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Sample records for phosphoenolpyruvate-dependent phosphotransferase genes

  1. Cloning of cellobiose phosphoenolpyruvate-dependent phosphotransferase genes: Functional expression in recombinant Escherichia coli and identification of a putative binding region for disaccharides

    SciTech Connect

    Lai, Xiaokuang; Davis, F.C.; Ingram, L.O.; Hespell, R.B.

    1997-02-01

    Genomic libraries from nine cellobiose-metabolizing bacteria were screened for cellobiose utilization. Positive clones were recovered from six libraries, all of which encode phosphoenolpyruvate:carbohydrate phosphotransferase system (PTS) proteins. Clones from Bacillus subtilis, Butyrivibrio fibrisolvens, and Klebsiella oxytoca allowed the growth of recombinant Escherichia coli in cellobiose-M9 minimal medium. The K. oxytoca clone, pLOI1906, exhibited an unusually broad substrate range (cellobiose, arbutin, salicin, and methylumbelliferyl derivatives of glucose, cellobiose, mannose, and xylose) and was sequenced. The insert in this plasmid encoded the carboxy-terminal region of a putative regulatory protein, cellobiose permease (single polypeptide), and phospho-{beta}-glucosidase, which appear to form an operon (casRAB). Subclones allowed both casA and casB to be expressed independently, as evidenced by in vitro complementation. An analysis of the translated sequences from the EIIC domains of cellobiose, aryl-{beta}-glucoside, and other disaccharide permeases allowed the identification of a 50-amino-acid conserved region. A disaccharide consensus sequence is proposed for the most conserved segment (13 amino acids), which may represent part of the EIIC active site for binding and phosphorylation. 63 refs., 4 figs., 4 tabs.

  2. Glucose phosphoenolpyruvate-dependent phosphotransferase system of Streptococcus mutans GS5 studied by using cell-free extracts.

    PubMed Central

    Liberman, E S; Bleiweis, A S

    1984-01-01

    The glucose phosphotransferase system (PTS) of Streptococcus mutans GS5 has been partially characterized, using fractions derived from cells treated with the muramidase mutanolysin. Membranes retained functional PTS enzymes for the phosphoenolpyruvate-dependent phosphorylation of glucose, fructose, and mannose. This was confirmed by assaying membranes directly for enzyme I (EI) and enzyme IIglc (EIIglc) by employing specific phosphoryl-exchange reactions for each factor. Membranes prepared from glucose PTS- mutants, however, were either deficient in glucose phosphorylation or reflected the "leakiness" displayed by whole cells. Mutant membranes were unable to catalyze the glucose:glucose 6-phosphate transphosphorylation reaction, indicating a defective EIIglc in these fractions. Although total cellular EI activities in the mutant clones were about the same as that measured for the wild-type strain by employing the pyruvate:phosphoenolpyruvate phosphoryl-exchange reaction, mutant membranes were found to possess less than 10% of the specific EI activity of wild-type membranes. The cytoplasmic fractions of mutants, however, displayed markedly increased specific activities for this enzyme when compared with wild-type extracts. These results strongly suggest a molecular association of EI with a normal membrane protein, perhaps EIIglc, that is absent in mutants. This would explain the absence of fructose PTS activity in glucose PTS- mutant membranes despite the fact that whole cells of these clones are normal for this transport function. PMID:6715047

  3. Cloning and molecular analysis of a mannitol operon of phosphoenolpyruvate-dependent phosphotransferase (PTS) type from Vibrio cholerae O395.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Sanath; Smith, Kenneth P; Floyd, Jody L; Varela, Manuel F

    2011-03-01

    A putative mannitol operon of the phosphoenolpyruvate phosphotransferase (PTS) type was cloned from Vibrio cholerae O395, and its activity was studied in Escherichia coli. The 3.9-kb operon comprising three genes is organized as mtlADR. Based on the sequence analysis, these were identified as genes encoding a putative mannitol-specific enzyme IICBA (EII(Mtl)) component (MtlA), a mannitol-1-phosphate dehydrogenase (MtlD), and a mannitol operon repressor (MtlR). The transport of [(3)H]mannitol by the cloned mannitol operon in E. coli was 13.8 ± 1.4 nmol/min/mg protein. The insertional inactivation of EII(Mtl) abolished mannitol and sorbitol transport in V. cholerae O395. Comparison of the mannitol utilization apparatus of V. cholerae with those of Gram-negative and Gram-positive bacteria suggests highly conserved nature of the system. MtlA and MtlD exhibit 75% similarity with corresponding sequences of E. coli mannitol operon genes, while MtlR has 63% similarity with MtlR of E. coli. The cloning of V. cholerae mannitol utilization system in an E. coli background will help in elucidating the functional properties of this operon.

  4. Confirmation and Elimination of Xylose Metabolism Bottlenecks in Glucose Phosphoenolpyruvate-Dependent Phosphotransferase System-Deficient Clostridium acetobutylicum for Simultaneous Utilization of Glucose, Xylose, and Arabinose▿†

    PubMed Central

    Xiao, Han; Gu, Yang; Ning, Yuanyuan; Yang, Yunliu; Mitchell, Wilfrid J.; Jiang, Weihong; Yang, Sheng

    2011-01-01

    Efficient cofermentation of d-glucose, d-xylose, and l-arabinose, three major sugars present in lignocellulose, is a fundamental requirement for cost-effective utilization of lignocellulosic biomass. The Gram-positive anaerobic bacterium Clostridium acetobutylicum, known for its excellent capability of producing ABE (acetone, butanol, and ethanol) solvent, is limited in using lignocellulose because of inefficient pentose consumption when fermenting sugar mixtures. To overcome this substrate utilization defect, a predicted glcG gene, encoding enzyme II of the d-glucose phosphoenolpyruvate-dependent phosphotransferase system (PTS), was first disrupted in the ABE-producing model strain Clostridium acetobutylicum ATCC 824, resulting in greatly improved d-xylose and l-arabinose consumption in the presence of d-glucose. Interestingly, despite the loss of GlcG, the resulting mutant strain 824glcG fermented d-glucose as efficiently as did the parent strain. This could be attributed to residual glucose PTS activity, although an increased activity of glucose kinase suggested that non-PTS glucose uptake might also be elevated as a result of glcG disruption. Furthermore, the inherent rate-limiting steps of the d-xylose metabolic pathway were observed prior to the pentose phosphate pathway (PPP) in strain ATCC 824 and then overcome by co-overexpression of the d-xylose proton-symporter (cac1345), d-xylose isomerase (cac2610), and xylulokinase (cac2612). As a result, an engineered strain (824glcG-TBA), obtained by integrating glcG disruption and genetic overexpression of the xylose pathway, was able to efficiently coferment mixtures of d-glucose, d-xylose, and l-arabinose, reaching a 24% higher ABE solvent titer (16.06 g/liter) and a 5% higher yield (0.28 g/g) compared to those of the wild-type strain. This strain will be a promising platform host toward commercial exploitation of lignocellulose to produce solvents and biofuels. PMID:21926197

  5. [Integration and intramolecular transposition of the TnBP3 Bordetella pertussis transposon in the Escherichia coli K-12 cells -- mutant for the phosphoenolpyruvate-dependent phosphotransferase system Hpr protein ].

    PubMed

    Sivov, I G; Bol'shakova, T N; Karataev, G I

    2001-07-01

    Integration of a plasmid carrying the TnBP3 transposon of Bordetella pertussis into the chromosome of Escherichia coli and transpositions of the integrated structure within a chromosome in the wild-type and mutant cells ptsH devoid of the major Hpr protein of the phosphoenolpyruvate-dependent phosphotransferase system were studied. When transposed to a new chromosome site, the integrated structure was precisely (or almost precisely) excised from the metY gene sequence, which resulted in restoration of the Met+ phenotype. The integration and transposition events were only observed in the E. coli cells carrying the ptsH+ allele. The ptsH mutations inhibited integration and intramolecular transposition, which were restored after phenotypic or genetic suppression of the ptsH mutation. The intensity of the processes studied were suggested to depend on the integrity of a chain that ensures transferring of the phosphoryl residue by proteins of the phosphotransferase system in E. coli K12. The results obtained indicate that the ptsH mutants of E. coli can serve as the optimal host for cloning of fragments carrying repeated sequences of B. pertussis, which may apply to the repeated sequences of other microorganisms.

  6. Identification of an anaerobically induced phosphoenolpyruvate-dependent fructose-specific phosphotransferase system and evidence for the Embden-Meyerhof glycolytic pathway in the heterofermentative bacterium Lactobacillus brevis.

    PubMed

    Saier, M H; Ye, J J; Klinke, S; Nino, E

    1996-01-01

    Heterofermentative gram-positive bacteria are believed to metabolize sugars exclusively via the pentose phosphoketolase pathway following uptake via sugar:cation symport. Here we show that anaerobic growth of one such bacterium, Lactobacillus brevis, in the presence of fructose induces the synthesis of a phosphotransferase system and glycolytic enzymes that allow fructose to be metabolized via the Embden-Meyerhof pathway.

  7. Xanthone derivatives could be potential antibiotics: virtual screening for the inhibitors of enzyme I of bacterial phosphoenolpyruvate-dependent phosphotransferase system.

    PubMed

    Huang, Kuo-Jien; Lin, Shih-Hung; Lin, Meei-Ru; Ku, Hao; Szkaradek, Natalia; Marona, Henryk; Hsu, Alvin; Shiuan, David

    2013-08-01

    The phosphoenolpyruvate phosphotransferase system (PTS) is ubiquitous in eubacteria and absent from eukaryotes. The system consists of two phosphoryl carriers, enzyme I (EI) and the histidine-containing phosphoryl carrier protein (HPr), and several PTS transporters, catalyzing the concomitant uptake and phosphorylation of several carbohydrates. Since a deficiency of EI in bacterial mutants lead to severe growth defects, EI could be a drug target to develop antimicrobial agents. We used the 3D structure PDB 1ZYM of Escherichia coli EI as the target to virtually screen the potential tight binders from NPPEDIA (Natural Product Encyclopedia), ZINC and Super Natural databases. These databases were screened using the docking tools of Discovery Studio 2.0 and the Integrated Drug Design System IDDS. Among the many interesting hits, xanthone derivatives with reasonably high Dock scores received more attentions. Two of the xanthone derivatives were obtained to examine their capabilities to inhibit cell growth of both Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacterial strains. The results indicate that they may exert the inhibition effects by blocking the EI activities. We have demonstrated for the first time that the xanthone derivatives have high potential to be developed as future antibiotics.

  8. The murine cytomegalovirus (MCMV) homolog of the HCMV phosphotransferase (UL97(pk)) gene.

    PubMed

    Rawlinson, W D; Zeng, F; Farrell, H E; Cunningham, A L; Scalzo, A A; Booth, T W; Scott, G M

    1997-07-01

    The murine cytomegalovirus (MCMV) M97 gene is homologous with both eukaryotic protein kinases and the phosphotransferases of herpesviruses. The gene conserves the domain structure of protein kinases and of the human cytomegalovirus UL97 (phosphotransferase) gene. An M97 transcript of 2.5 kb is present predominantly at late times, and much smaller quantities of the transcript are detected at early times postinfection. Comparison of the DNA sequences of the complete M97 genes from 12 ganciclovir-sensitive and aciclovir-sensitive strains of MCMV showed that the sensitive isolates strongly conserve the sequence of the catalytic domains, but have only moderate conservation of the sequence of the amino-terminal (regulatory) region. MCMV provides a useful model for studying the in vivo function of the phosphotransferase genes of the betatherpesviruses and has potential for use in studies of antiviral resistance. PMID:9217058

  9. Expression of the hygromycin B phosphotransferase gene confers tolerance to the herbicide glyphosate.

    PubMed

    Peñaloza-Vázquez, A; Oropeza, A; Mena, G L; Bailey, A M

    1995-05-01

    Escherichia coli cells and tobacco (cv. Xanthi) plants transformed with the hygromycin B phosphotransferase gene were able to grow in culture medium containing glyphosate at 2.0 mM. The growth of tobacco calli in media containing increasing glyphosate concentrations was measured. The ID50 for glyphosate was 1.70±0.03 mM for hygromycin-B resistant plants, and 0.45±0.02 mM for control plants. Regenerated plants and progeny selected for resistance to hygromycin B were tested for glyphosate tolerance by spraying them with Faena herbicide (formulated glyphosate with surfactant) at a dose equal to 0.24 kg/ha. This was two times the dose required to kill 100 percent of the control plants. Phosphotransferase activity was measured in the extracts of the transformed leaves by the incorporation of (32)P from [γ(-32)P]ATP and it was observed that hygromycin B phosphotransferase was able to recognize the molecule of glyphosate as substrate. PMID:24185516

  10. Genome-wide analysis suggests divergent evolution of lipid phosphotases/phosphotransferase genes in plants.

    PubMed

    Wang, Peng; Chen, Zhenxi; Kasimu, Rena; Chen, Yinhua; Zhang, Xiaoxiao; Gai, Jiangtao

    2016-08-01

    Genes of the LPPT (lipid phosphatase/phosphotransferase) family play important roles in lipid phosphorous transfer and triacylglycerol accumulation in plants. To provide overviews of the plant LPPT family and their overall relationships, here we carried out genome-wide identifications and analyses of plant LPPT family members. A total of 643 putative LPPT genes were identified from 48 sequenced plant genomes, among which 205 genes from 14 plants were chosen for further analyses. Plant LPPT genes belonged to three distinctive groups, namely the LPT (lipid phosphotransfease), LPP (lipid phosphatase), and pLPP (plastidic lipid phosphotransfease) groups. Genes of the LPT group could be further partitioned into three groups, two of which were only identified in terrestrial plants. Genes in the LPP and pLPP groups experienced duplications in early stages of plant evolution. Among 17 Zea mays LPPT genes, divergence of temporal-spatial expression patterns was revealed based on microarray data analysis. Peptide sequences of plant LPPT genes harbored different conserved motifs. A test of Branch Model versus One-ratio Model did not support significant selective pressures acting on different groups of LPPT genes, although quite different nonsynonymous evolutionary rates and selective pressures were observed. The complete picture of the plant LPPT family provided here should facilitate further investigations of plant LPPT genes and offer a better understanding of lipid biosynthesis in plants. PMID:27501416

  11. Coupling Physiology and Gene Regulation in Bacteria: The Phosphotransferase Sugar Uptake System Delivers the Signals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stülke, Jörg; Hillen, Wolfgang

    In many bacteria a crucial link between metabolism and regulation of catabolic genes is based on the phosphotransferase sugar uptake system (PTS). We summarize the mechanisms of the signaling pathways originating from PTS and leading to regulation of transcription. A protein domain, called PTS regulation domain (PRD), is linked to many antiterminators and transcriptional activators and regulates their activity depending on its state of phosphorylation. Two sites can be phosphorylated in most PRDs: HPr-dependent modification at one site leads to activation while enzyme II dependent phosphorylation of the other site renders it inactive. In addition, PTS components are used to generate cofactors for regulators of transcription. The paradigm is the enzyme II dependent activity of adenylate cyclase determining the cyclic AMP level in Escherichia coli and thereby the activity of the catabolite activator protein. In many gram-positive bacteria catabolite repression is mediated by the catabolite control protein CcpA, which requires HPr Ser-46 phosphate as a cofactor to regulate transcription of catabolic genes. HPr Ser-46 phosphate is produced by HPr kinase, the activity of which is under metabolic control via the concentrations of glycolytic intermediates. These recent results establish a multifaceted regulatory role for PTS in addition to its well-established function in active sugar uptake.

  12. A Genome-Wide Screen Reveals that the Vibrio cholerae Phosphoenolpyruvate Phosphotransferase System Modulates Virulence Gene Expression

    PubMed Central

    Millet, Yves A.; Chao, Michael C.; Sasabe, Jumpei; Davis, Brigid M.

    2015-01-01

    Diverse environmental stimuli and a complex network of regulatory factors are known to modulate expression of Vibrio cholerae's principal virulence factors. However, there is relatively little known about how metabolic factors impinge upon the pathogen's well-characterized cascade of transcription factors that induce expression of cholera toxin and the toxin-coregulated pilus (TCP). Here, we used a transposon insertion site (TIS) sequencing-based strategy to identify new factors required for expression of tcpA, which encodes the major subunit of TCP, the organism's chief intestinal colonization factor. Besides identifying most of the genes known to modulate tcpA expression, the screen yielded ptsI and ptsH, which encode the enzyme I (EI) and Hpr components of the V. cholerae phosphoenolpyruvate phosphotransferase system (PTS). In addition to reduced expression of TcpA, strains lacking EI, Hpr, or the associated EIIAGlc protein produced less cholera toxin (CT) and had a diminished capacity to colonize the infant mouse intestine. The PTS modulates virulence gene expression by regulating expression of tcpPH and aphAB, which themselves control expression of toxT, the central activator of virulence gene expression. One mechanism by which PTS promotes virulence gene expression appears to be by modulating the amounts of intracellular cyclic AMP (cAMP). Our findings reveal that the V. cholerae PTS is an additional modulator of the ToxT regulon and demonstrate the potency of loss-of-function TIS sequencing screens for defining regulatory networks. PMID:26056384

  13. Occurrence of aminoglycoside phosphotransferase subclass I and II structural genes among Enterobacteriaceae spp. isolated from meat samples.

    PubMed

    Jayaratne, A H; Collins-Thompson, D L; Trevors, J T

    1990-08-01

    3'-Aminoglycoside phosphotransferase [APH(3')] enzymes are a group responsible for resistance to the antibiotics kanamycin (Km) and neomycin (Nm) in bacteria. Escherichia coli ECT24, originally isolated from a meat sample, harboured an 83-kb conjugative R-plasmid (pRPJ24) that carries transferable resistance to Km and Nm. Plasmid pRPJ24 was transferred by conjugation to Enterobacter cloacae 94R, which was used as the source of plasmid DNA in development of a probe for the Km-resistance determinant. Random cloning of BamHI and HindIII double-digest restriction fragments of pRPJ24 in the pUC18 vector plasmid produced clones resistant to both Nm and Km carrying a 1.9-kb DNA insert. Southern hybridization of pRPJ24 cloned chimeric plasmid DNA (pKPJ94) showed homology with the APH(3')II gene from transposon Tn5. A PstI digest of pKPJ94 produced a 920-bp fragment which hybridized with the APH(3')II structural gene, and was used as a DNA probe for the APH(3')II subclass gene. A 980-bp BamHI fragment from plasmid pGH54 carrying the APH(3')I gene from transposon Tn903 was used as a subclass I probe. Total DNA from 206 randomly screened Km-resistant Enterobacteriaceae isolates from raw ground beef and chicken meat samples were examined for the occurrence of APH(3') subclass I and II using non-radioactively-labelled DNA probes. Thirty-six percent and 60% of the isolates examined carried subclass I and II resistances, respectively, in the isolates from chicken meat samples. The corresponding values for bacterial strains from raw ground beef samples were 51% and 72%, respectively. Four percent of the resistant bacterial isolates from chicken samples did not display homology to either probe.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  14. Multiple sugar: phosphotransferase system permeases participate in catabolite modification of gene expression in Streptococcus mutans.

    PubMed

    Zeng, Lin; Burne, Robert A

    2008-10-01

    Streptococcus mutans is particularly well adapted for high-affinity, high-capacity catabolism of multiple carbohydrate sources. S. mutansenzyme II (EII(Lev)), a fructose/mannose permease encoded by the levDEFG genes, and fruA, which encodes a hydrolase that releases fructose from fructan polymers, are transcriptionally regulated by the LevQRST four-component signal transduction system. Here, we demonstrate that: (i) levDEFGX are co-transcribed and the levE/F intergenic region is required for optimal expression of levFGX; (ii) D-mannose is a potent inducer of the levD and fruA operons; (iii) CcpA regulates levD expression in a carbohydrate-specific manner; (iv) deletion of the genes for the fructose/mannose-EII enzymes of S. mutans (manL, fruI and levD) enhances levD expression; (v) repression of the LevQRST regulon by EII enzymes depends on the presence of their substrates and requires LevR, but not LevQST; and (vi) CcpA inhibits expression of the manL and fruI genes to indirectly control the LevQRST regulon. Further, the manL, ccpA, fruI/fruCD and levD gene products differentially exert control over the cellobiose and lactose operons. Collectively, the results reveal the existence of a global regulatory network in S. mutans that governs the utilization of non-preferred carbohydrates in response to the availability and source of multiple preferred carbohydrates. PMID:18699864

  15. Chromogenic Detection of Aminoglycoside Phosphotransferases

    PubMed Central

    Amoroso, Ana M.; Gutkind, Gabriel O.

    1998-01-01

    A coupled chromogenic reaction (based on an agar overlay combining NADH, pyruvate kinase, lactate dehydrogenase, phosphoenolpyruvate, ATP, and kanamycin sulfate with thiazolyl blue-phenazine methosulfate for detection of NADH consumption) was optimized for the detection of aminoglycoside phosphotransferases (APHs). When used after analytical isoelectrofocusing of bacterial extracts from APH-producing strains, this method revealed one band in each of two strains with a genetically confirmed APH (3′) I and two bands in another strain with both APH (3′) I and APH (3′) VI, whereas no bands were detected in susceptible control strains or in aminoglycoside-resistant microorganisms without APH genes. PMID:9527764

  16. Functional genomics to discover antibiotic resistance genes: The paradigm of resistance to colistin mediated by ethanolamine phosphotransferase in Shewanella algae MARS 14.

    PubMed

    Telke, Amar A; Rolain, Jean-Marc

    2015-12-01

    Shewanella algae MARS 14 is a colistin-resistant clinical isolate retrieved from bronchoalveolar lavage of a hospitalised patient. A functional genomics strategy was employed to discover the molecular support for colistin resistance in S. algae MARS 14. A pZE21 MCS-1 plasmid-based genomic expression library was constructed in Escherichia coli TOP10. The estimated library size was 1.30×10(8) bp. Functional screening of colistin-resistant clones was carried out on Luria-Bertani agar containing 8 mg/L colistin. Five colistin-resistant clones were obtained after complete screening of the genomic expression library. Analysis of DNA sequencing results found a unique gene in all selected clones. Amino acid sequence analysis of this unique gene using the Integrated Microbial Genomes (IMG) and KEGG databases revealed that this gene encodes ethanolamine phosphotransferase (EptA, or so-called PmrC). Reverse transcription PCR analysis indicated that resistance to colistin in S. algae MARS 14 was associated with overexpression of EptA (27-fold increase), which plays a crucial role in the arrangement of outer membrane lipopolysaccharide.

  17. Functional genomics to discover antibiotic resistance genes: The paradigm of resistance to colistin mediated by ethanolamine phosphotransferase in Shewanella algae MARS 14.

    PubMed

    Telke, Amar A; Rolain, Jean-Marc

    2015-12-01

    Shewanella algae MARS 14 is a colistin-resistant clinical isolate retrieved from bronchoalveolar lavage of a hospitalised patient. A functional genomics strategy was employed to discover the molecular support for colistin resistance in S. algae MARS 14. A pZE21 MCS-1 plasmid-based genomic expression library was constructed in Escherichia coli TOP10. The estimated library size was 1.30×10(8) bp. Functional screening of colistin-resistant clones was carried out on Luria-Bertani agar containing 8 mg/L colistin. Five colistin-resistant clones were obtained after complete screening of the genomic expression library. Analysis of DNA sequencing results found a unique gene in all selected clones. Amino acid sequence analysis of this unique gene using the Integrated Microbial Genomes (IMG) and KEGG databases revealed that this gene encodes ethanolamine phosphotransferase (EptA, or so-called PmrC). Reverse transcription PCR analysis indicated that resistance to colistin in S. algae MARS 14 was associated with overexpression of EptA (27-fold increase), which plays a crucial role in the arrangement of outer membrane lipopolysaccharide. PMID:26498987

  18. The glycolytic genes pfk and pyk from Lactobacillus casei are induced by sugars transported by the phosphoenolpyruvate:sugar phosphotransferase system and repressed by CcpA.

    PubMed

    Viana, Rosa; Pérez-Martínez, Gaspar; Deutscher, Josef; Monedero, Vicente

    2005-09-01

    In Lactobacillus casei BL23, phosphofructokinase activity was higher in cells utilizing sugars transported by the phosphoenolpyruvate:sugar phosphotransferase system (PTS). The phosphofructokinase gene (pfk) was cloned from L. casei and shown to be clustered with the gene encoding pyruvate kinase (pyk). pfk and pyk genes are cotranscribed and induced upon growth on sugars transported by the PTS. Contrarily to the model proposed for Lactococcus lactis, where the global catabolite regulator protein (CcpA) is involved in PTS-induced transcription of pfk and pyk, a ccpA mutation resulted in a slight increase in pfk-pyk expression in L. casei. This weak regulation was evidenced by CcpA binding to a region of the pfk-pyk promoter which contained two cre sequences significantly deviated from the consensus. The PTS induction of pfk-pyk seems to be counteracted by the CcpA-mediated repression. Our results suggest that the need to accommodate the levels of pfk-pyk mRNA to the availability of sugars is fulfilled in L. casei by a PTS/CcpA-mediated signal transduction different from L. lactis. PMID:16075200

  19. An esterase gene from Lactobacillus casei cotranscribed with genes encoding a phosphoenolpyruvate:sugar phosphotransferase system and regulated by a LevR-like activator and sigma54 factor.

    PubMed

    Yebra, María J; Viana, Rosa; Monedero, Vicente; Deutscher, Josef; Pérez-Martínez, Gaspar

    2004-01-01

    A new esterase-encoding gene was found in the draft genome sequence of Lactobacillus casei BL23 (CECT5275). It is located in an operon together with genes encoding the EIIA, EIIB, EIIC, and EIID proteins of a mannose class phosphoenolpyruvate:sugar phosphotransferase system. After overproduction in Escherichia coli and purification, the esterase could hydrolyze acetyl sugars, hence the operon was named esu for esterase-sugar uptake genes. Upstream of the genes encoding the EII components (esuABCD) and the esterase (esuE), two genes transcribed in the opposite sense were found which encode a Bacillus subtilis LevR-like transcriptional activator (esuR) and a sigma54-like transcriptional factor (rpoN). As compared with the wild-type strain, elevated fructose phosphorylation was detected in L. casei mutants constitutively expressing the esu operon. However, none of the many sugars tested could induce the esu operon. The fact that EsuE exhibits esterase activity on acetyl sugars suggests that this operon could be involved in the uptake and metabolism of esterified sugars. Expression of the esu operon is similar to that of the B. subtilis lev operon: it contains a -12,-24 consensus promoter typical of sigma54-regulated genes, and EsuR and RpoN are essential for its transcription which is negatively regulated by EIIB(Esu). The esuABCDE transcription unit represents the first sigma54-regulated operon in lactobacilli. Furthermore, replacement of His852 in the phosphoenolpyruvate:sugar phosphotransferase system regulation domain II of EsuR with Ala indicated that the transcription activator function of EsuR is inhibited by EIIB(Esu)-mediated phosphorylation at His852. PMID:15925903

  20. The DeoR-type transcriptional regulator SugR acts as a repressor for genes encoding the phosphoenolpyruvate:sugar phosphotransferase system (PTS) in Corynebacterium glutamicum

    PubMed Central

    Gaigalat, Lars; Schlüter, Jan-Philip; Hartmann, Michelle; Mormann, Sascha; Tauch, Andreas; Pühler, Alfred; Kalinowski, Jörn

    2007-01-01

    Background The major uptake system responsible for the transport of fructose, glucose, and sucrose in Corynebacterium glutamicum ATCC 13032 is the phosphoenolpyruvate:sugar phosphotransferase system (PTS). The genes encoding PTS components, namely ptsI, ptsH, and ptsF belong to the fructose-PTS gene cluster, whereas ptsG and ptsS are located in two separate regions of the C. glutamicum genome. Due to the localization within and adjacent to the fructose-PTS gene cluster, two genes coding for DeoR-type transcriptional regulators, cg2118 and sugR, are putative candidates involved in the transcriptional regulation of the fructose-PTS cluster genes. Results Four transcripts of the extended fructose-PTS gene cluster that comprise the genes sugR-cg2116, ptsI, cg2118-fruK-ptsF, and ptsH, respectively, were characterized. In addition, it was shown that transcription of the fructose-PTS gene cluster is enhanced during growth on glucose or fructose when compared to acetate. Subsequently, the two genes sugR and cg2118 encoding for DeoR-type regulators were mutated and PTS gene transcription was found to be strongly enhanced in the presence of acetate only in the sugR deletion mutant. The SugR regulon was further characterized by microarray hybridizations using the sugR mutant and its parental strain, revealing that also the PTS genes ptsG and ptsS belong to this regulon. Binding of purified SugR repressor protein to a 21 bp sequence identified the SugR binding site as an AC-rich motif. The two experimentally identified SugR binding sites in the fructose-PTS gene cluster are located within or downstream of the mapped promoters, typical for transcriptional repressors. Effector studies using electrophoretic mobility shift assays (EMSA) revealed the fructose PTS-specific metabolite fructose-1-phosphate (F-1-P) as a highly efficient, negative effector of the SugR repressor, acting in the micromolar range. Beside F-1-P, other sugar-phosphates like fructose-1,6-bisphosphate (F-1,6-P

  1. Acid phosphatase/phosphotransferases from enteric bacteria.

    PubMed

    Mihara, Y; Utagawa, T; Yamada, H; Asano, Y

    2001-01-01

    We have investigated the enzymatic phosphorylation of nucleosides and found that Morganella morganii phoC acid phosphatase exhibits regioselective pyrophosphate (PP(i))-nucleoside phosphotransferase activity. In this study, we isolated genes encoding an acid phosphatase with regioselective phosphotransferase activity (AP/PTase) from Providencia stuartii, Enterobacter aerogenes, Escherichia blattae and Klebsiella planticola, and compared the primary structures and enzymatic characteristics of these enzymes with those of AP/PTase (PhoC acid phosphatase) from M. morganii. The enzymes were highly homologous in primary structure with M. morganii AP/PTase, and are classified as class A1 acid phosphatases. The synthesis of inosine-5'-monophosphate (5'-IMP) by E. coli overproducing each acid phosphatase was investigated. The P. stuartii enzyme, which is most closely related to the M. morganii enzyme, exhibited high 5'-IMP productivity, similar to the M. morganii enzyme. The 5'-IMP productivities of the E. aerogenes, E. blattae and K. planticola enzymes were inferior to those of the former two enzymes. This result underlines the importance of lower K(m) values for efficient nucleotide production. As these enzymes exhibited a very high degree of homology at the amino acid sequence level, it is likely that local sequence differences in the binding pocket are responsible for the differences in the nucleoside-PP(i) phosphotransferase reaction.

  2. Substrate-driven gene expression in Roseburia inulinivorans: Importance of inducible enzymes in the utilization of inulin and starch

    PubMed Central

    Scott, Karen P.; Martin, Jenny C.; Chassard, Christophe; Clerget, Marlene; Potrykus, Joanna; Campbell, Gill; Mayer, Claus-Dieter; Young, Pauline; Rucklidge, Garry; Ramsay, Alan G.; Flint, Harry J.

    2011-01-01

    Roseburia inulinivorans is a recently identified motile representative of the Firmicutes that contributes to butyrate formation from a variety of dietary polysaccharide substrates in the human large intestine. Microarray analysis was used here to investigate substrate-driven gene-expression changes in R. inulinivorans A2-194. A cluster of fructo-oligosaccharide/inulin utilization genes induced during growth on inulin included one encoding a β-fructofuranosidase protein that was prominent in the proteome of inulin-grown cells. This cluster also included a 6-phosphofructokinase and an ABC transport system, whereas a distinct inulin-induced 1-phosphofructokinase was linked to a fructose-specific phosphoenolpyruvate-dependent sugar phosphotransferase system (PTS II transport enzyme). Real-time PCR analysis showed that the β-fructofuranosidase and adjacent ABC transport protein showed greatest induction during growth on inulin, whereas the 1-phosphofructokinase enzyme and linked sugar phosphotransferase transport system were most strongly up-regulated during growth on fructose, indicating that these two clusters play distinct roles in the use of inulin. The R. inulinivorans β-fructofuranosidase was overexpressed in Escherichia coli and shown to hydrolyze fructans ranging from inulin down to sucrose, with greatest activity on fructo-oligosaccharides. Genes induced on starch included the major extracellular α-amylase and two distinct α-glucanotransferases together with a gene encoding a flagellin protein. The latter response may be concerned with improving bacterial access to insoluble starch particles. PMID:20679207

  3. Substrate-driven gene expression in Roseburia inulinivorans: importance of inducible enzymes in the utilization of inulin and starch.

    PubMed

    Scott, Karen P; Martin, Jenny C; Chassard, Christophe; Clerget, Marlene; Potrykus, Joanna; Campbell, Gill; Mayer, Claus-Dieter; Young, Pauline; Rucklidge, Garry; Ramsay, Alan G; Flint, Harry J

    2011-03-15

    Roseburia inulinivorans is a recently identified motile representative of the Firmicutes that contributes to butyrate formation from a variety of dietary polysaccharide substrates in the human large intestine. Microarray analysis was used here to investigate substrate-driven gene-expression changes in R. inulinivorans A2-194. A cluster of fructo-oligosaccharide/inulin utilization genes induced during growth on inulin included one encoding a β-fructofuranosidase protein that was prominent in the proteome of inulin-grown cells. This cluster also included a 6-phosphofructokinase and an ABC transport system, whereas a distinct inulin-induced 1-phosphofructokinase was linked to a fructose-specific phosphoenolpyruvate-dependent sugar phosphotransferase system (PTS II transport enzyme). Real-time PCR analysis showed that the β-fructofuranosidase and adjacent ABC transport protein showed greatest induction during growth on inulin, whereas the 1-phosphofructokinase enzyme and linked sugar phosphotransferase transport system were most strongly up-regulated during growth on fructose, indicating that these two clusters play distinct roles in the use of inulin. The R. inulinivorans β-fructofuranosidase was overexpressed in Escherichia coli and shown to hydrolyze fructans ranging from inulin down to sucrose, with greatest activity on fructo-oligosaccharides. Genes induced on starch included the major extracellular α-amylase and two distinct α-glucanotransferases together with a gene encoding a flagellin protein. The latter response may be concerned with improving bacterial access to insoluble starch particles.

  4. [Methods of hygromycin B phosphotransferase activity assay in transgenic plant].

    PubMed

    Zhuo, Qin; Yang, Xiaoguang

    2004-07-01

    Hygromycin B phosphotransferase (HPT) is a widely used selectable marker protein of transgenic plant. Detection of its activity is critical to studies on the development of various transgenic plants, silence of inserted gene, marker-free system development and safety assessment of transgenic food. In this paper, several methods for detecting the activity of this enzyme were reviewed.

  5. The Phosphotransferase System of Streptomyces coelicolor Is Biased for N-Acetylglucosamine Metabolism

    PubMed Central

    Nothaft, Harald; Dresel, Dagmar; Willimek, Andreas; Mahr, Kerstin; Niederweis, Michael; Titgemeyer, Fritz

    2003-01-01

    Mutation of the crr-ptsI gene locus revealed that Streptomyces coelicolor uses the phosphotransferase system (PTS) for N-acetylglucosamine uptake. crr, ptsI, and ptsH, which encode the three general PTS phosphotransferases, are induced by N-acetylglucosamine but not by other PTS substrates. Thus, the S. coelicolor PTS is biased for N-acetylglucosamine utilization, a novel feature that distinguishes this PTS from others. PMID:14617669

  6. Biochemical genetics of the cryptic gene system for cellobiose utilization in Escherichia coli K12.

    PubMed

    Kricker, M; Hall, B G

    1987-03-01

    The cellobiose catabolic system of Escherichia coli K12 is being used to study the role of cryptic genes in microbial evolution. Wild-type E. coli K12 do not utilize the beta-glucoside sugars, arbutin, salicin and cellobiose. A Cel+ (cellobiose utilizing) mutant which grows on cellobiose, arbutin, and salicin was isolated previously from wild-type E. coli K12. Biochemical assays indicate that a cel structural gene (celT) specifies a single transport protein that is a beta-glucoside specific enzyme of the phosphoenolpyruvate-dependent phosphotransferase system. The transport protein phosphorylates beta-glucosides at the expense of phosphoenolpyruvate. A single phosphoglucosidase, specified by celH, hydrolyzes phosphorylated cellobiose, arbutin, and salicin. The genes of the cel system are expressed constitutively in the Cel+ mutant, whereas they are not expressed at a detectable level in the wild-type strain. The transport and hydrolase genes are simultaneously silenced or simultaneously expressed and thus constitute an operon. Cel+ strains which fail to utilize one or more beta-glucosides express the transport system at a lower level than do Cel+ strains which grow on all three beta-glucosides. Other strains inducibly express a gene which specifies transport of arbutin but not the other beta-glucosides. The arbutin transport gene, arbT, maps outside of the cel locus.

  7. Lactose metabolism in Streptococcus lactis: studies with a mutant lacking glucokinase and mannose-phosphotransferase activities

    SciTech Connect

    Thompson, J.; Chassy, B.M.; Egan, W.

    1985-04-01

    A mutant of Streptococcus lactis 133 has been isolated that lacks both glucokinase and phosphoenolpyruvate-dependent mannose- phosphotransferase (mannose-PTS) activities. The double mutant S. lactis 133 mannose-PTSd GK- is unable to utilize either exogenously supplied or intracellularly generated glucose for growth. Fluorographic analyses of metabolites formed during the metabolism of (/sup 14/C)lactose labeled specifically in the glucose or galactosyl moiety established that the cells were unable to phosphorylate intracellular glucose. However, cells of S. lactis 133 mannose-PTSd GK- readily metabolized intracellular glucose 6-phosphate, and the growth rates and cell yield of the mutant and parental strains on sucrose were the same. During growth on lactose, S. lactis 133 mannose-PTSd GK- fermented only the galactose moiety of the disaccharide, and 1 mol of glucose was generated per mol of lactose consumed. For an equivalent concentration of lactose, the cell yield of the mutant was 50% that of the wild type. The specific rate of lactose utilization by growing cells of S. lactis 133 mannose-PTSd GK- was ca. 50% greater than that of the wild type, but the cell doubling times were 70 and 47 min, respectively. High-resolution /sup 31/P nuclear magnetic resonance studies of lactose transport by starved cells of S. lactis 133 and S. lactis 133 mannose-PTSd GK- showed that the latter cells contained elevated lactose-PTS activity. Throughout exponential growth on lactose, the mutant maintained an intracellular steady-state glucose concentration of 100 mM.

  8. Purification, Crystallization And Preliminary X-Ray Analysis of Aminoglycoside-2 ''-Phosphotransferase-Ic [APH(2 '')-Ic] From Enterococcus Gallinarum

    SciTech Connect

    Byrnes, L.J.; Badarau, A.; Vakulenko, S.B.; Smith, C.A.; /SLAC, SSRL

    2009-04-30

    Bacterial resistance to aminoglycoside antibiotics is primarily the result of deactivation of the drugs. Three families of enzymes are responsible for this activity, with one such family being the aminoglycoside phosphotransferases (APHs). The gene encoding one of these enzymes, aminoglycoside-2{double_prime}-phosphotransferase-Ic [APH(2{double_prime})-Ic] from Enterococcus gallinarum, has been cloned and the wild-type protein (comprising 308 amino-acid residues) and three mutants that showed elevated minimum inhibitory concentrations towards gentamicin (F108L, H258L and a double mutant F108L/H258L) were expressed in Escherichia coli and subsequently purified. All APH(2{double_prime})-Ic variants were crystallized in the presence of 14-20%(w/v) PEG 4000, 0.25 M MgCl{sub 2}, 0.1 M Tris-HCl pH 8.5 and 1 mM Mg{sub 2}GTP. The crystals belong to the monoclinic space group C2, with one molecule in the asymmetric unit. The approximate unit-cell parameters are a = 82.4, b = 54.2, c = 77.0 {angstrom}, {beta} = 108.8{sup o}. X-ray diffraction data were collected to approximately 2.15 {angstrom} resolution from an F108L crystal at beamline BL9-2 at SSRL, Stanford, California, USA.

  9. Phosphoenolpyruvate:carbohydrate phosphotransferase systems of bacteria.

    PubMed Central

    Postma, P W; Lengeler, J W; Jacobson, G R

    1993-01-01

    Numerous gram-negative and gram-positive bacteria take up carbohydrates through the phosphoenolpyruvate (PEP):carbohydrate phosphotransferase system (PTS). This system transports and phosphorylates carbohydrates at the expense of PEP and is the subject of this review. The PTS consists of two general proteins, enzyme I and HPr, and a number of carbohydrate-specific enzymes, the enzymes II. PTS proteins are phosphoproteins in which the phospho group is attached to either a histidine residue or, in a number of cases, a cysteine residue. After phosphorylation of enzyme I by PEP, the phospho group is transferred to HPr. The enzymes II are required for the transport of the carbohydrates across the membrane and the transfer of the phospho group from phospho-HPr to the carbohydrates. Biochemical, structural, and molecular genetic studies have shown that the various enzymes II have the same basic structure. Each enzyme II consists of domains for specific functions, e.g., binding of the carbohydrate or phosphorylation. Each enzyme II complex can consist of one to four different polypeptides. The enzymes II can be placed into at least four classes on the basis of sequence similarity. The genetics of the PTS is complex, and the expression of PTS proteins is intricately regulated because of the central roles of these proteins in nutrient acquisition. In addition to classical induction-repression mechanisms involving repressor and activator proteins, other types of regulation, such as antitermination, have been observed in some PTSs. Apart from their role in carbohydrate transport, PTS proteins are involved in chemotaxis toward PTS carbohydrates. Furthermore, the IIAGlc protein, part of the glucose-specific PTS, is a central regulatory protein which in its nonphosphorylated form can bind to and inhibit several non-PTS uptake systems and thus prevent entry of inducers. In its phosphorylated form, P-IIAGlc is involved in the activation of adenylate cyclase and thus in the

  10. The Phosphotransferase System in Solventogenic Clostridia.

    PubMed

    Mitchell, Wilfrid J

    2015-01-01

    The acetone-butanol-ethanol fermentation employing solventogenic clostridia was a major industrial process during the 20th century, but declined for economic reasons. In recent times, interest in the process has been revived due to the perceived potential of butanol as a superior biofuel. Redevelopment of an efficient fermentation process will require a detailed understanding of the physiology of carbohydrate utilization by the bacteria. Genome sequences have revealed that, as in other anaerobes, the phosphotransferase system (PTS) and associated regulatory functions are likely to play an important role in sugar uptake and its regulation. The genomes of Clostridium acetobutylicum and C. beijerinckii encode 13 and 43 phosphotransferases, respectively. Characterization of clostridial phosphotransferases has demonstrated that they are involved in the uptake and phosphorylation of hexoses, hexose derivatives and disaccharides, although the functions of many systems remain to be determined. Glucose is a dominant sugar which represses the utilization of other carbon sources, including the non-PTS pentose sugars xylose and arabinose, by the clostridia. Targeting of the CcpA-dependent mechanism of carbon catabolite repression has been shown to be an effective strategy for reducing the repressive effects of glucose, indicating potential for developing strains with improved fermentation performance.

  11. Molecular characteristics of phosphoenolpyruvate: mannose phosphotransferase system in Streptococcus bovis.

    PubMed

    Asanuma, Narito; Yoshii, Takahiro; Hino, Tsuneo

    2004-07-01

    To elucidate the regulatory mechanism of catabolite control in Streptococcus bovis, we investigated the molecular properties and gene expression of the mannose-specific phosphoenolpyruvate (PEP)-dependent sugar: phosphotransferase system (PTS). The mannose PTS gene cluster (man) was found to comprise a gene encoding enzyme (E) II AB (manL) and genes encoding EIIC (manM), EIID (manN), and a putative regulator (manO). The gene cluster (man operon) was transcribed from one transcriptional start site, which was located 40 bp upstream of the manL start codon. However, two transcriptional start sites were found between manN and manO in primer extension analysis, and the manO may be transcribed independently from the man operon. The man operon and manO were constitutively transcribed without being affected by culture conditions, such as the sugar supplied (glucose, galactose, fructose, maltose, lactose, sucrose, or mannose), growth rate, or pH. PMID:15297922

  12. Strain-dependent occurrence of functional GTP:AMP phosphotransferase (AK3) in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    PubMed

    Schricker, R; Magdolen, V; Strobel, G; Bogengruber, E; Breitenbach, M; Bandlow, W

    1995-12-29

    The gene for yeast GTP:AMP phosphotransferase (PAK3) was found to encode a nonfunctional protein in 10 laboratory strains and one brewers' strain. The protein product showed high similarity to vertebrate AK3 and was located exclusively in the mitochondrial matrix. The deduced amino acid sequence revealed a protein that was shorter at the carboxyl terminus than all other known adenylate kinases. Introduction of a +1 frameshift into the 3'-terminal region of the gene extended homology of the deduced amino acid sequence to other members of the adenylate kinase family including vertebrate AK3. Frameshift mutations obtained after in vitro and in vivo mutagenesis were capable of complementing the adk1 temperature-conditional deficiency in Escherichia coli, indicating that the frameshift led to the expression of a protein that could phosphorylate AMP. Some yeasts, however, including strain D273-10B, two wine yeasts, and two more distantly related yeast genera, harbored an active allele, named AKY3, which contained a +1 frameshift close to the carboxyl terminus as compared with the laboratory strains. The encoded protein exhibited GTP:AMP and ITP:AMP phosphotransferase activities but did not accept ATP as phosphate donor. Although single copy in the haploid genome, disruption of the AKY3 allele displayed no phenotype, excluding the possibility that laboratory and brewers' strains had collected second site suppressors. It must be concluded that yeast mitochondria can completely dispense with GTP:AMP phosphotransferase activity.

  13. Identification of mannose uptake and catabolism genes in Corynebacterium glutamicum and genetic engineering for simultaneous utilization of mannose and glucose.

    PubMed

    Sasaki, Miho; Teramoto, Haruhiko; Inui, Masayuki; Yukawa, Hideaki

    2011-03-01

    Here, focus is on Corynebacterium glutamicum mannose metabolic genes with the aim to improve this industrially important microorganism's ability to ferment mannose present in mixed sugar substrates. cgR_0857 encodes C. glutamicum's protein with 36% amino acid sequence identity to mannose 6-phosphate isomerase encoded by manA of Escherichia coli. Its deletion mutant did not grow on mannose and exhibited noticeably reduced growth on glucose as sole carbon sources. In effect, C. glutamicum manA is not only essential for growth on mannose but also important in glucose metabolism. A double deletion mutant of genes encoding glucose and fructose permeases (ptsG and ptsF, respectively) of the phosphoenolpyruvate-dependent phosphotransferase system (PTS) was not able to grow on mannose unlike the respective single deletion mutants with mannose utilization ability. A mutant deficient in ptsH, a general PTS gene, did not utilize mannose. These indicate that the glucose-PTS and fructose-PTS are responsible for mannose uptake in C. glutamicum. When cultured with a glucose and mannose mixture, mannose utilization of manA-overexpressing strain CRM1 was significantly higher than that of its wild-type counterpart, but with a strong preference for glucose. ptsF-overexpressing strain CRM2 co-utilized mannose and glucose, but at a total sugar consumption rate much lower than that of the wild-type strain and CRM1. Strain CRM3 overexpressing both manA and ptsF efficiently co-utilized mannose and glucose. Under oxygen-deprived conditions, high volumetric productivity of organic acids concomitant with the simultaneous consumption of the mixed sugars was achieved by the densely packed growth-arrested CRM3 cells.

  14. Regulation of Lactobacillus casei Sorbitol Utilization Genes Requires DNA-Binding Transcriptional Activator GutR and the Conserved Protein GutM▿

    PubMed Central

    Alcántara, Cristina; Sarmiento-Rubiano, Luz Adriana; Monedero, Vicente; Deutscher, Josef; Pérez-Martínez, Gaspar; Yebra, María J.

    2008-01-01

    Sequence analysis of the five genes (gutRMCBA) downstream from the previously described sorbitol-6-phosphate dehydrogenase-encoding Lactobacillus casei gutF gene revealed that they constitute a sorbitol (glucitol) utilization operon. The gutRM genes encode putative regulators, while the gutCBA genes encode the EIIC, EIIBC, and EIIA proteins of a phosphoenolpyruvate-dependent sorbitol phosphotransferase system (PTSGut). The gut operon is transcribed as a polycistronic gutFRMCBA messenger, the expression of which is induced by sorbitol and repressed by glucose. gutR encodes a transcriptional regulator with two PTS-regulated domains, a galactitol-specific EIIB-like domain (EIIBGat domain) and a mannitol/fructose-specific EIIA-like domain (EIIAMtl domain). Its inactivation abolished gut operon transcription and sorbitol uptake, indicating that it acts as a transcriptional activator. In contrast, cells carrying a gutB mutation expressed the gut operon constitutively, but they failed to transport sorbitol, indicating that EIIBCGut negatively regulates GutR. A footprint analysis showed that GutR binds to a 35-bp sequence upstream from the gut promoter. A sequence comparison with the presumed promoter region of gut operons from various firmicutes revealed a GutR consensus motif that includes an inverted repeat. The regulation mechanism of the L. casei gut operon is therefore likely to be operative in other firmicutes. Finally, gutM codes for a conserved protein of unknown function present in all sequenced gut operons. A gutM mutant, the first constructed in a firmicute, showed drastically reduced gut operon expression and sorbitol uptake, indicating a regulatory role also for GutM. PMID:18676710

  15. Regulation of Lactobacillus casei sorbitol utilization genes requires DNA-binding transcriptional activator GutR and the conserved protein GutM.

    PubMed

    Alcántara, Cristina; Sarmiento-Rubiano, Luz Adriana; Monedero, Vicente; Deutscher, Josef; Pérez-Martínez, Gaspar; Yebra, María J

    2008-09-01

    Sequence analysis of the five genes (gutRMCBA) downstream from the previously described sorbitol-6-phosphate dehydrogenase-encoding Lactobacillus casei gutF gene revealed that they constitute a sorbitol (glucitol) utilization operon. The gutRM genes encode putative regulators, while the gutCBA genes encode the EIIC, EIIBC, and EIIA proteins of a phosphoenolpyruvate-dependent sorbitol phosphotransferase system (PTS(Gut)). The gut operon is transcribed as a polycistronic gutFRMCBA messenger, the expression of which is induced by sorbitol and repressed by glucose. gutR encodes a transcriptional regulator with two PTS-regulated domains, a galactitol-specific EIIB-like domain (EIIB(Gat) domain) and a mannitol/fructose-specific EIIA-like domain (EIIA(Mtl) domain). Its inactivation abolished gut operon transcription and sorbitol uptake, indicating that it acts as a transcriptional activator. In contrast, cells carrying a gutB mutation expressed the gut operon constitutively, but they failed to transport sorbitol, indicating that EIIBC(Gut) negatively regulates GutR. A footprint analysis showed that GutR binds to a 35-bp sequence upstream from the gut promoter. A sequence comparison with the presumed promoter region of gut operons from various firmicutes revealed a GutR consensus motif that includes an inverted repeat. The regulation mechanism of the L. casei gut operon is therefore likely to be operative in other firmicutes. Finally, gutM codes for a conserved protein of unknown function present in all sequenced gut operons. A gutM mutant, the first constructed in a firmicute, showed drastically reduced gut operon expression and sorbitol uptake, indicating a regulatory role also for GutM. PMID:18676710

  16. 40 CFR 174.521 - Neomycin phosphotransferase II; exemption from the requirement of a tolerance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 23 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Neomycin phosphotransferase II...-INCORPORATED PROTECTANTS Tolerances and Tolerance Exemptions § 174.521 Neomycin phosphotransferase II; exemption from the requirement of a tolerance. Residues of the neomycin phosphotransferase II (NPTII)...

  17. Functional characterization and phylogenetic analysis of acquired and intrinsic macrolide phosphotransferases in the Bacillus cereus group.

    PubMed

    Wang, Chao; Sui, Zhihai; Leclercq, Sébastien Olivier; Zhang, Gang; Zhao, Meilin; Chen, Weiqi; Feng, Jie

    2015-05-01

    The Bacillus cereus group is composed of Gram-positive spore-forming bacteria of clinical and ecological importance. More than 200 B. cereus group isolates have been sequenced. However, there are few reports of B. cereus group antibiotic resistance genes. This study identified two functional classes of macrolide phosphotransferases (Mphs) in the B. cereus group. Cluster A Mphs inactivate 14- and 15-membered macrolides while Cluster B Mphs inactivate 14-, 15- and 16-membered compounds. The genomic region surrounding the Cluster B Mph gene is related to various plasmid sequences, suggesting that this gene is an acquired resistance gene. In contrast, the Cluster A Mph gene is located in a chromosomal region conserved among all B. cereus group isolates, and data indicated that it was acquired early in the evolution of the group. Therefore, the Cluster A gene can be considered an intrinsic resistance gene. However, the gene itself is not present in all strains and our comparative genomics analyses showed that it is exchanged among strains of the B. cereus group by the mean of homologous recombination. These results provide an alternative mechanism to intrinsic resistance.

  18. Prokaryotic expression and allergenicity assessment of hygromycin B phosphotransferase protein derived from genetically modified plants.

    PubMed

    Lu, Y; Xu, W; Kang, A; Luo, Y; Guo, F; Yang, R; Zhang, J; Huang, K

    2007-09-01

    The hygromycin B phosphotransferase gene (hpt) has been widely used in the process of plant genetic engineering to produce plants that can secrete the HPT protein. As part of a safety assessment, sufficient quantities of the protein were produced in Escherichia coli to conduct in vitro digestibility and animal studies. Western blotting analysis showed that the HPT protein was digested by simulated gastric fluid within 40 s. ELISA demonstrated that the protein did not induce detectable levels of specific IgE antibodies or histamine in test animals. Alignment of the amino acid sequence of HPT with those of known allergens did not produce evidence of sequence similarities between these allergens and the HPT protein. We conclude that HPT has a low probability to induce allergenicity.

  19. Changes in Gene Expression during Adaptation of Listeria monocytogenes to the Soil Environment

    PubMed Central

    Piveteau, Pascal; Depret, Géraldine; Pivato, Barbara; Garmyn, Dominique; Hartmann, Alain

    2011-01-01

    Listeria monocytogenes is a ubiquitous opportunistic pathogen responsible for listeriosis. In order to study the processes underlying its ability to adapt to the soil environment, whole-genome arrays were used to analyse transcriptome modifications 15 minutes, 30 minutes and 18 h after inoculation of L. monocytogenes EGD-e in soil extracts. Growth was observed within the first day of incubation and large numbers were still detected in soil extract and soil microcosms one year after the start of the experiment. Major transcriptional reprofiling was observed. Nutrient acquisition mechanisms (phosphoenolpyruvate-dependent phosphotransferase systems and ABC transporters) and enzymes involved in catabolism of specific carbohydrates (β-glucosidases; chitinases) were prevalent. This is consistent with the overrepresentation of the CodY regulon that suggests that in a nutrient depleted environment, L. monocytogenes recruits its extensive repertoire of transporters to acquire a range of substrates for energy production. PMID:21966375

  20. Rifampin phosphotransferase is an unusual antibiotic resistance kinase.

    PubMed

    Stogios, Peter J; Cox, Georgina; Spanogiannopoulos, Peter; Pillon, Monica C; Waglechner, Nicholas; Skarina, Tatiana; Koteva, Kalinka; Guarné, Alba; Savchenko, Alexei; Wright, Gerard D

    2016-01-01

    Rifampin (RIF) phosphotransferase (RPH) confers antibiotic resistance by conversion of RIF and ATP, to inactive phospho-RIF, AMP and Pi. Here we present the crystal structure of RPH from Listeria monocytogenes (RPH-Lm), which reveals that the enzyme is comprised of three domains: two substrate-binding domains (ATP-grasp and RIF-binding domains); and a smaller phosphate-carrying His swivel domain. Using solution small-angle X-ray scattering and mutagenesis, we reveal a mechanism where the swivel domain transits between the spatially distinct substrate-binding sites during catalysis. RPHs are previously uncharacterized dikinases that are widespread in environmental and pathogenic bacteria. These enzymes are members of a large unexplored group of bacterial enzymes with substrate affinities that have yet to be fully explored. Such an enzymatically complex mechanism of antibiotic resistance augments the spectrum of strategies used by bacteria to evade antimicrobial compounds. PMID:27103605

  1. Rifampin phosphotransferase is an unusual antibiotic resistance kinase

    PubMed Central

    Stogios, Peter J.; Cox, Georgina; Spanogiannopoulos, Peter; Pillon, Monica C.; Waglechner, Nicholas; Skarina, Tatiana; Koteva, Kalinka; Guarné, Alba; Savchenko, Alexei; Wright, Gerard D.

    2016-01-01

    Rifampin (RIF) phosphotransferase (RPH) confers antibiotic resistance by conversion of RIF and ATP, to inactive phospho-RIF, AMP and Pi. Here we present the crystal structure of RPH from Listeria monocytogenes (RPH-Lm), which reveals that the enzyme is comprised of three domains: two substrate-binding domains (ATP-grasp and RIF-binding domains); and a smaller phosphate-carrying His swivel domain. Using solution small-angle X-ray scattering and mutagenesis, we reveal a mechanism where the swivel domain transits between the spatially distinct substrate-binding sites during catalysis. RPHs are previously uncharacterized dikinases that are widespread in environmental and pathogenic bacteria. These enzymes are members of a large unexplored group of bacterial enzymes with substrate affinities that have yet to be fully explored. Such an enzymatically complex mechanism of antibiotic resistance augments the spectrum of strategies used by bacteria to evade antimicrobial compounds. PMID:27103605

  2. Rifampin phosphotransferase is an unusual antibiotic resistance kinase.

    PubMed

    Stogios, Peter J; Cox, Georgina; Spanogiannopoulos, Peter; Pillon, Monica C; Waglechner, Nicholas; Skarina, Tatiana; Koteva, Kalinka; Guarné, Alba; Savchenko, Alexei; Wright, Gerard D

    2016-04-22

    Rifampin (RIF) phosphotransferase (RPH) confers antibiotic resistance by conversion of RIF and ATP, to inactive phospho-RIF, AMP and Pi. Here we present the crystal structure of RPH from Listeria monocytogenes (RPH-Lm), which reveals that the enzyme is comprised of three domains: two substrate-binding domains (ATP-grasp and RIF-binding domains); and a smaller phosphate-carrying His swivel domain. Using solution small-angle X-ray scattering and mutagenesis, we reveal a mechanism where the swivel domain transits between the spatially distinct substrate-binding sites during catalysis. RPHs are previously uncharacterized dikinases that are widespread in environmental and pathogenic bacteria. These enzymes are members of a large unexplored group of bacterial enzymes with substrate affinities that have yet to be fully explored. Such an enzymatically complex mechanism of antibiotic resistance augments the spectrum of strategies used by bacteria to evade antimicrobial compounds.

  3. Computer-aided rational design of the phosphotransferase system for enhanced glucose uptake in Escherichia coli.

    PubMed

    Nishio, Yousuke; Usuda, Yoshihiro; Matsui, Kazuhiko; Kurata, Hiroyuki

    2008-01-01

    The phosphotransferase system (PTS) is the sugar transportation machinery that is widely distributed in prokaryotes and is critical for enhanced production of useful metabolites. To increase the glucose uptake rate, we propose a rational strategy for designing the molecular architecture of the Escherichia coli glucose PTS by using a computer-aided design (CAD) system and verified the simulated results with biological experiments. CAD supports construction of a biochemical map, mathematical modeling, simulation, and system analysis. Assuming that the PTS aims at controlling the glucose uptake rate, the PTS was decomposed into hierarchical modules, functional and flux modules, and the effect of changes in gene expression on the glucose uptake rate was simulated to make a rational strategy of how the gene regulatory network is engineered. Such design and analysis predicted that the mlc knockout mutant with ptsI gene overexpression would greatly increase the specific glucose uptake rate. By using biological experiments, we validated the prediction and the presented strategy, thereby enhancing the specific glucose uptake rate.

  4. Distribution of the phosphoenolpyruvate:glucose phosphotransferase system in fermentative bacteria.

    PubMed

    Romano, A H; Trifone, J D; Brustolon, M

    1979-07-01

    A number of selected fermentative bacteria were surveyed for the presence of the phosphoenolpyruvate:glucose phosphotransferase system, with particular attention to those organisms which ferment glucose by pathways other than the Embden-Meyerhof-Parnas pathway. The phosphoenolpyruvate:glusoe phosphotransferase system was found in all homofermentative lactic acid bacteria tested that ferment glucose via the Embden-Meyerhof-Parnas pathway, but in none of a group of heterofermentative species of Lactobacillus or Leuconostoc, which ferment glucose via the phosphoketolase pathway. A phosphoenolpyruvate:glucose phosphotransferase system was also absent in Zymomonas mobilis, which ferments glucose via an anaerobic Entner-Doudoroff pathway. It thus appears that the phosphotransferase mode of glucose transport is limited to bacteria with the Embden-Meyerhof-Parnas mode of glucose fermentation.

  5. Directed evolution for thermostabilization of a hygromycin B phosphotransferase from Streptomyces hygroscopicus.

    PubMed

    Sugimoto, Naohisa; Takakura, Yasuaki; Shiraki, Kentaro; Honda, Shinya; Takaya, Naoki; Hoshino, Takayuki; Nakamura, Akira

    2013-01-01

    To obtain a selection marker gene functional in a thermophilic bacterium, Thermus thermophilus, an in vivo-directed evolutionary strategy was conducted on a hygromycin B phosphotransferase gene (hyg) from Streptomyces hygroscopicus. The expression of wild-type hyg in T. thermophilus provided hygromycin B (HygB) resistance up to 60 °C. Through selection of mutants showing HygB resistance at higher temperatures, eight amino acid substitutions and the duplication of three amino acids were identified. A variant containing seven substitutions and the duplication (HYG10) showed HygB resistance at a highest temperature of 74 °C. Biochemical and biophysical analyses of recombinant HYG and HYG10 revealed that HYG10 was in fact thermostabilized. Modeling of the three-dimensional structure of HYG10 suggests the possible roles of the various substitutions and the duplication on thermostabilization, of which three substitutions and the duplication located at the enzyme surface suggested that these mutations made the enzyme more hydrophilic and provided increased stability in aqueous solution. PMID:24200799

  6. Lcp1 Is a Phosphotransferase Responsible for Ligating Arabinogalactan to Peptidoglycan in Mycobacterium tuberculosis

    PubMed Central

    Harrison, James; Lloyd, Georgina; Joe, Maju; Lowary, Todd L.; Reynolds, Edward; Walters-Morgan, Hannah; Bhatt, Apoorva; Lovering, Andrew; Besra, Gurdyal S.

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Mycobacterium tuberculosis, the etiological agent of tuberculosis (TB), has a unique cell envelope which accounts for its unusual low permeability and contributes to resistance against common antibiotics. The main structural elements of the cell wall consist of a cross-linked network of peptidoglycan (PG) in which some of the muramic acid residues are covalently attached to a complex polysaccharide, arabinogalactan (AG), via a unique α-l-rhamnopyranose–(1→3)-α-d-GlcNAc-(1→P) linker unit. While the molecular genetics associated with PG and AG biosynthetic pathways have been largely delineated, the mechanism by which these two major pathways converge has remained elusive. In Gram-positive organisms, the LytR-CpsA-Psr (LCP) family of proteins are responsible for ligating cell wall teichoic acids to peptidoglycan, through a linker unit that bears a striking resemblance to that found in mycobacterial arabinogalactan. In this study, we have identified Rv3267 as a mycobacterial LCP homolog gene that encodes a phosphotransferase which we have named Lcp1. We demonstrate that lcp1 is an essential gene required for cell viability and show that recombinant Lcp1 is capable of ligating AG to PG in a cell-free radiolabeling assay. PMID:27486192

  7. Role of Secondary Transporters and Phosphotransferase Systems in Glucose Transport by Oenococcus oeni ▿

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Ok Bin; Richter, Hanno; Zaunmüller, Tanja; Graf, Sabrina; Unden, Gottfried

    2011-01-01

    Glucose uptake by the heterofermentative lactic acid bacterium Oenococcus oeni B1 was studied at the physiological and gene expression levels. Glucose- or fructose-grown bacteria catalyzed uptake of [14C]glucose over a pH range from pH 4 to 9, with maxima at pHs 5.5 and 7. Uptake occurred in two-step kinetics in a high- and low-affinity reaction. The high-affinity uptake followed Michaelis-Menten kinetics and required energization. It accumulated the radioactivity of glucose by a factor of 55 within the bacteria. A large portion (about 80%) of the uptake of glucose was inhibited by protonophores and ionophores. Uptake of the glucose at neutral pH was not sensitive to degradation of the proton potential, Δp. Expression of the genes OEOE_0819 and OEOE_1574 (here referred to as 0819 and 1574), coding for secondary transporters, was induced by glucose as identified by quantitative real-time (RT)-PCR. The genes 1574 and 0819 were able to complement growth of a Bacillus subtilis hexose transport-deficient mutant on glucose but not on fructose. The genes 1574 and 0819 therefore encode secondary transporters for glucose, and the transports are presumably Δp dependent. O. oeni codes, in addition, for a phosphotransferase transport system (PTS) (gene OEOE_0464 [0464] for the permease) with similarity to the fructose- and mannose-specific PTS of lactic acid bacteria. Quantitative RT-PCR showed induction of the gene 0464 by glucose and by fructose. The data suggest that the PTS is responsible for Δp-independent hexose transport at neutral pH and for the residual Δp-independent transport of hexoses at acidic pH. PMID:22020640

  8. The transcription factor Mlc promotes Vibrio cholerae biofilm formation through repression of phosphotransferase system components.

    PubMed

    Pickering, Bradley S; Lopilato, Jane E; Smith, Daniel R; Watnick, Paula I

    2014-07-01

    The phosphoenol phosphotransferase system (PTS) is a multicomponent signal transduction cascade that regulates diverse aspects of bacterial cellular physiology in response to the availability of high-energy sugars in the environment. Many PTS components are repressed at the transcriptional level when the substrates they transport are not available. In Escherichia coli, the transcription factor Mlc (for makes large colonies) represses transcription of the genes encoding enzyme I (EI), histidine protein (HPr), and the glucose-specific enzyme IIBC (EIIBC(Glc)) in defined media that lack PTS substrates. When glucose is present, the unphosphorylated form of EIIBC(Glc) sequesters Mlc to the cell membrane, preventing its interaction with DNA. Very little is known about Vibrio cholerae Mlc. We found that V. cholerae Mlc activates biofilm formation in LB broth but not in defined medium supplemented with either pyruvate or glucose. Therefore, we questioned whether V. cholerae Mlc functions differently than E. coli Mlc. Here we have shown that, like E. coli Mlc, V. cholerae Mlc represses transcription of PTS components in both defined medium and LB broth and that E. coli Mlc is able to rescue the biofilm defect of a V. cholerae Δmlc mutant. Furthermore, we provide evidence that Mlc indirectly activates transcription of the vps genes by repressing expression of EI. Because activation of the vps genes by Mlc occurs under only a subset of the conditions in which repression of PTS components is observed, we conclude that additional inputs present in LB broth are required for activation of vps gene transcription by Mlc.

  9. Salmonella Utilizes d-Glucosaminate via a Mannose Family Phosphotransferase System Permease and Associated Enzymes

    PubMed Central

    Miller, Katherine A.; Phillips, Robert S.; Mrázek, Jan

    2013-01-01

    Salmonella enterica is a globally significant bacterial food-borne pathogen that utilizes a variety of carbon sources. We report here that Salmonella enterica subsp. enterica serovar Typhimurium (S. Typhimurium) uses d-glucosaminate (2-amino-2-deoxy-d-gluconic acid) as a carbon and nitrogen source via a previously uncharacterized mannose family phosphotransferase system (PTS) permease, and we designate the genes encoding the permease dgaABCD (d-glucosaminate PTS permease components EIIA, EIIB, EIIC, and EIID). Two other genes in the dga operon (dgaE and dgaF) were required for wild-type growth of S. Typhimurium with d-glucosaminate. Transcription of dgaABCDEF was dependent on RpoN (σ54) and an RpoN-dependent activator gene we designate dgaR. Introduction of a plasmid bearing dgaABCDEF under the control of the lac promoter into Escherichia coli strains DH5α, BL21, and JM101 allowed these strains to grow on minimal medium containing d-glucosaminate as the sole carbon and nitrogen source. Biochemical and genetic data support a catabolic pathway in which d-glucosaminate, as it is transported across the cell membrane, is phosphorylated at the C-6 position by DgaABCD. DgaE converts the resulting d-glucosaminate-6-phosphate to 2-keto-3-deoxygluconate 6-phosphate (KDGP), which is subsequently cleaved by the aldolase DgaF to form glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate and pyruvate. DgaF catalyzes the same reaction as that catalyzed by Eda, a KDGP aldolase in the Entner-Doudoroff pathway, and the two enzymes can substitute for each other in their respective pathways. Examination of the Integrated Microbial Genomes database revealed that orthologs of the dga genes are largely restricted to certain enteric bacteria and a few species in the phylum Firmicutes. PMID:23836865

  10. Why the Phosphotransferase System of Escherichia coli Escapes Diffusion Limitation

    PubMed Central

    Francke, Christof; Postma, Pieter W.; Westerhoff, Hans V.; Blom, Joke G.; Peletier, Mark A.

    2003-01-01

    We calculated the implications of diffusion for the phosphoenolpyruvate:glucose phosphotransferase system (glucose-PTS) of Escherichia coli in silicon cells of various magnitudes. For a cell of bacterial size, diffusion limitation of glucose influx was negligible. Nevertheless, a significant concentration gradient for one of the enzyme species, nonphosphorylated IIAGlc, was found. This should have consequences because the phosphorylation state of IIAGlc is an important intracellular signal. For mammalian cell sizes we found significant diffusion limitation, as well as strong concentration gradients in many PTS components, and strong effects on glucose and energy signaling. We calculated that the PTS may sense both extracellular glucose and the intracellular free-energy state. We discuss i), that the effects of diffusion on cell function should prevent this highly effective bacterial system from functioning in eukaryotic cells, ii), that in the larger eukaryotic cell any similar chain of mobile group-transfer proteins can neither sustain the same volumetric flux as in bacteria nor transmit a signal far into the cell, and iii), that systems such as these may exhibit spatial differentiation in their sensitivity to different signals. PMID:12829515

  11. Sugar Influx Sensing by the Phosphotransferase System of Escherichia coli.

    PubMed

    Somavanshi, Rahul; Ghosh, Bhaswar; Sourjik, Victor

    2016-08-01

    The phosphotransferase system (PTS) plays a pivotal role in the uptake of multiple sugars in Escherichia coli and many other bacteria. In the cell, individual sugar-specific PTS branches are interconnected through a series of phosphotransfer reactions, thus creating a global network that not only phosphorylates incoming sugars but also regulates a number of cellular processes. Despite the apparent importance of the PTS network in bacterial physiology, the holistic function of the network in the cell remains unclear. Here we used Förster resonance energy transfer (FRET) to investigate the PTS network in E. coli, including the dynamics of protein interactions and the processing of different stimuli and their transmission to the chemotaxis pathway. Our results demonstrate that despite the seeming complexity of the cellular PTS network, its core part operates in a strikingly simple way, sensing the overall influx of PTS sugars irrespective of the sugar identity and distributing this information equally through all studied branches of the network. Moreover, it also integrates several other specific metabolic inputs. The integrated output of the PTS network is then transmitted linearly to the chemotaxis pathway, in stark contrast to the amplification of conventional chemotactic stimuli. Finally, we observe that default uptake through the uninduced PTS network correlates well with the quality of the carbon source, apparently representing an optimal regulatory strategy. PMID:27557415

  12. Sugar Influx Sensing by the Phosphotransferase System of Escherichia coli

    PubMed Central

    Somavanshi, Rahul; Ghosh, Bhaswar; Sourjik, Victor

    2016-01-01

    The phosphotransferase system (PTS) plays a pivotal role in the uptake of multiple sugars in Escherichia coli and many other bacteria. In the cell, individual sugar-specific PTS branches are interconnected through a series of phosphotransfer reactions, thus creating a global network that not only phosphorylates incoming sugars but also regulates a number of cellular processes. Despite the apparent importance of the PTS network in bacterial physiology, the holistic function of the network in the cell remains unclear. Here we used Förster resonance energy transfer (FRET) to investigate the PTS network in E. coli, including the dynamics of protein interactions and the processing of different stimuli and their transmission to the chemotaxis pathway. Our results demonstrate that despite the seeming complexity of the cellular PTS network, its core part operates in a strikingly simple way, sensing the overall influx of PTS sugars irrespective of the sugar identity and distributing this information equally through all studied branches of the network. Moreover, it also integrates several other specific metabolic inputs. The integrated output of the PTS network is then transmitted linearly to the chemotaxis pathway, in stark contrast to the amplification of conventional chemotactic stimuli. Finally, we observe that default uptake through the uninduced PTS network correlates well with the quality of the carbon source, apparently representing an optimal regulatory strategy. PMID:27557415

  13. The global regulatory system Csr senses glucose through the phosphoenolpyruvate: carbohydrate phosphotransferase system.

    PubMed

    Pérez-Morales, Deyanira; Bustamante, Víctor H

    2016-02-01

    A novel connection between two regulatory systems controlling crucial biological processes in bacteria, the carbon storage regulator (Csr) system and the glucose-specific phosphotransferase system (PTS), is reported by Leng et al. in this issue. This involves the interaction of unphosphorylated EIIA(Glc), a component of the glucose-specific PTS, with the CsrD protein, which accelerates the decay of the CsrB and CsrC small RNAs via RNase E in Escherichia coli. As unphosphorylated EIIA(G) (lc) is generated in the presence of glucose, the PTS thus acts as a sensor of glucose for the Csr system. Interestingly, another pathway can operate for communication between the Csr system and the glucose-specific PTS. The absence of glucose generates phosphorylated EIIA(Glc) , which activates the enzyme adenylate cyclase to produce cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP) that, in turn, binds to the regulator cAMP receptor protein (CRP). Leng et al. show that the complex cAMP-CRP modestly reduces CsrB decay independently of CsrD. On the other hand, a previous study indicates that the complex cAMP-CRP positively regulates the transcription of CsrB and CsrC in Salmonella enterica. Therefore, EIIA(G) (lc) could work as a molecular switch that regulates the activity of the Csr system, in response to its phosphorylation state determined by the presence or absence of glucose, in order to control gene expression.

  14. Regulatory Tasks of the Phosphoenolpyruvate-Phosphotransferase System of Pseudomonas putida in Central Carbon Metabolism

    PubMed Central

    Chavarría, Max; Kleijn, Roelco J.; Sauer, Uwe; Pflüger-Grau, Katharina; de Lorenzo, Víctor

    2012-01-01

    ABSTRACT Two branches of the phosphoenolpyruvate-phosphotransferase system (PTS) operate in the soil bacterium Pseudomonas putida KT2440. One branch encompasses a complete set of enzymes for fructose intake (PTSFru), while the other (N-related PTS, or PTSNtr) controls various cellular functions unrelated to the transport of carbohydrates. The potential of these two systems for regulating central carbon catabolism has been investigated by measuring the metabolic fluxes of isogenic strains bearing nonpolar mutations in PTSFru or PTSNtr genes and grown on either fructose (a PTS substrate) or glucose, the transport of which is not governed by the PTS in this bacterium. The flow of carbon from each sugar was distinctly split between the Entner-Doudoroff, pentose phosphate, and Embden-Meyerhof-Parnas pathways in a ratio that was maintained in each of the PTS mutants examined. However, strains lacking PtsN (EIIANtr) displayed significantly higher fluxes in the reactions of the pyruvate shunt, which bypasses malate dehydrogenase in the TCA cycle. This was consistent with the increased activity of the malic enzyme and the pyruvate carboxylase found in the corresponding PTS mutants. Genetic evidence suggested that such a metabolic effect of PtsN required the transfer of high-energy phosphate through the system. The EIIANtr protein of the PTSNtr thus helps adjust central metabolic fluxes to satisfy the anabolic and energetic demands of the overall cell physiology. PMID:22434849

  15. Control of Transposon-mediated Directed Mutation by the Escherichia coli Phosphoenolpyruvate:Sugar Phosphotransferase System

    PubMed Central

    Saier, Milton H.; Zhang, Zhongge

    2015-01-01

    The phosphoenolpyruvate:sugar phosphotransferase system (PTS) has been shown to control transport, cell metabolism and gene expression. We here present results supporting the novel suggestion that in certain instances, it also regulates mutation rate. Directed mutations are defined as mutations that occur at higher frequencies when beneficial than when neutral or detrimental. To date, the occurrence of directed point mutations has not been documented and confirmed, but a few examples of transposon-mediated directed mutation have been reported. Here we focus on the first and best-studied example of directed mutation, which involves the regulation of Insertion Sequence-5 (IS5) hopping into a specific site upstream of the glpFK glycerol utilization operon in Escherichia coli. This insertional event specifically activates expression of the glpFK operon, allowing growth of wild type cells with glycerol as a carbon source in the presence of non-metabolizable glucose analogues which normally block glycerol utilization. The sugar transporting PTS controls this process by regulating levels of cytoplasmic glycerol-3-phosphate and cyclic AMP as established in previous publications. Direct involvement of the glycerol repressor, GlpR, and the cyclic AMP receptor protein, Crp, in the regulation of transposon-mediated directed mutation has been demonstrated. PMID:26159081

  16. Characterization of the meningococcal serogroup X capsule N-acetylglucosamine-1-phosphotransferase.

    PubMed

    Muindi, Karen M; McCarthy, Pumtiwitt C; Wang, Theresa; Vionnet, Justine; Battistel, Marcos; Jankowska, Ewa; Vann, Willie F

    2014-02-01

    Neisseria meningitidis serogroups A, B, C, Y, W135 and X are responsible for most cases of meningococcal meningitis. Neisseria meningitidis serogroup X has recently emerged as a contributor to outbreaks of disease in Africa, but there is currently no vaccine against serogroup X. Understanding of the biosynthesis of the serogroup X capsular polysaccharide would provide useful tools for vaccine production. The serogroup X polysaccharide is a homopolymer of (α1→4)-linked N-acetylglucosamine (GlcNAc)-1-phosphate. It has been shown that the gene cluster xcbABC encodes synthesis of this polysaccharide. The xcbA gene product has significant homology with sacB, which is responsible for synthesis of the Neisseria serogroup A capsular polysaccharide, an (α1→6)-N-acetylmannosamine-1-phosphate homopolymer. The xcbA protein also shares homology with the catalytic domain of human N-acetylglucosamine-1-phosphoryltransferase, a key enzyme in the mannose-6-phosphate receptor pathway. In this study, we show that xcbA in the appropriate background is sufficient for the synthesis of N. meningitidis serogroup X polysaccharide. By ELISA we detected polysaccharide in fractions of Escherichia coli expressing the xcbA gene. We isolated polysaccharide from an E. coli strain expressing XcbA and demonstrated that this polysaccharide has a (13)C-NMR spectrum identical to that of polysaccharide isolated from N. meningitidis Group X. We also demonstrate that the purified XcbA protein is an N-acetylglucosamine-1-phosphotransferase that transfers N-acetylglucosamine-1-phosphate from UDP-GlcNAc to the 4-hydroxyl of an N-acetylglucosamine-1-phosphate oligosaccharide. Oligosaccharides fluorescently labeled at the aglycon are extended by XcbA only after the 4-phosphate occupying the non-reducing GlcNAc has been removed. The minimum size of fluorescent acceptors is a trisaccharide.

