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Sample records for phosphorus gaussian profile

  1. Gaussian-profile beams

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, E.P.

    1982-11-03

    The growth rate of the hose instability is derived for a beam with Gaussian radial profile, using the spread mass model of phase mix damping. It is found that the maximum growth rate of a convecting wave packet is 49% larger than that derived for a beam with the Bennett profile, and the inverse group velocity (dz/d tau) is also increased by about this amount. A general discussion of spread mass models is presented along with an explanation of the regurgitation phenomena seen in their numerical treatment.

  2. Diffusion of Super-Gaussian Profiles

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rosenberg, C.-J.; Anderson, D.; Desaix, M.; Johannisson, P.; Lisak, M.

    2007-01-01

    The present analysis describes an analytically simple and systematic approximation procedure for modelling the free diffusive spreading of initially super-Gaussian profiles. The approach is based on a self-similar ansatz for the evolution of the diffusion profile, and the parameter functions involved in the modelling are determined by suitable…

  3. Absolute instability of the Gaussian wake profile

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hultgren, Lennart S.; Aggarwal, Arun K.

    1987-01-01

    Linear parallel-flow stability theory has been used to investigate the effect of viscosity on the local absolute instability of a family of wake profiles with a Gaussian velocity distribution. The type of local instability, i.e., convective or absolute, is determined by the location of a branch-point singularity with zero group velocity of the complex dispersion relation for the instability waves. The effects of viscosity were found to be weak for values of the wake Reynolds number, based on the center-line velocity defect and the wake half-width, larger than about 400. Absolute instability occurs only for sufficiently large values of the center-line wake defect. The critical value of this parameter increases with decreasing wake Reynolds number, thereby indicating a shrinking region of absolute instability with decreasing wake Reynolds number. If backflow is not allowed, absolute instability does not occur for wake Reynolds numbers smaller than about 38.

  4. Effect of Gaussian intensity profiles on difference-frequency generation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rustagi, K. C.; Gupta, P. K.

    1980-04-01

    The effect of a Gaussian intensity profile on the efficiency of difference-frequency generation in the near-field limit is evaluated. The effect of a nonuniform intensity profile in the incident beams are significant qualitatively as well as quantitatively. These effects become more important when the incident pump intensity is much larger than the incident idler intensity.

  5. GAUSSIAN RANDOM FIELD: PHYSICAL ORIGIN OF SERSIC PROFILES

    SciTech Connect

    Cen, Renyue

    2014-08-01

    While the Sersic profile family provides adequate fits for the surface brightness profiles of observed galaxies, its physical origin is unknown. We show that if the cosmological density field is seeded by random Gaussian fluctuations, as in the standard cold dark matter model, galaxies with steep central profiles have simultaneously extended envelopes of shallow profiles in the outskirts, whereas galaxies with shallow central profiles are accompanied by steep density profiles in the outskirts. These properties are in accord with those of the Sersic profile family. Moreover, galaxies with steep central profiles form their central regions in smaller denser subunits that possibly merge subsequently, which naturally leads to the formation of bulges. In contrast, galaxies with shallow central profiles form their central regions in a coherent fashion without significant substructure, a necessary condition for disk galaxy formation. Thus, the scenario is self-consistent with respect to the correlation between observed galaxy morphology and the Sersic index. We further predict that clusters of galaxies should display a similar trend, which should be verifiable observationally.

  6. Imprint of primordial non-Gaussianity on dark matter halo profiles

    SciTech Connect

    Dizgah, Azadeh Moradinezhad; Dodelson, Scott; Riotto, Antonio

    2013-09-01

    We study the impact of primordial non-Gaussianity on the density profile of dark matter halos by using the semi-analytical model introduced recently by Dalal {\\it et al.} which relates the peaks of the initial linear density field to the final density profile of dark matter halos. Models with primordial non-Gaussianity typically produce an initial density field that differs from that produced in Gaussian models. We use the path-integral formulation of excursion set theory to calculate the non-Gaussian corrections to the peak profile and derive the statistics of the peaks of non-Gaussian density field. In the context of the semi-analytic model for halo profiles, currently allowed values for primordial non-Gaussianity would increase the shapes of the inner dark matter profiles, but only at the sub-percent level except in the very innermost regions.

  7. Gaussian beam profile shaping apparatus, method therefor and evaluation thereof

    DOEpatents

    Dickey, Fred M.; Holswade, Scott C.; Romero, Louis A.

    1999-01-01

    A method and apparatus maps a Gaussian beam into a beam with a uniform irradiance profile by exploiting the Fourier transform properties of lenses. A phase element imparts a design phase onto an input beam and the output optical field from a lens is then the Fourier transform of the input beam and the phase function from the phase element. The phase element is selected in accordance with a dimensionless parameter which is dependent upon the radius of the incoming beam, the desired spot shape, the focal length of the lens and the wavelength of the input beam. This dimensionless parameter can also be used to evaluate the quality of a system. In order to control the radius of the incoming beam, optics such as a telescope can be employed. The size of the target spot and the focal length can be altered by exchanging the transform lens, but the dimensionless parameter will remain the same. The quality of the system, and hence the value of the dimensionless parameter, can be altered by exchanging the phase element. The dimensionless parameter provides design guidance, system evaluation, and indication as to how to improve a given system.

  8. Gaussian beam profile shaping apparatus, method therefore and evaluation thereof

    DOEpatents

    Dickey, F.M.; Holswade, S.C.; Romero, L.A.

    1999-01-26

    A method and apparatus maps a Gaussian beam into a beam with a uniform irradiance profile by exploiting the Fourier transform properties of lenses. A phase element imparts a design phase onto an input beam and the output optical field from a lens is then the Fourier transform of the input beam and the phase function from the phase element. The phase element is selected in accordance with a dimensionless parameter which is dependent upon the radius of the incoming beam, the desired spot shape, the focal length of the lens and the wavelength of the input beam. This dimensionless parameter can also be used to evaluate the quality of a system. In order to control the radius of the incoming beam, optics such as a telescope can be employed. The size of the target spot and the focal length can be altered by exchanging the transform lens, but the dimensionless parameter will remain the same. The quality of the system, and hence the value of the dimensionless parameter, can be altered by exchanging the phase element. The dimensionless parameter provides design guidance, system evaluation, and indication as to how to improve a given system. 27 figs.

  9. A new method for the identification of non-Gaussian line profiles in elliptical galaxies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Van Der Marel, Roeland P.; Franx, Marijn

    1993-01-01

    A new parameterization for the line profiles of elliptical galaxies, the Gauss-Hermite series, is proposed. This approach expands the line profile as a sum of orthogonal functions which minimizes the correlations between the errors in the parameters of the fit. This method also make use of the fact that Gaussians provide good low-order fits to observed line profiles. The method yields measurements of the line strength, mean radial velocity, and the velocity dispersion as well as two extra parameters, h3 and h4, that measure asymmetric and symmetric deviations of the line profiles from a Gaussian, respectively. The new method was used to derive profiles for three elliptical galaxies which all have asymmetric line profiles on the major axis with symmetric deviations from a Gaussian. Results confirm that elliptical galaxies have complex structures due to their complex formation history.

  10. Experimental Profiling of a Non-truncated Focused Gaussian Beam and Fine-tuning of the Quadratic Phase in the Fresnel Gaussian Shape Invariant

    SciTech Connect

    S., Juan Manuel Franco; Cywiak, Moises; Cywiak, David; Mourad, Idir

    2015-06-24

    A homodyne profiler is used for recording the intensity distribution of focused non-truncated Gaussian beams. The spatial distributions are obtained at planes in the vicinity of the back-focal plane of a focusing lens placed at different distances from a He–Ne laser beam with a Gaussian intensity profile. Comparisons of the experimental data with those obtained from the analytical equations for an ideal focusing lens allow us to propose formulae to fine-tune the quadratic term in the Fresnel Gaussian shape invariant at each interface of the propagated field. Furthermore, we give analytical expressions to calculate adequately the propagation of the field through an optical system.

  11. Structure of the transverse profile of Gaussian-model non-paraxial electromagnetic beams

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martínez-Herrero, R.; Mejías, P. M.; Bosch, S.; Carnicer, A.

    2006-06-01

    Starting from the (inexact) Gaussian beam model, and on the basis of a plane-wave spectrum representation of non-paraxial electromagnetic fields, three free-propagating exact solutions of the Maxwell equations are investigated. The transverse part of one of these solutions is shown to closely resemble both the beam profile irradiance and the polarization distribution of a typical Gaussian beam. A limit has also been established for the validity of the paraxial regime, particularly for focused beams whose size at the waist approaches the light wavelength.

  12. Parameterization of cloud lidar backscattering profiles by means of asymmetrical Gaussians.

    PubMed

    Guasta, M D; Morandi, M; Stefanutti, L

    1995-06-20

    A fitting procedure for cloud lidar data processing is shown that is based on the computation of the first three moments of the vertical-backscattering (or -extinction) profile. Single-peak clouds or single cloud layers are approximated to asymmetrical Gaussians. The algorithm is particularly stable with respect to noise and processing errors, and it is much faster than the equivalent least-squares approach. Multilayer clouds can easily be treated as a sum of single asymmetrical Gaussian peaks. The method is suitable for cloud-shape parametrization in noisy lidar signatures (like those expected from satellite lidars). It also permits an improvement of cloud radiative-property computations that are based on huge lidar data sets for which storage and careful examination of single lidar profiles can't be carried out.

  13. First evidence of non-Gaussian solar flare EUV spectral line profiles and accelerated non-thermal ion motion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jeffrey, Natasha L. S.; Fletcher, Lyndsay; Labrosse, Nicolas

    2016-05-01

    Context. The properties of solar flare plasma can be determined from the observation of optically thin lines. The emitting ion distribution determines the shape of the spectral line profile, with an isothermal Maxwellian ion distribution producing a Gaussian profile. Non-Gaussian line profiles may indicate more complex ion distributions. Aims: We investigate the possibility of determining flare-accelerated non-thermal ion and/or plasma velocity distributions. Methods: We study EUV spectral lines produced during a flare SOL2013-05-15T01:45 using the Hinode EUV Imaging Spectrometer (EIS). The flare is located close to the eastern solar limb with an extended loop structure, allowing the different flare features: ribbons, hard X-ray (HXR) footpoints and the loop-top source to be clearly observed in UV, EUV and X-rays. EUV line spectroscopy is performed in seven different regions covering the flare. We study the line profiles of the isolated and unblended Fe XVI lines (λ262.9760 Å ) mainly formed at temperatures of ~2 to 4 MK. Suitable Fe XVI line profiles at one time close to the peak soft X-ray emission and free of directed mass motions are examined using: 1. a higher moments analysis, 2. Gaussian fitting, and 3. by fitting a kappa distribution line profile convolved with a Gaussian to account for the EIS instrumental profile. Results: Fe XVI line profiles in the flaring loop-top, HXR footpoint and ribbon regions can be confidently fitted with a kappa line profile with an extra variable κ, giving low, non-thermal κ values between 2 and 3.3. An independent higher moments analysis also finds that many of the spectral line kurtosis values are higher than the Gaussian value of 3, even with the presence of a broad Gaussian instrumental profile. Conclusions: A flare-accelerated non-thermal ion population could account for both the observed non-Gaussian line profiles, and for the Fe XVI "excess" broadening found from Gaussian fitting, if the emitting ions are interacting

  14. Gaussian versus flat-top spatial beam profiles for optical stimulation of the prostate nerves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tozburun, Serhat; Lagoda, Gwen A.; Burnett, Arthur L.; Fried, Nathaniel M.

    2010-02-01

    The cavernous nerves (CN) course along the prostate surface and are responsible for erectile function. Improved identification and preservation of the CN's is critical to maintaining sexual potency after prostate cancer surgery. Noncontact optical nerve stimulation (ONS) of the CN's was recently demonstrated in a rat model, in vivo, as a potential alternative to electrical nerve stimulation (ENS) for identification of the CN's during prostate surgery. However, the therapeutic window for ONS is narrow, so optimal design of the fiber optic delivery system is critical for safe, reproducible stimulation. This study describes modeling, assembly, and testing of an ONS probe for delivering a small, collimated, flat-top laser beam for uniform CN stimulation. A direct comparison of the magnitude and response time of the intracavernosal pressure (ICP) for both Gaussian and flat-top spatial beam profiles was performed. Thulium fiber laser radiation (λ=1870 nm) was delivered through a 200-μm fiber, with distal fiber tip chemically etched to convert a Gaussian to flat-top beam profile. The laser beam was collimated to a 1-mm-diameter spot using an aspheric lens. Computer simulations of light propagation were used to optimize the probe design. The 10-Fr (3.4-mm-OD) laparoscopic probe provided a constant radiant exposure at the CN surface. The probe was tested in four rats, in vivo. ONS of the CN's was performed with a 1-mm-diameter spot, 5-ms pulse duration, and pulse rate of 20 Hz for a duration of 15-30 s. The flat-top laser beam profile consistently produced a faster and higher ICP response at a lower radiant exposure than the Gaussian beam profile due, in part, to easier alignment of the more uniform beam with nerve. The threshold for ONS was approximately 0.14 J/cm2, corresponding to a temperature increase of 6-8°C at the CN surface after a stimulation time of 15 s. With further development, ONS may be used as a diagnostic tool for identification of CN's during prostate

  15. Bayesian modeling of JET Li-BES for edge electron density profiles using Gaussian processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kwak, Sehyun; Svensson, Jakob; Brix, Mathias; Ghim, Young-Chul; JET Contributors Collaboration

    2015-11-01

    A Bayesian model for the JET lithium beam emission spectroscopy (Li-BES) system has been developed to infer edge electron density profiles. The 26 spatial channels measure emission profiles with ~15 ms temporal resolution and ~1 cm spatial resolution. The lithium I (2p-2s) line radiation in an emission spectrum is calculated using a multi-state model, which expresses collisions between the neutral lithium beam atoms and the plasma particles as a set of differential equations. The emission spectrum is described in the model including photon and electronic noise, spectral line shapes, interference filter curves, and relative calibrations. This spectral modeling gets rid of the need of separate background measurements for calculating the intensity of the line radiation. Gaussian processes are applied to model both emission spectrum and edge electron density profile, and the electron temperature to calculate all the rate coefficients is obtained from the JET high resolution Thomson scattering (HRTS) system. The posterior distributions of the edge electron density profile are explored via the numerical technique and the Markov chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) samplings. See the Appendix of F. Romanelli et al., Proceedings of the 25th IAEA Fusion Energy Conference 2014, Saint Petersburg, Russia.

  16. Dispersion corrections to the Gaussian profile describing the Doppler broadening of spectral lines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wójtewicz, S.; Wcisło, P.; Lisak, D.; Ciuryło, R.

    2016-04-01

    A dispersionally corrected Gaussian profile describing Doppler-broadened spectral line shapes is presented. Proposed corrections include the frequency dependence of the Doppler shifting caused by dispersion as well as by light frequency variation over the whole spectral line shape. It is shown that the frequency dependence of the Doppler shifting can have a non-negligible influence on the line-shape model and can affect the line shape even at the relative level of 10-5. Moreover, this effect also influences the determination of the line position at the level of kilohertz. Finally, the impact of the presented results on the Doppler width thermometry and precise molecular spectroscopy for fundamental studies is emphasized.

  17. Changes in mineral concentrations and phosphorus profile during dry-grind process of corn into ethanol

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    For determining variation in mineral composition and phosphorus (P) profile among streams of dry-grind ethanol production, samples of ground corn, intermediate streams, and distillers dried grains with solubles (DDGS) were obtained from 3 commercial plants. Most attributes (dry matter concentration...

  18. Evaluating rates and yields of second-order, photoinitiated reactions under conditons of Gaussian-profile excitation

    SciTech Connect

    Cambron, R.T.; Zhu, X.R.; Harris, J.M.

    1994-09-01

    Under conditions of Gaussian radial profile excitation, a mixed-order kinetic model is used to interpret the rates and yields of photoinitiated reactions. This model is used to determine the triplet-triplet annihilation rate constant for benzophenone in acetonitrile and anthracene at room temperature. 34 refs., 9 figs.

  19. Estimation of focal and extra-focal radiation profiles based on Gaussian modeling in medical linear accelerators.

    PubMed

    Anai, Shigeo; Arimura, Hidetaka; Nakamura, Katsumasa; Araki, Fujio; Matsuki, Takaomi; Yoshikawa, Hideki; Yoshidome, Satoshi; Shioyama, Yoshiyuki; Honda, Hiroshi; Ikeda, Nobuo

    2011-07-01

    The X-ray source or focal radiation is one of the factors that can degrade the conformal field edge in stereotactic body radiotherapy. For that reason, it is very important to estimate the total focal radiation profiles of linear accelerators, which consists of X-ray focal-spot radiation and extra-focal radiation profiles. Our purpose in this study was to propose an experimental method for estimating the focal-spot and extra-focal radiation profiles of linear accelerators based on triple Gaussian functions. We measured the total X-ray focal radiation profiles of the accelerators by moving a slit in conjunction with a photon field p-type silicon diode. The slit width was changed so that the extra-focal radiation could be optimally included in the total focal radiation. The total focal radiation profiles of an accelerator at 4-MV and 10-MV energies were approximated with a combination of triple Gaussian functions, which correspond to the focal-spot radiation, extra-focal radiation, and radiation transmitted through the slit assembly. As a result, the ratios of the Gaussian peak value of the extra-focal radiation to that of the focal spot for 4 and 10 MV were 0.077 and 0.159, respectively. The peak widths of the focal-spot and extra-focal radiation profiles were 0.57 and 25.0 mm for 4 MV, respectively, and 0.60 and 22.0 mm for 10 MV, respectively. We concluded that the proposed focal radiation profile model based on the triple Gaussian functions may be feasible for estimating the X-ray focal-spot and extra-focal radiation profiles.

  20. Probing the carrier concentration profiles in phosphorus-implanted germanium using infrared spectroscopic ellipsometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    D'Costa, Vijay Richard; Yeo, Yee-Chia

    2015-02-01

    Spectroscopic ellipsometry with photon energy in the 0.045-0.65 eV range was used to investigate germanium samples implanted with 30 keV phosphorus ions and annealed at 700 °C. The infrared response of implanted layers is dominated by free carrier absorption which is modeled using a Drude oscillator. The carrier concentration profiles were modeled using an error function, and compared with those obtained by electrochemical capacitance-voltage profiling and secondary ion mass spectrometry. In the flat region of the carrier concentration profile, average carrier concentration and mobility of 1.40 × 1019 cm-3 and 336 cm2V-1s-1, respectively, were obtained. A phosphorus diffusivity of ˜1.2 × 10-13 cm2/s was obtained. The mobility versus carrier concentration relationships obtained for the implanted samples are close to the empirical relationship for bulk Ge.

  1. Subthreshold Current and Swing Modeling of Gate Underlap DG MOSFETs with a Source/Drain Lateral Gaussian Doping Profile

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singh, Kunal; Kumar, Sanjay; Goel, Ekta; Singh, Balraj; Kumar, Mirgender; Dubey, Sarvesh; Jit, Satyabrata

    2016-09-01

    This paper proposes a new model for the subthreshold current and swing of the short-channel symmetric underlap ultrathin double gate metal oxide field effect transistors with a source/drain lateral Gaussian doping profile. The channel potential model already reported earlier has been utilized to formulate the closed form expression for the subthreshold current and swing of the device. The effects of the lateral straggle and geometrical parameters such as the channel length, channel thickness, and oxide thickness on the off current and subthreshold slope have been demonstrated. The devices with source/drain lateral Gaussian doping profiles in the underlap structure are observed to be highly resistant to short channel effects while improving the current drive. The proposed model is validated by comparing the results with the numerical simulation data obtained by using the commercially available ATLAS™, a two-dimensional (2-D) device simulator from SILVACO.

  2. Probing the carrier concentration profiles in phosphorus-implanted germanium using infrared spectroscopic ellipsometry

    SciTech Connect

    D'Costa, Vijay Richard Yeo, Yee-Chia

    2015-02-21

    Spectroscopic ellipsometry with photon energy in the 0.045–0.65 eV range was used to investigate germanium samples implanted with 30 keV phosphorus ions and annealed at 700 °C. The infrared response of implanted layers is dominated by free carrier absorption which is modeled using a Drude oscillator. The carrier concentration profiles were modeled using an error function, and compared with those obtained by electrochemical capacitance-voltage profiling and secondary ion mass spectrometry. In the flat region of the carrier concentration profile, average carrier concentration and mobility of 1.40 × 10{sup 19} cm{sup −3} and 336 cm{sup 2}V{sup −1}s{sup −1}, respectively, were obtained. A phosphorus diffusivity of ∼1.2 × 10{sup −13} cm{sup 2}/s was obtained. The mobility versus carrier concentration relationships obtained for the implanted samples are close to the empirical relationship for bulk Ge.

  3. Band structure and reflectivity of omnidirectional Si-based mirrors with a Gaussian profile refractive index

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arriaga, J.; Saldaña, X. I.

    2006-08-01

    Using the transfer matrix method we calculate the band structure for a one-dimensional photonic crystal consisting of alternating layers of two dielectric materials A and B with refractive indices nA and nB, respectively. The refractive index of layer A is constant and the refractive index for layer B varies according to the envelope of a Gaussian function. We find that under certain circumstances it is possible to obtain a 100% reflectivity for both polarizations (TE and TM) and any value of the incident angle of the electromagnetic waves. The interval of maximum reflectivity coincides with the photonic band gap of the structure. By an adequate selection of the parameters forming the structure, it is possible to tune the interval of frequencies with maximum reflectivity. This could be used in the fabrication of the so-called omnidirectional mirrors.

  4. The expression profile of genes in rice roots under low phosphorus stress.

    PubMed

    Li, LiHua; Qiu, XuHua; Li, XiangHua; Wang, ShiPing; Lian, XingMing

    2009-11-01

    Phosphorus (P) is one of the most essential macronutrients required for plant growth. Although it is abundant in soil, P is often the limiting nutrient for crop yield potential because of the low concentration of soluble P that plants can absorb directly. The gene expression profile was investigated in rice roots at 6, 24 and 72 h under low P stress and compared with a control (normal P) profile, using a DNA chip of 60000 oligos (70 mer) that represented all putative genes of the rice genome. A total of 795 differentially expressed genes were identified in response to phosphate (Pi) starvation in at least one of the treatments. Based on the analysis, we found that: (i) The genes coding for the Pi transporter, acid phosphatase and RNase were up-regulated in rice roots; (ii) the genes involved in glycolysis were first up-regulated and then down-regulated; (iii) several genes involved in N metabolism and lipid metabolism changed their expression patterns; (iv) some genes involved in cell senescence and DNA or protein degradation were up-regulated; and (v) some transmembrane transporter genes were up-regulated. The results may provide useful information in the molecular process associated with Pi deficiency and thus facilitate research in improving Pi utilization in crop species. PMID:19937204

  5. Variational quality control of hydrographic profile data with non-Gaussian errors for global ocean variational data assimilation systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Storto, Andrea

    2016-08-01

    Quality control procedures aiming at identifying observations suspected of gross errors are an important component of modern ocean data assimilation systems. On the one hand, assimilating observations whose departures from the background state are large may result in detrimental analyses and compromise the stability of the ocean analysis system. On the other hand, the rejection of these observations may prevent the analysis from ingesting useful information, especially in areas of large variability. In this work, we investigate the quality control of in-situ hydrographic profiles through modifying the probability density function (PDF) of the observational errors and relaxing the assumption of Gaussian PDF. The new PDF is heavier-tailed than Gaussian, thus accommodating the assimilation of observations with large misfits, albeit with smaller weight given to them in the analysis. This implies a different observational term in the analysis equation, and an adaptive quality control procedure based on the innovation statistics themselves. Implemented in a global ocean variational data assimilation system at moderate horizontal resolution, the scheme proves robust and successful in assimilating more observations with respect to the simpler background quality check scheme. This leads to better skill scores against both conventional and satellite observing systems. This approach proves superior also to the case where no quality control is considered. Furthermore, the implementation considers switching on the modified cost function at the 10th iteration of the minimization so that innovation statistics are based on a good approximation of the analysis. Neglecting this strategy and turning on the variational quality control since the beginning of the minimization exhibits worse scores, qualitatively similar to those of the experiment without quality control, suggesting that in this case quality control procedures are too gentle. A specific study investigating the upper

  6. Metabolite Profiling of Root Exudates of Common Bean under Phosphorus Deficiency

    PubMed Central

    Tawaraya, Keitaro; Horie, Ryota; Saito, Saki; Wagatsuma, Tadao; Saito, Kazuki; Oikawa, Akira

    2014-01-01

    Root exudates improve the nutrient acquisition of plants and affect rhizosphere microbial communities. The plant nutrient status affects the composition of root exudates. The purpose of this study was to examine common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) root exudates under phosphorus (P) deficiency using a metabolite profiling technique. Common bean plants were grown in a culture solution at P concentrations of 0 (P0), 1 (P1) and 8 (P8) mg P L−1 for 1, 10 and 20 days after transplanting (DAT). Root exudates were collected, and their metabolites were determined by capillary electrophoresis time-of-flight mass spectrometry (CE-TOF MS). The shoot P concentration and dry weight of common bean plants grown at P0 were lower than those grown at P8. One hundred and fifty-nine, 203 and 212 metabolites were identified in the root exudates, and 16% (26/159), 13% (26/203) and 9% (20/212) of metabolites showed a P0/P8 ratio higher than 2.0 at 1, 10 and 20 DAT, respectively. The relative peak areas of several metabolites, including organic acids and amino acids, in root exudates were higher at P0 than at P8. These results suggest that more than 10% of primary and secondary metabolites are induced to exude from roots of common bean by P deficiency. PMID:25032978

  7. Improvement of the quantum confined Stark effect characteristics by means of energy band profile modulation: The case of Gaussian quantum wells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ramírez-Morales, A.; Martínez-Orozco, J. C.; Rodríguez-Vargas, I.

    2011-11-01

    We study the quantum confined stark effect (QCSE) characteristics in Gaussian quantum wells (GQW). This special energy band profile is built varying the aluminum concentration of the AlGaAs ternary alloy in Gaussian fashion. The semi-empirical sp3s* tight-binding model including spin is used to obtain the energy Stark shifts (ESS) and the wave-function Gaussian spatial overlap (GSO) between electrons and holes for different electric field strengths, quantum well widths and aluminum concentrations. We find that both the ESS and the GSO depend parabolically with respect to the electric field strength and the quantum well width. These QCSE characteristics show an asymmetry for the electric field in the forward and reverse directions, related directly to the different band-offset of electrons and holes, being the negative electric fields (reverse direction) more suitable to reach greater ESS. Two important features are presented by this special energy band profile: (1) reductions of the ESS and (2) enhancements of the GSO of tents to hundreds with respect to parabolic and rectangular quantum wells. Even more, tailoring the quantum well width it is possible to reach GSO of thousands with respect to rectangular quantum wells. Finally, it is important to mention that similar results could be obtained in other quantum well heterostructures of materials such as nitrides, oxides (ZnO), and SiGe whenever the confinement band profiles are modulated in Gaussian form.

  8. Organ-specific phosphorus-allocation patterns and transcript profiles linked to phosphorus efficiency in two contrasting wheat genotypes.

    PubMed

    Aziz, Tariq; Finnegan, Patrick M; Lambers, Hans; Jost, Ricarda

    2014-04-01

    Recent studies have identified genotypic variation in phosphorus (P) efficiency, but rarely have the underlying mechanisms been described at the molecular level. We demonstrate that the highly P-efficient wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) cultivar Chinese 80-55 maintains higher inorganic phosphate (Pi ) concentrations in all organs upon Pi withdrawal in combination with higher Pi acquisition in the presence of Pi when compared with the less-efficient cultivar Machete. These findings correlated with differential organ-specific expression of Pi transporters TaPHT1;2, TaPHT1;5, TaPHT1;8, TaPHT2;1 and H(+) -ATPase TaHa1. Observed transcript level differences between the cultivars suggest that higher de novo phospholipid biosynthetic activities in Pi -limited elongating basal leaf sections are another crucial adaptation in Chinese 80-55 for sustaining growth upon Pi withdrawal. These activities may be supported through enhanced breakdown of starch in Chinese 80-55 stems as suggested by higher TaGPho1 transcript levels. Chinese 80-55 fine roots on the other hand show strong suppression of transcripts involved in glycolysis, transcriptional regulation and ribosomal activities. Our work reveals major differences in the way the two contrasting cultivars allocate Pi and organic P compounds between source and sink tissues and in the acclimation of their metabolism to changes in Pi availability.

  9. Small RNA Profiling Reveals Phosphorus Deficiency as a Contributing Factor in Symptom Expression for Citrus Huanglongbing Disease

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Hongwei; Sun, Ruobai; Jin, Hailing

    2013-01-01

    Huanglongbing (HLB) is a devastating citrus disease that is associated with bacteria of the genus ‘Candidatus Liberibacter’ (Ca. L.). Powerful diagnostic tools and management strategies are desired to control HLB. Host small RNAs (sRNA) play a vital role in regulating host responses to pathogen infection and are used as early diagnostic markers for many human diseases, including cancers. To determine whether citrus sRNAs regulate host responses to HLB, sRNAs were profiled from Citrus sinensis 10 and 14 weeks post grafting with Ca. L. asiaticus (Las)-positive or healthy tissue. Ten new microRNAs (miRNAs), 76 conserved miRNAs, and many small interfering RNAs (siRNAs) were discovered. Several miRNAs and siRNAs were highly induced by Las infection, and can be potentially developed into early diagnosis markers of HLB. miR399, which is induced by phosphorus starvation in other plant species, was induced specifically by infection of Las but not Spiroplasma citri that causes citrus stubborn—a disease with symptoms similar to HLB. We found a 35% reduction of phosphorus in Las-positive citrus trees compared to healthy trees. Applying phosphorus oxyanion solutions to HLB-positive sweet orange trees reduced HLB symptom severity and significantly improved fruit production during a 3-year field trial in south-west Florida. Our molecular, physiological, and field data suggest that phosphorus deficiency is linked to HLB disease symptomology. PMID:23292880

  10. Small RNA profiling reveals phosphorus deficiency as a contributing factor in symptom expression for citrus huanglongbing disease.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Hongwei; Sun, Ruobai; Albrecht, Ute; Padmanabhan, Chellappan; Wang, Airong; Coffey, Michael D; Girke, Thomas; Wang, Zonghua; Close, Timothy J; Roose, Mikeal; Yokomi, Raymond K; Folimonova, Svetlana; Vidalakis, Georgios; Rouse, Robert; Bowman, Kim D; Jin, Hailing

    2013-03-01

    Huanglongbing (HLB) is a devastating citrus disease that is associated with bacteria of the genus 'Candidatus Liberibacter' (Ca. L.). Powerful diagnostic tools and management strategies are desired to control HLB. Host small RNAs (sRNA) play a vital role in regulating host responses to pathogen infection and are used as early diagnostic markers for many human diseases, including cancers. To determine whether citrus sRNAs regulate host responses to HLB, sRNAs were profiled from Citrus sinensis 10 and 14 weeks post grafting with Ca. L. asiaticus (Las)-positive or healthy tissue. Ten new microRNAs (miRNAs), 76 conserved miRNAs, and many small interfering RNAs (siRNAs) were discovered. Several miRNAs and siRNAs were highly induced by Las infection, and can be potentially developed into early diagnosis markers of HLB. miR399, which is induced by phosphorus starvation in other plant species, was induced specifically by infection of Las but not Spiroplasma citri that causes citrus stubborn-a disease with symptoms similar to HLB. We found a 35% reduction of phosphorus in Las-positive citrus trees compared to healthy trees. Applying phosphorus oxyanion solutions to HLB-positive sweet orange trees reduced HLB symptom severity and significantly improved fruit production during a 3-year field trial in south-west Florida. Our molecular, physiological, and field data suggest that phosphorus deficiency is linked to HLB disease symptomology.

  11. Transcriptomic and Proteomic Profiling of Anabaena sp. Strain 90 under Inorganic Phosphorus Stress.

    PubMed

    Teikari, Jonna; Österholm, Julia; Kopf, Matthias; Battchikova, Natalia; Wahlsten, Matti; Aro, Eva-Mari; Hess, Wolfgang R; Sivonen, Kaarina

    2015-08-01

    Inorganic phosphorus (Pi) is one of the main growth-limiting factors of diazotrophic cyanobacteria. Due to human activity, the availability of Pi has increased in water bodies, resulting in eutrophication and the formation of massive cyanobacterial blooms. In this study, we examined the molecular responses of the cyanobacterium Anabaena sp. strain 90 to phosphorus deprivation, aiming at the identification of candidate genes to monitor the Pi status in cyanobacteria. Furthermore, this study increased the basic understanding of how phosphorus affects diazotrophic and bloom-forming cyanobacteria as a major growth-limiting factor. Based on RNA sequencing data, we identified 246 differentially expressed genes after phosphorus starvation and 823 differentially expressed genes after prolonged Pi limitation, most of them related to central metabolism and cellular growth. The transcripts of the genes related to phosphorus transport and assimilation (pho regulon) were most upregulated during phosphorus depletion. One of the most increased transcripts encodes a giant protein of 1,869 amino acid residues, which contains, among others, a phytase-like domain. Our findings predict its crucial role in phosphorus starvation, but future studies are still needed. Using two-dimensional difference in gel electrophoresis (2D-DIGE) and liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS), we found 43 proteins that were differentially expressed after prolonged phosphorus stress. However, correlation analysis unraveled an association only to some extent between the transcriptomic and proteomic abundances. Based on the present results, we suggest that the method used for monitoring the Pi status in cyanobacterial bloom should contain wider combinations of pho regulon genes (e.g., PstABCS transport systems) in addition to the commonly used alkaline phosphatase gene alone.

  12. Transcriptomic and Proteomic Profiling of Anabaena sp. Strain 90 under Inorganic Phosphorus Stress

    PubMed Central

    Teikari, Jonna; Österholm, Julia; Kopf, Matthias; Battchikova, Natalia; Wahlsten, Matti; Aro, Eva-Mari; Hess, Wolfgang R.

    2015-01-01

    Inorganic phosphorus (Pi) is one of the main growth-limiting factors of diazotrophic cyanobacteria. Due to human activity, the availability of Pi has increased in water bodies, resulting in eutrophication and the formation of massive cyanobacterial blooms. In this study, we examined the molecular responses of the cyanobacterium Anabaena sp. strain 90 to phosphorus deprivation, aiming at the identification of candidate genes to monitor the Pi status in cyanobacteria. Furthermore, this study increased the basic understanding of how phosphorus affects diazotrophic and bloom-forming cyanobacteria as a major growth-limiting factor. Based on RNA sequencing data, we identified 246 differentially expressed genes after phosphorus starvation and 823 differentially expressed genes after prolonged Pi limitation, most of them related to central metabolism and cellular growth. The transcripts of the genes related to phosphorus transport and assimilation (pho regulon) were most upregulated during phosphorus depletion. One of the most increased transcripts encodes a giant protein of 1,869 amino acid residues, which contains, among others, a phytase-like domain. Our findings predict its crucial role in phosphorus starvation, but future studies are still needed. Using two-dimensional difference in gel electrophoresis (2D-DIGE) and liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS), we found 43 proteins that were differentially expressed after prolonged phosphorus stress. However, correlation analysis unraveled an association only to some extent between the transcriptomic and proteomic abundances. Based on the present results, we suggest that the method used for monitoring the Pi status in cyanobacterial bloom should contain wider combinations of pho regulon genes (e.g., PstABCS transport systems) in addition to the commonly used alkaline phosphatase gene alone. PMID:26025890

  13. Non-Gaussian behavior of elastic incoherent neutron scattering profiles of proteins studied by molecular dynamics simulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tokuhisa, Atsushi; Joti, Yasumasa; Nakagawa, Hiroshi; Kitao, Akio; Kataoka, Mikio

    2007-04-01

    Elastic incoherent neutron scattering (EINS) data can be approximated with a Gaussian function of q in a low q region. However, in a higher q region the deviation from a Gaussian function becomes non-negligible. Protein dynamic properties can be derived from the analyses of the non-Gaussian behavior, which has been experimentally investigated. To evaluate the origins of the non-Gaussian behavior of protein dynamics, we conducted a molecular dynamics (MD) simulation of staphylococcal nuclease. Instead of the ordinary cumulant expansion, we decomposed the non-Gaussian terms into three components: (i) the component originating from the heterogeneity of the mean-square fluctuation, (ii) that from the anisotropy, and (iii) that from higher-order terms such as anharmonicity. The MD simulation revealed various dynamics for each atom. The atomic motions are classified into three types: (i) “harmonic,” (ii) “anisotropic,” and (iii) “anharmonic.” However, each atom has a different degree of anisotropy. The contribution of the anisotropy to the total scattering function averages out due to these differences. Anharmonic motion is described as the jump among multiple minima. The jump distance and the probability of the residence at one site vary from atom to atom. Each anharmonic component oscillates between positive and negative values. Thus, the contribution of the anharmonicity to the total scattering is canceled due to the variations in the anharmonicity. Consequently, the non-Gaussian behavior of the total EINS from a protein can be analyzed by the dynamical heterogeneity.

  14. Metabolite Profiling of Low-P Tolerant and Low-P Sensitive Maize Genotypes under Phosphorus Starvation and Restoration Conditions

    PubMed Central

    Ganie, Arshid Hussain; Ahmad, Altaf; Pandey, Renu; Aref, Ibrahim M.; Yousuf, Peerzada Yasir; Ahmad, Sayeed; Iqbal, Muhammad

    2015-01-01

    Background Maize (Zea mays L.) is one of the most widely cultivated crop plants. Unavoidable economic and environmental problems associated with the excessive use of phosphatic fertilizers demands its better management. The solution lies in improving the phosphorus (P) use efficiency to sustain productivity even at low P levels. Untargeted metabolomic profiling of contrasting genotypes provides a snap shot of whole metabolome which differs under specific conditions. This information provides an understanding of the mechanisms underlying tolerance to P stress and the approach for increasing P-use-efficiency. Methodology/Principal Findings A comparative metabolite-profiling approach based on gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC/MS) was applied to investigate the effect of P starvation and its restoration in low-P sensitive (HM-4) and low-P tolerant (PEHM-2) maize genotypes. A comparison of the metabolite profiles of contrasting genotypes in response to P-deficiency revealed distinct differences among low-P sensitive and tolerant genotypes. Another set of these genotypes were grown under P-restoration condition and sampled at different time intervals (3, 5 and 10 days) to investigate if the changes in metabolite profile under P-deficiency was restored. Significant variations in the metabolite pools of these genotypes were observed under P-deficiency which were genotype specific. Out of 180 distinct analytes, 91 were identified. Phosphorus-starvation resulted in accumulation of di- and trisaccharides and metabolites of ammonium metabolism, specifically in leaves, but decreased the levels of phosphate-containing metabolites and organic acids. A sharp increase in the concentrations of glutamine, asparagine, serine and glycine was observed in both shoots and roots under low-P condition. Conclusion The new insights generated on the maize metabolome in resposne to P-starvation and restoration would be useful towards improvement of the P-use efficiency in maize. PMID

  15. Analytical model for thermal lensing and spherical aberration in diode side-pumped Nd:YAG laser rod having Gaussian pump profile

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    M, H. Moghtader Dindarlu; M Kavosh, Tehrani; H, Saghafifar; A, Maleki

    2015-12-01

    In this paper, according to the temperature and strain distribution obtained by considering the Gaussian pump profile and dependence of physical properties on temperature, we derive an analytical model for refractive index variations of the diode side-pumped Nd:YAG laser rod. Then we evaluate this model by numerical solution and our maximum relative errors are 5% and 10% for variations caused by thermo-optical and thermo-mechanical effects; respectively. Finally, we present an analytical model for calculating the focal length of the thermal lens and spherical aberration. This model is evaluated by experimental results.

  16. Variations in the depth distribution of phosphorus in soil profiles and implications for model-based catchment-scale predictions of phosphorus delivery to surface waters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Owens, P. N.; Deeks, L. K.; Wood, G. A.; Betson, M. J.; Lord, E. I.; Davison, P. S.

    2008-02-01

    SummaryThe PSYCHIC process-based model for predicting sediment and phosphorus (P) transfer within catchments uses spatial data on soil-P derived from the National Soil Inventory (NSI) data set. These soil-P values are based on bulked 0-15 cm depth and do not account for variations in soil-P with depth. We describe the depth distribution of soil-P (total and Olsen) in grassland and arable soils for the dominant soil types in the two PSYCHIC study catchments: the Avon and the Wye, UK. There were clear variations in soil-P (particularly Olsen-P) concentrations with depth in untilled grassland soils while concentrations of total-P were broadly constant within the plough layer of arable soils. Concentrations of Olsen-P in arable soils, however, exhibited maximum values near the soil surface reflecting surface applications of fertilisers and manures between consecutive ploughing events. When the soil-P concentrations for the surface soil (0-5 cm average) were compared to both the profile-averaged (0-15 cm) and the NSI (0-15 cm) values, those for the surface soil were considerably greater than those for the average 0-15 cm depth. Modelled estimates of P loss using the depth-weighted average soil-P concentrations for the 0-5 cm depth layer were up to 14% greater than those based on the NSI data set due to the preferential accumulation of P at the soil surface. These findings have important implications for the use of soil-P data (and other data) in models to predict P losses from land to water and the interpretation of these predictions for river basin management.

  17. Non-Gaussian eccentricity fluctuations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grönqvist, Hanna; Blaizot, Jean-Paul; Ollitrault, Jean-Yves

    2016-09-01

    We study the fluctuations of the anisotropy of the energy density profile created in a high-energy collision at the LHC. We show that the anisotropy in harmonic n has generic non-Gaussian fluctuations. We argue that these non-Gaussianities have a universal character for small systems such as p+Pb collisions, but not for large systems such as Pb+Pb collisions where they depend on the underlying non-Gaussian statistics of the initial density profile. We generalize expressions for the eccentricity cumulants ɛ2{4 } and ɛ3{4 } previously obtained within the independent-source model to a general fluctuating initial density profile.

  18. Effect of phosphorus levels on the protein profiles of secreted protein and root surface protein of rice.

    PubMed

    Shinano, Takuro; Yoshimura, Tomoko; Watanabe, Toshihiro; Unno, Yusuke; Osaki, Mitsuru; Nanjo, Yohei; Komatsu, Setsuko

    2013-11-01

    Plant roots are complicated organs that absorb water and nutrients from the soil. Roots also play an essential role in protecting plants from attack by soil pathogens and develop a beneficial role with some soil microorganisms. Plant-derived rhizosphere proteins (e.g., root secretory proteins and root surface binding proteins) are considered to play important roles in developing mutual relationships in the rhizosphere. In the rhizosphere, where plant roots meet the surrounding environment, it has been suggested that root secretory protein and root surface binding protein are important factors. Furthermore, it is not known how the physiological status of the plant affects the profile of these proteins. In this study, rice plants were grown aseptically, with or without phosphorus nutrition, and proteins were obtained from root bathing solution (designated as root secretory proteins) and obtained using 0.2 M CaCl2 solution (designated as root surface binding proteins). The total number of identified proteins in the root bathing solution was 458, and the number of root surface binding proteins was 256. More than half of the proteins were observed in both fractions. Most of the proteins were categorized as either having signal peptides or no membrane transport helix sites. The functional categorization suggested that most of the proteins seemed to have secretory pathways and were involved in defense/disease-related functions. These characteristics seem to be unique to rhizosphere proteins, and the latter might be part of the plants strategy to defeat pathogens in the soil. The low phosphorus treatment significantly increased the number of pathogenesis-related proteins in the root secretory proteins, whereas the change was small in the case of the root surface binding proteins. The results suggested that the roots are actively and selectively secreting protein into the rhizosphere. PMID:24083427

  19. Self-focusing of a Hermite-cosh Gaussian laser beam in a magnetoplasma with ramp density profile

    SciTech Connect

    Nanda, Vikas; Kant, Niti; Wani, Manzoor Ahmad

    2013-11-15

    The early and strong self-focusing of a Hermite-cosh-Gaussian laser beam in magnetoplasma in the presence of density ramp has been observed. Focusing and de-focusing nature of the Hermite-cosh-Gaussian laser beam with decentered parameter and magnetic field has been studied, and strong self-focusing is reported. It is investigated that decentered parameter 'b' plays a significant role for the self-focusing of the laser beam and is very sensitive as in case of extraordinary mode. For mode indices, m = 0, 1, 2, and b = 4.00, 3.14, and 2.05, strong self-focusing is observed. Similarly in case of ordinary mode, for m = 0, 1, 2 and b = 4.00, 3.14, 2.049, respectively, strong self-focusing is reported. Further, it is seen that extraordinary mode is more prominent toward self-focusing rather than ordinary mode of propagation. For mode indices m = 0, 1, and 2, diffraction term becomes more dominant over nonlinear term for decentered parameter b=0. For selective higher values of decentered parameter in case of mode indices m=0, 1, and 2, self-focusing effect becomes strong for extraordinary mode. Also increase in the value of magnetic field enhances the self-focusing ability of the laser beam, which is very useful in the applications like the generation of inertial fusion energy driven by lasers, laser driven accelerators, and x-ray lasers.

  20. Global changes in the transcript and metabolic profiles during symbiotic nitrogen fixation in phosphorus-stressed common bean plants.

