and Phosphatidylglycerol (PG) were investigated. [1] J.M. Schnur et al, Science, 264, 945 (1994).

  9. Label free detection of phospholipids by infrared absorption spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ahmed, Tahsin; Foster, Erick; Vigil, Genevieve; Khan, Aamir A.; Bohn, Paul; Howard, Scott S.

    2014-08-01

    We present our study on compact, label-free dissolved lipid sensing by combining capillary electrophoresis separation in a PDMS microfluidic chip online with mid-infrared (MIR) absorption spectroscopy for biomarker detection. On-chip capillary electrophoresis is used to separate the biomarkers without introducing any extrinsic contrast agent, which reduces both cost and complexity. The label free biomarker detection could be done by interrogating separated biomarkers in the channel by MIR absorption spectroscopy. Phospholipids biomarkers of degenerative neurological, kidney, and bone diseases are detectable using this label free technique. These phospholipids exhibit strong absorption resonances in the MIR and are present in biofluids including urine, blood plasma, and cerebrospinal fluid. MIR spectroscopy of a 12-carbon chain phosphatidic acid (PA) (1,2-dilauroyl-snglycero- 3-phosphate (sodium salt)) dissolved in N-methylformamide, exhibits a strong amide peak near wavenumber 1660 cm-1 (wavelength 6 μm), arising from the phosphate headgroup vibrations within a low-loss window of the solvent. PA has a similar structure to many important phospholipids molecules like phosphatidylcholine (PC), phosphatidylinositol (PI), phosphatidylethanolamine (PE), phosphatidylglycerol (PG), and phosphatidylserine (PS), making it an ideal molecule for initial proof-of-concept studies. This newly proposed detection technique can lead us to minimal sample preparation and is capable of identifying several biomarkers from the same sample simultaneously.

  10. Lipids of mitochondria.

    PubMed

    Horvath, Susanne E; Daum, Günther

    2013-10-01

    A unique organelle for studying membrane biochemistry is the mitochondrion whose functionality depends on a coordinated supply of proteins and lipids. Mitochondria are capable of synthesizing several lipids autonomously such as phosphatidylglycerol, cardiolipin and in part phosphatidylethanolamine, phosphatidic acid and CDP-diacylglycerol. Other mitochondrial membrane lipids such as phosphatidylcholine, phosphatidylserine, phosphatidylinositol, sterols and sphingolipids have to be imported. The mitochondrial lipid composition, the biosynthesis and the import of mitochondrial lipids as well as the regulation of these processes will be main issues of this review article. Furthermore, interactions of lipids and mitochondrial proteins which are highly important for various mitochondrial processes will be discussed. Malfunction or loss of enzymes involved in mitochondrial phospholipid biosynthesis lead to dysfunction of cell respiration, affect the assembly and stability of the mitochondrial protein import machinery and cause abnormal mitochondrial morphology or even lethality. Molecular aspects of these processes as well as diseases related to defects in the formation of mitochondrial membranes will be described. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Serum lipid alterations in GBA-associated Parkinson's disease.

    PubMed

    Guedes, Leonor Correia; Chan, Robin Barry; Gomes, Marcos António; Conceição, Vasco A; Machado, Raquel Bouça; Soares, Tiago; Xu, Yimeng; Gaspar, Paulo; Carriço, Joao André; Alcalay, Roy N; Ferreira, Joaquim J; Outeiro, Tiago Fleming; Miltenberger-Miltenyi, Gabriel

    2017-11-01

    Mutations in the GBA gene, encoding for the lysosomal enzyme glucocerebrosidase, are associated with Gaucher disease. Alterations in plasma sphingolipids have been reported in Gaucher, and similarly in brain extracts in Lewy body disease. As GBA mutations are prevalent risk factors for Parkinson's disease and overlap of molecular pathways are presumable, here we assessed the lipid profiles in Parkinson's patients with and without GBA mutations. We sequenced all GBA exons in 415 Parkinson's patients, previously genotyped for LRRK2. 64 patients (29 GBA positive vs. 35 non-GBA-carriers including 18 LRRK2 positive and 17 non-mutated) were analyzed for chitotriosidase activity and for the concentration of 40 lipid classes using HPLC-MS. 29/415 patients (6.9%) carried 8 different GBA mutations associated with Gaucher or Parkinson's, including one novel mutation. Chitotriosidase activity was similar across the genetic groups, while the levels of key lipids were altered in GBA mutation carriers: Monohexosylceramide, Ceramide and Sphingomyelin were elevated; while Phosphatidic acid (PA), Phosphatidylethanolamine (PE), Plasmalogen phosphatidylethanolamine (PEp) and Acyl Phosphatidylglycerol (AcylPG) were decreased. The results suggest an important role for these lipids in GBA mediated Parkinson's disease and assist in the identification of common pathways between Gaucher and Parkinson's. Ultimately, our findings may lead to the identification of novel biomarkers for individuals at increased risk of developing Parkinson's disease. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. NanoESI-MS-based lipidomics to discriminate between cultivars, cultivation ages, and parts of Panax ginseng.

    PubMed

    Kim, So-Hyun; Shin, Yoo-Soo; Choi, Hyung-Kyoon

    2016-03-01

    Korean ginseng (Panax ginseng C.A. Meyer) is one of the most popular medicinal herbs used in Asia, including Korea and China. In the present study lipid profiling of two officially registered cultivars (P. ginseng 'Chunpoong' and P. ginseng 'Yunpoong') was performed at different cultivation ages (5 and 6 years) and on different parts (tap roots, lateral roots, and rhizomes) using nano-electrospray ionization-mass spectrometry (nanoESI-MS). In total, 30 compounds including galactolipids, phospholipids, triacylglycerols, and ginsenosides were identified. Among them, triacylglycerol 54:6 (18:2/18:2/18:2), phosphatidylglycerol 34:3 (16:0/18:3), monogalactosyldiacylglycerol 36:4 (18:2/18:2), phosphatidic acid species 36:4 (18:2/18:2), and 34:1 (16:0/18:1) were selected as biomarkers to discriminate cultivars, cultivation ages, and parts. In addition, an unknown P. ginseng sample was successfully predicted by applying validated partial least squares projection to latent structures regression models. This is the first study regarding the identification of intact lipid species from P. ginseng and to predict cultivars, cultivation ages, and parts of P. ginseng using nanoESI-MS-based lipidomic profiling with a multivariate statistical analysis.

  13. Analysis of sphingolipids, sterols, and phospholipids in human pathogenic Cryptococcus strains.

    PubMed

    Singh, Ashutosh; MacKenzie, Andrew; Girnun, Geoffrey; Del Poeta, Maurizio

    2017-10-01

    Cryptococcus species cause invasive infections in humans. Lipids play an important role in the progression of these infections. Independent studies done by our group and others provide some detail about the functions of these lipids in Cryptococcus infections. However, the pathways of biosynthesis and the metabolism of these lipids are not completely understood. To thoroughly understand the physiological role of these Cryptococcus lipids, a proper structure and composition analysis of Cryptococcus lipids is demanded. In this study, a detailed spectroscopic analysis of lipid extracts from Cryptococcus gattii and Cryptococcus grubii strains is presented. Sphingolipid profiling by LC-ESI-MS/MS was used to analyze sphingosine, dihydrosphingosine, sphingosine-1-phosphate, dihydrosphingosine-1-phosphate, ceramide, dihydroceramide, glucosylceramide, phytosphingosine, phytosphingosine-1-phosphate, phytoceramide, α-hydroxy phytoceramide, and inositolphosphorylceramide species. A total of 13 sterol species were identified using GC-MS, where ergosterol is the most abundant species. The 31 P-NMR-based phospholipid analysis identified phosphatidylcholine, phosphatidylethanolamine, phosphatidylinositol, phosphatidylserine, phosphatidyl- N , N -dimethylethanolamine, phosphatidyl- N -monomethylethanolamine, phosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidic acid, and lysophosphatidylethanolamine. A comparison of lipid profiles among different Cryptococcus strains illustrates a marked change in the metabolic flux of these organisms, especially sphingolipid metabolism. These data improve our understanding of the structure, biosynthesis, and metabolism of common lipid groups of Cryptococcus and should be useful while studying their functional significance and designing therapeutic interventions. Copyright © 2017 by the American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  14. The cellular lipids of Romboutsia.

    PubMed

    Guan, Ziqiang; Chen, Lingli; Gerritsen, Jacoline; Smidt, Hauke; Goldfine, Howard

    2016-09-01

    We have examined the lipids of three isolates, Romboutsia lituseburensis, Romboutsia ilealis, and Romboutsia sp. strain FRIFI, of the newly described genus Romboutsia by two-dimensional thin-layer chromatography (2D-TLC) and by liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry (LC/MS). We have found three phospholipids, phosphatidylglycerol (PG), cardiolipin and phosphatidic acid in all three species. A fourth phospholipid, lysyl-PG, was found in R. lituseburensis and strain FRIFI. Polyprenyl-phosphates were identified in the lipid extracts of all three species. Three glycolipids, mono-, di- and tri-hexosyldiacylglycerol, were common to all three species. An additional glycolipid, tetrahexosyl-diacylglycerol was identified in strain FRIFI. Acylated trihexosyldiacylglycerol and acyl-tetrahexosydiacylglycerol were also found in R. ilealis and strain FRIFI. Remarkably, no alk-1-enyl ether lipids (plasmalogens) were present in Romboutsia as distinct from bacteria of the related genus Clostridium in which these ether lipids are common. We have compared the lipidome of Romboutsia with that recently described for Clostridium difficile, which has plasmalogens, no lysyl-PG, and no tetrahexosyl-diacylglycerol. According to 16S rRNA gene sequencing, Romboutsia spp. and C. difficile are closely related (>95% sequence identity). Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Clostridium pabulibutyricum sp. nov., a butyric-acid-producing organism isolated from high-moisture grass silage.

    PubMed

    Kobayashi, Hisami; Nakasato, Takuya; Sakamoto, Mitsuo; Ohtani, Yoshihisa; Terada, Fuminori; Sakai, Ken; Ohkuma, Moriya; Tohno, Masanori

    2017-12-01

    A Gram-stain-variable, strictly anaerobic, rod-shaped, catalase-negative and endospore-forming bacterial strain, designated MJC39 T , was isolated from grass silage preserved in Hokkaido, Japan. Growth occurred at 20-42 °C, pH 5.0-7.0 and NaCl concentrations up to 2 % (w/v). The isolated strain MJC39 T produced butyric acid in peptone yeast extract medium with glucose. The DNA G+C content of strain MJC39 T was 34.4±0.2 mol%. The major cellular fatty acids (>10 %) were C14 : 0, C16 : 0 and summed feature 3 (including C16 : 1ω7c/C16 : 1ω6c). No respiratory quinones were detected. The polar lipids of strain MJC39 T were phosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylethanolamine, diphosphatidylglycerol, one unidentified lipid, one unidentified aminolipid, two unidentified glycolipids, one unidentified phospholipid, one unidentified aminoglycolipid and one unidentified phosphoaminoglycolipid. Phylogenetic analysis based on 16S rRNA gene sequences showed that strain MJC39 T was a member of the genus Clostridium and is closely related to Clostridium tyrobutyricum JCM 11008 T (95.8 % similarity) and Clostridium algifaecis MB9-7 T (95.5 % similarity). Based on the genotypic, phenotypic and chemotaxonomic characteristics, strain MJC39 T represents a novel species of the genus Clostridium, for which the name Clostridium pabulibutyricum sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is MJC39 T (=JCM 31506 T =DSM 103944 T ).

  16. Understanding Acid Rain

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Damonte, Kathleen

    2004-01-01

    The term acid rain describes rain, snow, or fog that is more acidic than normal precipitation. To understand what acid rain is, it is first necessary to know what an acid is. Acids can be defined as substances that produce hydrogen ions (H+), when dissolved in water. Scientists indicate how acidic a substance is by a set of numbers called the pH…

  17. Acid rain

    SciT

    Boyle, R.H.; Boyle, R.A.

    1983-01-01

    Acid rain, says Boyle is a chemical leprosy eating into the face of North America and Europe, perhaps the major ecological problem of our time. Boyle describes the causes and scope of the phenomenon; the effects on man, wildlife, water, and our cultural heritage. He probes the delays of politicians and the frequent self-serving arguments advanced by industry in the face of what scientists have proved. The solutions he offers are to strengthen the Clean Air Act and require emission reductions that can be accomplished by establishing emission standards on a regional or bubble basis, burn low-sulfur coal, install scrubbersmore » at critical plants, and invest in alternative energy sources. 73 references, 1 figure.« less

  18. Overexpression of Human Fatty Acid Transport Protein 2/Very Long Chain Acyl-CoA Synthetase 1 (FATP2/Acsvl1) Reveals Distinct Patterns of Trafficking of Exogenous Fatty Acids

    PubMed Central

    Melton, Elaina M.; Cerny, Ronald L.; DiRusso, Concetta C.; Black, Paul N.

    2014-01-01

    In mammals, the fatty acid transport proteins (FATP1 through FATP6) are members of a highly conserved family of proteins, which function in fatty acid transport proceeding through vectorial acylation and in the activation of very long chain fatty acids, branched chain fatty acids and secondary bile acids. FATP1, 2 and 4, for example directly function in fatty acid transport and very long chain fatty acids activation while FATP5 does not function in fatty acid transport but activates secondary bile acids. In the present work, we have used stable isotopically labeled fatty acids differing in carbon length and saturation in cells expressing FATP2 to gain further insights into how this protein functions in fatty acid transport and intracellular fatty acid trafficking. Our previous studies showed the expression of FATP2 modestly increased C16:0-CoA and C20:4-CoA and significantly increased C18:3-CoA and C22:6-CoA after 4hr. The increases in C16:0-CoA and C18:3-CoA suggest FATP2 must necessarily partner with a long chain acyl CoA synthetase (Acsl) to generate C16:0-CoA and C18:3-CoA through vectorial acylation. The very long chain acyl CoA synthetase activity of FATP2 is consistent in the generation of C20:4-CoA and C22:6-CoA coincident with transport from their respective exogenous fatty acids. The trafficking of exogenous fatty acids into phosphatidic acid (PA) and into the major classes of phospholipids (phosphatidylcholine (PC), phosphatidylethanolamine (PE), phosphatidylinositol (PI), and phosphatidyserine (PS)) resulted in distinctive profiles, which changed with the expression of FATP2. The trafficking of exogenous C16:0 and C22:6 into PA was significant where there was 6.9- and 5.3-fold increased incorporation, respectively, over the control; C18:3 and C20:4 also trended to increase in the PA pool while there were no changes for C18:1 and C18:2. The trafficking of C18:3 into PC and PI trended higher and approached significance. In the case of C20:4, expression of

  19. Overexpression of human fatty acid transport protein 2/very long chain acyl-CoA synthetase 1 (FATP2/Acsvl1) reveals distinct patterns of trafficking of exogenous fatty acids.

    PubMed

    Melton, Elaina M; Cerny, Ronald L; DiRusso, Concetta C; Black, Paul N

    2013-11-01

    In mammals, the fatty acid transport proteins (FATP1 through FATP6) are members of a highly conserved family of proteins, which function in fatty acid transport proceeding through vectorial acylation and in the activation of very long chain fatty acids, branched chain fatty acids and secondary bile acids. FATP1, 2 and 4, for example directly function in fatty acid transport and very long chain fatty acids activation while FATP5 does not function in fatty acid transport but activates secondary bile acids. In the present work, we have used stable isotopically labeled fatty acids differing in carbon length and saturation in cells expressing FATP2 to gain further insights into how this protein functions in fatty acid transport and intracellular fatty acid trafficking. Our previous studies showed the expression of FATP2 modestly increased C16:0-CoA and C20:4-CoA and significantly increased C18:3-CoA and C22:6-CoA after 4h. The increases in C16:0-CoA and C18:3-CoA suggest FATP2 must necessarily partner with a long chain acyl CoA synthetase (Acsl) to generate C16:0-CoA and C18:3-CoA through vectorial acylation. The very long chain acyl CoA synthetase activity of FATP2 is consistent in the generation of C20:4-CoA and C22:6-CoA coincident with transport from their respective exogenous fatty acids. The trafficking of exogenous fatty acids into phosphatidic acid (PA) and into the major classes of phospholipids (phosphatidylcholine (PC), phosphatidylethanolamine (PE), phosphatidylinositol (PI), and phosphatidyserine (PS)) resulted in distinctive profiles, which changed with the expression of FATP2. The trafficking of exogenous C16:0 and C22:6 into PA was significant where there was 6.9- and 5.3-fold increased incorporation, respectively, over the control; C18:3 and C20:4 also trended to increase in the PA pool while there were no changes for C18:1 and C18:2. The trafficking of C18:3 into PC and PI trended higher and approached significance. In the case of C20:4, expression of

  20. The Biological Immune Response - A Review of Effect of Dietary Amino Acids.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1979-12-19

    multiple deficiences, underlying diseases with accompanying therapies , and clinical limitations of obtaining data during illness and recovery stages of the...with pneumococcal C-polysaccharide and with the choline phosphatides, lecithin and sphingomyelin. J. Immunol. 112:2135-2147. 42. Siegel, J., R. Rent

  1. Methylmalonic acid blood test

    MedlinePlus

    ... acid is a substance produced when proteins, called amino acids, in the body break down. The health care ... and the A.D.A.M. Editorial team. Amino Acid Metabolism Disorders Read more B Vitamins Read more ...

  2. Uric acid - urine

    MedlinePlus

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/003616.htm Uric acid urine test To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. The uric acid urine test measures the level of uric acid ...

  3. Uric acid test (image)

    MedlinePlus

    Uric acid urine test is performed to check for the amount of uric acid in urine. Urine is collected over a 24 ... for testing. The most common reason for measuring uric acid levels is in the diagnosis or treatment of ...

  4. Lipid composition and chemotaxonomy of Pseudomonas putrefaciens (Alteromonas putrefaciens).

    PubMed

    Wilkinson, S G; Caudwell, P F

    1980-06-01

    The major polar lipids in cells of Pseudomonas putrefaciens NCIB 10472 grown on nutrient agar were phosphatidylethanolamine, phoisphatidylglycerol, a glucosyldiacylglycerol, a glucuronosyldiacylglycerol and an ornithine amide lipid. An additional phospholipid, tentatively identified as acyl phosphatidylglycerol or bis-phosphatidic acid, was a trace component of the wall lipids from broth cultures, which lacked the glycolipids and the ornithine amide lipid. The wall lipids from broth cultures of three further strains of P. putrefaciens (NCIB 10471, NCIB 11156 and NCTC 10737) contained all of the above lipids, and in two cases (strains NCIB 10471 and NCIB 11156) had an unusually high content of free fatty acid. Fatty acid compositions of the extractable lipids were qualitatively similar for all four strains: the major components were iso-pentadecanoic acid, pentadecanoic acid, a cis-heptadecenoic acid and a cis-hexadecenoic acid. Anteiso fatty acids were minor components in strain NCIB 10472. Lipid mixtures in which the ornithine amide lipid was present also contained small amounts of beta-hydroxy fatty acids: in strain NCIB 10472 the major ones were the straight-chain and iso-branched C16 acids. Lipopolysaccharides from all four strains had similar, complex fatty acid compositions. The major non-hydroxy acids were the straight-chain and iso-branched C13 acids. beta-Hydroxy acids common to all strains included the straight-chain C11, C12, C13, C14 and C15 acids, together with branched-chain C13 and C15 acids probably belonging to the iso series. The lipopolysaccharide from strains NCIB 10472 also contained C12 and C14 hydroxy acids of the same series, and small amounts of C13 and C15 beta-hydroxy acids probably belonging to the anteiso series. The close resemblance in both polar lipid and fatty acid compositions between strains of P. putrefaciens and Pseudomonas rubescens is further evidence that these species are synonymous. Significant differences between the

  5. Marinilactibacillus piezotolerans sp. nov., a novel marine lactic acid bacterium isolated from deep sub-seafloor sediment of the Nankai Trough.

    PubMed

    Toffin, Laurent; Zink, Klaus; Kato, Chiaki; Pignet, Patricia; Bidault, Adeline; Bienvenu, Nadège; Birrien, Jean-Louis; Prieur, Daniel

    2005-01-01

    A piezotolerant, mesophilic, marine lactic acid bacterium (strain LT20T) was isolated from a deep sub-seafloor sediment core collected at Nankai Trough, off the coast of Japan. Cells were Gram-positive, rod-shaped, non-sporulating and non-motile. The NaCl concentration range for growth was 0-120 g l(-1), with the optimum at 10-20 g l(-1). The temperature range for growth at pH 7.0 was 4-50 degrees C, with the optimum at 37-40 degrees C. The optimum pH for growth was 7.0-8.0. The optimum pressure for growth was 0.1 MPa with tolerance up to 30 MPa. The main cellular phospholipids were phosphatidylglycerols (25 %), diphosphatidylglycerols (34 %) and a group of compounds tentatively identified as ammonium-containing phosphatidylserines (32 %); phosphatidylethanolamines (9 %) were minor components. The fatty acid composition was dominated by side chains of 16 : 0, 14 : 0 and 16 : 1. The G+C content of the genomic DNA was 42 mol%. On the basis of 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis and the secondary structure of the V6 region, this organism was found to belong to the genus Marinilactibacillus and was closely related to Marinilactibacillus psychrotolerans M13-2(T) (99 %), Marinilactibacillus sp. strain MJYP.25.24 (99 %) and Alkalibacterium olivapovliticus strain ww2-SN4C (97 %). Despite the high similarity between their 16S rRNA gene sequences (99 %), the DNA-DNA hybridization levels were less than 20 %. On the basis of physiological and genetic characteristics, it is proposed that this organism be classified as a novel species, Marinilactibacillus piezotolerans sp. nov. The type strain is LT20T (=DSM 16108T=JCM 12337T).

  6. Citric acid urine test

    MedlinePlus

    Urine - citric acid test; Renal tubular acidosis - citric acid test; Kidney stones - citric acid test; Urolithiasis - citric acid test ... No special preparation is necessary for this test. But the results ... test is usually done while you are on a normal diet. Ask your ...

  7. Amycolatopsis oliviviridis sp. nov., a novel polylactic acid-bioplastic-degrading actinomycete isolated from paddy soil.

    PubMed

    Penkhrue, Watsana; Sujarit, Kanaporn; Kudo, Takuji; Ohkuma, Moriya; Masaki, Kazuo; Aizawa, Tomoyasu; Pathom-Aree, Wasu; Khanongnuch, Chartchai; Lumyong, Saisamorn

    2018-05-01

    A novel bioplastic-degrading actinomycete, strain SCM_MK2-4 T , was isolated from paddy soil in Thailand. The 16S rRNA gene sequence showed that strain SCM_MK2-4 T belonged to the genus Amycolatopsis, with the highest sequence similarity to Amycolatopsisazurea JCM 3275 T (99.4 %), and was phylogenetically clustered with this strain along with Amycolatopsislurida JCM 3141 T (99.3 %), A. japonica DSM 44213 T (99.2 %), A. decaplanina DSM 44594 T (99.0 %), A. roodepoortensis M29 T (98.9 %), A. keratiniphilasubsp. nogabecina DSM 44586 T (98.8 %), A. keratiniphilasubsp. keratiniphila DSM 44409 T (98.5 %), A. orientalis DSM 40040 T (98.4 %) and A. regifaucium GY080 T (98.3 %). A combination of DNA-DNA hybridization results ranging from 42.8±3.2 to 66.2±1.4 % with the type strains of A. azurea and A. lurida and some different phenotypic characteristics indicated that the strain could be distinguished from its closest phylogenetic neighbours. Whole-cell hydrolysates of the strain were shown to contain meso-diaminopimelic acid, arabinose, galactose, glucose, ribose, mannose, rhamnose and xylose. The predominant menaquinone was MK-9(H4). The major cellular fatty acid profile consisted of iso-C15 : 0, iso-C16 : 0, summed feature 3 (C16 : 1ω7c and/or iso-C15 : 0 2OH) and C16 : 0. The polar lipid composition of the strain consisted of phosphatidyl-N-methylethylethanolamine, phosphatidylethanolamine, hydroxyphosphatidylethanolamine, phosphatidylglycerol, aminophospholipids, an unidentified phospholipid and two unidentified glycolipids. The G+C content of the genomic DNA was 68.2 mol%. On the basis of phylogenetic analyses, DNA-DNA hybridization experimentation and the phenotypic characteristics, it was concluded that strain SCM_MK2-4 T represents a novel species of the genus Amycolatopsis, for which the name Amycolatopsis oliviviridis sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is SCM_MK2-4 T (=TBRC 7186 T =JCM 32134 T ).

  8. Bacillus subtilis alters the proportion of major membrane phospholipids in response to surfactin exposure.

    PubMed

    Uttlová, Petra; Pinkas, Dominik; Bechyňková, Olga; Fišer, Radovan; Svobodová, Jaroslava; Seydlová, Gabriela

    2016-12-01

    Surfactin, an anionic lipopeptide produced by Bacillus subtilis, is an antimicrobial that targets the cytoplasmic membrane. Nowadays it appears increasingly apparent that the mechanism of resistance against these types of antibiotics consists of target site modification. This prompted us to investigate whether the surfactin non-producing strain B. subtilis 168 changes its membrane composition in response to a sublethal surfactin concentration. Here we show that the exposure of B. subtilis to surfactin at concentrations of 350 and 650 μg/ml (designated as SF350 and SF650, respectively) leads to a concentration-dependent growth arrest followed by regrowth with an altered growth rate. Analysis of the membrane lipid composition revealed modifications both in the polar head group and the fatty acid region. The presence of either surfactin concentration resulted in a reduction in the content of the major membrane phospholipid phosphatidylglycerol (PG) and increase in phosphatidylethanolamine (PE), which was accompanied by elevated levels of phosphatidic acid (PA) in SF350 cultures. The fatty acid analysis of SF350 cells showed a marked increase in non-branched high-melting fatty acids, which lowered the fluidity of the membrane interior measured as the steady-state fluorescence anisotropy of DPH. The liposome leakage of carboxyfluorescein-loaded vesicles resembling the phospholipid composition of surfactin-adapted cells showed that the susceptibility to surfactin-induced leakage is strongly reduced when the PG/PE ratio decreases and/or PA is included in the target bilayer. We concluded that the modifications of the phospholipid content of B. subtilis cells might provide a self-tolerance of the membrane active surfactin. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Acid Thunder: Acid Rain and Ancient Mesoamerica

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kahl, Jonathan D. W.; Berg, Craig A.

    2006-01-01

    Much of Mesoamerica's rich cultural heritage is slowly eroding because of acid rain. Just as water dissolves an Alka-Seltzer tablet, acid rain erodes the limestone surfaces of Mexican archaeological sites at a rate of about one-half millimeter per century (Bravo et al. 2003). A half-millimeter may not seem like much, but at this pace, a few…

  10. Omega-3 Fatty Acids

    MedlinePlus

    Omega-3 fatty acids are used together with lifestyle changes (diet, weight-loss, exercise) to reduce the amount ... the blood in people with very high triglycerides. Omega-3 fatty acids are in a class of medications ...

  11. Acid Lipase Disease

    MedlinePlus

    ... of Neurological Disorders and Stroke conducts and supports research to understand lipid storage diseases such as acid lipase deficiency and ... of Neurological Disorders and Stroke conducts and supports research to understand lipid storage diseases such as acid lipase deficiency and ...

  12. Fatty acid analogs

    DOEpatents

    Elmaleh, David R.; Livni, Eli

    1985-01-01

    In one aspect, a radioactively labeled analog of a fatty acid which is capable of being taken up by mammalian tissue and which exhibits an in vivo beta-oxidation rate below that with a corresponding radioactively labeled fatty acid.

  13. Zoledronic Acid Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... acid (Reclast) is used to prevent or treat osteoporosis (condition in which the bones become thin and ... Zoledronic acid (Reclast) is also used to treat osteoporosis in men, and to prevent or treat osteoporosis ...

  14. Acid soldering flux poisoning

    MedlinePlus

    Acid soldering flux is a chemical used to clean and protect the area where two pieces of metal are ... The harmful substances in soldering fluxes are called hydrocarbons. They include: Ammonium chloride Rosin Hydrochloric acid Zinc chloride

  15. Carbolic acid poisoning

    MedlinePlus

    Phenol poisoning; Phenylic acid poisoning; Hydroxybenzene poisoning; Phenic acid poisoning; Benzenol poisoning ... measure and monitor the person's vital signs, including temperature, pulse, breathing rate, and blood pressure. Tests that ...

  16. High-Resolution Ambient MS Imaging of Negative Ions in Positive Ion Mode: Using Dicationic Reagents with the Single-Probe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rao, Wei; Pan, Ning; Tian, Xiang; Yang, Zhibo

    2016-01-01

    We have used the Single-probe, a miniaturized sampling device utilizing in-situ surface microextraction for ambient mass spectrometry (MS) analysis, for the high resolution MS imaging (MSI) of negatively charged species in the positive ionization mode. Two dicationic compounds, 1,5-pentanediyl-bis(1-butylpyrrolidinium) difluoride [C5(bpyr)2F2] and 1,3-propanediyl-bis(tripropylphosphonium) difluoride [C3(triprp)2F2], were added into the sampling solvent to form 1+ charged adducts with the negatively charged species extracted from tissues. We were able to detect 526 and 322 negatively charged species this way using [C5(bpyr)2F2] and [C3(triprp)2F2], respectively, including oleic acid, arachidonic acid, and several species of phosphatidic acid, phosphoethanolamine, phosphatidylserine, phosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylinositol, and others. In conjunction with the identification of the non-adduct cations, we have tentatively identified a total number of 1200 and 828 metabolites from mouse brain sections using [C5(bpyr)2F2] and [C3(triprp)2F2], respectively, through high mass accuracy measurements (mass error <5 ppm); MS/MS analyses were also performed to verify the identity of selected species. In addition to the high mass accuracy measurement, we were able to generate high spatial resolution (~17 μm) MS images of mouse brain sections. Our study demonstrated that utilization of dicationic compounds in the surface microextraction with the Single-probe device can perform high mass and spatial resolution ambient MSI measurements of broader types of compounds in tissues. Other reagents can be potentially used with the Single-probe device for a variety of reactive MSI studies to enable the analysis of species that are previously intractable.

  17. Plant fatty acid hydroxylases

    DOEpatents

    Somerville, Chris; Broun, Pierre; van de Loo, Frank

    2001-01-01

    This invention relates to plant fatty acyl hydroxylases. Methods to use conserved amino acid or nucleotide sequences to obtain plant fatty acyl hydroxylases are described. Also described is the use of cDNA clones encoding a plant hydroxylase to produce a family of hydroxylated fatty acids in transgenic plants. In addition, the use of genes encoding fatty acid hydroxylases or desaturases to alter the level of lipid fatty acid unsaturation in transgenic plants is described.

  18. PRODUCTION OF TRIFLUOROACETIC ACID

    DOEpatents

    Haworth, W.N.; Stacey, M.

    1949-07-19

    A method is given for the production of improved yields of trifluoroacetic acid. The compound is prepared by oxidizing m-aminobenzotrifluoride with an alkali metal or alkaline earth metal permanganate at a temperature in the range of 80 deg C to 100 deg C while dissolved ln a mixture of water with glacial acetic acid and/or trifluoroacetic acid. Preferably a mixture of water and trifluoroacetic acid ls used as the solvent.

  19. Toxicology of Perfluorodecanoic Acid

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1990-11-01

    Perfluorodecanoic Acid ( PFOA ) and Thyroid Status. A. Statement of Problem: 1. Toxic doses of PFDA result in reduction of feed intake, body weight, serum...hypophagia and body weight loss). ii. Perfluoroaecanoic Acid ( PFOA ) and Lipid Metabolism in the Rat. A. Statement of Problem: 1. PFDA in a dose... perfluorinated acids are not available commercially. B. Objectives: 1. To synthesize perfluoro -n-decanoic acid ( PFDA ) with 14C-labeling in the C-I position. 2. To

  20. Effect of Chimaerins, Novel Receptors for Phorbol Esters, on Breast Cancer Cell Proliferation and Cell Cycle Progression

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-07-01

    that is responsible for the phosphorylation of DAG to generate phosphatidic acid . DGKs might be key molecules in a negative feedback aimed at turning off...C2 Neurotransmitter release KinaseT PH PKCs EF DAG Phosphatidic acid EF C1 KinaseC2 C1 C1 KinaseC2C1 C1 C1 C1 C1 C1 C1 C1 C1 Rac–GTP Rac–GDP Protein...generate phosphatidic acid , and thus it decreases DAG levels. It is possible that DAG-regulated DGKs might serve as negative feedback molecules that turn

  1. Metabolomics and Prostate Cancer

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-05-01

    features indicated in pairwise analysis molecular identification revealed Caprolactam, L- Phosphatidic acid , and Peptide (Tyr-Lys-Thr) as possibly...10-8 Unknown – Caprolactam 4 – 1 595.4_153 – 443.3_275 4.2 x 10-8 Unknown – Unknown 4 – 4 597.4_306 - 595.4_153 7.1 x 10-8 L- Phosphatidic acid ...three of the seven additional features implicated including caprolactam, L- Phosphatidic acid and the peptide Tyr-Lys-Thr. Each of these molecules was

  2. What Is Acid Rain?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Likens, Gene E.

    2004-01-01

    Acid rain is the collective term for any type of acidified precipitation: rain, snow, sleet, and hail, as well as the presence of acidifying gases, particles, cloud water, and fog in the atmosphere. The increased acidity, primarily from sulfuric and nitric acids, is generated as a by-product of the combustion of fossil fuels such as coal and oil.…

  3. Acid Rain Study Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hunger, Carolyn; And Others

    Acid rain is a complex, worldwide environmental problem. This study guide is intended to aid teachers of grades 4-12 to help their students understand what acid rain is, why it is a problem, and what possible solutions exist. The document contains specific sections on: (1) the various terms used in conjunction with acid rain (such as acid…

  4. The Acid Rain Reader.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stubbs, Harriett S.; And Others

    A topic which is often not sufficiently dealt with in elementary school textbooks is acid rain. This student text is designed to supplement classroom materials on the topic. Discussed are: (1) "Rain"; (2) "Water Cycle"; (3) "Fossil Fuels"; (4) "Air Pollution"; (5) "Superstacks"; (6) "Acid/Neutral/Bases"; (7) "pH Scale"; (8) "Acid Rain"; (9)…

  5. [alpha]-Oxocarboxylic Acids

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kerber, Robert C.; Fernando, Marian S.

    2010-01-01

    Several [alpha]-oxocarboxylic acids play key roles in metabolism in plants and animals. However, there are inconsistencies between the structures as commonly portrayed and the reported acid ionization constants, which result because the acids are predominantly hydrated in aqueous solution; that is, the predominant form is RC(OH)[subscript 2]COOH…

  6. Crystallization of uric acid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kalkura, S. Narayana; Vaidyan, V. K.; Kanakavel, M.; Ramasamy, P.

    1993-09-01

    Crystals of uric acid have been grown in tetra methoxy silane and silica gel medium. Small winged, transparent, platy crystals of uric acid of about 0.5x0.5x0.1 mm were grown and were found to be hydrated uric acid.

  7. Cleavage of nucleic acids

    DOEpatents

    Prudent, James R.; Hall, Jeff G.; Lyamichev, Victor L.; Brow, Mary Ann D.; Dahlberg, James E.

    2007-12-11

    The present invention relates to means for the detection and characterization of nucleic acid sequences, as well as variations in nucleic acid sequences. The present invention also relates to methods for forming a nucleic acid cleavage structure on a target sequence and cleaving the nucleic acid cleavage structure in a site-specific manner. The structure-specific nuclease activity of a variety of enzymes is used to cleave the target-dependent cleavage structure, thereby indicating the presence of specific nucleic acid sequences or specific variations thereof.

  8. Cleavage of nucleic acids

    DOEpatents

    Prudent, James R.; Hall, Jeff G.; Lyamichev, Victor I.; Brow; Mary Ann D.; Dahlberg, James E.

    2010-11-09

    The present invention relates to means for the detection and characterization of nucleic acid sequences, as well as variations in nucleic acid sequences. The present invention also relates to methods for forming a nucleic acid cleavage structure on a target sequence and cleaving the nucleic acid cleavage structure in a site-specific manner. The structure-specific nuclease activity of a variety of enzymes is used to cleave the target-dependent cleavage structure, thereby indicating the presence of specific nucleic acid sequences or specific variations thereof.

  9. Cleavage of nucleic acids

    DOEpatents

    Prudent, James R.; Hall, Jeff G.; Lyamichev, Victor I.; Brow, Mary Ann D.; Dahlberg, James E.

    2000-01-01

    The present invention relates to means for the detection and characterization of nucleic acid sequences, as well as variations in nucleic acid sequences. The present invention also relates to methods for forming a nucleic acid cleavage structure on a target sequence and cleaving the nucleic acid cleavage structure in a site-specific manner. The structure-specific nuclease activity of a variety of enzymes is used to cleave the target-dependent cleavage structure, thereby indicating the presence of specific nucleic acid sequences or specific variations thereof.

  10. Nucleic acid detection assays

    DOEpatents

    Prudent, James R.; Hall, Jeff G.; Lyamichev, Victor I.; Brow, Mary Ann; Dahlberg, James E.

    2005-04-05

    The present invention relates to means for the detection and characterization of nucleic acid sequences, as well as variations in nucleic acid sequences. The present invention also relates to methods for forming a nucleic acid cleavage structure on a target sequence and cleaving the nucleic acid cleavage structure in a site-specific manner. The structure-specific nuclease activity of a variety of enzymes is used to cleave the target-dependent cleavage structure, thereby indicating the presence of specific nucleic acid sequences or specific variations thereof.

  11. Amino acid analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Winitz, M.; Graff, J. (Inventor)

    1974-01-01

    The process and apparatus for qualitative and quantitative analysis of the amino acid content of a biological sample are presented. The sample is deposited on a cation exchange resin and then is washed with suitable solvents. The amino acids and various cations and organic material with a basic function remain on the resin. The resin is eluted with an acid eluant, and the eluate containing the amino acids is transferred to a reaction vessel where the eluant is removed. Final analysis of the purified acylated amino acid esters is accomplished by gas-liquid chromatographic techniques.

  12. Boric acid and boronic acids inhibition of pigeonpea urease.

    PubMed

    Reddy, K Ravi Charan; Kayastha, Arvind M

    2006-08-01

    Urease from the seeds of pigeonpea was competitively inhibited by boric acid, butylboronic acid, phenylboronic acid, and 4-bromophenylboronic acid; 4-bromophenylboronic acid being the strongest inhibitor, followed by boric acid > butylboronic acid > phenylboronic acid, respectively. Urease inhibition by boric acid is maximal at acidic pH (5.0) and minimal at alkaline pH (10.0), i.e., the trigonal planar B(OH)3 form is a more effective inhibitor than the tetrahedral B(OH)4 -anionic form. Similarly, the anionic form of phenylboronic acid was least inhibiting in nature.

  13. Acidic Ionic Liquids.

    PubMed

    Amarasekara, Ananda S

    2016-05-25

    Ionic liquid with acidic properties is an important branch in the wide ionic liquid field and the aim of this article is to cover all aspects of these acidic ionic liquids, especially focusing on the developments in the last four years. The structural diversity and synthesis of acidic ionic liquids are discussed in the introduction sections of this review. In addition, an unambiguous classification system for various types of acidic ionic liquids is presented in the introduction. The physical properties including acidity, thermo-physical properties, ionic conductivity, spectroscopy, and computational studies on acidic ionic liquids are covered in the next sections. The final section provides a comprehensive review on applications of acidic ionic liquids in a wide array of fields including catalysis, CO2 fixation, ionogel, electrolyte, fuel-cell, membrane, biomass processing, biodiesel synthesis, desulfurization of gasoline/diesel, metal processing, and metal electrodeposition.

  14. Sulfuric Acid on Europa

    1999-09-30

    Frozen sulfuric acid on Jupiter's moon Europa is depicted in this image produced from data gathered by NASA's Galileo spacecraft. The brightest areas, where the yellow is most intense, represent regions of high frozen sulfuric acid concentration. Sulfuric acid is found in battery acid and in Earth's acid rain. This image is based on data gathered by Galileo's near infrared mapping spectrometer. Europa's leading hemisphere is toward the bottom right, and there are enhanced concentrations of sulfuric acid in the trailing side of Europa (the upper left side of the image). This is the face of Europa that is struck by sulfur ions coming from Jupiter's innermost moon, Io. The long, narrow features that crisscross Europa also show sulfuric acid that may be from sulfurous material extruded in cracks. http://photojournal.jpl.nasa.gov/catalog/PIA02500

  15. [Biosynthesis of adipic acid].

    PubMed

    Han, Li; Chen, Wujiu; Yuan, Fei; Zhang, Yuanyuan; Wang, Qinhong; Ma, Yanhe

    2013-10-01

    Adipic acid is a six-carbon dicarboxylic acid, mainly for the production of polymers such as nylon, chemical fiber and engineering plastics. Its annual demand is close to 3 million tons worldwide. Currently, the industrial production of adipic acid is based on the oxidation of aromatics from non-renewable petroleum resources by chemo-catalytic processes. It is heavily polluted and unsustainable, and the possible alternative method for adipic acid production should be developed. In the past years, with the development of synthetic biology and metabolic engineering, green and clean biotechnological methods for adipic acid production attracted more attention. In this study, the research advances of adipic acid and its precursor production are reviewed, followed by addressing the perspective of the possible new pathways for adipic acid production.

  16. Nucleic acid detection kits

    DOEpatents

    Hall, Jeff G.; Lyamichev, Victor I.; Mast, Andrea L.; Brow, Mary Ann; Kwiatkowski, Robert W.; Vavra, Stephanie H.

    2005-03-29

    The present invention relates to means for the detection and characterization of nucleic acid sequences, as well as variations in nucleic acid sequences. The present invention also relates to methods for forming a nucleic acid cleavage structure on a target sequence and cleaving the nucleic acid cleavage structure in a site-specific manner. The structure-specific nuclease activity of a variety of enzymes is used to cleave the target-dependent cleavage structure, thereby indicating the presence of specific nucleic acid sequences or specific variations thereof. The present invention further relates to methods and devices for the separation of nucleic acid molecules based on charge. The present invention also provides methods for the detection of non-target cleavage products via the formation of a complete and activated protein binding region. The invention further provides sensitive and specific methods for the detection of nucleic acid from various viruses in a sample.

  17. Process for the preparation of lactic acid and glyceric acid

    DOEpatents

    Jackson, James E [Haslett, MI; Miller, Dennis J [Okemos, MI; Marincean, Simona [Dewitt, MI

    2008-12-02

    Hexose and pentose monosaccharides are degraded to lactic acid and glyceric acid in an aqueous solution in the presence of an excess of a strongly anionic exchange resin, such as AMBERLITE IRN78 and AMBERLITE IRA400. The glyceric acid and lactic acid can be separated from the aqueous solution. Lactic acid and glyceric acid are staple articles of commerce.

  18. Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor Transactivation by the Cannabinoid Receptor (CB1) and Transient Receptor Potential Vanilloid 1 (TRPV1) Induces Differential Responses in Corneal Epithelial Cells

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-01-01

    induced Ca2þ signaling as well as phospholipase D (PLD)-mediated phosphatidic acid formation (Islam and Akhtar, 2000; Kang et al., 2000, 2001; Mazie et...Epithelial cell motility is triggered by activation of the EGF receptor through phosphatidic acid signaling. J. Cell Sci. 119, 1645e1654. McIntosh, B.T...buffer. Cell lysates were centrifuged and supernatants were collected for measuring proteins with a bichinchoninic acid assay (BCA) protein assay kit

  19. Identification of the In Vivo Phosphorylation Sites of the Ras Suppressor Rsu-1

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2000-12-11

    to phosphatidic acid (PA). Ras activation of the Raf serine/threonine kinases and activation of the MAPKs remains an important component of Ras...of either phospholipase C isofonns to yield DAG, or phospholipase D to yield phosphatidic acid and then DAG. Diacylglycerol is the key "on" switch...Rsu-I is phosphorylated in vivo in response to growth factor and TPA , a known activator of PKC. Phosphoamino acid analysis of Rsu- I suggests that

  20. Microorganisms for producing organic acids

    SciT

    Pfleger, Brian Frederick; Begemann, Matthew Brett

    Organic acid-producing microorganisms and methods of using same. The organic acid-producing microorganisms comprise modifications that reduce or ablate AcsA activity or AcsA homolog activity. The modifications increase tolerance of the microorganisms to such organic acids as 3-hydroxypropionic acid, acrylic acid, propionic acid, lactic acid, and others. Further modifications to the microorganisms increase production of such organic acids as 3-hydroxypropionic acid, lactate, and others. Methods of producing such organic acids as 3-hydroxypropionic acid, lactate, and others with the modified microorganisms are provided. Methods of using acsA or homologs thereof as counter-selectable markers are also provided.

  1. Microorganisms for producing organic acids

    DOEpatents

    Pfleger, Brian Frederick; Begemann, Matthew Brett

    2014-09-30

    Organic acid-producing microorganisms and methods of using same. The organic acid-producing microorganisms comprise modifications that reduce or ablate AcsA activity or AcsA homolog activity. The modifications increase tolerance of the microorganisms to such organic acids as 3-hydroxypropionic acid, acrylic acid, propionic acid, lactic acid, and others. Further modifications to the microorganisms increase production of such organic acids as 3-hydroxypropionic acid, lactate, and others. Methods of producing such organic acids as 3-hydroxypropionic acid, lactate, and others with the modified microorganisms are provided. Methods of using acsA or homologs thereof as counter-selectable markers are also provided.

  2. Acid-Base Homeostasis

    PubMed Central

    Nakhoul, Nazih; Hering-Smith, Kathleen S.

    2015-01-01

    Acid-base homeostasis and pH regulation are critical for both normal physiology and cell metabolism and function. The importance of this regulation is evidenced by a variety of physiologic derangements that occur when plasma pH is either high or low. The kidneys have the predominant role in regulating the systemic bicarbonate concentration and hence, the metabolic component of acid-base balance. This function of the kidneys has two components: reabsorption of virtually all of the filtered HCO3− and production of new bicarbonate to replace that consumed by normal or pathologic acids. This production or generation of new HCO3− is done by net acid excretion. Under normal conditions, approximately one-third to one-half of net acid excretion by the kidneys is in the form of titratable acid. The other one-half to two-thirds is the excretion of ammonium. The capacity to excrete ammonium under conditions of acid loads is quantitatively much greater than the capacity to increase titratable acid. Multiple, often redundant pathways and processes exist to regulate these renal functions. Derangements in acid-base homeostasis, however, are common in clinical medicine and can often be related to the systems involved in acid-base transport in the kidneys. PMID:26597304

  3. Pulmonary lung surfactant synthetic peptide concentration-dependent modulation of DPPC and POPG acyl chain order in a DPPC:POPG:palmitic acid lipid mixture.

    PubMed

    Krill, S L; Gupta, S L; Smith, T

    1994-05-06

    Lung surfactant-associated protein interaction with lipid matrices and the effects on lipid thermotropic phase behavior are areas of active research. Many studies limit the lipids to a single or two-component system. The current investigation utilizes a three-lipid component matrix (DPPC:POPG:palmitic acid) to investigate the impact of a synthetic surfactant protein B fragment (SP-B 53-78 DiACM) on the dynamic surface activity of the lipid admixture as measured by a Wilhelmy surface balance. Also, the modulation of the individual lipid acyl chain order by the peptide within the lipid matrix is studied through the use of thermal perturbation FTIR spectroscopy. The data clearly demonstrate a concentration-dependent effect of the peptide on the surface activity with an improvement in the dynamic surface tension diagram characteristics (decreased surface tension and increased collapse plateau) especially at low, 0.36 M%, peptide concentrations. These effects are diminished upon further addition of the peptide. FTIR spectral data demonstrate that the peptide addition results in a significant increase in the acyl chain order of the DPPC and POPG components as measured by the position of the methylene stretching vibrational bands. DPPC is most sensitive to the peptide presence, while the palmitic acid is least affected. The transition temperatures of the individual lipids are also increased with the addition of the peptide. The presence of POPG in the matrix achieves the surface activity similarly seen with natural lung surfactant relative to a DPPC/palmitic acid lipid matrix alone. Its presence increases the sensitivity of the DPPC acyl chains to the presence of the peptide. These effects on the chain order are most probably related to the increased acyl chain fluidity which POPG imparts to the lipid matrix because of the presence of the cis double bond. The phosphatidylglycerol headgroup also adds a negative charge to the lipid matrix which enhances the peptide

  4. Citric Acid Alternative to Nitric Acid Passivation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lewis, Pattie L. (Compiler)

    2013-01-01

    The Ground Systems Development and Operations GSDO) Program at NASA John F. Kennedy Space Center (KSC) has the primary objective of modernizing and transforming the launch and range complex at KSC to benefit current and future NASA programs along with other emerging users. Described as the launch support and infrastructure modernization program in the NASA Authorization Act of 2010, the GSDO Program will develop and implement shared infrastructure and process improvements to provide more flexible, affordable, and responsive capabilities to a multi-user community. In support of the GSDO Program, the purpose of this project is to demonstratevalidate citric acid as a passivation agent for stainless steel. Successful completion of this project will result in citric acid being qualified for use as an environmentally preferable alternative to nitric acid for passivation of stainless steel alloys in NASA and DoD applications.

  5. Suppression of the lethal effect of acidic-phospholipid deficiency by defective formation of the major outer membrane lipoprotein in Escherichia coli.

    PubMed Central

    Asai, Y; Katayose, Y; Hikita, C; Ohta, A; Shibuya, I

    1989-01-01

    The Escherichia coli pgsA3 allele encoding a defective phosphatidylglycerophosphate synthase is lethal for all but certain strains. Genetic analysis of such strains has revealed that the lethal effect is fully suppressed by the lack of the major outer membrane lipoprotein that consumes phosphatidylglycerol for its maturation. Images PMID:2556377

  6. USGS Tracks Acid Rain

    Gordon, John D.; Nilles, Mark A.; Schroder, LeRoy J.

    1995-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) has been actively studying acid rain for the past 15 years. When scientists learned that acid rain could harm fish, fear of damage to our natural environment from acid rain concerned the American public. Research by USGS scientists and other groups began to show that the processes resulting in acid rain are very complex. Scientists were puzzled by the fact that in some cases it was difficult to demonstrate that the pollution from automobiles and factories was causing streams or lakes to become more acidic. Further experiments showed how the natural ability of many soils to neutralize acids would reduce the effects of acid rain in some locations--at least as long as the neutralizing ability lasted (Young, 1991). The USGS has played a key role in establishing and maintaining the only nationwide network of acid rain monitoring stations. This program is called the National Atmospheric Deposition Program/National Trends Network (NADP/NTN). Each week, at approximately 220 NADP/NTN sites across the country, rain and snow samples are collected for analysis. NADP/NTN site in Montana. The USGS supports about 72 of these sites. The information gained from monitoring the chemistry of our nation's rain and snow is important for testing the results of pollution control laws on acid rain.

  7. Recovery of organic acids

    DOEpatents

    Verser, Dan W.; Eggeman, Timothy J.

    2009-10-13

    A method is disclosed for the recovery of an organic acid from a dilute salt solution in which the cation of the salt forms an insoluble carbonate salt. A tertiary amine and CO.sub.2 are introduced to the solution to form the insoluble carbonate salt and a complex between the acid and an amine. A water immiscible solvent, such as an alcohol, is added to extract the acid/amine complex from the dilute salt solution to a reaction phase. The reaction phase is continuously dried and a product between the acid and the solvent, such as an ester, is formed.

  8. Recovery of organic acids

    DOEpatents

    Verser, Dan W [Menlo Park, CA; Eggeman, Timothy J [Lakewood, CO

    2011-11-01

    A method is disclosed for the recovery of an organic acid from a dilute salt solution in which the cation of the salt forms an insoluble carbonate salt. A tertiary amine and CO.sub.2 are introduced to the solution to form the insoluble carbonate salt and a complex between the acid and an amine. A water immiscible solvent, such as an alcohol, is added to extract the acid/amine complex from the dilute salt solution to a reaction phase. The reaction phase is continuously dried and a product between the acid and the solvent, such as an ester, is formed.

  9. UNSATURATED AMINO ACIDS V.

    PubMed Central

    Shapira, Jacob; Dittmer, Karl

    1961-01-01

    Shapira, Jacob (Department of Chemistry, Florida State University, Tallahassee) and Karl Dittmer. Unsaturated amino acids. V. Microbiological properties of some halogenated olefinic amino acids. J. Bacteriol. 82:640–647. 1961.—It has been shown previously that several amino acid analogues containing unsaturated linkages were inhibitors of the growth of Escherichia coli and Saccharomyces cerevisiae. This paper reports the results obtained when a series of unsaturated halogen-containing amino acids was examined. The cis isomer of ω-chloroallylglycine showed the greatest toxicity yet found in this series of unsaturated amino acids toward E. coli, whereas the trans-isomer was usually far less toxic. The major effect of cis-ω-chloroallylglycine in E. coli appeared to be to extend the lag phase before the normal rate of growth began. A wide variety of amino acids was capable of partially or completely preventing the toxicity of low levels of these compounds. At higher levels, relatively few amino acids (primarily valine, leucine, and glutamic acid) were effective. In E. coli, cis-ω-chloroallylglycine showed an unusual [Formula: see text] relationship with both glutamic acid and valine over a wide range in concentration. PMID:13911278

  10. Nucleic Acid Immunity.

    PubMed

    Hartmann, G

    2017-01-01

    Organisms throughout biology need to maintain the integrity of their genome. From bacteria to vertebrates, life has established sophisticated mechanisms to detect and eliminate foreign genetic material or to restrict its function and replication. Tremendous progress has been made in the understanding of these mechanisms which keep foreign or unwanted nucleic acids from viruses or phages in check. Mechanisms reach from restriction-modification systems and CRISPR/Cas in bacteria and archaea to RNA interference and immune sensing of nucleic acids, altogether integral parts of a system which is now appreciated as nucleic acid immunity. With inherited receptors and acquired sequence information, nucleic acid immunity comprises innate and adaptive components. Effector functions include diverse nuclease systems, intrinsic activities to directly restrict the function of foreign nucleic acids (e.g., PKR, ADAR1, IFIT1), and extrinsic pathways to alert the immune system and to elicit cytotoxic immune responses. These effects act in concert to restrict viral replication and to eliminate virus-infected cells. The principles of nucleic acid immunity are highly relevant for human disease. Besides its essential contribution to antiviral defense and restriction of endogenous retroelements, dysregulation of nucleic acid immunity can also lead to erroneous detection and response to self nucleic acids then causing sterile inflammation and autoimmunity. Even mechanisms of nucleic acid immunity which are not established in vertebrates are relevant for human disease when they are present in pathogens such as bacteria, parasites, or helminths or in pathogen-transmitting organisms such as insects. This review aims to provide an overview of the diverse mechanisms of nucleic acid immunity which mostly have been looked at separately in the past and to integrate them under the framework nucleic acid immunity as a basic principle of life, the understanding of which has great potential to

  11. Lipidomic profile in three species of dinoflagellates (Amphidinium carterae, Cystodinium sp., and Peridinium aciculiferum) containing very long chain polyunsaturated fatty acids.

    PubMed

    Řezanka, Tomáš; Lukavský, Jaromír; Nedbalová, Linda; Sigler, Karel

    2017-07-01

    This study describes the identification of very long chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (VLCPUFAs) in three strains of dinoflagellates (Amphidinium carterae, Cystodinium sp., and Peridinium aciculiferum). The strains were cultivated and their lipidomic profiles were obtained by high resolution mass spectrometry with the aid of positive and negative electrospray ionization (ESI) mode by Orbitrap apparatus. Hydrophilic interaction liquid chromatography (HILIC/ESI) was used to separate major lipid classes of the three genera of dinoflagellates by neutral loss scan showing the ion [M + H-28:8] + , where 28:8 was octacosaoctaenoic acid, and by precursor ion scanning of ions at m/z 407, which was an ion corresponding to the structure of acyl of 28:8 acid (C 27 H 39 COO - ). Based on these analyzes, it was found that out of more than a dozen lipid classes present in the total lipids, only two classes of neutral lipids, i.e. major triacylglycerols and minor diacylglycerols contain VLCPUFAs. In polar lipids, VLCPUFAs were identified only in phosphatidic acid (PA) and phosphatidyl choline (PC) or in their lyso-forms (LPA and LPC). Further analysis of individual lipid classes by reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography (RP-HPLC) showed the presence of triacylglycerols (TAGs) containing VLCPUFAs, i.e. molecular species of the sn-28:7/28:8/28:8, sn-26:7/28:7/28:8, or sn-26:7/28:8/28:8 types. These TAGs are the longest and most unsaturated TAGs isolated from a natural source that have yet been synthesized. In the case of PA and PC, tandem MS identified sn-28:8/16:0-PA and sn-28:8/16:0-PC and the corresponding lyso-forms (28:8-LPC and 28:8-LPA). All these results indicate that TAGs containing VLCPUFAs are biosynthesized in dinoflagellates in the same manner as in higher eukaryotic organisms, which means that the PA, after conversion to DAG, serves as a precursor in the biosynthesis of other phospholipids, e.g. PC, and, after further acylation, also of TAG. Copyright

  12. Toxicology of Perfluoroalkyl acids

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Perfluoroalkyl acids(PFAAs) area a family of organic chemicals consisting of a perflurinated carbon backbone (4-12in length) and a acidic functional moiety (Carboxylate or sulfonate). These compounds have excellent surface-tension reducing properties and have numerous industr...

  13. Analysis of Organic Acids.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Griswold, John R.; Rauner, Richard A.

    1990-01-01

    Presented are the procedures and a discussion of the results for an experiment in which students select unknown carboxylic acids, determine their melting points, and investigate their solubility behavior in water and ethanol. A table of selected carboxylic acids is included. (CW)

  14. History of fatty acids

    Fatty acids are basic renewable chemical building blocks that can be used as intermediates for a multitude of products. Today the global value of fatty acids exceeds 18 billion dollars and is expected to increase to nearly 26 billion over the period from 2014-2019. From it auspicious beginnings, the...

  15. Amino Acid Crossword Puzzle

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sims, Paul A.

    2011-01-01

    Learning the 20 standard amino acids is an essential component of an introductory course in biochemistry. Later in the course, the students study metabolism and learn about various catabolic and anabolic pathways involving amino acids. Learning new material or concepts often is easier if one can connect the new material to what one already knows;…

  16. Mutant fatty acid desaturase

    DOEpatents

    Shanklin, John; Cahoon, Edgar B.

    2004-02-03

    The present invention relates to a method for producing mutants of a fatty acid desaturase having a substantially increased activity towards fatty acid substrates with chains containing fewer than 18 carbons relative to an unmutagenized precursor desaturase having an 18 carbon atom chain length substrate specificity. The method involves inducing one or more mutations in the nucleic acid sequence encoding the precursor desaturase, transforming the mutated sequence into an unsaturated fatty acid auxotroph cell such as MH13 E. coli, culturing the cells in the absence of supplemental unsaturated fatty acids, thereby selecting for recipient cells which have received and which express a mutant fatty acid desaturase with an elevated specificity for fatty acid substrates having chain lengths of less than 18 carbon atoms. A variety of mutants having 16 or fewer carbon atom chain length substrate specificities are produced by this method. Mutant desaturases produced by this method can be introduced via expression vectors into prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells and can also be used in the production of transgenic plants which may be used to produce specific fatty acid products.

  17. Toxicology of Perfluoroalkyl Acids*

    EPA Science Inventory

    The perfluoroalkyl acids (PFAAs) are a family of organic chemicals consisting of a perfluorinated carbon backbone (4-12 in length) and an acidic functional moiety (carboxylate or sulfonate). These compounds are chemically stable, have excellent surface-tension reducing properties...

  18. Salicylic Acid Topical

    MedlinePlus

    ... stinging in the area where you applied topical salicylic acid Some side effects can be serious. If you experience any of ... of the eyes, face, lips, or tongue Topical salicylic acid may cause other side effects. Call your doctor if you have any unusual ...

  19. Lewis Acidic Ionic Liquids.

    PubMed

    Brown, Lucy C; Hogg, James M; Swadźba-Kwaśny, Małgorzata

    2017-08-21

    Until very recently, the term Lewis acidic ionic liquids (ILs) was nearly synonymous with halometallate ILs, with a strong focus on chloroaluminate(III) systems. The first part of this review covers the historical context in which these were developed, speciation of a range of halometallate ionic liquids, attempts to quantify their Lewis acidity, and selected recent applications: in industrial alkylation processes, in supported systems (SILPs/SCILLs) and in inorganic synthesis. In the last decade, interesting alternatives to halometallate ILs have emerged, which can be divided into two sub-sections: (1) liquid coordination complexes (LCCs), still based on halometallate species, but less expensive and more diverse than halometallate ionic liquids, and (2) ILs with main-group Lewis acidic cations. The two following sections cover these new liquid Lewis acids, also highlighting speciation studies, Lewis acidity measurements, and applications.

  20. Conjugated Fatty Acid Synthesis

    PubMed Central

    Rawat, Richa; Yu, Xiao-Hong; Sweet, Marie; Shanklin, John

    2012-01-01

    Conjugated linolenic acids (CLNs), 18:3 Δ9,11,13, lack the methylene groups found between the double bonds of linolenic acid (18:3 Δ9,12,15). CLNs are produced by conjugase enzymes that are homologs of the oleate desaturases FAD2. The goal of this study was to map the domain(s) within the Momordica charantia conjugase (FADX) responsible for CLN formation. To achieve this, a series of Momordica FADX-Arabidopsis FAD2 chimeras were expressed in the Arabidopsis fad3fae1 mutant, and the transformed seeds were analyzed for the accumulation of CLN. These experiments identified helix 2 and the first histidine box as a determinant of conjugase product partitioning into punicic acid (18:3 Δ9cis,11trans,13cis) or α-eleostearic acid (18:3 Δ9cis,11trans,13trans). This was confirmed by analysis of a FADX mutant containing six substitutions in which the sequence of helix 2 and first histidine box was converted to that of FAD2. Each of the six FAD2 substitutions was individually converted back to the FADX equivalent identifying residues 111 and 115, adjacent to the first histidine box, as key determinants of conjugase product partitioning. Additionally, expression of FADX G111V and FADX G111V/D115E resulted in an approximate doubling of eleostearic acid accumulation to 20.4% and 21.2%, respectively, compared with 9.9% upon expression of the native Momordica FADX. Like the Momordica conjugase, FADX G111V and FADX D115E produced predominantly α-eleostearic acid and little punicic acid, but the FADX G111V/D115E double mutant produced approximately equal amounts of α-eleostearic acid and its isomer, punicic acid, implicating an interactive effect of residues 111 and 115 in punicic acid formation. PMID:22451660

  1. Fatty Acids of Myxococcus xanthus

    PubMed Central

    Ware, Judith C.; Dworkin, Martin

    1973-01-01

    Fatty acids were extracted from saponified vegetative cells and myxospores of Myxococcus xanthus and examined as the methyl esters by gas-liquid chromatography. The acids consisted mainly of C14 to C17 species. Branched acids predominated, and iso-pentadecanoic acid constituted half or more of the mixture. The other leading component (11–28%) was found to be 11-n-hexadecenoic acid. Among the unsaturated acids were two diunsaturated ones, an n-hexadecadienoic acid and an iso-heptadecadienoic acid. No significant differences between the fatty acid compositions of the vegetative cells and myxospores could be detected. The fatty acid composition of M. xanthus was found to be markedly similar to that of Stigmatella aurantiaca. It is suggested that a fatty acid pattern consisting of a large proportion of iso-branched C15 and C17 acids and a substantial amount of an n-16:1 acid is characteristic of myxobacteria. PMID:4197903

  2. The Aged Microenvironment Influences Prostate Carcinogenesis

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-12-01

    binding protein-like +36 nucleic acid binding Serpinb5 serine (or cysteine) peptidase inhibitor, clade +9 serine-type endopeptidase inhibitor activity...synthase ( phosphatidate +1.9 phosphatidate cytidylyltransferase activity Car1 carbonic anhydrase 1 +1.9 carbonate dehydratase activity;zinc ion...activity Wdr45l Wdr45 like +1.7 acid phosphatase activity;molecular_function unknown Perp PERP, TP53 apoptosis effector +1.7 structural constituent of

  3. Sulfuric Acid on Europa

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1999-01-01

    Frozen sulfuric acid on Jupiter's moon Europa is depicted in this image produced from data gathered by NASA's Galileo spacecraft. The brightest areas, where the yellow is most intense, represent regions of high frozen sulfuric acid concentration. Sulfuric acid is found in battery acid and in Earth's acid rain.

    This image is based on data gathered by Galileo's near infrared mapping spectrometer.

    Europa's leading hemisphere is toward the bottom right, and there are enhanced concentrations of sulfuric acid in the trailing side of Europa (the upper left side of the image). This is the face of Europa that is struck by sulfur ions coming from Jupiter's innermost moon, Io. The long, narrow features that crisscross Europa also show sulfuric acid that may be from sulfurous material extruded in cracks.

    Galileo, launched in 1989, has been orbiting Jupiter and its moons since December 1995. JPL manages the Galileo mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington DC. JPL is a division of the California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA.

  4. Safety of folic acid

    PubMed Central

    Field, Martha S.

    2017-01-01

    Abstract There is a large body of literature demonstrating the efficacy of maternal folic acid intake in preventing birth defects, as well as investigations into potential adverse consequences of consuming folic acid above the upper intake level (UL). Recently, two authoritative bodies convened expert panels to assess risks from high intakes of folic acid: the U.S. National Toxicology Program and the UK Scientific Advisory Committee on Nutrition. Overall, the totality of the evidence examined by these panels, as well as studies published since the release of their reports, have not established risks for adverse consequences resulting from existing mandatory folic acid fortification programs that have been implemented in many countries. Current folic acid fortification programs have been shown to support public health in populations, and the exposure levels are informed by and adherent to the precautionary principle. Additional research is needed to assess the health effects of folic acid supplement use when the current upper limit for folic acid is exceeded. PMID:29155442

  5. Trans Fatty Acids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Doyle, Ellin

    1997-09-01

    Fats and their various fatty acid components seem to be a perennial concern of nutritionists and persons concerned with healthful diets. Advice on the consumption of saturated, polyunsaturated, monounsaturated, and total fat bombards us from magazines and newspapers. One of the newer players in this field is the group of trans fatty acids found predominantly in partially hydrogenated fats such as margarines and cooking fats. The controversy concerning dietary trans fatty acids was recently addressed in an American Heart Association (AHA) science advisory (1) and in a position paper from the American Society of Clinical Nutrition/American Institute of Nutrition (ASCN/AIN) (2). Both reports emphasize that the best preventive strategy for reducing risk for cardiovascular disease and some types of cancer is a reduction in total and saturated fats in the diet, but a reduction in the intake of trans fatty acids was also recommended. Although the actual health effects of trans fatty acids remain uncertain, experimental evidence indicates that consumption of trans fatty acids adversely affects serum lipid levels. Since elevated levels of serum cholesterol and triacylglycerols are associated with increased risk of cardiovascular disease, it follows that intake of trans fatty acids should be minimized.

  6. Strongly Acidic Auxin Indole-3-Methanesulfonic Acid

    PubMed Central

    Cohen, Jerry D.; Baldi, Bruce G.; Bialek, Krystyna

    1985-01-01

    A radiochemical synthesis is described for [14C]indole-3-methanesulfonic acid (IMS), a strongly acidic auxin analog. Techniques were developed for fractionation and purification of IMS using normal and reverse phase chromatography. In addition, the utility of both Fourier transform infrared spectrometry and fast atom bombardment mass spectrometry for analysis of IMS has been demonstrated. IMS was shown to be an active auxin, stimulating soybean hypocotyl elongation, bean first internode curvature, and ethylene production. IMS uptake by thin sections of soybean hypocotyl was essentially independent of solution pH and, when applied at a 100 micromolar concentration, IMS exhibited a basipetal polarity in its transport in both corn coleoptile and soybean hypocotyl sections. [14C]IMS should, therefore, be a useful compound to study fundamental processes related to the movement of auxins in plant tissues and organelles. PMID:16664007

  7. Crystal structures of Mmm1 and Mdm12–Mmm1 reveal mechanistic insight into phospholipid trafficking at ER-mitochondria contact sites

    PubMed Central

    Jeong, Hanbin; Park, Jumi; Jun, Youngsoo; Lee, Changwook

    2017-01-01

    The endoplasmic reticulum (ER)-mitochondria encounter structure (ERMES) comprises mitochondrial distribution and morphology 12 (Mdm12), maintenance of mitochondrial morphology 1 (Mmm1), Mdm34, and Mdm10 and mediates physical membrane contact sites and nonvesicular lipid trafficking between the ER and mitochondria in yeast. Herein, we report two crystal structures of the synaptotagmin-like mitochondrial lipid-binding protein (SMP) domain of Mmm1 and the Mdm12–Mmm1 complex at 2.8 Å and 3.8 Å resolution, respectively. Mmm1 adopts a dimeric SMP structure augmented with two extra structural elements at the N and C termini that are involved in tight self-association and phospholipid coordination. Mmm1 binds two phospholipids inside the hydrophobic cavity, and the phosphate ion of the distal phospholipid is specifically recognized through extensive H-bonds. A positively charged concave surface on the SMP domain not only mediates ER membrane docking but also results in preferential binding to glycerophospholipids such as phosphatidylcholine (PC), phosphatidic acid (PA), phosphatidylglycerol (PG), and phosphatidylserine (PS), some of which are substrates for lipid-modifying enzymes in mitochondria. The Mdm12–Mmm1 structure reveals two Mdm12s binding to the SMP domains of the Mmm1 dimer in a pairwise head-to-tail manner. Direct association of Mmm1 and Mdm12 generates a 210-Å-long continuous hydrophobic tunnel that facilitates phospholipid transport. The Mdm12–Mmm1 complex binds all glycerophospholipids except for phosphatidylethanolamine (PE) in vitro. PMID:29078410

  8. Legionella pneumophila Effector LpdA Is a Palmitoylated Phospholipase D Virulence Factor

    PubMed Central

    Aurass, Philipp; Oates, Clare V.; Tate, Edward W.; Hartland, Elizabeth L.; Flieger, Antje

    2015-01-01

    Legionella pneumophila is a bacterial pathogen that thrives in alveolar macrophages, causing a severe pneumonia. The virulence of L. pneumophila depends on its Dot/Icm type IV secretion system (T4SS), which delivers more than 300 effector proteins into the host, where they rewire cellular signaling to establish a replication-permissive niche, the Legionella-containing vacuole (LCV). Biogenesis of the LCV requires substantial redirection of vesicle trafficking and remodeling of intracellular membranes. In order to achieve this, several T4SS effectors target regulators of membrane trafficking, while others resemble lipases. Here, we characterized LpdA, a phospholipase D effector, which was previously proposed to modulate the lipid composition of the LCV. We found that ectopically expressed LpdA was targeted to the plasma membrane and Rab4- and Rab14-containing vesicles. Subcellular targeting of LpdA required a C-terminal motif, which is posttranslationally modified by S-palmitoylation. Substrate specificity assays showed that LpdA hydrolyzed phosphatidylinositol, -inositol-3- and -4-phosphate, and phosphatidylglycerol to phosphatidic acid (PA) in vitro. In HeLa cells, LpdA generated PA at vesicles and the plasma membrane. Imaging of different phosphatidylinositol phosphate (PIP) and organelle markers revealed that while LpdA did not impact on membrane association of various PIP probes, it triggered fragmentation of the Golgi apparatus. Importantly, although LpdA is translocated inefficiently into cultured cells, an L. pneumophila ΔlpdA mutant displayed reduced replication in murine lungs, suggesting that it is a virulence factor contributing to L. pneumophila infection in vivo. PMID:26216420

  9. Legionella pneumophila Effector LpdA Is a Palmitoylated Phospholipase D Virulence Factor.

    PubMed

    Schroeder, Gunnar N; Aurass, Philipp; Oates, Clare V; Tate, Edward W; Hartland, Elizabeth L; Flieger, Antje; Frankel, Gad

    2015-10-01

    Legionella pneumophila is a bacterial pathogen that thrives in alveolar macrophages, causing a severe pneumonia. The virulence of L. pneumophila depends on its Dot/Icm type IV secretion system (T4SS), which delivers more than 300 effector proteins into the host, where they rewire cellular signaling to establish a replication-permissive niche, the Legionella-containing vacuole (LCV). Biogenesis of the LCV requires substantial redirection of vesicle trafficking and remodeling of intracellular membranes. In order to achieve this, several T4SS effectors target regulators of membrane trafficking, while others resemble lipases. Here, we characterized LpdA, a phospholipase D effector, which was previously proposed to modulate the lipid composition of the LCV. We found that ectopically expressed LpdA was targeted to the plasma membrane and Rab4- and Rab14-containing vesicles. Subcellular targeting of LpdA required a C-terminal motif, which is posttranslationally modified by S-palmitoylation. Substrate specificity assays showed that LpdA hydrolyzed phosphatidylinositol, -inositol-3- and -4-phosphate, and phosphatidylglycerol to phosphatidic acid (PA) in vitro. In HeLa cells, LpdA generated PA at vesicles and the plasma membrane. Imaging of different phosphatidylinositol phosphate (PIP) and organelle markers revealed that while LpdA did not impact on membrane association of various PIP probes, it triggered fragmentation of the Golgi apparatus. Importantly, although LpdA is translocated inefficiently into cultured cells, an L. pneumophila ΔlpdA mutant displayed reduced replication in murine lungs, suggesting that it is a virulence factor contributing to L. pneumophila infection in vivo. Copyright © 2015, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  10. Amino Acid Metabolism Disorders

    MedlinePlus

    ... parts down into sugars and acids, your body's fuel. Your body can use this fuel right away, or it can store the energy ... get screened for many of them, using blood tests. Treatments may include special diets, medicines, and supplements. ...

  11. Nitric acid poisoning

    MedlinePlus

    ... Board on Environmental Studies and Toxicology; Division on Earth and Life Studies; National Research Council. Nitric acid: ... Board on Environmental Studies and Toxicology; Division on Earth and Life Studies; National Research Council. Acute Exposure ...

  12. Valproic Acid and Pregnancy

    MedlinePlus

    ... in the treatment of epilepsy, and to treat bipolar disorder and migraines. I have been taking valproic acid ... that women with seizure disorders and women with bipolar disorder might have menstrual problems and difficulty getting pregnant. ...

  13. Boric acid poisoning

    MedlinePlus

    ... effectively treat (adsorb) boric acid. For skin exposure, treatment may include: Surgical removal of burned skin (debridement) Transfer to a hospital that specializes in burn care Washing of the skin (irrigation), possibly every ...

  14. Difficult Decisions: Acid Rain.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, John A.; Slesnick, Irwin L.

    1989-01-01

    Discusses some of the contributing factors and chemical reactions involved in the production of acid rain, its effects, and political issues pertaining to who should pay for the clean up. Supplies questions for consideration and discussion. (RT)

  15. Aminolevulinic Acid Topical

    MedlinePlus

    ... in combination with photodynamic therapy (PDT; special blue light) to treat actinic keratoses (small crusty or scaly ... photosensitizing agents. When aminolevulinic acid is activated by light, it damages the cells of actinic keratosis lesions.

  16. Folic acid in diet

    MedlinePlus

    ... carries genetic information Folate deficiency may cause: Diarrhea Gray hair Mouth ulcers Peptic ulcer Poor growth Swollen ... used at recommended levels. Folic acid dissolves in water. This means that it is regularly removed from ...

  17. Methylmalonic Acid Test

    MedlinePlus

    ... Time and International Normalized Ratio (PT/INR) PSEN1 Quantitative Immunoglobulins Red Blood Cell (RBC) Antibody Identification Red ... 1995-2011). Unit Code 80289: Methylmalonic Acid (MMA), Quantitative, Serum. Mayo Clinic Mayo Medical Laboratories [On-line ...

  18. Folic acid - test

    MedlinePlus

    ... 32. Mason JB. Vitamins, trace minerals, and other micronutrients. In: Goldman L, Schafer AI, eds. Goldman-Cecil ... Acid Read more NIH MedlinePlus Magazine Read more Health Topics A-Z Read more A.D.A. ...

  19. Amoxicillin and Clavulanic Acid

    MedlinePlus

    ... Amoxicillin is in a class of medications called penicillin-like antibiotics. It works by stopping the growth ... allergic to amoxicillin (Amoxil, Trimox, Wymox), clavulanic acid, penicillin, cephalosporins, or any other medications.tell your doctor ...

  20. Hydrofluoric acid poisoning

    MedlinePlus

    ... your skin or eyes, you may have: Blisters Burns Pain Vision loss Hydrofluoric acid poisoning can have ... urine tests Camera down the throat to see burns in the esophagus and the stomach (endoscopy) Fluids ...

  1. Amino Acids and Chirality

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cook, Jamie E.

    2012-01-01

    Amino acids are among the most heavily studied organic compound class in carbonaceous chondrites. The abundance, distributions, enantiomeric compositions, and stable isotopic ratios of amino acids have been determined in carbonaceous chondrites fi'om a range of classes and petrographic types, with interesting correlations observed between these properties and the class and typc of the chondritcs. In particular, isomeric distributions appear to correlate with parent bodies (chondrite class). In addition, certain chiral amino acids are found in enantiomeric excess in some chondrites. The delivery of these enantiomeric excesses to the early Earth may have contributed to the origin of the homochirality that is central to life on Earth today. This talk will explore the amino acids in carbonaceous chondritcs and their relevance to the origin of life.

  2. Hydrochloric acid poisoning

    MedlinePlus

    ... measure and monitor the person's vital signs, including temperature, pulse, breathing rate, and blood pressure. The person ... into the stomach to suction (aspirate) any remaining acid if the victim is seen shortly after ingesting ...

  3. Facts about Folic Acid

    MedlinePlus

    ... Surveillance References Birth Defects COUNT Data & Statistics Research Articles & Key Findings About Us Partners Links to Other Websites Information For… Media Policy Makers Folic Acid Basics Language: English (US) ...

  4. Folic Acid Quiz

    MedlinePlus

    ... Surveillance References Birth Defects COUNT Data & Statistics Research Articles & Key Findings About Us Partners Links to Other Websites Information For… Media Policy Makers Folic Acid Quiz Language: English (US) ...

  5. Amino acid ionic liquids.

    PubMed

    Ohno, Hiroyuki; Fukumoto, Kenta

    2007-11-01

    The preparation of ionic liquids derived from amino acids, and their properties, are outlined. Since amino acids have both a carboxylic acid residue and an amino group in a single molecule, they can be used as either anions or cations. These groups are also useful in their ability to introduce functional group(s). Twenty different natural amino acids were used as anions, to couple with the 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium cation. The salts obtained were all liquid at room temperature. The properties of the resulting ionic liquids (AAILs) depend on the side groups of the amino acids involved. These AAILs, composed of an amino acid with some functional groups such as a hydrogen bonding group, a charged group, or an aromatic ring, had an increased glass transition (or melting) temperature and/or higher viscosity as a result of additional interactions among the ions. Viscosity is reduced and the decomposition temperature of imidazolium-type salts is improved by using the tetrabutylphosphonium cation. The chirality of AAILs was maintained even upon heating to 150 degrees C after acetylation of the free amino group. The amino group was also modified to introduce a strong acid group so as to form hydrophobic and chiral ionic liquids. Unique phase behavior of the resulting hydrophobic ionic liquids and water mixture is found; the mixture is clearly phase separated at room temperature, but the solubility of water in this IL increases upon cooling, to give a homogeneous solution. This phase change is reversible, and separation occurs again by raising the temperature a few degrees. It is extraordinary for an IL/water mixture to display such behavior with a lower critical solution temperature. Some likely applications are proposed for these amino acid derived ionic liquids.

  6. Portable nucleic acid thermocyclers.

    PubMed

    Almassian, David R; Cockrell, Lisa M; Nelson, William M

    2013-11-21

    A nucleic acid thermal cycler is considered to be portable if it is under ten pounds, easily carried by one individual, and battery powered. Nucleic acid amplification includes both polymerase chain reaction (e.g. PCR, RT-PCR) and isothermal amplification (e.g. RPA, HDA, LAMP, NASBA, RCA, ICAN, SMART, SDA). There are valuable applications for portable nucleic acid thermocyclers in fields that include clinical diagnostics, biothreat detection, and veterinary testing. A system that is portable allows for the distributed detection of targets at the point of care and a reduction of the time from sample to answer. The designer of a portable nucleic acid thermocycler must carefully consider both thermal control and the detection of amplification. In addition to thermal control and detection, the designer may consider the integration of a sample preparation subsystem with the nucleic acid thermocycler. There are a variety of technologies that can achieve accurate thermal control and the detection of nucleic acid amplification. Important evaluation criteria for each technology include maturity, power requirements, cost, sensitivity, speed, and manufacturability. Ultimately the needs of a particular market will lead to user requirements that drive the decision between available technologies.

  7. Managing bile acid diarrhoea

    PubMed Central

    Walters, Julian R. F.; Pattni, Sanjeev S.

    2010-01-01

    Bowel symptoms including diarrhoea can be produced when excess bile acids (BA) are present in the colon. This condition, known as bile acid or bile salt malabsorption, has been under recognized, as the best diagnostic method, the 75Se-homocholic acid taurine (SeHCAT) test, is not available in many countries and is not fully utilized in others. Reduced SeHCAT retention establishes that this is a complication of many other gastrointestinal diseases. Repeated studies show SeHCAT tests are abnormal in about 30% of patients otherwise diagnosed as diarrhoea-predominant irritable bowel syndrome or functional diarrhoea, with an estimated population prevalence of around 1%. Recent work suggests that the condition previously called idiopathic bile acid malabsorption (BAM) is not in fact due to a defect in absorption, but results from an overproduction of BA because of defective feedback inhibition of hepatic bile acid synthesis, a function of the ileal hormone fibroblast growth factor 19 (FGF19). The approach to treatment currently depends on binding excess BA, to reduce their secretory actions, using colestyramine, colestipol and, most recently, colesevelam. Colesevelam has a number of potential advantages that merit further investigation in trials directed at patients with bile acid diarrhoea. PMID:21180614

  8. Managing bile acid diarrhoea.

    PubMed

    Walters, Julian R F; Pattni, Sanjeev S

    2010-11-01

    Bowel symptoms including diarrhoea can be produced when excess bile acids (BA) are present in the colon. This condition, known as bile acid or bile salt malabsorption, has been under recognized, as the best diagnostic method, the (75)Se-homocholic acid taurine (SeHCAT) test, is not available in many countries and is not fully utilized in others. Reduced SeHCAT retention establishes that this is a complication of many other gastrointestinal diseases. Repeated studies show SeHCAT tests are abnormal in about 30% of patients otherwise diagnosed as diarrhoea-predominant irritable bowel syndrome or functional diarrhoea, with an estimated population prevalence of around 1%. Recent work suggests that the condition previously called idiopathic bile acid malabsorption (BAM) is not in fact due to a defect in absorption, but results from an overproduction of BA because of defective feedback inhibition of hepatic bile acid synthesis, a function of the ileal hormone fibroblast growth factor 19 (FGF19). The approach to treatment currently depends on binding excess BA, to reduce their secretory actions, using colestyramine, colestipol and, most recently, colesevelam. Colesevelam has a number of potential advantages that merit further investigation in trials directed at patients with bile acid diarrhoea.

  9. Anharmonicity in Amino Acids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martinho, Herculano; Lima, Thamires; Ishikawa, Mariana

    2012-02-01

    Two special dynamical transitions of universal character have been recently observed in macromolecules (lysozyme, myoglobin, bacteriorhodopsin, DNA, and RNA) at T^*˜100 - 150 K and TD˜180 - 220 K. The underlying mechanisms governing these transitions have been subject of debate. In the present work it is reported a survey on the temperature dependence of structural, vibrational and thermodynamical properties of a nearly anhydrous amino acid (orthorhombic polymorph of the amino acids L-cysteine and L-proline at a hydration level of 3.5%). The temperature dependence of X-Ray diffraction, Raman spectroscopy, and specific heat were considered. The data were analyzed considering amino acid-amino acid, amino acid-water, and water-water phonon-phonon interactions, and molecular rotors activation. Our results indicated that the two referred temperatures define the triggering of very simple and specific events that govern all the interactions of the biomolecule: activation of CH2 rigid rotors (Tacid and water dimer vibrational modes (T^*TD).

  10. Neutron Nucleic Acid Crystallography.

    PubMed

    Chatake, Toshiyuki

    2016-01-01

    The hydration shells surrounding nucleic acids and hydrogen-bonding networks involving water molecules and nucleic acids are essential interactions for the structural stability and function of nucleic acids. Water molecules in the hydration shells influence various conformations of DNA and RNA by specific hydrogen-bonding networks, which often contribute to the chemical reactivity and molecular recognition of nucleic acids. However, X-ray crystallography could not provide a complete description of structural information with respect to hydrogen bonds. Indeed, X-ray crystallography is a powerful tool for determining the locations of water molecules, i.e., the location of the oxygen atom of H2O; however, it is very difficult to determine the orientation of the water molecules, i.e., the orientation of the two hydrogen atoms of H2O, because X-ray scattering from the hydrogen atom is very small.Neutron crystallography is a specialized tool for determining the positions of hydrogen atoms. Neutrons are not diffracted by electrons, but are diffracted by atomic nuclei; accordingly, neutron scattering lengths of hydrogen and its isotopes are comparable to those of non-hydrogen atoms. Therefore, neutron crystallography can determine both of the locations and orientations of water molecules. This chapter describes the current status of neutron nucleic acid crystallographic research as well as the basic principles of neutron diffraction experiments performed on nucleic acid crystals: materials, crystallization, diffraction experiments, and structure determination.

  11. Acidification and Acid Rain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Norton, S. A.; Veselã½, J.

    2003-12-01

    Air pollution by acids has been known as a problem for centuries (Ducros, 1845; Smith, 1872; Camuffo, 1992; Brimblecombe, 1992). Only in the mid-1900s did it become clear that it was a problem for more than just industrially developed areas, and that precipitation quality can affect aquatic resources ( Gorham, 1955). The last three decades of the twentieth century saw tremendous progress in the documentation of the chemistry of the atmosphere, precipitation, and the systems impacted by acid atmospheric deposition. Chronic acidification of ecosystems results in chemical changes to soil and to surface waters and groundwater as a result of reduction of base cation supply or an increase in acid (H+) supply, or both. The most fundamental changes during chronic acidification are an increase in exchangeable H+ or Al3+ (aluminum) in soils, an increase in H+ activity (˜concentration) in water in contact with soil, and a decrease in alkalinity in waters draining watersheds. Water draining from the soil is acidified and has a lower pH (=-log [H+]). As systems acidify, their biotic community changes.Acidic surface waters occur in many parts of the world as a consequence of natural processes and also due to atmospheric deposition of strong acid (e.g., Canada, Jeffries et al. (1986); the United Kingdom, Evans and Monteith (2001); Sweden, Swedish Environmental Protection Board (1986); Finland, Forsius et al. (1990); Norway, Henriksen et al. (1988a); and the United States (USA), Brakke et al. (1988)). Concern over acidification in the temperate regions of the northern hemisphere has been driven by the potential for accelerating natural acidification by pollution of the atmosphere with acidic or acidifying compounds. Atmospheric pollution ( Figure 1) has resulted in an increased flux of acid to and through ecosystems. Depending on the ability of an ecosystem to neutralize the increased flux of acidity, acidification may increase only imperceptibly or be accelerated at a rate that

  12. Discovery of essential fatty acids

    PubMed Central

    Spector, Arthur A.; Kim, Hee-Yong

    2015-01-01

    Dietary fat was recognized as a good source of energy and fat-soluble vitamins by the first part of the 20th century, but fatty acids were not considered to be essential nutrients because they could be synthesized from dietary carbohydrate. This well-established view was challenged in 1929 by George and Mildred Burr who reported that dietary fatty acid was required to prevent a deficiency disease that occurred in rats fed a fat-free diet. They concluded that fatty acids were essential nutrients and showed that linoleic acid prevented the disease and is an essential fatty acid. The Burrs surmised that other unsaturated fatty acids were essential and subsequently demonstrated that linolenic acid, the omega-3 fatty acid analog of linoleic acid, is also an essential fatty acid. The discovery of essential fatty acids was a paradigm-changing finding, and it is now considered to be one of the landmark discoveries in lipid research. PMID:25339684

  13. Why is hydrofluoric acid a weak acid?

    PubMed

    Ayotte, Patrick; Hébert, Martin; Marchand, Patrick

    2005-11-08

    The infrared vibrational spectra of amorphous solid water thin films doped with HF at 40 K reveal a strong continuous absorbance in the 1000-3275 cm(-1) range. This so-called Zundel continuum is the spectroscopic hallmark for aqueous protons. The extensive ionic dissociation of HF at such low temperature suggests that the reaction enthalpy remains negative down to 40 K. These observations support the interpretation that dilute HF aqueous solutions behave as weak acids largely due to the large positive reaction entropy resulting from the structure making character of the hydrated fluoride ion.

  14. [Lipid synthesis by an acidic acid tolerant Rhodotorula glutinis].

    PubMed

    Lin, Zhangnan; Liu, Hongjuan; Zhang, Jian'an; Wang, Gehua

    2016-03-01

    Acetic acid, as a main by-product generated in the pretreatment process of lignocellulose hydrolysis, significantly affects cell growth and lipid synthesis of oleaginous microorganisms. Therefore, we studied the tolerance of Rhodotorula glutinis to acetic acid and its lipid synthesis from substrate containing acetic acid. In the mixed sugar medium containing 6 g/L glucose and 44 g/L xylose, and supplemented with acetic acid, the cell growth was not:inhibited when the acetic acid concentration was below 10 g/L. Compared with the control, the biomass, lipid concentration and lipid content of R. glutinis increased 21.5%, 171% and 122% respectively when acetic acid concentration was 10 g/L. Furthermore, R. glutinis could accumulate lipid with acetate as the sole carbon source. Lipid concentration and lipid yield reached 3.20 g/L and 13% respectively with the initial acetic acid concentration of 25 g/L. The lipid composition was analyzed by gas chromatograph. The main composition of lipid produced with acetic acid was palmitic acid, stearic acid, oleic acid, linoleic acid and linolenic acid, including 40.9% saturated fatty acids and 59.1% unsaturated fatty acids. The lipid composition was similar to that of plant oil, indicating that lipid from oleaginous yeast R. glutinis had potential as the feedstock of biodiesel production. These results demonstrated that a certain concentration of acetic acid need not to be removed in the detoxification process when using lignocelluloses hydrolysate to produce microbial lipid by R. glutinis.

  15. Acid Rain, pH & Acidity: A Common Misinterpretation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clark, David B.; Thompson, Ronald E.

    1989-01-01

    Illustrates the basis for misleading statements about the relationship between pH and acid content in acid rain. Explains why pH cannot be used as a measure of acidity for rain or any other solution. Suggests that teachers present acidity and pH as two separate and distinct concepts. (RT)

  16. Optical high acidity sensor

    DOEpatents

    Jorgensen, Betty S.; Nekimken, Howard L.; Carey, W. Patrick; O'Rourke, Patrick E.

    1997-01-01

    An apparatus and method for determining acid concentrations in solutions having acid concentrations of from about 0.1 Molar to about 16 Molar is disclosed. The apparatus includes a chamber for interrogation of the sample solution, a fiber optic light source for passing light transversely through the chamber, a fiber optic collector for receiving the collimated light after transmission through the chamber, a coating of an acid resistant polymeric composition upon at least one fiber end or lens, the polymeric composition in contact with the sample solution within the chamber and having a detectable response to acid concentrations within the range of from about 0.1 Molar to about 16 Molar, a measurer for the response of the polymeric composition in contact with the sample solution, and, a comparer of the measured response to predetermined standards whereby the acid molarity of the sample solution within the chamber can be determined. Preferably, a first lens is attached to the end of the fiber optic light source, the first lens adapted to collimate light from the fiber optic light source, and a second lens is attached to the end of the fiber optic collector for focusing the collimated light after transmission through the chamber.

  17. Optical high acidity sensor

    DOEpatents

    Jorgensen, B.S.; Nekimken, H.L.; Carey, W.P.; O`Rourke, P.E.

    1997-07-22

    An apparatus and method for determining acid concentrations in solutions having acid concentrations of from about 0.1 Molar to about 16 Molar is disclosed. The apparatus includes a chamber for interrogation of the sample solution, a fiber optic light source for passing light transversely through the chamber, a fiber optic collector for receiving the collimated light after transmission through the chamber, a coating of an acid resistant polymeric composition upon at least one fiber end or lens, the polymeric composition in contact with the sample solution within the chamber and having a detectable response to acid concentrations within the range of from about 0.1 Molar to about 16 Molar, a measurer for the response of the polymeric composition in contact with the sample solution, and a comparer of the measured response to predetermined standards whereby the acid molarity of the sample solution within the chamber can be determined. Preferably, a first lens is attached to the end of the fiber optic light source, the first lens adapted to collimate light from the fiber optic light source, and a second lens is attached to the end of the fiber optic collector for focusing the collimated light after transmission through the chamber. 10 figs.

  18. A Demonstration of Acid Rain

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fong, Man Wai

    2004-01-01

    A demonstration showing acid rain formation is described. Oxides of sulfur and nitrogen that result from the burning of fossil fuels are the major pollutants of acid rain. In this demonstration, SO[subscript 2] gas is produced by the burning of matches. An acid-base indicator will show that the dissolved gas turns an aqueous solution acidic.

  19. CINNAMIC ACID HYDROXYLASE IN SPINACH,

    DTIC Science & Technology

    An acetone precipitate from an extract of spinach leaves catalysed the hydroxylation of trans- cinnamic acid to p-coumaric acid . The enzyme was...and addition of L-phenylalanine inhibited cinnamic acid hydroxylase activity. (Author)...Tetrahydrofolic acid and a reduced pyridine nucleotide coenzyme were necessary for maximum activity. Aminopterin was a potent inhibitor of the hydroxylating

  20. NITRIC ACID PICKLING PROCESS

    DOEpatents

    Boller, E.R.; Eubank, L.D.

    1958-08-19

    An improved process is described for the treatment of metallic uranium surfaces preparatory to being given hot dip coatings. The process consists in first pickling the uraniunn surInce with aqueous 50% to 70% nitric acid, at 60 to 70 deg C, for about 5 minutes, rinsing the acid solution from the uranium article, promptly drying and then passing it through a molten alkali-metal halide flux consisting of 42% LiCl, 53% KCla and 5% NaCl into a molten metal bath consisting of 85 parts by weight of zinc and 15 parts by weight of aluminum

  1. Ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid in endodontics

    PubMed Central

    Mohammadi, Zahed; Shalavi, Sousan; Jafarzadeh, Hamid

    2013-01-01

    Ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA) is a chelating agent can bind to metals via four carboxylate and two amine groups. It is a polyamino carboxylic acid and a colorless, water-soluble solid, which is widely used to dissolve lime scale. It is produced as several salts, notably disodium EDTA and calcium disodium EDTA. EDTA reacts with the calcium ions in dentine and forms soluble calcium chelates. A review of the literature and a discussion of the different indications and considerations for its usage are presented. PMID:24966721

  2. Omega-3 fatty acids: new insights into the pharmacology and biology of docosahexaenoic acid, docosapentaenoic acid, and eicosapentaenoic acid.

    PubMed

    Davidson, Michael H

    2013-12-01

    Fish oil contains a complex mixture of omega-3 fatty acids, which are predominantly eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA), docosapentaenoic acid, and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA). Each of these omega-3 fatty acids has distinct biological effects that may have variable clinical effects. In addition, plasma levels of omega-3 fatty acids are affected not only by dietary intake, but also by the polymorphisms of coding genes fatty acid desaturase 1-3 for the desaturase enzymes that convert short-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids to long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids. The clinical significance of this new understanding regarding the complexity of omega-3 fatty acid biology is the purpose of this review. FADS polymorphisms that result in either lower levels of long-chain omega-3 fatty acids or higher levels of long-chain omega-6 polyunsaturated fatty acids, such as arachidonic acid, are associated with dyslipidemia and other cardiovascular risk factors. EPA and DHA have differences in their effects on lipoprotein metabolism, in which EPA, with a more potent peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-alpha effect, decreases hepatic lipogenesis, whereas DHA not only enhances VLDL lipolysis, resulting in greater conversion to LDL, but also increases HDL cholesterol and larger, more buoyant LDL particles. Overall, these results emphasize that blood concentrations of individual long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids, which reflect both dietary intake and metabolic influences, may have independent, but also complementary- biological effects and reinforce the need to potentially provide a complex mixture of omega-3 fatty acids to maximize cardiovascular risk reduction.

  3. The Acid-Base Titration of a Very Weak Acid: Boric Acid

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Celeste, M.; Azevedo, C.; Cavaleiro, Ana M. V.

    2012-01-01

    A laboratory experiment based on the titration of boric acid with strong base in the presence of d-mannitol is described. Boric acid is a very weak acid and direct titration with NaOH is not possible. An auxiliary reagent that contributes to the release of protons in a known stoichiometry facilitates the acid-base titration. Students obtain the…

  4. [Studies on interaction of acid-treated nanotube titanic acid and amino acids].

    PubMed

    Zhang, Huqin; Chen, Xuemei; Jin, Zhensheng; Liao, Guangxi; Wu, Xiaoming; Du, Jianqiang; Cao, Xiang

    2010-06-01

    Nanotube titanic acid (NTA) has distinct optical and electrical character, and has photocatalysis character. In accordance with these qualities, NTA was treated with acid so as to enhance its surface activity. Surface structures and surface groups of acid-treated NTA were characterized and analyzed by Transmission Electron Microscope (TEM) and Fourier Transform Infrared Spectrometry (FT-IR). The interaction between acid-treated NTA and amino acids was investigated. Analysis results showed that the lengths of acid-treated NTA became obviously shorter. The diameters of nanotube bundles did not change obviously with acid-treating. Meanwhile, the surface of acid-treated NTA was cross-linked with carboxyl or esterfunction. In addition, acid-treated NTA can catch amino acid residues easily, and then form close combination.

  5. Alkyl phosphonic acids and sulfonic acids in the Murchison meteorite

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cooper, George W.; Onwo, Wilfred M.; Cronin, John R.

    1992-01-01

    Homologous series of alkyl phosphonic acids and alkyl sulfonic acids, along with inorganic orthophosphate and sulfate, are identified in water extracts of the Murchison meteorite after conversion to their t-butyl dimethylsilyl derivatives. The methyl, ethyl, propyl, and butyl compounds are observed in both series. Five of the eight possible alkyl phosphonic acids and seven of the eight possible alkyl sulfonic acids through C4 are identified. Abundances decrease with increasing carbon number as observed of other homologous series indigenous to Murchison. Concentrations range downward from approximately 380 nmol/gram in the alkyl sulfonic acid series, and from 9 nmol/gram in the alkyl phosphonic acid series.

  6. Synthesis of acid addition salt of delta-aminolevulinic acid from 5-bromo levulinic acid esters

    DOEpatents

    Moens, Luc

    2003-06-24

    A process of preparing an acid addition salt of delta-aminolevulinc acid comprising: a) dissolving a lower alkyl 5-bromolevulinate and hexamethylenetetramine in a solvent selected from the group consisting of water, ethyl acetate, chloroform, acetone, ethanol, tetrahydrofuran and acetonitrile, to form a quaternary ammonium salt of the lower alkyl 5-bromolevulinate; and b) hydrolyzing the quaternary ammonium salt with an inorganic acid to form an acid addition salt of delta-aminolevulinic acid.

  7. Acid Rain: Science Projects.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stubbs, Harriett S.

    1989-01-01

    Presented is a science activity designed to help students monitor the pH of rainfall. Materials, procedures and follow-up activities are listed. A list of domestic and foreign sources of information is provided. Topics which relate to acid precipitation are outlined. (CW)

  8. Spermatotoxicity of dichloroacetic acid

    EPA Science Inventory

    The testicular toxicity of dichloroacetic acid (DCA), a disinfection byproduct of drinking water, was evaluated in adult male rats given both single and multiple (up to 14 d) oral doses. Delayed spermiation and altered resorption of residual bodies were observed in rats given sin...

  9. Plant fatty acid hydroxylase

    DOEpatents

    Somerville, Chris; van de Loo, Frank

    2000-01-01

    The present invention relates to the identification of nucleic acid sequences and constructs, and methods related thereto, and the use of these sequences and constructs to produce genetically modified plants for the purpose of altering the composition of plant oils, waxes and related compounds.

  10. Chapter 5: Acid deposition

    Cliff F. Hunt; Warren E. Heilman

    1999-01-01

    This publication provides information about the atmospheric conditions in and near the national forest in the Ozark-Ouachita Highlands: the Mark Twain in Missouri, the Ouachita in Arkansas and Oklahoma, and the Ozark and St. Francis in Arkansas. This report includes information about particulate matter, visibility, ozone concentrations, and acid deposition in the Ozark...

  11. Acid Rain Classroom Projects.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Demchik, Michael J.

    2000-01-01

    Describes a curriculum plan in which students learn about acid rain through instructional media, research and class presentations, lab activities, simulations, design, and design implementation. Describes the simulation activity in detail and includes materials, procedures, instructions, examples, results, and discussion sections. (SAH)

  12. The Acid Rain Debate.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oates-Bockenstedt, Catherine

    1997-01-01

    Details an activity designed to motivate students by incorporating science-related issues into a classroom debate. Includes "The Acid Rain Bill" and "Position Guides" for student roles as committee members, consumers, governors, industry owners, tourism professionals, senators, and debate directors. (DKM)

  13. The Acid Rain Game.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rakow, Steven J.; Glenn, Allen

    1982-01-01

    Provides rationale for and description of an acid rain game (designed for two players), a problem-solving model for elementary students. Although complete instructions are provided, including a copy of the game board, the game is also available for Apple II microcomputers. Information for the computer program is available from the author.…

  14. Acid Rain Investigations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hugo, John C.

    1992-01-01

    Presents an activity in which students investigate the formation of solid ammonium chloride aerosol particles to help students better understand the concept of acid rain. Provides activity objectives, procedures, sample data, clean-up instructions, and questions and answers to help interpret the data. (MDH)

  15. The Acid Rain Debate.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bybee, Rodger; And Others

    1984-01-01

    Describes an activity which provides opportunities for role-playing as industrialists, ecologists, and government officials. The activity involves forming an international commission on acid rain, taking testimony, and, based on the testimony, making recommendations to governments on specific ways to solve the problem. Includes suggestions for…

  16. Multifunctional Cinnamic Acid Derivatives.

    PubMed

    Peperidou, Aikaterini; Pontiki, Eleni; Hadjipavlou-Litina, Dimitra; Voulgari, Efstathia; Avgoustakis, Konstantinos

    2017-07-25

    Our research to discover potential new multitarget agents led to the synthesis of 10 novel derivatives of cinnamic acids and propranolol, atenolol, 1-adamantanol, naphth-1-ol, and (benzylamino) ethan-1-ol. The synthesized molecules were evaluated as trypsin, lipoxygenase and lipid peroxidation inhibitors and for their cytotoxicity. Compound 2b derived from phenoxyphenyl cinnamic acid and propranolol showed the highest lipoxygenase (LOX) inhibition (IC 50 = 6 μΜ) and antiproteolytic activity (IC 50 = 0.425 μΜ). The conjugate 1a of simple cinnamic acid with propranolol showed the higher antiproteolytic activity (IC 50 = 0.315 μΜ) and good LOX inhibitory activity (IC 50 = 66 μΜ). Compounds 3a and 3b , derived from methoxylated caffeic acid present a promising combination of in vitro inhibitory and antioxidative activities. The S isomer of 2b also presented an interesting multitarget biological profile in vitro . Molecular docking studies point to the fact that the theoretical results for LOX-inhibitor binding are identical to those from preliminary in vitro study.

  17. Orphenadrinium picrate picric acid

    PubMed Central

    Fun, Hoong-Kun; Hemamalini, Madhukar; Siddaraju, B. P.; Yathirajan, H. S.; Narayana, B.

    2010-01-01

    The asymmetric unit of the title compound N,N-dimethyl-2-[(2-methyl­phen­yl)phenyl­meth­oxy]ethanaminium picrate picric acid, C18H24NO+·C6H2N3O7 −·C6H3N3O7, contains one orphenadrinium cation, one picrate anion and one picric acid mol­ecule. In the orphenadrine cation, the two aromatic rings form a dihedral angle of 70.30 (7)°. There is an intra­molecular O—H⋯O hydrogen bond in the picric acid mol­ecule, which generates an S(6) ring motif. In the crystal structure, the orphenadrine cations, picrate anions and picric acid mol­ecules are connected by strong inter­molecular N—H⋯O hydrogen bonds, π⋯π inter­actions between the benzene rings of cations and anions [centroid–centroid distance = 3.5603 (9) Å] and weak C—H⋯O hydrogen bonds, forming a three-dimensional network. PMID:21580426

  18. Orphenadrinium picrate picric acid.

    PubMed

    Fun, Hoong-Kun; Hemamalini, Madhukar; Siddaraju, B P; Yathirajan, H S; Narayana, B

    2010-02-24

    The asymmetric unit of the title compound N,N-dimethyl-2-[(2-methyl-phen-yl)phenyl-meth-oxy]ethanaminium picrate picric acid, C(18)H(24)NO(+)·C(6)H(2)N(3)O(7) (-)·C(6)H(3)N(3)O(7), contains one orphenadrinium cation, one picrate anion and one picric acid mol-ecule. In the orphenadrine cation, the two aromatic rings form a dihedral angle of 70.30 (7)°. There is an intra-molecular O-H⋯O hydrogen bond in the picric acid mol-ecule, which generates an S(6) ring motif. In the crystal structure, the orphenadrine cations, picrate anions and picric acid mol-ecules are connected by strong inter-molecular N-H⋯O hydrogen bonds, π⋯π inter-actions between the benzene rings of cations and anions [centroid-centroid distance = 3.5603 (9) Å] and weak C-H⋯O hydrogen bonds, forming a three-dimensional network.

  19. Fusidic acid in dermatology.

    PubMed

    Wilkinson, J D

    1998-12-01

    Fusidic acid is an antibiotic that belongs to a group of its own, the fusidanes. The molecule has a steroid-like structure but does not possess any steroid activity. The structure is thought to be responsible for the steroid-like high penetration, and for the fact that no cross-resistance or cross-allergy has been seen with other antibiotics in routine clinical use. The anti-microbial activity of fusidic acid is specifically aimed at the most common skin pathogens, including Staphylococcus aureus, towards which it is one of the most potent antibiotics. The place of fusidic acid in dermatology is in the treatment of mild to moderately severe skin and soft-tissue infections, e.g. impetigo, folicullitis, erythrasma, furunculosis, abscesses and infected traumatic wounds, whereas it is of less use in conditions such as hidradenitis suppurativa, chronic leg ulcers, burns and pressure sores. The topical combinations of fusidic acid with either betamethasone or hydrocortisone are extremely useful in the treatment of atopic dermatitis/eczema whenever staphylococcal/secondary infection is suspected, and in more persistent cases of eczema where staphylococcal superantigen may be playing an important exacerbating role.

  20. Studies of insulin secretory responses and of arachidonic acid incorporation into phospholipids of stably transfected insulinoma cells that overexpress group VIA phospholipase A2 (iPLA2beta ) indicate a signaling rather than a housekeeping role for iPLA2beta.

    PubMed

    Ma, Z; Ramanadham, S; Wohltmann, M; Bohrer, A; Hsu, F F; Turk, J

    2001-04-20

    A cytosolic 84-kDa group VIA phospholipase A(2) (iPLA(2)beta) that does not require Ca(2+) for catalysis has been cloned from several sources, including rat and human pancreatic islet beta-cells and murine P388D1 cells. Many potential iPLA(2)beta functions have been proposed, including a signaling role in beta-cell insulin secretion and a role in generating lysophosphatidylcholine acceptors for arachidonic acid incorporation into P388D1 cell phosphatidylcholine (PC). Proposals for iPLA(2)beta function rest in part on effects of inhibiting iPLA(2)beta activity with a bromoenol lactone (BEL) suicide substrate, but BEL also inhibits phosphatidate phosphohydrolase-1 and a group VIB phospholipase A(2). Manipulation of iPLA(2)beta expression by molecular biologic means is an alternative approach to study iPLA(2)beta functions, and we have used a retroviral construct containing iPLA(2)beta cDNA to prepare two INS-1 insulinoma cell clonal lines that stably overexpress iPLA(2)beta. Compared with parental INS-1 cells or cells transfected with empty vector, both iPLA(2)beta-overexpressing lines exhibit amplified insulin secretory responses to glucose and cAMP-elevating agents, and BEL substantially attenuates stimulated secretion. Electrospray ionization mass spectrometric analyses of arachidonic acid incorporation into INS-1 cell PC indicate that neither overexpression nor inhibition of iPLA(2)beta affects the rate or extent of this process in INS-1 cells. Immunocytofluorescence studies with antibodies directed against iPLA(2)beta indicate that cAMP-elevating agents increase perinuclear fluorescence in INS-1 cells, suggesting that iPLA(2)beta associates with nuclei. These studies are more consistent with a signaling than with a housekeeping role for iPLA(2)beta in insulin-secreting beta-cells.

  1. Photostabilization of ascorbic acid with citric acid, tartaric acid and boric acid in cream formulations.

    PubMed

    Ahmad, I; Ali Sheraz, M; Ahmed, S; Shad, Z; Vaid, F H M

    2012-06-01

    This study involves the evaluation of the effect of certain stabilizers, that is, citric acid (CT), tartaric acid (TA) and boric acid (BA) on the degradation of ascorbic acid (AH(2) ) in oil-in-water cream formulations exposed to the UV light and stored in the dark. The apparent first-order rate constants (0.34-0.95 × 10(-3) min(-1) in light, 0.38-1.24 × 10(-2) day(-1) in dark) for the degradation reactions in the presence of the stabilizers have been determined. These rate constants have been used to derive the second-order rate constants (0.26-1.45 × 10(-2) M(-1) min(-1) in light, 3.75-8.50 × 10(-3) M(-1) day(-1) in dark) for the interaction of AH(2) and the individual stabilizers. These stabilizers are effective in causing the inhibition of the rate of degradation of AH(2) both in the light and in the dark. The inhibitory effect of the stabilizers is in the order of CT > TA > BA. The rate of degradation of AH(2) in the presence of these stabilizers in the light is about 120 times higher than that in the dark. This could be explained on the basis of the deactivation of AH(2) -excited triplet state by CT and TA and by the inhibition of AH(2) degradation through complex formation with BA. AH(2) leads to the formation of dehydroascorbic acid (A) by chemical and photooxidation in cream formulations. © 2012 The Authors. ICS © 2012 Society of Cosmetic Scientists and the Société Française de Cosmétologie.

  2. Specific bile acids inhibit hepatic fatty acid uptake

    PubMed Central

    Nie, Biao; Park, Hyo Min; Kazantzis, Melissa; Lin, Min; Henkin, Amy; Ng, Stephanie; Song, Sujin; Chen, Yuli; Tran, Heather; Lai, Robin; Her, Chris; Maher, Jacquelyn J.; Forman, Barry M.; Stahl, Andreas

    2012-01-01

    Bile acids are known to play important roles as detergents in the absorption of hydrophobic nutrients and as signaling molecules in the regulation of metabolism. Here we tested the novel hypothesis that naturally occurring bile acids interfere with protein-mediated hepatic long chain free fatty acid (LCFA) uptake. To this end stable cell lines expressing fatty acid transporters as well as primary hepatocytes from mouse and human livers were incubated with primary and secondary bile acids to determine their effects on LCFA uptake rates. We identified ursodeoxycholic acid (UDCA) and deoxycholic acid (DCA) as the two most potent inhibitors of the liver-specific fatty acid transport protein 5 (FATP5). Both UDCA and DCA were able to inhibit LCFA uptake by primary hepatocytes in a FATP5-dependent manner. Subsequently, mice were treated with these secondary bile acids in vivo to assess their ability to inhibit diet-induced hepatic triglyceride accumulation. Administration of DCA in vivo via injection or as part of a high-fat diet significantly inhibited hepatic fatty acid uptake and reduced liver triglycerides by more than 50%. In summary, the data demonstrate a novel role for specific bile acids, and the secondary bile acid DCA in particular, in the regulation of hepatic LCFA uptake. The results illuminate a previously unappreciated means by which specific bile acids, such as UDCA and DCA, can impact hepatic triglyceride metabolism and may lead to novel approaches to combat obesity-associated fatty liver disease. PMID:22531947

  3. A DIETHER ANALOG OF PHOSPHATIDYL GLYCEROPHOSPHATE IN HALOBACTERIUM CUTIRUBRUM,

    DTIC Science & Technology

    The major phosphatide in the extremely halophilic bacterium, Halobacterium cutirubrum, was isolated by a combination of solvent fractionation...precipitation through the barium salt, and final purification as the sodium salt. Analytical and degradative data showed the phosphatide to be a...phosphatidyl glycerophosphate with two long-chain ether groups instead of fatty acid ester groups. Both long-chain groups were found to be identical and were

  4. Fatty acid-producing hosts

    DOEpatents

    Pfleger, Brian F; Lennen, Rebecca M

    2013-12-31

    Described are hosts for overproducing a fatty acid product such as a fatty acid. The hosts include an exogenous nucleic acid encoding a thioesterase and, optionally, an exogenous nucleic acid encoding an acetyl-CoA carboxylase, wherein an acyl-CoA synthetase in the hosts are functionally delected. The hosts prefereably include the nucleic acid encoding the thioesterase at an intermediate copy number. The hosts are preferably recominantly stable and growth-competent at 37.degree. C. Methods of producing a fatty acid product comprising culturing such hosts at 37.degree. C. are also described.

  5. Short chain fatty acids (butyric acid) and intestinal diseases

    PubMed

    Manrique Vergara, David; González Sánchez, María Eugenia

    2017-10-15

    Short chain fatty acids contain up to 6 carbon atoms. Among them, butyric acid stands out for its key role in pathologies with intestinal affectation. Butyric acid is the main energetic substrate of the colonocyte, it stimulates the absorption of sodium and water in the colon, and presents trophic action on the intestinal cells. To review the clinical use of formulations for the oral use of butyric acid. Review of published articles on oral supplementation with butyric acid in intestinal pathologies. The publications mainly deal with the use of oral butyric acid in pathologies involving inflammation and / or alterations of intestinal motility. Highlighting the clinical potential in inflammatory bowel diseases and irritable bowel syndrome. The use of oral supplementation with butyric acid is a promising strategy in pathologies such as inflammatory bowel diseases and irritable bowel syndrome. Bio-available butyric acid formulations with acceptable organoleptic characteristics are being advanced.

  6. College Chemistry Students' Mental Models of Acids and Acid Strength

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McClary, LaKeisha; Talanquer, Vicente

    2011-01-01

    The central goal of this study was to characterize the mental models of acids and acid strength expressed by advanced college chemistry students when engaged in prediction, explanation, and justification tasks that asked them to rank chemical compounds based on their relative acid strength. For that purpose we completed a qualitative research…

  7. Acid Earth--The Global Threat of Acid Pollution.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCormick, John

    Acid pollution is a major international problem, but the debate it has elicited has often clouded the distinction between myth and facts. This publication attempts to concerning the acid pollution situation. This publication attempts to identify available facts. It is the first global review of the problem of acid pollution and the first to…

  8. Industrial ecotoxicology "acid rain".

    PubMed

    Astolfi, E; Gotelli, C; Higa, J

    1986-01-01

    The acid rain phenomenon was studied in the province of Cordoba, Argentina. This study, based on a previously outlined framework, determined the anthropogenic origin of the low pH due to the presence of industrial hydrochloric acid wastage. This industrial ecotoxicological phenomenon seriously affected the forest wealth, causing a great defoliation of trees and shrubs, with a lower effect on crops. A survey on its effects on human beings has not been carried out, but considering the corrosion caused to different metals and its denouncing biocide effect on plants and animals, we should expect to find some kind of harm to the health of the workers involved or others engaged in farming, and even to those who are far away from the polluting agent.

  9. Method for isolating nucleic acids

    SciT

    Hurt, Jr., Richard Ashley; Elias, Dwayne A.

    The current disclosure provides methods and kits for isolating nucleic acid from an environmental sample. The current methods and compositions further provide methods for isolating nucleic acids by reducing adsorption of nucleic acids by charged ions and particles within an environmental sample. The methods of the current disclosure provide methods for isolating nucleic acids by releasing adsorbed nucleic acids from charged particles during the nucleic acid isolation process. The current disclosure facilitates the isolation of nucleic acids of sufficient quality and quantity to enable one of ordinary skill in the art to utilize or analyze the isolated nucleic acids formore » a wide variety of applications including, sequencing or species population analysis.« less

  10. Perfluorooctanoic acid and environmental risks

    EPA Science Inventory

    Perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) is a member of the perfluoroalkyl acids (PFAA) family of chemicals, which consist of a carbon backbone typically four to fourteen carbons in length and a charged functional moiety.

  11. Omega-3 fatty acids (image)

    MedlinePlus

    Omega-3 fatty acids are a form of polyunsaturated fat that the body derives from food. Omega-3s (and omega-6s) are known as essential fatty acids (EFAs) because they are important for good health. ...

  12. Itaconic acid production in microorganisms.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Meilin; Lu, Xinyao; Zong, Hong; Li, Jinyang; Zhuge, Bin

    2018-03-01

    Itaconic acid, 2-methylidenebutanedioic acid, is a precursor of polymers, chemicals, and fuels. Many fungi can synthesize itaconic acid; Aspergillus terreus and Ustilago maydis produce up to 85 and 53 g l -1 , respectively. Other organisms, including Aspergillus niger and yeasts, have been engineered to produce itaconic acid. However, the titer of itaconic acid is low compared with the analogous major fermentation product, citric acid, for which the yield is > 200 g l -1 . Here, we review two types of pathway for itaconic acid biosynthesis as well as recent advances by metabolic engineering strategies and process optimization to enhance itaconic acid productivity in native producers and heterologous hosts. We also propose further improvements to overcome existing problems.

  13. Lipoic acid biosynthesis defects.

    PubMed

    Mayr, Johannes A; Feichtinger, René G; Tort, Frederic; Ribes, Antonia; Sperl, Wolfgang

    2014-07-01

    Lipoate is a covalently bound cofactor essential for five redox reactions in humans: in four 2-oxoacid dehydrogenases and the glycine cleavage system (GCS). Two enzymes are from the energy metabolism, α-ketoglutarate dehydrogenase and pyruvate dehydrogenase; and three are from the amino acid metabolism, branched-chain ketoacid dehydrogenase, 2-oxoadipate dehydrogenase, and the GCS. All these enzymes consist of multiple subunits and share a similar architecture. Lipoate synthesis in mitochondria involves mitochondrial fatty acid synthesis up to octanoyl-acyl-carrier protein; and three lipoate-specific steps, including octanoic acid transfer to glycine cleavage H protein by lipoyl(octanoyl) transferase 2 (putative) (LIPT2), lipoate synthesis by lipoic acid synthetase (LIAS), and lipoate transfer by lipoyltransferase 1 (LIPT1), which is necessary to lipoylate the E2 subunits of the 2-oxoacid dehydrogenases. The reduced form dihydrolipoate is reactivated by dihydrolipoyl dehydrogenase (DLD). Mutations in LIAS have been identified that result in a variant form of nonketotic hyperglycinemia with early-onset convulsions combined with a defect in mitochondrial energy metabolism with encephalopathy and cardiomyopathy. LIPT1 deficiency spares the GCS, and resulted in a combined 2-oxoacid dehydrogenase deficiency and early death in one patient and in a less severely affected individual with a Leigh-like phenotype. As LIAS is an iron-sulphur-cluster-dependent enzyme, a number of recently identified defects in mitochondrial iron-sulphur cluster synthesis, including NFU1, BOLA3, IBA57, GLRX5 presented with deficiency of LIAS and a LIAS-like phenotype. As in DLD deficiency, a broader clinical spectrum can be anticipated for lipoate synthesis defects depending on which of the affected enzymes is most rate limiting.

  14. Imidazoline phosphonic acids

    SciT

    Redmore, D.

    1972-07-04

    Nitrogen-heterocyclic phosphonic acids and derivatives are characterized by aminomethyl (or substituted methyl) phosphonic acids or derivatives thereof bonded directly or indirectly, i.e., through a N-side chain to the nitrogen atom in the heterocyclic ring, for example those containing in the molecule at least one of the following units: ..pi..Equation/sup -/ where represents a heterocyclic ring having a nitrogen atom on the ring; -R'N- represents an amino- terminated side chain attached directly to the ring nitrogen (which side chain may or may not be present); and ..pi..Equation/sup -/ represents a methyl (or substituted methyl) phosphonic acid group where M is hydrogen,more » an alcohol or a salt moiety, and X and Y are hydrogen or a substituted group such as alkyl, aryl, etc., of which one or 2 units may be present depending on the available nitrogen bonded by hydrogens, and to uses for these compounds, for example, as scale inhibitors, corrosion inhibitors, etc. (5 claims)« less

  15. Hepatic Toxicity of Perfluorocarboxylic Acids.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1996-07-01

    1995). 3. N. V. Reo, C. M. Goecke, L. Narayanan, and B. M. Jarnot. "Effects of Perfluoro-n-octanoic Acid , Perfluoro-n-decanoic Acid , and Clofibrate ...Artz, and B. M. Jarnot: "ILiver Phosphorous Metabolic Response to Perfluorocarboxylic Acids and Clofibrate in Rats and Guinea Pigs: A 31 P NMR Study...Peroxisome Induction by Perfluoro-n-decanoic Acid and Clofibrate in the Rat: Proliferation Versus Activity." International Society for the Study of

  16. Sequential injection redox or acid-base titration for determination of ascorbic acid or acetic acid.

    PubMed

    Lenghor, Narong; Jakmunee, Jaroon; Vilen, Michael; Sara, Rolf; Christian, Gary D; Grudpan, Kate

    2002-12-06

    Two sequential injection titration systems with spectrophotometric detection have been developed. The first system for determination of ascorbic acid was based on redox reaction between ascorbic acid and permanganate in an acidic medium and lead to a decrease in color intensity of permanganate, monitored at 525 nm. A linear dependence of peak area obtained with ascorbic acid concentration up to 1200 mg l(-1) was achieved. The relative standard deviation for 11 replicate determinations of 400 mg l(-1) ascorbic acid was 2.9%. The second system, for acetic acid determination, was based on acid-base titration of acetic acid with sodium hydroxide using phenolphthalein as an indicator. The decrease in color intensity of the indicator was proportional to the acid content. A linear calibration graph in the range of 2-8% w v(-1) of acetic acid with a relative standard deviation of 4.8% (5.0% w v(-1) acetic acid, n=11) was obtained. Sample throughputs of 60 h(-1) were achieved for both systems. The systems were successfully applied for the assays of ascorbic acid in vitamin C tablets and acetic acid content in vinegars, respectively.

  17. Scientists Puzzle Over Acid Rain

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chemical and Engineering News, 1975

    1975-01-01

    Reports on a growing concern over increased acidity in atmospheric percipitation. Explores possible causes of the increased acidity, identifies chemical components of precipitation in various parts of the world, and presents environmental changes that might be attributed to the acidity. (GS)

  18. Acid precipitation and forest soils

    C. O. Tamm

    1976-01-01

    Many soil processes and properties may be affected by a change in chemical climate such as that caused by acidification of precipitation. The effect of additions of acid precipitation depends at first on the extent to which this acid is really absorbed by the soil and on the changes in substances with actual or potential acidity leaving the soil. There is for instance...

  19. An Umbrella for Acid Rain.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Randal, Judith

    1979-01-01

    The Environmental Protection Agency has awarded several grants to study effects of and possible solutions to the problem of "acid rain"; pollution from atmospheric nitric and sulfuric acids. The research program is administered through North Carolina State University at Raleigh and will focus on biological effects of acid rain. (JMF)

  20. Pantothenic acid biosynthesis in zymomonas

    DOEpatents

    Tao, Luan; Tomb, Jean-Francois; Viitanen, Paul V.

    2014-07-01

    Zymomonas is unable to synthesize pantothenic acid and requires this essential vitamin in growth medium. Zymomonas strains transformed with an operon for expression of 2-dehydropantoate reductase and aspartate 1-decarboxylase were able to grow in medium lacking pantothenic acid. These strains may be used for ethanol production without pantothenic acid supplementation in seed culture and fermentation media.

  1. Carboxylic acid sorption regeneration process

    DOEpatents

    King, C. Judson; Poole, Loree J.

    1995-01-01

    Carboxylic acids are sorbed from aqueous feedstocks into an organic liquid phase or onto a solid adsorbent. The acids are freed from the sorbent phase by treating it with aqueous alkylamine thus forming an alkylammonium carboxylate which is dewatered and decomposed to the desired carboxylic acid and the alkylamine.

  2. Carboxylic acid sorption regeneration process

    DOEpatents

    King, C.J.; Poole, L.J.

    1995-05-02

    Carboxylic acids are sorbed from aqueous feedstocks into an organic liquid phase or onto a solid adsorbent. The acids are freed from the sorbent phase by treating it with aqueous alkylamine thus forming an alkylammonium carboxylate which is dewatered and decomposed to the desired carboxylic acid and the alkylamine. 10 figs.

  3. Microbial degradation of poly(amino acid)s.

    PubMed

    Obst, Martin; Steinbüchel, Alexander

    2004-01-01

    Natural poly(amino acid)s are a group of poly(ionic) molecules (ionomers) with various biological functions and putative technical applications and play, therefore, an important role both in nature and in human life. Because of their biocompatibility and their synthesis from renewable resources, poly(amino acid)s may be employed for many different purposes covering a broad spectrum of medical, pharmaceutical, and personal care applications as well as the domains of agriculture and of environmental applications. Biodegradability is one important advantage of naturally occurring poly(amino acid)s over many synthetic polymers. The intention of this review is to give an overview about the enzyme systems catalyzing the initial steps in poly(amino acid) degradation. The focus is on the naturally occurring poly(amino acid)s cyanophycin, poly(epsilon-L-lysine) and poly(gamma-glutamic acid); but biodegradation of structurally related synthetic polyamides such as poly(aspartic acid) and nylons, which are known from various technical applications, is also included.

  4. Evolution of rosmarinic acid biosynthesis.

    PubMed

    Petersen, Maike; Abdullah, Yana; Benner, Johannes; Eberle, David; Gehlen, Katja; Hücherig, Stephanie; Janiak, Verena; Kim, Kyung Hee; Sander, Marion; Weitzel, Corinna; Wolters, Stefan

    2009-01-01

    Rosmarinic acid and chlorogenic acid are caffeic acid esters widely found in the plant kingdom and presumably accumulated as defense compounds. In a survey, more than 240 plant species have been screened for the presence of rosmarinic and chlorogenic acids. Several rosmarinic acid-containing species have been detected. The rosmarinic acid accumulation in species of the Marantaceae has not been known before. Rosmarinic acid is found in hornworts, in the fern family Blechnaceae and in species of several orders of mono- and dicotyledonous angiosperms. The biosyntheses of caffeoylshikimate, chlorogenic acid and rosmarinic acid use 4-coumaroyl-CoA from the general phenylpropanoid pathway as hydroxycinnamoyl donor. The hydroxycinnamoyl acceptor substrate comes from the shikimate pathway: shikimic acid, quinic acid and hydroxyphenyllactic acid derived from l-tyrosine. Similar steps are involved in the biosyntheses of rosmarinic, chlorogenic and caffeoylshikimic acids: the transfer of the 4-coumaroyl moiety to an acceptor molecule by a hydroxycinnamoyltransferase from the BAHD acyltransferase family and the meta-hydroxylation of the 4-coumaroyl moiety in the ester by a cytochrome P450 monooxygenase from the CYP98A family. The hydroxycinnamoyltransferases as well as the meta-hydroxylases show high sequence similarities and thus seem to be closely related. The hydroxycinnamoyltransferase and CYP98A14 from Coleus blumei (Lamiaceae) are nevertheless specific for substrates involved in RA biosynthesis showing an evolutionary diversification in phenolic ester metabolism. Our current view is that only a few enzymes had to be "invented" for rosmarinic acid biosynthesis probably on the basis of genes needed for the formation of chlorogenic and caffeoylshikimic acid while further biosynthetic steps might have been recruited from phenylpropanoid metabolism, tocopherol/plastoquinone biosynthesis and photorespiration.

  5. Composition for nucleic acid sequencing

    DOEpatents

    Korlach, Jonas [Ithaca, NY; Webb, Watt W [Ithaca, NY; Levene, Michael [Ithaca, NY; Turner, Stephen [Ithaca, NY; Craighead, Harold G [Ithaca, NY; Foquet, Mathieu [Ithaca, NY

    2008-08-26

    The present invention is directed to a method of sequencing a target nucleic acid molecule having a plurality of bases. In its principle, the temporal order of base additions during the polymerization reaction is measured on a molecule of nucleic acid, i.e. the activity of a nucleic acid polymerizing enzyme on the template nucleic acid molecule to be sequenced is followed in real time. The sequence is deduced by identifying which base is being incorporated into the growing complementary strand of the target nucleic acid by the catalytic activity of the nucleic acid polymerizing enzyme at each step in the sequence of base additions. A polymerase on the target nucleic acid molecule complex is provided in a position suitable to move along the target nucleic acid molecule and extend the oligonucleotide primer at an active site. A plurality of labelled types of nucleotide analogs are provided proximate to the active site, with each distinguishable type of nucleotide analog being complementary to a different nucleotide in the target nucleic acid sequence. The growing nucleic acid strand is extended by using the polymerase to add a nucleotide analog to the nucleic acid strand at the active site, where the nucleotide analog being added is complementary to the nucleotide of the target nucleic acid at the active site. The nucleotide analog added to the oligonucleotide primer as a result of the polymerizing step is identified. The steps of providing labelled nucleotide analogs, polymerizing the growing nucleic acid strand, and identifying the added nucleotide analog are repeated so that the nucleic acid strand is further extended and the sequence of the target nucleic acid is determined.

  6. Invasive cleavage of nucleic acids

    DOEpatents

    Prudent, James R.; Hall, Jeff G.; Lyamichev, Victor I.; Brow, Mary Ann D.; Dahlberg, James E.

    1999-01-01

    The present invention relates to means for the detection and characterization of nucleic acid sequences, as well as variations in nucleic acid sequences. The present invention also relates to methods for forming a nucleic acid cleavage structure on a target sequence and cleaving the nucleic acid cleavage structure in a site-specific manner. The structure-specific nuclease activity of a variety of enzymes is used to cleave the target-dependent cleavage structure, thereby indicating the presence of specific nucleic acid sequences or specific variations thereof.

  7. Invasive cleavage of nucleic acids

    DOEpatents

    Prudent, James R.; Hall, Jeff G.; Lyamichev, Victor I.; Brow, Mary Ann D.; Dahlberg, James E.

    2002-01-01

    The present invention relates to means for the detection and characterization of nucleic acid sequences, as well as variations in nucleic acid sequences. The present invention also relates to methods for forming a nucleic acid cleavage structure on a target sequence and cleaving the nucleic acid cleavage structure in a site-specific manner. The structure-specific nuclease activity of a variety of enzymes is used to cleave the target-dependent cleavage structure, thereby indicating the presence of specific nucleic acid sequences or specific variations thereof.

  8. Twinning of dodecanedicarboxylic acid

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sen, R.; Wilcox, W. R.

    1986-01-01

    Twinning of 1,10-dodecanedicarboxyl acid (DDA) was observed in 0.1 mm thick films with a polarizing microscope. Twins originated from polycrystalline regions which tended to nucleate on twin faces, and terminated by intersection gone another. Twinning increased dramatically with addition of organic compounds with a similar molecular size and shape. Increasing the freezing rate, increasing the temperature gradient, and addition of silica particles increased twinning. It is proposed that twins nucleate with polycrystals and sometimes anneal out before they become observable. The impurities may enhance twinning either by lowering the twin energy or by adsorbing on growing faces.

  9. Synthesis of amino acids

    DOEpatents

    Davis, J.W. Jr.

    1979-09-21

    A method is described for synthesizing amino acids preceding through novel intermediates of the formulas: R/sub 1/R/sub 2/C(OSOC1)CN, R/sub 1/R/sub 2/C(C1)CN and (R/sub 1/R/sub 2/C(CN)O)/sub 2/SO wherein R/sub 1/ and R/sub 2/ are each selected from hydrogen and monovalent hydrocarbon radicals of 1 to 10 carbon atoms. The use of these intermediates allows the synthesis steps to be exothermic and results in an overall synthesis method which is faster than the synthesis methods of the prior art.

  10. Preparation of the 3-monosulphates of cholic acid, chenodeoxycholic acid and deoxycholic acid.

    PubMed Central

    Haslewood, E S; Haslewood, G A

    1976-01-01

    1. The 3-sulphates of cholic, chenodeoxycholic and deoxycholic acids were prepared as crystalline disodium salts. 2. The method described shows that it is possible to prepare specific sulphate esters of polyhydroxy bile acids and to remove protecting acyl groups without removing the sulphate. 3. A study of bile acid sulphate solvolysis showed that none of the usual methods give the original bile acid in major yield in a single step. 4. An understanding of the preparation, properties and methods of solvolysis of bile acid sulphates is basic for investigations of cholestasis and liver disease. PMID:938488

  11. Vibrational structure of the polyunsaturated fatty acids eicosapentaenoic acid and arachidonic acid studied by infrared spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kiefer, Johannes; Noack, Kristina; Bartelmess, Juergen; Walter, Christian; Dörnenburg, Heike; Leipertz, Alfred

    2010-02-01

    The spectroscopic discrimination of the two structurally similar polyunsaturated C 20 fatty acids (PUFAs) 5,8,11,14,17-eicosapentaenoic acid and 5,8,11,14-eicosatetraenoic acid (arachidonic acid) is shown. For this purpose their vibrational structures are studied by means of attenuated total reflection (ATR) Fourier-transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy. The fingerprint regions of the recorded spectra are found to be almost identical, while the C-H stretching mode regions around 3000 cm -1 show such significant differences as results of electronic and molecular structure alterations based on the different degree of saturation that both fatty acids can be clearly distinguished from each other.

  12. Solid-phase extraction of acidic herbicides.

    PubMed

    Wells, M J; Yu, L Z

    2000-07-14

    A discussion of solid-phase extraction method development for acidic herbicides is presented that reviews sample matrix modification, extraction sorbent selection, derivatization procedures for gas chromatographic analysis, and clean-up procedures for high-performance liquid chromatographic analysis. Acidic herbicides are families of compounds that include derivatives of phenol (dinoseb, dinoterb and pentachlorophenol), benzoic acid (acifluorfen, chloramben, dicamba, 3,5-dichlorobenzoic acid and dacthal--a dibenzoic acid derivative), acetic acid [2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D), 4-chloro-2-methylphenoxyacetic acid (MCPA) and 2,4,5-trichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4,5-T)], propanoic acid [dichlorprop, fluazifop, haloxyfop, 2-(4-chloro-2-methylphenoxy)propanoic acid (MCPP) and silvex], butanoic acid [4-(2,4-dichlorophenoxy)butanoic acid (2,4-DB) and 4-(4-chloro-2-methylphenoxy)butanoic acid (MCPB)], and other miscellaneous acids such as pyridinecarboxylic acid (picloram) and thiadiazine dioxide (bentazon).

  13. Nucleic Acid Detection Methods

    DOEpatents

    Smith, Cassandra L.; Yaar, Ron; Szafranski, Przemyslaw; Cantor, Charles R.

    1998-05-19

    The invention relates to methods for rapidly determining the sequence and/or length a target sequence. The target sequence may be a series of known or unknown repeat sequences which are hybridized to an array of probes. The hybridized array is digested with a single-strand nuclease and free 3'-hydroxyl groups extended with a nucleic acid polymerase. Nuclease cleaved heteroduplexes can be easily distinguish from nuclease uncleaved heteroduplexes by differential labeling. Probes and target can be differentially labeled with detectable labels. Matched target can be detected by cleaving resulting loops from the hybridized target and creating free 3-hydroxyl groups. These groups are recognized and extended by polymerases added into the reaction system which also adds or releases one label into solution. Analysis of the resulting products using either solid phase or solution. These methods can be used to detect characteristic nucleic acid sequences, to determine target sequence and to screen for genetic defects and disorders. Assays can be conducted on solid surfaces allowing for multiple reactions to be conducted in parallel and, if desired, automated.

  14. Nucleic acid detection methods

    DOEpatents

    Smith, C.L.; Yaar, R.; Szafranski, P.; Cantor, C.R.

    1998-05-19

    The invention relates to methods for rapidly determining the sequence and/or length a target sequence. The target sequence may be a series of known or unknown repeat sequences which are hybridized to an array of probes. The hybridized array is digested with a single-strand nuclease and free 3{prime}-hydroxyl groups extended with a nucleic acid polymerase. Nuclease cleaved heteroduplexes can be easily distinguish from nuclease uncleaved heteroduplexes by differential labeling. Probes and target can be differentially labeled with detectable labels. Matched target can be detected by cleaving resulting loops from the hybridized target and creating free 3-hydroxyl groups. These groups are recognized and extended by polymerases added into the reaction system which also adds or releases one label into solution. Analysis of the resulting products using either solid phase or solution. These methods can be used to detect characteristic nucleic acid sequences, to determine target sequence and to screen for genetic defects and disorders. Assays can be conducted on solid surfaces allowing for multiple reactions to be conducted in parallel and, if desired, automated. 18 figs.

  15. Cryoprotection from lipoteichoic acid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rice, Charles V.; Middaugh, Amy; Wickham, Jason R.; Friedline, Anthony; Thomas, Kieth J.; Johnson, Karen; Zachariah, Malcolm; Garimella, Ravindranth

    2012-10-01

    Numerous chemical additives lower the freezing point of water, but life at sub-zero temperatures is sustained by a limited number of biological cryoprotectants. Antifreeze proteins in fish, plants, and insects provide protection to a few degrees below freezing. Microbes have been found to survive at even lower temperatures, and with a few exceptions, antifreeze proteins are missing. Survival has been attributed to external factors, such as the high salt concentration of brine veins and adhesion to particulates or ice crystal defects. We have discovered an endogenous cryoprotectant in the cell wall of bacteria, lipoteichoic acid biopolymers. Adding 1% LTA to bacteria cultures immediately prior to freezing provides 50% survival rate, similar to the results obtained with 1% glycerol. In the absence of an additive, bacterial survival is negligible as measured with the resazurin cell viability assay. The mode of action for LTA cryoprotection is unknown. With a molecular weight of 3-5 kDa, it is unlikely to enter the cell cytoplasm. Our observations suggest that teichoic acids could provide a shell of liquid water around biofilms and planktonic bacteria, removing the need for brine veins to prevent bacterial freezing.

  16. Uracil in formic acid hydrolysates of deoxyribonucleic acid

    PubMed Central

    Schein, Arnold H.

    1966-01-01

    1. When DNA is hydrolysed with formic acid for 30min. at 175° and the hydrolysate is chromatographed on paper with propan-2-ol–2n-hydrochloric acid, in addition to expected ultraviolet-absorbing spots corresponding to guanine, adenine, cytosine and thymine, an ultraviolet-absorbing region with RF similar to that of uracil can be detected. Uracil was separated from this region and identified by its spectra in acid and alkali, and by its RF in several solvent systems. 2. Cytosine, deoxyribocytidine and deoxyribocytidylic acid similarly treated with formic acid all yielded uracil, as did a mixture of deoxyribonucleotides. 3. Approx. 4% of deoxyribonucleotide cytosine was converted into uracil by the formic acid treatment. ImagesFig. 1. PMID:5949371

  17. Growth of nitric acid hydrates on thin sulfuric acid films

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Iraci, Laura T.; Middlebrook, Ann M.; Wilson, Margaret A.; Tolbert, Margaret A.

    1994-01-01

    Type I polar stratospheric clouds (PSCs) are thought to nucleate and grow on stratospheric sulfate aerosols (SSAs). To model this system, thin sulfuric acid films were exposed to water and nitric acid vapors (1-3 x 10(exp -4) Torr H2O and 1-2.5 x 10(exp -6) Torr HNO3) and subjected to cooling and heating cycles. Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy was used to probe the phase of the sulfuric acid and to identify the HNO3/H2O films that condensed. Nitric acid trihydrate (NAT) was observed to grow on crystalline sulfuric acid tetrahydrate (SAT) films. NAT also condensed in/on supercooled H2SO4 films without causing crystallization of the sulfuric acid. This growth is consistent with NAT nucleation from ternary solutions as the first step in PSC formation.

  18. Effect of baseline plasma fatty acids on eicosapentaenoic acid levels in individuals supplemented with alpha-linolenic acid.

    PubMed

    DeFilippis, Andrew P; Harper, Charles R; Cotsonis, George A; Jacobson, Terry A

    2009-01-01

    We previously reported a >50% increase in mean plasma eicosapentaenoic acid levels in a general medicine clinic population after supplementation with alpha-linolenic acid. In the current analysis, we evaluate the variability of changes in eicosapentaenoic acid levels among individuals supplemented with alpha-linolenic acid and evaluated the impact of baseline plasma fatty acids levels on changes in eicosapentaenoic acid levels in these individuals. Changes in eicosapentaenoic acid levels among individuals supplemented with alpha-linolenic acid ranged from a 55% decrease to a 967% increase. Baseline plasma fatty acids had no statistically significant effect on changes in eicosapentaenoic levels acid after alpha-linolenic acid supplementation. Changes in eicosapentaenoic acid levels varied considerably in a general internal medicine clinic population supplemented with alpha-linolenic acid. Factors that may impact changes in plasma eicosapentaenoic acid levels after alpha-linolenic acid supplementation warrant further study.

  19. Uric acid nephrolithiasis: An update.

    PubMed

    Cicerello, Elisa

    2018-04-01

    Uric acid nephrolithiasis appears to increase in prevalence. While a relationship between uric acid stones and low urinary pH has been for long known, additional association with various metabolic conditions and pathophysiological basis has recently been elucidated. Some conditions such as diabetes and metabolic syndrome disease, excessive dietary intake, and increased endogenous uric acid production and/or defect in ammoniagenesis are associated with low urinary pH. In addition, the phenomenon of global warming could result in an increase in areas with greater climate risk for uric acid stone formation. There are three therapeutic steps to be taken for management of uric acid stones: identification of urinary pH profiles, assessment of urinary volume status, and identification of disorders leading to excessive uric acid production. However, the most important factor for uric acid stone formation is acid urinary pH, which is a prerequisite for uric acid precipitation. This article reviews recent insights into the pathophysiology of uric acid stones and their management.

  20. Bile Acid Metabolism and Signaling

    PubMed Central

    Chiang, John Y. L.

    2015-01-01

    Bile acids are important physiological agents for intestinal nutrient absorption and biliary secretion of lipids, toxic metabolites, and xenobiotics. Bile acids also are signaling molecules and metabolic regulators that activate nuclear receptors and G protein-coupled receptor (GPCR) signaling to regulate hepatic lipid, glucose, and energy homeostasis and maintain metabolic homeostasis. Conversion of cholesterol to bile acids is critical for maintaining cholesterol homeostasis and preventing accumulation of cholesterol, triglycerides, and toxic metabolites, and injury in the liver and other organs. Enterohepatic circulation of bile acids from the liver to intestine and back to the liver plays a central role in nutrient absorption and distribution, and metabolic regulation and homeostasis. This physiological process is regulated by a complex membrane transport system in the liver and intestine regulated by nuclear receptors. Toxic bile acids may cause inflammation, apoptosis, and cell death. On the other hand, bile acid-activated nuclear and GPCR signaling protects against inflammation in liver, intestine, and macrophages. Disorders in bile acid metabolism cause cholestatic liver diseases, dyslipidemia, fatty liver diseases, cardiovascular diseases, and diabetes. Bile acids, bile acid derivatives, and bile acid sequestrants are therapeutic agents for treating chronic liver diseases, obesity, and diabetes in humans. PMID:23897684