  17. A novel phosphotransferase system of Streptococcus mutans is responsible for transport of carbohydrates with α-1,3 linkage.

    PubMed

    Ajdic, D; Chen, Z

    2013-04-01

    The most common type of carbohydrate-transport system in Streptococcus mutans is the phosphoenolpyruvate-sugar phosphotransferase system (PTS). Fourteen PTS exist in S. mutans UA159. Several studies have shown that microorganisms growing in biofilms express different genes compared with their planktonic counterparts. In this study, we showed that one PTS of S. mutans was expressed in sucrose-grown biofilms. Furthermore, the same PTS was also responsible for the transport and metabolism of disaccharide nigerose (3-O-α-d-glucopyranosyl-d-glucose). Additionally, the results indicate that the studied PTS might be involved in the transport and metabolism of carbohydrates synthesized by glucosyltransferase B and glucosyltransferase C of S. mutans. To our knowledge, this is the first report that shows PTS transport of a disaccharide (and possibly extracellular oligosaccharides) with α-1,3 linkage.

  18. Structural basis of rifampin inactivation by rifampin phosphotransferase

    PubMed Central

    Qi, Xiaofeng; Lin, Wei; Ma, Miaolian; Wang, Chengyuan; He, Yang; He, Nisha; Gao, Jing; Zhou, Hu; Xiao, Youli; Wang, Yong

    2016-01-01

    Rifampin (RIF) is a first-line drug used for the treatment of tuberculosis and other bacterial infections. Various RIF resistance mechanisms have been reported, and recently an RIF-inactivation enzyme, RIF phosphotransferase (RPH), was reported to phosphorylate RIF at its C21 hydroxyl at the cost of ATP. However, the underlying molecular mechanism remained unknown. Here, we solve the structures of RPH from Listeria monocytogenes (LmRPH) in different conformations. LmRPH comprises three domains: an ATP-binding domain (AD), an RIF-binding domain (RD), and a catalytic His-containing domain (HD). Structural analyses reveal that the C-terminal HD can swing between the AD and RD, like a toggle switch, to transfer phosphate. In addition to its catalytic role, the HD can bind to the AD and induce conformational changes that stabilize ATP binding, and the binding of the HD to the RD is required for the formation of the RIF-binding pocket. A line of hydrophobic residues forms the RIF-binding pocket and interacts with the 1-amino, 2-naphthol, 4-sulfonic acid and naphthol moieties of RIF. The R group of RIF points toward the outside of the pocket, explaining the low substrate selectivity of RPH. Four residues near the C21 hydroxyl of RIF, His825, Arg666, Lys670, and Gln337, were found to play essential roles in the phosphorylation of RIF; among these the His825 residue may function as the phosphate acceptor and donor. Our study reveals the molecular mechanism of RIF phosphorylation catalyzed by RPH and will guide the development of a new generation of rifamycins. PMID:27001859

  19. The phosphotransferase system of Lactobacillus casei: regulation of carbon metabolism and connection to cold shock response.

    PubMed

    Monedero, Vicente; Mazé, Alain; Boël, Grégory; Zúñiga, Manuel; Beaufils, Sophie; Hartke, Axel; Deutscher, Josef

    2007-01-01

    Genome sequencing of two different Lactobacillus casei strains (ATCC334 and BL23) is presently going on and preliminary data revealed that this lactic acid bacterium possesses numerous carbohydrate transport systems probably reflecting its capacity to proliferate under varying environmental conditions. Many carbohydrate transporters belong to the phosphoenolpyruvate:sugar phosphotransferase system (PTS), but all different kinds of non-PTS transporters are present as well and their substrates are known in a few cases. In L. casei regulation of carbohydrate transport and carbon metabolism is mainly achieved by PTS proteins. Carbon catabolite repression (CCR) is mediated via several mechanisms, including the major P-Ser-HPr/catabolite control protein A (CcpA)-dependent mechanism. Catabolite response elements, the target sites for the P-Ser-HPr/CcpA complex, precede numerous genes and operons. PTS regulation domain-containing antiterminators and transcription activators are also present in both L. casei strains. Their activity is usually controlled by two PTS-mediated phosphorylation reactions exerting antagonistic effects on the transcription regulators: P~EIIB-dependent phosphorylation regulates induction of the corresponding genes and P~His-HPr-mediated phosphorylation plays a role in CCR. Carbohydrate transport of L. casei is also regulated via inducer exclusion and inducer expulsion. The presence of glucose, fructose, etc. leads to inhibition of the transport or metabolism of less favorable carbon sources (inducer exclusion) or to the export of accumulated non-metabolizable carbon sources (inducer expulsion). While P-Ser-HPr is essential for inducer exclusion of maltose, it is not necessary for the expulsion of accumulated thio-methyl-beta-D-galactopyranoside. Surprisingly, recent evidence suggests that the PTS of L. casei also plays a role in cold shock response. PMID:17183208

  20. 40 CFR 174.526 - Hygromycin B phosphotransferase (APH4) marker protein in all plants; exemption from the...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 24 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Hygromycin B phosphotransferase (APH4) marker protein in all plants; exemption from the requirement of a tolerance. 174.526 Section 174.526... phosphotransferase (APH4) marker protein in all plants; exemption from the requirement of a tolerance. Residues...

  1. 40 CFR 174.526 - Hygromycin B phosphotransferase (APH4) marker protein in all plants; exemption from the...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 23 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Hygromycin B phosphotransferase (APH4) marker protein in all plants; exemption from the requirement of a tolerance. 174.526 Section 174.526... phosphotransferase (APH4) marker protein in all plants; exemption from the requirement of a tolerance. Residues...

  2. 40 CFR 174.526 - Hygromycin B phosphotransferase (APH4) marker protein in all plants; exemption from the...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 25 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Hygromycin B phosphotransferase (APH4) marker protein in all plants; exemption from the requirement of a tolerance. 174.526 Section 174.526... phosphotransferase (APH4) marker protein in all plants; exemption from the requirement of a tolerance. Residues...

  3. 40 CFR 174.526 - Hygromycin B phosphotransferase (APH4) marker protein in all plants; exemption from the...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 24 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Hygromycin B phosphotransferase (APH4) marker protein in all plants; exemption from the requirement of a tolerance. 174.526 Section 174.526... phosphotransferase (APH4) marker protein in all plants; exemption from the requirement of a tolerance. Residues...

  4. 40 CFR 174.526 - Hygromycin B phosphotransferase (APH4) marker protein in all plants; exemption from the...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 25 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Hygromycin B phosphotransferase (APH4) marker protein in all plants; exemption from the requirement of a tolerance. 174.526 Section 174.526... phosphotransferase (APH4) marker protein in all plants; exemption from the requirement of a tolerance. Residues...

  5. Mice Lacking Mannose 6-Phosphate Uncovering Enzyme Activity Have a Milder Phenotype than Mice Deficient for N-Acetylglucosamine-1-Phosphotransferase Activity

    PubMed Central

    Boonen, Marielle; Vogel, Peter; Platt, Kenneth A.; Dahms, Nancy

    2009-01-01

    The mannose 6-phosphate (Man-6-P) lysosomal targeting signal on acid hydrolases is synthesized by the sequential action of uridine 5′-diphosphate-N-acetylglucosamine: lysosomal enzyme N-acetylglucosamine-1-phosphotransferase (GlcNAc-1-phosphotransferase) and GlcNAc-1-phosphodiester α-N-acetylglucosaminidase (“uncovering enzyme” or UCE). Mutations in the two genes that encode GlcNAc-1-phosphotransferase give rise to lysosomal storage diseases (mucolipidosis type II and III), whereas no pathological conditions have been associated with the loss of UCE activity. To analyze the consequences of UCE deficiency, the UCE gene was inactivated via insertional mutagenesis in mice. The UCE −/− mice were viable, grew normally and lacked detectable histologic abnormalities. However, the plasma levels of six acid hydrolases were elevated 1.6- to 5.4-fold over wild-type levels. These values underestimate the degree of hydrolase hypersecretion as these enzymes were rapidly cleared from the plasma by the mannose receptor. The secreted hydrolases contained GlcNAc-P-Man diesters, exhibited a decreased affinity for the cation-independent mannose 6-phosphate receptor and failed to bind to the cation-dependent mannose 6-phosphate receptor. These data demonstrate that UCE accounts for all the uncovering activity in the Golgi. We propose that in the absence of UCE, the weak binding of the acid hydrolases to the cation-independent mannose 6-phosphate receptor allows sufficient sorting to lysosomes to prevent the tissue abnormalities seen with GlcNAc-1-phosphotranferase deficiency. PMID:19710420

  6. Purification, crystallization and preliminary X-ray analysis of Enterococcus casseliflavus aminoglycoside-2′′-phosphotransferase-IVa

    PubMed Central

    Toth, Marta; Vakulenko, Sergei; Smith, Clyde A.

    2010-01-01

    The deactivation of aminoglycoside antibiotics by chemical modification is one of the major sources of bacterial resistance to this family of therapeutic compounds, which includes the clinically relevant drugs streptomycin, kanamycin and gentamicin. The aminoglycoside phosphotransferases (APHs) form one such family of enzymes responsible for this resistance. The gene encoding one of these enzymes, aminoglycoside-2′′-phosphotransferase-IVa [APH(2′′)-IVa] from Enterococcus casseliflavus, has been cloned and the protein (comprising 306 amino-acid residues) has been expressed in Escherichia coli and purified. The enzyme was crystallized in three substrate-free forms. Two of the crystal forms belonged to the orthorhombic space group P212121 with similar unit-cell parameters, although one of the crystal forms had a unit-cell volume that was approximately 13% smaller than the other and a very low solvent content of around 38%. The third crystal form belonged to the monoclinic space group P21 and preliminary X-ray diffraction analysis was consistent with the presence of two molecules in the asymmetric unit. The orthorhombic crystal forms of apo APH(2′′)-IVa both diffracted to 2.2 Å resolution and the monoclinic crystal form diffracted to 2.4 Å resolution; synchrotron diffraction data were collected from these crystals at SSRL (Stanford, California, USA). Structure determination by molecular replacement using the structure of the related enzyme APH(2′′)-IIa is proceeding. PMID:20057078

  7. Genetic and Biochemical Characterization of the Phosphoenolpyruvate:Glucose/Mannose Phosphotransferase System of Streptococcus thermophilus

    PubMed Central

    Cochu, Armelle; Vadeboncoeur, Christian; Moineau, Sylvain; Frenette, Michel

    2003-01-01

    In most streptococci, glucose is transported by the phosphoenolpyruvate (PEP):glucose/mannose phosphotransferase system (PTS) via HPr and IIABMan, two proteins involved in regulatory mechanisms. While most strains of Streptococcus thermophilus do not or poorly metabolize glucose, compelling evidence suggests that S. thermophilus possesses the genes that encode the glucose/mannose general and specific PTS proteins. The purposes of this study were to determine (i) whether these PTS genes are expressed, (ii) whether the PTS proteins encoded by these genes are able to transfer a phosphate group from PEP to glucose/mannose PTS substrates, and (iii) whether these proteins catalyze sugar transport. The pts operon is made up of the genes encoding HPr (ptsH) and enzyme I (EI) (ptsI), which are transcribed into a 0.6-kb ptsH mRNA and a 2.3-kb ptsHI mRNA. The specific glucose/mannose PTS proteins, IIABMan, IICMan, IIDMan, and the ManO protein, are encoded by manL, manM, manN, and manO, respectively, which make up the man operon. The man operon is transcribed into a single 3.5-kb mRNA. To assess the phosphotransfer competence of these PTS proteins, in vitro PEP-dependent phosphorylation experiments were conducted with purified HPr, EI, and IIABMan as well as membrane fragments containing IICMan and IIDMan. These PTS components efficiently transferred a phosphate group from PEP to glucose, mannose, 2-deoxyglucose, and (to a lesser extent) fructose, which are common streptococcal glucose/mannose PTS substrates. Whole cells were unable to catalyze the uptake of mannose and 2-deoxyglucose, demonstrating the inability of the S. thermophilus PTS proteins to operate as a proficient transport system. This inability to transport mannose and 2-deoxyglucose may be due to a defective IIC domain. We propose that in S. thermophilus, the general and specific glucose/mannose PTS proteins are not involved in glucose transport but might have regulatory functions associated with the

  8. Multiple Domains of GlcNAc-1-phosphotransferase Mediate Recognition of Lysosomal Enzymes.

    PubMed

    van Meel, Eline; Lee, Wang-Sik; Liu, Lin; Qian, Yi; Doray, Balraj; Kornfeld, Stuart

    2016-04-01

    The Golgi enzyme UDP-GlcNAc:lysosomal enzymeN-acetylglucosamine-1-phosphotransferase (GlcNAc-1-phosphotransferase), an α2β2γ2hexamer, mediates the initial step in the addition of the mannose 6-phosphate targeting signal on newly synthesized lysosomal enzymes. This tag serves to direct the lysosomal enzymes to lysosomes. A key property of GlcNAc-1-phosphotransferase is its unique ability to distinguish the 60 or so lysosomal enzymes from the numerous non-lysosomal glycoproteins with identical Asn-linked glycans. In this study, we demonstrate that the two Notch repeat modules and the DNA methyltransferase-associated protein interaction domain of the α subunit are key components of this recognition process. Importantly, different combinations of these domains are involved in binding to individual lysosomal enzymes. This study also identifies the γ-binding site on the α subunit and demonstrates that in the majority of instances the mannose 6-phosphate receptor homology domain of the γ subunit is required for optimal phosphorylation. These findings serve to explain how GlcNAc-1-phosphotransferase recognizes a large number of proteins that lack a common structural motif. PMID:26833567

  9. 40 CFR 174.521 - Neomycin phosphotransferase II; exemption from the requirement of a tolerance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) PESTICIDE PROGRAMS PROCEDURES AND REQUIREMENTS FOR PLANT...; exemption from the requirement of a tolerance. Residues of the neomycin phosphotransferase II (NPTII) enzyme are exempted from the requirement of a tolerance in all food commodities when used as a...

  10. 40 CFR 174.521 - Neomycin phosphotransferase II; exemption from the requirement of a tolerance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) PESTICIDE PROGRAMS PROCEDURES AND REQUIREMENTS FOR PLANT...; exemption from the requirement of a tolerance. Residues of the neomycin phosphotransferase II (NPTII) enzyme are exempted from the requirement of a tolerance in all food commodities when used as a...

  11. 40 CFR 174.521 - Neomycin phosphotransferase II; exemption from the requirement of a tolerance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) PESTICIDE PROGRAMS PROCEDURES AND REQUIREMENTS FOR PLANT...; exemption from the requirement of a tolerance. Residues of the neomycin phosphotransferase II (NPTII) enzyme are exempted from the requirement of a tolerance in all food commodities when used as a...

  12. 40 CFR 174.521 - Neomycin phosphotransferase II; exemption from the requirement of a tolerance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) PESTICIDE PROGRAMS PROCEDURES AND REQUIREMENTS FOR PLANT...; exemption from the requirement of a tolerance. Residues of the neomycin phosphotransferase II (NPTII) enzyme are exempted from the requirement of a tolerance in all food commodities when used as a...

  13. Nitrogen regulator GlnR controls uptake and utilization of non-phosphotransferase-system carbon sources in actinomycetes.

    PubMed

    Liao, Cheng-Heng; Yao, Lili; Xu, Ya; Liu, Wei-Bing; Zhou, Ying; Ye, Bang-Ce

    2015-12-22

    The regulatory mechanisms underlying the uptake and utilization of multiple types of carbohydrates in actinomycetes remain poorly understood. In this study, we show that GlnR (central regulator of nitrogen metabolism) serves as a universal regulator of nitrogen metabolism and plays an important, previously unknown role in controlling the transport of non-phosphotransferase-system (PTS) carbon sources in actinomycetes. It was observed that GlnR can directly interact with the promoters of most (13 of 20) carbohydrate ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporter loci and can activate the transcription of these genes in response to nitrogen availability in industrial, erythromycin-producing Saccharopolyspora erythraea. Deletion of the glnR gene resulted in severe growth retardation under the culture conditions used, with select ABC-transported carbohydrates (maltose, sorbitol, mannitol, cellobiose, trehalose, or mannose) used as the sole carbon source. Furthermore, we found that GlnR-mediated regulation of carbohydrate transport was highly conserved in actinomycetes. These results demonstrate that GlnR serves a role beyond nitrogen metabolism, mediating critical functions in carbon metabolism and crosstalk of nitrogen- and carbon-metabolism pathways in response to the nutritional states of cells. These findings provide insights into the molecular regulation of transport and metabolism of non-PTS carbohydrates and reveal potential applications for the cofermentation of biomass-derived sugars in the production of biofuels and bio-based chemicals.

  14. Nitrogen regulator GlnR controls uptake and utilization of non-phosphotransferase-system carbon sources in actinomycetes.

    PubMed

    Liao, Cheng-Heng; Yao, Lili; Xu, Ya; Liu, Wei-Bing; Zhou, Ying; Ye, Bang-Ce

    2015-12-22

    The regulatory mechanisms underlying the uptake and utilization of multiple types of carbohydrates in actinomycetes remain poorly understood. In this study, we show that GlnR (central regulator of nitrogen metabolism) serves as a universal regulator of nitrogen metabolism and plays an important, previously unknown role in controlling the transport of non-phosphotransferase-system (PTS) carbon sources in actinomycetes. It was observed that GlnR can directly interact with the promoters of most (13 of 20) carbohydrate ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporter loci and can activate the transcription of these genes in response to nitrogen availability in industrial, erythromycin-producing Saccharopolyspora erythraea. Deletion of the glnR gene resulted in severe growth retardation under the culture conditions used, with select ABC-transported carbohydrates (maltose, sorbitol, mannitol, cellobiose, trehalose, or mannose) used as the sole carbon source. Furthermore, we found that GlnR-mediated regulation of carbohydrate transport was highly conserved in actinomycetes. These results demonstrate that GlnR serves a role beyond nitrogen metabolism, mediating critical functions in carbon metabolism and crosstalk of nitrogen- and carbon-metabolism pathways in response to the nutritional states of cells. These findings provide insights into the molecular regulation of transport and metabolism of non-PTS carbohydrates and reveal potential applications for the cofermentation of biomass-derived sugars in the production of biofuels and bio-based chemicals. PMID:26644570

  15. Nitrogen regulator GlnR controls uptake and utilization of non-phosphotransferase-system carbon sources in actinomycetes

    PubMed Central

    Liao, Cheng-Heng; Yao, Lili; Xu, Ya; Liu, Wei-Bing; Zhou, Ying; Ye, Bang-Ce

    2015-01-01

    The regulatory mechanisms underlying the uptake and utilization of multiple types of carbohydrates in actinomycetes remain poorly understood. In this study, we show that GlnR (central regulator of nitrogen metabolism) serves as a universal regulator of nitrogen metabolism and plays an important, previously unknown role in controlling the transport of non-phosphotransferase-system (PTS) carbon sources in actinomycetes. It was observed that GlnR can directly interact with the promoters of most (13 of 20) carbohydrate ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporter loci and can activate the transcription of these genes in response to nitrogen availability in industrial, erythromycin-producing Saccharopolyspora erythraea. Deletion of the glnR gene resulted in severe growth retardation under the culture conditions used, with select ABC-transported carbohydrates (maltose, sorbitol, mannitol, cellobiose, trehalose, or mannose) used as the sole carbon source. Furthermore, we found that GlnR-mediated regulation of carbohydrate transport was highly conserved in actinomycetes. These results demonstrate that GlnR serves a role beyond nitrogen metabolism, mediating critical functions in carbon metabolism and crosstalk of nitrogen- and carbon-metabolism pathways in response to the nutritional states of cells. These findings provide insights into the molecular regulation of transport and metabolism of non-PTS carbohydrates and reveal potential applications for the cofermentation of biomass-derived sugars in the production of biofuels and bio-based chemicals. PMID:26644570

  16. The Histidine-Phosphocarrier Protein of the Phosphoenolpyruvate: Sugar Phosphotransferase System of Bacillus sphaericus Self-Associates

    PubMed Central

    Doménech, Rosa; Hernández-Cifre, José G.; Bacarizo, Julio; Díez-Peña, Ana I.; Martínez-Rodríguez, Sergio; Cavasotto, Claudio N.; de la Torre, José García; Cámara-Artigás, Ana; Velázquez-Campoy, Adrián; Neira, José L.

    2013-01-01

    The phosphotransferase system (PTS) is involved in the use of carbon sources in bacteria. Bacillus sphaericus, a bacterium with the ability to produce insecticidal proteins, is unable to use hexoses and pentoses as the sole carbon source, but it has ptsHI genes encoding the two general proteins of the PTS: enzyme I (EI) and the histidine phosphocarrier (HPr). In this work, we describe the biophysical and structural properties of HPr from B. sphaericus, HPrbs, and its affinity towards EI of other species to find out whether there is inter-species binding. Conversely to what happens to other members of the HPr family, HPrbs forms several self-associated species. The conformational stability of the protein is low, and it unfolds irreversibly during heating. The protein binds to the N-terminal domain of EI from Streptomyces coelicolor, EINsc, with a higher affinity than that of the natural partner of EINsc, HPrsc. Modelling of the complex between EINsc and HPrbs suggests that binding occurs similarly to that observed in other HPr species. We discuss the functional implications of the oligomeric states of HPrbs for the glycolytic activity of B. sphaericus, as well as a strategy to inhibit binding between HPrsc and EINsc. PMID:23922699

  17. YeeI, a novel protein involved in modulation of the activity of the glucose-phosphotransferase system in Escherichia coli K-12.

    PubMed

    Becker, Ann-Katrin; Zeppenfeld, Tim; Staab, Ariane; Seitz, Sabine; Boos, Winfried; Morita, Teppei; Aiba, Hiroji; Mahr, Kerstin; Titgemeyer, Fritz; Jahreis, Knut

    2006-08-01

    The membrane-bound protein EIICB(Glc) encoded by the ptsG gene is the major glucose transporter in Escherichia coli. This protein is part of the phosphoenolpyruvate:glucose-phosphotransferase system, a very important transport and signal transduction system in bacteria. The regulation of ptsG expression is very complex. Among others, two major regulators, the repressor Mlc and the cyclic AMP-cyclic AMP receptor protein activator complex, have been identified. Here we report identification of a novel protein, YeeI, that is involved in the regulation of ptsG by interacting with Mlc. Mutants with reduced activity of the glucose-phosphotransferase system were isolated by transposon mutagenesis. One class of mutations was located in the open reading frame yeeI at 44.1 min on the E. coli K-12 chromosome. The yeeI mutants exhibited increased generation times during growth on glucose, reduced transport of methyl-alpha-d-glucopyranoside, a substrate of EIICB(Glc), reduced induction of a ptsG-lacZ operon fusion, and reduced catabolite repression in lactose/glucose diauxic growth experiments. These observations were the result of decreased ptsG expression and a decrease in the amount of EIICB(Glc). In contrast, overexpression of yeeI resulted in higher expression of ptsG, of a ptsG-lacZ operon fusion, and of the autoregulated dgsA gene. The effect of a yeeI mutation could be suppressed by introducing a dgsA deletion, implying that the two proteins belong to the same signal transduction pathway and that Mlc is epistatic to YeeI. By measuring the surface plasmon resonance, we found that YeeI (proposed gene designation, mtfA) directly interacts with Mlc with high affinity. PMID:16855233

  18. Recombinant organisms capable of fermenting cellobiose

    DOEpatents

    Ingram, Lonnie O.; Lai, Xiaokuang; Moniruzzaman, Mohammed; York, Sean W.

    2000-01-01

    This invention relates to a recombinant microorganism which expresses pyruvate decarboxylase, alcohol dehydrogenase, Klebsiella phospho-.beta.-glucosidase and Klebsiella (phosphoenolpyruvate-dependent phosphotransferase system) cellobiose-utilizing Enzyme II, wherein said phospho-.beta.-glucosidase and said (phosphoenolpyruvate-dependent phosphotransferase) cellobiose-utilizing Enzyme II are heterologous to said microorganism and wherein said microorganism is capable of utilizing both hemicellulose and cellulose, including cellobiose, in the production of ethanol.

  19. Nutritional control of antibiotic resistance via an interface between the phosphotransferase system and a two-component signaling system.

    PubMed

    Snyder, Holly; Kellogg, Stephanie L; Skarda, Laura M; Little, Jaime L; Kristich, Christopher J

    2014-01-01

    Enterococci are ubiquitous inhabitants of the gastrointestinal (GI) tract. However, antibiotic-resistant enterococci are also major causes of hospital-acquired infections. Enterococci are intrinsically resistant to cephalosporins, enabling growth to abnormally high densities in the GI tract in patients during cephalosporin therapy, thereby promoting dissemination to other sites where they cause infection. Despite its importance, many questions about the underlying basis for cephalosporin resistance remain. A specific two-component signaling system, composed of the CroS sensor kinase and its cognate response regulator (CroR), is required for cephalosporin resistance in Enterococcus faecalis, but little is known about the factors that control this signaling system to modulate resistance. To explore the signaling network in which CroR participates to influence cephalosporin resistance, we employed a protein fragment complementation assay to detect protein-protein interactions in E. faecalis cells, revealing a previously unknown association of CroR with the HPr protein of the phosphotransferase system (PTS) responsible for carbohydrate uptake and catabolite control of gene expression. Genetic and physiological analyses indicate that association with HPr restricts the ability of CroR to promote cephalosporin resistance and gene expression in a nutrient-dependent manner. Mutational analysis suggests that the interface used by HPr to associate with CroR is distinct from the interface used to associate with other cellular partners. Our results define a physical and functional connection between a critical nutrient-responsive signaling system (the PTS) and a two-component signaling system that drives antibiotic resistance in E. faecalis, and they suggest a general strategy by which bacteria can integrate their nutritional status with diverse environmental stimuli.

  20. Purification, crystallization and preliminary X-ray analysis of aminoglycoside-2′′-phosphotransferase-Ic [APH(2′′)-Ic] from Enterococcus gallinarum

    SciTech Connect

    Byrnes, Laura J.; Badarau, Adriana; Vakulenko, Sergei B.; Smith, Clyde A.

    2008-02-01

    APH(2′′)-Ic is an enzyme that is responsible for high-level gentamicin resistance in E. gallinarum isolates. Crystals of the wild-type enzyme and three mutants have been prepared and a complete X-ray diffraction data set was collected to 2.15 Å resolution from an F108L crystal. Bacterial resistance to aminoglycoside antibiotics is primarily the result of deactivation of the drugs. Three families of enzymes are responsible for this activity, with one such family being the aminoglycoside phosphotransferases (APHs). The gene encoding one of these enzymes, aminoglycoside-2′′-phosphotransferase-Ic [APH(2′′)-Ic] from Enterococcus gallinarum, has been cloned and the wild-type protein (comprising 308 amino-acid residues) and three mutants that showed elevated minimum inhibitory concentrations towards gentamicin (F108L, H258L and a double mutant F108L/H258L) were expressed in Escherichia coli and subsequently purified. All APH(2′′)-Ic variants were crystallized in the presence of 14–20%(w/v) PEG 4000, 0.25 M MgCl{sub 2}, 0.1 M Tris–HCl pH 8.5 and 1 mM Mg{sub 2}GTP. The crystals belong to the monoclinic space group C2, with one molecule in the asymmetric unit. The approximate unit-cell parameters are a = 82.4, b = 54.2, c = 77.0 Å, β = 108.8°. X-ray diffraction data were collected to approximately 2.15 Å resolution from an F108L crystal at beamline BL9-2 at SSRL, Stanford, California, USA.

  1. Thermodynamic mechanism for inhibition of lactose permease by the phosphotransferase protein IIAGlc

    PubMed Central

    Hariharan, Parameswaran; Balasubramaniam, Dhandayuthapani; Peterkofsky, Alan; Kaback, H. Ronald

    2015-01-01

    In a variety of bacteria, the phosphotransferase protein IIAGlc plays a key regulatory role in catabolite repression in addition to its role in the vectorial phosphorylation of glucose catalyzed by the phosphoenolpyruvate:carbohydrate phosphotransferase system (PTS). The lactose permease (LacY) of Escherichia coli catalyzes stoichiometric symport of a galactoside with an H+, using a mechanism in which sugar- and H+-binding sites become alternatively accessible to either side of the membrane. Both the expression (via regulation of cAMP levels) and the activity of LacY are subject to regulation by IIAGlc (inducer exclusion). Here we report the thermodynamic features of the IIAGlc–LacY interaction as measured by isothermal titration calorimetry (ITC). The studies show that IIAGlc binds to LacY with a Kd of about 5 μM and a stoichiometry of unity and that binding is driven by solvation entropy and opposed by enthalpy. Upon IIAGlc binding, the conformational entropy of LacY is restrained, which leads to a significant decrease in sugar affinity. By suppressing conformational dynamics, IIAGlc blocks inducer entry into cells and favors constitutive glucose uptake and utilization. Furthermore, the studies support the notion that sugar binding involves an induced-fit mechanism that is inhibited by IIAGlc binding. The precise mechanism of the inhibition of LacY by IIAGlc elucidated by ITC differs from the inhibition of melibiose permease (MelB), supporting the idea that permeases can differ in their thermodynamic response to binding IIAGlc. PMID:25675534

  2. Crystal Structure of Butyrate Kinase 2 from Thermotoga maritima, a Member of the ASKHA Superfamily of Phosphotransferases

    SciTech Connect

    Diao, Jiasheng; Hasson, Miriam S.

    2009-04-01

    The enzymatic transfer of phosphoryl groups is central to the control of many cellular processes. One of the phosphoryl transfer mechanisms, that of acetate kinase, is not completely understood. Besides better understanding of the mechanism of acetate kinase, knowledge of the structure of butyrate kinase 2 (Buk2) will aid in the interpretation of active-site structure and provide information on the structural basis of substrate specificity. The gene buk2 from Thermotoga maritima encodes a member of the ASKHA (acetate and sugar kinases/heat shock cognate/actin) superfamily of phosphotransferases. The encoded protein Buk2 catalyzes the phosphorylation of butyrate and isobutyrate. We have determined the 2.5-{angstrom} crystal structure of Buk2 complexed with ({beta},{gamma}-methylene) adenosine 5'-triphosphate. Buk2 folds like an open-shelled clam, with each of the two domains representing one of the two shells. In the open active-site cleft between the N- and C-terminal domains, the active-site residues consist of two histidines, two arginines, and a cluster of hydrophobic residues. The ATP binding region of Buk2 in the C-terminal domain consists of abundant glycines for nucleotide binding, and the ATP binding motif is similar to those of other members of the ASKHA superfamily. The enzyme exists as an octamer, in which four disulfide bonds form between intermolecular cysteines. Sequence alignment and structure superposition identify the simplicity of the monomeric Buk2 structure, a probable substrate binding site, the key residues in catalyzing phosphoryl transfer, and the substrate specificity differences among Buk2, acetate, and propionate kinases. The possible enzyme mechanisms are discussed.

  3. Synbiotic impact of tagatose on viability of Lactobacillus rhamnosus strain GG mediated by the phosphotransferase system (PTS).

    PubMed

    Koh, Ji Hoon; Choi, Seung Hye; Park, Seung Won; Choi, Nag-Jin; Kim, Younghoon; Kim, Sae Hun

    2013-10-01

    Synbiotics, the combination of prebiotics and probiotics, has been shown to produce synergistic effects that promote gastrointestinal well-being of host. Tagatose is a low calorie food ingredient with putative health-promoting benefits. Herein, we investigated its synbiotic impact on the viability of Lactobacillus casei 01 and Lactobacillus rhamnosus strain GG and the potential mechanism involved. Tagatose, as a synbiotic substrate, enhanced the growth of L. casei 01 and L. rhamnosus strain GG compared to other prebiotics. Other gut-indigenous such as Clostridium spp. readily utilized fructooligosaccharide (FOS), the most widely used functional prebiotics, but not tagatose. Additionally, tagatose enhanced probiotic functions of L. casei 01 and L. rhamnosus strain GG by reinforcing their attachment on HT-29 intestine epithelial cells and enhancing their cholesterol-lowering activities. Whole transcriptome study and quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) test showed that the presence of tagatose in L. rhamnosus strain GG caused induction of a large number of genes associated with carbohydrate metabolism including the phosphotransferase system (PTS). Collectively, these results indicate the tagatose enhanced the growth of L. casei 01 and L. rhamnosus strain GG and their probiotic activities by activating tagatose-associated PTS networks. Importantly, this study highlights the potential application of tagatose and L. casei 01 and/or L. rhamnosus strain GG as a synbiotic partner in functional dairy foods (i.e. yogurt and cheese) and therapeutic dietary supplements. PMID:23764214

  4. Synbiotic impact of tagatose on viability of Lactobacillus rhamnosus strain GG mediated by the phosphotransferase system (PTS).

    PubMed

    Koh, Ji Hoon; Choi, Seung Hye; Park, Seung Won; Choi, Nag-Jin; Kim, Younghoon; Kim, Sae Hun

    2013-10-01

    Synbiotics, the combination of prebiotics and probiotics, has been shown to produce synergistic effects that promote gastrointestinal well-being of host. Tagatose is a low calorie food ingredient with putative health-promoting benefits. Herein, we investigated its synbiotic impact on the viability of Lactobacillus casei 01 and Lactobacillus rhamnosus strain GG and the potential mechanism involved. Tagatose, as a synbiotic substrate, enhanced the growth of L. casei 01 and L. rhamnosus strain GG compared to other prebiotics. Other gut-indigenous such as Clostridium spp. readily utilized fructooligosaccharide (FOS), the most widely used functional prebiotics, but not tagatose. Additionally, tagatose enhanced probiotic functions of L. casei 01 and L. rhamnosus strain GG by reinforcing their attachment on HT-29 intestine epithelial cells and enhancing their cholesterol-lowering activities. Whole transcriptome study and quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) test showed that the presence of tagatose in L. rhamnosus strain GG caused induction of a large number of genes associated with carbohydrate metabolism including the phosphotransferase system (PTS). Collectively, these results indicate the tagatose enhanced the growth of L. casei 01 and L. rhamnosus strain GG and their probiotic activities by activating tagatose-associated PTS networks. Importantly, this study highlights the potential application of tagatose and L. casei 01 and/or L. rhamnosus strain GG as a synbiotic partner in functional dairy foods (i.e. yogurt and cheese) and therapeutic dietary supplements.

  5. Crystal structure of butyrate kinase 2 from Thermotoga maritima, a member of the ASKHA superfamily of phosphotransferases.

    PubMed

    Diao, Jiasheng; Hasson, Miriam S

    2009-04-01

    The enzymatic transfer of phosphoryl groups is central to the control of many cellular processes. One of the phosphoryl transfer mechanisms, that of acetate kinase, is not completely understood. Besides better understanding of the mechanism of acetate kinase, knowledge of the structure of butyrate kinase 2 (Buk2) will aid in the interpretation of active-site structure and provide information on the structural basis of substrate specificity. The gene buk2 from Thermotoga maritima encodes a member of the ASKHA (acetate and sugar kinases/heat shock cognate/actin) superfamily of phosphotransferases. The encoded protein Buk2 catalyzes the phosphorylation of butyrate and isobutyrate. We have determined the 2.5-A crystal structure of Buk2 complexed with (beta,gamma-methylene) adenosine 5'-triphosphate. Buk2 folds like an open-shelled clam, with each of the two domains representing one of the two shells. In the open active-site cleft between the N- and C-terminal domains, the active-site residues consist of two histidines, two arginines, and a cluster of hydrophobic residues. The ATP binding region of Buk2 in the C-terminal domain consists of abundant glycines for nucleotide binding, and the ATP binding motif is similar to those of other members of the ASKHA superfamily. The enzyme exists as an octamer, in which four disulfide bonds form between intermolecular cysteines. Sequence alignment and structure superposition identify the simplicity of the monomeric Buk2 structure, a probable substrate binding site, the key residues in catalyzing phosphoryl transfer, and the substrate specificity differences among Buk2, acetate, and propionate kinases. The possible enzyme mechanisms are discussed.

  6. Rapid and Liquid-Based Selection of Genetic Switches Using Nucleoside Kinase Fused with Aminoglycoside Phosphotransferase

    PubMed Central

    Kawai-Noma, Shigeko; Saito, Kyoichi; Umeno, Daisuke

    2015-01-01

    The evolutionary design of genetic switches and circuits requires iterative rounds of positive (ON-) and negative (OFF-) selection. We previously reported a rapid OFF selection system based on the kinase activity of herpes simplex virus thymidine kinase (hsvTK) on the artificial mutator nucleoside dP. By fusing hsvTK with the kanamycin resistance marker aminoglycoside-(3’)-phosphotransferase (APH), we established a novel selector system for genetic switches. Due to the bactericidal nature of kanamycin and nucleoside-based lethal mutagenesis, both positive and negative selection could be completed within several hours. Using this new selector system, we isolated a series of homoserine lactone-inducible genetic switches with different expression efficiencies from libraries of the Vibrio fischeri lux promoter in two days, using only liquid handling. PMID:25790096

  7. The phosphoenolpyruvate:sugar phosphotransferase system is involved in sensitivity to the glucosylated bacteriocin sublancin.

    PubMed

    Garcia De Gonzalo, C V; Denham, E L; Mars, R A T; Stülke, J; van der Donk, W A; van Dijl, J M

    2015-11-01

    The mode of action of a group of glycosylated antimicrobial peptides known as glycocins remains to be elucidated. In the current study of one glycocin, sublancin, we identified the phosphoenolpyruvate:sugar phosphotransferase system (PTS) of Bacillus species as a key player in bacterial sensitivity. Sublancin kills several Gram-positive bacteria, such as Bacillus species and Staphylococcus aureus, including methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA). Unlike other classes of bacteriocins for which the PTS is involved in their mechanism of action, we show that the addition of PTS-requiring sugars leads to increased resistance rather than increased sensitivity, suggesting that sublancin has a distinct mechanism of action. Collectively, our present mutagenesis and genomic studies demonstrate that the histidine-containing phosphocarrier protein (HPr) and domain A of enzyme II (PtsG) in particular are critical determinants for bacterial sensitivity to sublancin. PMID:26282429

  8. The Phosphoenolpyruvate:Sugar Phosphotransferase System Is Involved in Sensitivity to the Glucosylated Bacteriocin Sublancin

    PubMed Central

    Garcia De Gonzalo, C. V.; Denham, E. L.; Mars, R. A. T.; Stülke, J.

    2015-01-01

    The mode of action of a group of glycosylated antimicrobial peptides known as glycocins remains to be elucidated. In the current study of one glycocin, sublancin, we identified the phosphoenolpyruvate:sugar phosphotransferase system (PTS) of Bacillus species as a key player in bacterial sensitivity. Sublancin kills several Gram-positive bacteria, such as Bacillus species and Staphylococcus aureus, including methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA). Unlike other classes of bacteriocins for which the PTS is involved in their mechanism of action, we show that the addition of PTS-requiring sugars leads to increased resistance rather than increased sensitivity, suggesting that sublancin has a distinct mechanism of action. Collectively, our present mutagenesis and genomic studies demonstrate that the histidine-containing phosphocarrier protein (HPr) and domain A of enzyme II (PtsG) in particular are critical determinants for bacterial sensitivity to sublancin. PMID:26282429

  9. Glycogen contains phosphodiester groups that can be introduced by UDPglucose: glycogen glucose 1-phosphotransferase.

    PubMed

    Lomako, J; Lomako, W M; Whelan, W J; Marchase, R B

    1993-08-30

    Rabbit-muscle glycogen contains covalently bound phosphorus, equivalent to 1 phosphate group per 208 glucose residues. This often disputed, minor component was previously thought to represent a phosphomonoester group at C-6 of a glucose residue. Here we show that more than half the phosphorus is present as a phosphodiester, the remainder being monoester. A novel enzyme activity has been found in muscle that can account for the presence of the phosphodiester in glycogen. This is a UDPglucose: glycogen glucose 1-phosphotransferase that positions glucose 1-phosphate on C-6 of glucose residues in glycogen, forming a diester. The phosphomonoester groups present may arise by removal of the glucose residue originally transferred as glucose 1-phosphate. PMID:8396041

  10. From Cytosol to the Apoplast: The Hygromycin Phosphotransferase (HYG(R)) Model in Arabidopsis.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Haiyan; Li, Jinjin

    2016-01-01

    The process by which proteins are secreted via endoplasmic reticulum (ER)/Golgi-independent mechanism is conveniently called unconventional protein secretion. Recent studies have revealed that unconventional protein secretion operates in plants, but little is known about its underlying mechanism and function. This chapter provides methods we have used to analyze unconventional character of hygromycin phosphotransferase (HYG(R)) secretion in plant cells. Following isolation of protoplasts from HYG (R) -GFP-transgenic plants and incubation with brefeldin A (BFA), an inhibitor of conventional secretory pathway, we easily obtain protein extracts from protoplasts and culture medium separately. These proteins are separated by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE), followed by Western blot analysis with anti-GFP antibodies. PMID:27665552

  11. Regulation of the sacPA operon of Bacillus subtilis: identification of phosphotransferase system components involved in SacT activity.

    PubMed

    Arnaud, M; Vary, P; Zagorec, M; Klier, A; Debarbouille, M; Postma, P; Rapoport, G

    1992-05-01

    The sacT gene which controls the sacPA operon of Bacillus subtilis encodes a polypeptide homologous to the B. subtilis SacY and the Escherichia coli BglG antiterminators. Expression of the sacT gene is shown to be constitutive. The DNA sequence upstream from sacP contains a palindromic sequence which functions as a transcriptional terminator. We have previously proposed that SacT acts as a transcriptional antiterminator, allowing transcription of the sacPA operon. In strains containing mutations inactivating ptsH or ptsI, the expression of sacPA and sacB is constitutive. In this work, we show that this constitutivity is due to a fully active SacY antiterminator. In the wild-type sacT+ strain or in the sacT30 mutant, SacT requires both enzyme I and HPr of the phosphotransferase system (PTS) for antitermination. It appears that the PTS exerts different effects on the sacB gene and the sacPA operon. The general proteins of the PTS are not required for the activity of SacY while they are necessary for SacT activity. PMID:1577686

  12. UDP-GlcNAc:Glycoprotein N-acetylglucosamine-1-phosphotransferase mediates the initial step in the formation of the methylphosphomannosyl residues on the high mannose oligosaccharides of Dictyostelium discoideum glycoproteins.

    PubMed

    Qian, Yi; West, Christopher M; Kornfeld, Stuart

    2010-03-19

    The Dictyostelium discoideum gene gpt1 encodes a protein XP_638036 with sequence similarity to the alpha/beta subunits of mammalian UDP-GlcNAc:Glycoprotein N-acetylglucosamine-1-phosphotransferase. We now demonstrate that extracts of D. discoideum clones with mutations in this gene transfer GlcNAc-P from UDP-GlcNAc to mannose residues at less than 5% the wild type value. Further, the lysosomal hydrolases of these mutant clones fail to bind to a cation-independent mannose 6-phosphate receptor affinity column, indicating a lack of methylphosphomannosyl residues on the high mannose oligosaccharides of these proteins. We conclude that the gpt1 gene product catalyzes the initial step in the formation of methylphosphomannosyl residues on D. discoideum lysosomal hydrolases.

  13. The amino acid sequence of GTP:AMP phosphotransferase from beef-heart mitochondria. Extensive homology with cytosolic adenylate kinase.

    PubMed

    Wieland, B; Tomasselli, A G; Noda, L H; Frank, R; Schulz, G E

    1984-09-01

    The amino acid sequence of GTP:AMP phosphotransferase (AK3) from beef-heart mitochondria has been determined, except for one segment of about 33 residues in the middle of the polypeptide chain. The established sequence has been unambiguously aligned to the sequence of cytosolic ATP:AMP phosphotransferase (AK1) from pig muscle, allowing for six insertions and deletions. With 30% of all aligned residues being identical, the homology between AK3 and AK1 is well established. As derived from the known three-dimensional structure of AK1, the missing segment is localized at a small surface area of the molecule, far apart from the active center. The pattern of conserved residues demonstrates that earlier views on substrate binding have to be modified. The observation of three different consecutive N-termini indicates enzyme processing.

  14. Structure of the Antibiotic Resistance Factor Spectinomycin Phosphotransferase from Legionella pneumophila

    SciTech Connect

    Fong, D.; Lemke, C; Huang, J; Xiong, B; Berghuis, A

    2010-01-01

    Aminoglycoside phosphotransferases (APHs) constitute a diverse group of enzymes that are often the underlying cause of aminoglycoside resistance in the clinical setting. Several APHs have been extensively characterized, including the elucidation of the three-dimensional structure of two APH(3{prime}) isozymes and an APH(2{double_prime}) enzyme. Although many APHs are plasmid-encoded and are capable of inactivating numerous 2-deoxystreptmaine aminoglycosides with multiple regiospecificity, APH(9)-Ia, isolated from Legionella pneumophila, is an unusual enzyme among the APH family for its chromosomal origin and its specificity for a single non-2-deoxystreptamine aminoglycoside substrate, spectinomycin. We describe here the crystal structures of APH(9)-Ia in its apo form, its binary complex with the nucleotide, AMP, and its ternary complex bound with ADP and spectinomycin. The structures reveal that APH(9)-Ia adopts the bilobal protein kinase-fold, analogous to the APH(3{prime}) and APH(2{double_prime}) enzymes. However, APH(9)-Ia differs significantly from the other two types of APH enzymes in its substrate binding area and that it undergoes a conformation change upon ligand binding. Moreover, kinetic assay experiments indicate that APH(9)-Ia has stringent substrate specificity as it is unable to phosphorylate substrates of choline kinase or methylthioribose kinase despite high structural resemblance. The crystal structures of APH(9)-Ia demonstrate and expand our understanding of the diversity of the APH family, which in turn will facilitate the development of new antibiotics and inhibitors.

  15. Phosphoenolpyruvate:glycose phosphotransferase system in species of Vibrio, a widely distributed marine bacterial genus.

    PubMed Central

    Meadow, N D; Revuelta, R; Chen, V N; Colwell, R R; Roseman, S

    1987-01-01

    The genus Vibrio is one of the most common and widely distributed groups of marine bacteria. Studies on the physiology of marine Vibrio species were initiated by examining 15 species for the bacterial phosphoenolpyruvate:glycose phosphotransferase system (PTS). All species tested contained a PTS analogous to the glucose-specific (IIGlc) system in enteric bacteria. Crude extracts of the cells showed immunological cross-reactivity with antibodies to enzyme I, HPr, and IIIGlc from Salmonella typhimurium when assayed by the rocket-line method. Toluene-permeabilized cells of 11 species were tested and were active in phosphorylating methyl alpha-D-glucoside with phosphoenolpyruvate but not ATP as the phosphoryl donor. Membranes from 10 species were assayed, and they phosphorylated methyl alpha-D-glucoside when supplemented with a phospho-IIIGlc-generating system composed of homogeneous proteins from enteric bacteria. Toluene-permeabilized cells and membranes of seven species were assayed, as were phosphorylated fructose and 2-deoxyglucose. IIIGlc was isolated from Vibrio fluvialis and was active in phosphorylating methyl alpha-D-glucoside when supplemented with a phospho-HPr-generating system composed of homogeneous proteins from Escherichia coli and membranes from either E. coli or V. fluvialis. These results show that the bacterial PTS is widely distributed in the marine environment and that it is likely to have a significant role in marine bacterial physiology and in the marine ecosystem. Images PMID:3667518

  16. EDD, a novel phosphotransferase domain common to mannose transporter EIIA, dihydroxyacetone kinase, and DegV.

    PubMed

    Kinch, Lisa N; Cheek, Sara; Grishin, Nick V

    2005-02-01

    Using a recently developed program (SCOPmap) designed to automatically assign new protein structures to existing evolutionary-based classification schemes, we identify a evolutionarily conserved domain (EDD) common to three different folds: mannose transporter EIIA domain (EIIA-man), dihydroxyacetone kinase (Dak), and DegV. Several lines of evidence support unification of these three folds into a single superfamily: statistically significant sequence similarity detected by PSI-BLAST; "closed structural grouping" using DALI Z-scores (each protein inside a group finds all other group members with scores higher than those to proteins outside the group) that includes only these proteins sharing a unique alpha-helical hairpin at the C-terminus and excludes all other proteins with similar topology; similar domain fusions connect Dak and DegV, and genomic neighborhood organizations connect Dak and EIIA-man. Finally, both Dak and EIIA-man perform similar phosphotransfer reactions, suggesting a phosphotransferase activity for the DegV-like family of proteins, whose function other than lipid binding revealed in the crystal structure remains unknown.

  17. Properties of the glucose phosphotransferase system of Clostridium acetobutylicum NCIB 8052.

    PubMed Central

    Mitchell, W J; Shaw, J E; Andrews, L

    1991-01-01

    The glucose phosphotransferase system (PTS) of Clostridium acetobutylicum was studied by using cell extracts. The system exhibited a Km for glucose of 34 microM, and glucose phosphorylation was inhibited competitively by mannose and 2-deoxyglucose. The analogs 3-O-methylglucoside and methyl alpha-glucoside did not inhibit glucose phosphorylation significantly. Activity showed no dependence on Mg2+ ions or on pH in the range 6.0 to 8.0. The PTS comprised both soluble and membrane-bound proteins, which interacted functionally with the PTSs of Clostridium pasteurianum, Bacillus subtilis, and Escherichia coli. In addition to a membrane-bound enzyme IIGlc, sugar phosphorylation assays in heterologous systems incorporating extracts of pts mutants of other organisms provided evidence for enzyme I, HPr, and IIIGlc components. The HPr was found in the soluble fraction of C. acetobutylicum extracts, whereas enzyme I, and probably also IIIGlc, was present in both the soluble and membrane fractions, suggesting a membrane location in the intact cell. PMID:1768126

  18. The General Phosphotransferase System Proteins Localize to Sites of Strong Negative Curvature in Bacterial Cells

    PubMed Central

    Govindarajan, Sutharsan; Elisha, Yair; Nevo-Dinur, Keren; Amster-Choder, Orna

    2013-01-01

    ABSTRACT The bacterial cell poles are emerging as subdomains where many cellular activities take place, but the mechanisms for polar localization are just beginning to unravel. The general phosphotransferase system (PTS) proteins, enzyme I (EI) and HPr, which control preferential use of carbon sources in bacteria, were recently shown to localize near the Escherichia coli cell poles. Here, we show that EI localization does not depend on known polar constituents, such as anionic lipids or the chemotaxis receptors, and on the cell division machinery, nor can it be explained by nucleoid occlusion or localized translation. Detection of the general PTS proteins at the budding sites of endocytotic-like membrane invaginations in spherical cells and their colocalization with the negative curvature sensor protein DivIVA suggest that geometric cues underlie localization of the PTS system. Notably, the kinetics of glucose uptake by spherical and rod-shaped E. coli cells are comparable, implying that negatively curved “pole-like” sites support not only the localization but also the proper functioning of the PTS system in cells with different shapes. Consistent with the curvature-mediated localization model, we observed the EI protein from Bacillus subtilis at strongly curved sites in both B. subtilis and E. coli. Taken together, we propose that changes in cell architecture correlate with dynamic survival strategies that localize central metabolic systems like the PTS to subcellular domains where they remain active, thus maintaining cell viability and metabolic alertness. PMID:24129255

  19. A UDP-glucose:glycoprotein glucose-1-phosphotransferase in embryonic chicken neural retina

    SciTech Connect

    Koro, L.A.; Marchase, R.B.

    1982-12-01

    A subclass of cell-surface glycoproteins from embryonic chicken neural retina contains a high mannose-type oligosaccharide that terminates with glucose linked via a phosphodiester bond to penultimate mannose. This unusual oligosaccharide seems responsible for the glycoprotein attachments to the cell-surface baseplate ligatin. Using beta-/sup 32/P-UDP-/sup 3/H-glucose, we demonstrate in retinal homogenates the existence of a UDP-glucose:glycoprotein glucose-1-phosphotransferase (GlcPTase) that catalyzes the synthesis of such a linkage. Characterization of the doubly labeled product resulting from activity of the transferase reveals a family of endoglycosidase H-sensitive oligosaccharides displaying a cation-exchange profile similar to that of oligosaccharides derived from ligatin-associated proteins synthesized in vivo. Further analysis confirms that the incorporation of label is due to a terminal /sup 3/H-glucose joined via a /sup 32/P-phosphodiester linkage to carbon 6 of a penultimate mannose. We propose that GlcPTase may be a controlling enzyme for the targeting of certain newly synthesized proteins to the cell surface.

  20. Impact of the core components of the phosphoenolpyruvate-carbohydrate phosphotransferase system, HPr and EI, on differential protein expression in Ralstonia eutropha H16.

    PubMed

    Kaddor, Chlud; Voigt, Birgit; Hecker, Michael; Steinbüchel, Alexander

    2012-07-01

    In Ralstonia eutropha H16, seven genes encoding proteins being involved in the phosphoenolpyruvate-carbohydrate phosphotransferase system (PEP-PTS) were identified. In order to provide more insights into the poly(3-hydroxybutyrate) (PHB)-leaky phenotype of the HPr/EI deletion mutants H16ΔptsH, H16ΔptsI, and H16ΔptsHI when grown on the non-PTS substrate gluconate, parallel fermentations for comparison of their growth behavior were performed. Samples from the exponential, the early stationary, and late stationary growth phases were investigated by microscopy, gas chromatography and (phospho-) proteome analysis. A total of 71 differentially expressed proteins were identified using 2D-PAGE, Pro-Q Diamond and Coomassie staining, and MALDI-TOF analysis. Detected proteins were classified into five major functional groups: carbon metabolism, energy metabolism, amino acid metabolism, translation, and membrane transport/outer membrane proteins. Proteome analyses revealed enhanced expression of proteins involved in the Entner-Doudoroff pathway and in subsequent reactions in cells of strain H16 compared to the mutant H16ΔptsHI. Furthermore, proteins involved in PHB accumulation showed increased abundance in the wild-type. This expression pattern allowed us to identify proteins affecting carbon metabolism/PHB biosynthesis in strain H16 and translation/amino acid metabolism in strain H16ΔptsHI, and to gain insight into the molecular response of R. eutropha to the deletion of HPr/EI. PMID:22630130

  1. Purification, crystallization and preliminary X-ray analysis of Enterococcus faecium aminoglycoside-2′′-phosphotransferase-Ib [APH(2′′)-Ib

    SciTech Connect

    Walanj, Rupa; Young, Paul; Baker, Heather M.; Baker, Edward N.; Metcalf, Peter; Chow, Joseph W.; Lerner, Stephen; Vakulenko, Sergei; Smith, Clyde A.

    2005-04-01

    APH(2′′)-Ib is an enzyme responsible for high-level gentamicin resistance in E. faecium isolates. Native crystals of this enzyme have been prepared and preliminary X-ray diffraction experiments have been undertaken. Bacterial resistance to the aminoglycoside antibiotics is primarily the result of deactivation of the drugs. Three families of enzymes are responsible for this activity, with one such family being the aminoglycoside phosphotransferases (APHs). The gene encoding one of these enzymes, APH(2′′)-Ib, has been cloned and the protein (comprising 299 amino-acid residues) expressed in Escherichia coli, purified and crystallized in the presence of 16%(w/v) PEG 3350 and gentamicin. The crystals belong to the monoclinic space group P2{sub 1}, with approximate unit-cell parameters a = 79.7, b = 58.8, c = 81.4 Å, β = 98.4°, and preliminary X-ray diffraction analysis is consistent with the presence of two molecules in the asymmetric unit. Synchrotron diffraction data to approximately 2.65 Å resolution were collected from a native APH(2′′)-Ib crystal at beamline BL9-2 at SSRL (Stanford, CA, USA). Selenium-substituted crystals have also been produced and structure determination is proceeding.

  2. In Vivo Analysis of HPr Reveals a Fructose-Specific Phosphotransferase System That Confers High-Affinity Uptake in Streptomyces coelicolor

    PubMed Central

    Nothaft, Harald; Parche, Stephan; Kamionka, Annette; Titgemeyer, Fritz

    2003-01-01

    HPr, the histidine-containing phosphocarrier protein of the bacterial phosphotransferase system (PTS), serves multiple functions in carbohydrate uptake and carbon source regulation in low-G+C-content gram-positive bacteria and in gram-negative bacteria. To assess the role of HPr in the high-G+C-content gram-positive organism Streptomyces coelicolor, the encoding gene, ptsH, was deleted. The ptsH mutant BAP1 was impaired in fructose utilization, while growth on other carbon sources was not affected. Uptake assays revealed that BAP1 could not transport appreciable amounts of fructose, while the wild type showed inducible high-affinity fructose transport with an apparent Km of 2 μM. Complementation and reconstitution experiments demonstrated that HPr is indispensable for a fructose-specific PTS activity. Investigation of the putative fruKA gene locus led to identification of the fructose-specific enzyme II permease encoded by the fruA gene. Synthesis of HPr was not specifically enhanced in fructose-grown cells and occurred also in the presence of non-PTS carbon sources. Transcriptional analysis of ptsH revealed two promoters that are carbon source regulated. In contrast to what happens in other bacteria, glucose repression of glycerol kinase was still operative in a ptsH background, which suggests that HPr is not involved in general carbon regulation. However, fructose repression of glycerol kinase was lost in BAP1, indicating that the fructose-PTS is required for transduction of the signal. This study provides the first molecular genetic evidence of a physiological role of the PTS in S. coelicolor. PMID:12533468

  3. The mechanism of the reaction catalysed by adenosine triphosphate–creatine phosphotransferase

    PubMed Central

    Morrison, J. F.; James, Elizabeth

    1965-01-01

    1. The forward and reverse reactions catalysed by ATP–creatine phosphotransferase have been studied kinetically at pH8·0 in the presence and absence of products, under conditions in which the free Mg2+ concentration was maintained constant at 1mm. Thus at fixed pH the reaction may be considered as being bireactant and expressed as:MgATP2−+creatine0⇌MgADP−+phosphocreatine2−2. The initial-velocity pattern in the absence of products and the product-inhibition pattern have been determined. These are consistent with a random mechanism in which all steps are in rapid equilibrium except that concerned with the interconversion of the central ternary complexes, and in which two dead-end complexes (enzyme–MgADP–creatine and enzyme–MgATP–phosphocreatine) are formed. The results are in accord with previous suggestions that the enzyme possesses distinct sites for the combination of the nucleotide and guanidino substrates. 3. Values have been determined for the Michaelis and dissociation constants involved in the combination of each substrate with various enzyme forms. Although these values cannot be regarded as absolute, they appear to indicate that the presence of one substrate on the enzyme enhances the combination of the second substrate. In addition, it would seem that in the formation of the enzyme–MgADP–creatine complex the concentration of one reactant does not affect the combination of the other. This contrasts with the formation of the enzyme–MgATP–phosphocreatine complex, where each reactant hinders the combination of the other. PMID:16749122

  4. How Phosphotransferase System-Related Protein Phosphorylation Regulates Carbohydrate Metabolism in Bacteria†

    PubMed Central

    Deutscher, Josef; Francke, Christof; Postma, Pieter W.

    2006-01-01

    The phosphoenolpyruvate(PEP):carbohydrate phosphotransferase system (PTS) is found only in bacteria, where it catalyzes the transport and phosphorylation of numerous monosaccharides, disaccharides, amino sugars, polyols, and other sugar derivatives. To carry out its catalytic function in sugar transport and phosphorylation, the PTS uses PEP as an energy source and phosphoryl donor. The phosphoryl group of PEP is usually transferred via four distinct proteins (domains) to the transported sugar bound to the respective membrane component(s) (EIIC and EIID) of the PTS. The organization of the PTS as a four-step phosphoryl transfer system, in which all P derivatives exhibit similar energy (phosphorylation occurs at histidyl or cysteyl residues), is surprising, as a single protein (or domain) coupling energy transfer and sugar phosphorylation would be sufficient for PTS function. A possible explanation for the complexity of the PTS was provided by the discovery that the PTS also carries out numerous regulatory functions. Depending on their phosphorylation state, the four proteins (domains) forming the PTS phosphorylation cascade (EI, HPr, EIIA, and EIIB) can phosphorylate or interact with numerous non-PTS proteins and thereby regulate their activity. In addition, in certain bacteria, one of the PTS components (HPr) is phosphorylated by ATP at a seryl residue, which increases the complexity of PTS-mediated regulation. In this review, we try to summarize the known protein phosphorylation-related regulatory functions of the PTS. As we shall see, the PTS regulation network not only controls carbohydrate uptake and metabolism but also interferes with the utilization of nitrogen and phosphorus and the virulence of certain pathogens. PMID:17158705

  5. Efficient production of xylitol from hemicellulosic hydrolysate using engineered Escherichia coli.

    PubMed

    Su, Buli; Wu, Mianbin; Zhang, Zhe; Lin, Jianping; Yang, Lirong

    2015-09-01

    A metabolically engineered Escherichia coli has been constructed for the production of xylitol, one of the top 12 platform chemicals from agricultural sources identified by the US Department of Energy. An optimal plasmid was constructed to express xylose reductase from Neurospora crassa with almost no inclusion bodies at relatively high temperature. The phosphoenolpyruvate-dependent glucose phosphotransferase system (ptsG) was disrupted to eliminate catabolite repression and allow simultaneous uptake of glucose and xylose. The native pathway for D-xylose catabolism in E. coli W3110 was blocked by deleting the xylose isomerase (xylA) and xylulose kinase (xylB) genes. The putative pathway for xylitol phosphorylation was also blocked by disrupting the phosphoenolpyruvate-dependent fructose phosphotransferase system (ptsF). The xylitol producing recombinant E. coli allowed production of 172.4 g L(-1) xylitol after 110 h of fed-batch cultivation with an average productivity of 1.57 g L(-1) h(-1). The molar yield of xylitol to glucose reached approximately 2.2 (mol xylitol mol(-1) glucose). Furthermore, the recombinant strain also produced about 150 g L(-1) xylitol from hemicellulosic sugars in modified M9 minimal medium and the overall productivity was 1.40 g L(-1) h(-1), representing the highest xylitol concentration and productivity reported to date from hemicellulosic sugars using bacteria. Thus, this engineered E. coli is a candidate for the development of efficient industrial-scale production of xylitol from hemicellulosic hydrolysate.

  6. QUANTIFICATION OF TRANSGENIC PLANT MARKER GENE PERSISTENCE IN THE FIELD

    EPA Science Inventory

    Methods were developed to monitor persistence of genomic DNA in decaying plants in the field. As a model, we used recombinant neomycin phosphotransferase II (rNPT-II) marker genes present in genetically engineered plants. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) primers were designed, com...

  7. Adaptation of a 2D in-gel kinase assay to trace phosphotransferase activities in the human pathogen Leishmania donovani.

    PubMed

    Schmidt-Arras, Dirk; Leclercq, Olivier; Gherardini, Pier Federico; Helmer-Citterich, Manuela; Faigle, Wolfgang; Loew, Damarys; Späth, Gerald F

    2011-08-24

    The protozoan parasite Leishmania donovani undergoes various developmental transitions during its infectious cycle that are triggered by environmental signals encountered inside insect and vertebrate hosts. Intracellular differentiation of the pathogenic amastigote stage is induced by pH and temperature shifts that affect protein kinase activities and downstream protein phosphorylation. Identification of parasite proteins with phosphotransferase activity during intracellular infection may reveal new targets for pharmacological intervention. Here we describe an improved protocol to trace this activity in L. donovani extracts at high resolution combining in-gel kinase assay and two-dimensional gel electrophoresis. This 2D procedure allowed us to identify proteins that are associated with amastigote ATP-binding, ATPase, and phosphotransferase activities. The 2D in-gel kinase assay, in combination with recombinant phospho-protein substrates previously identified by phospho-proteomics analyses, provides a novel tool to establish specific protein kinase-substrate relationships thus improving our understanding of Leishmania signal transduction with relevance for future drug development. PMID:21443974

  8. Implications of various phosphoenolpyruvate-carbohydrate phosphotransferase system mutations on glycerol utilization and poly(3-hydroxybutyrate) accumulation in Ralstonia eutropha H16

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    The enhanced global biodiesel production is also yielding increased quantities of glycerol as main coproduct. An effective application of glycerol, for example, as low-cost substrate for microbial growth in industrial fermentation processes to specific products will reduce the production costs for biodiesel. Our study focuses on the utilization of glycerol as a cheap carbon source during cultivation of the thermoplastic producing bacterium Ralstonia eutropha H16, and on the investigation of carbohydrate transport proteins involved herein. Seven open reading frames were identified in the genome of strain H16 to encode for putative proteins of the phosphoenolpyruvate-carbohydrate phosphotransferase system (PEP-PTS). Although the core components of PEP-PTS, enzyme I (ptsI) and histidine phosphocarrier protein (ptsH), are available in strain H16, a complete PTS-mediated carbohydrate transport is lacking. Growth experiments employing several PEP-PTS mutants indicate that the putative ptsMHI operon, comprising ptsM (a fructose-specific EIIA component of PTS), ptsH, and ptsI, is responsible for limited cell growth and reduced PHB accumulation (53%, w/w, less PHB than the wild type) of this strain in media containing glycerol as a sole carbon source. Otherwise, the deletion of gene H16_A0384 (ptsN, nitrogen regulatory EIIA component of PTS) seemed to largely compensate the effect of the deleted ptsMHI operon (49%, w/w, PHB). The involvement of the PTS homologous proteins on the utilization of the non-PTS sugar alcohol glycerol and its effect on cell growth as well as PHB and carbon metabolism of R. eutropha will be discussed. PMID:21906371

  9. Utilization of d-Ribitol by Lactobacillus casei BL23 Requires a Mannose-Type Phosphotransferase System and Three Catabolic Enzymes

    PubMed Central

    Bourand, A.; Yebra, M. J.; Boël, G.; Mazé, A.

    2013-01-01

    Lactobacillus casei strains 64H and BL23, but not ATCC 334, are able to ferment d-ribitol (also called d-adonitol). However, a BL23-derived ptsI mutant lacking enzyme I of the phosphoenolpyruvate:carbohydrate phosphotransferase system (PTS) was not able to utilize this pentitol, suggesting that strain BL23 transports and phosphorylates d-ribitol via a PTS. We identified an 11-kb region in the genome sequence of L. casei strain BL23 (LCABL_29160 to LCABL_29270) which is absent from strain ATCC 334 and which contains the genes for a GlpR/IolR-like repressor, the four components of a mannose-type PTS, and six metabolic enzymes potentially involved in d-ribitol metabolism. Deletion of the gene encoding the EIIB component of the presumed ribitol PTS indeed prevented d-ribitol fermentation. In addition, we overexpressed the six catabolic genes, purified the encoded enzymes, and determined the activities of four of them. They encode a d-ribitol-5-phosphate (d-ribitol-5-P) 2-dehydrogenase, a d-ribulose-5-P 3-epimerase, a d-ribose-5-P isomerase, and a d-xylulose-5-P phosphoketolase. In the first catabolic step, the protein d-ribitol-5-P 2-dehydrogenase uses NAD+ to oxidize d-ribitol-5-P formed during PTS-catalyzed transport to d-ribulose-5-P, which, in turn, is converted to d-xylulose-5-P by the enzyme d-ribulose-5-P 3-epimerase. Finally, the resulting d-xylulose-5-P is split by d-xylulose-5-P phosphoketolase in an inorganic phosphate-requiring reaction into acetylphosphate and the glycolytic intermediate d-glyceraldehyde-3-P. The three remaining enzymes, one of which was identified as d-ribose-5-P-isomerase, probably catalyze an alternative ribitol degradation pathway, which might be functional in L. casei strain 64H but not in BL23, because one of the BL23 genes carries a frameshift mutation. PMID:23564164

  10. Utilization of D-ribitol by Lactobacillus casei BL23 requires a mannose-type phosphotransferase system and three catabolic enzymes.

    PubMed

    Bourand, A; Yebra, M J; Boël, G; Mazé, A; Deutscher, J

    2013-06-01

    Lactobacillus casei strains 64H and BL23, but not ATCC 334, are able to ferment D-ribitol (also called D-adonitol). However, a BL23-derived ptsI mutant lacking enzyme I of the phosphoenolpyruvate:carbohydrate phosphotransferase system (PTS) was not able to utilize this pentitol, suggesting that strain BL23 transports and phosphorylates D-ribitol via a PTS. We identified an 11-kb region in the genome sequence of L. casei strain BL23 (LCABL_29160 to LCABL_29270) which is absent from strain ATCC 334 and which contains the genes for a GlpR/IolR-like repressor, the four components of a mannose-type PTS, and six metabolic enzymes potentially involved in D-ribitol metabolism. Deletion of the gene encoding the EIIB component of the presumed ribitol PTS indeed prevented D-ribitol fermentation. In addition, we overexpressed the six catabolic genes, purified the encoded enzymes, and determined the activities of four of them. They encode a D-ribitol-5-phosphate (D-ribitol-5-P) 2-dehydrogenase, a D-ribulose-5-P 3-epimerase, a D-ribose-5-P isomerase, and a D-xylulose-5-P phosphoketolase. In the first catabolic step, the protein D-ribitol-5-P 2-dehydrogenase uses NAD(+) to oxidize D-ribitol-5-P formed during PTS-catalyzed transport to D-ribulose-5-P, which, in turn, is converted to D-xylulose-5-P by the enzyme D-ribulose-5-P 3-epimerase. Finally, the resulting D-xylulose-5-P is split by D-xylulose-5-P phosphoketolase in an inorganic phosphate-requiring reaction into acetylphosphate and the glycolytic intermediate D-glyceraldehyde-3-P. The three remaining enzymes, one of which was identified as D-ribose-5-P-isomerase, probably catalyze an alternative ribitol degradation pathway, which might be functional in L. casei strain 64H but not in BL23, because one of the BL23 genes carries a frameshift mutation.

  11. Utilization of D-ribitol by Lactobacillus casei BL23 requires a mannose-type phosphotransferase system and three catabolic enzymes.

    PubMed

    Bourand, A; Yebra, M J; Boël, G; Mazé, A; Deutscher, J

    2013-06-01

    Lactobacillus casei strains 64H and BL23, but not ATCC 334, are able to ferment D-ribitol (also called D-adonitol). However, a BL23-derived ptsI mutant lacking enzyme I of the phosphoenolpyruvate:carbohydrate phosphotransferase system (PTS) was not able to utilize this pentitol, suggesting that strain BL23 transports and phosphorylates D-ribitol via a PTS. We identified an 11-kb region in the genome sequence of L. casei strain BL23 (LCABL_29160 to LCABL_29270) which is absent from strain ATCC 334 and which contains the genes for a GlpR/IolR-like repressor, the four components of a mannose-type PTS, and six metabolic enzymes potentially involved in D-ribitol metabolism. Deletion of the gene encoding the EIIB component of the presumed ribitol PTS indeed prevented D-ribitol fermentation. In addition, we overexpressed the six catabolic genes, purified the encoded enzymes, and determined the activities of four of them. They encode a D-ribitol-5-phosphate (D-ribitol-5-P) 2-dehydrogenase, a D-ribulose-5-P 3-epimerase, a D-ribose-5-P isomerase, and a D-xylulose-5-P phosphoketolase. In the first catabolic step, the protein D-ribitol-5-P 2-dehydrogenase uses NAD(+) to oxidize D-ribitol-5-P formed during PTS-catalyzed transport to D-ribulose-5-P, which, in turn, is converted to D-xylulose-5-P by the enzyme D-ribulose-5-P 3-epimerase. Finally, the resulting D-xylulose-5-P is split by D-xylulose-5-P phosphoketolase in an inorganic phosphate-requiring reaction into acetylphosphate and the glycolytic intermediate D-glyceraldehyde-3-P. The three remaining enzymes, one of which was identified as D-ribose-5-P-isomerase, probably catalyze an alternative ribitol degradation pathway, which might be functional in L. casei strain 64H but not in BL23, because one of the BL23 genes carries a frameshift mutation. PMID:23564164

  12. Control of Pyrophosphated-Fructose-6-Phosphate 1-Phosphotransferase Activity in the Cotyledons of Citrullus lanatus1

    PubMed Central

    Botha, Anna-Maria; Botha, Frederik C.

    1990-01-01

    After initiation of radicle elongation, the pyrophosphate:d-fructose-6-phosphate 1-phosphotransferase (PFP) activity sharply increases in the cotyledons of Citrullus lanatus. Removal of the radicle early during incubation prevents the increase in PFP activity in the cotyledons evident in the control. Removal of the radicle at any stage after germination results in a decrease in PFP activity in the cotyledons. Application of kinetin (0.5 micromolar) or 2-chlorophosphonic acid (0.1 micromolar) to isolated cotyledons replaces the effect of the radicle. Gibberellic acid (0.09 micromolar GA3) also partially mimics the presence of the radicle. Anaerobic conditions, as well as cycloheximide application (0.18 micromolar) to intact embryos or to kinetin and ethrel treated isolated cotyledons prevent the increase in PFP activity evident in the control. PMID:16667523

  13. Purification and characterization of macrolide 2'-phosphotransferase from a strain of Escherichia coli that is highly resistant to erythromycin.

    PubMed

    O'Hara, K; Kanda, T; Ohmiya, K; Ebisu, T; Kono, M

    1989-08-01

    Macrolide 2'-phosphotransferase [MPH(2')] was purified 90-fold from an erythromycin-resistant strain of Escherichia coli, and its enzymatic properties were investigated. MPH(2') is an inducible intracellular enzyme which showed high levels of activity with 14-member-ring macrolides and extremely low levels with 16-member-ring macrolides. The optimum pH for inactivation of oleandomycin was 8.2, and the optimum temperature of the reaction was 40 degrees C. Enzyme activity was lost by heat treatment at 50 degrees C for 1 min. The isoelectric point and molecular weight of the enzyme were 5.3 and 34,000, respectively. Purine nucleotides, such as GTP, ITP, and ATP, were effective as cofactors in the inactivation of macrolides. Iodine, EDTA, or divalent cations inhibited MPH(2') activity.

  14. Structural insights into ChpT, an essential dimeric histidine phosphotransferase regulating the cell cycle in Caulobacter crescentus.

    PubMed

    Fioravanti, Antonella; Clantin, Bernard; Dewitte, Frédérique; Lens, Zoé; Verger, Alexis; Biondi, Emanuele G; Villeret, Vincent

    2012-09-01

    Two-component and phosphorelay signal-transduction proteins are crucial for bacterial cell-cycle regulation in Caulobacter crescentus. ChpT is an essential histidine phosphotransferase that controls the activity of the master cell-cycle regulator CtrA by phosphorylation. Here, the 2.2 Å resolution crystal structure of ChpT is reported. ChpT is a homodimer and adopts the domain architecture of the intracellular part of class I histidine kinases. Each subunit consists of two distinct domains: an N-terminal helical hairpin domain and a C-terminal α/β domain. The two N-terminal domains are adjacent within the dimer, forming a four-helix bundle. The ChpT C-terminal domain adopts an atypical Bergerat ATP-binding fold.

  15. Structure, dynamics and biophysics of the cytoplasmic protein–protein complexes of the bacterial phosphoenolpyruvate: Sugar phosphotransferase system

    SciTech Connect

    Clore, G. Marius; Venditti, Vincenzo

    2013-10-01

    The bacterial phosphotransferase system (PTS) couples phosphoryl transfer, via a series of bimolecular protein–protein interactions, to sugar transport across the membrane. The multitude of complexes in the PTS provides a paradigm for studying protein interactions, and for understanding how the same binding surface can specifically recognize a diverse array of targets. Fifteen years of work aimed at solving the solution structures of all soluble protein–protein complexes of the PTS has served as a test bed for developing NMR and integrated hybrid approaches to study larger complexes in solution and to probe transient, spectroscopically invisible states, including encounter complexes. We review these approaches, highlighting the problems that can be tackled with these methods, and summarize the current findings on protein interactions.

  16. Structure of the phosphotransferase domain of the bifunctional aminoglycoside-resistance enzyme AAC(6')-Ie-APH(2'')-Ia.

    PubMed

    Smith, Clyde A; Toth, Marta; Bhattacharya, Monolekha; Frase, Hilary; Vakulenko, Sergei B

    2014-06-01

    The bifunctional acetyltransferase(6')-Ie-phosphotransferase(2'')-Ia [AAC(6')-Ie-APH(2'')-Ia] is the most important aminoglycoside-resistance enzyme in Gram-positive bacteria, conferring resistance to almost all known aminoglycoside antibiotics in clinical use. Owing to its importance, this enzyme has been the focus of intensive research since its isolation in the mid-1980s but, despite much effort, structural details of AAC(6')-Ie-APH(2'')-Ia have remained elusive. The structure of the Mg2GDP complex of the APH(2'')-Ia domain of the bifunctional enzyme has now been determined at 2.3 Å resolution. The structure of APH(2'')-Ia is reminiscent of the structures of other aminoglycoside phosphotransferases, having a two-domain architecture with the nucleotide-binding site located at the junction of the two domains. Unlike the previously characterized APH(2'')-IIa and APH(2'')-IVa enzymes, which are capable of utilizing both ATP and GTP as the phosphate donors, APH(2'')-Ia uses GTP exclusively in the phosphorylation of the aminoglycoside antibiotics, and in this regard closely resembles the GTP-dependent APH(2'')-IIIa enzyme. In APH(2'')-Ia this GTP selectivity is governed by the presence of a `gatekeeper' residue, Tyr100, the side chain of which projects into the active site and effectively blocks access to the adenine-binding template. Mutation of this tyrosine residue to a less bulky phenylalanine provides better access for ATP to the NTP-binding template and converts APH(2'')-Ia into a dual-specificity enzyme.

  17. Aminoglycoside binding and catalysis specificity of aminoglycoside 2″-phosphotransferase IVa: A thermodynamic, structural and kinetic study

    PubMed Central

    Kaplan, Elise; Guichou, Jean-François; Chaloin, Laurent; Kunzelmann, Simone; Leban, Nadia; Serpersu, Engin H.; Lionne, Corinne

    2016-01-01

    Background Aminoglycoside O-phosphotransferases make up a large class of bacterial enzymes that is widely distributed among pathogens and confer a high resistance to several clinically used aminoglycoside antibiotics. Aminoglycoside 2″-phosphotransferase IVa, APH(2″)-IVa, is an important member of this class, but there is little information on the thermodynamics of aminoglycoside binding and on the nature of its rate-limiting step. Methods We used isothermal titration calorimetry, electrostatic potential calculations, molecular dynamics simulations and X-ray crystallography to study the interactions between the enzyme and different aminoglycosides. We determined the rate-limiting step of the reaction by the means of transient kinetic measurements. Results For the first time, Kd values were determined directly for APH(2″)-IVa and different aminoglycosides. The affinity of the enzyme seems to anti-correlate with the molecular weight of the ligand, suggesting a limited degree of freedom in the binding site. The main interactions are electrostatic bonds between the positively charged amino groups of aminoglycosides and Glu or Asp residues of APH. In spite of the significantly different ratio Kd/Km, there is no large difference in the transient kinetics obtained with the different aminoglycosides. We show that a product release step is rate-limiting for the overall reaction. Conclusions APH(2″)-IVa has a higher affinity for aminoglycosides carrying an amino group in 2′ and 6′, but tighter bindings do not correlate with higher catalytic efficiencies. As with APH(3′)-IIIa, an intermediate containing product is preponderant during the steady state. General significance This intermediate may constitute a good target for future drug design. PMID:26802312

  18. Phosphotransferase System-Dependent Extracellular Growth of Listeria monocytogenes Is Regulated by Alternative Sigma Factors σL and σH

    PubMed Central

    Orsi, Renato H.; Tang, Silin; Zhang, Wei; Wiedmann, Martin; Boor, Kathryn J.

    2014-01-01

    Alternative sigma (σ) factors and phosphotransferase systems (PTSs) play pivotal roles in the environmental adaptation and virulence of Listeria monocytogenes. The growth of the L. monocytogenes parent strain 10403S and 15 isogenic alternative σ factor mutants was assessed in defined minimal medium (DM) with PTS-dependent or non-PTS-dependent carbon sources at 25°C or 37°C. Overall, our results suggested that the regulatory effect of alternative σ factors on the growth of L. monocytogenes is dependent on the temperature and the carbon source. One-way analysis of variance (one-way ANOVA) showed that the factor “strain” had a significant effect on the maximum growth rate (μmax), lag phase duration (λ), and maximum optical density (ODmax) in PTS-dependent carbon sources (P < 0.05) but not in a non-PTS-dependent carbon source. Also, the ODmax was not affected by strain for any of the three PTS-dependent carbon sources at 25°C but was affected by strain at 37°C. Monitoring by quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR) showed that transcript levels for lmo0027, a glucose-glucoside PTS permease (PTSGlc-1)-encoding gene, were higher in the absence of σL, and lower in the absence of σH, than in the parent strain. Our data thus indicate that σL negatively regulates lmo0027 and that the increased μmax observed for the ΔsigL strain in DM with glucose may be associated with increased expression of PTSGlc-1 encoded by lmo0027. Our findings suggest that σH and σL mediate the PTS-dependent growth of L. monocytogenes through complex transcriptional regulations and fine-tuning of the expression of specific pts genes, including lmo0027. Our findings also reveal a more important and complex role of alternative σ factors in the regulation of growth in different sugar sources than previously assumed. PMID:25281379

  19. A Mannose Family Phosphotransferase System Permease and Associated Enzymes Are Required for Utilization of Fructoselysine and Glucoselysine in Salmonella enterica Serovar Typhimurium

    PubMed Central

    Miller, Katherine A.; Phillips, Robert S.; Kilgore, Paul B.; Smith, Grady L.

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Salmonella enteric serovar Typhimurium, a major cause of food-borne illness, is capable of using a variety of carbon and nitrogen sources. Fructoselysine and glucoselysine are Maillard reaction products formed by the reaction of glucose or fructose, respectively, with the ε-amine group of lysine. We report here that S. Typhimurium utilizes fructoselysine and glucoselysine as carbon and nitrogen sources via a mannose family phosphotransferase (PTS) encoded by gfrABCD (glucoselysine/fructoselysine PTS components EIIA, EIIB, EIIC, and EIID; locus numbers STM14_5449 to STM14_5454 in S. Typhimurium 14028s). Genes coding for two predicted deglycases within the gfr operon, gfrE and gfrF, were required for growth with glucoselysine and fructoselysine, respectively. GfrF demonstrated fructoselysine-6-phosphate deglycase activity in a coupled enzyme assay. The biochemical and genetic analyses were consistent with a pathway in which fructoselysine and glucoselysine are phosphorylated at the C-6 position of the sugar by the GfrABCD PTS as they are transported across the membrane. The resulting fructoselysine-6-phosphate and glucoselysine-6-phosphate subsequently are cleaved by GfrF and GfrE to form lysine and glucose-6-phosphate or fructose-6-phosphate. Interestingly, although S. Typhimurium can use lysine derived from fructoselysine or glucoselysine as a sole nitrogen source, it cannot use exogenous lysine as a nitrogen source to support growth. Expression of gfrABCDEF was dependent on the alternative sigma factor RpoN (σ54) and an RpoN-dependent LevR-like activator, which we designated GfrR. IMPORTANCE Salmonella physiology has been studied intensively, but there is much we do not know regarding the repertoire of nutrients these bacteria are able to use for growth. This study shows that a previously uncharacterized PTS and associated enzymes function together to transport and catabolize fructoselysine and glucoselysine. Knowledge of the range of nutrients that

  20. ATP-dependent protein kinase-catalyzed phosphorylation of a seryl residue in HPr, a phosphate carrier protein of the phosphotransferase system in Streptococcus pyogenes.

    PubMed Central

    Deutscher, J; Saier, M H

    1983-01-01

    HPr, a phosphate carrier protein of the streptococcal phosphotransferase system, is phosphorylated at the N-1 position of a single histidyl residue in a reaction requiring phosphoenolpyruvate (P-ePrv), Mg2+, and enzyme I (P-ePrv-HPr phosphotransferase, EC2.7.3.9). We demonstrate that in addition to this reaction, a seryl residue within HPr can be phosphorylated in an ATP-dependent process. This reaction is catalyzed by a protein kinase with an approximate Mr of 20,000. In whole cells the kinase activity is stimulated by glucose, whereas in crude extracts the activity is stimulated by glycolytic intermediates such as glucose 6-phosphate, fructose 1,6-diphosphate, and 2-phosphoglycerate. P-(Ser)-HPr cannot transfer its phosphate group via enzyme II to a sugar as does the P-(His)-HPr. Instead, a phosphatase (Mr = 70,000) was found to hydrolyze the phosphate group of P-(Ser)-HPr. The phosphatase reaction is strongly inhibited by the addition of P-ePrv and enzyme I. Protein kinase-catalyzed phosphorylation of the enzyme constituents of the phosphotransferase system in Escherichia coli has also been demonstrated. These observations lead us to suggest that phosphorylation of a seryl residue in HPr is involved in the regulation of sugar transport in the bacteria cell. Images PMID:6359157

  1. Water-miscible organic cosolvents enhance phosphatidylinositol-specific phospholipase C phosphotransferase as well as phosphodiesterase activity.

    PubMed

    Wehbi, Hania; Feng, Jianwen; Roberts, Mary F

    2003-06-27

    Phosphatidylinositol-specific phospholipase C (PI-PLC) from Bacillus thuringiensis catalyzes the hydrolysis of phosphatidylinositol (PI) in a Ca(2+)-independent two-step mechanism: (i) an intramolecular phosphotransferase reaction to form inositol 1,2-(cyclic)-phosphate (cIP), followed by (ii) a cyclic phosphodiesterase activity that converts cIP to inositol 1-phosphate (I-1-P). Moderate amounts of water-miscible organic solvents have previously been shown to dramatically enhance the cyclic phosphodiesterase activity, that is, hydrolysis of cIP. Cosolvents [isopropanol (iPrOH), dimethylsufoxide (DMSO), and dimethylformamide (DMF)] also enhance the phosphotransferase activity of PI-PLC toward PI initially presented in vesicles, monomers, or micelles. Although these water-miscible organic cosolvents caused large changes in PI particle size and distribution (monitored with pyrene-labeled PI fluorescence, 31P NMR spectroscopy, gel filtration, and electron microscopy) that differed with the activating solvent, the change in PI substrate structure in different cosolvents was not correlated with the enhanced catalytic efficiency of PI-PLC toward its substrates. PI-PLC stability was decreased in water/organic cosolvent mixtures (e.g., the T(m) for PI-PLC thermal denaturation decreased linearly with added iPrOH). However, the addition of myo-inositol, a water-soluble inhibitor of PI-PLC, helped stabilize the protein. At 30% iPrOH and 4 degrees C (well below the T(m) for PI-PLC in the presence of iPrOH), cosolvent-induced changes in protein secondary structure were minimal. iPrOH and diheptanoylphosphatidylcholine, each of which activates PI-PLC for cIP hydrolysis, exhibited a synergistic effect for cIP hydrolysis that was not observed with PI as substrate. This behavior is consistent with a mechanism for cosolvent activation that involves changes in active site polarity along with small conformational changes involving the barrel rim tryptophan side chains that have little

  2. Mobilization properties of small ColE1-like plasmids carrying kanamycin resistance gene isolated from Salmonella enterica serotypes

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Background: Previously we isolated and characterized various groups of small kanamycin resistance (KanR) ColE1-like plasmids from different serotypes of Salmonella enterica isolates. These plasmids all carried the aph(3)-I gene encoding the aminoglycoside phosphotransferase responsible for the kanam...

  3. Purification and characterization of macrolide 2'-phosphotransferase type II from a strain of Escherichia coli highly resistant to macrolide antibiotics.

    PubMed

    Kono, M; O'Hara, K; Ebisu, T

    1992-10-01

    The resistance mechanism of Escherichia coli BM2506 to macrolides was found to be due to inactivation. Inactivated oleandomycin was identified as oleandomycin 2'-phosphate by thin-layer chromatography. A new type of macrolide-phosphorylating enzyme, macrolide 2'-phosphotransferase type II (MPH(2')II), was detected, purified 95-fold and its enzymological properties investigated. MPH(2')II was a constitutive intracellular enzyme which showed high levels of activity with both 14-member-ring and 16-member-ring macrolides. The optimum pH for the inactivation of oleandomycin was 8.2 and the optimum temperature of the reaction was 40 degrees C. Enzyme activity was lost by heat treatment at 60 degrees C for 1 min. The isoelectric point and M(r) of the enzyme were 5.3 and 48,000, respectively. Purine nucleotides, such as ITP, GTP and ATP, were effective as cofactors in the inactivation of macrolides. An inhibitory effect of iodine, EDTA, or divalent cations on MPH(2')II activity was observed.

  4. Phosphotransferase-dependent accumulation of (p)ppGpp in response to glutamine deprivation in Caulobacter crescentus

    PubMed Central

    Ronneau, Séverin; Petit, Kenny; De Bolle, Xavier; Hallez, Régis

    2016-01-01

    The alarmone (p)ppGpp is commonly used by bacteria to quickly respond to nutrient starvation. Although (p)ppGpp synthetases such as SpoT have been extensively studied, little is known about the molecular mechanisms stimulating alarmone synthesis upon starvation. Here, we describe an essential role of the nitrogen-related phosphotransferase system (PTSNtr) in controlling (p)ppGpp accumulation in Caulobacter crescentus. We show that cells sense nitrogen starvation by way of detecting glutamine deprivation using the first enzyme (EINtr) of PTSNtr. Decreasing intracellular glutamine concentration triggers phosphorylation of EINtr and its downstream components HPr and EIIANtr. Once phosphorylated, both HPr∼P and EIIANtr∼P stimulate (p)ppGpp accumulation by modulating SpoT activities. This burst of second messenger primarily impacts the non-replicative phase of the cell cycle by extending the G1 phase. This work highlights a new role for bacterial PTS systems in stimulating (p)ppGpp accumulation in response to metabolic cues and in controlling cell cycle progression and cell growth. PMID:27109061

  5. Phosphotransferase-dependent accumulation of (p)ppGpp in response to glutamine deprivation in Caulobacter crescentus.

    PubMed

    Ronneau, Séverin; Petit, Kenny; De Bolle, Xavier; Hallez, Régis

    2016-04-25

    The alarmone (p)ppGpp is commonly used by bacteria to quickly respond to nutrient starvation. Although (p)ppGpp synthetases such as SpoT have been extensively studied, little is known about the molecular mechanisms stimulating alarmone synthesis upon starvation. Here, we describe an essential role of the nitrogen-related phosphotransferase system (PTS(Ntr)) in controlling (p)ppGpp accumulation in Caulobacter crescentus. We show that cells sense nitrogen starvation by way of detecting glutamine deprivation using the first enzyme (EI(Ntr)) of PTS(Ntr). Decreasing intracellular glutamine concentration triggers phosphorylation of EI(Ntr) and its downstream components HPr and EIIA(Ntr). Once phosphorylated, both HPr∼P and EIIA(Ntr)∼P stimulate (p)ppGpp accumulation by modulating SpoT activities. This burst of second messenger primarily impacts the non-replicative phase of the cell cycle by extending the G1 phase. This work highlights a new role for bacterial PTS systems in stimulating (p)ppGpp accumulation in response to metabolic cues and in controlling cell cycle progression and cell growth.

  6. Crystallographic Studies of Two Bacterial AntibioticResistance Enzymes: Aminoglycoside Phosphotransferase (2')-Ic and GES-1\\beta-lactamase

    SciTech Connect

    Brynes, Laura; /Rensselaer Poly.

    2007-10-31

    Guiana Extended-Spectrum-1 (GES-1) and Aminoglycoside phosphotransferase (2')-Ic (APH(2')-Ic) are two bacteria-produced enzymes that essentially perform the same task: they provide resistance to an array of antibiotics. Both enzymes are part of a growing resistance problem in the medical world. In order to overcome the ever-growing arsenal of antibiotic-resistance enzymes, it is necessary to understand the molecular basis of their action. Accurate structures of these proteins have become an invaluable tool to do this. Using protein crystallography techniques and X-ray diffraction, the protein structure of GES-1 bound to imipenem (an inhibitor) has been solved. Also, APH(2')-Ic has been successfully crystallized, but its structure was unable to be solved using molecular replacement using APH(2')-Ib as a search model. The structure of GES-1, with bound imipenem was solved to a resolution of 1.89A, and though the inhibitor is bound with only moderate occupancy, the structure shows crucial interactions inside the active site that render the enzyme unable to complete the hydrolysis of the {beta}-lactam ring. The APH(2')-Ic dataset could not be matched to the model, APH(2')-Ib, with which it shares 25% sequence identity. The structural information gained from GES-1, and future studies using isomorphous replacement to solve the APH(2')-Ic structure can aid directly to the creation of novel drugs to combat both of these classes of resistance enzymes.

  7. Pathogenic forms of tau inhibit kinesin-dependent axonal transport through a mechanism involving activation of axonal phosphotransferases.

    PubMed

    Kanaan, Nicholas M; Morfini, Gerardo A; LaPointe, Nichole E; Pigino, Gustavo F; Patterson, Kristina R; Song, Yuyu; Andreadis, Athena; Fu, Yifan; Brady, Scott T; Binder, Lester I

    2011-07-01

    Aggregated filamentous forms of hyperphosphorylated tau (a microtubule-associated protein) represent pathological hallmarks of Alzheimer's disease (AD) and other tauopathies. While axonal transport dysfunction is thought to represent a primary pathogenic factor in AD and other neurodegenerative diseases, the direct molecular link between pathogenic forms of tau and deficits in axonal transport remain unclear. Recently, we demonstrated that filamentous, but not soluble, forms of wild-type tau inhibit anterograde, kinesin-based fast axonal transport (FAT) by activating axonal protein phosphatase 1 (PP1) and glycogen synthase kinase 3 (GSK3), independent of microtubule binding. Here, we demonstrate that amino acids 2-18 of tau, comprising a phosphatase-activating domain (PAD), are necessary and sufficient for activation of this pathway in axoplasms isolated from squid giant axons. Various pathogenic forms of tau displaying increased exposure of PAD inhibited anterograde FAT in squid axoplasm. Importantly, immunohistochemical studies using a novel PAD-specific monoclonal antibody in human postmortem tissue indicated that increased PAD exposure represents an early pathogenic event in AD that closely associates in time with AT8 immunoreactivity, an early marker of pathological tau. We propose a model of pathogenesis in which disease-associated changes in tau conformation lead to increased exposure of PAD, activation of PP1-GSK3, and inhibition of FAT. Results from these studies reveal a novel role for tau in modulating axonal phosphotransferases and provide a molecular basis for a toxic gain-of-function associated with pathogenic forms of tau.

  8. Phosphotransferase protein EIIANtr interacts with SpoT, a key enzyme of the stringent response, in Ralstonia eutropha H16.

    PubMed

    Karstens, Katja; Zschiedrich, Christopher P; Bowien, Botho; Stülke, Jörg; Görke, Boris

    2014-04-01

    EIIA(Ntr) is a member of a truncated phosphotransferase (PTS) system that serves regulatory functions and exists in many Proteobacteria in addition to the sugar transport PTS. In Escherichia coli, EIIA(Ntr) regulates K(+) homeostasis through interaction with the K(+) transporter TrkA and sensor kinase KdpD. In the β-Proteobacterium Ralstonia eutropha H16, EIIA(Ntr) influences formation of the industrially important bioplastic poly(3-hydroxybutyrate) (PHB). PHB accumulation is controlled by the stringent response and induced under conditions of nitrogen deprivation. Knockout of EIIA(Ntr) increases the PHB content. In contrast, absence of enzyme I or HPr, which deliver phosphoryl groups to EIIA(Ntr), has the opposite effect. To clarify the role of EIIA(Ntr) in PHB formation, we screened for interacting proteins that co-purify with Strep-tagged EIIA(Ntr) from R. eutropha cells. This approach identified the bifunctional ppGpp synthase/hydrolase SpoT1, a key enzyme of the stringent response. Two-hybrid and far-Western analyses confirmed the interaction and indicated that only non-phosphorylated EIIA(Ntr) interacts with SpoT1. Interestingly, this interaction does not occur between the corresponding proteins of E. coli. Vice versa, interaction of EIIA(Ntr) with KdpD appears to be absent in R. eutropha, although R. eutropha EIIA(Ntr) can perfectly substitute its homologue in E. coli in regulation of KdpD activity. Thus, interaction with KdpD might be an evolutionary 'ancient' task of EIIA(Ntr) that was subsequently replaced by interaction with SpoT1 in R. eutropha. In conclusion, EIIA(Ntr) might integrate information about nutritional status, as reflected by its phosphorylation state, into the stringent response, thereby controlling cellular PHB content in R. eutropha. PMID:24515609

  9. The Bacterial Phosphoenolpyruvate:Carbohydrate Phosphotransferase System: Regulation by Protein Phosphorylation and Phosphorylation-Dependent Protein-Protein Interactions

    PubMed Central

    Aké, Francine Moussan Désirée; Derkaoui, Meriem; Zébré, Arthur Constant; Cao, Thanh Nguyen; Bouraoui, Houda; Kentache, Takfarinas; Mokhtari, Abdelhamid; Milohanic, Eliane; Joyet, Philippe

    2014-01-01

    SUMMARY The bacterial phosphoenolpyruvate (PEP):carbohydrate phosphotransferase system (PTS) carries out both catalytic and regulatory functions. It catalyzes the transport and phosphorylation of a variety of sugars and sugar derivatives but also carries out numerous regulatory functions related to carbon, nitrogen, and phosphate metabolism, to chemotaxis, to potassium transport, and to the virulence of certain pathogens. For these different regulatory processes, the signal is provided by the phosphorylation state of the PTS components, which varies according to the availability of PTS substrates and the metabolic state of the cell. PEP acts as phosphoryl donor for enzyme I (EI), which, together with HPr and one of several EIIA and EIIB pairs, forms a phosphorylation cascade which allows phosphorylation of the cognate carbohydrate bound to the membrane-spanning EIIC. HPr of firmicutes and numerous proteobacteria is also phosphorylated in an ATP-dependent reaction catalyzed by the bifunctional HPr kinase/phosphorylase. PTS-mediated regulatory mechanisms are based either on direct phosphorylation of the target protein or on phosphorylation-dependent interactions. For regulation by PTS-mediated phosphorylation, the target proteins either acquired a PTS domain by fusing it to their N or C termini or integrated a specific, conserved PTS regulation domain (PRD) or, alternatively, developed their own specific sites for PTS-mediated phosphorylation. Protein-protein interactions can occur with either phosphorylated or unphosphorylated PTS components and can either stimulate or inhibit the function of the target proteins. This large variety of signal transduction mechanisms allows the PTS to regulate numerous proteins and to form a vast regulatory network responding to the phosphorylation state of various PTS components. PMID:24847021

  10. Streptococcus salivarius mutants defective in mannose phosphotransferase systems show reduced sensitivity to mutacins I-T9 and R-3B.

    PubMed

    Nicolas, Guillaume G; Frenette, Michel; Lavoie, Marc C

    2010-08-01

    Twenty-four mutacin-producing Streptococcus mutans strains were screened for their propensity to produce class II one-peptide bacteriocin using a deferred antagonism assay. Streptococcus salivarius and 3 mutants defective in their mannose phosphotransferase systems (mannose-PTS) were used as sensitive strains to identify which mannose-PTS could act as the docking site for class II one-peptide bacteriocin activity. We observed that only 2 strains of S. mutans, T9 and 3B, potentially produce class II one-peptide bacteriocin, namely mutacins I-T9 and R-3B, but with no preference for any mannose-PTS complex as a target. PMID:20725132

  11. Expression of bacterial genes in plant cells.

    PubMed Central

    Fraley, R T; Rogers, S G; Horsch, R B; Sanders, P R; Flick, J S; Adams, S P; Bittner, M L; Brand, L A; Fink, C L; Fry, J S; Galluppi, G R; Goldberg, S B; Hoffmann, N L; Woo, S C

    1983-01-01

    Chimeric bacterial genes conferring resistance to aminoglycoside antibiotics have been inserted into the Agrobacterium tumefaciens tumor-inducing (Ti) plasmid and introduced into plant cells by in vitro transformation techniques. The chimeric genes contain the nopaline synthase 5' and 3' regulatory regions joined to the genes for neomycin phosphotransferase type I or type II. The chimeric genes were cloned into an intermediate vector, pMON120, and inserted into pTiB6S3 by recombination and then introduced into petunia and tobacco cells by cocultivating A. tumefaciens cells with protoplast-derived cells. Southern hybridization was used to confirm the presence of the chimeric genes in the transformed plant tissues. Expression of the chimeric genes was determined by the ability of the transformed cells to proliferate on medium containing normally inhibitory levels of kanamycin (50 micrograms/ml) or other aminoglycoside antibiotics. Plant cells transformed by wild-type pTiB6S3 or derivatives carrying the bacterial neomycin phosphotransferase genes with their own promoters failed to grow under these conditions. The significance of these results for plant genetic engineering is discussed. Images PMID:6308651

  12. Synthesis of HPr(Ser-P)(His-P) by enzyme I of the phosphoenolpyruvate: sugar phosphotransferase system of Streptococcus salivarius.

    PubMed

    Casabon, Israël; Couture, Manon; Vaillancourt, Katy; Vadeboncoeur, Christian

    2006-05-30

    HPr is a protein of the bacterial phosphoenolpyruvate:sugar phosphotransferase transport system (PTS). In Gram-positive bacteria, HPr can be phosphorylated on Ser(46) by HPr(Ser) kinase/phosphorylase (HPrK/P) and on His(15) by enzyme I (EI) of the PTS. In vitro studies have shown that phosphorylation on one residue greatly inhibits the second phosphorylation. However, streptococci contain significant amounts of HPr(Ser-P)(His approximately P) during exponential growth, and recent studies suggest that phosphorylation of HPr(Ser-P) by EI is involved in the recycling of HPr(Ser-P)(His approximately P). We report in this paper a study on the phosphorylation of Streptococcus salivarius HPr, HPr(Ser-P), and HPr(S46D) by EI. Our results indicate that (i) the specificity constant (k(cat)/K(m)) of EI for HPr(Ser-P) at pH 7.9 was approximately 5000-fold smaller than that observed for HPr, (ii) no metabolic intermediates were able to stimulate HPr(Ser-P) phosphorylation, (iii) the rate of HPr phosphorylation decreased at pHs below 6.5, while that of HPr(Ser-P) increased and was almost 10-fold higher at pH 6.1 than at pH 7.9, (iv) HPr(S46D), a mutated HPr alleged to mimic HPr(Ser-P), was also phosphorylated more efficiently under acidic conditions, and, lastly, (v) phosphorylation of Bacillus subtilis HPr(Ser-P) by B. subtilis EI was also stimulated at acidic pH. Our results suggest that the high levels of HPr(Ser-P)(His approximately P) in streptococci result from the combination of two factors, a high physiological concentration of HPr(Ser-P) and stimulation of HPr(Ser-P) phosphorylation by EI at acidic pH, an intracellular condition that occurs in response to the acidification of the external medium during growth of the culture. PMID:16716080

  13. Cloning of the two pyruvate kinase isoenzyme structural genes from Escherichia coli: the relative roles of these enzymes in pyruvate biosynthesis.

    PubMed Central

    Ponce, E; Flores, N; Martinez, A; Valle, F; Bolívar, F

    1995-01-01

    We report the cloning of the pykA and pykF genes from Escherichia coli, which code for the two pyruvate kinase isoenzymes (ATP:pyruvate 2-O-phosphotransferases; EC 2.7.1.40) in this microorganism. These genes were insertionally inactivated with antibiotic resistance markers and utilized to interrupt one or both pyk genes in the E. coli chromosome. With these constructions, we were able to study the role of these isoenzymes in pyruvate biosynthesis. PMID:7559366

  14. Helical shifts generate two distinct conformers in the atomic resolution structure of the CheA phosphotransferase domain from Thermotoga maritima.

    PubMed

    Quezada, Cindy M; Gradinaru, Cristian; Simon, Melvin I; Bilwes, Alexandrine M; Crane, Brian R

    2004-08-27

    Helical histidine phosphotransferase (HPt) domains play a central role in many aspects of bacterial signal transduction. The 0.98 A resolution crystallographic structure of the amino-terminal HPt domain (P1) from the chemotaxis kinase CheA of Thermotoga maritima reveals a remarkable degree of structural heterogeneity within a four-helix bundle. Two of the four helices have alternate main-chain conformations that differ by a 1.3-1.7A shift along the bundle axis. These dual conformers were only resolved with atomic resolution diffraction data and their inclusion significantly improved refinement statistics. Neither conformer optimizes packing within the helical core, consistent with their nearly equal refined occupancies. Altered hydrogen bonding within an inter-helical loop may facilitate transition between conformers. Two discrete structural states rather than a continuum of closely related conformations indicates an energetic barrier to conversion between conformers in the crystal at 100K, although many more states are expected in solution at physiological temperatures. Anisotropic atomic thermal B factors within the two conformers indicate modest overall atomic displacement that is largest perpendicular to the helical bundle and not along the direction of apparent motion. Despite the conformational heterogeneity of P1 in the crystal at low temperature, the protein displays high thermal stability in solution (T(m)=100 degrees C). Addition of a variable C-terminal region that corresponds to a mobile helix in other CheA structures significantly narrows the temperature width of the unfolding transition and may affect domain dynamics. Helices that compose the kinase recognition site and contain the phospho-accepting His45 do not have alternate conformations. In this region, atomic resolution provides detailed structural parameters for a conserved hydrogen-bonding network that tunes the reactivity of His45. A neighboring glutamate (E67), essential for

  15. Kinetic studies of the reverse reaction catalysed by adenosine triphosphate–creatine phosphotransferase. The inhibition by magnesium ions and adenosine diphosphate

    PubMed Central

    Morrison, J. F.; O'Sullivan, W. J.

    1965-01-01

    1. Kinetic investigations of the reaction catalysed by ATP–creatine phosphotransferase have been carried out. 2. No firm conclusions could be reached about the reaction of Mg2+ at the nucleotide-binding site of the enzyme. The value of the kinetic constant for this reaction depends on the value used for the apparent stability constant of the metal ion–nucleotide complex and, to a smaller extent, on the method of plotting the results. 3. At higher concentrations Mg2+ is a non-competitive inhibitor of the enzyme with respect to both MgADP− and phosphocreatine. 4. ADP3− is a competitive inhibitor of the enzyme with respect to MgADP− and a non-competitive inhibitor with respect to phosphocreatine. 5. The concentration of phosphocreatine has little, if any, effect on the kinetic constants for the nucleotide reactants. PMID:14342234

  16. Streptococcus pneumoniae Cell-Wall-Localized Phosphoenolpyruvate Protein Phosphotransferase Can Function as an Adhesin: Identification of Its Host Target Molecules and Evaluation of Its Potential as a Vaccine.

    PubMed

    Mizrachi Nebenzahl, Yaffa; Blau, Karin; Kushnir, Tatyana; Shagan, Marilou; Portnoi, Maxim; Cohen, Aviad; Azriel, Shalhevet; Malka, Itai; Adawi, Asad; Kafka, Daniel; Dotan, Shahar; Guterman, Gali; Troib, Shany; Fishilevich, Tali; Gershoni, Jonathan M; Braiman, Alex; Mitchell, Andrea M; Mitchell, Timothy J; Porat, Nurith; Goliand, Inna; Chalifa Caspi, Vered; Swiatlo, Edwin; Tal, Michael; Ellis, Ronald; Elia, Natalie; Dagan, Ron

    2016-01-01

    In Streptococcus pneumonia, phosphoenolpyruvate protein phosphotransferase (PtsA) is an intracellular protein of the monosaccharide phosphotransferase systems. Biochemical and immunostaining methods were applied to show that PtsA also localizes to the bacterial cell-wall. Thus, it was suspected that PtsA has functions other than its main cytoplasmic enzymatic role. Indeed, recombinant PtsA and anti-rPtsA antiserum were shown to inhibit adhesion of S. pneumoniae to cultured human lung adenocarcinoma A549 cells. Screening of a combinatorial peptide library expressed in a filamentous phage with rPtsA identified epitopes that were capable of inhibiting S. pneumoniae adhesion to A549 cells. The insert peptides in the phages were sequenced, and homologous sequences were found in human BMPER, multimerin1, protocadherin19, integrinβ4, epsin1 and collagen type VIIα1 proteins, all of which can be found in A549 cells except the latter. Six peptides, synthesized according to the homologous sequences in the human proteins, specifically bound rPtsA in the micromolar range and significantly inhibited pneumococcal adhesion in vitro to lung- and tracheal-derived cell lines. In addition, the tested peptides inhibited lung colonization after intranasal inoculation of mice with S. pneumoniae. Immunization with rPtsA protected the mice against a sublethal intranasal and a lethal intravenous pneumococcal challenge. In addition, mouse anti rPtsA antiserum reduced bacterial virulence in the intravenous inoculation mouse model. These findings showed that the surface-localized PtsA functions as an adhesin, PtsA binding peptides derived from its putative target molecules can be considered for future development of therapeutics, and rPtsA should be regarded as a candidate for vaccine development.

  17. Structural basis for dual nucleotide selectivity of aminoglycoside 2''-phosphotransferase IVa provides insight on determinants of nucleotide specificity of aminoglycoside kinases.

    PubMed

    Shi, Kun; Berghuis, Albert M

    2012-04-13

    Enzymatic phosphorylation through a family of enzymes called aminoglycoside O-phosphotransferases (APHs) is a major mechanism by which bacteria confer resistance to aminoglycoside antibiotics. Members of the APH(2″) subfamily are of particular clinical interest because of their prevalence in pathogenic strains and their broad substrate spectra. APH(2″) enzymes display differential preferences between ATP or GTP as the phosphate donor, with aminoglycoside 2″-phosphotransferase IVa (APH(2″)-IVa) being a member that utilizes both nucleotides at comparable efficiencies. We report here four crystal structures of APH(2″)-IVa, two of the wild type enzyme and two of single amino acid mutants, each in complex with either adenosine or guanosine. Together, these structures afford a detailed look at the nucleoside-binding site architecture for this enzyme and reveal key elements that confer dual nucleotide specificity, including a solvent network in the interior of the nucleoside-binding pocket and the conformation of an interdomain linker loop. Steady state kinetic studies, as well as sequence and structural comparisons with members of the APH(2″) subfamily and other aminoglycoside kinases, rationalize the different substrate preferences for these enzymes. Finally, despite poor overall sequence similarity and structural homology, analysis of the nucleoside-binding pocket of APH(2″)-IVa shows a striking resemblance to that of eukaryotic casein kinase 2 (CK2), which also exhibits dual nucleotide specificity. These results, in complement with the multitude of existing inhibitors against CK2, can serve as a structural basis for the design of nucleotide-competitive inhibitors against clinically relevant APH enzymes.

  18. Streptococcus pneumoniae Cell-Wall-Localized Phosphoenolpyruvate Protein Phosphotransferase Can Function as an Adhesin: Identification of Its Host Target Molecules and Evaluation of Its Potential as a Vaccine

    PubMed Central

    Mizrachi Nebenzahl, Yaffa; Blau, Karin; Kushnir, Tatyana; Shagan, Marilou; Portnoi, Maxim; Cohen, Aviad; Azriel, Shalhevet; Malka, Itai; Adawi, Asad; Kafka, Daniel; Dotan, Shahar; Guterman, Gali; Troib, Shany; Fishilevich, Tali; Gershoni, Jonathan M; Braiman, Alex; Mitchell, Andrea M; Mitchell, Timothy J; Porat, Nurith; Goliand, Inna; Chalifa Caspi, Vered; Swiatlo, Edwin; Tal, Michael; Ellis, Ronald; Elia, Natalie; Dagan, Ron

    2016-01-01

    In Streptococcus pneumonia, phosphoenolpyruvate protein phosphotransferase (PtsA) is an intracellular protein of the monosaccharide phosphotransferase systems. Biochemical and immunostaining methods were applied to show that PtsA also localizes to the bacterial cell-wall. Thus, it was suspected that PtsA has functions other than its main cytoplasmic enzymatic role. Indeed, recombinant PtsA and anti-rPtsA antiserum were shown to inhibit adhesion of S. pneumoniae to cultured human lung adenocarcinoma A549 cells. Screening of a combinatorial peptide library expressed in a filamentous phage with rPtsA identified epitopes that were capable of inhibiting S. pneumoniae adhesion to A549 cells. The insert peptides in the phages were sequenced, and homologous sequences were found in human BMPER, multimerin1, protocadherin19, integrinβ4, epsin1 and collagen type VIIα1 proteins, all of which can be found in A549 cells except the latter. Six peptides, synthesized according to the homologous sequences in the human proteins, specifically bound rPtsA in the micromolar range and significantly inhibited pneumococcal adhesion in vitro to lung- and tracheal-derived cell lines. In addition, the tested peptides inhibited lung colonization after intranasal inoculation of mice with S. pneumoniae. Immunization with rPtsA protected the mice against a sublethal intranasal and a lethal intravenous pneumococcal challenge. In addition, mouse anti rPtsA antiserum reduced bacterial virulence in the intravenous inoculation mouse model. These findings showed that the surface-localized PtsA functions as an adhesin, PtsA binding peptides derived from its putative target molecules can be considered for future development of therapeutics, and rPtsA should be regarded as a candidate for vaccine development. PMID:26990554

  19. Both IIC and IID Components of Mannose Phosphotransferase System Are Involved in the Specific Recognition between Immunity Protein PedB and Bacteriocin-Receptor Complex

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Chunmei; Ren, Fazheng; Hao, Yanling

    2016-01-01

    Upon exposure to exogenous pediocin-like bacteriocins, immunity proteins specifically bind to the target receptor of the mannose phosphotransferase system components (man-PTS IIC and IID), therefore preventing bacterial cell death. However, the specific recognition of immunity proteins and its associated target receptors remains poorly understood. In this study, we constructed hybrid receptors to identify the domains of IIC and/or IID recognized by the immunity protein PedB, which confers immunity to pediocin PA-1. Using Lactobacillus plantarum man-PTS EII mutant W903, the IICD components of four pediocin PA-1-sensitive strains (L. plantarum WQ0815, Leuconostoc mesenteroides 05–43, Lactobacillus salivarius REN and Lactobacillus acidophilus 05–172) were respectively co-expressed with the immunity protein PedB. Well-diffusions assays showed that only the complex formed by LpIICD from L. plantarum WQ0815 with pediocin PA-1 could be recognized by PedB. In addition, a two-step PCR approach was used to construct hybrid receptors by combining LpIIC or LpIID recognized by PedB with the other three heterologous IID or IIC compounds unrecognized by PedB, respectively. The results showed that all six hybrid receptors were recognized by pediocin PA-1. However, when IIC or IID of L. plantarum WQ0815 was replaced with any corresponding IIC or IID component from L. mesenteroides 05–43, L. salivarius REN and L. acidophilus 05–172, all the hybrid receptors could not be recognized by PedB. Taken altogether, we concluded that both IIC and IID components of the mannose phosphotransferase system play an important role in the specific recognition between the bacteriocin-receptor complex and the immunity protein PedB. PMID:27776158

  20. Phosphatidylinositol-specific phospholipase C from Bacillus cereus combines intrinsic phosphotransferase and cyclic phosphodiesterase activities: A sup 31 P NMR study

    SciTech Connect

    Shashidhar, M.S.; Kuppe, A. ); Volwerk, J.J.; Griffith, O.H.

    1990-09-04

    The inositol phosphate products formed during the cleavage of phosphatidylinositol by phosphatidylinositol-specific phospholipase C from Bacillus cereus were analyzed by {sup 31}P NMR. {sup 31}P NMR spectroscopy can distinguish between the inositol phosphate species and phosphatidylinositol. Chemical shift values (with reference to phosphoric acid) observed are {minus}0.41, 3.62, 4.45, and 16.30 ppm for phosphatidylinositol, myo-inositol 1-monophosphate, myo-inositol 2-monophosphate, and myo-inositol 1,2-cyclic monophosphate, respectively. It is shown that under a variety of experimental conditions this phospholipase C cleaves phosphatidylinositol via an intramolecular phosphotransfer reaction producing diacylglycerol and D-myo-inositol 1,2-cyclic monophosphate. The authors also report the new and unexpected observation that the phosphatidylinositol-specific phospholipase C from B. cereus is able to hydrolyze the inositol cyclic phosphate to form D-myo-inositol 1-monophosphate. The enzyme, therefore, possesses phosphotransferase and cyclic phosphodiesterase activities. The second reaction requires thousandfold higher enzyme concentrations to be observed by {sup 31}P NMR. This reaction was shown to be regiospecific in that only the 1-phosphate was produced and stereospecific in that only D-myo-inositol 1,2-cyclic monophosphate was hydrolyzed. Inhibition with a monoclonal antibody specific for the B.cereus phospholipase C showed that the cyclic phosphodiesterase activity is intrinsic to the bacterial enzyme. They propose a two-step mechanism for the phosphatidyl-inositol-specific phospholipase C from B. cereus involving sequential phosphotransferase and cyclic phosphodiesterase activities. This mechanism bears a resemblance to the well-known two-step mechanism of pancreatic ribonuclease, RNase A.

  1. Seamless Genome Editing in Rice via Gene Targeting and Precise Marker Elimination.

    PubMed

    Nishizawa-Yokoi, Ayako; Saika, Hiroaki; Toki, Seiichi

    2016-01-01

    Positive-negative selection using hygromycin phosphotransferase (hpt) and diphtheria toxin A-fragment (DT-A) as positive and negative selection markers, respectively, allows enrichment of cells harboring target genes modified via gene targeting (GT). We have developed a successful GT system employing positive-negative selection and subsequent precise marker excision via the piggyBac transposon derived from the cabbage looper moth to introduce desired modifications into target genes in the rice genome. This approach could be applied to the precision genome editing of almost all endogenous genes throughout the genome, at least in rice. PMID:27557691

  2. New Construct Approaches for Efficient Gene Silencing in Plants

    PubMed Central

    Yan, Hua; Chretien, Robert; Ye, Jingsong; Rommens, Caius M.

    2006-01-01

    An important component of conventional sense, antisense, and double-strand RNA-based gene silencing constructs is the transcriptional terminator. Here, we show that this regulatory element becomes obsolete when gene fragments are positioned between two oppositely oriented and functionally active promoters. The resulting convergent transcription triggers gene silencing that is at least as effective as unidirectional promoter-to-terminator transcription. In addition to short, variably sized, and nonpolyadenylated RNAs, terminator-free cassette produced rare, longer transcripts that reach into the flanking promoter. These read-through products did not influence the efficacy and expression levels of the neighboring hygromycin phosphotransferase gene. Replacement of gene fragments by promoter-derived sequences further increased the extent of gene silencing. This finding indicates that genomic DNA may be a more efficient target for gene silencing than gene transcripts. PMID:16766670

  3. Diversity of Streptococcus salivarius ptsH Mutants That Can Be Isolated in the Presence of 2-Deoxyglucose and Galactose and Characterization of Two Mutants Synthesizing Reduced Levels of HPr, a Phosphocarrier of the Phosphoenolpyruvate:Sugar Phosphotransferase System

    PubMed Central

    Thomas, Suzanne; Brochu, Denis; Vadeboncoeur, Christian

    2001-01-01

    In streptococci, HPr, a phosphocarrier of the phosphoenolpyruvate:sugar phosphotransferase transport system (PTS), undergoes multiple posttranslational chemical modifications resulting in the formation of HPr(His∼P), HPr(Ser-P), and HPr(Ser-P)(His∼P), whose cellular concentrations vary with growth conditions. Distinct physiological functions are associated with specific forms of HPr. We do not know, however, the cellular thresholds below which these forms become unable to fulfill their functions and to what extent modifications in the cellular concentrations of the different forms of HPr modify cellular physiology. In this study, we present a glimpse of the diversity of Streptococcus salivarius ptsH mutants that can be isolated by positive selection on a solid medium containing 2-deoxyglucose and galactose and identify 13 amino acids that are essential for HPr to properly accomplish its physiological functions. We also report the characterization of two S. salivarius mutants that produced approximately two- and threefoldless HPr and enzyme I (EI) respectively. The data indicated that (i) a reduction in the synthesis of HPr due to a mutation in the Shine-Dalgarno sequence of ptsH reduced ptsI expression; (ii) a threefold reduction in EI and HPr cellular levels did not affect PTS transport capacity; (iii) a twofold reduction in HPr synthesis was sufficient to reduce the rate at which cells metabolized PTS sugars, increase generation times on PTS sugars and to a lesser extent on non-PTS sugars, and impede the exclusion of non-PTS sugars by PTS sugars; (iv) a threefold reduction in HPr synthesis caused a strong derepression of the genes coding for α-galactosidase, β-galactosidase, and galactokinase when the cells were grown at the expense of a PTS sugar but did not affect the synthesis of α-galactosidase when cells were grown at the expense of lactose, a noninducing non-PTS sugar; and (v) no correlation was found between the magnitude of enzyme derepression and

  4. Identification of a site in the phosphocarrier protein, HPr, which influences its interactions with sugar permeases of the bacterial phosphotransferase system: kinetic analyses employing site-specific mutants.

    PubMed Central

    Koch, S; Sutrina, S L; Wu, L F; Reizer, J; Schnetz, K; Rak, B; Saier, M H

    1996-01-01

    The permeases of the Escherichia coli phosphoenolpyruvate:sugar phosphotransferase system (PTS), the sugar-specific enzymes II, are energized by sequential phosphoryl transfer from phosphoenolpyruvate to (i) enzyme I, (ii) the phosphocarrier protein HPr, (iii) the enzyme IIA domains of the permeases, and (iv) the enzyme IIBC domains of the permeases which transport and phosphorylate their sugar substrates. A number of site-specific mutants of HPr were examined by using kinetic approaches. Most of the mutations exerted minimal effects on the kinetic parameters characterizing reactions involving phosphoryl transfer from phospho-HPr to various sugars. However, when the well-conserved aspartyl 69 residue in HPr was changed to a glutamyl residue, the affinities for phospho-HPr of the enzymes II specific for mannitol, N-acetylglucosamine, and beta-glucosides decreased markedly without changing the maximal reaction rates. The same mutation reduced the spontaneous rate of phosphohistidyl HPr hydrolysis but did not appear to alter the rate of phosphoryl transfer from phospho-enzyme I to HPr. When the adjacent glutamyl residue 70 in HPr was changed to a lysyl residue, the Vmax values of the reactions catalyzed by the enzymes II were reduced, but the Km values remained unaltered. Changing this residue to alanine exerted little effect. Site-specific alterations in the C terminus of the beta-glucoside enzyme II which reduced the maximal reaction rate of phosphoryl transfer about 20-fold did not alter the relative kinetic parameters because of the aforementioned mutations in HPr. Published three-dimensional structural analyses of HPr and the complex of HPr with the glucose-specific enzyme IIA (IIAGlc) (homologous to the beta-glucoside and N-acetylglucosamine enzyme IIA domains) have revealed that residues 69 and 70 in HPr are distant from the active phosphorylation site and the IIAGlc binding interface in HPr. The results reported therefore suggest that residues D-69 and E-70 in

  5. A comparative study on phosphotransferase activity of acid phosphatases from Raoultella planticola and Enterobacter aerogenes on nucleosides, sugars, and related compounds.

    PubMed

    Médici, Rosario; Garaycoechea, Juan I; Valino, Ana L; Pereira, Claudio A; Lewkowicz, Elizabeth S; Iribarren, Adolfo M

    2014-04-01

    Natural and modified nucleoside-5'-monophosphates and their precursors are valuable compounds widely used in biochemical studies. Bacterial nonspecific acid phosphatases (NSAPs) are a group of enzymes involved in the hydrolysis of phosphoester bonds, and some of them exhibit phosphotransferase activity. NSAP containing Enterobacter aerogenes and Raoultella planticola whole cells were evaluated in the phosphorylation of a wide range of nucleosides and nucleoside precursors using pyrophosphate as phosphate donor. To increase the productivity of the process, we developed two genetically modified strains of Escherichia coli which overexpressed NSAPs of E. aerogenes and R. planticola. These new recombinant microorganisms (E. coli BL21 pET22b-phoEa and E. coli BL21 pET22b-phoRp) showed higher activity than the corresponding wild-type strains. Reductions in the reaction times from 21 h to 60 min, from 4 h to 15 min, and from 24 h to 40 min in cases of dihydroxyacetone, inosine, and fludarabine, respectively, were obtained.

  6. Crystal structures of antibiotic-bound complexes of aminoglycoside 2''-phosphotransferase IVa highlight the diversity in substrate binding modes among aminoglycoside kinases.

    PubMed

    Shi, Kun; Houston, Douglas R; Berghuis, Albert M

    2011-07-19

    Aminoglycoside 2''-phosphotransferase IVa [APH(2'')-IVa] is a member of a family of bacterial enzymes responsible for medically relevant resistance to antibiotics. APH(2'')-IVa confers high-level resistance against several clinically used aminoglycoside antibiotics in various pathogenic Enterococcus species by phosphorylating the drug, thereby preventing it from binding to its ribosomal target and producing a bactericidal effect. We describe here three crystal structures of APH(2'')-IVa, one in its apo form and two in complex with a bound antibiotic, tobramycin and kanamycin A. The apo structure was refined to a resolution of 2.05 Å, and the APH(2'')-IVa structures with tobramycin and kanamycin A bound were refined to resolutions of 1.80 and 2.15 Å, respectively. Comparison among the structures provides insight concerning the substrate selectivity of this enzyme. In particular, conformational changes upon substrate binding, involving rotational shifts of two distinct segments of the enzyme, are observed. These substrate-induced shifts may also rationalize the altered substrate preference of APH(2'')-IVa in comparison to those of other members of the APH(2'') subfamily, which are structurally closely related. Finally, analysis of the interactions between the enzyme and aminoglycoside reveals a distinct binding mode as compared to the intended ribosomal target. The differences in the pattern of interactions can be utilized as a structural basis for the development of improved aminoglycosides that are not susceptible to these resistance factors.

  7. Co-induction of beta-galactosidase and the lactose-P-enolpyruvate phosphotransferase system in Streptococcus salivarius and Streptococcus mutans.

    PubMed Central

    Hamilton, I R; Lo, G C

    1978-01-01

    The addition of lactose, galactose, or isopropyl-beta-D-thiogalactoside (IPTG) to glucose-grown cells of Streptococcus salivarius 25975 resulted in the co-induction of both the lactose-P-enolpyruvate phosphotransferase system (lactose-PTS) and beta-galactosidase, with the latter the predominant metabolic system. With various strains of Streptococcus mutans and Streptococcus sanguis 10556, on the other hand, the lactose-PTS was the major metabolic pathway with beta-galactosidase induced either to low or negligible levels. In all cases, induction of the lactose-PTS resulted in the concomitant induction of 6-P-beta-galactosidase. The induction by lactose of both the lactose-PTS and beta-galactosidase in all strains was repressed by glucose and other catabolites, notably, fructose. Induction of beta-galactosidase in S. salivarius 25975 by IPTG was, however, relatively resistant to glucose repression. Induction experiments with IPTG and lactose suggested that a cellular metabolite of lactose metabolism was a repressor of enzyme activity. Exogenous cAMP was shown to reverse the transient repression by glucose of beta-galactosidase induction in cells of S. salivarius 25975 receiving lactose, provided the cells were grown with small amounts of toluene to overcome the permeability barrier to this nucleotide, cAMP, was however, unable to overcome the permanent repression of beta-galactosidase activity to a significant extent under these conditions. PMID:214423

  8. Genetic Analysis Reveals the Essential Role of Nitrogen Phosphotransferase System Components in Sinorhizobium fredii CCBAU 45436 Symbioses with Soybean and Pigeonpea Plants.

    PubMed

    Li, Yue Zhen; Wang, Dan; Feng, Xue Ying; Jiao, Jian; Chen, Wen Xin; Tian, Chang Fu

    2015-12-18

    The nitrogen phosphotransferase system (PTS(Ntr)) consists of EI(Ntr), NPr, and EIIA(Ntr). The active phosphate moiety derived from phosphoenolpyruvate is transferred through EI(Ntr) and NPr to EIIA(Ntr). Sinorhizobium fredii can establish a nitrogen-fixing symbiosis with the legume crops soybean (as determinate nodules) and pigeonpea (as indeterminate nodules). In this study, S. fredii strains with mutations in ptsP and ptsO (encoding EI(Ntr) and NPr, respectively) formed ineffective nodules on soybeans, while a strain with a ptsN mutation (encoding EIIA(Ntr)) was not defective in symbiosis with soybeans. Notable reductions in the numbers of bacteroids within each symbiosome and of poly-β-hydroxybutyrate granules in bacteroids were observed in nodules infected by the ptsP or ptsO mutant strains but not in those infected with the ptsN mutant strain. However, these defects of the ptsP and ptsO mutant strains were recovered in ptsP ptsN and ptsO ptsN double-mutant strains, implying a negative role of unphosphorylated EIIA(Ntr) in symbiosis. Moreover, the symbiotic defect of the ptsP mutant was also recovered by expressing EI(Ntr) with or without the GAF domain, indicating that the putative glutamine-sensing domain GAF is dispensable in symbiotic interactions. The critical role of PTS(Ntr) in symbiosis was also observed when related PTS(Ntr) mutant strains of S. fredii were inoculated on pigeonpea plants. Furthermore, nodule occupancy and carbon utilization tests suggested that multiple outputs could be derived from components of PTS(Ntr) in addition to the negative role of unphosphorylated EIIA(Ntr).

  9. Genetic Analysis Reveals the Essential Role of Nitrogen Phosphotransferase System Components in Sinorhizobium fredii CCBAU 45436 Symbioses with Soybean and Pigeonpea Plants

    PubMed Central

    Li, Yue Zhen; Wang, Dan; Feng, Xue Ying; Jiao, Jian; Chen, Wen Xin

    2015-01-01

    The nitrogen phosphotransferase system (PTSNtr) consists of EINtr, NPr, and EIIANtr. The active phosphate moiety derived from phosphoenolpyruvate is transferred through EINtr and NPr to EIIANtr. Sinorhizobium fredii can establish a nitrogen-fixing symbiosis with the legume crops soybean (as determinate nodules) and pigeonpea (as indeterminate nodules). In this study, S. fredii strains with mutations in ptsP and ptsO (encoding EINtr and NPr, respectively) formed ineffective nodules on soybeans, while a strain with a ptsN mutation (encoding EIIANtr) was not defective in symbiosis with soybeans. Notable reductions in the numbers of bacteroids within each symbiosome and of poly-β-hydroxybutyrate granules in bacteroids were observed in nodules infected by the ptsP or ptsO mutant strains but not in those infected with the ptsN mutant strain. However, these defects of the ptsP and ptsO mutant strains were recovered in ptsP ptsN and ptsO ptsN double-mutant strains, implying a negative role of unphosphorylated EIIANtr in symbiosis. Moreover, the symbiotic defect of the ptsP mutant was also recovered by expressing EINtr with or without the GAF domain, indicating that the putative glutamine-sensing domain GAF is dispensable in symbiotic interactions. The critical role of PTSNtr in symbiosis was also observed when related PTSNtr mutant strains of S. fredii were inoculated on pigeonpea plants. Furthermore, nodule occupancy and carbon utilization tests suggested that multiple outputs could be derived from components of PTSNtr in addition to the negative role of unphosphorylated EIIANtr. PMID:26682851

  10. The use of nucleotide phosphorothioate diastereomers to define the structure of metal-nucleotide bound to GTP-AMP and ATP-AMP phosphotransferases from beef-heart mitochondria.

    PubMed

    Tomasselli, A G; Marquetant, R; Noda, L H; Goody, R S

    1984-07-16

    The diastereomers of adenosine 5'-O-[1-thio]triphosphate (ATP[alpha S]) and adenosine 5'-O-[2-thio]triphosphate (ATP[beta S]) were utilized to seek unambiguous assignment of Mg2+ coordination to ATP when bound to ATP-AMP phosphotransferase from beef heart mitochondria (AK2). Similarly, the diastereomers of guanosine 5'-O-[thio]triphosphate (GTP[alpha S]) and guanosine 5'-O-[2-thio]triphosphate (GTP[beta S]) were utilized to seek unambiguous assignment of Mg2+ coordination to GTP when bound to GTP-AMP phosphotransferase from beef heart mitochondria (AK3). Furthermore the diastereomers of guanosine 5'-O-[1-thio]diphosphate (GDP-[alpha S]) have been used to assign Mg2+ coordination to GDP when bound to AK3. The ratios (V for isomer Sp)/(V for isomer Rp) obtained in the presence of Mg2+ and Cd2+ are compared to those already published for ATP-AMP phosphotransferases from pig muscle (AK1) [Kalbitzer et al. (1983) Eur. J. Biochem. 133, 221-227] and from baker's yeast (AKy) [Tomasselli and Noda (1983) Eur. J. Biochem. 132, 109-115]. In all cases, coordination of Mg2+ to the beta-phosphate via the pro-R oxygen is present, as shown by reversal of specificity for the diastereomers of ATP [beta S] or GTP [beta S] respectively on changing the metal ion. In contrast, there is no reversal of specificity for the diastereomers of ATP [alpha S] or GTP[alpha S], or for GDP[alpha S] in the case of AK3 for the reverse reaction, indicating that there is no interaction of the metal with the alpha-phosphate group. The observed stereospecificity for the alpha-thiophosphate is consistent with the assumption of an interaction of the pro-R oxygen of the alpha-phosphate group with the enzyme.

  11. Virulence and the presence of aminoglycoside resistance genes of Staphylococcus haemolyticus strains isolated from clinical specimens.

    PubMed

    Krzymińska, Sylwia; Szczuka, Ewa; Dudzińska, Kinga; Kaznowski, Adam

    2015-04-01

    We examined thirty methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus haemolyticus isolates cultured from clinical specimens for antibiotic resistance, various important interactions of the bacteria with epithelial cells and putative virulence determinants. All strains were resistant to oxacillin and carried the mecA gene. Aminocyclitol-3'-phosphotransferase (aph(3')-IIIa) gene encoding nucleotidyltransferases was detected in 43 %, aminocyclitol-6'-acetyltransferase-aminocyclitol-2″-phosphotransferase (aac(6')/aph(2″)) gene encoding bifunctional acetyltransferases/phosphotransferases in 33 %, aminocyclitol-4'-adenylyltransferase (ant(4')-Ia) gene encoding phosphotransferases in 20 %. The coexistence of resistance to methicillin and aminoglycosides was investigated in multi-resistant strains. Coexisting (aac(6')/aph(2″)) and (aph(3')-IIIa) genes were detected in 33 % of isolates, whereas 63 % of isolates had at least one of these genes. All strains revealed adherence ability and most of them (63 %) were invasive to epithelial cells. Electron microscopy revealed that the bacteria were found in vacuoles inside the cells. We observed that the contact of the bacteria with host epithelial cells is a prerequisite to their cytotoxicity at 5 h-incubation. Culture supernatant of the strains induced a low effect of cytotoxicity at the same time of incubation. Cell-free supernatant of all isolates expressed cytotoxic activity which caused destruction of HEp-2 cells at 24 h. None of the strains was cytotonic towards CHO cells. Among thirty strains, 27 % revealed lipolytic activity, 43 % produced lecithinase and 20 % were positive for proteinase activity. Analyses of cellular morphology and DNA fragmentation exhibited typical characteristic features of those undergoing apoptosis. The Pearson linear test revealed positive correlations between the apoptotic index at 24 h and percentage of cytotoxicity. Our results provided new insights into the mechanisms contributing to the

  12. Distribution of proteins similar to IIIManH and IIIManL of the Streptococcus salivarius phosphoenolpyruvate:mannose-glucose phosphotransferase system among oral and nonoral bacteria.

    PubMed Central

    Pelletier, M; Frenette, M; Vadeboncoeur, C

    1995-01-01

    In Streptococcus salivarius, the phosphoenolpyruvate (PEP):mannose-glucose phosphotransferase system, which concomitantly transports and phosphorylates mannose, glucose, fructose, and 2-deoxyglucose, is composed of the general energy-coupling proteins EI and HPr, the specific membrane-bound IIIMan, and two forms of a protein called IIIMan, with molecular weights of 38,900 (IIIManH) and 35,200 (IIIManL), that are found in the cytoplasm as well as associated with the membrane. Several lines of evidence suggest that IIIManH and/or IIIManL are involved in the control of sugar metabolism. To determine whether other bacteria possess these proteins, we tested for their presence in 28 oral streptococcus strains, 3 nonoral streptococcus strains, 2 lactococcus strains, 2 enterococcus strains, 2 bacillus strains, 1 lactobacillus strain, Staphylococcus aureus, and Escherichia coli. Three approaches were used to determine whether the IIIMan proteins were present in these bacteria: (i) Western blot (immunoblot) analysis of cytoplasmic and membrane proteins, using anti-IIIManH and anti-IIIManH rabbit polyclonal antibodies; (ii) analysis of PEP-dependent phosphoproteins by polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis; and (iii) inhibition by anti-IIIMan antibodies of the PEP-dependent phosphorylation of 2-deoxyglucose (a mannose analog) by crude cellular extracts. Only the species S. salivarius and Streptococcus vestibularis possessed the two forms of IIIMan. Fifteen other streptococcal species possessed one protein with a molecular weight between 35,200 and 38,900 that cross-reacted with both antibodies. In the case of 9 species, a protein possessing the same electrophoretic mobility was phosphorylated at the expense of PEP. No such phosphoprotein, however, could be detected in the other six species. A III(Man)-like protein with a molecular weight of 35,500 was also detected in Lactobacillus casei by Western blot experiments as well as by PEP-dependent phosphoprotein analysis, and a

  13. CTnscr94, a conjugative transposon found in enterobacteria.

    PubMed Central

    Hochhut, B; Jahreis, K; Lengeler, J W; Schmid, K

    1997-01-01

    Conjugational transposons are important for horizontal gene transfer in gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria, but have not been reported yet for enteric bacteria. Salmonella senftenberg 5494-57 has previously been shown to transfer by conjugation genes for a sucrose fermentation pathway which were located on a DNA element called scr-94. We report here that the corresponding scr genes for a phosphoenolpyruvate-dependent sucrose:phosphotransferase system and a sucrose metabolic pathway are located on a large (ca. 100 kb) conjugative transposon renamed CTnscr94. The self-transmissible element integrates at two specific attachment sites in a RecA-independent way into the chromosome of Escherichia coli K-12 strains. One site was identified within pheV, the structural gene for a tRNA(Phe). Sequencing of both ends of CTnscr94 revealed the presence of the 3' part of pheV on one end such that after integration of the element, a complete pheV gene is retained. CTnscr94 represents, to our knowledge, the first conjugational transposon found in enteric bacteria. PMID:9079891

  14. Regulation of the bgl operon of Escherichia coli by transcriptional antitermination.

    PubMed Central

    Schnetz, K; Rak, B

    1988-01-01

    The bgl operon of Escherichia coli encodes all functions necessary for the regulated uptake and utilization of aryl beta-glucosides. The operon is unusual, however, in that it is cryptic in wild-type strains, requiring activation by mutational events. The vast majority of these mutations are due to transposition of insertion elements into the promoter region of the operon. In this report we show that integration of IS5 into the vicinity of the bgl promoter (P0) enhances its activity by greater than 60-fold thereby activating the operon. In the activated state the operon is subject to induction by substrate. Recent studies have shown that induction of the bgl operon by substrate involves antitermination within the leader of the operon. We now show that substrate-dependent regulation involves specific termination/antitermination of transcription at two signal structures flanking the first gene of the operon, bglG. Antitermination is mediated by the product of gene bglG. In the absence of substrate this antitermination is prevented by the action of the product of gene bglF (the second gene of the operon), which encodes the beta-glucoside-specific transport protein (enzymeIIBgl of the phosphoenolpyruvate-dependent phosphotransferase system, PTS) resulting in repression of the operon. The bgl promoter (P0) is not subject to substrate-dependent regulation. The bgl operon has two additional promoters (P1 and P2) located within the terminators, which could also participate in regulation. Images PMID:2846278

  15. Implantation of unmarked regulatory and metabolic modules in Gram-negative bacteria with specialised mini-transposon delivery vectors.

    PubMed

    Nikel, Pablo I; de Lorenzo, Víctor

    2013-01-20

    Engineering of robust and safe microbial cell factories requires genetic tools somewhat different from those traditionally used for laboratory-adapted microorganisms. We took advantage of the properties of broad-host-range mini-Tn5 vectors and two regulated expression systems (LacI(Q)/P(trc) and XylS/Pm), together with FRT-flanked, excisable antibiotic resistance determinants, to generate a set of vectors for the delivery of gene(s) into the chromosome of Gram-negative bacteria. This arrangement of modular elements allows the cloning and subsequent markerless insertion of expression cargoes and leaves behind an antibiotic-sensitive host upon the action of the yeast Flp recombinase. We engineered a Pseudomonas putida KT2440 Pm::gfp strain that displayed strong fluorescence upon exposure to 3-methylbenzoate, a XylS effector, and allowed us to examine the performance of the Pm promoter at the single cell level. We also reconstructed a device for sugar transport and phosphorylation in Escherichia coli independent of the native phosphoenolpyruvate-dependent phosphotransferase system by the stable implantation of genes derived from the obligate anaerobe Zymomonas mobilis. In both cases, the information carried by the implanted genes was stably inherited in the absence of any selective pressure. Deliverable expression systems such as those described here will enhance the applicability of various Gram-negative bacteria in biocatalysis and environmental bioremediation.

  16. Comparative analysis of gene expression among low G+C gram-positive genomes.

    PubMed

    Karlin, Samuel; Theriot, Julie; Mrázek, Jan

    2004-04-20

    We present a comparative analysis of predicted highly expressed (PHX) genes in the low G+C Gram-positive genomes of Bacillus subtilis, Bacillus halodurans, Listeria monocytogenes, Listeria innocua, Lactococcus lactis, Streptococcus pyogenes, Streptococcus pneumoniae, Staphylococcus aureus, Clostridium acetobutylicum, and Clostridium perfringens. Most enzymes acting in glycolysis and fermentation pathways are PHX in these genomes, but not those involved in the TCA cycle and respiration, suggesting that these organisms have predominantly adapted to grow rapidly in an anaerobic environment. Only B. subtilis and B. halodurans have several TCA cycle PHX genes, whereas the TCA pathway is entirely missing from the metabolic repertoire of the two Streptococcus species and is incomplete in Listeria, Lactococcus, and Clostridium. Pyruvate-formate lyase, an enzyme critical in mixed acid fermentation, is among the highest PHX genes in all these genomes except for C. acetobutylicum (not PHX), and B. subtilis, and B. halodurans (missing). Pyruvate-formate lyase is also prominently PHX in enteric gamma-proteobacteria, but not in other prokaryotes. Phosphotransferase system genes are generally PHX with selection of different substrates in different genomes. The various substrate specificities among phosphotransferase systems in different genomes apparently reflect on differences in habitat, lifestyle, and nutrient sources.

  17. Molecular cloning of the C-terminal domain of Escherichia coli D-mannitol permease: expression, phosphorylation, and complementation with C-terminal permease deletion proteins.

    PubMed

    White, D W; Jacobson, G R

    1990-03-01

    We have subcloned a portion of the Escherichia coli mtlA gene encoding the hydrophilic, C-terminal domain of the mannitol-specific enzyme II (mannitol permease; molecular mass, 68 kilodaltons [kDa]) of the phosphoenolpyruvate-dependent carbohydrate phosphotransferase system. This mtlA fragment, encoding residues 379 to 637 (residue 637 = C terminus), was cloned in frame into the expression vector pCQV2 immediately downstream from the lambda pr promoter of the vector, which also encodes a temperature-sensitive lambda repressor. E. coli cells carrying a chromosomal deletion in mtlA (strain LGS322) and harboring this recombinant plasmid, pDW1, expressed a 28-kDa protein cross-reacting with antipermease antibody when grown at 42 degrees C but not when grown at 32 degrees C. This protein was relatively stable and could be phosphorylated in vitro by the general phospho-carrier protein of the phosphotransferase system, phospho-HPr. Thus, this fragment of the permease, when expressed in the absence of the hydrophobic, membrane-bound N-terminal domain, can apparently fold into a conformation resembling that of the C-terminal domain of the intact permease. When transformed into LGS322 cells harboring plasmid pGJ9-delta 137, which encodes a C-terminally truncated and inactive permease (residues 1 to ca. 480; molecular mass, 51 kDa), pDW1 conferred a mannitol-positive phenotype to this strain when grown at 42 degrees C but not when grown at 32 degrees C. This strain also exhibited phosphoenolpyruvate-dependent mannitol phosphorylation activity only when grown at the higher temperature. In contrast, pDW1 could not complement a plasmid encoding the complementary N-terminal part of the permease (residues 1 to 377). The pathway of phosphorylation of mannitol by the combined protein products of pGJ9-delta 137 and pDPW1 was also investigated by using N-ethylmaleimide to inactivate the second phosphorylation sites of these permease fragments (proposed to be Cys-384). These results

  18. Genomic characterization of symbiotic mycoplasmas from the stomach of deep-sea isopod bathynomus sp.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yong; Huang, Jiao-Mei; Wang, Shao-Lu; Gao, Zhao-Ming; Zhang, Ai-Qun; Danchin, Antoine; He, Li-Sheng

    2016-09-01

    Deep-sea isopod scavengers such as Bathynomus sp. are able to live in nutrient-poor environments, which is likely attributable to the presence of symbiotic microbes in their stomach. In this study we recovered two draft genomes of mycoplasmas, Bg1 and Bg2, from the metagenomes of the stomach contents and stomach sac of a Bathynomus sp. sample from the South China Sea (depth of 898 m). Phylogenetic trees revealed a considerable genetic distance to other mycoplasma species for Bg1 and Bg2. Compared with terrestrial symbiotic mycoplasmas, the Bg1 and Bg2 genomes were enriched with genes encoding phosphoenolpyruvate-dependent phosphotransferase systems (PTSs) and sodium-driven symporters responsible for the uptake of sugars, amino acids and other carbohydrates. The genome of mycoplasma Bg1 contained sialic acid lyase and transporter genes, potentially enabling the bacteria to attach to the stomach sac and obtain organic carbons from various cell walls. Both of the mycoplasma genomes contained multiple copies of genes related to proteolysis and oligosaccharide degradation, which may help the host survive in low-nutrient conditions. The discovery of the different types of mycoplasma bacteria in the stomach of this deep-sea isopod affords insights into symbiotic model of deep-sea animals and genomic plasticity of mycoplasma bacteria. PMID:27312602

  19. Genomic characterization of symbiotic mycoplasmas from the stomach of deep-sea isopod bathynomus sp.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yong; Huang, Jiao-Mei; Wang, Shao-Lu; Gao, Zhao-Ming; Zhang, Ai-Qun; Danchin, Antoine; He, Li-Sheng

    2016-09-01

    Deep-sea isopod scavengers such as Bathynomus sp. are able to live in nutrient-poor environments, which is likely attributable to the presence of symbiotic microbes in their stomach. In this study we recovered two draft genomes of mycoplasmas, Bg1 and Bg2, from the metagenomes of the stomach contents and stomach sac of a Bathynomus sp. sample from the South China Sea (depth of 898 m). Phylogenetic trees revealed a considerable genetic distance to other mycoplasma species for Bg1 and Bg2. Compared with terrestrial symbiotic mycoplasmas, the Bg1 and Bg2 genomes were enriched with genes encoding phosphoenolpyruvate-dependent phosphotransferase systems (PTSs) and sodium-driven symporters responsible for the uptake of sugars, amino acids and other carbohydrates. The genome of mycoplasma Bg1 contained sialic acid lyase and transporter genes, potentially enabling the bacteria to attach to the stomach sac and obtain organic carbons from various cell walls. Both of the mycoplasma genomes contained multiple copies of genes related to proteolysis and oligosaccharide degradation, which may help the host survive in low-nutrient conditions. The discovery of the different types of mycoplasma bacteria in the stomach of this deep-sea isopod affords insights into symbiotic model of deep-sea animals and genomic plasticity of mycoplasma bacteria.

  20. Genetic transformation and gene expression in white pine (pinus strobus)

    SciTech Connect

    Minocha, R.

    1987-10-01

    The objectives of the study were: (1) to develop protocols for transformation of white pine (Pinus strobus) embryonic tissue; and (2) to analyze the regulation of foreign gene expression in Pinus strobus. A number of Agrobacterium tumefaciens strains containing chimeric genes for neomycin phosphotransferase (NPTII for kanamycin resistance) and chloramphenicol acetyl transferase (CAT) under the control of either a constitutive promoter (NOS-nopaline synthase) or light-inducible promoters (RuBisCO small subunit and chlorophyll a/b binding protein) were used. A variety of tissues from white pine seedlings and mature trees was used. The techniques for transformation were modified from those used for tobacco transformation. The results show that white pine tissue from young seedlings is high suitable for transformation by A. tumefaciens. Whereas the normal tissues are very sensitive to kanamycin, transformed callus was quite resistant to this antibiotic.

  1. The Mannitol Operon Repressor MTIR belongs to a new class of transcription regulators in bacteria.

    SciTech Connect

    Tan, K.; Borovilos, M.; Zhou, M; Horer, S; Clancy, S; Moy, S; Volkart, LL; Sassoon, J; Baumann, U; Joachimiak, A

    2009-12-25

    Many bacteria express phosphoenolpyruvate-dependent phosphotransferase systems (PTS). The mannitol-specific PTS catalyze the uptake and phosphorylation of d-mannitol. The uptake system comprises several genes encoded in the single operon. The expression of the mannitol operon is regulated by a proposed transcriptional factor, mannitol operon repressor (MtlR) that was first studied in Escherichia coli. Here we report the first crystal structures of MtlR from Vibrio parahemeolyticus (Vp-MtlR) and its homolog YggD protein from Shigella flexneri (Sf-YggD). MtlR and YggD belong to the same protein family (Pfam05068). Although Vp-MtlR and Sf-YggD share low sequence identity (22%), their overall structures are very similar, representing a novel all {alpha}-helical fold, and indicate similar function. However, their lack of any known DNA-binding structural motifs and their unfavorable electrostatic properties imply that MtlR/YggD are unlikely to bind a specific DNA operator directly as proposed earlier. This structural observation is further corroborated by in vitro DNA-binding studies of E. coli MtlR (Ec-MtlR), which detected no interaction of Ec-MtlR with the well characterized mannitol operator/promoter region. Therefore, MtlR/YggD belongs to a new class of transcription factors in bacteria that may regulate gene expression indirectly as a part of a larger transcriptional complex.

  2. Co-transformation of grapevine somatic embryos to produce transgenic plants free of marker genes.

    PubMed

    Dutt, Manjul; Li, Zhijian T; Dhekney, Sadanand A; Gray, Dennis J

    2012-01-01

    A cotransformation system using somatic embryos was developed to produce grapevines free of selectable marker genes. This was achieved by transforming Vitis vinifera L. "Thompson Seedless" somatic embryos with a mixture of two Agrobacterium strains. The first strain contained a binary plasmid with an egfp gene of interest between the T-DNA borders. The second strain harbored the neomycin phosphotransferase (nptII) gene for positive selection and the cytosine deaminase (codA) gene for negative selection, linked together by a bidirectional dual promoter complex. Our technique included a short positive selection phase of cotransformed somatic embryos on liquid medium containing 100 mg/L kanamycin before subjecting cultures to prolonged negative selection on medium containing 250 mg/L 5-fluorocytosine. PMID:22351010

  3. Gene transfer with subsequent removal of the selection gene from the host genome.

    PubMed Central

    Dale, E C; Ow, D W

    1991-01-01

    A general method of gene transfer that does not leave behind a selectable marker in the host genome is described. A luciferase gene was introduced into the tobacco genome by using the hygromycin phosphotransferase gene (hpt) as a linked selectable marker. Flanked by recombination sites from the bacteriophage P1 Cre/lox recombination system, the hpt gene was subsequently excised from the plant genome by the Cre recombinase. The Cre-catalyzed excision event in the plant genome was precise and conservative--i.e., without loss or alteration of nucleotides in the recombinant site. After removal of the Cre-encoding locus by genetic segregation, plants were obtained that had incorporated only the desired transgene. Gene transfer without the incorporation of antibiotic-resistance markers in the host genome should ease public concerns over the field release of transgenic organisms expressing such traits. Moreover, it would obviate the need for different selectable markers in subsequent rounds of gene transfer into the same host. Images PMID:1660141

  4. Analysis of the mechanism and regulation of lactose transport and metabolism in Clostridium acetobutylicum ATCC 824.

    PubMed

    Yu, Yang; Tangney, Martin; Aass, Hans C; Mitchell, Wilfrid J

    2007-03-01

    Although the acetone-butanol-ethanol fermentation of Clostridium acetobutylicum is currently uneconomic, the ability of the bacterium to metabolize a wide range of carbohydrates offers the potential for revival based on the use of cheap, low-grade substrates. We have investigated the uptake and metabolism of lactose, the major sugar in industrial whey waste, by C. acetobutylicum ATCC 824. Lactose is taken up via a phosphoenolpyruvate-dependent phosphotransferase system (PTS) comprising both soluble and membrane-associated components, and the resulting phosphorylated derivative is hydrolyzed by a phospho-beta-galactosidase. These activities are induced during growth on lactose but are absent in glucose-grown cells. Analysis of the C. acetobutylicum genome sequence identified a gene system, lacRFEG, encoding a transcriptional regulator of the DeoR family, IIA and IICB components of a lactose PTS, and phospho-beta-galactosidase. During growth in medium containing both glucose and lactose, C. acetobutylicum exhibited a classical diauxic growth, and the lac operon was not expressed until glucose was exhausted from the medium. The presence upstream of lacR of a potential catabolite responsive element (cre) encompassing the transcriptional start site is indicative of the mechanism of carbon catabolite repression characteristic of low-GC gram-positive bacteria. A pathway for the uptake and metabolism of lactose by this industrially important organism is proposed. PMID:17209069

  5. Elements involved in catabolite repression and substrate induction of the lactose operon in Lactobacillus casei.

    PubMed

    Gosalbes, M J; Monedero, V; Pérez-Martínez, G

    1999-07-01

    In Lactobacillus casei ATCC 393, the chromosomally encoded lactose operon, lacTEGF, encodes an antiterminator protein (LacT), lactose-specific phosphoenolpyruvate-dependent phosphotransferase system (PTS) elements (LacE and LacF), and a phospho-beta-galactosidase. lacT, lacE, and lacF mutant strains were constructed by double crossover. The lacT strain displayed constitutive termination at a ribonucleic antiterminator (RAT) site, whereas lacE and lacF mutants showed an inducer-independent antiterminator activity, as shown analysis of enzyme activity obtained from transcriptional fusions of lac promoter (lacp) and lacpDeltaRAT with the Escherichia coli gusA gene in the different lac mutants. These results strongly suggest that in vivo under noninducing conditions, the lactose-specific PTS elements negatively modulate LacT activity. Northern blot analysis detected a 100-nucleotide transcript starting at the transcription start site and ending a consensus RAT sequence and terminator region. In a ccpA mutant, transcription initiation was derepressed but no elongation through the terminator was observed in the presence of glucose and the inducing sugar, lactose. Full expression of lacTEGF was found only in a man ccpA double mutant, indicating that PTS elements are involved in the CcpA-independent catabolite repression mechanism probably via LacT. PMID:10383959

  6. Stable transformation of moth bean Vigna aconitifolia via direct gene transfer.

    PubMed

    Köhler, F; Golz, C; Eapen, S; Kohn, H; Schieder, O

    1987-07-01

    Direct gene transfer proved to be an efficient transformation method for Vigna aconitifolia, a member of the legume family. Kanamycin resistant calli and plants were regenerated from heat shocked protoplasts treated with PEG and plasmid DNA containing the coding region for aminoglycoside phosphotransferase gene (NPT II). The plant cultivar used was an important factor in attaining higher transformation frequencies. Transformation was confirmed by Southern blot analysis using a non-radioactive detection system. Attempts to transform mesophyll and suspension cultured cells by this method were unsuccessful. Protoplasts electroporated with the plasmid pCAP212, which codes for chloramphenicol acetyltransferase, exhibited transient expression of this gene two days after treatment while electroporated cells did not show this enzyme activity. It is therefore assumed that the DNA uptake is prevented by the cell wall.

  7. Self-cloning in Streptomyces griseus of an str gene cluster for streptomycin biosynthesis and streptomycin resistance.

    PubMed

    Ohnuki, T; Imanaka, T; Aiba, S

    1985-10-01

    An str gene cluster containing at least four genes (strR, strA, strB, and strC) involved in streptomycin biosynthesis or streptomycin resistance or both was self-cloned in Streptomyces griseus by using plasmid pOA154. The strA gene was verified to encode streptomycin 6-phosphotransferase, a streptomycin resistance factor in S. griseus, by examining the gene product expressed in Escherichia coli. The other three genes were determined by complementation tests with streptomycin-nonproducing mutants whose biochemical lesions were clearly identified. strR complemented streptomycin-sensitive mutant SM196 which exhibited impaired activity of both streptomycin 6-phosphotransferase and amidinotransferase (one of the streptomycin biosynthetic enzymes) due to a regulatory mutation; strB complemented strain SD141, which was specifically deficient in amidinotransferase; and strC complemented strain SD245, which was deficient in linkage between streptidine 6-phosphate and dihydrostreptose. By deletion analysis of plasmids with appropriate restriction endonucleases, the order of the four genes was determined to be strR-strA-strB-strC. Transformation of S. griseus with plasmids carrying both strR and strB genes enhanced amidinotransferase activity in the transformed cells. Based on the gene dosage effect and the biological characteristics of the mutants complemented by strR and strB, it was concluded that strB encodes amidinotransferase and strR encodes a positive effector required for the full expression of strA and strB genes. Furthermore, it was found that amplification of a specific 0.7-kilobase region of the cloned DNA on a plasmid inhibited streptomycin biosynthesis of the transformants. This DNA region might contain a regulatory apparatus that participates in the control of streptomycin biosynthesis.

  8. Global transcriptomic analysis of an engineered Escherichia coli strain lacking the phosphoenolpyruvate: carbohydrate phosphotransferase system during shikimic acid production in rich culture medium

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Efficient production of SA in Escherichia coli has been achieved by modifying key genes of the central carbon metabolism and SA pathway, resulting in overproducing strains grown in batch- or fed-batch-fermentor cultures using a complex broth including glucose and YE. In this study, we performed a GTA to identify those genes significantly upregulated in an engineered E. coli strain, PB12.SA22, in mid EXP (5 h), early STA (STA1, 9 h), and late STA (STA2, 44 h) phases, grown in complex fermentation broth in batch-fermentor cultures. Results Growth of E. coli PB12.SA22 in complex fermentation broth for SA production resulted in an EXP growth during the first 9 h of cultivation depending of supernatant available aromatic amino acids provided by YE because, when tryptophan was totally consumed, cells entered into a second, low-growth phase (even in the presence of glucose) until 26 h of cultivation. At this point, glucose was completely consumed but SA production continued until the end of the fermentation (50 h) achieving the highest accumulation (7.63 g/L of SA). GTA between EXP/STA1, EXP/STA2 and STA1/STA2 comparisons showed no significant differences in the regulation of genes encoding enzymes of central carbon metabolism as in SA pathway, but those genes encoding enzymes involved in sugar, amino acid, nucleotide/nucleoside, iron and sulfur transport; amino acid catabolism and biosynthesis; nucleotide/nucleoside salvage; acid stress response and modification of IM and OM were upregulated between comparisons. Conclusions GTA during SA production in batch-fermentor cultures of strain PB12.SA22 grown in complex fermentation broth during the EXP, STA1 and STA2 phases was studied. Significantly, upregulated genes during the EXP and STA1 phases were associated with transport, amino acid catabolism, biosynthesis, and nucleotide/nucleoside salvage. In STA2, upregulation of genes encoding transporters and enzymes involved in the synthesis and catabolism of

  9. Mechanistic and physiological consequences of HPr(ser) phosphorylation on the activities of the phosphoenolpyruvate:sugar phosphotransferase system in gram-positive bacteria: studies with site-specific mutants of HPr.

    PubMed Central

    Reizer, J; Sutrina, S L; Saier, M H; Stewart, G C; Peterkofsky, A; Reddy, P

    1989-01-01

    The bacterial phosphotransferase system (PTS) catalyzes the transport and phosphorylation of its sugar substrates. The protein-kinase-catalyzed phosphorylation of serine 46 in the phosphocarrier protein, HPr, inhibits PTS activity, but neither the mechanism of this inhibition nor its physiological significance is known. Site-specific HPr mutants were constructed in which serine 46 was replaced by alanine (S46A), threonine (S46T), tyrosine (S46Y) or aspartate (S46D). The purified S46D protein exhibited markedly lower Vmax and higher Km values than the wild-type, S46T or S46A protein for the phosphoryl transfer reactions involving HPr(His approximately P). Interactions of HPr with the enzymes catalyzing phosphoryl transfer to and from HPr regulated the kinase-catalyzed reaction. These results establish the inhibitory effect of a negative charge at position 46 on PTS-mediated phosphoryl transfer and suggest that HPr is phosphorylated on both histidyl and seryl residues by enzymes that recognize its tertiary rather than its primary structure. In vivo studies showed that a negative charge on residue 46 of HPr strongly inhibits PTS-mediated sugar uptake, but that competition of two PTS permeases for HPr(His approximately P) is quantitatively more important to the regulation of PTS function than serine 46 phosphorylation. Images PMID:2507315

  10. Human gene transfer: Characterization of human tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes as vehicles for retroviral-mediated gene transfer in man

    SciTech Connect

    Kasid, A.; Morecki, S.; Aebersold, P.; Cornetta, K.; Culver, K.; Freeman, S.; Director, E.; Lotze, M.T.; Blaese, R.M.; Anderson, W.F.; Rosenberg, S.A. )

    1990-01-01

    Tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes (TILs) are cells generated from tumor suspensions cultured in interleukin 2 that can mediate cancer regression when adoptively transferred into mice or humans. Since TILs proliferate rapidly in vitro, recirculate, and preferentially localize at the tumor site in vivo, they provide an attractive model for delivery of exogenous genetic material into man. To determine whether efficient gene transfer into TILs is feasible. The authors transduced human TILs with the bacterial gene for neomycin-resistance (Neo{sup R}) using the retroviral vector N2. The transduced TIL populations were stable and polyclonal with respect to the intact Neo{sup R} gene integration and expressed high levels of neomycin phosphotransferase activity. The Neo{sup R} gene insertion did not alter the in vitro growth pattern and interleukin 2 dependence of the transduced TILs. Analyses of T-cell receptor gene rearrangement for {beta}- and {gamma}-chain genes revealed the oligoclonal nature of the TIL populations with no major change in the DNA rearrangement patterns or the levels of mRNA expression of the {beta} and {gamma} chains following transduction and selection of TILs in the neomycin analog G418. Human TILs expressed mRNA for tumor necrosis factors ({alpha} and {beta}) and interleukin 2 receptor P55. This pattern of cytokine-mRNA expression was not significantly altered following the transduction of TILs. The studies demonstrate the feasibility of TILs as suitable cellular vehicles for the introduction of therapeutic genes into patients receiving autologous TILs.

  11. AMINOGLYCOSIDE RESISTANCE GENES IN Pseudomonas aeruginosa ISOLATES FROM CUMANA, VENEZUELA

    PubMed Central

    TEIXEIRA, Bertinellys; RODULFO, Hectorina; CARREÑO, Numirin; GUZMÁN, Militza; SALAZAR, Elsa; DONATO, Marcos DE

    2016-01-01

    The enzymatic modification of aminoglycosides by aminoglycoside-acetyltransferases (AAC), aminoglycoside-adenyltransferases (AAD), and aminoglycoside-phosphotransferases (APH), is the most common resistance mechanism in P. aeruginosa and these enzymes can be coded on mobile genetic elements that contribute to their dispersion. One hundred and thirty seven P. aeruginosa isolates from the University Hospital, Cumana, Venezuela (HUAPA) were evaluated. Antimicrobial susceptibility was determined by the disk diffusion method and theaac, aadB and aph genes were detected by PCR. Most of the P. aeruginosa isolates (33/137) were identified from the Intensive Care Unit (ICU), mainly from discharges (96/137). The frequency of resistant P. aeruginosaisolates was found to be higher for the aminoglycosides tobramycin and amikacin (30.7 and 29.9%, respectively). Phenotype VI, resistant to these antibiotics, was the most frequent (14/49), followed by phenotype I, resistant to all the aminoglycosides tested (12/49). The aac(6´)-Ib,aphA1 and aadB genes were the most frequently detected, and the simultaneous presence of several resistance genes in the same isolate was demonstrated. Aminoglycoside resistance in isolates ofP. aeruginosa at the HUAPA is partly due to the presence of the aac(6´)-Ib, aphA1 andaadB genes, but the high rates of antimicrobial resistance suggest the existence of several mechanisms acting together. This is the first report of aminoglycoside resistance genes in Venezuela and one of the few in Latin America. PMID:27007556

  12. AMINOGLYCOSIDE RESISTANCE GENES IN Pseudomonas aeruginosa ISOLATES FROM CUMANA, VENEZUELA.

    PubMed

    Teixeira, Bertinellys; Rodulfo, Hectorina; Carreño, Numirin; Guzmán, Militza; Salazar, Elsa; De Donato, Marcos

    2016-01-01

    The enzymatic modification of aminoglycosides by aminoglycoside-acetyltransferases (AAC), aminoglycoside-adenyltransferases (AAD), and aminoglycoside-phosphotransferases (APH), is the most common resistance mechanism in P. aeruginosa and these enzymes can be coded on mobile genetic elements that contribute to their dispersion. One hundred and thirty seven P. aeruginosa isolates from the University Hospital, Cumana, Venezuela (HUAPA) were evaluated. Antimicrobial susceptibility was determined by the disk diffusion method and theaac, aadB and aph genes were detected by PCR. Most of the P. aeruginosa isolates (33/137) were identified from the Intensive Care Unit (ICU), mainly from discharges (96/137). The frequency of resistant P. aeruginosaisolates was found to be higher for the aminoglycosides tobramycin and amikacin (30.7 and 29.9%, respectively). Phenotype VI, resistant to these antibiotics, was the most frequent (14/49), followed by phenotype I, resistant to all the aminoglycosides tested (12/49). The aac(6´)-Ib,aphA1 and aadB genes were the most frequently detected, and the simultaneous presence of several resistance genes in the same isolate was demonstrated. Aminoglycoside resistance in isolates ofP. aeruginosa at the HUAPA is partly due to the presence of the aac(6´)-Ib, aphA1 andaadB genes, but the high rates of antimicrobial resistance suggest the existence of several mechanisms acting together. This is the first report of aminoglycoside resistance genes in Venezuela and one of the few in Latin America. PMID:27007556

  13. AMINOGLYCOSIDE RESISTANCE GENES IN Pseudomonas aeruginosa ISOLATES FROM CUMANA, VENEZUELA.

    PubMed

    Teixeira, Bertinellys; Rodulfo, Hectorina; Carreño, Numirin; Guzmán, Militza; Salazar, Elsa; De Donato, Marcos

    2016-01-01

    The enzymatic modification of aminoglycosides by aminoglycoside-acetyltransferases (AAC), aminoglycoside-adenyltransferases (AAD), and aminoglycoside-phosphotransferases (APH), is the most common resistance mechanism in P. aeruginosa and these enzymes can be coded on mobile genetic elements that contribute to their dispersion. One hundred and thirty seven P. aeruginosa isolates from the University Hospital, Cumana, Venezuela (HUAPA) were evaluated. Antimicrobial susceptibility was determined by the disk diffusion method and theaac, aadB and aph genes were detected by PCR. Most of the P. aeruginosa isolates (33/137) were identified from the Intensive Care Unit (ICU), mainly from discharges (96/137). The frequency of resistant P. aeruginosaisolates was found to be higher for the aminoglycosides tobramycin and amikacin (30.7 and 29.9%, respectively). Phenotype VI, resistant to these antibiotics, was the most frequent (14/49), followed by phenotype I, resistant to all the aminoglycosides tested (12/49). The aac(6´)-Ib,aphA1 and aadB genes were the most frequently detected, and the simultaneous presence of several resistance genes in the same isolate was demonstrated. Aminoglycoside resistance in isolates ofP. aeruginosa at the HUAPA is partly due to the presence of the aac(6´)-Ib, aphA1 andaadB genes, but the high rates of antimicrobial resistance suggest the existence of several mechanisms acting together. This is the first report of aminoglycoside resistance genes in Venezuela and one of the few in Latin America.

  14. A study of lactose metabolism in Lactococcus garvieae reveals a genetic marker for distinguishing between dairy and fish biotypes.

    PubMed

    Fortina, Maria Grazia; Ricci, Giovanni; Borgo, Francesca

    2009-06-01

    Dairy and fish isolates of Lactococcus garvieae were tested for their ability to utilize lactose and to grow in milk. Fish isolates were unable to assimilate lactose, but unexpectedly, they possessed the ability to grow in milk. Genetic studies, carried out constructing different vectorette libraries, provided evidence that in fish isolates, no genes involved in lactose utilization were present. For L. garvieae dairy isolates, a single system for the catabolism of lactose was found. It consists of a lactose transport and hydrolysis depending on a phosphoenolpyruvate-dependent phosphotransferase system combined with a phospho-beta-galactosidase. The genes involved were highly similar at the nucleotide sequence level to their counterparts in Lactococcus lactis; however, while in many L. lactis strains these genes are plasmid encoded, in L. garvieae they are chromosomally located. Thus, in the species L. garvieae, the phospho-beta-galactosidase gene, detectable in all strains of dairy origin but lacking in fish isolates, can be considered a reliable genetic marker for distinguishing biotypes in the two diverse ecological niches. Moreover, we obtained information regarding the complete nucleotide sequence of the gal operon in L. garvieae, consisting of a galactose permease and the Leloir pathway enzymes. This is one of the first reports concerning the determination of the nucleotide sequences of genes (other than the 16S rDNA gene) in L. garvieae and should be considered a step in a continuous effort to explore the genome of this species, with the aim of determining the real relationship between the presence of L. garvieae in dairy products and food safety. PMID:19610335

  15. Genes and Gene Therapy

    MedlinePlus

    ... correctly, a child can have a genetic disorder. Gene therapy is an experimental technique that uses genes to ... or prevent disease. The most common form of gene therapy involves inserting a normal gene to replace an ...

  16. A feedback control element near the transcription start site of the maize Shrunken gene determines promoter activity.

    PubMed Central

    Maas, C; Schaal, S; Werr, W

    1990-01-01

    The transcriptional activity of the Shrunken (Sh) promoter of Zea mays was monitored in transient expression assays using the neomycin phosphotransferase (NPT) II gene as a reporter in maize suspension protoplasts. Shortly after transfection, expression of this chimeric NPTII gene was negatively affected by high extracellular sucrose concentrations in the protoplast cultivation medium. However, 3-5 days after transfection an up to 405-fold increase in NPTII activity was observed. This could be blocked by dichlorobenzonitril (DCB) an inhibitor of cellulose biosynthesis. In the analysis of promoter deletions 20 bp upstream of the Sh transcription start site were sufficient to reproduce the expression profile and the activity of the full promoter. Surprisingly this start sequence does not include the natural TATA-box. Images Fig.1 Fig.2 Fig.3 Fig.4 PMID:2145150

  17. Transgenic plums (Prunus domestica L.) express the plum pox virus coat protein gene.

    PubMed

    Scorza, R; Ravelonandro, M; Callahan, A M; Cordts, J M; Fuchs, M; Dunez, J; Gonsalves, D

    1994-11-01

    Plum hypocotyl slices were transformed with the coat protein (CP) gene of plum pox virus (PPV-CP) following cocultivation with Agrobacterium tumefaciens containing the plasmid pGA482GG/PPVCP-33. This binary vector carries the PPV-CP gene construct, as well as the chimeric neomycin phosphotransferase and β-glucuronidase genes. Integration and expression of the transferred genes into regenerated plum plants was verified through kan resistance, GUS assays, and PCR amplification of the PPV-CP gene. Twenty-two transgenic clones were identified from approximately 1800 hypocotyl slices. DNA, mRNA, and protein analyses of five transgenic plants confirmed the integration of the engineered CP gene, the accumulation of CP mRNA and of PPV-CP-immunoreactive protein. CP mRNA levels ranged from high to undetectable levels, apparently correlated with gene structure, as indicated by DNA blot analysis. Western analysis showed that transgenic plants produced amounts of CP which generally correlated with amounts of detected mRNA.

  18. Efficient transformation and expression of gfp gene in Valsa mali var. mali.

    PubMed

    Chen, Liang; Sun, Gengwu; Wu, Shujing; Liu, Huixiang; Wang, Hongkai

    2015-01-01

    Valsa mali var. mali, the causal agent of valsa canker of apple, causes great loss of apple production in apple producing regions. The pathogenic mechanism of the pathogen has not been studied extensively, thus a suitable gene marker for pathogenic invasion analysis and a random insertion of T-DNA for mutants are desirable. In this paper, we reported the construction of a binary vector pKO1-HPH containing a positive selective gene hygromycin phosphotransferase (hph), a reporter gene gfp conferring green fluorescent protein, and an efficient protocol for V. mali var. mali transformation mediated by Agrobacterium tumefaciens. A transformation efficiency up to about 75 transformants per 10(5) conidia was achieved when co-cultivation of V. mali var. mali and A. tumefaciens for 48 h in A. tumefaciens inductive medium agar plates. The insertions of hph gene and gfp gene into V. mali var. mali genome verified by polymerase chain reaction and southern blot analysis showed that 10 randomly-selected transformants exhibited a single, unique hybridization pattern. This is the first report of A. tumefaciens-mediated transformation of V. mali var mali carrying a 'reporter' gfp gene that stably and efficiently expressed in the transformed V. mali var. mali species. PMID:25423905

  19. A Universal Positive-Negative Selection System for Gene Targeting in Plants Combining an Antibiotic Resistance Gene and Its Antisense RNA.

    PubMed

    Nishizawa-Yokoi, Ayako; Nonaka, Satoko; Osakabe, Keishi; Saika, Hiroaki; Toki, Seiichi

    2015-09-01

    Gene targeting (GT) is a useful technology for accurate genome engineering in plants. A reproducible approach based on a positive-negative selection system using hygromycin resistance and the diphtheria toxin A subunit gene as positive and negative selection markers, respectively, is now available. However, to date, this selection system has been applied exclusively in rice (Oryza sativa). To establish a universally applicable positive-negative GT system in plants, we designed a selection system using a combination of neomycin phosphotransferaseII (nptII) and an antisense nptII construct. The concomitant transcription of both sense and antisense nptII suppresses significantly the level of expression of the sense nptII gene, and transgenic calli and plants become sensitive to the antibiotic geneticin. In addition, we were able to utilize the sense nptII gene as a positive selection marker and the antisense nptII construct as a negative selection marker for knockout of the endogenous rice genes Waxy and 33-kD globulin through GT, although negative selection with this system is relatively less efficient compared with diphtheria toxin A subunit. The approach developed here, with some additional improvements, could be applied as a universal selection system for the enrichment of GT cells in several plant species. PMID:26143254

  20. Bead transfection: rapid and efficient gene transfer into marrow stromal and other adherent mammalian cells.

    PubMed

    Matthews, K E; Mills, G B; Horsfall, W; Hack, N; Skorecki, K; Keating, A

    1993-05-01

    We report a simple, rapid, efficient and cost-effective method of gene transfer into bone marrow stromal and other adherent mammalian cells. Our approach involves brief incubation of cells with glass beads in a solution containing the DNA to be transferred. We optimized the technique using COS cells (SV40 transformed kidney cell line from African green monkey) and a transient expression assay for chloramphenicol acetyl transferase (CAT). Factors affecting gene transfer include size and condition of the beads and DNA concentration, but not DNA conformation. Gene transfer efficiency, assessed in a transient expression assay for beta-galactosidase activity, was 5 and 3% in nontransformed human bone marrow stromal cells and COS cells, respectively. Long-term stable expression with the selectable marker, neomycin phosphotransferase, was demonstrated in clonogenic COS cells at a frequency of 27%. Southern analysis of resistant clones revealed the transferred DNA to be integrated in low copy number at one or two sites in the host cell genome. Comparison with electroporation and DEAE-dextran indicates that bead transfection is more efficient than the latter and less costly than either of these methods. In view of its simplicity and because the use of retroviral sequences can be avoided, bead transfection may be an attractive means of gene insertion for gene therapy.

  1. Metagenomic analysis reveals that bacteriophages are reservoirs of antibiotic resistance genes.

    PubMed

    Subirats, Jéssica; Sànchez-Melsió, Alexandre; Borrego, Carles M; Balcázar, José Luis; Simonet, Pascal

    2016-08-01

    A metagenomics approach was applied to explore the presence of antibiotic resistance genes (ARGs) in bacteriophages from hospital wastewater. Metagenomic analysis showed that most phage sequences affiliated to the order Caudovirales, comprising the tailed phage families Podoviridae, Siphoviridae and Myoviridae. Moreover, the relative abundance of ARGs in the phage DNA fraction (0.26%) was higher than in the bacterial DNA fraction (0.18%). These differences were particularly evident for genes encoding ATP-binding cassette (ABC) and resistance-nodulation-cell division (RND) proteins, phosphotransferases, β-lactamases and plasmid-mediated quinolone resistance. Analysis of assembled contigs also revealed that blaOXA-10, blaOXA-58 and blaOXA-24 genes belonging to class D β-lactamases as well as a novel blaTEM (98.9% sequence similarity to the blaTEM-1 gene) belonging to class A β-lactamases were detected in a higher proportion in phage DNA. Although preliminary, these findings corroborate the role of bacteriophages as reservoirs of resistance genes and thus highlight the necessity to include them in future studies on the emergence and spread of antibiotic resistance in the environment.

  2. Genome-wide enrichment screening reveals multiple targets and resistance genes for triclosan in Escherichia coli.

    PubMed

    Yu, Byung Jo; Kim, Jung Ae; Ju, Hyun Mok; Choi, Soo-Kyung; Hwang, Seung Jin; Park, Sungyoo; Kim, Euijoong; Pan, Jae-Gu

    2012-10-01

    Triclosan is a widely used biocide effective against different microorganisms. At bactericidal concentrations, triclosan appears to affect multiple targets, while at bacteriostatic concentrations, triclosan targets FabI. The site-specific antibiotic-like mode-of-action and a widespread use of triclosan in household products claimed to possibly induce cross-resistance to other antibiotics. Thus, we set out to define more systematically the genes conferring resistance to triclosan; A genomic library of Escherichia coli strain W3110 was constructed and enriched in a selective medium containing a lethal concentration of triclosan. The genes enabling growth in the presence of triclosan were identified by using a DNA microarray and confirmed consequently by ASKA clones overexpressing the selected 62 candidate genes. Among these, forty-seven genes were further confirmed to enhance the resistance to triclosan; these genes, including the FabI target, were involved in inner or outer membrane synthesis, cell-surface material synthesis, transcriptional activation, sugar phosphotransferase (PTS) systems, various transporter systems, cell division, and ATPase and reductase/dehydrogenase reactions. In particular, overexpression of pgsA, rcsA, or gapC conferred to E. coli cells a similar level of triclosan resistance induced by fabI overexpression. These results indicate that triclosan may have multiple targets other than well-known FabI and that there are several undefined novel mechanisms for the resistance development to triclosan, thus probably inducing cross antibiotic resistance.

  3. Phosphorylation Events in the Multiple Gene Regulator of Group A Streptococcus Significantly Influence Global Gene Expression and Virulence

    PubMed Central

    Sanson, Misu; Makthal, Nishanth; Gavagan, Maire; Cantu, Concepcion; Olsen, Randall J.; Musser, James M.

    2015-01-01

    Whole-genome sequencing analysis of ∼800 strains of group A Streptococcus (GAS) found that the gene encoding the multiple virulence gene regulator of GAS (mga) is highly polymorphic in serotype M59 strains but not in strains of other serotypes. To help understand the molecular mechanism of gene regulation by Mga and its contribution to GAS pathogenesis in serotype M59 GAS, we constructed an isogenic mga mutant strain. Transcriptome studies indicated a significant regulatory influence of Mga and altered metabolic capabilities conferred by Mga-regulated genes. We assessed the phosphorylation status of Mga in GAS cell lysates with Phos-tag gels. The results revealed that Mga is phosphorylated at histidines in vivo. Using phosphomimetic and nonphosphomimetic substitutions at conserved phosphoenolpyruvate:carbohydrate phosphotransferase regulation domain (PRD) histidines of Mga, we demonstrated that phosphorylation-mimicking aspartate replacements at H207 and H273 of PRD-1 and at H327 of PRD-2 are inhibitory to Mga-dependent gene expression. Conversely, non-phosphorylation-mimicking alanine substitutions at H273 and H327 relieved inhibition, and the mutant strains exhibited a wild-type phenotype. The opposing regulatory profiles observed for phosphorylation- and non-phosphorylation-mimicking substitutions at H273 extended to global gene regulation by Mga. Consistent with these observations, the H273D mutant strain attenuated GAS virulence, whereas the H273A strain exhibited a wild-type virulence phenotype in a mouse model of necrotizing fasciitis. Together, our results demonstrate phosphoregulation of Mga and its direct link to virulence in M59 GAS strains. These data also lay a foundation toward understanding how naturally occurring gain-of-function variations in mga, such as H201R, may confer an advantage to the pathogen and contribute to M59 GAS pathogenesis. PMID:25824840

  4. Seryl-phosphorylated HPr regulates CcpA-independent carbon catabolite repression in conjunction with PTS permeases in Streptococcus mutans.

    PubMed

    Zeng, Lin; Burne, Robert A

    2010-03-01

    Carbohydrate catabolite repression (CCR) in Streptococcus mutans can be independent of catabolite control protein A (CcpA) and requires specific components of phosphoenolpyruvate-dependent sugar:phosphotransferase system (PTS) permeases. Here, the effects of various ptsH (HPr) and hprK (HPr kinase/phosphatase) mutations on growth and CCR were evaluated. An hprKV265F mutation, which enhanced Ser46 phosphorylation of HPr, inhibited growth on multiple PTS sugars. A ptsHS46A mutation reversed the effects of hprKV265F in most cases. A strain carrying a ptsHS46D mutation, which mimics HPr(Ser-P), presented with more severe growth defects than the hprKV265F mutant. The hprKV265F mutant enhanced CCR of the fruA and levD operons, a phenotype reversible by the ptsHS46A mutation. The effects of the hprKV265F mutation on fruA and levD expression were independent of CcpA, but dependent on ManL (IIAB(Man)) and, to a lesser extent, on FruI (IIABC(Fru)), in a carbohydrate-specific fashion. Expression of the Bacillus subtilis ptsG gene in the manL mutant did not restore CCR of the lev or fru operons. The hprKV265F mutation inhibited growth on cellobiose and lactose, but only the transcription of the cel operon was decreased. Thus, in S. mutans, serine-phosphorylated HPr functions in concert with particular PTS permeases to prioritize carbohydrate utilization by modulating sugar transport and transcription of catabolic operons. PMID:20487301

  5. The DeoR-Type Regulator SugR Represses Expression of ptsG in Corynebacterium glutamicum▿

    PubMed Central

    Engels, Verena; Wendisch, Volker F.

    2007-01-01

    Corynebacterium glutamicum grows on a variety of carbohydrates and organic acids. Uptake of the preferred carbon source glucose via the phosphoenolpyruvate-dependent phosphotransferase system (PTS) is reduced during coutilization of glucose with acetate, sucrose, or fructose compared to growth on glucose as the sole carbon source. Here we show that the DeoR-type regulator SugR (NCgl1856) represses expression of ptsG, which encodes the glucose-specific PTS enzyme II. Overexpression of sugR resulted in reduced ptsG mRNA levels, decreased glucose utilization, and perturbed growth on media containing glucose. In mutants lacking sugR, expression of the ptsG′-′cat fusion was increased two- to sevenfold during growth on gluconeogenic carbon sources but remained similar during growth on glucose or other sugars. As shown by DNA microarray analysis, SugR also regulates expression of other genes, including ptsS and the putative NCgl1859-fruK-ptsF operon. Purified SugR bound to DNA regions upstream of ptsG, ptsS, and NCgl1859, and a 75-bp ptsG promoter fragment was sufficient for SugR binding. Fructose-6-phosphate interfered with binding of SugR to the ptsG promoter DNA. Thus, while during growth on gluconeogenic carbon sources SugR represses ptsG, ptsG expression is derepressed during growth on glucose or under other conditions characterized by high fructose-6-phosphate concentrations, representing one mechanism which allows C. glutamicum to adapt glucose uptake to carbon source availability. PMID:17293426

  6. Emergence of macrolide resistance gene mph(B) in Streptococcus uberis and cooperative effects with rdmC-like gene.

    PubMed

    Achard, Adeline; Guérin-Faublée, Véronique; Pichereau, Vianney; Villers, Corinne; Leclercq, Roland

    2008-08-01

    Streptococcus uberis UCN60 was resistant to spiramycin (MIC = 8 microg/ml) but susceptible to erythromycin (MIC = 0.06 microg/ml), azithromycin (MIC = 0.12 microg/ml), josamycin (MIC = 0.25 microg/ml), and tylosin (MIC = 0.5 microg/ml). A 2.5-kb HindIII fragment was cloned from S. uberis UCN60 DNA on plasmid pUC18 and introduced into Escherichia coli AG100A, where it conferred resistance to spiramycin by inactivation. The sequence analysis of the fragment showed the presence of an rdmC-like gene that putatively encoded a protein belonging to the alpha/beta hydrolase family and of the first 196 nucleotides of the mph(B) gene putatively encoding a phosphotransferase known to inactivate 14-, 15-, and 16-membered macrolides in E. coli. The entire mph(B) gene was then identified in S. uberis UCN60. The two genes were expressed alone or in combination in E. coli, Staphylococcus aureus, and Enterococcus faecalis. Analysis of MICs revealed that rdmC-like alone did not confer resistance to erythromycin, tylosin, and josamycin in those three hosts. It conferred resistance to spiramycin in E. coli and E. faecalis but not in S. aureus. mph(B) conferred resistance in E. coli to erythromycin, tylosin, josamycin, and spiramycin but only low levels of resistance in E. faecalis and S. aureus to spiramycin (MIC = 8 microg/ml). The combination of mph(B) and rdmC-like genes resulted in a resistance to spiramycin and tylosin in the three hosts that significantly exceeded the mere addition of the resistance levels conferred by each resistance mechanism alone. PMID:18519724

  7. Genome reconstruction and gene expression of "Candidatus Accumulibacter phosphatis" Clade IB performing biological phosphorus removal.

    PubMed

    Mao, Yanping; Yu, Ke; Xia, Yu; Chao, Yuanqing; Zhang, Tong

    2014-09-01

    We report the first integrated metatranscriptomic and metagenomic analysis of enhanced biological phosphorus removal (EBPR) sludge. A draft genome of Candidatus Accumulibacter spp. strain HKU-1, a member of Clade IB, was retrieved. It was estimated to be ∼90% complete and shared average nucleotide identities of 83% and 88% with the finished genome CAP IIA UW-1 and the draft genome CAP IA UW-2, respectively. Different from CAP IIA UW-1, the phosphotransferase (pap) in polyphosphate metabolism and V-ATPase in orthophosphate transport were absent from CAP IB HKU-1. Additionally, unlike CAP IA UW-2, CAP IB HKU-1 carried the genes for carbon fixation and nitrogen fixation. Despite these differences, the key genes required for acetate uptake, glycolysis and polyhydroxyalkanoate (PHA) synthesis were conserved in all these Accumulibacter genomes. The preliminary metatranscriptomic results revealed that the most significantly up-regulated genes of CAP IB HKU-1 from the anaerobic to the aerobic phase were responsible for assimilatory sulfate reduction, genetic information processing and phosphorus absorption, while the down-regulated genes were related to N2O reduction, PHA synthesis and acetyl-CoA formation. This study yielded another important Accumulibacter genome, revealed the functional difference within the Accumulibacter Type I, and uncovered the genetic responses to EBPR stimuli at a higher resolution.

  8. Horticultural characteristics of transgenic tobacco expressing the rolC gene from Agrobacterium rhizogenes

    SciTech Connect

    Scorza, R.; Zimmerman, T.W.; Cordts, J.M.; Footen, K.J. ); Ravelonandro, M. . Station de Pathologie Vegetale)

    1994-09-01

    Wisconsin 38 tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum L.) leaf discs were transformed with the disarmed Agrobacterium tumefaciens strain EHA 101 carrying the rolC gene from A. rhizogenes and NPT II and GUS genes. Shoots that regenerated on kanamycin-containing medium were confirmed as transgenic through GUS assays, polymerase chain reaction (PCR), Southern blot analyses, and transmission of the foreign genes through the sexual cycle. Transgenic plants were as short as half the height of control plants; were earlier flowering by up to 35 days; and had smaller leaves, shorter internodes, smaller seed capsules, fewer seeds, smaller flowers, and reduced pollen viability. The number of seed capsules, leaf number, and specific root length were similar between transgenic and control plants. Transgenic clones varied in the expression of the rolC-induced growth alterations as did the first generation of seedlings from these clones. Such differences suggested the potential for selecting for different levels of expression. Transformation with the rolC gene presents a potentially useful method of genetically modifying horticultural crops, particularly for flowering date, height, and leaf and flower size. Chemical names used: neomycin phosphotransferase (NPTII), [beta]-glucuronidase (GUS).

  9. Genome reconstruction and gene expression of "Candidatus Accumulibacter phosphatis" Clade IB performing biological phosphorus removal.

    PubMed

    Mao, Yanping; Yu, Ke; Xia, Yu; Chao, Yuanqing; Zhang, Tong

    2014-09-01

    We report the first integrated metatranscriptomic and metagenomic analysis of enhanced biological phosphorus removal (EBPR) sludge. A draft genome of Candidatus Accumulibacter spp. strain HKU-1, a member of Clade IB, was retrieved. It was estimated to be ∼90% complete and shared average nucleotide identities of 83% and 88% with the finished genome CAP IIA UW-1 and the draft genome CAP IA UW-2, respectively. Different from CAP IIA UW-1, the phosphotransferase (pap) in polyphosphate metabolism and V-ATPase in orthophosphate transport were absent from CAP IB HKU-1. Additionally, unlike CAP IA UW-2, CAP IB HKU-1 carried the genes for carbon fixation and nitrogen fixation. Despite these differences, the key genes required for acetate uptake, glycolysis and polyhydroxyalkanoate (PHA) synthesis were conserved in all these Accumulibacter genomes. The preliminary metatranscriptomic results revealed that the most significantly up-regulated genes of CAP IB HKU-1 from the anaerobic to the aerobic phase were responsible for assimilatory sulfate reduction, genetic information processing and phosphorus absorption, while the down-regulated genes were related to N2O reduction, PHA synthesis and acetyl-CoA formation. This study yielded another important Accumulibacter genome, revealed the functional difference within the Accumulibacter Type I, and uncovered the genetic responses to EBPR stimuli at a higher resolution. PMID:25089581

  10. Gene expression profiling of a nisin-sensitive Listeria monocytogenes Scott A ctsR deletion mutant.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yanhong; Morgan, Shannon; Ream, Amy; Huang, Lihan

    2013-05-01

    Listeria monocytogenes is a food-borne pathogen of significant threat to public health. Nisin is the only bacteriocin that can be used as a food preservative. Due to its antimicrobial activity, it can be used to control L. monocytogenes in food; however, the antimicrobial mechanism of nisin activity against L. monocytogenes is not fully understood. The CtsR (class III stress gene repressor) protein negatively regulates the expression of class III heat shock genes. A spontaneous pressure-tolerant ctsR deletion mutant that showed increased sensitivity to nisin has been identified. Microarray technology was used to monitor the gene expression profiles of the ctsR mutant under treatments with nisin. Compared to the nisin-treated wild type, 113 genes were up-regulated (>2-fold increase) in the ctsR deletion mutant whereas four genes were down-regulated (<-2-fold decrease). The up-regulated genes included genes that encode for ribosomal proteins, membrane proteins, cold-shock domain proteins, translation initiation and elongation factors, cell division, an ATP-dependent ClpC protease, a putative accessory gene regulator protein D, transport and binding proteins, a beta-glucoside-specific phosphotransferase system IIABC component, as well as hypothetical proteins. The down-regulated genes consisted of genes that encode for virulence, a transcriptional regulator, a stress protein, and a hypothetical protein. The gene expression changes determined by microarray assays were confirmed by quantitative real-time PCR analyses. Moreover, an in-frame deletion mutant for one of the induced genes (LMOf2365_1877) was constructed in the wild-type L. monocytogenes F2365 background. ΔLMOf2365_1877 had increased nisin sensitivity compared to the wild-type strain. This study enhances our understanding of how nisin interacts with the ctsR gene product in L. monocytogenes and may contribute to the understanding of the antibacterial mechanisms of nisin. PMID:23494707

  11. Genes and gene regulation

    SciTech Connect

    MacLean, N.

    1988-01-01

    Genetics has long been a central topic for biologists, and recent progress has captured the public imagination as well. This book addresses questions that are at the leading edge of this continually advancing discipline. In tune with the increasing emphasis on molecular biology and genetic engineering, this text emphasizes the molecular aspects of gene expression, and the evolution of gene sequence organization and control. It reviews the genetic material of viruses, bacteria, and of higher organisms. Cells and organisms are compared in terms of gene numbers, their arrangements within a cell, and the control mechanisms which regulate the activity of genes.

  12. Metabolism of Fructooligosaccharides in Lactobacillus plantarum ST-III via Differential Gene Transcription and Alteration of Cell Membrane Fluidity.

    PubMed

    Chen, Chen; Zhao, Guozhong; Chen, Wei; Guo, Benheng

    2015-11-01

    Although fructooligosaccharides (FOS) can selectively stimulate the growth and activity of probiotics and beneficially modulate the balance of intestinal microbiota, knowledge of the molecular mechanism for FOS metabolism by probiotics is still limited. Here a combined transcriptomic and physiological approach was used to survey the global alterations that occurred during the logarithmic growth of Lactobacillus plantarum ST-III using FOS or glucose as the sole carbon source. A total of 363 genes were differentially transcribed; in particular, two gene clusters were induced by FOS. Gene inactivation revealed that both of the clusters participated in the metabolism of FOS, which were transported across the membrane by two phosphotransferase systems (PTSs) and were subsequently hydrolyzed by a β-fructofuranosidase (SacA) in the cytoplasm. Combining the measurements of the transcriptome- and membrane-related features, we discovered that the genes involved in the biosynthesis of fatty acids (FAs) were repressed in cells grown on FOS; as a result, the FA profiles were altered by shortening of the carbon chains, after which membrane fluidity increased in response to FOS transport and utilization. Furthermore, incremental production of acetate was observed in both the transcriptomic and the metabolic experiments. Our results provided new insights into gene transcription, the production of metabolites, and membrane alterations that could explain FOS metabolism in L. plantarum.

  13. Combined expression of antimicrobial genes (Bbchit1 and LJAMP2) in transgenic poplar enhances resistance to fungal pathogens.

    PubMed

    Huang, Yan; Liu, Hong; Jia, Zhichun; Fang, Qing; Luo, Keming

    2012-10-01

    Populus species are susceptible to infection by microbial pathogens that severely affect their growth and substantially decrease their economic value. In this study, two pathogenesis-related protein genes consisting of Beauveria bassiana chitinase (Bbchit1) and motherwort lipid-transfer protein (LJAMP2) were introduced into Chinese white poplar (Populus tomentosa Carr.) via Agrobacterium-mediated transformation using the hygromycin (hyg) and neomycin phosphotransferase (NPTII) genes as selectable markers, respectively. Polymerase chain reaction analysis confirmed the stable integration of transgenes in the genome of transgenic plants. In vitro assays showed that inhibitory activity against the fungal pathogen Alternaria alternata (Fr.) Keissler was evident from the crude leaf extracts from transgenic plants. Importantly, the double-transgenic plants exhibited significantly higher resistance to the pathogen than either of the single-gene transformants and wild-type plants when inoculated with A. alternata. The level of disease reduction in double-transgenic lines was between 82 and 95%, whereas that of single-gene transformants carrying either LJAMP2 or Bbchit1 was between 65 and 89%. These results indicated that the combined expression of the LJAMP2 and Bbchit-1 genes could significantly enhance resistance to necrotrophic fungal pathogens in poplar.

  14. Metabolism of Fructooligosaccharides in Lactobacillus plantarum ST-III via Differential Gene Transcription and Alteration of Cell Membrane Fluidity.

    PubMed

    Chen, Chen; Zhao, Guozhong; Chen, Wei; Guo, Benheng

    2015-11-01

    Although fructooligosaccharides (FOS) can selectively stimulate the growth and activity of probiotics and beneficially modulate the balance of intestinal microbiota, knowledge of the molecular mechanism for FOS metabolism by probiotics is still limited. Here a combined transcriptomic and physiological approach was used to survey the global alterations that occurred during the logarithmic growth of Lactobacillus plantarum ST-III using FOS or glucose as the sole carbon source. A total of 363 genes were differentially transcribed; in particular, two gene clusters were induced by FOS. Gene inactivation revealed that both of the clusters participated in the metabolism of FOS, which were transported across the membrane by two phosphotransferase systems (PTSs) and were subsequently hydrolyzed by a β-fructofuranosidase (SacA) in the cytoplasm. Combining the measurements of the transcriptome- and membrane-related features, we discovered that the genes involved in the biosynthesis of fatty acids (FAs) were repressed in cells grown on FOS; as a result, the FA profiles were altered by shortening of the carbon chains, after which membrane fluidity increased in response to FOS transport and utilization. Furthermore, incremental production of acetate was observed in both the transcriptomic and the metabolic experiments. Our results provided new insights into gene transcription, the production of metabolites, and membrane alterations that could explain FOS metabolism in L. plantarum. PMID:26319882

  15. Studying Genes

    MedlinePlus

    ... Area What are genes? Genes are sections of DNA that contain instructions for making the molecules—many ... material in an organism. This includes genes and DNA elements that control the activity of genes. Does ...

  16. Investigation on gene transfer from genetically modified corn (Zea mays L.) plants to soil bacteria.

    PubMed

    Ma, B L; Blackshaw, Robert E; Roy, Julie; He, Tianpei

    2011-01-01

    Knowledge about the prevalence and diversity of antibiotic resistance genes in soil bacteria communities is required to evaluate the possibility and ecological consequences of the transfer of these genes carried by genetically modified (GM) plants to soil bacteria. The neomycin phosphotransferase gene (nptII) conferring resistance to kanamycin and neomycin is one of the antibiotic resistance genes commonly present in GM plants. In this study, we investigated kanamycin-resistant (Km(R)) and neomycin-resistant (Nm(R)) soil bacterial populations in a 3-year field trial using a commercial GM corn (Zea mays L.) carrying the nptII gene and its near isogenic line. The results showed that a portion (2.3 - 15.6 %) of cultivable soil bacteria was naturally resistant to kanamycin or neomycin. However, no significant difference in the population level of Km(R) or Nm(R) soil bacteria was observed between the GM and non-GM corn fields. The nptII gene was not detected in any of the total 3000 Km(R) or Nm(R) isolates screened by PCR. Further, total soil bacterial cells were collected through Nycodenz gradient centrifugation and bacterial community DNA was subjected to PCR. Detection limit was about 500 cells per gram of fresh soil. Our study suggests that the nptII gene was relatively rare in the soil bacterial populations and there was no evidence of gene transfer from a GM corn plant to soil bacteria based on the data from total soil bacterial communities.

  17. Identification and functional analysis of Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium PmrA-regulated genes.

    PubMed

    Tamayo, Rita; Prouty, Angela M; Gunn, John S

    2005-02-01

    The PmrA-PmrB two-component regulatory system of Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium is activated in vivo and plays an important role in resistance to cationic antimicrobial peptides. Resistance is partly mediated by modifications to the lipopolysaccharide. To identify new PmrA-regulated genes, microarray analysis was undertaken comparing cDNA derived from PmrA-constitutive and PmrA-null strains. A combination of RT-PCR and transcriptional analysis confirmed the inclusion of six new loci in the PmrA-PmrB regulon: STM1253, STM1269, STM4118, STM0459, STM3968 and STM4568. These loci did not affect the ability to grow in high iron conditions, the ability to modify lipid A with aminoarabinose, or virulence. STM4118, a putative phosphoethanolamine phosphotransferase, had a minor effect on polymyxin resistance, whereas the remaining genes had no role in polymyxin resistance. Although several of the identified loci lacked the consensus PmrA binding site, PmrA was demonstrated to bind the promoter of a PmrA-activated gene lacking the consensus site. A more complete definition of the PmrA-PmrB regulon will provide a better understanding of its role in host and non-host environments.

  18. Food-grade host/vector expression system for Lactobacillus casei based on complementation of plasmid-associated phospho-beta-galactosidase gene lacG.

    PubMed

    Takala, T M; Saris, P E J; Tynkkynen, S S H

    2003-01-01

    A new food-grade host/vector system for Lactobacillus casei based on lactose selection was constructed. The wild-type non-starter host Lb. casei strain E utilizes lactose via a plasmid-encoded phosphotransferase system. For food-grade cloning, a stable lactose-deficient mutant was constructed by deleting a 141-bp fragment from the phospho-beta-galactosidase gene lacG via gene replacement. The deletion resulted in an inactive phospho-beta-galactosidase enzyme with an internal in-frame deletion of 47 amino acids. A complementation plasmid was constructed containing a replicon from Lactococcus lactis, the lacG gene from Lb. casei, and the constitutive promoter of pepR for lacG expression from Lb. rhamnosus. The expression of the lacG gene from the resulting food-grade plasmid pLEB600 restored the ability of the lactose-negative mutant strain to grow on lactose to the wild-type level. The vector pLEB600 was used for expression of the proline iminopeptidase gene pepI from Lb. helveticus in Lb. casei. The results show that the food-grade expression system reported in this paper can be used for expression of foreign genes in Lb. casei. PMID:12536257

  19. Stable transformation and expression of GhEXPA8 fiber expansin gene to improve fiber length and micronaire value in cotton.

    PubMed

    Bajwa, Kamran S; Shahid, Ahmad A; Rao, Abdul Q; Bashir, Aftab; Aftab, Asia; Husnain, Tayyab

    2015-01-01

    Cotton fiber is multigenic trait controlled by number of genes. Previous studies suggest that one of these genes may be responsible for switching cotton fiber growth on and off to influence the fiber quality produced from a cotton seed. In the present study, the Gossypium hirsutum GhEXPA8 fiber expansin gene was introduced into local cotton variety NIAB 846 by using an Agrobacterium-mediated gene transformation. The neomycin phosphotransferase (NPTII) gene was used as a selection marker for screening of putative transgenic cotton plants. Integration and expression of the fiber expansin gene in cotton plants was confirmed with molecular techniques including Southern blot analyses, real-time PCR. Cellulose assay was used for measurement of cellulose contents of transgenic cotton fiber. The data collected from 3 years of field performance of the transgenic cotton plants expressing GhEXPA8 showed that significant improvement has been made in fiber lengths and micronaire values as compared to control G. hirsutum variety NIAB 846 cotton plants. Statistical techniques were also used for analysis of fiber and agronomic characteristics. The results of this study support improvement of cotton fiber through genetic modification.

  20. RolB gene-induced production of isoflavonoids in transformed Maackia amurensis cells.

    PubMed

    Grishchenko, O V; Kiselev, K V; Tchernoded, G K; Fedoreyev, S A; Veselova, M V; Bulgakov, V P; Zhuravlev, Y N

    2016-09-01

    Maackia amurensis Rupr. et Maxim is a valuable leguminous tree grown in the Russian Far East, in China, and in Korea. Polyphenols from the heartwood of this species (primarily stilbenes and isoflavonoids) possess strong hepatoprotective activity. Callus culture of M. amurensis produced isoflavonoids and their derivatives. In pharmacological experiments, the callus complex was at least as effective, as the plant complex. To increase the yield of isoflavonoids, calli were transformed with the rolB gene of Agrobacterium rhizogenes. Neomycin phosphotransferase (nptII) gene was used for transgenic cell selection. Three rolB transgenic callus lines with different levels of the rolB gene expression were established. Insertion of the rolB gene caused alterations in callus structure, growth, and isoflavonoid production, and stronger alterations were observed with higher expression levels. MB1, MB2, and MB4 cultures accumulated 1.4, 1.5, and 2.1 % of dry weight (DW) isoflavonoids, respectively. In contrast, the empty vector-transformed MV culture accumulated 1.22 % DW. Isoflavonoid productivity of the obtained MB1, MB2, and MB4 cultures was equal to 117, 112, and 199 mg/L of medium, respectively, comparing to 106 mg/L for the MV culture. High level of expression of the rolB gene in MB4 culture led to a 2-fold increase in the isoflavonoid content and productivity and reliably increased dry biomass accumulation. Lower expression levels of the rolB gene in MB1 and MB2 calli did not significantly enhance biomass accumulation and isoflavonoid content, although the rolB gene activated isoflavonoid biosynthesis during the early growth stages and caused the increased content of several distinct compounds. PMID:27063013

  1. Disruption of the trypanothione reductase gene of Leishmania decreases its ability to survive oxidative stress in macrophages.

    PubMed

    Dumas, C; Ouellette, M; Tovar, J; Cunningham, M L; Fairlamb, A H; Tamar, S; Olivier, M; Papadopoulou, B

    1997-05-15

    Parasitic protozoa belonging to the order Kinetoplastida contain trypanothione as their major thiol. Trypanothione reductase (TR), the enzyme responsible for maintaining trypanothione in its reduced form, is thought to be central to the redox defence systems of trypanosomatids. To investigate further the physiological role of TR in Leishmania, we attempted to create TR-knockout mutants by gene disruption in L. donovani and L. major strains using the selectable markers neomycin and hygromycin phosphotransferases. TR is likely to be an important gene for parasite survival since all our attempts to obtain a TR null mutant in L. donovani failed. Instead, we obtained mutants with a partial trisomy for the TR locus where, despite the successful disruption of two TR alleles by gene targeting, a third TR copy was generated as a result of genomic rearrangements involving the translocation of a TR-containing region to a larger chromosome. Mutants of L. donovani and L. major possessing only one wild-type TR allele express less TR mRNA and have lower TR activity compared with wild-type cells carrying two copies of the TR gene. Significantly, these mutants show attenuated infectivity with a markedly decreased capacity to survive intracellularly within macrophages, provided that the latter are producing reactive oxygen intermediates. PMID:9184206

  2. Construction of rice site-specific chloroplast transformation vector and transient expression of EGFP gene in Dunaliella salina.

    PubMed

    Li, Ding; Han, Xiaoxia; Zuo, Jia; Xie, Lingling; He, Ronghua; Gao, Jing; Chang, Lan; Yuan, Longping; Cao, Mengliang

    2011-12-01

    Chloroplast is a new hotspot in the field of plant transformation system of plant genetic engineering. Plastid transformation has several advantages: high expression, multiple expressed genes in a single transformation event, absence of gene silencing, et al. A series of elements for construction of dicistronic site-specific integration expression vector of rice chloroplast have been cloned, including trnl-trnA (rice chloroplast homologous recombination fragments), Prrn (16S rRNA operon promotor), PpsbA (the 3' untranslated region of the chloroplastpsbA gene), hptll gene (encoding hygromycin phosphotransferase) and EGFP (encoding enhanced green fluorescence protein). All the elements were constructed into a rice chloroplast dicistronic expression vector pCTE04 (-trnl-Prrn-RBS-hptlI-RBS-EGFP-PpsbA- trnA-). Then pCTE04 was introduced into chloroplasts of Dunaliella salina through particle bombardment. Strong green fluorescence was observed in chloroplasts of some bombarded Dunaliella salina cells under a stereo fluorescence microscope, indicating that pCTE04 could be expressed in Dunaliella salina chloroplasts transiently. It provides a solid foundation for further genetic engineering in rice chloroplast transformation.

  3. Molecular breeding of lignin-degrading brown-rot fungus Gloeophyllum trabeum by homologous expression of laccase gene.

    PubMed

    Arimoto, Misa; Yamagishi, Kenji; Wang, Jianqiao; Tanaka, Kanade; Miyoshi, Takanori; Kamei, Ichiro; Kondo, Ryuichiro; Mori, Toshio; Kawagishi, Hirokazu; Hirai, Hirofumi

    2015-12-01

    The basidiomycete Gloeophyllum trabeum KU-41 can degrade Japanese cedar wood efficiently. To construct a strain better suited for biofuel production from Japanese cedar wood, we developed a gene transformation system for G. trabeum KU-41 using the hygromycin phosphotransferase-encoding gene (hpt) as a marker. The endogenous laccase candidate gene (Gtlcc3) was fused with the promoter of the G. trabeum glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase-encoding gene and co-transformed with the hpt-bearing pAH marker plasmid. We obtained 44 co-transformants, and identified co-transformant L#61, which showed the highest laccase activity among all the transformants. Moreover, strain L#61 was able to degrade lignin in Japanese cedar wood-containing medium, in contrast to wild-type G. trabeum KU-41 and to a typical white-rot fungus Phanerochaete chrysosporium. By using strain L#61, direct ethanol production from Japanese cedar wood was improved compared to wild type. To our knowledge, this study is the first report of the molecular breeding of lignin-degrading brown-rot fungus and direct ethanol production from softwoods by co-transformation with laccase overproduction constructs. PMID:26695948

  4. Cytosine Methylation Associated with Repeat-Induced Point Mutation Causes Epigenetic Gene Silencing in Neurospora Crassa

    PubMed Central

    Irelan, J. T.; Selker, E. U.

    1997-01-01

    Repeated DNA sequences are frequently mutated during the sexual cycle in Neurospora crassa by a process named repeat-induced point mutation (RIP). RIP is often associated with methylation of cytosine residues in and around the mutated sequences. Here we demonstrate that this methylation can silence a gene located in nearby, unique sequences. A large proportion of strains that had undergone RIP of a linked duplication flanking a single-copy transgene, hph (hygromycin B phosphotransferase), showed partial silencing of hph. These strains were all heavily methylated throughout the single-copy hph sequences and the flanking sequences. Silencing was alleviated by preventing methylation, either by 5-azacytidine (5AC) treatment or by introduction of a mutation (eth-1) known to reduce intracellular levels of S-adenosylmethionine. Silenced strains exhibited spontaneous reactivation of hph at frequencies of 10(-4) to 0.5. Reactivated strains, as well as cells that were treated with 5AC, gave rise to cultures that were hypomethylated and partially hygromycin resistant, indicating that some of the original methylation was propagated by a maintenance mechanism. Gene expression levels were found to be variable within a population of clonally related cells, and this variation was correlated with epigenetically propagated differences in methylation patterns. PMID:9178002

  5. Nuclear gene targeting in Chlamydomonas using engineered zinc-finger nucleases.

    PubMed

    Sizova, Irina; Greiner, Andre; Awasthi, Mayanka; Kateriya, Suneel; Hegemann, Peter

    2013-03-01

    The unicellular green alga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii is a versatile model for fundamental and biotechnological research. A wide range of tools for genetic manipulation have been developed for this alga, but specific modification of nuclear genes is still not routinely possible. Here, we present a nuclear gene targeting strategy for Chlamydomonas that is based on the application of zinc-finger nucleases (ZFNs). Our approach includes (i) design of gene-specific ZFNs using available online tools, (ii) evaluation of the designed ZFNs in a Chlamydomonas in situ model system, (iii) optimization of ZFN activity by modification of the nuclease domain, and (iv) application of the most suitable enzymes for mutagenesis of an endogenous gene. Initially, we designed a set of ZFNs to target the COP3 gene that encodes the light-activated ion channel channelrhodopsin-1. To evaluate the designed ZFNs, we constructed a model strain by inserting a non-functional aminoglycoside 3'-phosphotransferase VIII (aphVIII) selection marker interspaced with a short COP3 target sequence into the nuclear genome. Upon co-transformation of this recipient strain with the engineered ZFNs and an aphVIII DNA template, we were able to restore marker activity and select paromomycin-resistant (Pm-R) clones with expressing nucleases. Of these Pm-R clones, 1% also contained a modified COP3 locus. In cases where cells were co-transformed with a modified COP3 template, the COP3 locus was specifically modified by homologous recombination between COP3 and the supplied template DNA. We anticipate that this ZFN technology will be useful for studying the functions of individual genes in Chlamydomonas.

  6. Transferring cucumber mosaic virus-white leaf strain coat protein gene into Cucumis melo L. and evaluating transgenic plants for protection against infections

    SciTech Connect

    Gonsalves, C.; Xue, B.; Yepes, M.; Fuchs, M.; Ling, K.; Namba, S. . Dept. of Plant Pathology)

    1994-03-01

    A single regeneration procedure using cotyledon examples effectively regenerated five commercially grown muskmelon cultivars. This regeneration scheme was used to facilitate gene transfers using either Agrobacterium tumefaciens or microprojectile bombardment methods. In both cases, the transferred genes were from the T-DNA region of the binary vector plasmid pGA482GG/cp cucumber mosaic virus-white leaf strain (CMV-WL), which contains genes that encode neomycin phosphotransferase II (NPT II), [beta]-glucuronidase (GUS), and the CMV-WL coat protein (CP). Explants treated with pGA482GG/cpCMV-WL regenerated shoots on Murashige and Skoog medium containing 4.4 [mu]m 6-benzylaminopurine (BA), kanamycin (Km) at 150 mg[center dot]liter[sup [minus]1] and carbenicillin (Cb) at 500 mg[center dot]liter[sup [minus]1]. The authors' comparison of A. tumefaciens- and microprojectile-mediated gene transfer procedures shows that both methods effectively produce nearly the same percentage of transgenic plants. R[sub 0] plants were first tested for GUS or NPT II expression, then the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and other tests were used to verify the transfer of the NPT II, GUS, and CMV-WL CP genes.

  7. Transcriptional Gene Silencing Mediated by a Plastid Inner Envelope Phosphoenolpyruvate/Phosphate Translocator CUE1 in Arabidopsis1[OA

    PubMed Central

    Shen, Jie; Ren, Xiaozhi; Cao, Rui; Liu, Jun; Gong, Zhizhong

    2009-01-01

    Mutations in REPRESSOR OF SILENCING1 (ROS1) lead to the transcriptional gene silencing (TGS) of ProRD29A:LUC (LUCIFERASE) and Pro35S:NPTII (Neomycin Phosphotransferase II) reporter genes. We performed a genetic screen to find suppressors of ros1 that identified two mutant alleles in the Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) CHLOROPHYLL A/B BINDING PROTEIN UNDEREXPRESSED1 (CUE1) gene, which encodes a plastid inner envelope phosphoenolpyruvate/phosphate translocator. The cue1 mutations released the TGS of Pro35S:NPTII and the transcriptionally silent endogenous locus TRANSCRIPTIONAL SILENCING INFORMATION in a manner that was independent of DNA methylation but dependent on chromatin modification. The cue1 mutations did not affect the TGS of ProRD29A:LUC in ros1, which was dependent on RNA-directed DNA methylation. It is possible that signals from chloroplasts help to regulate the epigenetic status of a subset of genomic loci in the nucleus. PMID:19515789

  8. Transgenic rose lines harboring an antimicrobial protein gene, Ace-AMP1, demonstrate enhanced resistance to powdery mildew ( Sphaerotheca pannosa).

    PubMed

    Li, Xiangqian; Gasic, Ksenjia; Cammue, Bruno; Broekaert, Willem; Korban, Schuyler S

    2003-12-01

    An antimicrobial protein gene, Ace-AMP1, was introduced into Rosa hybrida cv. Carefree Beauty via Agrobacterium-mediated transformation. A total of 500 putative transgenic plants were obtained from 100 primary embryogenic calli co-cultivated with A. tumefaciens following selection on a regeneration medium containing 100 mg/l kanamycin. Polymerase chain reaction analysis of these putative transgenic lines, using primers for both Ace-AMP1 and neomycin phosphotransferase ( npt II) genes, showed that 62% of these plants were positive for both transgenes. These lines were further confirmed for stable integration of Ace-AMP1 and npt II genes by Southern blotting. Transcription of the Ace-AMP1 transgene in various transgenic rose lines was determined using Northern blotting. Transgenic rose lines inoculated with conidial spores of Sphaerotheca pannosa (Wallr.: Fr.) Lev. var. rosae showed enhanced resistance to powdery mildew using both a detached-leaf assay and an in vivo greenhouse whole-plant assay. PMID:14508687

  9. Glyoxalase I Gene Deletion Mutants of Leishmania donovani Exhibit Reduced Methylglyoxal Detoxification

    PubMed Central

    Chauhan, Swati C.; Madhubala, Rentala

    2009-01-01

    Background Glyoxalase I is a metalloenzyme of the glyoxalase pathway that plays a central role in eliminating the toxic metabolite methyglyoxal. The protozoan parasite Leishmania donovani possesses a unique trypanothione dependent glyoxalase system. Principal Findings Analysis of the L. donovani GLOI sequence predicted a mitochondrial targeting sequence, suggesting that the enzyme is likely to be targeted to the mitochondria. In order to determine definitively the intracellular localization of GLOI in L. donovani, a full-length GLOI gene was fused to green fluorescent protein (GFP) gene to generate a chimeric construct. Confocal microscopy of L. donovani promastigotes carrying this chimeric construct and immunofluorescence microscopy using anti-GLOI antibodies demonstrated that GLOI is localized in the kinetoplast of the parasite apart from the cytosol. To study the physiological role of GLOI in Leishmania, we first created promastigote mutants heterozygous for GLOI by targeted gene replacement using either hygromycin or neomycin phosphotransferases as selectable markers. Heterozygous mutants of L. donovani display a slower growth rate, have lower glyoxalase I activity and have reduced ability to detoxify methylglyoxal in comparison to the wild-type parasites. Complementation of the heterozygous mutant with an episomal GLOI construct showed the restoration of heterozygous mutant phenotype nearly fully to that of the wild-type. Null mutants were obtained only after GLOI was expressed from an episome in heterozygous mutants. Conclusions We for the first time report localization of GLOI in L. donovani in the kinetoplast. To study the physiological role of GLOI in Leishmania, we have generated GLOI attenuated strains by targeted gene replacement and report that GLOI is likely to be an important gene since GLOI mutants in L. donovani showed altered phenotype. The present data supports that the GLOI plays an essential role in the survival of this pathogenic organism and

  10. Transformation of Brassica napus and Brassica oleracea Using Agrobacterium tumefaciens and the Expression of the bar and neo Genes in the Transgenic Plants

    PubMed Central

    De Block, Marc; De Brouwer, Dirk; Tenning, Paul

    1989-01-01

    An efficient and largely genotype-independent transformation method for Brassica napus and Brassica oleracea was established based on neo or bar as selectable marker genes. Hypocotyl explants of Brassica napus and Brassica oleracea cultivars were infected with Agrobacterium strains containing chimeric neo and bar genes. The use of AgNO3 was a prerequisite for efficient shoot regeneration under selective conditions. Vitrification was avoided by decreasing the water potential of the medium, by decreasing the relative humidity in the tissue culture vessel, and by lowering the cytokinin concentration. In this way, rooted transformed shoots were obtained with a 30% efficiency in 9 to 12 weeks. Southern blottings and genetic analysis of S1-progeny showed that the transformants contained on average between one and three copies of the chimeric genes. A wide range of expression levels of the chimeric genes was observed among independent transformants. Up to 25% of the transformants showed no detectable phosphinotricin acetyltransferase or neomycin phosphotransferase II enzyme activities although Southern blottings demonstrated that these plants were indeed transformed. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 PMID:16667089

  11. Agrobacterium-mediated genetic transformation of commercially elite rice restorer line using nptII gene as a plant selection marker.

    PubMed

    Chakraborty, M; Sairam Reddy, P; Laxmi Narasu, M; Krishna, Gaurav; Rana, Debashis

    2016-01-01

    Transformation of commercially important indica cultivars remains challenging for the scientific community even though Agrobacterium-mediated transformation protocols for a few indica rice lines have been well established. We report successful transformation of a commercially important restorer line JK1044R of indica rice hybrid JKRH 401. While following existing protocol, we optimized several parameters for callusing, regeneration and genetic transformation of JK1044R. Calli generated from the rice scutellum tissue were used for transformation by Agrobacterium harboring pCAMBIA2201. A novel two tire selection scheme comprising of Geneticin (G418) and Paramomycin were deployed for selection of transgenic calli as well as regenerated plantlets that expressed neomycin phosphotransferase-II gene encoded by the vector. One specific combination of G418 (30 mg l(-1)) and Paramomycin (70 mg l(-1)) was very effective for calli selection. Transformed and selected calli were detected by monitoring the expression of the reporter gene uidA (GUS). Regenerated plantlets were confirmed through PCR analysis of nptII and gus genes specific primers as well as dot blot using gus gene specific as probe. PMID:27186018

  12. Enhanced resistance to blister blight in transgenic tea (Camellia sinensis [L.] O. Kuntze) by overexpression of class I chitinase gene from potato (Solanum tuberosum).

    PubMed

    Singh, H Ranjit; Deka, Manab; Das, Sudripta

    2015-07-01

    Tea is the second most consumed beverage in the world. A crop loss of up to 43 % has been reported due to blister blight disease of tea caused by a fungus, Exobasidium vexans. Thus, it directly affects the tea industry qualitatively and quantitatively. Solanum tuberosum class I chitinase gene (AF153195) is a plant pathogenesis-related gene. It was introduced into tea genome via Agrobacterium-mediated transformation with hygromycin phosphotransferase (hpt) gene conferring hygromycin resistance as plant selectable marker. A total of 41 hygromycin resistant plantlets were obtained, and PCR analysis established 12 plantlets confirming about the stable integration of transgene in the plant genome. Real-time PCR detected transgene expression in four transgenic plantlets (T28, C57, C9, and T31). Resistance to biotrophic fungal pathogen, E. vexans, was tested by detached leaf infection assay of greenhouse acclimated plantlets. An inhibitory activity against the fungal pathogen was evident from the detached leaves from the transformants compared with the control. Fungal lesion formed on control plantlet whereas the transgenic plantlets showed resistance to inoculated fungal pathogen by the formation of hypersensitivity reaction area. This result suggests that constitutive expression of the potato class I chitinase gene can be exploited to improve resistance to fungal pathogen, E. vexans, in economical perennial plantation crop like tea. PMID:25772466

  13. Enhanced resistance to blister blight in transgenic tea (Camellia sinensis [L.] O. Kuntze) by overexpression of class I chitinase gene from potato (Solanum tuberosum).

    PubMed

    Singh, H Ranjit; Deka, Manab; Das, Sudripta

    2015-07-01

    Tea is the second most consumed beverage in the world. A crop loss of up to 43 % has been reported due to blister blight disease of tea caused by a fungus, Exobasidium vexans. Thus, it directly affects the tea industry qualitatively and quantitatively. Solanum tuberosum class I chitinase gene (AF153195) is a plant pathogenesis-related gene. It was introduced into tea genome via Agrobacterium-mediated transformation with hygromycin phosphotransferase (hpt) gene conferring hygromycin resistance as plant selectable marker. A total of 41 hygromycin resistant plantlets were obtained, and PCR analysis established 12 plantlets confirming about the stable integration of transgene in the plant genome. Real-time PCR detected transgene expression in four transgenic plantlets (T28, C57, C9, and T31). Resistance to biotrophic fungal pathogen, E. vexans, was tested by detached leaf infection assay of greenhouse acclimated plantlets. An inhibitory activity against the fungal pathogen was evident from the detached leaves from the transformants compared with the control. Fungal lesion formed on control plantlet whereas the transgenic plantlets showed resistance to inoculated fungal pathogen by the formation of hypersensitivity reaction area. This result suggests that constitutive expression of the potato class I chitinase gene can be exploited to improve resistance to fungal pathogen, E. vexans, in economical perennial plantation crop like tea.

  14. Transport and phosphorylation of disaccharides by the ruminal bacterium Streptococcus bovis

    SciTech Connect

    Martin, S.A.; Russell, J.B.

    1987-10-01

    Toluene-treated cells of Streptococcus bovis JB1 phosphorylated cellobiose, glucose, maltose, and sucrose by the phosphoenolpyruvate-dependent phosphotransferase system. Glucose phosphorylation was constitutive, while all three disaccharide systems were inducible. Competition experiments, indicated that separate phosphotransferases systems existed for glucose, maltose, and sucrose. (/sup 14/C)maltose transport was inhibited by excess glucose and to a lesser extent by sucrose. (/sup 14/C)glucose and (/sup 14/C)sucrose transports were not inhibited by an excess of maltose. Since (/sup 14/C)maltose phosphorylation in triethanolamine buffer was increased 160-fold as the concentration of P/sub i/ was increased from 0 to 100 mM, a maltose phosphorylase was present, and this activity was inducible. Maltose was also hydrolyzed by an inducible maltase. Glucose 1-phosphate arising from the maltose phosphorylase was metabolized by a constitutive phosphoglucomutase that was specific for ..cap alpha..-glucose 1-phosphate. Only sucrose-grown cells possessed sucrose hydrolase activity, and this activity was much lower than the sucrose phosphotransferase system and sucrose-phosphate hydrolase activities.

  15. Gene homogeneity for aminoglycoside-modifying enzymes in gram-positive cocci.

    PubMed Central

    Ounissi, H; Derlot, E; Carlier, C; Courvalin, P

    1990-01-01

    Aminoglycoside-resistant strains of Staphylococcus and Enterococcus, approximately 500 of each, were screened by dot blot hybridization for the presence of genes encoding aminoglycoside-modifying enzymes. The MICs of various aminoglycosides for the strains were determined, and the enzyme contents of the cells were inferred from the resistance phenotypes. The agreements (in percent) of the hybridization results with the deduced enzyme contents for Staphylococcus and Enterococcus species were, respectively, 80 and 87.6 for ANT(6) (aminoglycoside nucleotidyltransferase), 99.8 and 100 for both APH(3') (aminoglycoside phosphotransferase) and APH(2")-AAC(6') (aminoglycoside acetyltransferase), and 100 and 100 for ANT(4'). The weak correlation obtained with the probe for ANT(6) was due to the fact that gram-positive cocci can also be streptomycin resistant by synthesis of APH(3") or ANT(3")(9) and by ribosomal mutation. The remaining probes appeared to be specific: they hybridized with all the resistant clinical isolates but not with the susceptible strains. These results indicate that, except for streptomycin, nucleic acid hybridization is a valid approach for the detection and characterization of aminoglycoside resistance in gram-positive cocci. PMID:1963528

  16. Surface cell density effects on Escherichia coli gene expression during cell attachment.

    PubMed

    Mauter, Meagan S; Mauter, Meagan; Fait, Aaron; Elimelech, Menachem; Herzberg, Moshe

    2013-06-18

    Escherichia coli attachment to a surface initiates a complex series of interconnected signaling and regulation pathways that promote biofilm formation and maturation. The present work investigates the effect of deposited cell density on E. coli cell physiology, metabolic activity, and gene expression in the initial stages of biofilm development. Deposited cell density is controlled by exploiting the relationship between ionic strength and bacterial attachment efficiency in a packed bed column. Distinct differences in cell transcriptome are analyzed by comparing sessile cultures at two different cell surface densities and differentiating ionic strength effects by analyzing planktonic cultures in parallel. Our results indicate that operons regulating trypotophan production and the galactitol phosphotransferase system (including dihydroxyacetone phosphate synthesis) are strongly affected by cell density on the surface. Additional transcriptome and metabolomic impacts of cell density on succinate, proline, and pyroglutamic acid systems are also reported. These results are consistent with the hypothesis that surface cell density plays a major role in sessile cell physiology, commencing with the first stage of biofilm formation. These findings improve our understanding of biofilm formation in natural and engineered environmental systems and will contribute to future work ranging from pathogen migration in the environment to control of biofouling on engineered surfaces.

  17. Integrative gene transfer in the truffle Tuber borchii by Agrobacterium tumefaciens-mediated transformation

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Agrobacterium tumefaciens-mediated transformation is a powerful tool for reverse genetics and functional genomic analysis in a wide variety of plants and fungi. Tuber spp. are ecologically important and gastronomically prized fungi (“truffles”) with a cryptic life cycle, a subterranean habitat and a symbiotic, but also facultative saprophytic lifestyle. The genome of a representative member of this group of fungi has recently been sequenced. However, because of their poor genetic tractability, including transformation, truffles have so far eluded in-depth functional genomic investigations. Here we report that A. tumefaciens can infect Tuber borchii mycelia, thereby conveying its transfer DNA with the production of stably integrated transformants. We constructed two new binary plasmids (pABr1 and pABr3) and tested them as improved transformation vectors using the green fluorescent protein as reporter gene and hygromycin phosphotransferase as selection marker. Transformants were stable for at least 12 months of in vitro culture propagation and, as revealed by TAIL- PCR analysis, integration sites appear to be heterogeneous, with a preference for repeat element-containing genome sites. PMID:24949275

  18. Integrative gene transfer in the truffle Tuber borchii by Agrobacterium tumefaciens-mediated transformation.

    PubMed

    Brenna, Andrea; Montanini, Barbara; Muggiano, Eleonora; Proietto, Marco; Filetici, Patrizia; Ottonello, Simone; Ballario, Paola

    2014-01-01

    Agrobacterium tumefaciens-mediated transformation is a powerful tool for reverse genetics and functional genomic analysis in a wide variety of plants and fungi. Tuber spp. are ecologically important and gastronomically prized fungi ("truffles") with a cryptic life cycle, a subterranean habitat and a symbiotic, but also facultative saprophytic lifestyle. The genome of a representative member of this group of fungi has recently been sequenced. However, because of their poor genetic tractability, including transformation, truffles have so far eluded in-depth functional genomic investigations. Here we report that A. tumefaciens can infect Tuber borchii mycelia, thereby conveying its transfer DNA with the production of stably integrated transformants. We constructed two new binary plasmids (pABr1 and pABr3) and tested them as improved transformation vectors using the green fluorescent protein as reporter gene and hygromycin phosphotransferase as selection marker. Transformants were stable for at least 12 months of in vitro culture propagation and, as revealed by TAIL- PCR analysis, integration sites appear to be heterogeneous, with a preference for repeat element-containing genome sites.

  19. Silencing the HaAK gene by transgenic plant-mediated RNAi impairs larval growth of Helicoverpa armigera.

    PubMed

    Liu, Feng; Wang, Xiao-Dong; Zhao, Yi-Ying; Li, Yan-Jun; Liu, Yong-Chang; Sun, Jie

    2015-01-01

    Insect pests have caused noticeable economic losses in agriculture, and the heavy use of insecticide to control pests not only brings the threats of insecticide resistance but also causes the great pollution to foods and the environment. Transgenic plants producing double-stranded RNA (dsRNA) directed against insect genes have been is currently developed for protection against insect pests. In this study, we used this technology to silence the arginine kinase (AK) gene of Helicoverpa armigera (HaAK), encoding a phosphotransferase that plays a critical role in cellular energy metabolism in invertebrate. Transgenic Arabidopsis plants producing HaAK dsRNA were generated by Agrobacterium-mediated transformation. The maximal mortality rate of 55% was reached when H. armigera first-instar larvae were fed with transgenic plant leaves for 3 days, which was dramatically higher than the 18% mortality recorded in the control group. Moreover, the ingestion of transgenic plants significantly retarded larval growth, and the transcript levels of HaAK were also knocked down by up to 52%. The feeding bioassays further indicated that the inhibition efficiency was correlated with the integrity and concentration of the produced HaAK dsRNA in transgenic plants. These results strongly show that the resistance to H. armigera was improved in transgenic Arabidopsis plants, suggesting that the RNAi targeting of AK has the potential for the control of insect pests. PMID:25552931

  20. The HPr(Ser) Kinase of Streptococcus salivarius: Purification, Properties, and Cloning of the hprK Gene

    PubMed Central

    Brochu, Denis; Vadeboncoeur, Christian

    1999-01-01

    In gram-positive bacteria, HPr, a protein of the phosphoenolpyruvate:sugar phosphotransferase system, is phosphorylated on a serine residue at position 46 by an ATP-dependent protein kinase. The HPr(Ser) kinase of Streptococcus salivarius ATCC 25975 was purified, and the encoding gene (hprK) was cloned by using a nucleotide probe designed from the N-terminal amino acid sequence. The predicted amino acid sequence of the S. salivarius enzyme showed 45% identity with the Bacillus subtilis enzyme, the conserved residues being located mainly in the C-terminal half of the protein. The predicted hprK gene product has a molecular mass of 34,440 Da and a pI of 5.6. These values agree well with those found experimentally by polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis in the presence of sodium dodecyl sulfate, molecular sieve chromatography in the presence of guanidine hydrochloride, and chromatofocusing using the purified protein. The native protein migrates on a Superdex 200 HR column as a 330,000-Da protein, suggesting that the HPr(Ser) kinase is a decamer. The enzyme requires Mg2+ for activity and functions optimally at pH 7.5. Unlike the enzyme from other gram-positive bacteria, the HPr(Ser) kinase from S. salivarius is not stimulated by FDP or other glycolytic intermediates. The enzyme is inhibited by inorganic phosphate, and its Kms for HPr and ATP are 31 μM and 1 mM, respectively. PMID:9922231

  1. The capsule biosynthesis locus of Haemophilus influenzae shows conspicuous similarity to the corresponding locus in Haemophilus sputorum and may have been recruited from this species by horizontal gene transfer.

    PubMed

    Nielsen, Signe M; de Gier, Camilla; Dimopoulou, Chrysoula; Gupta, Vikas; Hansen, Lars H; Nørskov-Lauritsen, Niels

    2015-06-01

    The newly described species Haemophilus sputorum has been cultured from the upper respiratory tract of humans and appears to have little pathogenic potential. The species encodes a capsular biosynthesis locus of approximately 12  kb composed of three distinct regions. Region I and III genes, involved in export and processing of the capsular material, show high similarity to the corresponding genes in capsulate lineages of the pathogenic species Haemophilus influenzae; indeed, standard bexA and bexB PCRs for detection of capsulated strains of H. influenzae give positive results with strains of H. sputorum. Three ORFs are present in region II of the sequenced strain of H. sputorum, of which a putative phosphotransferase showed homology with corresponding genes from H. influenzae serotype c and f. Phylogenetic analysis of housekeeping genes from 24 Pasteurellaceae species showed that H. sputorum was only distantly related to H. influenzae. In contrast to H. influenzae, the capsule locus in H. sputorum is not associated with transposases or other transposable elements. Our data suggest that the capsule locus of capsulate lineages of H. influenzae may have been recruited relatively recently from the commensal species H. sputorum by horizontal gene transfer.

  2. Crystal Structure of a Phosphorylation-coupled Saccharide Transporter

    SciTech Connect

    Y Cao; X Jin; E Levin; H Huang; Y Zong; W Hendrickson; J Javitch; K Rajashankar; M Zhou; et al.

    2011-12-31

    Saccharides have a central role in the nutrition of all living organisms. Whereas several saccharide uptake systems are shared between the different phylogenetic kingdoms, the phosphoenolpyruvate-dependent phosphotransferase system exists almost exclusively in bacteria. This multi-component system includes an integral membrane protein EIIC that transports saccharides and assists in their phosphorylation. Here we present the crystal structure of an EIIC from Bacillus cereus that transports diacetylchitobiose. The EIIC is a homodimer, with an expansive interface formed between the amino-terminal halves of the two protomers. The carboxy-terminal half of each protomer has a large binding pocket that contains a diacetylchitobiose, which is occluded from both sides of the membrane with its site of phosphorylation near the conserved His250 and Glu334 residues. The structure shows the architecture of this important class of transporters, identifies the determinants of substrate binding and phosphorylation, and provides a framework for understanding the mechanism of sugar translocation.

  3. The glucose transport system of the hyperthermophilic anaerobic bacterium Thermotoga neapolitana

    SciTech Connect

    Galperin, M.Y.; Noll, K.M.; Romano, A.H.

    1996-08-01

    The glucose transport system of the extremely thermophilic anaerobic bacterium Thermotoga neapolitana was studied with the nonmetabolizable glucose analog 2-deoxy-D-glucose (2-DOG). T. neapolitana accumulated 2-DOG against a concentration gradient in an intracellular free sugar pool that was exchangeable with external D-glucose. This active transport of 2-DOG was dependent upon the presence of sodium ion and an external source of energy, such as pyruvate, and was inhibited by arsenate and gramicidin D. There was no phosphoenolpyruvate-dependent phosphorylation of glucose, 2-DOG, or fructose by cell extracts or toluene-treated cells, indicating the absence of a phosphoenolpyruvate:sugar phosphotransferase system. These data indicate that D-glucose is taken up by T.neapolitana via an active transport system that is energized by an ion gradient generated by ATP, derived from substrate-level phosphorylation. 33 refs., 3 figs., 1 tab.

  4. Gene doping.

    PubMed

    Harridge, Stephen D R; Velloso, Cristiana P

    2008-01-01

    Gene doping is the misuse of gene therapy to enhance athletic performance. It has recently been recognised as a potential threat and subsequently been prohibited by the World Anti-Doping Agency. Despite concerns with safety and efficacy of gene therapy, the technology is progressing steadily. Many of the genes/proteins which are involved in determining key components of athletic performance have been identified. Naturally occurring mutations in humans as well as gene-transfer experiments in adult animals have shown that altered expression of these genes does indeed affect physical performance. For athletes, however, the gains in performance must be weighed against the health risks associated with the gene-transfer process, whereas the detection of such practices will provide new challenges for the anti-doping authorities.

  5. Whole-genome sequencing of gentamicin-resistant Campylobacter coli isolated from U.S. retail meats reveals novel plasmid-mediated aminoglycoside resistance genes.

    PubMed

    Chen, Yuansha; Mukherjee, Sampa; Hoffmann, Maria; Kotewicz, Michael L; Young, Shenia; Abbott, Jason; Luo, Yan; Davidson, Maureen K; Allard, Marc; McDermott, Patrick; Zhao, Shaohua

    2013-11-01

    Aminoglycoside resistance in Campylobacter has been routinely monitored in the United States in clinical isolates since 1996 and in retail meats since 2002. Gentamicin resistance first appeared in a single human isolate of Campylobacter coli in 2000 and in a single chicken meat isolate in 2007, after which it increased rapidly to account for 11.3% of human isolates and 12.5% of retail isolates in 2010. Pulsed-field gel electrophoresis analysis indicated that gentamicin-resistant C. coli isolates from retail meat were clonal. We sequenced the genomes of two strains of this clone using a next-generation sequencing technique in order to investigate the genetic basis for the resistance. The gaps of one strain were closed using optical mapping and Sanger sequencing, and this is the first completed genome of C. coli. The two genomes are highly similar to each other. A self-transmissible plasmid carrying multiple antibiotic resistance genes was revealed within both genomes, carrying genes encoding resistance to gentamicin, kanamycin, streptomycin, streptothricin, and tetracycline. Bioinformatics analysis and experimental results showed that gentamicin resistance was due to a phosphotransferase gene, aph(2")-Ig, not described previously. The phylogenetic relationship of this newly emerged clone to other Campylobacter spp. was determined by whole-genome single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs), which showed that it clustered with the other poultry isolates and was separated from isolates from livestock.

  6. Enhanced resistance to fungal pathogens in transgenic Populus tomentosa Carr. by overexpression of an nsLTP-like antimicrobial protein gene from motherwort (Leonurus japonicus).

    PubMed

    Jia, Zhichun; Gou, Jiqing; Sun, Yimin; Yuan, Li; Tang, Qiao; Yang, Xingyong; Pei, Yan; Luo, Keming

    2010-12-01

    The antimicrobial protein gene LJAMP2 is a plant non-specific lipid transfer protein from motherwort (Leonurus japonicus). In this study, it was introduced into Chinese white poplar (Populus tomentosa Carr.) via Agrobacterium-mediated transformation with neomycin phosphotransferase II gene conferring kanamycin resistance as selectable marker. A total of 16 poplar lines were obtained, and polymerase chain reaction (PCR) analysis established the stable integration of transgenes in the plant genome. Reverse transcription-PCR detected LJAMP2 expression in transgenic plants. Resistance to fungal pathogens Alternaria alternata (Fr.) Keissler and Colletotrichum gloeosporioides (Penz.) of transgenic poplar lines was tested. In vitro inhibitory activity against the fungal pathogens was evident from the crude leaf extracts from the transformants. In vivo assays showed that, after infection with both A. alternata (Fr.) Keissler and C. gloeosporioides (Penz.), there was a significant reduction in disease symptoms in transgenic poplar plants compared with the control. These results suggest that constitutive expression of the LJAMP2 gene from motherwort can be exploited to improve resistance to fungal pathogens in poplar.

  7. Transformation of a recalcitrant grain legume, Vigna mungo L. Hepper, using Agrobacterium tumefaciens-mediated gene transfer to shoot apical meristem cultures.

    PubMed

    Saini, Raman; Jaiwal, Pawan K

    2005-06-01

    The efficiency of Vigna mungo L. Hepper transformation was significantly increased from an average of 1% to 6.5% by using shoot apices excised from embryonic axes precultured on 10 microM benzyl-6-aminopurine (BAP) for 3 days and wounded prior to inoculation in Agrobacterium tumefaciens strain EHA105 carrying the binary vector pCAMBIA2301, which contains a neomycin phosphotransferase gene (nptII) and a beta-glucuronidase (GUS) gene (gusA) interrupted by an intron. The transformed green shoots that were selected and rooted on medium containing kanamycin, and which tested positive for nptII gene by polymerase chain reaction, were established in soil to collect seeds. GUS activity was detected in whole T(0) shoots and T(1) seedlings. All T(0) plants were morphologically normal, fertile and the majority of them transmitted transgenes in a 3:1 ratio to their progenies. Southern analysis of T(1) plants showed integration of nptII into the plant genome.

  8. A mechanism of covalent substrate binding in the x-ray structure of subunit K of the Escherichia coli dihydroxyacetone kinase

    PubMed Central

    Siebold, Christian; García-Alles, Luis Fernando; Erni, Bernhard; Baumann, Ulrich

    2003-01-01

    Dihydroxyacetone (Dha) kinases are homologous proteins that use different phosphoryl donors, a multiphosphoryl protein of the phosphoenolpyruvate-dependent carbohydrate:phosphotransferase system in bacteria, ATP in animals, plants, and some bacteria. The Dha kinase of Escherichia coli consists of three subunits, DhaK and DhaL, which are colinear to the ATP-dependent Dha kinases of eukaryotes, and the multiphosphoryl protein DhaM. Here we show the crystal structure of the DhaK subunit in complex with Dha at 1.75 Å resolution. DhaK is a homodimer with a fold consisting of two six-stranded mixed β-sheets surrounded by nine α-helices and a β-ribbon covering the exposed edge strand of one sheet. The core of the N-terminal domain has an α/β fold common to subunits of carbohydrate transporters and transcription regulators of the phosphoenolpyruvate-dependent carbohydrate:phosphotransferase system. The core of the C-terminal domain has a fold similar to the C-terminal domain of the cell-division protein FtsZ. A molecule of Dha is covalently bound in hemiaminal linkage to the Nε2 of His-230. The hemiaminal does not participate in covalent catalysis but is the chemical basis for discrimination between short-chain carbonyl compounds and polyols. Paralogs of Dha kinases occur in association with transcription regulators of the TetR/QacR and the SorC families, pointing to their biological role as sensors in signaling. PMID:12813127

  9. [Prolonging the vase life of carnation "Mabel" through integrating repeated ACC oxidase genes into its genome].

    PubMed

    Yu, Yi-Xun; Bao, Man-Zhu

    2004-10-01

    Carnation (Dianthus caryophyllus L.) is one of the most important cut flowers. The cultivar "Mabel" of carnation was transformed with direct repeat gene of ACC oxidase, the key enzyme in ethylene synthesis, driven by the CaMV35S promoter mediated by Agrobacterium tumefacien. Hygromycin phosphotransferase (HPT) gene was used as selection marker. Leaf explants were pre-cultured on shoot-inducing medium for 2 d, then immersed in Agrobacterium suspension for 8-12 min. Co-cultivation was carried out on the medium (MS+BA 1.0 mg/L+NAA 0.3 mg/L +Acetosyringone 100 micromol/L, pH 5.8-6.0) for 3 d. After that transformants were obtained by transferring explants to selection medium supplemented with 5 mg/L hygromycin (Hyg) and 400 mg/L cefotaxime (Cef). Southern blotting detection showed that a foreign gene was integrated into the carnation genome and 3 transgenic lines (T257, T299 and T273 line) obtained. Addition of acetosyringone and the time of co-culture were the main factors that influenced transformation frequency. After being transplanted to soil, transgenic plants were grew normally in greenhouse. Ethylene production of cut flower of transgenic T257 line was 95% lower than that of the control, and that of T299 line was reduced by 90% than that of the control, while that of transgenic T273 line has no of significantly different from control. Vase life of transgenic T257 line was 5 d longer than that of the control line at 25 degrees C.

  10. LacR is a repressor of lacABCD and LacT is an activator of lacTFEG, constituting the lac gene cluster in Streptococcus pneumoniae.

    PubMed

    Afzal, Muhammad; Shafeeq, Sulman; Kuipers, Oscar P

    2014-09-01

    Comparison of the transcriptome of Streptococcus pneumoniae strain D39 grown in the presence of either lactose or galactose with that of the strain grown in the presence of glucose revealed the elevated expression of various genes and operons, including the lac gene cluster, which is organized into two operons, i.e., lac operon I (lacABCD) and lac operon II (lacTFEG). Deletion of the DeoR family transcriptional regulator lacR that is present downstream of the lac gene cluster revealed elevated expression of lac operon I even in the absence of lactose. This suggests a function of LacR as a transcriptional repressor of lac operon I, which encodes enzymes involved in the phosphorylated tagatose pathway in the absence of lactose or galactose. Deletion of lacR did not affect the expression of lac operon II, which encodes a lactose-specific phosphotransferase. This finding was further confirmed by β-galactosidase assays with PlacA-lacZ and PlacT-lacZ in the presence of either lactose or glucose as the sole carbon source in the medium. This suggests the involvement of another transcriptional regulator in the regulation of lac operon II, which is the BglG-family transcriptional antiterminator LacT. We demonstrate the role of LacT as a transcriptional activator of lac operon II in the presence of lactose and CcpA-independent regulation of the lac gene cluster in S. pneumoniae. PMID:24951784

  11. LacR Is a Repressor of lacABCD and LacT Is an Activator of lacTFEG, Constituting the lac Gene Cluster in Streptococcus pneumoniae

    PubMed Central

    Afzal, Muhammad; Shafeeq, Sulman

    2014-01-01

    Comparison of the transcriptome of Streptococcus pneumoniae strain D39 grown in the presence of either lactose or galactose with that of the strain grown in the presence of glucose revealed the elevated expression of various genes and operons, including the lac gene cluster, which is organized into two operons, i.e., lac operon I (lacABCD) and lac operon II (lacTFEG). Deletion of the DeoR family transcriptional regulator lacR that is present downstream of the lac gene cluster revealed elevated expression of lac operon I even in the absence of lactose. This suggests a function of LacR as a transcriptional repressor of lac operon I, which encodes enzymes involved in the phosphorylated tagatose pathway in the absence of lactose or galactose. Deletion of lacR did not affect the expression of lac operon II, which encodes a lactose-specific phosphotransferase. This finding was further confirmed by β-galactosidase assays with PlacA-lacZ and PlacT-lacZ in the presence of either lactose or glucose as the sole carbon source in the medium. This suggests the involvement of another transcriptional regulator in the regulation of lac operon II, which is the BglG-family transcriptional antiterminator LacT. We demonstrate the role of LacT as a transcriptional activator of lac operon II in the presence of lactose and CcpA-independent regulation of the lac gene cluster in S. pneumoniae. PMID:24951784

  12. Trichoderma genes

    SciTech Connect

    Foreman, Pamela; Goedegebuur, Frits; Van Solingen, Pieter; Ward, Michael

    2012-06-19

    Described herein are novel gene sequences isolated from Trichoderma reesei. Two genes encoding proteins comprising a cellulose binding domain, one encoding an arabionfuranosidase and one encoding an acetylxylanesterase are described. The sequences, CIP1 and CIP2, contain a cellulose binding domain. These proteins are especially useful in the textile and detergent industry and in pulp and paper industry.

  13. [Gene therapy].

    PubMed

    Rodríguez-Fragoso, L

    1997-01-01

    In the last years there has been much progress in our understanding of molecular mechanisms in the pathogenesis of disease. In this review we provide an overview of gene therapy, its most actualized techniques for gene delivery, and we give specific examples of laboratory and clinical achievements to date. The development of methods for delivering genes to mammalian cells has stimulated great interest in the possibility of treating human disease by gene-based therapies. As a result, concepts and methods that would have been considered purely science fiction 50 years ago are now used in the treatment of diseases. The widespread application of gene therapy technology to many diseases is already breaking down the traditional boundaries of modern medicine. However, despite its progress, several key technical drawbacks need to be overcome before gene therapy can be used safely and effectively in clinical settings. Technological developments, particularly in the areas of gene delivery and cell transplantation, will be critical for the successful practice of gene therapy.

  14. Gene Therapy

    PubMed Central

    Baum, Bruce J

    2014-01-01

    Applications of gene therapy have been evaluated in virtually every oral tissue, and many of these have proved successful at least in animal models. While gene therapy will not be used routinely in the next decade, practitioners of oral medicine should be aware of the potential of this novel type of treatment that doubtless will benefit many patients with oral diseases. PMID:24372817

  15. Unusual Splice-Site Mutations in the RSK2 Gene and Suggestion of Genetic Heterogeneity in Coffin-Lowry Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Zeniou, Maria; Pannetier, Solange; Fryns, Jean-Pierre; Hanauer, André

    2002-01-01

    Coffin-Lowry syndrome (CLS) is a syndromic form of X-linked mental retardation that is characterized, in male patients, by psychomotor and growth retardation and various skeletal anomalies. Typical facial changes and specific clinical and radiological hand aspects exhibited by patients are essential clues for the diagnosis. CLS is caused by mutations in a gene that is located in Xp22.2 and that encodes RSK2, a growth-factor–regulated protein kinase. RSK2 mutations are extremely heterogeneous and lead to premature termination of translation and/or loss of phosphotransferase activity. Surprisingly, among a series of 250 patients screened by single-strand conformation polymorphism (SSCP) analysis, in whom a clinical diagnosis of CLS was made, no mutations were detected in 66% (165) of the patients. To determine what proportion of these latter patients have a RSK2 mutation that has not been detected and what proportion have different disorders that are phenotypically similar to CLS, we have, in the present article, investigated, by western blot analysis and in vitro kinase assay, cell lines from 26 patients in whom no mutation was previously identified by SSCP analysis. This approach allowed us to identify seven novel RSK2 mutations: two changes in the coding sequence of RSK2, one intragenic deletion, and four unusual intronic nucleotide substitutions that do not affect the consensus GT or AG splice sites. We have also determined the nucleotide sequence of the promoter region of the RSK2 gene, and we have screened it for mutations. No disease-causing nucleotide change was identified, suggesting that mutations affecting the promoter region are unlikely to account for a large number of patients with CLS. Finally, our results provide evidence that some patients have a disease that is phenotypically very similar to CLS, which is not caused by RSK2 defects. This suggests that there are defects in either additional genes or combinations of genes that may result in a CLS

  16. Transformation of blackgram (Vigna mungo (L.) Hepper) by barley chitinase and ribosome-inactivating protein genes towards improving resistance to Corynespora leaf spot fungal disease.

    PubMed

    Chopra, Rajan; Saini, Raman

    2014-12-01

    Blackgram (Vigna mungo (L.) Hepper), an important grain legume crop, is sensitive to many fungal pathogens including Corynespora cassiicola, the causal agent of corynespora leaf spot disease. In the present study, plasmid pGJ42 harboring neomycin phosphotransferase (nptII) a selectable marker gene, the barley antifungal genes chitinase (AAA56786) and ribosome-inactivating protein (RIP; AAA32951) were used for the transformation, to develop fungal resistance for the first time in blackgram. The presence and integration of transgene into the blackgram genome was confirmed by PCR and Southern analysis with an overall transformation frequency of 10.2 %. Kanamycin selection and PCR analysis of T0 progeny revealed the inheritance of transgene in Mendelian fashion (3:1). Transgenic plants (T1), evaluated for fungal resistance by in vitro antifungal assay, arrested the growth of C. cassiicola up to 25-40 % over the wild-type plants. In fungal bio-assay screening, the transgenic plants (T1) sprayed with C. cassiicola spores showed a delay in onset of disease along with their lesser extent in terms of average number of diseased leaves and reduced number and size of lesions. The percent disease protection among different transformed lines varies in the range of 27-47 % compare to control (untransformed) plants. These results demonstrate potentiality of chitinase and RIP from a heterologous source in developing fungal disease protection in blackgram and can be helpful in increasing the production of blackgram.

  17. Characterization of rco-1 of Neurospora crassa, a pleiotropic gene affecting growth and development that encodes a homolog of Tup1 of Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    PubMed Central

    Yamashiro, C T; Ebbole, D J; Lee, B U; Brown, R E; Bourland, C; Madi, L; Yanofsky, C

    1996-01-01

    The filamentous fungus Neurospora crassa undergoes a well-defined developmental program, conidiation, that culminates in the production of numerous asexual spores, conidia. Several cloned genes, including con-10, are expressed during conidiation but not during mycelial growth. Using a previously described selection strategy, we isolated mutants that express con-10 during mycelial growth. Selection was based on expression of an integrated DNA fragment containing the con-10 promoter-regulatory region followed by the initial segment of the con-10 open reading frame fused in frame with the bacterial hygromycin B phosphotransferase structural gene (con10'-'hph). Resistance to hygromycin results from mutational alterations that allow mycelial expression of the con-10'-'hph gene fusion. A set of drug-resistant mutants were isolated; several of these had abnormal conidiation phenotypes and were trans-acting, i.e., they allowed mycelial expression of the endogenous con-10 gene. Four of these had alterations at a single locus, designated rco-1 (regulation of conidiation). Strains with the rco-1 mutant alleles were aconidial, female sterile, had reduced growth rates, and formed hyphae that coiled in a counterclockwise direction, opposite that of the wild type. The four rco-1 mutants had distinct conidiation morphologies, suggesting that conidiation was blocked at different stages. Wild-type rco-1 was cloned by a novel procedure employing heterokaryon-assisted transformation and ligation-mediated PCR. The predicted RCO1 polypeptide is a homolog of Tup1 of Saccharomyces cerevisiae, a multidomain protein that mediates transcriptional repression of genes concerned with a variety of processes. Like tup1 mutants, null mutants of rco-1 are viable and pleiotropic. A promoter element was identified that could be responsible for RCO1-mediated vegetative repression of con-10 and other conidiation genes. PMID:8887652

  18. Designer Genes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, Judith; Miller, Mark

    1983-01-01

    Genetic technologies may soon help fill some of the most important needs of humanity from food to energy to health care. The research of major designer genes companies and reasons why the initial mad rush for biotechnology has slowed are reviewed. (SR)

  19. Attention Genes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Posner, Michael I.; Rothbart, Mary K.; Sheese, Brad E.

    2007-01-01

    A major problem for developmental science is understanding how the cognitive and emotional networks important in carrying out mental processes can be related to individual differences. The last five years have seen major advances in establishing links between alleles of specific genes and the neural networks underlying aspects of attention. These…

  20. The Biosynthesis of Capuramycin-type Antibiotics: IDENTIFICATION OF THE A-102395 BIOSYNTHETIC GENE CLUSTER, MECHANISM OF SELF-RESISTANCE, AND FORMATION OF URIDINE-5'-CARBOXAMIDE.

    PubMed

    Cai, Wenlong; Goswami, Anwesha; Yang, Zhaoyong; Liu, Xiaodong; Green, Keith D; Barnard-Britson, Sandra; Baba, Satoshi; Funabashi, Masanori; Nonaka, Koichi; Sunkara, Manjula; Morris, Andrew J; Spork, Anatol P; Ducho, Christian; Garneau-Tsodikova, Sylvie; Thorson, Jon S; Van Lanen, Steven G

    2015-05-29

    A-500359s, A-503083s, and A-102395 are capuramycin-type nucleoside antibiotics that were discovered using a screen to identify inhibitors of bacterial translocase I, an essential enzyme in peptidoglycan cell wall biosynthesis. Like the parent capuramycin, A-500359s and A-503083s consist of three structural components: a uridine-5'-carboxamide (CarU), a rare unsaturated hexuronic acid, and an aminocaprolactam, the last of which is substituted by an unusual arylamine-containing polyamide in A-102395. The biosynthetic gene clusters for A-500359s and A-503083s have been reported, and two genes encoding a putative non-heme Fe(II)-dependent α-ketoglutarate:UMP dioxygenase and an l-Thr:uridine-5'-aldehyde transaldolase were uncovered, suggesting that C-C bond formation during assembly of the high carbon (C6) sugar backbone of CarU proceeds from the precursors UMP and l-Thr to form 5'-C-glycyluridine (C7) as a biosynthetic intermediate. Here, isotopic enrichment studies with the producer of A-503083s were used to indeed establish l-Thr as the direct source of the carboxamide of CarU. With this knowledge, the A-102395 gene cluster was subsequently cloned and characterized. A genetic system in the A-102395-producing strain was developed, permitting the inactivation of several genes, including those encoding the dioxygenase (cpr19) and transaldolase (cpr25), which abolished the production of A-102395, thus confirming their role in biosynthesis. Heterologous production of recombinant Cpr19 and CapK, the transaldolase homolog involved in A-503083 biosynthesis, confirmed their expected function. Finally, a phosphotransferase (Cpr17) conferring self-resistance was functionally characterized. The results provide the opportunity to use comparative genomics along with in vivo and in vitro approaches to probe the biosynthetic mechanism of these intriguing structures.

  1. The Biosynthesis of Capuramycin-type Antibiotics: IDENTIFICATION OF THE A-102395 BIOSYNTHETIC GENE CLUSTER, MECHANISM OF SELF-RESISTANCE, AND FORMATION OF URIDINE-5'-CARBOXAMIDE.

    PubMed

    Cai, Wenlong; Goswami, Anwesha; Yang, Zhaoyong; Liu, Xiaodong; Green, Keith D; Barnard-Britson, Sandra; Baba, Satoshi; Funabashi, Masanori; Nonaka, Koichi; Sunkara, Manjula; Morris, Andrew J; Spork, Anatol P; Ducho, Christian; Garneau-Tsodikova, Sylvie; Thorson, Jon S; Van Lanen, Steven G

    2015-05-29

    A-500359s, A-503083s, and A-102395 are capuramycin-type nucleoside antibiotics that were discovered using a screen to identify inhibitors of bacterial translocase I, an essential enzyme in peptidoglycan cell wall biosynthesis. Like the parent capuramycin, A-500359s and A-503083s consist of three structural components: a uridine-5'-carboxamide (CarU), a rare unsaturated hexuronic acid, and an aminocaprolactam, the last of which is substituted by an unusual arylamine-containing polyamide in A-102395. The biosynthetic gene clusters for A-500359s and A-503083s have been reported, and two genes encoding a putative non-heme Fe(II)-dependent α-ketoglutarate:UMP dioxygenase and an l-Thr:uridine-5'-aldehyde transaldolase were uncovered, suggesting that C-C bond formation during assembly of the high carbon (C6) sugar backbone of CarU proceeds from the precursors UMP and l-Thr to form 5'-C-glycyluridine (C7) as a biosynthetic intermediate. Here, isotopic enrichment studies with the producer of A-503083s were used to indeed establish l-Thr as the direct source of the carboxamide of CarU. With this knowledge, the A-102395 gene cluster was subsequently cloned and characterized. A genetic system in the A-102395-producing strain was developed, permitting the inactivation of several genes, including those encoding the dioxygenase (cpr19) and transaldolase (cpr25), which abolished the production of A-102395, thus confirming their role in biosynthesis. Heterologous production of recombinant Cpr19 and CapK, the transaldolase homolog involved in A-503083 biosynthesis, confirmed their expected function. Finally, a phosphotransferase (Cpr17) conferring self-resistance was functionally characterized. The results provide the opportunity to use comparative genomics along with in vivo and in vitro approaches to probe the biosynthetic mechanism of these intriguing structures. PMID:25855790

  2. Vulnerability genes or plasticity genes?

    PubMed Central

    Belsky, J; Jonassaint, C; Pluess, M; Stanton, M; Brummett, B; Williams, R

    2009-01-01

    The classic diathesis–stress framework, which views some individuals as particularly vulnerable to adversity, informs virtually all psychiatric research on behavior–gene–environment (G × E) interaction. An alternative framework of ‘differential susceptibility' is proposed, one which regards those most susceptible to adversity because of their genetic make up as simultaneously most likely to benefit from supportive or enriching experiences—or even just the absence of adversity. Recent G × E findings consistent with this perspective and involving monoamine oxidase-A, 5-HTTLPR (5-hydroxytryptamine-linked polymorphic region polymorphism) and dopamine receptor D4 (DRD4) are reviewed for illustrative purposes. Results considered suggest that putative ‘vulnerability genes' or ‘risk alleles' might, at times, be more appropriately conceptualized as ‘plasticity genes', because they seem to make individuals more susceptible to environmental influences—for better and for worse. PMID:19455150

  3. Genes and Hearing Loss

    MedlinePlus

    ... Meeting Calendar Find an ENT Doctor Near You Genes and Hearing Loss Genes and Hearing Loss Patient ... mutation may only have dystopia canthorum. How Do Genes Work? Genes are a road map for the ...

  4. A chimeric gene encoding the methionine-rich 2S albumin of the Brazil nut (Bertholletia excelsa H.B.K.) is stably expressed and inherited in transgenic grain legumes.

    PubMed

    Saalbach, I; Pickardt, T; Machemehl, F; Saalbach, G; Schieder, O; Müntz, K

    1994-01-01

    The coding region of the 2S albumin gene of Brazil nut (Bertholletia excelsa H.B.K.) was completely synthesized, placed under control of the cauliflower mosaic virus (CaMV) 35S promoter and inserted into the binary vector plasmid pGSGLUC1, thus giving rise to pGSGLUC1-2S. This was used for transformation of tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum L. cv. Petit Havanna) and of the grain legume Vicia narbonensis L., mediated by the supervirulent Agrobacterium tumefaciens strain EHA 101. Putative transformants were selected by screening for neomycin phosphotransferase (NPT II) and beta-glucuronidase (GUS) activities. Transgenic plants were grown until flowering and fruiting occurred. The presence of the foreign gene was confirmed by Southern analysis. GUS activity was found in all organs of the regenerated transgenic tobacco and legume plants, including the seeds. In the legume, the highest expression levels of the CaMV 35S promoter-controlled 2S albumin gene were observed in leaves and roots. 2S albumin was localized in the vacuoles of leaf mesophyll cells of transgenic tobacco. The Brazil nut protein was present in the 2S fraction after gel filtration chromatography of the legume seed proteins and could be clearly identified by immunoblotting. Analysis of seeds from the R2 progenies of the legume and of transgenic tobacco plants revealed Mendelian inheritance of the foreign gene. Agrobacterium rhizogenes strain RifR 15834 harbouring the binary vector pGSGLUC1-2S was also used to transform Pisum sativum L. and Vicia faba L. Hairy roots expressed the 2S albumin-specific gene. Several shoots were raised but they never completely rooted and no fertile plants were obtained from these transformants.

  5. Temperature-Dependent Expression of phzM and Its Regulatory Genes lasI and ptsP in Rhizosphere Isolate Pseudomonas sp. Strain M18▿

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Jiaofang; Xu, Yuquan; Zhang, Hongyan; Li, Yaqian; Huang, Xianqing; Ren, Bin; Zhang, Xuehong

    2009-01-01

    Pseudomonas sp. strain M18, an effective biological control agent isolated from the melon rhizosphere, has a genetic background similar to that of the opportunistic human pathogen Pseudomonas aeruginosa PAO1. However, the predominant phenazine produced by strain M18 is phenazine-1-carboxylic acid (PCA) rather than pyocyanin (PYO); the quantitative ratio of PCA to PYO is 105 to 1 at 28°C in strain M18, while the ratio is 1 to 2 at 37°C in strain PAO1. We first provided evidence that the differential production of the two phenazines in strains M18 and PAO1 is related to the temperature-dependent and strain-specific expression patterns of phzM, a gene involved in the conversion of PCA to PYO. Transcriptional levels of phzM were measured by quantitative real-time PCR, and the activities of both transcriptional and translational phzM′-′lacZ fusions were determined in strains M18 and PAO1, respectively. Using lasI::Gm and ptsP::Gm inactivation M18 mutants, we further show that expression of the phzM gene is positively regulated by the quorum-sensing protein LasI and negatively regulated by the phosphoenolpyruvate phosphotransferase protein PtsP. Surprisingly, the lasI and ptsP regulatory genes were also expressed in a temperature-dependent and strain-specific manner. The differential production of the phenazines PCA and PYO by strains M18 and PAO1 may be a consequence of selective pressure imposed on P. aeruginosa PAO1 and its relative M18 in the two different niches over a long evolutionary process. PMID:19717631

  6. Genomic and cDNA clones for maize phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase and pyruvate,orthophosphate dikinase: Expression of different gene-family members in leaves and roots

    PubMed Central

    Hudspeth, Richard L.; Glackin, Carlotta A.; Bonner, James; Grula, John W.

    1986-01-01

    We have isolated cDNA clones for the maize leaf enzymes phosphoenolpyruvate (P-ePrv) carboxylase [orthophosphate:oxaloacetate carboxy-lyase (phosphorylating) EC 4.1.1.31] and pyruvate,orthophosphate (Prv,Pi) dikinase (ATP:pyruvate,orthophosphate phosphotransferase, EC 2.7.9.1) by exploiting the light-inducibility and large size of the mRNAs (3.5 kilobases) that encode the two enzymes. The clones were identified by hybrid-selection and immunoprecipitation assays. From a maize genomic library, two different types of genomic clones were screened with both the P-ePrv carboxylase and the Prv,Pi dikinase cDNA clones. Information from these genomic clones and genome blots indicates that the P-ePrv carboxylase gene family has at least three members and the Prv,Pi dikinase family at least two. Transcripts for both enzymes were detected in green leaves, etiolated leaves, and roots. The results show that the P-ePrv carboxylase mRNAs in green leaves and roots are encoded by different genes. Whereas the P-ePrv carboxylase mRNAs in all three tissues appear to be the same size, the Prv,Pi dikinase mRNA in green leaves is about 0.5 kilobases longer than the Prv,Pi dikinase mRNAs in etiolated leaves and roots. It is possible that all these Prv,Pi dikinase transcripts are encoded by one gene, and the size differences may correspond to the presence or absence of a sequence encoding a chloroplast transit peptide. Images PMID:16593689

  7. Compare Gene Profiles

    SciTech Connect

    2014-05-31

    Compare Gene Profiles (CGP) performs pairwise gene content comparisons among a relatively large set of related bacterial genomes. CGP performs pairwise BLAST among gene calls from a set of input genome and associated annotation files, and combines the results to generate lists of common genes, unique genes, homologs, and genes from each genome that differ substantially in length from corresponding genes in the other genomes. CGP is implemented in Python and runs in a Linux environment in serial or parallel mode.

  8. Gene gymnastics

    PubMed Central

    Vijayachandran, Lakshmi S; Thimiri Govinda Raj, Deepak B; Edelweiss, Evelina; Gupta, Kapil; Maier, Josef; Gordeliy, Valentin; Fitzgerald, Daniel J; Berger, Imre

    2013-01-01

    Most essential activities in eukaryotic cells are catalyzed by large multiprotein assemblies containing up to ten or more interlocking subunits. The vast majority of these protein complexes are not easily accessible for high resolution studies aimed at unlocking their mechanisms, due to their low cellular abundance and high heterogeneity. Recombinant overproduction can resolve this bottleneck and baculovirus expression vector systems (BEVS) have emerged as particularly powerful tools for the provision of eukaryotic multiprotein complexes in high quality and quantity. Recently, synthetic biology approaches have begun to make their mark in improving existing BEVS reagents by de novo design of streamlined transfer plasmids and by engineering the baculovirus genome. Here we present OmniBac, comprising new custom designed reagents that further facilitate the integration of heterologous genes into the baculovirus genome for multiprotein expression. Based on comparative genome analysis and data mining, we herein present a blueprint to custom design and engineer the entire baculovirus genome for optimized production properties using a bottom-up synthetic biology approach. PMID:23328086

  9. Cloning, sequencing, and expression of the Zymomonas mobilis fructokinase gene and structural comparison of the enzyme with other hexose kinases.

    PubMed Central

    Zembrzuski, B; Chilco, P; Liu, X L; Liu, J; Conway, T; Scopes, R

    1992-01-01

    The frk gene encoding the enzyme fructokinase (fructose 6-phosphotransferase [EC 2.7.1.4]) from Zymomonas mobilis has been isolated on a partial TaqI digest fragment of the genome and sequenced. An open reading frame of 906 bp corresponding to 302 amino acids was identified on a 3-kbp TaqI fragment. The deduced amino acid sequence corresponds to the first 20 amino acids (including an N-terminal methionine) determined by amino acid sequencing of the purified protein. The 118 bp preceding the methionine codon on this fragment does not appear to contain a promoter sequence. There was weak expression of the active enzyme in the recombinant Escherichia coli clone under control of the lac promoter on the pUC plasmid. Comparison of the amino acid sequence with that of the glucokinase enzyme (EC 2.7.1.2) from Z. mobilis reveals relatively little homology, despite the fact that fructokinase also binds glucose and has kinetic and structural properties similar to those of glucokinase. Also, there is little homology with hexose kinases that have been sequenced from other organisms. Northern (RNA) blot analysis showed that the frk transcript is 1.2 kb long. Fructokinase activity is elevated up to twofold when Z. mobilis was grown on fructose instead of glucose, and there was a parallel increase in frk mRNA levels. Differential mRNA stability was not a factor, since the half-lives of the frk transcript were 6.2 min for glucose-grown cells and 6.6 min for fructose-grown cells. Images PMID:1317376

  10. Organization of immunoglobulin genes.

    PubMed

    Tonegawa, S; Brack, C; Hozumi, N; Pirrotta, V

    1978-01-01

    The nucleotide-sequence determination of a cloned, embryonic Vlambda gene directly demonstrated that V genes are separate from a corresponding C gene in embryonic cells. Analysis by restriction enzymes of total cellular DNA from various sources strongly suggested that the two separate immunoglobulin genes become continuous during differentiation of B lymphocytes. There seems to be a strict correlation between the joining event and activation of the joined genes. Cloning of more immunoglobulin genes from embryo and plasma cells will not only provide direct demonstration of such a gene-joining event but also help in the elucidation of a possible relationship of the event to gene activation mechanisms.

  11. Transgene stacking and marker elimination in transgenic rice by sequential Agrobacterium-mediated co-transformation with the same selectable marker gene.

    PubMed

    Ramana Rao, Mangu Venkata; Parameswari, Chidambaram; Sripriya, Rajasekaran; Veluthambi, Karuppannan

    2011-07-01

    Rice chitinase (chi11) and tobacco osmotin (ap24) genes, which cause disruption of fungal cell wall and cell membrane, respectively, were stacked in transgenic rice to develop resistance against the sheath blight disease. The homozygous marker-free transgenic rice line CoT23 which harboured the rice chi11 transgene was sequentially re-transformed with a second transgene ap24 by co-transformation using an Agrobacterium tumefaciens strain harbouring a single-copy cointegrate vector pGV2260::pSSJ1 and a multi-copy binary vector pBin19∆nptII-ap24 in the same cell. pGV2260::pSSJ1 T-DNA carried the hygromycin phosphotransferase (hph) and β-glucuronidase (gus) genes. pBin19∆nptII-ap24 T-DNA harboured the tobacco osmotin (ap24) gene. Co-transformation of the gene of interest (ap24) with the selectable marker gene (SMG, hph) occurred in 12 out of 18 T(0) plants (67%). Segregation of hph from ap24 was accomplished in the T(1) generation in one (line 11) of the four analysed co-transformed plants. The presence of ap24 and chi11 transgenes and the absence of the hph gene in the SMG-eliminated T(1) plants of the line 11 were confirmed by DNA blot analyses. The SMG-free transgenic plants of the line 11 harboured a single copy of the ap24 gene. Homozygous, SMG-free T(2) plants of the transgenic line 11 harboured stacked transgenes, chi11 and ap24. Northern blot analysis of the SMG-free plants revealed constitutive expression of chi11 and ap24. The transgenic plants with stacked transgenes displayed high levels of resistance against Rhizoctonia solani. Thus, we demonstrate the development of transgene-stacked and marker-free transgenic rice by sequential Agrobacterium-mediated co-transformation with the same SMG.

  12. Increased thermal and osmotic stress resistance in Listeria monocytogenes 568 grown in the presence of trehalose due to inactivation of the phosphotrehalase-encoding gene treA.

    PubMed

    Ells, Timothy C; Truelstrup Hansen, Lisbeth

    2011-10-01

    The food-borne pathogen Listeria monocytogenes is a problem for food processors and consumers alike, as the organism is resistant to harsh environmental conditions and inimical barriers implemented to prevent the survival and/or growth of harmful bacteria. One mechanism by which listeriae mediate survival is through the accumulation of compatible solutes, such as proline, betaine and carnitine. In other bacteria, including Escherichia coli, the synthesis and accumulation of another compatible solute, trehalose, are known to aid in the survival of stressed cells. The objective of this research was to investigate trehalose metabolism in L. monocytogenes, where the sugar is thought to be transferred across the cytoplasmic membrane via a specific phosphoenolpyruvate phosphotransferase system and phosphorylation to trehalose-6-phosphate (T6P). The latter is subsequently broken down into glucose and glucose-6-phosphate by α,α-(1,1) phosphotrehalase, the putative product of the treA gene. Here we report on an isogenic treA mutant of L. monocytogenes 568 (568:ΔTreA) which, relative to the wild-type strain, displays increased tolerances to multiple stressors, including heat, high osmolarity, and desiccation. This is the first study to examine the putative trehalose operon in L. monocytogenes, and we demonstrate that lmo1254 (treA) in L. monocytogenes 568 indeed encodes a phosphotrehalase required for the hydrolysis of T6P. Disruption of the treA gene results in the accumulation of T6P which is subsequently dephosphorylated to trehalose in the cytosol, thereby contributing to the stress hardiness observed in the treA mutant. This study highlights the importance of compatible solutes for microbial survival in adverse environments.

  13. Addition of genes for cellobiase and pectinolytic activity in Escherichia coli for fuel ethanol production from pectin-rich lignocellulosic biomass.

    PubMed

    Edwards, Meredith C; Henriksen, Emily Decrescenzo; Yomano, Lorraine P; Gardner, Brian C; Sharma, Lekh N; Ingram, Lonnie O; Doran Peterson, Joy

    2011-08-01

    Ethanologenic Escherichia coli strain KO11 was sequentially engineered to contain the Klebsiella oxytoca cellobiose phosphotransferase genes (casAB) as well as a pectate lyase (pelE) from Erwinia chrysanthemi, yielding strains LY40A (casAB) and JP07 (casAB pelE), respectively. To obtain an effective secretion of PelE, the Sec-dependent pathway out genes from E. chrysanthemi were provided on a cosmid to strain JP07 to construct strain JP07C. Finally, oligogalacturonide lyase (ogl) from E. chrysanthemi was added to produce strain JP08C. E. coli strains LY40A, JP07, JP07C, and JP08C possessed significant cellobiase activity in cell lysates, while only strains JP07C and JP08C demonstrated extracellular pectate lyase activity. Fermentations conducted by using a mixture of pure sugars representative of the composition of sugar beet pulp (SBP) showed that strains LY40A, JP07, JP07C, and JP08C were able to ferment cellobiose, resulting in increased ethanol production from 15 to 45% in comparison to that of KO11. Fermentations with SBP at very low fungal enzyme loads during saccharification revealed significantly higher levels of ethanol production for LY40A, JP07C, and JP08C than for KO11. JP07C ethanol yields were not considerably higher than those of LY40A; however, oligogalacturonide polymerization studies showed an increased breakdown of biomass to small-chain (degree of polymerization, ≤6) oligogalacturonides. JP08C achieved a further breakdown of polygalacturonate to monomeric sugars, resulting in a 164% increase in ethanol yields compared to those of KO11. The addition of commercial pectin methylesterase (PME) further increased JP08C ethanol production compared to that of LY40A by demethylating the pectin for enzymatic attack by pectin-degrading enzymes.

  14. Addition of Genes for Cellobiase and Pectinolytic Activity in Escherichia coli for Fuel Ethanol Production from Pectin-Rich Lignocellulosic Biomass▿

    PubMed Central

    Edwards, Meredith C.; Henriksen, Emily DeCrescenzo; Yomano, Lorraine P.; Gardner, Brian C.; Sharma, Lekh N.; Ingram, Lonnie O.; Doran Peterson, Joy

    2011-01-01

    Ethanologenic Escherichia coli strain KO11 was sequentially engineered to contain the Klebsiella oxytoca cellobiose phosphotransferase genes (casAB) as well as a pectate lyase (pelE) from Erwinia chrysanthemi, yielding strains LY40A (casAB) and JP07 (casAB pelE), respectively. To obtain an effective secretion of PelE, the Sec-dependent pathway out genes from E. chrysanthemi were provided on a cosmid to strain JP07 to construct strain JP07C. Finally, oligogalacturonide lyase (ogl) from E. chrysanthemi was added to produce strain JP08C. E. coli strains LY40A, JP07, JP07C, and JP08C possessed significant cellobiase activity in cell lysates, while only strains JP07C and JP08C demonstrated extracellular pectate lyase activity. Fermentations conducted by using a mixture of pure sugars representative of the composition of sugar beet pulp (SBP) showed that strains LY40A, JP07, JP07C, and JP08C were able to ferment cellobiose, resulting in increased ethanol production from 15 to 45% in comparison to that of KO11. Fermentations with SBP at very low fungal enzyme loads during saccharification revealed significantly higher levels of ethanol production for LY40A, JP07C, and JP08C than for KO11. JP07C ethanol yields were not considerably higher than those of LY40A; however, oligogalacturonide polymerization studies showed an increased breakdown of biomass to small-chain (degree of polymerization, ≤6) oligogalacturonides. JP08C achieved a further breakdown of polygalacturonate to monomeric sugars, resulting in a 164% increase in ethanol yields compared to those of KO11. The addition of commercial pectin methylesterase (PME) further increased JP08C ethanol production compared to that of LY40A by demethylating the pectin for enzymatic attack by pectin-degrading enzymes. PMID:21666025

  15. Gene doping: gene delivery for olympic victory.

    PubMed

    Gould, David

    2013-08-01

    With one recently recommended gene therapy in Europe and a number of other gene therapy treatments now proving effective in clinical trials it is feasible that the same technologies will soon be adopted in the world of sport by unscrupulous athletes and their trainers in so called 'gene doping'. In this article an overview of the successful gene therapy clinical trials is provided and the potential targets for gene doping are highlighted. Depending on whether a doping gene product is secreted from the engineered cells or is retained locally to, or inside engineered cells will, to some extent, determine the likelihood of detection. It is clear that effective gene delivery technologies now exist and it is important that detection and prevention plans are in place. PMID:23082866

  16. Gene doping: gene delivery for olympic victory

    PubMed Central

    Gould, David

    2013-01-01

    With one recently recommended gene therapy in Europe and a number of other gene therapy treatments now proving effective in clinical trials it is feasible that the same technologies will soon be adopted in the world of sport by unscrupulous athletes and their trainers in so called ‘gene doping’. In this article an overview of the successful gene therapy clinical trials is provided and the potential targets for gene doping are highlighted. Depending on whether a doping gene product is secreted from the engineered cells or is retained locally to, or inside engineered cells will, to some extent, determine the likelihood of detection. It is clear that effective gene delivery technologies now exist and it is important that detection and prevention plans are in place. PMID:23082866

  17. Gene doping: gene delivery for olympic victory.

    PubMed

    Gould, David

    2013-08-01

    With one recently recommended gene therapy in Europe and a number of other gene therapy treatments now proving effective in clinical trials it is feasible that the same technologies will soon be adopted in the world of sport by unscrupulous athletes and their trainers in so called 'gene doping'. In this article an overview of the successful gene therapy clinical trials is provided and the potential targets for gene doping are highlighted. Depending on whether a doping gene product is secreted from the engineered cells or is retained locally to, or inside engineered cells will, to some extent, determine the likelihood of detection. It is clear that effective gene delivery technologies now exist and it is important that detection and prevention plans are in place.

  18. Autism and Genes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Institutes of Health, 2005

    2005-01-01

    This document defines and discusses autism and how genes play a role in the condition. Answers to the following questions are covered: (1) What are genes? (2) What is autism? (3) What causes autism? (4) Why study genes to learn about autism? (5) How do researchers look for the genes involved in autism? (screen the whole genome; conduct cytogenetic…

  19. Compare Gene Profiles

    2014-05-31

    Compare Gene Profiles (CGP) performs pairwise gene content comparisons among a relatively large set of related bacterial genomes. CGP performs pairwise BLAST among gene calls from a set of input genome and associated annotation files, and combines the results to generate lists of common genes, unique genes, homologs, and genes from each genome that differ substantially in length from corresponding genes in the other genomes. CGP is implemented in Python and runs in a Linuxmore » environment in serial or parallel mode.« less

  20. Epidemiology of Rifampin ADP-Ribosyltransferase (arr-2) and Metallo-β-Lactamase (blaIMP-4) Gene Cassettes in Class 1 Integrons in Acinetobacter Strains Isolated from Blood Cultures in 1997 to 2000

    PubMed Central

    Houang, Elizabeth T. S.; Chu, Yiu-Wai; Lo, Wai-Sing; Chu, Ka-Yi; Cheng, Augustine F. B.

    2003-01-01

    We characterized two new gene cassettes in an Acinetobacter isolate: one harbored the metallo-β-lactamase (IMP-4) gene blaIMP-4, the other harbored the rifampin ADP-ribosyltransferase (ARR-2) gene arr-2, and both arrayed with the aminoglycoside acetyltransferase [AAC(6′)-Ib7] gene cassette aacA4 in two separate class 1 integrons. The epidemiology of these gene cassettes in isolates from blood cultures obtained from 1997 to 2000 was studied. Isolates bearing either the blaIMP-4 or the arr-2 gene cassette or both represented 17.5% (10 of 57) of isolates in 1997, 16.1% (10 of 62) in 1998, 2.5% (1 of 40) in 1999, and 0% (0 of 58) in 2000. These two gene cassettes, probably borne on two separate integrons, were found in at least three genomic DNA groups, with evidence of clonal dissemination in the intensive care unit during 1997 to 1998. Seventeen of the 52 Acinetobacter baumannii (genomic DNA group 2) isolates from 1997 to 2000 harbored intI1, but only one was positive for these gene cassettes, whereas 20 of the 21 intI1-positive isolates of all other genomic DNA groups were positive for either or both of them. Reduced susceptibility to imipenem and rifampin was seen only in isolates harboring the blaIMP-4 and arr-2 cassettes, respectively. The aminoglycoside phosphotransferase [APH(3′)-VIa] gene aph(3′)-VIa was detected in all 21 isolates for which the MIC of amikacin was ≥8 μg/ml, with or without aacA4, whereas aacA4 alone was found in isolates for which the MIC of amikacin was 0.5 to 2 μg/ml. Significant differences between the 17 intI1-positive and 47 intI1-negative isolates belonging to genomic DNA group 3 from 1997 to 1998 in the MICs of amikacin, gentamicin, imipenem, sulfamethoxazole, and ceftazidime were observed (Mann-Whitney test, P < 0.001 to 0.01).   PMID:12654674

  1. [Genes associated to cancer].

    PubMed

    Peralta-Rodríguez, Raúl; Valdivia, Alejandra; Mendoza, Mónica; Rodríguez, Jade; Marrero, Daniel; Paniagua, Lucero; Romero, Pablo; Taniguchi, Keiko; Salcedo, Mauricio

    2015-01-01

    In 2010, in a cancer genes census, 291 genes were enumerated. These represent near to the 1 % of the total genes, for which there is enough biological evidence that they belong to a new genes classification, known as the cancer genes. These have been defined as the causal genes for sporadic or familiar cancer, when they mutate. The mutation types for these genes includes amplifications, point mutations, deletions, genomic rearranges, amongst others, which lead to a protein over-expression, muting, production of chimeric proteins or a de novo expression. In conjunction these genomic alterations or those of the genetic expression, when they affect specific genes which contribute to the development of cancer, are denominated as cancer genes. It is possible that the list of these alterations will grow longer due to new strategies being developed, for example, the genomic analysis.

  2. Gene doping in sports.

    PubMed

    Unal, Mehmet; Ozer Unal, Durisehvar

    2004-01-01

    Gene or cell doping is defined by the World Anti-Doping Agency (WADA) as "the non-therapeutic use of genes, genetic elements and/or cells that have the capacity to enhance athletic performance". New research in genetics and genomics will be used not only to diagnose and treat disease, but also to attempt to enhance human performance. In recent years, gene therapy has shown progress and positive results that have highlighted the potential misuse of this technology and the debate of 'gene doping'. Gene therapies developed for the treatment of diseases such as anaemia (the gene for erythropoietin), muscular dystrophy (the gene for insulin-like growth factor-1) and peripheral vascular diseases (the gene for vascular endothelial growth factor) are potential doping methods. With progress in gene technology, many other genes with this potential will be discovered. For this reason, it is important to develop timely legal regulations and to research the field of gene doping in order to develop methods of detection. To protect the health of athletes and to ensure equal competitive conditions, the International Olympic Committee, WADA and International Sports Federations have accepted performance-enhancing substances and methods as being doping, and have forbidden them. Nevertheless, the desire to win causes athletes to misuse these drugs and methods. This paper reviews the current status of gene doping and candidate performance enhancement genes, and also the use of gene therapy in sports medicine and ethics of genetic enhancement.

  3. Transformation of Vicia narbonensis via Agrobacterium-mediated gene transfer.

    PubMed

    Pickardt, T; Meixner, M; Schade, V; Schieder, O

    1991-02-01

    Shoot tips and epicotyl-segments of Vicia narbonensis were co-cultivated with Agrobacterium tumefaciens strain C58C1 pGV 3850 HPT, carrying a plasmid coding for hygromycin-phosphotransferase. On callus-induction medium containing 60 mg/l hygromycin for selection, approximately 18% of the explants produced hygromycin-resistant callus. After transfer to regeneration-medium these calluses produced hygromycin-resistant and nopaline-positive somatic embryos which could be regenerated to plantlets. The integration of the T-DNA into the plant genome was confirmed by Southern analysis.

  4. Human Gene Therapy: Genes without Frontiers?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Simon, Eric J.

    2002-01-01

    Describes the latest advancements and setbacks in human gene therapy to provide reference material for biology teachers to use in their science classes. Focuses on basic concepts such as recombinant DNA technology, and provides examples of human gene therapy such as severe combined immunodeficiency syndrome, familial hypercholesterolemia, and…

  5. Myocardial gene therapy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Isner, Jeffrey M.

    2002-01-01

    Gene therapy is proving likely to be a viable alternative to conventional therapies in coronary artery disease and heart failure. Phase 1 clinical trials indicate high levels of safety and clinical benefits with gene therapy using angiogenic growth factors in myocardial ischaemia. Although gene therapy for heart failure is still at the pre-clinical stage, experimental data indicate that therapeutic angiogenesis using short-term gene expression may elicit functional improvement in affected individuals.

  6. Evolution of Gene Expression after Gene Amplification

    PubMed Central

    Garcia, Nelson; Zhang, Wei; Wu, Yongrui; Messing, Joachim

    2015-01-01

    We took a rather unique approach to investigate the conservation of gene expression of prolamin storage protein genes across two different subfamilies of the Poaceae. We took advantage of oat plants carrying single maize chromosomes in different cultivars, called oat–maize addition (OMA) lines, which permitted us to determine whether regulation of gene expression was conserved between the two species. We found that γ-zeins are expressed in OMA7.06, which carries maize chromosome 7 even in the absence of the trans-acting maize prolamin-box-binding factor (PBF), which regulates their expression. This is likely because oat PBF can substitute for the function of maize PBF as shown in our transient expression data, using a γ-zein promoter fused to green fluorescent protein (GFP). Despite this conservation, the younger, recently amplified prolamin genes in maize, absent in oat, are not expressed in the corresponding OMAs. However, maize can express the oldest prolamin gene, the wheat high-molecular weight glutenin Dx5 gene, even when maize Pbf is knocked down (through PbfRNAi), and/or another maize transcription factor, Opaque-2 (O2) is knocked out (in maize o2 mutant). Therefore, older genes are conserved in their regulation, whereas younger ones diverged during evolution and eventually acquired a new repertoire of suitable transcriptional activators. PMID:25912045

  7. A unique gene cluster for the utilization of the mucosal and human milk-associated glycans galacto-N-biose and lacto-N-biose in Lactobacillus casei.

    PubMed

    Bidart, Gonzalo N; Rodríguez-Díaz, Jesús; Monedero, Vicente; Yebra, María J

    2014-08-01

    The probiotic Lactobacillus casei catabolizes galacto-N-biose (GNB) and lacto-N-biose (LNB) by using a transport system and metabolic routes different from those of Bifidobacterium. L. casei contains a gene cluster, gnbREFGBCDA, involved in the metabolism of GNB, LNB and also N-acetylgalactosamine. Inactivation of gnbC (EIIC) or ptsI (Enzyme I) of the phosphoenolpyruvate : sugar phosphotransferase system (PTS) prevented the growth on those three carbohydrates, indicating that they are transported and phosphorylated by the same PTS(Gnb) . Enzyme activities and growth analysis with knockout mutants showed that GnbG (phospho-β-galactosidase) hydrolyses both disaccharides. However, GnbF (N-acetylgalactosamine-6P deacetylase) and GnbE (galactosamine-6P isomerase/deaminase) are involved in GNB but not in LNB fermentation. The utilization of LNB depends on nagA (N-acetylglucosamine-6P deacetylase), showing that the N-acetylhexosamine moieties of GNB and LNB follow different catabolic routes. A lacAB mutant (galactose-6P isomerase) was impaired in GNB and LNB utilization, indicating that their galactose moiety is channelled through the tagatose-6P pathway. Transcriptional analysis showed that the gnb operon is regulated by substrate-specific induction mediated by the transcriptional repressor GnbR, which binds to a 26 bp DNA region containing inverted repeats exhibiting a 2T/2A conserved core. The data represent the first characterization of novel metabolic pathways for human milk oligosaccharides and glycoconjugate structures in Firmicutes.

  8. A unique gene cluster for the utilization of the mucosal and human milk-associated glycans galacto-N-biose and lacto-N-biose in Lactobacillus casei.

    PubMed

    Bidart, Gonzalo N; Rodríguez-Díaz, Jesús; Monedero, Vicente; Yebra, María J

    2014-08-01

    The probiotic Lactobacillus casei catabolizes galacto-N-biose (GNB) and lacto-N-biose (LNB) by using a transport system and metabolic routes different from those of Bifidobacterium. L. casei contains a gene cluster, gnbREFGBCDA, involved in the metabolism of GNB, LNB and also N-acetylgalactosamine. Inactivation of gnbC (EIIC) or ptsI (Enzyme I) of the phosphoenolpyruvate : sugar phosphotransferase system (PTS) prevented the growth on those three carbohydrates, indicating that they are transported and phosphorylated by the same PTS(Gnb) . Enzyme activities and growth analysis with knockout mutants showed that GnbG (phospho-β-galactosidase) hydrolyses both disaccharides. However, GnbF (N-acetylgalactosamine-6P deacetylase) and GnbE (galactosamine-6P isomerase/deaminase) are involved in GNB but not in LNB fermentation. The utilization of LNB depends on nagA (N-acetylglucosamine-6P deacetylase), showing that the N-acetylhexosamine moieties of GNB and LNB follow different catabolic routes. A lacAB mutant (galactose-6P isomerase) was impaired in GNB and LNB utilization, indicating that their galactose moiety is channelled through the tagatose-6P pathway. Transcriptional analysis showed that the gnb operon is regulated by substrate-specific induction mediated by the transcriptional repressor GnbR, which binds to a 26 bp DNA region containing inverted repeats exhibiting a 2T/2A conserved core. The data represent the first characterization of novel metabolic pathways for human milk oligosaccharides and glycoconjugate structures in Firmicutes. PMID:24942885

  9. Reading and Generalist Genes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haworth, Claire M. A.; Meaburn, Emma L.; Harlaar, Nicole; Plomin, Robert

    2007-01-01

    Twin-study research suggests that many (but not all) of the same genes contribute to genetic influence on diverse learning abilities and disabilities, a hypothesis called "generalist genes". This generalist genes hypothesis was tested using a set of 10 DNA markers (single nucleotide polymorphisms [SNPs]) found to be associated with early reading…

  10. CEST MRI reporter genes.

    PubMed

    Liu, Guanshu; Bulte, Jeff W M; Gilad, Assaf A

    2011-01-01

    In recent years, several reporter genes have been developed that can serve as a beacon for non-invasive magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Here, we provide a brief summary of recent advances in MRI reporter gene technology, as well as detailed "hands-on" protocols for cloning, expression, and imaging of reporter genes based on chemical exchange saturation transfer (CEST).

  11. Gene hunting in autoinflammation

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Steady progress in our understanding of the genetic basis of autoinflammatory diseases has been made over the past 16 years. Since the discovery of the familial Mediterranean fever gene MEFV (also known as marenostrin) in 1997, 18 other genes responsible for monogenic autoinflammatory diseases have been identified to date. The discovery of these genes was made through the utilisation of many genetic mapping techniques, including next generation sequencing platforms. This review article clearly describes the gene hunting approaches, methods of data analysis and the technological platforms used, which has relevance to all those working within the field of gene discovery for Mendelian disorders. PMID:24070009

  12. Human disease genes.

    PubMed

    Jimenez-Sanchez, G; Childs, B; Valle, D

    2001-02-15

    The complete human genome sequence will facilitate the identification of all genes that contribute to disease. We propose that the functional classification of disease genes and their products will reveal general principles of human disease. We have determined functional categories for nearly 1,000 documented disease genes, and found striking correlations between the function of the gene product and features of disease, such as age of onset and mode of inheritance. As knowledge of disease genes grows, including those contributing to complex traits, more sophisticated analyses will be possible; their results will yield a deeper understanding of disease and an enhanced integration of medicine with biology.

  13. Identification and characterization of two Alcaligenes eutrophus gene loci relevant to the poly(beta-hydroxybutyric acid)-leaky phenotype which exhibit homology to ptsH and ptsI of Escherichia coli.

    PubMed Central

    Pries, A; Priefert, H; Krüger, N; Steinbüchel, A

    1991-01-01

    From genomic libraries of Alcaligenes eutrophus H16 in lambda L47 and in pVK100, we cloned DNA fragments which restored the wild-type phenotype to poly(beta-hydroxybutyric acid) (PHB)-leaky mutants derived from strains H16 and JMP222. The nucleotide sequence analysis of a 4.5-kb region of one of these fragments revealed two adjacent open reading frames (ORF) which are relevant for the expression of the PHB-leaky phenotype. The 1,799-bp ORF1 represented a gene which was referred to as phbI. The amino acid sequence of the putative protein I (Mr, 65,167), which was deduced from phbI, exhibited 38.9% identity with the primary structure of enzyme I of the Escherichia coli phosphoenolpyruvate:carbohydrate phosphotransferase system (PEP-PTS). The upstream 579-bp ORF2 was separated by 50 bp from ORF1. It included the 270-bp phbH gene which encoded protein H (Mr, 9,469). This protein exhibited 34.9% identity to the HPr protein of the E. coli PEP-PTS. Insertions of Tn5 in different PHB-leaky mutants were mapped at eight different positions in phbI and at one position in phbH. Mutants defective in phbH or phbI exhibited no pleiotropic effects and were not altered with respect to the utilization of fructose. However, PHB was degraded at a higher rate in the stationary growth phase. The functions of these HPr- and enzyme I-like proteins in the metabolism of PHB are still unknown. Evidence for the involvement of these proteins in regulation of the metabolism of intracellular PHB was obtained, and a hypothetical model is proposed. Images PMID:1653223

  14. Journey from Jumping Genes to Gene Therapy.

    PubMed

    Whartenby, Katharine A

    2015-01-01

    Gene therapy for cancer is a still evolving approach that resulted from a long history of studies into genetic modification of organisms. The fascination with manipulating gene products has spanned hundreds if not thousands of years, beginning with observations of the hereditary nature of traits in plants and culminating to date in the alteration of genetic makeup in humans via modern technology. From early discoveries noting the potential for natural mobility of genetic material to the culmination of clinical trials in a variety of disease, gene transfer has had an eventful and sometimes tumultuous course. Within the present review is a brief history of the biology of gene transfer, how it came to be applied to genetic diseases, and its early applications to cancer therapies. Some of the different types of methods used to modify cells, the theories behind the approaches, and some of the limitations encountered along the way are reviewed. PMID:27279244

  15. Regulated Gene Therapy.

    PubMed

    Breger, Ludivine; Wettergren, Erika Elgstrand; Quintino, Luis; Lundberg, Cecilia

    2016-01-01

    Gene therapy represents a promising approach for the treatment of monogenic and multifactorial neurological disorders. It can be used to replace a missing gene and mutated gene or downregulate a causal gene. Despite the versatility of gene therapy, one of the main limitations lies in the irreversibility of the process: once delivered to target cells, the gene of interest is constitutively expressed and cannot be removed. Therefore, efficient, safe and long-term gene modification requires a system allowing fine control of transgene expression.Different systems have been developed over the past decades to regulate transgene expression after in vivo delivery, either at transcriptional or post-translational levels. The purpose of this chapter is to give an overview on current regulatory system used in the context of gene therapy for neurological disorders. Systems using external regulation of transgenes using antibiotics are commonly used to control either gene expression using tetracycline-controlled transcription or protein levels using destabilizing domain technology. Alternatively, specific promoters of genes that are regulated by disease mechanisms, increasing expression as the disease progresses or decreasing expression as disease regresses, are also examined. Overall, this chapter discusses advantages and drawbacks of current molecular methods for regulated gene therapy in the central nervous system.

  16. Gene conversion in human rearranged immunoglobulin genes.

    PubMed

    Darlow, John M; Stott, David I

    2006-07-01

    Over the past 20 years, many DNA sequences have been published suggesting that all or part of the V(H) segment of a rearranged immunoglobulin gene may be replaced in vivo. Two different mechanisms appear to be operating. One of these is very similar to primary V(D)J recombination, involving the RAG proteins acting upon recombination signal sequences, and this has recently been proven to occur. Other sequences, many of which show partial V(H) replacements with no addition of untemplated nucleotides at the V(H)-V(H) joint, have been proposed to occur by an unusual RAG-mediated recombination with the formation of hybrid (coding-to-signal) joints. These appear to occur in cells already undergoing somatic hypermutation in which, some authors are convinced, RAG genes are silenced. We recently proposed that the latter type of V(H) replacement might occur by homologous recombination initiated by the activity of AID (activation-induced cytidine deaminase), which is essential for somatic hypermutation and gene conversion. The latter has been observed in other species, but not in human Ig genes, so far. In this paper, we present a new analysis of sequences published as examples of the second type of rearrangement. This not only shows that AID recognition motifs occur in recombination regions but also that some sequences show replacement of central sections by a sequence from another gene, similar to gene conversion in the immunoglobulin genes of other species. These observations support the proposal that this type of rearrangement is likely to be AID-mediated rather than RAG-mediated and is consistent with gene conversion.

  17. Retrieval with gene queries

    PubMed Central

    Sehgal, Aditya K; Srinivasan, Padmini

    2006-01-01

    Background Accuracy of document retrieval from MEDLINE for gene queries is crucially important for many applications in bioinformatics. We explore five information retrieval-based methods to rank documents retrieved by PubMed gene queries for the human genome. The aim is to rank relevant documents higher in the retrieved list. We address the special challenges faced due to ambiguity in gene nomenclature: gene terms that refer to multiple genes, gene terms that are also English words, and gene terms that have other biological meanings. Results Our two baseline ranking strategies are quite similar in performance. Two of our three LocusLink-based strategies offer significant improvements. These methods work very well even when there is ambiguity in the gene terms. Our best ranking strategy offers significant improvements on three different kinds of ambiguities over our two baseline strategies (improvements range from 15.9% to 17.7% and 11.7% to 13.3% depending on the baseline). For most genes the best ranking query is one that is built from the LocusLink (now Entrez Gene) summary and product information along with the gene names and aliases. For others, the gene names and aliases suffice. We also present an approach that successfully predicts, for a given gene, which of these two ranking queries is more appropriate. Conclusion We explore the effect of different post-retrieval strategies on the ranking of documents returned by PubMed for human gene queries. We have successfully applied some of these strategies to improve the ranking of relevant documents in the retrieved sets. This holds true even when various kinds of ambiguity are encountered. We feel that it would be very useful to apply strategies like ours on PubMed search results as these are not ordered by relevance in any way. This is especially so for queries that retrieve a large number of documents. PMID:16630348

  18. Two different Bacillus thuringiensis toxin genes confer resistance to beet armyworm (Spodoptera exigua Hübner) in transgenic Bt-shallots (Allium cepa L.).

    PubMed

    Zheng, Si-Jun; Henken, Betty; de Maagd, Ruud A; Purwito, Agus; Krens, Frans A; Kik, Chris

    2005-06-01

    Agrobacterium-mediated genetic transformation was applied to produce beet armyworm (Spodoptera exigua Hübner) resistant tropical shallots (Allium cepa L. group Aggregatum). A cry1Ca or a H04 hybrid gene from Bacillus thuringiensis, driven by the chrysanthemum ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase small subunit (Rubisco SSU) promoter, along with the hygromycin phosphotransferase gene (hpt) driven by the CaMV 35S promoter, was employed for genetic transformation. An average transformation frequency of 3.68% was obtained from two shallot cultivars, Tropix and Kuning. After transfer of the in vitro plants to the greenhouse 69% of the cry1Ca and 39% of the H04 transgenic shallots survived the first half year. After one year of cultivation in the greenhouse the remaining cry1Ca and H04 transgenic plants grew vigorously and had a normal bulb formation, although the cry1Ca transgenic plants (and controls) had darker green leaves compared to their H04 counterparts. Standard PCR, adaptor ligation PCR and Southern analyses confirmed the integration of T-DNA into the shallot genome. Northern blot and ELISA analyses revealed expression of the cry1Ca or H04 gene in the transgenic plants. The amount of Cry1Ca expressed in transgenic plants was higher than the expression levels of H04 (0.39 vs. 0.16% of the total soluble leaf proteins, respectively). There was a good correlation between protein expression and beet armyworm resistance. Cry1Ca or H04 gene expression of at least 0.22 or 0.08% of the total soluble protein in shallot leaves was sufficient to give a complete resistance against beet armyworm. This confirms earlier observations that the H04 toxin is more toxic to S. exigua than the Cry1Ca toxin. The results from this study suggest that the cry1Ca and H04 transgenic shallots developed could be used for introducing resistance to beet armyworm in (sub) tropical shallot.

  19. Two different Bacillus thuringiensis toxin genes confer resistance to beet armyworm (Spodoptera exigua Hübner) in transgenic Bt-shallots (Allium cepa L.).

    PubMed

    Zheng, Si-Jun; Henken, Betty; de Maagd, Ruud A; Purwito, Agus; Krens, Frans A; Kik, Chris

    2005-06-01

    Agrobacterium-mediated genetic transformation was applied to produce beet armyworm (Spodoptera exigua Hübner) resistant tropical shallots (Allium cepa L. group Aggregatum). A cry1Ca or a H04 hybrid gene from Bacillus thuringiensis, driven by the chrysanthemum ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase small subunit (Rubisco SSU) promoter, along with the hygromycin phosphotransferase gene (hpt) driven by the CaMV 35S promoter, was employed for genetic transformation. An average transformation frequency of 3.68% was obtained from two shallot cultivars, Tropix and Kuning. After transfer of the in vitro plants to the greenhouse 69% of the cry1Ca and 39% of the H04 transgenic shallots survived the first half year. After one year of cultivation in the greenhouse the remaining cry1Ca and H04 transgenic plants grew vigorously and had a normal bulb formation, although the cry1Ca transgenic plants (and controls) had darker green leaves compared to their H04 counterparts. Standard PCR, adaptor ligation PCR and Southern analyses confirmed the integration of T-DNA into the shallot genome. Northern blot and ELISA analyses revealed expression of the cry1Ca or H04 gene in the transgenic plants. The amount of Cry1Ca expressed in transgenic plants was higher than the expression levels of H04 (0.39 vs. 0.16% of the total soluble leaf proteins, respectively). There was a good correlation between protein expression and beet armyworm resistance. Cry1Ca or H04 gene expression of at least 0.22 or 0.08% of the total soluble protein in shallot leaves was sufficient to give a complete resistance against beet armyworm. This confirms earlier observations that the H04 toxin is more toxic to S. exigua than the Cry1Ca toxin. The results from this study suggest that the cry1Ca and H04 transgenic shallots developed could be used for introducing resistance to beet armyworm in (sub) tropical shallot. PMID:16145834

  20. Oncogenes, genes, and growth factors

    SciTech Connect

    Guroff, G.

    1989-01-01

    This book contains 12 chapters. Some of the chapter titles are: The Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor Gene; Structure and Expression of the Nerve Growth Factor Gene; The Erythropoietin Gene; The Interleukin-2 Gene; The Transferrin Gene; and The Transferrin Receptor Gene.

  1. Do Housekeeping Genes Exist?

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Bingyun

    2015-01-01

    The searching of human housekeeping (HK) genes has been a long quest since the emergence of transcriptomics, and is instrumental for us to understand the structure of genome and the fundamentals of biological processes. The resolved genes are frequently used in evolution studies and as normalization standards in quantitative gene-expression analysis. Within the past 20 years, more than a dozen HK-gene studies have been conducted, yet none of them sampled human tissues completely. We believe an integration of these results will help remove false positive genes owing to the inadequate sampling. Surprisingly, we only find one common gene across 15 examined HK-gene datasets comprising 187 different tissue and cell types. Our subsequent analyses suggest that it might not be appropriate to rigidly define HK genes as expressed in all tissue types that have diverse developmental, physiological, and pathological states. It might be beneficial to use more robustly identified HK functions for filtering criteria, in which the representing genes can be a subset of genome. These genes are not necessarily the same, and perhaps need not to be the same, everywhere in our body. PMID:25970694

  2. Do housekeeping genes exist?

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yijuan; Li, Ding; Sun, Bingyun

    2015-01-01

    The searching of human housekeeping (HK) genes has been a long quest since the emergence of transcriptomics, and is instrumental for us to understand the structure of genome and the fundamentals of biological processes. The resolved genes are frequently used in evolution studies and as normalization standards in quantitative gene-expression analysis. Within the past 20 years, more than a dozen HK-gene studies have been conducted, yet none of them sampled human tissues completely. We believe an integration of these results will help remove false positive genes owing to the inadequate sampling. Surprisingly, we only find one common gene across 15 examined HK-gene datasets comprising 187 different tissue and cell types. Our subsequent analyses suggest that it might not be appropriate to rigidly define HK genes as expressed in all tissue types that have diverse developmental, physiological, and pathological states. It might be beneficial to use more robustly identified HK functions for filtering criteria, in which the representing genes can be a subset of genome. These genes are not necessarily the same, and perhaps need not to be the same, everywhere in our body. PMID:25970694

  3. Towards Consensus Gene Ages.

    PubMed

    Liebeskind, Benjamin J; McWhite, Claire D; Marcotte, Edward M

    2016-01-01

    Correctly estimating the age of a gene or gene family is important for a variety of fields, including molecular evolution, comparative genomics, and phylogenetics, and increasingly for systems biology and disease genetics. However, most studies use only a point estimate of a gene's age, neglecting the substantial uncertainty involved in this estimation. Here, we characterize this uncertainty by investigating the effect of algorithm choice on gene-age inference and calculate consensus gene ages with attendant error distributions for a variety of model eukaryotes. We use 13 orthology inference algorithms to create gene-age datasets and then characterize the error around each age-call on a per-gene and per-algorithm basis. Systematic error was found to be a large factor in estimating gene age, suggesting that simple consensus algorithms are not enough to give a reliable point estimate. We also found that different sources of error can affect downstream analyses, such as gene ontology enrichment. Our consensus gene-age datasets, with associated error terms, are made fully available at so that researchers can propagate this uncertainty through their analyses (geneages.org). PMID:27259914

  4. Human HOX gene disorders.

    PubMed

    Quinonez, Shane C; Innis, Jeffrey W

    2014-01-01

    The Hox genes are an evolutionarily conserved family of genes, which encode a class of important transcription factors that function in numerous developmental processes. Following their initial discovery, a substantial amount of information has been gained regarding the roles Hox genes play in various physiologic and pathologic processes. These processes range from a central role in anterior-posterior patterning of the developing embryo to roles in oncogenesis that are yet to be fully elucidated. In vertebrates there are a total of 39 Hox genes divided into 4 separate clusters. Of these, mutations in 10 Hox genes have been found to cause human disorders with significant variation in their inheritance patterns, penetrance, expressivity and mechanism of pathogenesis. This review aims to describe the various phenotypes caused by germline mutation in these 10 Hox genes that cause a human phenotype, with specific emphasis paid to the genotypic and phenotypic differences between allelic disorders. As clinical whole exome and genome sequencing is increasingly utilized in the future, we predict that additional Hox gene mutations will likely be identified to cause distinct human phenotypes. As the known human phenotypes closely resemble gene-specific murine models, we also review the homozygous loss-of-function mouse phenotypes for the 29 Hox genes without a known human disease. This review will aid clinicians in identifying and caring for patients affected with a known Hox gene disorder and help recognize the potential for novel mutations in patients with phenotypes informed by mouse knockout studies.

  5. Notch signaling genes

    PubMed Central

    Terragni, Jolyon; Zhang, Guoqiang; Sun, Zhiyi; Pradhan, Sriharsa; Song, Lingyun; Crawford, Gregory E; Lacey, Michelle; Ehrlich, Melanie

    2014-01-01

    Notch intercellular signaling is critical for diverse developmental pathways and for homeostasis in various types of stem cells and progenitor cells. Because Notch gene products need to be precisely regulated spatially and temporally, epigenetics is likely to help control expression of Notch signaling genes. Reduced representation bisulfite sequencing (RRBS) indicated significant hypomethylation in myoblasts, myotubes, and skeletal muscle vs. many nonmuscle samples at intragenic or intergenic regions of the following Notch receptor or ligand genes: NOTCH1, NOTCH2, JAG2, and DLL1. An enzymatic assay of sites in or near these genes revealed unusually high enrichment of 5-hydroxymethylcytosine (up to 81%) in skeletal muscle, heart, and cerebellum. Epigenetics studies and gene expression profiles suggest that hypomethylation and/or hydroxymethylation help control expression of these genes in heart, brain, myoblasts, myotubes, and within skeletal muscle myofibers. Such regulation could promote cell renewal, cell maintenance, homeostasis, and a poised state for repair of tissue damage. PMID:24670287

  6. Gene therapy for radioprotection.

    PubMed

    Everett, W H; Curiel, D T

    2015-03-01

    Radiation therapy is a critical component of cancer treatment with over half of patients receiving radiation during their treatment. Despite advances in image-guided therapy and dose fractionation, patients receiving radiation therapy are still at risk for side effects due to off-target radiation damage of normal tissues. To reduce normal tissue damage, researchers have sought radioprotectors, which are agents capable of protecting tissue against radiation by preventing radiation damage from occurring or by decreasing cell death in the presence of radiation damage. Although much early research focused on small-molecule radioprotectors, there has been a growing interest in gene therapy for radioprotection. The amenability of gene therapy vectors to targeting, as well as the flexibility of gene therapy to accomplish ablation or augmentation of biologically relevant genes, makes gene therapy an excellent strategy for radioprotection. Future improvements to vector targeting and delivery should greatly enhance radioprotection through gene therapy.

  7. Towards Consensus Gene Ages

    PubMed Central

    Liebeskind, Benjamin J.; McWhite, Claire D.; Marcotte, Edward M.

    2016-01-01

    Correctly estimating the age of a gene or gene family is important for a variety of fields, including molecular evolution, comparative genomics, and phylogenetics, and increasingly for systems biology and disease genetics. However, most studies use only a point estimate of a gene’s age, neglecting the substantial uncertainty involved in this estimation. Here, we characterize this uncertainty by investigating the effect of algorithm choice on gene-age inference and calculate consensus gene ages with attendant error distributions for a variety of model eukaryotes. We use 13 orthology inference algorithms to create gene-age datasets and then characterize the error around each age-call on a per-gene and per-algorithm basis. Systematic error was found to be a large factor in estimating gene age, suggesting that simple consensus algorithms are not enough to give a reliable point estimate. We also found that different sources of error can affect downstream analyses, such as gene ontology enrichment. Our consensus gene-age datasets, with associated error terms, are made fully available at so that researchers can propagate this uncertainty through their analyses (geneages.org). PMID:27259914

  8. Supervised clustering of genes

    PubMed Central

    Dettling, Marcel; Bühlmann, Peter

    2002-01-01

    Background We focus on microarray data where experiments monitor gene expression in different tissues and where each experiment is equipped with an additional response variable such as a cancer type. Although the number of measured genes is in the thousands, it is assumed that only a few marker components of gene subsets determine the type of a tissue. Here we present a new method for finding such groups of genes by directly incorporating the response variables into the grouping process, yielding a supervised clustering algorithm for genes. Results An empirical study on eight publicly available microarray datasets shows that our algorithm identifies gene clusters with excellent predictive potential, often superior to classification with state-of-the-art methods based on single genes. Permutation tests and bootstrapping provide evidence that the output is reasonably stable and more than a noise artifact. Conclusions In contrast to other methods such as hierarchical clustering, our algorithm identifies several gene clusters whose expression levels clearly distinguish the different tissue types. The identification of such gene clusters is potentially useful for medical diagnostics and may at the same time reveal insights into functional genomics. PMID:12537558

  9. Genetic transformation of European chestnut somatic embryos with a native thaumatin-like protein (CsTL1) gene isolated from Castanea sativa seeds.

    PubMed

    Corredoira, Elena; Valladares, Silvia; Allona, Isabel; Aragoncillo, Cipriano; Vieitez, Ana M; Ballester, Antonio

    2012-11-01

    The availability of a system for direct transfer of antifungal candidate genes into European chestnut (Castanea sativa Mill.) would offer an alternative approach to conventional breeding for production of chestnut trees tolerant to ink disease caused by Phytophthora spp. For the first time, a chestnut thaumatin-like protein gene (CsTL1), isolated from chestnut cotyledons, has been overexpressed in three chestnut somatic embryogenic lines. Transformation experiments have been performed using an Agrobacterium tumefaciens Smith and Townsend vector harboring the neomycin phosphotransferase (NPTII) selectable and the green fluorescent protein (EGFP) reporter genes. The transformation efficiency, determined on the basis of the fluorescence of surviving explants, was clearly genotype dependent and ranged from 32.5% in the CI-9 line to 7.1% in the CI-3 line. A total of 126 independent transformed lines were obtained. The presence and integration of chestnut CsTL1 in genomic DNA was confirmed by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and Southern blot analyses. Quantitative real-time PCR revealed that CsTL1 expression was up to 13.5-fold higher in a transgenic line compared with its corresponding untransformed line. In only one of the 11 transformed lines tested, expression of the CsTL1 was lower than the control. The remaining 115 transformed lines were successfully subjected to cryopreservation. Embryo proliferation was achieved in all of the transgenic lines regenerated and the transformed lines showed a higher mean number of cotyledonary stage embryos and total number of embryos per embryo clump than their corresponding untransformed lines. Transgenic plants were regenerated after maturation and germination of transformed somatic embryos. Furthermore, due to the low plantlet conversion achieved, axillary shoot proliferation cultures were established from partially germinated embryos (only shoot development), which were multiplied and rooted according to procedures already

  10. Integron associated mobile genes

    PubMed Central

    Labbate, Maurizio; Boucher, Yan; Luu, Ivan; Chowdhury, Piklu Roy; Stokes, H.W.

    2012-01-01

    Lateral gene transfer (LGT) impacts on the evolution of prokaryotes in both the short and long-term. The short-term impacts of mobilized genes are a concern to humans since LGT explains the global rise of multi drug resistant pathogens seen in the past 70 years. However, LGT has been a feature of prokaryotes from the earliest days of their existence and the concept of a bifurcating tree of life is not entirely applicable to prokaryotes since most genes in extant prokaryotic genomes have probably been acquired from other lineages. Successful transfer and maintenance of a gene in a new host is understandable if it acts independently of cell networks and confers an advantage. Antibiotic resistance provides an example of this whereby a gene can be advantageous in virtually any cell across broad species backgrounds. In a longer evolutionary context however laterally transferred genes can be assimilated into even essential cell networks. How this happens is not well understood and we discuss recent work that identifies a mobile gene, unique to a cell lineage, which is detrimental to the cell when lost. We also present some additional data and believe our emerging model will be helpful in understanding how mobile genes integrate into cell networks. PMID:22754748

  11. Your Genes, Your Choices

    MedlinePlus

    Table of Contents Your Genes, Your Choices describes the Human Genome Project, the science behind it, and the ethical, legal, and social issues that are ... Nothing could be further from the truth. Your Genes, Your Choices points out how the progress of ...

  12. What Is a Gene?

    MedlinePlus

    ... a new kind of medicine — so new that scientists are still doing experiments to see if it works. It uses the technology of genetic engineering to treat a disease caused by a gene that has changed in some way. One method being tested is replacing sick genes with healthy ...

  13. Engineered gene circuits

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hasty, Jeff; McMillen, David; Collins, J. J.

    2002-11-01

    A central focus of postgenomic research will be to understand how cellular phenomena arise from the connectivity of genes and proteins. This connectivity generates molecular network diagrams that resemble complex electrical circuits, and a systematic understanding will require the development of a mathematical framework for describing the circuitry. From an engineering perspective, the natural path towards such a framework is the construction and analysis of the underlying submodules that constitute the network. Recent experimental advances in both sequencing and genetic engineering have made this approach feasible through the design and implementation of synthetic gene networks amenable to mathematical modelling and quantitative analysis. These developments have signalled the emergence of a gene circuit discipline, which provides a framework for predicting and evaluating the dynamics of cellular processes. Synthetic gene networks will also lead to new logical forms of cellular control, which could have important applications in functional genomics, nanotechnology, and gene and cell therapy.

  14. A gene expression screen.

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Z; Brown, D D

    1991-01-01

    A gene expression screen identifies mRNAs that differ in abundance between two mRNA mixtures by a subtractive hybridization method. The two mRNA populations are converted to double-stranded cDNAs, fragmented, and ligated to linkers for polymerase chain reaction (PCR) amplification. The multiple cDNA fragments isolated from any given gene can be treated as alleles in a genetic screen. Probability analysis of the frequency with which multiple alleles are found provides an estimation of the total number of up- and down-regulated genes. We have applied this method to genes that are differentially expressed in amphibian tadpole tail tissue in the first 24 hr after thyroid hormone treatment, which ultimately induces tail resorption. We estimate that there are about 30 up-regulated genes; 16 have been isolated. Images PMID:1722336

  15. Autophagy genes in immunity

    PubMed Central

    Virgin, Herbert W; Levine, Beth

    2009-01-01

    In its classical form, autophagy is a pathway by which cytoplasmic constituents, including intracellular pathogens, are sequestered in a double-membrane–bound autophagosome and delivered to the lysosome for degradation. This pathway has been linked to diverse aspects of innate and adaptive immunity, including pathogen resistance, production of type I interferon, antigen presentation, tolerance and lymphocyte development, as well as the negative regulation of cytokine signaling and inflammation. Most of these links have emerged from studies in which genes encoding molecules involved in autophagy are inactivated in immune effector cells. However, it is not yet known whether all of the critical functions of such genes in immunity represent ‘classical autophagy’ or possible as-yet-undefined autophagolysosome-independent functions of these genes. This review summarizes phenotypes that result from the inactivation of autophagy genes in the immune system and discusses the pleiotropic functions of autophagy genes in immunity. PMID:19381141

  16. Genes, genome and Gestalt.

    PubMed

    Grisolia, Cesar Koppe

    2005-01-01

    According to Gestalt thinking, biological systems cannot be viewed as the sum of their elements, but as processes of the whole. To understand organisms we must start from the whole, observing how the various parts are related. In genetics, we must observe the genome over and above the sum of its genes. Either loss or addition of one gene in a genome can change the function of the organism. Genomes are organized in networks of genes, which need to be well integrated. In the case of genetically modified organisms (GMOs), for example, soybeans, rats, Anopheles mosquitoes, and pigs, the insertion of an exogenous gene into a receptive organism generally causes disturbance in the networks, resulting in the breakdown of gene interactions. In these cases, genetic modification increased the genetic load of the GMO and consequently decreased its adaptability (fitness). Therefore, it is hard to claim that the production of such organisms with an increased genetic load does not have ethical implications.

  17. Uncoupler-Resistant Glucose Uptake by the Thermophilic Glycolytic Anaerobe Thermoanaerobacter thermosulfuricus (Clostridium thermohydrosulfuricum)

    PubMed Central

    Cook, Gregory M.; Janssen, Peter H.; Morgan, Hugh W.

    1993-01-01

    The transport of glucose across the bacterial cell membrane of Thermoanaerobacter thermosulfuricus (Clostridium thermohydrosulfuricum) Rt8.B1 was governed by a permease which did not catalyze concomitant substrate transport and phosphorylation and thus was not a phosphoenolpyruvate-dependent phosphotransferase. Glucose uptake was carrier mediated, could not be driven by an artificial membrane potential (Δψ) in the presence or absence of sodium, and was not sensitive to inhibitors which dissipate the proton motive force (Δp; tetrachlorosalicylanilide, N,N-dicyclohexylcarboiimide, and 2,4-dinitrophenol), and no uptake of the nonmetabolizable analog 2-deoxyglucose could be demonstrated. The glucokinase apparent Km for glucose (0.21 mM) was similar to the Kt (affinity constant) for glucose uptake (0.15 mM), suggesting that glucokinase controls the rate of glucose uptake. Inhibitors of ATP synthesis (iodoacetate and sodium fluoride) also inhibited glucose uptake, and this effect was due to a reduction in the level of ATP available to glucokinase for glucose phosphorylation. These results indicated that T. thermosulfuricus Rt8.B1 lacks a concentrative uptake system for glucose and that uptake is via facilitated diffusion, followed by ATP-dependent phosphorylation by glucokinase. In T. thermosulfuricus Rt8.B1, glucose is metabolized by the Embden-Meyerhof-Parnas pathway, which yields 2 mol of ATP (G. M. Cook, unpublished data). Since only 1 mol of ATP is used to transport 1 mol of glucose, the energetics of this system are therefore similar to those found in bacteria which possess a phosphotransferase. PMID:16349043

  18. 4. AERIAL VIEW OF GENE WASH RESERVOIR AND GENE CAMP ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    4. AERIAL VIEW OF GENE WASH RESERVOIR AND GENE CAMP LOOKING SOUTHWEST. DAM AND SPILLWAY VISIBLE IN BOTTOM OF PHOTO. - Gene Wash Reservoir & Dam, 2 miles west of Parker Dam, Parker Dam, San Bernardino County, CA

  19. [Catabolyte repression of Escherichia coli K12 mutants with defects in different systems of glucose transport].

    PubMed

    Gershanovich, V N; Iurovitskaia, N V; Komissarova, L V; Bol'shakova, T N; Erlagaeva, R S

    1976-01-01

    The phenomenon of glucose catabolite repression was studied in E. coli mutants inable to transport this carbohydrate. The pts 1, H mutant P34 was much less sensitive to the repressive effect of glucose on beta-galactosidase synthesis than the parent type. The 1103 mutant devoid of enzyme 1 of the phosphoenolpyruvate-dependent phosphotransferase system (PTS) behaves in the same way as P34 mutant after addition of glucose to casamino acid mineral medium. However, in minimal medium with succinate as the sole source of carbon, cells of the 1103 mutant show enhanced sensibility to transient glucose repression. The effect of hypersensibility disappears when the lac I mutation leading to constitutive the beta-galactosidase synthesis is introduced in 1103 mutant. It is shown that the enhanced sensibility of beta-galactosidase synthesis to glucose transient repression in 1103 mutant is an effect of the aburpt decrease in its growth rate in the presence of succinate and most probably this decrease leads to "inducer exclusion" of the lac operon. It is also shown that if one introduces the P34 mutation in strain JD3 devoid of one of the enzymes II for glucose (and due to this resistant to glucose catabolite respression) then the level of resistance in double mutant does not increase in spite of considerable supression of 14C glucose accumulation. In connection with this the role is discussed of separate components of the E. coli K 12 glucose transport system in realization of the phenomenon of catabolite repression. PMID:785237

  20. The oligomeric state and stability of the mannitol transporter, EnzymeIImtl, from Escherichia coli: A fluorescence correlation spectroscopy study

    PubMed Central

    Veldhuis, Gertjan; Hink, Mark; Krasnikov, Victor; van den Bogaart, Geert; Hoeboer, Jeroen; Visser, Antonie J.W.G.; Broos, Jaap; Poolman, Bert

    2006-01-01

    Numerous membrane proteins function as oligomers both at the structural and functional levels. The mannitol transporter from Escherichia coli, EnzymeIImtl, is a member of the phosphoenolpyruvate-dependent phosphotransferase system. During the transport cycle, mannitol is phosphorylated and released into the cytoplasm as mannitol-1-phosphate. Several studies have shown that EIImtl functions as an oligomeric species. However, the oligomerization number and stability of the oligomeric complex during different steps of the catalytic cycle, e.g., substrate binding and/or phosphorylation of the carrier, is still under discussion. In this paper, we have addressed the oligomeric state and stability of EIImtl using fluorescence correlation spectroscopy. A functional double-cysteine mutant was site-specifically labeled with either Alexa Fluor 488 or Alexa Fluor 633. The subunit exchange of these two batches of proteins was followed in time during different steps of the catalytic cycle. The most important conclusions are that (1) in a detergent-solubilized state, EIImtl is functional as a very stable dimer; (2) the stability of the complex can be manipulated by changing the intermicellar attractive forces between PEG-based detergent micelles; (3) substrate binding destabilizes the complex whereas phosphorylation increases the stability; and (4) substrate binding to the phosphorylated species partly antagonizes the stabilizing effect. PMID:16823033

  1. Duplicate genes increase gene expression diversity within and between species.

    PubMed

    Gu, Zhenglong; Rifkin, Scott A; White, Kevin P; Li, Wen-Hsiung

    2004-06-01

    Using microarray gene expression data from several Drosophila species and strains, we show that duplicated genes, compared with single-copy genes, significantly increase gene expression diversity during development. We show further that duplicate genes tend to cause expression divergences between Drosophila species (or strains) to evolve faster than do single-copy genes. This conclusion is also supported by data from different yeast strains.

  2. [Is gene technology immoral?].

    PubMed

    Halter, H

    1994-10-01

    Since it came into being in the USA in the early 1970s, gene technology has always been fundamentally controversial, especially in the German-speaking countries. The optimistic--or critical--supporters of gene technology are convinced that, in view of gene technology's not otherwise attainable advantages for human and animal health, for food production and other important aims, it would be ethically unacceptable to restrict to the minimum or even ban it. On the other hand, the radical critics are convinced that gene technology, in view of its anthropologically false starting-point, the questionable interests behind it, and above all its unforeseeable, serious negative implications for mankind and environment, is unacceptable on ethical grounds. Critical reflexion on these polarized arguments must start from the question why precisely gene technology is so controversial, and what are the criteria for ethical assessment. These reflexions presuppose that the prior judgement of gene technology as a technology in the ideological field is rooted in life attitudes, history and nature in general, and this is true not only of gene technology's opponents but also its supporters. It is thus a question of one ideology vs. another. Chief importance here attaches to the mankind-nature relationship and the need to take seriously the fundamental ambivalence of all (!) human action with unforeseeable consequences. The conclusion is that neither to demonize nor to glorify gene technology, as a matter of principle, does justice to its wide and varied positive or negative potential. The ethical assessment of gene technology must be differentiated according to the aims and possible implications.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:7939540

  3. Clock genes and cancer.

    PubMed

    Wood, Patricia A; Yang, Xiaoming; Hrushesky, William J M

    2009-12-01

    Period genes ( Per2, Per1) are essential circadian clock genes. They also function as negative growth regulators. Per2 mutant mice show de novo and radiation-induced epithelial hyperplasia, tumors, and an abnormal DNA damage response. Human tumors show Period gene mutations or decreased expression. Other murine clock gene mutations are not associated with a tumor prone phenotype. Shift work and nocturnal light exposure are associated with circadian clock disruption and with increased cancer risk. The mechanisms responsible for the connection between the circadian clock and cancer are not well defined. We propose that circadian disruption per se is not uniformly tumor promoting and the mechanisms for tumor promotion by specific circadian clock disturbances will differ dependent upon the genes and pathways involved. We propose that Period clock gene mutations promote tumorigenesis by unique molecular pathways. Per2 and Per1 modulate beta-catenin and cell proliferation in colon and non-colon cancer cells. Per2 mutation increases intestinal beta-catenin levels and colon polyp formation. Per2 mutation also increases Apc(Min/+)-mediated intestinal and colonic polyp formation. Intestinal tumorigenesis per se may also alter clock function as a result of increased beta-catenin destabilizing PER2 protein. Levels and circadian rhythm of PER2 in Apc(Min/+) mouse intestine are markedly decreased, and selective abnormalities in intestinal clock gene and clock-controlled gene expression are seen. We propose that tumor promotion by loss of PERIOD clock proteins is unique to these clock genes as a result of altered beta-catenin signaling and DNA damage response. PERIOD proteins may offer new targets for cancer prevention and control.

  4. Genes in sweeping competition.

    PubMed

    Nurminsky, D I

    2001-01-01

    Analysis of DNA variation is a powerful tool for detecting adaptation at the genomic level. The contribution of adaptive evolution is evident from examples of rapidly evolving genes, which represent the likely targets for strong selection. More subtle adaptation is also an integral component of routine maintenance of gene performance, continuously applied to every gene. Adaptive changes in the population are accomplished through selective sweeps, i.e. complete or partial fixation of beneficial alleles. The evidence is accumulating that selective sweeps are quite frequent events which, together with associated genetic hitchhiking, represent dominant forces that influence molecular evolution by shaping the variability pattern in the genome.

  5. Gene structure and expression

    SciTech Connect

    Hawkins, J. )

    1990-01-01

    This book describes the structure of genes in molecular terms and summarizes present knowledge about how their activity is regulated. It covers a range of topics, including a review of the structure and replication of DNA, transcription and translation, prokaryotic and eukaryotic gene organization and expression, retroviruses and oncogenes. The book also includes a chapter on the methodology of DNA manipulation including sections on site-directed mutagenesis, the polymerase chain reaction, reporter genes and restriction fragment length polymorphisms. The hemoglobin gene system and the genetics of the proteins of the immune system are presented in the latter half of the book to show the structure and expression of the most well-studied systems in higher eukaryotes. The final chapter reviews the differences between prokaryotic and the eukaryotic genomes.

  6. GeneLab

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Berrios, Daniel C.; Thompson, Terri G.

    2015-01-01

    NASA GeneLab is expected to capture and distribute omics data and experimental and process conditions most relevant to research community in their statistical and theoretical analysis of NASAs omics data.

  7. Epigenetics and gene expression.

    PubMed

    Gibney, E R; Nolan, C M

    2010-07-01

    Transcription, translation and subsequent protein modification represent the transfer of genetic information from the archival copy of DNA to the short-lived messenger RNA, usually with subsequent production of protein. Although all cells in an organism contain essentially the same DNA, cell types and functions differ because of qualitative and quantitative differences in their gene expression. Thus, control of gene expression is at the heart of differentiation and development. Epigenetic processes, including DNA methylation, histone modification and various RNA-mediated processes, are thought to influence gene expression chiefly at the level of transcription; however, other steps in the process (for example, translation) may also be regulated epigenetically. The following paper will outline the role epigenetics is believed to have in influencing gene expression.

  8. "Bad genes" & criminal responsibility.

    PubMed

    González-Tapia, María Isabel; Obsuth, Ingrid

    2015-01-01

    The genetics of the accused is trying to break into the courts. To date several candidate genes have been put forward and their links to antisocial behavior have been examined and documented with some consistency. In this paper, we focus on the so called "warrior gene", or the low-activity allele of the MAOA gene, which has been most consistently related to human behavior and specifically to violence and antisocial behavior. In preparing this paper we had two objectives. First, to summarize and analyze the current scientific evidence, in order to gain an in depth understanding of the state of the issue and determine whether a dominant line of generally accepted scientific knowledge in this field can be asserted. Second, to derive conclusions and put forward recommendations related to the use of genetic information, specifically the presence of the low-activity genotype of the MAOA gene, in modulation of criminal responsibility in European and US courts.

  9. "Bad genes" & criminal responsibility.

    PubMed

    González-Tapia, María Isabel; Obsuth, Ingrid

    2015-01-01

    The genetics of the accused is trying to break into the courts. To date several candidate genes have been put forward and their links to antisocial behavior have been examined and documented with some consistency. In this paper, we focus on the so called "warrior gene", or the low-activity allele of the MAOA gene, which has been most consistently related to human behavior and specifically to violence and antisocial behavior. In preparing this paper we had two objectives. First, to summarize and analyze the current scientific evidence, in order to gain an in depth understanding of the state of the issue and determine whether a dominant line of generally accepted scientific knowledge in this field can be asserted. Second, to derive conclusions and put forward recommendations related to the use of genetic information, specifically the presence of the low-activity genotype of the MAOA gene, in modulation of criminal responsibility in European and US courts. PMID:25708001

  10. Vaginal gene therapy.

    PubMed

    Rodríguez-Gascón, Alicia; Del Pozo-Rodríguez, Ana; Isla, Arantxazu; Solinís, María Angeles

    2015-09-15

    In the last years, vaginal gene therapy has gained increasing attention mainly for the treatment and control of sexually transmitted infections. DNA delivery has been also suggested to improve reproductive outcomes for women with deficiencies in the female reproductive tract. Although no product has reached clinical phase, preclinical investigations reveal the potential of the vaginal tract as an effective administration route for gene delivery. This review focuses on the main advantages and challenges of vaginal gene therapy, and on the most used nucleic acid delivery systems, including viral and non-viral vectors. Additionally, the advances in the application of vaginal gene therapy for the treatment and/or prevention of infectious diseases such as the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), the human papillomavirus (HPV) or the herpes simplex virus (HSV) are presented.

  11. Evidence for homosexuality gene

    SciTech Connect

    Pool, R.

    1993-07-16

    A genetic analysis of 40 pairs of homosexual brothers has uncovered a region on the X chromosome that appears to contain a gene or genes for homosexuality. When analyzing the pedigrees of homosexual males, the researcheres found evidence that the trait has a higher likelihood of being passed through maternal genes. This led them to search the X chromosome for genes predisposing to homosexuality. The researchers examined the X chromosomes of pairs of homosexual brothers for regions of DNA that most or all had in common. Of the 40 sets of brothers, 33 shared a set of five markers in the q28 region of the long arm of the X chromosome. The linkage has a LOD score of 4.0, which translates into a 99.5% certainty that there is a gene or genes in this area that predispose males to homosexuality. The chief researcher warns, however, that this one site cannot explain all instances of homosexuality, since there were some cases where the trait seemed to be passed paternally. And even among those brothers where there was no evidence that the trait was passed paternally, seven sets of brothers did not share the Xq28 markers. It seems likely that homosexuality arises from a variety of causes.

  12. [Integrons: gene collectors].

    PubMed

    Di Conza, J A; Gutkind, G O

    2010-01-01

    Integrons gained great interest due to their participation in resistance gene recruitment and expression. Their basic structure includes a fragment that encodes an integrase (intI) followed by a recognition sequence (attI) into which they may incorporate gene cassettes (encoding resistance mechanisms). A promoter (Pc) embedded within the integrase gene controls the transcription of integrated resistance markers, as these genes do not have their own promoters. When in cassettes, resistance genes are flanked by specific sequences (attC), which are recognized by the integrase that, by site specific recombination, incorporates them after attI in proper orientation for their expression. In the past, integrons were classified according to their sequence homology; currently they are classified according to their location. In general, they are divided into "mobile" integrons (those associated with insertion sequences, transposons and/or plasmids, being most of them associated with resistance mechanisms), and chromosomally-located "super" integrons with large arrangements of cassette genes. "Mobile" class 1 integrons are the most abundant in clinical isolates and are generally associated with Tn21 subgroup transposons, followed by class 2, derived primarily from Tn7. These elements are not mobile themselves, but their association with mobile platforms that facilitate horizontal transfer, explains their wide distribution among bacteria. This review also attempts to describe the mobile integrons described so far in Argentina.

  13. [Co-expressions of phosphoenolpyruvate synthetase A (ppsA) and transketolase A (tktA) genes of Escherichia coli].

    PubMed

    Li, Yong-Hui; Liu, Yun; Wang, Shi-Chun; Tong, Zhao-Yang; Xu, Qi-Shou

    2003-05-01

    Metabolic engineering is the analysis of metabolic pathway and designing rational genetic modification to optimize cellular properties by using principle of molecular biology. Aromatic metabolites such as tryptophan, phenylalanine, and tyrosine are essential amino acids for human and animals. In addition, phenylalanine is used in aspartame production. Escherichia coli and many other microoganism synthesize aromatic amino acids through the condensation reaction between phospho-enolpyruvate (PEP) and erythrose-4-phosphate(E4P) to form 3-deoxy-D-arabinoheptulosonate 7-phosphate(DAHP). But many enzymes compete for intracellular PEP, especially the phosphotransferase system which is responsible for glucose transport in E. coli. This system uses PEP as a phosphate donor and converts it to pyruvate, which is less likely to recycle back to PEP. To channel more carbon flux into the aromatic pathway, one has to overcome pathways competing for PEP. ppsA and tktA are the key genes in central metabolism of aromatic amino acids biosynthesis. ppsA encoding phosphoenolpyrucate synthetase A (PpsA) which catalyzes pyruvate into PEP; tktA encoding transketolase A which plays a major role in erythrose-4-phosphate (E4P) production of pentose pathway. We amplified ppsA and tktA from E. coli K-12 by PCR and constructed recombinant plasmids of them in pBV220 vector containing P(R)P(L) promoter. Because of each gene carrying P(L) promoter, four productions of ligation were obtained. The monoclonal host containing recombinant plasmids was routinely grown in Luria-Bertani (LB) medium added Ampicillin at 37 degrees C overnight, and then inoculated in LB (Apr) medium by 3%-5% in flasks on a rotary shaker at 30 degres C, induced at 42 degrees C for 4.5 hours when OD600 = 0.4, cells were obtained by centrifugation at 10,000 r/min at 4 degrees C. The results of SDS-PAGE demonstrated that the bands at 84kD and 73kD were more intensive than the same ones of the controls. The specific activity of

  14. Identification of four soybean reference genes for gene expression normalization

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Gene expression analysis requires the use of reference genes stably expressed independently of specific tissues or environmental conditions. Housekeeping genes (e.g., actin, tubulin, ribosomal, polyubiquitin and elongation factor 1-alpha) are commonly used as reference genes with the assumption tha...

  15. 5. OVERHEAD VIEW OF GENE CAMP LOOKING SOUTH. GENE PUMP ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    5. OVERHEAD VIEW OF GENE CAMP LOOKING SOUTH. GENE PUMP PLANT IS AT CENTER WITH ADMINISTRATIVE COMPLEX IN FOREGROUND AND RESIDENTIAL AREA BEYOND PLANT. - Gene Pump Plant, South of Gene Wash Reservoir, 2 miles west of Whitsett Pump Plant, Parker Dam, San Bernardino County, CA

  16. Constitutive expression of selected genes from the pentose phosphate and aromatic pathways increases the shikimic acid yield in high-glucose batch cultures of an Escherichia coli strain lacking PTS and pykF

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background During the last two decades many efforts have been directed towards obtaining efficient microbial processes for the production of shikimic acid (SA); however, feeding high amounts of substrate to increase the titer of this compound has invariably rendered low conversion yields, leaving room for improvement of the producing strains. In this work we report an alternative platform to overproduce SA in a laboratory-evolved Escherichia coli strain, based on plasmid-driven constitutive expression of six genes selected from the pentose phosphate and aromatic amino acid pathways, artificially arranged as an operon. Production strains also carried inactivated genes coding for phosphotransferase system components (ptsHIcrr), shikimate kinases I and II (aroK and aroL), pyruvate kinase I (pykF) and the lactose operon repressor (lacI). Results The strong and constitutive expression of the constructed operon permitted SA production from the beginning of the cultures, as evidenced in 1 L batch-mode fermentors starting with high concentrations of glucose and yeast extract. Inactivation of the pykF gene improved SA production under the evaluated conditions by increasing the titer, yield and productivity of this metabolite compared to the isogenic pykF+ strain. The best producing strain accumulated up to 43 g/L of SA in 30 h and relatively low concentrations of acetate and aromatic byproducts were detected, with SA accounting for 80% of the produced aromatic compounds. These results were consistent with high expression levels of the glycolytic pathway and synthetic operon genes from the beginning of fermentations, as revealed by transcriptomic analysis. Despite the consumption of 100 g/L of glucose, the yields on glucose of SA and of total aromatic compounds were about 50% and 60% of the theoretical maximum, respectively. The obtained yields and specific production and consumption rates proved to be constant with three different substrate concentrations. Conclusions

  17. Hox genes and study of Hox genes in crustacean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hou, Lin; Chen, Zhijuan; Xu, Mingyu; Lin, Shengguo; Wang, Lu

    2004-12-01

    Homeobox genes have been discovered in many species. These genes are known to play a major role in specifying regional identity along the anterior-posterior axis of animals from a wide range of phyla. The products of the homeotic genes are a set of evolutionarily conserved transcription factors that control elaborate developmental processes and specify cell fates in metazoans. Crustacean, presenting a variety of body plans not encountered in any other class or phylum of the Metazoa, has been shown to possess a single set of homologous Hox genes like insect. The ancestral crustacean Hox gene complex comprised ten genes: eight homologous to the hometic Hox genes and two related to nonhomeotic genes presented within the insect Hox complexes. The crustacean in particular exhibits an abundant diversity segment specialization and tagmosis. This morphological diversity relates to the Hox genes. In crustacean body plan, different Hox genes control different segments and tagmosis.

  18. GeneCards Version 3: the human gene integrator.

    PubMed

    Safran, Marilyn; Dalah, Irina; Alexander, Justin; Rosen, Naomi; Iny Stein, Tsippi; Shmoish, Michael; Nativ, Noam; Bahir, Iris; Doniger, Tirza; Krug, Hagit; Sirota-Madi, Alexandra; Olender, Tsviya; Golan, Yaron; Stelzer, Gil; Harel, Arye; Lancet, Doron

    2010-08-05

    GeneCards (www.genecards.org) is a comprehensive, authoritative compendium of annotative information about human genes, widely used for nearly 15 years. Its gene-centric content is automatically mined and integrated from over 80 digital sources, resulting in a web-based deep-linked card for each of >73,000 human gene entries, encompassing the following categories: protein coding, pseudogene, RNA gene, genetic locus, cluster and uncategorized. We now introduce GeneCards Version 3, featuring a speedy and sophisticated search engine and a revamped, technologically enabling infrastructure, catering to the expanding needs of biomedical researchers. A key focus is on gene-set analyses, which leverage GeneCards' unique wealth of combinatorial annotations. These include the GeneALaCart batch query facility, which tabulates user-selected annotations for multiple genes and GeneDecks, which identifies similar genes with shared annotations, and finds set-shared annotations by descriptor enrichment analysis. Such set-centric features address a host of applications, including microarray data analysis, cross-database annotation mapping and gene-disorder associations for drug targeting. We highlight the new Version 3 database architecture, its multi-faceted search engine, and its semi-automated quality assurance system. Data enhancements include an expanded visualization of gene expression patterns in normal and cancer tissues, an integrated alternative splicing pattern display, and augmented multi-source SNPs and pathways sections. GeneCards now provides direct links to gene-related research reagents such as antibodies, recombinant proteins, DNA clones and inhibitory RNAs and features gene-related drugs and compounds lists. We also portray the GeneCards Inferred Functionality Score annotation landscape tool for scoring a gene's functional information status. Finally, we delineate examples of applications and collaborations that have benefited from the GeneCards suite. Database

  19. GeneCards Version 3: the human gene integrator.

    PubMed

    Safran, Marilyn; Dalah, Irina; Alexander, Justin; Rosen, Naomi; Iny Stein, Tsippi; Shmoish, Michael; Nativ, Noam; Bahir, Iris; Doniger, Tirza; Krug, Hagit; Sirota-Madi, Alexandra; Olender, Tsviya; Golan, Yaron; Stelzer, Gil; Harel, Arye; Lancet, Doron

    2010-01-01

    GeneCards (www.genecards.org) is a comprehensive, authoritative compendium of annotative information about human genes, widely used for nearly 15 years. Its gene-centric content is automatically mined and integrated from over 80 digital sources, resulting in a web-based deep-linked card for each of >73,000 human gene entries, encompassing the following categories: protein coding, pseudogene, RNA gene, genetic locus, cluster and uncategorized. We now introduce GeneCards Version 3, featuring a speedy and sophisticated search engine and a revamped, technologically enabling infrastructure, catering to the expanding needs of biomedical researchers. A key focus is on gene-set analyses, which leverage GeneCards' unique wealth of combinatorial annotations. These include the GeneALaCart batch query facility, which tabulates user-selected annotations for multiple genes and GeneDecks, which identifies similar genes with shared annotations, and finds set-shared annotations by descriptor enrichment analysis. Such set-centric features address a host of applications, including microarray data analysis, cross-database annotation mapping and gene-disorder associations for drug targeting. We highlight the new Version 3 database architecture, its multi-faceted search engine, and its semi-automated quality assurance system. Data enhancements include an expanded visualization of gene expression patterns in normal and cancer tissues, an integrated alternative splicing pattern display, and augmented multi-source SNPs and pathways sections. GeneCards now provides direct links to gene-related research reagents such as antibodies, recombinant proteins, DNA clones and inhibitory RNAs and features gene-related drugs and compounds lists. We also portray the GeneCards Inferred Functionality Score annotation landscape tool for scoring a gene's functional information status. Finally, we delineate examples of applications and collaborations that have benefited from the GeneCards suite. Database

  20. Neighboring Genes Show Correlated Evolution in Gene Expression.

    PubMed

    Ghanbarian, Avazeh T; Hurst, Laurence D

    2015-07-01

    When considering the evolution of a gene's expression profile, we commonly assume that this is unaffected by its genomic neighborhood. This is, however, in contrast to what we know about the lack of autonomy between neighboring genes in gene expression profiles in extant taxa. Indeed, in all eukaryotic genomes genes of similar expression-profile tend to cluster, reflecting chromatin level dynamics. Does it follow that if a gene increases expression in a particular lineage then the genomic neighbors will also increase in their expression or is gene expression evolution autonomous? To address this here we consider evolution of human gene expression since the human-chimp common ancestor, allowing for both variation in estimation of current expression level and error in Bayesian estimation of the ancestral state. We find that in all tissues and both sexes, the change in gene expression of a focal gene on average predicts the change in gene expression of neighbors. The effect is highly pronounced in the immediate vicinity (<100 kb) but extends much further. Sex-specific expression change is also genomically clustered. As genes increasing their expression in humans tend to avoid nuclear lamina domains and be enriched for the gene activator 5-hydroxymethylcytosine, we conclude that, most probably owing to chromatin level control of gene expression, a change in gene expression of one gene likely affects the expression evolution of neighbors, what we term expression piggybacking, an analog of hitchhiking.

  1. Saporin suicide gene therapy.

    PubMed

    Zarovni, Natasa; Vago, Riccardo; Fabbrini, Maria Serena

    2009-01-01

    New genes useful in suicide gene therapy are those encoding toxins such as plant ribosome-inactivating proteins (RIPs), which can irreversibly block protein synthesis, triggering apoptotic cell death. Plasmids expressing a cytosolic saporin (SAP) gene from common soapwort (Saponaria officinalis) are generated by placing the region encoding the mature plant toxin under the control of strong viral promoters and may be placed under tumor-specific promoters. The ability of the resulting constructs to inhibit protein synthesis is tested in cultured tumor cells co-transfected with a luciferase reporter gene. SAP expression driven by the cytomegalovirus (CMV) promoter (pCI-SAP) demonstrates that only 10 ng ofplasmid DNA per 1.6 x 10(4) B16 melanoma cells drastically reduces luciferase reporter activity to 18% of that in control cells (1). Direct intratumoral injections are performed in an aggressive melanoma model. B16 melanoma-bearing mice injected with pCI-SAP complexed with lipofectamine or N-(2,3-dioleoyloxy-1-propyl) trimethylammonium methyl sulfate (DOTAP) show a noteworthy attenuation in tumor growth, and this effect is significantly augmented by repeated administrations of the DNA complexes. Here, we describe in detail this cost-effective and safe suicide gene approach. PMID:19565907

  2. On sports and genes.

    PubMed

    Zilberman-Schapira, Gili; Chen, Jieming; Gerstein, Mark

    2012-12-01

    Our genes influence our athletic ability. However, the causal genetic factors and mechanisms, and the extent of their effects, remain largely elusive. Many studies investigate this association between specific genes and athletic performance. Such studies have increased in number over the past few years, as recent developments and patents in DNA sequencing have made large amounts of sequencing data available for such analysis. In this paper, we consider four of the most intensively studied genes in relation to athletic ability: angiotensin I-converting enzyme, alpha-actinin 3, peroxismose proliferator-activator receptor alpha and nitric oxide synthase 3. We investigate the connection between genotype and athletic phenotype in the context of these four genes in various sport fields and across different ethnicities and genders. We do an extensive literature survey on these genes and the polymorphisms (single nucleotide polymorphisms or indels) found to be associated with athletic performance. We also present, for each of these polymorphisms, the allele frequencies in the different ethnicities reported in the pilot phase of the 1000 Genomes Project - arguably the largest human genome-sequencing endeavor to date. We discuss the considerable success, and significant drawbacks, of past research along these lines, and propose interesting directions for future research.

  3. Hox genes and evolution

    PubMed Central

    Hrycaj, Steven M.; Wellik, Deneen M.

    2016-01-01

    Hox proteins are a deeply conserved group of transcription factors originally defined for their critical roles in governing segmental identity along the antero-posterior (AP) axis in Drosophila. Over the last 30 years, numerous data generated in evolutionarily diverse taxa have clearly shown that changes in the expression patterns of these genes are closely associated with the regionalization of the AP axis, suggesting that Hox genes have played a critical role in the evolution of novel body plans within Bilateria. Despite this deep functional conservation and the importance of these genes in AP patterning, key questions remain regarding many aspects of Hox biology. In this commentary, we highlight recent reports that have provided novel insight into the origins of the mammalian Hox cluster, the role of Hox genes in the generation of a limbless body plan, and a novel putative mechanism in which Hox genes may encode specificity along the AP axis. Although the data discussed here offer a fresh perspective, it is clear that there is still much to learn about Hox biology and the roles it has played in the evolution of the Bilaterian body plan. PMID:27239281

  4. LQTS gene LOVD database.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Tao; Moss, Arthur; Cong, Peikuan; Pan, Min; Chang, Bingxi; Zheng, Liangrong; Fang, Quan; Zareba, Wojciech; Robinson, Jennifer; Lin, Changsong; Li, Zhongxiang; Wei, Junfang; Zeng, Qiang; Qi, Ming

    2010-11-01

    The Long QT Syndrome (LQTS) is a group of genetically heterogeneous disorders that predisposes young individuals to ventricular arrhythmias and sudden death. LQTS is mainly caused by mutations in genes encoding subunits of cardiac ion channels (KCNQ1, KCNH2,SCN5A, KCNE1, and KCNE2). Many other genes involved in LQTS have been described recently(KCNJ2, AKAP9, ANK2, CACNA1C, SCNA4B, SNTA1, and CAV3). We created an online database(http://www.genomed.org/LOVD/introduction.html) that provides information on variants in LQTS-associated genes. As of February 2010, the database contains 1738 unique variants in 12 genes. A total of 950 variants are considered pathogenic, 265 are possible pathogenic, 131 are unknown/unclassified, and 292 have no known pathogenicity. In addition to these mutations collected from published literature, we also submitted information on gene variants, including one possible novel pathogenic mutation in the KCNH2 splice site found in ten Chinese families with documented arrhythmias. The remote user is able to search the data and is encouraged to submit new mutations into the database. The LQTS database will become a powerful tool for both researchers and clinicians. PMID:20809527

  5. LQTS gene LOVD database.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Tao; Moss, Arthur; Cong, Peikuan; Pan, Min; Chang, Bingxi; Zheng, Liangrong; Fang, Quan; Zareba, Wojciech; Robinson, Jennifer; Lin, Changsong; Li, Zhongxiang; Wei, Junfang; Zeng, Qiang; Qi, Ming

    2010-11-01

    The Long QT Syndrome (LQTS) is a group of genetically heterogeneous disorders that predisposes young individuals to ventricular arrhythmias and sudden death. LQTS is mainly caused by mutations in genes encoding subunits of cardiac ion channels (KCNQ1, KCNH2,SCN5A, KCNE1, and KCNE2). Many other genes involved in LQTS have been described recently(KCNJ2, AKAP9, ANK2, CACNA1C, SCNA4B, SNTA1, and CAV3). We created an online database(http://www.genomed.org/LOVD/introduction.html) that provides information on variants in LQTS-associated genes. As of February 2010, the database contains 1738 unique variants in 12 genes. A total of 950 variants are considered pathogenic, 265 are possible pathogenic, 131 are unknown/unclassified, and 292 have no known pathogenicity. In addition to these mutations collected from published literature, we also submitted information on gene variants, including one possible novel pathogenic mutation in the KCNH2 splice site found in ten Chinese families with documented arrhythmias. The remote user is able to search the data and is encouraged to submit new mutations into the database. The LQTS database will become a powerful tool for both researchers and clinicians.

  6. Gene therapy for brain tumors.

    PubMed

    Bansal, K; Engelhard, H H

    2000-09-01

    "Gene therapy" can be defined as the transfer of genetic material into a patient's cells for therapeutic purposes. To date, a diverse and creative assortment of treatment strategies utilizing gene therapy have been devised, including gene transfer for modulating the immune system, enzyme prodrug ("suicide gene") therapy, oncolytic therapy, replacement/therapeutic gene transfer, and antisense therapy. For malignant glioma, gene-directed prodrug therapy using the herpes simplex virus thymidine kinase gene was the first gene therapy attempted clinically. A variety of different strategies have now been pursued experimentally and in clinical trials. Although, to date, gene therapy for brain tumors has been found to be reasonably safe, concerns still exist regarding issues related to viral delivery, transduction efficiency, potential pathologic response of the brain, and treatment efficacy. Improved viral vectors are being sought, and potential use of gene therapy in combination with other treatments is being investigated.

  7. How old is my gene?

    PubMed Central

    Capra, John A.; Stolzer, Maureen; Durand, Dannie; Pollard, Katherine S.

    2013-01-01

    Gene functions, interactions, disease associations, and ecological distributions are all correlated with gene age. However, it is challenging to estimate the intricate series of evolutionary events leading to a modern day gene and then reduce this history to a single age estimate. Focusing on eukaryotic gene families, we introduce a framework in which to compare current strategies for quantifying gene age, discuss key differences between these methods, and highlight several common problems. We argue that genes with complex evolutionary histories do not have a single well-defined age. As a result, care must be taken to articulate the goals and assumptions of any analysis that uses gene age estimates. Recent algorithmic advances offer the promise of gene age estimates that are fast, accurate, and consistent across gene families. This will enable a shift to integrated genome-wide analyses of all events in gene evolutionary histories in the near future. PMID:23915718

  8. Gene therapy prospects--intranasal delivery of therapeutic genes.

    PubMed

    Podolska, Karolina; Stachurska, Anna; Hajdukiewicz, Karolina; Małecki, Maciej

    2012-01-01

    Gene therapy is recognized to be a novel method for the treatment of various disorders. Gene therapy strategies involve gene manipulation on broad biological processes responsible for the spreading of diseases. Cancer, monogenic diseases, vascular and infectious diseases are the main targets of gene therapy. In order to obtain valuable experimental and clinical results, sufficient gene transfer methods are required. Therapeutic genes can be administered into target tissues via gene carriers commonly defined as vectors. The retroviral, adenoviral and adeno-associated virus based vectors are most frequently used in the clinic. So far, gene preparations may be administered directly into target organs or by intravenous, intramuscular, intratumor or intranasal injections. It is common knowledge that the number of gene therapy clinical trials has rapidly increased. However, some limitations such as transfection efficiency and stable and long-term gene expression are still not resolved. Consequently, great effort is focused on the evaluation of new strategies of gene delivery. There are many expectations associated with intranasal delivery of gene preparations for the treatment of diseases. Intranasal delivery of therapeutic genes is regarded as one of the most promising forms of pulmonary gene therapy research. Gene therapy based on inhalation of gene preparations offers an alternative way for the treatment of patients suffering from such lung diseases as cystic fibrosis, alpha-1-antitrypsin defect, or cancer. Experimental and first clinical trials based on plasmid vectors or recombinant viruses have revealed that gene preparations can effectively deliver therapeutic or marker genes to the cells of the respiratory tract. The noninvasive intranasal delivery of gene preparations or conventional drugs seems to be very encouraging, although basic scientific research still has to continue.

  9. GeneCards Version 3: the human gene integrator

    PubMed Central

    Safran, Marilyn; Dalah, Irina; Alexander, Justin; Rosen, Naomi; Iny Stein, Tsippi; Shmoish, Michael; Nativ, Noam; Bahir, Iris; Doniger, Tirza; Krug, Hagit; Sirota-Madi, Alexandra; Olender, Tsviya; Golan, Yaron; Stelzer, Gil; Harel, Arye; Lancet, Doron

    2010-01-01

    GeneCards (www.genecards.org) is a comprehensive, authoritative compendium of annotative information about human genes, widely used for nearly 15 years. Its gene-centric content is automatically mined and integrated from over 80 digital sources, resulting in a web-based deep-linked card for each of >73 000 human gene entries, encompassing the following categories: protein coding, pseudogene, RNA gene, genetic locus, cluster and uncategorized. We now introduce GeneCards Version 3, featuring a speedy and sophisticated search engine and a revamped, technologically enabling infrastructure, catering to the expanding needs of biomedical researchers. A key focus is on gene-set analyses, which leverage GeneCards’ unique wealth of combinatorial annotations. These include the GeneALaCart batch query facility, which tabulates user-selected annotations for multiple genes and GeneDecks, which identifies similar genes with shared annotations, and finds set-shared annotations by descriptor enrichment analysis. Such set-centric features address a host of applications, including microarray data analysis, cross-database annotation mapping and gene-disorder associations for drug targeting. We highlight the new Version 3 database architecture, its multi-faceted search engine, and its semi-automated quality assurance system. Data enhancements include an expanded visualization of gene expression patterns in normal and cancer tissues, an integrated alternative splicing pattern display, and augmented multi-source SNPs and pathways sections. GeneCards now provides direct links to gene-related research reagents such as antibodies, recombinant proteins, DNA clones and inhibitory RNAs and features gene-related drugs and compounds lists. We also portray the GeneCards Inferred Functionality Score annotation landscape tool for scoring a gene’s functional information status. Finally, we delineate examples of applications and collaborations that have benefited from the GeneCards suite

  10. FunGene: the functional gene pipeline and repository

    PubMed Central

    Fish, Jordan A.; Chai, Benli; Wang, Qiong; Sun, Yanni; Brown, C. Titus; Tiedje, James M.; Cole, James R.

    2013-01-01

    Ribosomal RNA genes have become the standard molecular markers for microbial community analysis for good reasons, including universal occurrence in cellular organisms, availability of large databases, and ease of rRNA gene region amplification and analysis. As markers, however, rRNA genes have some significant limitations. The rRNA genes are often present in multiple copies, unlike most protein-coding genes. The slow rate of change in rRNA genes means that multiple species sometimes share identical 16S rRNA gene sequences, while many more species share identical sequences in the short 16S rRNA regions commonly analyzed. In addition, the genes involved in many important processes are not distributed in a phylogenetically coherent manner, potentially due to gene loss or horizontal gene transfer. While rRNA genes remain the most commonly used markers, key genes in ecologically important pathways, e.g., those involved in carbon and nitrogen cycling, can provide important insights into community composition and function not obtainable through rRNA analysis. However, working with ecofunctional gene data requires some tools beyond those required for rRNA analysis. To address this, our Functional Gene Pipeline and Repository (FunGene; http://fungene.cme.msu.edu/) offers databases of many common ecofunctional genes and proteins, as well as integrated tools that allow researchers to browse these collections and choose subsets for further analysis, build phylogenetic trees, test primers and probes for coverage, and download aligned sequences. Additional FunGene tools are specialized to process coding gene amplicon data. For example, FrameBot produces frameshift-corrected protein and DNA sequences from raw reads while finding the most closely related protein reference sequence. These tools can help provide better insight into microbial communities by directly studying key genes involved in important ecological processes. PMID:24101916

  11. Human DNA repair genes.

    PubMed

    Wood, R D; Mitchell, M; Sgouros, J; Lindahl, T

    2001-02-16

    Cellular DNA is subjected to continual attack, both by reactive species inside cells and by environmental agents. Toxic and mutagenic consequences are minimized by distinct pathways of repair, and 130 known human DNA repair genes are described here. Notable features presently include four enzymes that can remove uracil from DNA, seven recombination genes related to RAD51, and many recently discovered DNA polymerases that bypass damage, but only one system to remove the main DNA lesions induced by ultraviolet light. More human DNA repair genes will be found by comparison with model organisms and as common folds in three-dimensional protein structures are determined. Modulation of DNA repair should lead to clinical applications including improvement of radiotherapy and treatment with anticancer drugs and an advanced understanding of the cellular aging process. PMID:11181991

  12. Frequent gene conversion between human red and green opsin genes.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Z; Hewett-Emmett, D; Li, W H

    1998-04-01

    To study the evolution of human X-linked red and green opsin genes, genomic sequences in large regions of the two genes were compared. The divergences in introns 3, 4, and 5 and the 3' flanking sequence of the two genes are significantly lower than those in exons 4 and 5. The homogenization mechanism of introns and the 3' flanking sequence of human red and green opsin genes is probably gene conversion, which also occurred in exons 1 and 6. At least one gene conversion event occurred in each of three regions (1, 3, and 5) in the sequences compared. In conclusion, gene conversion has occurred frequently between human red and green opsin genes, but exons 2, 3, 4, and 5 have been maintained distinct between the two genes by natural selection.

  13. Neighboring Genes Show Correlated Evolution in Gene Expression

    PubMed Central

    Ghanbarian, Avazeh T.; Hurst, Laurence D.

    2015-01-01

    When considering the evolution of a gene’s expression profile, we commonly assume that this is unaffected by its genomic neighborhood. This is, however, in contrast to what we know about the lack of autonomy between neighboring genes in gene expression profiles in extant taxa. Indeed, in all eukaryotic genomes genes of similar expression-profile tend to cluster, reflecting chromatin level dynamics. Does it follow that if a gene increases expression in a particular lineage then the genomic neighbors will also increase in their expression or is gene expression evolution autonomous? To address this here we consider evolution of human gene expression since the human-chimp common ancestor, allowing for both variation in estimation of current expression level and error in Bayesian estimation of the ancestral state. We find that in all tissues and both sexes, the change in gene expression of a focal gene on average predicts the change in gene expression of neighbors. The effect is highly pronounced in the immediate vicinity (<100 kb) but extends much further. Sex-specific expression change is also genomically clustered. As genes increasing their expression in humans tend to avoid nuclear lamina domains and be enriched for the gene activator 5-hydroxymethylcytosine, we conclude that, most probably owing to chromatin level control of gene expression, a change in gene expression of one gene likely affects the expression evolution of neighbors, what we term expression piggybacking, an analog of hitchhiking. PMID:25743543

  14. Genes and Vocal Learning

    PubMed Central

    White, Stephanie A.

    2009-01-01

    Could a mutation in a single gene be the evolutionary lynchpin supporting the development of human language? A rare mutation in the molecule known as FOXP2 discovered in a human family seemed to suggest so, and its sequence phylogeny reinforced a Chomskian view that language emerged wholesale in humans. Spurred by this discovery, research in primates, rodents and birds suggests that FoxP2 and other language-related genes are interactors in the neuromolecular networks that underlie subsystems of language, such symbolic understanding, vocal learning and theory of mind. The whole picture will only come together through comparative and integrative study into how the human language singularity evolved. PMID:19913899

  15. The gene tree delusion.

    PubMed

    Springer, Mark S; Gatesy, John

    2016-01-01

    Higher-level relationships among placental mammals are mostly resolved, but several polytomies remain contentious. Song et al. (2012) claimed to have resolved three of these using shortcut coalescence methods (MP-EST, STAR) and further concluded that these methods, which assume no within-locus recombination, are required to unravel deep-level phylogenetic problems that have stymied concatenation. Here, we reanalyze Song et al.'s (2012) data and leverage these re-analyses to explore key issues in systematics including the recombination ratchet, gene tree stoichiometry, the proportion of gene tree incongruence that results from deep coalescence versus other factors, and simulations that compare the performance of coalescence and concatenation methods in species tree estimation. Song et al. (2012) reported an average locus length of 3.1 kb for the 447 protein-coding genes in their phylogenomic dataset, but the true mean length of these loci (start codon to stop codon) is 139.6 kb. Empirical estimates of recombination breakpoints in primates, coupled with consideration of the recombination ratchet, suggest that individual coalescence genes (c-genes) approach ∼12 bp or less for Song et al.'s (2012) dataset, three to four orders of magnitude shorter than the c-genes reported by these authors. This result has general implications for the application of coalescence methods in species tree estimation. We contend that it is illogical to apply coalescence methods to complete protein-coding sequences. Such analyses amalgamate c-genes with different evolutionary histories (i.e., exons separated by >100,000 bp), distort true gene tree stoichiometry that is required for accurate species tree inference, and contradict the central rationale for applying coalescence methods to difficult phylogenetic problems. In addition, Song et al.'s (2012) dataset of 447 genes includes 21 loci with switched taxonomic names, eight duplicated loci, 26 loci with non-homologous sequences that are

  16. The gene tree delusion.

    PubMed

    Springer, Mark S; Gatesy, John

    2016-01-01

    Higher-level relationships among placental mammals are mostly resolved, but several polytomies remain contentious. Song et al. (2012) claimed to have resolved three of these using shortcut coalescence methods (MP-EST, STAR) and further concluded that these methods, which assume no within-locus recombination, are required to unravel deep-level phylogenetic problems that have stymied concatenation. Here, we reanalyze Song et al.'s (2012) data and leverage these re-analyses to explore key issues in systematics including the recombination ratchet, gene tree stoichiometry, the proportion of gene tree incongruence that results from deep coalescence versus other factors, and simulations that compare the performance of coalescence and concatenation methods in species tree estimation. Song et al. (2012) reported an average locus length of 3.1 kb for the 447 protein-coding genes in their phylogenomic dataset, but the true mean length of these loci (start codon to stop codon) is 139.6 kb. Empirical estimates of recombination breakpoints in primates, coupled with consideration of the recombination ratchet, suggest that individual coalescence genes (c-genes) approach ∼12 bp or less for Song et al.'s (2012) dataset, three to four orders of magnitude shorter than the c-genes reported by these authors. This result has general implications for the application of coalescence methods in species tree estimation. We contend that it is illogical to apply coalescence methods to complete protein-coding sequences. Such analyses amalgamate c-genes with different evolutionary histories (i.e., exons separated by >100,000 bp), distort true gene tree stoichiometry that is required for accurate species tree inference, and contradict the central rationale for applying coalescence methods to difficult phylogenetic problems. In addition, Song et al.'s (2012) dataset of 447 genes includes 21 loci with switched taxonomic names, eight duplicated loci, 26 loci with non-homologous sequences that are

  17. Huntington's disease gene located.

    PubMed

    Kolata, G

    1983-11-25

    Investigators have found a restriction enzyme marker, a piece of DNA that can be located with recombinant DNA techniques, that is so close to the Huntington's disease gene that its presence can be used as an indicator for that gene. If this marker is used as a diagnostic test for Huntington's disease, people at risk for getting the disease will be able to learn whether or not they will in fact develop the disease. The ability to predict the inevitable onset of this progressive, degenerative disease raises ethical questions about counseling, screening, and disclosure of risk status to patients and family members.

  18. Gene therapy: progress and predictions

    PubMed Central

    Collins, Mary; Thrasher, Adrian

    2015-01-01

    The first clinical gene delivery, which involved insertion of a marker gene into lymphocytes from cancer patients, was published 25 years ago. In this review, we describe progress since then in gene therapy. Patients with some inherited single-gene defects can now be treated with their own bone marrow stem cells that have been engineered with a viral vector carrying the missing gene. Patients with inherited retinopathies and haemophilia B can also be treated by local or systemic injection of viral vectors. There are also a number of promising gene therapy approaches for cancer and infectious disease. We predict that the next 25 years will see improvements in safety, efficacy and manufacture of gene delivery vectors and introduction of gene-editing technologies to the clinic. Gene delivery may also prove a cost-effective method for the delivery of biological medicines. PMID:26702034

  19. Gene Characterization Index: Assessing the Depth of Gene Annotation

    PubMed Central

    Yusuf, Dimas; Brumm, Jochen; Cheung, Warren; Wahlestedt, Claes; Lenhard, Boris; Wasserman, Wyeth W.

    2008-01-01

    Background We introduce the Gene Characterization Index, a bioinformatics method for scoring the extent to which a protein-encoding gene is functionally described. Inherently a reflection of human perception, the Gene Characterization Index is applied for assessing the characterization status of individual genes, thus serving the advancement of both genome annotation and applied genomics research by rapid and unbiased identification of groups of uncharacterized genes for diverse applications such as directed functional studies and delineation of novel drug targets. Methodology/Principal Findings The scoring procedure is based on a global survey of researchers, who assigned characterization scores from 1 (poor) to 10 (extensive) for a sample of genes based on major online resources. By evaluating the survey as training data, we developed a bioinformatics procedure to assign gene characterization scores to all genes in the human genome. We analyzed snapshots of functional genome annotation over a period of 6 years to assess temporal changes reflected by the increase of the average Gene Characterization Index. Applying the Gene Characterization Index to genes within pharmaceutically relevant classes, we confirmed known drug targets as high-scoring genes and revealed potentially interesting novel targets with low characterization indexes. Removing known drug targets and genes linked to sequence-related patent filings from the entirety of indexed genes, we identified sets of low-scoring genes particularly suited for further experimental investigation. Conclusions/Significance The Gene Characterization Index is intended to serve as a tool to the scientific community and granting agencies for focusing resources and efforts on unexplored areas of the genome. The Gene Characterization Index is available from http://cisreg.ca/gci/. PMID:18213364

  20. Naming genes beyond Caenorhabditis

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The nomenclature of genes in Caenorhabditis elegans is based on long-standing, successful guidelines established in the late 1970s. Over time these guidelines have matured into a comprehensive, systematic nomenclature that is easy to apply, descriptive and therefore highly informative. Recently, a f...

  1. Gene targeting in livestock.

    PubMed

    Thomson, A J; Marques, M M; McWhir, J

    2003-01-01

    The development of nuclear transfer from tissue culture cells in livestock made it possible in principle to produce animals with subtle, directed genetic changes by in vitro modification of nuclear donor cells. In the short period since nuclear transfer was first performed, gene targeting in livestock has become a reality. Although gene targeting has immediate potential in biotechnology, it is unclear whether there are practical agricultural applications, at present. The first livestock targeting experiments have been directed at engineering animals either to render their organs immunologically compatible for human transplantation, or for improving the commercial production of recombinant proteins in the transgenic mammary gland. All successful examples of targeting have involved target loci that are expressed in the nuclear donor cell line. Two important barriers to the further development of this technology are adapting protocols for non-expressed genes and modifying procedures to enhance the lifespan of targeted cells in vitro. This review provides data that illustrate the difficulty in targeting non-expressed genes and discusses some of the practical issues associated with providing targeted nuclear donor cells that are competent for nuclear transfer.

  2. Inferring horizontal gene transfer.

    PubMed

    Ravenhall, Matt; Škunca, Nives; Lassalle, Florent; Dessimoz, Christophe

    2015-05-01

    Horizontal or Lateral Gene Transfer (HGT or LGT) is the transmission of portions of genomic DNA between organisms through a process decoupled from vertical inheritance. In the presence of HGT events, different fragments of the genome are the result of different evolutionary histories. This can therefore complicate the investigations of evolutionary relatedness of lineages and species. Also, as HGT can bring into genomes radically different genotypes from distant lineages, or even new genes bearing new functions, it is a major source of phenotypic innovation and a mechanism of niche adaptation. For example, of particular relevance to human health is the lateral transfer of antibiotic resistance and pathogenicity determinants, leading to the emergence of pathogenic lineages. Computational identification of HGT events relies upon the investigation of sequence composition or evolutionary history of genes. Sequence composition-based ("parametric") methods search for deviations from the genomic average, whereas evolutionary history-based ("phylogenetic") approaches identify genes whose evolutionary history significantly differs from that of the host species. The evaluation and benchmarking of HGT inference methods typically rely upon simulated genomes, for which the true history is known. On real data, different methods tend to infer different HGT events, and as a result it can be difficult to ascertain all but simple and clear-cut HGT events. PMID:26020646

  3. Gene-Environment Interdependence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rutter, Michael

    2007-01-01

    Behavioural genetics was initially concerned with partitioning population variance into that due to genetics and that due to environmental influences. The implication was that the two were separate and it was assumed that gene-environment interactions were usually of so little importance that they could safely be ignored. Theoretical…

  4. Zmspds2 maize gene

    PubMed Central

    Rodríguez-Kessler, Margarita

    2008-01-01

    During the last decade, growing evidence has arisen referring the importance of the proper regulation of plant polyamine metabolism in the response to stress conditions. Being the activation of signaling pathways, the stabilization of anionic molecules and prevention of their degradation, as well as the free radical scavenger properties of polyamines some possible mechanisms exerted by these amines. Accumulation of polyamines (putrescine, spermidine and spermine) has been associated to plant tolerance to a wide array of environmental stresses. The synthesis of spermidine and spermine is mediated by aminopropyltransferases (spermidine and spermine synthases) which constitute a class of widely distributed enzymes that use decarboxylated S-adenosylmethionine as an aminopropyl donor, and putrescine or spermidine as an amino acceptor. We recently reported the effect of salt stress on the expression of aminopropyltransferase genes in maize seedlings. Our data revealed a time and NaCl dependent regulation of the Zmspds2 and Zmspds1 genes, possibly mediated by abscisic acid, since these genes were regulated at the transcriptional level by this plant hormone. In this addendum, we show that the Zmspds2 gene initially classified as spermidine synthase might encode a spermine synthase based on an in silico analysis. This is discussed in terms of protein homologies and specific amino acid substitutions between aminopropyltransferase enzymes. PMID:19704464

  5. Rhabdovirus accessory genes.

    PubMed

    Walker, Peter J; Dietzgen, Ralf G; Joubert, D Albert; Blasdell, Kim R

    2011-12-01

    The Rhabdoviridae is one of the most ecologically diverse families of RNA viruses with members infecting a wide range of organisms including placental mammals, marsupials, birds, reptiles, fish, insects and plants. The availability of complete nucleotide sequences for an increasing number of rhabdoviruses has revealed that their ecological diversity is reflected in the diversity and complexity of their genomes. The five canonical rhabdovirus structural protein genes (N, P, M, G and L) that are shared by all rhabdoviruses are overprinted, overlapped and interspersed with a multitude of novel and diverse accessory genes. Although not essential for replication in cell culture, several of these genes have been shown to have roles associated with pathogenesis and apoptosis in animals, and cell-to-cell movement in plants. Others appear to be secreted or have the characteristics of membrane-anchored glycoproteins or viroporins. However, most encode proteins of unknown function that are unrelated to any other known proteins. Understanding the roles of these accessory genes and the strategies by which rhabdoviruses use them to engage, divert and re-direct cellular processes will not only present opportunities to develop new anti-viral therapies but may also reveal aspects of cellar function that have broader significance in biology, agriculture and medicine.

  6. Genes and Vocal Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    White, Stephanie A.

    2010-01-01

    Could a mutation in a single gene be the evolutionary lynchpin supporting the development of human language? A rare mutation in the molecule known as FOXP2 discovered in a human family seemed to suggest so, and its sequence phylogeny reinforced a Chomskian view that language emerged wholesale in humans. Spurred by this discovery, research in…

  7. Inferring Horizontal Gene Transfer

    PubMed Central

    Lassalle, Florent; Dessimoz, Christophe

    2015-01-01

    Horizontal or Lateral Gene Transfer (HGT or LGT) is the transmission of portions of genomic DNA between organisms through a process decoupled from vertical inheritance. In the presence of HGT events, different fragments of the genome are the result of different evolutionary histories. This can therefore complicate the investigations of evolutionary relatedness of lineages and species. Also, as HGT can bring into genomes radically different genotypes from distant lineages, or even new genes bearing new functions, it is a major source of phenotypic innovation and a mechanism of niche adaptation. For example, of particular relevance to human health is the lateral transfer of antibiotic resistance and pathogenicity determinants, leading to the emergence of pathogenic lineages [1]. Computational identification of HGT events relies upon the investigation of sequence composition or evolutionary history of genes. Sequence composition-based ("parametric") methods search for deviations from the genomic average, whereas evolutionary history-based ("phylogenetic") approaches identify genes whose evolutionary history significantly differs from that of the host species. The evaluation and benchmarking of HGT inference methods typically rely upon simulated genomes, for which the true history is known. On real data, different methods tend to infer different HGT events, and as a result it can be difficult to ascertain all but simple and clear-cut HGT events. PMID:26020646

  8. Genes in mammalian reproduction

    SciTech Connect

    Gwatkin, R.B.L.

    1996-11-01

    This is an informative book which deals mainly with genomic imprinting, the role of steroid hormones in development, the expression of a variety of genes during development and the link to hereditary diseases. It is an up-to-date review in a field that is quickly changing and provides valuable basic information and current research trends.

  9. Airway gene therapy.

    PubMed

    Davies, Jane C; Alton, Eric W F W

    2005-01-01

    Given both the accessibility and the genetic basis of several pulmonary diseases, the lungs and airways initially seemed ideal candidates for gene therapy. Several routes of access are available, many of which have been refined and optimized for nongene drug delivery. Two respiratory diseases, cystic fibrosis (CF) and alpha1-antitrypsin (alpha1-AT) deficiency, are relatively common; the single gene responsible has been identified and current treatment strategies are not curative. This type of inherited disease was the obvious initial target for gene therapy, but it has become clear that nongenetic and acquired diseases, including cancer, may also be amenable to this approach. The majority of preclinical and clinical studies in the airway have involved viral vectors, although for diseases such as CF, likely to require repeated application, non-viral delivery systems have clear advantages. However, with both approaches a range of barriers to gene expression have been identified that are limiting success in the airway and alveolar region. This chapter reviews these issues, strategies aimed at overcoming them, and progress into clinical trials with non-viral vectors in a variety of pulmonary diseases.

  10. Gene stacking by recombinases

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Efficient methods of stacking genes into plant genomes are needed to expedite transfer of multigenic traits into diverse crops grown in a variety of environments. Over two decades of research has identified several site-specific recombinases that carry out efficient cis and trans recombination betw...

  11. Old genes experience stronger translational selection than young genes.

    PubMed

    Yin, Hongyan; Ma, Lina; Wang, Guangyu; Li, Mengwei; Zhang, Zhang

    2016-09-15

    Selection on synonymous codon usage for translation efficiency and/or accuracy has been identified as a widespread mechanism in many living organisms. However, it remains unknown whether translational selection associates closely with gene age and acts differentially on genes with different evolutionary ages. To address this issue, here we investigate the strength of translational selection acting on different aged genes in human. Our results show that old genes present stronger translational selection than young genes, demonstrating that translational selection correlates positively with gene age. We further explore the difference of translational selection in duplicates vs. singletons and in housekeeping vs. tissue-specific genes. We find that translational selection acts comparably in old singletons and old duplicates and stronger translational selection in old genes is contributed primarily by housekeeping genes. For young genes, contrastingly, singletons experience stronger translational selection than duplicates, presumably due to redundant function of duplicated genes during their early evolutionary stage. Taken together, our results indicate that translational selection acting on a gene would not be constant during all stages of evolution, associating closely with gene age.

  12. Genes2FANs: connecting genes through functional association networks

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Protein-protein, cell signaling, metabolic, and transcriptional interaction networks are useful for identifying connections between lists of experimentally identified genes/proteins. However, besides physical or co-expression interactions there are many ways in which pairs of genes, or their protein products, can be associated. By systematically incorporating knowledge on shared properties of genes from diverse sources to build functional association networks (FANs), researchers may be able to identify additional functional interactions between groups of genes that are not readily apparent. Results Genes2FANs is a web based tool and a database that utilizes 14 carefully constructed FANs and a large-scale protein-protein interaction (PPI) network to build subnetworks that connect lists of human and mouse genes. The FANs are created from mammalian gene set libraries where mouse genes are converted to their human orthologs. The tool takes as input a list of human or mouse Entrez gene symbols to produce a subnetwork and a ranked list of intermediate genes that are used to connect the query input list. In addition, users can enter any PubMed search term and then the system automatically converts the returned results to gene lists using GeneRIF. This gene list is then used as input to generate a subnetwork from the user’s PubMed query. As a case study, we applied Genes2FANs to connect disease genes from 90 well-studied disorders. We find an inverse correlation between the counts of links connecting disease genes through PPI and links connecting diseases genes through FANs, separating diseases into two categories. Conclusions Genes2FANs is a useful tool for interpreting the relationships between gene/protein lists in the context of their various functions and networks. Combining functional association interactions with physical PPIs can be useful for revealing new biology and help form hypotheses for further experimentation. Our finding that disease genes in

  13. Industrial scale gene synthesis.

    PubMed

    Notka, Frank; Liss, Michael; Wagner, Ralf

    2011-01-01

    The most recent developments in the area of deep DNA sequencing and downstream quantitative and functional analysis are rapidly adding a new dimension to understanding biochemical pathways and metabolic interdependencies. These increasing insights pave the way to designing new strategies that address public needs, including environmental applications and therapeutic inventions, or novel cell factories for sustainable and reconcilable energy or chemicals sources. Adding yet another level is building upon nonnaturally occurring networks and pathways. Recent developments in synthetic biology have created economic and reliable options for designing and synthesizing genes, operons, and eventually complete genomes. Meanwhile, high-throughput design and synthesis of extremely comprehensive DNA sequences have evolved into an enabling technology already indispensable in various life science sectors today. Here, we describe the industrial perspective of modern gene synthesis and its relationship with synthetic biology. Gene synthesis contributed significantly to the emergence of synthetic biology by not only providing the genetic material in high quality and quantity but also enabling its assembly, according to engineering design principles, in a standardized format. Synthetic biology on the other hand, added the need for assembling complex circuits and large complexes, thus fostering the development of appropriate methods and expanding the scope of applications. Synthetic biology has also stimulated interdisciplinary collaboration as well as integration of the broader public by addressing socioeconomic, philosophical, ethical, political, and legal opportunities and concerns. The demand-driven technological achievements of gene synthesis and the implemented processes are exemplified by an industrial setting of large-scale gene synthesis, describing production from order to delivery.

  14. Endovascular Gene Delivery from a Stent Platform: Gene- Eluting Stents

    PubMed Central

    Fishbein, Ilia; Chorny, Michael; Adamo, Richard F; Forbes, Scott P; Corrales, Ricardo A; Alferiev, Ivan S; Levy, Robert J

    2015-01-01

    A synergistic impact of research in the fields of post-angioplasty restenosis, drug-eluting stents and vascular gene therapy over the past 15 years has shaped the concept of gene-eluting stents. Gene-eluting stents hold promise of overcoming some biological and technical problems inherent to drug-eluting stent technology. As the field of gene-eluting stents matures it becomes evident that all three main design modules of a gene-eluting stent: a therapeutic transgene, a vector and a delivery system are equally important for accomplishing sustained inhibition of neointimal formation in arteries treated with gene delivery stents. This review summarizes prior work on stent-based gene delivery and discusses the main optimization strategies required to move the field of gene-eluting stents to clinical translation. PMID:26225356

  15. Optimal Reference Genes for Gene Expression Normalization in Trichomonas vaginalis.

    PubMed

    dos Santos, Odelta; de Vargas Rigo, Graziela; Frasson, Amanda Piccoli; Macedo, Alexandre José; Tasca, Tiana

    2015-01-01

    Trichomonas vaginalis is the etiologic agent of trichomonosis, the most common non-viral sexually transmitted disease worldwide. This infection is associated with several health consequences, including cervical and prostate cancers and HIV acquisition. Gene expression analysis has been facilitated because of available genome sequences and large-scale transcriptomes in T. vaginalis, particularly using quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR), one of the most used methods for molecular studies. Reference genes for normalization are crucial to ensure the accuracy of this method. However, to the best of our knowledge, a systematic validation of reference genes has not been performed for T. vaginalis. In this study, the transcripts of nine candidate reference genes were quantified using qRT-PCR under different cultivation conditions, and the stability of these genes was compared using the geNorm and NormFinder algorithms. The most stable reference genes were α-tubulin, actin and DNATopII, and, conversely, the widely used T. vaginalis reference genes GAPDH and β-tubulin were less stable. The PFOR gene was used to validate the reliability of the use of these candidate reference genes. As expected, the PFOR gene was upregulated when the trophozoites were cultivated with ferrous ammonium sulfate when the DNATopII, α-tubulin and actin genes were used as normalizing gene. By contrast, the PFOR gene was downregulated when the GAPDH gene was used as an internal control, leading to misinterpretation of the data. These results provide an important starting point for reference gene selection and gene expression analysis with qRT-PCR studies of T. vaginalis.

  16. Optimal Reference Genes for Gene Expression Normalization in Trichomonas vaginalis.

    PubMed

    dos Santos, Odelta; de Vargas Rigo, Graziela; Frasson, Amanda Piccoli; Macedo, Alexandre José; Tasca, Tiana

    2015-01-01

    Trichomonas vaginalis is the etiologic agent of trichomonosis, the most common non-viral sexually transmitted disease worldwide. This infection is associated with several health consequences, including cervical and prostate cancers and HIV acquisition. Gene expression analysis has been facilitated because of available genome sequences and large-scale transcriptomes in T. vaginalis, particularly using quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR), one of the most used methods for molecular studies. Reference genes for normalization are crucial to ensure the accuracy of this method. However, to the best of our knowledge, a systematic validation of reference genes has not been performed for T. vaginalis. In this study, the transcripts of nine candidate reference genes were quantified using qRT-PCR under different cultivation conditions, and the stability of these genes was compared using the geNorm and NormFinder algorithms. The most stable reference genes were α-tubulin, actin and DNATopII, and, conversely, the widely used T. vaginalis reference genes GAPDH and β-tubulin were less stable. The PFOR gene was used to validate the reliability of the use of these candidate reference genes. As expected, the PFOR gene was upregulated when the trophozoites were cultivated with ferrous ammonium sulfate when the DNATopII, α-tubulin and actin genes were used as normalizing gene. By contrast, the PFOR gene was downregulated when the GAPDH gene was used as an internal control, leading to misinterpretation of the data. These results provide an important starting point for reference gene selection and gene expression analysis with qRT-PCR studies of T. vaginalis. PMID:26393928

  17. Optimal Reference Genes for Gene Expression Normalization in Trichomonas vaginalis

    PubMed Central

    dos Santos, Odelta; de Vargas Rigo, Graziela; Frasson, Amanda Piccoli; Macedo, Alexandre José; Tasca, Tiana

    2015-01-01

    Trichomonas vaginalis is the etiologic agent of trichomonosis, the most common non-viral sexually transmitted disease worldwide. This infection is associated with several health consequences, including cervical and prostate cancers and HIV acquisition. Gene expression analysis has been facilitated because of available genome sequences and large-scale transcriptomes in T. vaginalis, particularly using quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR), one of the most used methods for molecular studies. Reference genes for normalization are crucial to ensure the accuracy of this method. However, to the best of our knowledge, a systematic validation of reference genes has not been performed for T. vaginalis. In this study, the transcripts of nine candidate reference genes were quantified using qRT-PCR under different cultivation conditions, and the stability of these genes was compared using the geNorm and NormFinder algorithms. The most stable reference genes were α-tubulin, actin and DNATopII, and, conversely, the widely used T. vaginalis reference genes GAPDH and β-tubulin were less stable. The PFOR gene was used to validate the reliability of the use of these candidate reference genes. As expected, the PFOR gene was upregulated when the trophozoites were cultivated with ferrous ammonium sulfate when the DNATopII, α-tubulin and actin genes were used as normalizing gene. By contrast, the PFOR gene was downregulated when the GAPDH gene was used as an internal control, leading to misinterpretation of the data. These results provide an important starting point for reference gene selection and gene expression analysis with qRT-PCR studies of T. vaginalis. PMID:26393928

  18. Dominance from the perspective of gene-gene and gene-chemical interactions.

    PubMed

    Gladki, Arkadiusz; Zielenkiewicz, Piotr; Kaczanowski, Szymon

    2016-02-01

    In this study, we used genetic interaction (GI) and gene-chemical interaction (GCI) data to compare mutations with different dominance phenotypes. Our analysis focused primarily on Saccharomyces cerevisiae, where haploinsufficient genes (HI; genes with dominant loss-of-function mutations) were found to be participating in gene expression processes, namely, the translation and regulation of gene transcription. Non-ribosomal HI genes (mainly regulators of gene transcription) were found to have more GIs and GCIs than haplosufficient (HS) genes. Several properties seem to lead to the enrichment of interactions, most notably, the following: importance, pleiotropy, gene expression level and gene expression variation. Importantly, after these properties were appropriately considered in the analysis, the correlation between dominance and GI/GCI degrees was still observed. Strikingly, for the GCIs of heterozygous strains, haploinsufficiency was the only property significantly correlated with the number of GCIs. We found ribosomal HI genes to be depleted in GIs/GCIs. This finding can be explained by their high variation in gene expression under different genetic backgrounds and environmental conditions. We observed the same distributions of GIs among non-ribosomal HI, ribosomal HI and HS genes in three other species: Schizosaccharomyces pombe, Drosophila melanogaster and Homo sapiens. One potentially interesting exception was the lack of significant differences in the degree of GIs between non-ribosomal HI and HS genes in Schizosaccharomyces pombe.

  19. Avirulence Genes in Cereal Powdery Mildews: The Gene-for-Gene Hypothesis 2.0.

    PubMed

    Bourras, Salim; McNally, Kaitlin E; Müller, Marion C; Wicker, Thomas; Keller, Beat

    2016-01-01

    The gene-for-gene hypothesis states that for each gene controlling resistance in the host, there is a corresponding, specific gene controlling avirulence in the pathogen. Allelic series of the cereal mildew resistance genes Pm3 and Mla provide an excellent system for genetic and molecular analysis of resistance specificity. Despite this opportunity for molecular research, avirulence genes in mildews remain underexplored. Earlier work in barley powdery mildew (B.g. hordei) has shown that the reaction to some Mla resistance alleles is controlled by multiple genes. Similarly, several genes are involved in the specific interaction of wheat mildew (B.g. tritici) with the Pm3 allelic series. We found that two mildew genes control avirulence on Pm3f: one gene is involved in recognition by the resistance protein as demonstrated by functional studies in wheat and the heterologous host Nicotiana benthamiana. A second gene is a suppressor, and resistance is only observed in mildew genotypes combining the inactive suppressor and the recognized Avr. We propose that such suppressor/avirulence gene combinations provide the basis of specificity in mildews. Depending on the particular gene combinations in a mildew race, different genes will be genetically identified as the "avirulence" gene. Additionally, the observation of two LINE retrotransposon-encoded avirulence genes in B.g. hordei further suggests that the control of avirulence in mildew is more complex than a canonical gene-for-gene interaction. To fully understand the mildew-cereal interactions, more knowledge on avirulence determinants is needed and we propose ways how this can be achieved based on recent advances in the field.

  20. Avirulence Genes in Cereal Powdery Mildews: The Gene-for-Gene Hypothesis 2.0

    PubMed Central

    Bourras, Salim; McNally, Kaitlin E.; Müller, Marion C.; Wicker, Thomas; Keller, Beat

    2016-01-01

    The gene-for-gene hypothesis states that for each gene controlling resistance in the host, there is a corresponding, specific gene controlling avirulence in the pathogen. Allelic series of the cereal mildew resistance genes Pm3 and Mla provide an excellent system for genetic and molecular analysis of resistance specificity. Despite this opportunity for molecular research, avirulence genes in mildews remain underexplored. Earlier work in barley powdery mildew (B.g. hordei) has shown that the reaction to some Mla resistance alleles is controlled by multiple genes. Similarly, several genes are involved in the specific interaction of wheat mildew (B.g. tritici) with the Pm3 allelic series. We found that two mildew genes control avirulence on Pm3f: one gene is involved in recognition by the resistance protein as demonstrated by functional studies in wheat and the heterologous host Nicotiana benthamiana. A second gene is a suppressor, and resistance is only observed in mildew genotypes combining the inactive suppressor and the recognized Avr. We propose that such suppressor/avirulence gene combinations provide the basis of specificity in mildews. Depending on the particular gene combinations in a mildew race, different genes will be genetically identified as the “avirulence” gene. Additionally, the observation of two LINE retrotransposon-encoded avirulence genes in B.g. hordei further suggests that the control of avirulence in mildew is more complex than a canonical gene-for-gene interaction. To fully understand the mildew–cereal interactions, more knowledge on avirulence determinants is needed and we propose ways how this can be achieved based on recent advances in the field. PMID:26973683

  1. Chapter 15: Disease Gene Prioritization

    PubMed Central

    Bromberg, Yana

    2013-01-01

    Disease-causing aberrations in the normal function of a gene define that gene as a disease gene. Proving a causal link between a gene and a disease experimentally is expensive and time-consuming. Comprehensive prioritization of candidate genes prior to experimental testing drastically reduces the associated costs. Computational gene prioritization is based on various pieces of correlative evidence that associate each gene with the given disease and suggest possible causal links. A fair amount of this evidence comes from high-throughput experimentation. Thus, well-developed methods are necessary to reliably deal with the quantity of information at hand. Existing gene prioritization techniques already significantly improve the outcomes of targeted experimental studies. Faster and more reliable techniques that account for novel data types are necessary for the development of new diagnostics, treatments, and cure for many diseases. PMID:23633938

  2. Evolutionary genomics: transdomain gene transfers.

    PubMed

    Bordenstein, Seth R

    2007-11-01

    Biologists have until now conceded that bacterial gene transfer to multicellular animals is relatively uncommon in Nature. A new study showing promiscuous insertions of bacterial endosymbiont genes into invertebrate genomes ushers in a shift in this paradigm.

  3. Gene Therapy for Lung Cancer.

    PubMed

    Lara-Guerra, Humberto; Roth, Jack A

    2016-01-01

    Gene therapy was originally conceived to treat monogenic diseases. The replacement of a defective gene with a functional gene can theoretically cure the disease. In cancer, multiple genetic defects are present and the molecular profile changes during the course of the disease, making the replacement of all defective genes impossible. To overcome these difficulties, various gene therapy strategies have been adopted, including immune stimulation, transfer of suicide genes, inhibition of driver oncogenes, replacement of tumor-suppressor genes that could mediate apoptosis or anti-angiogenesis, and transfer of genes that enhance conventional treatments such as radiotherapy and chemotherapy. Some of these strategies have been tested successfully in non-small-cell lung cancer patients and the results of laboratory studies and clinical trials are reviewed herein. PMID:27481008

  4. Gene Testing for Hereditary Ataxia

    MedlinePlus

    ... have a family history of ataxia, but diagnostic tests for known ataxia genes cannot explain the ataxia in their family. In recent years, scientists have developed technologies to sequence thousands of genes at the same ...

  5. A cloned ATP:guanidino kinase in the trematode Schistosoma mansoni has a novel duplicated structure.

    PubMed

    Stein, L D; Harn, D A; David, J R

    1990-04-25

    Creatine kinase (CK) is part of a conserved family of ATP:guanidino phosphotransferases whose members play important roles in intracellular energy flow. Previously characterized members of this family are approximately 80-kDa dimers of two related 40-kDa subunits. We have cloned a gene from the parasitic trematode Schistosoma mansoni which has substantial amino acid sequence similarities to CK. Like the genes for vertebrate CKs, this gene is developmentally regulated; mRNA levels are high in the infective cercarial stage but rapidly decrease upon transformation to the parasitic schistosomulum stage. In contrast to members of the guanidino phosphotransferase family characterized previously, however, the schistosome gene appears to be a direct fusion of two CK-like domains that encode a single 74-kDa polypeptide. Correlative evidence from enzyme assays of crude parasite homogenates suggests that the cloned gene is a creatine kinase. This represents the first molecular cloning of an invertebrate ATP:guanidino phosphotransferase.

  6. RNA-mediated gene activation

    PubMed Central

    Jiao, Alan L; Slack, Frank J

    2014-01-01

    The regulation of gene expression by non-coding RNAs (ncRNAs) has become a new paradigm in biology. RNA-mediated gene silencing pathways have been studied extensively, revealing diverse epigenetic and posttranscriptional mechanisms. In contrast, the roles of ncRNAs in activating gene expression remains poorly understood. In this review, we summarize the current knowledge of gene activation by small RNAs, long non-coding RNAs, and enhancer-derived RNAs, with an emphasis on epigenetic mechanisms. PMID:24185374

  7. Gene expression technology

    SciTech Connect

    Goeddel, D.V. )

    1990-01-01

    The articles in this volume were assemble to enable the reader to design effective strategies for the expression of cloned genes and cDNAs. More than a compilation of papers describing the multitude of techniques now available for expressing cloned genes, this volume provides a manual that should prove useful for solving the majority of expression problems one likely to encounter. The four major expression systems commonly available to most investigators are stressed: Escherichia coli, Bacillus subtilis, yeast, and mammalian cells. Each of these system has its advantages and disadvantages, details of which are found in Chapter 1 and the strategic overviews for the four major sections of the volume. The papers in each of these sections provide many suggestions on how to proceed if initial expression levels are not sufficient.

  8. Brains, Genes and Primates

    PubMed Central

    Belmonte, Juan Carlos Izpisua; Callaway, Edward M.; Churchland, Patricia; Caddick, Sarah J.; Feng, Guoping; Homanics, Gregg E.; Lee, Kuo-Fen; Leopold, David A.; Miller, Cory T.; Mitchell, Jude F.; Mitalipov, Shoukhrat; Moutri, Alysson R.; Movshon, J. Anthony; Okano, Hideyuki; Reynolds, John H.; Ringach, Dario; Sejnowski, Terrence J.; Silva, Afonso C.; Strick, Peter L.; Wu, Jun; Zhang, Feng

    2015-01-01

    One of the great strengths of the mouse model is the wide array of genetic tools that have been developed. Striking examples include methods for directed modification of the genome, and for regulated expression or inactivation of genes. Within neuroscience, it is now routine to express reporter genes, neuronal activity indicators and opsins in specific neuronal types in the mouse. However, there are considerable anatomical, physiological, cognitive and behavioral differences between the mouse and the human that, in some areas of inquiry, limit the degree to which insights derived from the mouse can be applied to understanding human neurobiology. Several recent advances have now brought into reach the goal of applying these tools to understanding the primate brain. Here we describe these advances, consider their potential to advance our understanding of the human brain and brain disorders, discuss bioethical considerations, and describe what will be needed to move forward. PMID:25950631

  9. Agrobacterium virulence gene induction.

    PubMed

    Gelvin, Stanton B

    2006-01-01

    The ability of Agrobacterium to transform plants and other organisms is under highly regulated genetic control. Two Virulence (Vir) proteins, VirA and VirG, function as a two-component regulatory system to sense particular phenolic compounds synthesized by wounded plant tissues. Induction by these phenolic compounds, in the presence of certain neutral or acid sugars, results in activation of other vir genes, leading to the processing of T-DNA from the Ti-plasmid and transfer of T-DNA to recipient host cells. Many plant, and most nonplant, species do not provide sufficient quantities of the correct phenolic compounds to permit efficient Agrobacterium-mediated genetic transformation to occur. In order to transform these species, phenolic inducing compounds must be added to agrobacteria before and/or during cocultivation of recipient cells with the bacteria. This chapter discusses conditions for efficient induction of Agrobacterium virulence genes by phenolic compounds. PMID:16988335

  10. Graphene based gene transfection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feng, Liangzhu; Zhang, Shuai; Liu, Zhuang

    2011-03-01

    Graphene as a star in materials research has been attracting tremendous attentions in the past few years in various fields including biomedicine. In this work, for the first time we successfully use graphene as a non-toxic nano-vehicle for efficient gene transfection. Graphene oxide (GO) is bound with cationic polymers, polyethyleneimine (PEI) with two different molecular weights at 1.2 kDa and 10 kDa, forming GO-PEI-1.2k and GO-PEG-10k complexes, respectively, both of which are stable in physiological solutions. Cellular toxicity tests reveal that our GO-PEI-10k complex exhibits significantly reduced toxicity to the treated cells compared to the bare PEI-10k polymer. The positively charged GO-PEI complexes are able to further bind with plasmid DNA (pDNA) for intracellular transfection of the enhanced green fluorescence protein (EGFP) gene in HeLa cells. While EGFP transfection with PEI-1.2k appears to be ineffective, high EGFP expression is observed using the corresponding GO-PEI-1.2k as the transfection agent. On the other hand, GO-PEI-10k shows similar EGFP transfection efficiency but lower toxicity compared with PEI-10k. Our results suggest graphene to be a novel gene delivery nano-vector with low cytotoxicity and high transfection efficiency, promising for future applications in non-viral based gene therapy.Graphene as a star in materials research has been attracting tremendous attentions in the past few years in various fields including biomedicine. In this work, for the first time we successfully use graphene as a non-toxic nano-vehicle for efficient gene transfection. Graphene oxide (GO) is bound with cationic polymers, polyethyleneimine (PEI) with two different molecular weights at 1.2 kDa and 10 kDa, forming GO-PEI-1.2k and GO-PEG-10k complexes, respectively, both of which are stable in physiological solutions. Cellular toxicity tests reveal that our GO-PEI-10k complex exhibits significantly reduced toxicity to the treated cells compared to the bare PEI

  11. ToppGene Suite for gene list enrichment analysis and candidate gene prioritization

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Jing; Bardes, Eric E.; Aronow, Bruce J.; Jegga, Anil G.

    2009-01-01

    ToppGene Suite (http://toppgene.cchmc.org; this web site is free and open to all users and does not require a login to access) is a one-stop portal for (i) gene list functional enrichment, (ii) candidate gene prioritization using either functional annotations or network analysis and (iii) identification and prioritization of novel disease candidate genes in the interactome. Functional annotation-based disease candidate gene prioritization uses a fuzzy-based similarity measure to compute the similarity between any two genes based on semantic annotations. The similarity scores from individual features are combined into an overall score using statistical meta-analysis. A P-value of each annotation of a test gene is derived by random sampling of the whole genome. The protein–protein interaction network (PPIN)-based disease candidate gene prioritization uses social and Web networks analysis algorithms (extended versions of the PageRank and HITS algorithms, and the K-Step Markov method). We demonstrate the utility of ToppGene Suite using 20 recently reported GWAS-based gene–disease associations (including novel disease genes) representing five diseases. ToppGene ranked 19 of 20 (95%) candidate genes within the top 20%, while ToppNet ranked 12 of 16 (75%) candidate genes among the top 20%. PMID:19465376

  12. Independent Gene Discovery and Testing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Palsule, Vrushalee; Coric, Dijana; Delancy, Russell; Dunham, Heather; Melancon, Caleb; Thompson, Dennis; Toms, Jamie; White, Ashley; Shultz, Jeffry

    2010-01-01

    A clear understanding of basic gene structure is critical when teaching molecular genetics, the central dogma and the biological sciences. We sought to create a gene-based teaching project to improve students' understanding of gene structure and to integrate this into a research project that can be implemented by instructors at the secondary level…

  13. nanosheets for gene therapy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kou, Zhongyang; Wang, Xin; Yuan, Renshun; Chen, Huabin; Zhi, Qiaoming; Gao, Ling; Wang, Bin; Guo, Zhaoji; Xue, Xiaofeng; Cao, Wei; Guo, Liang

    2014-10-01

    A new class of two-dimensional (2D) nanomaterial, transition metal dichalcogenides (TMDCs) such as MoS2, MoSe2, WS2, and WSe2 which have fantastic physical and chemical properties, has drawn tremendous attention in different fields recently. Herein, we for the first time take advantage of the great potential of MoS2 with well-engineered surface as a novel type of 2D nanocarriers for gene delivery and therapy of cancer. In our system, positively charged MoS2-PEG-PEI is synthesized with lipoic acid-modified polyethylene glycol (LA-PEG) and branched polyethylenimine (PEI). The amino end of positively charged nanomaterials can bind to the negatively charged small interfering RNA (siRNA). After detection of physical and chemical characteristics of the nanomaterial, cell toxicity was evaluated by 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay. Polo-like kinase 1 (PLK1) was investigated as a well-known oncogene, which was a critical regulator of cell cycle transmission at multiple levels. Through knockdown of PLK1 with siRNA carried by novel nanovector, qPCR and Western blot were used to measure the interfering efficiency; apoptosis assay was used to detect the transfection effect of PLK1. All results showed that the novel nanocarrier revealed good biocompatibility, reduced cytotoxicity, as well as high gene-carrying ability without serum interference, thus would have great potential for gene delivery and therapy.

  14. From SNPs to Genes: Disease Association at the Gene Level

    PubMed Central

    Lehne, Benjamin; Lewis, Cathryn M.; Schlitt, Thomas

    2011-01-01

    Interpreting Genome-Wide Association Studies (GWAS) at a gene level is an important step towards understanding the molecular processes that lead to disease. In order to incorporate prior biological knowledge such as pathways and protein interactions in the analysis of GWAS data it is necessary to derive one measure of association for each gene. We compare three different methods to obtain gene-wide test statistics from Single Nucleotide Polymorphism (SNP) based association data: choosing the test statistic from the most significant SNP; the mean test statistics of all SNPs; and the mean of the top quartile of all test statistics. We demonstrate that the gene-wide test statistics can be controlled for the number of SNPs within each gene and show that all three methods perform considerably better than expected by chance at identifying genes with confirmed associations. By applying each method to GWAS data for Crohn's Disease and Type 1 Diabetes we identified new potential disease genes. PMID:21738570

  15. Physical methods for gene transfer.

    PubMed

    Alsaggar, Mohammad; Liu, Dexi

    2015-01-01

    The key impediment to the successful application of gene therapy in clinics is not the paucity of therapeutic genes. It is rather the lack of nontoxic and efficient strategies to transfer therapeutic genes into target cells. Over the past few decades, considerable progress has been made in gene transfer technologies, and thus far, three different delivery systems have been developed with merits and demerits characterizing each system. Viral and chemical methods of gene transfer utilize specialized carrier to overcome membrane barrier and facilitate gene transfer into cells. Physical methods, on the other hand, utilize various forms of mechanical forces to enforce gene entry into cells. Starting in 1980s, physical methods have been introduced as alternatives to viral and chemical methods to overcome various extra- and intracellular barriers that limit the amount of DNA reaching the intended cells. Accumulating evidence suggests that it is quite feasible to directly translocate genes into cytoplasm or even nuclei of target cells by means of mechanical force, bypassing endocytosis, a common pathway for viral and nonviral vectors. Indeed, several methods have been developed, and the majority of them share the same underlying mechanism of gene transfer, i.e., physically created transient pores in cell membrane through which genes get into cells. Here, we provide an overview of the current status and future research directions in the field of physical methods of gene transfer.

  16. Horizontal gene transfer in choanoflagellates.

    PubMed

    Tucker, Richard P

    2013-01-01

    Horizontal gene transfer (HGT), also known as lateral gene transfer, results in the rapid acquisition of genes from another organism. HGT has long been known to be a driving force in speciation in prokaryotes, and there is evidence for HGT from symbiotic and infectious bacteria to metazoans, as well as from protists to bacteria. Recently, it has become clear that as many as a 1,000 genes in the genome of the choanoflagellate Monosiga brevicollis may have been acquired by HGT. Interestingly, these genes reportedly come from algae, bacteria, and other choanoflagellate prey. Some of these genes appear to have allowed an ancestral choanoflagellate to exploit nutrient-poor environments and were not passed on to metazoan descendents. However, some of these genes are also found in animal genomes, suggesting that HGT into a common ancestor of choanozoans and animals may have contributed to metazoan evolution.

  17. RANGE: Gene Transfer of Reversibly Controlled Polycistronic Genes

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Yiwei; Cao, Liji; Luo, Chonglin; Ditzel, Désirée AW; Peter, Jörg; Sprengel, Rolf

    2013-01-01

    We developed a single vector recombinant adeno-associated viral (rAAV) expression system for spatial and reversible control of polycistronic gene expression. Our approach (i) integrates the advantages of the tetracycline (Tet)-controlled transcriptional silencer tTSKid and the self-cleaving 2A peptide bridge, (ii) combines essential regulatory components as an autoregulatory loop, (iii) simplifies the gene delivery scheme, and (iv) regulates multiple genes in a synchronized manner. Controlled by an upstream Tet-responsive element (TRE), both the ubiquitous chicken β-actin promoter (CAG) and the neuron-specific synapsin-1 promoter (Syn) could regulate expression of tTSKid together with two 2A-linked reporter genes. Transduction in vitro exhibited maximally 50-fold regulation by doxycycline (Dox). Determined by gene delivery method as well as promoter, highly specific tissues were transduced in vivo. Bioluminescence imaging (BLI) visualized reversible “ON/OFF” gene switches over repeated “Doxy-Cycling” in living mice. Thus, the reversible rAAV-mediated N-cistronic gene expression system, termed RANGE, may serve as a versatile tool to achieve reversible polycistronic gene regulation for the study of gene function as well as gene therapy. PMID:23571608

  18. Diseases originate and terminate by genes: unraveling nonviral gene delivery.

    PubMed

    Swami, Rajan; Singh, Indu; Khan, Wahid; Ramakrishna, Sistla

    2013-12-01

    The world is driving in to the era of transformation of chemical therapeutic molecules to biological genetic material therapeutics, and that is where the biological drugs especially "genes" come into existence. These genes worked as "magical bullets" to specifically silence faulty genes responsible for progression of diseases. Viral gene delivery research is far ahead of nonviral gene delivery technique. However, with more advancement in polymer science, new ways are opening for better and efficient nonviral gene delivery. But efficient delivery method is always considered as a bottleneck for gene delivery as success of which will decide the fate of gene in cells. During the past decade, it became evident that extracellular as well as intracellular barriers compromise the transfection efficiency of nonviral vectors. The challenge for gene therapy research is to pinpoint the rate-limiting steps in this complex process and implement strategies to overcome the biological physiochemical and metabolic barriers encountered during targeting. The synergy between studies that investigate the mechanism of breaking in and breaking out of nonviral gene delivery carrier through various extracellular and intracellular barriers with desired characteristics will enable the rational design of vehicles and revolutionize the treatment of various diseases.

  19. The Gene Wiki: community intelligence applied to human gene annotation.

    PubMed

    Huss, Jon W; Lindenbaum, Pierre; Martone, Michael; Roberts, Donabel; Pizarro, Angel; Valafar, Faramarz; Hogenesch, John B; Su, Andrew I

    2010-01-01

    Annotating the function of all human genes is a critical, yet formidable, challenge. Current gene annotation efforts focus on centralized curation resources, but it is increasingly clear that this approach does not scale with the rapid growth of the biomedical literature. The Gene Wiki utilizes an alternative and complementary model based on the principle of community intelligence. Directly integrated within the online encyclopedia, Wikipedia, the goal of this effort is to build a gene-specific review article for every gene in the human genome, where each article is collaboratively written, continuously updated and community reviewed. Previously, we described the creation of Gene Wiki 'stubs' for approximately 9000 human genes. Here, we describe ongoing systematic improvements to these articles to increase their utility. Moreover, we retrospectively examine the community usage and improvement of the Gene Wiki, providing evidence of a critical mass of users and editors. Gene Wiki articles are freely accessible within the Wikipedia web site, and additional links and information are available at http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Portal:Gene_Wiki.

  20. Five New Genes Linked to Colon Cancer

    MedlinePlus

    ... More Health News on: Colorectal Cancer Genes and Gene Therapy Recent Health News Related MedlinePlus Health Topics Colorectal Cancer Genes and Gene Therapy About MedlinePlus Site Map FAQs Contact Us Get ...

  1. Breast cancer susceptibility genes.

    PubMed

    Lubinski, Jan; Korzen, Marcin; Gorski, Bohdan; Cybulski, Cezary; Debniak, Tadeusz; Jakubowska, Anna; Medrek, Krzysztof; Matyjasik, Joanna; Huzarski, Tomasz; Byrski, Tomasz; Gronwald, Jacek; Masojc, Bartlomiej; Lener, Marcin; Szymanska, Anna; Szymanska-Pasternak, Jolanta; Fernandez, Pablo Serrano; Wokolorczyk, Dominika; Piegat, Andrzej; Ucinski, Michal; Domagala, Pawel; Kladny, Jozef; Gorecka, Barbara; Scott, Rodney; Narod, Steven

    2007-09-01

    In 1999 it has been recognized that 3 BRCA1 abnormalities - 5382insC, C61G and 4153delA - constitute almost 90% of all germline mutations of this gene in Poland. Due to the above findings we started performing the cheap and quick large scale testing for BRCA1 mutations and, these days, we have almost 4,000 carriers diagnosed and under direct or indirect supervision what is probably the largest number in the world. Additionally, the above results pushed us to hypothesize that genetic homogeneity will be seen in Poland in studies of other genes. Actually, the next studies allowed us to identify genes / changes associated with moderate / low breast cancer risk and showed, similarly to BRCA1, high level of genetic homogeneity. This series included BRCA2, C5972T, CHEK2 del5395; 1100delC, I157T or IVS2 + 1G > A, CDKN2A (p16) A148T, XPD Asp312Asn and Lys751Gln, CYP1B1 R48G, A119S and L43V. The results of the above studies led us in 2004 already to hypothesize that >90% of all cancers have genetic (constitutional) background. Two years later we were able to show a panel of markers covering 92% of consecutive breast cancers in Poland, and we formulated the hypothesis that all cancers have a genetic background. These days we are demonstrating for the first time that genetic components to malignancy play a role in all cancers. We are presenting it on examples of late-onset breast cancers from Poland, but it seems to be justified to expect that similar results can be achieved from other malignancies. PMID:17935274

  2. Gene transfer: transduction.

    PubMed

    Frangipani, Emanuela

    2014-01-01

    Bacteriophages able to propagate on Pseudomonas strains are very common and can be easily isolated from natural environments or lysogenic strains. The development of transducing systems has allowed bacterial geneticists to perform chromosome analyses and mutation mapping. Moreover, these systems have also been proved to be a successful tool for molecular microbiologists to introduce a foreign gene or a mutation into the chromosome of a bacterial cell. This chapter provides a description of the phage methodology illustrated by Adams in 1959 and applicable to strain PAO1 derivatives. PMID:24818891

  3. MYCN Gene Amplification

    PubMed Central

    Yoshimoto, Maisa; Caminada de Toledo, Silvia Regina; Monteiro Caran, Eliana Maria; de Seixas, Maria Teresa; de Martino Lee, Maria Lucia; de Campos Vieira Abib, Simone; Vianna, Sonia Maria Rossi; Schettini, Sergio Thomaz; Anderson Duffles Andrade, Joyce

    1999-01-01

    Neuroblastoma is the second most common solid tumor occurring in children. Amplification of the MYCN oncogene is associated with poor prognosis. To identify neuroblastoma tumors with MYCN amplification, we studied the number of copies of MYCN in interphase cells by fluorescence in situ hybridization in 20 neuroblastoma patients. MYCN amplification appeared in 7 tumor specimens. Interphase and metaphase studies showed a tumor cell population with both forms of amplification, double minutes and homogeneously staining regions, in two patients. These patients showed a smaller tumor cell subpopulation with the presence of more than one homogeneously staining region, suggesting that gene amplification was undergoing karyotype evolution. PMID:10550298

  4. Computation in gene networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ben-Hur, Asa; Siegelmann, Hava T.

    2004-03-01

    Genetic regulatory networks have the complex task of controlling all aspects of life. Using a model of gene expression by piecewise linear differential equations we show that this process can be considered as a process of computation. This is demonstrated by showing that this model can simulate memory bounded Turing machines. The simulation is robust with respect to perturbations of the system, an important property for both analog computers and biological systems. Robustness is achieved using a condition that ensures that the model equations, that are generally chaotic, follow a predictable dynamics.

  5. Human AZU-1 gene, variants thereof and expressed gene products

    DOEpatents

    Chen, Huei-Mei; Bissell, Mina

    2004-06-22

    A human AZU-1 gene, mutants, variants and fragments thereof. Protein products encoded by the AZU-1 gene and homologs encoded by the variants of AZU-1 gene acting as tumor suppressors or markers of malignancy progression and tumorigenicity reversion. Identification, isolation and characterization of AZU-1 and AZU-2 genes localized to a tumor suppressive locus at chromosome 10q26, highly expressed in nonmalignant and premalignant cells derived from a human breast tumor progression model. A recombinant full length protein sequences encoded by the AZU-1 gene and nucleotide sequences of AZU-1 and AZU-2 genes and variant and fragments thereof. Monoclonal or polyclonal antibodies specific to AZU-1, AZU-2 encoded protein and to AZU-1, or AZU-2 encoded protein homologs.

  6. Imprinting genes associated with endometriosis

    PubMed Central

    Kobayashi, Hiroshi

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: Much work has been carried out to investigate the genetic and epigenetic basis of endometriosis and proposed that endometriosis has been described as an epigenetic disease. The purpose of this study was to extract the imprinting genes that are associated with endometriosis development. Methods: The information on the imprinting genes can be accessed publicly from a web-based interface at http://www.geneimprint.com/site/genes-by-species. Results: In the current version, the database contains 150 human imprinted genes derived from the literature. We searched gene functions and their roles in particular biological processes or events, such as development and pathogenesis of endometriosis. From the genomic imprinting database, we picked 10 genes that were highly associated with female reproduction; prominent among them were paternally expressed genes (DIRAS3, BMP8B, CYP1B1, ZFAT, IGF2, MIMT1, or MIR296) and maternally expressed genes (DVL1, FGFRL1, or CDKN1C). These imprinted genes may be associated with reproductive biology such as endometriosis, pregnancy loss, decidualization process and preeclampsia. Discussion: This study supports the possibility that aberrant epigenetic dysregulation of specific imprinting genes may contribute to endometriosis predisposition. PMID:26417259

  7. Vectors for cancer gene therapy.

    PubMed

    Zhang, J; Russell, S J

    1996-09-01

    Many viral and non-viral vector systems have now been developed for gene therapy applications. In this article, the pros and cons of these vector systems are discussed in relation to the different cancer gene therapy strategies. The protocols used in cancer gene therapy can be broadly divided into six categories including gene transfer to explanted cells for use as cell-based cancer vaccines; gene transfer to a small number of tumour cells in situ to achieve a vaccine effect; gene transfer to vascular endothelial cells (VECs) lining the blood vessels of the tumour to interfere with tumour angiogenesis; gene transfer to T lymphocytes to enhance their antitumour effector capability; gene transfer to haemopoietic stem cells (HSCs) to enhance their resistance to cytotoxic drugs and gene transfer to a large number of tumour cells in situ to achieve nonimmune tumour reduction with or without bystander effect. Each of the six strategies makes unique demands on the vector system and these are discussed with reference to currently available vectors. Aspects of vector biology that are in need of further development are discussed in some detail. The final section points to the potential use of replicating viruses as delivery vehicles for efficient in vivo gene transfer to disseminated cancers.

  8. The Zebrafish Annexin Gene Family

    PubMed Central

    Farber, Steven A.; De Rose, Robert A.; Olson, Eric S.; Halpern, Marnie E.

    2003-01-01

    The Annexins (ANXs) are a family of calcium- and phospholipid-binding proteins that have been implicated in many cellular processes, including channel formation, membrane fusion, vesicle transport, and regulation of phospholipase A2 activity. As a first step toward understanding in vivo function, we have cloned 11 zebrafish anx genes. Four genes (anx1a, anx2a, anx5,and anx11a) were identified by screening a zebrafish cDNA library with a Xenopus anx2 fragment. For these genes, full-length cDNA sequences were used to cluster 212 EST sequences generated by the Zebrafish Genome Resources Project. The EST analysis revealed seven additional anx genes that were subsequently cloned. The genetic map positions of all 11 genes were determined by using a zebrafish radiation hybrid panel. Sequence and syntenic relationships between zebrafish and human genes indicate that the 11 genes represent orthologs of human anx1,2,4,5,6,11,13,and suggest that several zebrafish anx genes resulted from duplications that arose after divergence of the zebrafish and mammalian genomes. Zebrafish anx genes are expressed in a wide range of tissues during embryonic and larval stages. Analysis of the expression patterns of duplicated genes revealed both redundancy and divergence, with the most similar genes having almost identical tissue-specific patterns of expression and with less similar duplicates showing no overlap. The differences in gene expression of recently duplicated anx genes could explain why highly related paralogs were maintained in the genome and did not rapidly become pseudogenes. PMID:12799347

  9. Learning About Gene Regulatory Networks From Gene Deletion Experiments

    PubMed Central

    Brazma, Alvis

    2002-01-01

    Gene regulatory networks are a major focus of interest in molecular biology. A crucial question is how complex regulatory systems are encoded and controlled by the genome. Three recent publications have raised the question of what can be learned about gene regulatory networks from microarray experiments on gene deletion mutants. Using this indirect approach, topological features such as connectivity and modularity have been studied. PMID:18629255

  10. Ancient origins of axial patterning genes: Hox genes and ParaHox genes in the Cnidaria.

    PubMed

    Finnerty, J R; Martindale, M Q

    1999-01-01

    Among the bilaterally symmetrical, triploblastic animals (the Bilateria), a conserved set of developmental regulatory genes are known to function in patterning the anterior-posterior (AP) axis. This set includes the well-studied Hox cluster genes, and the recently described genes of the ParaHox cluster, which is believed to be the evolutionary sister of the Hox cluster (Brooke et al. 1998). The conserved role of these axial patterning genes in animals as diverse as frogs and flies is believed to reflect an underlying homology (i.e., all bilaterians derive from a common ancestor which possessed an AP axis and the developmental mechanisms responsible for patterning the axis). However, the origin and early evolution of Hox genes and ParaHox genes remain obscure. Repeated attempts have been made to reconstruct the early evolution of Hox genes by analyzing data from the triphoblastic animals, the Bilateria (Schubert et al. 1993; Zhang and Nei 1996). A more precise dating of Hox origins has been elusive due to a lack of sufficient information from outgroup taxa such as the phylum Cnidaria (corals, hydras, jellyfishes, and sea anemones). In combination with outgroup taxa, another potential source of information about Hox origins is outgroup genes (e.g., the genes of the ParaHox cluster). In this article, we present cDNA sequences of two Hox-like genes (anthox2 and anthox6) from the sea anemone, Nematostella vectensis. Phylogenetic analysis indicates that anthox2 (= Cnox2) is homologous to the GSX class of ParaHox genes, and anthox6 is homologous to the anterior class of Hox genes. Therefore, the origin of Hox genes and ParaHox genes occurred prior to the evolutionary split between the Cnidaria and the Bilateria and predated the evolution of the anterior-posterior axis of bilaterian animals. Our analysis also suggests that the central Hox class was invented in the bilaterian lineage, subsequent to their split from the Cnidaria.

  11. Identifying driver genes in cancer by triangulating gene expression, gene location, and survival data.

    PubMed

    Rouam, Sigrid; Miller, Lance D; Karuturi, R Krishna Murthy

    2014-01-01

    Driver genes are directly responsible for oncogenesis and identifying them is essential in order to fully understand the mechanisms of cancer. However, it is difficult to delineate them from the larger pool of genes that are deregulated in cancer (ie, passenger genes). In order to address this problem, we developed an approach called TRIAngulating Gene Expression (TRIAGE through clinico-genomic intersects). Here, we present a refinement of this approach incorporating a new scoring methodology to identify putative driver genes that are deregulated in cancer. TRIAGE triangulates - or integrates - three levels of information: gene expression, gene location, and patient survival. First, TRIAGE identifies regions of deregulated expression (ie, expression footprints) by deriving a newly established measure called the Local Singular Value Decomposition (LSVD) score for each locus. Driver genes are then distinguished from passenger genes using dual survival analyses. Incorporating measurements of gene expression and weighting them according to the LSVD weight of each tumor, these analyses are performed using the genes located in significant expression footprints. Here, we first use simulated data to characterize the newly established LSVD score. We then present the results of our application of this refined version of TRIAGE to gene expression data from five cancer types. This refined version of TRIAGE not only allowed us to identify known prominent driver genes, such as MMP1, IL8, and COL1A2, but it also led us to identify several novel ones. These results illustrate that TRIAGE complements existing tools, allows for the identification of genes that drive cancer and could perhaps elucidate potential future targets of novel anticancer therapeutics.

  12. Ancient origins of axial patterning genes: Hox genes and ParaHox genes in the Cnidaria.

    PubMed

    Finnerty, J R; Martindale, M Q

    1999-01-01

    Among the bilaterally symmetrical, triploblastic animals (the Bilateria), a conserved set of developmental regulatory genes are known to function in patterning the anterior-posterior (AP) axis. This set includes the well-studied Hox cluster genes, and the recently described genes of the ParaHox cluster, which is believed to be the evolutionary sister of the Hox cluster (Brooke et al. 1998). The conserved role of these axial patterning genes in animals as diverse as frogs and flies is believed to reflect an underlying homology (i.e., all bilaterians derive from a common ancestor which possessed an AP axis and the developmental mechanisms responsible for patterning the axis). However, the origin and early evolution of Hox genes and ParaHox genes remain obscure. Repeated attempts have been made to reconstruct the early evolution of Hox genes by analyzing data from the triphoblastic animals, the Bilateria (Schubert et al. 1993; Zhang and Nei 1996). A more precise dating of Hox origins has been elusive due to a lack of sufficient information from outgroup taxa such as the phylum Cnidaria (corals, hydras, jellyfishes, and sea anemones). In combination with outgroup taxa, another potential source of information about Hox origins is outgroup genes (e.g., the genes of the ParaHox cluster). In this article, we present cDNA sequences of two Hox-like genes (anthox2 and anthox6) from the sea anemone, Nematostella vectensis. Phylogenetic analysis indicates that anthox2 (= Cnox2) is homologous to the GSX class of ParaHox genes, and anthox6 is homologous to the anterior class of Hox genes. Therefore, the origin of Hox genes and ParaHox genes occurred prior to the evolutionary split between the Cnidaria and the Bilateria and predated the evolution of the anterior-posterior axis of bilaterian animals. Our analysis also suggests that the central Hox class was invented in the bilaterian lineage, subsequent to their split from the Cnidaria. PMID:11324016

  13. Genes and causation.

    PubMed

    Noble, Denis

    2008-09-13

    Relating genotypes to phenotypes is problematic not only owing to the extreme complexity of the interactions between genes, proteins and high-level physiological functions but also because the paradigms for genetic causality in biological systems are seriously confused. This paper examines some of the misconceptions, starting with the changing definitions of a gene, from the cause of phenotype characters to the stretches of DNA. I then assess whether the 'digital' nature of DNA sequences guarantees primacy in causation compared to non-DNA inheritance, whether it is meaningful or useful to refer to genetic programs, and the role of high-level (downward) causation. The metaphors that served us well during the molecular biological phase of recent decades have limited or even misleading impacts in the multilevel world of systems biology. New paradigms are needed if we are to succeed in unravelling multifactorial genetic causation at higher levels of physiological function and so to explain the phenomena that genetics was originally about. Because it can solve the 'genetic differential effect problem', modelling of biological function has an essential role to play in unravelling genetic causation.

  14. Gene set enrichment analysis.

    PubMed

    Tilford, Charles A; Siemers, Nathan O

    2009-01-01

    Set enrichment analytical methods have become commonplace tools applied to the analysis and interpretation of biological data. The statistical techniques are used to identify categorical biases within lists of genes, proteins, or metabolites. The goal is to discover the shared functions or properties of the biological items represented within the lists. Application of these methods can provide great biological insight, including the discovery of participation in the same biological activity or pathway, shared interacting genes or regulators, common cellular compartmentalization, or association with disease. The methods require ordered or unordered lists of biological items as input, understanding of the reference set from which the lists were selected, categorical classifiers describing the items, and a statistical algorithm to assess bias of each classifier. Due to the complexity of most algorithms and the number of calculations performed, computer software is almost always used for execution of the algorithm, as well as for presentation of the results. This chapter will provide an overview of the statistical methods used to perform an enrichment analysis. Guidelines for assembly of the requisite information will be presented, with a focus on careful definition of the sets used by the statistical algorithms. The need for multiple test correction when working with large libraries of classifiers is emphasized, and we outline several options for performing the corrections. Finally, interpreting the results of such analysis will be discussed along with examples of recent research utilizing the techniques.

  15. Tetraspanin genes in plants.

    PubMed

    Wang, Feng; Vandepoele, Klaas; Van Lijsebettens, Mieke

    2012-07-01

    Tetraspanins represent a four-transmembrane protein superfamily with a conserved structure and amino acid residues that are present in mammals, insects, fungi and plants. Tetraspanins interact with each other or with other membrane proteins to form tetraspanin-enriched microdomains that play important roles in development, pathogenesis and immune responses via facilitating cell-cell adhesion and fusion, ligand binding and intracellular trafficking. Here, we emphasize evolutionary aspects within the plant kingdom based on genomic sequence information. A phylogenetic tree based on 155 tetraspanin genes of 11 plant species revealed ancient and fast evolving clades. Tetraspanins were only present in multicellular plants, were often duplicated in the plant genomes and predicted by the electronic Fluorescent Pictograph for gene expression analysis to be either functionally redundant or divergent. Tetraspanins contain a large extracellular loop with conserved cysteines that provide the binding sites for the interactions. The Arabidopsis thaliana TETRASPANIN1/TORNADO2/EKEKO has a function in leaf and root patterning and TETRASPANIN3 was identified in the plasmodesmatal proteome, suggesting a role in cell-cell communication during plant development.

  16. Genes of aging.

    PubMed

    Hamet, Pavel; Tremblay, Johanne

    2003-10-01

    According to developmental genetics theories, aging is a genetically programmed and controlled continuum of development and maturation. Being dynamic and malleable processes, development and aging are controlled not only by genes but also by environmental and epigenetic influences that predominate in the second half of life. Genetic mutations affect many phenotypes in flies, worms, rodents, and humans which share several diseases or their equivalents, including cancer, neurodegeneration, and infectious disorders as well as their susceptibility to them. Life span and stress resistance are closely linked. Oxidative stress actually constitutes a defined hypothesis of aging in that macromolecule oxidative damage accumulates with age and tends to be associated with life expectancy. DNA methylation, a force in the regulation of gene expression, is also one of the biomarkers of genetic damage. The mitotic clock of aging is marked, if not guided, by telomeres, essential genetic elements stabilizing natural chromosomic ends. The dream of humans to live longer, healthy lives is being tested by attempts to modify longevity in animal models, frequently by dietary manipulation. The quest continues to understand the mechanisms of healthy aging, one of the most compelling areas of research in the 21st century. PMID:14577056

  17. Adenoviral vector-mediated gene transfer for human gene therapy.

    PubMed

    Breyer, B; Jiang, W; Cheng, H; Zhou, L; Paul, R; Feng, T; He, T C

    2001-07-01

    Human gene therapy promises to change the practice of medicine by treating the causes of disease rather than the symptoms. Since the first clinical trial made its debut ten years ago, there are over 400 approved protocols in the United States alone, most of which have failed to show convincing data of clinical efficacy. This setback is largely due to the lack of efficient and adequate gene transfer vehicles. With the recent progress in elucidating the molecular mechanisms of human diseases and the imminent arrival of the post genomic era, there are increasing numbers of therapeutic genes or targets that are available for gene therapy. Therefore, the urgency and need for efficacious gene therapies are greater than ever. Clearly, the current fundamental obstacle is to develop delivery vectors that exhibit high efficacy and specificity of gene transfer. Recombinant adenoviruses have provided a versatile system for gene expression studies and therapeutic applications. Of late, there has been a remarkable increase in adenoviral vector-based clinical trials. Recent endeavors in the development of recombinant adenoviral vectors have focused on modification of virus tropism, accommodation of larger genes, increase in stability and control of transgene expression, and down-modulation of host immune responses. These modifications and continued improvements in adenoviral vectors will provide a great opportunity for human gene therapy to live up to its enormous potential in the second decade.

  18. Bacteriophage phiX174: gene A overlaps gene B.

    PubMed Central

    Weisbeek, P J; Borrias, W E; Langeveld, S A; Baas, P D; Van Arkel, G A

    1977-01-01

    The map position of several phiX174 mutations in the genes A and B was determined by marker rescue with DNA fragments produced by the restriction enzymes Hha I, HindII, Hae III, and Alu I. All the gene B mutants were found to be located within gene A. Genetic complementation and analysis of phage-specific protein synthesis show that, under restrictive conditions, nonsense mutants in gene A do not block the synthesis and activity of the B protein and nonsense mutants in gene B do not affect the gene A function. The map position of the COOH-terminal end of gene A was determined using an amber mutant that synthesizes slightly shortened A and A proteins. It is concluded from these experiments that gene A overlaps gene B completely (or almost completely) and that the overlap region can be translated in two ways with different reading frames: one frame for the synthesis of the A and A proteins and another for the synthesis of the B protein. Images PMID:267943

  19. Gene-targeting pharmaceuticals for single-gene disorders.

    PubMed

    Beaudet, Arthur L; Meng, Linyan

    2016-04-15

    The concept of orphan drugs for treatment of orphan genetic diseases is perceived enthusiastically at present, and this is leading to research investment on the part of governments, disease-specific foundations and industry. This review attempts to survey the potential to use traditional pharmaceuticals as opposed to biopharmaceuticals to treat single-gene disorders. The available strategies include the use of antisense oligonucleotides (ASOs) to alter splicing or knock-down expression of a transcript, siRNAs to knock-down gene expression and drugs for nonsense mutation read-through. There is an approved drug for biallelic knock-down of the APOB gene as treatment for familial hypercholesterolemia. Both ASOs and siRNAs are being explored to knock-down the transthyretin gene to prevent the related form of amyloidosis. The use of ASOs to alter gene-splicing to treat spinal muscular atrophy is in phase 3 clinical trials. Work is progressing on the use of ASOs to activate the normally silent paternal copy of the imprinted UBE3A gene in neurons as a treatment for Angelman syndrome. A gene-activation or gene-specific ramp-up strategy would be generally helpful if such could be developed. There is exciting theoretical potential for converting biopharmaceutical strategies such gene correction and CRISPR-Cas9 editing to a synthetic pharmaceutical approach. PMID:26628634

  20. Sexually antagonistic genes: experimental evidence.

    PubMed

    Rice, W R

    1992-06-01

    When selection differs between the sexes, a mutation beneficial to one sex may be harmful to the other (sexually antagonistic). Because the sexes share a common gene pool, selection in one sex can interfere with the other's adaptive evolution. Theory predicts that sexually antagonistic mutations should accumulate in tight linkage with a new sex-determining gene, even when the harm to benefit ratio is high. Genetic markers and artificial selection were used to make a pair of autosomal genes segregate like a new pair of sex-determining genes in a Drosophila melanogaster model system. A 29-generation study provides experimental evidence that sexually antagonistic genes may be common in nature and will accumulate in response to a new sex-determining gene. PMID:1604317

  1. Gene Therapy for Cartilage Repair

    PubMed Central

    Madry, Henning; Orth, Patrick; Cucchiarini, Magali

    2011-01-01

    The concept of using gene transfer strategies for cartilage repair originates from the idea of transferring genes encoding therapeutic factors into the repair tissue, resulting in a temporarily and spatially defined delivery of therapeutic molecules to sites of cartilage damage. This review focuses on the potential benefits of using gene therapy approaches for the repair of articular cartilage and meniscal fibrocartilage, including articular cartilage defects resulting from acute trauma, osteochondritis dissecans, osteonecrosis, and osteoarthritis. Possible applications for meniscal repair comprise meniscal lesions, meniscal sutures, and meniscal transplantation. Recent studies in both small and large animal models have demonstrated the applicability of gene-based approaches for cartilage repair. Chondrogenic pathways were stimulated in the repair tissue and in osteoarthritic cartilage using genes for polypeptide growth factors and transcription factors. Although encouraging data have been generated, a successful translation of gene therapy for cartilage repair will require an ongoing combined effort of orthopedic surgeons and of basic scientists. PMID:26069580

  2. Gene targeting with retroviral vectors

    SciTech Connect

    Ellis, J.; Bernstein, A. )

    1989-04-01

    The authors have designed and constructed integration-defective retroviral vectors to explore their potential for gene targeting in mammalian cells. Two nonoverlapping deletion mutants of the bacterial neomycin resistance (neo) gene were used to detect homologous recombination events between viral and chromosomal sequences. Stable neo gene correction events were selected at a frequency of approximately 1 G418/sup r/ cell per 3 x 10/sup 6/ infected cells. Analysis of the functional neo gene in independent targeted cell clones indicated that unintegrated retroviral linear DNA recombined with the target by gene conversion for variable distances into regions of nonhomology. In addition, transient neo gene correction events which were associated with the complete loss of the chromosomal target sequences were observed. These results demonstrated that retroviral vectors can recombine with homologous chromosomal sequences in rodent and human cells.

  3. The coalescent with gene conversion.

    PubMed Central

    Wiuf, C; Hein, J

    2000-01-01

    In this article we develop a coalescent model with intralocus gene conversion. The distribution of the tract length is geometric in concordance with results published in the literature. We derive a simulation scheme and deduce a number of analytical results for this coalescent with gene conversion. We compare patterns of variability in samples simulated according to the coalescent with recombination with similar patterns simulated according to the coalescent with gene conversion alone. Further, an expression for the expected number of topology shifts in a sample of present-day sequences caused by gene conversion events is derived. PMID:10790416

  4. Serial analysis of gene expression.

    PubMed

    Velculescu, V E; Zhang, L; Vogelstein, B; Kinzler, K W

    1995-10-20

    The characteristics of an organism are determined by the genes expressed within it. A method was developed, called serial analysis of gene expression (SAGE), that allows the quantitative and simultaneous analysis of a large number of transcripts. To demonstrate this strategy, short diagnostic sequence tags were isolated from pancreas, concatenated, and cloned. Manual sequencing of 1000 tags revealed a gene expression pattern characteristic of pancreatic function. New pancreatic transcripts corresponding to novel tags were identified. SAGE should provide a broadly applicable means for the quantitative cataloging and comparison of expressed genes in a variety of normal, developmental, and disease states. PMID:7570003

  5. Method for cloning genes

    SciTech Connect

    Weissman, S.M.; Pereira, D.; Sood, A.

    1988-04-19

    This patent describes a recombinant cloning vehicle comprising an inserted human gene, the improvement wherein the cloning vehicle is isolated from a recombinant clone which is isolated and identified by a process comprising the steps of: (a) effecting cDNA synthesis on a mixture of mRNAs containing a target mRNA coding for a major hisitocompatibility antigen, and isolating the resultant cDNA mixture; (b) inserting the resultant cDNA into recombinant cloning vehicles, and transforming hosts with the vehicles; and (c) separating the transformants and isolating and identifying a recombinant clone containing a DNA segment which is homologous over at least a portion thereof to at least one oligonucleotide probe specific for the DNA segment.

  6. New genes for boys

    SciTech Connect

    Sinclair, A.H.

    1995-11-01

    Sex is a fascinating topic, particularly at the level of molecular genetics, since it represents a wonderful paradigm for mammalian organ development. Recently, interest in the molecular basis for mammalian sex determination has been heating up as new pieces are added to the jigsaw puzzle of testis development. In mammals, the Y chromosome is male determining and encodes a gene referred to as TDF (testis-determining factor), which induces the indifferent embryonic gonad to develop as a testis. Subsequent male sexual differentiation is largely a consequence of hormonal secretion from the testis. In the absence of the Y chromosome, the testis-determining pathway fails to be initiated, and the embryonic gonad develops as an ovary, resulting in female development. 32 refs.

  7. Copyright and gene technology.

    PubMed

    Coke, Sue

    2002-08-01

    The rapid growth of gene technology and its commercialisation raises concerns for scientific researchers and research institutions wishing to place information in the public domain. This article examines whether copyright laws in the United States, United Kingdom and Australia provide any protection for genetically modified DNA, proteins, and genetically modified organisms, in contrast with any copyright protection extending to a record of the lettering of a sequence representing a series of nucleotides of modified DNA or the amino acids comprising a protein. Whilst it is arguable that protection may be available in the United States and the United Kingdom, it is submitted that it would be difficult to persuade a court in Australia that genetically modified DNA and genetically modified organisms directly constitute "literary" or "artistic" works.

  8. Taste Receptor Genes

    PubMed Central

    Bachmanov, Alexander A.; Beauchamp, Gary K.

    2009-01-01

    In the past several years, tremendous progress has been achieved with the discovery and characterization of vertebrate taste receptors from the T1R and T2R families, which are involved in recognition of bitter, sweet, and umami taste stimuli. Individual differences in taste, at least in some cases, can be attributed to allelic variants of the T1R and T2R genes. Progress with understanding how T1R and T2R receptors interact with taste stimuli and with identifying their patterns of expression in taste cells sheds light on coding of taste information by the nervous system. Candidate mechanisms for detection of salts, acids, fat, complex carbohydrates, and water have also been proposed, but further studies are needed to prove their identity. PMID:17444812

  9. Gene-environment interaction.

    PubMed

    Manuck, Stephen B; McCaffery, Jeanne M

    2014-01-01

    With the advent of increasingly accessible technologies for typing genetic variation, studies of gene-environment (G×E) interactions have proliferated in psychological research. Among the aims of such studies are testing developmental hypotheses and models of the etiology of behavioral disorders, defining boundaries of genetic and environmental influences, and identifying individuals most susceptible to risk exposures or most amenable to preventive and therapeutic interventions. This research also coincides with the emergence of unanticipated difficulties in detecting genetic variants of direct association with behavioral traits and disorders, which may be obscured if genetic effects are expressed only in predisposing environments. In this essay we consider these and other rationales for positing G×E interactions, review conceptual models meant to inform G×E interpretations from a psychological perspective, discuss points of common critique to which G×E research is vulnerable, and address the role of the environment in G×E interactions.

  10. Gene therapy for hemophilia

    PubMed Central

    Rogers, Geoffrey L.; Herzog, Roland W.

    2015-01-01

    Hemophilia is an X-linked inherited bleeding disorder consisting of two classifications, hemophilia A and hemophilia B, depending on the underlying mutation. Although the disease is currently treatable with intravenous delivery of replacement recombinant clotting factor, this approach represents a significant cost both monetarily and in terms of quality of life. Gene therapy is an attractive alternative approach to the treatment of hemophilia that would ideally provide life-long correction of clotting activity with a single injection. In this review, we will discuss the multitude of approaches that have been explored for the treatment of both hemophilia A and B, including both in vivo and ex vivo approaches with viral and nonviral delivery vectors. PMID:25553466

  11. Gene Express Inc.

    PubMed

    Saccomanno, Colette F

    2006-07-01

    Gene Express, Inc. is a technology-licensing company and provider of Standardized Reverse Transcription Polymerase Chain Reaction (StaRT-PCR) services. Designed by and for clinical researchers involved in pharmaceutical, biomarker and molecular diagnostic product development, StaRT-PCR is a unique quantitative and standardized multigene expression measurement platform. StaRT-PCR meets all of the performance characteristics defined by the US FDA as required to support regulatory submissions [101,102] , and by the Clinical Laboratory Improvement Act of 1988 (CLIA) as necessary to support diagnostic testing [1] . A standardized mixture of internal standards (SMIS), manufactured in bulk, provides integrated quality control wherein each native template target gene is measured relative to a competitive template internal standard. Bulk production enables the compilation of a comprehensive standardized database from across multiple experiments, across collaborating laboratories and across the entire clinical development lifecycle of a given compound or diagnostic product. For the first time, all these data are able to be directly compared. Access to such a database can dramatically shorten the time from investigational new drug (IND) to new drug application (NDA), or save time and money by hastening a substantiated 'no-go' decision. High-throughput StaRT-PCR is conducted at the company's automated Standardized Expression Measurement (SEM) Center. Currently optimized for detection on a microcapillary electrophoretic platform, StaRT-PCR products also may be analyzed on microarray, high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC), or matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight (MALDI-TOF) platforms. SEM Center services deliver standardized genomic data--data that will accelerate the application of pharmacogenomic technology to new drug and diagnostic test development and facilitate personalized medicine.

  12. Contributions of Gene Marking to Cell and Gene Therapies

    PubMed Central

    Barese, Cecilia N.

    2011-01-01

    Abstract The first human genetic modification studies used replication-incompetent integrating vector vectors to introduce marker genes into T lymphocytes and subsequently into hematopoietic stem cells. Such studies have provided numerous insights into the biology of hematopoiesis and immune reconstitution and contributed to clinical development of gene and cell therapies. Tracking of hematopoietic reconstitution and analysis of the origin of residual malignant disease after hematopoietic transplantation has been possible via gene marking. Introduction of selectable marker genes has enabled preselection of specific T-cell populations for tumor and viral immunotherapy and reduced the threat of graft-versus-host disease, improving the survival of patients after allogeneic marrow transplantation. Marking studies in humans, murine xenografts, and large animals have helped optimize conditions for gene transfer into CD34+ hematopoietic progenitors, contributing to the achievement of gene transfer efficiencies sufficient for clinical benefit in several serious genetic diseases such as X-linked severe combined immunodeficiency and adrenoleukodystropy. When adverse events linked to insertional mutagenesis arose in clinical gene therapy trials for inherited immunodeficiencies, additional animal studies using gene-marking vectors have greatly increased our understanding of genotoxicity. The knowledge gained from these studies is being translated into new vector designs and clinical protocols, which we hope will continue to improve the efficiency, effectiveness and safety of these promising therapeutic approaches. PMID:21261461

  13. Contributions of gene marking to cell and gene therapies.

    PubMed

    Barese, Cecilia N; Dunbar, Cynthia E

    2011-06-01

    The first human genetic modification studies used replication-incompetent integrating vector vectors to introduce marker genes into T lymphocytes and subsequently into hematopoietic stem cells. Such studies have provided numerous insights into the biology of hematopoiesis and immune reconstitution and contributed to clinical development of gene and cell therapies. Tracking of hematopoietic reconstitution and analysis of the origin of residual malignant disease after hematopoietic transplantation has been possible via gene marking. Introduction of selectable marker genes has enabled preselection of specific T-cell populations for tumor and viral immunotherapy and reduced the threat of graft-versus-host disease, improving the survival of patients after allogeneic marrow transplantation. Marking studies in humans, murine xenografts, and large animals have helped optimize conditions for gene transfer into CD34(+) hematopoietic progenitors, contributing to the achievement of gene transfer efficiencies sufficient for clinical benefit in several serious genetic diseases such as X-linked severe combined immunodeficiency and adrenoleukodystrophy. When adverse events linked to insertional mutagenesis arose in clinical gene therapy trials for inherited immunodeficiencies, additional animal studies using gene-marking vectors have greatly increased our understanding of genotoxicity. The knowledge gained from these studies is being translated into new vector designs and clinical protocols, which we hope will continue to improve the efficiency, effectiveness and safety of these promising therapeutic approaches.

  14. Candidate reference genes for gene expression studies in water lily.

    PubMed

    Luo, Huolin; Chen, Sumei; Wan, Hongjian; Chen, Fadi; Gu, Chunsun; Liu, Zhaolei

    2010-09-01

    The selection of an appropriate reference gene(s) is a prerequisite for the proper interpretation of quantitative Real-Time polymerase chain reaction data. We report the evaluation of eight candidate reference genes across various tissues and treatments in the water lily by the two software packages geNorm and NormFinder. Across all samples, clathrin adaptor complexes medium subunit (AP47) and actin 11 (ACT11) emerged as the most suitable reference genes. Across different tissues, ACT11 and elongation factor 1-alpha (EF1alpha) exhibited a stable expression pattern. ACT11 and AP47 also stably expressed in roots subjected to various treatments, but in the leaves of the same plants the most stably expressed genes were ubiquitin-conjugating enzyme 16 (UBC16) and ACT11. PMID:20452325

  15. Using Genes to Guide Prescriptions

    MedlinePlus

    ... Science > Using Genes to Guide Prescriptions Inside Life Science View All Articles | Inside Life Science Home Page Using Genes to Guide Prescriptions By ... to Zoloft: Ways Medicines Work This Inside Life Science article also appears on LiveScience . Learn about related ...

  16. Determining Semantically Related Significant Genes.

    PubMed

    Taha, Kamal

    2014-01-01

    GO relation embodies some aspects of existence dependency. If GO term xis existence-dependent on GO term y, the presence of y implies the presence of x. Therefore, the genes annotated with the function of the GO term y are usually functionally and semantically related to the genes annotated with the function of the GO term x. A large number of gene set enrichment analysis methods have been developed in recent years for analyzing gene sets enrichment. However, most of these methods overlook the structural dependencies between GO terms in GO graph by not considering the concept of existence dependency. We propose in this paper a biological search engine called RSGSearch that identifies enriched sets of genes annotated with different functions using the concept of existence dependency. We observe that GO term xcannot be existence-dependent on GO term y, if x- and y- have the same specificity (biological characteristics). After encoding into a numeric format the contributions of GO terms annotating target genes to the semantics of their lowest common ancestors (LCAs), RSGSearch uses microarray experiment to identify the most significant LCA that annotates the result genes. We evaluated RSGSearch experimentally and compared it with five gene set enrichment systems. Results showed marked improvement.

  17. From genes to genome biology

    SciTech Connect

    Pennisi, E.

    1996-06-21

    This article describes a change in the approach to mapping genomes, from looking at one gene at a time, to other approaches. Strategies include everything from lab techniques to computer programs designed to analyze whole batches of genes at once. Also included is a update on the work on the human genome.

  18. Susceptibility Genes in Thyroid Autoimmunity

    PubMed Central

    Ban, Yoshiyuki; Tomer, Yaron

    2005-01-01

    The autoimmune thyroid diseases (AITD) are complex diseases which are caused by an interaction between susceptibility genes and environmental triggers. Genetic susceptibility in combination with external factors (e.g. dietary iodine) is believed to initiate the autoimmune response to thyroid antigens. Abundant epidemiological data, including family and twin studies, point to a strong genetic influence on the development of AITD. Various techniques have been employed to identify the genes contributing to the etiology of AITD, including candidate gene analysis and whole genome screening. These studies have enabled the identification of several loci (genetic regions) that are linked with AITD, and in some of these loci, putative AITD susceptibility genes have been identified. Some of these genes/loci are unique to Graves' disease (GD) and Hashimoto's thyroiditis (HT) and some are common to both the diseases, indicating that there is a shared genetic susceptibility to GD and HT. The putative GD and HT susceptibility genes include both immune modifying genes (e.g. HLA, CTLA-4) and thyroid specific genes (e.g. TSHR, Tg). Most likely, these loci interact and their interactions may influence disease phenotype and severity. PMID:15712599

  19. Gene therapy on the move

    PubMed Central

    Kaufmann, Kerstin B; Büning, Hildegard; Galy, Anne; Schambach, Axel; Grez, Manuel

    2013-01-01

    The first gene therapy clinical trials were initiated more than two decades ago. In the early days, gene therapy shared the fate of many experimental medicine approaches and was impeded by the occurrence of severe side effects in a few treated patients. The understanding of the molecular and cellular mechanisms leading to treatment- and/or vector-associated setbacks has resulted in the development of highly sophisticated gene transfer tools with improved safety and therapeutic efficacy. Employing these advanced tools, a series of Phase I/II trials were started in the past few years with excellent clinical results and no side effects reported so far. Moreover, highly efficient gene targeting strategies and site-directed gene editing technologies have been developed and applied clinically. With more than 1900 clinical trials to date, gene therapy has moved from a vision to clinical reality. This review focuses on the application of gene therapy for the correction of inherited diseases, the limitations and drawbacks encountered in some of the early clinical trials and the revival of gene therapy as a powerful treatment option for the correction of monogenic disorders. PMID:24106209

  20. Candidate gene prioritization with Endeavour.

    PubMed

    Tranchevent, Léon-Charles; Ardeshirdavani, Amin; ElShal, Sarah; Alcaide, Daniel; Aerts, Jan; Auboeuf, Didier; Moreau, Yves

    2016-07-01

    Genomic studies and high-throughput experiments often produce large lists of candidate genes among which only a small fraction are truly relevant to the disease, phenotype or biological process of interest. Gene prioritization tackles this problem by ranking candidate genes by profiling candidates across multiple genomic data sources and integrating this heterogeneous information into a global ranking. We describe an extended version of our gene prioritization method, Endeavour, now available for six species and integrating 75 data sources. The performance (Area Under the Curve) of Endeavour on cross-validation benchmarks using 'gold standard' gene sets varies from 88% (for human phenotypes) to 95% (for worm gene function). In addition, we have also validated our approach using a time-stamped benchmark derived from the Human Phenotype Ontology, which provides a setting close to prospective validation. With this benchmark, using 3854 novel gene-phenotype associations, we observe a performance of 82%. Altogether, our results indicate that this extended version of Endeavour efficiently prioritizes candidate genes. The Endeavour web server is freely available at https://endeavour.esat.kuleuven.be/.

  1. Genes, Tolerance and Systemic Autoimmunity

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Ram P.; Waldron, Richard T.; Hahn, Bevra H.

    2011-01-01

    The characterization of functional CD8+ inhibitory or regulatory T cells and their gene regulation remains a critical challenge in the field of tolerance and autoimmunity. Investigating the genes induced in regulatory cells and the regulatory networks and pathways that underlie mechanisms of immune resistance and prevent apoptosis in the CD8+ T cell compartment are crucial to understanding tolerance mechanisms in systemic autoimmunity. Little is currently known about the genetic control that governs the ability of CD8+ Ti or regulatory cells to suppress anti-DNA Ab production in B cells. Silencing genes with siRNA or shRNA and overexpression of genes with lentiviral cDNA transduction are established approaches to identifying and understanding the function of candidate genes in tolerance and immunity. Elucidation of interactions between genes and proteins, and their synergistic effects in establishing cell-cell cross talk, including receptor modulation/antagonism, are essential for delineating the roles of these cells. In this review, we will examine recent reports which describe the modulation of cells from lupus prone mice or lupus patients to confer anti-inflammatory and protective gene expression and novel associated phenotypes. We will highlight recent findings on the role of selected genes induced by peptide tolerance in CD8+ Ti. PMID:22155015

  2. Method of controlling gene expression

    DOEpatents

    Peters, Norman K.; Frost, John W.; Long, Sharon R.

    1991-12-03

    A method of controlling expression of a DNA segment under the control of a nod gene promoter which comprises administering to a host containing a nod gene promoter an amount sufficient to control expression of the DNA segment of a compound of the formula: ##STR1## in which each R is independently H or OH, is described.

  3. Fusion genes in solid tumors.

    PubMed

    Aman, P

    1999-08-01

    Tumor development in different cell types and tissue locations involves many pathways, distinct genes and exogenous factors. Tumor type-specific chromosome rearrangements resulting in fusion genes or promoter swapping are believed to be involved in the early development of many tumor types. They are present in almost all cases of a particular tumor type and cases have been described that carry only tumor type-specific translocations without any signs of other cytogenetic changes. The mechanisms behind chromosome rearrangements in solid tumors are largely unknown. Radiation is an important factor in thyroid carcinomas but no com-$bmon sequence motifs are made out in the break points of solid tumors. The fusion genes found in sarcomas are dominated by the transcription factor type of genes with the TLS/FUS and EWS series of fusion genes as the largest group. More than 50% of papillary thyroid carcinomas carry fusion proteins with tyrosine kinase activity. Rearrangements involving HMGIC, HMGIY, and PLAG1 are common in benign mesenchymal tumors and salivary gland adenomas. Many recurrent tumor translocations show a strict specificity for tumor type. This specificity can most likely be explained by the specific sets of target genes that are deregulated by the fusion gene products. Identification of the downstream target genes is currently the object of intense research and may provide us with information that will help design better diagnostic tools and eventually find a cure for these diseases.

  4. Nonviral Vectors for Gene Delivery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baoum, Abdulgader Ahmed

    2011-12-01

    The development of nonviral vectors for safe and efficient gene delivery has been gaining considerable attention recently. An ideal nonviral vector must protect the gene against degradation by nuclease in the extracellular matrix, internalize the plasma membrane, escape from the endosomal compartment, unpackage the gene at some point and have no detrimental effects. In comparison to viruses, nonviral vectors are relatively easy to synthesize, less immunogenic, low in cost, and have no limitation in the size of a gene that can be delivered. Significant progress has been made in the basic science and applications of various nonviral gene delivery vectors; however, the majority of nonviral approaches are still inefficient and often toxic. To this end, two nonviral gene delivery systems using either biodegradable poly(D,L-lactide- co-glycolide) (PLG) nanoparticles or cell penetrating peptide (CPP) complexes have been designed and studied using A549 human lung epithelial cells. PLG nanoparticles were optimized for gene delivery by varying particle surface chemistry using different coating materials that adsorb to the particle surface during formation. A variety of cationic coating materials were studied and compared to more conventional surfactants used for PLG nanoparticle fabrication. Nanoparticles (˜200 nm) efficiently encapsulated plasmids encoding for luciferase (80-90%) and slowly released the same for two weeks. After a delay, moderate levels of gene expression appeared at day 5 for certain positively charged PLG particles and gene expression was maintained for at least two weeks. In contrast, gene expression mediated by polyethyleneimine (PEI) ended at day 5. PLG particles were also significantly less cytotoxic than PEI suggesting the use of these vehicles for localized, sustained gene delivery to the pulmonary epithelium. On the other hand, a more simple method to synthesize 50-200 nm complexes capable of high transfection efficiency or high gene knockdown was

  5. Regulation of Neuronal Gene Expression

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thiel, Gerald; Lietz, Michael; Leichter, Michael

    Humans as multicellular organisms contain a variety of different cell types where each cell population must fulfill a distinct function in the interest of the whole organism. The molecular basis for the variations in morphology, biochemistry, molecular biology, and function of the various cell types is the cell-type specific expression of genes. These genes encode proteins necessary for executing the specialized functions of each cell type within an organism. We describe here a regulatory mechanism for the expression of neuronal genes. The zinc finger protein REST binds to the regulatory region of many neuronal genes and represses neuronal gene expression in nonneuronal tissues. A negative regulatory mechanism, involving a transcriptional repressor, seems to play an important role in establishing the neuronal phenotype.

  6. Gene Therapy for Retinal Diseases

    PubMed Central

    Samiy, Nasrollah

    2014-01-01

    Gene therapy has a growing research potential particularly in the field of ophthalmic and retinal diseases owing to three main characteristics of the eye; accessibility in terms of injections and surgical interventions, its immune-privileged status facilitating the accommodation to the antigenicity of a viral vector, and tight blood-ocular barriers which save other organs from unwanted contamination. Gene therapy has tremendous potential for different ocular diseases. In fact, the perspective of gene therapy in the field of eye research does not confine to exclusive monogenic ophthalmic problems and it has the potential to include gene based pharmacotherapies for non-monogenic problems such as age related macular disease and diabetic retinopathy. The present article has focused on how gene transfer into the eye has been developed and used to treat retinal disorders with no available therapy at present. PMID:25709778

  7. [Transcriptional control of ciliary genes].

    PubMed

    Vieillard, Jennifer; Jerber, Julie; Durand, Bénédicte

    2014-11-01

    Cilia are found in many eukaryotic species and share a common microtubule architecture that can nonetheless show very diverse features within one animal. The genesis of cilia and their diversity require the expression of different specific genes. At least two classes of transcription factors are involved in ciliogenesis: the RFX family, essential for the assembly of most cilia and the FOXJ1 transcription factors that are key regulators of motile cilia assembly. These two different families of transcription factors have both specific and common target genes and they can also cooperate for the formation of cilia. In collaboration with cell type specific factors, they also contribute to the specialisation of cilia. As a consequence, the identification of RFX and FOXJ1 target genes has emerged as an efficient strategy to identify novel ciliary genes, and in particular genes potentially implicated in ciliopathies.

  8. Nanoparticle-Mediated Gene Delivery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jin, Sha; Leach, John C.; Ye, Kaiming

    Nonviral gene delivery has been gaining considerable attention recently. Although the efficacy of DNA transfection, which is a major concern, is low in nonviral vector-mediated gene transfer compared with viral ones, nonviral vectors are relatively easy to prepare, less immunogenic and oncogenic, and have no potential of virus recombination and no limitation on the size of a transferred gene. The ability to incorporate genetic materials such as plasmid DNA, RNA, and siRNA into functionalized nanoparticles with little toxicity demonstrates a new era in pharmacotherapy for delivering genes selectively to tissues and cells. In this chapter, we highlight the basic concepts and applications of nonviral gene delivery using super paramagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles and functionalized silica nanoparticles. The experimental protocols related to these topics are described in the chapter.

  9. Gene therapy for lung disease.

    PubMed

    Ennist, D L

    1999-06-01

    Gene therapy is a new field of medical research that has great potential to influence the course of treatment of human disease. The lung has been a particularly attractive target organ for gene therapy due to its accessibility and the identification of genetic deficits for a number of lung diseases. Several clinical trials have shown evidence of low levels of gene transfer and expression, but without any benefit to the patients involved. Thus, current studies are focusing on further research and technological improvements to the vectors. Gene therapy is now beginning to benefit from a shift in emphasis from clinical trials to the development of better tools and procedures to deliver gene therapy to the bedside.

  10. Bacteria in gene therapy: bactofection versus alternative gene therapy.

    PubMed

    Pálffy, R; Gardlík, R; Hodosy, J; Behuliak, M; Resko, P; Radvánský, J; Celec, P

    2006-01-01

    Recent advances in gene therapy can be attributed to improvements of gene delivery vectors. New viral and nonviral transport vehicles that considerably increase the efficiency of transfection have been prepared. However, these vectors still have many disadvantages that are difficult to overcome, thus, a new approach is needed. The approach of bacterial delivery could in the future be important for gene therapy applications. In this article we try to summarize the most important modifications that are used for the preparation of applied strains, difficulties that are related with bacterial gene delivery and the current use of bactofection in animal experiments and clinical trials. Important differences to the alternative gene therapy (AGT) are discussed. AGT resembles bacteria-mediated protein delivery, as the therapeutical proteins are produced not by host cells but by the bacteria in situ and the expression can be regulated exogenously. Although the procedure of bacterial gene delivery is far from being definitely solved, bactofection remains a promising technique for transfection in human gene therapy.

  11. Genes and gene networks implicated in aggression related behaviour.

    PubMed

    Malki, Karim; Pain, Oliver; Du Rietz, Ebba; Tosto, Maria Grazia; Paya-Cano, Jose; Sandnabba, Kenneth N; de Boer, Sietse; Schalkwyk, Leonard C; Sluyter, Frans

    2014-10-01

    Aggressive behaviour is a major cause of mortality and morbidity. Despite of moderate heritability estimates, progress in identifying the genetic factors underlying aggressive behaviour has been limited. There are currently three genetic mouse models of high and low aggression created using selective breeding. This is the first study to offer a global transcriptomic characterization of the prefrontal cortex across all three genetic mouse models of aggression. A systems biology approach has been applied to transcriptomic data across the three pairs of selected inbred mouse strains (Turku Aggressive (TA) and Turku Non-Aggressive (TNA), Short Attack Latency (SAL) and Long Attack Latency (LAL) mice and North Carolina Aggressive (NC900) and North Carolina Non-Aggressive (NC100)), providing novel insight into the neurobiological mechanisms and genetics underlying aggression. First, weighted gene co-expression network analysis (WGCNA) was performed to identify modules of highly correlated genes associated with aggression. Probe sets belonging to gene modules uncovered by WGCNA were carried forward for network analysis using ingenuity pathway analysis (IPA). The RankProd non-parametric algorithm was then used to statistically evaluate expression differences across the genes belonging to modules significantly associated with aggression. IPA uncovered two pathways, involving NF-kB and MAPKs. The secondary RankProd analysis yielded 14 differentially expressed genes, some of which have previously been implicated in pathways associated with aggressive behaviour, such as Adrbk2. The results highlighted plausible candidate genes and gene networks implicated in aggression-related behaviour.

  12. Immunoglobulin λ Gene Rearrangement Can Precede κ Gene Rearrangement

    DOE PAGES

    Berg, Jörg; Mcdowell, Mindy; Jäck, Hans-Martin; Wabl, Matthias

    1990-01-01

    Imore » mmunoglobulin genes are generated during differentiation of B lymphocytes by joining gene segments. A mouse pre-B cell contains a functional immunoglobulin heavy-chain gene, but no light-chain gene. Although there is only one heavy-chain locus, there are two lightchain loci: κ and λ .It has been reported that κ loci in the germ-line configuration are never (in man) or very rarely (in the mouse) present in cells with functionally rearranged λ -chain genes. Two explanations have been proposed to explain this: (a) the ordered rearrangement theory, which postulates that light-chain gene rearrangement in the pre-B cell is first attempted at the κ locus, and that only upon failure to produce a functional κ chain is there an attempt to rearrange the λ locus; and (b) the stochastic theory, which postulates that rearrangement at the λ locus proceeds at a rate that is intrinsically much slower than that at the κ locus. We show here that λ -chain genes are generated whether or not the κ locus has lost its germ-line arrangement, a result that is compatible only with the stochastic theory.« less

  13. Therapeutic genes for anti-HIV/AIDS gene therapy.

    PubMed

    Bovolenta, Chiara; Porcellini, Simona; Alberici, Luca

    2013-01-01

    The multiple therapeutic approaches developed so far to cope HIV-1 infection, such as anti-retroviral drugs, germicides and several attempts of therapeutic vaccination have provided significant amelioration in terms of life-quality and survival rate of AIDS patients. Nevertheless, no approach has demonstrated efficacy in eradicating this lethal, if untreated, infection. The curative power of gene therapy has been proven for the treatment of monogenic immunodeficiensies, where permanent gene modification of host cells is sufficient to correct the defect for life-time. No doubt, a similar concept is not applicable for gene therapy of infectious immunodeficiensies as AIDS, where there is not a single gene to be corrected; rather engineered cells must gain immunotherapeutic or antiviral features to grant either short- or long-term efficacy mostly by acquisition of antiviral genes or payloads. Anti-HIV/AIDS gene therapy is one of the most promising strategy, although challenging, to eradicate HIV-1 infection. In fact, genetic modification of hematopoietic stem cells with one or multiple therapeutic genes is expected to originate blood cell progenies resistant to viral infection and thereby able to prevail on infected unprotected cells. Ultimately, protected cells will re-establish a functional immune system able to control HIV-1 replication. More than hundred gene therapy clinical trials against AIDS employing different viral vectors and transgenes have been approved or are currently ongoing worldwide. This review will overview anti-HIV-1 infection gene therapy field evaluating strength and weakness of the transgenes and payloads used in the past and of those potentially exploitable in the future.

  14. Genes, Economics, and Happiness.

    PubMed

    De Neve, Jan-Emmanuel; Christakis, Nicholas A; Fowler, James H; Frey, Bruno S

    2012-11-01

    We explore the influence of genetic variation on subjective well-being by employing a twin design and genetic association study. In a nationally-representative twin sample, we first show that about 33% of the variation in life satisfaction is explained by genetic variation. Although previous studies have shown that baseline happiness is significantly heritable, little research has considered molecular genetic associations with subjective well-being. We study the relationship between a functional polymorphism on the serotonin transporter gene (5-HTTLPR) and life satisfaction. We initially find that individuals with the longer, transcriptionally more efficient variant of this genotype report greater life satisfaction (n=2,545, p=0.012). However, our replication attempts on independent samples produce mixed results indicating that more work needs to be done to better understand the relationship between this genotype and subjective well-being. This work has implications for how economists think about the determinants of utility, and the extent to which exogenous shocks might affect individual well-being.

  15. Environment, genes, and cancer

    SciTech Connect

    Manuel, J.

    1996-03-01

    In January, comedian George Burns turned 100 years old. In recent appearances in the media, he still seems sharp as a tack, and is still seen smoking his trademark cigars. Others of us, however, were never very funny, and would die of cancer at age 60 if we continuously smoked cigars or cigarettes. Burns presents a common but perplexing paradox; some people are able to tolerate at least moderate exposure to toxins such as cigarette smoke with little adverse affect, while others develop cancer, emphysema, or heart disease. New studies support the idea that there is an interaction between genes and the environment, and that this interaction may be an important determinant of cancer risk. To understand such risks, it is essential to look at both an individual`s genetic makeup and environmental exposures. Such studies require the collaboration of molecular epidemiologists and molecular biologists. At the NIEHS, Jack A. Taylor, a lead clinical investigator in the Epidemiology Branch, and Douglas A. Bell, an investigator with the Genetic Risk Group of the Laboratory of Biochemical Risk Analysis, have worked together and with other scientists to uncover new information in this area.

  16. RNA splicing and genes

    SciTech Connect

    Sharp, P.A.

    1988-11-25

    The splicing of long transcripts RNA (copied from DNA in the cell nucleus) into smaller specific mRNA is an important event in the regulation of gene expression in eukaryotic cells. The splicing reaction occurs as a late step in the nuclear pathway for synthesis of mRNAs. This pathway commences with initiation of transcription by RNA polymerase II and probably involves an integrated series of steps each dependent on previous events. Splicing of precursors to mRNAs involves the formation of a spliceosome complex containing 5' and 3' splice sites. This complex contains the evolutionary highly conserved small nuclear RNAs (snRNAs) Us, U4, U5, and U6. The most abundant snRNA, U1, is required to form the spliceosome and may be a part of the spliceosome. Analogues of these snRNAs have been identified in yeast. Assembly of the spliceosome probably involves the binding of a multi-snRNA complex containing U4, U5, and U6 snRNAs. Several observations suggest that the association of snRNAs in such complexes is quite dynamic. It is argued that the snRANs in the spliceosome form a catalytic RNA structure that is responsible for the cleavage and ligation steps during splicing.

  17. Genes, Economics, and Happiness *

    PubMed Central

    De Neve, Jan-Emmanuel; Christakis, Nicholas A.; Fowler, James H.; Frey, Bruno S.

    2012-01-01

    We explore the influence of genetic variation on subjective well-being by employing a twin design and genetic association study. In a nationally-representative twin sample, we first show that about 33% of the variation in life satisfaction is explained by genetic variation. Although previous studies have shown that baseline happiness is significantly heritable, little research has considered molecular genetic associations with subjective well-being. We study the relationship between a functional polymorphism on the serotonin transporter gene (5-HTTLPR) and life satisfaction. We initially find that individuals with the longer, transcriptionally more efficient variant of this genotype report greater life satisfaction (n=2,545, p=0.012). However, our replication attempts on independent samples produce mixed results indicating that more work needs to be done to better understand the relationship between this genotype and subjective well-being. This work has implications for how economists think about the determinants of utility, and the extent to which exogenous shocks might affect individual well-being. PMID:24349601

  18. Candidate gene prioritization with Endeavour

    PubMed Central

    Tranchevent, Léon-Charles; Ardeshirdavani, Amin; ElShal, Sarah; Alcaide, Daniel; Aerts, Jan; Auboeuf, Didier; Moreau, Yves

    2016-01-01

    Genomic studies and high-throughput experiments often produce large lists of candidate genes among which only a small fraction are truly relevant to the disease, phenotype or biological process of interest. Gene prioritization tackles this problem by ranking candidate genes by profiling candidates across multiple genomic data sources and integrating this heterogeneous information into a global ranking. We describe an extended version of our gene prioritization method, Endeavour, now available for six species and integrating 75 data sources. The performance (Area Under the Curve) of Endeavour on cross-validation benchmarks using ‘gold standard’ gene sets varies from 88% (for human phenotypes) to 95% (for worm gene function). In addition, we have also validated our approach using a time-stamped benchmark derived from the Human Phenotype Ontology, which provides a setting close to prospective validation. With this benchmark, using 3854 novel gene–phenotype associations, we observe a performance of 82%. Altogether, our results indicate that this extended version of Endeavour efficiently prioritizes candidate genes. The Endeavour web server is freely available at https://endeavour.esat.kuleuven.be/. PMID:27131783

  19. Nonadditive gene expression in polyploids.

    PubMed

    Yoo, Mi-Jeong; Liu, Xiaoxian; Pires, J Chris; Soltis, Pamela S; Soltis, Douglas E

    2014-01-01

    Allopolyploidy involves hybridization and duplication of divergent parental genomes and provides new avenues for gene expression. The expression levels of duplicated genes in polyploids can show deviation from parental additivity (the arithmetic average of the parental expression levels). Nonadditive expression has been widely observed in diverse polyploids and comprises at least three possible scenarios: (a) The total gene expression level in a polyploid is similar to that of one of its parents (expression-level dominance); (b) total gene expression is lower or higher than in both parents (transgressive expression); and (c) the relative contribution of the parental copies (homeologs) to the total gene expression is unequal (homeolog expression bias). Several factors may result in expression nonadditivity in polyploids, including maternal-paternal influence, gene dosage balance, cis- and/or trans-regulatory networks, and epigenetic regulation. As our understanding of nonadditive gene expression in polyploids remains limited, a new generation of investigators should explore additional phenomena (i.e., alternative splicing) and use other high-throughput "omics" technologies to measure the impact of nonadditive expression on phenotype, proteome, and metabolome. PMID:25421600

  20. Simulating evolution by gene duplication.

    PubMed

    Ohta, T

    1987-01-01

    By considering the recent finding that unequal crossing over and other molecular interactions are contributing to the evolution of multigene families, a model of the origin of repetitive genes was studied by Monte Carlo simulations. Starting from a single gene copy, how genetic systems evolve was examined under unequal crossing over, random drift and natural selection. Both beneficial and deteriorating mutations were incorporated, and the latter were assumed to occur ten times more frequently than the former. Positive natural selection favors those chromosomes with more beneficial mutations in redundant copies than others in the population, but accumulation of deteriorating mutations (pseudogenes) have no effect on fitness so long as there remains a functional gene. The results imply the following: Positive natural selection is needed in order to acquire gene families with new functions. Without it, too many pseudogenes accumulate before attaining a functional gene family. There is a large fluctuation in the outcome even if parameters are the same. When unequal crossing over occurs more frequently, the system evolves more rapidly. It was also shown, under realistic values of parameters, that the genetic load for acquiring a new gene is not as large as J.B.S. Haldane suggested, but not so small as in a model in which a system for selection started from already redundant genes. PMID:3557113

  1. Linking Genes to Cardiovascular Diseases: Gene Action and Gene-Environment Interactions.

    PubMed

    Pasipoularides, Ares

    2015-12-01

    A unique myocardial characteristic is its ability to grow/remodel in order to adapt; this is determined partly by genes and partly by the environment and the milieu intérieur. In the "post-genomic" era, a need is emerging to elucidate the physiologic functions of myocardial genes, as well as potential adaptive and maladaptive modulations induced by environmental/epigenetic factors. Genome sequencing and analysis advances have become exponential lately, with escalation of our knowledge concerning sometimes controversial genetic underpinnings of cardiovascular diseases. Current technologies can identify candidate genes variously involved in diverse normal/abnormal morphomechanical phenotypes, and offer insights into multiple genetic factors implicated in complex cardiovascular syndromes. The expression profiles of thousands of genes are regularly ascertained under diverse conditions. Global analyses of gene expression levels are useful for cataloging genes and correlated phenotypes, and for elucidating the role of genes in maladies. Comparative expression of gene networks coupled to complex disorders can contribute insights as to how "modifier genes" influence the expressed phenotypes. Increasingly, a more comprehensive and detailed systematic understanding of genetic abnormalities underlying, for example, various genetic cardiomyopathies is emerging. Implementing genomic findings in cardiology practice may well lead directly to better diagnosing and therapeutics. There is currently evolving a strong appreciation for the value of studying gene anomalies, and doing so in a non-disjointed, cohesive manner. However, it is challenging for many-practitioners and investigators-to comprehend, interpret, and utilize the clinically increasingly accessible and affordable cardiovascular genomics studies. This survey addresses the need for fundamental understanding in this vital area.

  2. GenePRIMP: A GENE PRediction IMprovement Pipeline for Prokaryotic genomes

    SciTech Connect

    Pati, Amrita; Ivanova, Natalia N.; Mikhailova, Natalia; Ovchinnikova, Galina; Hooper, Sean D.; Lykidis, Athanasios; Kyrpides, Nikos C.

    2010-04-01

    We present 'gene prediction improvement pipeline' (GenePRIMP; http://geneprimp.jgi-psf.org/), a computational process that performs evidence-based evaluation of gene models in prokaryotic genomes and reports anomalies including inconsistent start sites, missed genes and split genes. We found that manual curation of gene models using the anomaly reports generated by GenePRIMP improved their quality, and demonstrate the applicability of GenePRIMP in improving finishing quality and comparing different genome-sequencing and annotation technologies.

  3. [Gene doping: gene transfer and possible molecular detection].

    PubMed

    Argüelles, Carlos Francisco; Hernández-Zamora, Edgar

    2007-01-01

    The use of illegal substances in sports to enhance athletic performance during competition has caused international sports organizations such as the COI and WADA to take anti doping measures. A new doping method know as gene doping is defined as "the non-therapeutic use of genes, genetic elements and/or cells that have the capacity to enhance athletic performance". However, gene doping in sports is not easily identified and can cause serious consequences. Molecular biology techniques are needed in order to distinguish the difference between a "normal" and an "altered" genome. Further, we need to develop new analytic methods and biological molecular techniques in anti-doping laboratories, and design programs that avoid the non therapeutic use of genes.

  4. BRCA1 and BRCA2 gene testing

    MedlinePlus

    ... gov/ency/patientinstructions/000690.htm BRCA1 and BRCA2 gene testing To use the sharing features on this ... br east ca ncer. What is the BRCA Gene Mutation? BRCA1 and BRCA2 are genes that suppress ...

  5. [Pathogenicity and pneumococcal capsular genes].

    PubMed

    García, E; García, P; López, R

    1994-01-01

    Pneumococci remain to be one of the most prominent human pathogens. Increasing efforts are being dedicated to the development of improved vaccines with wider specificity. Since a clear understanding of the genetics of capsular types in Streptococcus pneumoniae is missing, our efforts are oriented to characterize, at the molecular level, the genes involved in capsular polysaccharide biosynthesis. We have cloned and sequenced a chromosomal DNA fragment of a clinical isolate of type 3 pneumococcus and showed that it contains a type 3 specific gene as well as genes common to other serotypes.

  6. The design of synthetic genes.

    PubMed Central

    Presnell, S R; Benner, S A

    1988-01-01

    Computer programs are described that aid in the design of synthetic genes coding for proteins that are targets of a research program in site directed mutagenesis. These programs "reverse-translate" protein sequences into general nucleic acid sequences (those where codons have not yet been selected), map restriction sites into general DNA sequences, identify points in the synthetic gene where unique restriction sites can be introduced, and assist in the design of genes coding for hybrids and evolutionary intermediates between homologous proteins. Application of these programs therefore facilitates the use of modular mutagenesis to create variants of proteins, and the implementation of evolutionary guidance as a strategy for selecting mutants. PMID:2451218

  7. The hunt for gene dopers.

    PubMed

    Mansour, Mai M H; Azzazy, Hassan M E

    2009-07-01

    Gene doping, the abuse of gene therapy for illicit athletic enhancement, is perceived as a coming threat and is a prime concern to the anti-doping community. This doping technique represents a significant ethical challenge and there are concerns regarding its safety for athletes. This article presents the basics of gene doping, potential strategies for its detection and the role of promising new technologies in aiding detection efforts. These include the use of lab-on-a-chip techniques as well as nanoparticles to enhance the performance of current analytical methods and to develop new doping detection strategies. PMID:20355209

  8. Gene expression and fractionation resistance

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Previous work on whole genome doubling in plants established the importance of gene functional category in provoking or suppressing duplicate gene loss, or fractionation. Other studies, particularly in Paramecium have correlated levels of gene expression with vulnerability or resistance to duplicate loss. Results Here we analyze the simultaneous effect of function category and expression in two plant data sets, rosids and asterids. Conclusion We demonstrate function category and expression level have independent effects, though expression does not play the dominant role it does in Paramecium. PMID:25573431

  9. The Ensembl gene annotation system.

    PubMed

    Aken, Bronwen L; Ayling, Sarah; Barrell, Daniel; Clarke, Laura; Curwen, Valery; Fairley, Susan; Fernandez Banet, Julio; Billis, Konstantinos; García Girón, Carlos; Hourlier, Thibaut; Howe, Kevin; Kähäri, Andreas; Kokocinski, Felix; Martin, Fergal J; Murphy, Daniel N; Nag, Rishi; Ruffier, Magali; Schuster, Michael; Tang, Y Amy; Vogel, Jan-Hinnerk; White, Simon; Zadissa, Amonida; Flicek, Paul; Searle, Stephen M J

    2016-01-01

    The Ensembl gene annotation system has been used to annotate over 70 different vertebrate species across a wide range of genome projects. Furthermore, it generates the automatic alignment-based annotation for the human and mouse GENCODE gene sets. The system is based on the alignment of biological sequences, including cDNAs, proteins and RNA-seq reads, to the target genome in order to construct candidate transcript models. Careful assessment and filtering of these candidate transcripts ultimately leads to the final gene set, which is made available on the Ensembl website. Here, we describe the annotation process in detail.Database URL: http://www.ensembl.org/index.html. PMID:27337980

  10. Gene therapy: proceed with caution.

    PubMed

    Grobstein, C; Flower, M

    1984-04-01

    On 6 February 1984 the Recombinant DNA Advisory Committee of the National Institutes of Health approved a recommendation that the committee provide prior review of research protocols involving human gene therapy. Grobstein and Flower trace the development of public policy in response to concerns about the dangers of gene therapy, especially as it applies to germ line alteration. They offer guidelines and propose principles for an oversight body to confront the immediate and long term technical, social, and ethical implications of human genetic modification. An accompanying article presents a plea for the development of gene therapy by the mother of three children who have sickle cell anemia.

  11. Panspermia and horizontal gene transfer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klyce, Brig

    2009-08-01

    Evidence that extremophiles are hardy and ubiquitous is helping to make panspermia a respectable theory. But even if life on Earth originally came from space, biologists assume that the subsequent evolution of life is still governed by the darwinian paradigm. In this review we show how panspermia could amend darwinism and point to a cosmic source for, not only extremophiles but, all of life. This version of panspermia can be called "strong panspermia." To support this theory we will discuss recent evidence pertaining to horizontal gene transfer, viruses, genes apparently older than the Earthly evolution of the features they encode, and primate-specific genes without identifiable precursors.

  12. The Ensembl gene annotation system

    PubMed Central

    Aken, Bronwen L.; Ayling, Sarah; Barrell, Daniel; Clarke, Laura; Curwen, Valery; Fairley, Susan; Fernandez Banet, Julio; Billis, Konstantinos; García Girón, Carlos; Hourlier, Thibaut; Howe, Kevin; Kähäri, Andreas; Kokocinski, Felix; Martin, Fergal J.; Murphy, Daniel N.; Nag, Rishi; Ruffier, Magali; Schuster, Michael; Tang, Y. Amy; Vogel, Jan-Hinnerk; White, Simon; Zadissa, Amonida; Flicek, Paul

    2016-01-01

    The Ensembl gene annotation system has been used to annotate over 70 different vertebrate species across a wide range of genome projects. Furthermore, it generates the automatic alignment-based annotation for the human and mouse GENCODE gene sets. The system is based on the alignment of biological sequences, including cDNAs, proteins and RNA-seq reads, to the target genome in order to construct candidate transcript models. Careful assessment and filtering of these candidate transcripts ultimately leads to the final gene set, which is made available on the Ensembl website. Here, we describe the annotation process in detail. Database URL: http://www.ensembl.org/index.html PMID:27337980

  13. [Production of transgenic sugarbeet plants (Beta vulgaris L.) using Agrobacterium rhizogenes].

    PubMed

    Kishchenko, E M; Komarnitskiĭ, I K; Kuchuk, N V

    2005-01-01

    Normal phenotype sugarbeet plants transformed with Agrobacterium rhizogenes were produced using direct regeneration from explants without hairy root phase. Kanamycin resistant plants and Ri-roots carrying the genes of neomycin phosphotransferase II and b-glucuronidase have been obtained. Integration of transgenes into sugarbeet genome was confirmed with GUS-assay and PCR using primers for the introduced genes. PMID:16018172

  14. Saporin as a novel suicide gene in anticancer gene therapy.

    PubMed

    Zarovni, N; Vago, R; Soldà, T; Monaco, L; Fabbrini, M S

    2007-02-01

    We used a non-viral gene delivery approach to explore the potential of the plant saporin (SAP) gene as an alternative to the currently employed suicide genes in cancer therapy. Plasmids expressing cytosolic SAP were generated by placing the region encoding the mature plant ribosome-inactivating protein under the control of cytomegalovirus (CMV) or simian virus 40 (SV40) promoters. Their ability to inhibit protein synthesis was first tested in cultured tumor cells co-transfected with a luciferase reporter gene. In particular, SAP expression driven by CMV promoter (pCI-SAP) demonstrated that only 10 ng of plasmid per 1.6 x 10(4) B16 cells drastically reduced luciferase activity to 18% of that in control cells. Direct intratumoral injection of pCI-SAP complexed with either lipofectamine or N-(2,3-dioleoyloxy-1-propyl) trimethylammonium methyl sulfate (DOTAP) in B16 melanoma-bearing mice resulted in a noteworthy attenuation of tumor growth. This antitumor effect was increased in mice that received repeated intratumoral injections. A SAP catalytic inactive mutant (SAP-KQ) failed to exert any antitumor effect demonstrating that this was specifically owing to the SAP N-glycosidase activity. Our overall data strongly suggest that the gene encoding SAP, owing to its rapid and effective action and its independence from the proliferative state of target cells might become a suitable candidate suicide gene for oncologic applications. PMID:17008932

  15. Gene amplification and insecticide resistance.

    PubMed

    Bass, Chris; Field, Linda M

    2011-08-01

    Pesticide resistance in arthropods has been shown to evolve by two main mechanisms, the enhanced production of metabolic enzymes, which bind to and/or detoxify the pesticide, and mutation of the target protein, which makes it less sensitive to the pesticide. One route that leads to enhanced metabolism is the duplication or amplification of the structural gene(s) encoding the detoxifying enzyme, and this has now been described for the three main families (esterases, glutathione S-transferases and cytochrome P450 monooxygenases) implicated in resistance. More recently, a direct or indirect role for gene duplication or amplification has been described for target-site resistance in several arthropod species. This mini-review summarises the involvement of gene duplication/amplification in the insecticide/acaricide resistance of insect and mite pests and highlights recent developments in this area in relation to P450-mediated and target-site resistance.

  16. Gene Cernan on Apollo 17

    NASA Video Gallery

    Apollo 17 Commander Gene Cernan recalls fixing a lunar rover problem with duct tape during his December 1972 mission. Cernan's interview was part of the commemoration of NASA's 50th anniversary in ...

  17. Autophagy Genes as Tumor Suppressors

    PubMed Central

    Liang, Chengyu; Jung, Jae U.

    2009-01-01

    Autophagy, originally described as a universal lysosome-dependent bulk degradation of cytoplasmic components upon nutrient deprivation, has since been shown to influence diverse aspects of homeostasis and is implicated in a wide variety of pathological conditions, including cancer. The list of autophagy-related (Atg) genes associated with the initiation and progression of human cancer as well as with responses to cancer therapy continues to grow as these genes are being discovered. However, whether Atg genes work through their expected mechanisms of autophagy regulation and/or through as-yet-undefined functions in the development of cancer remains to be further clarified. Here we review recent advances in the knowledge of the molecular basis of autophagy genes and their biological outputs during tumor development. A better understanding of the mechanistic link between cellular autophagy and tumor growth control may ultimately better human cancer treatments. PMID:19945837

  18. Gene flow and population differentiation.

    PubMed

    Endler, J A

    1973-01-19

    There are many possible spatial patterns of selection and gene flow that can produce a given cline structure; the actual geography of natural selection and gene flow must be worked out before an attempt is made to explain a given natural cline in terms of a model. The results of experimental and theoretical models show that it is possible for local differentiation to evolve parapatrically in spite of considerable gene flow if the selection gradients are relatively uniform. Irregularities in environmental gradients increase the sensitivity of clines to the effects of gene flow in proportion to the increase in the differences in gene frequencies between the emigrants and the demes receiving the immigrants. It is not necessary for a sharp spatial environmental change to be present for distinct differentiation to occur. In some cases even a gentle environmental gradient can give rise to marked spatial differentiation along a genetically continuous series of demes; such environmental differences may be below the practical limits of resolution in field studies. Any asymmetry in gene flow does not lead to dedifferentiation if the environmental gradient is smooth; it merely shifts the position of the transition zone between the differentiated areas from that which would be expected if there were no asymmetry. Abrupt geographic differences in gene, genotype, or morph frequencies should not, therefore, be interpreted as evidence for environmental changes in the immediate vicinity of the steepest part of the cline; neither should they be interpreted as evidence for geographic barriers, sharp environmental differences, or sexual isolation among the differentiated groups of populations when there are no other sources of evidence for these phenomena. Gene flow may be unimportant in the differentiation of populations along environmental gradients.

  19. Gene therapy and nasopharyngeal carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Hughes, J; Alusi, G; Wang, Y

    2012-06-01

    In 2003, a non-replicating adenoviral gene therapy product received the world`s first government licence for the treatment of head and neck cancer. Two years later approval was granted to a replication-selective adenovirus for the treatment of nasopharyngeal carcinoma in combination with chemotherapy. This review introduces the reader to gene therapy as an emerging treatment modality, and outlines its application to the management of nasopharyngeal carcinoma by examining recent pre-clinical and clinical research.

  20. Gene Transfer into Cardiac Myocytes

    PubMed Central

    Lang, Sarah E.; Westfall, Margaret V.

    2016-01-01

    Traditional methods for DNA transfection are often inefficient and toxic for terminally differentiated cells, such as cardiac myocytes. Vector-based gene transfer is an efficient approach for introducing exogenous cDNA into these types of primary cell cultures. In this chapter, separate protocols for adult rat cardiac myocyte isolation and gene transfer with recombinant adenovirus are provided and are routinely utilized for studying the effects of sarcomeric proteins on myofilament function. PMID:25836585

  1. Transgenic Arabidopsis Gene Expression System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ferl, Robert; Paul, Anna-Lisa

    2009-01-01

    The Transgenic Arabidopsis Gene Expression System (TAGES) investigation is one in a pair of investigations that use the Advanced Biological Research System (ABRS) facility. TAGES uses Arabidopsis thaliana, thale cress, with sensor promoter-reporter gene constructs that render the plants as biomonitors (an organism used to determine the quality of the surrounding environment) of their environment using real-time nondestructive Green Fluorescent Protein (GFP) imagery and traditional postflight analyses.

  2. Gene-culture coevolution between cattle milk protein genes and human lactase genes.

    PubMed

    Beja-Pereira, Albano; Luikart, Gordon; England, Phillip R; Bradley, Daniel G; Jann, Oliver C; Bertorelle, Giorgio; Chamberlain, Andrew T; Nunes, Telmo P; Metodiev, Stoitcho; Ferrand, Nuno; Erhardt, Georg

    2003-12-01

    Milk from domestic cows has been a valuable food source for over 8,000 years, especially in lactose-tolerant human societies that exploit dairy breeds. We studied geographic patterns of variation in genes encoding the six most important milk proteins in 70 native European cattle breeds. We found substantial geographic coincidence between high diversity in cattle milk genes, locations of the European Neolithic cattle farming sites (>5,000 years ago) and present-day lactose tolerance in Europeans. This suggests a gene-culture coevolution between cattle and humans.

  3. Nutritional regulation of gene expression.

    PubMed

    Cousins, R J

    1999-01-25

    Genes are regulated by complex arrays of response elements that influence the rate of transcription. Nutrients and hormones either act directly to influence these rates or act indirectly through specialized signaling pathways. Metabolites of vitamins A and D, fatty acids, some sterols, and zinc are among the nutrients that influence transcription directly. Components of dietary fiber may influence gene expression indirectly through changes in hormonal signaling, mechanical stimuli, and metabolites produced by the intestinal microflora. In addition, consumption of water-soluble fibers may lead to changes in gene expression mediated through indirect mechanisms that influence transcription rates. In the large intestine, short-chain fatty acids, including butyric acid, are produced by microflora. Butyric acid can indirectly influence gene expression. Some sources of fiber limit nutrient absorption, particularly of trace elements. This could have direct or indirect effects on gene expression. Identification of genes in colonic epithelial cells that are differentially regulated by dietary fiber will be an important step toward understanding the role of dietary factors in colorectal cancer progression.

  4. Homologous gene replacement in Physarum

    SciTech Connect

    Burland, T.G.; Pallotta, D.

    1995-01-01

    The protist Physarum polycephalum is useful for analysis of several aspects of cellular and developmental biology. To expand the opportunities for experimental analysis of this organism, we have developed a method for gene replacement. We transformed Physarum amoebae with plasmid DNA carrying a mutant allele, ardD{Delta}1, of the ardD actin gene; ardD{Delta}1 mutates the critical carboxy-terminal region of the gene product. Because ardD is not expressed in the amoeba, replacement of ardD{sup +} with ardD{Delta}1 should not be lethal for this cell type. Transformants were obtained only when linear plasmid DNA was used. Most transformants carried one copy of ardD{Delta}1 in addition to ardD{sup +}, but in two (5%), ardD{sup +} was replaced by a single copy of ardD{Delta}1. This is the first example of homologous gene replacement in Physarum. ardD{Delta}1 was stably maintained in the genome through growth, development and meiosis. We found no effect of ardD{Delta}l on viability, growth, or development of any of the various cell types of Physarum. Thus, the carboxy-terminal region of the ardD product appears not to perform a unique essential role in growth or development. Nevertheless, this method for homologous gene replacement can be applied to analyze the function of any cloned gene. 38 refs., 6 figs., 1 tab.

  5. Gene Polymorphisms in Chronic Periodontitis

    PubMed Central

    Laine, Marja L.; Loos, Bruno G.; Crielaard, W.

    2010-01-01

    We aimed to conduct a review of the literature for gene polymorphisms associated with chronic periodontitis (CP) susceptibility. A comprehensive search of the literature in English was performed using the keywords: periodontitis, periodontal disease, combined with the words genes, mutation, or polymorphism. Candidate gene polymorphism studies with a case-control design and reported genotype frequencies in CP patients were searched and reviewed. There is growing evidence that polymorphisms in the IL1, IL6, IL10, vitamin D receptor, and CD14 genes may be associated with CP in certain populations. However, carriage rates of the rare (R)-allele of any polymorphism varied considerably among studies and most of the studies appeared under-powered and did not correct for other risk factors. Larger cohorts, well-defined phenotypes, control for other risk factors, and analysis of multiple genes and polymorphisms within the same pathway are needed to get a more comprehensive insight into the contribution of gene polymorphisms in CP. PMID:20339487

  6. Cationic Bolaamphiphiles for Gene Delivery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tan, Amelia Li Min; Lim, Alisa Xue Ling; Zhu, Yiting; Yang, Yi Yan; Khan, Majad

    2014-05-01

    Advances in medical research have shed light on the genetic cause of many human diseases. Gene therapy is a promising approach which can be used to deliver therapeutic genes to treat genetic diseases at its most fundamental level. In general, nonviral vectors are preferred due to reduced risk of immune response, but they are also commonly associated with low transfection efficiency and high cytotoxicity. In contrast to viral vectors, nonviral vectors do not have a natural mechanism to overcome extra- and intracellular barriers when delivering the therapeutic gene into cell. Hence, its design has been increasingly complex to meet challenges faced in targeting of, penetration of and expression in a specific host cell in achieving more satisfactory transfection efficiency. Flexibility in design of the vector is desirable, to enable a careful and controlled manipulation of its properties and functions. This can be met by the use of bolaamphiphile, a special class of lipid. Unlike conventional lipids, bolaamphiphiles can form asymmetric complexes with the therapeutic gene. The advantage of having an asymmetric complex lies in the different purposes served by the interior and exterior of the complex. More effective gene encapsulation within the interior of the complex can be achieved without triggering greater aggregation of serum proteins with the exterior, potentially overcoming one of the great hurdles faced by conventional single-head cationic lipids. In this review, we will look into the physiochemical considerations as well as the biological aspects of a bolaamphiphile-based gene delivery system.

  7. PET genes of Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    PubMed Central

    Tzagoloff, A; Dieckmann, C L

    1990-01-01

    We describe a collection of nuclear respiratory-defective mutants (pet mutants) of Saccharomyces cerevisiae consisting of 215 complementation groups. This set of mutants probably represents a substantial fraction of the total genetic information of the nucleus required for the maintenance of functional mitochondria in S. cerevisiae. The biochemical lesions of mutants in approximately 50 complementation groups have been related to single enzymes or biosynthetic pathways, and the corresponding wild-type genes have been cloned and their structures have been determined. The genes defined by an additional 20 complementation groups were identified by allelism tests with mutants characterized in other laboratories. Mutants representative of the remaining complementation groups have been assigned to one of the following five phenotypic classes: (i) deficiency in cytochrome oxidase, (ii) deficiency in coenzyme QH2-cytochrome c reductase, (iii) deficiency in mitochondrial ATPase, (iv) absence of mitochondrial protein synthesis, and (v) normal composition of respiratory-chain complexes and of oligomycin-sensitive ATPase. In addition to the genes identified through biochemical and genetic analyses of the pet mutants, we have cataloged PET genes not matched to complementation groups in the mutant collection and other genes whose products function in the mitochondria but are not necessary for respiration. Together, this information provides an up-to-date list of the known genes coding for mitochondrial constituents and for proteins whose expression is vital for the respiratory competence of S. cerevisiae. PMID:2215420

  8. Gene-gene, gene-environment, gene-nutrient interactions and single nucleotide polymorphisms of inflammatory cytokines.

    PubMed

    Nadeem, Amina; Mumtaz, Sadaf; Naveed, Abdul Khaliq; Aslam, Muhammad; Siddiqui, Arif; Lodhi, Ghulam Mustafa; Ahmad, Tausif

    2015-05-15

    Inflammation plays a significant role in the etiology of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). The rise in the pro-inflammatory cytokines is the essential step in glucotoxicity and lipotoxicity induced mitochondrial injury, oxidative stress and beta cell apoptosis in T2DM. Among the recognized markers are interleukin (IL)-6, IL-1, IL-10, IL-18, tissue necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α), C-reactive protein, resistin, adiponectin, tissue plasminogen activator, fibrinogen and heptoglobins. Diabetes mellitus has firm genetic and very strong environmental influence; exhibiting a polygenic mode of inheritance. Many single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in various genes including those of pro and anti-inflammatory cytokines have been reported as a risk for T2DM. Not all the SNPs have been confirmed by unifying results in different studies and wide variations have been reported in various ethnic groups. The inter-ethnic variations can be explained by the fact that gene expression may be regulated by gene-gene, gene-environment and gene-nutrient interactions. This review highlights the impact of these interactions on determining the role of single nucleotide polymorphism of IL-6, TNF-α, resistin and adiponectin in pathogenesis of T2DM. PMID:25987962

  9. Immunoglobulin genes of the turtles.

    PubMed

    Magadán-Mompó, Susana; Sánchez-Espinel, Christian; Gambón-Deza, Francisco

    2013-03-01

    The availability of reptile genomes for the use of the scientific community is an exceptional opportunity to study the evolution of immunoglobulin genes. The genome of Chrysemys picta bellii and Pelodiscus sinensis is the first one that has been reported for turtles. The scanning for immunoglobulin genes resulted in the presence of a complex locus for the immunoglobulin heavy chain (IGH). This IGH locus in both turtles contains genes for 13 isotypes in C. picta bellii and 17 in P. sinensis. These correspond with one immunoglobulin M, one immunoglobulin D, several immunoglobulins Y (six in C. picta bellii and eight in P. sinensis), and several immunoglobulins that are similar to immunoglobulin D2 (five in C. picta belli and seven in P. sinensis) that was previously described in Eublepharis macularius. It is worthy to note that IGHD2 are placed in an inverted transcriptional orientation and present sequences for two immunoglobulin domains that are similar to bird IgA domains. Furthermore, its phylogenetic analysis allows us to consider about the presence of IGHA gene in a primitive reptile, so we would be dealing with the memory of the gene that originated from the bird IGHA. In summary, we provide a clear picture of the immunoglobulins present in a turtle, whose analysis supports the idea that turtles emerged from the evolutionary line from the differentiation of birds and the presence of the IGHA gene present in a common ancestor.

  10. Gene therapy for paediatric leukaemia.

    PubMed

    Rousseau, R F; Bollard, C M; Heslop, H E

    2001-07-01

    Improvements in the chemotherapeutic and transplant regimens have had a significant impact in improving survival rates for paediatric leukaemia. However, there are still important problems to address including what options are available for patients with chemoresistant disease and what strategies are available to avoid the concerns regarding the toxicity associated with highly cytotoxic treatment regimens. Gene therapy and immunotherapy protocols hold great promise. Using gene transfer of a marker gene, a number of biological issues in the therapy of leukaemia have been addressed. For example, by gene marking autologous bone marrow grafts it has been possible to demonstrate that infused marrow contributes to relapse in acute and chronic myeloid leukaemias. In the allogeneic transplant setting, genetically modified T-cells have proven valuable for the prophylaxis and treatment of viral diseases and may have an important role in preventing or treating disease relapse. Gene transfer is also being used to modify tumour function, enhance immunogenicity, and confer drug-resistance to normal haematopoietic stem cells. With the continued scientific advancements in this field, gene therapy will almost certainly have a major impact on the treatment of paediatric leukaemia in the future. PMID:11727502

  11. Improvement of L-phenylalanine production from glycerol by recombinant Escherichia coli strains: The role of extra copies of glpK, glpX, and tktA genes

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background For the production of L-phenylalanine (L-Phe), two molecules of phosphoenolpyruvate (PEP) and one molecule erythrose-4-phosphate (E4P) are necessary. PEP stems from glycolysis whereas E4P is formed in the pentose phosphate pathway (PPP). Glucose, commonly used for L-Phe production with recombinant E. coli, is taken up via the PEP-dependent phosphotransferase system which delivers glucose-6-phosphate (G6P). G6P enters either glycolysis or the PPP. In contrast, glycerol is phosphorylated by an ATP-dependent glycerol kinase (GlpK) thus saving one PEP. However, two gluconeogenic reactions (fructose-1,6-bisphosphate aldolase, fructose-1,6-bisphosphatase, FBPase) are necessary for growth and provision of E4P. Glycerol has become an important carbon source for biotechnology and reports on production of L-Phe from glycerol are available. However, the influence of FBPase and transketolase reactions on L-Phe production has not been reported. Results L-Phe productivity of parent strain FUS4/pF81 (plasmid-encoded genes for aroF, aroB, aroL, pheA) was compared on glucose and glycerol as C sources. On glucose, a maximal carbon recovery of 0.19 mM CPhe/CGlucose and a maximal space-time-yield (STY) of 0.13 g l−1 h−1 was found. With glycerol, the maximal carbon recovery was nearly the same (0.18 mM CPhe/CGlycerol), but the maximal STY was higher (0.21 g l−1 h−1). We raised the chromosomal gene copy number of the genes glpK (encoding glycerol kinase), tktA (encoding transketolase), and glpX (encoding fructose-1,6-bisphosphatase) individually. Overexpression of glpK (or its feedback-resistant variant, glpKG232D) had little effect on growth rate; L-Phe production was about 30% lower than in FUS4/pF81. Whereas the overexpression of either glpX or tktA had minor effects on productivity (0.20 mM CPhe/CGlycerol; 0.25 g l−1 h−1 and 0.21 mM CPhe/CGlycerol; 0.23 g l−1 h−1, respectively), the combination of extra genes of glpX and tktA together led

  12. New gene evolution: little did we know.

    PubMed

    Long, Manyuan; VanKuren, Nicholas W; Chen, Sidi; Vibranovski, Maria D

    2013-01-01

    Genes are perpetually added to and deleted from genomes during evolution. Thus, it is important to understand how new genes are formed and how they evolve to be critical components of the genetic systems that determine the biological diversity of life. Two decades of effort have shed light on the process of new gene origination and have contributed to an emerging comprehensive picture of how new genes are added to genomes, ranging from the mechanisms that generate new gene structures to the presence of new genes in different organisms to the rates and patterns of new gene origination and the roles of new genes in phenotypic evolution. We review each of these aspects of new gene evolution, summarizing the main evidence for the origination and importance of new genes in evolution. We highlight findings showing that new genes rapidly change existing genetic systems that govern various molecular, cellular, and phenotypic functions.

  13. Homology-dependent Gene Silencing in Paramecium

    PubMed Central

    Ruiz, Françoise; Vayssié, Laurence; Klotz, Catherine; Sperling, Linda; Madeddu, Luisa

    1998-01-01

    Microinjection at high copy number of plasmids containing only the coding region of a gene into the Paramecium somatic macronucleus led to a marked reduction in the expression of the corresponding endogenous gene(s). The silencing effect, which is stably maintained throughout vegetative growth, has been observed for all Paramecium genes examined so far: a single-copy gene (ND7), as well as members of multigene families (centrin genes and trichocyst matrix protein genes) in which all closely related paralogous genes appeared to be affected. This phenomenon may be related to posttranscriptional gene silencing in transgenic plants and quelling in Neurospora and allows the efficient creation of specific mutant phenotypes thus providing a potentially powerful tool to study gene function in Paramecium. For the two multigene families that encode proteins that coassemble to build up complex subcellular structures the analysis presented herein provides the first experimental evidence that the members of these gene families are not functionally redundant. PMID:9529389

  14. OGEE: an online gene essentiality database.

    PubMed

    Chen, Wei-Hua; Minguez, Pablo; Lercher, Martin J; Bork, Peer

    2012-01-01

    OGEE is an Online GEne Essentiality database. Its main purpose is to enhance our understanding of the essentiality of genes. This is achieved by collecting not only experimentally tested essential and non-essential genes, but also associated gene features such as expression profiles, duplication status, conservation across species, evolutionary origins and involvement in embryonic development. We focus on large-scale experiments and complement our data with text-mining results. Genes are organized into data sets according to their sources. Genes with variable essentiality status across data sets are tagged as conditionally essential, highlighting the complex interplay between gene functions and environments. Linked tools allow the user to compare gene essentiality among different gene groups, or compare features of essential genes to non-essential genes, and visualize the results. OGEE is freely available at http://ogeedb.embl.de.

  15. PoplarGene: poplar gene network and resource for mining functional information for genes from woody plants.

    PubMed

    Liu, Qi; Ding, Changjun; Chu, Yanguang; Chen, Jiafei; Zhang, Weixi; Zhang, Bingyu; Huang, Qinjun; Su, Xiaohua

    2016-01-01

    Poplar is not only an important resource for the production of paper, timber and other wood-based products, but it has also emerged as an ideal model system for studying woody plants. To better understand the biological processes underlying various traits in poplar, e.g., wood development, a comprehensive functional gene interaction network is highly needed. Here, we constructed a genome-wide functional gene network for poplar (covering ~70% of the 41,335 poplar genes) and created the network web service PoplarGene, offering comprehensive functional interactions and extensive poplar gene functional annotations. PoplarGene incorporates two network-based gene prioritization algorithms, neighborhood-based prioritization and context-based prioritization, which can be used to perform gene prioritization in a complementary manner. Furthermore, the co-functional information in PoplarGene can be applied to other woody plant proteomes with high efficiency via orthology transfer. In addition to poplar gene sequences, the webserver also accepts Arabidopsis reference gene as input to guide the search for novel candidate functional genes in PoplarGene. We believe that PoplarGene (http://bioinformatics.caf.ac.cn/PoplarGene and http://124.127.201.25/PoplarGene) will greatly benefit the research community, facilitating studies of poplar and other woody plants. PMID:27515999

  16. PoplarGene: poplar gene network and resource for mining functional information for genes from woody plants

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Qi; Ding, Changjun; Chu, Yanguang; Chen, Jiafei; Zhang, Weixi; Zhang, Bingyu; Huang, Qinjun; Su, Xiaohua

    2016-01-01

    Poplar is not only an important resource for the production of paper, timber and other wood-based products, but it has also emerged as an ideal model system for studying woody plants. To better understand the biological processes underlying various traits in poplar, e.g., wood development, a comprehensive functional gene interaction network is highly needed. Here, we constructed a genome-wide functional gene network for poplar (covering ~70% of the 41,335 poplar genes) and created the network web service PoplarGene, offering comprehensive functional interactions and extensive poplar gene functional annotations. PoplarGene incorporates two network-based gene prioritization algorithms, neighborhood-based prioritization and context-based prioritization, which can be used to perform gene prioritization in a complementary manner. Furthermore, the co-functional information in PoplarGene can be applied to other woody plant proteomes with high efficiency via orthology transfer. In addition to poplar gene sequences, the webserver also accepts Arabidopsis reference gene as input to guide the search for novel candidate functional genes in PoplarGene. We believe that PoplarGene (http://bioinformatics.caf.ac.cn/PoplarGene and http://124.127.201.25/PoplarGene) will greatly benefit the research community, facilitating studies of poplar and other woody plants. PMID:27515999

  17. Murine erythropoietin gene: cloning, expression, and human gene homology.

    PubMed Central

    Shoemaker, C B; Mitsock, L D

    1986-01-01

    The gene for murine erythropoietin (EPO) was isolated from a mouse genomic library with a human EPO cDNA probe. Nucleotide sequence analysis permitted the identification of the murine EPO coding sequence and the prediction of the encoded amino acid sequence based on sequence conservation between the mouse and human EPO genes. Both the coding DNA and the amino acid sequences were 80% conserved between the two species. Transformation of COS-1 cells with a mammalian cell expression vector containing the murine EPO coding region resulted in secretion of murine EPO with biological activity on both murine and human erythroid progenitor cells. The transcription start site for the murine EPO gene in kidneys was determined. This permitted tentative identification of the transcription control region. The region included 140 base pairs upstream of the cap site which was over 90% conserved between the murine and human genes. Surprisingly, the first intron and much of the 5'- and 3'-untranslated sequences were also substantially conserved between the genes of the two species. Images PMID:3773894

  18. Newer gene editing technologies toward HIV gene therapy.

    PubMed

    Manjunath, N; Yi, Guohua; Dang, Ying; Shankar, Premlata

    2013-11-01

    Despite the great success of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) in ameliorating the course of HIV infection, alternative therapeutic approaches are being pursued because of practical problems associated with life-long therapy. The eradication of HIV in the so-called "Berlin patient" who received a bone marrow transplant from a CCR5-negative donor has rekindled interest in genome engineering strategies to achieve the same effect. Precise gene editing within the cells is now a realistic possibility with recent advances in understanding the DNA repair mechanisms, DNA interaction with transcription factors and bacterial defense mechanisms. Within the past few years, four novel technologies have emerged that can be engineered for recognition of specific DNA target sequences to enable site-specific gene editing: Homing Endonuclease, ZFN, TALEN, and CRISPR/Cas9 system. The most recent CRISPR/Cas9 system uses a short stretch of complementary RNA bound to Cas9 nuclease to recognize and cleave target DNA, as opposed to the previous technologies that use DNA binding motifs of either zinc finger proteins or transcription activator-like effector molecules fused to an endonuclease to mediate sequence-specific DNA cleavage. Unlike RNA interference, which requires the continued presence of effector moieties to maintain gene silencing, the newer technologies allow permanent disruption of the targeted gene after a single treatment. Here, we review the applications, limitations and future prospects of novel gene-editing strategies for use as HIV therapy.

  19. Noninvasive Tracking of Gene Transcript and Neuroprotection after Gene Therapy

    PubMed Central

    Ren, Jiaqian; Chen, Y. Iris; Liu, Christina H.; Chen, Po-Chih; Prentice, Howard; Wu, Jang-Yen; Liu, Philip K.

    2015-01-01

    Gene therapy holds exceptional potential for translational medicine by improving the products of defective genes in diseases and/or providing necessary biologics from endogenous sources during recovery processes. However, validating methods for the delivery, distribution and expression of the exogenous genes from such therapy can generally not be applicable to monitor effects over the long term because they are invasive. We report here that human granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (hG-CSF) cDNA encoded in scAAV-type 2 adeno-associated virus, as delivered through eye drops at multiple time points after cerebral ischemia using bilateral carotid occlusion for 60 min (BCAO-60) led to significant reduction in mortality rates, cerebral atrophy, and neurological deficits in C57black6 mice. Most importantly, we validated hG-CSF cDNA expression using translatable magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in living brains. This noninvasive approach for monitoring exogenous gene expression in the brains has potential for great impact in the area of experimental gene therapy in animal models of heart attack, stroke, Alzheimer’s dementia, Parkinson’s disorder and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, and the translation of such techniques to emergency medicine. PMID:26207935

  20. [Developments in gene delivery vectors for ocular gene therapy].

    PubMed

    Khabou, Hanen; Dalkara, Deniz

    2015-05-01

    Gene therapy is quickly becoming a reality applicable in the clinic for inherited retinal diseases. Its remarkable success in safety and efficacy, in clinical trials for Leber's congenital amaurosis (LCA) type II generated significant interest and opened up possibilities for a new era of retinal gene therapies. Success in these clinical trials was mainly due to the favorable characteristics of the retina as a target organ. The eye offers several advantages as it is readily accessible and has some degree of immune privilege making it suitable for application of viral vectors. The viral vectors most frequently used for retinal gene delivery are lentivirus, adenovirus and adeno-associated virus (AAV). Here we will discuss the use of these viral vectors in retinal gene delivery with a strong focus on favorable properties of AAV. Thanks to its small size, AAV diffuses well in the inter-neural matrix making it suitable for applications in neural retina. Building on this initial clinical success with LCA II, we have now many opportunities to extend this proof-of-concept to other retinal diseases using AAV as a vector. This article will discuss what are some of the most imminent cellular targets for such therapies and the AAV toolkit that has been built to target these cells successfully. We will also discuss some of the challenges that we face in translating AAV-based gene therapies to the clinic.

  1. The biology of novel animal genes: Mouse APEX gene knockout

    SciTech Connect

    MacInnes, M.; Altherr, M.R.; Ludwig, D.; Pedersen, R.; Mold, C.

    1997-07-01

    This is the final report of a one-year, Laboratory Directed Research and Development (LDRD) project at the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). The controlled breeding of novel genes into mice, including the gene knockout (KO), or conversely by adding back transgenes provide powerful genetic technologies that together suffice to determine in large part the biological role(s) of novel genes. Inbred mouse remains the best understood and most useful mammalian experimental system available for tackling the biology of novel genes. The major mammalian apurinic/apyrimidinic (AP) endonuclease (APE), is involved in a key step in the repair of spontaneous and induced AP sites in DNA. Efficient repair of these lesions is imperative to prevent the stable incorporation of mutations into the cellular genome which may lead to cell death or transformation. Loss or modulation of base excison repair activity in vivo may elevate the spontaneous mutation rate in cells, and may lead to a substantial increase in the incidence of cancer. Despite extensive biochemical analysis, however, the significance of these individual APE functions in vivo has not been elucidated. Mouse embryonic stem (ES) cells heterozygous for a deletion mutation in APE have been generated and whole animals containing the APE mutation have been derived from these ES cells. Animals homozygous for the APE null mutation die early in gestation, underscoring the biological significance of this DNA repair gene.

  2. Newer Gene Editing Technologies toward HIV Gene Therapy

    PubMed Central

    Manjunath, N.; Yi, Guohua; Dang, Ying; Shankar, Premlata

    2013-01-01

    Despite the great success of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) in ameliorating the course of HIV infection, alternative therapeutic approaches are being pursued because of practical problems associated with life-long therapy. The eradication of HIV in the so-called “Berlin patient” who received a bone marrow transplant from a CCR5-negative donor has rekindled interest in genome engineering strategies to achieve the same effect. Precise gene editing within the cells is now a realistic possibility with recent advances in understanding the DNA repair mechanisms, DNA interaction with transcription factors and bacterial defense mechanisms. Within the past few years, four novel technologies have emerged that can be engineered for recognition of specific DNA target sequences to enable site-specific gene editing: Homing Endonuclease, ZFN, TALEN, and CRISPR/Cas9 system. The most recent CRISPR/Cas9 system uses a short stretch of complementary RNA bound to Cas9 nuclease to recognize and cleave target DNA, as opposed to the previous technologies that use DNA binding motifs of either zinc finger proteins or transcription activator-like effector molecules fused to an endonuclease to mediate sequence-specific DNA cleavage. Unlike RNA interference, which requires the continued presence of effector moieties to maintain gene silencing, the newer technologies allow permanent disruption of the targeted gene after a single treatment. Here, we review the applications, limitations and future prospects of novel gene-editing strategies for use as HIV therapy. PMID:24284874

  3. Subunit and amino acid interactions in the Escherichia coli mannitol permease: a functional complementation study of coexpressed mutant permease proteins.

    PubMed

    Saraceni-Richards, C A; Jacobson, G R

    1997-08-01

    Mannitol-specific enzyme II, or mannitol permease, of the phosphoenolpyruvate-dependent carbohydrate phosphotransferase system of Escherichia coli carries out the transport and phosphorylation of D-mannitol and is most active as a dimer in the membrane. We recently reported the importance of a glutamate residue at position 257 in the binding and transport of mannitol by this protein (C. Saraceni-Richards and G. R. Jacobson, J. Bacteriol. 179:1135-1142, 1997). Replacing Glu-257 with alanine (E257A) or glutamine (E257Q) eliminated detectable mannitol binding and transport by the permease. In contrast, an E257D mutant protein was able to bind and phosphorylate mannitol in a manner similar to that of the wild-type protein but was severely defective in mannitol uptake. In this study, we have coexpressed proteins containing mutations at position 257 with other inactive permeases containing mutations in each of the three domains of this protein. Activities of any active heterodimers resulting from this coexpression were measured. The results show that various inactive mutant permease proteins can complement proteins containing mutations at position 257. In addition, we show that both Glu at position 257 and His at position 195, both of which are in the membrane-bound C domain of the protein, must be on the same subunit of a permease dimer in order for efficient mannitol phosphorylation and uptake to occur. The results also suggest that mannitol bound to the opposite subunit within a permease heterodimer can be phosphorylated by the subunit containing the E257A mutation (which cannot bind mannitol) and support a model in which there are separate binding sites on each subunit within a permease dimer. Finally, we provide evidence from these studies that high-affinity mannitol binding is necessary for efficient transport by mannitol permease.

  4. Combining Hierarchical and Associative Gene Ontology Relations with Textual Evidence in Estimating Gene and Gene Product Similarity

    SciTech Connect

    Sanfilippo, Antonio P.; Posse, Christian; Gopalan, Banu; Riensche, Roderick M.; Beagley, Nathaniel; Baddeley, Bob L.; Tratz, Stephen C.; Gregory, Michelle L.

    2007-03-01

    Gene and gene product similarity is a fundamental diagnostic measure in analyzing biological data and constructing predictive models for functional genomics. With the rising influence of the Gene Ontology, two complementary approaches have emerged where the similarity between two genes or gene products is obtained by comparing Gene Ontology (GO) annotations associated with the genes or gene products. One approach captures GO-based similarity in terms of hierarchical relations within each gene subontology. The other approach identifies GO-based similarity in terms of associative relations across the three gene subontologies. We propose a novel methodology where the two approaches can be merged with ensuing benefits in coverage and accuracy, and demonstrate that further improvements can be obtained by integrating textual evidence extracted from relevant biomedical literature.

  5. Genes and Abdominal Aortic Aneurysm

    PubMed Central

    Hinterseher, Irene; Tromp, Gerard; Kuivaniemi, Helena

    2010-01-01

    Abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) is a multifactorial disease with a strong genetic component. Since first candidate gene studies were published 20 years ago, nearly 100 genetic association studies using single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in biologically relevant genes have been reported on AAA. The studies investigated SNPs in genes of the extracellular matrix, the cardiovascular system, the immune system, and signaling pathways. Very few studies were large enough to draw firm conclusions and very few results could be replicated in another sample set. The more recent unbiased approaches are family-based DNA linkage studies and genome-wide genetic association studies, which have the potential of identifying the genetic basis for AAA, if appropriately powered and well-characterized large AAA cohorts are used. SNPs associated with AAA have already been identified in these large multicenter studies. One significant association was of a variant in a gene called CNTN3 which is located on chromosome 3p12.3. Two follow-up studies, however, could not replicate the association. Two other SNPs, which are located on chromosome 9p21 and 9q33 were replicated in other samples. The two genes with the strongest supporting evidence of contribution to the genetic risk for AAA are the CDKN2BAS gene, also known as ANRIL, which encodes an antisense RNA that regulates expression of the cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitors CDKN2A and CDKN2B, and DAB2IP, which encodes an inhibitor of cell growth and survival. Functional studies are now needed to establish the mechanisms by which these genes contribute to AAA pathogenesis. PMID:21146954

  6. A hybrid approach of gene sets and single genes for the prediction of survival risks with gene expression data.

    PubMed

    Seok, Junhee; Davis, Ronald W; Xiao, Wenzhong

    2015-01-01

    Accumulated biological knowledge is often encoded as gene sets, collections of genes associated with similar biological functions or pathways. The use of gene sets in the analyses of high-throughput gene expression data has been intensively studied and applied in clinical research. However, the main interest remains in finding modules of biological knowledge, or corresponding gene sets, significantly associated with disease conditions. Risk prediction from censored survival times using gene sets hasn't been well studied. In this work, we propose a hybrid method that uses both single gene and gene set information together to predict patient survival risks from gene expression profiles. In the proposed method, gene sets provide context-level information that is poorly reflected by single genes. Complementarily, single genes help to supplement incomplete information of gene sets due to our imperfect biomedical knowledge. Through the tests over multiple data sets of cancer and trauma injury, the proposed method showed robust and improved performance compared with the conventional approaches with only single genes or gene sets solely. Additionally, we examined the prediction result in the trauma injury data, and showed that the modules of biological knowledge used in the prediction by the proposed method were highly interpretable in biology. A wide range of survival prediction problems in clinical genomics is expected to benefit from the use of biological knowledge.

  7. Clock Genes in Glia Cells

    PubMed Central

    Chi-Castañeda, Donají

    2016-01-01

    Circadian rhythms are periodic patterns in biological processes that allow the organisms to anticipate changes in the environment. These rhythms are driven by the suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN), the master circadian clock in vertebrates. At a molecular level, circadian rhythms are regulated by the so-called clock genes, which oscillate in a periodic manner. The protein products of clock genes are transcription factors that control their own and other genes’ transcription, collectively known as “clock-controlled genes.” Several brain regions other than the SCN express circadian rhythms of clock genes, including the amygdala, the olfactory bulb, the retina, and the cerebellum. Glia cells in these structures are expected to participate in rhythmicity. However, only certain types of glia cells may be called “glial clocks,” since they express PER-based circadian oscillators, which depend of the SCN for their synchronization. This contribution summarizes the current information about clock genes in glia cells, their plausible role as oscillators and their medical implications. PMID:27666286

  8. Gene therapy for metachromatic leukodystrophy.

    PubMed

    Rosenberg, Jonathan B; Kaminsky, Stephen M; Aubourg, Patrick; Crystal, Ronald G; Sondhi, Dolan

    2016-11-01

    Leukodystrophies (LDs) are rare, often devastating genetic disorders with neurologic symptoms. There are currently no disease-specific therapeutic approaches for these diseases. In this review we use metachromatic leukodystrophy as an example to outline in the brief the therapeutic approaches to MLD that have been tested in animal models and in clinical trials, such as enzyme-replacement therapy, bone marrow/umbilical cord blood transplants, ex vivo transplantation of genetically modified hematopoietic stem cells, and gene therapy. These studies suggest that to be successful the ideal therapy for MLD must provide persistent and high level expression of the deficient gene, arylsulfatase A in the CNS. Gene therapy using adeno-associated viruses is therefore the ideal choice for clinical development as it provides the best balance of potential for efficacy with reduced safety risk. Here we have summarized the published preclinical data from our group and from others that support the use of a gene therapy with AAVrh.10 serotype for clinical development as a treatment for MLD, and as an example of the potential of gene therapy for LDs especially for Krabbe disease, which is the focus of this special issue. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:27638601

  9. Gene Therapy for Pituitary Tumors

    PubMed Central

    Seilicovich, Adriana; Pisera, Daniel; Sciascia, Sandra A.; Candolfi, Marianela; Puntel, Mariana; Xiong, Weidong; Jaita, Gabriela; Castro, Maria G.

    2009-01-01

    Pituitary tumors are the most common primary intracranial neoplasms. Although most pituitary tumors are considered typically benign, others can cause severe and progressive disease. The principal aims of pituitary tumor treatment are the elimination or reduction of the tumor mass, normalization of hormone secretion and preservation of remaining pituitary function. In spite of major advances in the therapy of pituitary tumors, for some of the most difficult tumors, current therapies that include medical, surgical and radiotherapeutic methods are often unsatisfactory and there is a need to develop new treatment strategies. Gene therapy, which uses nucleic acids as drugs, has emerged as an attractive therapeutic option for the treatment of pituitary tumors that do not respond to classical treatment strategies if the patients become intolerant to the therapy. The development of animal models for pituitary tumors and hormone hypersecretion has proven to be critical for the implementation of novel treatment strategies and gene therapy approaches. Preclinical trials using several gene therapy approaches for the treatment of anterior pituitary diseases have been successfully implemented. Several issues need to be addressed before clinical implementation becomes a reality, including the development of more effective and safer viral vectors, uncovering novel therapeutic targets and development of targeted expression of therapeutic transgenes. With the development of efficient gene delivery vectors allowing long-term transgene expression with minimal toxicity, gene therapy will become one of the most promising approaches for treating pituitary adenomas. PMID:16457646

  10. Melatonin Receptor Genes in Vertebrates

    PubMed Central

    Li, Di Yan; Smith, David Glenn; Hardeland, Rüdiger; Yang, Ming Yao; Xu, Huai Liang; Zhang, Long; Yin, Hua Dong; Zhu, Qing

    2013-01-01

    Melatonin receptors are members of the G protein-coupled receptor (GPCR) family. Three genes for melatonin receptors have been cloned. The MT1 (or Mel1a or MTNR1A) and MT2 (or Mel1b or MTNR1B) receptor subtypes are present in humans and other mammals, while an additional melatonin receptor subtype, Mel1c (or MTNR1C), has been identified in fish, amphibians and birds. Another melatonin related orphan receptor, GPR50, which does not bind melatonin, is found exclusively in mammals. The hormone melatonin is secreted primarily by the pineal gland, with highest levels occurring during the dark period of a circadian cycle. This hormone acts systemically in numerous organs. In the brain, it is involved in the regulation of various neural and endocrine processes, and it readjusts the circadian pacemaker, the suprachiasmatic nucleus. This article reviews recent studies of gene organization, expression, evolution and mutations of melatonin receptor genes of vertebrates. Gene polymorphisms reveal that numerous mutations are associated with diseases and disorders. The phylogenetic analysis of receptor genes indicates that GPR50 is an outgroup to all other melatonin receptor sequences. GPR50 may have separated from a melatonin receptor ancestor before the split between MTNR1C and the MTNR1A/B ancestor. PMID:23712359

  11. Metazoan Gene Families from Metazome

    DOE Data Explorer

    Metazome is a joint project of the Department of Energy's Joint Genome Institute and the Center for Integrative Genomics to facilitate comparative genomic studies amongst metazoans. Clusters of orthologous and paralogous genes that represent the modern descendents of ancestral gene sets are constructed at key phylogenetic nodes. These clusters allow easy access to clade specific orthology/paralogy relationships as well as clade specific genes and gene expansions. As of version 2.0.4, Metazome provides access to twenty-four sequenced and annotated metazoan genomes, clustered at nine evolutionarily significant nodes. Where possible, each gene has been annotated with PFAM, KOG, KEGG, and PANTHER assignments, and publicly available annotations from RefSeq, UniProt, Ensembl, and JGI are hyper-linked and searchable. The included organisms (by common name) are: Human, Mouse, Rat, Dog, Opossum, Chicken, Frog, Stickleback, Medaka, Fugu pufferfish; Zebrafish, Seasquirt - savignyi, Seasquirt - intestinalis, Amphioxus, Sea Urchin, Fruitfly, Mosquite, Yellow Fever Mosquito, Silkworm, Red Flour Beetle, Worm, Briggsae Worm, Owl limpet (snail), and Sea anemone. [Copied from Metazome Overview at http://www.metazome.net/Metazome_info.php

  12. Systems Biophysics of Gene Expression

    PubMed Central

    Vilar, Jose M.G.; Saiz, Leonor

    2013-01-01

    Gene expression is a process central to any form of life. It involves multiple temporal and functional scales that extend from specific protein-DNA interactions to the coordinated regulation of multiple genes in response to intracellular and extracellular changes. This diversity in scales poses fundamental challenges to the use of traditional approaches to fully understand even the simplest gene expression systems. Recent advances in computational systems biophysics have provided promising avenues to reliably integrate the molecular detail of biophysical process into the system behavior. Here, we review recent advances in the description of gene regulation as a system of biophysical processes that extend from specific protein-DNA interactions to the combinatorial assembly of nucleoprotein complexes. There is now basic mechanistic understanding on how promoters controlled by multiple, local and distal, DNA binding sites for transcription factors can actively control transcriptional noise, cell-to-cell variability, and other properties of gene regulation, including precision and flexibility of the transcriptional responses. PMID:23790365

  13. Gene Ontology Consortium: going forward

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    The Gene Ontology (GO; http://www.geneontology.org) is a community-based bioinformatics resource that supplies information about gene product function using ontologies to represent biological knowledge. Here we describe improvements and expansions to several branches of the ontology, as well as updates that have allowed us to more efficiently disseminate the GO and capture feedback from the research community. The Gene Ontology Consortium (GOC) has expanded areas of the ontology such as cilia-related terms, cell-cycle terms and multicellular organism processes. We have also implemented new tools for generating ontology terms based on a set of logical rules making use of templates, and we have made efforts to increase our use of logical definitions. The GOC has a new and improved web site summarizing new developments and documentation, serving as a portal to GO data. Users can perform GO enrichment analysis, and search the GO for terms, annotations to gene products, and associated metadata across multiple species using the all-new AmiGO 2 browser. We encourage and welcome the input of the research community in all biological areas in our continued effort to improve the Gene Ontology. PMID:25428369

  14. Gene Chips and Functional Genomics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hamadeh, Hisham; Afshari, Cynthia

    2000-11-01

    These past few years of scientific discovery will undoubtedly be remembered as the "genomics era," the period in which biologists succeeded in enumerating the sequence of nucleotides making up all, or at least most, of human DNA. And while this achievement has been heralded as a technological feat equal to the moon landing, it is only the first of many advances in DNA technology. Scientists are now faced with the task of understanding the meaning of the DNA sequence. Specifically, they want to learn how the DNA code relates to protein function. An important tool in the study of "functional genomics," is the cDNA microarray—also known as the gene chip. Inspired by computer microchips, gene chips allow scientists to monitor the expression of hundreds, even thousands, of genes in a fraction of the time it used to take to monitor the expression of a single one. By altering the conditions under which a particular tissue expresses genes—say, by exposing it to toxins or growth factors—scientists can determine the suite of genes expressed in different situations and hence start to get a handle on the function of these genes. The authors discuss this important new technology and some of its practical applications.

  15. Hox gene dysregulation in acute myeloid leukemia.

    PubMed

    De Braekeleer, Etienne; Douet-Guilbert, Nathalie; Basinko, Audrey; Le Bris, Marie-Josée; Morel, Frédéric; De Braekeleer, Marc

    2014-02-01

    In humans, class I homeobox genes (HOX genes) are distributed in four clusters. Upstream regulators include transcriptional activators and members of the CDX family of transcription factors. HOX genes encode proteins and need cofactor interactions, to increase their specificity and selectivity. HOX genes contribute to the organization and regulation of hematopoiesis by controlling the balance between proliferation and differentiation. Changes in HOX gene expression can be associated with chromosomal rearrangements generating fusion genes, such as those involving MLL and NUP98, or molecular defects, such as mutations in NPM1 and CEBPA for example. Several miRNAs are involved in the control of HOX gene expression and their expression correlates with HOX gene dysregulation. HOX genes dysregulation is a dominant mechanism of leukemic transformation. A better knowledge of their target genes and the mechanisms by which their dysregulated expression contributes to leukemogenesis could lead to the development of new drugs.

  16. Gene-Gene and Gene-Environment Interactions in Ulcerative Colitis

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Ming-Hsi; Fiocchi, Claudio; Zhu, Xiaofeng; Ripke, Stephan; Kamboh, M. Ilyas; Rebert, Nancy; Duerr, Richard H.; Achkar, Jean-Paul

    2014-01-01

    Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have identified at least 133 ulcerative colitis (UC) associated loci. The role of genetic factors in clinical practice is not clearly defined. The relevance of genetic variants to disease pathogenesis is still uncertain because of not characterized gene-gene and gene-environment interactions. We examined the predictive value of combining the 133 UC risk loci with genetic interactions in an ongoing inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) GWAS. The Wellcome Trust Case-Control Consortium (WTCCC) IBD GWAS was used as a replication cohort. We applied logic regression (LR), a novel adaptive regression methodology, to search for high order interactions. Exploratory genotype correlations with UC sub-phenotypes (extent of disease, need of surgery, age of onset, extra-intestinal manifestations and primary sclerosing cholangitis (PSC)) were conducted. The combination of 133 UC loci yielded good UC risk predictability (area under the curve [AUC] of 0.86). A higher cumulative allele score predicted higher UC risk. Through LR, several lines of evidence for genetic interactions were identified and successfully replicated in the WTCCC cohort. The genetic interactions combined with the gene-smoking interaction significantly improved predictability in the model (AUC, from 0.86 to 0.89, P=3.26E-05). Explained UC variance increased from 37% to 42% after adding the interaction terms. A within case analysis found suggested genetic association with PSC. Our study demonstrates that the LR methodology allows the identification and replication of high order genetic interactions in UC GWAS datasets. UC risk can be predicted by a 133 loci and improved by adding gene-gene and gene-environment interactions. PMID:24241240

  17. Activities of Human Gene Nomenclature Committee

    SciTech Connect

    2002-07-16

    The objective of this project, shared between NIH and DOE, has been and remains to enable the medical genetics communities to use common names for genes that are discovered by different gene hunting groups, in different species. This effort provides consistent gene nomenclature and approved gene symbols to the community at large. This contributes to a uniform and consistent understanding of genomes, particularly the human as well as functional genomics based on comparisons between homologous genes in related species (human and mice).

  18. The Basic Science of Gene Therapy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mulligan, Richard C.

    1993-05-01

    The development over the past decade of methods for delivering genes to mammalian cells has stimulated great interest in the possibility of treating human disease by gene-based therapies. However, despite substantial progress, a number of key technical issues need to be resolved before gene therapy can be safely and effectively applied in the clinic. Future technological developments, particularly in the areas of gene delivery and cell transplantation, will be critical for the successful practice of gene therapy.

  19. Gene Body Methylation Patterns in Daphnia Are Associated with Gene Family Size

    PubMed Central

    Asselman, Jana; De Coninck, Dieter I. M.; Pfrender, Michael E.; De Schamphelaere, Karel A. C.

    2016-01-01

    The relation between gene body methylation and gene function remains elusive. Yet, our understanding of this relationship can contribute significant knowledge on how and why organisms target specific gene bodies for methylation. Here, we studied gene body methylation patterns in two Daphnia species. We observed both highly methylated genes and genes devoid of methylation in a background of low global methylation levels. A small but highly significant number of genes was highly methylated in both species. Remarkably, functional analyses indicate that variation in methylation within and between Daphnia species is primarily targeted to small gene families whereas large gene families tend to lack variation. The degree of sequence similarity could not explain the observed pattern. Furthermore, a significant negative correlation between gene family size and the degree of methylation suggests that gene body methylation may help regulate gene family expansion and functional diversification of gene families leading to phenotypic variation. PMID:27017526

  20. Characterization of the mammalian DNA polymerase gene(s) and enzyme(s). Annual progress report

    SciTech Connect

    Mishra, N.C.

    1995-01-01

    Two Genes for DNA polymerase delta were identified from the wild type Chinese hamster ovary cells. These genes were cloned via RT-PCR from mRNA prepared the Chinese hamster ovary cells using primers specific to conserved sequences of the DNA polymerase {delta} gene. The first gene encodes a PCNA dependent DNA polymerase {delta} gene whereas the second gene encodes a PCNA independent DNA polymerase {delta} gene. Methods were developed to clone these genes in expression vector and host systems. The role of the two genes in DNA replication and repair was determined.