    PubMed

    Hernández, Georgina; Valdés-López, Oswaldo; Ramírez, Mario; Goffard, Nicolas; Weiller, Georg; Aparicio-Fabre, Rosaura; Fuentes, Sara Isabel; Erban, Alexander; Kopka, Joachim; Udvardi, Michael K; Vance, Carroll P

    2009-11-01

    Phosphorus (P) deficiency is widespread in regions where the common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris), the most important legume for human consumption, is produced, and it is perhaps the factor that most limits nitrogen fixation. Global gene expression and metabolome approaches were used to investigate the responses of nodules from common bean plants inoculated with Rhizobium tropici CIAT899 grown under P-deficient and P-sufficient conditions. P-deficient inoculated plants showed drastic reduction in nodulation and nitrogenase activity as determined by acetylene reduction assay. Nodule transcript profiling was performed through hybridization of nylon filter arrays spotted with cDNAs, approximately 4,000 unigene set, from the nodule and P-deficient root library. A total of 459 genes, representing different biological processes according to updated annotation using the UniProt Knowledgebase database, showed significant differential expression in response to P: 59% of these were induced in P-deficient nodules. The expression platform for transcription factor genes based in quantitative reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction revealed that 37 transcription factor genes were differentially expressed in P-deficient nodules and only one gene was repressed. Data from nontargeted metabolic profiles indicated that amino acids and other nitrogen metabolites were decreased, while organic and polyhydroxy acids were accumulated, in P-deficient nodules. Bioinformatics analyses using MapMan and PathExpress software tools, customized to common bean, were utilized for the analysis of global changes in gene expression that affected overall metabolism. Glycolysis and glycerolipid metabolism, and starch and Suc metabolism, were identified among the pathways significantly induced or repressed in P-deficient nodules, respectively.

  1. Purification of Gaussian maximally mixed states

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jeong, Kabgyun; Lim, Youngrong

    2016-10-01

    We find that the purifications of several Gaussian maximally mixed states (GMMSs) correspond to some Gaussian maximally entangled states (GMESs) in the continuous-variable regime. Here, we consider a two-mode squeezed vacuum (TMSV) state as a purification of the thermal state and construct a general formalism of the Gaussian purification process. Moreover, we introduce other kind of GMESs via the process. All of our purified states of the GMMSs exhibit Gaussian profiles; thus, the states show maximal quantum entanglement in the Gaussian regime.

  2. Analytic modeling of potential and threshold voltage for short-channel thin-body fully depleted silicon-on-insulator MOSFETs with a vertical Gaussian doping profile

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wei, Sufen; Zhang, Guohe; Shao, Zhibiao; Huang, Huixiang; Geng, Li

    2016-10-01

    We verify that one-dimensional (1D) Gaussian expression is an appropriate approximation of the vertical doping profile, which is obtained by combining perpendicular ion implantation and rapid thermal annealing (RTA), for short-channel thin-body (20-30 nm) fully depleted (FD) silicon-on-insulator (SOI) MOSFETs. The two-dimensional (2D) potential distribution of the silicon film is derived by adopting the evanescent mode analysis method, in which the potential function is broken into 1D long-channel and 2D short-channel potentials. The threshold voltage model is represented by the minimum front- and back-surface potentials of the silicon film. The application of the threshold voltage model can be extended to a 12 nm channel length. The results obtained using the models match well with the 2D numerical simulation results obtained using the Synopsys Sentaurus Device™. They provide a feasible way of developing new 2D models for nonuniform nanoscale thin-body FD-SOI devices.

  3. Toward the design of a motion-free tunable coupling module for varying spatial beam profiles: foundations of optimal coupling of a Gaussian mode into a fiber collimator with a dynamic two-lens system.

    PubMed

    Qasim, Muhammad; Reza, Syed Azer

    2015-11-01

    In this paper, we present analytical expressions for the coupling of the fundamental Gaussian mode into a fiber collimator (FC) using a two-lens system. For this two-lens system, we also derive the limiting condition imposed on the focal lengths of the two individual lenses and their mutual separation for near-to-perfect mode coupling into the FC. Variations in the spatial mode profile of a Gaussian beam may occur due to various reasons. These include controlled changes in the beam profile inside mode-division multiplexed systems, and undesired spatial profile variations in beams that pass through turbulent media. The necessity of a dynamic mode-coupling module is dictated by the need to optimally couple Gaussian beams with dynamically changing spatial profiles. Using the analytical expressions derived for mode-coupling efficiency and the resulting lens separation condition that is imposed on a two-lens coupling system, we propose the design of a dynamic two-lens mode-coupling system with a pair of electronically controlled tunable lenses. The proposed dynamic coupling module is motion free and involves the movement of bulk components in order to achieve optimal coupling. The experimental results are also presented to verify the theoretical claims and the working principle of a two-lens mode-coupling system. The results of the experiments are discussed in detail and an excellent agreement is demonstrated between the proposed theoretical framework and the experimental results. PMID:26560578

  4. Cellular Tracking and Gene Profiling of Fusarium graminearum during Maize Stalk Rot Disease Development Elucidates Its Strategies in Confronting Phosphorus Limitation in the Host Apoplast.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yan; He, Juan; Jia, Lei-Jie; Yuan, Ting-Lu; Zhang, Dong; Guo, Yan; Wang, Yufeng; Tang, Wei-Hua

    2016-03-01

    The ascomycete fungus Fusarium graminearum causes stalk rot in maize. We tracked this pathogen's growth in wound-inoculated maize stalks using a fluorescence-labeled fungal isolate and observed that invasive hyphae grew intercellularly up to 24 h post inoculation, grew intra- and inter-cellularly between 36-48 h, and fully occupied invaded cells after 72 h. Using laser microdissection and microarray analysis, we profiled changes in global gene expression during pathogen growth inside pith tissues of maize stalk from 12 h to six days after inoculation and documented transcriptomic patterns that provide further insights into the infection process. Expression changes in transcripts encoding various plant cell wall degrading enzymes appeared to correlate with inter- and intracellular hyphal growth. Genes associated with 36 secondary metabolite biosynthesis clusters were expressed. Expression of several F. graminearum genes potentially involved in mobilization of the storage lipid triacylglycerol and phosphorus-free lipid biosynthesis were induced during early infection time points, and deletion of these genes caused reduction of virulence in maize stalk. Furthermore, we demonstrated that the F. graminearum betaine lipid synthase 1 (BTA1) gene was necessary and sufficient for production of phosphorus-free membrane lipids, and that deletion of BTA1 interfered with F. graminearum's ability to advance intercellularly. We conclude that F. graminearum produces phosphorus-free membrane lipids to adapt to a phosphate-limited extracellular microenvironment during early stages of its invasion of maize stalk. PMID:26974960

  5. Cellular Tracking and Gene Profiling of Fusarium graminearum during Maize Stalk Rot Disease Development Elucidates Its Strategies in Confronting Phosphorus Limitation in the Host Apoplast

    PubMed Central

    Jia, Lei-Jie; Yuan, Ting-Lu; Zhang, Dong; Guo, Yan; Wang, Yufeng; Tang, Wei-Hua

    2016-01-01

    The ascomycete fungus Fusarium graminearum causes stalk rot in maize. We tracked this pathogen’s growth in wound-inoculated maize stalks using a fluorescence-labeled fungal isolate and observed that invasive hyphae grew intercellularly up to 24 h post inoculation, grew intra- and inter-cellularly between 36–48 h, and fully occupied invaded cells after 72 h. Using laser microdissection and microarray analysis, we profiled changes in global gene expression during pathogen growth inside pith tissues of maize stalk from 12 h to six days after inoculation and documented transcriptomic patterns that provide further insights into the infection process. Expression changes in transcripts encoding various plant cell wall degrading enzymes appeared to correlate with inter- and intracellular hyphal growth. Genes associated with 36 secondary metabolite biosynthesis clusters were expressed. Expression of several F. graminearum genes potentially involved in mobilization of the storage lipid triacylglycerol and phosphorus-free lipid biosynthesis were induced during early infection time points, and deletion of these genes caused reduction of virulence in maize stalk. Furthermore, we demonstrated that the F. graminearum betaine lipid synthase 1 (BTA1) gene was necessary and sufficient for production of phosphorus-free membrane lipids, and that deletion of BTA1 interfered with F. graminearum’s ability to advance intercellularly. We conclude that F. graminearum produces phosphorus-free membrane lipids to adapt to a phosphate-limited extracellular microenvironment during early stages of its invasion of maize stalk. PMID:26974960

  6. Cellular Tracking and Gene Profiling of Fusarium graminearum during Maize Stalk Rot Disease Development Elucidates Its Strategies in Confronting Phosphorus Limitation in the Host Apoplast.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yan; He, Juan; Jia, Lei-Jie; Yuan, Ting-Lu; Zhang, Dong; Guo, Yan; Wang, Yufeng; Tang, Wei-Hua

    2016-03-01

    The ascomycete fungus Fusarium graminearum causes stalk rot in maize. We tracked this pathogen's growth in wound-inoculated maize stalks using a fluorescence-labeled fungal isolate and observed that invasive hyphae grew intercellularly up to 24 h post inoculation, grew intra- and inter-cellularly between 36-48 h, and fully occupied invaded cells after 72 h. Using laser microdissection and microarray analysis, we profiled changes in global gene expression during pathogen growth inside pith tissues of maize stalk from 12 h to six days after inoculation and documented transcriptomic patterns that provide further insights into the infection process. Expression changes in transcripts encoding various plant cell wall degrading enzymes appeared to correlate with inter- and intracellular hyphal growth. Genes associated with 36 secondary metabolite biosynthesis clusters were expressed. Expression of several F. graminearum genes potentially involved in mobilization of the storage lipid triacylglycerol and phosphorus-free lipid biosynthesis were induced during early infection time points, and deletion of these genes caused reduction of virulence in maize stalk. Furthermore, we demonstrated that the F. graminearum betaine lipid synthase 1 (BTA1) gene was necessary and sufficient for production of phosphorus-free membrane lipids, and that deletion of BTA1 interfered with F. graminearum's ability to advance intercellularly. We conclude that F. graminearum produces phosphorus-free membrane lipids to adapt to a phosphate-limited extracellular microenvironment during early stages of its invasion of maize stalk.

  7. Phosphorus Test

    MedlinePlus

    ... be limited. Home Visit Global Sites Search Help? Phosphorus Share this page: Was this page helpful? Also ... else I should know? How is it used? Phosphorus tests are most often ordered along with other ...

  8. Distribution of inorganic phosphorus in profiles and particle-size fractions across an established riparian buffer and adjacent cropped area at the Dian lake

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, G. S.; Li, J. C.

    2015-11-01

    Riparian buffer can trap sediment and nutrients sourced from upper cropland and minimizing eutrophication risk of water quality. This study aimed to investigate the distributions of soil inorganic phosphorus (Pi) forms among profile and particle-size fractions in an established riparian buffer and adjacent cropped area at the Dian lake, Southwestern China. The Ca-bound fraction (62 %) was the major proportion of the Pi in the riparian soils. Buffer rehabilitation from cropped area had a limited impact on total phosphorus (TP) concentrations after 3 years, but has contributed to a change in Pi forms. At 0-20 cm soil layer, levels of the Olsen-P, nonoccluded, Ca-bound and total Pi were lower in the buffer than the cropped area; however, the Pi distribution between the cropped area and the buffer did not differ significantly as depth increased. The clay fraction corresponded to 57 % of TP and seemed to be both a sink for highly recalcitrant Pi and a source for labile Pi. The lower concentration of Pi forms in the silt and sand particle fraction in the surface soil was observed in the buffer area, which indicating that the Pi distribution in coarse particle fraction has sensitively responded to land-use changes.

  9. Distribution of inorganic phosphorus in profiles and particle fractions of Anthrosols across an established riparian buffer and adjacent cropped area at the Dian lake (China)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Guo Sheng; Cha Li, Jian

    2016-02-01

    Riparian buffers can trap sediment and nutrients sourced from upper cropland, minimizing the eutrophication risk of water quality. This study aimed to investigate the distributions of soil inorganic phosphorus (Pi) forms among profile and particle-size fractions in an established riparian buffer and adjacent cropped area at the Dian lake, southwestern China. The Ca-bound fraction (62 %) was the major proportion of the Pi in the riparian soils. After 3 years' restoration, buffer rehabilitation from cropped area had a limited impact on total phosphorus (TP) concentrations, but has contributed to a change in Pi forms. In the 0-20 cm soil layer, levels of the Olsen-P, non-occluded, Ca-bound, and total Pi were lower in the buffer than the cropped area; however, the Pi distribution between the cropped area and the buffer did not differ significantly as depth increased. The clay fraction corresponded to 57 % of TP and seemed to be both a sink for highly recalcitrant Pi and a source for labile Pi. The lower concentration of Pi forms in the silt and sand particle fraction in the surface soil was observed in the buffer area, which indicated that the Pi distribution in coarse particle fraction had sensitively responded to land use changes.

  10. Soil Phosphorus Forms and Profile Distributions in the Tidal River Network Region in the Yellow River Delta Estuary

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Junbao; Qu, Fanzhu; Wu, Huifeng; Meng, Ling; Du, Siyao; Xie, Baohua

    2014-01-01

    Modified Hedley fraction method was used to study the forms and profile distribution in the tidal river network region subjected to rapid deposition and hydrologic disturbance in the Yellow River Delta (YRD) estuary, eastern China. The results showed that the total P (Pt) ranged from 612.1 to 657.8 mg kg−1. Dilute HCl extractable inorganic P (Pi) was the predominant form in all profiles, both as absolute values and as a percentage of total extracted Pi. The NaOH extractable organic P (Po) was the predominant form of total extracted Po, while Bicarb-Pi and C.HCl-Po were the lowest fractions of total extracted Pi and Po in all the P forms. The Resin-P concentrations were high in the top soil layer and decreased with depth. The Pearson correlation matrix indicated that Resin-P, Bicarb-Pi, NaOH-Pi, and C.HCl-Pi were strongly positively correlated with salinity, TOC, Ca, Al, and Fe but negatively correlated with pH. The significant correlation of any studied form of organic P (Bicarb-Po, NaOH-Po, and C.HCl-Po) with geochemical properties were not observed in the study. Duncan multiple-range test indicated that the P forms and distribution heterogeneity in the profiles could be attributed to the influences of vegetation cover and hydrologic disturbance. PMID:24971393

  11. Gaussian entanglement of formation

    SciTech Connect

    Wolf, M.M.; Giedke, G.; Krueger, O.; Werner, R. F.; Cirac, J.I.

    2004-05-01

    We introduce a Gaussian version of the entanglement of formation adapted to bipartite Gaussian states by considering decompositions into pure Gaussian states only. We show that this quantity is an entanglement monotone under Gaussian operations and provide a simplified computation for states of arbitrary many modes. For the case of one mode per site the remaining variational problem can be solved analytically. If the considered state is in addition symmetric with respect to interchanging the two modes, we prove additivity of the considered entanglement measure. Moreover, in this case and considering only a single copy, our entanglement measure coincides with the true entanglement of formation.

  12. [Effects of irrigation using dairy effluent on grain yield, phosphorus utilization and distribu- tion in soil profile in winter wheat-summer maize rotation system].

    PubMed

    Du, Hui-ying; Feng, Jie; Guo, Hai-gang; Wang, Feng; Zhang, Ke-qiang

    2015-08-01

    Field experiments of winter wheat-summer maize rotation were conducted in North China Plain irrigation area to explore the effects of wheat season irrigation with dairy effluent on grain yield, phosphorus uptake, accumulative phosphorus usage efficiency and phosphorus accumulation in soil. The results showed that the irrigation with dairy effluent significantly improved the yields of winter wheat and summer maize. With the increasing of P2O5 carried by dairy effluent into soil, winter wheat yield increased at first and then decreased. When the P2O5 increased 137 kg · hm(-2), winter wheat yield increased to the maximum (7646.4 kg · hm(-2)) and the phosphorus utilization rate was the highest (24.8%). But excessive phosphorus decreased the winter wheat yield and phosphorus utilization efficiency. Summer maize yield and phosphorus uptake increased with the increase of P2O5 carried by dairy effluent. The summer maize yield increased by 2222.4-2628.6 kg · hm(-2) and the phosphorus uptake increased by 13.9-21.1 kg · hm(-2) in contrast to the control (CK). Under conventional phosphorus fertilization at 88 kg · hm(-2), and the summer maize yield increased by 2235.0 kg · hm(-2) compared with CK. As the time of irrigation with dairy effluent increasing, the grain yield increased more significantly. The cumulative phosphorus utilization in this rotation system increased year by year. After six seasons of crop harvest, the cumulative phosphorus utilization rate increased into 40.0%-47.7%. Under the experimental condition, two times of irrigation with the dairy effluents in the winter wheat-summer maize rotation system was the best operating mode.

  13. [Effects of irrigation using dairy effluent on grain yield, phosphorus utilization and distribu- tion in soil profile in winter wheat-summer maize rotation system].

    PubMed

    Du, Hui-ying; Feng, Jie; Guo, Hai-gang; Wang, Feng; Zhang, Ke-qiang

    2015-08-01

    Field experiments of winter wheat-summer maize rotation were conducted in North China Plain irrigation area to explore the effects of wheat season irrigation with dairy effluent on grain yield, phosphorus uptake, accumulative phosphorus usage efficiency and phosphorus accumulation in soil. The results showed that the irrigation with dairy effluent significantly improved the yields of winter wheat and summer maize. With the increasing of P2O5 carried by dairy effluent into soil, winter wheat yield increased at first and then decreased. When the P2O5 increased 137 kg · hm(-2), winter wheat yield increased to the maximum (7646.4 kg · hm(-2)) and the phosphorus utilization rate was the highest (24.8%). But excessive phosphorus decreased the winter wheat yield and phosphorus utilization efficiency. Summer maize yield and phosphorus uptake increased with the increase of P2O5 carried by dairy effluent. The summer maize yield increased by 2222.4-2628.6 kg · hm(-2) and the phosphorus uptake increased by 13.9-21.1 kg · hm(-2) in contrast to the control (CK). Under conventional phosphorus fertilization at 88 kg · hm(-2), and the summer maize yield increased by 2235.0 kg · hm(-2) compared with CK. As the time of irrigation with dairy effluent increasing, the grain yield increased more significantly. The cumulative phosphorus utilization in this rotation system increased year by year. After six seasons of crop harvest, the cumulative phosphorus utilization rate increased into 40.0%-47.7%. Under the experimental condition, two times of irrigation with the dairy effluents in the winter wheat-summer maize rotation system was the best operating mode. PMID:26685601

  14. Effects of dietary boron and phytase supplementation on growth performance and mineral profile of broiler chickens fed on diets adequate or deficient in calcium and phosphorus.

    PubMed

    Çinar, M; Küçükyilmaz, K; Bozkurt, M; Çatli, A U; Bintaş, E; Akşit, H; Konak, R; Yamaner, Ç; Seyrek, K

    2015-01-01

    1. Two experiments were designed to determine the effect of dietary boron (B) in broiler chickens. In Experiment 1, a 2 × 4 factorial arrangement of treatments was used to investigate the effect of dietary calcium (Ca) and available phosphorus (aP) (adequate or deficient) and supplemental B (0, 20, 40, and 60 mg/kg diet). In Experiment 2, B, at 20 mg/kg, and phytase (PHY) (500 FTU/kg diet) were incorporated into a basal diet deficient in Ca and aP, either alone or in combination. 2. The parameters that were measured were growth performance indices, serum biochemical activity as well as ash and mineral (i.e. Ca, P, Mg, Fe, Cu and Zn) content of tibia, breast muscle and liver. 3. Results indicated that both supplemental B and dietary Ca and aP had marginal effects on performance indices of chickens grown for 42 d. 4. There were positive correlations (linear effect) between B concentrations of serum, bone, breast muscle and liver and the amount of B consumed. 5. Serum T3 and T4 activities increased linearly with higher B supplementation. 6. Increasing supplemental B had significant implications on breast muscle and liver mineral composition. Lowering dietary Ca and aP level increased Cu content in liver and both Fe and Zn retention in breast muscle. Tibia ash content and mineral composition did not respond to dietary modifications with either Ca-aP or B. 7. The results also suggested that dietary contents of Ca and aP do not affect the response to B regarding tissue mineral profile. Dietary combination with B and PHY did not create a synergism with regard to growth performance and bioavailability of the minerals.

  15. White phosphorus

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    White phosphorus ; CASRN 7723 - 14 - 0 Human health assessment information on a chemical substance is included in the IRIS database only after a comprehensive review of toxicity data , as outlined in the IRIS assessment development process . Sections I ( Health Hazard Assessments for Noncarcinogenic

  16. Optimizing Electromagnetically Induced Transparency Signals with Laguerre-Gaussian Beams

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Holtfrerich, Matthew; Akin, Tom; Krzyzewski, Sean; Marino, Alberto; Abraham, Eric

    2016-05-01

    We have performed electromagnetically induced transparency in ultracold Rubidium atoms using a Laguerre-Gaussian laser mode as the control beam. Laguerre-Gaussian modes are characterized by a ring type transverse intensity profile and carry intrinsic orbital angular momentum. This angular momentum carried by the control beam can be utilized in optical computing applications which is unavailable to the more common Gaussian laser field. Specifically, we use a Laguerre-Gaussian control beam with a Gaussian probe to show that the linewidth of the transmission spectrum can be narrowed when compared to a Gaussian control beam that has the same peak intensity. We present data extending this work to compare control fields in both the Gaussian and Laguerre-Gaussian modes with constant total power. We have made efforts to find the optical overlap that best minimizes the transmission linewidth while also maintaining signal contrast. This was done by changing the waist size of the control beam with respect to the probe. The best results were obtained when the waist of a Laguerre-Gaussian control beam is equal to the waist of the Gaussian probe resulting in narrow linewidth features.

  17. Simulations of Gaussian electron guns for RHIC electron lens

    SciTech Connect

    Pikin, A.

    2014-02-28

    Simulations of two versions of the electron gun for RHIC electron lens are presented. The electron guns have to generate an electron beam with Gaussian radial profile of the electron beam density. To achieve the Gaussian electron emission profile on the cathode we used a combination of the gun electrodes and shaping of the cathode surface. Dependence of electron gun performance parameters on the geometry of electrodes and the margins for electrodes positioning are presented.

  18. Effect of alpha and Gaussian refractive index profiles on the design of highly nonlinear optical fibre for efficient nonlinear optical signal processing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Selvendran, S.; Sivanantharaja, A.; Arivazhagan, S.; Kannan, M.

    2016-09-01

    We propose an index profiled, highly nonlinear ultraflattened dispersion fibre (HN-UFF) with appreciable values of fibre parameters such as dispersion, dispersion slope, effective area, nonlinearity, bending loss and splice loss. The designed fibre has normal zero flattened dispersion over S, C, L, U bands and extends up to 1.9857 μm. The maximum dispersion variation observed for this fibre is as low as 1.61 ps km-1 nm-1 over the 500-nm optical fibre transmission spectrum. This fibre also has two zero dispersion wavelengths at 1.487 and 1.9857 μm and the respective dispersion slopes are 0.02476 and 0.0068 ps nm-2 km-1. The fibre has a very low ITU-T cutoff wavelength of 1.2613 μm and a virtuous nonlinear coefficient of 9.43 W-1 km-1. The wide spectrum of zero flattened dispersion and a good nonlinear coefficient make the designed fibre very promising for different nonlinear optical signal processing applications.

  19. Inhomogeneous non-gaussianity

    SciTech Connect

    Byrnes, Christian T.; Nurmi, Sami; Tasinato, Gianmassimo; Wands, David E-mail: s.nurmi@thphys.uni-heidelberg.de E-mail: david.wands@port.ac.uk

    2012-03-01

    We propose a method to probe higher-order correlators of the primordial density field through the inhomogeneity of local non-Gaussian parameters, such as f{sub NL}, measured within smaller patches of the sky. Correlators between n-point functions measured in one patch of the sky and k-point functions measured in another patch depend upon the (n+k)-point functions over the entire sky. The inhomogeneity of non-Gaussian parameters may be a feasible way to detect or constrain higher- order correlators in local models of non-Gaussianity, as well as to distinguish between single and multiple-source scenarios for generating the primordial density perturbation, and more generally to probe the details of inflationary physics.

  20. Propagation properties of cylindrical sinc Gaussian beam

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eyyuboğlu, Halil T.; Bayraktar, Mert

    2016-09-01

    We investigate the propagation properties of cylindrical sinc Gaussian beam in turbulent atmosphere. Since an analytic solution is hardly derivable, the study is carried out with the aid of random phase screens. Evolutions of the beam intensity profile, beam size and kurtosis parameter are analysed. It is found that on the source plane, cylindrical sinc Gaussian beam has a dark hollow appearance, where the side lobes also start to emerge with increase in width parameter and Gaussian source size. During propagation, beams with small width and Gaussian source size exhibit off-axis behaviour, losing the dark hollow shape, accumulating the intensity asymmetrically on one side, whereas those with large width and Gaussian source size retain dark hollow appearance even at long propagation distances. It is seen that the beams with large widths expand more in beam size than the ones with small widths. The structure constant values chosen do not seem to alter this situation. The kurtosis parameters of the beams having small widths are seen to be larger than the ones with the small widths. Again the choice of the structure constant does not change this trend.

  1. Hydraulic Conductivity Fields: Gaussian or Not?

    PubMed Central

    Meerschaert, Mark M.; Dogan, Mine; Van Dam, Remke L.; Hyndman, David W.; Benson, David A.

    2013-01-01

    Hydraulic conductivity (K) fields are used to parameterize groundwater flow and transport models. Numerical simulations require a detailed representation of the K field, synthesized to interpolate between available data. Several recent studies introduced high resolution K data (HRK) at the Macro Dispersion Experiment (MADE) site, and used ground-penetrating radar (GPR) to delineate the main structural features of the aquifer. This paper describes a statistical analysis of these data, and the implications for K field modeling in alluvial aquifers. Two striking observations have emerged from this analysis. The first is that a simple fractional difference filter can have a profound effect on data histograms, organizing non-Gaussian ln K data into a coherent distribution. The second is that using GPR facies allows us to reproduce the significantly non-Gaussian shape seen in real HRK data profiles, using a simulated Gaussian ln K field in each facies. This illuminates a current controversy in the literature, between those who favor Gaussian ln K models, and those who observe non-Gaussian ln K fields. Both camps are correct, but at different scales. PMID:24415806

  2. Quantum steering of Gaussian states via non-Gaussian measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ji, Se-Wan; Lee, Jaehak; Park, Jiyong; Nha, Hyunchul

    2016-07-01

    Quantum steering—a strong correlation to be verified even when one party or its measuring device is fully untrusted—not only provides a profound insight into quantum physics but also offers a crucial basis for practical applications. For continuous-variable (CV) systems, Gaussian states among others have been extensively studied, however, mostly confined to Gaussian measurements. While the fulfilment of Gaussian criterion is sufficient to detect CV steering, whether it is also necessary for Gaussian states is a question of fundamental importance in many contexts. This critically questions the validity of characterizations established only under Gaussian measurements like the quantification of steering and the monogamy relations. Here, we introduce a formalism based on local uncertainty relations of non-Gaussian measurements, which is shown to manifest quantum steering of some Gaussian states that Gaussian criterion fails to detect. To this aim, we look into Gaussian states of practical relevance, i.e. two-mode squeezed states under a lossy and an amplifying Gaussian channel. Our finding significantly modifies the characteristics of Gaussian-state steering so far established such as monogamy relations and one-way steering under Gaussian measurements, thus opening a new direction for critical studies beyond Gaussian regime.

  3. Quantum steering of Gaussian states via non-Gaussian measurements

    PubMed Central

    Ji, Se-Wan; Lee, Jaehak; Park, Jiyong; Nha, Hyunchul

    2016-01-01

    Quantum steering—a strong correlation to be verified even when one party or its measuring device is fully untrusted—not only provides a profound insight into quantum physics but also offers a crucial basis for practical applications. For continuous-variable (CV) systems, Gaussian states among others have been extensively studied, however, mostly confined to Gaussian measurements. While the fulfilment of Gaussian criterion is sufficient to detect CV steering, whether it is also necessary for Gaussian states is a question of fundamental importance in many contexts. This critically questions the validity of characterizations established only under Gaussian measurements like the quantification of steering and the monogamy relations. Here, we introduce a formalism based on local uncertainty relations of non-Gaussian measurements, which is shown to manifest quantum steering of some Gaussian states that Gaussian criterion fails to detect. To this aim, we look into Gaussian states of practical relevance, i.e. two-mode squeezed states under a lossy and an amplifying Gaussian channel. Our finding significantly modifies the characteristics of Gaussian-state steering so far established such as monogamy relations and one-way steering under Gaussian measurements, thus opening a new direction for critical studies beyond Gaussian regime. PMID:27411853

  4. Autonomous Gaussian Decomposition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lindner, Robert R.; Vera-Ciro, Carlos; Murray, Claire E.; Stanimirović, Snežana; Babler, Brian; Heiles, Carl; Hennebelle, Patrick; Goss, W. M.; Dickey, John

    2015-04-01

    We present a new algorithm, named Autonomous Gaussian Decomposition (AGD), for automatically decomposing spectra into Gaussian components. AGD uses derivative spectroscopy and machine learning to provide optimized guesses for the number of Gaussian components in the data, and also their locations, widths, and amplitudes. We test AGD and find that it produces results comparable to human-derived solutions on 21 cm absorption spectra from the 21 cm SPectral line Observations of Neutral Gas with the EVLA (21-SPONGE) survey. We use AGD with Monte Carlo methods to derive the H i line completeness as a function of peak optical depth and velocity width for the 21-SPONGE data, and also show that the results of AGD are stable against varying observational noise intensity. The autonomy and computational efficiency of the method over traditional manual Gaussian fits allow for truly unbiased comparisons between observations and simulations, and for the ability to scale up and interpret the very large data volumes from the upcoming Square Kilometer Array and pathfinder telescopes.

  5. AUTONOMOUS GAUSSIAN DECOMPOSITION

    SciTech Connect

    Lindner, Robert R.; Vera-Ciro, Carlos; Murray, Claire E.; Stanimirović, Snežana; Babler, Brian; Heiles, Carl; Hennebelle, Patrick; Dickey, John

    2015-04-15

    We present a new algorithm, named Autonomous Gaussian Decomposition (AGD), for automatically decomposing spectra into Gaussian components. AGD uses derivative spectroscopy and machine learning to provide optimized guesses for the number of Gaussian components in the data, and also their locations, widths, and amplitudes. We test AGD and find that it produces results comparable to human-derived solutions on 21 cm absorption spectra from the 21 cm SPectral line Observations of Neutral Gas with the EVLA (21-SPONGE) survey. We use AGD with Monte Carlo methods to derive the H i line completeness as a function of peak optical depth and velocity width for the 21-SPONGE data, and also show that the results of AGD are stable against varying observational noise intensity. The autonomy and computational efficiency of the method over traditional manual Gaussian fits allow for truly unbiased comparisons between observations and simulations, and for the ability to scale up and interpret the very large data volumes from the upcoming Square Kilometer Array and pathfinder telescopes.

  6. Gaussian discriminating strength

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rigovacca, L.; Farace, A.; De Pasquale, A.; Giovannetti, V.

    2015-10-01

    We present a quantifier of nonclassical correlations for bipartite, multimode Gaussian states. It is derived from the Discriminating Strength measure, introduced for finite dimensional systems in Farace et al., [New J. Phys. 16, 073010 (2014), 10.1088/1367-2630/16/7/073010]. As the latter the new measure exploits the quantum Chernoff bound to gauge the susceptibility of the composite system with respect to local perturbations induced by unitary gates extracted from a suitable set of allowed transformations (the latter being identified by posing some general requirements). Closed expressions are provided for the case of two-mode Gaussian states obtained by squeezing or by linearly mixing via a beam splitter a factorized two-mode thermal state. For these density matrices, we study how nonclassical correlations are related with the entanglement present in the system and with its total photon number.

  7. Mode Gaussian beam tracing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trofimov, M. Yu.; Zakharenko, A. D.; Kozitskiy, S. B.

    2016-10-01

    A mode parabolic equation in the ray centered coordinates for 3D underwater sound propagation is developed. The Gaussian beam tracing in this case is constructed. The test calculations are carried out for the ASA wedge benchmark and proved an excellent agreement with the source images method in the case of cross-slope propagation. But in the cases of wave propagation at some angles to the cross-slope direction an account of mode interaction becomes necessary.

  8. Resonant non-gaussianity

    SciTech Connect

    Flauger, Raphael; Pajer, Enrico E-mail: ep295@cornell.edu

    2011-01-01

    We provide a derivation from first principles of the primordial bispectrum of scalar perturbations produced during inflation driven by a canonically normalized scalar field whose potential exhibits small sinusoidal modulations. A potential of this type has been derived in a class of string theory models of inflation based on axion monodromy. We use this model as a concrete example, but we present our derivations and results for a general slow-roll potential with superimposed modulations. We show analytically that a resonance between the oscillations of the background and the oscillations of the fluctuations is responsible for the production of an observably large non-Gaussian signal. We provide an explicit expression for the shape of this resonant non-Gaussianity. We show that there is essentially no overlap between this shape and the local, equilateral, and orthogonal shapes, and we stress that resonant non-Gaussianity is not captured by the simplest version of the effective field theory of inflation. We hope our analytic expression will be useful to further observationally constrain this class of models.

  9. Gaussian mixture models as flux prediction method for central receivers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grobler, Annemarie; Gauché, Paul; Smit, Willie

    2016-05-01

    Flux prediction methods are crucial to the design and operation of central receiver systems. Current methods such as the circular and elliptical (bivariate) Gaussian prediction methods are often used in field layout design and aiming strategies. For experimental or small central receiver systems, the flux profile of a single heliostat often deviates significantly from the circular and elliptical Gaussian models. Therefore a novel method of flux prediction was developed by incorporating the fitting of Gaussian mixture models onto flux profiles produced by flux measurement or ray tracing. A method was also developed to predict the Gaussian mixture model parameters of a single heliostat for a given time using image processing. Recording the predicted parameters in a database ensures that more accurate predictions are made in a shorter time frame.

  10. Unstable laser resonators with super-Gaussian mirrors

    SciTech Connect

    De Silvestri, S.; Laporta, P.; Magni, V.; Svelto, O.; Majocchi, B.

    1988-03-01

    A new class of tapered reflectivity mirrors with a super-Gaussian profile R atmI exp(-kr/sup n/) is introduced, and a geometrical-optics approach for analysis and design of unstable resonators made with these mirrors is presented. A super-Gaussian mirror, built by a special evaporation technique, has been tested in an unstable resonator of a pulsed Nd:YAG laser, demonstrating its effectiveness in generating diffraction-limited beams.

  11. Unstable laser resonators with super-Gaussian mirrors.

    PubMed

    De Silvestri, S; Laporta, P; Magni, V; Svelto, O; Majocchi, B

    1988-03-01

    A new class of tapered reflectivity mirrors with a super-Gaussian profile R infinity exp(-kr(n)) is introduced, and a geometrical-optics approach for analysis and design of unstable resonators made with these mirrors is presented. A super-Gaussian mirror, built by a special evaporation technique, has been tested in an unstable resonator of a pulsed Nd:YAG laser, demonstrating its effectiveness in generating diffraction-limited beams. PMID:19742027

  12. Unstable laser resonators with super-Gaussian mirrors.

    PubMed

    De Silvestri, S; Laporta, P; Magni, V; Svelto, O; Majocchi, B

    1988-03-01

    A new class of tapered reflectivity mirrors with a super-Gaussian profile R infinity exp(-kr(n)) is introduced, and a geometrical-optics approach for analysis and design of unstable resonators made with these mirrors is presented. A super-Gaussian mirror, built by a special evaporation technique, has been tested in an unstable resonator of a pulsed Nd:YAG laser, demonstrating its effectiveness in generating diffraction-limited beams.

  13. Dietary phosphorus, serum phosphorus, and cardiovascular disease.

    PubMed

    Menon, Madhav C; Ix, Joachim H

    2013-10-01

    Recent epidemiologic studies have linked higher serum phosphorus concentrations to cardiovascular disease (CVD) events and mortality. This association has been identified in the general population and in those with chronic kidney disease (CKD). The risk of adverse outcomes appears to begin with phosphorus concentrations within the upper limit of the normal reference range. Multiple experimental studies have suggested pathogenetic mechanisms that involve direct and indirect effects of high phosphorus concentrations to explain these associations. Drawing from these observations, guideline-forming agencies have recommended that serum phosphorus concentrations be maintained within the normal reference range in patients with CKD and that dietary phosphorus restriction or use of intestinal phosphate binders should be considered to achieve this goal. However, outside the dialysis population, the links between dietary phosphorus intake and serum phosphorus concentrations, and dietary phosphorus intake and CVD events, are uncertain. With specific reference to the nondialysis populations, this review discusses the available data linking dietary phosphorus intake with serum phosphorus concentrations and CVD events.

  14. Reservoir characterization with sequential Gaussian simulation constrained by diffraction tomography

    SciTech Connect

    Lo, T.W.; Bermawi, A.

    1994-12-31

    A geostatistical approach for reservoir characterization that honors both surface seismic data and wireline data is described. It first computes a velocity profiles with seismic diffraction tomography, then, performs kriging with an external drift and sequential Gaussian simulation using the velocity profiles as soft data and the sonic logs as hard data. The product is a velocity profile with a resolution as high as that of the smoothed sonic logs, showing lateral velocity variations constrained by surface seismic data.

  15. Phosphorus in diet

    MedlinePlus

    According to Institute of Medicine recommendations, the recommended dietary intakes of phosphorus are as follows: 0 to 6 ... Food and Nutrition Board, Institute of Medicine. DRI Dietary Reference Intakes for Calcium, Phosphorus, Magnesium, Vitamin D, and Fluoride . ...

  16. Normal form decomposition for Gaussian-to-Gaussian superoperators

    SciTech Connect

    De Palma, Giacomo; Mari, Andrea; Giovannetti, Vittorio; Holevo, Alexander S.

    2015-05-15

    In this paper, we explore the set of linear maps sending the set of quantum Gaussian states into itself. These maps are in general not positive, a feature which can be exploited as a test to check whether a given quantum state belongs to the convex hull of Gaussian states (if one of the considered maps sends it into a non-positive operator, the above state is certified not to belong to the set). Generalizing a result known to be valid under the assumption of complete positivity, we provide a characterization of these Gaussian-to-Gaussian (not necessarily positive) superoperators in terms of their action on the characteristic function of the inputs. For the special case of one-mode mappings, we also show that any Gaussian-to-Gaussian superoperator can be expressed as a concatenation of a phase-space dilatation, followed by the action of a completely positive Gaussian channel, possibly composed with a transposition. While a similar decomposition is shown to fail in the multi-mode scenario, we prove that it still holds at least under the further hypothesis of homogeneous action on the covariance matrix.

  17. Efficient entanglement criteria beyond Gaussian limits using Gaussian measurements.

    PubMed

    Nha, Hyunchul; Lee, Su-Yong; Ji, Se-Wan; Kim, M S

    2012-01-20

    We present a formalism to derive entanglement criteria beyond the Gaussian regime that can be readily tested by only homodyne detection. The measured observable is the Einstein-Podolsky-Rosen (EPR) correlation. Its arbitrary functional form enables us to detect non-Gaussian entanglement even when an entanglement test based on second-order moments fails. We illustrate the power of our experimentally friendly criteria for a broad class of non-Gaussian states under realistic conditions. We also show rigorously that quantum teleportation for continuous variables employs a specific functional form of EPR correlation. PMID:22400723

  18. Device and method for creating Gaussian aberration-corrected electron beams

    DOEpatents

    McMorran, Benjamin; Linck, Martin

    2016-01-19

    Electron beam phase gratings have phase profiles that produce a diffracted beam having a Gaussian or other selected intensity profile. Phase profiles can also be selected to correct or compensate electron lens aberrations. Typically, a low diffraction order produces a suitable phase profile, and other orders are discarded.

  19. Identification of functionally relevant populations in enhanced biological phosphorus removal processes based on intracellular polymers profiles and insights into the metabolic diversity and heterogeneity.

    PubMed

    Majed, Nehreen; Chernenko, Tatyana; Diem, Max; Gu, April Z

    2012-05-01

    This study proposed and demonstrated the application of a new Raman microscopy-based method for metabolic state-based identification and quantification of functionally relevant populations, namely polyphosphate accumulating organisms (PAOs) and glycogen accumulating organisms (GAOs), in enhanced biological phosphorus removal (EBPR) system via simultaneous detection of multiple intracellular polymers including polyphosphate (polyP), glycogen, and polyhydroxybutyrate (PHB). The unique Raman spectrum of different combinations of intracellular polymers within a cell at a given stage of the EBPR cycle allowed for its identification as PAO, GAO, or neither. The abundance of total PAOs and GAOs determined by Raman method were consistent with those obtained with polyP staining and fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH). Different combinations and quantities of intracellular polymer inclusions observed in single cells revealed the distribution of different sub-PAOs groups among the total PAO populations, which exhibit phenotypic and metabolic heterogeneity and diversity. These results also provided evidence for the hypothesis that different PAOs may employ different extents of combination of glycolysis and TCA cycle pathways for anaerobic reducing power and energy generation and it is possible that some PAOs may rely on TCA cycle solely without glycolysis. Sum of cellular level quantification of the internal polymers associated with different population groups showed differentiated and distributed trends of glycogen and PHB level between PAOs and GAOs, which could not be elucidated before with conventional bulk measurements of EBPR mixed cultures.

  20. Identification of functionally relevant populations in enhanced biological phosphorus removal processes based on intracellular polymers profiles and insights into the metabolic diversity and heterogeneity.

    PubMed

    Majed, Nehreen; Chernenko, Tatyana; Diem, Max; Gu, April Z

    2012-05-01

    This study proposed and demonstrated the application of a new Raman microscopy-based method for metabolic state-based identification and quantification of functionally relevant populations, namely polyphosphate accumulating organisms (PAOs) and glycogen accumulating organisms (GAOs), in enhanced biological phosphorus removal (EBPR) system via simultaneous detection of multiple intracellular polymers including polyphosphate (polyP), glycogen, and polyhydroxybutyrate (PHB). The unique Raman spectrum of different combinations of intracellular polymers within a cell at a given stage of the EBPR cycle allowed for its identification as PAO, GAO, or neither. The abundance of total PAOs and GAOs determined by Raman method were consistent with those obtained with polyP staining and fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH). Different combinations and quantities of intracellular polymer inclusions observed in single cells revealed the distribution of different sub-PAOs groups among the total PAO populations, which exhibit phenotypic and metabolic heterogeneity and diversity. These results also provided evidence for the hypothesis that different PAOs may employ different extents of combination of glycolysis and TCA cycle pathways for anaerobic reducing power and energy generation and it is possible that some PAOs may rely on TCA cycle solely without glycolysis. Sum of cellular level quantification of the internal polymers associated with different population groups showed differentiated and distributed trends of glycogen and PHB level between PAOs and GAOs, which could not be elucidated before with conventional bulk measurements of EBPR mixed cultures. PMID:22471394

  1. Correction Factor for Gaussian Deconvolution of Optically Thick Linewidths in Homogeneous Sources

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kastner, S. O.; Bhatia, A. K.

    1999-01-01

    Profiles of optically thick, non-Gaussian emission line profiles convoluted with Gaussian instrumental profiles are constructed, and are deconvoluted on the usual Gaussian basis to examine the departure from accuracy thereby caused in "measured" linewidths. It is found that "measured" linewidths underestimate the true linewidths of optically thick lines, by a factor which depends on the resolution factor r congruent to Doppler width/instrumental width and on the optical thickness tau(sub 0). An approximating expression is obtained for this factor, applicable in the range of at least 0 <= tau(sub 0) <= 10, which can provide estimates of the true linewidth and optical thickness.

  2. Biological phosphorus removal inhibition by roxarsone in batch culture systems.

    PubMed

    Guo, Qingfeng; Liu, Li; Hu, Zhenhu; Chen, Guowei

    2013-06-01

    Roxarsone has been extensively used in the feed of animals, which is usually excreted unchanged in the manure and eventually enter into animal wastewater, challenging the biological phosphorus removal processes. Knowledge of its inhibition effect is key for guiding treatment of roxarsone-contaminated wastewater, and is unfortunately keeping unclear. We study the inhibition of roxarsone on biological phosphorus removal processes for roxarsone-contaminated wastewater treatment, in terms of the removal and rates of chemical oxygen demand (COD), phosphate. Results showed that presence of roxarsone considerably limited the COD removals, especially at roxarsone concentration exceeding 40 mg L(-1). Additionally, roxarsone inhibited both phosphorus release and uptake processes, consistent with the phosphate profiles during the biological phosphorus removal processes; whereas, roxarsone is more toxic to phosphorus uptake process, than release function. The results indicated that it is roxarsone itself, rather than the inorganic arsenics, inhibit biological phosphorus removal processes within both aerobic and anaerobic roxarsone-contaminated wastewater treatment.

  3. Gaussian-Based Hue Descriptors.

    PubMed

    Mirzaei, Hamidreza; Funt, Brian

    2015-12-01

    A robust and accurate hue descriptor that is useful in modeling human color perception and for computer vision applications is explored. The hue descriptor is based on the peak wavelength of a Gaussian-like function (called a wraparound Gaussian) and is shown to correlate as well as CIECAM02 hue to the hue designators of papers from the Munsell and Natural Color System color atlases and to the hue names found in Moroney's Color Thesaurus. The new hue descriptor is also shown to be significantly more stable under a variety of illuminants than CIECAM02. The use of wraparound Gaussians as a hue model is similar in spirit to the use of subtractive Gaussians proposed by Mizokami et al., but overcomes many of their limitations. PMID:26539849

  4. Phosphorus poisoning in waterfowl

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Coburn, D.R.; DeWitt, J.B.; Derby, J.V.; Ediger, E.

    1950-01-01

    Black ducks and mallards were found to be highly susceptible to phosphorus poisoning. 3 mg. of white phosphorus per kg. of body weight given in a single dose resulted in death of a black duck in 6 hours. Pathologic changes in both acute and chronic poisoning were studied. Data are presented showing that diagnosis can be made accurately by chemical analysis of stored tissues in cases of phosphorus poisoning.

  5. Evaluation of fatty acid profile and biodiesel properties of microalga Scenedesmus abundans under the influence of phosphorus, pH and light intensities.

    PubMed

    Mandotra, S K; Kumar, Pankaj; Suseela, M R; Nayaka, S; Ramteke, P W

    2016-02-01

    The present study dealt with biomass, lipid concentration, fatty acid profile and biodiesel properties of microalga Scenedesmus abundans under different phosphate concentrations, pH and light intensities, one at a time. Among different phosphate concentrations, higher biomass (770.10±11.0mg/L) and lipid concentration (176.87±4.6mg/L) were at the concentration of 60mg/L. Light intensity at 6000lux yielded higher biomass and lipid concentration of 742.0±9.7 and 243.15±9.1mg/L, respectively. The biomass (769.0±12.3mg/L) and lipid (179.47±5.5mg/L) concentration were highest at pH 8 and pH 6, respectively. All the culture treatments showed marked effect on the fatty acid profile and biodiesel properties of the extracted oil. FAME derived biodiesel properties were compared with European biodiesel standards (EN 14214), Indian biodiesel standards (IS 15607) and American biodiesel standards (ASTM D 6751-08) to assess the suitability of algal oil as biodiesel feedstock. PMID:26675046

  6. Biogeochemistry: The fate of phosphorus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Némery, Julien; Garnier, Josette

    2016-05-01

    Phosphorus is essential for food production, but it is also a key cause of eutrophication. Estimates of phosphorus flux for the past 40-70 years reveal that large river basins can experience phases of phosphorus accumulation and depletion.

  7. Quantum correlations in Gaussian states via Gaussian channels: steering, entanglement, and discord

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Zhong-Xiao; Wang, Shuhao; Li, Qiting; Wang, Tie-Jun; Wang, Chuan

    2016-06-01

    Here we study the quantum steering, quantum entanglement, and quantum discord for Gaussian Einstein-Podolsky-Rosen states via Gaussian channels. And the sudden death phenomena for Gaussian steering and Gaussian entanglement are theoretically observed. We find that some Gaussian states have only one-way steering, which confirms the asymmetry of quantum steering. Also we investigate that the entangled Gaussian states without Gaussian steering and correlated Gaussian states own no Gaussian entanglement. Meanwhile, our results support the assumption that quantum entanglement is intermediate between quantum discord and quantum steering. Furthermore, we give experimental recipes for preparing quantum states with desired types of quantum correlations.

  8. Glacial atmospheric phosphorus deposition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kjær, Helle Astrid; Dallmayr, Remi; Gabrieli, Jacopo; Goto-Azuma, Kumiko; Hirabayashi, Motohiro; Svensson, Anders; Vallelonga, Paul

    2016-04-01

    Phosphorus in the atmosphere is poorly studied and thus not much is known about atmospheric phosphorus and phosphate transport and deposition changes over time, though it is well known that phosphorus can be a source of long-range nutrient transport, e.g. Saharan dust transported to the tropical forests of Brazil. In glacial times it has been speculated that transport of phosphorus from exposed shelves would increase the ocean productivity by wash out. However whether the exposed shelf would also increase the atmospheric load to more remote places has not been investigated. Polar ice cores offer a unique opportunity to study the atmospheric transport of aerosols on various timescales, from glacial-interglacial periods to recent anthropogenic influences. We have for the first time determined the atmospheric transport of phosphorus to the Arctic by means of ice core analysis. Both total and dissolved reactive phosphorus were measured to investigate current and past atmospheric transport of phosphorus to the Arctic. Results show that glacial cold stadials had increased atmospheric total phosphorus mass loads of 70 times higher than in the past century, while DRP was only increased by a factor of 14. In the recent period we find evidence of a phosphorus increase over the past 50 yrs in ice cores close to human occupation likely correlated to forest fires. References: Kjær, Helle Astrid, et al. "Continuous flow analysis method for determination of dissolved reactive phosphorus in ice cores." Environmental science & technology 47.21 (2013): 12325-12332. Kjær, Helle Astrid, et al. "Greenland ice cores constrain glacial atmospheric fluxes of phosphorus." Journal of Geophysical Research: Atmospheres120.20 (2015).

  9. The Global Phosphorus Cycle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ruttenberg, K. C.

    2003-12-01

    Phosphorus is an essential nutrient for all life forms. It is a key player in fundamental biochemical reactions (Westheimer, 1987) involving genetic material (DNA, RNA) and energy transfer (ATP), and in structural support of organisms provided by membranes (phospholipids) and bone (the biomineral hydroxyapatite). Photosynthetic organisms utilize dissolved phosphorus, carbon, and other essential nutrients to build their tissues using energy from the Sun. Biological productivity is contingent upon the availability of phosphorus to these simple organisms that constitute the base of the food web in both terrestrial and aquatic systems. (For reviews of P-utilization, P-biochemicals, and pathways in aquatic plants, see Fogg (1973), Bieleski and Ferguson (1983), and Cembella et al. (1984a, 1984b).)Phosphorus locked up in bedrock, soils, and sediments is not directly available to organisms. Conversion of unavailable forms to dissolved orthophosphate, which can be directly assimilated, occurs through geochemical and biochemical reactions at various stages in the global phosphorus cycle. Production of biomass fueled by P-bioavailability results in the deposition of organic matter in soils and sediments, where it acts as a source of fuel and nutrients to microbial communities. Microbial activity in soils and sediments, in turn, strongly influences the concentration and chemical form of phosphorus incorporated into the geological record.The global phosphorus cycle has four major components: (i) tectonic uplift and exposure of phosphorus-bearing rocks to the forces of weathering; (ii) physical erosion and chemical weathering of rocks producing soils and providing dissolved and particulate phosphorus to rivers; (iii) riverine transport of phosphorus to lakes and the ocean; and (iv) sedimentation of phosphorus associated with organic and mineral matter and burial in sediments (Figure 1). The cycle begins anew with uplift of sediments into the weathering regime.

  10. Information geometry of Gaussian channels

    SciTech Connect

    Monras, Alex; Illuminati, Fabrizio

    2010-06-15

    We define a local Riemannian metric tensor in the manifold of Gaussian channels and the distance that it induces. We adopt an information-geometric approach and define a metric derived from the Bures-Fisher metric for quantum states. The resulting metric inherits several desirable properties from the Bures-Fisher metric and is operationally motivated by distinguishability considerations: It serves as an upper bound to the attainable quantum Fisher information for the channel parameters using Gaussian states, under generic constraints on the physically available resources. Our approach naturally includes the use of entangled Gaussian probe states. We prove that the metric enjoys some desirable properties like stability and covariance. As a by-product, we also obtain some general results in Gaussian channel estimation that are the continuous-variable analogs of previously known results in finite dimensions. We prove that optimal probe states are always pure and bounded in the number of ancillary modes, even in the presence of constraints on the reduced state input in the channel. This has experimental and computational implications. It limits the complexity of optimal experimental setups for channel estimation and reduces the computational requirements for the evaluation of the metric: Indeed, we construct a converging algorithm for its computation. We provide explicit formulas for computing the multiparametric quantum Fisher information for dissipative channels probed with arbitrary Gaussian states and provide the optimal observables for the estimation of the channel parameters (e.g., bath couplings, squeezing, and temperature).

  11. Q-switched Nd:YAG laser with super-Gaussian resonators.

    PubMed

    De Silvestri, S; Magni, V; Taccheo, S; Valentini, G

    1991-05-01

    An unstable resonator that uses radially variable-reflectivity mirrors of super-Gaussian profile has been used in a Nd:YAG laser in the Q-switching regime. Three reflectivity profiles, corresponding to different super-Gaussian orders, have been tested. The output energy increases with the super-Gaussian order and can be higher than that of a traditional stable multimode resonator. The output beams are diffraction limited, showing only moderate spreading of energy out of the central lobe in the far field. PMID:19774024

  12. The total phosphorus budget of a peat-covered catchment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Worrall, Fred; Moody, Catherine S.; Clay, Gareth D.; Burt, Tim P.; Rose, Rob

    2016-07-01

    Although many studies have considered the carbon or greenhouse gas budgets of peat ecosystems, only a few have considered the nutrient budget of peat soils, and this, in turn, has limited the ability of studies to consider the impact of changes in climate and atmospheric deposition on the phosphorus budget of a peat soil. This study considered the total phosphorus (P) budget of an upland peat-covered catchment over the period 1993 to 2012. The study has shown (i) total atmospheric deposition of phosphorus varied from 62 to 175 kg P/km2/yr; (ii) the carbon:phosphorus ratio of the peat profile declines significantly from values in the litter layer (C:P = 1326) to approximately constant at 30 cm depth (C:P = 4240); (iii) the total fluvial flux of phosphorus varied from 49 to 111 kg P/km2/yr, of which between 45 and 77% was dissolved P; and (iv) the total phosphorus sink varied from -5.6 to +71.7 kg P/km2/yr with a median of +29.4 kg P/km2/yr, which is within the range of the estimated long-term accumulation rate of phosphorus in the peat profile of between 3 and 32 kg P/km2/yr. The phosphorus budget of the peat ecosystem relies on rapid recycling near the soil surface, and this means that any vegetation management may critically deprive the ecosystem of this nutrient.

  13. Phosphorus as a limiting factor on sustainable greywater irrigation.

    PubMed

    Turner, Ryan D R; Will, Geoffrey D; Dawes, Les A; Gardner, Edward A; Lyons, David J

    2013-07-01

    Water reuse through greywater irrigation has been adopted worldwide and has been proposed as a potential sustainable solution to increased water demands. Despite widespread adoption, there is limited domestic knowledge of greywater reuse. There is no pressure to produce low-level phosphorus products and current guidelines and legislation, such as those in Australia, may be inadequate due to the lack of long-term data to provide a sound scientific basis. Research has clearly identified phosphorus as a potential environmental risk to waterways from many forms of irrigation. To assess the sustainability of greywater irrigation, this study compared four residential lots that had been irrigated with greywater for four years and adjacent non-irrigated lots that acted as controls. Each lot was monitored for the volume of greywater applied and selected physic-chemical water quality parameters and soil chemistry profiles were analysed. The non-irrigated soil profiles showed low levels of phosphorus and were used as controls. The Mechlich3 Phosphorus ratio (M3PSR) and Phosphate Environmental Risk Index (PERI) were used to determine the environmental risk of phosphorus leaching from the irrigated soils. Soil phosphorus concentrations were compared to theoretical greywater irrigation loadings. The measured phosphorus soil concentrations and the estimated greywater loadings were of similar magnitude. Sustainable greywater reuse is possible; however incorrect use and/or lack of understanding of how household products affect greywater can result in phosphorus posing a significant risk to the environment.

  14. Phosphorus recovery from wastes

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Phosphorus (P) is an important macro-nutrient essential for all living organisms and phosphate rock is the main raw material for all inorganic P fertilizers. It is expected that there will be a P peak and resulting P fertilizer shortage in near future. In general, phosphorus use efficiency is low a...

  15. Black phosphorus gas sensors.

    PubMed

    Abbas, Ahmad N; Liu, Bilu; Chen, Liang; Ma, Yuqiang; Cong, Sen; Aroonyadet, Noppadol; Köpf, Marianne; Nilges, Tom; Zhou, Chongwu

    2015-05-26

    The utilization of black phosphorus and its monolayer (phosphorene) and few-layers in field-effect transistors has attracted a lot of attention to this elemental two-dimensional material. Various studies on optimization of black phosphorus field-effect transistors, PN junctions, photodetectors, and other applications have been demonstrated. Although chemical sensing based on black phosphorus devices was theoretically predicted, there is still no experimental verification of such an important study of this material. In this article, we report on chemical sensing of nitrogen dioxide (NO2) using field-effect transistors based on multilayer black phosphorus. Black phosphorus sensors exhibited increased conduction upon NO2 exposure and excellent sensitivity for detection of NO2 down to 5 ppb. Moreover, when the multilayer black phosphorus field-effect transistor was exposed to NO2 concentrations of 5, 10, 20, and 40 ppb, its relative conduction change followed the Langmuir isotherm for molecules adsorbed on a surface. Additionally, on the basis of an exponential conductance change, the rate constants for adsorption and desorption of NO2 on black phosphorus were extracted for different NO2 concentrations, and they were in the range of 130-840 s. These results shed light on important electronic and sensing characteristics of black phosphorus, which can be utilized in future studies and applications.

  16. Black Phosphorus Terahertz Photodetectors.

    PubMed

    Viti, Leonardo; Hu, Jin; Coquillat, Dominique; Knap, Wojciech; Tredicucci, Alessandro; Politano, Antonio; Vitiello, Miriam Serena

    2015-10-01

    The first room-temperature terahertz (THz)-frequency nanodetector exploiting a 10 nm thick flake of exfoliated crystalline black phosphorus as an active channel of a field-effect transistor, is devised. By engineering and embedding planar THz antennas for efficient light harvesting, the first technological demonstration of a phosphorus-based active THz device is described. PMID:26270791

  17. Gaussian entanglement distribution via satellite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hosseinidehaj, Nedasadat; Malaney, Robert

    2015-02-01

    In this work we analyze three quantum communication schemes for the generation of Gaussian entanglement between two ground stations. Communication occurs via a satellite over two independent atmospheric fading channels dominated by turbulence-induced beam wander. In our first scheme, the engineering complexity remains largely on the ground transceivers, with the satellite acting simply as a reflector. Although the channel state information of the two atmospheric channels remains unknown in this scheme, the Gaussian entanglement generation between the ground stations can still be determined. On the ground, distillation and Gaussification procedures can be applied, leading to a refined Gaussian entanglement generation rate between the ground stations. We compare the rates produced by this first scheme with two competing schemes in which quantum complexity is added to the satellite, thereby illustrating the tradeoff between space-based engineering complexity and the rate of ground-station entanglement generation.

  18. NMR and mass spectrometry of phosphorus in wetlands

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    El-Rifai, H.; Heerboth, M.; Gedris, T.E.; Newman, S.; Orem, W.; Cooper, W.T.

    2008-01-01

    There is at present little information on the long-term stability of phosphorus sequestered in wetlands. Phosphorus sequestered during high loading periods may be relatively unstable and easily remobilized following changes in nutrient status or hydrological regime, but the chemical forms of sequestered phosphorus that do remobilize are largely unknown at this time. A lack of suitable analytical techniques has contributed to this dearth of knowledge regarding the stability of soil organic phosphorus. We analysed phosphorus in soils from the 'head' of Rescue Strand tree island and an adjacent marsh in the Florida Everglades by 31P nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy and high-resolution mass spectrometry. Tree islands are important areas of biodiversity within the Everglades and offer a unique opportunity to study phosphorus sequestration because they are exposed to large phosphorus loads and appear to be natural nutrient sinks. The 31P NMR profiling of extracts from surface and sediment samples in the tree island indicates that phosphorus input to Rescue Strand tree island soils is mostly in the form of inorganic ortho-phosphate and is either refractory when deposited or rapidly recycled by the native vegetation into a stable phosphorus pool largely resistant to re-utilization by plants or microbes. Mass spectrometry revealed the presence of inositol hexakisphosphate, a common organic monophosphate ester not previously observed in Everglades' soils. ?? 2008 The Authors.

  19. C-PCM based calculation of energy profiles for proton transfer in phosphorus-containing acid- N, N-dimethylformamide complexes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fedorova, I. V.; Khatuntseva, E. A.; Krest'yaninov, M. A.; Safonova, L. P.

    2016-02-01

    Proton transfer along the hydrogen bond in complexes of DMF with H3PO4, H3PO3, CH3H2PO3, and their dimers has been investigated by the B3LYP/6-31++G** method in combination with the C-PCM model. When the Oacid···ODMF distance ( R) in the scanning procedure is not fixed, the energy profile in all cases has a single well. When this distance is fixed, there can be a proton transfer in all of the complexes in the gas phase at R > 2.6 Å; if solvation is taken into account, proton transfer can take place at R > 2.4 Å ( R > 2.5 Å for DMF complexes with CH3H2PO3 and its dimer). The height of the energy barrier to proton transfer increases with increasing R. Proton transfer is energetically most favorable in the DMF-phosphoric acid complexes. The structural and energetic characteristics of the hydrogen-bonded complexes calculated on the basis of the solvation model are compared with the same parameters for the complexes in the gas phase.

  20. Large-size Gaussian mode in unstable resonators using Gaussian mirrors.

    PubMed

    McCarthy, N; Lavigne, P

    1985-11-01

    Gaussian modes with large sections have been experimentally produced in Cassegrain resonators using Gaussian reflectivity convex couplers. The far field of the beam, which was coupled through a Gaussian coupler, was found to be free from secondary rings. PMID:19730482

  1. Tachyon mediated non-Gaussianity

    SciTech Connect

    Dutta, Bhaskar; Leblond, Louis; Kumar, Jason

    2008-10-15

    We describe a general scenario where primordial non-Gaussian curvature perturbations are generated in models with extra scalar fields. The extra scalars communicate to the inflaton sector mainly through the tachyonic (waterfall) field condensing at the end of hybrid inflation. These models can yield significant non-Gaussianity of the local shape, and both signs of the bispectrum can be obtained. These models have cosmic strings and a nearly flat power spectrum, which together have been recently shown to be a good fit to WMAP data. We illustrate with a model of inflation inspired from intersecting brane models.

  2. Propagation of a cosh-Gaussian beam through an optical system in turbulent atmosphere.

    PubMed

    Chu, Xiuxiang

    2007-12-24

    The propagation of a cosh-Gaussian beam through an arbitrary ABCD optical system in turbulent atmosphere has been investigated. The analytical expressions for the average intensity at any receiver plane are obtained. As an elementary example, the average intensity and its radius at the image plane of a cosh-Gaussian beam through a thin lens are studied. To show the effects of a lens on the average intensity and the intensity radius of the laser beam in turbulent atmosphere, the properties of a collimated cosh-Gaussian beam and a focused cosh-Gaussian beam for direct propagation in turbulent atmosphere are studied and numerically calculated. The average intensity profiles of a cosh-Gaussian beam through a lens can have a shape similar to that of the initial beam for a longer propagation distance than that of a collimated cosh-Gaussian beam for direct propagation. With the increment in the propagation distance, the average intensity radius at the image plane of a cosh-Gaussian beam through a thin lens will be smaller than that at the focal plane of a focused cosh-Gaussian beam for direct propagation. Meanwhile, the intensity distributions at the image plane of a cosh-Gaussian beam through a lens with different w(0) and Omega(0) are also studied.

  3. The impact of microbial ecology and chemical profile on the enhanced biological phosphorus removal (EBPR) process: a case study of Northern Wastewater Treatment Works, Johannesburg.

    PubMed

    Kamika, Ilunga; Coetzee, Martie; Mamba, Bhekie Brilliance; Msagati, Titus; Momba, Maggy N B

    2014-03-10

    The impact of polyphosphate-accumulating organism (PAO) and glycogen-accumulating organism (GAO) populations as well as of the chemical profile on the performance of Unit-3 (open elutriation tanks) and Unit-5 (covered elutriation tank) of the City of Johannesburg Northern Wastewater Treatment Works was determined. Physicochemical parameters of wastewater samples were measured using standard methods. Bacterial diversity was determined using 16S rRNA gene amplicon pyrosequencing of the variable region V1-3. Results showed soluble COD concentrations from settled sewage for Unit-3 at 192.8 mg COD/L and for Unit-5 at 214.6 mg COD/L, which increased to 301.8 mg COD/L and 411.6 mg COD/L in the overflow from elutriation tanks and decreased to 170.9 mg COD/L and 256.3 mg COD/L at the division boxes, respectively. Both long-chain volatile fatty acids (heptanoic acid, isobutyric acid, 3-methylbutanoic acid, pentanoic acid, 4-methylpentanoic acid, methylheptanoic acid) and short-chain volatile fatty acids (acetic acid, propionic acid, isobutyric acid) were present within concentration ranges of 17.19 mg/L to 54.98 mg/L and 13.64 mg/L to 87.6 mg/L for Unit 3 and 38.61 mg/L to58.85 mg/L and 21.63 mg/L to 92.39 mg/L for Unit 5, respectively. In the secondary settling tanks, the phosphate-removal efficiency in Unit-5 appeared to be slightly higher (0.08 mg P/L) compared to that of Unit-3 (0.11 mg P/L). The average DO concentrations (2.1 mg/L and 2.2 mg/L) as well as the pH values (pH 7 to pH 7.5) were found to be slightly higher in Unit-5 in the aerobic zones. The high presence of PAOs in the bioreactors (Unit-5: Dechloromonas (14.96%), Acinetobacter (6.3%), Zoogloea (4.72%) in the anaerobic zone and Dechloromonas (22.37 %) in the aerobic zone; Unit-3: Dechloromonas (37.25%) in the anaerobic zone and Dechloromonas (23.97%) in the aerobic zone) confirmed the phosphate-removal efficiencies of both units. Negligible GAOs were found in the aerobic zones (Defluviicoccus spp.: 0.33% for

  4. The Impact of Microbial Ecology and Chemical Profile on the Enhanced Biological Phosphorus Removal (EBPR) Process: A Case Study of Northern Wastewater Treatment Works, Johannesburg

    PubMed Central

    Kamika, Ilunga; Coetzee, Martie; Mamba, Bhekie Brilliance; Msagati, Titus; Momba, Maggy N. B.

    2014-01-01

    The impact of polyphosphate-accumulating organism (PAO) and glycogen-accumulating organism (GAO) populations as well as of the chemical profile on the performance of Unit-3 (open elutriation tanks) and Unit-5 (covered elutriation tank) of the City of Johannesburg Northern Wastewater Treatment Works was determined. Physicochemical parameters of wastewater samples were measured using standard methods. Bacterial diversity was determined using 16S rRNA gene amplicon pyrosequencing of the variable region V1-3. Results showed soluble COD concentrations from settled sewage for Unit-3 at 192.8 mg COD/L and for Unit-5 at 214.6 mg COD/L, which increased to 301.8 mg COD/L and 411.6 mg COD/L in the overflow from elutriation tanks and decreased to 170.9 mg COD/L and 256.3 mg COD/L at the division boxes, respectively. Both long-chain volatile fatty acids (heptanoic acid, isobutyric acid, 3-methylbutanoic acid, pentanoic acid, 4-methylpentanoic acid, methylheptanoic acid) and short-chain volatile fatty acids (acetic acid, propionic acid, isobutyric acid) were present within concentration ranges of 17.19 mg/L to 54.98 mg/L and 13.64 mg/L to 87.6 mg/L for Unit 3 and 38.61 mg/L to58.85 mg/L and 21.63 mg/L to 92.39 mg/L for Unit 5, respectively. In the secondary settling tanks, the phosphate-removal efficiency in Unit-5 appeared to be slightly higher (0.08 mg P/L) compared to that of Unit-3 (0.11 mg P/L). The average DO concentrations (2.1 mg/L and 2.2 mg/L) as well as the pH values (pH 7 to pH 7.5) were found to be slightly higher in Unit-5 in the aerobic zones. The high presence of PAOs in the bioreactors (Unit-5: Dechloromonas (14.96%), Acinetobacter (6.3%), Zoogloea (4.72%) in the anaerobic zone and Dechloromonas (22.37 %) in the aerobic zone; Unit-3: Dechloromonas (37.25%) in the anaerobic zone and Dechloromonas (23.97%) in the aerobic zone) confirmed the phosphate-removal efficiencies of both units. Negligible GAOs were found in the aerobic zones (Defluviicoccus spp.: 0.33% for

  5. The impact of microbial ecology and chemical profile on the enhanced biological phosphorus removal (EBPR) process: a case study of Northern Wastewater Treatment Works, Johannesburg.

    PubMed

    Kamika, Ilunga; Coetzee, Martie; Mamba, Bhekie Brilliance; Msagati, Titus; Momba, Maggy N B

    2014-03-01

    The impact of polyphosphate-accumulating organism (PAO) and glycogen-accumulating organism (GAO) populations as well as of the chemical profile on the performance of Unit-3 (open elutriation tanks) and Unit-5 (covered elutriation tank) of the City of Johannesburg Northern Wastewater Treatment Works was determined. Physicochemical parameters of wastewater samples were measured using standard methods. Bacterial diversity was determined using 16S rRNA gene amplicon pyrosequencing of the variable region V1-3. Results showed soluble COD concentrations from settled sewage for Unit-3 at 192.8 mg COD/L and for Unit-5 at 214.6 mg COD/L, which increased to 301.8 mg COD/L and 411.6 mg COD/L in the overflow from elutriation tanks and decreased to 170.9 mg COD/L and 256.3 mg COD/L at the division boxes, respectively. Both long-chain volatile fatty acids (heptanoic acid, isobutyric acid, 3-methylbutanoic acid, pentanoic acid, 4-methylpentanoic acid, methylheptanoic acid) and short-chain volatile fatty acids (acetic acid, propionic acid, isobutyric acid) were present within concentration ranges of 17.19 mg/L to 54.98 mg/L and 13.64 mg/L to 87.6 mg/L for Unit 3 and 38.61 mg/L to58.85 mg/L and 21.63 mg/L to 92.39 mg/L for Unit 5, respectively. In the secondary settling tanks, the phosphate-removal efficiency in Unit-5 appeared to be slightly higher (0.08 mg P/L) compared to that of Unit-3 (0.11 mg P/L). The average DO concentrations (2.1 mg/L and 2.2 mg/L) as well as the pH values (pH 7 to pH 7.5) were found to be slightly higher in Unit-5 in the aerobic zones. The high presence of PAOs in the bioreactors (Unit-5: Dechloromonas (14.96%), Acinetobacter (6.3%), Zoogloea (4.72%) in the anaerobic zone and Dechloromonas (22.37 %) in the aerobic zone; Unit-3: Dechloromonas (37.25%) in the anaerobic zone and Dechloromonas (23.97%) in the aerobic zone) confirmed the phosphate-removal efficiencies of both units. Negligible GAOs were found in the aerobic zones (Defluviicoccus spp.: 0.33% for

  6. Phosphorus chemistry in everyday living

    SciTech Connect

    Toy, D.F.; Walsh, E.F.

    1987-01-01

    This book brings to life the versatility of phosphorus and its compounds and is filled with personal anecdotes and experiences of the authors. Covers the uses of phosphorus in matches and warfare; phosphates and food, fertilizers, cleaners, and detergents; organic phosphorus nerve gases and insecticides. Also discusses phosphoric acids, organic phosphorus polymers, deoxyribonucleic and ribonucleic acids and adenosine triphosphate.

  7. GAUSSIAN BEAM LASER RESONATOR PROGRAM

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cross, P. L.

    1994-01-01

    In designing a laser cavity, the laser engineer is frequently concerned with more than the stability of the resonator. Other considerations include the size of the beam at various optical surfaces within the resonator or the performance of intracavity line-narrowing or other optical elements. Laser resonators obey the laws of Gaussian beam propagation, not geometric optics. The Gaussian Beam Laser Resonator Program models laser resonators using Gaussian ray trace techniques. It can be used to determine the propagation of radiation through laser resonators. The algorithm used in the Gaussian Beam Resonator program has three major components. First, the ray transfer matrix for the laser resonator must be calculated. Next calculations of the initial beam parameters, specifically, the beam stability, the beam waist size and location for the resonator input element, and the wavefront curvature and beam radius at the input surface to the first resonator element are performed. Finally the propagation of the beam through the optical elements is computed. The optical elements can be modeled as parallel plates, lenses, mirrors, dummy surfaces, or Gradient Index (GRIN) lenses. A Gradient Index lens is a good approximation of a laser rod operating under a thermal load. The optical system may contain up to 50 elements. In addition to the internal beam elements the optical system may contain elements external to the resonator. The Gaussian Beam Resonator program was written in Microsoft FORTRAN (Version 4.01). It was developed for the IBM PS/2 80-071 microcomputer and has been implemented on an IBM PC compatible under MS DOS 3.21. The program was developed in 1988 and requires approximately 95K bytes to operate.

  8. Gaussian Velocity Distributions in Avalanches

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shattuck, Mark

    2004-03-01

    Imagine a world where gravity is so strong that if an ice cube is tilted the shear forces melt the surface and water avalanches down. Further imagine that the ambient temperature is so low that the water re-freezes almost immediately. This is the world of granular flows. As a granular solid is tilted the surface undergoes a sublimation phase transition and a granular gas avalanches down the surface, but the inelastic collisions rapidly remove energy from the flow lowering the granular temperature (kinetic energy per particle) until the gas solidifies again. It is under these extreme conditions that we attempt to uncover continuum granular flow properties. Typical continuum theories like Navier-Stokes equation for fluids follow the space-time evolution of the first few moments of the velocity distribution. We study continuously avalanching flow in a rotating two-dimensional granular drum using high-speed video imaging and extract the position and velocities of the particles. We find a universal near Gaussian velocity distribution throughout the flowing regions, which are characterized by a liquid-like radial distribution function. In the remaining regions, in which the radial distribution function develops sharp crystalline peaks, the velocity distribution has a Gaussian peak but is much broader in the tails. In a companion experiment on a vibrated two-dimensional granular fluid under constant pressure, we find a clear gas-solid phase transition in which both the temperature and density change discontinuously. This suggests that a low temperature crystal and a high temperature gas can coexist in steady state. This coexistence could result in a narrower, cooler, Gaussian peak and a broader, warmer, Gaussian tail like the non-Gaussian behavior seen in the crystalline portions of the rotating drum.

  9. Phosphorus, phosphorous, and phosphate.

    PubMed

    Iheagwara, O Susan; Ing, Todd S; Kjellstrand, Carl M; Lew, Susie Q

    2013-10-01

    This article distinguishes the terms "phosphorus, phosphorous, and phosphate" which are frequently used interchangeably. We point out the difference between phosphorus and phosphate, with an emphasis on the unit of measure. Expressing a value without the proper name or unit of measure may lead to misunderstanding and erroneous conclusions. We indicate why phosphate must be expressed as milligrams per deciliter or millimoles per liter and not as milliequivalents per liter. Therefore, we elucidate the distinction among the terms "phosphorus, phosphorous, and phosphate" and the importance of saying precisely what one really means.

  10. Inseparability of photon-added Gaussian states

    SciTech Connect

    Li Hongrong; Li Fuli; Zhu Shiyao

    2007-06-15

    The inseparability of photon-added Gaussian states which are generated from two-mode Gaussian states by adding photons is investigated. According to the established inseparability conditions [New J. Phys. 7, 211 (2005); Phys. Rev. Lett. 96, 050503 (2006)], we find that even if a two-mode Gaussian state is separable, the photon-added Gaussian state becomes entangled when the purity of the Gaussian state is larger than a certain value. The lower bound of entanglement of symmetric photon-added Gaussian states is derived. The result shows that entanglement of the photon-added Gaussian states is involved with high-order moment correlations. We find that fidelity of teleporting coherent states cannot be raised by employing the photon-added Gaussian states as a quantum channel of teleportation.

  11. Phosphorus blood test

    MedlinePlus

    ... serum; HPO4 -2 ; PO4 -3 ; Inorganic phosphate; Serum phosphorus ... that may affect the test. These medicines include water pills (diuretics), antacids, and laxatives. DO NOT stop taking any medicine before talking to your provider.

  12. Gaussian statistics for palaeomagnetic vectors

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Love, J.J.; Constable, C.G.

    2003-01-01

    With the aim of treating the statistics of palaeomagnetic directions and intensities jointly and consistently, we represent the mean and the variance of palaeomagnetic vectors, at a particular site and of a particular polarity, by a probability density function in a Cartesian three-space of orthogonal magnetic-field components consisting of a single (unimoda) non-zero mean, spherically-symmetrical (isotropic) Gaussian function. For palaeomagnetic data of mixed polarities, we consider a bimodal distribution consisting of a pair of such symmetrical Gaussian functions, with equal, but opposite, means and equal variances. For both the Gaussian and bi-Gaussian distributions, and in the spherical three-space of intensity, inclination, and declination, we obtain analytical expressions for the marginal density functions, the cumulative distributions, and the expected values and variances for each spherical coordinate (including the angle with respect to the axis of symmetry of the distributions). The mathematical expressions for the intensity and off-axis angle are closed-form and especially manageable, with the intensity distribution being Rayleigh-Rician. In the limit of small relative vectorial dispersion, the Gaussian (bi-Gaussian) directional distribution approaches a Fisher (Bingham) distribution and the intensity distribution approaches a normal distribution. In the opposite limit of large relative vectorial dispersion, the directional distributions approach a spherically-uniform distribution and the intensity distribution approaches a Maxwell distribution. We quantify biases in estimating the properties of the vector field resulting from the use of simple arithmetic averages, such as estimates of the intensity or the inclination of the mean vector, or the variances of these quantities. With the statistical framework developed here and using the maximum-likelihood method, which gives unbiased estimates in the limit of large data numbers, we demonstrate how to

  13. Achromatic doublets for Gaussian beams

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Biraud, F.; Daigne, G.

    1991-04-01

    The properties of doublets of thin lenses in the Gaussian optics approximation were investigated. Two different ways for such a doublet to give strictly achromatic images of the input beam waist were found. Both solutions may be useful in a variety of applications, one being the possibility of shaping asymmetrical beams for fan beam antennas illumination. Using modes higher than the fundamental mode will allow the design of more realistic focal systems.

  14. A non-Gaussian landscape

    SciTech Connect

    Nurmi, Sami; Byrnes, Christian T.; Tasinato, Gianmassimo E-mail: ctb22@sussex.ac.uk

    2013-06-01

    Primordial perturbations with wavelengths greater than the observable universe shift the effective background fields in our observable patch from their global averages over the inflating space. This leads to a landscape picture where the properties of our observable patch depend on its location and may significantly differ from the expectation values predicted by the underlying fundamental inflationary model. We show that if multiple fields are present during inflation, this may happen even if our horizon exit would be preceded by only a few e-foldings of inflation. Non-Gaussian statistics are especially affected: for example models of local non-Gaussianity predicting |f{sub NL}{sup 0}| >> 10 over the entire inflating volume can have a probability up to a few tens of percent to generate a non-detectable bispectrum in our observable patch |f{sub NL}{sup obs.}|∼<10. In this work we establish systematic connections between the observable local properties of primordial perturbations and the global properties of the inflating space which reflect the underlying high energy physics. We study in detail the implications of both a detection and non-detection of primordial non-Gaussianity by Planck, and discover novel ways of characterising the naturalness of different observational configurations.

  15. Rethinking early Earth phosphorus geochemistry

    PubMed Central

    Pasek, Matthew A.

    2008-01-01

    Phosphorus is a key biologic element, and a prebiotic pathway leading to its incorporation into biomolecules has been difficult to ascertain. Most potentially prebiotic phosphorylation reactions have relied on orthophosphate as the source of phosphorus. It is suggested here that the geochemistry of phosphorus on the early Earth was instead controlled by reduced oxidation state phosphorus compounds such as phosphite (HPO32−), which are more soluble and reactive than orthophosphates. This reduced oxidation state phosphorus originated from extraterrestrial material that fell during the heavy bombardment period or was produced during impacts, and persisted in the mildly reducing atmosphere. This alternate view of early Earth phosphorus geochemistry provides an unexplored route to the formation of pertinent prebiotic phosphorus compounds, suggests a facile reaction pathway to condensed phosphates, and is consistent with the biochemical usage of reduced oxidation state phosphorus compounds in life today. Possible studies are suggested that may detect reduced oxidation state phosphorus compounds in ancient Archean rocks. PMID:18195373

  16. Double pulse laser induced breakdown spectroscopy with Gaussian and multimode beams

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lednev, V. N.; Pershin, S. M.; Bunkin, A. F.; Samokhvalov, A. A.; Veiko, V. P.; Kudryashov, S. I.; Ionin, A. A.

    2016-10-01

    Single vs multimode laser beams were compared for double pulse laser ablation, plasma properties and laser induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) analytical capabilities. Laser beams with Gaussian and multimode profiles were generated within the same Nd:YAG laser in single and double pulse regimes. Gaussian beam produced a small and deep crater while multimode beam formed a wide shallow crater. Greater double pulse enhancement of ablated material and plasma volume were observed for Gaussian beam sampling. The higher intensity for atomic/ionic lines in the plasma spectra was observed for multimode beam sampling due to greater laser pulse energy and larger ablated mass. Interestingly, spectra line intensity enhancement for double pulse ablation was 2-3 times greater for Gaussian than for multimode beam ablation. Background emission decreased for plasma induced by multimode beam when using double pulse mode while for Gaussian beam an opposite dependence was observed. Surprisingly, higher peak fluence at sample surface for Gaussian beam didn't provide higher plasma temperature and electron density for double pulse ablation. Analytical capabilities of LIBS method were compared for double pulse plasma induced by Gaussian and multimode beam in terms of precision, sensitivity and linearity of calibration curves. It was observed that Gaussian beam sampling leads to improvement of analysis precision while sensitivity was element dependent.

  17. Hanle electromagnetically induced transparency and absorption resonances with a Laguerre Gaussian beam

    SciTech Connect

    Anupriya, J.; Ram, Nibedita; Pattabiraman, M.

    2010-04-15

    We describe a computational and experimental study on Hanle electromagnetically induced transparency and absorption resonance line shapes with a Laguerre Gaussian (LG) beam. It is seen that the LG beam profile brings about a significant narrowing in the line shape of the Hanle resonance and ground-state Zeeman coherence in comparison to a Gaussian beam. This narrowing is attributed to the azimuthal mode index of the LG field.

  18. Gaussian Decomposition of Laser Altimeter Waveforms

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hofton, Michelle A.; Minster, J. Bernard; Blair, J. Bryan

    1999-01-01

    We develop a method to decompose a laser altimeter return waveform into its Gaussian components assuming that the position of each Gaussian within the waveform can be used to calculate the mean elevation of a specific reflecting surface within the laser footprint. We estimate the number of Gaussian components from the number of inflection points of a smoothed copy of the laser waveform, and obtain initial estimates of the Gaussian half-widths and positions from the positions of its consecutive inflection points. Initial amplitude estimates are obtained using a non-negative least-squares method. To reduce the likelihood of fitting the background noise within the waveform and to minimize the number of Gaussians needed in the approximation, we rank the "importance" of each Gaussian in the decomposition using its initial half-width and amplitude estimates. The initial parameter estimates of all Gaussians ranked "important" are optimized using the Levenburg-Marquardt method. If the sum of the Gaussians does not approximate the return waveform to a prescribed accuracy, then additional Gaussians are included in the optimization procedure. The Gaussian decomposition method is demonstrated on data collected by the airborne Laser Vegetation Imaging Sensor (LVIS) in October 1997 over the Sequoia National Forest, California.

  19. Phosphorus in prebiotic chemistry.

    PubMed

    Schwartz, Alan W

    2006-10-29

    The prebiotic synthesis of phosphorus-containing compounds-such as nucleotides and polynucleotides-would require both a geologically plausible source of the element and pathways for its incorporation into chemical systems on the primitive Earth. The mineral apatite, which is the only significant source of phosphate on Earth, has long been thought to be problematical in this respect due to its low solubility and reactivity. However, in the last decade or so, at least two pathways have been demonstrated which would circumvent these perceived problems. In addition, recent results would seem to suggest an additional, extraterrestrial source of reactive phosphorus. It appears that the 'phosphorus problem' is no longer the stumbling block which it was once thought to be. PMID:17008215

  20. Gaussian effective potential: Quantum mechanics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stevenson, P. M.

    1984-10-01

    We advertise the virtues of the Gaussian effective potential (GEP) as a guide to the behavior of quantum field theories. Much superior to the usual one-loop effective potential, the GEP is a natural extension of intuitive notions familiar from quantum mechanics. A variety of quantum-mechanical examples are studied here, with an eye to field-theoretic analogies. Quantum restoration of symmetry, dynamical mass generation, and "quantum-mechanical resuscitation" are among the phenomena discussed. We suggest how the GEP could become the basis of a systematic approximation procedure. A companion paper will deal with scalar field theory.

  1. The research of phosphorus of Xiangxi River nearby the Three Gorges, China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fu, Chang-Ying; Fang, Tao; Deng, Nan Sheng

    2006-03-01

    The Xiangxi River is the first middling tributary of the Changjiang River near the Three Gorges Dam. The River is subject to phosphorus pollution mainly from industrial wastewater. As the water quality of the Xiangxi River could directly influence the water quality of the Three Gorges Reservoir, the research on phosphorus levels and its change in the sediment profile of the Xiangxi River could provide useful information in the dynamic changes in the system, thereby offering options for mitigative measures. Water and sediment samples from lower reaches of Xiangxi River were collected and the different forms of phosphorus in sediments of the Xiangxi River were studied. The concentrations of total phosphorus in sediment ranged from 757.67 to 1438.54 mg/kg. Inorganic phosphorus concentrations ranged from 684.63 to 1055.58 mg/kg. Phosphorus contamination was serious in some parts of the Xiangxi River. With an average concentration of 635.17 mg/kg, calcium-bound phosphorus is the main form among different inorganic phosphorus forms. Labile phosphorus and iron/aluminum-bound phosphorus measured 3.40, 0.05and 35.28 mg/kg, respectively. The mobilization potential of phosphorus of sediments was studied through adsorption and release experiments. The equilibrium concentration of phosphorus adsorption and release was around 0.1 mg/L. The initial concentrations of phosphorus in the overlying water and the sediments have obvious effect on phosphorus mobilization potential. In addition, the release rate of phosphorus in sediment increased with water depth.

  2. A Regional Modeling Framework of Phosphorus Sources and Transport in Streams of the Southeastern United States

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Garcia, A.M.; Hoos, A.B.; Terziotti, S.

    2011-01-01

    We applied the SPARROW model to estimate phosphorus transport from catchments to stream reaches and subsequent delivery to major receiving water bodies in the Southeastern United States (U.S.). We show that six source variables and five land-to-water transport variables are significant (p<0.05) in explaining 67% of the variability in long-term log-transformed mean annual phosphorus yields. Three land-to-water variables are a subset of landscape characteristics that have been used as transport factors in phosphorus indices developed by state agencies and are identified through experimental research as influencing land-to-water phosphorus transport at field and plot scales. Two land-to-water variables - soil organic matter and soil pH - are associated with phosphorus sorption, a significant finding given that most state-developed phosphorus indices do not explicitly contain variables for sorption processes. Our findings for Southeastern U.S. streams emphasize the importance of accounting for phosphorus present in the soil profile to predict attainable instream water quality. Regional estimates of phosphorus associated with soil-parent rock were highly significant in explaining instream phosphorus yield variability. Model predictions associate 31% of phosphorus delivered to receiving water bodies to geology and the highest total phosphorus yields in the Southeast were catchments with already high background levels that have been impacted by human activity. ?? 2011 American Water Resources Association. This article is a US Government work and is in the public domain in the USA.

  3. Response measurement by laser Doppler vibrometry in vibration qualification tests with non-Gaussian random excitation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Troncossi, M.; Di Sante, R.; Rivola, A.

    2016-10-01

    In the field of vibration qualification testing, random excitations are typically imposed on the tested system in terms of a power spectral density (PSD) profile. This is the one of the most popular ways to control the shaker or slip table for durability tests. However, these excitations (and the corresponding system responses) exhibit a Gaussian probability distribution, whereas not all real-life excitations are Gaussian, causing the response to be also non-Gaussian. In order to introduce non-Gaussian peaks, a further parameter, i.e., kurtosis, has to be controlled in addition to the PSD. However, depending on the specimen behaviour and input signal characteristics, the use of non-Gaussian excitations with high kurtosis and a given PSD does not automatically imply a non-Gaussian stress response. For an experimental investigation of these coupled features, suitable measurement methods need to be developed in order to estimate the stress amplitude response at critical failure locations and consequently evaluate the input signals most representative for real-life, non-Gaussian excitations. In this paper, a simple test rig with a notched cantilevered specimen was developed to measure the response and examine the kurtosis values in the case of stationary Gaussian, stationary non-Gaussian, and burst non-Gaussian excitation signals. The laser Doppler vibrometry technique was used in this type of test for the first time, in order to estimate the specimen stress amplitude response as proportional to the differential displacement measured at the notch section ends. A method based on the use of measurements using accelerometers to correct for the occasional signal dropouts occurring during the experiment is described. The results demonstrate the ability of the test procedure to evaluate the output signal features and therefore to select the most appropriate input signal for the fatigue test.

  4. Monogamy inequality for distributed gaussian entanglement.

    PubMed

    Hiroshima, Tohya; Adesso, Gerardo; Illuminati, Fabrizio

    2007-02-01

    We show that for all n-mode Gaussian states of continuous variable systems, the entanglement shared among n parties exhibits the fundamental monogamy property. The monogamy inequality is proven by introducing the Gaussian tangle, an entanglement monotone under Gaussian local operations and classical communication, which is defined in terms of the squared negativity in complete analogy with the case of n-qubit systems. Our results elucidate the structure of quantum correlations in many-body harmonic lattice systems.

  5. Strongly scale-dependent non-Gaussianity

    SciTech Connect

    Riotto, Antonio; Sloth, Martin S.

    2011-02-15

    We discuss models of primordial density perturbations where the non-Gaussianity is strongly scale dependent. In particular, the non-Gaussianity may have a sharp cutoff and be very suppressed on large cosmological scales, but sizable on small scales. This may have an impact on probes of non-Gaussianity in the large-scale structure and in the cosmic microwave background radiation anisotropies.

  6. Non-Gaussianity after BICEP2.

    PubMed

    D'Amico, Guido; Kleban, Matthew

    2014-08-22

    We analyze primordial non-Gaussianity in single-field inflationary models when the tensor-to-scalar ratio is large. Our results show that detectable levels of non-Gaussianity f(NL) ∼ 50 are still possible in the simplest class of models described by the effective theory of inflation. However, the shape is very tightly constrained, making a sharp prediction that could be confirmed or falsified by a future detection of non-Gaussianity. PMID:25192084

  7. Monogamy inequality for distributed gaussian entanglement.

    PubMed

    Hiroshima, Tohya; Adesso, Gerardo; Illuminati, Fabrizio

    2007-02-01

    We show that for all n-mode Gaussian states of continuous variable systems, the entanglement shared among n parties exhibits the fundamental monogamy property. The monogamy inequality is proven by introducing the Gaussian tangle, an entanglement monotone under Gaussian local operations and classical communication, which is defined in terms of the squared negativity in complete analogy with the case of n-qubit systems. Our results elucidate the structure of quantum correlations in many-body harmonic lattice systems. PMID:17358836

  8. Mean-field fluid behavior of the Gaussian core model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Louis, A. A.; Bolhuis, P. G.; Hansen, J. P.

    2000-12-01

    We show that the Gaussian core model of particles interacting via a penetrable repulsive Gaussian potential, first considered by Stillinger [J. Chem. Phys. 65, 3968 (1976)], behaves as a weakly correlated ``mean-field fluid'' over a surprisingly wide density and temperature range. In the bulk, the structure of the fluid phase is accurately described by the random phase approximation for the direct correlation function, and by the more sophisticated hypernetted chain integral equation. The resulting pressure deviates very little from a simple mean-field-like quadratic form in the density, while the low density virial expansion turns out to have an extremely small radius of convergence. Density profiles near a hard wall are also very accurately described by the corresponding mean-field free-energy functional. The binary version of the model exhibits a spinodal instability against demixing at high densities. Possible implications for semidilute polymer solutions are discussed.

  9. Elegant Gaussian beams for enhanced optical manipulation

    SciTech Connect

    Alpmann, Christina Schöler, Christoph; Denz, Cornelia

    2015-06-15

    Generation of micro- and nanostructured complex light beams attains increasing impact in photonics and laser applications. In this contribution, we demonstrate the implementation and experimental realization of the relatively unknown, but highly versatile class of complex-valued Elegant Hermite- and Laguerre-Gaussian beams. These beams create higher trapping forces compared to standard Gaussian light fields due to their propagation changing properties. We demonstrate optical trapping and alignment of complex functional particles as nanocontainers with standard and Elegant Gaussian light beams. Elegant Gaussian beams will inspire manifold applications in optical manipulation, direct laser writing, or microscopy, where the design of the point-spread function is relevant.

  10. Breaking Gaussian incompatibility on continuous variable quantum systems

    SciTech Connect

    Heinosaari, Teiko; Kiukas, Jukka; Schultz, Jussi

    2015-08-15

    We characterise Gaussian quantum channels that are Gaussian incompatibility breaking, that is, transform every set of Gaussian measurements into a set obtainable from a joint Gaussian observable via Gaussian postprocessing. Such channels represent local noise which renders measurements useless for Gaussian EPR-steering, providing the appropriate generalisation of entanglement breaking channels for this scenario. Understanding the structure of Gaussian incompatibility breaking channels contributes to the resource theory of noisy continuous variable quantum information protocols.

  11. Black Phosphorus RF Transistor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Han; Wang, Xiaomu; Xia, Fengnian; Wang, Luhao; Jiang, Hao; Xia, Qiangfei; Chin, Mattew L.; Dubey, Madan; Han, Shu-Jen

    2015-03-01

    Few-layer and thin film form of layered black phosphorus (BP) has recently emerged as a promising material for applications in high performance thin film electronics and infrared optoelectronics. Layered BP offers a ~ 0.3eV bandgap and high mobility, leading to transistor devices with decent on/off ratio and high on-state current density. Here, we demonstrate the GHz frequency operation of black phosphorus field-effect transistor for the first time. BP transistors demonstrated here show excellent current saturation with an on-off ratio exceeding 2 × 103. The S-parameter characterization is performed for the first time on black phosphorus transistors, giving a 12 GHz short-circuit current-gain cut-off frequency and 20 GHz maximum oscillation frequency in 300 nm channel length devices. A current density in excess of 270 mA/mm and DC transconductance above 180 mS/mm are achieved for hole conductions. The results reveal the promising potential of black phosphorus transistors for enabling the next generation thin film transistor technology that can operate in the multi-GHz frequency range and beyond.

  12. Dynamic generation of Ince-Gaussian modes with a digital micromirror device

    SciTech Connect

    Ren, Yu-Xuan; Fang, Zhao-Xiang; Chen, Yue; Lu, Rong-De; Gong, Lei; Huang, Kun

    2015-04-07

    Ince-Gaussian (IG) beam with elliptical profile, as a connection between Hermite-Gaussian (HG) and Laguerre-Gaussian (LG) beams, has showed unique advantages in some applications such as quantum entanglement and optical micromanipulation. However, its dynamic generation with high switching frequency is still challenging. Here, we experimentally reported the quick generation of Ince-Gaussian beam by using a digital micro-mirror device (DMD), which has the highest switching frequency of 5.2 kHz in principle. The configurable properties of DMD allow us to observe the quasi-smooth variation from LG (with ellipticity ε=0) to IG and HG (ε=∞) beam. This approach might pave a path to high-speed quantum communication in terms of IG beam. Additionally, the characterized axial plane intensity distribution exhibits a 3D mould potentially being employed for optical micromanipulation.

  13. Quantitative comparison of self-healing ability between Bessel–Gaussian beam and Airy beam

    SciTech Connect

    Wen, Wei; Chu, Xiuxiang

    2015-09-15

    The self-healing ability during propagation process is one of the most important properties of non-diffracting beams. This ability has crucial advantages to light sheet-based microscopy to reduce scattering artefacts, increase the quality of the image and enhance the resolution of microscopy. Based on similarity between two infinite-dimensional complex vectors in Hilbert space, the ability to a Bessel–Gaussian beam and an Airy beam have been studied and compared. Comparing the evolution of the similarity of Bessel–Gaussian beam with Airy beam under the same conditions, we find that Bessel–Gaussian beam has stronger self-healing ability and is more stable than that of Airy beam. To confirm this result, the intensity profiles of Bessel–Gaussian beam and Airy beam with different similarities are numerically calculated and compared.

  14. Generation and propagation of a sine-azimuthal wavefront modulated Gaussian beam

    PubMed Central

    Lao, Guanming; Zhang, Zhaohui; Luo, Meilan; Zhao, Daomu

    2016-01-01

    We introduce a method for modulating the Gaussian beam by means of sine-azimuthal wavefront and carry out the experimental generation. The analytical propagation formula of such a beam passing through a paraxial ABCD optical system is derived, by which the intensity properties of the sine-azimuthal wavefront modulated Gaussian (SWMG) beam are examined both theoretically and experimentally. Both of the experimental and theoretical results show that the SWMG beam goes through the process from beam splitting to a Gaussian-like profile, which is closely determined by the phase factor and the propagation distance. Appropriate phase factor and short distance are helpful for the splitting of beam. However, in the cases of large phase factor and focal plane, the intensity distributions tend to take a Gaussian form. Such unique features may be of importance in particle trapping and medical applications. PMID:27443798

  15. Conditional and unconditional Gaussian quantum dynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Genoni, Marco G.; Lami, Ludovico; Serafini, Alessio

    2016-07-01

    This article focuses on the general theory of open quantum systems in the Gaussian regime and explores a number of diverse ramifications and consequences of the theory. We shall first introduce the Gaussian framework in its full generality, including a classification of Gaussian (also known as 'general-dyne') quantum measurements. In doing so, we will give a compact proof for the parametrisation of the most general Gaussian completely positive map, which we believe to be missing in the existing literature. We will then move on to consider the linear coupling with a white noise bath, and derive the diffusion equations that describe the evolution of Gaussian states under such circumstances. Starting from these equations, we outline a constructive method to derive general master equations that apply outside the Gaussian regime. Next, we include the general-dyne monitoring of the environmental degrees of freedom and recover the Riccati equation for the conditional evolution of Gaussian states. Our derivation relies exclusively on the standard quantum mechanical update of the system state, through the evaluation of Gaussian overlaps. The parametrisation of the conditional dynamics we obtain is novel and, at variance with existing alternatives, directly ties in to physical detection schemes. We conclude our study with two examples of conditional dynamics that can be dealt with conveniently through our formalism, demonstrating how monitoring can suppress the noise in optical parametric processes as well as stabilise systems subject to diffusive scattering.

  16. Experimental Studies with Spatial Gaussian-Cut Laser for the LCLS Photocathode Gun

    SciTech Connect

    Zhou, F.; Brachmann, A.; Emma, P.; Gilevich, S.; Huang, Z.; /SLAC

    2011-12-13

    To simplify the LCLS operation and further enhance the injector performances, we are evaluating the various parameters including the photocathode drive laser system. Extensive simulations show that both the projected and time-sliced emittances with spatial Gaussian profiles having reasonable tail-cut are better than those with uniform one. The simulated results are also supported by theoretical analyses. In the LCLS, the spatial uniform or Gaussian-cut laser profiles are conveniently obtained by adjusting the optics of the telescope upstream of an iris, used to define laser size on the cathode. Preliminary beam studies at the LCLS injector show that both the projected and time-sliced emittances with spatial Gaussian-cut laser are almost as good as, although not better than, those with uniform one. In addition, the laser transmission through the iris with the Gaussian-cut profile is twice with uniform one, which can significantly ease LCLS copper cathode/laser operations and thus improve the LCLS operation efficiency. More beam studies are planned to measure FEL performances with the Gaussian-cut in comparison with the uniform one. All simulations and measurements are presented in the paper.

  17. Loop-Closure and Gaussian Models of Collective Structural Characteristics of Capped PEO Oligomers in Water.

    PubMed

    Chaudhari, M I; Pratt, L R; Paulaitis, M E

    2015-07-23

    Parallel-tempering MD results for a CH3(CH2-O-CH2)mCH3 chain in water are exploited as a database for analysis of collective structural characteristics of the PEO globule with a goal of defining models permitting statistical thermodynamic analysis of dispersants of Corexit type. The chain structure factor, relevant to neutron scattering from a deuterated chain in null water, is considered specifically. The traditional continuum-Gaussian structure factor is inconsistent with the simple k → ∞ behavior, but we consider a discrete-Gaussian model that does achieve that consistency. Shifting and scaling the discrete-Gaussian model helps to identify the low-k to high-k transition near k ≈ 2π/0.6 nm when an empirically matched number of Gaussian links is about one-third of the total number of effective atom sites. This short distance-scale boundary of 0.6 nm is directly verified with the r space distributions, and this distance is thus identified with a natural size for coarsened monomers. The probability distribution of Rg(2) is compared with the classic predictions for both the Gaussian model and freely jointed chains. ⟨Rg(2)(j)⟩, the contribution of the jth chain segment to ⟨Rg(2)⟩, depends on the contour index about as expected for Gaussian chains despite significant quantitative discrepancies that express the swelling of these chains in water. Monomers central to the chain contour occupy the center of the chain globule. The density profiles of chain segments relative to their center of mass can show distinctive density structuring for smaller chains due to the close proximity of central elements to the globule center. However, that density structuring washes out for longer chains where many chain elements additively contribute to the density profiles. Gaussian chain models thus become more satisfactory for the density profiles for longer chains. PMID:25121580

  18. Multiple phosphorus chemical sites in heavily phosphorus-doped diamond

    SciTech Connect

    Okazaki, Hiroyuki; Yoshida, Rikiya; Muro, Takayuki; Nakamura, Tetsuya; Hirai, Masaaki; Kato, Hiromitsu; Yamasaki, Satoshi; Takano, Yoshihiko; Ishii, Satoshi; Oguchi, Tamio

    2011-02-21

    We have performed high-resolution core level photoemission spectroscopy on a heavily phosphorus (P)-doped diamond film in order to elucidate the chemical sites of doped-phosphorus atoms in diamond. P 2p core level study shows two bulk components, providing spectroscopic evidence for multiple chemical sites of doped-phosphorus atoms. This indicates that only a part of doped-phosphorus atoms contribute to the formation of carriers. From a comparison with band calculations, possible origins for the chemical sites are discussed.

  19. Characterization and sonochemical synthesis of black phosphorus from red phosphorus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aldave, Sandra H.; Yogeesh, Maruthi N.; Zhu, Weinan; Kim, Joonseok; Sonde, Sushant S.; Nayak, Avinash P.; Akinwande, Deji

    2016-03-01

    Phosphorene is a new two-dimensional material which is commonly prepared by exfoliation from black phosphorus bulk crystals that historically have been synthesized from white phosphorus under high-pressure conditions. The few layers of phosphorene have a direct band gap in the range of 0.3-2 eV and high mobility at room temperature comparable to epitaxial graphene. These characteristics can be used for the design of high speed digital circuits, radio frequency circuits, flexible and printed systems, and optoelectronic devices. In this work, we synthesized black phosphorus from red phosphorus, which is a safer solid precursor, using sonochemistry. Furthermore, via a variety of microscopy and spectroscopy techniques, we report characterization results of the sonochemically synthesized black phosphorus in addition to the commercial black phosphorus. Finally, we describe the air stability of black phosphors and the crystalline structure of the synthesized material. This is the first result of sonochemical or solution-based synthesis of black phosphorus based on readily available low-cost red phosphorus. This solution-based synthesis of black phosphorus is suitable for printable applications of nanomaterial.

  20. Gaussian-based filters for detecting Martian dust devils

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Yang, F.; Mlsna, P.A.; Geissler, P.

    2006-01-01

    The ability to automatically detect dust devils in the Martian atmosphere from orbital imagery is becoming important both for scientific studies of the planet and for the planning of future robotic and manned missions. This paper describes our approach for the unsupervised detection of dust devils and the preliminary results achieved to date. The algorithm centers upon the use of a filter constructed from Gaussian profiles to match dust devil characteristics over a range of scale and orientation. The classification step is designed to reduce false positive errors caused by static surface features such as craters. A brief discussion of planned future work is included. ?? 2006 IEEE.

  1. Measurement-induced disturbances and nonclassical correlations of Gaussian states

    SciTech Connect

    Mista, Ladislav Jr.; Tatham, Richard; Korolkova, Natalia; Girolami, Davide; Adesso, Gerardo

    2011-04-15

    We study quantum correlations beyond entanglement in two-mode Gaussian states of continuous-variable systems by means of the measurement-induced disturbance (MID) and its ameliorated version (AMID). In analogy with the recent studies of the Gaussian quantum discord, we define a Gaussian AMID by constraining the optimization to all bi-local Gaussian positive operator valued measurements. We solve the optimization explicitly for relevant families of states, including squeezed thermal states. Remarkably, we find that there is a finite subset of two-mode Gaussian states comprising pure states where non-Gaussian measurements such as photon counting are globally optimal for the AMID and realize a strictly smaller state disturbance compared to the best Gaussian measurements. However, for the majority of two-mode Gaussian states the unoptimized MID provides a loose overestimation of the actual content of quantum correlations, as evidenced by its comparison with Gaussian discord. This feature displays strong similarity with the case of two qubits. Upper and lower bounds for the Gaussian AMID at fixed Gaussian discord are identified. We further present a comparison between Gaussian AMID and Gaussian entanglement of formation, and classify families of two-mode states in terms of their Gaussian AMID, Gaussian discord, and Gaussian entanglement of formation. Our findings provide a further confirmation of the genuinely quantum nature of general Gaussian states, yet they reveal that non-Gaussian measurements can play a crucial role for the optimized extraction and potential exploitation of classical and nonclassical correlations in Gaussian states.

  2. Phosphorus-limited growth of a green alga and a blue-green alga

    SciTech Connect

    Lang, D.S.; Brown, E.J.

    1981-12-01

    The phosphorus-limited growth kinetics of the chlorophyte Scenedesmus quadricauda and the cyanophyte Synechococcus Nageli were studied by using batch and continuous culturing techniques. The steady-state phosphate transport capability and the phosphorus storage capacity is higher in S. Nageli than in S. quadricauda. Synechococcus Nageli can also deplete phosphate to much lower levels than can S. quadricauda. These results, along with their morphological characteristics, were used to construct partial physiological profiles for each organism. The profiles indicate that this unicellular cyanophyte (cyanobacterium) is better suited for growth in phosphorus-limited oligotrophic niches than is this chlorophyte (green alga). (Refs. 44).

  3. Gaussian translation operator in a multilevel scheme

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hansen, Thorkild B.; Borries, Oscar

    2015-08-01

    A multilevel computation scheme for time-harmonic fields in three dimensions will be formulated with a new Gaussian translation operator that decays exponentially outside a circular cone centered on the line connecting the source and observation groups. This Gaussian translation operator is directional and diagonal with its sharpness determined by a beam parameter. When the beam parameter is set to zero, the Gaussian translation operator reduces to the standard fast multipole method translation operator. The directionality of the Gaussian translation operator makes it possible to reduce the number of plane waves required to achieve a given accuracy. The sampling rate can be determined straightforwardly to achieve any desired accuracy. The use of the computation scheme will be illustrated through a near-field scanning problem where the far-field pattern of a source is determined from near-field measurements with a known probe. Here the Gaussian translation operator improves the condition number of the matrix equation that determines the far-field pattern. The Gaussian translation operator can also be used when the probe pattern is known only in one hemisphere, as is common in practice. Also, the Gaussian translation operator will be used to solve the scattering problem of the perfectly conducting sphere.

  4. Asymmetric Laguerre-Gaussian beams

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kovalev, A. A.; Kotlyar, V. V.; Porfirev, A. P.

    2016-06-01

    We introduce a family of asymmetric Laguerre-Gaussian (aLG) laser beams. The beams have been derived via a complex-valued shift of conventional LG beams in the Cartesian plane. While propagating in a uniform medium, the first bright ring of the aLG beam becomes less asymmetric and the energy is redistributed toward peripheral diffraction rings. The projection of the orbital angular momentum (OAM) onto the optical axis is calculated. The OAM is shown to grow quadratically with increasing asymmetry parameter of the aLG beam, which equals the ratio of the shift to the waist radius. Conditions for the OAM becoming equal to the topological charge have been derived. For aLG beams with zero radial index, we have deduced an expression to define the intensity maximum coordinates and shown the crescent-shaped intensity pattern to rotate during propagation. Results of the experimental generation and rotation of aLG beams agree well with theoretical predictions.

  5. Cloning of Gaussian states by linear optics

    SciTech Connect

    Olivares, Stefano; Paris, Matteo G. A.; Andersen, Ulrik L.

    2006-06-15

    We analyze in details a scheme for cloning of Gaussian states based on linear optical components and homodyne detection recently demonstrated by Andersen et al. [Phys. Rev. Lett. 94, 240503 (2005)]. The input-output fidelity is evaluated for a generic (pure or mixed) Gaussian state taking into account the effect of nonunit quantum efficiency and unbalanced mode mixing. In addition, since in most quantum information protocols the covariance matrix of the set of input states is not perfectly known, we evaluate the average cloning fidelity for classes of Gaussian states with the degree of squeezing and the number of thermal photons being only partially known.

  6. Quark and Lepton Masses from Gaussian Landscapes

    SciTech Connect

    Hall, Lawrence J.; Salem, Michael P.; Watari, Taizan

    2008-04-11

    The flavor structure of the standard model (SM) might arise from random selection on a landscape. We propose a class of simple models, 'Gaussian landscapes', where Yukawa couplings derive from overlap integrals of Gaussian wave functions on extra-dimensions. Statistics of vacua are generated by scanning the peak positions of these zero-modes, giving probability distributions for all flavor observables. Gaussian landscapes can account for all observed flavor patterns with few free parameters. Although they give broad probability distributions, the predictions are correlated and accounting for measured parameters sharpens the distributions of future neutrino measurements.

  7. Quantum bit commitment under Gaussian constraints

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mandilara, Aikaterini; Cerf, Nicolas J.

    2012-06-01

    Quantum bit commitment has long been known to be impossible. Nevertheless, just as in the classical case, imposing certain constraints on the power of the parties may enable the construction of asymptotically secure protocols. Here, we introduce a quantum bit commitment protocol and prove that it is asymptotically secure if cheating is restricted to Gaussian operations. This protocol exploits continuous-variable quantum optical carriers, for which such a Gaussian constraint is experimentally relevant as the high optical nonlinearity needed to effect deterministic non-Gaussian cheating is inaccessible.

  8. Gaussian measures of entanglement versus negativities: Ordering of two-mode Gaussian states

    SciTech Connect

    Adesso, Gerardo; Illuminati, Fabrizio

    2005-09-15

    We study the entanglement of general (pure or mixed) two-mode Gaussian states of continuous-variable systems by comparing the two available classes of computable measures of entanglement: entropy-inspired Gaussian convex-roof measures and positive partial transposition-inspired measures (negativity and logarithmic negativity). We first review the formalism of Gaussian measures of entanglement, adopting the framework introduced in M. M. Wolf et al., Phys. Rev. A 69, 052320 (2004), where the Gaussian entanglement of formation was defined. We compute explicitly Gaussian measures of entanglement for two important families of nonsymmetric two-mode Gaussian state: namely, the states of extremal (maximal and minimal) negativities at fixed global and local purities, introduced in G. Adesso et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 92, 087901 (2004). This analysis allows us to compare the different orderings induced on the set of entangled two-mode Gaussian states by the negativities and by the Gaussian measures of entanglement. We find that in a certain range of values of the global and local purities (characterizing the covariance matrix of the corresponding extremal states), states of minimum negativity can have more Gaussian entanglement of formation than states of maximum negativity. Consequently, Gaussian measures and negativities are definitely inequivalent measures of entanglement on nonsymmetric two-mode Gaussian states, even when restricted to a class of extremal states. On the other hand, the two families of entanglement measures are completely equivalent on symmetric states, for which the Gaussian entanglement of formation coincides with the true entanglement of formation. Finally, we show that the inequivalence between the two families of continuous-variable entanglement measures is somehow limited. Namely, we rigorously prove that, at fixed negativities, the Gaussian measures of entanglement are bounded from below. Moreover, we provide some strong evidence suggesting that they

  9. Exact analytical solution for the vector electromagnetic field of Gaussian, flattened Gaussian, and annular Gaussian laser modes.

    PubMed

    Sepke, Scott M; Umstadter, Donald P

    2006-05-15

    The exact vector integral solution for all the electromagnetic field components of a general flattened Gaussian laser mode is derived by using the angular spectrum method. This solution includes the pure and annular Gaussian modes as special cases. The integrals are of the form of Gegenbauer's finite integral and are computed analytically for each case, yielding fields satisfying the Maxwell equations exactly in the form of quickly converging Fourier-Gegenbauer series. PMID:16642134

  10. Contribution of longitudinal electric field of a gaussian beam to second harmonic generation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mishra, S. R.; Rustagi, K. C.

    1990-01-01

    A laser beam with a nonuniform transverse intensity profile necessarily has a longitudinal component of the electric field. We show that a detectable second harmonic can be generated due to coupling of this longitudinal component with the transverse field of a gaussian beam in a configuration in which second harmonic generation is forbidden for plane wave interaction.

  11. Optimal cloning of mixed Gaussian states

    SciTech Connect

    Guta, Madalin; Matsumoto, Keiji

    2006-09-15

    We construct the optimal one to two cloning transformation for the family of displaced thermal equilibrium states of a harmonic oscillator, with a fixed and known temperature. The transformation is Gaussian and it is optimal with respect to the figure of merit based on the joint output state and norm distance. The proof of the result is based on the equivalence between the optimal cloning problem and that of optimal amplification of Gaussian states which is then reduced to an optimization problem for diagonal states of a quantum oscillator. A key concept in finding the optimum is that of stochastic ordering which plays a similar role in the purely classical problem of Gaussian cloning. The result is then extended to the case of n to m cloning of mixed Gaussian states.

  12. Why Should We Pivot in Gaussian Elimination?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rozema, Edward

    1988-01-01

    The article discusses the use of computers to teacher college level mathematics. In particular, the Gaussian elimination procedure for solving a system of n linear equations in n unknowns, using a computer, is examined. (PK)

  13. Improved Gaussian Beam-Scattering Algorithm

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lock, James A.

    1995-01-01

    The localized model of the beam-shape coefficients for Gaussian beam-scattering theory by a spherical particle provides a great simplification in the numerical implementation of the theory. We derive an alternative form for the localized coefficients that is more convenient for computer computations and that provides physical insight into the details of the scattering process. We construct a FORTRAN program for Gaussian beam scattering with the localized model and compare its computer run time on a personal computer with that of a traditional Mie scattering program and with three other published methods for computing Gaussian beam scattering. We show that the analytical form of the beam-shape coefficients makes evident the fact that the excitation rate of morphology-dependent resonances is greatly enhanced for far off-axis incidence of the Gaussian beam.

  14. Non-Gaussianities in New Ekpyrotic Cosmology.

    PubMed

    Buchbinder, Evgeny I; Khoury, Justin; Ovrut, Burt A

    2008-05-01

    The new ekpyrotic model is an alternative scenario of the early Universe which relies on a phase of slow contraction before the big bang. We calculate the 3-point and 4-point correlation functions of primordial density perturbations and find a generically large non-Gaussian signal, just below the current sensitivity level of cosmic microwave background experiments. This is in contrast with slow-roll inflation, which predicts negligible non-Gaussianity. The model is also distinguishable from alternative inflationary scenarios that can yield large non-Gaussianity, such as Dirac-Born-Infeld inflation and the simplest curvatonlike models, through the shape dependence of the correlation functions. Non-Gaussianity therefore provides a distinguishing and testable prediction of New Ekpyrotic Cosmology.

  15. Metagenomic analysis of the sludge microbial community in a lab-scale denitrifying phosphorus removal reactor.

    PubMed

    Lv, Xiao-Mei; Shao, Ming-Fei; Li, Ji; Li, Chao-Lin

    2015-04-01

    Denitrifying phosphorus removal is an attractive wastewater treatment process due to its reduced carbon source demand and sludge minimization potential. In the present study, the metagenome of denitrifying phosphorus removal sludge from a lab-scale anaerobic-anoxic SBR was generated by Illumina sequencing to study the microbial community. Compared with the aerobic phosphorus removal sludge, the denitrifying phosphorus removal sludge demonstrated quite similar microbial community profile and microbial diversity with sludge from Aalborg East EBPR WWTP. Proteobacteria was the most dominant phylum; within Proteobacteria, β-Proteobacteria was the most dominant class, followed by α-, γ-, δ-, and ε-Proteobacteria. The genes involved in phosphate metabolism and biofilm formation reflected the selective pressure of the phosphorus removal process. Moreover, ppk sequence from DPAO was outside the Accumulibacter clusters, which suggested different core phosphorus removal bacteria in denitrifying and aerobic phosphorus removal systems. In a summary, putative DPAO might be a novel genus that is closely related between Accumulibacter and Dechloromonas within Rhodocyclus. The microbial community and metabolic profiles achieved in this study will eventually help to improve the understanding of key microorganisms and the entire community in order to improve the phosphorus removal efficiency of EBPR processes.

  16. Gaussian-Beam Laser-Resonator Program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cross, Patricia L.; Bair, Clayton H.; Barnes, Norman

    1989-01-01

    Gaussian Beam Laser Resonator Program models laser resonators by use of Gaussian-beam-propagation techniques. Used to determine radii of beams as functions of position in laser resonators. Algorithm used in program has three major components. First, ray-transfer matrix for laser resonator must be calculated. Next, initial parameters of beam calculated. Finally, propagation of beam through optical elements computed. Written in Microsoft FORTRAN (Version 4.01).

  17. High-energy flat-top beams for laser launching using a Gaussian mirror.

    PubMed

    Fujiwara, Hiroki; Brown, Kathryn E; Dlott, Dana D

    2010-07-01

    Converting a Gaussian to a flat-top beam is useful for many applications including laser-launched thin-foil flyer plates. A flat-top beam is needed to maintain a constant launch velocity across the flyer; otherwise, the flyer can disintegrate in flight. Here we discuss and demonstrate the use of a variable reflectivity mirror (VRM) with a Gaussian reflectivity profile with an additional hard aperture and compare it to a refractive beam shaper. An ideal VRM would generate a flat-top beam with 37% efficiency. Readily available high-power Gaussian or super-Gaussian mirrors create an approximate flat-top profile, but there is a trade-off between flatness and efficiency. We show that a super-Gaussian mirror can, in principle, convert an input Gaussian beam with 30% efficiency to a flat-top beam with 3% (maximum-to-minimum) variation. With a Gaussian mirror and a high-energy pulsed Nd:YAG laser having relatively poor beam quality, we generate flat-top beams with 25% conversion efficiency having 6% variation (standard deviation sigma=4.2%). The beams are used to launch 400 microm diameter, 25 microm thick Al flyer plates, whose flight was monitored by a high-speed displacement interferometer. The plates flew across a 300 microm gap at 1.3 km/s. The distribution of arrival times at the witness plate was 5 ns, as determined by the rise time of the impact emission. Compared to a total flight time of 260 ns, the velocity spread of different parts of the flyer plate was 2%.

  18. Conditional phosphorus index as an educational tool for risk assessment and phosphorus management.

    PubMed

    Djodjic, Faruk; Bergström, Lars

    2005-06-01

    Phosphorus index (PI) is a risk-assessment tool that combines phosphorus (P) source factors and transport factors to rank the vulnerability of fields to P losses. Here we present the structure and concepts of conditional PI, developed as an educational and P-management tool adjusted for Swedish conditions. Because the significance of certain factors for P losses depends on their interplay with other factors, conditional rules are needed for a more accurate process description and quantification. Accounting for P losses through the soil profile, separate calculations for reactive and unreactive P and a changed approach to P loss assessment from erosion losses are some of the new features included in the tool presented here. The performance of the tool was tested by comparing the calculated PI values with measured annual P transport from seven observation fields included in a Swedish water quality monitoring program. This first test indicated that the tool could be used successfully for P loss risk assessment.

  19. Preparation of high purity phosphorus

    DOEpatents

    Rupp, Arthur F.; Woo, David V.

    1981-01-01

    High purity phosphorus and phosphorus compounds are prepared by first reacting H.sub.3 PO.sub.4 with a lead compound such as PbO to form Pb.sub.3 (PO.sub.4).sub.2. The Pb.sub.3 (PO.sub.4).sub.2 is reduced with H.sub.2 at a temperature sufficient to form gaseous phosphorus which can be recovered as a high purity phosphorus product. Phosphorus compounds can be easily prepared by reacting the phosphorus product with gaseous reactants. For example, the phosphorus product is reacted with gaseous Cl.sub.2 to form PCl.sub.5. PCl.sub.5 is reduced to PCl.sub.3 by contacting it in the gaseous phase with solid elemental phosphorus. POCl.sub.3 can be prepared by contacting PCl.sub.5 in the gaseous phase with solid P.sub.2 O.sub.5. The general process is particularly suitable for the preparation of radiophosphorus compounds.

  20. Synthesis of pure phosphorus nanostructures.

    PubMed

    Winchester, Richard A L; Whitby, Max; Shaffer, Milo S P

    2009-01-01

    To Bi or not to Bi? The synthesis of phosphorus nanorods of two differing morphologies is reported, in both the presence and absence of a bismuth catalyst. Not only do these materials represent a new class of elemental nanorods but they also give valuable insight into the complex allotropy of phosphorus. PMID:19180611

  1. Bit error rate analysis of Gaussian, annular Gaussian, cos Gaussian, and cosh Gaussian beams with the help of random phase screens.

    PubMed

    Eyyuboğlu, Halil T

    2014-06-10

    Using the random phase screen approach, we carry out a simulation analysis of the probability of error performance of Gaussian, annular Gaussian, cos Gaussian, and cosh Gaussian beams. In our scenario, these beams are intensity-modulated by the randomly generated binary symbols of an electrical message signal and then launched from the transmitter plane in equal powers. They propagate through a turbulent atmosphere modeled by a series of random phase screens. Upon arriving at the receiver plane, detection is performed in a circuitry consisting of a pin photodiode and a matched filter. The symbols detected are compared with the transmitted ones, errors are counted, and from there the probability of error is evaluated numerically. Within the range of source and propagation parameters tested, the lowest probability of error is obtained for the annular Gaussian beam. Our investigation reveals that there is hardly any difference between the aperture-averaged scintillations of the beams used, and the distinctive advantage of the annular Gaussian beam lies in the fact that the receiver aperture captures the maximum amount of power when this particular beam is launched from the transmitter plane.

  2. Comparison of Lesion Detection and Quantification in MAP Reconstruction with Gaussian and Non-Gaussian Priors

    PubMed Central

    2006-01-01

    Statistical image reconstruction methods based on maximum a posteriori (MAP) principle have been developed for emission tomography. The prior distribution of the unknown image plays an important role in MAP reconstruction. The most commonly used prior are Gaussian priors, whose logarithm has a quadratic form. Gaussian priors are relatively easy to analyze. It has been shown that the effect of a Gaussian prior can be approximated by linear filtering a maximum likelihood (ML) reconstruction. As a result, sharp edges in reconstructed images are not preserved. To preserve sharp transitions, non-Gaussian priors have been proposed. However, their effect on clinical tasks is less obvious. In this paper, we compare MAP reconstruction with Gaussian and non-Gaussian priors for lesion detection and region of interest quantification using computer simulation. We evaluate three representative priors: Gaussian prior, Huber prior, and Geman-McClure prior. We simulate imaging a prostate tumor using positron emission tomography (PET). The detectability of a known tumor in either a fixed background or a random background is measured using a channelized Hotelling observer. The bias-variance tradeoff curves are calculated for quantification of the total tumor activity. The results show that for the detection and quantification tasks, the Gaussian prior is as effective as non-Gaussian priors. PMID:23165056

  3. Extraction of soil organic phosphorus.

    PubMed

    Turner, Benjamin L; Cade-Menun, Barbara J; Condron, Leo M; Newman, Susan

    2005-04-15

    Organic phosphorus is an important component of soil biogeochemical cycles, but must be extracted from soil prior to analysis. Here we critically review the extraction of soil organic phosphorus, including procedures for quantification, speciation, and assessment of biological availability. Quantitative extraction conventionally requires strong acids and bases, which inevitably alter chemical structure. However, a single-step procedure involving sodium hydroxide and EDTA (ethylenediaminetetraacetate) is suitable for most soils and facilitates subsequent speciation by nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy. Analysis of extracts by molybdate colorimetry is a potential source of error in all procedures, because organic phosphorus is overestimated in the presence of inorganic polyphosphates or complexes between inorganic phosphate and humic substances. Sequential extraction schemes fractionate organic phosphorus based on chemical solubility, but the link to potential bioavailability is misleading. Research should be directed urgently towards establishing extractable pools of soil organic phosphorus with ecological relevance.

  4. Phosphorus diffusion in germanium following implantation and excimer laser annealing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Chen; Li, Cheng; Huang, Shihao; Lu, Weifang; Yan, Guangming; Zhang, Maotian; Wu, Huanda; Lin, Guangyang; Wei, Jiangbin; Huang, Wei; Lai, Hongkai; Chen, Songyan

    2014-05-01

    We focus our study on phosphorus diffusion in ion-implanted germanium after excimer laser annealing (ELA). An analytical model of laser annealing process is developed to predict the temperature profile and the melted depth in Ge. Based on the heat calculation of ELA, a phosphorus diffusion model has been proposed to predict the dopant profiles in Ge after ELA and fit SIMS profiles perfectly. A comparison between the current-voltage characteristics of Ge n+/p junctions formed by ELA at 250 mJ/cm2 and rapid thermal annealing at 650 °C for 15 s has been made, suggesting that ELA is promising for high performance Ge n+/p junctions.

  5. Gaussian vs non-Gaussian turbulence: impact on wind turbine loads

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berg, J.; Mann, J.; Natarajan, A.; Patton, E. G.

    2014-12-01

    In wind energy applications the turbulent velocity field of the Atmospheric Boundary Layer (ABL) is often characterised by Gaussian probability density functions. When estimating the dynamical loads on wind turbines this has been the rule more than anything else. From numerous studies in the laboratory, in Direct Numerical Simulations, and from in-situ measurements of the ABL we know, however, that turbulence is not purely Gaussian: the smallest and fastest scales often exhibit extreme behaviour characterised by strong non-Gaussian statistics. In this contribution we want to investigate whether these non-Gaussian effects are important when determining wind turbine loads, and hence of utmost importance to the design criteria and lifetime of a wind turbine. We devise a method based on Principal Orthogonal Decomposition where non-Gaussian velocity fields generated by high-resolution pseudo-spectral Large-Eddy Simulation (LES) of the ABL are transformed so that they maintain the exact same second-order statistics including variations of the statistics with height, but are otherwise Gaussian. In that way we can investigate in isolation the question whether it is important for wind turbine loads to include non-Gaussian properties of atmospheric turbulence. As an illustration the Figure show both a non-Gaussian velocity field (left) from our LES, and its transformed Gaussian Counterpart (right). Whereas the horizontal velocity components (top) look close to identical, the vertical components (bottom) are not: the non-Gaussian case is much more fluid-like (like in a sketch by Michelangelo). The question is then: Does the wind turbine see this? Using the load simulation software HAWC2 with both the non-Gaussian and newly constructed Gaussian fields, respectively, we show that the Fatigue loads and most of the Extreme loads are unaltered when using non-Gaussian velocity fields. The turbine thus acts like a low-pass filter which average out the non-Gaussian behaviour on time

  6. Low threshold characteristic of pulsed confocal unstable optical parametric oscillators with Gaussian reflectivity mirrors.

    PubMed

    Zou, Shanshan; Gong, Mali; Liu, Qiang; Chen, Gang

    2005-02-01

    An iterative threshold model for a pulsed singly resonant Gaussian-reflectivity-mirror (GRM) confocal unstable optical parametric oscillator (OPO) has been proposed. It is found that OPO threshold is determined by important parameters such as GRM central reflectance, Gaussian reflectivity profile, cavity magnification factor, cavity physical length, crystal length, pump pulsewidth. It is demonstrated that this model can be extended to plane-parallel resonator or uniform-reflectivity-mirror (URM) unstable resonator when some specific values are taken. Experimental results show excellent agreement with values calculated from theoretical model. Both theoretical calculations and experimental data illustrate that GRM is a useful solution to reduce threshold of unstable OPO. PMID:19494938

  7. Accuracy improvement in peak positioning of spectrally distorted fiber Bragg grating sensors by Gaussian curve fitting

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, Hyun-Wook; Park, Hyoung-Jun; Lee, June-Ho; Song, Minho

    2007-04-20

    To improve measurement accuracy of spectrally distorted fiber Bragg grating temperature sensors, reflection profiles were curve fitted to Gaussian shapes, of which center positions were transformed into temperature information.By applying the Gaussian curve-fitting algorithm in a tunable bandpass filter demodulation scheme,{approx}0.3 deg. C temperature resolution was obtained with a severely distorted grating sensor, which was much better than that obtained using the highest peak search algorithm. A binary search was also used to retrieve the optimal fitting curves with the least amount of processing time.

  8. From particle counting to Gaussian tomography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Parthasarathy, K. R.; Sengupta, Ritabrata

    2015-12-01

    The momentum and position observables in an n-mode boson Fock space Γ(ℂn) have the whole real line ℝ as their spectrum. But the total number operator N has a discrete spectrum ℤ+ = {0, 1, 2,…}. An n-mode Gaussian state in Γ(ℂn) is completely determined by the mean values of momentum and position observables and their covariance matrix which together constitute a family of n(2n + 3) real parameters. Starting with N and its unitary conjugates by the Weyl displacement operators and operators from a representation of the symplectic group Sp(2n) in Γ(ℂn), we construct n(2n + 3) observables with spectrum ℤ+ but whose expectation values in a Gaussian state determine all its mean and covariance parameters. Thus measurements of discrete-valued observables enable the tomography of the underlying Gaussian state and it can be done by using five one-mode and four two-mode Gaussian symplectic gates in single and pair mode wires of Γ(ℂn) = Γ(ℂ)⊗n. Thus the tomography protocol admits a simple description in a language similar to circuits in quantum computation theory. Such a Gaussian tomography applied to outputs of a Gaussian channel with coherent input states permit a tomography of the channel parameters. However, in our procedure the number of counting measurements exceeds the number of channel parameters slightly. Presently, it is not clear whether a more efficient method exists for reducing this tomographic complexity. As a byproduct of our approach an elementary derivation of the probability generating function of N in a Gaussian state is given. In many cases the distribution turns out to be infinitely divisible and its underlying Lévy measure can be obtained. However, we are unable to derive the exact distribution in all cases. Whether this property of infinite divisibility holds in general is left as an open problem.

  9. Phosphorus out-diffusion in laser molten silicon

    SciTech Connect

    Köhler, J. R.; Eisele, S. J.

    2015-04-14

    Laser doping via liquid phase diffusion enables the formation of defect free pn junctions and a tailoring of diffusion profiles by varying the laser pulse energy density and the overlap of laser pulses. We irradiate phosphorus diffused 100 oriented p-type float zone silicon wafers with a 5 μm wide line focused 6.5 ns pulsed frequency doubled Nd:YVO{sub 4} laser beam, using a pulse to pulse overlap of 40%. By varying the number of laser scans N{sub s} = 1, 2, 5, 10, 20, 40 at constant pulse energy density H = 1.3 J/cm{sup 2} and H = 0.79 J/cm{sup 2} we examine the out-diffusion of phosphorus atoms performing secondary ion mass spectroscopy concentration measurements. Phosphorus doping profiles are calculated by using a numerical simulation tool. The tool models laser induced melting and re-solidification of silicon as well as the out-diffusion of phosphorus atoms in liquid silicon during laser irradiation. We investigate the observed out-diffusion process by comparing simulations with experimental concentration measurements. The result is a pulse energy density independent phosphorus out-diffusion velocity v{sub out} = 9 ± 1 cm/s in liquid silicon, a partition coefficient of phosphorus 1 < k{sub p} < 1.1 and a diffusion coefficient D = 1.4(±0.2)cm{sup 2}/s × 10{sup −3 }× exp[−183 meV/(k{sub B}T)].

  10. Error probabilities in optical PPM receivers with Gaussian mixture densities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gagliardi, R. M.

    1982-01-01

    A Gaussian mixture density arises when a discrete variable (e.g., a photodetector count variable) is added to a continuous Gaussian variable (e.g., thermal noise). Making use of some properties of photomultiplier Gaussian mixture distributions, some approximate error probability formulas can be derived. These appear as averages of M-ary orthogonal Gaussian error probabilities. The use of a pure Gaussian assumption is considered, and when properly defined, appears as an accurate upper bound to performance.

  11. Mechanisms of particle clustering in Gaussian and non-Gaussian synthetic turbulence.

    PubMed

    Nilsen, Christopher; Andersson, Helge I

    2014-10-01

    We use synthetic turbulence simulations to study how inertial particles cluster in a turbulent flow, for a wide range of Stokes numbers. Two different types of synthetic turbulence are used: one Gaussian, where the time evolution of the velocity field is a simple phase shift, and one non-Gaussian, where convection is used to evolve the velocity field in time. In both flow types we observe significant particle clustering over a wide range of scales and Stokes numbers. The clustering found at low Stokes numbers can be attributed to the vortex centrifuge effect, where heavy particles are expelled from regions dominated by vorticity. This mechanism is much more effective in the non-Gaussian turbulence, because local flow structures are convected with the particles. The preferential sampling of regions with low vorticity is almost negligible in the Gaussian turbulence. At higher Stokes numbers, caustics are formed in a very similar manner in both Gaussian and non-Gaussian synthetic turbulence. In non-Gaussian turbulence, heavy particles cluster in regions of low fluid kinetic energy, while the opposite is true in Gaussian turbulence. Our results show that synthetic simulations cannot correctly predict how the particle clustering correlates with local fluid flow properties, without including convection.

  12. Prebiotic phosphorus chemistry reconsidered

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schwartz, A. W.; Orgel, L. E. (Principal Investigator)

    1997-01-01

    The available evidence indicates that the origin of life on Earth certainly occurred earlier than 3.5 billion years ago and perhaps substantially earlier. The time available for the chemical evolution which must have preceded this event is more difficult to estimate. Both endogenic and exogenic contributions to chemical evolution have been considered; i.e., from chemical reactions in a primitive atmosphere, or by introduction in the interiors of comets and/or meteorites. It is argued, however, that the phosphorus chemistry of Earth's earliest hydrosphere, whether primarily exogenic or endogenic in origin, was most likely dominated by compounds less oxidized than phosphoric acid and its esters. A scenario is presented for the early production of a suite of reactive phosphonic acid derivatives, the properties of which may have foreshadowed the later appearance of biophosphates.

  13. Iterative Gaussianization: from ICA to random rotations.

    PubMed

    Laparra, Valero; Camps-Valls, Gustavo; Malo, Jesús

    2011-04-01

    Most signal processing problems involve the challenging task of multidimensional probability density function (PDF) estimation. In this paper, we propose a solution to this problem by using a family of rotation-based iterative Gaussianization (RBIG) transforms. The general framework consists of the sequential application of a univariate marginal Gaussianization transform followed by an orthonormal transform. The proposed procedure looks for differentiable transforms to a known PDF so that the unknown PDF can be estimated at any point of the original domain. In particular, we aim at a zero-mean unit-covariance Gaussian for convenience. RBIG is formally similar to classical iterative projection pursuit algorithms. However, we show that, unlike in PP methods, the particular class of rotations used has no special qualitative relevance in this context, since looking for interestingness is not a critical issue for PDF estimation. The key difference is that our approach focuses on the univariate part (marginal Gaussianization) of the problem rather than on the multivariate part (rotation). This difference implies that one may select the most convenient rotation suited to each practical application. The differentiability, invertibility, and convergence of RBIG are theoretically and experimentally analyzed. Relation to other methods, such as radial Gaussianization, one-class support vector domain description, and deep neural networks is also pointed out. The practical performance of RBIG is successfully illustrated in a number of multidimensional problems such as image synthesis, classification, denoising, and multi-information estimation. PMID:21349790

  14. Optimal estimation of non-Gaussianity

    SciTech Connect

    Babich, Daniel

    2005-08-15

    We systematically analyze the primordial non-Gaussianity estimator used by the Wilkinson Microwave Anisotropy Probe (WMAP) science team with the basic ideas of estimation theory in order to see if the limited cosmic microwave background (CMB) data is being optimally utilized. The WMAP estimator is based on the implicit assumption that the CMB bispectrum, the harmonic transform of the three-point correlation function, contains all of the primordial non-Gaussianity information in a CMB map. We first demonstrate that the signal-to-noise (S/N) of an estimator based on CMB three-point correlation functions is significantly larger than the S/N of any estimator based on higher-order correlation functions; justifying our choice to focus on the three-point correlation function. We then conclude that the estimator based on the three-point correlation function, which was used by WMAP, is optimal, meaning it saturates the Cramer-Rao inequality when the underlying CMB map is nearly Gaussian. We quantify this restriction by demonstrating that the suboptimal character of our estimator is proportional to the square of the fiducial non-Gaussianity, which is already constrained to be extremely small, so we can consider the WMAP estimator to be optimal in practice. Our conclusions do not depend on the form of the primordial bispectrum, only on the observationally established weak levels of primordial non-Gaussianity.

  15. Graphical calculus for Gaussian pure states

    SciTech Connect

    Menicucci, Nicolas C.; Flammia, Steven T.; Loock, Peter van

    2011-04-15

    We provide a unified graphical calculus for all Gaussian pure states, including graph transformation rules for all local and semilocal Gaussian unitary operations, as well as local quadrature measurements. We then use this graphical calculus to analyze continuous-variable (CV) cluster states, the essential resource for one-way quantum computing with CV systems. Current graphical approaches to CV cluster states are only valid in the unphysical limit of infinite squeezing, and the associated graph transformation rules only apply when the initial and final states are of this form. Our formalism applies to all Gaussian pure states and subsumes these rules in a natural way. In addition, the term 'CV graph state' currently has several inequivalent definitions in use. Using this formalism we provide a single unifying definition that encompasses all of them. We provide many examples of how the formalism may be used in the context of CV cluster states: defining the 'closest' CV cluster state to a given Gaussian pure state and quantifying the error in the approximation due to finite squeezing; analyzing the optimality of certain methods of generating CV cluster states; drawing connections between this graphical formalism and bosonic Hamiltonians with Gaussian ground states, including those useful for CV one-way quantum computing; and deriving a graphical measure of bipartite entanglement for certain classes of CV cluster states. We mention other possible applications of this formalism and conclude with a brief note on fault tolerance in CV one-way quantum computing.

  16. [Bone and Nutrition. Bone and phosphorus intake].

    PubMed

    Arai, Hidekazu; Sakuma, Masae

    2015-07-01

    Phosphorus is necessary for bone mineralization. Although adequate phosphorus intake is essential for skeletal mineralization, it is reported that excessive phosphorus intake can induce deleterious effect on bone. Recently, since the Japanese diet has been westernized, phosphorus intake by the meat and dairy products has increased. Furthermore, along with the development of processed foods, excessive intake of inorganic phosphorus from food additives has become a problem. An adverse effect on parathyroid hormone (PTH) secretion from high phosphorus intake was seen only when calcium intake was inadequate. Dietary calcium to phosphorus ratio can be considered as one of the indicators that can predict the health of the bone.

  17. [Bone and Nutrition. Bone and phosphorus intake].

    PubMed

    Arai, Hidekazu; Sakuma, Masae

    2015-07-01

    Phosphorus is necessary for bone mineralization. Although adequate phosphorus intake is essential for skeletal mineralization, it is reported that excessive phosphorus intake can induce deleterious effect on bone. Recently, since the Japanese diet has been westernized, phosphorus intake by the meat and dairy products has increased. Furthermore, along with the development of processed foods, excessive intake of inorganic phosphorus from food additives has become a problem. An adverse effect on parathyroid hormone (PTH) secretion from high phosphorus intake was seen only when calcium intake was inadequate. Dietary calcium to phosphorus ratio can be considered as one of the indicators that can predict the health of the bone. PMID:26119308

  18. Phosphorus Dynamic in Wetlands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pant, H. K.

    2010-12-01

    The projected greater warming at higher/northern latitudes in the coming decades due to global climatic changes can mineralize substantial amount of the organic matter and supply massive amount of phosphorus (P) to the water column, and cause the collapse of freshwater wetlands. Thus, the rates and duration of organic matter accumulations/decompositions under rising global temperatures are critical determinants of how a freshwater wetland functions as an ecological unit within a landscape. Phosphorus is a limiting nutrient and a primary controller of eutrophication. Once the external P loads are curtailed, internal P regeneration, resulting from decompositions of detritus and soil/sediment organic matter determine the productivity, as well as the water quality of a wetland. Thus, global rise in temperature not only causes hydro-climatic fluctuations but can also change the composition of aquatic/semi-aquatic communities, in turn, could lead to adverse effect on human food chain to collapse of the ecosystem. While P enrichment may lead to immediate algal blooms in wetlands/aquatic systems, decreased in P input from external sources may not be able to stop the blooms for a considerable period of time depending on the P loading from within. The extent of P mineralization under changing conditions, enzymatic hydrolysis, and estimation of different P pools using 31P NMR in sediments and the water columns showed that the stability and bioavailability of P can greatly be influenced by rise in temperature and fluctuations in water level, thus, are crucial in determining the fate of the freshwater wetlands.

  19. A reflective Gaussian coronagraph for ExAO: laboratory performance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, Ryeojin; Close, Laird M.; Siegler, Nick; Nielsen, Eric L.; Stalcup, Thomas

    2006-06-01

    We report laboratory results of a coronagraphic testbed to assess the intensity reduction differences between a "Gaussian" tapered focal plane coronagraphic mask and a classical hard-edged "Top Hat" function mask at Extreme Adaptive Optics (ExAO) Strehl ratios of ~94%. However, unlike a traditional coronagraph design, we insert a reflective focal plane mask at 45 ° to the optical axis and used a "spot of Arago blocker" (axicon stop) before a final image in order to block additional mask edge-diffracted light. The testbed simulates the optical train of ground-based telescopes (in particular the 8.1m Gemini North telescope) and includes one spider vane and different mask radii (r= 1.9λ/D, 3.7λ/D, 7.4λ/D) and two types of reflective focal plane masks (hard-edged "Top Hat" and "Gaussian" tapered profiles). In order to investigate the performance of these competing coronagraphic designs with regard to extra-solar planet detection sensitivity, we utilize the simulation of realistic extra-solar planet populations (Nielsen et al. 2006). With an appropriate translation of our laboratory results to expected telescope performance, a "Gaussian" tapered mask radius of 3.7λ/D with an axicon stop performs best (highest planet detection sensitivity). For a full survey with this optimal design, the simulation predicts ~30% more planets detected compared to a similar sized "Top Hat" function mask with an axicon stop. Using the best design, the "point contrast ratio" between the stellar PSF peak and the coronagraphic PSF at 10λ/D (0.4" in H band if D = 8.1m) is 1.4 x 10 6. This is ~10 times higher than a classical Lyot "Top Hat" coronagraph.

  20. Spatial modes of phase-sensitive parametric image amplifiers with circular and elliptical Gaussian pumps.

    PubMed

    Annamalai, Muthiah; Stelmakh, Nikolai; Vasilyev, Michael; Kumar, Prem

    2011-12-19

    We develop a method for finding the number and shapes of the independently squeezed or amplified modes of a spatially-broadband, travelling-wave, frequency- and polarization-degenerate optical parametric amplifier in the general case of an elliptical Gaussian pump. The obtained results show that for tightly focused pump only one mode is squeezed, and this mode has a Gaussian TEM(00) shape. For larger pump spot sizes that support multiple modes, the shapes of the most-amplified modes are close to Hermite- or Laguerre-Gaussian profiles. These results can be used to generate matched local oscillators for detecting high amounts of squeezing and to design parametric image amplifiers that introduce minimal distortion.

  1. Strong terahertz generation by optical rectification of a super-Gaussian laser beam

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumar, Subodh; Kishor Singh, Ram; Sharma, R. P.

    2016-06-01

    Terahertz (THz) generation by optical rectification of a laser beam having spatially super-Gaussian and temporally Gaussian intensity profile is investigated when it is propagating in a pre-formed rippled density plasma. The quasi-static ponderomotive force which is generated due to the variation in intensity of laser pulse leads to a nonlinear current density in the direction transverse to the direction of propagation which drives a radiation. The frequency of this radiation falls in the THz range if the pulse duration of the laser is chosen suitably. The density ripple provides the phase matching. The yield of generated THz has been compared when the phase matching is exact and when there is slight mismatch of phases. The variation in the intensity of the generated THz with the index of super-Gaussian pulse has also been studied.

  2. Index Distribution of Gaussian Random Matrices

    SciTech Connect

    Majumdar, Satya N.; Nadal, Celine; Scardicchio, Antonello; Vivo, Pierpaolo

    2009-11-27

    We compute analytically, for large N, the probability distribution of the number of positive eigenvalues (the index N{sub +}) of a random NxN matrix belonging to Gaussian orthogonal (beta=1), unitary (beta=2) or symplectic (beta=4) ensembles. The distribution of the fraction of positive eigenvalues c=N{sub +}/N scales, for large N, as P(c,N){approx_equal}exp[-betaN{sup 2}PHI(c)] where the rate function PHI(c), symmetric around c=1/2 and universal (independent of beta), is calculated exactly. The distribution has non-Gaussian tails, but even near its peak at c=1/2 it is not strictly Gaussian due to an unusual logarithmic singularity in the rate function.

  3. CMB non-gaussianity from vector fields

    SciTech Connect

    Peloso, Marco

    2014-01-01

    The Planck satellite has recently measured the CMB temperature anisotropies with unprecedented accuracy, and it has provided strong bounds on primordial non-gaussianity. Such bounds constrain models of inflation, and mechanisms that produce the primordial perturbations. We discuss the non-gaussian signatures from the interactions of the inflation φ with spin-1 fields. We study the two different cases in which the inflaton is (i) a pseudo-scalar field with a (φ)/(fa) F·F interaction with a vector field, and (ii) a scalar field with a f (φ)F² interaction. In the first case we obtain the strong limit f{sub a} ≥ 10¹⁶GeV on the decay constant. In the second case, specific choices of the function f (φ) can lead to a non-gaussianity with a characteristic shape not encountered in standard models of scalar field inflation, and which has also been constrained by Planck.

  4. Majorization preservation of Gaussian bosonic channels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jabbour, Michael G.; García-Patrón, Raúl; Cerf, Nicolas J.

    2016-07-01

    It is shown that phase-insensitive Gaussian bosonic channels are majorization-preserving over the set of passive states of the harmonic oscillator. This means that comparable passive states under majorization are transformed into equally comparable passive states by any phase-insensitive Gaussian bosonic channel. Our proof relies on a new preorder relation called Fock-majorization, which coincides with regular majorization for passive states but also induces another order relation in terms of mean boson number, thereby connecting the concepts of energy and disorder of a quantum state. The consequences of majorization preservation are discussed in the context of the broadcast communication capacity of Gaussian bosonic channels. Because most of our results are independent of the specific nature of the system under investigation, they could be generalized to other quantum systems and Hamiltonians, providing a new tool that may prove useful in quantum information theory and especially quantum thermodynamics.

  5. Gaussian entanglement in the turbulent atmosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bohmann, M.; Semenov, A. A.; Sperling, J.; Vogel, W.

    2016-07-01

    We provide a rigorous treatment of the entanglement properties of two-mode Gaussian states in atmospheric channels by deriving and analyzing the input-output relations for the corresponding entanglement test. A key feature of such turbulent channels is a nontrivial dependence of the transmitted continuous-variable entanglement on coherent displacements of the quantum state of the input field. Remarkably, this allows one to optimize the entanglement certification by modifying local coherent amplitudes using a finite, but optimal amount of squeezing. In addition, we propose a protocol which, in principle, renders it possible to transfer the Gaussian entanglement through any turbulent channel over arbitrary distances. Therefore, our approach provides the theoretical foundation for advanced applications of Gaussian entanglement in free-space quantum communication.

  6. Dietary phosphorus and kidney disease.

    PubMed

    Uribarri, Jaime

    2013-10-01

    High serum phosphate is linked to poor health outcome and mortality in chronic kidney disease (CKD) patients before or after the initiation of dialysis. Therefore, maintenance of normal serum phosphate levels is a major concern in the clinical care of this population with dietary phosphorus restriction and/or use of oral phosphate binders considered to be the best corrective care. This review discusses (1) evidence for an association between serum phosphate levels and bone and cardiovascular disease (CVD) in CKD patients as well as progression of kidney disease itself; (2) the relationship between serum phosphate and dietary phosphorus intake; and (3) implications from these data for future research. Increasing our understanding of the relationship between altered phosphorus metabolism and disease in CKD patients may clarify the potential role of excess dietary phosphorus as a risk factor for disease in the general population.

  7. Black Phosphorus Optoelectronics and Electronics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xia, Fengnian

    Black phosphorus recently emerged as a promising new 2D material due to its widely tunable and direct bandgap, high carrier mobility and remarkable in-plane anisotropic electrical, optical and phonon properties. It serendipitously bridges the zero-gap graphene and the relatively large-bandgap transition metal dichalcogenides such as molybdenum disulfide (MoS2) . In this talk, I will first cover the basic properties of few-layer and thin-film black phosphorus, followed by a discussion of recent observation of highly anisotropic robust excitons in monolayer black phosphorus. Finally I will present a few potential applications of black phosphorus such as radio-frequency transistors and wideband photodetectors. We acknowledge support from the Office of Naval Research, the Air Force Office of Scientific Research, the National Science Foundation and Yale University.

  8. Gaussian quantum operator representation for bosons

    SciTech Connect

    Corney, Joel F.; Drummond, Peter D.

    2003-12-01

    We introduce a Gaussian quantum operator representation, using the most general possible multimode Gaussian operator basis. The representation unifies and substantially extends existing phase-space representations of density matrices for Bose systems and also includes generalized squeezed-state and thermal bases. It enables first-principles dynamical or equilibrium calculations in quantum many-body systems, with quantum uncertainties appearing as dynamical objects. Any quadratic Liouville equation for the density operator results in a purely deterministic time evolution. Any cubic or quartic master equation can be treated using stochastic methods.

  9. Inflationary prediction for primordial non-gaussianity.

    PubMed

    Lyth, David H; Rodríguez, Yeinzon

    2005-09-16

    We extend the deltaN formalism so that it gives all of the stochastic properties of the primordial curvature perturbation zeta if the initial field perturbations are Gaussian. The calculation requires only the knowledge of some family of unperturbed universes. A formula is given for the normalization f(NL) of the bispectrum of zeta, which is the main signal of non-Gaussianity. Examples of the use of the formula are given, and its relation to cosmological perturbation theory is explained. PMID:16197063

  10. Invariant measures on multimode quantum Gaussian states

    SciTech Connect

    Lupo, C.; Mancini, S.; De Pasquale, A.; Facchi, P.; Florio, G.; Pascazio, S.

    2012-12-15

    We derive the invariant measure on the manifold of multimode quantum Gaussian states, induced by the Haar measure on the group of Gaussian unitary transformations. To this end, by introducing a bipartition of the system in two disjoint subsystems, we use a parameterization highlighting the role of nonlocal degrees of freedom-the symplectic eigenvalues-which characterize quantum entanglement across the given bipartition. A finite measure is then obtained by imposing a physically motivated energy constraint. By averaging over the local degrees of freedom we finally derive the invariant distribution of the symplectic eigenvalues in some cases of particular interest for applications in quantum optics and quantum information.

  11. A Gaussian-product stochastic Gent-McWilliams parameterization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grooms, Ian

    2016-10-01

    The locally-averaged horizontal buoyancy flux by mesoscale eddies is computed from eddy-resolving quasigeostrophic simulations of ocean-mesoscale eddy dynamics. This flux has a very non-Gaussian distribution peaked at zero, not at the mean value. This non-Gaussian flux distribution arises because the flux is a product of zero-mean random variables: the eddy velocity and buoyancy. A framework for stochastic Gent-McWilliams (GM) parameterization is presented. Gaussian random field models for subgrid-scale velocity and buoyancy are developed. The product of these Gaussian random fields is used to construct a non-Gaussian stochastic parameterization of the horizontal subgrid-scale density flux, which leads to a non-Gaussian stochastic GM parameterization. This new non-Gaussian stochastic GM parameterization is tested in an idealized box ocean model, and compared to a Gaussian approach that simply multiplies the deterministic GM parameterization by a Gaussian random field. The non-Gaussian approach has a significant impact on both the mean and variability of the simulations, more so than the Gaussian approach; for example, the non-Gaussian simulation has a much larger net kinetic energy and a stronger overturning circulation than a comparable Gaussian simulation. Future directions for development of the stochastic GM parameterization and extensions of the Gaussian-product approach are discussed.

  12. Radiochemical neutron activation analysis for certification of ion-implanted phosphorus in silicon.

    PubMed

    Paul, Rick L; Simons, David S; Guthrie, William F; Lu, John

    2003-08-15

    A radiochemical neutron activation analysis procedure has been developed, critically evaluated, and shown to have the necessary sensitivity, chemical specificity, matrix independence, and precision to certify phosphorus at ion implantation levels in silicon. 32P, produced by neutron capture of 31P, is chemically separated from the sample matrix and measured using a beta proportional counter. The method is used here to certify the amount of phosphorus in SRM 2133 (Phosphorus Implant in Silicon Depth Profile Standard) as (9.58 +/- 0.16) x 10(14) atoms x cm(-2). A detailed evaluation of uncertainties is given.

  13. Quantum steering of multimode Gaussian states by Gaussian measurements: monogamy relations and the Peres conjecture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ji, Se-Wan; Kim, M. S.; Nha, Hyunchul

    2015-04-01

    It is a topic of fundamental and practical importance how a quantum correlated state can be reliably distributed through a noisy channel for quantum information processing. The concept of quantum steering recently defined in a rigorous manner is relevant to study it under certain circumstances and here we address quantum steerability of Gaussian states to this aim. In particular, we attempt to reformulate the criterion for Gaussian steering in terms of local and global purities and show that it is sufficient and necessary for the case of steering a 1-mode system by an N-mode system. It subsequently enables us to reinforce a strong monogamy relation under which only one party can steer a local system of 1-mode. Moreover, we show that only a negative partial-transpose state can manifest quantum steerability by Gaussian measurements in relation to the Peres conjecture. We also discuss our formulation for the case of distributing a two-mode squeezed state via one-way quantum channels making dissipation and amplification effects, respectively. Finally, we extend our approach to include non-Gaussian measurements, more precisely, all orders of higher-order squeezing measurements, and find that this broad set of non-Gaussian measurements is not useful to demonstrate steering for Gaussian states beyond Gaussian measurements.

  14. A Reflective Gaussian Coronagraph for Extreme Adaptive Optics: Laboratory Performance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, Ryeojin; Close, Laird M.; Siegler, Nick; Nielsen, Eric L.; Stalcup, Thomas

    2006-11-01

    We report laboratory results of a coronagraphic test bench to assess the intensity reduction differences between a ``Gaussian'' tapered focal plane coronagraphic mask and a classical hard-edged ``top hat'' function mask at extreme adaptive optics (ExAO) Strehl ratios of ~94%. However, unlike a traditional coronagraph design, we insert a reflective focal plane mask at 45° to the optical axis. We also use an intermediate secondary mask (mask 2) before a final image in order to block additional mask-edge-diffracted light. The test bench simulates the optical train of ground-based telescopes (in particular, the 8.1 m Gemini North Telescope). It includes one spider vane, different mask radii (r = 1.9λ/D, 3.7λ/D, and 7.4λ/D), and two types of reflective focal plane masks (hard-edged top-hat and Gaussian tapered profiles). In order to investigate the relative performance of these competing coronagraphic designs with regard to extrasolar planet detection sensitivity, we utilize the simulation of realistic extrasolar planet populations (Nielsen et al.). With an appropriate translation of our laboratory results to expected telescope performance, a Gaussian tapered mask radius of 3.7λ/D with an additional mask (mask 2) performs best (highest planet detection sensitivity). For a full survey with this optimal design, the simulation predicts that ~30% more planets would be detected than with a top-hat function mask of similar size with mask 2. Using the best design, the point contrast ratio between the stellar point-spread function (PSF) peak and the coronagraphic PSF at 10λ/D (0.4" in the H band if D = 8.1 m) is ~10 times higher than a classical Lyot top-hat coronagraph. Hence, we find that a Gaussian apodized mask with an additional blocking mask is superior (~10 times higher contrast) to the use of a classical Lyot coronagraph for ExAO-like Strehl ratios.

  15. Unified operator approach for deriving Hermite-Gaussian and Laguerre-Gaussian laser modes.

    PubMed

    Enderlein, Jörg; Pampaloni, Francesco

    2004-08-01

    A unified operator approach is described for deriving Hermite-Gaussian and Laguerre-Gaussian laser beams by using as a starting point a plane-wave-spectrum representation of the electromagnetic field. We show that by using the plane-wave representation of the fundamental Gaussian mode as a seed function, all higher-order beam modes can be derived by acting with differential operators on this fundamental solution. The approach presented can be easily generalized to nonparaxial situations and to include vector effects of the electromagnetic field.

  16. Unified operator approach for deriving Hermite-Gaussian and Laguerre-Gaussian laser modes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Enderlein, Jörg; Pampaloni, Francesco

    2004-08-01

    A unified operator approach is described for deriving Hermite-Gaussian and Laguerre-Gaussian laser beams by using as a starting point a plane-wave-spectrum representation of the electromagnetic field. We show that by using the plane-wave representation of the fundamental Gaussian mode as a seed function, all higher-order beam modes can be derived by acting with differential operators on this fundamental solution. The approach presented can be easily generalized to nonparaxial situations and to include vector effects of the electromagnetic field.

  17. Cluster size distribution in Gaussian glasses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Novikov, S. V.

    2011-03-01

    A simple method for the estimation of the asymptotics of the cluster numbers in Gaussian glasses is described. Validity of the method was tested by the comparison with the exact analytic result for the non-correlated field and simulation data for the distribution of random energies in strongly spatially correlated dipolar glass model.

  18. a Distributed Gaussian Discrete Variable Representation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karabulut, Hasan

    In this work a discrete variable representation (DVR) is constructed from a distributed Gaussian basis (DGB). A DGB is a finite or infinite chain of uniformly distributed Gaussians g_{n}(x) = e^{-c^2(x/d-n)^2} where n takes integer values. There are three main parts of this thesis. In the first part (Chapter III) the finite chain distributed Gaussian DVR (Finite Chain DG-DVR) is derived. In order to accomplish this, the distributed Gaussian orthogonal polynomials are introduced. The connection of these polynomials to Stieltjes-Wigert polynomials is shown. The recurrence relation for these orthogonal polynomials is derived. Tested recipes are given to calculate the quadrature points and weights and to construct the corresponding Lagrange functions which are analogs of Lagrange interpolation polynomials. The symmetries of quadrature points, weights, and Lagrange functions are derived. Limit cases ctoinfty and cto 0 are studied. In the second part (Chapter IV)the infinite chain limit DG-DVR is derived from a limit of the finite chain DG-DVR. The quadrature points and weights and the Lagrange functions are found in this limit and kinetic energy operator is constructed. It is shown that in the limit c to 0 the infinite chain DG-DVR reduces to Colbert and Miller's DVR. A discussion of ability of a distributed Gaussian basis to represent an arbitrary function is given. The results of this treatment yield a possible explanation of surprising accuracy of Colbert-Miller DVR. In the third part construction of the DG-DVR is given when one point is chosen arbitrarily. Some interesting identities and integral representations for the b _{n} and sigma_ {n} coefficients that are introduced in the second part are found.

  19. Reexamining the Phosphorus-Protein Dilemma: Does Phosphorus Restriction Compromise Protein Status?

    PubMed

    St-Jules, David E; Woolf, Kathleen; Pompeii, Mary Lou; Kalantar-Zadeh, Kamyar; Sevick, Mary Ann

    2016-05-01

    Dietary phosphorus restriction is recommended to help control hyperphosphatemia in hemodialysis patients, but many high-phosphorus foods are important sources of protein. In this review, we examine whether restricting dietary phosphorus compromises protein status in hemodialysis patients. Although dietary phosphorus and protein are highly correlated, phosphorus intakes can range up to 600 mg/day for a given energy and protein intake level. Furthermore, the collinearity of phosphorus and protein may be biased because the phosphorus burden of food depends on: (1) the presence of phosphate additives, (2) food preparation method, and (3) bioavailability of phosphorus, which are often unaccounted for in nutrition assessments. Ultimately, we argue that clinically relevant reductions in phosphorus intake can be made without limiting protein intake by avoiding phosphate additives in processed foods, using wet cooking methods such as boiling, and if needed, substituting high-phosphorus foods for nutritionally equivalent foods that are lower in bioavailable phosphorus.

  20. A Substance Flow Model for Global Phosphorus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vaccari, D. A.

    2015-12-01

    A system-based substance flow model (SFM) for phosphorus is developed based on the global phosphorus substance flow analysis (SFA) of Cordell et al (2009). The model is based strictly on mass balance considerations. It predicts the sensitivity of phosphorus consumption to various interventions intended to conserve reserves, as well as interactions among these efforts, allowing a comparison of their impacts on phosphorus demand. The interventions include control of phosphorus losses from soil erosion, food production and food waste, or phosphorus recycling such as from animal manure or human waste.

  1. The Relevance of Phosphorus and Iron Chemistry to the Recovery of Phosphorus from Wastewater: A Review.

    PubMed

    Wilfert, Philipp; Kumar, Prashanth Suresh; Korving, Leon; Witkamp, Geert-Jan; van Loosdrecht, Mark C M

    2015-08-18

    The addition of iron is a convenient way for removing phosphorus from wastewater, but this is often considered to limit phosphorus recovery. Struvite precipitation is currently used to recover phosphorus, and this approach has attracted much interest. However, it requires the use of enhanced biological phosphorus removal (EBPR). EBPR is not yet widely applied and the recovery potential is low. Other phosphorus recovery methods, including sludge application to agricultural land or recovering phosphorus from sludge ash, also have limitations. Energy-producing wastewater treatment plants increasingly rely on phosphorus removal using iron, but the problem (as in current processes) is the subsequent recovery of phosphorus from the iron. In contrast, phosphorus is efficiently mobilized from iron by natural processes in sediments and soils. Iron-phosphorus chemistry is diverse, and many parameters influence the binding and release of phosphorus, including redox conditions, pH, presence of organic substances, and particle morphology. We suggest that the current poor understanding of iron and phosphorus chemistry in wastewater systems is preventing processes being developed to recover phosphorus from iron-phosphorus rich wastes like municipal wastewater sludge. Parameters that affect phosphorus recovery are reviewed here, and methods are suggested for manipulating iron-phosphorus chemistry in wastewater treatment processes to allow phosphorus to be recovered. PMID:25950504

  2. III. Quantitative aspects of phosphorus excretion in ruminants.

    PubMed

    Bravo, David; Sauvant, Daniel; Bogaert, Catherine; Meschy, François

    2003-01-01

    Ruminant phosphorus excretion and metabolism were studied through a database. Faecal endogenous phosphorus is the main pathway of phosphorus excretion and averages 0.85 of total faecal phosphorus. The remaining 0.15 is unabsorbed dietary phosphorus. Faecal endogenous phosphorus is mainly unabsorbed phosphorus, with saliva being the major source, and is correlated to factors influencing saliva secretion (DM intake, physical dietary characteristics and dietary phosphorus content). Another source of faecal endogenous phosphorus is rumen microbial phosphorus that escaped solubilisation during post-rumen digestion. All factors stimulating microbial growth would increase phosphorus uptake by the rumen microbes and consequently the faecal endogenous phosphorus. Understanding the determinants of faecal endogenous phosphorus flow will help to precise the determination of net phosphorus requirements for maintenance. The role of plasma phosphorus in urinary phosphorus loss is discussed.

  3. Fire-Resistant Polyimides Containing Phosphorus

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mikroyannidis, J.

    1986-01-01

    Limiting oxygen index increased. Copolyimide with a group containing phosphorus synthesized from 1-2,4-diaminobenzene, m-phenylenediamine, and tetracarboxylic dianhydride. Copolymer more fire resistant than corresponding polyimide without phosphorus.

  4. Phosphorus Flamethrower: A Demonstration Using Red and White Allotropes of Phosphorus

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Golden, Melissa L.; Person, Eric C.; Bejar, Miriam; Golden, Donnie R.; Powell, Jonathan M.

    2010-01-01

    A demonstration was created to display the unique behavior of a familiar element, phosphorus, and to make chemistry more accessible to the introductory student. The common allotropes of phosphorus and their reactivity are discussed. In this demonstration, the white allotrope of phosphorus is synthesized from the red phosphorus obtained from a…

  5. Edge phonons in black phosphorus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ribeiro, H. B.; Villegas, C. E. P.; Bahamon, D. A.; Muraca, D.; Castro Neto, A. H.; de Souza, E. A. T.; Rocha, A. R.; Pimenta, M. A.; de Matos, C. J. S.

    2016-07-01

    Black phosphorus has recently emerged as a new layered crystal that, due to its peculiar and anisotropic crystalline and electronic band structures, may have important applications in electronics, optoelectronics and photonics. Despite the fact that the edges of layered crystals host a range of singular properties whose characterization and exploitation are of utmost importance for device development, the edges of black phosphorus remain poorly characterized. In this work, the atomic structure and behaviour of phonons near different black phosphorus edges are experimentally and theoretically studied using Raman spectroscopy and density functional theory calculations. Polarized Raman results show the appearance of new modes at the edges of the sample, and their spectra depend on the atomic structure of the edges (zigzag or armchair). Theoretical simulations confirm that the new modes are due to edge phonon states that are forbidden in the bulk, and originated from the lattice termination rearrangements.

  6. Edge phonons in black phosphorus.

    PubMed

    Ribeiro, H B; Villegas, C E P; Bahamon, D A; Muraca, D; Castro Neto, A H; de Souza, E A T; Rocha, A R; Pimenta, M A; de Matos, C J S

    2016-01-01

    Black phosphorus has recently emerged as a new layered crystal that, due to its peculiar and anisotropic crystalline and electronic band structures, may have important applications in electronics, optoelectronics and photonics. Despite the fact that the edges of layered crystals host a range of singular properties whose characterization and exploitation are of utmost importance for device development, the edges of black phosphorus remain poorly characterized. In this work, the atomic structure and behaviour of phonons near different black phosphorus edges are experimentally and theoretically studied using Raman spectroscopy and density functional theory calculations. Polarized Raman results show the appearance of new modes at the edges of the sample, and their spectra depend on the atomic structure of the edges (zigzag or armchair). Theoretical simulations confirm that the new modes are due to edge phonon states that are forbidden in the bulk, and originated from the lattice termination rearrangements. PMID:27412813

  7. Edge phonons in black phosphorus

    PubMed Central

    Ribeiro, H. B.; Villegas, C. E. P.; Bahamon, D. A.; Muraca, D.; Castro Neto, A. H.; de Souza, E. A. T.; Rocha, A. R.; Pimenta, M. A.; de Matos, C. J. S.

    2016-01-01

    Black phosphorus has recently emerged as a new layered crystal that, due to its peculiar and anisotropic crystalline and electronic band structures, may have important applications in electronics, optoelectronics and photonics. Despite the fact that the edges of layered crystals host a range of singular properties whose characterization and exploitation are of utmost importance for device development, the edges of black phosphorus remain poorly characterized. In this work, the atomic structure and behaviour of phonons near different black phosphorus edges are experimentally and theoretically studied using Raman spectroscopy and density functional theory calculations. Polarized Raman results show the appearance of new modes at the edges of the sample, and their spectra depend on the atomic structure of the edges (zigzag or armchair). Theoretical simulations confirm that the new modes are due to edge phonon states that are forbidden in the bulk, and originated from the lattice termination rearrangements. PMID:27412813

  8. Tuning third harmonic generation of impurity doped quantum dots in the presence of Gaussian white noise

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saha, Surajit; Ghosh, Manas

    2016-03-01

    We perform a broad exploration of profiles of third harmonic generation (THG) susceptibility of impurity doped quantum dots (QDs) in the presence and absence of noise. We have invoked Gaussian white noise in the present study. A Gaussian impurity has been introduced into the QD. Noise has been applied to the system additively and multiplicatively. A perpendicular magnetic field emerges out as a confinement source and a static external electric field has been applied. The THG profiles have been pursued as a function of incident photon energy when several important parameters such as electric field strength, magnetic field strength, confinement energy, dopant location, Al concentration, dopant potential, relaxation time and noise strength assume different values. Moreover, the role of the pathway through which noise is applied (additive/multiplicative) on the THG profiles has also been deciphered. The THG profiles are found to be decorated with interesting observations such as shift of THG peak position and maximization/minimization of THG peak intensity. Presence of noise alters the characteristics of THG profiles and sometimes enhances the THG peak intensity. Furthermore, the mode of application of noise (additive/multiplicative) also regulates the THG profiles in a few occasions in contrasting manners. The observations highlight the possible scope of tuning the THG coefficient of doped QD systems in the presence of noise and bears tremendous technological importance.

  9. Large non-gaussianity in axion inflation.

    PubMed

    Barnaby, Neil; Peloso, Marco

    2011-05-01

    The inflationary paradigm has enjoyed phenomenological success; however, a compelling particle physics realization is still lacking. Axions are among the best-motivated inflaton candidates, since the flatness of their potential is naturally protected by a shift symmetry. We reconsider the cosmological perturbations in axion inflation, consistently accounting for the coupling to gauge fields cΦFF, which is generically present in these models. This coupling leads to production of gauge quanta, which provide a new source of inflaton fluctuations, δΦ. For c≥10(2)M(p)(-1), these dominate over the vacuum fluctuations, and non-Gaussianity exceeds the current observational bound. This regime is typical for concrete realizations that admit a UV completion; hence, large non-Gaussianity is easily obtained in minimal and natural realizations of inflation.

  10. Quantum Fidelity for Arbitrary Gaussian States

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Banchi, Leonardo; Braunstein, Samuel L.; Pirandola, Stefano

    2015-12-01

    We derive a computable analytical formula for the quantum fidelity between two arbitrary multimode Gaussian states which is simply expressed in terms of their first- and second-order statistical moments. We also show how such a formula can be written in terms of symplectic invariants and used to derive closed forms for a variety of basic quantities and tools, such as the Bures metric, the quantum Fisher information, and various fidelity-based bounds. Our result can be used to extend the study of continuous-variable protocols, such as quantum teleportation and cloning, beyond the current one-mode or two-mode analyses, and paves the way to solve general problems in quantum metrology and quantum hypothesis testing with arbitrary multimode Gaussian resources.

  11. Fock expansion of multimode pure Gaussian states

    SciTech Connect

    Cariolaro, Gianfranco; Pierobon, Gianfranco

    2015-12-15

    The Fock expansion of multimode pure Gaussian states is derived starting from their representation as displaced and squeezed multimode vacuum states. The approach is new and appears to be simpler and more general than previous ones starting from the phase-space representation given by the characteristic or Wigner function. Fock expansion is performed in terms of easily evaluable two-variable Hermite–Kampé de Fériet polynomials. A relatively simple and compact expression for the joint statistical distribution of the photon numbers in the different modes is obtained. In particular, this result enables one to give a simple characterization of separable and entangled states, as shown for two-mode and three-mode Gaussian states.

  12. A Fast Incremental Gaussian Mixture Model

    PubMed Central

    Pinto, Rafael Coimbra; Engel, Paulo Martins

    2015-01-01

    This work builds upon previous efforts in online incremental learning, namely the Incremental Gaussian Mixture Network (IGMN). The IGMN is capable of learning from data streams in a single-pass by improving its model after analyzing each data point and discarding it thereafter. Nevertheless, it suffers from the scalability point-of-view, due to its asymptotic time complexity of O(NKD3) for N data points, K Gaussian components and D dimensions, rendering it inadequate for high-dimensional data. In this work, we manage to reduce this complexity to O(NKD2) by deriving formulas for working directly with precision matrices instead of covariance matrices. The final result is a much faster and scalable algorithm which can be applied to high dimensional tasks. This is confirmed by applying the modified algorithm to high-dimensional classification datasets. PMID:26444880

  13. Gaussian quadrature for multiple orthogonal polynomials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Coussement, Jonathan; van Assche, Walter

    2005-06-01

    We study multiple orthogonal polynomials of type I and type II, which have orthogonality conditions with respect to r measures. These polynomials are connected by their recurrence relation of order r+1. First we show a relation with the eigenvalue problem of a banded lower Hessenberg matrix Ln, containing the recurrence coefficients. As a consequence, we easily find that the multiple orthogonal polynomials of type I and type II satisfy a generalized Christoffel-Darboux identity. Furthermore, we explain the notion of multiple Gaussian quadrature (for proper multi-indices), which is an extension of the theory of Gaussian quadrature for orthogonal polynomials and was introduced by Borges. In particular, we show that the quadrature points and quadrature weights can be expressed in terms of the eigenvalue problem of Ln.

  14. Quantum Fidelity for Arbitrary Gaussian States.

    PubMed

    Banchi, Leonardo; Braunstein, Samuel L; Pirandola, Stefano

    2015-12-31

    We derive a computable analytical formula for the quantum fidelity between two arbitrary multimode Gaussian states which is simply expressed in terms of their first- and second-order statistical moments. We also show how such a formula can be written in terms of symplectic invariants and used to derive closed forms for a variety of basic quantities and tools, such as the Bures metric, the quantum Fisher information, and various fidelity-based bounds. Our result can be used to extend the study of continuous-variable protocols, such as quantum teleportation and cloning, beyond the current one-mode or two-mode analyses, and paves the way to solve general problems in quantum metrology and quantum hypothesis testing with arbitrary multimode Gaussian resources. PMID:26764978

  15. Edge Detection By Differences Of Gaussians

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marthon, Ph.; Thiesse, B.; Bruel, A.

    1986-06-01

    The Differences of Gaussians (DOGs) are of fundamental importance in edge detection. They belong to the human vision system as shown by Enroth-Cugell and Robson [ENR66]. The zero-crossings of their outputs mark the loci of the intensity changes. The set of descriptions from different operator sizes forms the input for later visual processes, such as stereopsis and motion analysis. We show that DOGs uniformly converge to the Laplacian of a Gaussian (ΔG2,σ) when both the inhibitory and excitatory variables converge to σ. Spatial and spectral properties of DOGs and ΔGs are compared: width and height of their central positive regions, bandiwidths... Finally, DOGs' responses to some features such as ideal edge, right angle corner, general corner..., are presented and magnitudes of error on edge position are given.

  16. Cholestatic presentation of yellow phosphorus poisoning.

    PubMed

    Lakshmi, C P; Goel, Amit; Basu, Debdatta

    2014-01-01

    Yellow phosphorus, a component of certain pesticide pastes and fireworks, is well known to cause hepatotoxicity. Poisoning with yellow phosphorus classically manifests with acute hepatitis leading to acute liver failure which may need liver transplantation. We present a case of yellow phosphorus poisoning in which a patient presented with florid clinical features of cholestasis highlighting the fact that cholestasis can rarely be a presenting feature of yellow phosphorus hepatotoxicity. PMID:24554916

  17. Walk-off reduction, using an external optical plate and Bessel-Gaussian interaction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Masoume, Mansouri; Mohsen, Askarbioki; Saeed Ghavami, Sabouri; Alireza, Khorsandi

    2015-02-01

    To reduce the walk-off angle of the extraordinary third-harmonic ultraviolet wave at 355 nm generated by type II KTiOPO4 and type I β-BaB2O4 optical crystals, and the Gaussian output beam of a Q-switched Nd:YAG laser, a simple theoretical model was developed based on a rotatable BK7 plate of variable thickness. By rotating the plate up to 35° along the beam direction, we reduced the walk-off angle up to ˜ 13%. The same phenomenon is predicted by the model, confirming the performance of the model. It is found that, due to the walk-off effect, the intensity profile of the third-harmonic generation beam is slightly degraded. To compensate for the observed phenomena and further reduce the walk-off, we used a combination of a convex lens and an axicon to transform the beam profile of the interacting fundamental and second-harmonic generation waves to the zero-order Bessel-Gaussian form. As a result, the walk-off is decreased to ˜48.81 mrad, providing ˜30% relative reduction. By using the same BK7 plate rotated up to 35° along the third-harmonic beam direction, the walk-off angle is further reduced to 38.9 mrad. Moreover, it is observed that the beam profile of the emerged Bessel-Gaussian third-harmonic generation beam remains unchanged with no degradation.

  18. Non-Markovianity of Gaussian Channels.

    PubMed

    Torre, G; Roga, W; Illuminati, F

    2015-08-14

    We introduce a necessary and sufficient criterion for the non-Markovianity of Gaussian quantum dynamical maps based on the violation of divisibility. The criterion is derived by defining a general vectorial representation of the covariance matrix which is then exploited to determine the condition for the complete positivity of partial maps associated with arbitrary time intervals. Such construction does not rely on the Choi-Jamiolkowski representation and does not require optimization over states.

  19. Microwave Realization of the Gaussian Symplectic Ensemble

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rehemanjiang, A.; Allgaier, M.; Joyner, C. H.; Müller, S.; Sieber, M.; Kuhl, U.; Stöckmann, H.-J.

    2016-08-01

    Following an idea by Joyner et al. [Europhys. Lett. 107, 50004 (2014)], a microwave graph with an antiunitary symmetry T obeying T2=-1 is realized. The Kramers doublets expected for such systems are clearly identified and can be lifted by a perturbation which breaks the antiunitary symmetry. The observed spectral level spacings distribution of the Kramers doublets is in agreement with the predictions from the Gaussian symplectic ensemble expected for chaotic systems with such a symmetry.

  20. Consistency relations for non-Gaussianity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Miao; Wang, Yi

    2008-09-01

    We investigate consistency relations for non-Gaussianity. We provide a model-independent dynamical proof for the consistency relation for three-point correlation functions from the Hamiltonian and field redefinition. This relation can be applied to single-field inflation, multi-field inflation and the curvaton scenario. This relation can also be generalized to n-point correlation functions up to arbitrary order in perturbation theory and with arbitrary number of loops.

  1. Computational aspects of Gaussian beam migration

    SciTech Connect

    Hale, D.

    1992-01-01

    The computational efficiency of Gaussian beam migration depends on the solution of two problems: (1) computation of complex-valued beam times and amplitudes in Cartesian (x,z) coordinates, and (2) limiting computations to only those (x,z) coordinates within a region where beam amplitudes are significant. The first problem can be reduced to a particular instance of a class of closest-point problems in computational geometry, for which efficient solutions, such as the Delaunay triangulation, are well known. Delaunay triangulation of sampled points along a ray enables the efficient location of that point on the raypath that is closest to any point (x,z) at which beam times and amplitudes are required. Although Delaunay triangulation provides an efficient solution to this closest point problem, a simpler solution, also presented in this paper, may be sufficient and more easily extended for use in 3-D Gaussian beam migration. The second problem is easily solved by decomposing the subsurface image into a coarse grid of square cells. Within each cell, simple and efficient loops over (x,z) coordinates may be used. Because the region in which beam amplitudes are significant may be difficult to represent with simple loops over (x,z) coordinates, I use recursion to move from cell to cell, until entire region defined by the beam has been covered. Benchmark tests of a computer program implementing these solutions suggest that the cost of Gaussian hewn migration is comparable to that of migration via explicit depth extrapolation in the frequency-space domain. For the data sizes and computer programs tested here, the explicit method was faster. However, as data size was increased, the computation time for Gaussian beam migration grew more slowly than that for the explicit method.

  2. Computational aspects of Gaussian beam migration

    SciTech Connect

    Hale, D.

    1992-08-01

    The computational efficiency of Gaussian beam migration depends on the solution of two problems: (1) computation of complex-valued beam times and amplitudes in Cartesian (x,z) coordinates, and (2) limiting computations to only those (x,z) coordinates within a region where beam amplitudes are significant. The first problem can be reduced to a particular instance of a class of closest-point problems in computational geometry, for which efficient solutions, such as the Delaunay triangulation, are well known. Delaunay triangulation of sampled points along a ray enables the efficient location of that point on the raypath that is closest to any point (x,z) at which beam times and amplitudes are required. Although Delaunay triangulation provides an efficient solution to this closest point problem, a simpler solution, also presented in this paper, may be sufficient and more easily extended for use in 3-D Gaussian beam migration. The second problem is easily solved by decomposing the subsurface image into a coarse grid of square cells. Within each cell, simple and efficient loops over (x,z) coordinates may be used. Because the region in which beam amplitudes are significant may be difficult to represent with simple loops over (x,z) coordinates, I use recursion to move from cell to cell, until entire region defined by the beam has been covered. Benchmark tests of a computer program implementing these solutions suggest that the cost of Gaussian hewn migration is comparable to that of migration via explicit depth extrapolation in the frequency-space domain. For the data sizes and computer programs tested here, the explicit method was faster. However, as data size was increased, the computation time for Gaussian beam migration grew more slowly than that for the explicit method.

  3. Entropic Fluctuations in Gaussian Dynamical Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jakšić, V.; Pillet, C.-A.; Shirikyan, A.

    2016-06-01

    We study nonequilibrium statistical mechanics of a Gaussian dynamical system and compute in closed form the large deviation functionals describing the fluctuations of the entropy production observable with respect to the reference state and the nonequilibrium steady state. The entropy production observable of this model is an unbounded function on the phase space, and its large deviation functionals have a surprisingly rich structure. We explore this structure in some detail.

  4. Gaussian Confinement in a Jkj Decay Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    da Silva, Mario L. L.; Hadjimichef, Dimiter; Vasconcellos, Cesar A. Z.

    In microscopic decay models, one attempts to describe hadron strong decays in terms of quark and gluon degrees of freedom. We begin by assuming that strong decays are driven by the same interquark Hamiltonian which determines the spectrum, and that it incorporates gaussian confinement. An A → BC decay matrix element of the JKJ Hamiltonian involves a pair-production current matrix elements times a scatering matrix element. Diagrammatically this corresponds to an interaction between an initial line and produced pair.

  5. Non-Markovianity of Gaussian Channels.

    PubMed

    Torre, G; Roga, W; Illuminati, F

    2015-08-14

    We introduce a necessary and sufficient criterion for the non-Markovianity of Gaussian quantum dynamical maps based on the violation of divisibility. The criterion is derived by defining a general vectorial representation of the covariance matrix which is then exploited to determine the condition for the complete positivity of partial maps associated with arbitrary time intervals. Such construction does not rely on the Choi-Jamiolkowski representation and does not require optimization over states. PMID:26317700

  6. Extended Decentralized Linear-Quadratic-Gaussian Control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carpenter, J. Russell

    2000-01-01

    A straightforward extension of a solution to the decentralized linear-Quadratic-Gaussian problem is proposed that allows its use for commonly encountered classes of problems that are currently solved with the extended Kalman filter. This extension allows the system to be partitioned in such a way as to exclude the nonlinearities from the essential algebraic relationships that allow the estimation and control to be optimally decentralized.

  7. Microwave Realization of the Gaussian Symplectic Ensemble.

    PubMed

    Rehemanjiang, A; Allgaier, M; Joyner, C H; Müller, S; Sieber, M; Kuhl, U; Stöckmann, H-J

    2016-08-01

    Following an idea by Joyner et al. [Europhys. Lett. 107, 50004 (2014)], a microwave graph with an antiunitary symmetry T obeying T^{2}=-1 is realized. The Kramers doublets expected for such systems are clearly identified and can be lifted by a perturbation which breaks the antiunitary symmetry. The observed spectral level spacings distribution of the Kramers doublets is in agreement with the predictions from the Gaussian symplectic ensemble expected for chaotic systems with such a symmetry. PMID:27541466

  8. Non-Gaussianity from axionic curvaton

    SciTech Connect

    Kawasaki, Masahiro; Kobayashi, Takeshi; Takahashi, Fuminobu E-mail: takeshi@cita.utoronto.ca

    2013-03-01

    We study non-Gaussianity of density perturbations generated by an axionic curvaton, focusing on the case that the curvaton sits near the hilltop of the potential during inflation. Such hilltop curvatons can generate a red-tilted density perturbation spectrum without invoking large-field inflation. We show that, even when the curvaton dominates the Universe, the non-Gaussianity parameter f{sub NL} is positive and mildly increases towards the hilltop of the curvaton potential, and that f{sub NL} = O(10) is a general and robust prediction of such hilltop axionic curvatons. In particular, we find that the non-Gaussianity parameter is bounded as f{sub NL}∼<30–40 for a range of the scalar spectral index, n{sub s} = 0.94–0.99, and that f{sub NL} = 20–40 is realized for the curvaton mass m{sub σ} = 10–10{sup 6} GeV and the decay constant f = 10{sup 12}–10{sup 17} GeV. One of the plausible candidates for the axionic curvaton is an imaginary component of a modulus field with mass of order 10–100 TeV and decay constant of 10{sup 16–17}GeV. We also discuss extreme cases where the curvaton drives a second inflation and find that f{sub NL} is typically smaller compared to non-inflating cases.

  9. Unitarily localizable entanglement of Gaussian states

    SciTech Connect

    Serafini, Alessio; Adesso, Gerardo; Illuminati, Fabrizio

    2005-03-01

    We consider generic (mxn)-mode bipartitions of continuous-variable systems, and study the associated bisymmetric multimode Gaussian states. They are defined as (m+n)-mode Gaussian states invariant under local mode permutations on the m-mode and n-mode subsystems. We prove that such states are equivalent, under local unitary transformations, to the tensor product of a two-mode state and of m+n-2 uncorrelated single-mode states. The entanglement between the m-mode and the n-mode blocks can then be completely concentrated on a single pair of modes by means of local unitary operations alone. This result allows us to prove that the PPT (positivity of the partial transpose) condition is necessary and sufficient for the separability of (m+n)-mode bisymmetric Gaussian states. We determine exactly their negativity and identify a subset of bisymmetric states whose multimode entanglement of formation can be computed analytically. We consider explicit examples of pure and mixed bisymmetric states and study their entanglement scaling with the number of modes.

  10. Exact Results for `Bouncing' Gaussian Wave Packets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Belloni, M.; Doncheski, M. A.; Robinett, R. W.

    2005-01-01

    We consider time-dependent Gaussian wave packet solutions of the Schrödinger equation, with arbitrary initial central position, x0, and momentum, p0, for an otherwise free particle, but with an infinite wall at x = 0, so-called bouncing wave packets. We show how difference or mirror solutions of the form ψ(x,t) - ψ(-x,t) can, in this case, be normalized exactly, allowing for the evaluation of a number of time-dependent expectation values and other quantities in closed form. For example, we calculate langp2rangt explicitly which illustrates how the free-particle kinetic (and hence total energy) is affected by the presence of the distant boundary. We also discuss the time dependence of the expectation values of position, langxrangt, and momentum, langprangt, and their relation to the impulsive force during the `collision' with the wall. Finally, the x0, p0 → 0 limit is shown to reduce a special case of a non-standard free-particle Gaussian solution. The addition of this example to the literature then expands of the relatively small number of Gaussian solutions to quantum mechanical problems with familiar classical analogs (free particle, uniform acceleration, harmonic oscillator, unstable oscillator, and uniform magnetic field) available in closed form.

  11. Resonant non-Gaussianity with equilateral properties

    SciTech Connect

    Gwyn, Rhiannon; Rummel, Markus; Westphal, Alexander E-mail: markus.rummel@desy.de

    2013-04-01

    We discuss the effect of superimposing multiple sources of resonant non-Gaussianity, which arise for instance in models of axion inflation. The resulting sum of oscillating shape contributions can be used to ''Fourier synthesize'' different non-oscillating shapes in the bispectrum. As an example we reproduce an approximately equilateral shape from the superposition of O(10) oscillatory contributions with resonant shape. This implies a possible degeneracy between the equilateral-type non-Gaussianity typical of models with non-canonical kinetic terms, such as DBI inflation, and an equilateral-type shape arising from a superposition of resonant-type contributions in theories with canonical kinetic terms. The absence of oscillations in the 2-point function together with the structure of resonant N-point functions give a constraint of f{sub NL}∼Gaussianity with resonant origin, but this constraint can be avoided when additional U(1)s are involved in the breaking of the shift symmetry. We comment on the questions arising from possible embeddings of this idea in a string theory setting.

  12. Control charts for non-Gaussian distributions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Babus, Florina; Kobi, Abdessamad; Tiplica, Th.; Bacivarov, Ioan; Bacivarov, Angelica

    2007-05-01

    Traditional statistical process control (SPC) techniques applied in the industrial processes field consider often that the distribution ofdata is Gaussian. The estimation ofparameters, the detection ofthe out oforder situations and the control of the followed characteristics are easy to achieve for the normal populations. In reality, whatever the origin of a characteristic (large series productions for components, mechanical parts of OE communication systems, etc. ) the curve of distributions of the measured values is generally far from being normal. The simple approximation to the Gauss distribution and the use of the classical control methods sometimes induces serious errors. In this paper, a study on the statistical control of non Gaussian populations is presented. Particularly we discuss the Rayleigh and the Weibull distribution as being representatives in (SPC for some category of data. The X control charts with variable limits are tested. Experimental simulations are presented for different parameters of the two distributions. The results confirm the methodology and encourage the research in the field of non Gaussian processes.

  13. Local Gaussian operations can enhance continuous-variable entanglement distillation

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang Shengli; Loock, Peter van

    2011-12-15

    Entanglement distillation is a fundamental building block in long-distance quantum communication. Though known to be useless on their own for distilling Gaussian entangled states, local Gaussian operations may still help to improve non-Gaussian entanglement distillation schemes. Here we show that by applying local squeezing operations both the performance and the efficiency of existing distillation protocols can be enhanced. We find that such an enhancement through local Gaussian unitaries can be obtained even when the initially shared Gaussian entangled states are mixed, as, for instance, after their distribution through a lossy-fiber communication channel.

  14. Non-Gaussian quantum states generation and robust quantum non-Gaussianity via squeezing field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tang, Xu-Bing; Gao, Fang; Wang, Yao-Xiong; Kuang, Sen; Shuang, Feng

    2015-03-01

    Recent studies show that quantum non-Gaussian states or using non-Gaussian operations can improve entanglement distillation, quantum swapping, teleportation, and cloning. In this work, employing a strategy of non-Gaussian operations (namely subtracting and adding a single photon), we propose a scheme to generate non-Gaussian quantum states named single-photon-added and -subtracted coherent (SPASC) superposition states by implementing Bell measurements, and then investigate the corresponding nonclassical features. By squeezed the input field, we demonstrate that robustness of non-Gaussianity can be improved. Controllable phase space distribution offers the possibility to approximately generate a displaced coherent superposition states (DCSS). The fidelity can reach up to F ≥ 0.98 and F ≥ 0.90 for size of amplitude z = 1.53 and 2.36, respectively. Project supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant Nos. 61203061 and 61074052), the Outstanding Young Talent Foundation of Anhui Province, China (Grant No. 2012SQRL040), and the Natural Science Foundation of Anhui Province, China (Grant No. KJ2012Z035).

  15. Stochastic geometry and topology of non-Gaussian fields

    PubMed Central

    Beuman, Thomas H.; Turner, Ari M.; Vitelli, Vincenzo

    2012-01-01

    Gaussian random fields pervade all areas of science. However, it is often the departures from Gaussianity that carry the crucial signature of the nonlinear mechanisms at the heart of diverse phenomena, ranging from structure formation in condensed matter and cosmology to biomedical imaging. The standard test of non-Gaussianity is to measure higher-order correlation functions. In the present work, we take a different route. We show how geometric and topological properties of Gaussian fields, such as the statistics of extrema, are modified by the presence of a non-Gaussian perturbation. The resulting discrepancies give an independent way to detect and quantify non-Gaussianities. In our treatment, we consider both local and nonlocal mechanisms that generate non-Gaussian fields, both statically and dynamically through nonlinear diffusion. PMID:23169625

  16. Multiple defect interpretation based on Gaussian processes for MFL technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wijerathna, Buddhi; Vidal-Calleja, Teresa; Kodagoda, Sarath; Zhang, Qiang; Valls Miro, Jaime

    2013-04-01

    Magnetic Flux Leakage (MFL) technology has been used in non-destructive testing for more than three decades. There have been several publications in detecting and sizing defects on metal pipes using machine learning techniques. Most of these literature focus on isolated defects, which is far from the real scenario. This study is towards the generalization of interpretation of the leakage flux in the presence of multiple defects based on simulation models, together with data-driven inference methodologies, such as Gaussian Process (GP) models. A MFL device has been simulated using both COMSOL Multiphysics and ANSYS software followed by prototyping the same device for experimental validations. Multiple defects with different geometrical configurations were introduced on a cast iron pipe sample and both radial and axial components of the leakage field have been measured. It was observed that both axial and radial components differ with different defect configurations. We propose to use GP to solve the inverse model problem by capturing such behaviors, i.e. to recover the profile of a cluster of defects from the measurements of a MFL device. The data was used to learn the non-parametric GP model with squared exponential covariance function and automatic relevance determination to solve this regression problem. Extensive quantitative and qualitative evaluations are presented using simulated and experimental data that validate the success of the proposed non-parametric methodology for interpreting the profiling of clusters of defects with MFL technology.

  17. Black phosphorus nonvolatile transistor memory.

    PubMed

    Lee, Dain; Choi, Yongsuk; Hwang, Euyheon; Kang, Moon Sung; Lee, Seungwoo; Cho, Jeong Ho

    2016-04-28

    We demonstrated nanofloating gate transistor memory devices (NFGTMs) using mechanically-exfoliated few-layered black phosphorus (BP) channels and gold nanoparticle (AuNPs) charge trapping layers. The resulting BP-NFGTMs exhibited excellent memory performances, including the five-level data storage, large memory window (58.2 V), stable retention (10(4) s), and cyclic endurance (1000 cycles). PMID:27074903

  18. Gettering Silicon Wafers with Phosphorus

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Daiello, R. V.

    1983-01-01

    Silicon wafers subjected to gettering in phosphorus atmosphere have longer diffusion lengths and higher solar-cell efficiencies than untreated wafers. Gettering treatment improves properties of solar cells manufactured from impure silicon and is compatible with standard solar-cell processing.

  19. Major Minerals - Calcium, Magnesium, Phosphorus

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Calcium, magnesium and phosphorus are essential elements critically important for the function of the musculoskeletal system, including the formation and transduction of energy and the maintenance of healthy bone. The major calcium concern for physically active healthy middle-aged adults is to consu...

  20. Phosphorus geochemistry of recent sediments in the South Basin of Lake Winnipeg

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mayer, T.; Simpson, S.L.; Thorleifson, L.H.; Lockhart, W.L.; Wilkinson, Philip M.

    2006-01-01

    Lake Winnipeg supports the largest commercial fishery on Canadian Prairies. It has been influenced by a variety of environmental forces and anthropogenic activities. To gain a better understanding of recent changes in nutrient status of the lake, it is important to reconstruct its previous history from sedimentary records. Lacustrine sediments are known to be an important sink of many dissolved and suspended substances, including phosphorus, hence, they provide a permanent historical record of changes occurring in the lake. These changes may be induced by natural factors or by anthropogenic activities in the watershed. Phosphorus profiles from dated sediment cores collected in 1999 and 1994 from the South Basin of Lake Winnipeg were investigated to determine phosphorus enrichment in recent sediments. To interpret the nutrient status and depositional conditions responsible for the trends in total phosphorus, three operationally defined forms of phosphorus (P) were determined: non-apatite inorganic P, apatite P, and organic P. Significant increases in sediment phosphorus concentrations were observed in the uppermost 20 cm of the cores and several anomalies were observed at depth. A doubling in total phosphorus relative to aluminum over the last fifty years is largely due to increases in the non-apatite inorganic fraction, suggesting that much of sedimentary phosphorus increase is attributable to changes in the nutrient status of the water column related to anthropogenic inputs. Organic phosphorus exhibits a subtle increase in the upper 20 cm of the gravity cores, likely due to increases in the primary productivity of the lake. Except for the slight increase in deeper sediments, apatite phosphorus, which is thought to be of detrital origin, remained fairly constant over the length of the cores. Anomalous spikes in phosphorus concentrations deeper in the cores, comprised mainly of the non-apatite inorganic phosphorus fraction, likely resulted from natural variation in

  1. Natural phosphorus sources for the Pacific Northwest

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Johnson, Hank

    2011-01-01

    Phosphorus is a naturally occurring element found in all rocks; the amount varies by the type of rock. The amount of phosphorus in sediments is expected to be correlated with the amount of phosphorus in the parent rocks. Streambed sediment collected by the National Uranium Resource Evaluation (NURE) Program were used to estimate the variation of phosphorus across the Pacific Northwest. This file provides an estimate of the mean concentration of phosphorus in soils for each incremental catchment of the USGS Pacific Northwest SPARROW model.

  2. Few-layer black phosphorus nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Sofer, Zdenek; Bouša, Daniel; Luxa, Jan; Mazanek, Vlastimil; Pumera, Martin

    2016-01-28

    Herein, black phosphorus quantum dots and nanoparticles of a few layer thickness were prepared and characterized using STEM, AFM, dynamic light scattering, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction, Raman spectroscopy and photoluminescence. Impact electrochemistry of the induvidual black phosphorus nanoparticles allows their size determination. The centrifugation of colloidal black phosphorus nanoparticles allowed separation of quantum dots with sizes up to 15 nm. These black phosphorus nanoparticles exhibit a large band gap and are expected to find a wide range of applications from semiconductors to biomolecule tags. The use of black phosphorus nanoparticles for vapour sensing was successfully demonstrated.

  3. The Galactic evolution of phosphorus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Caffau, E.; Bonifacio, P.; Faraggiana, R.; Steffen, M.

    2011-08-01

    Context. As a galaxy evolves, its chemical composition changes and the abundance ratios of different elements are powerful probes of the underlying evolutionary processes. Phosphorous is an element whose evolution has remained quite elusive until now, because it is difficult to detect in cool stars. The infrared weak P i lines of the multiplet 1, at 1050-1082 nm, are the most reliable indicators of the presence of phosphorus. The availability of CRIRES at VLT has permitted access to this wavelength range in stellar spectra. Aims: We attempt to measure the phosphorus abundance of twenty cool stars in the Galactic disk. Methods: The spectra are analysed with one-dimensional model-atmospheres computed in local thermodynamic equilibrium (LTE). The line formation computations are performed assuming LTE. Results: The ratio of phosphorus to iron behaves similarly to sulphur, increasing towards lower metallicity stars. Its ratio with respect to sulphur is roughly constant and slightly larger than solar, [P/S] = 0.10 ± 0.10. Conclusions: We succeed in taking an important step towards the understanding of the chemical evolution of phosphorus in the Galaxy. However, the observed rise in the P/Fe abundance ratio is steeper than predicted by Galactic chemical evolution model developed by Kobayashi and collaborators. Phosphorus appears to evolve differently from the light odd-Z elements sodium and aluminium. The constant value of [P/S] with metallicity implies that P production is insensitive to the neutron excess, thus processes other than neutron captures operate. We suggest that proton captures on 30Si and α captures on 27Al are possibilities to investigate. We see no clear distinction between our results for stars with planets and stars without any detected planet. Based on observations obtained with the CRIRES spectrograph at ESO-VLT Antu 8.2 m telescope at Paranal, Programme 386.D-0130, P.I. E. Caffau.

  4. New insights into phosphorus management in agriculture--A crop rotation approach.

    PubMed

    Łukowiak, Remigiusz; Grzebisz, Witold; Sassenrath, Gretchen F

    2016-01-15

    This manuscript presents research results examining phosphorus (P) management in a soil–plant system for three variables: i) internal resources of soil available phosphorus, ii) cropping sequence, and iii) external input of phosphorus (manure, fertilizers). The research was conducted in long-term cropping sequences with oilseed rape (10 rotations) and maize (six rotations) over three consecutive growing seasons (2004/2005, 2005/2006, and 2006/2007) in a production farm on soils originated from Albic Luvisols in Poland. The soil available phosphorus pool, measured as calcium chloride extractable P (CCE-P), constituted 28% to 67% of the total phosphorus input (PTI) to the soil–plant system in the spring. Oilseed rape and maize dominant cropping sequences showed a significant potential to utilize the CCE-P pool within the soil profile. Cropping sequences containing oilseed rape significantly affected the CCE-P pool, and in turn contributed to the P(TI). The P(TI) uptake use efficiency was 50% on average. Therefore, the CCE-P pool should be taken into account as an important component of a sound and reliable phosphorus balance. The instability of the yield prediction, based on the P(TI), was mainly due to an imbalanced management of both farmyard manure and phosphorus fertilizer. Oilseed rape plants provide a significant positive impact on the CCE-P pool after harvest, improving the productive stability of the entire cropping sequence. This phenomenon was documented by the P(TI) increase during wheat cultivation following oilseed rape. The Unit Phosphorus Uptake index also showed a higher stability in oilseed rape cropping systems compared to rotations based on maize. Cropping sequences are a primary factor impacting phosphorus management. Judicious implementation of crop rotations can improve soil P resources, efficiency of crop P use, and crop yield and yield stability. Use of cropping sequences can reduce the need for external P sources such as farmyard manure

  5. New insights into phosphorus management in agriculture--A crop rotation approach.

    PubMed

    Łukowiak, Remigiusz; Grzebisz, Witold; Sassenrath, Gretchen F

    2016-01-15

    This manuscript presents research results examining phosphorus (P) management in a soil–plant system for three variables: i) internal resources of soil available phosphorus, ii) cropping sequence, and iii) external input of phosphorus (manure, fertilizers). The research was conducted in long-term cropping sequences with oilseed rape (10 rotations) and maize (six rotations) over three consecutive growing seasons (2004/2005, 2005/2006, and 2006/2007) in a production farm on soils originated from Albic Luvisols in Poland. The soil available phosphorus pool, measured as calcium chloride extractable P (CCE-P), constituted 28% to 67% of the total phosphorus input (PTI) to the soil–plant system in the spring. Oilseed rape and maize dominant cropping sequences showed a significant potential to utilize the CCE-P pool within the soil profile. Cropping sequences containing oilseed rape significantly affected the CCE-P pool, and in turn contributed to the P(TI). The P(TI) uptake use efficiency was 50% on average. Therefore, the CCE-P pool should be taken into account as an important component of a sound and reliable phosphorus balance. The instability of the yield prediction, based on the P(TI), was mainly due to an imbalanced management of both farmyard manure and phosphorus fertilizer. Oilseed rape plants provide a significant positive impact on the CCE-P pool after harvest, improving the productive stability of the entire cropping sequence. This phenomenon was documented by the P(TI) increase during wheat cultivation following oilseed rape. The Unit Phosphorus Uptake index also showed a higher stability in oilseed rape cropping systems compared to rotations based on maize. Cropping sequences are a primary factor impacting phosphorus management. Judicious implementation of crop rotations can improve soil P resources, efficiency of crop P use, and crop yield and yield stability. Use of cropping sequences can reduce the need for external P sources such as farmyard manure

  6. Global warming and the phosphorus cycle

    SciTech Connect

    Tarasova, N.P.; Smetannikov, Y.V.; Balitsky, V.Y. )

    1994-09-01

    Greenhouse-induced climate change seriously influences the phosphorus cycle. In this paper the authors have analyzed how environmental conditions cause an increase or a decrease in the phosphorus content of the soil. Phosphorus production in South Kazakhstan without strict control for fulfilling environment-protection measures may lead to the chemical erosion of soils, i.e., disturb the balance of soluble and insoluble, as well as organic and inorganic, forms of phosphorus. Phosphorus accumulation in the soil can be promoted by heavy metals. The authors have constructed a general dynamic system for phosphorus flows in the soil. The results of 7-years monitoring of the soils in the region of South Kazakhstan are discussed and compared with the dynamic system. The role of chemical elements promoting phosphorus accumulation in the soil is further analyzed.

  7. Optimizing phosphorus diffusion for photovoltaic applications: Peak doping, inactive phosphorus, gettering, and contact formation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wagner, Hannes; Dastgheib-Shirazi, Amir; Min, Byungsul; Morishige, Ashley E.; Steyer, Michael; Hahn, Giso; del Cañizo, Carlos; Buonassisi, Tonio; Altermatt, Pietro P.

    2016-05-01

    The phosphosilicate glass (PSG), fabricated by tube furnace diffusion using a POCl3 source, is widely used as a dopant source in the manufacturing of crystalline silicon solar cells. Although it has been a widely addressed research topic for a long time, there is still lack of a comprehensive understanding of aspects such as the growth, the chemical composition, possible phosphorus depletion, the resulting in-diffused phosphorus profiles, the gettering behavior in silicon, and finally the metal-contact formation. This paper addresses these different aspects simultaneously to further optimize process conditions for photovoltaic applications. To do so, a wide range of experimental data is used and combined with device and process simulations, leading to a more comprehensive interpretation. The results show that slight changes in the PSG process conditions can produce high-quality emitters. It is predicted that PSG processes at 860 °C for 60 min in combination with an etch-back and laser doping from PSG layer results in high-quality emitters with a peak dopant density Npeak = 8.0 × 1018 cm-3 and a junction depth dj = 0.4 μm, resulting in a sheet resistivity ρsh = 380 Ω/sq and a saturation current-density J0 below 10 fA/cm2. With these properties, the POCl3 process can compete with ion implantation or doped oxide approaches.

  8. Conditional phosphorus index as an educational tool for risk assessment and phosphorus management.

    PubMed

    Djodjic, Faruk; Bergström, Lars

    2005-06-01

    Phosphorus index (PI) is a risk-assessment tool that combines phosphorus (P) source factors and transport factors to rank the vulnerability of fields to P losses. Here we present the structure and concepts of conditional PI, developed as an educational and P-management tool adjusted for Swedish conditions. Because the significance of certain factors for P losses depends on their interplay with other factors, conditional rules are needed for a more accurate process description and quantification. Accounting for P losses through the soil profile, separate calculations for reactive and unreactive P and a changed approach to P loss assessment from erosion losses are some of the new features included in the tool presented here. The performance of the tool was tested by comparing the calculated PI values with measured annual P transport from seven observation fields included in a Swedish water quality monitoring program. This first test indicated that the tool could be used successfully for P loss risk assessment. PMID:16092259

  9. Non-Gaussian Photon Probability Distribution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Solomon, Benjamin T.

    2010-01-01

    This paper investigates the axiom that the photon's probability distribution is a Gaussian distribution. The Airy disc empirical evidence shows that the best fit, if not exact, distribution is a modified Gamma mΓ distribution (whose parameters are α = r, βr/√u ) in the plane orthogonal to the motion of the photon. This modified Gamma distribution is then used to reconstruct the probability distributions along the hypotenuse from the pinhole, arc from the pinhole, and a line parallel to photon motion. This reconstruction shows that the photon's probability distribution is not a Gaussian function. However, under certain conditions, the distribution can appear to be Normal, thereby accounting for the success of quantum mechanics. This modified Gamma distribution changes with the shape of objects around it and thus explains how the observer alters the observation. This property therefore places additional constraints to quantum entanglement experiments. This paper shows that photon interaction is a multi-phenomena effect consisting of the probability to interact Pi, the probabilistic function and the ability to interact Ai, the electromagnetic function. Splitting the probability function Pi from the electromagnetic function Ai enables the investigation of the photon behavior from a purely probabilistic Pi perspective. The Probabilistic Interaction Hypothesis is proposed as a consistent method for handling the two different phenomena, the probability function Pi and the ability to interact Ai, thus redefining radiation shielding, stealth or cloaking, and invisibility as different effects of a single phenomenon Pi of the photon probability distribution. Sub wavelength photon behavior is successfully modeled as a multi-phenomena behavior. The Probabilistic Interaction Hypothesis provides a good fit to Otoshi's (1972) microwave shielding, Schurig et al. (2006) microwave cloaking, and Oulton et al. (2008) sub wavelength confinement; thereby providing a strong case that

  10. Monthly streamflow forecasting using Gaussian Process Regression

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Alexander Y.; Wang, Dingbao; Xu, Xianli

    2014-04-01

    Streamflow forecasting plays a critical role in nearly all aspects of water resources planning and management. In this work, Gaussian Process Regression (GPR), an effective kernel-based machine learning algorithm, is applied to probabilistic streamflow forecasting. GPR is built on Gaussian process, which is a stochastic process that generalizes multivariate Gaussian distribution to infinite-dimensional space such that distributions over function values can be defined. The GPR algorithm provides a tractable and flexible hierarchical Bayesian framework for inferring the posterior distribution of streamflows. The prediction skill of the algorithm is tested for one-month-ahead prediction using the MOPEX database, which includes long-term hydrometeorological time series collected from 438 basins across the U.S. from 1948 to 2003. Comparisons with linear regression and artificial neural network models indicate that GPR outperforms both regression methods in most cases. The GPR prediction of MOPEX basins is further examined using the Budyko framework, which helps to reveal the close relationships among water-energy partitions, hydrologic similarity, and predictability. Flow regime modification and the resulting loss of predictability have been a major concern in recent years because of climate change and anthropogenic activities. The persistence of streamflow predictability is thus examined by extending the original MOPEX data records to 2012. Results indicate relatively strong persistence of streamflow predictability in the extended period, although the low-predictability basins tend to show more variations. Because many low-predictability basins are located in regions experiencing fast growth of human activities, the significance of sustainable development and water resources management can be even greater for those regions.

  11. Boson sampling from a Gaussian state.

    PubMed

    Lund, A P; Laing, A; Rahimi-Keshari, S; Rudolph, T; O'Brien, J L; Ralph, T C

    2014-09-01

    We pose a randomized boson-sampling problem. Strong evidence exists that such a problem becomes intractable on a classical computer as a function of the number of bosons. We describe a quantum optical processor that can solve this problem efficiently based on a Gaussian input state, a linear optical network, and nonadaptive photon counting measurements. All the elements required to build such a processor currently exist. The demonstration of such a device would provide empirical evidence that quantum computers can, indeed, outperform classical computers and could lead to applications. PMID:25238340

  12. Non-gaussianity from broken symmetries

    SciTech Connect

    Kolb, Edward W.; Riotto, Antonio; Vallinotto, Alberto; /Chicago U. /Fermilab

    2005-11-01

    Recently we studied inflation models in which the inflation potential is characterized by an underlying approximate global symmetry. In the first work we pointed out that in such a model curvature perturbations are generated after the end of the slow-roll phase of inflation. In this work we develop further the observational implications of the model and compute the degree of non-Gaussianity predicted in the scenario. We find that the corresponding nonlinearity parameter, F{sub NL}, can be as large as 10{sup 2}.

  13. A Gaussian measure of quantum phase noise

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schleich, Wolfgang P.; Dowling, Jonathan P.

    1992-01-01

    We study the width of the semiclassical phase distribution of a quantum state in its dependence on the average number of photons (m) in this state. As a measure of phase noise, we choose the width, delta phi, of the best Gaussian approximation to the dominant peak of this probability curve. For a coherent state, this width decreases with the square root of (m), whereas for a truncated phase state it decreases linearly with increasing (m). For an optimal phase state, delta phi decreases exponentially but so does the area caught underneath the peak: all the probability is stored in the broad wings of the distribution.

  14. Negative Gaussian curvature from induced metric changes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Modes, Carl D.; Warner, Mark

    2015-07-01

    We revisit the light or heat-induced changes in topography of initially flat sheets of a solid that elongate or contract along patterned in-plane director fields. For radial or azimuthal directors, negative Gaussian curvature is generated—so-called "anticones." We show that azimuthal material displacements are required for the distorted state to be stretch free and bend minimizing. The resultant shapes are smooth and asterlike and can become reentrant in the azimuthal coordinate for large deformations. We show that care is needed when considering elastomers rather than glasses, although the former offer huge deformations.

  15. Video compressive sensing using Gaussian mixture models.

    PubMed

    Yang, Jianbo; Yuan, Xin; Liao, Xuejun; Llull, Patrick; Brady, David J; Sapiro, Guillermo; Carin, Lawrence

    2014-11-01

    A Gaussian mixture model (GMM)-based algorithm is proposed for video reconstruction from temporally compressed video measurements. The GMM is used to model spatio-temporal video patches, and the reconstruction can be efficiently computed based on analytic expressions. The GMM-based inversion method benefits from online adaptive learning and parallel computation. We demonstrate the efficacy of the proposed inversion method with videos reconstructed from simulated compressive video measurements, and from a real compressive video camera. We also use the GMM as a tool to investigate adaptive video compressive sensing, i.e., adaptive rate of temporal compression.

  16. Gaussian and non-Gaussian inverse modeling of groundwater flow using copulas and random mixing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bárdossy, András.; Hörning, Sebastian

    2016-06-01

    This paper presents a new copula-based methodology for Gaussian and non-Gaussian inverse modeling of groundwater flow. The presented approach is embedded in a Monte Carlo framework and it is based on the concept of mixing spatial random fields where a spatial copula serves as spatial dependence function. The target conditional spatial distribution of hydraulic transmissivities is obtained as a linear combination of unconditional spatial fields. The corresponding weights of this linear combination are chosen such that the combined field has the prescribed spatial variability, and honors all the observations of hydraulic transmissivities. The constraints related to hydraulic head observations are nonlinear. In order to fulfill these constraints, a connected domain in the weight space, inside which all linear constraints are fulfilled, is identified. This domain is defined analytically and includes an infinite number of conditional fields (i.e., conditioned on the observed hydraulic transmissivities), and the nonlinear constraints can be fulfilled via minimization of the deviation of the modeled and the observed hydraulic heads. This procedure enables the simulation of a great number of solutions for the inverse problem, allowing a reasonable quantification of the associated uncertainties. The methodology can be used for fields with Gaussian copula dependence, and fields with specific non-Gaussian copula dependence. Further, arbitrary marginal distributions can be considered.

  17. Hierarchical similarity transformations between Gaussian mixtures.

    PubMed

    Rigas, George; Nikou, Christophoros; Goletsis, Yorgos; Fotiadis, Dimitrios I

    2013-11-01

    In this paper, we propose a method to estimate the density of a data space represented by a geometric transformation of an initial Gaussian mixture model. The geometric transformation is hierarchical, and it is decomposed into two steps. At first, the initial model is assumed to undergo a global similarity transformation modeled by translation, rotation, and scaling of the model components. Then, to increase the degrees of freedom of the model and allow it to capture fine data structures, each individual mixture component may be transformed by another, local similarity transformation, whose parameters are distinct for each component of the mixture. In addition, to constrain the order of magnitude of the local transformation (LT) with respect to the global transformation (GT), zero-mean Gaussian priors are imposed onto the local parameters. The estimation of both GT and LT parameters is obtained through the expectation maximization framework. Experiments on artificial data are conducted to evaluate the proposed model, with varying data dimensionality, number of model components, and transformation parameters. In addition, the method is evaluated using real data from a speech recognition task. The obtained results show a high model accuracy and demonstrate the potential application of the proposed method to similar classification problems. PMID:24808615

  18. Rogue Waves in Near Gaussian Sea States

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Osborne, Alfred R.

    2015-04-01

    The field of nonlinear waves often emphasizes the importance of small amplitude modulations in the nonlinear Schroedinger equation (NLS). The Akhmediev and Peregrine breather trains are examples which manifest themselves from the usual linear instability analyses of NLS. In reality, however, oceanic sea states generated by wind waves are very nearly Gaussian processes and so the modulus of the Hilbert transform envelope is approximately Rayleigh distributed (with of course the possibility of a large amplitude tail) and is therefore never a small amplitude modulation. How can we then reconcile our usual perceptions with this fact? What are indeed the solutions of the nonlinear Schroedinger equation non Gaussianity have on the actual types of solutions that are likely to occur in the real ocean? I discuss how finite gap theory for NLS allows us to answer these and many more questions about rogue sea states. I analyze data from various laboratory and oceanic experiments to illustrate the method. Finally, I discuss whether breather trains such as Akhmediev, Peregrine and Ma-Kuznetsov can actually occur in ocean wave data.

  19. Scaling Multidimensional Inference for Structured Gaussian Processes.

    PubMed

    Gilboa, Elad; Saatçi, Yunus; Cunningham, John P

    2013-09-30

    Exact Gaussian process (GP) regression has O(N^3) runtime for data size N, making it intractable for large N. Many algorithms for improving GP scaling approximate the covariance with lower rank matrices. Other work has exploited structure inherent in particular covariance functions, including GPs with implied Markov structure, and inputs on a lattice (both enable O(N) or O(N log N) runtime). However, these GP advances have not been well extended to the multidimensional input setting, despite the preponderance of multidimensional applications. This paper introduces and tests three novel extensions of structured GPs to multidimensional inputs, for models with additive and multiplicative kernels. First we present a new method for inference in additive GPs, showing a novel connection between the classic backfitting method and the Bayesian framework. We extend this model using two advances: a variant of projection pursuit regression, and a Laplace approximation for non-Gaussian observations. Lastly, for multiplicative kernel structure, we present a novel method for GPs with inputs on a multidimensional grid. We illustrate the power of these three advances on several datasets, achieving performance equal to or very close to the naive GP at orders of magnitude less cost.

  20. Scaling Multidimensional Inference for Structured Gaussian Processes.

    PubMed

    Gilboa, Elad; Saatçi, Yunus; Cunningham, John P

    2015-02-01

    Exact Gaussian process (GP) regression has O(N(3)) runtime for data size N, making it intractable for large N . Many algorithms for improving GP scaling approximate the covariance with lower rank matrices. Other work has exploited structure inherent in particular covariance functions, including GPs with implied Markov structure, and inputs on a lattice (both enable O(N) or O(N log N) runtime). However, these GP advances have not been well extended to the multidimensional input setting, despite the preponderance of multidimensional applications. This paper introduces and tests three novel extensions of structured GPs to multidimensional inputs, for models with additive and multiplicative kernels. First we present a new method for inference in additive GPs, showing a novel connection between the classic backfitting method and the Bayesian framework. We extend this model using two advances: a variant of projection pursuit regression, and a Laplace approximation for non-Gaussian observations. Lastly, for multiplicative kernel structure, we present a novel method for GPs with inputs on a multidimensional grid. We illustrate the power of these three advances on several data sets, achieving performance equal to or very close to the naive GP at orders of magnitude less cost.

  1. Harmonic Pinnacles in the Discrete Gaussian Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lubetzky, Eyal; Martinelli, Fabio; Sly, Allan

    2016-06-01

    The 2 D Discrete Gaussian model gives each height function {η : {mathbb{Z}^2tomathbb{Z}}} a probability proportional to {exp(-β mathcal{H}(η))}, where {β} is the inverse-temperature and {mathcal{H}(η) = sum_{x˜ y}(η_x-η_y)^2} sums over nearest-neighbor bonds. We consider the model at large fixed {β}, where it is flat unlike its continuous analog (the Discrete Gaussian Free Field). We first establish that the maximum height in an {L× L} box with 0 boundary conditions concentrates on two integers M, M + 1 with {M˜ √{(1/2πβ)log Lloglog L}}. The key is a large deviation estimate for the height at the origin in {mathbb{Z}2}, dominated by "harmonic pinnacles", integer approximations of a harmonic variational problem. Second, in this model conditioned on {η≥ 0} (a floor), the average height rises, and in fact the height of almost all sites concentrates on levels H, H + 1 where {H˜ M/√{2}}. This in particular pins down the asymptotics, and corrects the order, in results of Bricmont et al. (J. Stat. Phys. 42(5-6):743-798, 1986), where it was argued that the maximum and the height of the surface above a floor are both of order {√{log L}}. Finally, our methods extend to other classical surface models (e.g., restricted SOS), featuring connections to p-harmonic analysis and alternating sign matrices.

  2. Black phosphorus nonvolatile transistor memory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Dain; Choi, Yongsuk; Hwang, Euyheon; Kang, Moon Sung; Lee, Seungwoo; Cho, Jeong Ho

    2016-04-01

    We demonstrated nanofloating gate transistor memory devices (NFGTMs) using mechanically-exfoliated few-layered black phosphorus (BP) channels and gold nanoparticle (AuNPs) charge trapping layers. The resulting BP-NFGTMs exhibited excellent memory performances, including the five-level data storage, large memory window (58.2 V), stable retention (104 s), and cyclic endurance (1000 cycles).We demonstrated nanofloating gate transistor memory devices (NFGTMs) using mechanically-exfoliated few-layered black phosphorus (BP) channels and gold nanoparticle (AuNPs) charge trapping layers. The resulting BP-NFGTMs exhibited excellent memory performances, including the five-level data storage, large memory window (58.2 V), stable retention (104 s), and cyclic endurance (1000 cycles). Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available. See DOI: 10.1039/c6nr02078j

  3. Phosphorus doping a semiconductor particle

    DOEpatents

    Stevens, G.D.; Reynolds, J.S.

    1999-07-20

    A method of phosphorus doping a semiconductor particle using ammonium phosphate is disclosed. A p-doped silicon sphere is mixed with a diluted solution of ammonium phosphate having a predetermined concentration. These spheres are dried with the phosphorus then being diffused into the sphere to create either a shallow or deep p-n junction. A good PSG glass layer is formed on the surface of the sphere during the diffusion process. A subsequent segregation anneal process is utilized to strip metal impurities from near the p-n junction into the glass layer. A subsequent HF strip procedure is then utilized to removed the PSG layer. Ammonium phosphate is not a restricted chemical, is inexpensive, and does not pose any special shipping, handling, or disposal requirement. 1 fig.

  4. Relaxation oscillations in a laser with a Gaussian mirror.

    PubMed

    Mossakowska-Wyszyńska, Agnieszka; Witoński, Piotr; Szczepański, Paweł

    2002-03-20

    We present an analysis of the relaxation oscillations in a laser with a Gaussian mirror by taking into account the three-dimensional spatial field distribution of the laser modes and the spatial hole burning effect. In particular, we discuss the influence of the Gaussian mirror peak reflectivity and a Gaussian parameter on the damping rate and frequency of the relaxation oscillation for two different laser structures, i.e., with a classically unstable resonator and a classically stable resonator. PMID:11921794

  5. Electromagnetic cosine-Gaussian Schell-model beams in free space and atmospheric turbulence.

    PubMed

    Mei, Zhangrong; Korotkova, Olga

    2013-11-01

    A recently introduced class of scalar cosine-Gaussian Schell-Model [CGSM] beams is generalized to electromagnetic theory. The realizability conditions and the beam conditions on the source parameters are derived. Analytical formulas for the cross-spectral density matrix elements of the electromagnetic cosine-Gaussian Schell-model [EM CGSM] beams propagating in isotropic random medium are derived. It is found that the EM CGSM beams possess single-ring or double-ring intensity profiles, depending of source parameters. As two examples, the statistical characteristics of the EM CGSM beams propagating in free space and non-Kolmogorov turbulent atmosphere are studied numerically. The effects of the fractal constant of the atmospheric spectrum and the refractive-index structure constant on such characteristics are analyzed in detail.

  6. Non-Gaussian Information-Theoretical Analytics for Diagnostic and Inference of Hydroclimatic Extremes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pires, Carlos A. L.; Perdigão, Rui A. P.

    2016-04-01

    Hydroclimatic spatiotemporal distributions exhibit significant non-Gaussianity with particular emphasis to overweight extremes, rendering their diagnostic and inference suboptimal with traditional statistical techniques. In order to overcome that limitation, we introduce and discuss a set of information-theoretic methodologies for statistical diagnostic and inference issued from exploratory variables of the general atmospheric and oceanic circulation in the cases of non-Gaussian joint probability distributions. Moreover, the nonlinear information among various large-scale ocean-atmospheric processes is explored, bringing out added predictability to elusive weather and hydrologic extremes relative to the current state of the art in nonlinear geophysics. The methodologies are illustrated with the analysis and prediction of resonant ocean-atmospheric thermodynamic anomaly spells underneath high-profile floods and droughts.

  7. Influence of Gaussian white noise on the frequency-dependent linear polarizability of doped quantum dot

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ganguly, Jayanta; Ghosh, Manas

    2014-06-01

    We investigate the profiles of diagonal components of frequency-dependent linear (αxx and αyy) optical response of repulsive impurity doped quantum dots. The dopant impurity potential chosen assumes Gaussian form. The study principally puts emphasis on investigating the role of noise on the polarizability components. In view of this we have exploited Gaussian white noise containing additive and multiplicative characteristics (in Stratonovich sense). The frequency-dependent polarizabilities are studied by exposing the doped dot to a periodically oscillating external electric field of given intensity. The oscillation frequency, confinement potentials, dopant location, and above all, the noise characteristics tune the linear polarizability components in a subtle manner. Whereas the additive noise fails to have any impact on the polarizabilities, the multiplicative noise influences them delicately and gives rise to additional interesting features.

  8. Stable propagation of non-Gaussian beams in a multiple-pass cell.

    PubMed

    Takasaki, T; Suda, A; Sato, K; Nagasaka, K; Tashiro, H

    1997-05-20

    To apply annular output beams emitted from an unstable resonator to a multiple-pass cell (MPC) for Raman conversion, we studied the mode-matching condition of non-Gaussian beams to a MPC using beam propagation analysis based on Laguerre-Gaussian functions. During transits of the MPC, the radial profile of an annular beam changes between annular and Airy patterns. Although such behavior indicates that it is impossible to achieve complete mode matching of an annular beam, we found a quasi-mode-matching condition under which the variation of beam size was minimized. The above theoretical analysis was verified experimentally using a CO(2) laser beam prepared for a para-hydrogen Raman laser. PMID:18253356

  9. Evolution properties of Bessel-Gaussian Schell-model beams in non-Kolmogorov turbulence.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xiaoyang; Yao, Mingwu; Qiu, Zhiliang; Yi, Xiang; Liu, Zengji

    2015-05-18

    The analytical expressions for the spectral degree of coherence, the effective radius of curvature and the propagation factor of the Bessel-Gaussian Schell-model (BGSM) beam in turbulent atmosphere are derived based on the extended Huygens-Fresnel principle and the second-order moments of the Wigner distribution function (WDF). The evolution properties of BGSM beams propagating in non-Kolmogorov turbulence are investigated by a set of numerical examples. It is demonstrated that the spectral degree of coherence of the BGSM beam evolves into Gaussian profile twice with the increasing of the propagation distance. The turbulence-induced degradation can be remarkably reduced by using the BGSM beam with the proper source parameters. The effects that the generalized refractive-index structure constant, outer and inner scales, and the spectral index of spatial power spectrum of atmospheric turbulence have on the evolution properties of BGSM beams are also discussed in detail.

  10. Phase-only shaping algorithm for Gaussian-apodized Bessel beams.

    PubMed

    Durfee, Charles G; Gemmer, John; Moloney, Jerome V

    2013-07-01

    Gaussian-apodized Bessel beams can be used to create a Bessel-like axial line focus at a distance from the focusing lens. For many applications it is desirable to create an axial intensity profile that is uniform along the Bessel zone. In this article, we show that this can be accomplished through phase-only shaping of the wavefront in the far field where the beam has an annular ring structure with a Gaussian cross section. We use a one-dimensional transform to map the radial input field to the axial Bessel field and then optimized the axial intensity with a Gerchberg-Saxton algorithm. By separating out the quadratic portion of the shaping phase the algorithm converges more rapidly. PMID:23842364

  11. On focusing of a ring ripple on a Gaussian electromagnetic beam in a plasma

    SciTech Connect

    Misra, Shikha; Mishra, S. K.

    2008-09-15

    In this communication the authors have investigated the focusing of a ring ripple on a Gaussian electromagnetic beam propagating in a plasma, considering each of the three kinds of basic nonlinearities, namely, ponderomotive, collisional, and relativistic. In this analysis, the electric field profile of the propagating beam is assumed to be composed of the radial electric field distribution of the Gaussian beam as well as that of the ring ripple; a paraxial like approach has been adopted to analyze the characteristics of the propagation. Thus, one considers a unique dielectric function for the beam propagation and a radial field sensitive diffraction term, appropriate to the vicinity of the maximum of the irradiance distribution of the ring ripple. Further, the variation of the phase associated with the beam on account of the r independent terms in the eikonal has also been accounted for.

  12. Comparison of phosphorus forms in three extracts of dairy feces by solution 31P NMR analysis

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Using solution 31P NMR spectroscopy, we compared three extractants, deionized water, sodium acetate buffer (pH 5.0) with fresh sodium dithionite (NaAc-SD), and 0.25 M NaOH-0.05 M EDTA (NaOH-EDTA), for the profile of P compounds in two dairy fecal samples. Phosphorus extracted was 35% for water, and...

  13. Inspection of commercial optical devices for data storage using a three Gaussian beam microscope interferometer

    SciTech Connect

    Flores, J. Mauricio; Cywiak, Moises; Servin, Manuel; Juarez P, Lorenzo

    2008-09-20

    Recently, an interferometric profilometer based on the heterodyning of three Gaussian beams has been reported. This microscope interferometer, called a three Gaussian beam interferometer, has been used to profile high quality optical surfaces that exhibit constant reflectivity with high vertical resolution and lateral resolution near {lambda}. We report the use of this interferometer to measure the profiles of two commercially available optical surfaces for data storage, namely, the compact disk (CD-R) and the digital versatile disk (DVD-R). We include experimental results from a one-dimensional radial scan of these devices without data marks. The measurements are taken by placing the devices with the polycarbonate surface facing the probe beam of the interferometer. This microscope interferometer is unique when compared with other optical measuring instruments because it uses narrowband detection, filters out undesirable noisy signals, and because the amplitude of the output voltage signal is basically proportional to the local vertical height of the surface under test, thus detecting with high sensitivity. We show that the resulting profiles, measured with this interferometer across the polycarbonate layer, provide valuable information about the track profiles, making this interferometer a suitable tool for quality control of surface storage devices.

  14. The properties of the anti-tumor model with coupling non-Gaussian noise and Gaussian colored noise

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guo, Qin; Sun, Zhongkui; Xu, Wei

    2016-05-01

    The anti-tumor model with correlation between multiplicative non-Gaussian noise and additive Gaussian-colored noise has been investigated in this paper. The behaviors of the stationary probability distribution demonstrate that the multiplicative non-Gaussian noise plays a dual role in the development of tumor and an appropriate additive Gaussian colored noise can lead to a minimum of the mean value of tumor cell population. The mean first passage time is calculated to quantify the effects of noises on the transition time of tumors between the stable states. An increase in both the non-Gaussian noise intensity and the departure from the Gaussian noise can accelerate the transition from the disease state to the healthy state. On the contrary, an increase in cross-correlated degree will slow down the transition. Moreover, the correlation time can enhance the stability of the disease state.

  15. Ultra-Long Crystalline Red Phosphorus Nanowires from Amorphous Red Phosphorus Thin Films.

    PubMed

    Smith, Joshua B; Hagaman, Daniel; DiGuiseppi, David; Schweitzer-Stenner, Reinhard; Ji, Hai-Feng

    2016-09-19

    Heating red phosphorus in sealed ampoules in the presence of a Sn/SnI4 catalyst mixture has provided bulk black phosphorus at much lower pressures than those required for allotropic conversion by anvil cells. Herein we report the growth of ultra-long 1D red phosphorus nanowires (>1 mm) selectively onto a wafer substrate from red phosphorus powder and a thin film of red phosphorus in the present of a Sn/SnI4 catalyst. Raman spectra and X-ray diffraction characterization suggested the formation of crystalline red phosphorus nanowires. FET devices constructed with the red phosphorus nanowires displayed a typical I-V curve similar to that of black phosphorus and a similar mobility reaching 300 cm(2)  V(-1)  s with an Ion /Ioff ratio approaching 10(2) . A significant response to infrared light was observed from the FET device. PMID:27553637

  16. Ultra-Long Crystalline Red Phosphorus Nanowires from Amorphous Red Phosphorus Thin Films.

    PubMed

    Smith, Joshua B; Hagaman, Daniel; DiGuiseppi, David; Schweitzer-Stenner, Reinhard; Ji, Hai-Feng

    2016-09-19

    Heating red phosphorus in sealed ampoules in the presence of a Sn/SnI4 catalyst mixture has provided bulk black phosphorus at much lower pressures than those required for allotropic conversion by anvil cells. Herein we report the growth of ultra-long 1D red phosphorus nanowires (>1 mm) selectively onto a wafer substrate from red phosphorus powder and a thin film of red phosphorus in the present of a Sn/SnI4 catalyst. Raman spectra and X-ray diffraction characterization suggested the formation of crystalline red phosphorus nanowires. FET devices constructed with the red phosphorus nanowires displayed a typical I-V curve similar to that of black phosphorus and a similar mobility reaching 300 cm(2)  V(-1)  s with an Ion /Ioff ratio approaching 10(2) . A significant response to infrared light was observed from the FET device.

  17. Non-Gaussian Photon Probability Distribution

    SciTech Connect

    Solomon, Benjamin T.

    2010-01-28

    This paper investigates the axiom that the photon's probability distribution is a Gaussian distribution. The Airy disc empirical evidence shows that the best fit, if not exact, distribution is a modified Gamma mGAMMA distribution (whose parameters are alpha = r, betar/sq root(u)) in the plane orthogonal to the motion of the photon. This modified Gamma distribution is then used to reconstruct the probability distributions along the hypotenuse from the pinhole, arc from the pinhole, and a line parallel to photon motion. This reconstruction shows that the photon's probability distribution is not a Gaussian function. However, under certain conditions, the distribution can appear to be Normal, thereby accounting for the success of quantum mechanics. This modified Gamma distribution changes with the shape of objects around it and thus explains how the observer alters the observation. This property therefore places additional constraints to quantum entanglement experiments. This paper shows that photon interaction is a multi-phenomena effect consisting of the probability to interact P{sub i}, the probabilistic function and the ability to interact A{sub i}, the electromagnetic function. Splitting the probability function P{sub i} from the electromagnetic function A{sub i} enables the investigation of the photon behavior from a purely probabilistic P{sub i} perspective. The Probabilistic Interaction Hypothesis is proposed as a consistent method for handling the two different phenomena, the probability function P{sub i} and the ability to interact A{sub i}, thus redefining radiation shielding, stealth or cloaking, and invisibility as different effects of a single phenomenon P{sub i} of the photon probability distribution. Sub wavelength photon behavior is successfully modeled as a multi-phenomena behavior. The Probabilistic Interaction Hypothesis provides a good fit to Otoshi's (1972) microwave shielding, Schurig et al.(2006) microwave cloaking, and Oulton et al.(2008) sub

  18. Laser beam shaping profiles and propagation.

    PubMed

    Shealy, David L; Hoffnagle, John A

    2006-07-20

    We consider four families of functions--the super-Gaussian, flattened Gaussian, Fermi-Dirac, and super-Lorentzian--that have been used to describe flattened irradiance profiles. We determine the shape and width parameters of the different distributions, when each flattened profile has the same radius and slope of the irradiance at its half-height point, and then we evaluate the implicit functional relationship between the shape and width parameters for matched profiles, which provides a quantitative way to compare profiles described by different families of functions. We conclude from an analysis of each profile with matched parameters using Kirchhoff-Fresnel diffraction theory and M2 analysis that the diffraction patterns as they propagate differ by small amounts, which may not be distinguished experimentally. Thus, beam shaping optics is designed to produce either of these four flattened output irradiance distributions with matched parameters will yield similar irradiance distributions as the beam propagates.

  19. Energy and phosphorus recovery from black water.

    PubMed

    de Graaff, M S; Temmink, H; Zeeman, G; Buisman, C J N

    2011-01-01

    Source-separated black water (BW) (toilet water) containing 38% of the organic material and 68% of the phosphorus in the total household waste (water) stream including kitchen waste, is a potential source for energy and phosphorus recovery. The energy recovered, in the form of electricity and heat, is more than sufficient for anaerobic treatment, nitrogen removal and phosphorus recovery. The phosphorus balance of an upflow anaerobic sludge blanket reactor treating concentrated BW showed a phosphorus conservation of 61% in the anaerobic effluent. Precipitation of phosphate as struvite from this stream resulted in a recovery of 0.22 kgP/p/y, representing 10% of the artificial phosphorus fertiliser production in the world. The remaining part of the phosphorus ended up in the anaerobic sludge, mainly due to precipitation (39%). Low dilution and a high pH favour the accumulation of phosphorus in the anaerobic sludge and this sludge could be used as a phosphorus-enriched organic fertiliser, provided that it is safe regarding heavy metals, pathogens and micro-pollutants.

  20. Phosphorus and Nutrition in Chronic Kidney Disease

    PubMed Central

    González-Parra, Emilio; Gracia-Iguacel, Carolina; Egido, Jesús; Ortiz, Alberto

    2012-01-01

    Patients with renal impairment progressively lose the ability to excrete phosphorus. Decreased glomerular filtration of phosphorus is initially compensated by decreased tubular reabsorption, regulated by PTH and FGF23, maintaining normal serum phosphorus concentrations. There is a close relationship between protein and phosphorus intake. In chronic renal disease, a low dietary protein content slows the progression of kidney disease, especially in patients with proteinuria and decreases the supply of phosphorus, which has been directly related with progression of kidney disease and with patient survival. However, not all animal proteins and vegetables have the same proportion of phosphorus in their composition. Adequate labeling of food requires showing the phosphorus-to-protein ratio. The diet in patients with advanced-stage CKD has been controversial, because a diet with too low protein content can favor malnutrition and increase morbidity and mortality. Phosphorus binders lower serum phosphorus and also FGF23 levels, without decreasing diet protein content. But the interaction between intestinal dysbacteriosis in dialysis patients, phosphate binder efficacy, and patient tolerance to the binder could reduce their efficiency. PMID:22701173

  1. Dynamic Gaussian wake meandering in a restricted nonlinear simulation framework

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bretheim, Joel; Porte-Agel, Fernando; Gayme, Dennice; Meneveau, Charles

    2015-11-01

    Wake meandering can significantly impact the performance of large-scale wind farms. Simplified wake expansion (e.g., Jensen/PARK) models, which are commonly used in industry, lead to accurate predictions of certain wind farm performance characteristics (e.g., time- and row-averaged total power output). However, they are unable to capture certain temporal phenomena such as wake meandering, which can have profound effects on both power output and turbine loading. We explore a dynamic wake modeling framework based on the approach proposed by Larsen et al. (Wind Energy 11, 2008) whereby turbine ``wake elements'' are treated as passive tracers and advected by an averaged streamwise flow. Our wake elements are treated as Gaussian velocity deficit profiles (Bastankhah and Porte-Agel, Renew. Energy 70, 2014). A restricted nonlinear (RNL) model is used to capture the turbulent velocity fluctuations that are critical to the wake meandering phenomenon. The RNL system, which has been used in prior wall-turbulence studies, provides a computationally affordable way to model atmospheric turbulence, making it more reasonable for use in engineering models than the more accurate but computationally intensive approaches like large-eddy simulation. This work is supported by NSF (IGERT 0801471, SEP-1230788, and IIA-1243482, the WINDINSPIRE project).

  2. Impact of phosphorus control measures on in-river phosphorus retention associated with point source pollution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Demars, B. O. L.; Harper, D. M.; Pitt, J.-A.; Slaughter, R.

    2005-01-01

    In-river phosphorus retention alters the quantity and timings of phosphorus delivery to downstream aquatic systems. Many intensive studies of in-river phosphorus retention have been carried out but generally on a short time scale (2-4 years). In this paper, monthly water quality data, collected by the Environment Agency of England and Wales over 12 years (1990-2001), were used to model daily phosphorus fluxes and monthly in-river phosphorus retention in the lowland calcareous River Wensum, Norfolk, UK. The effectiveness of phosphorus stripping at two major sewage treatment works was quantified over different hydrological conditions. The model explained 78% and 88% of the observed variance before and after phosphorus control, respectively. During relatively dry years, there was no net export of phosphorus from the catchment. High retention of phosphorus occurred, particularly during the summer months, which was not compensated for, by subsequent higher flow events. The critical discharge (Q) above which net remobilisation would occur, was only reached during few, high flow events Q25-Q13. Phosphorus removal from the effluent at two major STWs (Sewage Treatment Works) reduced the phosphorus catchment mass balance variability by 20-24% under the Q99-Q1. range of flow conditions. Although the absorbing capacity of the catchment against human impact was remarkable, further phosphorus remedial strategies will be necessary to prevent downstream risks of eutrophication occuring independently of the unpredictable variability in weather conditions.

  3. Assessing Long Term Impact of Phosphorus Fertilization on Phosphorus Loadings Using AnnAGNPS

    EPA Science Inventory

    High phosphorus (P) loss from agricultural fields has been an environmental concern because of potential water quality problems in streams and lakes. To better understand the process of P loss and evaluate the different phosphorus fertilization rates on phosphorus losses, the US...

  4. Distributed static linear Gaussian models using consensus.

    PubMed

    Belanovic, Pavle; Valcarcel Macua, Sergio; Zazo, Santiago

    2012-10-01

    Algorithms for distributed agreement are a powerful means for formulating distributed versions of existing centralized algorithms. We present a toolkit for this task and show how it can be used systematically to design fully distributed algorithms for static linear Gaussian models, including principal component analysis, factor analysis, and probabilistic principal component analysis. These algorithms do not rely on a fusion center, require only low-volume local (1-hop neighborhood) communications, and are thus efficient, scalable, and robust. We show how they are also guaranteed to asymptotically converge to the same solution as the corresponding existing centralized algorithms. Finally, we illustrate the functioning of our algorithms on two examples, and examine the inherent cost-performance trade-off.

  5. Bimetric structure formation: Non-Gaussian predictions

    SciTech Connect

    Magueijo, Joao; Noller, Johannes; Piazza, Federico

    2010-08-15

    The minimal bimetric theory employing a disformal transformation between matter and gravity metrics is known to produce exactly scale-invariant fluctuations. It has a purely equilateral non-Gaussian signal, with an amplitude smaller than that of Dirac Born Infeld inflation (with opposite sign) but larger than standard inflation. We consider nonminimal bimetric models, where the coupling B appearing in the disformal transformation g-circumflex{sub {mu}{nu}}=g{sub {mu}{nu}}-B{partial_derivative}{sub {mu}{phi}{partial_derivative}{nu}{phi}} can run with {phi}. For power-law B({phi}) these models predict tilted spectra. For each value of the spectral index, a distinctive distortion to the equilateral property can be found. The constraint between this distortion and the spectral index can be seen as a 'consistency relation' for nonminimal bimetric models.

  6. Bimetric structure formation: Non-Gaussian predictions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Magueijo, João; Noller, Johannes; Piazza, Federico

    2010-08-01

    The minimal bimetric theory employing a disformal transformation between matter and gravity metrics is known to produce exactly scale-invariant fluctuations. It has a purely equilateral non-Gaussian signal, with an amplitude smaller than that of Dirac Born Infeld inflation (with opposite sign) but larger than standard inflation. We consider nonminimal bimetric models, where the coupling B appearing in the disformal transformation g^μν=gμν-B∂μϕ∂νϕ can run with ϕ. For power-law B(ϕ) these models predict tilted spectra. For each value of the spectral index, a distinctive distortion to the equilateral property can be found. The constraint between this distortion and the spectral index can be seen as a “consistency relation” for nonminimal bimetric models.

  7. IBS for non-gaussian distributions

    SciTech Connect

    Fedotov, A.; Sidorin, A.O.; Smirnov, A.V.

    2010-09-27

    In many situations distribution can significantly deviate from Gaussian which requires accurate treatment of IBS. Our original interest in this problem was motivated by the need to have an accurate description of beam evolution due to IBS while distribution is strongly affected by the external electron cooling force. A variety of models with various degrees of approximation were developed and implemented in BETACOOL in the past to address this topic. A more complete treatment based on the friction coefficient and full 3-D diffusion tensor was introduced in BETACOOL at the end of 2007 under the name 'local IBS model'. Such a model allowed us calculation of IBS for an arbitrary beam distribution. The numerical benchmarking of this local IBS algorithm and its comparison with other models was reported before. In this paper, after briefly describing the model and its limitations, they present its comparison with available experimental data.

  8. Non-Gaussian Berkson errors in bioassay.

    PubMed

    Althubaiti, Alaa; Donev, Alexander

    2016-02-01

    The experimental design plays an important role in every experimental study. However, if errors in the settings of the studied factors cannot be avoided, i.e. Berkson errors occur, the estimates of the model parameters may be biased and the variability in the study increased. Correction methods for the effect of Berkson errors are compared. The emphasis is on the study of correlated Berkson errors which follow non-Gaussian distribution as this appears to have been a neglected, yet important, area. It is shown that the regression calibration approach bias correction methods are useful when the Berkson errors are independent. However, when these errors are dependent, the newly proposed method B-SIMEX clearly outperforms the other methods.

  9. Exploring scalar field dynamics with Gaussian processes

    SciTech Connect

    Nair, Remya; Jhingan, Sanjay; Jain, Deepak E-mail: sanjay.jhingan@gmail.com

    2014-01-01

    The origin of the accelerated expansion of the Universe remains an unsolved mystery in Cosmology. In this work we consider a spatially flat Friedmann-Robertson-Walker (FRW) Universe with non-relativistic matter and a single scalar field contributing to the energy density of the Universe. Properties of this scalar field, like potential, kinetic energy, equation of state etc. are reconstructed from Supernovae and BAO data using Gaussian processes. We also reconstruct energy conditions and kinematic variables of expansion, such as the jerk and the slow roll parameter. We find that the reconstructed scalar field variables and the kinematic quantities are consistent with a flat ΛCDM Universe. Further, we find that the null energy condition is satisfied for the redshift range of the Supernovae data considered in the paper, but the strong energy condition is violated.

  10. Scintillations of partially coherent Laguerre Gaussian beams

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yüceer, M.; Eyyuboğlu, H. T.; Lukin, I. P.

    2010-12-01

    Scintillations of Laguerre-Gaussian (LG) beams for weak atmospheric turbulence conditions are derived for on-axis receiver positions by using Huygens-Fresnel (HF) method in semi-analytic fashion. Numerical evaluations indicate that at the fully coherent limit, higher values of radial mode numbers will give rise to more scintillations, at medium and low partial coherence levels, particularly at longer propagation distances, scintillations will fall against rises in radial mode numbers. At small source sizes, the scintillations of LG beams having full coherence will initially rise, reaching saturation at large source sizes. For LG beams with low partial coherence levels, a steady fall toward the larger source sizes is observed. Partially coherent beams of medium levels generally exhibit a rising trend toward the large source sizes, also changing the respective positions of the related curves. Beams of low coherence levels will be less affected by the variations in the refractive index structure constant.

  11. Gaussian polarizable-ion tight binding

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boleininger, Max; Guilbert, Anne AY; Horsfield, Andrew P.

    2016-10-01

    To interpret ultrafast dynamics experiments on large molecules, computer simulation is required due to the complex response to the laser field. We present a method capable of efficiently computing the static electronic response of large systems to external electric fields. This is achieved by extending the density-functional tight binding method to include larger basis sets and by multipole expansion of the charge density into electrostatically interacting Gaussian distributions. Polarizabilities for a range of hydrocarbon molecules are computed for a multipole expansion up to quadrupole order, giving excellent agreement with experimental values, with average errors similar to those from density functional theory, but at a small fraction of the cost. We apply the model in conjunction with the polarizable-point-dipoles model to estimate the internal fields in amorphous poly(3-hexylthiophene-2,5-diyl).

  12. Turbo Equalization Using Partial Gaussian Approximation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Chuanzong; Wang, Zhongyong; Manchon, Carles Navarro; Sun, Peng; Guo, Qinghua; Fleury, Bernard Henri

    2016-09-01

    This paper deals with turbo-equalization for coded data transmission over intersymbol interference (ISI) channels. We propose a message-passing algorithm that uses the expectation-propagation rule to convert messages passed from the demodulator-decoder to the equalizer and computes messages returned by the equalizer by using a partial Gaussian approximation (PGA). Results from Monte Carlo simulations show that this approach leads to a significant performance improvement compared to state-of-the-art turbo-equalizers and allows for trading performance with complexity. We exploit the specific structure of the ISI channel model to significantly reduce the complexity of the PGA compared to that considered in the initial paper proposing the method.

  13. Semiconductor band gap localization via Gaussian function

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ullrich, B.; Brown, G. J.; Xi, H.

    2012-10-01

    To determine the band gap of bulk semiconductors with transmission spectroscopy alone is considered as an extremely difficult task because in the higher energy range, approaching and exceeding the band gap energy, the material is opaque yielding no useful data to be recorded. In this paper, by investigating the transmission of industrial GaSb wafers with a thickness of 500 µm, we demonstrate how these obstacles of transmission spectroscopy can be overcome. The key is the transmission spectrums’ derivative, which coincides with the Gaussian function. This understanding can be used to transfer Beers’ law in an integral form opening the pathway of band gap determinations based on mathematical parameters only. The work also emphasizes the correlation between the thermal band gap variation and Debye temperature.

  14. Determining Phosphorus-sediment Interactions in a Groundwater-fed River through In Situ Measurement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mullinger, N. J.; Heathwaite, L.; Zhang, H.; Keenan, P. O.

    2011-12-01

    In stream processing is potentially important in the regulation and availability of nutrients to riverine flora and also in attenuating point and non-point source inputs to rivers, such as wastewater outflows and agricultural runoff. Phosphorus is an important macronutrient and often cited as a limiting factor to plant and algal growth in freshwater systems. The particle-reactive nature of the orthophosphate anion means that river sediments can play an important role in phosphorus attenuation and availability in rivers. However, it is also known that plant root exudates can also affect the mobilisation of sediment adsorbed phosphorus. Results are presented from high resolution (centimetre) measurements of vertical riverbed pore water profiles at a field site in the River Leith, Cumbria, UK. The River Leith is a sub-catchment of the River Eden and is characterised by significant groundwater-surface water interactions at the monitoring site. In situ measurements of soluble reactive phosphorus (SRP) in riverbed pore waters were made using passive sampling diffusive gradient and diffusive equilibration in thin film (DGT and DET) probes. These probes allow in situ measurements of riverbed pore waters to be made to a depth of 30 cm below the riverbed at centimetre resolution. The resulting profiles provide information on the variability in phosphorus pore waters for vegetated and non-vegetated regions of the riverbed. The impact of vegetated root zones in riverbed sediments is poorly characterised for hyporheic exchanges. Comparison of the vertical profiles obtained by DGT and DET probes identifies the potential of sediments to act sources or sinks of in stream phosphorus. Simultaneous analysis for redox sensitive elements provides additional information on the redox status of riverbed sediments. Initial results show spatial and temporal variability of phosphorus in different sedimentary environments and also between vegetated and non-vegetated areas of the riverbed

  15. Optimality of Gaussian attacks in continuous-variable quantum cryptography.

    PubMed

    Navascués, Miguel; Grosshans, Frédéric; Acín, Antonio

    2006-11-10

    We analyze the asymptotic security of the family of Gaussian modulated quantum key distribution protocols for continuous-variables systems. We prove that the Gaussian unitary attack is optimal for all the considered bounds on the key rate when the first and second momenta of the canonical variables involved are known by the honest parties.

  16. Degeneracy of energy levels of pseudo-Gaussian oscillators

    SciTech Connect

    Iacob, Theodor-Felix; Iacob, Felix; Lute, Marina

    2015-12-07

    We study the main features of the isotropic radial pseudo-Gaussian oscillators spectral properties. This study is made upon the energy levels degeneracy with respect to orbital angular momentum quantum number. In a previous work [6] we have shown that the pseudo-Gaussian oscillators belong to the class of quasi-exactly solvable models and an exact solution has been found.

  17. A Paper-and-Pencil gcd Algorithm for Gaussian Integers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Szabo, Sandor

    2005-01-01

    As with natural numbers, a greatest common divisor of two Gaussian (complex) integers "a" and "b" is a Gaussian integer "d" that is a common divisor of both "a" and "b". This article explores an algorithm for such gcds that is easy to do by hand.

  18. A note on the wide-band Gaussian broadcast channel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mceliece, Robert J.; Swanson, Laif

    1987-01-01

    The observations of Posner (1983) that on a wideband Gaussian broadcast channel ordinary time-shared coding performs almost as well as broadcast coding are investigated. A quantitative version of Posner's results is derived. A numerical example comparing the performance of broadcast coding and time-shared coding for a Gaussian broadcast channel model is presented.

  19. Limitations of quantum computing with Gaussian cluster states

    SciTech Connect

    Ohliger, M.; Kieling, K.; Eisert, J.

    2010-10-15

    We discuss the potential and limitations of Gaussian cluster states for measurement-based quantum computing. Using a framework of Gaussian-projected entangled pair states, we show that no matter what Gaussian local measurements are performed on systems distributed on a general graph, transport and processing of quantum information are not possible beyond a certain influence region, except for exponentially suppressed corrections. We also demonstrate that even under arbitrary non-Gaussian local measurements, slabs of Gaussian cluster states of a finite width cannot carry logical quantum information, even if sophisticated encodings of qubits in continuous-variable systems are allowed for. This is proven by suitably contracting tensor networks representing infinite-dimensional quantum systems. The result can be seen as sharpening the requirements for quantum error correction and fault tolerance for Gaussian cluster states and points toward the necessity of non-Gaussian resource states for measurement-based quantum computing. The results can equally be viewed as referring to Gaussian quantum repeater networks.

  20. Weakly anomalous diffusion with non-Gaussian propagators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cressoni, J. C.; Viswanathan, G. M.; Ferreira, A. S.; da Silva, M. A. A.

    2012-08-01

    A poorly understood phenomenon seen in complex systems is diffusion characterized by Hurst exponent H≈1/2 but with non-Gaussian statistics. Motivated by such empirical findings, we report an exact analytical solution for a non-Markovian random walk model that gives rise to weakly anomalous diffusion with H=1/2 but with a non-Gaussian propagator.

  1. A Scalable Gaussian Process Analysis Algorithm for Biomass Monitoring

    SciTech Connect

    Chandola, Varun; Vatsavai, Raju

    2011-01-01

    Biomass monitoring is vital for studying the carbon cycle of earth's ecosystem and has several significant implications, especially in the context of understanding climate change and its impacts. Recently, several change detection methods have been proposed to identify land cover changes in temporal profiles (time series) of vegetation collected using remote sensing instruments, but do not satisfy one or both of the two requirements of the biomass monitoring problem, i.e., {\\em operating in online mode} and {\\em handling periodic time series}. In this paper, we adapt Gaussian process regression to detect changes in such time series in an online fashion. While Gaussian process (GP) have been widely used as a kernel based learning method for regression and classification, their applicability to massive spatio-temporal data sets, such as remote sensing data, has been limited owing to the high computational costs involved. We focus on addressing the scalability issues associated with the proposed GP based change detection algorithm. This paper makes several significant contributions. First, we propose a GP based online time series change detection algorithm and demonstrate its effectiveness in detecting different types of changes in {\\em Normalized Difference Vegetation Index} (NDVI) data obtained from a study area in Iowa, USA. Second, we propose an efficient Toeplitz matrix based solution which significantly improves the computational complexity and memory requirements of the proposed GP based method. Specifically, the proposed solution can analyze a time series of length $t$ in $O(t^2)$ time while maintaining a $O(t)$ memory footprint, compared to the $O(t^3)$ time and $O(t^2)$ memory requirement of standard matrix manipulation based methods. Third, we describe a parallel version of the proposed solution which can be used to simultaneously analyze a large number of time series. We study three different parallel implementations: using threads, MPI, and a hybrid

  2. Gaussian cloning of coherent states with known phases

    SciTech Connect

    Alexanian, Moorad

    2006-04-15

    The fidelity for cloning coherent states is improved over that provided by optimal Gaussian and non-Gaussian cloners for the subset of coherent states that are prepared with known phases. Gaussian quantum cloning duplicates all coherent states with an optimal fidelity of 2/3. Non-Gaussian cloners give optimal single-clone fidelity for a symmetric 1-to-2 cloner of 0.6826. Coherent states that have known phases can be cloned with a fidelity of 4/5. The latter is realized by a combination of two beam splitters and a four-wave mixer operated in the nonlinear regime, all of which are realized by interaction Hamiltonians that are quadratic in the photon operators. Therefore, the known Gaussian devices for cloning coherent states are extended when cloning coherent states with known phases by considering a nonbalanced beam splitter at the input side of the amplifier.

  3. Distillation and purification of symmetric entangled Gaussian states

    SciTech Connect

    Fiurasek, Jaromir

    2010-10-15

    We propose an entanglement distillation and purification scheme for symmetric two-mode entangled Gaussian states that allows to asymptotically extract a pure entangled Gaussian state from any input entangled symmetric Gaussian state. The proposed scheme is a modified and extended version of the entanglement distillation protocol originally developed by Browne et al. [Phys. Rev. A 67, 062320 (2003)]. A key feature of the present protocol is that it utilizes a two-copy degaussification procedure that involves a Mach-Zehnder interferometer with single-mode non-Gaussian filters inserted in its two arms. The required non-Gaussian filtering operations can be implemented by coherently combining two sequences of single-photon addition and subtraction operations.

  4. Non-ideal boson system in the Gaussian approximation

    SciTech Connect

    Tommasini, P.R.; de Toledo Piza, A.F.

    1997-01-01

    We investigate ground-state and thermal properties of a system of non-relativistic bosons interacting through repulsive, two-body interactions in a self-consistent Gaussian mean-field approximation which consists in writing the variationally determined density operator as the most general Gaussian functional of the quantized field operators. Finite temperature results are obtained in a grand canonical framework. Contact is made with the results of Lee, Yang, and Huang in terms of particular truncations of the Gaussian approximation. The full Gaussian approximation supports a free phase or a thermodynamically unstable phase when contact forces and a standard renormalization scheme are used. When applied to a Hamiltonian with zero range forces interpreted as an effective theory with a high momentum cutoff, the full Gaussian approximation generates a quasi-particle spectrum having an energy gap, in conflict with perturbation theory results. {copyright} 1997 Academic Press, Inc.

  5. REJUVENATING POWER SPECTRA. II. THE GAUSSIANIZED GALAXY DENSITY FIELD

    SciTech Connect

    Neyrinck, Mark C.; Szalay, Alexander S.; Szapudi, Istvan

    2011-04-20

    We find that, even in the presence of discreteness noise, a Gaussianizing transform (producing a more Gaussian one-point distribution) reduces nonlinearities in the power spectra of cosmological matter and galaxy density fields, in many cases drastically. Although Gaussianization does increase the effective shot noise, it also increases the power spectrum's fidelity to the linear power spectrum on scales where the shot noise is negligible. Gaussianizing also increases the Fisher information in the power spectrum in all cases and resolutions, although the gains are smaller in redshift space than in real space. We also find that the gain in cumulative Fisher information from Gaussianizing peaks at a particular grid resolution depends on the sampling level.

  6. Trapping phosphorus in runoff with a phosphorus removal structure.

    PubMed

    Penn, Chad J; McGrath, Joshua M; Rounds, Elliott; Fox, Garey; Heeren, Derek

    2012-01-01

    Reduction of phosphorus (P) inputs to surface waters may decrease eutrophication. Some researchers have proposed filtering dissolved P in runoff with P-sorptive byproducts in structures placed in hydrologically active areas with high soil P concentrations. The objectives of this study were to construct and monitor a P removal structure in a suburban watershed and test the ability of empirically developed flow-through equations to predict structure performance. Steel slag was used as the P sorption material in the P removal structure. Water samples were collected before and after the structure using automatic samples and analyzed for total dissolved P. During the first 5 mo of structure operation, 25% of all dissolved P was removed from rainfall and irrigation events. Phosphorus was removed more efficiently during low flow rate irrigation events with a high retention time than during high flow rate rainfall events with a low retention time. The six largest flow events occurred during storm flow and accounted for 75% of the P entering the structure and 54% of the P removed by the structure. Flow-through equations developed for predicting structure performance produced reasonable estimates of structure "lifetime" (16.8 mo). However, the equations overpredicted cumulative P removal. This was likely due to differences in pH, total Ca and Fe, and alkalinity between the slag used in the structure and the slag used for model development. This suggests the need for an overall model that can predict structure performance based on individual material properties.

  7. Plant growth, phosphorus nutrition, and root morphological responses to arbuscular mycorrhizas, phosphorus fertilization, and intraspecific density.

    PubMed

    Schroeder, M S; Janos, D P

    2005-05-01

    We examined the effects of arbuscular mycorrhizas (AM), phosphorus fertilization, intraspecific density, and their interaction, on the growth, phosphorus uptake, and root morphology of three facultative mycotrophic crops (Capsicum annuum, Zea mays, and Cucurbita pepo). Plants were grown in pots with or without AM at three densities and four phosphorus availabilities for 10 weeks. AM colonization, plant weight, and shoot phosphorus concentration were measured at harvest. Root morphology was assessed for C. annuum and Z. mays. Phosphorus fertilization reduced but did not eliminate AM colonization of all species. AM, phosphorus, and density interacted significantly to modify growth of C. annuum and C. pepo such that increased density and phosphorus diminished beneficial effects of AM. Increased density reduced positive effects of AM on C. annuum and C. pepo shoot phosphorus concentrations. AM altered both Z. mays and C. annuum root morphology in ways that complemented potential phosphorus uptake by mycorrhizas, but increased density and phosphorus diminished these effects. We infer that increased density predominantly influenced plant responses by affecting whether or not carbon (photosynthate) or phosphorus limited plant growth. By exacerbating carbon limitation, high density reduced the benefit/cost ratio of mycorrhizas and minimized their effects.

  8. Phosphorus removal in an enhanced biological phosphorus removal process: roles of extracellular polymeric substances.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Hai-Ling; Fang, Wei; Wang, Yong-Peng; Sheng, Guo-Ping; Zeng, Raymond J; Li, Wen-Wei; Yu, Han-Qing

    2013-10-15

    Phosphorus-accumulating organisms are considered to be the key microorganisms in the enhanced biological phosphorus removal (EBPR) process. A large amount of phosphorus is found in the extracellular polymeric substances (EPS) matrix of these microorganisms. However, the roles of EPS in phosphorus removal have not been fully understood. In this study, the phosphorus in the EBPR sludge was fractionated and further analyzed using quantitative (31)P nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy. The amounts and forms of phosphorus in EPS as well as their changes in an anaerobic-aerobic process were also investigated. EPS could act as a reservoir for phosphorus in the anaerobic-aerobic process. About 5-9% of phosphorus in sludge was reserved in the EPS at the end of the aerobic phase and might further contribute to the phosphorus removal. The chain length of the intracellular long-chain polyphosphate (polyP) decreased in the anaerobic phase and then recovered under aerobic conditions. However, the polyP in the EPS had a much shorter chain length than the intracellular polyP in the whole cycle. The migration and transformation of various forms of phosphorus among microbial cells, EPS, and bulk liquid were also explored. On the basis of these results, a model with a consideration of the roles of EPS was proposed, which is beneficial to elucidate the mechanism of phosphorus removal in the EBPR system.

  9. Sedimentary phosphorus cycling and a phosphorus mass balance for the Green Bay (Lake Michigan) ecosystem

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Klump, J.V.; Edgington, D. N.; Sager, P.E.; Robertson, D.M.

    2011-01-01

    The tributaries of Green Bay have long been recognized as major sources of phosphorus in the Lake Michigan basin. The status of Green Bay as a sink or source of phosphorus for Lake Michigan proper has been less well defined. The bay receives nearly 70% of its annual load of phosphorus ( 700 metric tons (t) · year-1) from a single source: the Fox River. Most of this phosphorus is deposited in sediments accumulating at rates that reach 160 mg · cm-2 · year-1 with an average of 20 mg · cm-2 · year-1. The phosphorus content of these sediments varies from <5 to >70 µmol · g-1. Deposition is highly focused, with ~70% of the total sediment accumulation and at least 80% of the phosphorus burial occurring within 20% of the surface area of the bay. Diagenetic and stoichiometric models of phosphorus cycling imply that >80% of the phosphorus deposited is permanently buried. External phosphorus loading to the bay is combined with sediment fluxes of phophorus to arrive at a simple phosphorus budget. Green Bay acts as an efficient nutrient trap, with the sediments retaining an estimated 70-90% of the external phosphorus inputs before flowing into Lake Michigan.

  10. Sedimentary phosphorus cycling and a phosphorus mass balance for the Green Bay (Lake Michigan) ecosystem

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Val, Klump J.; Edgington, D.N.; Sager, P.E.; Robertson, D.M.

    1997-01-01

    The tributaries of Green Bay have long been recognized as major sources of phosphorus in the Lake Michigan basin. The status of Green Bay as a sink or source of phosphorus for Lake Michigan proper has been less well defined. The bay receives nearly 70% of its annual load of phosphorus (700 metric tons (t)??year-1) from a single source: the Fox River. Most of this phosphorus is deposited in sediments accumulating at rates that reach 160 mg??cm-2??year-1 with an average of 20 mg??cm-2 year-1. The phosphorus content of these sediments varies from 70 ??mol??g-1. Deposition is highly focused, with ???0% of the total sediment accumulation and at least 80% of the phosphorus burial occurring within 20% of the surface area of the bay. Diagenetic and stoichiometric models of phosphorus cycling imply that >80% of the phosphorus deposited is permanently buried. External phosphorus loading to the bay is combined with sediment fluxes of phophorus to arrive at a simple phosphorus budget. Green Bay acts as an efficient nutrient trap, with the sediments retaining an estimated 70-90% of the external phosphorus inputs before flowing into Lake Michigan.

  11. Phosphorus Moieties Make Polymers Less Flammable

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kourtides, D. A.; Mikroyannidis, J. A.

    1992-01-01

    Phosphorus incorporated into epoxies and polyamides via curing agent. According to report, use of 1-(di(2-chloroethoxyphosphinyl)methyl)-2,4- and -2,6-diaminobenzene (DCEPD) as curing agent for epoxies and polyamides makes these polymers more fire-retardant than corresponding polymers made with standard curing agents not containing phosphorus.

  12. Removal of phosphorus by peritoneal dialysis.

    PubMed

    Delmez, J A

    1993-01-01

    Substantial evidence exists that peritoneal dialysis, as currently practiced, cannot alone remove adequate amounts of phosphorus in well-nourished patients. Current efforts should address the possibility of developing improved nontoxic oral phosphorus binders and/or different compositions of dialysate fluid. PMID:8399639

  13. Sustainable use of phosphorus: a finite resource.

    PubMed

    Scholz, Roland W; Ulrich, Andrea E; Eilittä, Marjatta; Roy, Amit

    2013-09-01

    Phosphorus is an essential element of life and of the modern agricultural system. Today, science, policy, agro-industry and other stakeholder groups are increasingly concerned about the sustainable use of this resource, given the dissipative nature of phosphorus and difficulties in assessing, evaluating, and coping with phosphorus pollution in aquatic and terrestrial systems. We argue that predictions about a forthcoming peak, followed by a quick reduction (i.e., physical phosphate rock scarcity) are unreasoned and stress that access to phosphorus (economic scarcity) is already, and may increasingly become critical, in particular for smallholders farmers in different parts of the world. The paper elaborates on the design, development, goals and cutting-edge contributions of a global transdisciplinary process (i.e. mutual learning between science and society including multiple stakeholders) on the understanding of potential contributions and risks related to the current mode of using phosphorus on multiple scales (Global TraPs). While taking a global and comprehensive view on the whole phosphorus-supply chain, Global TraPs organizes and integrates multiple transdisciplinary case studies to better answer questions which inform sustainable future phosphorus use. Its major goals are to contribute to four issues central to sustainable resource management: i) long-term management of biogeochemical cycles, in particular the challenge of closing the phosphorus cycle, ii) achieving food security, iii) avoiding environmental pollution and iv) sustainability learning on a global level by transdisciplinary processes.

  14. Phosphorus Availability Coefficients from Various Organic Sources

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The objectives of this study were to determine Phosphorus Availability Coefficients (PACs) for a variety of organic phosphorus (P) sources, and to examine the relationship between PACs measured in simulated rainfall runoff and alternative soil incubations. PAC is an important parameter in the P-Ind...

  15. Adaptive subspace detection of extended target in white Gaussian noise using sinc basis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Xiao-Wei; Li, Ming; Qu, Jian-She; Yang, Hui

    2016-01-01

    For the high resolution radar (HRR), the problem of detecting the extended target is considered in this paper. Based on a single observation, a new two-step detection based on sparse representation (TSDSR) method is proposed to detect the extended target in the presence of Gaussian noise with unknown covariance. In the new method, the Sinc dictionary is introduced to sparsely represent the high resolution range profile (HRRP). Meanwhile, adaptive subspace pursuit (ASP) is presented to recover the HRRP embedded in the Gaussian noise and estimate the noise covariance matrix. Based on the Sinc dictionary and the estimated noise covariance matrix, one step subspace detector (OSSD) for the first-order Gaussian (FOG) model without secondary data is adopted to realise the extended target detection. Finally, the proposed TSDSR method is applied to raw HRR data. Experimental results demonstrate that HRRPs of different targets can be sparsely represented very well with the Sinc dictionary. Moreover, the new method can estimate the noise power with tiny errors and have a good detection performance.

  16. Signal Partitioning Algorithm for Highly Efficient Gaussian Mixture Modeling in Mass Spectrometry

    PubMed Central

    Polanski, Andrzej; Marczyk, Michal; Pietrowska, Monika; Widlak, Piotr; Polanska, Joanna

    2015-01-01

    Mixture - modeling of mass spectra is an approach with many potential applications including peak detection and quantification, smoothing, de-noising, feature extraction and spectral signal compression. However, existing algorithms do not allow for automated analyses of whole spectra. Therefore, despite highlighting potential advantages of mixture modeling of mass spectra of peptide/protein mixtures and some preliminary results presented in several papers, the mixture modeling approach was so far not developed to the stage enabling systematic comparisons with existing software packages for proteomic mass spectra analyses. In this paper we present an efficient algorithm for Gaussian mixture modeling of proteomic mass spectra of different types (e.g., MALDI-ToF profiling, MALDI-IMS). The main idea is automated partitioning of protein mass spectral signal into fragments. The obtained fragments are separately decomposed into Gaussian mixture models. The parameters of the mixture models of fragments are then aggregated to form the mixture model of the whole spectrum. We compare the elaborated algorithm to existing algorithms for peak detection and we demonstrate improvements of peak detection efficiency obtained by using Gaussian mixture modeling. We also show applications of the elaborated algorithm to real proteomic datasets of low and high resolution. PMID:26230717

  17. Gaussian solitary waves and compactons in Fermi-Pasta-Ulam lattices with Hertzian potentials.

    PubMed

    James, Guillaume; Pelinovsky, Dmitry

    2014-05-01

    We consider a class of fully nonlinear Fermi-Pasta-Ulam (FPU) lattices, consisting of a chain of particles coupled by fractional power nonlinearities of order α>1. This class of systems incorporates a classical Hertzian model describing acoustic wave propagation in chains of touching beads in the absence of precompression. We analyse the propagation of localized waves when α is close to unity. Solutions varying slowly in space and time are searched with an appropriate scaling, and two asymptotic models of the chain of particles are derived consistently. The first one is a logarithmic Korteweg-de Vries (KdV) equation and possesses linearly orbitally stable Gaussian solitary wave solutions. The second model consists of a generalized KdV equation with Hölder-continuous fractional power nonlinearity and admits compacton solutions, i.e. solitary waves with compact support. When [Formula: see text], we numerically establish the asymptotically Gaussian shape of exact FPU solitary waves with near-sonic speed and analytically check the pointwise convergence of compactons towards the limiting Gaussian profile. PMID:24808748

  18. Gaussian solitary waves and compactons in Fermi–Pasta–Ulam lattices with Hertzian potentials

    PubMed Central

    James, Guillaume; Pelinovsky, Dmitry

    2014-01-01

    We consider a class of fully nonlinear Fermi–Pasta–Ulam (FPU) lattices, consisting of a chain of particles coupled by fractional power nonlinearities of order α>1. This class of systems incorporates a classical Hertzian model describing acoustic wave propagation in chains of touching beads in the absence of precompression. We analyse the propagation of localized waves when α is close to unity. Solutions varying slowly in space and time are searched with an appropriate scaling, and two asymptotic models of the chain of particles are derived consistently. The first one is a logarithmic Korteweg–de Vries (KdV) equation and possesses linearly orbitally stable Gaussian solitary wave solutions. The second model consists of a generalized KdV equation with Hölder-continuous fractional power nonlinearity and admits compacton solutions, i.e. solitary waves with compact support. When , we numerically establish the asymptotically Gaussian shape of exact FPU solitary waves with near-sonic speed and analytically check the pointwise convergence of compactons towards the limiting Gaussian profile. PMID:24808748

  19. Constraint optimized weight adaptation for Gaussian mixture reduction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, H. D.; Chang, K. C.; Smith, Chris

    2010-04-01

    Gaussian mixture model (GMM) has been used in many applications for dynamic state estimation such as target tracking or distributed fusion. However, the number of components in the mixture distribution tends to grow rapidly when multiple GMMs are combined. In order to keep the computational complexity bounded, it is necessary to approximate a Gaussian mixture by one with reduced number of components. Gaussian mixture reduction is traditionally conducted by recursively selecting two components that appear to be most similar to each other and merging them. Different definitions on similarity measure have been used in literature. For the case of one-dimensional Gaussian mixtures, Kmeans algorithms and some variations are recently proposed to cluster Gaussian mixture components in groups, use a center component to represent all in each group, readjust parameters in the center components, and finally perform weight optimization. In this paper, we focus on multi-dimensional Gaussian mixture models. With a variety of reduction algorithms and possible combinations, we developed a hybrid algorithm with constraint optimized weight adaptation to minimize the integrated squared error (ISE). In additions, with extensive simulations, we showed that the proposed algorithm provides an efficient and effective Gaussian mixture reduction performance in various random scenarios.

  20. Axial acoustic radiation force on a sphere in Gaussian field

    SciTech Connect

    Wu, Rongrong; Liu, Xiaozhou Gong, Xiufen

    2015-10-28

    Based on the finite series method, the acoustical radiation force resulting from a Gaussian beam incident on a spherical object is investigated analytically. When the position of the particles deviating from the center of the beam, the Gaussian beam is expanded as a spherical function at the center of the particles and the expanded coefficients of the Gaussian beam is calculated. The analytical expression of the acoustic radiation force on spherical particles deviating from the Gaussian beam center is deduced. The acoustic radiation force affected by the acoustic frequency and the offset distance from the Gaussian beam center is investigated. Results have been presented for Gaussian beams with different wavelengths and it has been shown that the interaction of a Gaussian beam with a sphere can result in attractive axial force under specific operational conditions. Results indicate the capability of manipulating and separating spherical spheres based on their mechanical and acoustical properties, the results provided here may provide a theoretical basis for development of single-beam acoustical tweezers.

  1. Probing Non-Gaussianity in Confined Diffusion of Nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Xue, Chundong; Zheng, Xu; Chen, Kaikai; Tian, Yu; Hu, Guoqing

    2016-02-01

    Confined diffusion is ubiquitous in nature. Ever since the "anomalous yet Brownian" motion was observed, the non-Gaussianity in confined diffusion has been unveiled as an important issue. In this Letter, we experimentally investigate the characteristics and source of non-Gaussian behavior in confined diffusion of nanoparticles suspended in polymer solutions. A time-varied and size-dependent non-Gaussianity is reported based on the non-Gaussian parameter and displacement probability distribution, especially when the nanoparticle's size is smaller than the typical polymer mesh size. This non-Gaussianity does not vanish even at the long-time Brownian stage. By inspecting the displacement autocorrelation, we observe that the nanoparticle-structure interaction, indicated by the anticorrelation, is limited in the short-time stage and makes little contribution to the non-Gaussianity in the long-time stage. The main source of the non-Gaussianity can therefore be attributed to hopping diffusion that results in an exponential probability distribution with the large displacements, which may also explain certain processes dominated by rare events in the biological environment. PMID:26784864

  2. Recovering dark-matter clustering from galaxies with Gaussianization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McCullagh, Nuala; Neyrinck, Mark; Norberg, Peder; Cole, Shaun

    2016-04-01

    The Gaussianization transform has been proposed as a method to remove the issues of scale-dependent galaxy bias and non-linearity from galaxy clustering statistics, but these benefits have yet to be thoroughly tested for realistic galaxy samples. In this paper, we test the effectiveness of the Gaussianization transform for different galaxy types by applying it to realistic simulated blue and red galaxy samples. We show that in real space, the shapes of the Gaussianized power spectra of both red and blue galaxies agree with that of the underlying dark matter, with the initial power spectrum, and with each other to smaller scales than do the statistics of the usual (untransformed) density field. However, we find that the agreement in the Gaussianized statistics breaks down in redshift space. We attribute this to the fact that red and blue galaxies exhibit very different fingers of god in redshift space. After applying a finger-of-god compression, the agreement on small scales between the Gaussianized power spectra is restored. We also compare the Gaussianization transform to the clipped galaxy density field and find that while both methods are effective in real space, they have more complicated behaviour in redshift space. Overall, we find that Gaussianization can be useful in recovering the shape of the underlying dark-matter power spectrum to k ˜ 0.5 h Mpc-1 and of the initial power spectrum to k ˜ 0.4 h Mpc-1 in certain cases at z = 0.

  3. Spatial entanglement of nonvacuum Gaussian states

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kiałka, Filip; Ahmadi, Mehdi; Dragan, Andrzej

    2016-06-01

    The vacuum state of a relativistic quantum field contains entanglement between regions separated by spacelike intervals. Such spatial entanglement can be revealed using an operational method introduced in [M. Rodriguez-Vazquez, M. del Rey, H. Westman, and J. Leon, Ann. Phys. (N.Y.) 351, 112 (2014), E. G. Brown, M. del Rey, H. Westman, J. Leon, and A. Dragan, Phys. Rev. D 91, 016005 (2015)]. In this approach, a cavity is instantaneously divided into halves by an introduction of an extra perfect mirror. Causal separation of the two regions of the cavity reveals nonlocal spatial correlations present in the field, which can be quantified by measuring particles generated in the process. We use this method to study spatial entanglement properties of nonvacuum Gaussian field states. In particular, we show how to enhance the amount of harvested spatial entanglement by an appropriate choice of the initial state of the field in the cavity. We find a counterintuitive influence of the initial entanglement between cavity modes on the spatial entanglement which is revealed by dividing the cavity in half.

  4. Anomalous dimensions and non-gaussianity

    SciTech Connect

    Green, Daniel; Lewandowski, Matthew; Senatore, Leonardo; Silverstein, Eva; Zaldarriaga, Matias

    2013-10-01

    We analyze the signatures of inflationary models that are coupled to interacting field theories, a basic class of multifield models also motivated by their role in providing dynamically small scales. Near the squeezed limit of the bispectrum, we find a simple scaling behavior determined by operator dimensions, which are constrained by the appropriate unitarity bounds. Specifically, we analyze two simple and calculable classes of examples: conformal field theories (CFTs), and large-N CFTs deformed by relevant time-dependent double-trace operators. Together these two classes of examples exhibit a wide range of scalings and shapes of the bispectrum, including nearly equilateral, orthogonal and local non-Gaussianity in different regimes. Along the way, we compare and contrast the shape and amplitude with previous results on weakly coupled fields coupled to inflation. This signature provides a precision test for strongly coupled sectors coupled to inflation via irrelevant operators suppressed by a high mass scale up to ~ 103 times the inflationary Hubble scale.

  5. Probabilistic stellar rotation periods with Gaussian processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Angus, Ruth; Aigrain, Suzanne; Foreman-Mackey, Daniel

    2015-08-01

    Stellar rotation has many applications in the field of exoplanets. High-precision photometry from space-based missions like Kepler and K2 allows us to measure stellar rotation periods directly from light curves. Stellar variability produced by rotation is usually not sinusoidal or perfectly periodic, therefore sine-fitting periodograms are not well suited to rotation period measurement. Autocorrelation functions are often used to extract periodic information from light curves, however uncertainties on rotation periods measured by autocorrelation are difficult to define. A ‘by eye’ check, or a set of heuristic criteria are used to validate measurements and rotation periods are only reported for stars that pass this vetting process. A probabilistic rotation period measurement method, with a suitable generative model bypasses the need for a validation stage and can produce realistic uncertainties. The physics driving the production of variability in stellar light curves is still poorly understood and difficult to model. We therefore use an effective model for stellar variability: a Gaussian process with a quasi-periodic covariance function. By injecting fake signals into Kepler light curves we show that the GP model is well suited to quasi-periodic, non-sinusoidal signals, is capable of modelling noise and physical signals simultaneously and provides probabilistic rotation period measurements with realistic uncertainties.

  6. Bayesian nonparametric adaptive control using Gaussian processes.

    PubMed

    Chowdhary, Girish; Kingravi, Hassan A; How, Jonathan P; Vela, Patricio A

    2015-03-01

    Most current model reference adaptive control (MRAC) methods rely on parametric adaptive elements, in which the number of parameters of the adaptive element are fixed a priori, often through expert judgment. An example of such an adaptive element is radial basis function networks (RBFNs), with RBF centers preallocated based on the expected operating domain. If the system operates outside of the expected operating domain, this adaptive element can become noneffective in capturing and canceling the uncertainty, thus rendering the adaptive controller only semiglobal in nature. This paper investigates a Gaussian process-based Bayesian MRAC architecture (GP-MRAC), which leverages the power and flexibility of GP Bayesian nonparametric models of uncertainty. The GP-MRAC does not require the centers to be preallocated, can inherently handle measurement noise, and enables MRAC to handle a broader set of uncertainties, including those that are defined as distributions over functions. We use stochastic stability arguments to show that GP-MRAC guarantees good closed-loop performance with no prior domain knowledge of the uncertainty. Online implementable GP inference methods are compared in numerical simulations against RBFN-MRAC with preallocated centers and are shown to provide better tracking and improved long-term learning.

  7. Sufficient condition for Gaussian departure in turbulence.

    PubMed

    Tordella, Daniela; Iovieno, Michele; Bailey, Peter Roger

    2008-01-01

    The interaction of two isotropic turbulent fields of equal integral scale but different kinetic energy generates the simplest kind of inhomogeneous turbulent field. In this paper we present a numerical experiment where two time decaying isotropic fields of kinetic energies E1 and E2 initially match over a narrow region. Within this region the kinetic energy varies as a hyperbolic tangent. The following temporal evolution produces a shearless mixing. The anisotropy and intermittency of velocity and velocity derivative statistics is observed. In particular the asymptotic behavior in time and as a function of the energy ratio E_{1}E_{2}-->infinity is discussed. This limit corresponds to the maximum observable turbulent energy gradient for a given E1 and is obtained through the limit E_{2}-->0 . A field with E_{1}E_{2}-->infinity represents a mixing which could be observed near a surface subject to a very small velocity gradient separating two turbulent fields, one of which is nearly quiescent. In this condition the turbulent penetration is maximum and reaches a value equal to 1.2 times the nominal mixing layer width. The experiment shows that the presence of a turbulent energy gradient is sufficient for the appearance of intermittency and that during the mixing process the pressure transport is not negligible with respect to the turbulent velocity transport. These findings may open the way to the hypothesis that the presence of a gradient of turbulent energy is the minimal requirement for Gaussian departure in turbulence.

  8. Angle-resolved conical emission spectra from filamentation in a solid with an Airy pattern and a Gaussian laser beam.

    PubMed

    Gong, Cheng; Li, ZiXi; Hua, LinQiang; Quan, Wei; Liu, XiaoJun

    2016-09-15

    Filamentation dynamics in fused silica are investigated using an Airy pattern and a Gaussian laser beam. The angle-resolved conical emission spectra are measured and compared with the predictions of several models. Our experimental observations are consistent with the X-waves model in both cases. This indicates that both laser beams spontaneously evolve into nonlinear X-waves and suggests a universal evolution of filaments in fused silica, regardless of the initial laser beam profile. PMID:27628383

  9. Pseudospectral Gaussian quantum dynamics: Efficient sampling of potential energy surfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heaps, Charles W.; Mazziotti, David A.

    2016-04-01

    Trajectory-based Gaussian basis sets have been tremendously successful in describing high-dimensional quantum molecular dynamics. In this paper, we introduce a pseudospectral Gaussian-based method that achieves accurate quantum dynamics using efficient, real-space sampling of the time-dependent basis set. As in other Gaussian basis methods, we begin with a basis set expansion using time-dependent Gaussian basis functions guided by classical mechanics. Unlike other Gaussian methods but characteristic of the pseudospectral and collocation methods, the basis set is tested with N Dirac delta functions, where N is the number of basis functions, rather than using the basis function as test functions. As a result, the integration for matrix elements is reduced to function evaluation. Pseudospectral Gaussian dynamics only requires O ( N ) potential energy calculations, in contrast to O ( N 2 ) evaluations in a variational calculation. The classical trajectories allow small basis sets to sample high-dimensional potentials. Applications are made to diatomic oscillations in a Morse potential and a generalized version of the Henon-Heiles potential in two, four, and six dimensions. Comparisons are drawn to full analytical evaluation of potential energy integrals (variational) and the bra-ket averaged Taylor (BAT) expansion, an O ( N ) approximation used in Gaussian-based dynamics. In all cases, the pseudospectral Gaussian method is competitive with full variational calculations that require a global, analytical, and integrable potential energy surface. Additionally, the BAT breaks down when quantum mechanical coherence is particularly strong (i.e., barrier reflection in the Morse oscillator). The ability to obtain variational accuracy using only the potential energy at discrete points makes the pseudospectral Gaussian method a promising avenue for on-the-fly dynamics, where electronic structure calculations become computationally significant.

  10. Pseudospectral Gaussian quantum dynamics: Efficient sampling of potential energy surfaces.

    PubMed

    Heaps, Charles W; Mazziotti, David A

    2016-04-28

    Trajectory-based Gaussian basis sets have been tremendously successful in describing high-dimensional quantum molecular dynamics. In this paper, we introduce a pseudospectral Gaussian-based method that achieves accurate quantum dynamics using efficient, real-space sampling of the time-dependent basis set. As in other Gaussian basis methods, we begin with a basis set expansion using time-dependent Gaussian basis functions guided by classical mechanics. Unlike other Gaussian methods but characteristic of the pseudospectral and collocation methods, the basis set is tested with N Dirac delta functions, where N is the number of basis functions, rather than using the basis function as test functions. As a result, the integration for matrix elements is reduced to function evaluation. Pseudospectral Gaussian dynamics only requires O(N) potential energy calculations, in contrast to O(N(2)) evaluations in a variational calculation. The classical trajectories allow small basis sets to sample high-dimensional potentials. Applications are made to diatomic oscillations in a Morse potential and a generalized version of the Henon-Heiles potential in two, four, and six dimensions. Comparisons are drawn to full analytical evaluation of potential energy integrals (variational) and the bra-ket averaged Taylor (BAT) expansion, an O(N) approximation used in Gaussian-based dynamics. In all cases, the pseudospectral Gaussian method is competitive with full variational calculations that require a global, analytical, and integrable potential energy surface. Additionally, the BAT breaks down when quantum mechanical coherence is particularly strong (i.e., barrier reflection in the Morse oscillator). The ability to obtain variational accuracy using only the potential energy at discrete points makes the pseudospectral Gaussian method a promising avenue for on-the-fly dynamics, where electronic structure calculations become computationally significant.

  11. Pseudospectral Gaussian quantum dynamics: Efficient sampling of potential energy surfaces.

    PubMed

    Heaps, Charles W; Mazziotti, David A

    2016-04-28

    Trajectory-based Gaussian basis sets have been tremendously successful in describing high-dimensional quantum molecular dynamics. In this paper, we introduce a pseudospectral Gaussian-based method that achieves accurate quantum dynamics using efficient, real-space sampling of the time-dependent basis set. As in other Gaussian basis methods, we begin with a basis set expansion using time-dependent Gaussian basis functions guided by classical mechanics. Unlike other Gaussian methods but characteristic of the pseudospectral and collocation methods, the basis set is tested with N Dirac delta functions, where N is the number of basis functions, rather than using the basis function as test functions. As a result, the integration for matrix elements is reduced to function evaluation. Pseudospectral Gaussian dynamics only requires O(N) potential energy calculations, in contrast to O(N(2)) evaluations in a variational calculation. The classical trajectories allow small basis sets to sample high-dimensional potentials. Applications are made to diatomic oscillations in a Morse potential and a generalized version of the Henon-Heiles potential in two, four, and six dimensions. Comparisons are drawn to full analytical evaluation of potential energy integrals (variational) and the bra-ket averaged Taylor (BAT) expansion, an O(N) approximation used in Gaussian-based dynamics. In all cases, the pseudospectral Gaussian method is competitive with full variational calculations that require a global, analytical, and integrable potential energy surface. Additionally, the BAT breaks down when quantum mechanical coherence is particularly strong (i.e., barrier reflection in the Morse oscillator). The ability to obtain variational accuracy using only the potential energy at discrete points makes the pseudospectral Gaussian method a promising avenue for on-the-fly dynamics, where electronic structure calculations become computationally significant. PMID:27131532

  12. Bronx River bed sediments phosphorus pool and phosphorus compound identification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, J.; Pant, H. K.

    2008-12-01

    Phosphorus (P) transport in the Bronx River degraded water quality, decreased oxygen levels, and resulted in bioaccumulation in sediment potentially resulting in eutrophication, algal blooms and oxygen depletion under certain temperature and pH conditions. The anthropogenic P sources are storm water runoff, raw sewage discharge, fertilizer application in lawn, golf course and New York Botanical Garden; manure from the Bronx zoo; combined sewoverflows (CSO's) from parkway and Hunts Point sewage plant; pollutants from East River. This research was conducted in the urban river system in New York City area, in order to control P source, figure out P transport temporal and spatial variations and the impact on water quality; aimed to regulate P application, sharing data with Bronx River Alliance, EPA, DEP and DEC. The sediment characteristics influence the distribution and bioavailbility of P in the Bronx River. The P sequential extraction gave the quantitative analysis of the P pool, quantifying the inorganic and organic P from the sediments. There were different P pool patterns at the 15 sites, and the substantial amount of inorganic P pool indicated that a large amount P is bioavailable. The 31P- NMR (Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy) technology had been used to identify P species in the 15 sites of the Bronx River, which gave a qualitative analysis on phosphorus transport in the river. The P compounds in the Bronx River bed sediments are mostly glycerophophate (GlyP), nucleoside monophosphates (NMP), polynucleotides (PolyN), and few sites showed the small amount of glucose-6-phosphate (G6P), glycerophosphoethanoamine (GPEA), phosphoenopyruvates (PEP), and inosine monophosphate (IMP). The land use spatial and temporal variations influence local water P levels, P distributions, and P compositions.

  13. Impact of phosphorus control measures on in-river phosphorus retention associated with point source pollution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Demars, B. O. L.; Harper, D. M.; Pitt, J.-A.; Slaughter, R.

    2005-06-01

    In-river phosphorus retention alters the quantity and timings of phosphorus delivery to downstream aquatic systems. Many intensive studies of in-river phosphorus retention have been carried out but generally on a short time scale (2-4 years). In this paper, monthly water quality data, collected by the Environment Agency of England and Wales over 12 years (1990-2001), were used to model daily phosphorus fluxes and monthly in-river phosphorus retention in the lowland calcareous River Wensum, Norfolk, UK. The calibrated model explained 79% and 89% of the observed variance before and after phosphorus control, respectively. A split test revealed that predicted TP loads were in good agreement with observed TP loads (r2=0.85), although TP loads were underestimated under high flow conditions. During relatively dry years, there was no net export of phosphorus from the catchment. High retention of phosphorus occurred, particularly during the summer months, which was not compensated for, by subsequent higher flow events. This was despite a relatively modest critical discharge (Q) above which net remobilisation occur. Phosphorus removal from the effluent at two major STWs (Sewage Treatment Works) reduced phosphorus retention but not the remobilisation. This may indicate that the presence of impoundments and weirs, or overbank flows may have more control on the phosphorus dynamics under high flow conditions. Further phosphorus remedial strategies will be necessary to prevent downstream risks of eutrophication occurring independently of the unpredictable variability in weather conditions. More research is also needed to quantify the impact of the weir and overbank flows on phosphorus dynamics.

  14. Gauge-invariant temperature anisotropies and primordial non-Gaussianity.

    PubMed

    Bartolo, Nicola; Matarrese, Sabino; Riotto, Antonio

    2004-12-01

    We provide the gauge-invariant expression for large-scale cosmic microwave background temperature fluctuations at second-order perturbation theory. This enables us to define unambiguously the nonlinearity parameter f(NL), which is used by experimental collaborations to pin down the level of non-Gaussianity in the temperature fluctuations. Furthermore, it contains a primordial term encoding all the information about the non-Gaussianity generated at primordial epochs and about the mechanism which gave rise to cosmological perturbations, thus neatly disentangling the primordial contribution to non-Gaussianity from the one caused by the postinflationary evolution.

  15. Non-Gaussian extrema counts for CMB maps

    SciTech Connect

    Pogosyan, Dmitri; Pichon, Christophe; Gay, Christophe

    2011-10-15

    In the context of the geometrical analysis of weakly non-Gaussian cosmic microwave background maps, the 2D differential extrema counts as functions of the excursion set threshold is derived from the full moments expansion of the joint probability distribution of an isotropic random field, its gradient, and invariants of the Hessian. Analytic expressions for these counts are given to second order in the non-Gaussian correction, while a Monte Carlo method to compute them to arbitrary order is presented. Matching count statistics to these estimators is illustrated on fiducial non-Gaussian Planck data.

  16. Controllable gaussian-qubit interface for extremal quantum state engineering.

    PubMed

    Adesso, Gerardo; Campbell, Steve; Illuminati, Fabrizio; Paternostro, Mauro

    2010-06-18

    We study state engineering through bilinear interactions between two remote qubits and two-mode gaussian light fields. The attainable two-qubit states span the entire physically allowed region in the entanglement-versus-global-purity plane. Two-mode gaussian states with maximal entanglement at fixed global and marginal entropies produce maximally entangled two-qubit states in the corresponding entropic diagram. We show that a small set of parameters characterizing extremally entangled two-mode gaussian states is sufficient to control the engineering of extremally entangled two-qubit states, which can be realized in realistic matter-light scenarios.

  17. Observations on the formulation of paraxial and Gaussian optics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Greivenkamp, John E.

    2014-12-01

    In several of the standard derivations of first-order optics, the actual approximations used are unclear or overstated. Some derivations are also incomplete. Several of the fundamental derivations of paraxial and Gaussian optics have been reformulated to provide a clearer explanation and better understanding of the key concepts of basic image formation for our students. The paraxial refraction raytrace equation, the power of a general Gaussian system and the relationship between the numerical aperture and the F-number are examined. The paraxial refraction equation is shown to be a bridge between paraxial optics and Gaussian optics that defines the power of an optical system.

  18. Noncommutative geometry modified non-Gaussianities of cosmological perturbation

    SciTech Connect

    Fang Kejie; Xue Wei; Chen Bin

    2008-03-15

    We investigate the noncommutative effect on the non-Gaussianities of primordial cosmological perturbation. In the lowest order of string length and slow-roll parameter, we find that in the models with small speed of sound the noncommutative modifications could be observable if assuming a relatively low string scale. In particular, the dominant modification of the non-Gaussianity estimator f{sub NL} could reach O(1) in Dirac-Born-Infeld (DBI) inflation and K-inflation. The corrections are sensitive to the speed of sound and the choice of string length scale. Moreover the shapes of the corrected non-Gaussianities are distinct from that of ordinary ones.

  19. Generalised Hermite-Gaussian beams and mode transformations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Yi; Chen, Yujie; Zhang, Yanfeng; Chen, Hui; Yu, Siyuan

    2016-05-01

    Generalised Hermite-Gaussian modes (gHG modes), an extended notion of Hermite-Gaussian modes (HG modes), are formed by the summation of normal HG modes with a characteristic function α, which can be used to unite conventional HG modes and Laguerre-Gaussian modes (LG modes). An infinite number of normalised orthogonal modes can thus be obtained by modulation of the function α. The gHG mode notion provides a useful tool in analysis of the deformation and transformation phenomena occurring in propagation of HG and LG modes with astigmatic perturbation.

  20. Controllable gaussian-qubit interface for extremal quantum state engineering.

    PubMed

    Adesso, Gerardo; Campbell, Steve; Illuminati, Fabrizio; Paternostro, Mauro

    2010-06-18

    We study state engineering through bilinear interactions between two remote qubits and two-mode gaussian light fields. The attainable two-qubit states span the entire physically allowed region in the entanglement-versus-global-purity plane. Two-mode gaussian states with maximal entanglement at fixed global and marginal entropies produce maximally entangled two-qubit states in the corresponding entropic diagram. We show that a small set of parameters characterizing extremally entangled two-mode gaussian states is sufficient to control the engineering of extremally entangled two-qubit states, which can be realized in realistic matter-light scenarios. PMID:20867288

  1. Fabricating third-order nonlinear optical susceptibility of impurity doped quantum dots in the presence of Gaussian white noise

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ganguly, Jayanta; Saha, Surajit; Pal, Suvajit; Ghosh, Manas

    2016-03-01

    We perform a meticulous analysis of profiles of third-order nonlinear optical susceptibility (TONOS) of impurity doped quantum dots (QDs) in the presence and absence of noise. We have invoked Gaussian white noise in the present study and noise has been introduced to the system additively and multiplicatively. The QD is doped with a Gaussian impurity. A magnetic field applied perpendicularly serves as a confinement source and the doped system has been exposed to a static external electric field. The TONOS profiles have been monitored against a continuous variation of incident photon energy when several important parameters such as electric field strength, magnetic field strength, confinement energy, dopant location, Al concentration, dopant potential, relaxation time, anisotropy, and noise strength assume different values. Moreover, the influence of mode of introduction of noise (additive/multiplicative) on the TONOS profiles has also been addressed. The said profiles are found to be consisting of interesting observations such as shift of TONOS peak position and maximization/minimization of TONOS peak intensity. The presence of noise alters the features of TONOS profiles and sometimes enhances the TONOS peak intensity from that of noise-free state. Furthermore, the mode of application of noise also often tailors the TONOS profiles in diverse fashions. The observations accentuate the possibility of tuning the TONOS of doped QD systems in the presence of noise.

  2. Spatial conductivity mapping of unprotected and capped black phosphorus using microwave microscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Visser, Pieter J.; Chua, Rebekah; Island, Joshua O.; Finkel, Matvey; Katan, Allard J.; Thierschmann, Holger; van der Zant, Herre S. J.; Klapwijk, Teun M.

    2016-06-01

    Thin layers of black phosphorus present an ideal combination of a 2D material with a tunable direct bandgap and high carrier mobility. However the material suffers from degradation in ambient conditions due to an oxidation reaction which involves water, oxygen and light. We have measured the spatial profile of the conductivity on flakes of black phosphorus as a function of time using scanning microwave impedance microscopy. A microwave excitation (3 GHz) allows to image a conducting sample even when covered with a dielectric layer. We observe that on bare black phosphorus, the conductivity changes drastically over the whole surface within a day. We demonstrate that the degradation process is slowed down considerably by covering the material with a 10 nm layer of hafnium oxide. It is stable for more than a week, opening up a route towards stable black phosphorus devices in which the high dielectric constant of hafnium oxide can be exploited. Covering black phosphorus with a 15 nm boron nitride flake changes the degradation process qualitatively, it is dominated by the edges of the flake indicating a diffusive process and happens on the scale of days.

  3. Relativistic formulation of the Voigt profile

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wcisło, P.; Amodio, P.; Ciuryło, R.; Gianfrani, L.

    2015-02-01

    The relativistic formulation of the Voigt profile is reported for the spontaneous emission from an atomic or molecular cloud, in coincidence with a given spectral line. We considered the simultaneous occurrence of homogeneous broadening and thermal broadening, this latter being determined by the relativistic Doppler effect. Our formula for the relativistic Voigt profile reproduces those characterizing the two available limit cases, namely, the relativistic Gaussian profile and the classical Voigt convolution. The relativistic deformation of the Voigt profile was carefully quantified at different temperatures, in the case of the molecular hydrogen spectrum.

  4. Nitrogen and phosphorus budget in rewetted fens.

    PubMed

    Lenz, A; Wild, U

    2001-01-01

    A former dewatered fen was flooded for a multi-purpose landuse system including cattail production, fen protection, and water purification. These research plants with an area of 6 ha consist of three constructed surface-flow wetlands. The inflowing water is polluted by non-point sources due to intensive agriculture. The focus of this paper is the estimation of the potential of rewetted fens to reduce phosphorus and nitrogen. The dominating forms of nitrogen in the inflow are organic nitrogen and nitrate. The reduction rate is higher for nitrate than for organic nitrogen, although the nitrate reductions occur only during the summer season. If no nitrate is available for denitrification, there is a release of ammonia from the peat into the water. The main form of phosphorus in the in- and outflow is ortho-phosphate. In contrast to the values of nitrate, the concentrations of phosphorus are very regular with no significant seasonal pattern. When nitrate isn't available in the water any more, the release of phosphorus begins and the rewetted fens change from a sink for phosphorus to a source of it. Rewetted fens can be a sink for phosphorus and nitrogen with nitrate as the limiting factor. Only if denitrification can occur, can the release of ammonia and phosphorus from the peat layer be prevented.

  5. 21 CFR 862.1580 - Phosphorus (inorganic) test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Phosphorus (inorganic) test system. 862.1580... Systems § 862.1580 Phosphorus (inorganic) test system. (a) Identification. A phosphorus (inorganic) test system is a device intended to measure inorganic phosphorus in serum, plasma, and urine. Measurements...

  6. 21 CFR 862.1580 - Phosphorus (inorganic) test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Phosphorus (inorganic) test system. 862.1580... Systems § 862.1580 Phosphorus (inorganic) test system. (a) Identification. A phosphorus (inorganic) test system is a device intended to measure inorganic phosphorus in serum, plasma, and urine. Measurements...

  7. 21 CFR 862.1580 - Phosphorus (inorganic) test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Phosphorus (inorganic) test system. 862.1580... Systems § 862.1580 Phosphorus (inorganic) test system. (a) Identification. A phosphorus (inorganic) test system is a device intended to measure inorganic phosphorus in serum, plasma, and urine. Measurements...

  8. 21 CFR 862.1580 - Phosphorus (inorganic) test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Phosphorus (inorganic) test system. 862.1580... Systems § 862.1580 Phosphorus (inorganic) test system. (a) Identification. A phosphorus (inorganic) test system is a device intended to measure inorganic phosphorus in serum, plasma, and urine. Measurements...

  9. 49 CFR 173.188 - White or yellow phosphorus.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ...) Inner water-tight metal cans containing not over 0.5 kg (1 pound) of phosphorus with screw-top closures... 49 Transportation 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false White or yellow phosphorus. 173.188 Section 173... Class 7 § 173.188 White or yellow phosphorus. Phosphorus, white or yellow, when offered...

  10. 49 CFR 173.188 - White or yellow phosphorus.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ...) Inner water-tight metal cans containing not over 0.5 kg (1 pound) of phosphorus with screw-top closures... 49 Transportation 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false White or yellow phosphorus. 173.188 Section 173... Class 7 § 173.188 White or yellow phosphorus. Phosphorus, white or yellow, when offered...

  11. Black phosphorus for future devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meunier, Vincent

    Black phosphorus (or ``phosphorene'' at the monolayer limit) has attracted significant attention as an emerging 2D material due to its unique properties compared with well-explored graphene and transition metal dichalcogenides such as MoS2 and WSe2. In bulk form, this monoelemental layered structure is a highly anisotropic semiconductor with a bandgap of 0.3 eV which presents marked distinctions in optical and electronic properties depending on crystalline directions. In addition, black phosphorus possesses a high carrier mobility, making it promising for applications in high frequency electronics. A large number of characterization studies have been performed to understand the intrinsic properties of BP. Here I wil present a number of investigations where first-principles modelling was combined with scanning tunneling microscopy (STM), Raman spectroscopy, and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) to assist in the design of phosphorene-based devices. . I will provide an overview of these studies and position them in the context of the very active research devoted to this material. In particular, I will show how low-frequency Raman spectra provide a unique handle on the physics of multilayered systems and how BP's structural anisotropy weaves its way to its unusual polarization dependent Raman signature. Finally, I will show recent progress where nanopores, nanobridges, and nanogaps have been sculpted directly from a few-layer BP sample using a TEM, and indicate the potential use of these results on the creation of phosphorene-based nanoelectronics. I wil conclude this talk with a critical look at the issues of phosphorene stability under ambient conditions. Collaborators on this research include: Liangbo Liang, Bobby G. Sumpter, Alex Puretzky, Minghu Pan, (Oak Ridge National Laboratory), Marija Drndic (University of Pennsylvania), Mildred Dresselhaus, Xi-Ling, Shengxi Huang (Massachusetts Institute of Technology).

  12. Weak Localization in few layer Black Phosphorus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gillgren, Nathaniel; Shi, Yanmeng; Espiritu, Timothy; Watanabe, Kenji; Taniguchi, Takahashi; Lau, Chun Ning (Jeanie)

    Few-layer black phosphorus has recently attracted interest from the scientific community due to its high mobility, tunable band gap, and large anisotropy. Recent experiments have demonstrated that black phosphorus provides a promising candidate to explore the physics of 2D semiconductors. In this study we explore the magnetotransport of few-layer black phosphorus-boron nitride hetereostructure devices at low magnetic fields. Weak localization is observed at low temperatures. We extract the dephasing length and measure its dependence on temperature, carrier density and electric field.

  13. Dietary and plasma phosphorus in hens with fatty liver syndrome.

    PubMed

    Miles, R D; Christmas, R B; Harms, R H

    1982-12-01

    Plasma inorganic phosphorus was determined in two experiments in hens that had fatty liver syndrome. In Experiment 1, plasma inorganic phosphorus was determined in twelve strains of hens all fed the same diet. Plasma inorganic phosphorus immediately following oviposition was elevated in all strains. The two strains in the first experiment with the highest as well as the two strains with the lowest plasma inorganic phosphorus were used in the second experiment. Each of the four strains were subdivided into three groups of 60 hens each and fed a practical layer diet containing either .30, .75, or 1.40% total phosphorus and 3.4% calcium. Significant differences were found in plasma inorganic phosphorus between strains fed the three dietary phosphorus levels. Results indicated that plasma inorganic phosphorus is related to dietary phosphorus in hens with an elevated plasma inorganic phosphorus level associated with fatty liver syndrome.

  14. On the robustness of the q-Gaussian family

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sicuro, Gabriele; Tempesta, Piergiulio; Rodríguez, Antonio; Tsallis, Constantino

    2015-12-01

    We introduce three deformations, called α-, β- and γ-deformation respectively, of a N-body probabilistic model, first proposed by Rodríguez et al. (2008), having q-Gaussians as N → ∞ limiting probability distributions. The proposed α- and β-deformations are asymptotically scale-invariant, whereas the γ-deformation is not. We prove that, for both α- and β-deformations, the resulting deformed triangles still have q-Gaussians as limiting distributions, with a value of q independent (dependent) on the deformation parameter in the α-case (β-case). In contrast, the γ-case, where we have used the celebrated Q-numbers and the Gauss binomial coefficients, yields other limiting probability distribution functions, outside the q-Gaussian family. These results suggest that scale-invariance might play an important role regarding the robustness of the q-Gaussian family.

  15. Optimal multicopy asymmetric Gaussian cloning of coherent states

    SciTech Connect

    Fiurasek, Jaromir; Cerf, Nicolas J.

    2007-05-15

    We investigate the asymmetric Gaussian cloning of coherent states which produces M copies from N input replicas in such a way that the fidelity of each copy may be different. We show that the optimal asymmetric Gaussian cloning can be performed with a single phase-insensitive amplifier and an array of beam splitters. We obtain a simple analytical expression characterizing the set of optimal asymmetric Gaussian cloning machines and prove the optimality of these cloners using the formalism of Gaussian completely positive maps and semidefinite programming techniques. We also present an alternative implementation of the asymmetric cloning machine where the phase-insensitive amplifier is replaced with a beam splitter, heterodyne detector, and feedforward.

  16. Transmission loss between single-mode Gaussian antennas.

    PubMed

    Perlot, Nicolas; Rohde, Michael

    2016-08-22

    We analytically derive a set of formulas for the transmission loss in vacuum between antennas that send and receive single-mode Gaussian beams. We relate our results to standard far-field link budget parameters. PMID:27557226

  17. Transmission loss between single-mode Gaussian antennas.

    PubMed

    Perlot, Nicolas; Rohde, Michael

    2016-08-22

    We analytically derive a set of formulas for the transmission loss in vacuum between antennas that send and receive single-mode Gaussian beams. We relate our results to standard far-field link budget parameters.

  18. Evolution of massive haloes in non-Gaussian scenarios

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grossi, M.; Dolag, K.; Branchini, E.; Matarrese, S.; Moscardini, L.

    2007-12-01

    We have performed high-resolution cosmological N-body simulations of a concordance ΛCDM model to study the evolution of virialized, dark matter haloes in the presence of primordial non-Gaussianity. Following a standard procedure, departures from Gaussianity are modelled through a quadratic Gaussian term in the primordial gravitational potential, characterized by a dimensionless non-linearity strength parameter fNL. We find that the halo mass function and its redshift evolution closely follow the analytic predictions of Matarrese, Verde & Jimenez. The existence of precise analytic predictions makes the observation of rare, massive objects at large redshift an even more attractive test to detect primordial non-Gaussian features in the large-scale structure of the Universe.

  19. Primordial non-Gaussianities after Planck 2015: An introductory review

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Renaux-Petel, Sébastien

    2015-12-01

    Deviations from Gaussian statistics of the cosmological density fluctuations, so-called primordial non-Gaussianities (NG), are one of the most informative fingerprints of the origin of structures in the universe. Indeed, they can probe physics at energy scales inaccessible to laboratory experiments, and are sensitive to the interactions of the field(s) that generated the primordial fluctuations, contrary to the Gaussian linear theory. As a result, they can discriminate between inflationary models that are otherwise almost indistinguishable. In this short review, we explain how to compute the non-Gaussian properties in any inflationary scenario. We review the theoretical predictions of several important classes of models. We then describe the ways NG can be probed observationally, and we highlight the recent constraints from the Planck mission, as well as their implications. We finally identify well motivated theoretical targets for future experiments and discuss observational prospects. xml:lang="fr"

  20. Minimal disturbance measurement for coherent states is non-Gaussian

    SciTech Connect

    Mista, Ladislav Jr.

    2006-03-15

    In standard coherent state teleportation with a shared two-mode squeezed vacuum (TMSV) state there is a trade-off between the teleportation fidelity and the fidelity of estimation of the teleported state from the results of the Bell measurement. Within the class of Gaussian operations this trade-off is optimal, i.e., there is not a Gaussian operation that would give a larger estimation fidelity for a given output fidelity. We show that this trade-off can be improved by up to 2.77% if we use a suitable non-Gaussian operation. This operation can be implemented by the standard teleportation protocol in which the shared TMSV state is replaced with a suitable non-Gaussian entangled state. We also demonstrate that this operation can be used to enhance the transmission fidelity of a certain noisy channel.

  1. Making tensor factorizations robust to non-gaussian noise.

    SciTech Connect

    Chi, Eric C.; Kolda, Tamara Gibson

    2011-03-01

    Tensors are multi-way arrays, and the CANDECOMP/PARAFAC (CP) tensor factorization has found application in many different domains. The CP model is typically fit using a least squares objective function, which is a maximum likelihood estimate under the assumption of independent and identically distributed (i.i.d.) Gaussian noise. We demonstrate that this loss function can be highly sensitive to non-Gaussian noise. Therefore, we propose a loss function based on the 1-norm because it can accommodate both Gaussian and grossly non-Gaussian perturbations. We also present an alternating majorization-minimization (MM) algorithm for fitting a CP model using our proposed loss function (CPAL1) and compare its performance to the workhorse algorithm for fitting CP models, CP alternating least squares (CPALS).

  2. A comparative study of Gaussian geostatistical models and Gaussian Markov random field models1

    PubMed Central

    Song, Hae-Ryoung; Fuentes, Montserrat; Ghosh, Sujit

    2008-01-01

    Gaussian geostatistical models (GGMs) and Gaussian Markov random fields (GM-RFs) are two distinct approaches commonly used in spatial models for modeling point referenced and areal data, respectively. In this paper, the relations between GGMs and GMRFs are explored based on approximations of GMRFs by GGMs, and approximations of GGMs by GMRFs. Two new metrics of approximation are proposed: (i) the Kullback-Leibler discrepancy of spectral densities and (ii) the chi-squared distance between spectral densities. The distances between the spectral density functions of GGMs and GMRFs measured by these metrics are minimized to obtain the approximations of GGMs and GMRFs. The proposed methodologies are validated through several empirical studies. We compare the performance of our approach to other methods based on covariance functions, in terms of the average mean squared prediction error and also the computational time. A spatial analysis of a dataset on PM2.5 collected in California is presented to illustrate the proposed method. PMID:19337581

  3. Pyromineralization of soil phosphorus in savanna ecosystems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hartshorn, A.; Coetsee, C.; Chadwick, O.

    2007-12-01

    The weathering of rock supplies phosphorus (P) to ecosystems. Phosphorus limitation of ecosystems can be severe in thicker or older soils, where soil production rates from rock and therefore release of P is slower than in thinner or younger soils. Limitation may be especially pronounced in drier ecosystems that are experiencing increasing N deposition. Our savanna field sites in Kruger National Park, South Africa meet all three of these criteria: soil residence times average 250 ky, the climate is semiarid, and N inputs average 20 kg ha-1 y-1. Not all soil P is plant-available, and because our field sites experience occasional fires, our objectives were to quantify the importance of pyromineralization of soil P, the transfer by fire of soil P from recalcitrant to labile (HCO3- extractable) pools. We quantified these soil P pools using a modified Hedley scheme (an array of chemical extractants). Three sets of soils were fractionated: 1. soils from 10 profiles along an intensively studied hillslope, bracketing a pronounced structural and functional ecotone; 2. surface soils from these 10 profiles after a simulated burn; and 3. surface soils from the Shabeni Experimental Plots, where 4 fire treatments have been maintained for decades: no fire, annual fire in the dry season, triennial fire in the dry season, and triennial fire in the wet season. Total P for hillslope soils ranged from 45 to 135 g m-2 (to 50 cm depth) and from 8 to 15 g m-2 (to 5 cm depth). Total soil P was lowest in midslope soils, where upslope sandy soils dominated by broad-leafed vegetation shift abruptly to downslope clayey soils with fine-leafed vegetation. Simulated fire for the hillslope soils reduced total P slightly, but boosted labile P by 1.7 g m-2 (to 5 cm), representing 17% of total P in the surface 5 cm. This pyromineralization effect was not uniform across the hillslope: downslope soils gained about 50% more labile P than midslope soils with simulated burning. With a fire return interval

  4. Towards global phosphorus security: a systems framework for phosphorus recovery and reuse options.

    PubMed

    Cordell, D; Rosemarin, A; Schröder, J J; Smit, A L

    2011-08-01

    Human intervention in the global phosphorus cycle has mobilised nearly half a billion tonnes of the element from phosphate rock into the hydrosphere over the past half century. The resultant water pollution concerns have been the main driver for sustainable phosphorus use (including phosphorus recovery). However the emerging global challenge of phosphorus scarcity with serious implications for future food security, means phosphorus will also need to be recovered for productive reuse as a fertilizer in food production to replace increasingly scarce and more expensive phosphate rock. Through an integrated and systems framework, this paper examines the full spectrum of sustainable phosphorus recovery and reuse options (from small-scale low-cost to large-scale high-tech), facilitates integrated decision-making and identifies future opportunities and challenges for achieving global phosphorus security. Case studies are provided rather than focusing on a specific technology or process. There is no single solution to achieving a phosphorus-secure future: in addition to increasing phosphorus use efficiency, phosphorus will need to be recovered and reused from all current waste streams throughout the food production and consumption system (from human and animal excreta to food and crop wastes). There is a need for new sustainable policies, partnerships and strategic frameworks to develop renewable phosphorus fertilizer systems for farmers. Further research is also required to determine the most sustainable means in a given context for recovering phosphorus from waste streams and converting the final products into effective fertilizers, accounting for life cycle costs, resource and energy consumption, availability, farmer accessibility and pollution.

  5. