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Sample records for phosphocreatine energy system

  1. Creatine Kinase ATP and Phosphocreatine Energy Supply in a Single Kindred of Patients with Hypertrophic Cardiomyopathy

    PubMed Central

    Abraham, M. Roselle; Bottomley, Paul A.; Dimaano, Veronica Lea; Pinheiro, Aurelio; Steinberg, Angela; Traill, Thomas A.; Abraham, Theodore P.; Weiss, Robert G

    2013-01-01

    A lethal and extensively characterized familial form of hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HC) is due to a point mutation (Arg403Gln) in the cardiac β-myosin heavy-chain (MHC) gene. Although this is associated with abnormal energy metabolism and progression to heart failure in an animal model, in vivo cardiac energetic shave not been characterized in patients with this mutation. Noninvasive phosphorus saturation transfer magnetic resonance spectroscopy was used to measure the adenosine triphosphate (ATP)supplied by the creatine kinase (CK) reaction and phosphocreatine (PCr), the heart’s primary energy reserve, in 9 of 10 patients from a single kindred with HC caused by Arg403GIn mutation, and 17 age-matched healthy controls. Systolic and diastolic function was assessed by echocardiography in all 10 HC patients. HC patients had impairment of diastolic function as well as mild systolic dysfunction, when assessed using global systolic longitudinal strain. Myocardial [PCr] was significantly decreased by 24% in patients (7.1±2.3μmol/g) compared to controls (9.4±1.2μmol/g; p=0.003). The pseudo-first-order CK rate-constant was 26% lower (0.28±0.15 vs. 0.38±0.07s−1, p=0.035) and the forward CK flux was 44% lower (2.0±1.4 vs3.6±0.9 μmol/g/s, p=0.001) than controls. The contractile abnormalities did not correlate with metabolic indices. In conclusion, myocardial PCr and CK ATP delivery are significantly reduced in patients with HC due to Arg403Gln mutation, akin to prior results from mice with the same mutation. Lack of a relation between energetic and contractile abnormalities suggests the former are due to the sarcomeric mutation and not a late consequence of mechanical dysfunction. PMID:23751935

  2. Phosphocreatine, an Intracellular High-Energy Compound, is Found in the Extracellular Fluid of the Seminal Vesicles in Mice and Rats

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, H. J.; Fillers, W. S.; Iyengar, M. R.

    1988-10-01

    High levels of phosphocreatine, a compound known to serve as an intracellular energy reserve, were found in the fluid contained in seminal vesicle glands. The concentrations of phosphocreatine in the extracellular fluid in the mouse and rat were found to be 5.6 ± 1.6 and 2.2 ± 0.8 μ mol/g, respectively, which are higher than the intracellular levels reported for smooth muscles. The creatine concentrations in the seminal vesicular fluid from these two species were 22.8 ± 3.1 and 13.0 ± 5.3 μ mol/g, respectively. These creatine levels are approximately 100 and 65 times higher than the creatine levels in mammalian blood. Smaller amounts of ATP (phosphocreatine/ATP ratio of 20-40) and traces of ADP were also found. Comparison of the pattern of distribution of macromolecules (proteins and DNA) with the distribution of phosphocreatine between the cells and the fluid of the seminal vesicle indicates that cell lysis did not account for the phosphocreatine in the seminal vesicle fluid. Rather, the available evidence strongly suggests that this high-energy compound is actively secreted. We found that in the testes, the sperm are exposed to the highest known creatine concentration in any mammalian tissue studied. Based on these results and other recent reports, we propose that the extracellular phosphocreatine, ATP, and creatine are involved in sperm metabolism.

  3. [31P-NMR analysis of high energy phosphorous compounds (ATP and phosphocreatine) in the living rat brain--effects of halothane anesthesia and a hypoxic condition].

    PubMed

    Yuasa, T; Miyatake, T; Kuwabara, T; Umeda, M; Eguchi, K

    1983-11-01

    31phosphorus nuclear magnetic resonance (31P-NMR) measurements have provided new and valuable insights for studying the metabolism of living systems. The aim of this paper is to introduce a technique of application of 31P-NMR measurements using a surface coil method, and to discuss the effects of halothane anesthesia and hypoxic hypoxia on the energetic metabolism of intact rat brains. All measurements were made using a JEOL FX 270 spectrometer with a super conducting magnet of 54-mm bore diameter. The magnetic field intensity of this machine is 6.3 tesla, and the resonance frequency used for 31P was 109.14 MHz. We remodelled an ordinary probe to take a live rat, and the animals were made to inhale anesthetic halothane or mixture of oxygen and nitrogen at various concentrations controlled by a flow regulator. The best conditions for measurements with our surface coil method were determined in this study as follows: (1) 90 degrees pulse width and selectivity, Fig. 1 shows signal selectivity in depthwise direction changed with 90 degrees pulse width, which was set to 20 microseconds. (2) Sensitivity and resolution; To obtain a spectrum of 31P-NMR from a rat brain 500 accumulations of free induction decays were considered suitable for both time and space resolution. Fig. 2 shows variations of signal intensity with pulse repetition time, which was set to 2 sec. It took about 17 min for averaging to get a spectrogram. (3) Quantitative accuracy and qualification; As shown in Fig. 3, a linear relationship was found between the signal intensity of beta-phosphate of ATP and the concentration of ATP solutions, thus proving the quantitative accuracy of our systems.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:6661335

  4. Phosphocreatine hydrolysis during submaximal exercise: the effect of FIO2.

    PubMed

    Haseler, L J; Richardson, R S; Videen, J S; Hogan, M C

    1998-10-01

    There is evidence that the concentration of the high-energy phosphate metabolites may be altered during steady-state submaximal exercise by the breathing of different fractions of inspired O2 (FIO2). Whereas it has been suggested that these changes may be the result of differences in time taken to achieve steady-state O2 uptake (V(O2)) at different FIO2 values, we postulated that they are due to a direct effect of O2 tension. We used 31P-magnetic resonance spectroscopy during constant-load, steady-state submaximal exercise to determine 1) whether changes in high-energy phosphates do occur at the same V(O2) with varied FIO2 and 2) that these changes are not due to differences in V(O2) onset kinetics. Six male subjects performed steady-state submaximal plantar flexion exercise [7.2 +/- 0.6 (SE) W] for 10 min while lying supine in a 1.5-T clinical scanner. Magnetic resonance spectroscopy data were collected continuously for 2 min before exercise, 10 min during exercise, and 6 min during recovery. Subjects performed three different exercise bouts at constant load with the FIO2 switched after 5 min of the 10-min exercise bout. The three exercise treatments were 1) FIO2 of 0.1 switched to 0.21, 2) FIO2 of 0.1 switched to 1.00, and 3) FIO2 of 1.00 switched to 0.1. For all three treatments, the FIO2 switch significantly (P phosphocreatine: 1) 55.5 +/- 4.8 to 67.8 +/- 4.9% (%rest); 2) 59.0 +/- 4.3 to 72.3 +/- 5.1%; and 3) 72.6 +/- 3.1 to 64.2 +/- 3.4%, respectively. There were no significant differences in intracellular pH for the three treatments. The results demonstrate that the differences in phosphocreatine concentration with varied FIO2 are not the result of different V(O2) onset kinetics, as this was eliminated by the experimental design. These data also demonstrate that changes in intracellular oxygenation, at the same work intensity, result in significant changes in cell homeostasis and thereby suggest a role for metabolic control by O2 even during

  5. Decreased frontal lobe phosphocreatine levels in methamphetamine users

    PubMed Central

    Sung, Young-Hoon; Yurgelun-Todd, Deborah A.; Shi, Xian-Feng; Kondo, Douglas G.; Lundberg, Kelly J.; McGlade, Erin C.; Hellem, Tracy L.; Huber, Rebekah S.; Fiedler, Kristen K.; Harrell, Renee E.; Nickerson, Bethany R.; Kim, Seong-Eun; Jeong, Eun-Kee; Renshaw, Perry F.

    2012-01-01

    BACKGROUND Mitochondria-related mechanisms have been suggested to mediate methamphetamine (METH) toxicity. However, changes in brain energetics associated with highenergy phosphate metabolism have not been investigated in METH users. Phosphorus-31 (31P) magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS) was used to evaluate changes in mitochondrial high energy phosphates, including phosphocreatine (PCr) and β-nucleoside triphosphate (β-NTP, primarily ATP in brain) levels. We hypothesized that METH users would have decreased high-energy PCr levels in the frontal gray matter. METHODS Study participants consisted of 51 METH (age=32.8±6.7) and 23 healthy comparison (age=31.1±7.5) subjects. High-energy phosphate metabolite levels were compared between the groups and potential gender differences were explored. RESULTS METH users had lower ratios of PCr to total pool of exchangeable phosphate (PCr/TPP) in the frontal lobe as compared to the healthy subjects (p=0.001). The lower PCr levels in METH subjects were significantly associated with lifetime amount of METH use (p=0.003). A sub-analysis for gender differences revealed that female METH users, who had lower daily amounts (1.1±1.0 gram) of METH use than males (1.4±1.7 gram), had significantly lower PCr/TPP ratios than male METH users, controlling for the amount of METH use (p=0.02). CONCLUSIONS The present findings suggest that METH compromises frontal lobe high-energy phosphate metabolism in a dose-responsive manner. Our findings also suggest that the abnormality in frontal lobe high-energy phosphate metabolism might be more prominent in female than in male METH users. This is significant as decreased PCr levels have been associated with depressive symptoms, and poor responses to antidepressant treatment have been reported in those with decreased PCr levels. PMID:23084413

  6. Synthesis of novel binary and ternary Zn2+ complexes with putrescine and phosphocreatine and the metal complexes study in aqueous solution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Szyfman, Natalie Waissmann; Tenório, Thaís; Ribeiro, Tatiana S.; Felcman, Judith; Mercê, Ana Lucia Ramalho

    2014-09-01

    Binary and ternary systems of Zn2+ complexes with phosphocreatine (PCr) and putrescine (Put) were investigated in aqueous solution using potentiometric titrations, Raman spectroscopy, Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (1H NMR) and molecular modeling. The stability constants of the complexes and molecular adducts, determined by potentiometry (T = 25.0 °C, I = 0.100 mol L-1, KNO3), are for some of the calculated complexes log KZnPCr = 10.63 ± 0.03, log KZnPut = 5.22 ± 0.08 and for log KZnPCrPut = 16.56 ± 0.02. PCr acts as a bidentate ligand and Put as a monodentate ligand until around pH 11. The Raman and 1H NMR spectra and minimum total molecular energies calculations confirm the coordination modes of all systems. The ternary species are suggested by the values of the stability constants found as, when compared to those of the binary complexes with each ligand, they are neither the sum of the two or a value less than each one separately complexed with Zn2+. An intermolecular interaction was suggested for the ZnPCrPut species. However, for ZnPCrPutH species it was not possible to establish the same kind of interaction due to the long distance between the carboxylate group of phosphocreatine and the NH3+ group of Put.

  7. Study of possible mechanism of protective effect of phosphocreatine on ischemic myocardium

    SciTech Connect

    Preobrazhenskii, A.N.; Dzhavadov, S.A.; Saks, V.A.

    1986-10-20

    The accumulation of (/sup 32/P)phosphocreatine by control and isolated perfused ischemic rat hearts was studied. It was found that at phosphocreatine concentrations of 0.5-10 mM in the perfusing solution the rate of phosphocreatine accumulation was twice as high in hearts subjected to ischemia for 35 min as in the control hearts and constituted 182 nmoles/min/g dry weight tissue at a phosphocreatine concentrations in the perfusate of 10 mM. 5'-Nucleotidase and phosphatase activities were found in the crude plasma membrane fraction from rat hearts. The pH-dependence of the activity of these enzymes was studied. The 5'-nucleotidase activity decreased 4- to 5-fold with a drop in the pH from 8.0 to 6.0. The phosphatase activity of the preparations increased 2-fold with a drop in the pH from 8.0 to 6.0. The 5'-nucleotidase activity was inhibited by 10 mM phosphocreatine in the presence of 5 mM Mg/sup 2 +/, and the degree of the inhibition depended on the pH. Maximum inhibition by phosphocreatine (58%) was observed at pH 6.0. The inhibition of phosphatase by phosphocreatine did not depend on the pH and reached 20% in the presence of 10 mM phosphocreatine. Some possible mechanisms of the protective effect of phosphocreatine on an ischemic myocardium are discussed.

  8. Supra- and Sub-Baseline Phosphocreatine Recovery in Developing Brain after Transient Hypoxia-Ischaemia: Relation to Baseline Energetics, Insult Severity and Outcome

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Iwata, Osuke; Iwata, Sachiko; Bainbridge, Alan; De Vita, Enrico; Matsuishi, Toyojiro; Cady, Ernest B.; Robertson, Nicola J.

    2008-01-01

    Following hypoxia-ischaemia (HI), an early biomarker of insult severity is desirable to target neuroprotective therapies to patients most likely to benefit; currently there are no biomarkers within the "latent phase" period before the establishment of secondary energy failure. Brief transient phosphocreatine (PCr) recovery overshoot (measured…

  9. Both Creatine and Its Product Phosphocreatine Reduce Oxidative Stress and Afford Neuroprotection in an In Vitro Parkinson’s Model

    PubMed Central

    Martín-de-Saavedra, Maria D.; Romero, Alejandro; Egea, Javier; Ludka, Fabiana K.; Tasca, Carla I.; Farina, Marcelo; Rodrigues, Ana Lúcia S.; López, Manuela G.

    2014-01-01

    Creatine is the substrate for creatine kinase in the synthesis of phosphocreatine (PCr). This energetic system is endowed of antioxidant and neuroprotective properties and plays a pivotal role in brain energy homeostasis. The purpose of this study was to investigate the neuroprotective effect of creatine and PCr against 6-hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA)-induced mitochondrial dysfunction and cell death in rat striatal slices, used as an in vitro Parkinson’s model. The possible involvement of the signaling pathway mediated by phosphatidylinositol-3 kinase (PI3K), protein kinase B (Akt), and glycogen synthase kinase-3β (GSK3β) was also evaluated. Exposure of striatal slices to 6-OHDA caused a significant disruption of the cellular homeostasis measured as 3-(4,5 dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyl-tetrazolium bromide reduction, lactate dehydrogenase release, and tyrosine hydroxylase levels. 6-OHDA exposure increased the levels of reactive oxygen species and thiobarbituric acid reactive substances production and decreased mitochondrial membrane potential in rat striatal slices. Furthermore, 6-OHDA decreased the phosphorylation of Akt (Serine473) and GSK3β (Serine9). Coincubation with 6-OHDA and creatine or PCr reduced the effects of 6-OHDA toxicity. The protective effect afforded by creatine or PCr against 6-OHDA-induced toxicity was reversed by the PI3K inhibitor LY294002. In conclusion, creatine and PCr minimize oxidative stress in striatum to afford neuroprotection of dopaminergic neurons. PMID:25424428

  10. Decrease in phosphocreatine level in skeletal muscle of SIV-infected rhesus macaques correlates with decrease in intracellular glutathione.

    PubMed

    Hack, V; Gross, A; Böhme, A; Stahl-Hennig, C; Dröge, W

    1997-09-01

    Loss of skeletal muscle tissue (cachexia) is one of the hallmarks of HIV infection. It has been found (1) that creatine kinase, i.e., an enzyme of pivotal importance in muscular mitochondrial energy metabolism, is inhibited by oxidative glutathiolation, and (2) that reduced glutathione (GSH) is decreased in skeletal muscle of SIV-infected rhesus monkeys. We, therefore, have studied the phosphocreatine (P-Cr) levels. Muscle tissue from SIV-infected macaques showed significantly decreased P-Cr but normal creatine (Cr), ATP, and ADP when compared with uninfected macaques. Individual P-Cr levels were significantly correlated with GSH. Our findings may explain the dysregulation of energy metabolism in cachexia.

  11. Cardiac phosphocreatine deficiency induced by GPA during postnatal development in rat.

    PubMed

    Pelouch, V; Kolár, F; Khuchua, Z A; Elizarova, G V; Milerová, M; Ost'ádal, B; Saks, V A

    1996-01-01

    The effect of chronic administration of beta-guanidinopropionic acid (GPA) on the protein profiling, energy metabolism and right ventricular (RV) function was studied in the rat heart during the weaning and adolescence period. GPA was given in tap water (1-1.5%) using pair drink controls. The feeding of animals with GPA solution for a six week period resulted in elevation of heart to body weight ratio due to body growth retardation. GPA accumulated in the myocardium up to 67.37 +/- 5.3 mumoles.g dry weight and the tissue content of total creatine, phosphocreatine and ATP was significantly decreased to 15%, 9% and 65% of control values respectively. Total activity of creatine kinase (CK) was not changed, but the proportion of mitochondrial (Mi) CK isoenzyme was decreased; the percentage of MB isoenzyme of CK was significantly higher. GPA treatment resulted in an elevation of the content of cardiac collagenous proteins and decrease of non-collagenous proteins in the heart; in parallel, a decrease of the collagen I to collagen III ratio was detected. The function of the RV was assessed using an isolated perfused heart with RV performing pressure-volume work. As compared to pair-drink controls, RV function was significantly impaired the GPA group: at any given right atrial filling pressure, the RV systolic pressure and the rate of pressure development were decreased by almost a factor of two. Elevation of the RV diastolic pressure with increasing pulmonary artery diastolic pressure was also significantly steeper in the GPA group which also showed decrease of cardiac output, especially at high outflow resistance. It may be assumed that chronic administration of GPA deeply influenced metabolic parameters, protein profiles and contractile function of the developing heart. On the other hand, concentrations of glucose, total lipids and triglycerides in blood plasma were not affected. All these data confirm the concept that the CK system is of central importance both for

  12. Phosphorylated guanidinoacetate partly compensates for the lack of phosphocreatine in skeletal muscle of mice lacking guanidinoacetate methyltransferase

    PubMed Central

    Kan, Hermien E; Jan Renema, W Klaas; Isbrandt, Dirk; Heerschap, Arend

    2004-01-01

    The effects of creatine (Cr) absence in skeletal muscle caused by a deletion of guanidinoacetate methyltransferase (GAMT) were studied in a knockout mouse model by in vivo 31P magnetic resonance (MR) spectroscopy. 31P MR spectra of hindleg muscle of GAMT-deficient (GAMT–/–) mice showed no phosphocreatine (PCr) signal and instead showed the signal for phosphorylated guanidinoacetate (PGua), the immediate precursor of Cr, which is not normally present. Tissue pH did not differ between wild-type (WT) and GAMT–/– mice, while relative inorganic phosphate (Pi) levels were increased in the latter. During ischaemia, PGua was metabolically active in GAMT–/– mice and decreased at a rate comparable to the decrease of PCr in WT mice. However, the recovery rate of PGua in GAMT–/– mice after ischaemia was reduced compared to PCr in WT mice. Saturation transfer measurements revealed no detectable flux from PGua to γ-ATP, indicating severely reduced enzyme kinetics. Supplementation of Cr resulted in a rapid increase in PCr signal intensity until only this resonance was visible, along with a reduction in relative Pi values. However, the PGua recovery rate after ischaemia did not change. Our results show that despite the absence of Cr, GAMT–/– mice can cope with mild ischaemic stress by using PGua for high energy phosphoryl transfer. The reduced affinity of creatine kinase (CK) for (P)Gua only becomes apparent during recovery from ischaemia. It is argued that absence of Cr causes the higher relative Pi concentration also observed in animals lacking muscle CK, indicating an important role of the CK system in Pi homeostasis. PMID:15284341

  13. Influence of phosphagen concentration on phosphocreatine breakdown kinetics. Data from human gastrocnemius muscle.

    PubMed

    Francescato, Maria Pia; Cettolo, Valentina; di Prampero, Pietro Enrico

    2008-07-01

    At the onset of a square-wave exercise of moderate intensity, in the absence of any detectable lactate production, the hydrolysis of phosphocreatine (PCr) fills the gap between energy requirement and energy yield by oxidative pathways, thus representing a readily available source of energy for the muscle. We verified experimentally the relationships between high-energy phosphates and/or their changes and the time constant of PCr concentration ([PCr]) kinetics in humans (tau(PCr)). High-energy phosphate concentration (by (31)P-NMR spectroscopy) in the calf muscles were measured during three repetitions of the rest-to-work transition of moderate aerobic square-wave exercise on nine healthy volunteers, while resting [PCr] was estimated from the appropriate spectroscopy data. PCr concentration decreased significantly (22 +/- 6%) from rest to steady-state exercise, without differences among the three repetitions. Absolute resting [PCr] and tau(PCr) were consistent with literature values, amounting to 27.5 +/- 2.2 mM and 23.9 +/- 2.9 s, respectively. No significant relationships were detected between individual tau(PCr) and mechanical power, fraction or absolute amount of PCr hydrolyzed, or change in ADP concentration. On the contrary, individual tau(PCr) (s) was linearly related to absolute resting [PCr] (mM), the relationship being described by: tau(PCr) = 0.656 + 0.841.[PCr] (n = 9, R = 0.708, P < 0.05). These data support the view that in humans PCr concentration sets the time course of the oxidative metabolism in skeletal muscle at the start of exercise, being one of the main controllers of oxidative phosphorylation.

  14. Gated /sup 31/P NMR study of tetanic contraction in rat muscle depleted of phosphocreatine

    SciTech Connect

    Shoubridge, E.A.; Radda, G.K.

    1987-05-01

    Rats were fed a diet containing 1% ..beta..-guanidino-propionic acid (GPA) for 6-12 wk to deplete their muscles of phosphocreatine (PCr). Gated /sup 31/P nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectra were obtained from the gastrocnemius-plantaris muscle at various time points during either a 1- or 3-s isometric tetanic contraction using a surface coil. The energy cost of a 1-s tetanus in unfatigued control rat muscle was 48.4 ..mu..mol ATP x g dry wt/sup -1/ x s/sup -1/ and was largely supplied by PCr; anaerobic glycogenolysis was negligible. In GPA-fed rats PCr was undetectable after 400 ms. This had no effect on initial force generated per gram, which was not significantly different from controls. Developed tension in a 3-s tetanus in GPA-fed rats could be divided into a peak phase (duration 0.8-0.9 s) and a plateau phase (65% peak tension) in which PCr was undetectable and the (ATP) was < 20% of that in control muscle. Energy from glycogenolysis was sufficient to maintain force generation at this submaximal level. Mean net glycogen utilization per 3-s tetanus was 78% greater than in control muscle. However, the observed decrease in intracellular pH was less than that expected from energy budget calculations, suggesting either increased buffering capacity or modulation of ATP hydrolysis in the muscles of GPA-fed rats. The results demonstrate that the transport role of PCr is not essential in contracting muscle in GPA-fed rats. PCr is probably important in this regard in the larger fibers of control muscle. Although fast-twitch muscles depleted of PCr have nearly twice the glycogen reserves of control muscle, glycogenolysis is limited in its capacity to fill the role of PCr as an energy buffer under conditions of maximum ATP turnover.

  15. Energy system interaction and relative contribution during maximal exercise.

    PubMed

    Gastin, P B

    2001-01-01

    There are 3 distinct yet closely integrated processes that operate together to satisfy the energy requirements of muscle. The anaerobic energy system is divided into alactic and lactic components, referring to the processes involved in the splitting of the stored phosphagens, ATP and phosphocreatine (PCr), and the nonaerobic breakdown of carbohydrate to lactic acid through glycolysis. The aerobic energy system refers to the combustion of carbohydrates and fats in the presence of oxygen. The anaerobic pathways are capable of regenerating ATP at high rates yet are limited by the amount of energy that can be released in a single bout of intense exercise. In contrast, the aerobic system has an enormous capacity yet is somewhat hampered in its ability to delivery energy quickly. The focus of this review is on the interaction and relative contribution of the energy systems during single bouts of maximal exercise. A particular emphasis has been placed on the role of the aerobic energy system during high intensity exercise. Attempts to depict the interaction and relative contribution of the energy systems during maximal exercise first appeared in the 1960s and 1970s. While insightful at the time, these representations were based on calculations of anaerobic energy release that now appear questionable. Given repeated reproduction over the years, these early attempts have lead to 2 common misconceptions in the exercise science and coaching professions. First, that the energy systems respond to the demands of intense exercise in an almost sequential manner, and secondly, that the aerobic system responds slowly to these energy demands, thereby playing little role in determining performance over short durations. More recent research suggests that energy is derived from each of the energy-producing pathways during almost all exercise activities. The duration of maximal exercise at which equal contributions are derived from the anaerobic and aerobic energy systems appears to

  16. Energy system interaction and relative contribution during maximal exercise.

    PubMed

    Gastin, P B

    2001-01-01

    There are 3 distinct yet closely integrated processes that operate together to satisfy the energy requirements of muscle. The anaerobic energy system is divided into alactic and lactic components, referring to the processes involved in the splitting of the stored phosphagens, ATP and phosphocreatine (PCr), and the nonaerobic breakdown of carbohydrate to lactic acid through glycolysis. The aerobic energy system refers to the combustion of carbohydrates and fats in the presence of oxygen. The anaerobic pathways are capable of regenerating ATP at high rates yet are limited by the amount of energy that can be released in a single bout of intense exercise. In contrast, the aerobic system has an enormous capacity yet is somewhat hampered in its ability to delivery energy quickly. The focus of this review is on the interaction and relative contribution of the energy systems during single bouts of maximal exercise. A particular emphasis has been placed on the role of the aerobic energy system during high intensity exercise. Attempts to depict the interaction and relative contribution of the energy systems during maximal exercise first appeared in the 1960s and 1970s. While insightful at the time, these representations were based on calculations of anaerobic energy release that now appear questionable. Given repeated reproduction over the years, these early attempts have lead to 2 common misconceptions in the exercise science and coaching professions. First, that the energy systems respond to the demands of intense exercise in an almost sequential manner, and secondly, that the aerobic system responds slowly to these energy demands, thereby playing little role in determining performance over short durations. More recent research suggests that energy is derived from each of the energy-producing pathways during almost all exercise activities. The duration of maximal exercise at which equal contributions are derived from the anaerobic and aerobic energy systems appears to

  17. Wind energy systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stewart, H. J.

    1978-01-01

    A discussion on wind energy systems involved with the DOE wind energy program is presented. Some of the problems associated with wind energy systems are discussed. The cost, efficiency, and structural design of wind energy systems are analyzed.

  18. sup 31 P saturation transfer and phosphocreatine imaging in the monkey brain

    SciTech Connect

    Mora, B.; Narasimhan, P.T.; Ross, B.D. California Inst. of Tech., Pasadena ); Allman, J. ); Barker, P.B. )

    1991-10-01

    {sup 31}P magnetic resonance imaging with chemical-shift discrimination by selective excitation has been employed to determine the phosphocreatine (PCr) distribution in the brains of three juvenile macaque monkeys. PCr images were also obtained while saturating the resonance of the {gamma}-phosphate of ATP, which allowed the investigation of the chemical exchange between PCr and the {gamma}-phosphate of ATP catalyzed by creatine kinase. Superposition of the PCr images over the proton image of the same monkey brain revealed topological variations in the distribution of PCr and creatine kinase activity. PCr images were also obtained with and without visual stimulation. In two out of four experiments, an apparently localized decrease in PCr concentration was noted in visual cortex upon visual stimulation. This result is interpreted in terms of a possible role for the local ADP concentration in stimulating the accompanying metabolic response.

  19. Accumulation of phosphocreatine and creatine in the cells and fluid of mouse seminal vesicles is regulated by testosterone.

    PubMed

    Lee, H; Gong, C L; Wu, S; Iyengar, M R

    1991-03-01

    We have recently established that phosphocreatine (PCr), a high-energy phosphate compound known to serve as an intracellular energy reserve, accumulates in the seminal vesicular fluid (SVF) of the mouse and the rat. To investigate whether the accumulation of PCr in the extracellular fluid of the seminal vesicles of mice is androgen-dependent, young adult mice (Swiss Webster, 6-7 wk old) were orchidectomized. Involution of the seminal vesicles following orchidectomy resulted in the total absence of SVF. Administration of testosterone propionate (TP) 2 wk later at a daily dose of 5 micrograms/g b.w. caused a rapid increase in the weights of seminal vesicle tissue (SVT) and SVF and also increased the concentration of PCr in SVF. The concentration of PCr in SVF increased rapidly from 3.0 mumol/g on Day 2 to a peak value of 11.1 +/- 0.5 mumol/g on Day 6. The increase in PCr concentration in SVF coincided with the enhanced rate of secretion of specific proteins by androgen-responsive epithelial cells. The creatine (Cr) concentration in SVF also increased from 12.6 mumol/g on Day 2 to 41.1 +/- 4.6 mumol/g on Day 8. The concentrations of PCr in SVF of TP-treated mice were about twice those in the age-matched intact controls. The concentrations of PCr and of Cr in SVT also increased from 1.1 +/- 0.5 mumol/g and 1.7 +/- 0.8 mumol/g, respectively, on Day 0 to the steady-state levels of 5.3 +/- 0.7 mumol/g and 14.8 +/- 2.7 mumol/g by Day 8. These results demonstrate that the accumulation of PCr in the fluid of mouse seminal vesicle is regulated by androgen.

  20. 31P-saturation-transfer nuclear-magnetic-resonance measurements of phosphocreatine turnover in guinea-pig brain slices.

    PubMed

    Morris, P G; Feeney, J; Cox, D W; Bachelard, H S

    1985-05-01

    The technique of 31P saturation-transfer n.m.r. was used to determine the forward and the reverse rate constants of creatine phosphotransferase in superfused guinea-pig cerebral tissues in vitro. The calculated forward rate constant of 0.22 +/- 0.03s-1 compared well with a previously reported value for rat brain in vivo [Shoubridge, Briggs & Radda (1982) FEBS Lett. 140, 288-292]. The reverse rate constant was found to be 0.55 +/- 0.10s-1. 3. By using concentrations of ATP and phosphocreatine estimated previously for this superfused preparation [Cox, Morris, Feeney & Bachelard (1983) Biochem. J. 212, 365-370], forward and reverse flux rates were calculated to be 0.68 and 0.72 mumol X s-1 X g-1 respectively. The concordance of forward and reverse fluxes contrasts with the situation observed in vitro in other tissues, and suggests that the creatine phosphotransferase reaction is at equilibrium under the conditions used here. 4. Lowering the concentration of glucose in the superfusing medium from 10mM to 0.5mM had no significant effect on phosphocreatine concentration or on the forward (ATP-generating) flux through creatine phosphotransferase. The results indicate that a normal phosphocreatine content in the presence of lowered glucose availability is reflected by an unchanged turnover rate.

  1. Phosphocreatine kinetics at the onset of contractions in skeletal muscle of MM creatine kinase knockout mice

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Roman, Brian B.; Meyer, Ronald A.; Wiseman, Robert W.

    2002-01-01

    Phosphocreatine (PCr) depletion during isometric twitch stimulation at 5 Hz was measured by (31)P-NMR spectroscopy in gastrocnemius muscles of pentobarbital-anesthetized MM creatine kinase knockout (MMKO) vs. wild-type C57B (WT) mice. PCr depletion after 2 s of stimulation, estimated from the difference between spectra gated to times 200 ms and 140 s after 2-s bursts of contractions, was 2.2 +/- 0.6% of initial PCr in MMKO muscle vs. 9.7 +/- 1.6% in WT muscles (mean +/- SE, n = 7, P < 0.001). Initial PCr/ATP ratio and intracellular pH were not significantly different between groups, and there was no detectable change in intracellular pH or ATP in either group after 2 s. The initial difference in net PCr depletion was maintained during the first minute of continuous 5-Hz stimulation. However, there was no significant difference in the quasi-steady-state PCr level approached after 80 s (MMKO 36.1 +/- 3.5 vs. WT 35.5 +/- 4.4% of initial PCr; n = 5-6). A kinetic model of ATPase, creatine kinase, and adenylate kinase fluxes during stimulation was consistent with the observed PCr depletion in MMKO muscle after 2 s only if ADP-stimulated oxidative phosphorylation was included in the model. Taken together, the results suggest that cytoplasmic ADP more rapidly increases and oxidative phosphorylation is more rapidly activated at the onset of contractions in MMKO compared with WT muscles.

  2. Compartmentalized energy transfer in cardiomyocytes: use of mathematical modeling for analysis of in vivo regulation of respiration.

    PubMed Central

    Aliev, M K; Saks, V A

    1997-01-01

    The mathematical model of the compartmentalized energy transfer system in cardiac myocytes presented includes mitochondrial synthesis of ATP by ATP synthase, phosphocreatine production in the coupled mitochondrial creatine kinase reaction, the myofibrillar and cytoplasmic creatine kinase reactions, ATP utilization by actomyosin ATPase during the contraction cycle, and diffusional exchange of metabolites between different compartments. The model was used to calculate the changes in metabolite profiles during the cardiac cycle, metabolite and energy fluxes in different cellular compartments at high workload (corresponding to the rate of oxygen consumption of 46 mu atoms of O.(g wet mass)-1.min-1) under varying conditions of restricted ADP diffusion across mitochondrial outer membrane and creatine kinase isoenzyme "switchoff." In the complete system, restricted diffusion of ADP across the outer mitochondrial membrane stabilizes phosphocreatine production in cardiac mitochondria and increases the role of the phosphocreatine shuttle in energy transport and respiration regulation. Selective inhibition of myoplasmic or mitochondrial creatine kinase (modeling the experiments with transgenic animals) results in "takeover" of their function by another, active creatine kinase isoenzyme. This mathematical modeling also shows that assumption of the creatine kinase equilibrium in the cell may only be a very rough approximation to the reality at increased workload. The mathematical model developed can be used as a basis for further quantitative analyses of energy fluxes in the cell and their regulation, particularly by adding modules for adenylate kinase, the glycolytic system, and other reactions of energy metabolism of the cell. Images FIGURE 7 FIGURE 2 FIGURE 7 PMID:9199806

  3. Energy Systems Laboratory Groundbreaking

    ScienceCinema

    Hill, David; Otter, C.L.; Simpson, Mike; Rogers, J.W.

    2016-07-12

    INL recently broke ground for a research facility that will house research programs for bioenergy, advanced battery systems, and new hybrid energy systems that integrate renewable, fossil and nuclear energy sources. Here's video from the groundbreaking ceremony for INL's new Energy Systems Laboratory. You can learn more about CAES research at http://www.facebook.com/idahonationallaboratory.

  4. Energy Systems Laboratory Groundbreaking

    SciTech Connect

    Hill, David; Otter, C.L.; Simpson, Mike; Rogers, J.W.

    2011-01-01

    INL recently broke ground for a research facility that will house research programs for bioenergy, advanced battery systems, and new hybrid energy systems that integrate renewable, fossil and nuclear energy sources. Here's video from the groundbreaking ceremony for INL's new Energy Systems Laboratory. You can learn more about CAES research at http://www.facebook.com/idahonationallaboratory.

  5. Solar energy collection system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Selcuk, M. K. (Inventor)

    1977-01-01

    An improved solar energy collection system, having enhanced energy collection and conversion capabilities, is delineated. The system is characterized by a plurality of receivers suspended above a heliostat field comprising a multiplicity of reflector surfaces, each being adapted to direct a concentrated beam of solar energy to illuminate a target surface for a given receiver. A magnitude of efficiency, suitable for effectively competing with systems employed in collecting and converting energy extracted from fossil fuels, is indicated.

  6. Hybrid community energy systems.

    SciTech Connect

    Jody, B. J.; Daniels, E. J.; Karvelas, D. E.; Energy Systems

    2000-01-01

    The availability of efficient, economical, and reliable energy supplies can help attract industry and commercial businesses to a municipality or a region. Efficient use of energy can also improve the air quality and reduce pollution. Therefore, municipalities should explore and encourage the development and implementation of efficient energy systems. Integrated hybrid energy systems can be designed to meet the total energy requirements of large and small communities. These systems can yield significant energy and cost savings when compared with independent systems serving individual units or when compared with the conventional practice of buying power from a utility and producing thermal energy on-site. To maximize energy and cost savings, the design engineer should look beyond the conventional when designing such systems.

  7. Total Energy Systems.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hick, Basil L.

    A total energy system is a means for providing all of the varied energy requirements for a total plant from a single fuel source. This report evaluates some of the factors which are related to the development and use of total energy systems. The factors include--(1) initial and ultimate size of plant, (2) type and source of fuel, (3)…

  8. Energy Recovery System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1983-01-01

    Cogeneration system is one in which the energy ordinarily wasted in an industrial process is recovered and reused to create a second form of energy. Such an energy recovery system is in use at Crane Company's plant in Ferguson, KY, which manufactures ceramic bathroom fixtures. Crane's system captures hot stack gases from the company's four ceramic kilns and uses them to produce electrical power for plant operations.

  9. Smart energy management system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Desai, Aniruddha; Singh, Jugdutt

    2010-04-01

    Peak and average energy usage in domestic and industrial environments is growing rapidly and absence of detailed energy consumption metrics is making systematic reduction of energy usage very difficult. Smart energy management system aims at providing a cost-effective solution for managing soaring energy consumption and its impact on green house gas emissions and climate change. The solution is based on seamless integration of existing wired and wireless communication technologies combined with smart context-aware software which offers a complete solution for automation of energy measurement and device control. The persuasive software presents users with easy-to-assimilate visual cues identifying problem areas and time periods and encourages a behavioural change to conserve energy. The system allows analysis of real-time/statistical consumption data with the ability to drill down into detailed analysis of power consumption, CO2 emissions and cost. The system generates intelligent projections and suggests potential methods (e.g. reducing standby, tuning heating/cooling temperature, etc.) of reducing energy consumption. The user interface is accessible using web enabled devices such as PDAs, PCs, etc. or using SMS, email, and instant messaging. Successful real-world trial of the system has demonstrated the potential to save 20 to 30% energy consumption on an average. Low cost of deployment and the ability to easily manage consumption from various web enabled devices offers gives this system a high penetration and impact capability offering a sustainable solution to act on climate change today.

  10. Energy Information Systems.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hales, Celia E.

    This paper examines the need for accurate, reliable data on energy, flowing upward to the national government from various energy-intensive information systems. Part I explores the need for a national policy coordinating this flow within both the United States and, for comparative purposes, Great Britain. Part II presents in outline form the…

  11. Solar Energy Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1984-01-01

    Calibrated in kilowatt hours per square meter, the solar counter produced by Dodge Products, Inc. provides a numerical count of the solar energy that has accumulated on a surface. Solar energy sensing, measuring and recording devices in corporate solar cell technology developed by Lewis Research Center. Customers for their various devices include architects, engineers and others engaged in construction and operation of solar energy facilities; manufacturers of solar systems or solar related products, such as glare reducing windows; and solar energy planners in federal and state government agencies.

  12. Living Systems Energy Module

    SciTech Connect

    1995-09-26

    The Living Systems Energy Module, renamed Voyage from the Sun, is a twenty-lesson curriculum designed to introduce students to the major ways in which energy is important in living systems. Voyage from the Sun tells the story of energy, describing its solar origins, how it is incorporated into living terrestrial systems through photosynthesis, how it flows from plants to herbivorous animals, and from herbivores to carnivores. A significant part of the unit is devoted to examining how humans use energy, and how human impact on natural habitats affects ecosystems. As students proceed through the unit, they read chapters of Voyage from the Sun, a comic book that describes the flow of energy in story form (Appendix A). During the course of the unit, an ``Energy Pyramid`` is erected in the classroom. This three-dimensional structure serves as a classroom exhibit, reminding students daily of the importance of energy and of the fragile nature of our living planet. Interactive activities teach students about adaptations that allow plants and animals to acquire, to use and to conserve energy. A complete list of curricular materials and copies of all activity sheets appear in Appendix B.

  13. Hydrogen energy systems studies

    SciTech Connect

    Ogden, J.M.; Steinbugler, M.; Kreutz, T.

    1998-08-01

    In this progress report (covering the period May 1997--May 1998), the authors summarize results from ongoing technical and economic assessments of hydrogen energy systems. Generally, the goal of their research is to illuminate possible pathways leading from present hydrogen markets and technologies toward wide scale use of hydrogen as an energy carrier, highlighting important technologies for RD and D. Over the past year they worked on three projects. From May 1997--November 1997, the authors completed an assessment of hydrogen as a fuel for fuel cell vehicles, as compared to methanol and gasoline. Two other studies were begun in November 1997 and are scheduled for completion in September 1998. The authors are carrying out an assessment of potential supplies and demands for hydrogen energy in the New York City/New Jersey area. The goal of this study is to provide useful data and suggest possible implementation strategies for the New York City/ New Jersey area, as the Hydrogen Program plans demonstrations of hydrogen vehicles and refueling infrastructure. The authors are assessing the implications of CO{sub 2} sequestration for hydrogen energy systems. The goals of this work are (a) to understand the implications of CO{sub 2} sequestration for hydrogen energy system design; (b) to understand the conditions under which CO{sub 2} sequestration might become economically viable; and (c) to understand design issues for future low-CO{sub 2} emitting hydrogen energy systems based on fossil fuels.

  14. Ocean energy systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Progress is reported on the development of Ocean Thermal Energy Conversion (OTEC) systems that will provide synthetic fuels (e.g., methanol), energy-intensive products such as ammonia (for fertilizers and chemicals), and aluminum. The work also includes assessment and design concepts for hybrid plants, such as geothermal-OTEC (GEOTEC) plants. Another effort that began in the spring of 1982 is a technical advisory role to DOE with respect to their management of the conceptual and preliminary design activity of industry teams that are designing a shelf-mounted offshore OTEC pilot plant that could deliver power to Oahu, Hawaii. In addition, a program is underway to evaluate and test the Pneumatic Wave-Energy Conversion System (PWECS), an ocean-energy device consisting of a turbine that is air-driven as a result of wave action in a chamber. The work on the various tasks as of 31 March 1983 is reported.

  15. Ocean energy systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1984-04-01

    The Johns Hopkins University Applied Physics Laboratory is engaged in developing ocean thermal energy conversion (OTEC) systems that are to provide synthetic fuels or an energy intensive product such as ammonia or aluminum. The work also includes assessment and design concepts for hybrid plants, such as geothermal-OTEC plants. The laboratory also has a technical advisory role with respect to DOE/DOET's management of the preliminary design activity of an industry team headed by Ocean Thermal Corporation that is designing an OTEC pilot plant that could be built in shallow water off the shore of Oahu, Hawaii. In addition, the Laboratory is now taking part in a program to evaluate and test the pneumatic wave energy conversion system, an ocean energy device consisting of a turbine that is air driven as a result of wave action in a chamber.

  16. Solar energy collection system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miller, C. G.; Stephens, J. B. (Inventor)

    1979-01-01

    A fixed, linear, ground-based primary reflector having an extended curved sawtooth-contoured surface covered with a metalized polymeric reflecting material, reflects solar energy to a movably supported collector that is kept at the concentrated line focus reflector primary. The primary reflector may be constructed by a process utilizing well known freeway paving machinery. The solar energy absorber is preferably a fluid transporting pipe. Efficient utilization leading to high temperatures from the reflected solar energy is obtained by cylindrical shaped secondary reflectors that direct off-angle energy to the absorber pipe. A seriatim arrangement of cylindrical secondary reflector stages and spot-forming reflector stages produces a high temperature solar energy collection system of greater efficiency.

  17. Energy systems transformation.

    PubMed

    Dangerman, A T C Jérôme; Schellnhuber, Hans Joachim

    2013-02-12

    The contemporary industrial metabolism is not sustainable. Critical problems arise at both the input and the output side of the complex: Although affordable fossil fuels and mineral resources are declining, the waste products of the current production and consumption schemes (especially CO(2) emissions, particulate air pollution, and radioactive residua) cause increasing environmental and social costs. Most challenges are associated with the incumbent energy economy that is unlikely to subsist. However, the crucial question is whether a swift transition to its sustainable alternative, based on renewable sources, can be achieved. The answer requires a deep analysis of the structural conditions responsible for the rigidity of the fossil-nuclear energy system. We argue that the resilience of the fossil-nuclear energy system results mainly from a dynamic lock-in pattern known in operations research as the "Success to the Successful" mode. The present way of generating, distributing, and consuming energy--the largest business on Earth--expands through a combination of factors such as the longevity of pertinent infrastructure, the information technology revolution, the growth of the global population, and even the recent financial crises: Renewable-energy industries evidently suffer more than the conventional-energy industries under recession conditions. Our study tries to elucidate the archetypical traits of the lock-in pattern and to assess the respective importance of the factors involved. In particular, we identify modern corporate law as a crucial system element that thus far has been largely ignored. Our analysis indicates that the rigidity of the existing energy economy would be reduced considerably by the assignment of unlimited liabilities to the shareholders. PMID:23297208

  18. Energy systems transformation.

    PubMed

    Dangerman, A T C Jérôme; Schellnhuber, Hans Joachim

    2013-02-12

    The contemporary industrial metabolism is not sustainable. Critical problems arise at both the input and the output side of the complex: Although affordable fossil fuels and mineral resources are declining, the waste products of the current production and consumption schemes (especially CO(2) emissions, particulate air pollution, and radioactive residua) cause increasing environmental and social costs. Most challenges are associated with the incumbent energy economy that is unlikely to subsist. However, the crucial question is whether a swift transition to its sustainable alternative, based on renewable sources, can be achieved. The answer requires a deep analysis of the structural conditions responsible for the rigidity of the fossil-nuclear energy system. We argue that the resilience of the fossil-nuclear energy system results mainly from a dynamic lock-in pattern known in operations research as the "Success to the Successful" mode. The present way of generating, distributing, and consuming energy--the largest business on Earth--expands through a combination of factors such as the longevity of pertinent infrastructure, the information technology revolution, the growth of the global population, and even the recent financial crises: Renewable-energy industries evidently suffer more than the conventional-energy industries under recession conditions. Our study tries to elucidate the archetypical traits of the lock-in pattern and to assess the respective importance of the factors involved. In particular, we identify modern corporate law as a crucial system element that thus far has been largely ignored. Our analysis indicates that the rigidity of the existing energy economy would be reduced considerably by the assignment of unlimited liabilities to the shareholders.

  19. Energy and combination systems

    SciTech Connect

    Hartsock, D.K.

    1995-08-01

    Energy and combination systems are outlined. The following topics are discussed: NO{sub x} control technologies; coal fired boilers; gas reburning (GR); NO{sub x} emissions using GR; integration of GR and selective noncatalytic reduction (SNCR); enhanced temperature windows; methanol injection; combi NO{sub x}; integrated GR technologies, reburning alternate fuels, reburning fuel types; and comparison of GR technologies.

  20. Wind Energy Systems.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Conservation and Renewable Energy Inquiry and Referral Service (DOE), Silver Spring, MD.

    During the 1920s and 1930s, millions of wind energy systems were used on farms and other locations far from utility lines. However, with passage of the Rural Electrification Act in 1939, cheap electricity was brought to rural areas. After that, the use of wind machines dramatically declined. Recently, the rapid rise in fuel prices has led to a…

  1. Energy Storage System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1996-01-01

    SatCon Technology Corporation developed the drive train for use in the Chrysler Corporation's Patriot Mark II, which includes the Flywheel Energy Storage (FES) system. In Chrysler's experimental hybrid- electric car, the hybrid drive train uses an advanced turboalternator that generates electricity by burning a fuel; a powerful, compact electric motor; and a FES that eliminates the need for conventional batteries. The FES system incorporates technology SatCon developed in more than 30 projects with seven NASA centers, mostly for FES systems for spacecraft attitude control and momentum recovery. SatCon will continue to develop the technology with Westinghouse Electric Corporation.

  2. Energy storage connection system

    DOEpatents

    Benedict, Eric L.; Borland, Nicholas P.; Dale, Magdelena; Freeman, Belvin; Kite, Kim A.; Petter, Jeffrey K.; Taylor, Brendan F.

    2012-07-03

    A power system for connecting a variable voltage power source, such as a power controller, with a plurality of energy storage devices, at least two of which have a different initial voltage than the output voltage of the variable voltage power source. The power system includes a controller that increases the output voltage of the variable voltage power source. When such output voltage is substantially equal to the initial voltage of a first one of the energy storage devices, the controller sends a signal that causes a switch to connect the variable voltage power source with the first one of the energy storage devices. The controller then causes the output voltage of the variable voltage power source to continue increasing. When the output voltage is substantially equal to the initial voltage of a second one of the energy storage devices, the controller sends a signal that causes a switch to connect the variable voltage power source with the second one of the energy storage devices.

  3. Energy systems transformation

    PubMed Central

    Dangerman, A. T. C. Jérôme; Schellnhuber, Hans Joachim

    2013-01-01

    The contemporary industrial metabolism is not sustainable. Critical problems arise at both the input and the output side of the complex: Although affordable fossil fuels and mineral resources are declining, the waste products of the current production and consumption schemes (especially CO2 emissions, particulate air pollution, and radioactive residua) cause increasing environmental and social costs. Most challenges are associated with the incumbent energy economy that is unlikely to subsist. However, the crucial question is whether a swift transition to its sustainable alternative, based on renewable sources, can be achieved. The answer requires a deep analysis of the structural conditions responsible for the rigidity of the fossil-nuclear energy system. We argue that the resilience of the fossil-nuclear energy system results mainly from a dynamic lock-in pattern known in operations research as the “Success to the Successful” mode. The present way of generating, distributing, and consuming energy—the largest business on Earth—expands through a combination of factors such as the longevity of pertinent infrastructure, the information technology revolution, the growth of the global population, and even the recent financial crises: Renewable-energy industries evidently suffer more than the conventional-energy industries under recession conditions. Our study tries to elucidate the archetypical traits of the lock-in pattern and to assess the respective importance of the factors involved. In particular, we identify modern corporate law as a crucial system element that thus far has been largely ignored. Our analysis indicates that the rigidity of the existing energy economy would be reduced considerably by the assignment of unlimited liabilities to the shareholders. PMID:23297208

  4. Wind energy systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Richardson, R. D.; McNerney, Gerald M.

    1993-03-01

    Wind energy has matured to a level of development where it is ready to become a generally accepted utility generation technology. A brief discussion of this development is presented, and the operating and design principles are discussed. Alternative designs for wind turbines and the tradeoffs that must be considered are briefly compared. Development of a wind energy system and the impacts on the utility network including frequency stability, voltage stability, and power quality are discussed. The assessment of wind power station economics and the key economic factors that determine the economic viability of a wind power plant are presented.

  5. Wind energy conversion system

    SciTech Connect

    Longrigg, Paul

    1987-01-01

    The wind energy conversion system includes a wind machine having a propeller connected to a generator of electric power, the propeller rotating the generator in response to force of an incident wind. The generator converts the power of the wind to electric power for use by an electric load. Circuitry for varying the duty factor of the generator output power is connected between the generator and the load to thereby alter a loading of the generator and the propeller by the electric load. Wind speed is sensed electro-optically to provide data of wind speed upwind of the propeller, to thereby permit tip speed ratio circuitry to operate the power control circuitry and thereby optimize the tip speed ratio by varying the loading of the propeller. Accordingly, the efficiency of the wind energy conversion system is maximized.

  6. Energy Systems Integration Facility Overview

    SciTech Connect

    Arvizu, Dan; Chistensen, Dana; Hannegan, Bryan; Garret, Bobi; Kroposki, Ben; Symko-Davies, Martha; Post, David; Hammond, Steve; Kutscher, Chuck; Wipke, Keith

    2014-02-28

    The U.S. Department of Energy's Energy Systems Integration Facility (ESIF) is located at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory is the right tool, at the right time... a first-of-its-kind facility that addresses the challenges of large-scale integration of clean energy technologies into the energy systems that power the nation.

  7. Energy Systems Integration Facility Overview

    ScienceCinema

    Arvizu, Dan; Chistensen, Dana; Hannegan, Bryan; Garret, Bobi; Kroposki, Ben; Symko-Davies, Martha; Post, David; Hammond, Steve; Kutscher, Chuck; Wipke, Keith

    2016-07-12

    The U.S. Department of Energy's Energy Systems Integration Facility (ESIF) is located at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory is the right tool, at the right time... a first-of-its-kind facility that addresses the challenges of large-scale integration of clean energy technologies into the energy systems that power the nation.

  8. Hydrogen energy systems studies

    SciTech Connect

    Ogden, J.M.; Steinbugler, M.; Dennis, E.

    1995-09-01

    For several years, researchers at Princeton University`s Center for Energy and Environmental Studies have carried out technical and economic assessments of hydrogen energy systems. Initially, we focussed on the long term potential of renewable hydrogen. More recently we have explored how a transition to renewable hydrogen might begin. The goal of our current work is to identify promising strategies leading from near term hydrogen markets and technologies toward eventual large scale use of renewable hydrogen as an energy carrier. Our approach has been to assess the entire hydrogen energy system from production through end-use considering technical performance, economics, infrastructure and environmental issues. This work is part of the systems analysis activity of the DOE Hydrogen Program. In this paper we first summarize the results of three tasks which were completed during the past year under NREL Contract No. XR-11265-2: in Task 1, we carried out assessments of near term options for supplying hydrogen transportation fuel from natural gas; in Task 2, we assessed the feasibility of using the existing natural gas system with hydrogen and hydrogen blends; and in Task 3, we carried out a study of PEM fuel cells for residential cogeneration applications, a market which might have less stringent cost requirements than transportation. We then give preliminary results for two other tasks which are ongoing under DOE Contract No. DE-FG04-94AL85803: In Task 1 we are assessing the technical options for low cost small scale production of hydrogen from natural gas, considering (a) steam reforming, (b) partial oxidation and (c) autothermal reforming, and in Task 2 we are assessing potential markets for hydrogen in Southern California.

  9. Energy Systems Divisions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Applewhite, John

    2011-01-01

    This slide presentation reviews the JSC Energy Systems Divisions work in propulsion. Specific work in LO2/CH4 propulsion, cryogenic propulsion, low thrust propulsion for Free Flyer, robotic and Extra Vehicular Activities, and work on the Morpheus terrestrial free flyer test bed is reviewed. The back-up slides contain a chart with comparisons of LO2/LCH4 with other propellants, and reviewing the advantages especially for spacecraft propulsion.

  10. Energy-Systems Economic Analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Doane, J.; Slonski, M. L.; Borden, C. S.

    1982-01-01

    Energy Systems Economic Analysis (ESEA) program is flexible analytical tool for rank ordering of alternative energy systems. Basic ESEA approach derives an estimate of those costs incurred as result of purchasing, installing and operating an energy system. These costs, suitably aggregated into yearly costs over lifetime of system, are divided by expected yearly energy output to determine busbar energy costs. ESEA, developed in 1979, is written in FORTRAN IV for batch execution.

  11. Energy conversion system

    DOEpatents

    Murphy, L.M.

    1985-09-16

    The energy conversion system includes a photo-voltaic array for receiving solar radiation and converting such radiation to electrical energy. The photo-voltaic array is mounted on a stretched membrane that is held by a frame. Tracking means for orienting the photo-voltaic array in predetermined positions that provide optimal exposure to solar radiation cooperate with the frame. An enclosure formed of a radiation transmissible material includes an inside containment space that accommodates the photo-voltaic array on the stretched membrane, the frame and the tracking means, and forms a protective shield for all such components. The enclosure is preferably formed of a flexible inflatable material and maintains its preferred form, such as a dome, under the influence of a low air pressure furnished to the dome. Under this arrangement the energy conversion system is streamlined for minimizing wind resistance, sufficiently weathproof for providing protection against weather hazards such as hail, capable of using diffused light, lightweight for low-cost construction and operational with a minimal power draw.

  12. Energy conversion system

    DOEpatents

    Murphy, Lawrence M.

    1987-01-01

    The energy conversion system includes a photo-voltaic array for receiving solar radiation and converting such radiation to electrical energy. The photo-voltaic array is mounted on a stretched membrane that is held by a frame. Tracking means for orienting the photo-voltaic array in predetermined positions that provide optimal exposure to solar radiation cooperate with the frame. An enclosure formed of a radiation transmissible material includes an inside containment space that accommodates the photo-voltaic array on the stretched membrane, the frame and the tracking means, and forms a protective shield for all such components. The enclosure is preferably formed of a flexible inflatable material and maintains its preferred form, such as a dome, under the influence of a low air pressure furnished to the dome. Under this arrangement the energy conversion system is streamlined for minimizing wind resistance, sufficiently weatherproof for providing protection against weather hazards such as hail, capable of using diffused light, lightweight for low-cost construction, and operational with a minimal power draw.

  13. Energy Production Systems. Energy Technology Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center for Occupational Research and Development, Inc., Waco, TX.

    This course in energy production systems is one of 15 courses in the Energy Technology Series developed for an Energy Conservation-and-Use Technology curriculum. Intended for use in two-year postsecondary technical institutions to prepare technicians for employment, the courses are also useful in industry for updating employees in…

  14. Muscle [phosphocreatine] dynamics following the onset of exercise in humans: the influence of baseline work-rate.

    PubMed

    Jones, Andrew M; Wilkerson, Daryl P; Fulford, Jonathan

    2008-02-01

    The kinetics of pulmonary O(2) uptake is known to be substantially slower when exercise is initiated from a baseline of lower-intensity exercise rather than from rest. However, it is not known whether putative intracellular regulators of mitochondrial respiration (and in particular the phosphocreatine concentration, [PCr]) show similar non-linearities in their response dynamics. The purpose of this study was therefore to investigate the influence of baseline metabolic rate on muscle [PCr] kinetics (as assessed using (31)P-magnetic resonance spectroscopy) following the onset of exercise. Seven male subjects completed 'step' tests to heavy-intensity exercise (80% of peak work-rate) from a resting baseline and also from a baseline of moderate-intensity exercise (40% of peak work-rate) using a single-leg knee-extensor ergometer situated inside the bore of a 1.5 T super-conducting magnet. The time constant describing the kinetics of the initial exponential-like fall in [PCr] was significantly different between rest-to-moderate (25 +/- 14 s), rest-to-heavy (48 +/- 11 s) and moderate-to-heavy exercise (95 +/- 40 s) (P < 0.05 for all comparisons). A delayed-onset 'slow component' in the [PCr] response was observed in all subjects during rest-to-heavy exercise, but was attenuated in the moderate-to-heavy exercise condition. These data indicate that muscle [PCr] kinetics does not conform to 'linear, first-order' behaviour during dynamic exercise, and thus have implications for understanding the regulation of muscle oxidative metabolism.

  15. Post-Exercise Phosphocreatine Recovery, an Index of Mitochondrial Oxidative Phosphorylation, is Reduced in Diabetic Patients With Lower Extremity Complications

    PubMed Central

    Tecilazich, Francesco; Dinh, Thanh; Lyons, Thomas E.; Guest, Julie; Villafuerte, Rose; Sampanis, Christos; Gnardellis, Charalambos; Zuo, Chun; Veves, Aristidis

    2013-01-01

    Objective To identify differences in the post-exercise phosphocreatine (PCr) recovery, an index of mitochondrial function, in diabetic patients with and without lower extremity complications. Research Methods and Design We enrolled healthy control subjects and three groups of T2DM patients: patients without complications, with peripheral neuropathy and both peripheral neuropathy and peripheral arterial disease. We employed Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopic (MRS) measurements to perform continuous measurements of phosphorous metabolites (PCr and Pi) during a 3-minute graded exercise at the level of the posterior calf muscles (gastrocnemius and soleus muscles). Micro- and macrovascular reactivity measurements were also performed. Results The resting Pi/PCr ratio and PCr at baseline and the maximum reached during exercise was similar in all groups. The post-exercise time required for recovery of Pi/PCr ratio and PCr levels to resting levels, an assessment of mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation, was significantly higher in the diabetic patients with neuropathy and those with both neuropathy and PAD (p <0.01 for both measurements). These two groups had also higher levels of TNFα, (p<0.01) and G-CSF (p <0.05). Multiple regression analysis showed that only G-CSF, OPG and TNFα were significant contributing factors in the variation of the Pi/PCr ratio recovery time. No associations were observed between micro- and macrovascular reactivity measurements and Pi/Pcr ration or Pcr recovery time. Conclusions Mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation is impaired only in T2DM patients with neuropathy whether PAD is present or not and is associated with the increased proinflammatory state that was observed in these groups. PMID:23465172

  16. Energy recovery system

    DOEpatents

    Moore, Albert S.; Verhoff, Francis H.

    1980-01-01

    The present invention is directed to an improved wet air oxidation system and method for reducing the chemical oxygen demand (COD) of waste water used from scrubbers of coal gasification plants, with this COD reduction being sufficient to effectively eliminate waste water as an environmental pollutant. The improvement of the present invention is provided by heating the air used in the oxidation process to a temperature substantially equal to the temperature in the oxidation reactor before compressing or pressurizing the air. The compression of the already hot air further heats the air which is then passed in heat exchange with gaseous products of the oxidation reaction for "superheating" the gaseous products prior to the use thereof in turbines as the driving fluid. The superheating of the gaseous products significantly minimizes condensation of gaseous products in the turbine so as to provide a substantially greater recovery of mechanical energy from the process than heretofore achieved.

  17. Wind energy conversion system

    SciTech Connect

    Longrigg, P.

    1987-03-17

    This patent describes a wind energy conversion system comprising: a propeller rotatable by force of wind; a generator of electricity mechanically coupled to the propeller for converting power of the wind to electric power for use by an electric load; means coupled between the generator and the electric load for varying the electric power drawn by the electric load to alter the electric loading of the generator; means for electro-optically sensing the speed of the wind at a location upwind from the propeller; and means coupled between the sensing means and the power varying means for operating the power varying means to adjust the electric load of the generator in accordance with a sensed value of wind speed to thereby obtain a desired ratio of wind speed to the speed of a tip of a blade of the propeller.

  18. Solar Energy: Solar System Economics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Knapp, Henry H., III

    This module on solar system economics is one of six in a series intended for use as supplements to currently available materials on solar energy and energy conservation. Together with the recommended texts and references (sources are identified), these modules provide an effective introduction to energy conservation and solar energy technologies.…

  19. System for controlling a hybrid energy system

    DOEpatents

    Hoff, Brian D.; Akasam, Sivaprasad

    2013-01-29

    A method includes identifying a first operating sequence of a repeated operation of at least one non-traction load. The method also includes determining first and second parameters respectively indicative of a requested energy and output energy of the at least one non-traction load and comparing the determined first and second parameters at a plurality of time increments of the first operating sequence. The method also includes determining a third parameter of the hybrid energy system indicative of energy regenerated from the at least one non-traction load and monitoring the third parameter at the plurality of time increments of the first operating sequence. The method also includes determining at least one of an energy deficiency or an energy surplus associated with the non-traction load of the hybrid energy system and selectively adjusting energy stored within the storage device during at least a portion of a second operating sequence.

  20. Energy system contributions in middle-distance running events.

    PubMed

    Hill, D W

    1999-06-01

    The aim of this study was to estimate the energy contributions in middle-distance running events for male and female university athletes. The oxygen uptake (VO2) response during high-speed running was measured directly during exhaustive treadmill tests. Muscle mass was estimated using anthropometry. Each athlete completed an average of three races over 400 m, 800 m or 1500 m. Five minutes after each race, they provided a blood sample for determination of blood lactate concentration. For each race, energy cost, which was expressed as oxygen equivalents, was calculated as the sum of the aerobic and anaerobic components. The aerobic contribution was calculated as the sum of oxygen stores (2.3 ml O2.kg body mass-1) and total VO2 (based on the VO2 response to treadmill running). The anaerobic contribution was calculated as the sum of the energy available from phosphocreatine stores (37 ml O2.kg muscle mass-1) and the energy from glycolysis (3.0 ml O2.kg body mass-1 per mmol.l-1 increase in blood lactate concentration). For the women, the anaerobic energy contributions for the 400 m, 800 m and 1500 m averaged 62%, 33% and 17%, respectively. For the men, the anaerobic contributions averaged 63%, 39% and 20%, respectively. This information will help coaches and sport scientists to design and implement individualized training programmes.

  1. Energy - A systems problem

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bourke, Roger D.

    1982-01-01

    Energy management in its most comprehensive sense encompasses economic, technical, environmental, and political problems. The present evaluation of prospects notes that opportunities for energy conservation are widespread, in such fields as building air conditioning, transportation, electrical appliances, and industrial processes. Further conservation is expected to be achieved through a combination of technology development and economics; the latter factor must not be unduly influenced by political measures that shield consumers from the true cost of energy.

  2. Terrestrial Energy Storage SPS Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brandhorst, Henry W., Jr.

    1998-01-01

    Terrestrial energy storage systems for the SSP system were evaluated that could maintain the 1.2 GW power level during periods of brief outages from the solar powered satellite (SPS). Short-term outages of ten minutes and long-term outages up to four hours have been identified as "typical" cases where the ground-based energy storage system would be required to supply power to the grid. These brief interruptions in transmission could result from performing maintenance on the solar power satellite or from safety considerations necessitating the power beam be turned off. For example, one situation would be to allow for the safe passage of airplanes through the space occupied by the beam. Under these conditions, the energy storage system needs to be capable of storing 200 MW-hrs and 4.8 GW-hrs, respectively. The types of energy storage systems to be considered include compressed air energy storage, inertial energy storage, electrochemical energy storage, superconducting magnetic energy storage, and pumped hydro energy storage. For each of these technologies, the state-of-the-art in terms of energy and power densities were identified as well as the potential for scaling to the size systems required by the SSP system. Other issues addressed included the performance, life expectancy, cost, and necessary infrastructure and site locations for the various storage technologies.

  3. Stochastic Energy Deployment System

    2011-11-30

    SEDS is an economy-wide energy model of the U.S. The model captures dynamics between supply, demand, and pricing of the major energy types consumed and produced within the U.S. These dynamics are captured by including: the effects of macroeconomics; the resources and costs of primary energy types such as oil, natural gas, coal, and biomass; the conversion of primary fuels into energy products like petroleum products, electricity, biofuels, and hydrogen; and lastly the end- usemore » consumption attributable to residential and commercial buildings, light and heavy transportation, and industry. Projections from SEDS extend to the year 2050 by one-year time steps and are generally projected at the national level. SEDS differs from other economy-wide energy models in that it explicitly accounts for uncertainty in technology, markets, and policy. SEDS has been specifically developed to avoid the computational burden, and sometimes fruitless labor, that comes from modeling significantly low-level details. Instead, SEDS focuses on the major drivers within the energy economy and evaluates the impact of uncertainty around those drivers.« less

  4. Solar Energy Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1981-01-01

    A waste water treatment plant in Wilton, Maine, where sludge is converted to methane gas, and Monsanto Company's Environmental Health Laboratory in St. Louis Missouri, where more than 200 solar collectors provide preheating of boiler feed water for laboratory use are representative of Grumman's Sunstream line of solar energy equipment. This equipment was developed with technology from NASA's Apollo lunar module program.

  5. National Energy Modeling System (NEMS)

    DOE Data Explorer

    The National Energy Modeling System (NEMS) is a computer-based, energy-economy modeling system of U.S. through 2030. NEMS projects the production, imports, conversion, consumption, and prices of energy, subject to assumptions on macroeconomic and financial factors, world energy markets, resource availability and costs, behavioral and technological choice criteria, cost and performance characteristics of energy technologies, and demographics. NEMS was designed and implemented by the Energy Information Administration (EIA) of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE). NEMS can be used to analyze the effects of existing and proposed government laws and regulations related to energy production and use; the potential impact of new and advanced energy production, conversion, and consumption technologies; the impact and cost of greenhouse gas control; the impact of increased use of renewable energy sources; and the potential savings from increased efficiency of energy use; and the impact of regulations on the use of alternative or reformulated fuels. NEMS has also been used for a number of special analyses at the request of the Administration, U.S. Congress, other offices of DOE and other government agencies, who specify the scenarios and assumptions for the analysis. Modules allow analyses to be conducted in energy topic areas such as residential demand, industrial demand, electricity market, oil and gas supply, renewable fuels, etc.

  6. Rotational Electromagnetic Energy Harvesting System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dinulovic, Dragan; Brooks, Michael; Haug, Martin; Petrovic, Tomislav

    This paper presents development of the rotational electromagnetic energy harvesting transducer. The transducer is driven mechanically by pushing a button; therefore, the mechanical energy will be converted into electrical energy. The energy harvesting (EH) transducer consists of multilayer planar coils embedded in a PCB, multipolar NdFeB hard magnets, and a mechanical system for movement conversion. The EH transducer generate an energy of about 4 mJ at a load of 10 Ω. The maximum open circuit output voltage is as high as 2 V and the maximum short circuit output current is 800 mA.

  7. Energy and the food system.

    PubMed

    Woods, Jeremy; Williams, Adrian; Hughes, John K; Black, Mairi; Murphy, Richard

    2010-09-27

    Modern agriculture is heavily dependent on fossil resources. Both direct energy use for crop management and indirect energy use for fertilizers, pesticides and machinery production have contributed to the major increases in food production seen since the 1960s. However, the relationship between energy inputs and yields is not linear. Low-energy inputs can lead to lower yields and perversely to higher energy demands per tonne of harvested product. At the other extreme, increasing energy inputs can lead to ever-smaller yield gains. Although fossil fuels remain the dominant source of energy for agriculture, the mix of fuels used differs owing to the different fertilization and cultivation requirements of individual crops. Nitrogen fertilizer production uses large amounts of natural gas and some coal, and can account for more than 50 per cent of total energy use in commercial agriculture. Oil accounts for between 30 and 75 per cent of energy inputs of UK agriculture, depending on the cropping system. While agriculture remains dependent on fossil sources of energy, food prices will couple to fossil energy prices and food production will remain a significant contributor to anthropogenic greenhouse gas emissions. Technological developments, changes in crop management, and renewable energy will all play important roles in increasing the energy efficiency of agriculture and reducing its reliance of fossil resources.

  8. Energy and the food system

    PubMed Central

    Woods, Jeremy; Williams, Adrian; Hughes, John K.; Black, Mairi; Murphy, Richard

    2010-01-01

    Modern agriculture is heavily dependent on fossil resources. Both direct energy use for crop management and indirect energy use for fertilizers, pesticides and machinery production have contributed to the major increases in food production seen since the 1960s. However, the relationship between energy inputs and yields is not linear. Low-energy inputs can lead to lower yields and perversely to higher energy demands per tonne of harvested product. At the other extreme, increasing energy inputs can lead to ever-smaller yield gains. Although fossil fuels remain the dominant source of energy for agriculture, the mix of fuels used differs owing to the different fertilization and cultivation requirements of individual crops. Nitrogen fertilizer production uses large amounts of natural gas and some coal, and can account for more than 50 per cent of total energy use in commercial agriculture. Oil accounts for between 30 and 75 per cent of energy inputs of UK agriculture, depending on the cropping system. While agriculture remains dependent on fossil sources of energy, food prices will couple to fossil energy prices and food production will remain a significant contributor to anthropogenic greenhouse gas emissions. Technological developments, changes in crop management, and renewable energy will all play important roles in increasing the energy efficiency of agriculture and reducing its reliance of fossil resources. PMID:20713398

  9. Energy and the food system.

    PubMed

    Woods, Jeremy; Williams, Adrian; Hughes, John K; Black, Mairi; Murphy, Richard

    2010-09-27

    Modern agriculture is heavily dependent on fossil resources. Both direct energy use for crop management and indirect energy use for fertilizers, pesticides and machinery production have contributed to the major increases in food production seen since the 1960s. However, the relationship between energy inputs and yields is not linear. Low-energy inputs can lead to lower yields and perversely to higher energy demands per tonne of harvested product. At the other extreme, increasing energy inputs can lead to ever-smaller yield gains. Although fossil fuels remain the dominant source of energy for agriculture, the mix of fuels used differs owing to the different fertilization and cultivation requirements of individual crops. Nitrogen fertilizer production uses large amounts of natural gas and some coal, and can account for more than 50 per cent of total energy use in commercial agriculture. Oil accounts for between 30 and 75 per cent of energy inputs of UK agriculture, depending on the cropping system. While agriculture remains dependent on fossil sources of energy, food prices will couple to fossil energy prices and food production will remain a significant contributor to anthropogenic greenhouse gas emissions. Technological developments, changes in crop management, and renewable energy will all play important roles in increasing the energy efficiency of agriculture and reducing its reliance of fossil resources. PMID:20713398

  10. Steam System Energy Conservation Measures

    SciTech Connect

    Ian Metzger, Jesse Dean

    2010-12-31

    This software requires inputs of simple system inventory information and calculates the energy and cost benefits of various retrofit opportunities. This tool includes energy conservation measures for: fixing steam leaks. This tool calculates energy savings, demand reduction, cost savings, and building life cycle costs including: simple payback, discounted payback, net-present value, and savings to investment ratio. In addition this tool also displays the environmental benefits of a project.

  11. Photovoltaic energy systems: Program summary

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1980-01-01

    The DOE Photovoltaic Energy Systems Program is designed to expand as rapidly as possible the commercial use of photovoltaic systems through a program of research, process development in support of the manufacturing industry, tests and applications, and general support of market development. The objective of the Photovoltaic Energy Systems Program is to reduce system costs to a competitive level in both distributed and centralized grid-connected applications. The program is also examining the technical, institutional, legal, environmental and social issues involved in fostering widespread adoption of photovoltaic energy systems. Activities of the program are divided into the following subprograms: advanced research and development; technology development; systems engineering and standards; test and applications; commercialization; and planning, assessment, and integration. Summary sheets for each of the contractors in this program are presented. The summaries include project title, contractor, contract number, funding, principal investigator, and a brief description of the contract.

  12. Hydrogen energy systems studies

    SciTech Connect

    Ogden, J.M.; Kreutz, T.G.; Steinbugler, M.

    1996-10-01

    In this report the authors describe results from technical and economic assessments carried out during the past year with support from the USDOE Hydrogen R&D Program. (1) Assessment of technologies for small scale production of hydrogen from natural gas. Because of the cost and logistics of transporting and storing hydrogen, it may be preferable to produce hydrogen at the point of use from more readily available energy carriers such as natural gas or electricity. In this task the authors assess near term technologies for producing hydrogen from natural gas at small scale including steam reforming, partial oxidation and autothermal reforming. (2) Case study of developing a hydrogen vehicle refueling infrastructure in Southern California. Many analysts suggest that the first widespread use of hydrogen energy is likely to be in zero emission vehicles in Southern California. Several hundred thousand zero emission automobiles are projected for the Los Angeles Basin alone by 2010, if mandated levels are implemented. Assuming that hydrogen vehicles capture a significant fraction of this market, a large demand for hydrogen fuel could evolve over the next few decades. Refueling a large number of hydrogen vehicles poses significant challenges. In this task the authors assess near term options for producing and delivering gaseous hydrogen transportation fuel to users in Southern California including: (1) hydrogen produced from natural gas in a large, centralized steam reforming plant, and delivered to refueling stations via liquid hydrogen truck or small scale hydrogen gas pipeline, (2) hydrogen produced at the refueling station via small scale steam reforming of natural gas, (3) hydrogen produced via small scale electrolysis at the refueling station, and (4) hydrogen from low cost chemical industry sources (e.g. excess capacity in refineries which have recently upgraded their hydrogen production capacity, etc.).

  13. Integrated roof wind energy system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suma, A. B.; Ferraro, R. M.; Dano, B.; Moonen, S. P. G.

    2012-10-01

    Wind is an attractive renewable source of energy. Recent innovations in research and design have reduced to a few alternatives with limited impact on residential construction. Cost effective solutions have been found at larger scale, but storage and delivery of energy to the actual location it is used, remain a critical issue. The Integrated Roof Wind Energy System is designed to overcome the current issues of urban and larger scale renewable energy system. The system is built up by an axial array of skewed shaped funnels that make use of the Venturi Effect to accelerate the wind flow. This inventive use of shape and geometry leads to a converging air capturing inlet to create high wind mass flow and velocity toward a vertical-axis wind turbine in the top of the roof for generation of a relatively high amount of energy. The methods used in this overview of studies include an array of tools from analytical modelling, PIV wind tunnel testing, and CFD simulation studies. The results define the main design parameters for an efficient system, and show the potential for the generation of high amounts of renewable energy with a novel and effective system suited for the built environment.

  14. Energy optimization system

    DOEpatents

    Zhou, Zhi; de Bedout, Juan Manuel; Kern, John Michael; Biyik, Emrah; Chandra, Ramu Sharat

    2013-01-22

    A system for optimizing customer utility usage in a utility network of customer sites, each having one or more utility devices, where customer site is communicated between each of the customer sites and an optimization server having software for optimizing customer utility usage over one or more networks, including private and public networks. A customer site model for each of the customer sites is generated based upon the customer site information, and the customer utility usage is optimized based upon the customer site information and the customer site model. The optimization server can be hosted by an external source or within the customer site. In addition, the optimization processing can be partitioned between the customer site and an external source.

  15. Electrical Energy Storage for Renewable Energy Systems

    SciTech Connect

    Helms, C. R.; Cho, K. J.; Ferraris, John; Balkus, Ken; Chabal, Yves; Gnade, Bruce; Rotea, Mario; Vasselli, John

    2012-08-31

    This program focused on development of the fundamental understanding necessary to significantly improve advanced battery and ultra-capacitor materials and systems to achieve significantly higher power and energy density on the one hand, and significantly lower cost on the other. This program spanned all the way from atomic-level theory, to new nanomaterials syntheses and characterization, to system modeling and bench-scale technology demonstration. Significant accomplishments are detailed in each section. Those particularly noteworthy include: • Transition metal silicate cathodes with 2x higher storage capacity than commercial cobalt oxide cathodes were demonstrated. • MnO₂ nanowires, which are a promising replacement for RuO₂, were synthesized • PAN-based carbon nanofibers were prepared and characterized with an energy density 30-times higher than current ultracapacitors on the market and comparable to lead-acid batteries • An optimization-based control strategy for real-time power management of battery storage in wind farms was developed and demonstrated. • PVDF films were developed with breakdown strengths of > 600MVm⁻¹, a maximum energy density of approximately 15 Jcm⁻³, and an average dielectric constant of 9.8 (±1.2). Capacitors made from these films can support a 10-year lifetime operating at an electric field of 200 MV m⁻¹. This program not only delivered significant advancements in fundamental understanding and new materials and technology, it also showcased the power of the cross-functional, multi-disciplinary teams at UT Dallas and UT Tyler for such work. These teams are continuing this work with other sources of funding from both industry and government.

  16. Industrial energy systems and assessment opportunities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barringer, Frank Leonard, III

    Industrial energy assessments are performed primarily to increase energy system efficiency and reduce energy costs in industrial facilities. The most common energy systems are lighting, compressed air, steam, process heating, HVAC, pumping, and fan systems, and these systems are described in this document. ASME has produced energy assessment standards for four energy systems, and these systems include compressed air, steam, process heating, and pumping systems. ASHRAE has produced an energy assessment standard for HVAC systems. Software tools for energy systems were developed for the DOE, and there are software tools for almost all of the most common energy systems. The software tools are AIRMaster+ and LogTool for compressed air systems, SSAT and 3E Plus for steam systems, PHAST and 3E Plus for process heating systems, eQUEST for HVAC systems, PSAT for pumping systems, and FSAT for fan systems. The recommended assessment procedures described in this thesis are used to set up an energy assessment for an industrial facility, collect energy system data, and analyze the energy system data. The assessment recommendations (ARs) are opportunities to increase efficiency and reduce energy consumption for energy systems. A set of recommended assessment procedures and recommended assessment opportunities are presented for each of the most common energy systems. There are many assessment opportunities for industrial facilities, and this thesis describes forty-three ARs for the seven different energy systems. There are seven ARs for lighting systems, ten ARs for compressed air systems, eight ARs for boiler and steam systems, four ARs for process heating systems, six ARs for HVAC systems, and four ARs for both pumping and fan systems. Based on a history of past assessments, average potential energy savings and typical implementation costs are shared in this thesis for most ARs. Implementing these ARs will increase efficiency and reduce energy consumption for energy systems in

  17. Health risks of energy systems.

    PubMed

    Krewitt, W; Hurley, F; Trukenmüller, A; Friedrich, R

    1998-08-01

    Health risks from fossil, renewable and nuclear reference energy systems are estimated following a detailed impact pathway approach. Using a set of appropriate air quality models and exposure-effect functions derived from the recent epidemiological literature, a methodological framework for risk assessment has been established and consistently applied across the different energy systems, including the analysis of consequences from a major nuclear accident. A wide range of health impacts resulting from increased air pollution and ionizing radiation is quantified, and the transferability of results derived from specific power plants to a more general context is discussed. PMID:9775447

  18. Enhanced distributed energy resource system

    DOEpatents

    Atcitty, Stanley; Clark, Nancy H.; Boyes, John D.; Ranade, Satishkumar J.

    2007-07-03

    A power transmission system including a direct current power source electrically connected to a conversion device for converting direct current into alternating current, a conversion device connected to a power distribution system through a junction, an energy storage device capable of producing direct current connected to a converter, where the converter, such as an insulated gate bipolar transistor, converts direct current from an energy storage device into alternating current and supplies the current to the junction and subsequently to the power distribution system. A microprocessor controller, connected to a sampling and feedback module and the converter, determines when the current load is higher than a set threshold value, requiring triggering of the converter to supply supplemental current to the power transmission system.

  19. Hydraulic wind energy conversion system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1981-07-01

    The purpose of this reseach was to design, build and test a hydraulic wind energy system. This design used a three bladed turbine, which drove a hydraulic pump. The energy is transmitted from the pump through a long hose and into a hydraulic motor, where the energy is used. This wind system was built and tested during the winter of 1980-1981. The power train included a five meter, three bladed wind turbine, a 9.8:1 ratio gearbox, a 1.44 cubic inch displacement pump with a small supercharge gear pump attached. The hydraulic fluid was pumped through a 70 ft, 3/4 in. I-D-high pressure flexhose, then through a volume control valve and into a 1.44 cubic inch displacement motor. The fluid was returned through a 7 ft, 1 in. I-D-flexhose.

  20. Application of Energy Storage in Power Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alqunun, Khalid M.

    The purpose of this research is to determine the advantages of using energy storage systems. This study presents a model for energy storage in electric power systems. The model involves methods of reducing the operation cost of a power network and the calculation of capital cost of energy storage systems. Two test systems have been considered, the IEEE six-bus system and the IEEE 118-bus system, to analyze the impact of energy storage on power system economic operation. Properties of energy storage have been considered such as rated power investment cost and rated energy investment cost. Mixed integer programming has been used to formulate the model. A comparison between centralized energy storage system and distributed energy storage system have been proposed. The results show that distributed energy storage system has more impact on reducing total operation cost. Also, an analysis on optimal sizing of energy storage system with fixed investment cost is provided.

  1. Nuclear Hybrid Energy Systems: Molten Salt Energy Storage

    SciTech Connect

    P. Sabharwall; M. Green; S.J. Yoon; S.M. Bragg-Sitton; C. Stoots

    2014-07-01

    With growing concerns in the production of reliable energy sources, the next generation in reliable power generation, hybrid energy systems, are being developed to stabilize these growing energy needs. The hybrid energy system incorporates multiple inputs and multiple outputs. The vitality and efficiency of these systems resides in the energy storage application. Energy storage is necessary for grid stabilizing and storing the overproduction of energy to meet peak demands of energy at the time of need. With high thermal energy production of the primary nuclear heat generation source, molten salt energy storage is an intriguing option because of its distinct properties. This paper will discuss the different energy storage options with the criteria for efficient energy storage set forth, and will primarily focus on different molten salt energy storage system options through a thermodynamic analysis

  2. Energy Systems and Population Health

    SciTech Connect

    Ezzati, Majid; Bailis, Rob; Kammen, Daniel M.; Holloway, Tracey; Price, Lynn; Cifuentes, Luis A.; Barnes, Brendon; Chaurey, Akanksha; Dhanapala, Kiran N.

    2004-04-12

    It is well-documented that energy and energy systems have a central role in social and economic development and human welfare at all scales, from household and community to regional and national (41). Among its various welfare effects, energy is closely linked with people s health. Some of the effects of energy on health and welfare are direct. With abundant energy, more food or more frequent meals can be prepared; food can be refrigerated, increasing the types of food items that are consumed and reducing food contamination; water pumps can provide more water and eliminate the need for water storage leading to contamination or increased exposure to disease vectors such as mosquitoes or snails; water can be disinfected by boiling or using other technologies such as radiation. Other effects of energy on public health are mediated through more proximal determinants of health and disease. Abundant energy can lead to increased irrigation, agricultural productivity, and access to food and nutrition; access to energy can also increase small-scale income generation such as processing of agricultural commodities (e.g., producing refined oil from oil seeds, roasting coffee, drying and preserving fruits and meats) and production of crafts; ability to control lighting and heating allows education or economic activities to be shielded from daily or seasonal environmental constraints such as light, temperature, rainfall, or wind; time and other economic resources spent on collecting and/or transporting fuels can be used for other household needs if access to energy is facilitated; energy availability for transportation increases access to health and education facilities and allow increased economic activity by facilitating the transportation of goods and services to and from markets; energy for telecommunication technology (radio, television, telephone, or internet) provides increased access to information useful for health, education, or economic purposes; provision of energy

  3. Energy savings potential from energy-conserving irrigation systems

    SciTech Connect

    Wilfert, G.L.; Patton, W.P.; Harrer, B.J.; Clark, M.A.

    1982-11-01

    This report systematically compares, within a consistent framework, the technical and economic characteristics of energy-conserving irrigation systems with those of conventional irrigation systems and to determine total energy savings. Levelized annual costs of owning and operating both energy-conserving and conventional irrigation systems have been developed and compared for all 17 states to account for the differences in energy costs and irrigation conditions in each state. Market penetration of energy-conserving systems is assessed for those systems having lower levelized annual costs than conventional systems performing the same function. Annual energy savings were computed by matching the energy savings per system with an assumed maximum market penetration of 100 percent in those markets where the levelized annual costs of energy-conserving systems are lower than the levelized annual costs of conventional systems.

  4. Universal solar energy desalination system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fusco, V. S.

    Design considerations to allow site-dependent flexibility in the choice of solar/wind powered desalinization plant configurations are discussed. A prototype design was developed for construction of 6300 cu m per day brackish water treatment in Brownsville, TX. The water is treated to reduce the amount of suspended solids and prevent scaling. A reverse osmosis unit processes the treated liquid to recover water at a ratio of 90%. The power system comprises a parabolic trough solar thermal system with an organic Rankine cycle generator, rock-oil thermal storage, and 200 kW wind turbines. Analysis of the complementarity of the solar and wind subsystems indicates that at any site one system will supplement the other. Energy storage, e.g., battery banks, would increase system costs to unacceptable levels. Climatic conditions will significantly influence the sizing of each segment of the total power system.

  5. Landing gear energy absorption system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hansen, Christopher P. (Inventor)

    1994-01-01

    A landing pad system is described for absorbing horizontal and vertical impact forces upon engagement with a landing surface where circumferentially arranged landing struts respectively have a clevis which receives a slidable rod member and where the upper portion of a slidable rod member is coupled to the clevis by friction washers which are force fit onto the rod member to provide for controlled constant force energy absorption when the rod member moves relative to the clevis. The lower end of the friction rod is pivotally attached by a ball and socket to a support plate where the support plate is arranged to slide in a transverse direction relative to a housing which contains an energy absorption material for absorbing energy in a transverse direction.

  6. Hydrogen energy systems technology study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kelley, J. H.

    1975-01-01

    The paper discusses the objectives of a hydrogen energy systems technology study directed toward determining future demand for hydrogen based on current trends and anticipated new uses and identifying the critical research and technology advancements required to meet this need with allowance for raw material limitations, economics, and environmental effects. Attention is focused on historic production and use of hydrogen, scenarios used as a basis for projections, projections of energy sources and uses, supply options, and technology requirements and needs. The study found more than a billion dollar annual usage of hydrogen, dominated by chemical-industry needs, supplied mostly from natural gas and petroleum feedstocks. Evaluation of the progress in developing nuclear fusion and solar energy sources relative to hydrogen production will be necessary to direct the pace and character of research and technology work in the advanced water-splitting areas.

  7. Terrestrial solar thermionic energy conversion systems concept

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shimada, K.; Swerdling, M.

    1975-01-01

    Results obtained from studies of a (1) solar concentrator, (2) solar energy receiver - thermionic converter system, and (3) solar thermionic topping system are described. Peripheral subsystems, which are required for any solar energy conversion system, are also discussed.

  8. Application of the Principles of Systems Biology and Wiener’s Cybernetics for Analysis of Regulation of Energy Fluxes in Muscle Cells in Vivo

    PubMed Central

    Guzun, Rita; Saks, Valdur

    2010-01-01

    The mechanisms of regulation of respiration and energy fluxes in the cells are analyzed based on the concepts of systems biology, non-equilibrium steady state kinetics and applications of Wiener’s cybernetic principles of feedback regulation. Under physiological conditions cardiac function is governed by the Frank-Starling law and the main metabolic characteristic of cardiac muscle cells is metabolic homeostasis, when both workload and respiration rate can be changed manifold at constant intracellular level of phosphocreatine and ATP in the cells. This is not observed in skeletal muscles. Controversies in theoretical explanations of these observations are analyzed. Experimental studies of permeabilized fibers from human skeletal muscle vastus lateralis and adult rat cardiomyocytes showed that the respiration rate is always an apparent hyperbolic but not a sigmoid function of ADP concentration. It is our conclusion that realistic explanations of regulation of energy fluxes in muscle cells require systemic approaches including application of the feedback theory of Wiener’s cybernetics in combination with detailed experimental research. Such an analysis reveals the importance of limited permeability of mitochondrial outer membrane for ADP due to interactions of mitochondria with cytoskeleton resulting in quasi-linear dependence of respiration rate on amplitude of cyclic changes in cytoplasmic ADP concentrations. The system of compartmentalized creatine kinase (CK) isoenzymes functionally coupled to ANT and ATPases, and mitochondrial-cytoskeletal interactions separate energy fluxes (mass and energy transfer) from signalling (information transfer) within dissipative metabolic structures – intracellular energetic units (ICEU). Due to the non-equilibrium state of CK reactions, intracellular ATP utilization and mitochondrial ATP regeneration are interconnected by the PCr flux from mitochondria. The feedback regulation of respiration occurring via cyclic fluctuations

  9. Application of the principles of systems biology and Wiener's cybernetics for analysis of regulation of energy fluxes in muscle cells in vivo.

    PubMed

    Guzun, Rita; Saks, Valdur

    2010-03-08

    The mechanisms of regulation of respiration and energy fluxes in the cells are analyzed based on the concepts of systems biology, non-equilibrium steady state kinetics and applications of Wiener's cybernetic principles of feedback regulation. Under physiological conditions cardiac function is governed by the Frank-Starling law and the main metabolic characteristic of cardiac muscle cells is metabolic homeostasis, when both workload and respiration rate can be changed manifold at constant intracellular level of phosphocreatine and ATP in the cells. This is not observed in skeletal muscles. Controversies in theoretical explanations of these observations are analyzed. Experimental studies of permeabilized fibers from human skeletal muscle vastus lateralis and adult rat cardiomyocytes showed that the respiration rate is always an apparent hyperbolic but not a sigmoid function of ADP concentration. It is our conclusion that realistic explanations of regulation of energy fluxes in muscle cells require systemic approaches including application of the feedback theory of Wiener's cybernetics in combination with detailed experimental research. Such an analysis reveals the importance of limited permeability of mitochondrial outer membrane for ADP due to interactions of mitochondria with cytoskeleton resulting in quasi-linear dependence of respiration rate on amplitude of cyclic changes in cytoplasmic ADP concentrations. The system of compartmentalized creatine kinase (CK) isoenzymes functionally coupled to ANT and ATPases, and mitochondrial-cytoskeletal interactions separate energy fluxes (mass and energy transfer) from signalling (information transfer) within dissipative metabolic structures - intracellular energetic units (ICEU). Due to the non-equilibrium state of CK reactions, intracellular ATP utilization and mitochondrial ATP regeneration are interconnected by the PCr flux from mitochondria. The feedback regulation of respiration occurring via cyclic fluctuations of

  10. A System of Systems Approach to the EU Energy System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jess, Tom; Madani, Kaveh; Mahlooji, Maral; Ristic, Bora

    2016-04-01

    Around the world, measures to prevent dangerous climate change are being adopted and may change energy systems fundamentally. The European Union (EU) is committed to reducing greenhouse gas emission by 20% by 2020 and by 80-95% by 2050. In order to achieve this, EU member states aim to increase the share of renewables in the energy mix to 20% by 2020. This commitment comes as part of a series of other aims, principles, and policies to reform the EU's energy system. Cost-efficiency in the emissions reductions measures as well as strategic goals under the Resource Efficient Europe flagship initiative which would include a more prudent approach to other natural resources such as water and land. Using the "System of Systems Approach", as from Hadian and Madani (2015), energy sources' Relative Aggregate Footprints (RAF) in the EU are evaluated. RAF aggregates across four criteria: carbon footprint, water footprint, land footprint, and economic cost. The four criteria are weighted by resource availability across the EU and for each Member State. This provides an evaluation of the overall resource use efficiency of the EU's energy portfolio and gives insight into the differences in the desirability of energy sources across Member States. Broadly, nuclear, onshore wind, and geothermal are most desirable under equal criteria weights and EU average weighting introduces only small changes in the relative performance of only few technologies. The member state specific weightings show that most countries have similar energy technology preferences. However, the UK deviates most strongly from the average, with an even stronger preference for nuclear and coal. Sweden, Malta and Finland also deviate from the typical preferences indicating the complexity in play in reforming the EU energy system. Reference Hadian S, Madani K (2015) A System of Systems Approach to Energy Sustainability Assessment: Are All Renewables Really Green? Ecological Indicators, 52, 194-206.

  11. Research for electric energy systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anderson, W. E.

    1993-10-01

    This report documents the technical progress in the two investigations which make up the project 'Support of Research Projects for Electrical Energy Systems,' Department of Energy Task Order Number 137, funded by the US Department of Energy and performed by the Electricity Division of the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST). The first investigation is concerned with the measurement of magnetic fields in support of epidemiogical and in vitro studies of biological field effects. During 1992, the derivation of equations which predict differences between the average magnetic flux density using circular coil probes and the flux density at the center of the probe, assuming a dipole magnetic field, were completed. The information gained using these equations allows the determination of measurement uncertainty due to probe size when magnetic fields from many electrical appliances are characterized. Consultations with various state and federal organizations and the development of standards related to electric and magnetic field measurements continued. The second investigation is concerned with two different activities related to compressed-gas insulated high voltage systems: the measurement of dissociative electron attachment cross sections and negative ion production in S2F10, S2OF10, and S2O2F10, and Monte-Carlo simulations of ac-generated partial-discharge pulses that can occur in SF6-insulated power systems and can be sources of gas decomposition.

  12. Dynamic Analysis of Nuclear Energy System Strategies

    SciTech Connect

    Den Durpel, Luc Van

    2004-06-17

    DANESS is an integrated process model for nuclear energy systems allowing the simulation of multiple reactors and fuel cycles in a continuously changing nuclear reactor park configuration. The model is energy demand driven and simulates all nuclear fuel cycle facilites, up to 10 reactors and fuels. Reactor and fuel cycle facility history are traced and the cost of generating energy is calculated per reactor and for total nuclear energy system. The DANESS model aims at performing dynamic systems analysis of nuclear energy development used for integrated analysis of development paths for nuclear energy, parameter scoping for new nuclear energy systems, economic analysis of nuclear energy, government role analysis, and education.

  13. NASA presentation. [wind energy conversion systems planning

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thomas, R. L.

    1973-01-01

    The development of a wind energy system is outlined that supplies reliable energy at a cost competitive with other energy systems. A government directed industry program with strong university support is recommended that includes meteorological studies to estimate wind energy potentials and determines favorable regions and sites for wind power installations. Key phases of the overall program are wind energy conversion systems, meteorological wind studies, energy storage systems, and environmental impact studies. Performance testing with a prototype wind energy conversion and storage system is projected for Fiscal 1977.

  14. Magnetic Resonance Imaging of Phosphocreatine and Determination of BOLD Kinetics in Lower Extremity Muscles using a Dual-Frequency Coil Array

    PubMed Central

    Brown, Ryan; Khegai, Oleksandr; Parasoglou, Prodromos

    2016-01-01

    Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) provides the unique ability to study metabolic and microvasculature functions in skeletal muscle using phosphorus and proton measurements. However, the low sensitivity of these techniques can make it difficult to capture dynamic muscle activity due to the temporal resolution required for kinetic measurements during and after exercise tasks. Here, we report the design of a dual-nuclei coil array that enables proton and phosphorus MRI of the human lower extremities with high spatial and temporal resolution. We developed an array with whole-volume coverage of the calf and a phosphorus signal-to-noise ratio of more than double that of a birdcage coil in the gastrocnemius muscles. This enabled the local assessment of phosphocreatine recovery kinetics following a plantar flexion exercise using an efficient sampling scheme with a 6 s temporal resolution. The integrated proton array demonstrated image quality approximately equal to that of a clinical state-of-the-art knee coil, which enabled fat quantification and dynamic blood oxygen level-dependent measurements that reflect microvasculature function. The developed array and time-efficient pulse sequences were combined to create a localized assessment of calf metabolism using phosphorus measurements and vasculature function using proton measurements, which could provide new insights into muscle function. PMID:27465636

  15. Magnetic Resonance Imaging of Phosphocreatine and Determination of BOLD Kinetics in Lower Extremity Muscles using a Dual-Frequency Coil Array

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brown, Ryan; Khegai, Oleksandr; Parasoglou, Prodromos

    2016-07-01

    Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) provides the unique ability to study metabolic and microvasculature functions in skeletal muscle using phosphorus and proton measurements. However, the low sensitivity of these techniques can make it difficult to capture dynamic muscle activity due to the temporal resolution required for kinetic measurements during and after exercise tasks. Here, we report the design of a dual-nuclei coil array that enables proton and phosphorus MRI of the human lower extremities with high spatial and temporal resolution. We developed an array with whole-volume coverage of the calf and a phosphorus signal-to-noise ratio of more than double that of a birdcage coil in the gastrocnemius muscles. This enabled the local assessment of phosphocreatine recovery kinetics following a plantar flexion exercise using an efficient sampling scheme with a 6 s temporal resolution. The integrated proton array demonstrated image quality approximately equal to that of a clinical state-of-the-art knee coil, which enabled fat quantification and dynamic blood oxygen level-dependent measurements that reflect microvasculature function. The developed array and time-efficient pulse sequences were combined to create a localized assessment of calf metabolism using phosphorus measurements and vasculature function using proton measurements, which could provide new insights into muscle function.

  16. A 31P NMR spectroscopy study of Xenopus laevis heart perfused in vitro with creatinol-O-phosphate, phosphocreatine, adenosine triphosphate, fructose diphosphate and ouabain.

    PubMed

    Olsen, J I; Rossini, P; Schweizer, M P; Bernardi, M; Moretti, V; Re, L; Rossini, L

    1993-09-01

    Xenopus laevis heart was studied by 31P NMR using a 200 MHz proton spectrometer; hearts were perfused, at pH 7.35 and room temperature, with normal oxygenated or K(+)-enriched Ringer. Solution was later added with creatinol-O-phosphate (COP), phosphocreatine (PCr), adenosine triphosphate (ATP), fructose-1,6-diphosphate (FDP) and ouabain. NMR spectra of the heart show organic phosphomono- and phosphodi-esters, inorganic phosphate, PCr, overlapping alpha-ATP/ADP and gamma-ATP/beta-ADP, and beta-ATP signals. Their chemical shift positions and areas showed no significant changes in the course of 1.5 h perfusions with either solution, except in a few preparations, whether the heart was beating or reversibly arrested. While COP reduced the signals in beating hearts, the same spectra exhibited no consistent, substantial changes under PCr, ATP and FDP 1 to 10 mM, pH 7.35 perfusion with either solution, nor when ouabain mumol was added. The spectra are briefly discussed in comparison with those observed in the perfused heart of mammals (mostly rat), and particularly with those obtained in the frog (Rana temporaria) heart, both by analysing the bioenergetic equilibria on the basis of total tissue substrate levels measured in extracts of freeze-clamped tissue, and by evaluating cytochrome-b, flavin and pyridine nucleotide in vitro oxido-reduction read-outs in separate, similar experimental settings.

  17. Magnetic Resonance Imaging of Phosphocreatine and Determination of BOLD Kinetics in Lower Extremity Muscles using a Dual-Frequency Coil Array.

    PubMed

    Brown, Ryan; Khegai, Oleksandr; Parasoglou, Prodromos

    2016-01-01

    Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) provides the unique ability to study metabolic and microvasculature functions in skeletal muscle using phosphorus and proton measurements. However, the low sensitivity of these techniques can make it difficult to capture dynamic muscle activity due to the temporal resolution required for kinetic measurements during and after exercise tasks. Here, we report the design of a dual-nuclei coil array that enables proton and phosphorus MRI of the human lower extremities with high spatial and temporal resolution. We developed an array with whole-volume coverage of the calf and a phosphorus signal-to-noise ratio of more than double that of a birdcage coil in the gastrocnemius muscles. This enabled the local assessment of phosphocreatine recovery kinetics following a plantar flexion exercise using an efficient sampling scheme with a 6 s temporal resolution. The integrated proton array demonstrated image quality approximately equal to that of a clinical state-of-the-art knee coil, which enabled fat quantification and dynamic blood oxygen level-dependent measurements that reflect microvasculature function. The developed array and time-efficient pulse sequences were combined to create a localized assessment of calf metabolism using phosphorus measurements and vasculature function using proton measurements, which could provide new insights into muscle function. PMID:27465636

  18. Magnetic Resonance Imaging of Phosphocreatine and Determination of BOLD Kinetics in Lower Extremity Muscles using a Dual-Frequency Coil Array.

    PubMed

    Brown, Ryan; Khegai, Oleksandr; Parasoglou, Prodromos

    2016-07-28

    Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) provides the unique ability to study metabolic and microvasculature functions in skeletal muscle using phosphorus and proton measurements. However, the low sensitivity of these techniques can make it difficult to capture dynamic muscle activity due to the temporal resolution required for kinetic measurements during and after exercise tasks. Here, we report the design of a dual-nuclei coil array that enables proton and phosphorus MRI of the human lower extremities with high spatial and temporal resolution. We developed an array with whole-volume coverage of the calf and a phosphorus signal-to-noise ratio of more than double that of a birdcage coil in the gastrocnemius muscles. This enabled the local assessment of phosphocreatine recovery kinetics following a plantar flexion exercise using an efficient sampling scheme with a 6 s temporal resolution. The integrated proton array demonstrated image quality approximately equal to that of a clinical state-of-the-art knee coil, which enabled fat quantification and dynamic blood oxygen level-dependent measurements that reflect microvasculature function. The developed array and time-efficient pulse sequences were combined to create a localized assessment of calf metabolism using phosphorus measurements and vasculature function using proton measurements, which could provide new insights into muscle function.

  19. Integrated Energy System Dispatch Optimization

    SciTech Connect

    Firestone, Ryan; Stadler, Michael; Marnay, Chris

    2006-06-16

    On-site cogeneration of heat and electricity, thermal and electrical storage, and curtailing/rescheduling demand options are often cost-effective to commercial and industrial sites. This collection of equipment and responsive consumption can be viewed as an integrated energy system(IES). The IES can best meet the sites cost or environmental objectives when controlled in a coordinated manner. However, continuously determining this optimal IES dispatch is beyond the expectations for operators of smaller systems. A new algorithm is proposed in this paper to approximately solve the real-time dispatch optimization problem for a generic IES containing an on-site cogeneration system subject to random outages, limited curtailment opportunities, an intermittent renewable electricity source, and thermal storage. An example demonstrates how this algorithm can be used in simulation to estimate the value of IES components.

  20. Systemic Oxidative Stress Is Associated With Lower Aerobic Capacity and Impaired Skeletal Muscle Energy Metabolism in Patients With Metabolic Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Yokota, Takashi; Kinugawa, Shintaro; Yamato, Mayumi; Hirabayashi, Kagami; Suga, Tadashi; Takada, Shingo; Harada, Kuniaki; Morita, Noriteru; Oyama-Manabe, Noriko; Kikuchi, Yasuka; Okita, Koichi; Tsutsui, Hiroyuki

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVE Systemic oxidative stress is associated with insulin resistance and obesity. We tested the hypothesis that systemic oxidative stress is linked to lower aerobic capacity and skeletal muscle dysfunction in metabolic syndrome (MetS). RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS The incremental exercise testing with cycle ergometer was performed in 14 male patients with MetS and 13 age-, sex-, and activity-matched healthy subjects. Systemic lipid peroxidation was assessed by serum thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS), and systemic antioxidant defense capacity was assessed by serum total thiols and enzymatic activity of superoxide dismutase (SOD). To assess skeletal muscle energy metabolism, we measured high-energy phosphates in the calf muscle during plantar flexion exercise and intramyocellular lipid (IMCL) in the resting leg muscle, using 31P- and 1proton-magnetic resonance spectroscopy, respectively. RESULTS Serum TBARS were elevated (12.4 ± 7.1 vs. 3.7 ± 1.1 μmol/L; P < 0.01), and serum total thiols and SOD activity were decreased (290.8 ± 51.2 vs. 398.7 ± 105.2 μmol/L, P < 0.01; and 22.2 ± 8.4 vs. 31.5 ± 8.5 units/L, P < 0.05, respectively) in patients with MetS compared with healthy subjects. Peak VO2 and anaerobic threshold normalized to body weight were significantly lower in MetS patients by 25 and 31%, respectively, and inversely correlated with serum TBARS (r = −0.49 and r = −0.50, respectively). Moreover, muscle phosphocreatine loss during exercise was 1.4-fold greater in patients with MetS (P < 0.05), and IMCL content was 2.9-fold higher in patients with MetS (P < 0.01), indicating impaired skeletal muscle energy metabolism, and these indices positively correlated with serum TBARS (r = 0.45 and r = 0.63, respectively). CONCLUSIONS Systemic oxidative stress was associated with lower aerobic capacity and impaired skeletal muscle energy metabolism in patients with MetS. PMID:23393211

  1. Decentalized solar photovoltaic energy systems

    SciTech Connect

    Krupka, M. C.

    1980-09-01

    Environmental data for decentralized solar photovoltaic systems have been generated in support of the Technology Assessment of Solar Energy Systems program (TASE). Emphasis has been placed upon the selection and use of a model residential photovoltaic system to develop and quantify the necessary data. The model consists of a reference home located in Phoenix, AZ, utilizing a unique solar cell array-roof shingle combination. Silicon solar cells, rated at 13.5% efficiency at 28/sup 0/C and 100 mW/cm/sup 2/ (AMI) insolation are used to generate approx. 10 kW (peak). An all-electric home is considered with lead-acid battery storage, dc-ac inversion and utility backup. The reference home is compared to others in regions of different insolation. Major material requirements, scaled to quad levels of end-use energy include significant quantities of silicon, copper, lead, antimony, sulfuric acid and plastics. Operating residuals generated are negligible with the exception of those from the storage battery due to a short (10-year) lifetime. A brief general discussion of other environmental, health, and safety and resource availability impacts is presented. It is suggested that solar cell materials production and fabrication may have the major environmental impact when comparing all facets of photovoltaic system usage. Fabrication of the various types of solar cell systems involves the need, handling, and transportation of many toxic and hazardous chemicals with attendant health and safety impacts. Increases in production of such materials as lead, antimony, sulfuric acid, copper, plastics, cadmium and gallium will be required should large scale usage of photovoltaic systems be implemented.

  2. Integrated solar energy system optimization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Young, S. K.

    1982-11-01

    The computer program SYSOPT, intended as a tool for optimizing the subsystem sizing, performance, and economics of integrated wind and solar energy systems, is presented. The modular structure of the methodology additionally allows simulations when the solar subsystems are combined with conventional technologies, e.g., a utility grid. Hourly energy/mass flow balances are computed for interconnection points, yielding optimized sizing and time-dependent operation of various subsystems. The program requires meteorological data, such as insolation, diurnal and seasonal variations, and wind speed at the hub height of a wind turbine, all of which can be taken from simulations like the TRNSYS program. Examples are provided for optimization of a solar-powered (wind turbine and parabolic trough-Rankine generator) desalinization plant, and a design analysis for a solar powered greenhouse.

  3. Advanced Energy Efficient Roof System

    SciTech Connect

    Jane Davidson

    2008-09-30

    Energy consumption in buildings represents 40 percent of primary U.S. energy consumption, split almost equally between residential (22%) and commercial (18%) buildings.1 Space heating (31%) and cooling (12%) account for approximately 9 quadrillion Btu. Improvements in the building envelope can have a significant impact on reducing energy consumption. Thermal losses (or gains) from the roof make up 14 percent of the building component energy load. Infiltration through the building envelope, including the roof, accounts for an additional 28 percent of the heating loads and 16 percent of the cooling loads. These figures provide a strong incentive to develop and implement more energy efficient roof systems. The roof is perhaps the most challenging component of the building envelope to change for many reasons. The engineered roof truss, which has been around since 1956, is relatively low cost and is the industry standard. The roof has multiple functions. A typical wood frame home lasts a long time. Building codes vary across the country. Customer and trade acceptance of new building products and materials may impede market penetration. The energy savings of a new roof system must be balanced with other requirements such as first and life-cycle costs, durability, appearance, and ease of construction. Conventional residential roof construction utilizes closely spaced roof trusses supporting a layer of sheathing and roofing materials. Gypsum board is typically attached to the lower chord of the trusses forming the finished ceiling for the occupied space. Often in warmer climates, the HVAC system and ducts are placed in the unconditioned and otherwise unusable attic. High temperature differentials and leaky ducts result in thermal losses. Penetrations through the ceilings are notoriously difficult to seal and lead to moisture and air infiltration. These issues all contribute to greater energy use and have led builders to consider construction of a conditioned attic. The

  4. Battery storage for supplementing renewable energy systems

    SciTech Connect

    None, None

    2009-01-18

    The battery storage for renewable energy systems section of the Renewable Energy Technology Characterizations describes structures and models to support the technical and economic status of emerging renewable energy options for electricity supply.

  5. NEMS - National Energy Modeling System: An Overview

    EIA Publications

    2009-01-01

    The National Energy Modeling System: An Overview 2009 a summary description of NEMS and each of its components. NEMS is a computer-based, energy-economy modeling system of energy markets for the midterm period through 2030. The NEMS is used to produce the Annual Energy Outlook.

  6. NUCLEAR ENERGY SYSTEM COST MODELING

    SciTech Connect

    Francesco Ganda; Brent Dixon

    2012-09-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy’s Fuel Cycle Technologies (FCT) Program is preparing to perform an evaluation of the full range of possible Nuclear Energy Systems (NES) in 2013. These include all practical combinations of fuels and transmuters (reactors and sub-critical systems) in single and multi-tier combinations of burners and breeders with no, partial, and full recycle. As part of this evaluation, Levelized Cost of Electricity at Equilibrium (LCAE) ranges for each representative system will be calculated. To facilitate the cost analyses, the 2009 Advanced Fuel Cycle Cost Basis Report is being amended to provide up-to-date cost data for each step in the fuel cycle, and a new analysis tool, NE-COST, has been developed. This paper explains the innovative “Island” approach used by NE-COST to streamline and simplify the economic analysis effort and provides examples of LCAE costs generated. The Island approach treats each transmuter (or target burner) and the associated fuel cycle facilities as a separate analysis module, allowing reuse of modules that appear frequently in the NES options list. For example, a number of options to be screened will include a once-through uranium oxide (UOX) fueled light water reactor (LWR). The UOX LWR may be standalone, or may be the first stage in a multi-stage system. Using the Island approach, the UOX LWR only needs to be modeled once and the module can then be reused on subsequent fuel cycles. NE-COST models the unit operations and life cycle costs associated with each step of the fuel cycle on each island. This includes three front-end options for supplying feedstock to fuel fabrication (mining/enrichment, reprocessing of used fuel from another island, and/or reprocessing of this island’s used fuel), along with the transmuter and back-end storage/disposal. Results of each island are combined based on the fractional energy generated by each islands in an equilibrium system. The cost analyses use the probability

  7. Career Directions--Renewable Energy Systems Integrator

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fleeman, Stephen R.

    2012-01-01

    Renewable energy systems are beginning to appear everywhere. Solar modules are creating "blue roofs" that convert the energy from the sun into household electricity. Solar thermal systems on roofs can generate hot water. Wind turbines catch breezes to provide even more electricity. Recommendations for saving energy, specifying systems for…

  8. Renewable energy delivery systems and methods

    DOEpatents

    Walker, Howard Andrew

    2013-12-10

    A system, method and/or apparatus for the delivery of energy at a site, at least a portion of the energy being delivered by at least one or more of a plurality of renewable energy technologies, the system and method including calculating the load required by the site for the period; calculating the amount of renewable energy for the period, including obtaining a capacity and a percentage of the period for the renewable energy to be delivered; comparing the total load to the renewable energy available; and, implementing one or both of additional and alternative renewable energy sources for delivery of energy to the site.

  9. SMES for wind energy systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paul Antony, Anish

    simulation results the utility of SMES in voltage sag mitigation for momentary interruptions. The 1MJ SMES mitigates voltage sags for a useful duration ~50 seconds. In conclusion (Chapter 7), we believe that in this dissertation, we have documented the design of SMES for both momentary and sustained interruptions in wind turbines. We have put forth some novel and relevant hypotheses, developed and performed suitable simulation studies to validate these hypotheses. By doing so, we have been able to expand our knowledge in our quest to grasp the underlying mechanisms of storage systems in wind energy integration. Although the resulting analysis has allowed us to gain valuable insight, we feel that it is only the tip of the iceberg, and that many yet unknown discoveries are to be made. We remain hopeful that the future of SMES for wind energy will only look brighter from here onward. (Abstract shortened by UMI.).

  10. Wood energy systems: renewable energy application

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1984-01-01

    The wood waste boiler installed at the Walker County Correctional Institute near Lafayette, Georgia, is a retrofit of an existing natural gas boiler system. The new wood fuel system uses a 150-horsepower boiler that operates at 125 psi and supplies both space heating and domestic hot water for prison use. The primary benefit of the system is the significant savings in fuel costs. Using wood waste, the estimated annual cost for fuel is $35,200, as opposed to $75,920 for the replaced natural gas system. The annual savings of more than $40,000 makes the simple payback for the $225,000 system approximately five-and-a-half years. In addition, the purchase of readily available wood waste benefits the regional economy and eliminates use of an imported fuel.

  11. Hybrid Energy System Modeling in Modelica

    SciTech Connect

    William R. Binder; Christiaan J. J. Paredis; Humberto E. Garcia

    2014-03-01

    In this paper, a Hybrid Energy System (HES) configuration is modeled in Modelica. Hybrid Energy Systems (HES) have as their defining characteristic the use of one or more energy inputs, combined with the potential for multiple energy outputs. Compared to traditional energy systems, HES provide additional operational flexibility so that high variability in both energy production and consumption levels can be absorbed more effectively. This is particularly important when including renewable energy sources, whose output levels are inherently variable, determined by nature. The specific HES configuration modeled in this paper include two energy inputs: a nuclear plant, and a series of wind turbines. In addition, the system produces two energy outputs: electricity and synthetic fuel. The models are verified through simulations of the individual components, and the system as a whole. The simulations are performed for a range of component sizes, operating conditions, and control schemes.

  12. Future energy system in environment, economy, and energy problems (2) various nuclear energy system evaluations

    SciTech Connect

    Matsui, Kazuaki; Ujita, Hiroshi; Tashimo, Masanori

    2006-07-01

    Role and potentials of nuclear energy system in the energy options are discussed from the viewpoint of sustainable development with protecting from global warming by using the energy module structure of GRAPE model. They change and are affected dramatically by different sets of energy characteristics, nuclear behavior and energy policy even under the moderate set of presumptions. Introduction of thousands of reactors in the end of the century seems inevitable for better life and cleaner earth, but it will not come without efforts and cost. The analysis suggests the need of long term planning and R and D efforts under the wisdom. (authors)

  13. Engineered Geothermal Systems Energy Return On Energy Investment

    SciTech Connect

    Mansure, A J

    2012-12-10

    Energy Return On Investment (EROI) is an important figure of merit for assessing the viability of energy alternatives. Too often comparisons of energy systems use efficiency when EROI would be more appropriate. For geothermal electric power generation, EROI is determined by the electricity delivered to the consumer compared to the energy consumed to construct, operate, and decommission the facility. Critical factors in determining the EROI of Engineered Geothermal Systems (EGS) are examined in this work. These include the input energy embodied into the system. Embodied energy includes the energy contained in the materials, as well as, that consumed in each stage of manufacturing from mining the raw materials to assembling the finished system. Also critical are the system boundaries and value of the energy heat is not as valuable as electrical energy. The EROI of an EGS depends upon a number of factors that are currently unknown, for example what will be typical EGS well productivity, as well as, reservoir depth, temperature, and temperature decline rate. Thus the approach developed is to consider these factors as parameters determining EROI as a function of number of wells needed. Since the energy needed to construct a geothermal well is a function of depth, results are provided as a function of well depth. Parametric determination of EGS EROI is calculated using existing information on EGS and US Department of Energy (DOE) targets and is compared to the minimum EROI an energy production system should have to be an asset rather than a liability.

  14. Brain energy stores in C57BL/6 mice after C. parvum injection.

    PubMed

    Sheng, W S; Lin, J C; Apple, F; Hu, S; Peterson, P K; Chao, C C

    1999-01-18

    Activation of the immune system has been associated with the development of fatigue of unknown cause. We were interested in brain energy stores (e.g., phosphocreatine (PCr) and creatine kinase) after immune activation to investigate whether this system was altered. In this model, fatigue (defined as > 50% reduction in spontaneous running) was induced in C57BL/6 mice after a single injection of Corynebacterium parvum antigen. Maximal fatigue (about 86% reduction on day 10 post injection) was associated with reduced (about 29%) brain PCr/gamma-ATP and increased creatine kinase levels (approximately 31%), suggesting an active process of brain ATP depletion and replenishment. These findings need to be further delineated to establish the relationship between immune activation, reduced brain energy pools and fatigue. PMID:10094158

  15. Short review on solar energy systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Herez, Amal; Ramadan, Mohamad; Abdulhay, Bakri; Khaled, Mahmoud

    2016-07-01

    Solar energy can be utilized mainly in heat generation and electricity production. International energy agency (IEA) shows, in a comparative study on the world energy consumption that in 2050 solar arrays installation will provide about 45% of world energy demand. Solar energy is one of the most important renewable energy source which plays a great role in providing energy solutions. As known there is wide variety of types of collectors and applications of solar energy. This paper aimed to make a short review on solar energy systems, according to types of collectors and applications used.

  16. Michigan School District Buys Energy Management System.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Technological Horizons in Education, 1982

    1982-01-01

    With the aid of a federal grant for energy conservation, the Warren Consolidated School System (Michigan) will purchase a Margaux 6400 Building Management system to manage energy usage in 35 district buildings. Reasons for selecting the system and system capabilities are briefly discussed. (Author/JN)

  17. Energy Management System Lowers U.S. Navy Energy Costs Through PV System Interconnection (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2014-04-01

    To meet the U.S. Navy's energy goals, the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) and the Naval Facilities Engineering Command (NAVFAC) spent two years collaborating on demonstrations that tested market-ready energy efficiency measures, renewable energy generation, and energy systems integration. One such technology - an energy management system - was identified as a promising method for reducing energy use and costs, and can contribute to increasing energy security.

  18. Emissions and energy efficiency assessment of baseload wind energy systems.

    PubMed

    Denholm, Paul; Kulcinski, Gerald L; Holloway, Tracey

    2005-03-15

    The combination of wind energy generation and energy storage can produce a source of electricity that is functionally equivalent to a baseload coal or nuclear power plant. A model was developed to assess the technical and environmental performance of baseload wind energy systems using compressed air energy storage. The analysis examined several systems that could be operated in the midwestern United States under a variety of operating conditions. The systems can produce substantially more energy than is required from fossil or other primary sources to construct and operate them. By operation at a capacity factor of 80%, each evaluated system achieves an effective primary energy efficiency of at least five times greater than the most efficient fossil combustion technology, with greenhouse gas emission rates less than 20% of the least emitting fossil technology currently available. Life-cycle emission rates of NOx and SO2 are also significantly lower than fossil-based systems. PMID:15819254

  19. Emissions and energy efficiency assessment of baseload wind energy systems.

    PubMed

    Denholm, Paul; Kulcinski, Gerald L; Holloway, Tracey

    2005-03-15

    The combination of wind energy generation and energy storage can produce a source of electricity that is functionally equivalent to a baseload coal or nuclear power plant. A model was developed to assess the technical and environmental performance of baseload wind energy systems using compressed air energy storage. The analysis examined several systems that could be operated in the midwestern United States under a variety of operating conditions. The systems can produce substantially more energy than is required from fossil or other primary sources to construct and operate them. By operation at a capacity factor of 80%, each evaluated system achieves an effective primary energy efficiency of at least five times greater than the most efficient fossil combustion technology, with greenhouse gas emission rates less than 20% of the least emitting fossil technology currently available. Life-cycle emission rates of NOx and SO2 are also significantly lower than fossil-based systems.

  20. Energy Systems Integration: A Convergence of Ideas

    SciTech Connect

    Kroposki, B.; Garrett, B.; MacMillan, S.; Rice, B.; Komomua, C.; O'Malley, M.; Zimmerle, D.

    2012-07-01

    Energy systems integration (ESI) enables the effective analysis, design, and control of these interactions and interdependencies along technical, economic, regulatory, and social dimensions. By focusing on the optimization of energy from all systems, across all pathways, and at all scales, we can better understand and make use of the co-benefits that result to increase reliability and performance, reduce cost, and minimize environmental impacts. This white paper discusses systems integration and the research in new control architectures that are optimized at smaller scales but can be aggregated to optimize energy systems at any scale and would allow replicable energy solutions across boundaries of existing and new energy pathways.

  1. World Energy Projection System Plus: An Overview

    EIA Publications

    2011-01-01

    This report contains a summary description of the methodology and scope of WEPS and each of its component models. WEPS is a computer-based, energy modeling system of long-term international energy markets for the period through 2035. The system was used to produce the International Energy Outlook 2011.

  2. World Energy Projection System Plus: An Overview

    EIA Publications

    2016-01-01

    This report contains a summary description of the methodology and scope of WEPS and each of its component models. WEPS is a computer-based, energy modeling system of long-term international energy markets for the period through 2035. The system was used to produce the International Energy Outlook 2011.

  3. Solar energy thermally powered electrical generating system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Owens, William R. (Inventor)

    1989-01-01

    A thermally powered electrical generating system for use in a space vehicle is disclosed. The rate of storage in a thermal energy storage medium is controlled by varying the rate of generation and dissipation of electrical energy in a thermally powered electrical generating system which is powered from heat stored in the thermal energy storage medium without exceeding a maximum quantity of heat. A control system (10) varies the rate at which electrical energy is generated by the electrical generating system and the rate at which electrical energy is consumed by a variable parasitic electrical load to cause storage of an amount of thermal energy in the thermal energy storage system at the end of a period of insolation which is sufficient to satisfy the scheduled demand for electrical power to be generated during the next period of eclipse. The control system is based upon Kalman filter theory.

  4. Downscaling of Airborne Wind Energy Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fechner, Uwe; Schmehl, Roland

    2016-09-01

    Airborne wind energy systems provide a novel solution to harvest wind energy from altitudes that cannot be reached by wind turbines with a similar nominal generator power. The use of a lightweight but strong tether in place of an expensive tower provides an additional cost advantage, next to the higher capacity factor and much lower total mass. This paper investigates the scaling effects of airborne wind energy systems. The energy yield of airborne wind energy systems, that work in pumping mode of operation is at least ten times higher than the energy yield of conventional solar systems. For airborne wind energy systems the yield is defined per square meter wing area. In this paper the dependency of the energy yield on the nominal generator power for systems in the range of 1 kW to 1 MW is investigated. For the onshore location Cabauw, The Netherlands, it is shown, that a generator of just 1.4 kW nominal power and a total system mass of less than 30 kg has the theoretical potential to harvest energy at only twice the price per kWh of large scale airborne wind energy systems. This would make airborne wind energy systems a very attractive choice for small scale remote and mobile applications as soon as the remaining challenges for commercialization are solved.

  5. Downsized superconducting magnetic energy storage systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Palmer, David N.

    Scaled-down superconductive magnetic energy storage systems (DSMES) and superconductive magnetic energy power sources (SMEPS) are proposed for residential, commercial/retail, industrial off-peak and critical services, telephone and other communication systems, computer operations, power back-up/energy storages, power sources for space stations, and in-field military logistics/communication systems. Recent advances in high-Tc superconducting materials technology are analyzed. DSMES/SMEPS concepts are presented, and design, materials, and systems requirements are discussed. Problems ar identified, and possible solutions are offered. Comparisons are made with mechanical and primary and secondary energy storage and conversion systems.

  6. Multiple-laser-energy detection system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jarrett, O., Jr.; Northam, G. B.

    1977-01-01

    Technique monitors energy output of each of four sequentially-pulsed dye lasers for the Airborne LIDAR Oceanographic Probing Experiment system. Fiber optics attached to output mirrors transmit optical signal proportional to output energy.

  7. Dynamic Analysis of Nuclear Energy System Strategies

    2004-06-17

    DANESS is an integrated process model for nuclear energy systems allowing the simulation of multiple reactors and fuel cycles in a continuously changing nuclear reactor park configuration. The model is energy demand driven and simulates all nuclear fuel cycle facilites, up to 10 reactors and fuels. Reactor and fuel cycle facility history are traced and the cost of generating energy is calculated per reactor and for total nuclear energy system. The DANESS model aims atmore » performing dynamic systems analysis of nuclear energy development used for integrated analysis of development paths for nuclear energy, parameter scoping for new nuclear energy systems, economic analysis of nuclear energy, government role analysis, and education.« less

  8. Central airport energy systems using alternate energy sources

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1982-07-01

    The purpose of this project was to develop the concept of a central airport energy system designed to supply energy for aircraft ground support and terminal complex utility systems using municipal waste as a fuel. The major task was to estimate the potential for reducing aircraft and terminal fuel consumption by the use of alternate renewable energy sources. Additional efforts included an assessment of indirect benefits of reducing airport atmospheric and noise pollution.

  9. The World's Evolving Energy System.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hubbert, M. King

    1981-01-01

    Examines energy production, utilization, and resources within a three-phase framework of human history: (1) small human population and low energy utilization; (2) exponential growth and exploitation of fossil fuels; and (3) a return to a steady state of energy utilization. (SK)

  10. Economic Evaluation of Townhouse Solar Energy System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1982-01-01

    Solar-energy site in Columbia, South Carolina, is comprised of four townhouse apartments. Report summarizes economic evaluation of solar--energy system and projected performance of similar systems in four other selected cities. System is designed to supply 65 percent of heating and 75 percent of hot water.

  11. High energy chemical laser system

    DOEpatents

    Gregg, D.W.; Pearson, R.K.

    1975-12-23

    A high energy chemical laser system is described wherein explosive gaseous mixtures of a reducing agent providing hydrogen isotopes and interhalogen compounds are uniformly ignited by means of an electrical discharge, flash- photolysis or an electron beam. The resulting chemical explosion pumps a lasing chemical species, hydrogen fluoride or deuterium fluoride which is formed in the chemical reaction. The generated lasing pulse has light frequencies in the 3- micron range. Suitable interhalogen compounds include bromine trifluoride (BrF$sub 3$), bromine pentafluoride (BrF$sub 5$), chlorine monofluoride (ClF), chlorine trifluoride (ClF$sub 3$), chlorine pentafluoride (ClF$sub 5$), iodine pentafluoride (IF$sub 5$), and iodine heptafluoride (IF$sub 7$); and suitable reducing agents include hydrogen (H$sub 2$), hydrocarbons such as methane (CH$sub 4$), deuterium (D$sub 2$), and diborane (B$sub 2$H$sub 6$), as well as combinations of the gaseous compound and/or molecular mixtures of the reducing agent.

  12. Energy Signal Tool for Decision Support in Building Energy Systems

    SciTech Connect

    Henze, G. P.; Pavlak, G. S.; Florita, A. R.; Dodier, R. H.; Hirsch, A. I.

    2014-12-01

    A prototype energy signal tool is demonstrated for operational whole-building and system-level energy use evaluation. The purpose of the tool is to give a summary of building energy use which allows a building operator to quickly distinguish normal and abnormal energy use. Toward that end, energy use status is displayed as a traffic light, which is a visual metaphor for energy use that is either substantially different from expected (red and yellow lights) or approximately the same as expected (green light). Which light to display for a given energy end use is determined by comparing expected to actual energy use. As expected, energy use is necessarily uncertain; we cannot choose the appropriate light with certainty. Instead, the energy signal tool chooses the light by minimizing the expected cost of displaying the wrong light. The expected energy use is represented by a probability distribution. Energy use is modeled by a low-order lumped parameter model. Uncertainty in energy use is quantified by a Monte Carlo exploration of the influence of model parameters on energy use. Distributions over model parameters are updated over time via Bayes' theorem. The simulation study was devised to assess whole-building energy signal accuracy in the presence of uncertainty and faults at the submetered level, which may lead to tradeoffs at the whole-building level that are not detectable without submetering.

  13. Proceedings of the Alternate Energy Systems Seminar

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1978-01-01

    The Alternative Energy Systems Seminar was held on March 30, 1978, and was sponsored jointly be the Southwest District Office of the U.S. Department of Energy and JPL. The seminar was an experiment in information exchange with the aim of presenting, in a single day, status and prospects for a number of advanced energy systems to a diverse, largely nontechnical audience, and to solicit post-seminar responses from that audience as to the seminar's usefulness. The major systems presented are: (1) Solar Photovoltaic; (2) Geothermal; (3) Cogeneration Power; (4) Solar Thermal; (5) Solar Heating and Cooling; (6) Wind Energy; and (7) Systems Considerations.

  14. Introduction to wind energy systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wagner, H.-J.

    2015-08-01

    This article presents the basic concepts of wind energy and deals with the physics and mechanics of operation. It describes the conversion of wind energy into rotation of turbine, and the critical parameters governing the efficiency of this conversion. After that it presents an overview of various parts and components of windmills. The connection to the electrical grid, the world status of wind energy use for electricity production, the cost situation and research and development needs are further aspects which will be considered.

  15. Introduction to wind energy systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wagner, H.-J.

    2013-06-01

    This article presents the basic concepts of wind energy and deals with the physics and mechanics of operation. It describes the conversion of wind energy into rotation of turbine, and the critical parameters governing the efficiency of this conversion. After that it presents an overview of various parts and components of windmills. The connection to the electrical grid, the world status of wind energy use for electricity production, the cost situation and research and development needs are further aspects which will be considered.

  16. Solar Energy Systems for Ohioan Residential Homeowners

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luckett, Rickey D.

    Dwindling nonrenewable energy resources and rising energy costs have forced the United States to develop alternative renewable energy sources. The United States' solar energy industry has seen an upsurge in recent years, and photovoltaic holds considerable promise as a renewable energy technology. The purpose of this case study was to explore homeowner's awareness of the benefits of solar energy. Disruptive-innovation theory was used to explore marketing strategies for conveying information to homeowners about access to new solar energy products and services. Twenty residential homeowners were interviewed face-to-face to explore (a) perceived benefits of solar energy in their county in Ohio, and (b) perceptions on the rationale behind the marketing strategy of solar energy systems sold for residential use. The study findings used inductive analyses and coding interpretation to explore the participants' responses that revealed 3 themes: the existence of environmental benefits for using solar energy systems, the expensive cost of equipment associated with government incentives, and the lack of marketing information that is available for consumer use. The implications for positive social change include the potential to enable corporate leaders, small business owners, and entrepreneurs to develop marketing strategies for renewable energy systems. These strategies may promote use of solar energy systems as a clean, renewable, and affordable alternative electricity energy source for the 21st century.

  17. Modular Energy Storage System for Alternative Energy Vehicles

    SciTech Connect

    Thomas, Janice; Ervin, Frank

    2012-05-15

    An electrical vehicle environment was established to promote research and technology development in the area of high power energy management. The project incorporates a topology that permits parallel development of an alternative energy delivery system and an energy storage system. The objective of the project is to develop technologies, specifically power electronics, energy storage electronics and controls that provide efficient and effective energy management between electrically powered devices in alternative energy vehicles plugin electric vehicles, hybrid vehicles, range extended vehicles, and hydrogen-based fuel cell vehicles. In order to meet the project objectives, the Vehicle Energy Management System (VEMS) was defined and subsystem requirements were obtained. Afterwards, power electronics, energy storage electronics and controls were designed. Finally, these subsystems were built, tested individually, and integrated into an electric vehicle system to evaluate and optimize the subsystems performance. Phase 1 of the program established the fundamental test bed to support development of an electrical environment ideal for fuel cell application and the mitigation of many shortcomings of current fuel cell technology. Phase 2, continued development from Phase 1, focusing on implementing subsystem requirements, design and construction of the energy management subsystem, and the integration of this subsystem into the surrogate electric vehicle. Phase 2 also required the development of an Alternative Energy System (AES) capable of emulating electrical characteristics of fuel cells, battery, gen set, etc. Under the scope of the project, a boost converter that couples the alternate energy delivery system to the energy storage system was developed, constructed and tested. Modeling tools were utilized during the design process to optimize both component and system design. This model driven design process enabled an iterative process to track and evaluate the impact

  18. Ins(1,4,5)P{sub 3} facilitates ATP accumulation via phosphocreatine/creatine kinase in the endoplasmic reticulum extracted from MDCK cells

    SciTech Connect

    Sun, Jing; Ogata, Shigenori; Segawa, Masaru; Usune, Sadaharu; Zhao, Yumei; Katsuragi, Takeshi

    2010-07-02

    So far, the content and accumulation of ATP in isolated endoplasmic reticulum (ER) are little understood. First, we confirmed using electron microscopic and Western blotting techniques that the samples extracted from MDCK cells are endoplasmic reticulum (ER). The amounts of ATP in the extracted ER were measured from the filtrate after a spinning down of ultrafiltration spin column packed with ER. When the ER sample (5 {mu}g) after 3 days freezing was suspended in intracellular medium (ICM), 0.1% Triton X and ultrapure water (UPW), ATP amounts from the ER with UPW were the highest and over 10 times compared with that from the control with ICM, indicating that UPW is the most effective tool in destroying the ER membrane. After a 10-min-incubation with ICM containing phosphocreatine (PCr)/creatine kinase (CK) of the fresh ER. ATP amounts in the filtrate obtained by spinning down were not changed from that in the control (no PCr/CK). However, ATP amounts in the filtrate from the second spinning down of the ER (treated with PCr/CK) suspended in UPW became over 10-fold compared with the control. When 1 {mu}M inositol(1,4,5)trisphosphate (Ins(1,4,5)P{sub 3}) was added in the incubation medium (ICM with PCr/CK), ATP amounts from the filtrate after the second spinning down were further enhanced around three times. This enhancement was almost canceled by Ca{sup 2+}-removal from ICM and by adding thapsigargin, a Ca{sup 2+}-ATPase inhibitor, but not by 2-APB and heparin, Ins(1,4,5)P{sub 3} receptor antagonists. Administration of 500 {mu}M adenosine to the incubation medium (with PCr/CK) failed to enhance the accumulation of ATP in the ER. These findings suggest that the ER originally contains ATP and ATP accumulation in the ER is promoted by PCr/CK and Ins(1,4,5)P{sub 3}.

  19. Facility Energy Decision Screening (FEDS) software system

    SciTech Connect

    Dirks, J.A.; Wrench, L.E.

    1993-08-01

    The Facility Energy Decision Screening (FEDS) Model is under development at Pacific Northwest Laboratory for the Department of Energy Federal Energy Management Program and the US Army Construction Engineering Research Laboratory. FEDS is a multi-level energy analysis software system designed to provide a comprehensive approach to fuel-neutral, technology-independent, integrated (energy) resource planning and acquisition. The FEDS system includes Level-1, a top-down, first-pass energy systems analysis and energy resource acquisition decision software model for buildings and facilities; and the Level-2 software model, which allows specific engineering inputs and provides detailed output. FEDS Level-1 is a user-friendly, DOS-based, menu-driven software program for assessing the energy efficiency resource at a large federal installation. It uses high-level installation information (number, age, size, and types of buildings and energy systems), an internal data base of typical energy-system configurations and performance data, and sophisticated energy simulation and optimization models to estimate the net present value of potential energy retrofits in federal installations. The FEDS Level-1 analysis will typically be followed by a FEDS Level-2 analysis, which allows FEDS Level-1 information to be augmented with detailed energy-system information, and returns detailed project-by-project technology selection and economic information. FEDS Level-1 was released in October 1992. FEDS Level-2 is planned for release in October 1993. The first release which includes both levels will cover only building systems. The next release in early 1994 will cover other energy systems, including central heating and cooling plants and thermal distribution loops.

  20. Solar energy grid integration systems - Energy storage (SEGIS-ES)

    SciTech Connect

    Ton, Dan; Peek, Georgianne H.; Hanley, Charles; Boyes, John

    2008-05-01

    In late 2007, the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) initiated a series of studies to address issues related to potential high penetration of distributed photovoltaic (PV) generation systems on our nation’s electric grid. This Renewable Systems Interconnection (RSI) initiative resulted in the publication of 14 reports and an Executive Summary that defined needs in areas related to utility planning tools and business models, new grid architectures and PV systems configurations, and models to assess market penetration and the effects of high-penetration PV systems. As a result of this effort, the Solar Energy Grid Integration Systems (SEGIS) program was initiated in early 2008. SEGIS is an industry-led effort to develop new PV inverters, controllers, and energy management systems that will greatly enhance the utility of distributed PV systems.

  1. Considerations for biomass energy systems

    SciTech Connect

    Carson, C.C.; Hart, C.M.

    1980-05-01

    Several different biomass forms, or feedstocks, contribute to the total potential for biomass energy. A summary of the energy potential of the US biomass resource base is presented along with a survey of existing thermochemical and biochemical processes for converting the feedstocks into usable energy products. Energy requirements, economics, and alternate uses for biomass resources are included in the discussion. It is concluded that the current biomass resources could provide up to 2.5 EJ of usable energy and that with a concentrated, long-term program this contribution could grow to between 10 and 15 EJ. The biomass feedstock with the largest potential is wood, which provides more than half of the estimated total.

  2. Programming models for energy-aware systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, Haitao

    Energy efficiency is an important goal of modern computing, with direct impact on system operational cost, reliability, usability and environmental sustainability. This dissertation describes the design and implementation of two innovative programming languages for constructing energy-aware systems. First, it introduces ET, a strongly typed programming language to promote and facilitate energy-aware programming, with a novel type system design called Energy Types. Energy Types is built upon a key insight into today's energy-efficient systems and applications: despite the popular perception that energy and power can only be described in joules and watts, real-world energy management is often based on discrete phases and modes, which in turn can be reasoned about by type systems very effectively. A phase characterizes a distinct pattern of program workload, and a mode represents an energy state the program is expected to execute in. Energy Types is designed to reason about energy phases and energy modes, bringing programmers into the optimization of energy management. Second, the dissertation develops Eco, an energy-aware programming language centering around sustainability. A sustainable program built from Eco is able to adaptively adjusts its own behaviors to stay on a given energy budget, avoiding both deficit that would lead to battery drain or CPU overheating, and surplus that could have been used to improve the quality of the program output. Sustainability is viewed as a form of supply and demand matching, and a sustainable program consistently maintains the equilibrium between supply and demand. ET is implemented as a prototyped compiler for smartphone programming on Android, and Eco is implemented as a minimal extension to Java. Programming practices and benchmarking experiments in these two new languages showed that ET can lead to significant energy savings for Android Apps and Eco can efficiently promote battery awareness and temperature awareness in real

  3. Combined solar collector and energy storage system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jensen, R. N. (Inventor)

    1980-01-01

    A combined solar energy collector, fluid chiller and energy storage system is disclosed. A movable interior insulated panel in a storage tank is positionable flush against the storage tank wall to insulate the tank for energy storage. The movable interior insulated panel is alternately positionable to form a solar collector or fluid chiller through which the fluid flows by natural circulation.

  4. Solar Energy: Solar System Design Fundamentals.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Knapp, Henry H., III

    This module on solar system design fundamentals is one of six in a series intended for use as supplements to currently available materials on solar energy and energy conservation. Together with the recommended texts and references (sources are identified), these modules provide an effective introduction to energy conservation and solar energy…

  5. Venezuelan energy resources and electric power system

    SciTech Connect

    Altimari, J.

    1994-06-01

    This article discusses the changing energy policy of Venezuela which is intended to make its electric power sector more competitive. The topics of the article include an overview of the power industry (both private and public utilities), energy sources, power system capacity, generation resources, power demand, load management, and energy conservation.

  6. Modelling of Integrated Renewable Energy System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Akella, A. K.; Saini, R. P.; Sharma, M. P.

    2007-10-01

    Energy is supplied in the form of electricity, heat or fuels and an energy supply system must guarantee sufficient production and distribution of energy. An energy supply system based on renewable energy can be utilized as integrated renewable energy system (IRES), which can satisfy the energy needs of an area in appropriate & sustainable manner. Given the key role of renewable energy in rural electrification of remote rural areas, the IRES for a given area can be modeled & optimized for meeting the energy needs. In the present paper, Jaunpur block of Uttaranchal state of India has been selected as remote area. Based upon the data collected, the resource potential and energy demand has been calculated & presented. The model on the basis of unit cost of the energy has been optimized using LINDO software 6.10 version. The results indicated that the optimized model has been found to the best choice for meeting the energy needs of the area. The results further indicated that for the above area, either an IRES consisting of the above sources can provide a feasible solution in terms of energy fulfillments in the range of EPDF from 1.0 to 0.75.

  7. Nuclear Hybrid Energy Systems: Challenges and Opportunities

    SciTech Connect

    P. Sabharwall; S.B. Sitton; S.J. Yoon; C. Stoots

    2014-07-01

    With growing demand of energy and costs of the fossil fuels, coupled with the environmental concerns have resulted in an increased interest in alternative energy sources. Nuclear hybrid energy systems (NHES) are being considered which incorporates renewable energy sources such as solar and wind energy combined with nuclear reactor and energy storage to meet the peak hours demand imposed on the grid, along with providing process heat for other potential industrial applications. This concept could potentially satisfy various energy demands and improve reliability, robustness and resilience for the entire system as a whole, along with economic and net efficiency gains. This paper provides a brief understanding of potential NHES system and architecture along with the challenges

  8. Wind energy systems information user study

    SciTech Connect

    Belew, W.W.; Wood, B.L.; Marle, T.L.; Reinhardt, C.L.

    1981-01-01

    This report describes the results of a series of telephone interviews with potential users of information on wind energy conversion. These interviews, part of a larger study covering nine different solar technologies, attempted to identify: the type of information each distinctive group of information users needed, and the best way of getting information to that group. Groups studied include: wind energy conversion system researchers; wind energy conversion system manufacturer representatives; wind energy conversion system distributors; wind turbine engineers; utility representatives; educators; county agents and extension service agents; and wind turbine owners.

  9. Wind energy systems: program summary

    SciTech Connect

    1980-05-01

    The Federal Wind Energy Program (FWEP) was initiated to provide focus, direction and funds for the development of wind power. Each year a summary is prepared to provide the American public with an overview of government sponsored activities in the FWEP. This program summary describes each of the Department of Energy's (DOE) current wind energy projects initiated or renewed during FY 1979 (October 1, 1978 through September 30, 1979) and reflects their status as of April 30, 1980. The summary highlights on-going research, development and demonstration efforts and serves as a record of progress towards the program objectives. It also provides: the program's general management structure; review of last year's achievements; forecast of expected future trends; documentation of the projects conducted during FY 1979; and list of key wind energy publications.

  10. Life cycle optimization of building energy systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Osman, Ayat; Norman, Bryan; Ries, Robert

    2008-02-01

    A life cycle optimization model intended to potentially reduce the environmental impacts of energy use in commercial buildings is presented. A combination of energy simulation, life cycle assessment, and operations research techniques are used to develop the model. In addition to conventional energy systems, such as the electric grid and a gas boiler, cogeneration systems which concurrently generate power and heat are investigated as an alternative source of energy. Cogeneration systems appeared to be an attractive alternative to conventional systems when considering life cycle environmental criteria. Internal combustion engine and microturbine (MT) cogeneration systems resulted in a reduction of up to 38% in global warming potential compared with conventional systems, while solid oxide fuel cell and MT cogeneration systems resulted in a reduction of up to 94% in tropospheric ozone precursor potential (TOPP). Results include a Pareto-optimal frontier between reducing costs and reducing the selected environmental indicators.

  11. Energy accounting and optimization for mobile systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dong, Mian

    Energy accounting determines how much a software process contributes to the total system energy consumption. It is the foundation for evaluating software and has been widely used by operating system based energy management. While various energy accounting policies have been tried, there is no known way to evaluate them directly simply because it is hard to track every hardware use by software in a heterogeneous multi-core system like modern smartphones and tablets. In this thesis, we provide the ground truth for energy accounting based on multi-player game theory and offer the first evaluation of existing energy accounting policies, revealing their important flaws. The proposed ground truth is based on Shapley value, a single value solution to multi-player games of which four axiomatic properties are natural and self-evident to energy accounting. To obtain the Shapley value-based ground truth, one only needs to know if a process is active during the time under question and the system energy consumption during the same time. We further provide a utility optimization formulation of energy management and show, surprisingly, that energy accounting does not matter for existing energy management solutions that control the energy use of a process by giving it an energy budget, or budget based energy management (BEM). We show an optimal energy management (OEM) framework can always outperform BEM. While OEM does not require any form of energy accounting, it is related to Shapley value in that both require the system energy consumption for all possible combination of processes under question. We provide a novel system solution that meet this requirement by acquiring system energy consumption in situ for an OS scheduler period, i.e.,10 ms. We report a prototype implementation of both Shapley value-based energy accounting and OEM based scheduling. Using this prototype and smartphone workload, we experimentally demonstrate how erroneous existing energy accounting policies can

  12. Biomass energy systems program summary

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1980-07-01

    Research and development in appropriate conversion technologies is reported. The technologies include direct combustion, biochemical conversion, and thermochemical conversion techniques. Biomass sources were reviewed. Estimates indicate that the conversion of unused agricultural residues, forestry residues, and noncommercial timber growth can provide 6 to 10% of the national energy needs. The use of biomass energy conversion in fuel production, chemical production, residential space heating, and electricity supplies is discussed.

  13. PV System Energy Evaluation Method (Presentation)

    SciTech Connect

    Kurtz, S.

    2014-01-01

    This presentation describes a comparison of the "predicted" energy (based on historical weather data) with the "expected" energy (based on the measured weather data) to determine whether a PV system is performing as modeled in order to verify the accuracy of a model. A key factor in defining this energy test is determining the test boundary so that weather variations are not inadvertently included in what is considered to be PV system performance.

  14. Simulation of Energy Management Systems in EnergyPlus

    SciTech Connect

    Ellis, P. G.; Torcellini, P. A.; Crawley, D.

    2008-01-01

    An energy management system (EMS) is a dedicated computer that can be programmed to control all of a building's energy-related systems, including heating, cooling, ventilation, hot water, interior lighting, exterior lighting, on-site power generation, and mechanized systems for shading devices, window actuators, and double facade elements. Recently a new module for simulating an EMS was added to the EnergyPlus whole-building energy simulation program. An essential part of the EMS module is the EnergyPlus Runtime Language (ERL), which is a simple programming language that is used to specify the EMS control algorithms. The new EMS controls and the flexibility of ERL allow EnergyPlus to simulate many novel control strategies that are not possible with the previous generation of building energy simulation programs. This paper surveys the standard controls in EnergyPlus, presents the new EMS features, describes the implementation of the module, and explores some of the possible applications for the new EMS capabilities in EnergyPlus.

  15. Energy Systems Integration: NREL + Advanced Energy (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2015-02-01

    This fact sheet describes the collaboration between NREL and Advanced Energy Industries at the ESIF to test its advanced photovoltaic inverter technology with the ESIF's power hardware-in-the-loop system and megawatt-scale grid simulators.

  16. The Essene Way renewable energy system

    SciTech Connect

    Bath, D.

    1997-05-01

    This article describes the large photovoltaic system which powers the Essene Way Resort on Ambergris Caye off the coast of Belize. Included in the article are descriptions of the collaborative efforts needed to develop the system, the system itself, how it was installed, and how it now operates. Project partners were Solar Design Associates, Inc. and Advanced Energy Systems.

  17. SMES for wind energy systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paul Antony, Anish

    Renewable energy sources are ubiquitous, wind energy in particular is one of the fastest growing forms of renewable energy, yet the stochastic nature of wind creates fluctuations that threaten the stability of the electrical grid. In addition to stability with increased wind energy, the need for additional load following capability is a major concern hindering increased wind energy penetration. Improvements in power electronics are required to increase wind energy penetration, but these improvements are hindered by a number of limitations. Changes in physical weather conditions, insufficient capacity of the transmission line and inaccurate wind forecasting greatly stymie their effect and ultimately lead to equipment damage. With this background, the overall goal of this research effort is to pitch a case for superconducting magnetic energy storage (SMES) by (1) optimally designing the SMES to be coupled with wind turbines thus reducing wind integration challenges and (2) to help influence decision makers in either increasing superconducting wire length/fill factor or improving superconducting splice technology thereby increasing the storage capacity of the SMES. Chapter 1 outlines the scope of this thesis by answering the following questions (1) why focus on wind energy? (2) What are the problems associated with increasing wind energy on the electric grid? (3) What are the current solutions related to wind integration challenges and (4) why SMES? Chapter 2, presents a detailed report on the study performed on categorizing the challenges associated with integrating wind energy into the electric grid. The conditions under which wind energy affected the electric grid are identified both in terms of voltage stability and excess wind generation. Chapter 3, details a comprehensive literature review on the different superconducting wires. A technology assessment of the five selected superconductors: [Niobium Titanium (NbTi), Niobium Tin (Nb3Sn), Bismuth strontium calcium

  18. Fast predictive control of networked energy systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chuang, Frank Fu-Han

    In this thesis we study the optimal control of networked energy systems. Networked energy systems consist of a collection of energy storage nodes and a network of links and inputs which allow energy to be exchanged, injected, or removed from the nodes. The nodes may exchange energy between each other autonomously or via controlled flows between the nodes. Examples of networked systems include building heating, ventilation, and air conditioning (HVAC) systems and networked battery systems. In the building system example, the nodes of the system are rooms which store thermal energy in the air and other elements which have thermal capacity. The rooms transfer energy autonomously through thermal conduction, convection, and radiation. Thermal energy can be injected into or removed from the rooms via conditioned air or slabs. In the case of a networked battery system, the batteries store electrical energy in their chemical cells. The batteries may be electrically linked so that a controller can move electrical charge from one battery to another. Networked energy systems are typically large-scale (contain many states and inputs), affected by uncertain forecasts and disturbances, and require fast computation on cheap embedded platforms. In this thesis, the optimal control technique we study is model predictive control for networked energy systems. Model predictive or receding horizon control is a time-domain optimization-based control technique which uses predictive models of a system to forecast its behavior and minimize a performance cost subject to system constraints. In this thesis we address two primary issues concerning model predictive control for networked energy systems: robustness to uncertainty in forecasts and reducing the complexity of the large-scale optimization problem for use in embedded platforms. The first half of the thesis deals primarily with the efficient computation of robust controllers for dealing with random and adversarial uncertainties in the

  19. Compact inductive energy storage pulse power system.

    PubMed

    K, Senthil; Mitra, S; Roy, Amitava; Sharma, Archana; Chakravarthy, D P

    2012-05-01

    An inductive energy storage pulse power system is being developed in BARC, India. Simple, compact, and robust opening switches, capable of generating hundreds of kV, are key elements in the development of inductive energy storage pulsed power sources. It employs an inductive energy storage and opening switch power conditioning techniques with high energy density capacitors as the primary energy store. The energy stored in the capacitor bank is transferred to an air cored storage inductor in 5.5 μs through wire fuses. By optimizing the exploding wire parameters, a compact, robust, high voltage pulse power system, capable of generating reproducibly 240 kV, is developed. This paper presents the full details of the system along with the experimental data. PMID:22667637

  20. Compact inductive energy storage pulse power system.

    PubMed

    K, Senthil; Mitra, S; Roy, Amitava; Sharma, Archana; Chakravarthy, D P

    2012-05-01

    An inductive energy storage pulse power system is being developed in BARC, India. Simple, compact, and robust opening switches, capable of generating hundreds of kV, are key elements in the development of inductive energy storage pulsed power sources. It employs an inductive energy storage and opening switch power conditioning techniques with high energy density capacitors as the primary energy store. The energy stored in the capacitor bank is transferred to an air cored storage inductor in 5.5 μs through wire fuses. By optimizing the exploding wire parameters, a compact, robust, high voltage pulse power system, capable of generating reproducibly 240 kV, is developed. This paper presents the full details of the system along with the experimental data.

  1. Thermal System Interactions in Optimizing Advanced Thermoelectric Energy Recovery Systems

    SciTech Connect

    Hendricks, Terry J.

    2007-09-01

    Energy recovery is gaining importance in various transportation and industrial process applications because of rising energy costs and geopolitical uncertainties impacting basic energy supplies. Various advanced thermoelectric (TE) materials have properties that are inherently advantageous for particular TE energy recovery applications. Skutterudites, 0- and 1-dimensional quantum-well materials, and thin-film superlattice materials are providing enhanced opportunities for advanced TE energy recovery in transportation and industrial processes. This work demonstrates: 1) the potential for advanced thermoelectric systems in vehicle energy recovery, and 2) the inherently complex interaction between thermal system performance and thermoelectric device optimization in energy recovery. Potential power generation at specific exhaust temperature levels and for various heat exchanger performance levels is presented showing the current design sensitivities using different TE material sets. Mathematical relationships inherently linking optimum TE design variables and the thermal systems design (i.e., heat exchangers and required mass flow rates) are also investigated and characterized.

  2. Thermal System Interactions in Optimizing Advanced Thermoelectric Energy Recovery Systems

    SciTech Connect

    Hendricks, Terry J.

    2007-12-01

    Energy recovery is gaining importance in various transportation and industrial process applications because of rising energy costs and geopolitical uncertainties impacting basic energy supplies. Various advanced thermoelectric (TE) materials have properties that are inherently advantageous for particular TE energy recovery applications. Skutterudites, 0- and 1-dimensional quantum-well materials, and thin-film superlattice materials are providing enhanced opportunities for advanced TE energy recovery in transportation and industrial processes. This work demonstrates: 1) the potential for advanced thermoelectric systems in vehicle energy recovery, and 2) the inherently complex interaction between thermal system performance and thermoelectric device optimization in energy recovery. Potential power generation at specific exhaust temperature levels and for various heat exchanger performance levels are presented showing the current design sensitivities using different TE material sets. Mathematical relationships inherently linking optimum TE design variables and the thermal systems design (i.e., heat exchangers and required mass flow rates) are also investigated and characterized.

  3. Renewable Energy Positioning System: Energy Positioning: Control and Economics

    SciTech Connect

    2012-03-01

    GENI Project: The University of Washington and the University of Michigan are developing an integrated system to match well-positioned energy storage facilities with precise control technologies so the electric grid can more easily include energy from renewable power sources like wind and solar. Because renewable energy sources provide intermittent power, it is difficult for the grid to efficiently allocate those resources without developing solutions to store their energy for later use. The two universities are working with utilities, regulators, and the private sector to position renewable energy storage facilities in locations that optimize their ability to provide and transmit electricity where and when it is needed most. Expanding the network of transmission lines is prohibitively expensive, so combining well-placed storage facilities with robust control systems to efficiently route their power will save consumers money and enable the widespread use of safe, renewable sources of power.

  4. Energy optimization of water distribution systems

    SciTech Connect

    1994-09-01

    Energy costs associated with pumping treated water into the distribution system and boosting water pressures where necessary is one of the largest expenditures in the operating budget of a municipality. Due to the size and complexity of Detroit`s water transmission system, an energy optimization project has been developed to better manage the flow of water in the distribution system in an attempt to reduce these costs.

  5. The Department of Energy's Energy Integrated Farm System program

    SciTech Connect

    Breckenridge, R.P.; Corrigan, M.K.; Thompson, W.N.; Price, D.R.; Bramwell, D.L.

    1988-01-01

    The Department of Energy (DOE) recently completed a program investigating the feasibility of integrating diverse energy production and energy conservation practices to reduce agriculture's dependence on fossil fuels. The Energy Integrated Farm System (EIFS) program was established in 1980 in response to the hardship imposed on US farmers by high fuel costs and unreliable fuel supplies. Seven farms located in various geographical regions of the US and Puerto Rico participated in the program. Each of these farms developed an energy integrated farm system project that used a unique combination of energy production and energy conservation methods to supply energy to the farm and reduce the farm's dependence on energy produced from nonrenewable sources such as coal and oil. Methods used at these projects included conservation tillage, solar heating, waste heat recovery, methane production from the anaerobic digestion of animal manure, electricity production from biogas, alcohol fuel production, fluidized-bed combustion of crop wastes, and computer-aided conservation irrigation. This paper gives a summarized report of the work done at the seven projects. It presents highlights and results, provides an overview of successes and problems and lists recommendations. 12 figs., 3 tabs.

  6. Thermal energy transfer system and method

    SciTech Connect

    Knoos, S.

    1985-02-12

    A thermodynamic system for interchanging thermal energy with external sources or sinks while minimizing the dead volume presented to the pressure cycle is based upon a thermodynamic machine which cycles a working fluid bidirectionally through a regenerator means and at least one external heat exchanger for interchanging thermal energy with a heat source or sink. Between the thermodynamic machine and the heat exchanger is a switchable thermal energy storage system using at least one heat load capacitor and two different circulation loops through the storage system. By switching the working fluid paths through the thermal energy storage system, Thermal energy is exchanged but the thermodynamic machine is isolated from the heat exchanger at least predetermined intervals during operation, and the dead space in the external device does not affect the pressure cycle of the machine.

  7. Energy requirements in pressure irrigation systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sánchez, R.; Rodríguez-Sinobas, L.; Juana, L.; Laguna, F. V.; Castañón, G.; Gil, M.; Benítez, J.

    2012-04-01

    Modernization of irrigation schemes, generally understood as transformation of surface irrigation systems into pressure -sprinkler and trickle- irrigation systems, aims at, among others, improving irrigation efficiency and reduction of operation and maintenance efforts made by the irrigators. However, pressure irrigation systems, in contrast, carry a serious energy cost. Energy requirements depend on decisions taken on management strategies during the operation phase, which are conditioned by previous decisions taken on the design project of the different elements which compose the irrigation system. Most of the countries where irrigation activity is significant bear in mind that modernization irrigation must play a key role in the agricultural infrastructure policies. The objective of this study is to characterize and estimate the mean and variation of the energy consumed by common types of irrigation systems and their management possibilities. The work includes all processes involved from the diversion of water into irrigation specific infrastructure to water discharge by the emitters installed on the crop fields. Simulation taking into account all elements comprising the irrigation system has been used to estimate the energy requirements of typical irrigation systems of several crop production systems. It has been applied to extensive and intensive crop systems, such us extensive winter crops, summer crops and olive trees, fruit trees and vineyards and intensive horticulture in greenhouses. The simulation of various types of irrigation systems and management strategies, in the framework imposed by particular cropping systems, would help to develop criteria for improving the energy balance in relation to the irrigation water supply productivity.

  8. Hybrid piezoelectric energy harvesting transducer system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Xu, Tian-Bing (Inventor); Jiang, Xiaoning (Inventor); Su, Ji (Inventor); Rehrig, Paul W. (Inventor); Hackenberger, Wesley S. (Inventor)

    2008-01-01

    A hybrid piezoelectric energy harvesting transducer system includes: (a) first and second symmetric, pre-curved piezoelectric elements mounted separately on a frame so that their concave major surfaces are positioned opposite to each other; and (b) a linear piezoelectric element mounted separately on the frame and positioned between the pre-curved piezoelectric elements. The pre-curved piezoelectric elements and the linear piezoelectric element are spaced from one another and communicate with energy harvesting circuitry having contact points on the frame. The hybrid piezoelectric energy harvesting transducer system has a higher electromechanical energy conversion efficiency than any known piezoelectric transducer.

  9. Tunisia Renewable Energy Project systems description report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Scudder, L. R.; Martz, J. E.; Ratajczak, A. F.

    1986-01-01

    In 1979, the Agency for International Development (AID) initiated a renewable energy project with the Government of Tunisia to develop an institutional capability to plan and institute renewable energy technologies in a rural area. The specific objective of the district energy applications subproject was to demonstrate solar and wind energy systems in a rural village setting. The NASA Lewis Research Center was asked by the AID Near East Bureau to manage and implement this subproject. This report describes the project and gives detailed desciptions of the various systems.

  10. Industrial Compressed Air System Energy Efficiency Guidebook.

    SciTech Connect

    United States. Bonneville Power Administration.

    1993-12-01

    Energy efficient design, operation and maintenance of compressed air systems in industrial plants can provide substantial reductions in electric power and other operational costs. This guidebook will help identify cost effective, energy efficiency opportunities in compressed air system design, re-design, operation and maintenance. The guidebook provides: (1) a broad overview of industrial compressed air systems, (2) methods for estimating compressed air consumption and projected air savings, (3) a description of applicable, generic energy conservation measures, and, (4) a review of some compressed air system demonstration projects that have taken place over the last two years. The primary audience for this guidebook includes plant maintenance supervisors, plant engineers, plant managers and others interested in energy management of industrial compressed air systems.

  11. Comparative analysis of net energy balance for satellite power systems (SPS) and other energy systems

    SciTech Connect

    Cirillo, R.R.; Cho, B.S.; Monarch, M.R.; Levine, E.P.

    1980-04-01

    The net energy balance of seven electric energy systems is assessed: two coal-based, one nuclear, two terrestrial solar, and two solar power satellites, with principal emphasis on the latter two systems. Solar energy systems require much less operating energy per unit of electrical output. However, on the basis of the analysis used here, coal and nuclear systems are two to five times more efficient at extracting useful energy from the primary resource base than are the solar energy systems. The payback period for all systems is less than 1.5 years, except for the terrestrial photovoltaic (19.8 yr) and the solar power satellite system (6.4 yr), both of which rely on energy-intensive silicon cells.

  12. Surface Energy Balance System (SEBS) Handbook

    SciTech Connect

    Cook, DR

    2011-02-14

    A Surface Energy Balance System (SEBS) has been installed collocated with each deployed ECOR system at the Southern Great Plains (SGP), North Slope of Alaska (NSA), Tropical Western Pacific (TWP), ARM Mobile Facility 1 (AMF1), and ARM Mobile Facility 2 (AMF2). The surface energy balance system consists of upwelling and downwelling solar and infrared radiometers within one net radiometer, a wetness sensor, and soil measurements. The SEBS measurements allow the comparison of ECOR sensible and latent heat fluxes with the energy balance determined from the SEBS and provide information on wetting of the sensors for data quality purposes.

  13. An Expertise Based Energy Information System.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rosenberg, S.

    This paper describes an intelligent decision support system for information on petroleum resources and use currently being designed by the Information Methodology Research Project as the first step in the development of a comprehensive intelligent information system for dealing with energy resources in the United States. The system draws on…

  14. Prototype residential solar-energy system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1978-01-01

    Complete solar-energy domestic-hot-water system for single-family residences is described in brochure. It contains data on procurement, installation, operation, and maintainance of system in residential or light commercial buildings. Appendix includes vendor brochures for major system components. Drawings, tables, and graphs complement text.

  15. Adaptive, full-spectrum solar energy system

    DOEpatents

    Muhs, Jeffrey D.; Earl, Dennis D.

    2003-08-05

    An adaptive full spectrum solar energy system having at least one hybrid solar concentrator, at least one hybrid luminaire, at least one hybrid photobioreactor, and a light distribution system operably connected to each hybrid solar concentrator, each hybrid luminaire, and each hybrid photobioreactor. A lighting control system operates each component.

  16. Energy integrated farm system technical summary report

    SciTech Connect

    Breckenridge, R.P.; Price, D.R.; Sherwood, R.K.; Thompson, W.N.

    1987-03-01

    The Energy Integrated Farm System program was established by the Department of Energy in 1980 in response to the hardship imposed on US farmers by high fuel costs and unreliable fuel supplies. The program investigated the feasibility of integrating energy conservation practices with on-farm energy production to reduce farm energy consumption and make farms more energy self-sufficient. Seven farms located in various geographical regions in the US and Puerto Rico participated in the program. Each of these farms developed an energy integrated farm system project that used a unique combination of energy production and energy conservation methods to supply energy to the farm and reduce the farm's dependence on energy produced from nonrenewable sources such as coal and oil. Methods used at these projects included conservation tillage, solar heating, waste heat recovery, methane digestion, electricity production from biogas, alcohol fuel production, fluidized-bed combustion of crop wastes, and computer-aided conservation irrigation. This report is a summary of the seven technical manuals prepared at the conclusion of the projects. It presents highlights and results, provides an overview of successes and problems, and lists recommendations.

  17. Energy metabolism of skeletal muscle biopsies stimulated anaerobically without load in vitro.

    PubMed

    Young, D A; Chi, M M; Lowry, O H

    1986-06-01

    This study was made to test the validity of a simple biopsy technique for assessing the metabolic capacity of skeletal muscle. The biopsy is stimulated under mineral oil without attachment, i.e., without load or tension, then freeze-clamped and assayed for ATP, phosphocreatine, glucose 6-phosphate, and lactate. The mineral oil creates a closed anaerobic system. Background studies demonstrated in the absence of a load, metabolic changes with stimulation were little affected by cutting the fibers to obtain the biopsy; and high-energy phosphate (approximately P) consumption during a brief tetanus was not much lower than that for an isometric tetanus. Individual fast-twitch oxidative-glycolytic (IIA) and fast-twitch glycolytic (IIB) fibers obtained from the freeze-clamped biopsy showed distinct differences in approximately P consumption and metabolic changes. The results indicate that this technique could be useful for studies of normal and pathological human muscle.

  18. Army Energy and Water Reporting System Assessment

    SciTech Connect

    Deprez, Peggy C.; Giardinelli, Michael J.; Burke, John S.; Connell, Linda M.

    2011-09-01

    There are many areas of desired improvement for the Army Energy and Water Reporting System. The purpose of system is to serve as a data repository for collecting information from energy managers, which is then compiled into an annual energy report. This document summarizes reported shortcomings of the system and provides several alternative approaches for improving application usability and adding functionality. The U.S. Army has been using Army Energy and Water Reporting System (AEWRS) for many years to collect and compile energy data from installations for facilitating compliance with Federal and Department of Defense energy management program reporting requirements. In this analysis, staff from Pacific Northwest National Laboratory found that substantial opportunities exist to expand AEWRS functions to better assist the Army to effectively manage energy programs. Army leadership must decide if it wants to invest in expanding AEWRS capabilities as a web-based, enterprise-wide tool for improving the Army Energy and Water Management Program or simply maintaining a bottom-up reporting tool. This report looks at both improving system functionality from an operational perspective and increasing user-friendliness, but also as a tool for potential improvements to increase program effectiveness. The authors of this report recommend focusing on making the system easier for energy managers to input accurate data as the top priority for improving AEWRS. The next major focus of improvement would be improved reporting. The AEWRS user interface is dated and not user friendly, and a new system is recommended. While there are relatively minor improvements that could be made to the existing system to make it easier to use, significant improvements will be achieved with a user-friendly interface, new architecture, and a design that permits scalability and reliability. An expanded data set would naturally have need of additional requirements gathering and a focus on integrating

  19. FEL system for energy transmission

    SciTech Connect

    Burke, R.J.; Curtin, M.S.; Lampel, M.C.; Cover, R.A.

    1994-12-01

    The use of a Free Electron Laser (FEL) as the power source for transmission from Earth stations to space assets is discussed. Considerations of requirements including net power transmitted, of system reliability, of system availability, of costs, and of technical maturity are addressed to determine a reasonable development path to an optimal system. Various applications of transmitted power are examined such as supplementary power to communications satellites, orbit raising through the use of electric and thermal thrusters, and supplementary power to manned orbiters and space stations. It is seen that each of these applications leads to different stages of infrastructure development, and that a program following a near optimal development path can lead to a system that has justifiable investments for the services delivered at each stage past the initial technology demonstration. 13 refs.

  20. A new wind energy conversion system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smetana, F. O.

    1975-01-01

    It is presupposed that vertical axis wind energy machines will be superior to horizontal axis machines on a power output/cost basis and the design of a new wind energy machine is presented. The design employs conical cones with sharp lips and smooth surfaces to promote maximum drag and minimize skin friction. The cones are mounted on a vertical axis in such a way as to assist torque development. Storing wind energy as compressed air is thought to be optimal and reasons are: (1) the efficiency of compression is fairly high compared to the conversion of mechanical energy to electrical energy in storage batteries; (2) the release of stored energy through an air motor has high efficiency; and (3) design, construction, and maintenance of an all-mechanical system is usually simpler than for a mechanical to electrical conversion system.

  1. Decentralized energy systems for clean electricity access

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alstone, Peter; Gershenson, Dimitry; Kammen, Daniel M.

    2015-04-01

    Innovative approaches are needed to address the needs of the 1.3 billion people lacking electricity, while simultaneously transitioning to a decarbonized energy system. With particular focus on the energy needs of the underserved, we present an analytic and conceptual framework that clarifies the heterogeneous continuum of centralized on-grid electricity, autonomous mini- or community grids, and distributed, individual energy services. A historical analysis shows that the present day is a unique moment in the history of electrification where decentralized energy networks are rapidly spreading, based on super-efficient end-use appliances and low-cost photovoltaics. We document how this evolution is supported by critical and widely available information technologies, particularly mobile phones and virtual financial services. These disruptive technology systems can rapidly increase access to basic electricity services and directly inform the emerging Sustainable Development Goals for quality of life, while simultaneously driving action towards low-carbon, Earth-sustaining, inclusive energy systems.

  2. MULTIFUNCTIONAL SOLAR ENERGY SYSTEMS RESEARCH PROJECT

    SciTech Connect

    Byard Wood, Lance Seefeldt, Ronald Sims, Bradley Wahlen, and Dan Dye

    2012-06-29

    The solar energy available within the visible portion of the solar spectrum is about 300 W/m2 (43%) and that available in the UV and IR portion is about 400 W/m2 (57%). This provides opportunities for developing integrated energy systems that capture and use specific wavelengths of the solar spectrum for different purposes. For example: biofuels from photosynthetic microbes use only the visible light; solar cells use a narrow band of the solar spectrum that could be either mostly in the visible or in the IR regions of the solar spectrum, depending on the photovoltaic materials, e.g., gallium antimonide (GaSb) cells utilize predominately IR radiation; and finally, solar panels that heat water utilize a broad range of wavelengths (visible plus IR). The basic idea of this research is that sunlight has many possible end-use applications including both direct use and energy conversion schemes; it is technically feasible to develop multifunctional solar energy systems capable of addressing several end-use needs while increasing the overall solar energy utilization efficiency when compared to single-purpose solar technologies. Such a combination of technologies could lead to more cost-competitive ?multifunctional? systems that add value and broaden opportunities for integrated energy systems. The goal of this research is to increase the overall energy efficacy and cost competitiveness of solar systems. The specific objectives of this research were: 1) Evaluate the efficacy of a combined photobioreactor and electric power system; 2) Improve the reliability and cost effectiveness of hybrid solar lighting systems ? a technology in which sunlight is collected and distributed via optical fibers into the interior of a building; 3) Evaluate the efficacy of using filtered light to increase the production of biomass in photobioreactors and provide more solar energy for other uses; 4) Evaluates several concepts for wavelength shifting such that a greater percentage of the solar

  3. Non-tracking solar energy collector system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Selcuk, M. K. (Inventor)

    1978-01-01

    A solar energy collector system characterized by an improved concentrator for directing incident rays of solar energy on parallel vacuum-jacketed receivers or absorbers is described. Numerous individually mounted reflector modules of a common asymmetrical triangular cross-sectional configuration are supported for independent reorientation. Asymmetric vee-trough concentrators are defined.

  4. Mechanical Devices and Systems. Energy Technology Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center for Occupational Research and Development, Inc., Waco, TX.

    This course in mechanical devices and systems is one of 16 courses in the Energy Technology Series developed for an Energy Conservation-and-Use Technology curriculum. Intended for use in two-year postsecondary technical institutions to prepare technicians for employment, the courses are also useful in industry for updating employees in…

  5. Electronic Devices and Systems. Energy Technology Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Technical Education Research Centre-Southwest, Waco, TX.

    This course in electronic devices and systems is one of 16 courses in the Energy Technology Series developed for an Energy Conservation-and-Use Technology curriculum. Intended for use in two-year postsecondary technical institutions to prepare technicians for employment, the courses are also useful in industry for updating employees in…

  6. Fluid Power Systems. Energy Technology Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center for Occupational Research and Development, Inc., Waco, TX.

    This course in fluid power systems is one of 16 courses in the Energy Technology Series developed for an Energy Conservation-and-Use Technology curriculum. Intended for use in two-year postsecondary technical institutions to prepare technicians for employment, the courses are also useful in industry for updating employees in company-sponsored…

  7. Energy Integrated Lighting-Heating-Cooling System.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meckler, Gershon; And Others

    1964-01-01

    Energy balance problems in the design of office buildings are analyzed. Through the use of integrated systems utilizing dual purpose products, a controlled environment with minimum expenditure of energy, equipment and space can be provided. Contents include--(1) office building occupancy loads, (2) office building heating load analysis, (3) office…

  8. NEMO 2: New energy systems and technologies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lund, P.

    The Advanced Energy Systems and Technologies Research Program (NEMO 2) is one of the main energy research programs of the Ministry of Trade and Industry of Finland for the period of 1993-1998. The main emphasis in NEMO 2 is on solar energy and wind power. These are followed by other small power production, energy storage, and hydrogen technologies. The total budget is about 120 million FIM. The main objective in Nemo 2 is to increase the use of solar and wind energy in Finland and to promote industrial export in this field. Technology research and development is strongly supported and an international leadership role is envisioned for some niche areas. New energy technology is developed as a whole in close cooperation with industry and universities. To enhance the commercialization of these technologies, a small demonstration program is suggested to be realized in connection with the research program. Furthermore, international cooperation is considered important in reaching the program goals. As to wind energy research, basic research on wind meteorology and arctic wind technology will be continued. A series of pilot plants to demonstrate the achievements from wind technology developments is promoted. In solar energy, the NEMO 2 program looks for more efficient and cheaper photovoltaic systems and applications. Manufacturing of new photovoltaic cells is under consideration. Solar heating technologies are also supported with emphasis on improved system demonstrations. Energy storage questions are also dealt with indirectly in connection with solar research and development.

  9. Energy Consumption Monitoring System for Large Complexes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jorge, André; Guerreiro, João; Pereira, Pedro; Martins, João; Gomes, Luís

    This paper describes the development of an open source system for monitoring and data acquisition of several energy analyzers. The developed system is based on a computer with Internet/Intranet connection by means of RS485 using Modbus RTU as communication protocol. The monitoring/metering system was developed for large building complexes and was validated in the Faculdade de Ciências e Tecnologia University campus. The system considers two distinct applications. The first one allows the user to verify, in real time, the energy consumption of any department in the complex, produce load diagrams, tables and print, email or save all available data. The second application keeps records of active/reactive energy consumption in order to verify the existence of some anomalous situation, and also monthly charge energy consumption to each corresponding department.

  10. Energy landscapes and functions of supramolecular systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tantakitti, Faifan; Boekhoven, Job; Wang, Xin; Kazantsev, Roman V.; Yu, Tao; Li, Jiahe; Zhuang, Ellen; Zandi, Roya; Ortony, Julia H.; Newcomb, Christina J.; Palmer, Liam C.; Shekhawat, Gajendra S.; de La Cruz, Monica Olvera; Schatz, George C.; Stupp, Samuel I.

    2016-04-01

    By means of two supramolecular systems--peptide amphiphiles engaged in hydrogen-bonded β-sheets, and chromophore amphiphiles driven to assemble by π-orbital overlaps--we show that the minima in the energy landscapes of supramolecular systems are defined by electrostatic repulsion and the ability of the dominant attractive forces to trap molecules in thermodynamically unfavourable configurations. These competing interactions can be selectively switched on and off, with the order of doing so determining the position of the final product in the energy landscape. Within the same energy landscape, the peptide-amphiphile system forms a thermodynamically favoured product characterized by long bundled fibres that promote biological cell adhesion and survival, and a metastable product characterized by short monodisperse fibres that interfere with adhesion and can lead to cell death. Our findings suggest that, in supramolecular systems, functions and energy landscapes are linked, superseding the more traditional connection between molecular design and function.

  11. Energy landscapes and function of supramolecular systems

    PubMed Central

    Tantakitti, Faifan; Boekhoven, Job; Wang, Xin; Kazantsev, Roman; Yu, Tao; Li, Jiahe; Zhuang, Ellen; Zandi, Roya; Ortony, Julia H.; Newcomb, Christina J.; Palmer, Liam C.; Shekhawat, Gajendra S.; de la Cruz, Monica Olvera; Schatz, George C.; Stupp, Samuel I.

    2015-01-01

    By means of two supramolecular systems - peptide amphiphiles engaged in hydrogen-bonded β-sheets, and chromophore amphiphiles driven to assemble by π-orbital overlaps - we show that the minima in the energy landscapes of supramolecular systems are defined by electrostatic repulsion and the ability of the dominant attractive forces to trap molecules in thermodynamically unfavourable configurations. These competing interactions can be selectively switched on and off, with the order of doing so determining the position of the final product in the energy landscape. Within the same energy landscape, the peptide-amphiphile system forms a thermodynamically favoured product characterized by long bundled fibres that promote biological cell adhesion and survival, and a metastable product characterized by short monodisperse fibres that interfere with adhesion and can lead to cell death. Our findings suggest that, in supramolecular systems, function and energy landscape are linked, superseding the more traditional connection between molecular design and function. PMID:26779883

  12. Energy Systems Integration: NREL + Solectria (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2015-02-01

    This fact sheet describes the collaboration between NREL and Solectria at the Energy Systems Integration Facility (ESIF) to to develop 500- and 750-kilowatt photovoltaic (PV) inverters with advanced features that can support the electric grid.

  13. Characteristic Energy Scales of Quantum Systems.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morgan, Michael J.; Jakovidis, Greg

    1994-01-01

    Provides a particle-in-a-box model to help students understand and estimate the magnitude of the characteristic energy scales of a number of quantum systems. Also discusses the mathematics involved with general computations. (MVL)

  14. The world's evolving energy system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hubbert, M. King

    1981-11-01

    Human history can be divided into three distinct successive phases. The first, comprising all history prior to about 1800, was characterized by a small human population, a low level of energy consumption per capita, and very slow rates of change. The second, based upon the exploitation of the fossil fuels and the industrial metals, has been a period of continuous and spectacular exponential growth. However, because of the finite resources of the Earth's fossil fuels and metallic ores, the second phase can only be transitory. Most of the ores of the industrial metals will have been mined within the next century. The third phase, therefore, must again become one of the slow rates of growth, but initially at least with a large population and a high rate of energy consumption. Perhaps the foremost problem facing mankind at present is that of how to make the transition from the present exponential-growth phase to the near steady state of the future by as noncatastrophic a progression as possible.

  15. Energy Systems Integration Facility (ESIF): Golden, CO - Energy Integration

    SciTech Connect

    Sheppy, Michael; VanGeet, Otto; Pless, Shanti; Gaul, Chris

    2015-03-01

    At NREL's Energy Systems Integration Facility (ESIF) in Golden, Colo., scientists and engineers work to overcome challenges related to how the nation generates, delivers and uses energy by modernizing the interplay between energy sources, infrastructure, and data. Test facilities include a megawatt-scale ac electric grid, photovoltaic simulators and a load bank. Additionally, a high performance computing data center (HPCDC) is dedicated to advancing renewable energy and energy efficient technologies. A key design strategy is to use waste heat from the HPCDC to heat parts of the building. The ESIF boasts an annual EUI of 168.3 kBtu/ft2. This article describes the building's procurement, design and first year of performance.

  16. The National Energy Modeling System: An overview

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-05-01

    The National Energy Modeling System (NEMS) is a computer-based, energy-economy modeling system of US energy markets for the midterm period of 1990 to 2010. NEMS projects the production, imports, conversion, consumption, and prices of energy, subject to assumptions on macroeconomic and financial factors, world energy markets, resource availability and costs, behavioral and technological choice criteria, cost and performance characteristics of energy technologies, and demographics. This report presents an overview of the structure and methodology of NEMS and each of its components. The first chapter provides a description of the design and objectives of the system. The second chapter describes the modeling structure. The remainder of the report summarizes the methodology and scope of the component modules of NEMS. The model descriptions are intended for readers familiar with terminology from economics, operations research, and energy modeling. Additional background on the development of the system is provided in Appendix A of this report, which describes the EIA modeling systems that preceded NEMS. More detailed model documentation reports for all the NEMS modules are also available from EIA.

  17. Solar ADEPT: Efficient Solar Energy Systems

    SciTech Connect

    2011-01-01

    Solar ADEPT Project: The 7 projects that make up ARPA-E's Solar ADEPT program, short for 'Solar Agile Delivery of Electrical Power Technology,' aim to improve the performance of photovoltaic (PV) solar energy systems, which convert the sun's rays into electricity. Solar ADEPT projects are integrating advanced electrical components into PV systems to make the process of converting solar energy to electricity more efficient.

  18. An environmental and energy information system.

    PubMed

    Ulrikson, G U; Caton, G M; Guthrie, M P; McDuffie, H F

    1975-01-01

    The Environmental Information System Office (EISO) at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) provides information support for researchers and administrators involved with energy and environmental policy and progress. Multiple EISO activities for various governmental agencies have resulted in establishment of compatible data bases concerned with energy environmental information, methods for effectively developing these, development and computer display of numerical daya summaries, and reports evaluating published information. Direction is provided by continuing dialogue between users and information system staff. PMID:1193029

  19. Optical Energy Transfer and Conversion System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stone, William C. (Inventor); Hogan, Bartholomew P. (Inventor)

    2015-01-01

    An optical power transfer system comprising a fiber spooler, a fiber optic rotary joint mechanically connected to the fiber spooler, and an electrical power extraction subsystem connected to the fiber optic rotary joint with an optical waveguide. Optical energy is generated at and transferred from a base station through fiber wrapped around the spooler, through the rotary joint, and ultimately to the power extraction system at a remote mobility platform for conversion to another form of energy.

  20. Power Contro Energy Management and Market Systems

    SciTech Connect

    Tom Addison; Andrew Stanbury

    2005-12-15

    More efficient use of the nation's electrical energy infrastructure will result in minimizing the cost of energy to the end user. Using real time electrical market information coupled with defined rules, market opportunities can be identified that provide economic benefit for both users and marketers of electricity. This report describes the design of one such system and the features a fully functional system would provide. This report documents several investigated methods of controlling load diversity or shifting.

  1. Hydrogen energy - An inexhaustible abundant clean energy system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nayar, M. G.

    1981-04-01

    A review is presented of various hydrogen production processes from possible primary energy resources. The processes covered are nuclear coal gasification, thermochemical hydrogen production, and hydrogen production by electrolysis, which includes solid polymer electrolyte-based electrolyzers, high-temperature electrolyzers, and photoelectrochemical decomposition of water. Attention is given to hydrogen transport and storage (in metal hydride systems) and to its application as an automotive fuel. Hydrogen as a secondary energy source is also discussed, and its uses as an off-peak power storage medium and as an energy transmission medium are described. Costs, flow diagrams and chemical formulas are analyzed in detail.

  2. Flywheel energy storage for electromechanical actuation systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hockney, Richard L.; Goldie, James H.; Kirtley, James L.

    1991-01-01

    The authors describe a flywheel energy storage system designed specifically to provide load-leveling for a thrust vector control (TVC) system using electromechanical actuators (EMAs). One of the major advantages of an EMA system over a hydraulic system is the significant reduction in total energy consumed during the launch profile. Realization of this energy reduction will, however, require localized energy storage capable of delivering the peak power required by the EMAs. A combined flywheel-motor/generator unit which interfaces directly to the 20-kHz power bus represents an ideal candidate for this load leveling. The overall objective is the definition of a flywheel energy storage system for this application. The authors discuss progress on four technical objectives: (1) definition of the specifications for the flywheel-motor/generator system, including system-level trade-off analysis; (2) design of the flywheel rotor; (3) design of the motor/generator; and (4) determination of the configuration for the power management system.

  3. Coupled dynamics analysis of wind energy systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hoffman, J. A.

    1977-01-01

    A qualitative description of all key elements of a complete wind energy system computer analysis code is presented. The analysis system addresses the coupled dynamics characteristics of wind energy systems, including the interactions of the rotor, tower, nacelle, power train, control system, and electrical network. The coupled dynamics are analyzed in both the frequency and time domain to provide the basic motions and loads data required for design, performance verification and operations analysis activities. Elements of the coupled analysis code were used to design and analyze candidate rotor articulation concepts. Fundamental results and conclusions derived from these studies are presented.

  4. Carbonless Transportation and Energy Storage in Future Energy Systems

    SciTech Connect

    Lamont, A.D.; Berry, G.D.

    2001-01-17

    By 2050 world population is projected to stabilize near 10 billion. Global economic development will outpace this growth, achieving present European per capita living standards by quintupling the size of the global economy--and increasing energy use, especially electricity, substantially. Even with aggressive efficiency improvements, global electricity use will at least triple to 30 trillion kWh/yr in 2050. Direct use of fuels, with greater potential for efficiency improvement, may be held to 80 trillion kWh (289 EJ) annually, 50% above present levels (IPCC, 1996). Sustaining energy use at these or higher rates, while simultaneously stabilizing atmospheric greenhouse gas levels, will require massive deployment of carbon-conscious energy systems for electricity generation and transportation by the mid 21st Century. These systems will either involve a shift to non-fossil primary energy sources (such as solar, wind, biomass, nuclear, and hydroelectric) or continue to rely on fossil primary energy sources and sequester carbon emissions (Halmann, 1999). Both approaches share the need to convert, transmit, store and deliver energy to end-users through carbonless energy carriers.

  5. Decentralized solar photovoltaic energy systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krupka, M. C.

    1980-09-01

    Emphasis was placed upon the selection and use of a model residential photovoltaic system to develop and quantify the necessary data. The model consists of a reference home located in Phoenix, AZ utilizing a unique solar cell array roof shingle combination. Silicon solar cells, rated at 13.5 percent efficiency at 28 C and 100 mW/sq cm insolation are used to generate 10 kW (peak). An all electric home is considered with lead acid battery storage, DC AC inversion and utility backup. The reference home is compared to others in regions of different insolation. It is suggested that solar cell materials production and fabrication may have the major environmental impact when comparing all facets of photovoltaic system usage. Fabrication of the various types of solar cell systems involves the need, handling, and transportation of many toxic and hazardous chemicals with attendant health and safety impacts. Increases in production of such materials as lead, antimony, sulfuric acid, copper, plastics, cadmium and gallium will be required should large scale usage of photovoltaic systems be implemented.

  6. Solar Energy Grid Integration Systems -- Energy Storage (SEGIS-ES).

    SciTech Connect

    Hanley, Charles J.; Ton, Dan T.; Boyes, John D.; Peek, Georgianne Huff

    2008-07-01

    This paper describes the concept for augmenting the SEGIS Program (an industry-led effort to greatly enhance the utility of distributed PV systems) with energy storage in residential and small commercial applications (SEGIS-ES). The goal of SEGIS-ES is to develop electrical energy storage components and systems specifically designed and optimized for grid-tied PV applications. This report describes the scope of the proposed SEGIS-ES Program and why it will be necessary to integrate energy storage with PV systems as PV-generated energy becomes more prevalent on the nation's utility grid. It also discusses the applications for which energy storage is most suited and for which it will provide the greatest economic and operational benefits to customers and utilities. Included is a detailed summary of the various storage technologies available, comparisons of their relative costs and development status, and a summary of key R&D needs for PV-storage systems. The report concludes with highlights of areas where further PV-specific R&D is needed and offers recommendations about how to proceed with their development.

  7. Carbonless Transportation and Energy Storage in Future Energy Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berry, G. D.; Lamont, A. D.

    2001-01-01

    Electricity is the highest quality energy carrier, increasingly dominant throughout the world's energy infrastructure. Ultimately electricity use can expand to efficiently meet virtually all stationary energy applications, eliminating stationary end-use carbon emissions. This approach is unlikely to work in transportation, however, due to the high cost and low energy density of electricity storage. Chemical energy carriers, such as hydrogen, can more effectively serve transportation fuel and energy storage applications, offering much higher energy density at lower cost. Electrolytic hydrogen, extracted from steam with renewable energy, stored as a high pressure gas or cryogenic liquid, and reconverted to electricity in fuel cells and or used to power hydrogen vehicles, will reduce emissions from both transportation and electric generation. Renewable resources and modular electrolytic technology also permit decentralized hydrogen production, circumventing distribution issues and barriers to market entry. In contrast, sequestration-based fossil-fueled systems must achieve economies of scale by relying on centralized production and hierarchical transmission and distribution of electricity, hydrogen fuel, and carbon (dioxide).

  8. Biomass energy systems and the environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Braunstein, H. M.; Kanciruk, P.; Roop, R. D.; Sharples, F. E.; Tatum, J. S.; Oakes, K. M.

    The technology, resources, applied, and experimental features of biomass energy resources are explored, with an emphasis on environmental and social implications of large-scale biomass development. The existing land and water based biomass resource is described in terms of available energy, ecological concerns, agricultural crops, livestock production, freshwater systems, and ocean systems. Attention is given to proposed systems of biomass energy production from forestry and silviculture, agricultural crops, livestock wastes, and freshwater and ocean systems. A survey is made of various biomass materials, techniques for conversion to gas, liquid fuels, or for direct combustion, and impacts of large-scale biomass production and harvest are examined. Particular note is made of the effects of scaling biomass conversion systems, including near- and long-term applications, and ethics and aesthetic concerns.

  9. Cost projections for Redox Energy storage systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Michaels, K.; Hall, G.

    1980-01-01

    A preliminary design and system cost analysis was performed for the redox energy storage system. A conceptual design and cost estimate was prepared for each of two energy applications: (1) electric utility 100-MWh requirement (10-MW for ten hours) for energy storage for utility load leveling application, and (2) a 500-kWh requirement (10-kW for 50 hours) for use with a variety of residential or commercial applications, including stand alone solar photovoltaic systems. The conceptual designs were based on cell performance levels, system design parameters, and special material costs. These data were combined with estimated thermodynamic and hydraulic analysis to provide preliminary system designs. Results indicate that the redox cell stack to be amenable to mass production techniques with a relatively low material cost.

  10. Energy-beam-driven rapid fabrication system

    DOEpatents

    Keicher, David M.; Atwood, Clinton L.; Greene, Donald L.; Griffith, Michelle L.; Harwell, Lane D.; Jeantette, Francisco P.; Romero, Joseph A.; Schanwald, Lee P.; Schmale, David T.

    2002-01-01

    An energy beam driven rapid fabrication system, in which an energy beam strikes a growth surface to form a molten puddle thereon. Feed powder is then injected into the molten puddle from a converging flow of feed powder. A portion of the feed powder becomes incorporated into the molten puddle, forcing some of the puddle contents to freeze on the growth surface, thereby adding an additional layer of material. By scanning the energy beam and the converging flow of feed powder across the growth surface, complex three-dimensional shapes can be formed, ready or nearly ready for use. Nearly any class of material can be fabricated using this system.

  11. The Endocannabinoid System: Role in Energy Regulation

    PubMed Central

    Gamage, Thomas F.; Lichtman, Aron H.

    2013-01-01

    Cannabis sativa has been used since antiquity to treat many ailments, including eating disorders. The primary psychoactive constituent of this plant, Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) is an FDA approved medication to treat nausea and emesis caused by cancer chemotherapeutic agents as well as to stimulate appetite in AIDS patients suffering from cachexia. The effects of THC are mediated through the endocannabinoid system (ECS), which promotes a positive energy balance through stimulation of appetite as well as shifting homeostatic mechanisms toward energy storage. Here we discuss the physiological function of the ECS in energy balance and the therapeutic potential of targeting this system. PMID:22076835

  12. Synchronous generator wind energy conversion control system

    SciTech Connect

    Medeiros, A.L.R.; Lima, A.M.N.; Jacobina, C.B.; Simoes, F.J.

    1996-12-31

    This paper presents the performance evaluation and the design of the control system of a WECS (Wind Energy Conversion System) that employs a synchronous generator based on its digital simulation. The WECS discussed in this paper is connected to the utility grid through two Pulse Width Modulated (PWM) power converters. The structure of the proposed WECS enables us to achieve high performance energy conversion by: (i) maximizing the wind energy capture and (ii) minimizing the reactive power flowing between the grid and the synchronous generator. 8 refs., 19 figs.

  13. State energy-price system: 1981 update

    SciTech Connect

    Fang, J.M.; Imhoff, K.L.; Hood, L.J.

    1983-08-01

    This report updates the State Energy Price Data System (STEPS) to include state-level energy prices by fuel and by end-use sectors for 1981. Both physical unit prices and Btu prices are presented. Basic documentation of the data base remains generally the same as in the original report: State Energy Price System; Volume 1: Overview and Technical Documentation (DOE/NBB-0029 Volume 1 of 2, November 1982). The present report documents only the changes in procedures necessitated by the update to 1981 and the corrections to the basic documentation.

  14. SMR Handbook: Hybrid Energy Systems Involving SMRs

    SciTech Connect

    Shannon M. Bragg-Sitton

    2014-09-01

    Large-scale nuclear reactors are traditionally operated for a singular purpose: steady-state production of dispatchable baseload electricity that is distributed broadly on the electric grid. While this implementation is key to a sustainable, reliable energy grid, SMRs offer new opportunities for increased use of clean nuclear energy for both electric and thermal applications in more locations – while still accommodating the desire to support renewable production sources. This chapter considers a scenario in which renewable generation would be tightly coupled with the nuclear generation source – behind the grid – to meet the grid demand as an integrated energy system while simultaneously producing other commodities with the available thermal energy.

  15. Research for Electric Energy Systems

    SciTech Connect

    Anderson, W.E.

    1991-06-01

    This report documents the technical progress in investigations. The first investigation is concerned with the measurement of magnetic fields in support of epidemiogical and in vitro studies of biological field effects. NIST cohosted a workshop on exposure and biological parameters that should be considered during the vitro studies with extremely low frequency (ELF) magnetic and electric fields. Also, equations were developed to predict the magnetic field in a parallel plate magnetic field exposure system. The second investigation is concerned with two different activities: the detection of trace levels of S{sub 2}F{sub 10} in SF{sub 6} and the development of an improved stochastic analyzer for pulsating phenomena (SAPP). The detection of S{sub 2}F{sub 10} in the presence of SF{sub 6} using mass-spectrometric detection coupled to a gas chromatograph is difficult because of the similar mass spectra. A technique is described that enables the detection of S{sub 2}F{sub 10} in gaseous SF{sub 6} down to the ppb level using a modified gas chromatograph-mass spectrometer. The new system was applied to an investigation of the stochastic behavior of negative corona (Trichel pulses) and the effect of a dielectric barrier on these discharges. The third investigation is concerned with breakdown and prebreakdown phenomena in liquid dielectrics. The activity reported here was a study of negative steamers preceding electric breakdown in hexanes. Using the image preserving optical delay, the growth of the streamers associated with partial discharges at a point cathode are photographed at high magnification. The last investigation is concerned with the evaluation and improvement of methods for measuring fast transients in electrical power systems such as might be associated with an electromagnetic impulse. A compact resistive divider, NIST4, was designed. It is anticipated that this divider together with some Kerr electro-optical devices will be used as the reference system at NIST.

  16. Local optimization of energy systems

    SciTech Connect

    Lozano, M.A.; Valero, A.; Serra, L.

    1996-12-31

    Many thermal systems are very complex due to the number of components and/or its strong interdependence. This complexity makes difficult the optimization of the system design and operation. The theory of Exergetic Cost is based on concepts such as resources, structure, efficiency and purpose (belonging to any theory of production) and on the Second Law. This paper will show how it is possible to obtain from the theory of exergetic cost the marginal costs (Lagrange multipliers) of local resources being consumed by a component. This paper also shows the advantage of the proposed Theory of Perturbations when describing the complexity of structural interactions in a straightforward way. This theory allows to formulate simple procedures for local optimization of components in a plant. Finally, strategies for optimization of complex systems are shown. They are based in the sequential optimization from component to component. This clear and efficient method comes form the fact that the authors have now an operative application of the Thermoeconomic Isolation Principle. This is applied here to thermal power plants.

  17. A sustainable legume biomass energy farming system

    SciTech Connect

    Neathery, J.; Rubel, A.; Stencel, J.; Collins, M.

    1996-12-31

    Before environmentally sensitive areas are converted to biomass energy production, the production, the potential for sustainability of such systems must be assessed. The focus has been on woody or grass crops because of their high potential yields; however, yield sustainability is dependent on the application of fertilizer and lining materials, which in turn contribute to large costs. Growing legumes or mixtures of legumes with grasses could lower or alleviate the need for nitrate fertilizers. The incorporation of legumes into energy cropping systems could: (1) add soil organic matter; (2) introduce biologically fixed N; (3) improve soil structure and texture; (4) reduce soil erosion; (5) reduce production costs; and (6) decrease nitrate run-off in surface waters. Through the {open_quotes}rotation effect{close_quotes}, legumes cause increases in yield of subsequent non-legume crops beyond that accounted for by biologically-fixed N alone. In this paper, we describe a biomass energy system combining legume and grass biomass energy with fertilizer production from these same materials. Preliminary agronomic and engineering assessments for this type of biomass system are presented. The technologies needed to integrate nitrate production with legume energy farming and energy production through legume energy conversion are identified.

  18. Energy requirements for tillage-planting systems

    SciTech Connect

    Griffith, D.R.; Parsons, s.D.

    1981-01-01

    Fuel saved by omitting field operations or changing to operations with lower power requirements is easily understood and can be measured directly or estimated from research data. However, several other energy consuming inputs may be altered by changing tillage practices: the type and amount of pesticides required, the form and amount of fertilizer applied; and the particular equipment used. these other energy components are frequently overlooked because they are not easily defined and not highly visible at the arm level. They may, however, tip the energy balance in favor of one tillage-planting system over another when comparing the total energy burden on society. this paper attempts to put these various energy components into perspective as they relate to the selection of a tillage-planting system for corn and soybean production. 15 refs.

  19. NEMO: Advanced energy systems and technologies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lund, P.

    In this report, the contents and major results of the national research program on advanced energy system and technologies (NEMO) are presented. The NEMO-program was one of the energy research programs of the Ministry of Trade and Industry during 1988-1992. Helsinki University of Technology had the responsibility of the overall coordination of the program. NEMO has been the largest resource allocation into advanced energy systems in Finland so far. The total budget was 70 million FIM. The focus of the program has been in solar energy, wind power, and energy storage. Hydrogen and fuel cells have been included in smaller amount. On all major fields of the NEMO-program, useful and high quality results have been obtained. Results of international significance include among others arctic wind energy, new approaches for the energy storage problem in solar energy applications, and the development of a completely new storage battery. International collaboration has been given high priority. The NEMO-program has also been active in informing the industries of the various business and utilization possibilities that advanced energy technologies offer. For example, major demonstration plants of each technology group have been realized. It is recommended that the further R and D should be still more focused on commercial applications. Through research efforts at universities, a good technology base should be maintained, whereas the industries should take a stronger position in commercializing new technology. Parallel to technology R and D, more public resources should be allocated for market introduction.

  20. Solar energy system economic evaluation: IBM System 2, Togus, Maine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1980-01-01

    The economic analysis of the solar energy system, is developed for Torgus and four other sites typical of a wide range of environmental and economic conditions in the continental United States. This analysis is accomplished based on the technical and economic models in the f-chart design procedure with inputs taken on the characteristics of the installed system and local conditions. The results are expressed in terms of the economic parameters of present worth of system cost over a projected twenty year life, life cycle savings, year of positive savings and year of payback for the optimized solar energy system at each of the analysis sites. The sensitivity of the economic evaluation to uncertainties in constituent system and economic variables is also investigated. Results demonstrate that the solar energy system is economically viable at all of the five sites for which the analysis was conducted.

  1. Bioenergy systems report. Special issue: cane energy systems

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1986-03-01

    The report examines the use of cane to produce energy. It focuses primarily on two recent proposals for the production of electric power for the grid using cane residues and supplementary fuels. It also reviews use of cane juice or molasses to produce ethanol for blending with gasoline. In both types of cane energy systems, the objective is the production of energy as well as sugar or sugar products. The report is divided into sections on growing and harvesting biomass fuels in cane fields, producing power for the grid with these fuels, the uses of the cane juice produced in cane energy systems, the costs and revenues associated with these systems, and the national benefits derived from these systems.

  2. Dormitory Solar-Energy-System Economics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1982-01-01

    102-page report analyzes long-term economic performance of a prepackaged solar energy assembly system at a dormitory installation and extrapolates to four additional sites about the U.S. Method of evaluation is f-chart procedure for solar-heating and domestic hotwater systems.

  3. Systems Evaluation at the Cool Energy House

    SciTech Connect

    Williamson, J.; Puttagunta, S.

    2013-09-01

    Steven Winter Associates, Inc. (SWA) monitored several advanced mechanical systems within a 2012 deep energy retrofitted home in the small Orlando suburb of Windermere, FL. This report provides performance results of one of the home's heat pump water heaters (HPWH) and the whole-house dehumidifier (WHD) over a six month period. In addition to assessing the energy performance of these systems,this study sought to quantify potential comfort improvements over traditional systems. This information is applicable to researchers, designers, plumbers, and HVAC contractors. Though builders and homeowners can find useful information within this report, the corresponding case studies are a likely better reference for this audience.

  4. Systems Evaluation at the Cool Energy House

    SciTech Connect

    J. Williamson and S. Puttagunta

    2013-09-01

    Steven Winter Associates, Inc. (SWA) monitored several advanced mechanical systems within a 2012 deep energy retrofitted home in the small Orlando suburb of Windermere, FL. This report provides performance results of one of the home's heat pump water heaters (HPWH) and the whole-house dehumidifier (WHD) over a six month period. In addition to assessing the energy performance of these systems, this study sought to quantify potential comfort improvements over traditional systems. This information is applicable to researchers, designers, plumbers, and HVAC contractors. Though builders and homeowners can find useful information within this report, the corresponding case studies are a likely better reference for this audience.

  5. Dynamic management of integrated residential energy systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Muratori, Matteo

    This study combines principles of energy systems engineering and statistics to develop integrated models of residential energy use in the United States, to include residential recharging of electric vehicles. These models can be used by government, policymakers, and the utility industry to provide answers and guidance regarding the future of the U.S. energy system. Currently, electric power generation must match the total demand at each instant, following seasonal patterns and instantaneous fluctuations. Thus, one of the biggest drivers of costs and capacity requirement is the electricity demand that occurs during peak periods. These peak periods require utility companies to maintain operational capacity that often is underutilized, outdated, expensive, and inefficient. In light of this, flattening the demand curve has long been recognized as an effective way of cutting the cost of producing electricity and increasing overall efficiency. The problem is exacerbated by expected widespread adoption of non-dispatchable renewable power generation. The intermittent nature of renewable resources and their non-dispatchability substantially limit the ability of electric power generation of adapting to the fluctuating demand. Smart grid technologies and demand response programs are proposed as a technical solution to make the electric power demand more flexible and able to adapt to power generation. Residential demand response programs offer different incentives and benefits to consumers in response to their flexibility in the timing of their electricity consumption. Understanding interactions between new and existing energy technologies, and policy impacts therein, is key to driving sustainable energy use and economic growth. Comprehensive and accurate models of the next-generation power system allow for understanding the effects of new energy technologies on the power system infrastructure, and can be used to guide policy, technology, and economic decisions. This

  6. Low energy center pivot sprinkler irrigation system

    SciTech Connect

    Gilley, J.R.

    1981-04-30

    Reducing the pressure of center-pivot irrigation systems can save energy; however, there can be management problems such as increased runoff and soil erosion and nonuniformity of water application. Options available to help overcome some of these problems are system capacity design, speed of rotation, application rate patterns, and modified cultural practices. Constraints on the use of reduced-pressure center-pivots will often be site specific and depend on the soil type, topography, crop, and history of land use. Reductions in irrigation efficiency resulting from reduced pressure must be considered when determining the net energy savings from reduced-pressure systems. Reduction in irrigation efficiency may negate the energy saved by pressure reduction, especially for those systems with larger lifts.

  7. Offshore Wind Energy Systems Engineering Curriculum Development

    SciTech Connect

    McGowan, Jon G.; Manwell, James F.; Lackner, Matthew A.

    2012-12-31

    Utility-scale electricity produced from offshore wind farms has the potential to contribute significantly to the energy production of the United States. In order for the U.S. to rapidly develop these abundant resources, knowledgeable scientists and engineers with sound understanding of offshore wind energy systems are critical. This report summarizes the development of an upper-level engineering course in "Offshore Wind Energy Systems Engineering." This course is designed to provide students with a comprehensive knowledge of both the technical challenges of offshore wind energy and the practical regulatory, permitting, and planning aspects of developing offshore wind farms in the U.S. This course was offered on a pilot basis in 2011 at the University of Massachusetts and the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), TU Delft, and GL Garrad Hassan have reviewed its content. As summarized in this report, the course consists of 17 separate topic areas emphasizing appropriate engineering fundamentals as well as development, planning, and regulatory issues. In addition to the course summary, the report gives the details of a public Internet site where references and related course material can be obtained. This course will fill a pressing need for the education and training of the U.S. workforce in this critically important area. Fundamentally, this course will be unique due to two attributes: an emphasis on the engineering and technical aspects of offshore wind energy systems, and a focus on offshore wind energy issues specific to the United States.

  8. HVAC systems and energy conservation in hotels

    SciTech Connect

    Wagner, J.R.

    1986-01-01

    This paper discusses the effect that the design of the basic HVAC has on the relative success of energy conservation efforts in hotels. The unusual nature of a hotel is explained along with the impact that it has on the HVAC system. The paper stresses the practical considerations which must be made by the HVAC system designer when he designs the guest rooms, public areas, back-of-the-house areas, temperature control system, and energy management system. The advantages of providing separate air-handling systems are presented. The benefits of line voltage electric controls for guest room fan coil units are explained. General recommendations for arrangement of ventilation systems and possible opportunities for heat recovery are included.

  9. Energy Efficient Operation of Ammonia Refrigeration Systems

    SciTech Connect

    Mohammed, Abdul Qayyum; Wenning, Thomas J; Sever, Franc; Kissock, Professor Kelly

    2013-01-01

    Ammonia refrigeration systems typically offer many energy efficiency opportunities because of their size and complexity. This paper develops a model for simulating single-stage ammonia refrigeration systems, describes common energy saving opportunities, and uses the model to quantify those opportunities. The simulation model uses data that are typically available during site visits to ammonia refrigeration plants and can be calibrated to actual consumption and performance data if available. Annual electricity consumption for a base-case ammonia refrigeration system is simulated. The model is then used to quantify energy savings for six specific energy efficiency opportunities; reduce refrigeration load, increase suction pressure, employ dual suction, decrease minimum head pressure set-point, increase evaporative condenser capacity, and reclaim heat. Methods and considerations for achieving each saving opportunity are discussed. The model captures synergistic effects that result when more than one component or parameter is changed. This methodology represents an effective method to model and quantify common energy saving opportunities in ammonia refrigeration systems. The results indicate the range of savings that might be expected from common energy efficiency opportunities.

  10. World Energy Projection System model documentation

    SciTech Connect

    Hutzler, M.J.; Anderson, A.T.

    1997-09-01

    The World Energy Projection System (WEPS) was developed by the Office of Integrated Analysis and Forecasting within the Energy Information Administration (EIA), the independent statistical and analytical agency of the US Department of Energy. WEPS is an integrated set of personal computer based spreadsheets containing data compilations, assumption specifications, descriptive analysis procedures, and projection models. The WEPS accounting framework incorporates projections from independently documented models and assumptions about the future energy intensity of economic activity (ratios of total energy consumption divided by gross domestic product GDP), and about the rate of incremental energy requirements met by natural gas, coal, and renewable energy sources (hydroelectricity, geothermal, solar, wind, biomass, and other renewable resources). Projections produced by WEPS are published in the annual report, International Energy Outlook. This report documents the structure and procedures incorporated in the 1998 version of the WEPS model. It has been written to provide an overview of the structure of the system and technical details about the operation of each component of the model for persons who wish to know how WEPS projections are produced by EIA.

  11. Kinetic energy recovery systems in motor vehicles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Śliwiński, C.

    2016-09-01

    The article draws attention to the increasing environmental pollution caused by the development of vehicle transport and motorization. Different types of design solutions used in vehicles for the reduction of fuel consumption, and thereby emission of toxic gasses into the atmosphere, were specified. Historical design solutions concerning energy recovery devices in mechanical vehicles which used flywheels to accumulate kinetic energy were shown. Developmental tendencies in the area of vehicle manufacturing in the form of hybrid electric and electric devices were discussed. Furthermore, designs of energy recovery devices with electrical energy storage from the vehicle braking and shock absorbing systems were presented. A mechanical energy storing device using a flywheel operating under vacuum was presented, as were advantages and disadvantages of both systems, the limitations they impose on individual constructions and safety issues. The paper also discusses a design concept of an energy recovery device in mechanical vehicles which uses torsion springs as the main components of energy accumulation during braking. The desirability of a cooperation of both the mechanical- and electrical energy recovery devices was indicated.

  12. Energy efficiency of a dynamic glazing system

    SciTech Connect

    Lollini, R.; Danza, L.; Meroni, I.

    2010-04-15

    The reduction of air-conditioning energy consumptions is one of the main indicators to act on when improving the energy efficiency in buildings. In the case of advanced technological buildings, a meaningful contribution to the thermal loads and the energy consumptions reduction could depend on the correct configuration and management of the envelope systems. In recent years, the architectural trend toward highly transparent all-glass buildings presents a unique challenge and opportunity to advance the market for emerging, smart, dynamic window and dimmable daylighting control technologies (). A prototype dynamic glazing system was developed and tested at ITC-CNR; it is aimed at actively responding to the external environmental loads. Both an experimental campaign and analyses by theoretical models were carried out, aimed at evaluating the possible configurations depending on different weather conditions in several possible places. Therefore, the analytical models of the building-plant system were defined by using a dynamic energy simulation software (EnergyPlus). The variables that determine the system performance, also influenced by the boundary conditions, were analysed, such as U- and g-value; they concern both the morphology of the envelope system, such as dimensions, shading and glazing type, gap airflow thickness, in-gap airflow rate, and management, in terms of control algorithm parameters tuning fan and shading systems, as a function of the weather conditions. The configuration able to provide the best performances was finally identified by also assessing such performances, integrating the dynamic system in several building types and under different weather conditions. The dynamic envelope system prototype has become a commercial product with some applications in facade systems, curtain walls and windows. The paper describes the methodological approach to prototype development and the main results obtained, including simulations of possible applications on

  13. The PCAST Energy Technology Innovation System Study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Savitz, M.; Fri, R.

    2010-12-01

    The President's Council of Advisors on Science and Technology (PCAST) recently made recommendations for strengthening the nation's energy innovation system. The PCAST report builds in part on earlier work at the National Research Council (NRC) and elsewhere. For example, PCAST largely adopted the description of the energy innovation system that appeared in the NRC report on 'Limiting the Magnitude of Future Climate Change'. Similarly, the 'Limiting' report provided examples of the importance of social science research in crafting energy policy, a recommendation of the PCAST report. And both the 'Limiting' report and an earlier report on 'America's Energy Future' recommended an aggressive commercial demonstration program for carbon capture and storage and new nuclear power plants. The PCAST report discusses the need for new approaches for federal demonstration projects. This session traces these relationships and suggests how similar synergies might be encouraged in the future.

  14. Industrial Scale Energy Systems Integration; NREL (National Renewable Energy Laboratory)

    SciTech Connect

    Ruth, Mark

    2015-07-28

    The industrial sector consumes 25% of the total energy in the U.S. and produces 18% of the greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. Energy Systems Integration (ESI) opportunities can reduce those values and increase the profitability of that sector. This presentation outlines several options. Combined heat and power (CHP) is an option that is available today for many applications. In some cases, it can be extended to trigeneration by adding absorbtion cooling. Demand response is another option in use by the industrial sector - in 2012, industry provided 47% of demand response capacity. A longer term option that combines the benefits of CHP with those of demand response is hybrid energy systems (HESs). Two possible HESs are described and development implications discussed. extended to trigeneration by adding absorbtion cooling. Demand response is another option in use by the industrial sector - in 2012, industry provided 47% of demand response capacity. A longer term option that combines the benefits of CHP with those of demand response is hybrid energy systems (HESs). Two possible HESs are described and development implications discussed.

  15. Choosing a heating system that saves energy

    SciTech Connect

    Hayden, A.C.S.

    1996-03-01

    When something must be done about an old or inefficient heating system, the challenge can be daunting. The decision will affect comfort, energy costs, and the air quality and safety of a home for years to come. Whatever the reasons for considering a new heating system-adding living space or replacing a system that is inefficient or just plain falling apart-this is a long-term investment, and it makes good economic sense to look carefully at energy efficiency. As this guide points out, there are a number of factors that determine the right choice for a particular home. Costs will include the price of the unit and distribution system, installation charges, and operating expenses. Topics include the following: finding the perfect fit; go to the source; air or water a central question; interpreting energy efficiency ratings; calculating costs; understanding energy source measurements; natural gas and propane equipment; oil equipment; oil system upgrade; electric equipment; integraded systems for space and water heating; room-by-room heating; heating cost worksheet.

  16. Energy Savings by Treating Buildings as Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harvey, L. D. Danny

    2008-09-01

    This paper reviews the opportunities for dramatically reducing energy use in buildings by treating buildings as systems, rather than focusing on device efficiencies. Systems-level considerations are relevant for the operation of heat pumps (where the temperatures at which heat or coldness are distributed are particularly important); the joint or separate provision of heating, cooling, and ventilation; the joint or separate removal of sensible heat and moisture; and in the operation of fluid systems having pumps. Passive heating, cooling, and ventilation, as well as daylighting (use of sunlight for lighting purposes) also require consideration of buildings as systems. In order to achieve the significant (50-75%) energy savings that are possible through a systems approach, the design process itself has to involve a high degree of integration between the architect and various engineering disciplines (structural, mechanical, electrical), and requires the systematic examination and adjustment of alternative designs using computer simulation models.

  17. View southeast of computer controlled energy monitoring system. System replaced ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    View southeast of computer controlled energy monitoring system. System replaced strip chart recorders and other instruments under the direct observation of the load dispatcher. - Thirtieth Street Station, Load Dispatch Center, Thirtieth & Market Streets, Railroad Station, Amtrak (formerly Pennsylvania Railroad Station), Philadelphia, Philadelphia County, PA

  18. Energy storage systems for MPD thrusters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gabriel, S. B.

    1981-01-01

    Because of its high thrust density, the magnetoplasmadynamic (MPD) thruster is a promising candidate for many advanced space missions. Its high power requirements lead to operation in a pulsed mode using an intermediate energy storage device. The characteristics of a system consisting of a solar array, energy storage capacitor, and MPD thruster are studied for array powers in the range 25-375 kw. Assuming simple analytic models for the circuit components, the circuit charge and discharge equations are solved numerically, resulting in the system efficiency and capacitance. The system efficiency is inversely proportional to array power and decreases with circuit resistance. Alternative methods of energy storage such as a pulse forming network and a homopolar generator, are presented, and an overall comparison between all of the methods is given.

  19. Building Energy Information Systems: User Case Studies

    SciTech Connect

    Granderson, Jessica; Piette, Mary Ann; Ghatikar, Girish

    2010-03-22

    Measured energy performance data are essential to national efforts to improve building efficiency, as evidenced in recent benchmarking mandates, and in a growing body of work that indicates the value of permanent monitoring and energy information feedback. This paper presents case studies of energy information systems (EIS) at four enterprises and university campuses, focusing on the attained energy savings, and successes and challenges in technology use and integration. EIS are broadly defined as performance monitoring software, data acquisition hardware, and communication systems to store, analyze and display building energy information. Case investigations showed that the most common energy savings and instances of waste concerned scheduling errors, measurement and verification, and inefficient operations. Data quality is critical to effective EIS use, and is most challenging at the subsystem or component level, and with non-electric energy sources. Sophisticated prediction algorithms may not be well understood but can be applied quite effectively, and sites with custom benchmark models or metrics are more likely to perform analyses external to the EIS. Finally, resources and staffing were identified as a universal challenge, indicating a need to identify additional models of EIS use that extend beyond exclusive in-house use, to analysis services.

  20. World energy projection system: Model documentation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1992-06-01

    The World Energy Project System (WEPS) is an accounting framework that incorporates projects from independently documented models and assumptions about the future energy intensity of economic activity (ratios of total energy consumption divided by gross domestic product) and about the rate of incremental energy requirements met by hydropower, geothermal, coal, and natural gas to produce projections of world energy consumption published annually by the Energy Information Administration (EIA) in the International Energy Outlook (IEO). Two independently documented models presented in Figure 1, the Oil Market Simulation (OMS) model and the World Integrated Nuclear Evaluation System (WINES), provide projections of oil and nuclear power consumption published in the IEO. Output from a third independently documented model, and the International Coal Trade Model (ICTM), is not published in the IEO but is used in WEPS as a supply check on projections of world coal consumption produced by WEPS and published in the IEO. A WEPS model of natural gas production documented in this report provides the same type of implicit supply check on the WEPS projections of world natural gas consumption published in the IEO. Two additional models are included in Figure 1, the OPEC Capacity model and the Non-OPEC Oil Production model. These WEPS models provide inputs to the OMS model and are documented in this report.

  1. Solar energy grid integration systems "SEGIS"

    SciTech Connect

    None, None

    2007-10-01

    The inevitable transformation of the electrical grid to a more distributed generation configuration requires solar system capabilities well beyond simple net-metered, grid-connected approaches. Time-of-use and peak-demand rate structures will require more sophisticated systems designs that integrate energy management and/or energy storage into the system architecture. Controlling power flow into and from the utility grid will be required to ensure grid reliability and power quality. Alternative protection strategies will also be required to accommodate large numbers of distributed energy sources. This document provides an overview of the R&D needs and describes some pathways to promising solutions. The solutions will, in many cases, require R&D of new components, innovative inverter/controllers, energy management systems, innovative energy storage and a suite of advanced control algorithms, technical methodologies, protocols and the associated communications. It is expected that these solutions will help to push the “advanced integrated system” and “smart grid” evolutionary processes forward in a faster but focused manner.

  2. Solar energy control system. [temperature measurement

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Currie, J. R. (Inventor)

    1981-01-01

    A solar energy control system for a hot air type solar energy heating system wherein thermocouples are arranged to sense the temperature of a solar collector, a space to be heated, and a top and bottom of a heat storage unit is disclosed. Pertinent thermocouples are differentially connected together, and these are employed to effect the operation of dampers, a fan, and an auxiliary heat source. In accomplishing this, the differential outputs from the thermocouples are amplified by a single amplifier by multiplexing techniques. Additionally, the amplifier is corrected as to offset by including as one multiplex channel a common reference signal.

  3. Regional Energy Deployment System (ReEDS)

    SciTech Connect

    Short, W.; Sullivan, P.; Mai, T.; Mowers, M.; Uriarte, C.; Blair, N.; Heimiller, D.; Martinez, A.

    2011-12-01

    The Regional Energy Deployment System (ReEDS) is a deterministic optimization model of the deployment of electric power generation technologies and transmission infrastructure throughout the contiguous United States into the future. The model, developed by the National Renewable Energy Laboratory's Strategic Energy Analysis Center, is designed to analyze the critical energy issues in the electric sector, especially with respect to potential energy policies, such as clean energy and renewable energy standards or carbon restrictions. ReEDS provides a detailed treatment of electricity-generating and electrical storage technologies and specifically addresses a variety of issues related to renewable energy technologies, including accessibility and cost of transmission, regional quality of renewable resources, seasonal and diurnal generation profiles, variability of wind and solar power, and the influence of variability on the reliability of the electrical grid. ReEDS addresses these issues through a highly discretized regional structure, explicit statistical treatment of the variability in wind and solar output over time, and consideration of ancillary services' requirements and costs.

  4. Air quality and future energy system planning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sobral Mourao, Zenaida; Konadu, Dennis; Lupton, Rick

    2016-04-01

    Ambient air pollution has been linked to an increasing number of premature deaths throughout the world. Projected increases in demand for food, energy resources and manufactured products will likely contribute to exacerbate air pollution with an increasing impact on human health, agricultural productivity and climate change. Current events such as tampering emissions tests by VW car manufacturers, failure to comply with EU Air Quality directives and WHO guidelines by many EU countries, the problem of smog in Chinese cities and new industrial emissions regulations represent unique challenges but also opportunities for regulators, local authorities and industry. However current models and practices of energy and resource use do not consider ambient air impacts as an integral part of the planing process. Furthermore the analysis of drivers, sources and impacts of air pollution is often fragmented, difficult to understand and lacks effective visualization tools that bring all of these components together. This work aims to develop a model that links impacts of air quality on human health and ecosystems to current and future developments in the energy system, industrial and agricultural activity and patterns of land use. The model will be added to the ForeseerTM tool, which is an integrated resource analysis platform that has been developed at the University of Cambridge initially with funding from BP and more recently through the EPSRC funded Whole Systems Energy Modeling (WholeSEM) project. The basis of the tool is a set of linked physical models for energy, water and land, including the technologies that are used to transform these resources into final services such as housing, food, transport and household goods. The new air quality model will explore different feedback effects between energy, land and atmospheric systems with the overarching goal of supporting better communication about the drivers of air quality and to incorporate concerns about air quality into

  5. Automated drawing system of quantum energy levels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stampoultzis, M.; Sinatkas, J.; Tsakstara, V.; Kosmas, T. S.

    2014-03-01

    The purpose of this work is to derive an automated system that provides advantageous drawings of energy spectra for quantum systems (nuclei, atoms, molecules, etc.) required in various physical sciences. The automation involves the development of appropriate computational code and graphical imaging system based on raw data insertion, theoretical calculations and experimental or bibliographic data insertion. The system determines the appropriate scale to depict graphically with the best possible way in the available space. The presently developed code operates locally and the results are displayed on the screen and can be exported to a PostScript file. We note its main features to arrange and visualize in the available space the energy levels with their identity, taking care the existence in the final diagram the least auxiliary deviations. Future improvements can be the use of Java and the availability on the Internet. The work involves the automated plotting of energy levels in molecules, atoms, nuclei and other types of quantized energy spectra. The automation involves the development of an appropriate computational code and graphical imaging system.

  6. Energy System Contributions During Incremental Exercise Test

    PubMed Central

    Bertuzzi, Rômulo; Nascimento, Eduardo M.F.; Urso, Rodrigo P.; Damasceno, Mayara; Lima-Silva, Adriano E.

    2013-01-01

    The main purpose of this study was to determine the relative contributions of the aerobic and glycolytic systems during an incremental exercise test (IET). Ten male recreational long-distance runners performed an IET consisting of three-minute incremental stages on a treadmill. The fractions of the contributions of the aerobic and glycolytic systems were calculated for each stage based on the oxygen uptake and the oxygen energy equivalents derived by blood lactate accumulation, respectively. Total metabolic demand (WTOTAL) was considered as the sum of these two energy systems. The aerobic (WAER) and glycolytic (WGLYCOL) system contributions were expressed as a percentage of the WTOTAL. The results indicated that WAER (86-95%) was significantly higher than WGLYCOL (5-14%) throughout the IET (p < 0.05). In addition, there was no evidence of the sudden increase in WGLYCOL that has been previously reported to support to the “anaerobic threshold” concept. These data suggest that the aerobic metabolism is predominant throughout the IET and that energy system contributions undergo a slow transition from low to high intensity. Key Points The aerobic metabolism contribution is the predominant throughout the maximal incremental test. The speed corresponding to the aerobic threshold can be considered the point in which aerobic metabolism reaches its maximal contribution. Glycolytic metabolism did not contribute largely to the energy expenditure at intensities above the anaerobic threshold. PMID:24149151

  7. Performance of deep geothermal energy systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Manikonda, Nikhil

    Geothermal energy is an important source of clean and renewable energy. This project deals with the study of deep geothermal power plants for the generation of electricity. The design involves the extraction of heat from the Earth and its conversion into electricity. This is performed by allowing fluid deep into the Earth where it gets heated due to the surrounding rock. The fluid gets vaporized and returns to the surface in a heat pipe. Finally, the energy of the fluid is converted into electricity using turbine or organic rankine cycle (ORC). The main feature of the system is the employment of side channels to increase the amount of thermal energy extracted. A finite difference computer model is developed to solve the heat transport equation. The numerical model was employed to evaluate the performance of the design. The major goal was to optimize the output power as a function of parameters such as thermal diffusivity of the rock, depth of the main well, number and length of lateral channels. The sustainable lifetime of the system for a target output power of 2 MW has been calculated for deep geothermal systems with drilling depths of 8000 and 10000 meters, and a financial analysis has been performed to evaluate the economic feasibility of the system for a practical range of geothermal parameters. Results show promising an outlook for deep geothermal systems for practical applications.

  8. NREL Leads Energy Systems Integration, Continuum Magazine: Issue 4 (Book)

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2013-04-01

    Continuum Magazine showcases NREL's latest and most impactful clean energy innovations. This issue, 'NREL Leads Energy Systems Integration' explores the discipline of energy systems integration, in particular the role of the laboratory's new, one-of-a-kind Energy System Integration Facility. NREL scientists, engineers, and analysts deeply understand the fundamental science and technologies underpinning major energy producing and consuming systems, as well as the transmission infrastructure and communications and data networks required to integrate energy systems at all scales.

  9. Geothermal energy control system and method

    DOEpatents

    Matthews, Hugh B.

    1976-01-01

    A geothermal energy transfer and utilization system makes use of thermal energy stored in hot solute-bearing well water to generate super-heated steam from an injected flow of clean water; the super-heated steam is then used for operating a turbine-driven pump at the well bottom for pumping the hot solute-bearing water at high pressure and in liquid state to the earth's surface, where it is used by transfer of its heat to a closed-loop boiler-turbine-alternator combination for the generation of electrical or other power. Residual concentrated solute-bearing water is pumped back into the earth. The clean cooled water is regenerated at the surface-located system and is returned to the deep well pumping system also for lubrication of a novel bearing arrangement supporting the turbine-driven pump system.

  10. Smart Operations in Distributed Energy Resources System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wei, Li; Jie, Shu; Zhang-XianYong; Qing, Zhou

    Smart grid capabilities are being proposed to help solve the challenges concerning system operations due to that the trade-offs between energy and environmental needs will be constantly negotiated while a reliable supply of electricity needs even greater assurance in case of that threats of disruption have risen. This paper mainly explores models for distributed energy resources system (DG, storage, and load),and also reviews the evolving nature of electricity markets to deal with this complexity and a change of emphasis on signals from these markets to affect power system control. Smart grid capabilities will also impact reliable operations, while cyber security issues must be solved as a culture change that influences all system design, implementation, and maintenance. Lastly, the paper explores significant questions for further research and the need for a simulation environment that supports such investigation and informs deployments to mitigate operational issues as they arise.

  11. Water Desalination Systems Powered by Solar Energy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barseghyan, A.

    2015-12-01

    The supply of potable water from polluted rivers, lakes, unsafe wells, etc. is a problem of high priority. One of the most effective methods to obtain low cost drinking water is desalination. Advanced water treatment system powered by Solar Energy and based on electrodialysis for water desalination and purification, is suggested. Technological and economic evaluations and the benefits of the suggested system are discussed. The Advanced Water Treatment System proposed clears water not only from different salts, but also from some infections, thus decreasing the count of diseases which are caused by the usage of non-clear water. Using Solar Energy makes the system stand alone which is convenient to use in places where power supply is problem.

  12. High temperature underground thermal energy storage system for solar energy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Collins, R. E.

    1980-01-01

    The activities feasibility of high temperature underground thermal storage of energy was investigated. Results indicate that salt cavern storage of hot oil is both technically and economically feasible as a method of storing huge quantities of heat at relatively low cost. One particular system identified utilizes a gravel filled cavern leached within a salt dome. Thermal losses are shown to be less than one percent of cyclically transferred heat. A system like this having a 40 MW sub t transfer rate capability and over eight hours of storage capacity is shown to cost about $13.50 per KWh sub t.

  13. Technology assessment of wind energy conversion systems

    SciTech Connect

    Meier, B. W.; Merson, T. J.

    1980-09-01

    Environmental data for wind energy conversion systems (WECSs) have been generated in support of the Technology Assessment of Solar Energy (TASE) program. Two candidates have been chosen to characterize the WECS that might be deployed if this technology makes a significant contribution to the national energy requirements. One WECS is a large machine of 1.5-MW-rated capacity that can be used by utilities. The other WECS is a small machine that is characteristic of units that might be used to meet residential or small business energy requirements. Energy storage systems are discussed for each machine to address the intermittent nature of wind power. Many types of WECSs are being studied and a brief review of the technology is included to give background for choosing horizontal axis designs for this study. Cost estimates have been made for both large and small systems as required for input to the Strategic Environmental Assessment Simulation (SEAS) computer program. Material requirements, based on current generation WECSs, are discussed and a general discussion of environmental impacts associated with WECS deployment is presented.

  14. Plans for wind energy system simulation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dreier, M. E.

    1978-01-01

    A digital computer code and a special purpose hybrid computer, were introduced. The digital computer program, the Root Perturbation Method or RPM, is an implementation of the classic floquet procedure which circumvents numerical problems associated with the extraction of Floquet roots. The hybrid computer, the Wind Energy System Time domain simulator (WEST), yields real time loads and deformation information essential to design and system stability investigations.

  15. Dark energy in systems of galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chernin, A. D.

    2013-11-01

    The precise observational data of the Hubble Space Telescope have been used to study nearby galaxy systems. The main result is the detection of dark energy in groups, clusters, and flows of galaxies on a spatial scale of about 1-10 Mpc. The local density of dark energy in these systems, which is determined by various methods, is close to the global value or even coincides with it. A theoretical model of the nearby Universe has been constructed, which describes the Local Group of galaxies with the flow of dwarf galaxies receding from this system. The key physical parameter of the group-flow system is zero gravity radius, which is the distance at which the gravity of dark matter is compensated by dark-energy antigravity. The model predicts the existence of local regions of space where Einstein antigravity is stronger than Newton gravity. Six such regions have been revealed in the data of the Hubble space telescope. The nearest of these regions is at a distance of 1-3 Mpc from the center of the Milky Way. Antigravity in this region is several times stronger than gravity. Quasiregular flows of receding galaxies, which are accelerated by the dark-energy antigravity, exist in these regions. The model of the nearby Universe at the scale of groups of galaxies (˜1 Mpc) can be extended to the scale of clusters (˜10 Mpc). The systems of galaxies with accelerated receding flows constitute a new and probably widespread class of metagalactic populations. Strong dynamic effects of local dark energy constitute the main characteristic feature of these systems.

  16. Solar energy system economic evaluation: IBM System 4, Clinton, Mississippi

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1980-01-01

    An economic analysis of the solar energy system was developed for five sites, typical of a wide range of environmental and economic conditions in the continental United States. The analysis was based on the technical and economic models in the F-chart design procedure, with inputs based on the characteristic of the installed system and local conditions. The results are of the economic parameters of present worth of system cost over a 20 year time span: life cycle savings, year of positive savings and year of payback for the optimized solar energy system at each of the analysis sites. The sensitivity of the economic evaluation to uncertainties in constituent system and economic variables is also investigated.

  17. Solar energy system economic evaluation: IBM System 4, Clinton, Mississippi

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1980-09-01

    An economic analysis of the solar energy system was developed for five sites, typical of a wide range of environmental and economic conditions in the continental United States. The analysis was based on the technical and economic models in the F-chart design procedure, with inputs based on the characteristic of the installed system and local conditions. The results are of the economic parameters of present worth of system cost over a 20 year time span: life cycle savings, year of positive savings and year of payback for the optimized solar energy system at each of the analysis sites. The sensitivity of the economic evaluation to uncertainties in constituent system and economic variables is also investigated.

  18. Combined Solar and Wind Energy Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tripanagnostopoulos, Y.; Souliotis, M.; Makris, Th.

    2010-01-01

    In this paper we present the new concept of combined solar and wind energy systems for buildings applications. Photovoltaics (PV) and small wind turbines (WTs) can be install on buildings, in case of sufficient wind potential, providing the building with electricity. PVs can be combined with thermal collectors to form the hybrid photovoltaic/thermal (PV/T) systems. The PVs (or the PV/Ts) and WT subsystems can supplement each other to cover building electrical load. In case of using PV/T collectors, the surplus of electricity, if not used or stored in batteries, can increase the temperature of the thermal storage tank of the solar thermal unit. The description of the experimental set-up of the suggested PV/T/WT system and experimental results are presented. In PV/T/WT systems the output from the solar part depends on the sunshine time and the output of the wind turbine part depends on the wind speed and is obtained any time of day or night. The use of the three subsystems can cover a great part of building energy load, contributing to conventional energy saving and environment protection. The PV/T/WT systems are considered suitable in rural and remote areas with electricity supply from stand-alone units or mini-grid connection. PV/T/WT systems can also be used in typical grid connected applications.

  19. Low to high temperature energy conversion system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miller, C. G. (Inventor)

    1977-01-01

    A method for converting heat energy from low temperature heat sources to higher temperature was developed. It consists of a decomposition chamber in which ammonia is decomposed into hydrogen and nitrogen by absorbing heat of decomposition from a low temperature energy source. A recombination reaction then takes place which increases the temperature of a fluid significantly. The system is of use for the efficient operation of compact or low capital investment turbine driven electrical generators, or in other applications, to enable chemical reactions that have a critical lower temperature to be used. The system also recovers heat energy from low temperature heat sources, such as solar collectors or geothermal sources, and converts it to high temperatures.

  20. Biomass energy systems information user study

    SciTech Connect

    Belew, W.W.; Wood, B.L.; Marle, T.L.; Reinhardt, C.L.

    1981-02-01

    The results of a series of telephone interviews with groups of users of information on biomass energy systems are described. These results, part of a larger study on many different solar technologies, identify types of information each group needed and the best ways to get information to each group. This report is 1 of 10 discussing study results. The overall study provides baseline data about information needs in the solar community. Results from 12 biomass groups of respondents are analyzed in this report: Federally Funded Researchers (2 groups), Nonfederally Funded Researchers (2 groups), Representatives of Manufacturers (2 groups), Representatives of State Forestry Offices, Private Foresters, Forest Products Engineers, Educators, Cooperative Extension Service County Agents, and System Managers. The data will be used as input to the determination of information products and services the Solar Energy Research Institute, the Solar Energy Information Data Bank Network, and the entire information outreach community should be preparing and disseminating.

  1. Energy harvesting devices, systems, and related methods

    DOEpatents

    Kotter, Dale K.

    2016-10-18

    Energy harvesting devices include a substrate and a plurality of resonance elements coupled to the substrate. Each resonance element is configured to collect energy in the visible and infrared light spectra and to reradiate energy having a wavelength in the range of about 0.8 .mu.m to about 0.9 .mu.m. The resonance elements are arranged in groups of two or more resonance elements. Systems for harvesting electromagnetic radiation include a substrate, a plurality of resonance elements including a conductive material carried by the substrate, and a photovoltaic material coupled to the substrate and to at least one resonance element. The resonance elements are arranged in groups, such as in a dipole, a tripole, or a bowtie configuration. Methods for forming an energy harvesting device include forming groups of two or more discrete resonance elements in a substrate and coupling a photovoltaic material to the groups of discrete resonance elements.

  2. Canadian high energy neutron spectrometry system (chenss)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bennett, Les

    The Canadian high-energy neutron spectrometry system (CHENSS) has been constructed in order to accurately characterize the fluence and energy distribution of high-energy neutrons encountered on space missions in low-Earth orbit. The CHENSS is a proton-recoil spectrometer based on a cylindrical gelled scintillator, with pulse-shape discrimination properties comparable to those of a liquid scintillator, completely surrounded by thin plastic panels, which can be used to veto coincident events due to charged particles. The CHENSS has been irradiated by monoenergetic neutron reference beams with energies up to 19 MeV at the Physikalisch- TechnischeBundesanstalt and in quasi-monoenergetic neutron beams at 100 and 200 MeV at the iThemba Labs facilities. Comparison of the data with fluence determinations performed in parallel to the CHENSS measurements shows good consistency and demonstrates the efficacy of the spectrometer for measurements in space.

  3. Shipboard energy savings with the RACER system

    SciTech Connect

    Mattson, W.S.

    1982-02-01

    A current program to design and develop a waste heat recovery gas turbine cruise propulsion plant called RACER is discussed. RACER is an acronym for RAnkine Cycle Energy Recovery which describes the steam bottoming cycle designed to recover waste exhaust heat from LM2500 gas turbines and augment the main propulsion system through a steam turbine. 10 refs.

  4. Renewable energy systems in Mexico: Installation of a hybrid system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pate, Ronald C.

    1993-05-01

    Sandia has been providing technical leadership on behalf of DOE and CORECT on a working level cooperative program with Mexico on renewable energy (PROCER). As part of this effort, the Sandia Design Assistance Center (DAC) and the solar energy program staff at Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas (IIE) in Cuernavaca, Mexico, recently reached agreement on a framework for mutually beneficial technical collaboration on the monitoring and field evaluation of renewable energy systems in Mexico, particularly village-scale hybrid systems. This trip was made for the purpose of planning the details for the joint installation of a data acquisition system (DAS) on a recently completed PV/Wind/Diesel hybrid system in the village of Xcalac on the Southeast coast of the state of Quintana Roo, Mexico. The DAS installation will be made during the week of March 15, 1993. While in Mexico, discussions were also held with personnel from.the National Autonomous University of Mexico (UNAM) Solar Energy Laboratory and several private sector companies with regard to renewable energy project activities and technical and educational support needs in Mexico.

  5. Energy storage systems cost update : a study for the DOE Energy Storage Systems Program.

    SciTech Connect

    Schoenung, Susan M.

    2011-04-01

    This paper reports the methodology for calculating present worth of system and operating costs for a number of energy storage technologies for representative electric utility applications. The values are an update from earlier reports, categorized by application use parameters. This work presents an update of energy storage system costs assessed previously and separately by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Energy Storage Systems Program. The primary objective of the series of studies has been to express electricity storage benefits and costs using consistent assumptions, so that helpful benefit/cost comparisons can be made. Costs of energy storage systems depend not only on the type of technology, but also on the planned operation and especially the hours of storage needed. Calculating the present worth of life-cycle costs makes it possible to compare benefit values estimated on the same basis.

  6. Magnetic Energy Storage System: Superconducting Magnet Energy Storage System with Direct Power Electronics Interface

    SciTech Connect

    2010-10-01

    GRIDS Project: ABB is developing an advanced energy storage system using superconducting magnets that could store significantly more energy than today’s best magnetic storage technologies at a fraction of the cost. This system could provide enough storage capacity to encourage more widespread use of renewable power like wind and solar. Superconducting magnetic energy storage systems have been in development for almost 3 decades; however, past devices were designed to supply power only for short durations—generally less than a few minutes. ABB’s system would deliver the stored energy at very low cost, making it ideal for eventual use in the electricity grid as a costeffective competitor to batteries and other energy storage technologies. The device could potentially cost even less, on a per kilowatt basis, than traditional lead-acid batteries.

  7. Laser Inertial Fusion Energy Control Systems

    SciTech Connect

    Marshall, C; Carey, R; Demaret, R; Edwards, O; Lagin, L; Van Arsdall, P

    2011-03-18

    A Laser Inertial Fusion Energy (LIFE) facility point design is being developed at LLNL to support an Inertial Confinement Fusion (ICF) based energy concept. This will build upon the technical foundation of the National Ignition Facility (NIF), the world's largest and most energetic laser system. NIF is designed to compress fusion targets to conditions required for thermonuclear burn. The LIFE control systems will have an architecture partitioned by sub-systems and distributed among over 1000's of front-end processors, embedded controllers and supervisory servers. LIFE's automated control subsystems will require interoperation between different languages and target architectures. Much of the control system will be embedded into the subsystem with well defined interface and performance requirements to the supervisory control layer. An automation framework will be used to orchestrate and automate start-up and shut-down as well as steady state operation. The LIFE control system will be a high parallel segmented architecture. For example, the laser system consists of 384 identical laser beamlines in a 'box'. The control system will mirror this architectural replication for each beamline with straightforward high-level interface for control and status monitoring. Key technical challenges will be discussed such as the injected target tracking and laser pointing feedback. This talk discusses the the plan for controls and information systems to support LIFE.

  8. Advanced Technology Display House. Volume 2: Energy system design concepts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Maund, D. H.

    1981-01-01

    The preliminary design concept for the energy systems in the Advanced Technology Display House is analyzed. Residential energy demand, energy conservation, and energy concepts are included. Photovoltaic arrays and REDOX (reduction oxidation) sizes are discussed.

  9. 24 CFR 203.18a - Solar energy system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Solar energy system. 203.18a... § 203.18a Solar energy system. (a) The dollar limitation provided in § 203.18(a) may be increased by up... to the installation of a solar energy system. (b) Solar energy system is defined as any...

  10. 24 CFR 203.18a - Solar energy system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Solar energy system. 203.18a... § 203.18a Solar energy system. (a) The dollar limitation provided in § 203.18(a) may be increased by up... to the installation of a solar energy system. (b) Solar energy system is defined as any...

  11. 24 CFR 203.18a - Solar energy system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Solar energy system. 203.18a... § 203.18a Solar energy system. (a) The dollar limitation provided in § 203.18(a) may be increased by up... to the installation of a solar energy system. (b) Solar energy system is defined as any...

  12. Investigations of the tornado wind energy system

    SciTech Connect

    Yen, J.T.

    1982-06-01

    Current test results are presented on the Tornado Wind Energy System (TWES). The objective of the study was to determine the performance and potential of TWES systems using wind tunnel models. Experimental results on system performance with a simple bladed turbine in both the Grumman Research Tunnel and Langley V/STOL Tunnel are presented, followed by descriptions of a larger, 15-ft model and data from tests of a 30-in turbine, as well as results from a cost analysis. It is concluded that TWES has a good commercial potential.

  13. Generation-IV Nuclear Energy Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McFarlane, Harold

    2008-05-01

    Nuclear power technology has evolved through roughly three generations of system designs: a first generation of prototypes and first-of-a-kind units implemented during the period 1950 to 1970; a second generation of industrial power plants built from 1970 to the turn of the century, most of which are still in operation today; and a third generation of evolutionary advanced reactors which began being built by the turn of the 20^th century, usually called Generation III or III+, which incorporate technical lessons learned through more than 12,000 reactor-years of operation. The Generation IV International Forum (GIF) is a cooperative international endeavor to develop advanced nuclear energy systems in response to the social, environmental and economic requirements of the 21^st century. Six Generation IV systems under development by GIF promise to enhance the future contribution and benefits of nuclear energy. All Generation IV systems aim at performance improvement, new applications of nuclear energy, and/or more sustainable approaches to the management of nuclear materials. High-temperature systems offer the possibility of efficient process heat applications and eventually hydrogen production. Enhanced sustainability is achieved primarily through adoption of a closed fuel cycle with reprocessing and recycling of plutonium, uranium and minor actinides using fast reactors. This approach provides significant reduction in waste generation and uranium resource requirements.

  14. Solar Energy Systems for Lunar Oxygen Generation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Colozza, Anthony J.; Heller, Richard S.; Wong, Wayne A.; Hepp, Aloysius F.

    2010-01-01

    An evaluation of several solar concentrator-based systems for producing oxygen from lunar regolith was performed. The systems utilize a solar concentrator mirror to provide thermal energy for the oxygen production process. Thermal energy to power a Stirling heat engine and photovoltaics are compared for the production of electricity. The electricity produced is utilized to operate the equipment needed in the oxygen production process. The initial oxygen production method utilized in the analysis is hydrogen reduction of ilmenite. Utilizing this method of oxygen production a baseline system design was produced. This baseline system had an oxygen production rate of 0.6 kg/hr with a concentrator mirror size of 5 m. Variations were performed on the baseline design to show how changes in the system size and process (rate) affected the oxygen production rate. An evaluation of the power requirements for a carbothermal lunar regolith reduction reactor has also been conducted. The reactor had a total power requirement between 8,320 to 9,961 W when producing 1000 kg/year of oxygen. The solar concentrator used to provide the thermal power (over 82 percent of the total energy requirement) would have a diameter of less than 4 m.

  15. Development of an energy consumption and cost data base for fuel cell total energy systems and conventional building energy systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pine, G. D.; Christian, J. E.; Mixon, W. R.; Jackson, W. L.

    1980-07-01

    The procedures and data sources used to develop an energy consumption and system cost data base for use in predicting the market penetration of phosphoric acid fuel cell total energy systems in the nonindustrial building market are described. A computer program was used to simulate the hourly energy requirements of six types of buildings; office buildings; retail stores; hotels and motels; schools; hospitals; and multifamily residences. The simulations were done by using hourly weather tapes for one city in each of the ten Department of Energy administrative regions. Two types of building construction were considered, one for existing buildings and one for new buildings. A fuel cell system combined with electrically driven heat pumps and one combined with a gas boiler and an electrically driven chiller were compared with similar conventional systems. The methods of system simulation, component sizing, and system cost estimation are described for each system.

  16. Energy metabolism of the visual system

    PubMed Central

    Wong-Riley, Margaret T.T.

    2012-01-01

    The visual system is one of the most energetically demanding systems in the brain. The currency of energy is ATP, which is generated most efficiently from oxidative metabolism in the mitochondria. ATP supports multiple neuronal functions. Foremost is repolarization of the membrane potential after depolarization. Neuronal activity, ATP generation, blood flow, oxygen consumption, glucose utilization, and mitochondrial oxidative metabolism are all interrelated. In the retina, phototransduction, neurotransmitter utilization, and protein/organelle transport are energy-dependent, yet repolarization-after-depolarization consumes the bulk of the energy. Repolarization in photoreceptor inner segments maintains the dark current. Repolarization by all neurons along the visual pathway following depolarizing excitatory glutamatergic neurotransmission preserves cellular integrity and permits reactivation. The higher metabolic activity in the magno- versus the parvo-cellular pathway, the ON- versus the OFF-pathway in some (and the reverse in other) species, and in specialized functional representations in the visual cortex all reflect a greater emphasis on the processing of specific visual attributes. Neuronal activity and energy metabolism are tightly coupled processes at the cellular and even at the molecular levels. Deficiencies in energy metabolism, such as in diabetes, mitochondrial DNA mutation, mitochondrial protein malfunction, and oxidative stress can lead to retinopathy, visual deficits, neuronal degeneration, and eventual blindness. PMID:23226947

  17. Energy Efficiency of Distributed Environmental Control Systems

    SciTech Connect

    Khalifa, H. Ezzat; Isik, Can; Dannenhoffer, John F. III

    2011-02-23

    In this report, we present an analytical evaluation of the potential of occupant-regulated distributed environmental control systems (DECS) to enhance individual occupant thermal comfort in an office building with no increase, and possibly even a decrease in annual energy consumption. To this end we developed and applied several analytical models that allowed us to optimize comfort and energy consumption in partitioned office buildings equipped with either conventional central HVAC systems or occupant-regulated DECS. Our approach involved the following interrelated components: 1. Development of a simplified lumped-parameter thermal circuit model to compute the annual energy consumption. This was necessitated by the need to perform tens of thousands of optimization calculations involving different US climatic regions, and different occupant thermal preferences of a population of ~50 office occupants. Yearly transient simulations using TRNSYS, a time-dependent building energy modeling program, were run to determine the robustness of the simplified approach against time-dependent simulations. The simplified model predicts yearly energy consumption within approximately 0.6% of an equivalent transient simulation. Simulations of building energy usage were run for a wide variety of climatic regions and control scenarios, including traditional “one-size-fits-all” (OSFA) control; providing a uniform temperature to the entire building, and occupant-selected “have-it-your-way” (HIYW) control with a thermostat at each workstation. The thermal model shows that, un-optimized, DECS would lead to an increase in building energy consumption between 3-16% compared to the conventional approach depending on the climate regional and personal preferences of building occupants. Variations in building shape had little impact in the relative energy usage. 2. Development of a gradient-based optimization method to minimize energy consumption of DECS while keeping each occupant

  18. Simulation of Flywheel Energy Storage System Controls

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Truong, Long V.; Wolff, Frederick J.; Dravid, Narayan

    2001-01-01

    This paper presents the progress made in the controller design and operation of a flywheel energy storage system. The switching logic for the converter bridge circuit has been redefined to reduce line current harmonics, even at the highest operating speed of the permanent magnet motor-generator. An electromechanical machine model is utilized to simulate charge and discharge operation of the inertial energy in the flywheel. Controlling the magnitude of phase currents regulates the rate of charge and discharge. The resulting improvements are demonstrated by simulation.

  19. Dynamic management of integrated residential energy systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Muratori, Matteo

    This study combines principles of energy systems engineering and statistics to develop integrated models of residential energy use in the United States, to include residential recharging of electric vehicles. These models can be used by government, policymakers, and the utility industry to provide answers and guidance regarding the future of the U.S. energy system. Currently, electric power generation must match the total demand at each instant, following seasonal patterns and instantaneous fluctuations. Thus, one of the biggest drivers of costs and capacity requirement is the electricity demand that occurs during peak periods. These peak periods require utility companies to maintain operational capacity that often is underutilized, outdated, expensive, and inefficient. In light of this, flattening the demand curve has long been recognized as an effective way of cutting the cost of producing electricity and increasing overall efficiency. The problem is exacerbated by expected widespread adoption of non-dispatchable renewable power generation. The intermittent nature of renewable resources and their non-dispatchability substantially limit the ability of electric power generation of adapting to the fluctuating demand. Smart grid technologies and demand response programs are proposed as a technical solution to make the electric power demand more flexible and able to adapt to power generation. Residential demand response programs offer different incentives and benefits to consumers in response to their flexibility in the timing of their electricity consumption. Understanding interactions between new and existing energy technologies, and policy impacts therein, is key to driving sustainable energy use and economic growth. Comprehensive and accurate models of the next-generation power system allow for understanding the effects of new energy technologies on the power system infrastructure, and can be used to guide policy, technology, and economic decisions. This

  20. Highly Efficient Contactless Electrical Energy Transmission System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ayano, Hideki; Nagase, Hiroshi; Inaba, Hiromi

    This paper proposes a new concept for a contactless electrical energy transmission system for an elevator and an automated guided vehicle. The system has rechargeable batteries on the car and electrical energy is supplied at a specific place. When electric power is supplied to the car, it runs automatically and approaches the battery charger. Therefore, a comparatively large gap is needed between the primary transformer at the battery charger and the secondary transformer on the car in order to prevent damage which would be caused by a collision. In this case, a drop of the transformer coupling rate due to the large gap must be prevented. In conventional contactless electrical energy transmission technology, since electric power is received by a pick-up coil from a power line, a large-sized transformer is required. And when the distance over which the car runs is long, the copper loss of the line also increases. The developed system adopts a high frequency inverter using a soft switching method to miniaturize the transformer. The system has a coupling rate of 0.88 for a transformer gap length of 10mm and can operate at 91% efficiency.

  1. Annual Cycle Energy System characteristics and performance

    SciTech Connect

    Abbatiello, L.A.

    1980-01-01

    The Annual Cycle Energy System (ACES) provides space heating, air conditioning, and domestic water heating while using substantially less energy than competing systems providing the same services. The ACES is based on an electrically driven, unidirectional heat pump that extracts heat from an insulated tank of water during the heating season. As the heat is extracted, most of the water freezes, and the stored ice provides air conditioning in the summer. A single-family residence near Knoxville, Tennessee is being used to demonstrate the energy conserving features of the ACES. A second similar house, the control house, has been used to compare the performance of the ACES to both an electric resistance heating and hot water with central air conditioning system and an air-to-air heat pump system. The results of the first year's operation from November 1977 through mid-September 1978 showed that the ACES consumed 9012 kWh of electricity while delivering an annual coefficient of performance (COP) of 2.78. The control house consumed 20,523 kWh of electricity while delivering an annual COP of 1.13. The second annual cycle was started on December 1978. The ACES was compared with an air-to-air heat pump during this period. During the ice storage portion of this test year, December 1, 1978 to September 1, 1979, 5705 kWh of electricity was used by the ACES, compared to 12,014 kWh for the control house. The respective COPs are 1.40 for the control house with the heat pump and 2.99 for the ACES house during this period. Annual energy consumption for the test year was 6597 kWh and the annual COPs were 1.41 for the control house and 2.81 for ACES. ACES is achieving its anticipated performance. The ACES concept and its general engineering performance as compared to conventional HVAC system are described and discussed.

  2. Neutron imaging for geothermal energy systems

    SciTech Connect

    Bingham, Philip R; Anovitz, Lawrence {Larry} M; Polsky, Yarom

    2013-01-01

    Geothermal systems extract heat energy from the interior of the earth using a working fluid, typically water. Three components are required for a commercially viable geothermal system: heat, fluid, and permeability. Current commercial electricity production using geothermal energy occurs where the three main components exist naturally. These are called hydrothermal systems. In the US, there is an estimated 30 GW of base load electrical power potential for hydrothermal sites. Next generation geothermal systems, named Enhanced Geothermal Systems (EGS), have an estimated potential of 4500 GW. EGSs lack in-situ fluid, permeability or both. As such, the heat exchange system must be developed or engineered within the rock. The envisioned method for producing permeability in the EGS reservoir is hydraulic fracturing, which is rarely practiced in the geothermal industry, and not well understood for the rocks typically present in geothermal reservoirs. High costs associated with trial and error learning in the field have led to an effort to characterize fluid flow and fracturing mechanisms in the laboratory to better understand how to design and manage EGS reservoirs. Neutron radiography has been investigated for potential use in this characterization. An environmental chamber has been developed that is suitable for reproduction of EGS pressures and temperatures and has been tested for both flow and precipitations studies with success for air/liquid interface imaging and 3D reconstruction of precipitation within the core.

  3. Geothermal energy control system and method

    DOEpatents

    Matthews, Hugh B.

    1977-01-01

    A geothermal energy transfer and utilization system makes use of thermal energy stored in hot solute-bearing well water to generate super-heated steam from an injected flow of clean water; the super-heated steam is then used for operating a turbine-driven pump at the well bottom for pumping the hot solute-bearing water at high pressure and in liquid state to the earth's surface, where it is used by transfer of its heat to a closed-loop boiler-turbine-alternator combination for the generation of electrical or other power. Residual concentrated solute-bearing water is pumped back into the earth. The clean cooled water is regenerated at the surface-located system and is returned to the deep well pumping system also for lubrication of a novel bearing arrangement supporting the turbine-driven pump system. The bearing system employs liquid lubricated thrust and radial bearings with all bearing surfaces bathed in clean water serving as a lubricant and maintained under pressure to prevent entry into the bearings of contaminated geothermal fluid, an auxiliary thrust ball bearing arrangement comes into operation when starting or stopping the pumping system.

  4. Energy Storage Applications in Power Systems with Renewable Energy Generation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ghofrani, Mahmoud

    In this dissertation, we propose new operational and planning methodologies for power systems with renewable energy sources. A probabilistic optimal power flow (POPF) is developed to model wind power variations and evaluate the power system operation with intermittent renewable energy generation. The methodology is used to calculate the operating and ramping reserves that are required to compensate for power system uncertainties. Distributed wind generation is introduced as an operational scheme to take advantage of the spatial diversity of renewable energy resources and reduce wind power fluctuations using low or uncorrelated wind farms. The POPF is demonstrated using the IEEE 24-bus system where the proposed operational scheme reduces the operating and ramping reserve requirements and operation and congestion cost of the system as compared to operational practices available in the literature. A stochastic operational-planning framework is also proposed to adequately size, optimally place and schedule storage units within power systems with high wind penetrations. The method is used for different applications of energy storage systems for renewable energy integration. These applications include market-based opportunities such as renewable energy time-shift, renewable capacity firming, and transmission and distribution upgrade deferral in the form of revenue or reduced cost and storage-related societal benefits such as integration of more renewables, reduced emissions and improved utilization of grid assets. A power-pool model which incorporates the one-sided auction market into POPF is developed. The model considers storage units as market participants submitting hourly price bids in the form of marginal costs. This provides an accurate market-clearing process as compared to the 'price-taker' analysis available in the literature where the effects of large-scale storage units on the market-clearing prices are neglected. Different case studies are provided to

  5. NEMO: Advanced energy systems and technologies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beckman, W. A.; Petersen, E. L.; Sellberg, B.

    The NEMO program, one of ten Finnish energy research programs, has supported research and development in wind energy storage and solar energy systems since 1988. The focus is on problems of particular interest to Finland with emphasis on technologies that may be important within the next 10 years. The projects covered the range from product development in close collaboration with industrial partners to basic research. The committee was generally impressed with the level of competence of the research teams. It is clear that in some areas the Finnish research is on a par with the best in the world. In some areas the research may be described as being in a necessary 'catch-up' phase. Although the program is less than three years old, the results to date are encouraging and the committee recommends continuing NEMO or a similar program beyond 1992. Specific observations are included in the final section of this report.

  6. Systems and methods for controlling energy use in a building management system using energy budgets

    DOEpatents

    Wenzel, Michael J; Drees, Kirk H

    2014-09-23

    Systems and methods for limiting power consumption by a heating, ventilation, and air conditioning (HVAC) subsystem of a building are shown and described. A feedback controller is used to generate a manipulated variable based on an energy use setpoint and a measured energy use. The manipulated variable may be used for adjusting the operation of an HVAC device.

  7. Energy Systems Test Area (ESTA). Power Systems Test Facilities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Situ, Cindy H.

    2010-01-01

    This viewgraph presentation provides a detailed description of the Johnson Space Center's Power Systems Facility located in the Energy Systems Test Area (ESTA). Facilities and the resources used to support power and battery systems testing are also shown. The contents include: 1) Power Testing; 2) Power Test Equipment Capabilities Summary; 3) Source/Load; 4) Battery Facilities; 5) Battery Test Equipment Capabilities Summary; 6) Battery Testing; 7) Performance Test Equipment; 8) Battery Test Environments; 9) Battery Abuse Chambers; 10) Battery Abuse Capabilities; and 11) Battery Test Area Resources.

  8. Thermal energy storage devices, systems, and thermal energy storage device monitoring methods

    DOEpatents

    Tugurlan, Maria; Tuffner, Francis K; Chassin, David P.

    2016-09-13

    Thermal energy storage devices, systems, and thermal energy storage device monitoring methods are described. According to one aspect, a thermal energy storage device includes a reservoir configured to hold a thermal energy storage medium, a temperature control system configured to adjust a temperature of the thermal energy storage medium, and a state observation system configured to provide information regarding an energy state of the thermal energy storage device at a plurality of different moments in time.

  9. INTEGRATED ENERGY EFFICIENT WINDOW-WALL SYSTEMS

    SciTech Connect

    Michael Arney, Ph.D.

    2002-12-31

    The building industry faces the challenge of reducing energy use while simultaneously improving construction methods and marketability. This paper describes the first phase of a project to address these concerns by designing an Integrated Window Wall System (IWWS) that can be commercialized. This work builds on previous research conducted during the 1990's by Lawrence Berkeley national Laboratories (LBNL). During this phase, the objective was to identify appropriate technologies, problems and issues and develop a number of design concepts. Four design concepts were developed into prototypes and preliminary energy analyses were conducted Three of these concepts (the foam wall, steel wall, and stiffened plate designs) showed particular potential for meeting the project objectives and will be continued into a second phase where one or two of the systems will be brought closer to commercialization.

  10. Compact chemical energy system for seismic applications

    DOEpatents

    Engelke, Raymond P.; Hedges, Robert O.; Kammerman, Alan B.; Albright, James N.

    1998-01-01

    A chemical energy system is formed for producing detonations in a confined environment. An explosive mixture is formed from nitromethane (NM) and diethylenetriamine (DETA). A slapper detonator is arranged adjacent to the explosive mixture to initiate detonation of the mixture. NM and DETA are not classified as explosives when handled separately and can be safely transported and handled by workers in the field. In one aspect of the present invention, the chemicals are mixed at a location where an explosion is to occur. For application in a confined environment, the chemicals are mixed in an inflatable container to minimize storage space until it is desired to initiate an explosion. To enable an inflatable container to be used, at least 2.5 wt % DETA is used in the explosive mixture. A barrier is utilized that is formed of a carbon composite material to provide the appropriate barrel geometry and energy transmission to the explosive mixture from the slapper detonator system.

  11. Surface Energy Balance System (SEBS) Handbook

    SciTech Connect

    Cook, D. R.

    2016-01-01

    A Surface Energy Balance System (SEBS) has been installed collocated with each deployed Eddy Correlation Flux Measurement System (ECOR) at the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Climate Research Facility’s Southern Great Plains (SGP) site, North Slope of Alaska (NSA) site, first ARM Mobile Facility (AMF1), second ARM Mobile Facility (AMF2), and third ARM Mobile Facility (AMF3) at Oliktok Point (OLI). A SEBS was also deployed with the Tropical Western Pacific (TWP) site, before it was decommissioned. Data from these sites, including the retired TWP, are available in the ARM Data Archive. The SEBS consists of upwelling and downwelling solar and infrared radiometers within one net radiometer, a wetness sensor, and soil measurements. The SEBS measurements allow the comparison of ECOR sensible and latent heat fluxes with the energy balance determined from the SEBS and provide information on wetting of the sensors for data quality purposes.

  12. Central American information system for energy planning

    SciTech Connect

    Fonseca, M.G.; Lyon, P.C.; Heskett, J.C.

    1991-04-01

    SICAPE (Sistema de Information Centroamericano para Planificacion Energetica) is an expandable information system designed for energy planning. Its objective is to satisfy ongoing information requirements by means of a menu driver operational environment. SICAPE is as easily used by the novice computer user as those with more experience. Moreover, the system is capable of evolving concurrently with future requirements of the individual country. The expansion is accomplished by menu restructuring as data and user requirements change. The new menu configurations require no programming effort. The use and modification of SICAPE are separate menu-driven processes that allow for rapid data query, minimal training, and effortless continued growth. SICAPE's data is organized by country or region. Information is available in the following areas: energy balance, macro economics, electricity generation capacity, and electricity and petroleum product pricing. (JF)

  13. Energy pooling upconversion in organic molecular systems.

    PubMed

    LaCount, Michael D; Weingarten, Daniel; Hu, Nan; Shaheen, Sean E; van de Lagemaat, Jao; Rumbles, Garry; Walba, David M; Lusk, Mark T

    2015-04-30

    A combination of molecular quantum electrodynamics, perturbation theory, and ab initio calculations was used to create a computational methodology capable of estimating the rate of three-body singlet upconversion in organic molecular assemblies. The approach was applied to quantify the conditions under which such relaxation rates, known as energy pooling, become meaningful for two test systems, stilbene-fluorescein and hexabenzocoronene-oligothiophene. Both exhibit low intramolecular conversion, but intermolecular configurations exist in which pooling efficiency is at least 90% when placed in competition with more conventional relaxation pathways. For stilbene-fluorescein, the results are consistent with data generated in an earlier experimental investigation. Exercising these model systems facilitated the development of a set of design rules for the optimization of energy pooling. PMID:25793313

  14. Solar energy system with wind vane

    DOEpatents

    Grip, Robert E

    2015-11-03

    A solar energy system including a pedestal defining a longitudinal axis, a frame that is supported by the pedestal and that is rotateable relative to the pedestal about the longitudinal axis, the frame including at least one solar device, and a wind vane operatively connected to the frame to urge the frame relative to the pedestal about the longitudinal axis in response to wind acting on the wind vane.

  15. Ground state energy of large polaron systems

    SciTech Connect

    Benguria, Rafael D.; Frank, Rupert L.; Lieb, Elliott H.

    2015-02-15

    The last unsolved problem about the many-polaron system, in the Pekar–Tomasevich approximation, is the case of bosons with the electron-electron Coulomb repulsion of strength exactly 1 (the “neutral case”). We prove that the ground state energy, for large N, goes exactly as −N{sup 7/5}, and we give upper and lower bounds on the asymptotic coefficient that agree to within a factor of 2{sup 2/5}.

  16. Solar energy collector/storage system

    SciTech Connect

    Bettis, J.R.; Clearman, F.R.

    1983-05-24

    A solar energy collector/storage system which includes an insulated container having working fluid inlets and outlets and an opening, a light-transmitting member positioned over the opening, and a heat-absorbing member which is centrally situated, is supported in the container, and is made of a mixture of gypsum , lampblack, and water. A light-reflecting liner made of corrugated metal foil preferably is attached to the internal surface of the container. The opening of the container is positioned in optical alignment with a source of solar energy. A light-reflecting cover optionally can be hingedly attached to the container, and can be positioned such as to reflect solar energy rays into the container. The system is adaptable for use with a working gas (e.g., air) and/or a working liquid (e.g., water) in separated flows which absorb heat from the heat-absorbing member, and which are useable per se or in an associated storage and/or circulatory system that is not part of this invention. The heatabsorbing mixture can also contain glass fibers. The heatabsorbing member is of such great load-bearing strength that it can also be used simultaneously as a structural member, e.g., a wall or ceiling of a room; and, thereby, the system can be used to heat a room, if a window of the room is the light-transmitting member and is facing the sun, and if the heat-absorbing member is a wall and/or the ceiling of the room and receives solar energy through the window.

  17. System Performance Projections for TPV Energy Conversion

    SciTech Connect

    PF Baldasaro; MW Dashiell; JE Oppenlander; JL Vell; P Fourspring; K Rahner; LR Danielson; S Burger; E Brown

    2004-06-09

    TPV technology has advanced rapidly in the last five years, with diode conversion efficiency approaching >30%, and filter efficiency of {approx}80%. These achievements have enabled repeatable testing of 20% efficient small systems, demonstrating the potential of TPV energy conversion. Near term technology gains support a 25% efficient technology demonstration in the two year timeframe. However, testing of full size systems, which includes efficiency degradation mechanisms, such as: nonuniform diode illumination, diode and filter variability, temperature non-uniformities, conduction/convection losses, and lifetime reliability processes needs to be performed. A preliminary analysis of these differential effects has been completed, and indicates a near term integrated system efficiency of {approx}15% is possible using current technology, with long term growth to 18-20%. This report addresses the system performance issues.

  18. Secure Control Systems for the Energy Sector

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, Rhett; Campbell, Jack; Hadley, Mark

    2012-03-31

    Schweitzer Engineering Laboratories (SEL) will conduct the Hallmark Project to address the need to reduce the risk of energy disruptions because of cyber incidents on control systems. The goals is to develop solutions that can be both applied to existing control systems and designed into new control systems to add the security measures needed to mitigate energy network vulnerabilities. The scope of the Hallmark Project contains four primary elements: 1. Technology transfer of the Secure Supervisory Control and Data Acquisition (SCADA) Communications Protocol (SSCP) from Pacific Northwest National Laboratories (PNNL) to Schweitzer Engineering Laboratories (SEL). The project shall use this technology to develop a Federal Information Processing Standard (FIPS) 140-2 compliant original equipment manufacturer (OEM) module to be called a Cryptographic Daughter Card (CDC) with the ability to directly connect to any PC enabling that computer to securely communicate across serial to field devices. Validate the OEM capabilities with another vendor. 2. Development of a Link Authenticator Module (LAM) using the FIPS 140-2 validated Secure SCADA Communications Protocol (SSCP) CDC module with a central management software kit. 3. Validation of the CDC and Link Authenticator modules via laboratory and field tests. 4. Creation of documents that record the impact of the Link Authenticator to the operators of control systems and on the control system itself. The information in the documents can assist others with technology deployment and maintenance.

  19. 77 FR 43592 - System Energy Resources, Inc.; Notice of Filing

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-07-25

    ..., 2012, System Energy Resources, Inc. (System Energy Resources), submitted a supplement to its petition... supplement, System Energy Resources supplements its March 28 petition to provide additional information and... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY...

  20. A novel energy recovery system for parallel hybrid hydraulic excavator.

    PubMed

    Li, Wei; Cao, Baoyu; Zhu, Zhencai; Chen, Guoan

    2014-01-01

    Hydraulic excavator energy saving is important to relieve source shortage and protect environment. This paper mainly discusses the energy saving for the hybrid hydraulic excavator. By analyzing the excess energy of three hydraulic cylinders in the conventional hydraulic excavator, a new boom potential energy recovery system is proposed. The mathematical models of the main components including boom cylinder, hydraulic motor, and hydraulic accumulator are built. The natural frequency of the proposed energy recovery system is calculated based on the mathematical models. Meanwhile, the simulation models of the proposed system and a conventional energy recovery system are built by AMESim software. The results show that the proposed system is more effective than the conventional energy saving system. At last, the main components of the proposed energy recovery system including accumulator and hydraulic motor are analyzed for improving the energy recovery efficiency. The measures to improve the energy recovery efficiency of the proposed system are presented.

  1. A Novel Energy Recovery System for Parallel Hybrid Hydraulic Excavator

    PubMed Central

    Li, Wei; Cao, Baoyu; Zhu, Zhencai; Chen, Guoan

    2014-01-01

    Hydraulic excavator energy saving is important to relieve source shortage and protect environment. This paper mainly discusses the energy saving for the hybrid hydraulic excavator. By analyzing the excess energy of three hydraulic cylinders in the conventional hydraulic excavator, a new boom potential energy recovery system is proposed. The mathematical models of the main components including boom cylinder, hydraulic motor, and hydraulic accumulator are built. The natural frequency of the proposed energy recovery system is calculated based on the mathematical models. Meanwhile, the simulation models of the proposed system and a conventional energy recovery system are built by AMESim software. The results show that the proposed system is more effective than the conventional energy saving system. At last, the main components of the proposed energy recovery system including accumulator and hydraulic motor are analyzed for improving the energy recovery efficiency. The measures to improve the energy recovery efficiency of the proposed system are presented. PMID:25405215

  2. High Energy Particle Transport Code System.

    2003-12-17

    Version 00 NMTC/JAM is an upgraded version of the code CCC-694/NMTC-JAERI97, which was developed in 1982 at JAERI and is based on the CCC-161/NMTC code system. NMTC/JAM simulates high energy nuclear reactions and nuclear meson transport processes. The applicable energy range of NMTC/JAM was extended in principle up to 200 GeV for nucleons and mesons by introducing the high energy nuclear reaction code Jet-Aa Microscopic (JAM) for the intra-nuclear cascade part. For the evaporation andmore » fission process, a new model, GEM, can be used to describe the light nucleus production from the excited residual nucleus. According to the extension of the applicable energy, the nucleon-nucleus non-elastic, elastic and differential elastic cross section data were upgraded. In addition, the particle transport in a magnetic field was implemented for beam transport calculations. Some new tally functions were added, and the format of input and output of data is more user friendly. These new calculation functions and utilities provide a tool to carry out reliable neutronics study of a large scale target system with complex geometry more accurately and easily than with the previous model. It implements an intranuclear cascade model taking account of the in-medium nuclear effects and the preequilibrium calculation model based on the exciton one. For treating the nucleon transport process, the nucleon-nucleus cross sections are revised to those derived by the systematics of Pearlstein. Moreover, the level density parameter derived by Ignatyuk is included as a new option for particle evaporation calculation. A geometry package based on the Combinatorial Geometry with multi-array system and the importance sampling technique is implemented in the code. Tally function is also employed for obtaining such physical quantities as neutron energy spectra, heat deposition and nuclide yield without editing a history file. The code can simulate both the primary spallation reaction and the

  3. Lower-Energy Energy Storage System (LEESS) Component Evaluation

    SciTech Connect

    Gonder, J.; Cosgrove, J.; Shi, Y.; Saxon, A.; Pesaran, A.

    2014-10-01

    Alternate hybrid electric vehicle (HEV) energy storage systems (ESS) such as lithium-ion capacitors (LICs) and electrochemical double-layer capacitor (EDLC) modules have the potential for improved life, superior cold temperature performance, and lower long-term cost projections relative to traditional battery storage systems. If such lower-energy ESS (LEESS) devices can also be shown to maintain high HEV fuel savings, future HEVs designed with these devices could have an increased value proposition relative to conventional vehicles. NREL's vehicle test platform is helping validate the in-vehicle performance capability of alternative LEESS devices and identify unforeseen issues. NREL created the Ford Fusion Hybrid test platform for in-vehicle evaluation of such alternative LEESS devices, bench testing of the initial LIC pack, integration and testing of the LIC pack in the test vehicle, and bench testing and installation of an EDLC module pack. EDLC pack testing will continue in FY15. The in-vehicle LIC testing results suggest technical viability of LEESS devices to support HEV operation. Several LIC configurations tested demonstrated equivalent fuel economy and acceleration performance as the production nickel-metal-hydride ESS configuration across all tests conducted. The lowest energy LIC scenario demonstrated equivalent performance over several tests, although slightly higher fuel consumption on the US06 cycle and slightly slower acceleration performance. More extensive vehicle-level calibration may be able to reduce or eliminate these performance differences. The overall results indicate that as long as critical attributes such as engine start under worst case conditions can be retained, considerable ESS downsizing may minimally impact HEV fuel savings.

  4. ADAPTIVE FULL-SPECTRUM SOLOR ENERGY SYSTEMS

    SciTech Connect

    Byard D. Wood

    2004-04-01

    This RD&D project is a three year team effort to develop a hybrid solar lighting (HSL) system that transports solar light from a paraboloidal dish concentrator to a luminaire via a large core polymer fiber optic. The luminaire can be a device to distribute sunlight into a space for the production of algae or it can be a device that is a combination of solar lighting and electric lighting. A benchmark prototype system has been developed to evaluate the HSL system. Sunlight is collected using a one-meter paraboloidal concentrator dish with two-axis tracking. A secondary mirror consisting of eight planar-segmented mirrors directs the visible part of the spectrum to eight fibers (receiver) and subsequently to eight luminaires. This results in about 8,200 lumens incident at each fiber tip. Each fiber can illuminate about 16.7 m{sup 2} (180 ft{sup 2}) of office space. The IR spectrum is directed to a thermophotovoltaic (TPV) array to produce electricity. During this reporting period, the project team made advancements in the design of the second generation (Alpha) system. For the Alpha system, the eight individual 12 mm fibers have been replaced with a centralized bundle of 3 mm fibers. The TRNSYS Full-Spectrum Solar Energy System model has been updated and new components have been added. The TPV array and nonimaging device have been tested and progress has been made in the fiber transmission models. A test plan was developed for both the high-lumen tests and the study to determine the non-energy benefits of daylighting. The photobioreactor team also made major advancements in the testing of model scale and bench top lab-scale systems.

  5. Clouds and the Earth's Radiant Energy System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wielicki, Bruce A. (Principal Investigator); Barkstrom, Bruce R. (Principal Investigator)

    The Clouds and the Earth's Radiant Energy System (CERES) is a key component of the Earth Observing System (EOS) program. The CERES instrument provides radiometric measurements of the Earth's atmosphere from three broadband channels. The CERES missions are a follow-on to the successful Earth Radiation Budget Experiment (ERBE) mission. The first CERES instrument (PFM) was launched on November 27, 1997, as part of the Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM). Two CERES instruments (FM1 and FM2) were launched into polar orbit on board the EOS flagship Terra on December 18, 1999, and two additional CERES instruments (FM3 and FM4) were launched on board EOS Aqua on May 4,2002. [Mission Objectives] The scientific justification for the CERES measurements can be summarized by three assertions: (1) changes in the radiative energy balance of the Earth-atmosphere system can cause long-term climate changes (e.g., carbon dioxide inducing global warming); (2) besides the systematic diurnal and seasonal cycles of incoming solar energy, changes in cloud properties (amount, height, optical thickness) cause the largest changes of the Earth's radiative energy balance; and (3) cloud physics is one of the weakest components of current climate models used to predict potential global climate change. CERES has four main objectives: 1) For climate change analysis, provide a continuation of the ERBE record of radiative fluxes at the top of the atmosphere (TOA), analyzed using the same algorithms that produced the ERBE data. 2) Double the accuracy of estimates of radiative fluxes at TOA and the Earth's surface. 3) Provide the first long-term global estimates of the radiative fluxes within the Earth's atmosphere. 4) Provide cloud property estimates that are consistent with the radiative fluxes from surface to TOA. [Temporal_Coverage: Start_Date=1997-12-27; Stop_Date=] [Spatial_Coverage: Southernmost_Latitude=-90; Northernmost_Latitude=90; Westernmost_Longitude=-180; Easternmost_Longitude=180].

  6. Residual energy applications program systems analysis report

    SciTech Connect

    Yngve, P.W.

    1980-10-01

    Current DOE plans call for building an Energy Applied Systems Test (EAST) Facility at the Savannah River Plant in close proximity to the 140 to 150/sup 0/F waste heat from one of several operating nuclear reactors. The waste water flow from each reactor, approximately 165,000 gpm, provides a unique opportunity to test the performance and operating characteristics of large-scale waste heat power generation and heat pump system concepts. This report provides a preliminary description of the potential end-use market, parametric data on heat pump and the power generation system technology, a preliminary listing of EAST Facility requirements, and an example of an integrated industrial park utilizing the technology to maximize economic pay back. The parametric heat pump analysis concluded that dual-fluid Rankine cycle heat pumps with capacities as high as 400 x 10/sup 6/ Btu/h, can utilize large sources of low temperature residual heat to provide 300/sup 0/F saturatd steam for an industrial park. The before tax return on investment for this concept is 36.2%. The analysis also concluded that smaller modular heat pumps could fulfill the same objective while sacrificing only a moderate rate of return. The parametric power generation analysis concluded that multi-pressure Rankine cycle systems not only are superior to single pressure systems, but can also be developed for large systems (approx. = 17 MW/sub e/). This same technology is applicable to smaller systems at the sacrifice of higher investment per unit output.

  7. A Wind Forecasting System for Energy Application

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Courtney, Jennifer; Lynch, Peter; Sweeney, Conor

    2010-05-01

    Accurate forecasting of available energy is crucial for the efficient management and use of wind power in the national power grid. With energy output critically dependent upon wind strength there is a need to reduce the errors associated wind forecasting. The objective of this research is to get the best possible wind forecasts for the wind energy industry. To achieve this goal, three methods are being applied. First, a mesoscale numerical weather prediction (NWP) model called WRF (Weather Research and Forecasting) is being used to predict wind values over Ireland. Currently, a gird resolution of 10km is used and higher model resolutions are being evaluated to establish whether they are economically viable given the forecast skill improvement they produce. Second, the WRF model is being used in conjunction with ECMWF (European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts) ensemble forecasts to produce a probabilistic weather forecasting product. Due to the chaotic nature of the atmosphere, a single, deterministic weather forecast can only have limited skill. The ECMWF ensemble methods produce an ensemble of 51 global forecasts, twice a day, by perturbing initial conditions of a 'control' forecast which is the best estimate of the initial state of the atmosphere. This method provides an indication of the reliability of the forecast and a quantitative basis for probabilistic forecasting. The limitation of ensemble forecasting lies in the fact that the perturbed model runs behave differently under different weather patterns and each model run is equally likely to be closest to the observed weather situation. Models have biases, and involve assumptions about physical processes and forcing factors such as underlying topography. Third, Bayesian Model Averaging (BMA) is being applied to the output from the ensemble forecasts in order to statistically post-process the results and achieve a better wind forecasting system. BMA is a promising technique that will offer calibrated

  8. System Modeling for Ammonia Synthesis Energy Recovery System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bran Anleu, Gabriela; Kavehpour, Pirouz; Lavine, Adrienne; Ammonia thermochemical Energy Storage Team

    2015-11-01

    An ammonia thermochemical energy storage system is an alternative solution to the state-of-the-art molten salt TES system for concentrating solar power. Some of the advantages of this emerging technology include its high energy density, no heat losses during the storage duration, and the possibility of long storage periods. Solar energy powers an endothermic reaction to disassociate ammonia into hydrogen and nitrogen, which can be stored for future use. The reverse reaction is carried out in the energy recovery process; a hydrogen-nitrogen mixture flowing through a catalyst bed undergoes the exothermic ammonia synthesis reaction. The goal is to use the ammonia synthesis reaction to heat supercritical steam to temperatures on the order of 650°C as required for a supercritical steam Rankine cycle. The steam will flow through channels in a combined reactor-heat exchanger. A numerical model has been developed to determine the optimal design to heat supercritical steam while maintaining a stable exothermic reaction. The model consists of a transient one dimensional concentric tube counter-flow reactor-heat exchanger. The numerical model determines the inlet mixture conditions needed to achieve various steam outlet conditions.

  9. A Vision for Systems Engineering Applied to Wind Energy (Presentation)

    SciTech Connect

    Felker, F.; Dykes, K.

    2015-01-01

    This presentation was given at the Third Wind Energy Systems Engineering Workshop on January 14, 2015. Topics covered include the importance of systems engineering, a vision for systems engineering as applied to wind energy, and application of systems engineering approaches to wind energy research and development.

  10. Modeling and analysis of energy conversion systems

    SciTech Connect

    Den Braven, K.R. . Dept. of Mechanical Engineering); Stanger, S. )

    1990-10-01

    An investigation was conducted to assess the need for and the feasibility of developing a computer code that could model thermodynamic systems and predict the performance of energy conversion systems. To assess the market need for this code, representatives of a few industrial organizations were contacted, including manufacturers, system and component designers, and research personnel. Researchers and small manufacturers, designers, and installers were very interested in the possibility of using the proposed code. However, large companies were satisfied with the existing codes that they have developed for their own use. Also, a survey was conduced of available codes that could be used or possibly modified for the desired purpose. The codes were evaluated with respect to a list of desirable features, which was prepared as a result of the survey. A few publicly available codes were found that might be suitable. The development, verification, and maintenance of such a code would require a substantial, ongoing effort. 21 refs.

  11. Ocean energy conversion systems annual research report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1981-03-01

    Alternative power cycle concepts to the closed-cycle Rankine are evaluated and those that show potential for delivering power in a cost-effective and environmentally acceptable fashion are explored. Concepts are classified according to the ocean energy resource: thermal, waves, currents, and salinity gradient. Research projects have been funded and reported in each of these areas. The lift of seawater entrained in a vertical steam flow can provide potential energy for a conventional hydraulic turbine conversion system. Quantification of the process and assessment of potential costs must be completed to support concept evaluation. Exploratory development is being completed in thermoelectricity and 2-phase nozzles for other thermal concepts. Wave energy concepts are being evaluated by analysis and model testing with present emphasis on pneumatic turbines and wave focussing. Likewise, several conversion approaches to ocean current energy are being evaluated. The use of salinity resources requires further research in membranes or the development of membraneless processes. Using the thermal resource in a Claude cycle process as a power converter is promising, and a program of R and D and subsystem development has been initiated to provide confirmation of the preliminary conclusion.

  12. Statistical energy analysis of nonlinear vibrating systems.

    PubMed

    Spelman, G M; Langley, R S

    2015-09-28

    Nonlinearities in practical systems can arise in contacts between components, possibly from friction or impacts. However, it is also known that quadratic and cubic nonlinearity can occur in the stiffness of structural elements undergoing large amplitude vibration, without the need for local contacts. Nonlinearity due purely to large amplitude vibration can then result in significant energy being found in frequency bands other than those being driven by external forces. To analyse this phenomenon, a method is developed here in which the response of the structure in the frequency domain is divided into frequency bands, and the energy flow between the frequency bands is calculated. The frequency bands are assigned an energy variable to describe the mean response and the nonlinear coupling between bands is described in terms of weighted summations of the convolutions of linear modal transfer functions. This represents a nonlinear extension to an established linear theory known as statistical energy analysis (SEA). The nonlinear extension to SEA theory is presented for the case of a plate structure with quadratic and cubic nonlinearity. PMID:26303923

  13. Distributed Sensor Coordination for Advanced Energy Systems

    SciTech Connect

    Tumer, Kagan

    2013-07-31

    The ability to collect key system level information is critical to the safe, efficient and reli- able operation of advanced energy systems. With recent advances in sensor development, it is now possible to push some level of decision making directly to computationally sophisticated sensors, rather than wait for data to arrive to a massive centralized location before a decision is made. This type of approach relies on networked sensors (called “agents” from here on) to actively collect and process data, and provide key control deci- sions to significantly improve both the quality/relevance of the collected data and the as- sociating decision making. The technological bottlenecks for such sensor networks stem from a lack of mathematics and algorithms to manage the systems, rather than difficulties associated with building and deploying them. Indeed, traditional sensor coordination strategies do not provide adequate solutions for this problem. Passive data collection methods (e.g., large sensor webs) can scale to large systems, but are generally not suited to highly dynamic environments, such as ad- vanced energy systems, where crucial decisions may need to be reached quickly and lo- cally. Approaches based on local decisions on the other hand cannot guarantee that each agent performing its task (maximize an agent objective) will lead to good network wide solution (maximize a network objective) without invoking cumbersome coordination rou- tines. There is currently a lack of algorithms that will enable self-organization and blend the efficiency of local decision making with the system level guarantees of global decision making, particularly when the systems operate in dynamic and stochastic environments. In this work we addressed this critical gap and provided a comprehensive solution to the problem of sensor coordination to ensure the safe, reliable, and robust operation of advanced energy systems. The differentiating aspect of the proposed work is in shift- ing

  14. State Energy Price System: 1982 update

    SciTech Connect

    Imhoff, K.L.; Fang, J.M.

    1984-10-01

    The State Energy Price System (STEPS) contains estimates of energy prices for ten major fuels (electricity, natural gas, metallurgical coal, steam coal, distillate, motor gasoline, diesel, kerosene/jet fuel, residual fuel, and liquefied petroleum gas), by major end-use sectors (residential, commercial, industrial, transportation, and electric utility), and by state through 1982. Both physical unit prices and prices per million Btu are included in STEPS. Major changes in STEPS data base for 1981 and 1982 are described. The most significant changes in procedures for the updates occur in the residential sector distillate series and the residential sector kerosene series. All physical unit and Btu prices are shown with three significant digits instead of with four significant digits as shown in the original documentation. Details of these and other changes are contained in this report, along with the updated data files. 31 references, 65 tables.

  15. Computer configuration for Ontario Hydro's new Energy Management System

    SciTech Connect

    Barrie, D.; Hill, D.S.; Yuen, A.

    1989-08-01

    In 1985, Ontario Hydro decided to build a new System Control Centre and install a new Energy Management System. This decision was primarily due to obsolescence, space restrictions and other site considerations rather than dissatisfaction with the existing Energy Management System. Indeed, the existing Energy Management System had several features (eg, the suite of custom-developed application programs) which were considered so valuable to the System Operators that they should be retained in the new Energy Management System. Nevertheless, because new hardware was being installed, it provided an opportunity to review the standards of performance demanded of the Energy Management System and technological advances that could be utilized to best effect.

  16. Ground Energy Balance For Shallow Geothermal Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bayer, P.; Rivera, J.

    2015-12-01

    Vertical borehole heat exchangers (BHE) represent the most common applications by far in the field of shallow geothermal energy. They are typically operated for decades for energy extraction from the top 400 m of the subsurface. During this lifetime, thermal anomalies are generated in the ground and surface-near aquifers. These anomalies often grow over the years and compromise the overall performance of the geothermal system. As a basis for prediction and control of the developing energy imbalance in the ground, the focus is often set on the ground temperatures. This is reflected, for instance, in regulative temperature thresholds. As an alternative to temperature, we examine the temporal and spatial variability of heat fluxes and power sources during geothermal heat pump operation. The underlying idea is that knowledge of the primary heat sources is fundamental for the control of ground temperature evolution. For analysis of heat fluxes, an analytical framework for BHE simulation based on Kelvin's line source is re-formulated. This is applied to a synthetic study and for modelling a long-term application in the field. Our results show that during early operation phase, energy is extracted mainly from the underground. Local depletion at the borehole enhances the vertical fluxes with the relative contribution from the bottom reaching a limit of 24 % of the total power demand. The relative contribution from the ground surface becomes dominant for Fourier numbers larger than 0.13. For the full life cycle, vertical heat flux from the ground surface dominates the basal heat flux towards the BHE and it provides about two thirds of the demanded power. Finally, we reveal that the time for ground energy recovery after BHE shutdown may be longer than what is expected from simulated temperature trends.

  17. Optimization methods for alternative energy system design

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reinhardt, Michael Henry

    An electric vehicle heating system and a solar thermal coffee dryer are presented as case studies in alternative energy system design optimization. Design optimization tools are compared using these case studies, including linear programming, integer programming, and fuzzy integer programming. Although most decision variables in the designs of alternative energy systems are generally discrete (e.g., numbers of photovoltaic modules, thermal panels, layers of glazing in windows), the literature shows that the optimization methods used historically for design utilize continuous decision variables. Integer programming, used to find the optimal investment in conservation measures as a function of life cycle cost of an electric vehicle heating system, is compared to linear programming, demonstrating the importance of accounting for the discrete nature of design variables. The electric vehicle study shows that conservation methods similar to those used in building design, that reduce the overall UA of a 22 ft. electric shuttle bus from 488 to 202 (Btu/hr-F), can eliminate the need for fossil fuel heating systems when operating in the northeast United States. Fuzzy integer programming is presented as a means of accounting for imprecise design constraints such as being environmentally friendly in the optimization process. The solar thermal coffee dryer study focuses on a deep-bed design using unglazed thermal collectors (UTC). Experimental data from parchment coffee drying are gathered, including drying constants and equilibrium moisture. In this case, fuzzy linear programming is presented as a means of optimizing experimental procedures to produce the most information under imprecise constraints. Graphical optimization is used to show that for every 1 m2 deep-bed dryer, of 0.4 m depth, a UTC array consisting of 5, 1.1 m 2 panels, and a photovoltaic array consisting of 1, 0.25 m 2 panels produces the most dry coffee per dollar invested in the system. In general this study

  18. Emerging nuclear energy systems: Economic challenge: Revision 1

    SciTech Connect

    Nuckolls, J.H.

    1986-01-01

    Future nuclear energy systems may achieve substantially lower energy costs than those of existing fossil energy systems and comparable capital costs. Such low cost nuclear energy would provide a strong economic incentive to minimize the use of fossil fuels. If these low cost nuclear energy systems emerge in the next few decades, 21st century civilization may be able to avert potentially disastrous CO/sub 2/ induced global climate changes. 12 refs., 1 fig.

  19. Energy storage systems program report for FY1996

    SciTech Connect

    Butler, P.C.

    1997-05-01

    Sandia National Laboratories, New Mexico, conducts the Energy Storage Systems Program, which is sponsored by the US Department of Energy`s Office of Utility Technologies. The goal of this program is to assist industry in developing cost-effective energy storage systems as a resource option by 2000. Sandia is responsible for the engineering analyses, contracted development, and testing of energy storage systems for stationary applications. This report details the technical achievements realized during fiscal year 1996.

  20. Computer-aided engineering of energy systems

    SciTech Connect

    Gaggioli, R.A.

    1986-01-01

    This book presents that papers given at a conference on computer calculations of the thermodynamics of energy systems. Topics considered at the conference included exergy saving, thermoeconomic cost, heat exchanger networks, integrated coal gasification-combined cycle power plants, computer graphics, second law analysis of diesel engines, cogenerating gas turbine plants, exergy analysis of heat transfer, water absorption heat pumps, the thermodynamics of wood combustion, second law efficiency and costing analysis of a combined power and desalination plant, and pressure-driven temperature separation in liquids.

  1. Development of an energy consumption and cost data base for fuel cell total energy systems and conventional building energy systems

    SciTech Connect

    Pine, G.D.; Christian, J.E.; Mixon, W.R.; Jackson, W.L.

    1980-07-01

    This report describes the procedures and data sources used to develop an energy-consumption and system-cost data base for use in predicting the market penetration of phosphoric acid fuel cell total-energy systems in the nonindustrial building market. A computer program was used to simulate the hourly energy requirements of six types of buildings - office buildings, retail stores, hotels and motels, schools, hospitals, and multifamily residences. The simulations were done by using hourly weather tapes for one city in each of the ten Department of Energy administrative regions. Two types of building construction were considered, one for existing buildings and one for new buildings. A fuel cell system combined with electrically driven heat pumps and one combined with a gas boiler and an electrically driven chiller were compared with similar conventional systems. The methods of system simulation, component sizing, and system cost estimation are described for each system. The systems were simulated for a single building size for each building type. Methods were developed to extrapolate the system cost and performance data to other building sizes.

  2. Energy: Systems for Control, Maintenance, and Storage. A Bibliography.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thomas, Gerald, Comp.; McKane, Irving, Comp.

    This publication is a bibliography of available periodical literature on specific aspects of energy and today's technology. The Applied Science and Technology Indexes were searched for articles that related to these specific areas: (1) Energy control systems; (2) Maintenance of Energy Systems; and (3) Energy storage. The articles and papers…

  3. Fusion-fission energy systems evaluation

    SciTech Connect

    Teofilo, V.L.; Aase, D.T.; Bickford, W.E.

    1980-01-01

    This report serves as the basis for comparing the fusion-fission (hybrid) energy system concept with other advanced technology fissile fuel breeding concepts evaluated in the Nonproliferation Alternative Systems Assessment Program (NASAP). As such, much of the information and data provided herein is in a form that meets the NASAP data requirements. Since the hybrid concept has not been studied as extensively as many of the other fission concepts being examined in NASAP, the provided data and information are sparse relative to these more developed concepts. Nevertheless, this report is intended to provide a perspective on hybrids and to summarize the findings of the rather limited analyses made to date on this concept.

  4. Polymer Energy Rechargeable System Battery Being Developed

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Manzo, Michelle A.

    2003-01-01

    Long description. Illustrations of discotic liquid crystals, rod-coil polymers, lithium-ion conducting channel dilithium phthalocyanine (Li2Pc) from top and side, novel star polyethylene oxide structures, composite polyethylene oxide materials (showing polyethylene oxide + lithium salt, carbon atoms and oxygen atoms), homopolyrotaxanes, and diblock copolymers In fiscal year 2000, NASA established a program to develop the next generation, lithium-based, polymer electrolyte batteries for aerospace applications. The goal of this program, known as Polymer Energy Rechargeable Systems (PERS), is to develop a space-qualified, advanced battery system embodying polymer electrolyte and lithium-based electrode technologies and to establish world-class domestic manufacturing capabilities for advanced batteries with improved performance characteristics that address NASA s future aerospace battery requirements.

  5. Enthalpy restoration in geothermal energy processing system

    DOEpatents

    Matthews, Hugh B.

    1983-01-01

    A geothermal deep well energy extraction system is provided of the general type in which solute-bearing hot water is pumped to the earth's surface from a relatively low temperature geothermal source by transferring thermal energy from the hot water to a working fluid for driving a primary turbine-motor and a primary electrical generator at the earth's surface. The superheated expanded exhaust from the primary turbine motor is conducted to a bubble tank where it bubbles through a layer of sub-cooled working fluid that has been condensed. The superheat and latent heat from the expanded exhaust of the turbine transfers thermal energy to the sub-cooled condensate. The desuperheated exhaust is then conducted to the condenser where it is condensed and sub-cooled, whereupon it is conducted back to the bubble tank via a barometric storage tank. The novel condensing process of this invention makes it possible to exploit geothermal sources which might otherwise be non-exploitable.

  6. Distributed sensor coordination for advanced energy systems

    SciTech Connect

    Tumer, Kagan

    2015-03-12

    Motivation: The ability to collect key system level information is critical to the safe, efficient and reliable operation of advanced power systems. Recent advances in sensor technology have enabled some level of decision making directly at the sensor level. However, coordinating large numbers of sensors, particularly heterogeneous sensors, to achieve system level objectives such as predicting plant efficiency, reducing downtime or predicting outages requires sophisticated coordination algorithms. Indeed, a critical issue in such systems is how to ensure the interaction of a large number of heterogenous system components do not interfere with one another and lead to undesirable behavior. Objectives and Contributions: The long-term objective of this work is to provide sensor deployment, coordination and networking algorithms for large numbers of sensors to ensure the safe, reliable, and robust operation of advanced energy systems. Our two specific objectives are to: 1. Derive sensor performance metrics for heterogeneous sensor networks. 2. Demonstrate effectiveness, scalability and reconfigurability of heterogeneous sensor network in advanced power systems. The key technical contribution of this work is to push the coordination step to the design of the objective functions of the sensors, allowing networks of heterogeneous sensors to be controlled. By ensuring that the control and coordination is not specific to particular sensor hardware, this approach enables the design and operation of large heterogeneous sensor networks. In addition to the coordination coordination mechanism, this approach allows the system to be reconfigured in response to changing needs (e.g., sudden external events requiring new responses) or changing sensor network characteristics (e.g., sudden changes to plant condition). Impact: The impact of this work extends to a large class of problems relevant to the National Energy Technology Laboratory including sensor placement, heterogeneous sensor

  7. Hydrogen energy systems studies. Final technical report

    SciTech Connect

    Ogden, J.M.; Kreutz, T.; Kartha, S.; Iwan, L.

    1996-08-13

    The results of previous studies suggest that the use of hydrogen from natural gas might be an important first step toward a hydrogen economy based on renewables. Because of infrastructure considerations (the difficulty and cost of storing, transmitting and distributing hydrogen), hydrogen produced from natural gas at the end-user`s site could be a key feature in the early development of hydrogen energy systems. In the first chapter of this report, the authors assess the technical and economic prospects for small scale technologies for producing hydrogen from natural gas (steam reformers, autothermal reformers and partial oxidation systems), addressing the following questions: (1) What are the performance, cost and emissions of small scale steam reformer technology now on the market? How does this compare to partial oxidation and autothermal systems? (2) How do the performance and cost of reformer technologies depend on scale? What critical technologies limit cost and performance of small scale hydrogen production systems? What are the prospects for potential cost reductions and performance improvements as these technologies advance? (3) How would reductions in the reformer capital cost impact the delivered cost of hydrogen transportation fuel? In the second chapter of this report the authors estimate the potential demand for hydrogen transportation fuel in Southern California.

  8. The Dark Energy Survey Data Management System

    SciTech Connect

    Mohr, Joseph J.; Barkhouse, Wayne; Beldica, Cristina; Bertin, Emmanuel; Dora Cai, Y.; Nicolaci da Costa, Luiz A.; Darnell, J.Anthony; Daues, Gregory E.; Jarvis, Michael; Gower, Michelle; Lin, Huan; /Fermilab /Rio de Janeiro Observ.

    2008-07-01

    The Dark Energy Survey (DES) collaboration will study cosmic acceleration with a 5000 deg2 griZY survey in the southern sky over 525 nights from 2011-2016. The DES data management (DESDM) system will be used to process and archive these data and the resulting science ready data products. The DESDM system consists of an integrated archive, a processing framework, an ensemble of astronomy codes and a data access framework. We are developing the DESDM system for operation in the high performance computing (HPC) environments at the National Center for Supercomputing Applications (NCSA) and Fermilab. Operating the DESDM system in an HPC environment offers both speed and flexibility. We will employ it for our regular nightly processing needs, and for more compute-intensive tasks such as large scale image coaddition campaigns, extraction of weak lensing shear from the full survey dataset, and massive seasonal reprocessing of the DES data. Data products will be available to the Collaboration and later to the public through a virtual-observatory compatible web portal. Our approach leverages investments in publicly available HPC systems, greatly reducing hardware and maintenance costs to the project, which must deploy and maintain only the storage, database platforms and orchestration and web portal nodes that are specific to DESDM. In Fall 2007, we tested the current DESDM system on both simulated and real survey data. We used TeraGrid to process 10 simulated DES nights (3TB of raw data), ingesting and calibrating approximately 250 million objects into the DES Archive database. We also used DESDM to process and calibrate over 50 nights of survey data acquired with the Mosaic2 camera. Comparison to truth tables in the case of the simulated data and internal crosschecks in the case of the real data indicate that astrometric and photometric data quality is excellent.

  9. Electrical appliance energy consumption control methods and electrical energy consumption systems

    DOEpatents

    Donnelly, Matthew K.; Chassin, David P.; Dagle, Jeffery E.; Kintner-Meyer, Michael; Winiarski, David W.; Pratt, Robert G.; Boberly-Bartis, Anne Marie

    2008-09-02

    Electrical appliance energy consumption control methods and electrical energy consumption systems are described. In one aspect, an electrical appliance energy consumption control method includes providing an electrical appliance coupled with a power distribution system, receiving electrical energy within the appliance from the power distribution system, consuming the received electrical energy using a plurality of loads of the appliance, monitoring electrical energy of the power distribution system, and adjusting an amount of consumption of the received electrical energy via one of the loads of the appliance from an initial level of consumption to an other level of consumption different than the initial level of consumption responsive to the monitoring.

  10. Electrical appliance energy consumption control methods and electrical energy consumption systems

    DOEpatents

    Donnelly, Matthew K.; Chassin, David P.; Dagle, Jeffery E.; Kintner-Meyer, Michael; Winiarski, David W.; Pratt, Robert G.; Boberly-Bartis, Anne Marie

    2006-03-07

    Electrical appliance energy consumption control methods and electrical energy consumption systems are described. In one aspect, an electrical appliance energy consumption control method includes providing an electrical appliance coupled with a power distribution system, receiving electrical energy within the appliance from the power distribution system, consuming the received electrical energy using a plurality of loads of the appliance, monitoring electrical energy of the power distribution system, and adjusting an amount of consumption of the received electrical energy via one of the loads of the appliance from an initial level of consumption to an other level of consumption different than the initial level of consumption responsive to the monitoring.

  11. An approach to a self-consistent nuclear energy system

    SciTech Connect

    Fujii-e, Yoichi ); Arie, Kazuo; Endo, Hiroshi )

    1992-01-01

    A nuclear energy system should provide a stable supply of energy without endangering the environment or humans. If there is fear about exhausting world energy resources, accumulating radionuclides, and nuclear reactor safety, tension is created in human society. Nuclear energy systems of the future should be able to eliminate fear from people's minds. In other words, the whole system, including the nuclear fuel cycle, should be self-consistent. This is the ultimate goal of nuclear energy. If it can be realized, public acceptance of nuclear energy will increase significantly. In a self-consistent nuclear energy system, misunderstandings between experts on nuclear energy and the public should be minimized. The way to achieve this goal is to explain using simple logic. This paper proposes specific targets for self-consistent nuclear energy systems and shows that the fast breeder reactor (FBR) lies on the route to attaining the final goal.

  12. Solar total energy project at Shenandoah, Georgia system design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Poche, A. J.

    1980-01-01

    The solar total energy system (STES) was to provide 50% of the total electrical and thermal energy requirements of the 25,000 sq ft Bleyle of America knitwear plant located at the Shenandoah Site. The system will provide 400 kilowatts electrical and 3 megawatts of thermal energy. The STES has a classical, cascaded total energy system configuration. It utilizes one hundred twenty (120), parabolic dish collectors, high temperature (750 F) trickle oil thermal energy storage and a steam turbine generator. The electrical load shaving system was designed for interconnected operation with the Georgia Power system and for operation in a stand alone mode.

  13. The Dark Energy Survey Data Management System

    SciTech Connect

    Sevilla, I.; Armstrong, R.; Jarvis, M.; Bertin, E.; Carlson, A.; Desai, S.; Mohr, J.; Daues, G.; Gower, M.; Gruendl, R.; Petravick, D.; /Illinois U., Urbana /Illinois U., Urbana /Chicago U. /Fermilab /Brookhaven /Harvard-Smithsonian Ctr. Astrophys.

    2011-09-01

    The Dark Energy Survey (DES) is a project with the goal of building, installing and exploiting a new 74 CCD-camera at the Blanco telescope, in order to study the nature of cosmic acceleration. It will cover 5000 square degrees of the southern hemisphere sky and will record the positions and shapes of 300 million galaxies up to redshift 1.4. The survey will be completed using 525 nights during a 5-year period starting in 2012. About O(1 TB) of raw data will be produced every night, including science and calibration images. The DES data management system has been designed for the processing, calibration and archiving of these data. It is being developed by collaborating DES institutions, led by NCSA. In this contribution, we describe the basic functions of the system, what kind of scientific codes are involved and how the Data Challenge process works, to improve simultaneously the Data Management system algorithms and the Science Working Group analysis codes.

  14. Electric airplane environmental control systems energy requirements

    SciTech Connect

    Buss, L.B.

    1984-05-01

    The electric airplane environmental control system (ECS) design drivers is discussed for an electric airplane from two aspects. The first aspect considered is the type of aircraft. The three examples selected are the 150-passenger commercial airline transport, the military on-station electronic-surveillance patrol aircraft, and the air-defense interceptor fighter. These vehicle examples illustrate the effect of both mission and mission profile on the design requirements of the ECS and the differences that the requirements make on the resulting advantages and disadvantages of electrification. For the commercial transport, the selection of the air source for ventilation will be featured. For the patrol aircraft, the cooling unit will be evaluated. For the fighter, emphasis will be placed on the need for systems integration. The second and more important consideration is the definition of the environmental control system requirements for both energy supply and heat sink thermal management integration from the power plant (engine) that make an electric ECS viable for each type of vehicle.

  15. Energy Storage Systems Program Report for FY99

    SciTech Connect

    BOYES,JOHN D.

    2000-06-01

    Sandia National Laboratories, New Mexico, conducts the Energy Storage Systems Program, which is sponsored by the US Department of Energy's Office of Power Technologies. The goal of this program is to develop cost-effective electric energy storage systems for many high-value stationary applications in collaboration with academia and industry. Sandia National Laboratories is responsible for the engineering analyses, contracted development, and testing of energy storage components and systems. This report details the technical achievements realized during fiscal year 1999.

  16. Cost analysis of energy storage systems for electric utility applications

    SciTech Connect

    Akhil, A.; Swaminathan, S.; Sen, R.K.

    1997-02-01

    Under the sponsorship of the Department of Energy, Office of Utility Technologies, the Energy Storage System Analysis and Development Department at Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) conducted a cost analysis of energy storage systems for electric utility applications. The scope of the study included the analysis of costs for existing and planned battery, SMES, and flywheel energy storage systems. The analysis also identified the potential for cost reduction of key components.

  17. Specific systems studies of battery energy storage for electric utilities

    SciTech Connect

    Akhil, A.A.; Lachenmeyer, L.; Jabbour, S.J.; Clark, H.K.

    1993-08-01

    Sandia National Laboratories, New Mexico, conducts the Utility Battery Storage Systems Program, which is sponsored by the US Department of Energy`s Office of Energy Management. As a part of this program, four utility-specific systems studies were conducted to identify potential battery energy storage applications within each utility network and estimate the related benefits. This report contains the results of these systems studies.

  18. Energy Storage Systems Program Report for FY98

    SciTech Connect

    Butler, P.C.

    1999-04-01

    Sandia National Laboratories, New Mexico, conducts the Energy Storage Systems Program, which is sponsored by the U.S. Department of Energy's Office of Power Technologies. The goal of this program is to collaborate with industry in developing cost-effective electric energy storage systems for many high-value stationary applications. Sandia National Laboratories is responsible for the engineering analyses, contracted development and testing of energy storage components and systems. This report details the technical achievements realized during fiscal year 1998.

  19. Solar energy collection by the tower system

    SciTech Connect

    Taguchi, T.; Takemoto, M.

    1981-01-01

    Solar energy collecting tests were carried out under Japan's Sunshine Project, as part of the solar thermal electric power system. The total mirror area of the heliostats was increased by a factor of three to 300 sq m, making the dimensional ratio between the tower height and field diameter equivalent to that of the pilot plant, as well as achieving a similar heat flux magnitude as the pilot plant. The absorbing efficiency of the No. 4 receiver was studied and proven to be inferior to the No. 7 receiver, with its improved wind shield cavity, reducing reflection losses at higher wind velocities. The difference in convection heat losses between the two receivers in the solar energy collecting apparatus did not, however, directly correspond to the difference between them measured in the pilot plant. Thus, a heat loss test was applied to the No. 7 receiver, and fluctuations in the measured values of absorbing efficiencies were shown to be due to fluctuations of convection heat loss. Future plans include the design of external receivers suitable for low towers, with a lighter weight and a greater compactness for minimum heat loss potential.

  20. An overview of flywheel energy systems.

    SciTech Connect

    Wolsky, A. M.; Energy Systems

    2002-05-01

    Passive magnetic bearings incorporating permanent magnets and ReBaCuO, together with carbon fibre, offer the possibility of increasing the stored, volumetric energy density of FES and unprecedentedly low idling loss of FES. Its stored energy need only satisfy customers needs for the time it takes to bring on conventional 'back-up'. The FES itself must come up to power quickly enough to avoid any disruption in the customer's operation (e.g., continuous industrial processes involving fragile materials, for example paper forming). Such customers do not care about the price of electricity nearly as much as they care about not ruining their product, damaging their machines or having 'clean ups' that stop or slow output. Firms that engage in electronic commerce and/or telecommunications also value uninterruptible power. Another set of potential customers (construction, electric railroads) may wish to avoid fluctuations in their electrical supply or they may wish to avoid causing harm to others who may hold them liable for poor power quality. Finally, real time prices (e.g., every 15 s) and real time commands, disseminated via internet, and distributed storage might enable reduced system generation costs. Generators and FES makers would have to cooperate to make this feasible. Now, the central techno-economic challenge is to build a high-power, low-loss motor generator that reaches full power in a very short time.

  1. Energy concentration in composite quantum systems

    SciTech Connect

    Kurcz, Andreas; Beige, Almut; Capolupo, Antonio; Vitiello, Giuseppe; Del Giudice, Emilio

    2010-06-15

    The spontaneous emission of photons from optical cavities and from trapped atoms has been studied extensively in the framework of quantum optics. Theoretical predictions based on the rotating wave approximation (RWA) are, in general, in very good agreement with experimental findings. However, current experiments aim at combining better and better cavities with large numbers of tightly confined atoms. Here we predict an energy concentrating mechanism in the behavior of such a composite quantum system which cannot be described by the RWA. Its result is the continuous leakage of photons through the cavity mirrors, even in the absence of external driving. We conclude with a discussion of the predicted phenomenon in the context of thermodynamics.

  2. Polymer Energy Rechargeable System (PERS) Development Program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Baldwin, Richard S.; Manzo, Michelle A.; Dalton, Penni J.; Marsh, Richard A.; Surampudi, Rao

    2001-01-01

    The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) and the Air Force Research Laboratory (AFRL) have recently established a collaborative effort to support the development of polymer-based, lithium-based cell chemistries and battery technologies to address the next generation of aerospace applications and mission needs. The overall objective of this development program, which is referred to as PERS, Polymer Energy Rechargeable System, is to establish a world-class technology capability and U.S. leadership in polymer-based battery technology for aerospace applications. Programmatically, the PERS initiative will exploit both interagency collaborations to address common technology and engineering issues and the active participation of academia and private industry. The initial program phases will focus on R&D activities to address the critical technical issues and challenges at the cell level.

  3. Infrared radiative energy transfer in gaseous systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tiwari, Surendra N.

    1991-01-01

    Analyses and numerical procedures are presented to investigate the radiative interactions in various energy transfer processes in gaseous systems. Both gray and non-gray radiative formulations for absorption and emission by molecular gases are presented. The gray gas formulations are based on the Planck mean absorption coefficient and the non-gray formulations are based on the wide band model correlations for molecular absorption. Various relations for the radiative flux and divergence of radiative flux are developed. These are useful for different flow conditions and physical problems. Specific plans for obtaining extensive results for different cases are presented. The procedure developed was applied to several realistic problems. Results of selected studies are presented.

  4. Sleep and energy balance: Interactive homeostatic systems.

    PubMed

    Vanitallie, Theodore B

    2006-10-01

    For early humans, acquisition of food by hunting and/or gathering was a hunger-driven process requiring vigilance and (often) strenuous physical effort during daylight hours. To sustain such activities, hunter-gatherers also needed periodic rest and sleep-pursuits most effectively undertaken at night. In recent years, research has given us new insights into the physiologic underpinnings of these behaviors. Specifically, evidence has been uncovered indicating that the homeostatic regulation of food intake on the one hand and that of sleep on the other hand, are intertwined. Thus, carefully performed studies of eating behavior in rats indicate that duration of sleep after ingestion of a meal is closely correlated to the meal's energy content. In 1999, it was discovered that mice and dogs functionally deficient in the appetite-stimulating hormone, hypocretin-1, become narcoleptic, suggesting the existence of a "hard-wired" connection between regulation of hunger and satiety and regulation of sleep. Administered into the nucleus accumbens shell, hypocretin-1 induces feeding and locomotor activity in Sprague-Dawley rats. Hypocretin neurons in the hypothalamus are responsive to metabolic cues capable of signaling nutritional status. The suprachiasmatic nucleus, the body's principal circadian clock, exchanges information with the hypocretin system about the light/dark cycle and the body's metabolic condition. Circadian Clock mutant mice exhibit an attenuated diurnal feeding rhythm and become hyperphagic and obese. Both disruption of the circadian cycle and sleep deprivation can affect energy balance and, over time, may bring about substantial changes in body composition. Although there is growing evidence that interleukin-6 and several other proinflammatory cytokines are "sleep factors" that also affect energy balance, any possible role they might have in coordinating sleep/wakefulness with food-motivated behavior awaits clarification. Yet, the evidence is increasingly

  5. An overview of energy efficiency techniques in cluster computing systems

    SciTech Connect

    Valentini, Giorgio Luigi; Lassonde, Walter; Khan, Samee Ullah; Min-Allah, Nasro; Madani, Sajjad A.; Li, Juan; Zhang, Limin; Wang, Lizhe; Ghani, Nasir; Kolodziej, Joanna; Li, Hongxiang; Zomaya, Albert Y.; Xu, Cheng-Zhong; Balaji, Pavan; Vishnu, Abhinav; Pinel, Fredric; Pecero, Johnatan E.; Kliazovich, Dzmitry; Bouvry, Pascal

    2011-09-10

    Two major constraints demand more consideration for energy efficiency in cluster computing: (a) operational costs, and (b) system reliability. Increasing energy efficiency in cluster systems will reduce energy consumption, excess heat, lower operational costs, and improve system reliability. Based on the energy-power relationship, and the fact that energy consumption can be reduced with strategic power management, we focus in this survey on the characteristic of two main power management technologies: (a) static power management (SPM) systems that utilize low-power components to save the energy, and (b) dynamic power management (DPM) systems that utilize software and power-scalable components to optimize the energy consumption. We present the current state of the art in both of the SPM and DPM techniques, citing representative examples. The survey is concluded with a brief discussion and some assumptions about the possible future directions that could be explored to improve the energy efficiency in cluster computing.

  6. Project plan hydrogen energy systems technology. Phase 1: Hydrogen energy systems technology study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1974-01-01

    An overview of the potential need for hydrogen as a source of energy in the future was presented in order to identify and define the technology requirements for the most promising approaches to meet that need. The following study objectives were discussed: (1) determination of the future demand for hydrogen, based on current trends and anticipated new uses, (2) identification of the critical research and technology advances required to meet this need considering, to the extent possible, raw material limitations, economics, and environmental effects, and (3) definition and recommendation of the scope and space of a National Hydrogen Energy Systems Technology Program and outline of a Program Development Plan.

  7. Study on new biomass energy systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1992-03-01

    A biomass energy total system is proposed, and its feasibility is studied. It is the system in which liquid fuel is produced from eucalyptuses planted in the desert area in Australia for production of biomass resource. Eucalyptus tree planting aims at a growth amount of 40 cu m/ha. per year and a practical application area of 45,000ha. CO2 fixation in the biomass plantation becomes 540,000 tons at a 12 ton/ha. rate. Assuming that 0.55 ton of liquid fuel is produced from 1 ton of biomass, a petrochemical plant having a production of 2.5 million bbl/year per unit (equivalent to the fuel used in the 100,000kW class power plant) is needed. Moreover, survey is made on practicality of diesel substitution fuel by esterification of palm oil, and a marked effect of reduction in soot/smoke and particulates in exhaust gas is confirmed. The biomass conversion process technology and the technology for afforestation at the arid land and irrigation are important as future subjects, and the technology development using a bench plant and a pilot plant is needed.

  8. Energy transformation in molecular electronic systems

    SciTech Connect

    Kasha, M.

    1985-07-25

    Our new optical pumping spectroscopy (steady state, and double-laser pulse) allows the production and study of the unstable rare tautomer in its ground and excited states, including picosecond dynamic studies. Molecules under study here included 7-azaindole (model for biological purines), 3-hydroxyflavone (model for plant flavones), lumichrome, and other heterocyclics. New detailed molecular mechanisms for proton transfer are derived, especially with catalytic assisting molecules. A new proton-transfer laser of extraordinary efficiency has become a side dividend, possibly worth of industrial development. The excited and highly reactive singlet molecular oxygen species /sup 1/..delta../sub g/) has proven to be ubiquitous in chemical peroxide systems and in physically excited sensitizer-oxygen systems. Hyperbaric oxygen mechanisms in biology probably involve singlet oxygen. We have undertaken a spectroscopic study of tris - dibenzoylmethane chelates of Al, Gd, Eu, and Yb trivalent ions. These chelates offer a variety of electronic behaviors, from Z-effects on ..pi..-electron spin-orbital coupling (Al, Gd) to Weissman intramolecular energy transfer to 4f mestable levels (Eu, Gd). Elegant new spectroscopic resolution at 77K permits separation of tautomeric, parasitic self-absorption, dissociation, and cage effects to be resolved. 18 refs., 4 figs.

  9. Energy transformation in molecular electronic systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kasha, M.

    1985-07-01

    Our new optical pumping spectroscopy allows the production and study of the unstable rate tautomer in its ground and excited states, including picosecond dynamic studies. Molecules under study here included 7-azaindole 3-hydroxyflavone, lumichrome, and other heterocyclics. New detailed molecular mechanisms for proton transfer are derived, especially with catalytic assisting molecules. A new proton-transfer laser of extraordinary efficiency has become a side dividend, possibly worthy of industrial development. The excited and highly reactive singlet molecular oxygen species (1) DELTA sub g has proven to be ubiquitous in chemical peroxide systems and in physically excited sensitizer-oxygen systems. Hyperbaric oxygen mechanisms in biology probably involve singlet oxygen. We have undertaken a spectroscopic study of trisdibenzoylmethane chelates of Al, Gd, Eu, and Yb trivalent ions. These chelates offer a variety of electronic behaviors, from Z-effects on (PI)--electron spin-orbital coupling (Al, Gd) to Weissman intramolecular energy transfer to 4f mestable levels (Eu, Gd). Elegant new spectroscopic resolution at 77K permits separation of tautomeric, parasitic self-absorption, dissociation, and cage effects to be resolved.

  10. Energy Conservation Guidelines - 4: Energy Conservation in School Transportation Systems.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Giesguth, John, Ed.; Scheingold, Edward, Ed.

    Recommended are practices for reducing energy consumed in the process of transporting school pupils. Among the areas in which energy conservation measures may be instituted are preventive bus maintenance, field trip coordination, bus driving practices, modified scheduling policies, and training of bus drivers. (WB)

  11. Energy Conservation in School Transportation Systems. Energy Conservation Guidelines 4.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Giesguth, John, Ed.; Scheingold, Edward, Ed.

    Fourth in a series of four publications on energy conservation, this booklet offers basic guidelines for sound fuel reduction in school transportation. The pamphlet suggests ways to implement energy-saving practices, guidelines for preventive maintenance of school vehicles, a definition of the drivers' and superintendents' roles, school policies…

  12. Solar energy system economic evaluation for Wormser Columbia, South Carolina

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1980-01-01

    The Solar Energy System is not economically beneficial under the assumed economic conditions at the sites considered. Economic benefits from this system depend on decreasing the initial investment and the continued increase in the cost of conventional energy. Decreasing the cost depends on favorable tax treatment and continuing development of solar energy technology. Fuel cost would have to increase drastically while the cost of the system would have to remain constant or decrease for the system to become economically feasible.

  13. Energy and linear and angular momenta in simple electromagnetic systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mansuripur, Masud

    2015-08-01

    We present examples of simple electromagnetic systems in which energy, linear momentum, and angular momentum exhibit interesting behavior. The systems are sufficiently simple to allow exact solutions of Maxwell's equations in conjunction with the electrodynamic laws of force, torque, energy, and momentum. In all the cases examined, conservation of energy and momentum is confirmed.

  14. 24 CFR 203.18a - Solar energy system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ..., alteration, or improvement to an existing or new structure which is designed to utilize wind energy or solar... 24 Housing and Urban Development 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Solar energy system. 203.18a... § 203.18a Solar energy system. (a) The dollar limitation provided in § 203.18(a) may be increased by...

  15. 24 CFR 203.18a - Solar energy system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ..., alteration, or improvement to an existing or new structure which is designed to utilize wind energy or solar... 24 Housing and Urban Development 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Solar energy system. 203.18a... § 203.18a Solar energy system. (a) The dollar limitation provided in § 203.18(a) may be increased by...

  16. Global Renewable Energy-Based Electricity Generation and Smart Grid System for Energy Security

    PubMed Central

    Islam, M. A.; Hasanuzzaman, M.; Rahim, N. A.; Nahar, A.; Hosenuzzaman, M.

    2014-01-01

    Energy is an indispensable factor for the economic growth and development of a country. Energy consumption is rapidly increasing worldwide. To fulfill this energy demand, alternative energy sources and efficient utilization are being explored. Various sources of renewable energy and their efficient utilization are comprehensively reviewed and presented in this paper. Also the trend in research and development for the technological advancement of energy utilization and smart grid system for future energy security is presented. Results show that renewable energy resources are becoming more prevalent as more electricity generation becomes necessary and could provide half of the total energy demands by 2050. To satisfy the future energy demand, the smart grid system can be used as an efficient system for energy security. The smart grid also delivers significant environmental benefits by conservation and renewable generation integration. PMID:25243201

  17. Global renewable energy-based electricity generation and smart grid system for energy security.

    PubMed

    Islam, M A; Hasanuzzaman, M; Rahim, N A; Nahar, A; Hosenuzzaman, M

    2014-01-01

    Energy is an indispensable factor for the economic growth and development of a country. Energy consumption is rapidly increasing worldwide. To fulfill this energy demand, alternative energy sources and efficient utilization are being explored. Various sources of renewable energy and their efficient utilization are comprehensively reviewed and presented in this paper. Also the trend in research and development for the technological advancement of energy utilization and smart grid system for future energy security is presented. Results show that renewable energy resources are becoming more prevalent as more electricity generation becomes necessary and could provide half of the total energy demands by 2050. To satisfy the future energy demand, the smart grid system can be used as an efficient system for energy security. The smart grid also delivers significant environmental benefits by conservation and renewable generation integration. PMID:25243201

  18. Global renewable energy-based electricity generation and smart grid system for energy security.

    PubMed

    Islam, M A; Hasanuzzaman, M; Rahim, N A; Nahar, A; Hosenuzzaman, M

    2014-01-01

    Energy is an indispensable factor for the economic growth and development of a country. Energy consumption is rapidly increasing worldwide. To fulfill this energy demand, alternative energy sources and efficient utilization are being explored. Various sources of renewable energy and their efficient utilization are comprehensively reviewed and presented in this paper. Also the trend in research and development for the technological advancement of energy utilization and smart grid system for future energy security is presented. Results show that renewable energy resources are becoming more prevalent as more electricity generation becomes necessary and could provide half of the total energy demands by 2050. To satisfy the future energy demand, the smart grid system can be used as an efficient system for energy security. The smart grid also delivers significant environmental benefits by conservation and renewable generation integration.

  19. 31P MR Spectroscopy and Computational Modeling Identify a Direct Relation between Pi Content of an Alkaline Compartment in Resting Muscle and Phosphocreatine Resynthesis Kinetics in Active Muscle in Humans

    PubMed Central

    van Oorschot, Joep W. M.; Schmitz, Joep P. J.; Webb, Andrew; Nicolay, Klaas; Jeneson, Jeroen A. L.; Kan, Hermien E.

    2013-01-01

    The assessment of mitochondrial properties in skeletal muscle is important in clinical research, for instance in the study of diabetes. The gold standard to measure mitochondrial capacity non-invasively is the phosphocreatine (PCr) recovery rate after exercise, measured by 31P Magnetic Resonance spectroscopy (31P MRS). Here, we sought to expand the evidence base for an alternative method to assess mitochondrial properties which uses 31P MRS measurement of the Pi content of an alkaline compartment attributed to mitochondria (Pi2; as opposed to cytosolic Pi (Pi1)) in resting muscle at high magnetic field. Specifically, the PCr recovery rate in human quadriceps muscle was compared with the signal intensity of the Pi2 peak in subjects with varying mitochondrial content of the quadriceps muscle as a result of athletic training, and the results were entered into a mechanistic computational model of mitochondrial metabolism in muscle to test if the empirical relation between Pi2/Pi1 ratio and the PCr recovery was consistent with theory. Localized 31P spectra were obtained at 7T from resting vastus lateralis muscle to measure the intensity of the Pi2 peak. In the endurance trained athletes a Pi2/Pi1 ratio of 0.07 ± 0.01 was found, compared to a significantly lower (p<0.05) Pi2/Pi1 ratio of 0.03 ± 0.01 in the normally active group. Next, PCr recovery kinetics after in magnet bicycle exercise were measured at 1.5T. For the endurance trained athletes, a time constant τPCr 12 ± 3 s was found, compared to 24 ± 5s in normally active subjects. Without any parameter optimization the computational model prediction matched the experimental data well (r2 of 0.75). Taken together, these results suggest that the Pi2 resonance in resting human skeletal muscle observed at 7T provides a quantitative MR-based functional measure of mitochondrial density. PMID:24098796

  20. Energy, information science, and systems science

    SciTech Connect

    Wallace, Terry C; Mercer - Smith, Janet A

    2011-02-01

    This presentation will discuss global trends in population, energy consumption, temperature changes, carbon dioxide emissions, and energy security programs at Los Alamos National Laboratory. LANL's capabilities support vital national security missions and plans for the future. LANL science supports the energy security focus areas of impacts of Energy Demand Growth, Sustainable Nuclear Energy, and Concepts and Materials for Clean Energy. The innovation pipeline at LANL spans discovery research through technology maturation and deployment. The Lab's climate science capabilities address major issues. Examples of modeling and simulation for the Coupled Ocean and Sea Ice Model (COSIM) and interactions of turbine wind blades and turbulence will be given.

  1. Integrated Nuclear-Renewable Energy Systems: Foundational Workshop Report

    SciTech Connect

    Shannon Bragg-Sitton; Richard Boardman; John Collins; Mark Ruth; Owen Zinaman; Charles Forsberg

    2014-08-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) recognizes the need to transform the energy infrastructure of the U.S. and elsewhere to systems that can drastically reduce environmental impacts in an efficient and economically viable manner while utilizing both hydrocarbon resources and clean energy generation sources. Thus, DOE is supporting research and development that could lead to more efficient utilization of clean energy generation sources, including renewable and nuclear options. A concept being advanced by the DOE Offices of Nuclear Energy (NE) and Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) is tighter coupling of nuclear and renewable energy sources in a manner that produces new energy currency for the combined electricity grid, industrial manufacturing, and the transportation energy sectors. This integration concept has been referred to as a “hybrid system” that is capable of providing the right type of energy, at the right time, in the right place. At the direction of DOE-NE and DOE-EERE leadership, project leads at Idaho National Laboratory (INL), National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) and Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT) have identified and engaged stakeholders in discussing integrated energy systems that would optimize renewable and nuclear energy integration on a region-by-region basis. Subsequent work will entail conduct of technical, economic, environmental and socio-political evaluations of the leading integrated system options based on a set of criteria established with stakeholder input. The Foundational Workshop for Integrated Nuclear – Renewable Energy Systems was organized around the following objectives: 1. Identify and refine priority region-specific opportunities for integrated nuclear-renewable energy systems in the U.S.; 2. Select Figures of Merit (FOM) to rank and prioritize candidate systems; 3. Discuss enabling technology development needs; 4. Identify analysis requirements, capabilities and gaps to estimate FOM for

  2. Comparison of energy efficiency between variable refrigerant flow systems and ground source heat pump systems

    SciTech Connect

    Hong, Tainzhen; Liu, Xaiobing

    2009-11-01

    With the current movement toward net zero energy buildings, many technologies are promoted with emphasis on their superior energy efficiency. The variable refrigerant flow (VRF) and ground source heat pump (GSHP) systems are probably the most competitive technologies among these. However, there are few studies reporting the energy efficiency of VRF systems compared with GSHP systems. In this article, a preliminary comparison of energy efficiency between the air-source VRF and GSHP systems is presented. The computer simulation results show that GSHP system is more energy efficient than the air-source VRF system for conditioning a small office building in two selected US climates. In general, GSHP system is more energy efficient than the air-source VRV system, especially when the building has significant heating loads. For buildings with less heating loads, the GSHP system could still perform better than the air-source VRF system in terms of energy efficiency, but the resulting energy savings may be marginal.

  3. Health and environmental risks of energy systems

    SciTech Connect

    Hamilton, L.D.

    1984-01-01

    This paper gives four examples of health risk assessments of energy systems: (1) Comparative risk assessment of the health effects of the coal and nuclear fuel cycles. Estimates differ from previous values chiefly by inclusion of ranges of uncertainty, but some coal-cycle numbers were re-estimated. Upper-boundary public disease risks of air pollution from coal-fired plants dominate. Reactors probably account for most of the potential effect of major nuclear accidents. Accidental death rates in electricity generation are low for reactors and higher for coal. (2) Upper boundary air pollution health risks of existing fossil-based energy technologies in the United States. Preliminary mortality estimates were obtained combining potential impacts of three index pollutants - SO/sub 4/, NO/sub 2/, and CO - as independent measures of risk. Four fuel cycle trajectories leading to three end-uses were analyzed. Example results: domestic wood burning has substantial potential impact, with an upper boundary exceeding that of coal; upper-boundary air pollution impacts of gas can exceed those of oil, because of NO/sub 2/. (3) Health risks of acid deposition and other transported air pollutants, carried out as part of an assessment of the US Congress Office of Technology Assessment (OTA) Acid Rain and Transported Air Pollutants - Implications for Public Policy. Three scenarios were examined, leading to estimates of 40,000 to 50,000 annual premature deaths, depending on year (1978 vs 2000) and scenario (holding total emissions constant vs 30% reduction). (4) health effects of uranium mill tailings piles. Mortality risk is estimated to be minuscule (8.7 x 10/sup -9/ average individual lifetime cancer risk from a model mill, compared with 9.5 x 10/sup -4/ for background radiation). Methods that sum risks over the indefinite future are shown to be to be unrealistic. 39 references, 7 figures, 15 tables.

  4. Waste Heat Recovery System: Lightweight Thermal Energy Recovery (LIGHTER) System

    SciTech Connect

    2010-01-01

    Broad Funding Opportunity Announcement Project: GM is using shape memory alloys that require as little as a 10°C temperature difference to convert low-grade waste heat into mechanical energy. When a stretched wire made of shape memory alloy is heated, it shrinks back to its pre-stretched length. When the wire cools back down, it becomes more pliable and can revert to its original stretched shape. This expansion and contraction can be used directly as mechanical energy output or used to drive an electric generator. Shape memory alloy heat engines have been around for decades, but the few devices that engineers have built were too complex, required fluid baths, and had insufficient cycle life for practical use. GM is working to create a prototype that is practical for commercial applications and capable of operating with either air- or fluid-based heat sources. GM’s shape memory alloy based heat engine is also designed for use in a variety of non-vehicle applications. For example, it can be used to harvest non-vehicle heat sources, such as domestic and industrial waste heat and natural geothermal heat, and in HVAC systems and generators.

  5. Design of ultrahigh energy laser amplifier system with high storage energy extraction.

    PubMed

    Gong, Mali; Sui, Zhan; Liu, Qiang; Fu, Xing

    2013-01-20

    A design concept of realizing high storage energy extraction efficiency is presented for an ultrahigh energy laser system, stressing the advantage of variable-diameter aperture structure for the multistage amplifier system over the constant-aperture design. Based on the established modeling, the conceptual schematic of an amplifier system with optimized high storage energy extraction is developed, which is expected to produce 15 kJ output energy from three stages, with an extremely high storage extraction efficiency of 50.3%.

  6. Integrative energy-systems design: System structure from thermodynamic optimization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ordonez, Juan Carlos

    This thesis deals with the application of thermodynamic optimization to find optimal structure and operation conditions of energy systems. Chapter 1 outlines the thermodynamic optimization of a combined power and refrigeration system subject to constraints. It is shown that the thermodynamic optimum is reached by distributing optimally the heat exchanger inventory. Chapter 2 considers the maximization of power extraction from a hot stream in the presence of phase change. It shows that when the receiving (cold) stream boils in a counterflow heat exchanger, the thermodynamic optimization consists of locating the optimal capacity rate of the cold stream. Chapter 3 shows that the main architectural features of a counterflow heat exchanger can be determined based on thermodynamic optimization subject to volume constraint. Chapter 4 addresses two basic issues in the thermodynamic optimization of environmental control systems (ECS) for aircraft: realistic limits for the minimal power requirement, and design features that facilitate operation at minimal power consumption. Several models of the ECS-Cabin interaction are considered and it is shown that in all the models the temperature of the air stream that the ECS delivers to the cabin can be optimized for operation at minimal power. In chapter 5 it is shown that the sizes (weights) of heat and fluid flow systems that function on board vehicles such as aircraft can be derived from the maximization of overall (system level) performance. Chapter 6 develops analytically the optimal sizes (hydraulic diameters) of parallel channels that penetrate and cool a volume with uniformly distributed internal heat generation and Chapter 7 shows analytically and numerically how an originally uniform flow structure transforms itself into a nonuniform one when the objective is to minimize global flow losses. It is shown that flow maldistribution and the abandonment of symmetry are necessary for the development of flow structures with

  7. Seattle's System for Evaluating Energy Options

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Logie, P.; Macdonald, M. J.

    1982-01-01

    In 1975, the City Council developed a blueprint called "Energy 1990" for meeting Seattle's future electric energy needs. Priorities for addressing or offsetting expected growth in demand are in order: (1) conservation; (2) hydroelectricity; (3) other renewable sources such as wind, biomass, solar, and geothermal energy; (4) abundant nonrenewable resources such as coal, and (5) other renewables. An energy resources planning group was formed and a data base was established. Resource options were investigated and the recommendations were published.

  8. Seattle's system for evaluating energy options

    SciTech Connect

    Logie, P.; Macdonald, M.J.

    1982-01-01

    In 1975, the City Council developed a blueprint called Energy 1990 for meeting Seattle's future electric energy needs. Priorities for addressing or offsetting expected growth in demand are in order: (1) conservation (2) hydroelectricity (3) other renewable sources such as wind, biomass, solar, and geothermal energy (4) abundant nonrenewable resources such as coal, and (5) other renewables. An energy resources planning group was formed and a data base was established. Resource options were investigated and the recommendations were published.

  9. Matching renewable energy systems to village-level energy needs

    SciTech Connect

    Ashworth, J.H.; Neuendorffer, J.W.

    1980-06-01

    This report provides a five step process for matching alternative renewable energy technologies with energy needs in rural villages of developing countries. Analytic tools are given for each of the five steps as well as information that can be expected. Twelve characterization criteria are developed to assist in the matching process. Three of these criteria, called discrimination criteria, are used for preliminary screening of technology possibilities for each need. The other criteria address site-specific temporal, climatic, social, cultural, and environmental characteristics of the energy need, technology, and cost considerations. To illustrate the matching process, seven basic human needs for energy are matched with seven potential renewable energy technologies. The final portion of the paper discusses the advantages of such a matching process and the resources required to initiate such an effort within a development project. Specific recommendations are given for field-testing this process and actions that could be taken immediately in basic research and development, applied research and technology modification, demonstrations, and commercialization to assist in the future diffusion of renewable energy technologies to rural areas of developing countries.

  10. Human Capacity Building in Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy System Maintenance for the Yurok Tribe

    SciTech Connect

    Engel, R. A.' Zoellick, J J.

    2007-07-31

    From July 2005 to July 2007, the Schatz Energy Research Center (SERC) assisted the Yurok Tribe in the implementation of a program designed to build the Tribe’s own capacity to improve energy efficiency and maintain and repair renewable energy systems in Tribal homes on the Yurok Reservation. Funding for this effort was provided by the U.S. Department of Energy’s Tribal Program under First Steps grant award #DE-FG36-05GO15166. The program’s centerpiece was a house-by-house needs assessment, in which Tribal staff visited and conducted energy audits at over fifty homes. The visits included assessment of household energy efficiency and condition of existing renewable energy systems. Staff also provided energy education to residents, evaluated potential sites for new household renewable energy systems, and performed minor repairs as needed on renewable energy systems.

  11. Technology Roadmap. Energy Loss Reduction and Recovery in Industrial Energy Systems

    SciTech Connect

    none,

    2004-11-01

    To help guide R&D decision-making and gain industry insights on the top opportunities for improved energy systems, ITP sponsored the Energy Loss Reduction and Recoveryin Energy Systems Roadmapping Workshopin April 2004 in Baltimore, Maryland. This Technology Roadmapis based largely on the results of the workshop and additional industrial energy studies supported by ITP and EERE. It summarizes industry feedback on the top opportunities for R&D investments in energy systems, and the potential for national impacts on energy use and the environment.

  12. Advanced energy systems and technologies research programme

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lund, P.; Tuominen, E.

    NEMO 2 is a national energy research program for the evaluation, development and promotion of new and renewable forms of energy. NEMO 2 is one of the energy research programs of the Finnish Ministry of Trade and Industry for the years 1993-1998. In NEMO 2 -program, new energy technology is developed as a whole in close collaboration between industry, universities and research institutes, as well as with customers and consumers. The overall budget of NEMO 2 is close to 125 MFIM (1 dollar = 5.7 FIM, Nov. 1993). The main emphasis of the program is on wind and solar energy.

  13. Development of a Conceptual Structure for Architectural Solar Energy Systems.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ringel, Robert F.

    Solar subsystems and components were identified and conceptual structure was developed for architectural solar energy heating and cooling systems. Recent literature related to solar energy systems was reviewed and analyzed. Solar heating and cooling system, subsystem, and component data were compared for agreement and completeness. Significant…

  14. Energy management system for a rotary machine and method therefor

    DOEpatents

    Bowman, Michael John; Sinha, Gautam; Sheldon, Karl Edward

    2004-11-09

    In energy management system is provided for a power generating device having a working fluid intake in which the energy management system comprises an electrical dissipation device coupled to the power generating device and a dissipation device cooling system configured to direct a portion of a working fluid to the electrical dissipation device so as to provide thermal control to the electrical dissipation device.

  15. High Average Power, High Energy Short Pulse Fiber Laser System

    SciTech Connect

    Messerly, M J

    2007-11-13

    Recently continuous wave fiber laser systems with output powers in excess of 500W with good beam quality have been demonstrated [1]. High energy, ultrafast, chirped pulsed fiber laser systems have achieved record output energies of 1mJ [2]. However, these high-energy systems have not been scaled beyond a few watts of average output power. Fiber laser systems are attractive for many applications because they offer the promise of high efficiency, compact, robust systems that are turn key. Applications such as cutting, drilling and materials processing, front end systems for high energy pulsed lasers (such as petawatts) and laser based sources of high spatial coherence, high flux x-rays all require high energy short pulses and two of the three of these applications also require high average power. The challenge in creating a high energy chirped pulse fiber laser system is to find a way to scale the output energy while avoiding nonlinear effects and maintaining good beam quality in the amplifier fiber. To this end, our 3-year LDRD program sought to demonstrate a high energy, high average power fiber laser system. This work included exploring designs of large mode area optical fiber amplifiers for high energy systems as well as understanding the issues associated chirped pulse amplification in optical fiber amplifier systems.

  16. Performance of Tornado Wind Energy Conversion Systems

    SciTech Connect

    Volk, T.

    1982-09-01

    The flow characteristics and power production capabilities of the Tornado Wind Energy Conversion System (TWECS) are examined. Experimental results indicate that the confined vortex in the tower of TWECS rotates approximately as a solid body and only supplements total power production, most of which comes from the tower acting as a bluff body. Wrapped tower experiments were performed by fitting a plastic shroud 360 deg around the tower from the top of the bottom inlet to the tower exit level which transformed the TWECS into a hollow, raised cylinder. Coefficient of power is compared for louvered towers vs. wrapped tower. The fact that the wrapped tower performs as well as the louvered tower suggests that it is the pressure difference between the bottom inlet region and the region above the tower (where the pressure of the ambient flow will be somewhat reduced owing to its acceleration over the bluff body of the tower) which determines the vertical force on the fluid within the tower.

  17. Low energy beam transport system developments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dudnikov, V.; Han, B.; Stockli, M.; Welton, R.; Dudnikova, G.

    2015-04-01

    For high brightness beam production it is important to preserve the brightness in the low energy beam transport system (LEBT) used to transport and match the ion beams to the next stage of acceleration, usually an RFQ. While electrostatic focusing can be problematic for high current beam transport, reliable electrostatic LEBT operation has been demonstrated with H- beams up to 60 mA. Now, however, it is commonly accepted that an optimal LEBT for high current accelerator applications consists of focusing solenoids with space charge compensation. Two-solenoid LEBTs are successfully used for high current (>100 mA) proton beam transport. Preservation of low emittances (~0.15 π mm-mrad) requires the addition of a heavy gas (Xe, Kr), which causes ~5% of proton loss in a 1 m long LEBT. Similar Xe densities would be required to preserve low emittances of H- beams, but such gas densities cause unacceptably high H- beam losses. A short LEBT with only one short solenoid, movable for RFQ matching, can be used for reduced negative ion stripping. A strong electrostatic-focusing LEBT has been successfully adopted for transport of high current H- beams in the SNS Front End. Some modifications of such electrostatic LEBTs are expected to improve the reliable transport of intense positive and negative ion beams without greatly degrading their low emittances. We concentrate on processes that determine the beam brightness degradation and on their prevention. Proposed improvements to the SNS electrostatic LEBT are discussed.

  18. Energy recovery system for an incinerator

    SciTech Connect

    Erlandsson, K.I.

    1984-12-04

    An energy recovery system for an incinerator. Hot flue gases from the incinerator are discharged into a vertical stack and the lower end of the stack is connected through an auxiliary conduit to a heat exchanger, such as a steam or hot water boiler. An induced draft fan draws the hot flue gases through the conduit and boiler to generate steam or hot water and a damper is located within the conduit. A fuel burner is connected in the conduit and operates to supply heat to the boiler during periods when the incinerator is not operating. A first flow sensing mechanism is located in the conduit upstream of the boiler, while a second flow sensing mechanism is positioned in the stack downstream of the connection of the stack and the conduit. In the incinerator mode of operation, the second flow sensing mechanism controls the damper in a manner to obtain a substantially zero flow of waste gas through the stack to the atmosphere to insure that all of the waste gas from the incinerator is directed through the conduit to the boiler. During periods when the incinerator is not operating, the burner mode of operation is established and the first flow sensing mechanism controls the damper to obtain substantially zero flow of gas upstream of the burner so that all of the heat from the burner will be directed to the boiler.

  19. Energy, time, and channel evolution in catastrophically disturbed fluvial systems

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Simon, A.

    1992-01-01

    Specific energy is shown to decrease nonlinearly with time during channel evolution and provides a measure of reductions in available energy at the channel bed. Data from two sites show convergence towards a minimum specific energy with time. Time-dependent reductions in specific energy at a point act in concert with minimization of the rate of energy dissipation over a reach during channel evolution as the fluvial systems adjust to a new equilibrium.

  20. Multi-source energy harvesting for wireless SHM systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Choi, Mijin; Farinholt, Kevin M.; Anton, Steven; Lee, Jung-Ryul; Park, Gyuhae

    2013-03-01

    In wireless SHM systems, energy harvesting technology is essential for a reliable long-term energy supply for wireless sensors. Conventional wireless SHM systems using single source energy harvesting (vibration, solar, and etc.) have limitations because it could not be operated adequately without enough ambient energy present. To overcome this obstacle, multi-source energy harvesting which utilizes several ambient energy sources simultaneously is necessary to accumulate enough electrical energy to power wireless embedded sensor nodes. This study proposes a multi-source energy harvesting technique using a MISO (Multiple Input, Single Output) circuit board developed and studied by the authors. For multi-source energy harvesting, piezoelectric bimorph and electro-magnetic energy harvesters are excited at the first natural frequency of each harvester, 126.7 and 12.5 Hz, respectively. Then, generated voltage from each energy harvester is combined using the MISO circuit and then used to charge a 0.1 F capacitor. Combined energy harvesting results presented better performance than that of a single energy source, demonstrating that this multi-source system could be a promising energy harvesting solution for wireless sensing systems.

  1. Implementation and Rejection of Industrial Steam System Energy Efficiency Measures

    SciTech Connect

    Therkelesen, Peter; McKane, Aimee

    2013-05-01

    Steam systems consume approximately one third of energy applied at U.S. industrial facilities. To reduce energy consumption, steam system energy assessments have been conducted on a wide range of industry types over the course of five years through the Energy Savings Assessment (ESA) program administered by the U.S. Department of Energy (U.S. DOE). ESA energy assessments result in energy efficiency measure recommendations that are given potential energy and energy cost savings and potential implementation cost values. Saving and cost metrics that measure the impact recommended measures will have at facilities, described as percentages of facility baseline energy and energy cost, are developed from ESA data and used in analyses. Developed savings and cost metrics are examined along with implementation and rejection rates of recommended steam system energy efficiency measures. Based on analyses, implementation of steam system energy efficiency measures is driven primarily by cost metrics: payback period and measure implementation cost as a percentage of facility baseline energy cost (implementation cost percentage). Stated reasons for rejecting recommended measures are primarily based upon economic concerns. Additionally, implementation rates of measures are not only functions of savings and cost metrics, but time as well.

  2. Energy storage systems program report for FY97

    SciTech Connect

    Butler, P.C.

    1998-08-01

    Sandia National Laboratories, New Mexico, conducts the Energy Storage Systems Program, which is sponsored by the US Department of Energy`s Office of Utility Technologies. The goal of this program is to collaborate with industry in developing cost-effective electric energy storage systems for many high-value stationary applications. Sandia National Laboratories is responsible for the engineering analyses, contracted development, and testing of energy storage components and systems. This report details the technical achievements realized during fiscal year 1997. 46 figs., 20 tabs.

  3. System-of-Systems Approach for Integrated Energy Systems Modeling and Simulation: Preprint

    SciTech Connect

    Mittal, Saurabh; Ruth, Mark; Pratt, Annabelle; Lunacek, Monte; Krishnamurthy, Dheepak; Jones, Wesley

    2015-08-21

    Today’s electricity grid is the most complex system ever built—and the future grid is likely to be even more complex because it will incorporate distributed energy resources (DERs) such as wind, solar, and various other sources of generation and energy storage. The complexity is further augmented by the possible evolution to new retail market structures that provide incentives to owners of DERs to support the grid. To understand and test new retail market structures and technologies such as DERs, demand-response equipment, and energy management systems while providing reliable electricity to all customers, an Integrated Energy System Model (IESM) is being developed at NREL. The IESM is composed of a power flow simulator (GridLAB-D), home energy management systems implemented using GAMS/Pyomo, a market layer, and hardware-in-the-loop simulation (testing appliances such as HVAC, dishwasher, etc.). The IESM is a system-of-systems (SoS) simulator wherein the constituent systems are brought together in a virtual testbed. We will describe an SoS approach for developing a distributed simulation environment. We will elaborate on the methodology and the control mechanisms used in the co-simulation illustrated by a case study.

  4. Liability aspects of home energy-rating systems

    SciTech Connect

    Hendrickson, P.L.

    1983-10-01

    Liability aspects of home energy rating systems are discussed. An introduction to the rating system concept, including types of rating systems, implementation efforts to date, and possible groups to conduct ratings, is also included. The home energy rating system concept involves the periodic rating of the energy efficiency of residential buildings. The rating can provide a relative indication of a home's energy efficiency and also a quantitative estimate of consumption, fuel cost, or both. Primary attention is given to liability issues associated with developing and performing ratings. Secondary attention is given to possible liability associated with misuse of a rating once it has been performed.

  5. Energy Harvesting Systems and Methods of Assembling Same

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cepeda-Rizo, Juan (Inventor); Ganapathi, Gani B. (Inventor)

    2013-01-01

    A method of assembling an energy harvesting system is provided. The method includes coupling at least one energy storage device in flow communication with at least one apparatus that is configured to generate thermal energy and to transfer the thermal energy into at least one fluid stream. The energy storage device is configured to store the fluid stream. Moreover, the method includes coupling at least one fluid transfer device downstream from the energy storage device. The fluid transfer device receives the fluid stream from the energy storage device. A bladeless turbine is coupled in flow communication with the fluid transfer device, wherein the bladeless turbine receives the fluid stream to generate power.

  6. Energy Storage Systems Are Coming: Are You Ready

    SciTech Connect

    Conover, David R.

    2015-12-05

    Energy storage systems (batteries) are not a new concept, but the technology being developed and introduced today with an increasing emphasis on energy storage, is new. The increased focus on energy, environmental and economic issues in the built environment is spurring increased application of renewables as well as reduction in peak energy use - both of which create a need for energy storage. This article provides an overview of current and anticipated energy storage technology, focusing on ensuring the safe application and use of energy storage on both the grid and customer side of the utility meter.

  7. Low cost solar energy collection system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miller, C. G.; Stephans, J. B. (Inventor)

    1977-01-01

    A fixed, linear, ground-based primary reflector having an extended, curved sawtooth contoured surface covered with a metallized polymeric reflecting material, reflected solar energy to a movably supported collector that was kept at the concentrated line focus of the reflector primary. Efficient utilization leading to high temperatures from the reflected solar energy was obtained by cylindrical shaped secondary reflectors that directed off-angle energy to the absorber pipe.

  8. Multiphysics Simulation in the Development of Thermoelectric Energy Harvesting Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nesarajah, Marco; Frey, Georg

    2016-03-01

    This contribution presents a model-based development process for thermoelectric energy harvesting systems. Such systems convert thermal energy into electrical energy and produce enough energy to supply low-power devices. Realizations require three main challenges to be solved: to guarantee optimal thermal connection of the thermoelectric generators, to find a good design for the energy harvesting system, and to find an optimal electrical connection. Therefore, a development process is presented here. The process is divided into different steps and supports the developer in finding an optimal thermoelectric energy harvesting system for a given heat source and given objectives (technical and economical). During the process, several steps are supported by simulation models. Based on developed model libraries in Modelica®/Dymola®, thermal, thermoelectrical, electrical, and control components can be modeled, integrated into different variants, and verified step by step before the system is physically built and finally validated. The process is illustrated by an example through all the steps.

  9. Design for Manufacturing for Energy Absorption Systems

    SciTech Connect

    Del Prete, A.; Primo, T.; Papadia, G.; Manisi, B.

    2011-05-04

    In the typical scenario of a helicopter crash, impact with the ground is preceded by a substantially vertical drop, with the result that a seated occupant of a helicopter experiences high spinal loads and pelvic deceleration during such crash due to the sudden arresting of vertical downward motion. It has long been recognized that spinal injuries to occupants of helicopters in such crash scenario can be minimized by seat arrangements which limit the deceleration to which the seated occupant is subjected, relative to the helicopter, to a predetermined maximum, by allowing downward movement of the seated occupant relative to the helicopter, at the time of impact with the ground, under a restraining force which, over a limited range of such movement, is limited to a predetermined maximum. In practice, significant benefits, in the way of reduced injuries and reduced seriousness of injuries, can be afforded in this way in such crash situations even where the extent of such controlled vertical movement permitted by the crashworthy seat arrangement is quite limited. Important increase of accident safety is reached with the installation of crashworthy shock absorbers on the main landing gear, but this solution is mostly feasible on military helicopters with long fixed landing gear. Seats can then give high contribution to survivability. Commonly, an energy absorber is a constant load device, if one excludes an initial elastic part of the load-stroke curve. On helicopter seats, this behavior is obtained by plastic deformation of a metal component or scraping of material. In the present work the authors have studied three absorption systems, which differ in relation to their shape, their working conditions and their constructive materials. All the combinations have been analyzed for applications in VIP helicopter seats.

  10. Boost matrix converters in clean energy systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karaman, Ekrem

    This dissertation describes an investigation of novel power electronic converters, based on the ultra-sparse matrix topology and characterized by the minimum number of semiconductor switches. The Z-source, Quasi Z-source, Series Z-source and Switched-inductor Z-source networks were originally proposed for boosting the output voltage of power electronic inverters. These ideas were extended here on three-phase to three-phase and three-phase to single-phase indirect matrix converters. For the three-phase to three-phase matrix converters, the Z-source networks are placed between the three-switch input rectifier stage and the output six-switch inverter stage. A brief shoot-through state produces the voltage boost. An optimal pulse width modulation technique was developed to achieve high boosting capability and minimum switching losses in the converter. For the three-phase to single-phase matrix converters, those networks are placed similarly. For control purposes, a new modulation technique has been developed. As an example application, the proposed converters constitute a viable alternative to the existing solutions in residential wind-energy systems, where a low-voltage variable-speed generator feeds power to the higher-voltage fixed-frequency grid. Comprehensive analytical derivations and simulation results were carried out to investigate the operation of the proposed converters. Performance of the proposed converters was then compared between each other as well as with conventional converters. The operation of the converters was experimentally validated using a laboratory prototype.

  11. Open cycle ocean thermal energy conversion system

    DOEpatents

    Wittig, J. Michael

    1980-01-01

    An improved open cycle ocean thermal energy conversion system including a flash evaporator for vaporizing relatively warm ocean surface water and an axial flow, elastic fluid turbine having a vertical shaft and axis of rotation. The warm ocean water is transmitted to the evaporator through a first prestressed concrete skirt-conduit structure circumferentially situated about the axis of rotation. The unflashed warm ocean water exits the evaporator through a second prestressed concrete skirt-conduit structure located circumferentially about and radially within the first skirt-conduit structure. The radially inner surface of the second skirt conduit structure constitutes a cylinder which functions as the turbine's outer casing and obviates the need for a conventional outer housing. The turbine includes a radially enlarged disc element attached to the shaft for supporting at least one axial row of radially directed blades through which the steam is expanded. A prestressed concrete inner casing structure of the turbine has upstream and downstream portions respectively situated upstream and downstream from the disc element. The radially outer surfaces of the inner casing portions and radially outer periphery of the axially interposed disc cooperatively form a downwardly radially inwardly tapered surface. An annular steam flowpath of increasing flow area in the downward axial direction is radially bounded by the inner and outer prestressed concrete casing structures. The inner casing portions each include a transversely situated prestressed concrete circular wall for rotatably supporting the turbine shaft and associated structure. The turbine blades are substantially radially coextensive with the steam flowpath and receive steam from the evaporator through an annular array of prestressed concrete stationary vanes which extend between the inner and outer casings to provide structural support therefor and impart a desired flow direction to the steam.

  12. A high-efficiency energy conversion system

    SciTech Connect

    Belcher, A.E.

    1996-12-31

    A fundamentally new method for converting pressure into rotative motion is introduced. A historical background is given and an idealized non-turbine Brayton cycle engine and associated equations are described. Salient features are explained, together with suggested applications. Concerns over global warming, unacceptable levels of air pollution, and the need for more efficient utilization of nonrenewable energy resources, are issues which continue to plague us. The situation is further exacerbated by the possibility that underdeveloped countries, under pressure to expand their economies, might adopt power generating systems which could produce high levels of emissions. This scenario could easily develop if equipment, which once complied with stringent standards, failed to be adequately maintained through the absence of a reliable technical infrastructure. The Brayton cycle manometric engine has the potential for eliminating, or at least mitigating, many of the above issues. It is therefore of considerable importance to all populations, irrespective of demographic or economic considerations. This engine is inherently simple--the engine proper has only one moving part. It has no pistons, vanes, or other such conventional occlusive devices, yet it is a positive displacement machine. Sealing is achieved by what can best be described as a series of traveling U-tube manometers. Its construction does not require precision engineering nor the use of exotic materials, making it easy to maintain with the most rudimentary resources. Rotational velocity is low, and its normal life cycle is expected to extend to several decades. These advantages more than offset the machine`s large size. It is suited only to large and medium-scale stationary applications.

  13. Low energy beam transport system developments

    SciTech Connect

    Dudnikov, V.; Han, B.; Stockli, M.; Welton, R.; Dudnikova, G.

    2015-04-08

    For high brightness beam production it is important to preserve the brightness in the low energy beam transport system (LEBT) used to transport and match the ion beams to the next stage of acceleration, usually an RFQ. While electrostatic focusing can be problematic for high current beam transport, reliable electrostatic LEBT operation has been demonstrated with H{sup −} beams up to 60 mA. Now, however, it is commonly accepted that an optimal LEBT for high current accelerator applications consists of focusing solenoids with space charge compensation. Two-solenoid LEBTs are successfully used for high current (>100 mA) proton beam transport. Preservation of low emittances (~0.15 π mm-mrad) requires the addition of a heavy gas (Xe, Kr), which causes ~5% of proton loss in a 1 m long LEBT. Similar Xe densities would be required to preserve low emittances of H{sup −} beams, but such gas densities cause unacceptably high H{sup −} beam losses. A short LEBT with only one short solenoid, movable for RFQ matching, can be used for reduced negative ion stripping. A strong electrostatic-focusing LEBT has been successfully adopted for transport of high current H{sup −} beams in the SNS Front End. Some modifications of such electrostatic LEBTs are expected to improve the reliable transport of intense positive and negative ion beams without greatly degrading their low emittances. We concentrate on processes that determine the beam brightness degradation and on their prevention. Proposed improvements to the SNS electrostatic LEBT are discussed.

  14. Trends in Energy Management Technology - Part 3: State of Practiceof Energy Management, Control, and Information Systems

    SciTech Connect

    Yee, Gaymond; Webster, Tom

    2004-02-01

    In this report, the third in a series, we provide an evaluation of several products that exemplify the current state of practice of Energy Management, Control, and Information Systems (EMCIS). The available features for these products are summarized and analyzed with regard to emerging trends in EMCIS and potential benefits to the federal sector. The first report [1] covered enabling technologies for emerging energy management systems. The second report [2] serves as a basic reference for building control system (BCS) networking fundamentals and includes an assessment of current approaches to open communications. Part 4 of this series will discuss applications software from a user's perspective. It is important for energy managers in the Federal sector to have a high level of knowledge and understanding of these complex energy management systems. This series of reports provides energy practitioners with some basic informational and educational tools to help make decisions relative to energy management systems design, specification, procurement, and energy savings potential.

  15. Electro-mechanical energy conversion system having a permanent magnet machine with stator, resonant transfer link and energy converter controls

    DOEpatents

    Skeist, S. Merrill; Baker, Richard H.

    2006-01-10

    An electro-mechanical energy conversion system coupled between an energy source and an energy load comprising an energy converter device including a permanent magnet induction machine coupled between the energy source and the energy load to convert the energy from the energy source and to transfer the converted energy to the energy load and an energy transfer multiplexer to control the flow of power or energy through the permanent magnetic induction machine.

  16. Power conditioning system for energy sources

    DOEpatents

    Mazumder, Sudip K.; Burra, Rajni K.; Acharya, Kaustuva

    2008-05-13

    Apparatus for conditioning power generated by an energy source includes an inverter for converting a DC input voltage from the energy source to a square wave AC output voltage, and a converter for converting the AC output voltage from the inverter to a sine wave AC output voltage.

  17. Wetlands as energy-dissipating systems.

    PubMed

    Pokorný, Jan; Květ, Jan; Rejšková, Alžběta; Brom, Jakub

    2010-12-01

    Since wetlands are ecosystems that have an ample supply of water, they play an important role in the energy budgets of their respective landscapes due to their capacity to shift energy fluxes in favor of latent heat. Rates of evapotranspiration in wetlands are commonly as high as 6-15 mm day⁻¹, testifying to the large amount of energy that is dissipated through this process. Emergent or semi-emergent wetland macrophytes substantially influence the solar energy distribution due to their high capacity for transpiration. Wetland ecosystems in eutrophic habitats show a high primary production of biomass because of the highly efficient use of solar energy in photosynthesis. In wetlands associated with the slow decomposition of dead organic matter, such as oligotrophic marshes or fens and bogs, the accumulation of biomass is also high, in spite of the rather low primary production of biomass. Most of the energy exchange in water-saturated wetlands is, however, linked with heat balance, whereby the largest proportion of the incoming energy is dissipated during the process of evapotranspiration. An example is shown of energy fluxes during the course of a day in the wetland ecosystem of Mokré Louky (Wet Meadows) near Třeboň. The negative consequences of the loss of wetlands for the local and regional climate are discussed.

  18. Energy Management and the Infrastructure System.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blackburn, James M.

    1998-01-01

    Describes a state-of-the-art energy management program at Wake Forest University (North Carolina) designed to include all on-campus property, and explores the various aspects of cost/benefit analysis in its development. A campus profile, electrical and thermal energy analyses, and a summary table of utility budget data are included. (GR)

  19. Energy Integrated Dairy Farm digester and cogeneration system installation

    SciTech Connect

    Ross, C.C.; Walsh, J.L.

    1984-01-01

    Georgia Tech finished in December, 1983 Phase II (system installation and startup) of its four year Energy Integrated Dairy Farm System (EIDFS) program. This paper outlines the selection and installation of the anaerobic digestion and cogeneration components of the EIDFS.

  20. A New Model to Simulate Energy Performance of VRF Systems

    SciTech Connect

    Hong, Tianzhen; Pang, Xiufeng; Schetrit, Oren; Wang, Liping; Kasahara, Shinichi; Yura, Yoshinori; Hinokuma, Ryohei

    2014-03-30

    This paper presents a new model to simulate energy performance of variable refrigerant flow (VRF) systems in heat pump operation mode (either cooling or heating is provided but not simultaneously). The main improvement of the new model is the introduction of the evaporating and condensing temperature in the indoor and outdoor unit capacity modifier functions. The independent variables in the capacity modifier functions of the existing VRF model in EnergyPlus are mainly room wet-bulb temperature and outdoor dry-bulb temperature in cooling mode and room dry-bulb temperature and outdoor wet-bulb temperature in heating mode. The new approach allows compliance with different specifications of each indoor unit so that the modeling accuracy is improved. The new VRF model was implemented in a custom version of EnergyPlus 7.2. This paper first describes the algorithm for the new VRF model, which is then used to simulate the energy performance of a VRF system in a Prototype House in California that complies with the requirements of Title 24 ? the California Building Energy Efficiency Standards. The VRF system performance is then compared with three other types of HVAC systems: the Title 24-2005 Baseline system, the traditional High Efficiency system, and the EnergyStar Heat Pump system in three typical California climates: Sunnyvale, Pasadena and Fresno. Calculated energy savings from the VRF systems are significant. The HVAC site energy savings range from 51 to 85percent, while the TDV (Time Dependent Valuation) energy savings range from 31 to 66percent compared to the Title 24 Baseline Systems across the three climates. The largest energy savings are in Fresno climate followed by Sunnyvale and Pasadena. The paper discusses various characteristics of the VRF systems contributing to the energy savings. It should be noted that these savings are calculated using the Title 24 prototype House D under standard operating conditions. Actual performance of the VRF systems for real

  1. SIMWEST - A simulation model for wind energy storage systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Edsinger, R. W.; Warren, A. W.; Gordon, L. H.; Chang, G. C.

    1978-01-01

    This paper describes a comprehensive and efficient computer program for the modeling of wind energy systems with storage. The level of detail of SIMWEST (SImulation Model for Wind Energy STorage) is consistent with evaluating the economic feasibility as well as the general performance of wind energy systems with energy storage options. The software package consists of two basic programs and a library of system, environmental, and control components. The first program is a precompiler which allows the library components to be put together in building block form. The second program performs the technoeconomic system analysis with the required input/output, and the integration of system dynamics. An example of the application of the SIMWEST program to a current 100 kW wind energy storage system is given.

  2. Battery energy storage systems life cycle costs case studies

    SciTech Connect

    Swaminathan, S.; Miller, N.F.; Sen, R.K.

    1998-08-01

    This report presents a comparison of life cycle costs between battery energy storage systems and alternative mature technologies that could serve the same utility-scale applications. Two of the battery energy storage systems presented in this report are located on the supply side, providing spinning reserve and system stability benefits. These systems are compared with the alternative technologies of oil-fired combustion turbines and diesel generators. The other two battery energy storage systems are located on the demand side for use in power quality applications. These are compared with available uninterruptible power supply technologies.

  3. Towards A Taxonomy Of Attacks Against Energy Control Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fleury, Terry; Khurana, Himanshu; Welch, Von

    Control systems in the energy sector (e.g., supervisory control and data acquisition (SCADA) systems) involve a hierarchy of sensing, monitoring and control devices connected to centralized control stations or centers. The incorporation of commercial off-the-shelf technologies in energy control systems makes them vulnerable to cyber attacks. A taxonomy of cyber attacks against control systems can assist the energy sector in managing the cyber threat. This paper takes the first step towards a taxonomy by presenting a comprehensive model of attacks, vulnerabilities and damage related to control systems. The model is populated based on a survey of the technical literature from industry, academia and national laboratories.

  4. Modeling of battery energy storage in the National Energy Modeling System

    SciTech Connect

    Swaminathan, S.; Flynn, W.T.; Sen, R.K.

    1997-12-01

    The National Energy Modeling System (NEMS) developed by the U.S. Department of Energy`s Energy Information Administration is a well-recognized model that is used to project the potential impact of new electric generation technologies. The NEMS model does not presently have the capability to model energy storage on the national grid. The scope of this study was to assess the feasibility of, and make recommendations for, the modeling of battery energy storage systems in the Electricity Market of the NEMS. Incorporating storage within the NEMS will allow the national benefits of storage technologies to be evaluated.

  5. HVAC & Building Management Control System Energy Efficiency Replacements

    SciTech Connect

    Hernandez, Adriana

    2012-09-21

    The project objective was the replacement of an aging, un-repairable HVAC system which has grown inefficient and a huge energy consumer with low energy and efficient HVAC units, and installation of energy efficient building control technologies at City's YMCA Community Center.

  6. Energy and Environmental Systems Division's publications publications 1968-1982

    SciTech Connect

    1982-03-01

    Books, journal articles, conference papers, and technical reports produced by the Energy and Environmental Systems Division of Argonne National Laboratory are listed in this bibliography. Subjects covered are energy resources (recovery and use); energy-efficient technology; electric utilities, and environments. (MCW)

  7. Energy and the Structure of Social System: Significance for Families.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Keefe, Dennis R.

    The purpose of the paper is to present a model and suggest hypotheses relating the family as a social system to the concepts of human and natural energy. Human energy is interpreted as the capacity of humans, in this case, family members, for doing work and natural energy as resources such as natural gas, carbon dioxide, and heat. A behavioral…

  8. Quantum energy teleportation in a quantum Hall system

    SciTech Connect

    Yusa, Go; Izumida, Wataru; Hotta, Masahiro

    2011-09-15

    We propose an experimental method for a quantum protocol termed quantum energy teleportation (QET), which allows energy transportation to a remote location without physical carriers. Using a quantum Hall system as a realistic model, we discuss the physical significance of QET and estimate the order of energy gain using reasonable experimental parameters.

  9. Assessing District Energy Systems Performance Integrated with Multiple Thermal Energy Storages

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rezaie, Behnaz

    The goal of this study is to examine various energy resources in district energy (DE) systems and then DE system performance development by means of multiple thermal energy storages (TES) application. This study sheds light on areas not yet investigated precisely in detail. Throughout the research, major components of the heat plant, energy suppliers of the DE systems, and TES characteristics are separately examined; integration of various configurations of the multiple TESs in the DE system is then analysed. In the first part of the study, various sources of energy are compared, in a consistent manner, financially and environmentally. The TES performance is then assessed from various aspects. Then, TES(s) and DE systems with several sources of energy are integrated, and are investigated as a heat process centre. The most efficient configurations of the multiple TESs integrated with the DE system are investigated. Some of the findings of this study are applied on an actual DE system. The outcomes of this study provide insight for researchers and engineers who work in this field, as well as policy makers and project managers who are decision-makers. The accomplishments of the study are original developments TESs and DE systems. As an original development the Enviro-Economic Function, to balance the economic and environmental aspects of energy resources technologies in DE systems, is developed; various configurations of multiple TESs, including series, parallel, and general grid, are developed. The developed related functions are discharge temperature and energy of the TES, and energy and exergy efficiencies of the TES. The TES charging and discharging behavior of TES instantaneously is also investigated to obtain the charging temperature, the maximum charging temperature, the charging energy flow, maximum heat flow capacity, the discharging temperature, the minimum charging temperature, the discharging energy flow, the maximum heat flow capacity, and performance

  10. Benefits of Power Electronic Interfaces for Distributed Energy Systems

    SciTech Connect

    Kroposki, B.; Pink, C.; DeBlasio, R.; Thomas, H.; Simoes, M.; Sen, P. K.

    2006-01-01

    Optimization of overall electrical system performance is important for the long-term economic viability of distributed energy (DE) systems. With the increasing use of DE systems in industry and its technological advancement, it is becoming more important to understand the integration of these systems with the electric power systems. New markets and benefits for distributed energy applications include the ability to provide ancillary services, improve energy efficiency, enhance power system reliability, and allow customer choice. Advanced power electronic (PE) interfaces will allow DE systems to provide increased functionality through improved power quality and voltage/VAR support, increase electrical system compatibility by reducing the fault contributions, and flexibility in operations with various other DE sources, while reducing overall interconnection costs. This paper examines the system integration and optimization issues associated with DE systems and show the benefits of using PE interfaces for such applications.

  11. Beam energy tracking system on Optima XEx high energy ion implanter

    SciTech Connect

    David, Jonathan; Satoh, Shu; Wu Xiangyang; Geary, Cindy; Deluca, James

    2012-11-06

    The Axcelis Optima XEx high energy implanter is an RF linac-based implanter with 12 RF resonators for beam acceleration. Even though each acceleration field is an alternating, sinusoidal RF field, the well known phase-focusing principle produces a beam with a sharp quasi-monoenergetic energy spectrum. A magnetic energy filter after the linac further attenuates the low energy continuum in the energy spectrum often associated with RF acceleration. The final beam energy is a function of the phase and amplitude of the 12 resonators in the linac. When tuning a beam, the magnetic energy filter is set to the desired energy, and each linac parameter is tuned to maximize the transmission through the filter. Once a beam is set up, all the parameters are stored in a recipe, which can be easily tuned and has proven to be quite repeatable. The magnetic field setting of the energy filter selects the beam energy from the RF Linac accelerator, and in-situ verification of beam energy in addition to the magnetic energy filter setting has long been desired. An independent energy tracking system was developed for this purpose, using the existing electrostatic beam scanner as a deflector to construct an in-situ electrostatic energy analyzer. This paper will describe the system and performance of the beam energy tracking system.

  12. High Energy Density Regenerative Fuel Cell Systems for Terrestrial Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Burke, Kenneth A.

    1999-01-01

    Regenerative Fuel Cell System (RFCS) technology for energy storage has been a NASA power system concept for many years. Compared to battery-based energy storage systems, RFCS has received relatively little attention or resources for development because the energy density and electrical efficiency were not sufficiently attractive relative to advanced battery systems. Even today, RFCS remains at a very low technology readiness level (TRL of about 2 indicating feasibility has been demonstrated). Commercial development of the Proton Exchange Membrane (PEM) fuel cells for automobiles and other terrestrial applications and improvements in lightweight pressure vessel design to reduce weight and improve performance make possible a high energy density RFCS energy storage system. The results from this study of a lightweight RFCS energy storage system for a remotely piloted, solar-powered, high altitude aircraft indicate an energy density up to 790 w-h/kg with electrical efficiency of 53.4% is attainable. Such an energy storage system would allow a solar-powered aircraft to carry hundreds of kilograms of payload and remain in flight indefinitely for use in atmospheric research, earth observation, resource mapping. and telecommunications. Future developments in the areas of hydrogen and oxygen storage, pressure vessel design, higher temperature and higher- pressure fuel cell operation, unitized regenerative fuel cells, and commercial development of fuel cell technology will improve both the energy density and electrical efficiency of the RFCS.

  13. The National Energy Modeling System: An overview 1998

    SciTech Connect

    1998-02-01

    The National Energy Modeling System (NEMS) is a computer-based, energy-economy modeling system of US energy markets for the midterm period through 2020. NEMS projects the production, imports, conversion, consumption, and prices of energy, subject to assumptions on macroeconomic and financial factors world energy markets, resource availability and costs, behavior and technological choice criteria, cost and performance characteristics of energy technologies, and demographics. This report presents an overview of the structure and methodology of NEMS and each of its components. The first chapter provides a description of the design and objectives of the system, followed by a chapter on the overall modeling structure and solution algorithm. The remainder of the report summarizes the methodology and scope of the component modules of NEMS. The model descriptions are intended for readers familiar with terminology from economics, operations research, and energy modeling. 21 figs.

  14. Energy-efficient lighting system for television

    DOEpatents

    Cawthorne, Duane C.

    1987-07-21

    A light control system for a television camera comprises an artificial light control system which is cooperative with an iris control system. This artificial light control system adjusts the power to lamps illuminating the camera viewing area to provide only sufficient artificial illumination necessary to provide a sufficient video signal when the camera iris is substantially open.

  15. Renewable energy for America's cities: Advanced Community Energy Systems Proposed Research, Development and Demonstration Program

    SciTech Connect

    Gleason, T.C.J.

    1993-01-01

    The first purpose of this paper is to describe ACES technologies and their potential impact on the environment, the US energy supply system and economy. The second purpose is to recommend an R,D D program to the US Department of Energy which has as its goal the rapid development of the most promising of the new technologies. ACES supply thermal energy to groups of buildings, communities and cities in the form of hot or chilled water for building space heating, domestic hot water or air conditioning. The energy is supplied via a network of insulated, underground pipes linking central sources of supply with buildings. ACES, by definition, employ very high energy efficiency conversion technologies such as cogeneration, heat pumps, and heat activated chillers. These systems also use renewable energy sources such as solar energy, winter cold, wind, and surface and subsurface warm and cold waters. ACES compose a new generation of community-scale building heating and air conditioning supply technologies. These new systems can effect a rapid and economical conversion of existing cities to energy supply by very efficient energy conversion systems and renewable energy systems. ACES technologies are the most promising near term means by which cities can make the transition from our present damaging dependence on fossil fuel supply systems to an economically and environmentally sustainable reliance on very high efficiency and renewable energy supply systems. When fully developed to serve an urban area, ACES will constitute a new utility system which can attain a level of energy efficiency, economy and reliance on renewable energy sources not possible with currently available energy supply systems.

  16. Optical waveguide solar energy system for lunar material processing

    SciTech Connect

    Nakamura, T.; Senior, C.L.; Shoji, J.M.; Waldron, R.D.

    1995-11-01

    This paper summarizes the study on the optical waveguide (OW) solar energy system for lunar material processing. In the OW solar energy system, solar radiation is collected by the concentrator which transfers the concentrated solar radiation to the OW transmission line consisting of low-loss optical fibers and related optical components. The OW line transmits the high intensity solar radiation to the thermal reactor of the lunar materials processing plant. Based on the results discussed in this paper the authors conclude that the OW solar energy system is a viable concept which can effectively utilize solar energy for lunar material processing.

  17. Running hot water: A systems approach to energy conservation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wulff, P.

    1982-03-01

    Ways to conserve energy in domestic hot water systems are discussed. Examination of the Swedish situation shows that centralized systems, where water heating is a subsidiary of space heating, waste energy because water cools in the pipes after use, and the entire system must operate in summer. Also, water temperature is often much higher than required. Solar panels, individual water heaters, heat pumps, and heat exchangers could contribute to energy conservation, but changes in consumer behavior can also be extremely effective. For example, dish washing energy requirements were reduced by 80% in one neighborhood by giving each apartment a plastic bowl for washing up.

  18. Energy integrated farm system: Millbrook Farm and Cornell University

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1984-01-01

    Millbrook Farm, a New York State dairy farm with corn and alfalfa crops, is designed to conserve energy through energy integrated concepts including methane digestion, cogeneration, energy conservation crop practices, and a computer management system. The integrated energy concepts to be demonstrated are: methane generation from cow manure; cogeneration of thermal and electric energy from methane combustion. New York State Electric and Gas Company will accept excess electric power into its grid; energy conservation in crop production through conservation tillage and substitution of manure for nitrogen fertilizers; energy conservation through waste-heat recovery in milk cooling and in recycling of wastewater; and application of microprocessor control systems to control and monitor energy in the methane digester, the cogeneration equipment, and the waste-heat exchangers.

  19. Vacuum Pump System Optimization Saves Energy at a Dairy Farm

    SciTech Connect

    2001-08-01

    In 1998, S&S Dairy optimized the vacuum pumping system at their dairy farm in Modesto, California. In an effort to reduce energy costs, S&S Dairy evaluated their vacuum pumping system to determine if efficiency gains and energy savings were possible.

  20. Design Concepts for Optimum Energy Use in HVAC Systems.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Electric Energy Association, New York, NY.

    Much of the innovative work in the design and application of heating, ventilating, and air conditioning (HVAC) systems is concentrated on improving the cost effectiveness of such systems through optimizing energy use. One approach to the problem is to reduce a building's HVAC energy demands by designing it for lower heat gains and losses in the…

  1. Superconducting magnetic energy storage for asynchronous electrical systems

    DOEpatents

    Boenig, H.J.

    1984-05-16

    It is an object of the present invention to provide superconducting magnetic energy storage for a plurality of asynchronous electrical systems. It is a further object of the present invention to provide load leveling and stability improvement in a plurality of independent ac systems using a single superconducting magnetic energy storage coil.

  2. 76 FR 76333 - Notification for Airborne Wind Energy Systems (AWES)

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-12-07

    ... Statement can be found in the Federal Register published on April 11, 2000 (65 FR 19477-19478), as well as... Federal Aviation Administration 14 CFR Part 77 Notification for Airborne Wind Energy Systems (AWES) AGENCY...,'' to airborne wind energy systems (AWES). In addition, this notice requests information from...

  3. Solar Program Assessment: Environmental Factors - Solar Total Energy Systems.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Energy Research and Development Administration, Washington, DC. Div. of Solar Energy.

    The purpose of this report is to present and prioritize the major environmental, safety, and social/institutional issues associated with the further development of Solar Total Energy Systems (STES). Solar total energy systems represent a specific application of the Federally-funded solar technologies. To provide a background for this analysis, the…

  4. Energy storage management system with distributed wireless sensors

    SciTech Connect

    Farmer, Joseph C.; Bandhauer, Todd M.

    2015-12-08

    An energy storage system having a multiple different types of energy storage and conversion devices. Each device is equipped with one or more sensors and RFID tags to communicate sensor information wirelessly to a central electronic management system, which is used to control the operation of each device. Each device can have multiple RFID tags and sensor types. Several energy storage and conversion devices can be combined.

  5. Energy integrated dairy farm system in New York: Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Walker, L.P.; Ludington, D.C.; Merrill, W.G.; Pellerin, R.A.; Reid, W.S.; Space, R.; Space, R. II; White, S.A.; Heisler, M.G.; Farmer, G.S.

    1985-09-01

    This technical manual was developed from the experiences and results gained from Cornell University's Energy Integrated Dairy System Project (EIDS). Goal of the project was to reduce fossil fuels and fossil fuel-based inputs into an income producing dairy farm by substituting energy efficient processes and practices for energy-intensive ones, and using solar-based energy sources - wind, active solar, and biomass.

  6. Proceedings of the DOE chemical energy storage and hydrogen energy systems contracts review

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1980-02-01

    Sessions were held on electrolysis-based hydrogen storage systems, hydrogen production, hydrogen storage systems, hydrogen storage materials, end-use applications and system studies, chemical heat pump/chemical energy storage systems, systems studies and assessment, thermochemical hydrogen production cycles, advanced production concepts, and containment materials. (LHK)

  7. RETHINKING THE FUTURE GRID: INTEGRATED NUCLEAR-RENEWABLE ENERGY SYSTEMS

    SciTech Connect

    S.M. Bragg-Sitton; R. Boardman

    2014-12-01

    The 2013 electricity generation mix in the United States consisted of ~13% renewables (hydropower, wind, solar, geothermal), 19% nuclear, 27% natural gas, and 39% coal. In the 2011 State of the Union Address, President Obama set a clean energy goal for the nation: “By 2035, 80 percent of America’s electricity will come from clean energy sources. Some folks want wind and solar. Others want nuclear, clean coal and natural gas. To meet this goal we will need them all.” The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Offices of Nuclear Energy (NE) and Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) recognize that “all of the above” means that we are called to best utilize all available clean energy sources. To meet the stated environmental goals for electricity generation and for the broader energy sector, there is a need to transform the energy infrastructure of the U.S. and elsewhere. New energy systems must be capable of significantly reducing environmental impacts in an efficient and economically viable manner while utilizing both hydrocarbon resources and clean energy generation sources. The U.S. DOE is supporting research and development that could lead to more efficient utilization of clean energy generation sources, including renewable and nuclear options, to meet both grid demand and thermal energy needs in the industrial sector. A concept being advanced by the DOE-NE and DOE-EERE is tighter coupling of nuclear and renewable energy sources in a manner that better optimizes energy use for the combined electricity, industrial manufacturing, and the transportation sectors. This integration concept has been referred to as a “hybrid system” that is capable of apportioning thermal and electrical energy to first meet the grid demand (with appropriate power conversion systems), then utilizing excess thermal and, in some cases, electrical energy to drive a process that results in an additional product. For the purposes of the present work, the hybrid system would

  8. Energy and Environmental Systems Division 1981 research review

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1982-04-01

    To effectively manage the nation's energy and natural resources, government and industry leaders need accurate information regarding the performance and economics of advanced energy systems and the costs and benefits of public-sector initiatives. The Energy and Environmental Systems Division (EES) of Argonne National Laboratory conducts applied research and development programs that provide such information through systems analysis, geophysical field research, and engineering studies. During 1981, the division: analyzed the production economics of specific energy resources, such as biomass and tight sands gas; developed and transferred to industry economically efficient techniques for addressing energy-related resource management and environmental protection problems, such as the reclamation of strip-mined land; determined the engineering performance and cost of advanced energy-supply and pollution-control systems; analyzed future markets for district heating systems and other emerging energy technologies; determined, in strategic planning studies, the availability of resources needed for new energy technologies, such as the imported metals used in advanced electric-vehicle batteries; evaluated the effectiveness of strategies for reducing scarce-fuel consumption in the transportation sector; identified the costs and benefits of measures designed to stabilize the financial condition of US electric utilities; estimated the costs of nuclear reactor shutdowns and evaluated geologic conditions at potential sites for permanent underground storage of nuclear waste; evaluated the cost-effectiveness of environmental regulations, particularly those affecting coal combustion; and identified the environmental effects of energy technologies and transportation systems.

  9. Solar energy system economic evaluation for Colt Pueblo, Pueblo, Colorado

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1980-01-01

    The Solar Energy System is not economically beneficial under the assumed economic conditions at Pueblo, Colorado; Yosemite, California; Albuquerque, New Mexico; Fort Worth, Texas; and Washington, D.C. Economic benefits from this system depend on decreasing the initial investment and the continued increase in the cost of conventional energy. Decreasing the cost depends on favorable tax treatment and continuing development of solar energy technology. Fuel cost would have to increase drastically while the cost of the system would have to remain constant or decrease for the system to become economically feasible.

  10. Solar energy system economic evaluation for Colt Pueblo, Pueblo, Colorado

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1980-09-01

    The Solar Energy System is not economically beneficial under the assumed economic conditions at Pueblo, Colorado; Yosemite, California; Albuquerque, New Mexico; Fort Worth, Texas; and Washington, D.C. Economic benefits from this system depend on decreasing the initial investment and the continued increase in the cost of conventional energy. Decreasing the cost depends on favorable tax treatment and continuing development of solar energy technology. Fuel cost would have to increase drastically while the cost of the system would have to remain constant or decrease for the system to become economically feasible.

  11. Energy implications of integrated solid waste management systems. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Little, R.E.; McClain, G.; Becker, M.; Ligon, P.; Shapiro, K.

    1994-07-01

    This study develops estimates of energy use and recovery from managing municipal solid waste (MSW) under various collection, processing, and disposal scenarios. We estimate use and recovery -- or energy balance -- resulting from MSW management activities such as waste collection, transport, processing, and disposal, as well as indirect use and recovery linked to secondary materials manufacturing using recycled materials. In our analysis, secondary materials manufacturing displaces virgin materials manufacturing for 13 representative products. Energy implications are expressed as coefficients that measure the net energy saving (or use) of displacing products made from virgin versus recycled materials. Using data developed for the 1992 New York City Master Plan as a starting point, we apply our method to an analysis of various collection systems and 30 types of facilities to illustrate bow energy balances shift as management systems are modified. In sum, all four scenarios show a positive energy balance indicating the energy and advantage of integrated systems versus reliance on one or few technology options. That is, energy produced or saved exceeds the energy used to operate the solid waste system. The largest energy use impacts are attributable to processing, including materials separation and composting. Collection and transportation energy are relatively minor contributors. The largest two contributors to net energy savings are waste combustion and energy saved by processing recycled versus virgin materials. An accompanying spatial analysis methodology allocates energy use and recovery to New York City, New York State outside the city, the U.S., and outside the U.S. Our analytical approach is embodied in a spreadsheet model that can be used by energy and solid waste analysts to estimate impacts of management scenarios at the state and substate level.

  12. Evaluating Performances of Solar-Energy Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jaffe, L. D.

    1987-01-01

    CONC11 computer program calculates performances of dish-type solar thermal collectors and power systems. Solar thermal power system consists of one or more collectors, power-conversion subsystems, and powerprocessing subsystems. CONC11 intended to aid system designer in comparing performance of various design alternatives. Written in Athena FORTRAN and Assembler.

  13. Local energy governance in vermont: an analysis of energy system transition strategies and actor capacity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rowse, Tarah

    While global, national, and regional efforts to address climate and energy challenges remain essential, local governments and community groups are playing an increasingly stronger and vital role. As an active state in energy system policy, planning and innovation, Vermont offers a testing ground for research into energy governance at the local level. A baseline understanding of the energy planning and energy organizing activities initiated at the local level can support efforts to foster a transition to a sustainable energy system in Vermont. Following an inductive, applied and participatory approach, and grounded in the fields of sustainability transitions, energy planning, and community energy, this research project identifies conditions for change, including opportunities and challenges, within Vermont energy system decision-making and governance at the local level. The following questions are posed: What are the main opportunities and challenges for sustainable energy development at the town level? How are towns approaching energy planning? What are the triggers that will facilitate a faster transition to alternative energy systems, energy efficiency initiatives, and localized approaches? In an effort to answer these questions two studies were conducted: 1) an analysis of municipal energy plans, and 2) a survey of local energy actors. Study 1 examined Vermont energy planning at the state and local level through a review and comparison of 40 municipal plan energy chapters with the state 2011 Comprehensive Energy Plan. On average, municipal plans mentioned just over half of the 24 high-level strategies identified in the Comprehensive Energy Plan. Areas of strong and weak agreement were examined. Increased state and regional interaction with municipal energy planners would support more holistic and coordinated energy planning. The study concludes that while municipalities are keenly aware of the importance of education and partnerships, stronger policy mechanisms

  14. Estimating cell capacity for multi-cell electrical energy system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hashemi, Iman Ahari

    A Multi-Cell Electrical Energy System is a set of batteries that are connected in series. The series batteries provide the required voltage necessary for the contraption. After using the energy that is provided by the batteries, some cells within the system tend to have a lower voltage than the other cells. Also, other factors, such as the number of times a battery has been charged or discharged, how long it has been within the system and many other factors, result in some cells having a lesser capacity compared to the other cells within the system. The outcome is that it lowers the required capacity that the electrical energy system is required to provide. By having an unknown cell capacity within the system, it is unknown how much of a charge can be provided to the system so that the cells are not overcharged or undercharged. Therefore, it is necessary to know the cells capacity within the system. Hence, if we were dealing with a single cell, the capacity could be obtained by a full charge and discharge of the cell. In a series system that contains multiple cells a full charging or discharging cannot happen as it might result in deteriorating the structure of some cells within the system. Hence, to find the capacity of a single cell within an electrical energy system it is required to obtain a method that can estimate the value of each cell within the electrical energy system. To approach this method an electrical energy system is required. The electrical energy system consists of rechargeable non-equal capacity batteries to provide the required energy to the system, a battery management system (BMS) board to monitor the cells voltages, an Arduino board that provides the required communication to BMS board, and the PC, and a software that is able to deliver the required data obtained from the Arduino board to the PC. The outcome, estimating the capacity of a cell within a multi-cell system, can be used in many battery related technologies to obtain unknown

  15. Solar energy system performance evaluation, October 1980 - April 1981

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kendall, P. W.

    The energy system of a single-story, concrete block office building with 1670 square feet of conditioned space was studied. The retrofit active solar energy system is designed to supply 65% of the total heating. The system is equipped with 400 square feet of hydronic flat-plate collectors, a 2000-gallon steel tank for heat storage, and an auxiliary gas-fired boiler. The system can operate at low collection/storage temperature levels or utilize solar energy directly from storage in an oversized duct coil located in the system air handling unit. The measured solar fraction was 80%, compared to a predicted 82%. The solar savings ratio, accounting for system operating energy, was 65%.

  16. Material Systems for Blast-Energy Dissipation

    SciTech Connect

    James Schondel; Henry S. Chu

    2010-10-01

    Lightweight panels have been designed to protect buildings and vehicles from blast pressures by activating energy dissipation mechanisms under the influence of blast loading. Panels were fabricated which featured a variety of granular materials and hydraulic dissipative deformation mechanisms and the test articles were subjected to full-scale blast loading. The force time-histories transmitted by each technology were measured by a novel method that utilized inexpensive custom-designed force sensors. The array of tests revealed that granular materials can effectively dissipate blast energy if they are employed in a way that they easily crush and rearrange. Similarly, hydraulic dissipation can effectively dissipate energy if the panel features a high fraction of porosity and the panel encasement features low compressive stiffness.

  17. Energy, environment and climate assessment using the MARKAL energy system model

    EPA Science Inventory

    As part of EPA ORD’s efforts to develop an understanding of the potential environmental impacts of future changes in energy use, the Energy and Climate Assessment Team has developed a database representation of the U.S. energy system for use with the MARKet ALlocation (MARK...

  18. 7 CFR 4280.165 - Combined funding for renewable energy systems and energy efficiency improvements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Combined funding for renewable energy systems and energy efficiency improvements. 4280.165 Section 4280.165 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of... AGRICULTURE LOANS AND GRANTS Rural Energy for America Program General Combined Funding for Renewable...

  19. 7 CFR 4280.165 - Combined funding for renewable energy systems and energy efficiency improvements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Combined funding for renewable energy systems and energy efficiency improvements. 4280.165 Section 4280.165 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of... AGRICULTURE LOANS AND GRANTS Rural Energy for America Program General Combined Funding for Renewable...

  20. 7 CFR 4280.165 - Combined funding for renewable energy systems and energy efficiency improvements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Combined funding for renewable energy systems and energy efficiency improvements. 4280.165 Section 4280.165 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of... AGRICULTURE LOANS AND GRANTS Rural Energy for America Program General Combined Funding for Renewable...

  1. Entropy, pumped-storage and energy system finance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karakatsanis, Georgios

    2015-04-01

    Pumped-storage holds a key role for integrating renewable energy units with non-renewable fuel plants into large-scale energy systems of electricity output. An emerging issue is the development of financial engineering models with physical basis to systematically fund energy system efficiency improvements across its operation. A fundamental physically-based economic concept is the Scarcity Rent; which concerns the pricing of a natural resource's scarcity. Specifically, the scarcity rent comprises a fraction of a depleting resource's full price and accumulates to fund its more efficient future use. In an integrated energy system, scarcity rents derive from various resources and can be deposited to a pooled fund to finance the energy system's overall efficiency increase; allowing it to benefit from economies of scale. With pumped-storage incorporated to the system, water upgrades to a hub resource, in which the scarcity rents of all connected energy sources are denominated to. However, as available water for electricity generation or storage is also limited, a scarcity rent upon it is also imposed. It is suggested that scarcity rent generation is reducible to three (3) main factors, incorporating uncertainty: (1) water's natural renewability, (2) the energy system's intermittent components and (3) base-load prediction deviations from actual loads. For that purpose, the concept of entropy is used in order to measure the energy system's overall uncertainty; hence pumped-storage intensity requirements and generated water scarcity rents. Keywords: pumped-storage, integration, energy systems, financial engineering, physical basis, Scarcity Rent, pooled fund, economies of scale, hub resource, uncertainty, entropy Acknowledgement: This research was funded by the Greek General Secretariat for Research and Technology through the research project Combined REnewable Systems for Sustainable ENergy DevelOpment (CRESSENDO; grant number 5145)

  2. Central Energy System Modernization at Fort Jackson, South Carolina

    SciTech Connect

    Brown, Daryl R.; Chvala, William D.; Dirks, James A.

    2006-11-29

    An evaluation of technology options was conducted for the central energy systems at Fort Jackson, South Carolina. There were two objectives in conducting this study. From a broader viewpoint, the Army would like to develop a systematic approach to management of its central energy systems and selected Fort Jackson for this ''pilot'' study for a prospective Central Energy System Modernization Program. From a site-specific perspective, the objective was to identify the lowest life-cycle cost energy supply option(s) at Fort Jackson for buildings currently served by central boilers and chillers. This study was co-funded by the Army's Southeast Region and the U.S. Department of Energy's Federal Energy Management Program.

  3. Investigation on wind energy-compressed air power system.

    PubMed

    Jia, Guang-Zheng; Wang, Xuan-Yin; Wu, Gen-Mao

    2004-03-01

    Wind energy is a pollution free and renewable resource widely distributed over China. Aimed at protecting the environment and enlarging application of wind energy, a new approach to application of wind energy by using compressed air power to some extent instead of electricity put forward. This includes: explaining the working principles and characteristics of the wind energy-compressed air power system; discussing the compatibility of wind energy and compressor capacity; presenting the theoretical model and computational simulation of the system. The obtained compressor capacity vs wind power relationship in certain wind velocity range can be helpful in the designing of the wind power-compressed air system. Results of investigations on the application of high-pressure compressed air for pressure reduction led to conclusion that pressure reduction with expander is better than the throttle regulator in energy saving.

  4. Energy Storage Systems as a Compliment to Wind Power

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sieling, Jared D.; Niederriter, C. F.; Berg, D. A.

    2006-12-01

    As Gustavus Adolphus College prepares to install two wind turbines on campus, we are faced with the question of what to do with the excess electricity that is generated. Since the College pays a substantial demand charge, it would seem fiscally responsible to store the energy and use it for peak shaving, instead of selling it to the power company at their avoided cost. We analyzed six currently available systems: hydrogen energy storage, flywheels, pumped hydroelectric storage, battery storage, compressed air storage, and superconducting magnetic energy storage, for energy and financial suitability. Potential wind turbine production is compared to consumption to determine the energy deficit or excess, which is fed into a model for each of the storage systems. We will discuss the advantages and disadvantages of each of the storage systems and their suitability for energy storage and peak shaving in this situation.

  5. Ocean, Wave, and Tidal Energy Systems: Current abstracts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, L.; Lane, D. W.

    1988-01-01

    Ocean, Wave, and Tidal Energy Systems (OES) announces on a bimonthly basis the current worldwide information available on all aspects of ocean thermal energy conversion systems based on exploitation of the temperature difference between the surface water and ocean depth. All aspects of salinity gradient power systems based on extracting energy from mixing fresh water with seawater are included, along with information on wave and tidal power. This publication contains the abstracts of DOE reports, journal articles, conference papers, patents, theses, and monographs added to the Energy Data Base (EDB) during the past two months. Also included are U.S. information obtained through acquisition programs or interagency agreements and international information obtained through the International Energy Agency's Energy Technology Data Exchange or government-to-government agreements.

  6. Tribological design constraints of marine renewable energy systems.

    PubMed

    Wood, Robert J K; Bahaj, AbuBakr S; Turnock, Stephen R; Wang, Ling; Evans, Martin

    2010-10-28

    Against the backdrop of increasing energy demands, the threat of climate change and dwindling fuel reserves, finding reliable, diverse, sustainable/renewable, affordable energy resources has become a priority for many countries. Marine energy conversion systems are at the forefront of providing such a resource. Most marine renewable energy conversion systems require tribological components to convert wind or tidal streams to rotational motion for generating electricity while wave machines typically use oscillating hinge or piston within cylinder geometries to promote reciprocating linear motion. This paper looks at the tribology of three green marine energy systems, offshore wind, tidal and wave machines. Areas covered include lubrication and contamination, bearing and gearbox issues, biofouling, cavitation erosion, tribocorrosion, condition monitoring as well as design trends and loading conditions associated with tribological components. Current research thrusts are highlighted along with areas needing research as well as addressing present-day issues related to the tribology of offshore energy conversion technologies.

  7. Energy monitoring system based on human activity in the workplace

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mustafa, Nur Hanim; Husain, Mohd Nor; Aziz, Mohamad Zoinol Abidin Abdul; Othman, Mohd Azlishah; Malek, Fareq

    2015-05-01

    Human behaviors always related to day routine activities in a smart house directly give the significant factor to manage energy usage in human life. An Addition that, the factor will contribute to the best efficiency of the system. This paper will focus on the monitoring efficiency based on duration time in office hours around 8am until 5pm which depend on human behavior at working place. Besides that, the correlation coefficient method is used to show the relation between energy consumption and energy saving based on the total hours of time energy spent. In future, the percentages of energy monitoring system usage will be increase to manage energy saving based on human behaviors. This scenario will help to see the human activity in the workplace in order to get the energy saving and support world green environment.

  8. Phonon-assisted excitation energy transfer in photosynthetic systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Hao; Wang, Xin; Fang, Ai-Ping; Li, Hong-Rong

    2016-09-01

    The phonon-assisted process of energy transfer aiming at exploring the newly emerging frontier between biology and physics is an issue of central interest. This article shows the important role of the intramolecular vibrational modes for excitation energy transfer in the photosynthetic systems. Based on a dimer system consisting of a donor and an acceptor modeled by two two-level systems, in which one of them is coupled to a high-energy vibrational mode, we derive an effective Hamiltonian describing the vibration-assisted coherent energy transfer process in the polaron frame. The effective Hamiltonian reveals in the case that the vibrational mode dynamically matches the energy detuning between the donor and the acceptor, the original detuned energy transfer becomes resonant energy transfer. In addition, the population dynamics and coherence dynamics of the dimer system with and without vibration-assistance are investigated numerically. It is found that, the energy transfer efficiency and the transfer time depend heavily on the interaction strength of the donor and the high-energy vibrational mode, as well as the vibrational frequency. The numerical results also indicate that the initial state and dissipation rate of the vibrational mode have little influence on the dynamics of the dimer system. Results obtained in this article are not only helpful to understand the natural photosynthesis, but also offer an optimal design principle for artificial photosynthesis. Project supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant No. 11174233).

  9. High energy density propulsion systems and small engine dynamometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hays, Thomas

    2009-07-01

    Scope and Method of Study. This study investigates all possible methods of powering small unmanned vehicles, provides reasoning for the propulsion system down select, and covers in detail the design and production of a dynamometer to confirm theoretical energy density calculations for small engines. Initial energy density calculations are based upon manufacturer data, pressure vessel theory, and ideal thermodynamic cycle efficiencies. Engine tests are conducted with a braking type dynamometer for constant load energy density tests, and show true energy densities in excess of 1400 WH/lb of fuel. Findings and Conclusions. Theory predicts lithium polymer, the present unmanned system energy storage device of choice, to have much lower energy densities than other conversion energy sources. Small engines designed for efficiency, instead of maximum power, would provide the most advantageous method for powering small unmanned vehicles because these engines have widely variable power output, loss of mass during flight, and generate rotational power directly. Theoretical predictions for the energy density of small engines has been verified through testing. Tested values up to 1400 WH/lb can be seen under proper operating conditions. The implementation of such a high energy density system will require a significant amount of follow-on design work to enable the engines to tolerate the higher temperatures of lean operation. Suggestions are proposed to enable a reliable, small-engine propulsion system in future work. Performance calculations show that a mature system is capable of month long flight times, and unrefueled circumnavigation of the globe.

  10. Net-Zero Energy Buildings: A Classification System Based on Renewable Energy Supply Options

    SciTech Connect

    Pless, S.; Torcellini, P.

    2010-06-01

    A net-zero energy building (NZEB) is a residential or commercial building with greatly reduced energy needs. In such a building, efficiency gains have been made such that the balance of energy needs can be supplied with renewable energy technologies. Past work has developed a common NZEB definition system, consisting of four well-documented definitions, to improve the understanding of what net-zero energy means. For this paper, we created a classification system for NZEBs based on the renewable sources a building uses.

  11. Energy Management Control Systems: Tools for Energy Savings and Environmental Protection

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zsebik, Albin; Zala, Laszlo F.

    2002-01-01

    The change in the price of energy has encouraged the increase of energy efficiency. This report will discuss a tool to promote energy efficiency in intelligent buildings, energy management control systems (EMCS). In addition to the online control of energy production, supply, and consumption, the function of the EMCS is to support short- and long-term planning of the system operation as well as to collect, store, and regularly evaluate operation data. The strategies behind planning and implementing the EMCS as well as the manipulating the resulting data are discussed in this report.

  12. Improving energy efficiency via smart building energy management systems. A comparison with policy measures

    SciTech Connect

    Rocha, Paula; Siddiqui, Afzal; Stadler, Michael

    2014-12-09

    In this study, to foster the transition to more sustainable energy systems, policymakers have been approving measures to improve energy efficiency as well as promoting smart grids. In this setting, building managers are encouraged to adapt their energy operations to real-time market and weather conditions. Yet, most fail to do so as they rely on conventional building energy management systems (BEMS) that have static temperature set points for heating and cooling equipment. In this paper, we investigate how effective policy measures are at improving building-level energy efficiency compared to a smart BEMS with dynamic temperature set points. To this end, we present an integrated optimisation model mimicking the smart BEMS that combines decisions on heating and cooling systems operations with decisions on energy sourcing. Using data from an Austrian and a Spanish building, we find that the smart BEMS results in greater reduction in energy consumption than a conventional BEMS with policy measures.

  13. Visual prosthesis wireless energy transfer system optimal modeling

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Wireless energy transfer system is an effective way to solve the visual prosthesis energy supply problems, theoretical modeling of the system is the prerequisite to do optimal energy transfer system design. Methods On the basis of the ideal model of the wireless energy transfer system, according to visual prosthesis application condition, the system modeling is optimized. During the optimal modeling, taking planar spiral coils as the coupling devices between energy transmitter and receiver, the effect of the parasitic capacitance of the transfer coil is considered, and especially the concept of biological capacitance is proposed to consider the influence of biological tissue on the energy transfer efficiency, resulting in the optimal modeling’s more accuracy for the actual application. Results The simulation data of the optimal model in this paper is compared with that of the previous ideal model, the results show that under high frequency condition, the parasitic capacitance of inductance and biological capacitance considered in the optimal model could have great impact on the wireless energy transfer system. The further comparison with the experimental data verifies the validity and accuracy of the optimal model proposed in this paper. Conclusions The optimal model proposed in this paper has a higher theoretical guiding significance for the wireless energy transfer system’s further research, and provide a more precise model reference for solving the power supply problem in visual prosthesis clinical application. PMID:24428906

  14. Interfacial systems for photochemical energy conversion

    SciTech Connect

    Wrighton, M.S.

    1991-01-01

    Progress in several areas related to photoelectrochemical energy conversion is summarized, including work on selective modification of 2-6 semiconductors, inter- and intramolecular excited state electron transfer, pH-dependent molecular rectification, new surface modification reagents, enzyme-catalyzed redox processes, and synthesis of new rigid rod molecules for light absorption and charge separation. 21 refs., 5 figs.

  15. System and method for storing energy

    DOEpatents

    Yarger, Eric Jay [Rigby, ID; Morrison, John [Butte, MT; Richardson, John Grant [Idaho Falls, ID; Spencer, David Frazer [Idaho Falls, ID; Christiansen, Dale W [Blackfoot, ID

    2010-03-30

    A self-recharging battery comprising a generator and an energy storage device contained within the battery case. The generator comprises a magnetic structure configured to generate a compressed magnetic field and a coil configured to focus the compressed magnetic field in electrical conductive elements of the coil.

  16. Energy and the Confused Student II: Systems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jewett, John W., Jr.

    2008-01-01

    Energy is a critical concept in physics problem-solving but is often a major source of confusion for students if the presentation is not carefully crafted by the instructor or the textbook. The first article in this series discussed student confusion generated by traditional treatments of work. In any discussion of work, it is important to state…

  17. The air transportation/energy system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1973-01-01

    The changing pattern of transportation is discussed, and the energy intensiveness of various modes of transportation is also analyzed. Sociopsychological data affecting why people travel by air are presented, along with governmental regulation and air transportation economics. The aviation user tax structure is shown in tabular form.

  18. Energy optimization of water distribution system

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-02-01

    In order to analyze pump operating scenarios for the system with the computer model, information on existing pumping equipment and the distribution system was collected. The information includes the following: component description and design criteria for line booster stations, booster stations with reservoirs, and high lift pumps at the water treatment plants; daily operations data for 1988; annual reports from fiscal year 1987/1988 to fiscal year 1991/1992; and a 1985 calibrated KYPIPE computer model of DWSD`s water distribution system which included input data for the maximum hour and average day demands on the system for that year. This information has been used to produce the inventory database of the system and will be used to develop the computer program to analyze the system.

  19. Energy Return On Investment of Engineered Geothermal Systems Data

    DOE Data Explorer

    Mansure, Chip

    2012-01-01

    The project provides an updated Energy Return on Investment (EROI) for Enhanced Geothermal Systems (EGS). Results incorporate Argonne National Laboratory's Life Cycle Assessment and base case assumptions consistent with other projects in the Analysis subprogram. EROI is a ratio of the energy delivered to the consumer to the energy consumed to build, operate, and decommission the facility. EROI is important in assessing the viability of energy alternatives. Currently EROI analyses of geothermal energy are either out-of-date, of uncertain methodology, or presented online with little supporting documentation. This data set is a collection of files documenting data used to calculate the Energy Return On Investment (EROI) of Engineered Geothermal Systems (EGS) and erratum to publications prior to the final report. Final report is available from the OSTI web site (http://www.osti.gov/geothermal/). Data in this collections includes the well designs used, input parameters for GETEM, a discussion of the energy needed to haul materials to the drill site, the baseline mud program, and a summary of the energy needed to drill each of the well designs. EROI is the ratio of the energy delivered to the customer to the energy consumed to construct, operate, and decommission the facility. Whereas efficiency is the ratio of the energy delivered to the customer to the energy extracted from the reservoir.

  20. Battery energy storage for rail transit systems. Technical report

    SciTech Connect

    Uher, R.A.

    1996-04-01

    A battery simulation model was developed to work in conjunction with the Rail Transit Energy Management Model (EMM) to estimate the performance of battery energy storage on rail transit systems. This model uses a battery which is connected directly to the DC bus at a substation. No power conditioning equipment is involved, thus reducing the cost of a battery station substantially. Although these types of battery stations could be used for peak load shaving, voltage boost, and increasing energy receptivity on a system with regenerating trains, it was found that the last of these uses proved economically feasible. Because energy receptivity is increased, the peak load will also be shaved.

  1. Energy and transportation systems. Final report 1980-1983

    SciTech Connect

    Talaga, D.; Palen, J.; Hatano, M.; Shirley, E.C.

    1983-07-01

    The objective of the study was to upgrade the publication titled, Energy and Transportation Systems. The most recent data for establishing factors for calculating direct and indirect energy usage on a highway improvement project were incorporated into a new report. Energy analysis and updated factors are discussed separately for recycling asphalt-concrete pavements and for light-rail systems. A new criterion for impact was developed and life-cycle costing is discussed. The computer program for performing an energy analysis on a highway project has been expanded and improved.

  2. A piezoelectric energy-harvesting shoe system for podiatric sensing.

    PubMed

    Meier, Rich; Kelly, Nicholas; Almog, Omri; Chiang, Patrick

    2014-01-01

    This paper provides an energy-harvesting, shoe-mounted system for medical sensing using piezoelectric transducers for generating power. The electronics are integrated inside a conventional consumer shoe, measuring the pressure of the wearer's foot exerted on the sole at six locations. The electronics are completely powered by the harvested energy from walking or running, generating 10-20 μJ of energy per step that is then consumed by capturing and storing the force sensor data. The overall shoe system demonstrates that wearable sensor electronics can be adequately powered through piezoelectric energy-harvesting. PMID:25570036

  3. Design of energy-based terrain following flight control system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Wei; Li, Aijun; Xie, Yanwu; Tan, Jian

    2006-11-01

    Historically, aircraft longitudinal control has been realized by means of two loops: flight path (the control variable is elevator displacement) and speed control (the control variable is propulsive thrust or engine power). Both the elevator and throttle control cause coupled altitude and speed response, which exerts negative effects on longitudinal flight performance of aircraft, especially for Terrain Following(TF) flight. Energy-based method can resolve coupled problem between flight speed and path by controlling total energy rate and energy distribution rate between elevator and throttle. In this paper, energy-based control method is applied to design a TF flight control system for controlling flight altitude directly. An error control method of airspeed and altitude is adopted to eliminate the stable error of the total energy control system when decoupling control. Pitch loop and pitch rate feedback loop are designed for the system to damp the oscillatory response produced by TF system. The TF flight control system structure diagram and an aircraft point-mass energy motion model including basic control loops are given and used to simulate decoupling performance of the TF fight control system. Simulation results show that the energy-based TF flight control system can decouple flight velocity and flight path angle, exactly follow planned flight path, and greatly reduce altitude error, which is between +10m and -8m.

  4. Life cycle analysis of energy systems: Methods and experience

    SciTech Connect

    Morris, S.C.

    1992-01-01

    Fuel-cycle analysis if not the same as life-cycle analysis, although the focus on defining a comprehensive system for analysis leads toward the same path. This approach was the basis of the Brookhaven Reference Energy System. It provided a framework for summing total effects over an explicitly defined fuel cycle. This concept was computerized and coupled with an extensive data base in ESNS -- the Energy Systems Network Simulator. As an example, ESNS was the analytical basis for a comparison of health and environmental effects of several coal conversion technologies. With advances in computer systems and methods, however, ESNS has not been maintained at Brookhaven. The RES approach was one of the bases of the OECD COMPASS Project and the UNEP comparative assessment of environmental impacts of energy sources. An RES model alone has limitations in analyzing complex energy systems, e.g., it is difficult to handle feedback in the network. The most recent version of a series of optimization models is MARKAL, a dynamic linear programming model now used to assess strategies to reduce greenhouse gas emissions from the energy system. MARKAL creates an optimal set of reference energy systems over multiple time periods, automatically incorporating dynamic feedback and allowing fuel switching and end-use conservation to meet useful energy demands.

  5. Life cycle analysis of energy systems: Methods and experience

    SciTech Connect

    Morris, S.C.

    1992-08-01

    Fuel-cycle analysis if not the same as life-cycle analysis, although the focus on defining a comprehensive system for analysis leads toward the same path. This approach was the basis of the Brookhaven Reference Energy System. It provided a framework for summing total effects over an explicitly defined fuel cycle. This concept was computerized and coupled with an extensive data base in ESNS -- the Energy Systems Network Simulator. As an example, ESNS was the analytical basis for a comparison of health and environmental effects of several coal conversion technologies. With advances in computer systems and methods, however, ESNS has not been maintained at Brookhaven. The RES approach was one of the bases of the OECD COMPASS Project and the UNEP comparative assessment of environmental impacts of energy sources. An RES model alone has limitations in analyzing complex energy systems, e.g., it is difficult to handle feedback in the network. The most recent version of a series of optimization models is MARKAL, a dynamic linear programming model now used to assess strategies to reduce greenhouse gas emissions from the energy system. MARKAL creates an optimal set of reference energy systems over multiple time periods, automatically incorporating dynamic feedback and allowing fuel switching and end-use conservation to meet useful energy demands.

  6. Water-Energy balance in pressure irrigation systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sánchez, Raúl; Rodríguez-Sinobas, Leonor; Juana, Luis; Laguna, Francisco V.; Castañón, Guillermo; Gil, María; Benitez, Javier

    2013-04-01

    Modernization of irrigation schemes, generally understood as transformation of surface irrigation systems into pressure -sprinkler and trickle- irrigation systems, aims at, among others, improving irrigation efficiency and reduction of operation and maintenance efforts made by the irrigators. Automation techniques become easier after modernization, and operation management plays an important role in energy efficiency issues. Modern systems use to include elevated water reservoirs with enough capacity to irrigate during peak water demand period about 16 to 48 h. However, pressure irrigation systems, in contrast, carry a serious energy cost. Energy requirements depend on decisions taken on management strategies during the operation phase, which are conditioned by previous decisions taken on the design project of the different elements which compose the irrigation system. Most of the countries where irrigation activity is significant bear in mind that modernization irrigation must play a key role in the agricultural infrastructure policies. The objective of this study is to characterize and estimate the mean and variation of the energy consumed by common types of irrigation systems according to their management possibilities. Also is an objective to estimate the fraction of the water reservoirs available along the irrigation campaign for storing the energy from renewable sources during their availability periods. Simulation taking into account all elements comprising the irrigation system has been used to estimate the energy requirements of typical irrigation systems of several crop production systems. The simulation of various types of irrigation systems and management strategies, in the framework imposed by particular cropping systems, would help to develop criteria for improving the energy balance in relation to the irrigation water supply productivity and new opportunities in the renewable energy field.

  7. ECASTAR: Energy Conservation; an Assessment of Systems, Technologies and Requirements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1975-01-01

    A methodology for a systems approach display and assessment of the potential for energy conservation actions and the impacts of those actions was presented. The U.S. economy is divided into four sectors: energy industry, industry, residential/commercial and transportation. Each sector is assessed with respect to energy conservation actions and impacts. The four sectors are combined and three strategies for energy conservation actions for the combined sectors are assessed. The three strategies (national energy conservation, electrification and diversification) represent energy conservation actions for the near term (now to 1985), the mid term (1985 to 2000) and the far term (2000 and beyond). The assessment procedure includes input/output analysis to bridge the flows between the sectors, and net economics and net energetics as performance criteria for the conservation actions. Targets of opportunity for large net energy net energy savings and the application of technology to achieve these savings are discussed.

  8. A variable inductor circuit design for inductive energy storage systems

    SciTech Connect

    Andrianov, V.V.; Baev, V.P.; Kazantsev, N.A.; Ostashev, V.E.; Parizh, M.B.; Sheinkman, V.S. )

    1990-05-01

    A circuit design for matching an inductive energy storage to a utility grid and a complex load (railgun accelerator) is discussed. A circuit design is suggested for control of the discharge current to provide effective transfer of the energy stored in the inductive storage. It is shown that this circuit design, with a variable winding inductance, provides energy transmission control and allows both a higher efficiency of energy transfer and arrangement of a quick response reserve power source to maintain high-current energy transmission. The arrangement discussed may be used to provide matching of the energy user's load current to the energy storage's initial current which is determined either by the possibility of energy accumulation in the system or by the power supply source's current.

  9. Pump efficiency in solar-energy systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1978-01-01

    Study investigates characteristics of typical off-the-shelf pumping systems that might be used in solar systems. Report includes discussion of difficulties in predicting pump efficiency from manufacturers' data. Sample calculations are given. Peak efficiencies, flow-rate control, and noise levels are investigated. Review or theory of pumps types and operating characteristics is presented.

  10. Energy absorbing system for mechanical impacts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Collins, E. R., Jr.

    1972-01-01

    System is described based on use of arrangement of crushable hollow spheres bonded together in layers of progressively different diameter, with largest diameter spheres positioned to receive impact forces initially. System is particularly useful for delivery of payloads by air-drop techniques.

  11. Pulse thermal energy transport/storage system

    DOEpatents

    Weislogel, Mark M.

    1992-07-07

    A pulse-thermal pump having a novel fluid flow wherein heat admitted to a closed system raises the pressure in a closed evaporator chamber while another interconnected evaporator chamber remains open. This creates a large pressure differential, and at a predetermined pressure the closed evaporator is opened and the opened evaporator is closed. This difference in pressure initiates fluid flow in the system.

  12. Solar energy system economic evaluation for Solaron Akron, Akron, Ohio

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1980-09-01

    The economic analysis of the solar energy system that was installed at Akron, Ohio is developed for this and four other sites typical of a wide range of environmental and economic conditions. The analysis is accomplished based on the technical and economic models in the f chart design procedure with inputs based on the characteristics of the installed parameters of present worth of system cost over a projected twenty year life: life cycle savings, year of positive savings and year of payback for the optimized solar energy system at each of the analysis sites. The sensitivity of the economic evaluation to uncertainties in constituent system and economic variables is also investigated. Results show that only in Albuquerque, New Mexico, where insolation is 1828 Btu/sq ft/day and the conventional energy cost is high, is this solar energy system marginally profitable.

  13. Solar energy system economic evaluation for Solaron Akron, Akron, Ohio

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1980-01-01

    The economic analysis of the solar energy system that was installed at Akron, Ohio is developed for this and four other sites typical of a wide range of environmental and economic conditions. The analysis is accomplished based on the technical and economic models in the f chart design procedure with inputs based on the characteristics of the installed parameters of present worth of system cost over a projected twenty year life: life cycle savings, year of positive savings and year of payback for the optimized solar energy system at each of the analysis sites. The sensitivity of the economic evaluation to uncertainties in constituent system and economic variables is also investigated. Results show that only in Albuquerque, New Mexico, where insolation is 1828 Btu/sq ft/day and the conventional energy cost is high, is this solar energy system marginally profitable.

  14. Procedures for acceptance testing of solar energy systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johnson, D. L.; Joncich, D. M.

    1984-04-01

    This report describes research on the use of simple, low-cost meters for measuring the performance of solar energy systems in Army buildings and for comparing the measured performance with the design specification requirements. The requirements of meters for measuring the performance of solar energy systems were defined. A BTU-Meter for measuring heat transfer was designed, and commercial meters for taking other measurements were obtained. The meters were installed in a solar system in the laboratory and a pilot test of the acceptance test was done. Suggested draft revisions to Corps of Engineers design documents were prepared; designers could use these revisions to include acceptance testing provisions in solar energy system design. It was found that in a short-duration test, simple, low-cost meters can be used to determine whether a newly installed solar energy system is operating as specified. The simplicity of the metering approach allows designers to routinely include metering in the solar system design. The contractor can easily install the meters with the other solar components. Since the meters are so versatile, they can be used continuously for long-term performance monitoring. This gives the designer performance data and allows maintenance personnel to detect and diagnose solar equipment malfunctions. Thus, solar energy system metering can provide a unified, low-cost approach for meeting the wide range of measurement needs of Army solar energy systems.

  15. Energy harvesting circuit for sensor system power supply

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fiala, P.; Drexler, P.

    2011-06-01

    The paper presents two example approaches to energy harvesting. Mechanical energy harvesting system is based on vibrational minigenerator. Basic relations of its analytical model are given in order to obtain an idea about the operating conditions. Electromagnetic harvesting system is based on tuned resonant nano-structure. Its concepts allows impedance matching in order to operate in given frequency range. The matching properties are verified by means of numerical finite element analysis. For power management of vibration energy harvesting system several circuit design concepts are presented together with simulation results and basic properties comparison.

  16. Energy Transformation in Molecular Electronic Systems

    SciTech Connect

    Kasha, Michael

    1999-05-17

    This laboratory has developed many new ideas and methods in the electronic spectroscopy of molecules. This report covers the contract period 1993-1995. A number of the projects were completed in 1996, and those papers are included in the report. The DOE contract was terminated at the end of 1995 owing to a reorganizational change eliminating nationally the projects under the Office of Health and Environmental Research, U. S. Department of Energy.

  17. Smooth GERBS, orthogonal systems and energy minimization

    SciTech Connect

    Dechevsky, Lubomir T. E-mail: pza@hin.no; Zanaty, Peter E-mail: pza@hin.no

    2013-12-18

    New results are obtained in three mutually related directions of the rapidly developing theory of generalized expo-rational B-splines (GERBS) [7, 6]: closed-form computability of C{sup ∞}-smooth GERBS in terms of elementary and special functions, Hermite interpolation and least-squares best approximation via smooth GERBS, energy minimizing properties of smooth GERBS similar to those of the classical cubic polynomial B-splines.

  18. Molten Salt Thermal Energy Storage Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Maru, H. C.; Dullea, J. F.; Kardas, A.; Paul, L.; Marianowski, L. G.; Ong, E.; Sampath, V.; Huang, V. M.; Wolak, J. C.

    1978-01-01

    The feasibility of storing thermal energy at temperatures of 450 C to 535 C in the form of latent heat of fusion was examined for over 30 inorganic salts and salt mixtures. Alkali carbonate mixtures were chosen as phase-change storage materials in this temperature range because of their relatively high storage capacity and thermal conductivity, moderate cost, low volumetric expansion upon melting, low corrosivity, and good chemical stability. Means of improving heat conduction through the solid salt were explored.

  19. Energy flow for electric power system deregulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Chia-Hung

    Over the past few years, the electric power utility industry in North America and other countries has experienced a strong drive towards deregulation. People have considered the necessity of deregulation of electric utilities for higher energy efficiency and energy saving. The vertically integrated monopolistic industry is being transferred into a horizontally integrated competitive structure in some countries. Wheeling charges are a current high priority problem throughout the power industry, for independent power producers, as well as regulators. Nevertheless the present transmission pricing mechanism fails to be adjusted by a customer loading condition. Customer loading is dynamic, but the present wheeling charge method is fixed, not real-time. A real-time wheeling charge method is developed in this dissertation. This dissertation introduces a concept of a power flow network which can be used for the calculation of power contribution factors in a network. The contribution factor is defined as the ratio of the power contributed by a particular source to a line flow or bus load to the total output of the source. Generation, transmission, and distribution companies can employ contribution factors for the calculation of energy cost, wheeling charges, and loss compensation. Based on the concept of contribution factors, a proposed loss allocation method is developed in this dissertation. Besides, counterflow condition will be given a credit in the proposed loss allocation method. A simple 22-bus example was used for evaluating the contribution factors, proposed wheeling charge method, and loss allocation method.

  20. Superconducting magnetic energy storage for asynchronous electrical systems

    DOEpatents

    Boenig, Heinrich J.

    1986-01-01

    A superconducting magnetic energy storage coil connected in parallel between converters of two or more ac power systems provides load leveling and stability improvement to any or all of the ac systems. Control is provided to direct the charging and independently the discharging of the superconducting coil to at least a selected one of the ac power systems.

  1. Ranger Station Solar-Energy System Receives Economic Evaluation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1982-01-01

    Economic performance of Glendo Reservoir Ranger Station solar-energy system in Wyoming and extrapolated performance in four other locations around the U.S. is reviewed in report. System is a passive drain-down system using water as heat-transfer medium for space and hot-water heating.

  2. Economic Evaluation of Observatory Solar-Energy System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1982-01-01

    Long-term economic performance of a commercial solar-energy system was analyzed and used to predict economic performance at four additional sites. Analysis described in report was done to demonstrate viability of design over a broad range of environmental/economic conditions. Topics covered are system description, study approach, economic analysis and system optimization.

  3. Costs and energy efficiency of a dual-mode system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Heft, R. C.

    1977-01-01

    The life cycle costs of a dual mode system for both public and semiprivate ownership are examined, and the costs in terms of levelized required revenue per passenger mile are presented. The energy use of the dual mode vehicle is analyzed by means of a detailed vehicle simulation program for the control policy and guideway system. Several different propulsion systems are considered.

  4. Residential Photovoltaic/Thermal Energy System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Selcuk, M. K.

    1987-01-01

    Proposed system supplies house with both heat and electricity. Pair of reports describes concept for self-sufficient heating, cooling, and power-generating system for house. Panels on walls of house provide hot water, space heating, and heat to charge heat-storage system, and generate electricity for circulation pumps and fans. Roof panels generate electricity for household, operate heat pump for summer cooling, and provide supplementary winter heating via heat pump, using solar-cell cooling-fluid loop. Wall and roof panels used independently.

  5. Modular transportable superconducting magnetic energy systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lieurance, Dennis; Kimball, Foster; Rix, Craig

    1995-01-01

    Design and cost studies were performed for the magnet components of mid-size (1-5 MWh), cold supported SMES systems using alternative configurations. The configurations studied included solenoid magnets, which required onsite assembly of the magnet system, and toroid and racetrack configurations which consisted of factory assembled modules. For each configuration, design concepts and cost information were developed for the major features of the magnet system including the conductor, electrical insulation, and structure. These studies showed that for mid-size systems, the costs of solenoid and toroid magnet configurations are comparable and that the specific configuration to be used for a given application should be based upon customer requirements such as limiting stray fields or minimizing risks in development or construction.

  6. Modular transportable superconducting magnetic Energy Systems

    SciTech Connect

    Lieurance, D.; Kimball, F.; Rix, C.

    1994-12-31

    Design and cost studies were performed for the magnet components of mid-size (1-5 MWh), cold supported SMES systems using alternative configurations. The configurations studied included solenoid magnets, which required onsite assembly of the magnet system, and toroid and racetrack configurations which consisted of factory assembled modules. For each configuration, design concepts and cost information were developed for the major features of the magnet system including the conductor, electrical insulation, and structure. These studies showed that for mid-size systems, the costs of solenoid and toroid magnet configurations are comparable and that the specific configuration to be used for a given application should be based upon customer requirements such as limiting stray fields or minimizing risks in development or construction.

  7. Rethinking the Future Grid: Integrated Nuclear Renewable Energy Systems: Preprint

    SciTech Connect

    Bragg-Sitton, S. M.; Boardman, R.; Ruth, M.; Zinaman, O.; Forsberg, C.

    2015-01-01

    The U.S. DOE is supporting research and development that could lead to more efficient utilization of clean energy generation sources, including renewable and nuclear options, to meet both grid demand and thermal energy needs in the industrial sector. One concept under consideration by the DOE-NE and DOE-EERE is tighter coupling of nuclear and renewable energy sources in a manner that better optimizes energy use for the combined electricity, industrial manufacturing, and transportation sectors. This integration concept has been referred to as a 'hybrid system' that is capable of apportioning thermal and electrical energy to first meet the grid demand (with appropriate power conversion systems), then utilizing excess thermal and, in some cases, electrical energy to drive a process that results in an additional product.

  8. Energy management and control system verification study. Master's thesis

    SciTech Connect

    Boulware, K.E.; Williamson, G.C.

    1983-09-01

    Energy Management and Control Systems (EMCS) are being installed and operated throughout the Air Force. Millions of dollars have been spent on EMCS, but no study has conclusively proved that EMCS has actually saved the Air Force energy. This thesis used the Regression subprogram of Statistical Packages for the Social Sciences (SPSS) to determine if these systems are indeed saving the Air Force energy. Previous studies have shown that Multiple Linear Regression (MLR) is the best statistical predictor of base energy consumption. Eight bases were selected that had an operational EMCS. Two EMCS bases were compared with one control base for each of four CONUS winter heating zones. The results indicated small (less than 2%) energy savings have occurred at half of the EMCS bases studied. Therefore, this study does not conclusively prove that EMCS's have saved energy on Air Force bases. However, the methodology developed in this report could be applied on a broader scale to develop a more conclusive result.

  9. Energy Integrated Dairy Farm System in North Dakota

    SciTech Connect

    Pratt, G.; Lindley, J.; Hirning, H.; Giles, J.

    1986-11-01

    The EIFS project at North Dakota State University, located at Fargo, North Dakota, is an effort to show how a Northern Great Plains EIFS might be operated. This farm used a combination of energy conservation, energy capture, and energy production. Energy conservation was demonstrated using reduced tillage in a typical cropping system and by using heat reclamation equipment on the ventilation system and the milk cooler in the dairy barn. Energy capture was demonstrated with a solar collector used to preheat ventilation air. Energy production was demonstrated with the construction of an anaerobic digester to produce methane from manure. This manual describes the design, construction, operation, and performance of the EIFS developed at North Dakota State University.

  10. A system for spacecraft attitude control and energy storage

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shaughnessy, J. D.

    1974-01-01

    A conceptual design for a double-gimbal reaction-wheel energy-wheel device which has three-axis attitude control and electrical energy storage capability is given. A mathematical model for the three-axis gyroscope (TAG) was developed, and a system of multiple units is proposed for attitude control and energy storage for a class of spacecraft. Control laws were derived to provide the required attitude-control torques and energy transfer while minimizing functions of TAG gimbal angles, gimbal rates, reaction-wheel speeds, and energy-wheel speed differences. A control law is also presented for a magnetic torquer desaturation system. A computer simulation of a three-TAG system for an orbiting telescope was used to evaluate the concept. The results of the study indicate that all control and power requirements can be satisfied by using the TAG concept.

  11. Performance calculation and simulation system of high energy laser weapon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Pei; Liu, Min; Su, Yu; Zhang, Ke

    2014-12-01

    High energy laser weapons are ready for some of today's most challenging military applications. Based on the analysis of the main tactical/technical index and combating process of high energy laser weapon, a performance calculation and simulation system of high energy laser weapon was established. Firstly, the index decomposition and workflow of high energy laser weapon was proposed. The entire system was composed of six parts, including classical target, platform of laser weapon, detect sensor, tracking and pointing control, laser atmosphere propagation and damage assessment module. Then, the index calculation modules were designed. Finally, anti-missile interception simulation was performed. The system can provide reference and basis for the analysis and evaluation of high energy laser weapon efficiency.

  12. Modular Energy Storage System for Hydrogen Fuel Cell Vehicles

    SciTech Connect

    Thomas, Janice

    2010-08-27

    The objective of the project is to develop technologies, specifically power electronics, energy storage electronics and controls that provide efficient and effective energy management between electrically powered devices in alternative energy vehicles plug-in electric vehicles, hybrid vehicles, range extended vehicles, and hydrogen-based fuel cell vehicles. The in-depth research into the complex interactions between the lower and higher voltage systems from data obtained via modeling, bench testing and instrumented vehicle data will allow an optimum system to be developed from a performance, cost, weight and size perspective. The subsystems are designed for modularity so that they may be used with different propulsion and energy delivery systems. This approach will allow expansion into new alternative energy vehicle markets.

  13. Thermal energy storage for a space solar dynamic power system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Faget, N. M.; Fraser, W. M., Jr.; Simon, W. E.

    1985-01-01

    In the past, NASA has employed solar photovoltaic devices for long-duration missions. Thus, the Skylab system has operated with a silicon photovoltaic array and a nickel-cadmium electrochemical system energy storage system. Difficulties regarding the employment of such a system for the larger power requirements of the Space Station are related to a low orbit system efficiency and the large weight of the battery. For this reason the employment of a solar dynamic power system (SDPS) has been considered. The primary components of an SDPS include a concentrating mirror, a heat receiver, a thermal energy storage (TES) system, a thermodynamic heat engine, an alternator, and a heat rejection system. The heat-engine types under consideration are a Brayton cycle engine, an organic Rankine cycle engine, and a free-piston/linear-alternator Stirling cycle engine. Attention is given to a system description, TES integration concepts, and a TES technology assessment.

  14. Martin Marietta Energy Systems Material Safety Data Sheet Program

    SciTech Connect

    Pierce, L.B.; Gray, L.M.

    1993-03-29

    Martin Marietta Energy Systems (Energy Systems) Material Safety Data Sheet (MSDS) Program was established in 1985 to provide health and safety information to Energy Systems employees and to meet OSHA`s Hazard Communication Material Safety Data Sheet requirements. In 1992, the system was modified and incorporated into Energy Systems Hazardous Materials Information System (HMIS)-MSDS Module to assist in the support of the hazardous material inventory requirements. (See Context Diagram, Exhibit A.) The MSDS Module runs under Computer Associates data base (CADB) software on a VAX computer. The system contains approximately 20,000 MSDSs with over 1,000 new, duplicate, and revised sheets being processed each month. The system monitors, tracks and controls the acquisition and processing of MSDSs to ensure a sheet is obtained andmade available for all hazardous materials. The system supplies Energy Systems employees and visitors real-time access to MSDS information. The system supports two types of data sheets: a long form for highly hazardous and/or utilized materials (MSDS) and a more economical short form, Material Safety Reference Sheet (MSRS) that is used in conjunction with the vendor supplied MSDS to meet regulatory requirements. All hazardous materials are evaluated and assigned fire, health, and reactivity ratings, along with other straight-forward criteria. All vendor supplied MSDSs are technically reviewed and researched for accuracy. The MSDS data base is multi-functional and easy to operate. This allows the system to meet the needs of many analogous programs and activities within Energy Systems including Carcinogen Control, Reproductive Hazard Control, Hazardous Material Management, Waste Minimization, Emergency Response, SARA Reporting, Hazard Communications, and Safety.

  15. Martin Marietta Energy Systems Material Safety Data Sheet Program

    SciTech Connect

    Pierce, L.B.; Gray, L.M.

    1993-03-29

    Martin Marietta Energy Systems (Energy Systems) Material Safety Data Sheet (MSDS) Program was established in 1985 to provide health and safety information to Energy Systems employees and to meet OSHA's Hazard Communication Material Safety Data Sheet requirements. In 1992, the system was modified and incorporated into Energy Systems Hazardous Materials Information System (HMIS)-MSDS Module to assist in the support of the hazardous material inventory requirements. (See Context Diagram, Exhibit A.) The MSDS Module runs under Computer Associates data base (CADB) software on a VAX computer. The system contains approximately 20,000 MSDSs with over 1,000 new, duplicate, and revised sheets being processed each month. The system monitors, tracks and controls the acquisition and processing of MSDSs to ensure a sheet is obtained andmade available for all hazardous materials. The system supplies Energy Systems employees and visitors real-time access to MSDS information. The system supports two types of data sheets: a long form for highly hazardous and/or utilized materials (MSDS) and a more economical short form, Material Safety Reference Sheet (MSRS) that is used in conjunction with the vendor supplied MSDS to meet regulatory requirements. All hazardous materials are evaluated and assigned fire, health, and reactivity ratings, along with other straight-forward criteria. All vendor supplied MSDSs are technically reviewed and researched for accuracy. The MSDS data base is multi-functional and easy to operate. This allows the system to meet the needs of many analogous programs and activities within Energy Systems including Carcinogen Control, Reproductive Hazard Control, Hazardous Material Management, Waste Minimization, Emergency Response, SARA Reporting, Hazard Communications, and Safety.

  16. Analysis of renewable energy sources and electric vehicle penetration into energy systems predominantly based on lignite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dedinec, A.; Jovanovski, B.; Gajduk, A.; Markovska, N.; Kocarev, L.

    2016-05-01

    We consider an integration of renewable energy into transport and electricity sectors through vehicle to grid (V2G) technologies for an energy system that is predominantly based on lignite. The national energy system of Macedonia is modeled using EnergyPLAN which integrates energy for electricity, transport and heat, and includes hourly fluctuations in human needs and the environment. We show that electric-vehicles can provide the necessary storage enabling a fully renewable energy profile for Macedonia that can match the country's growing demand for energy. Furthermore, a large penetration of electric vehicles leads to a dramatic reduction of 47% of small particles and other air pollutants generated by car traffic in 2050.

  17. On Energy Trading Decision Methods in Distributed Energy Management Systems with Multiple Customers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miyamoto, Toshiyuki; Sugimoto, Yohei; Mori, Kazuyuki; Kitamura, Shoichi; Yamamoto, Takaya

    This paper addresses an operation and energy purchase planning problem under the CO2 emissions regulation for corporate entities. Considering energy trading, more efficient energy consumption may be possible. We have studied an agent-based planning system, called Distributed Energy Management Systems (DEMSs), which intends to reduce energy consumption. In the DEMSs, CO2 emissions regulation is imposed on each corporate entity, and electrical and thermal energy trading among the entities are allowed. We have proposed an energy trading decision method based on the Market Oriented Programming (MOP). In this paper, we propose trading decision methods for the group composed of several customers and several suppliers. Experimental results show effectiveness of the proposed method.

  18. Overview of a flywheel stack energy storage system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kirk, James A.; Anand, Davinder K.

    1988-01-01

    The concept of storing electrical energy in rotating flywheels provides an attractive substitute to batteries. To realize these advantages the critical technologies of rotor design, composite materials, magnetic suspension, and high efficiency motor/generators are reviewed in this paper. The magnetically suspended flywheel energy storage system, currently under development at the University of Maryland, consisting of a family of interference assembled rings, is presented as an integrated solution for energy storage.

  19. Phase change energy storage for solar dynamic power systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chiaramonte, F. P.; Taylor, J. D.

    1992-01-01

    This paper presents the results of a transient computer simulation that was developed to study phase change energy storage techniques for Space Station Freedom (SSF) solar dynamic (SD) power systems. Such SD systems may be used in future growth SSF configurations. Two solar dynamic options are considered in this paper: Brayton and Rankine. Model elements consist of a single node receiver and concentrator, and takes into account overall heat engine efficiency and power distribution characteristics. The simulation not only computes the energy stored in the receiver phase change material (PCM), but also the amount of the PCM required for various combinations of load demands and power system mission constraints. For a solar dynamic power system in low earth orbit, the amount of stored PCM energy is calculated by balancing the solar energy input and the energy consumed by the loads corrected by an overall system efficiency. The model assumes an average 75 kW SD power system load profile which is connected to user loads via dedicated power distribution channels. The model then calculates the stored energy in the receiver and subsequently estimates the quantity of PCM necessary to meet peaking and contingency requirements. The model can also be used to conduct trade studies on the performance of SD power systems using different storage materials.

  20. System for harvesting water wave energy

    DOEpatents

    Wang, Zhong Lin; Su, Yanjie; Zhu, Guang; Chen, Jun

    2016-07-19

    A generator for harvesting energy from water in motion includes a sheet of a hydrophobic material, having a first side and an opposite second side, that is triboelectrically more negative than water. A first electrode sheet is disposed on the second side of the sheet of a hydrophobic material. A second electrode sheet is disposed on the second side of the sheet of a hydrophobic material and is spaced apart from the first electrode sheet. Movement of the water across the first side induces an electrical potential imbalance between the first electrode sheet and the second electrode sheet.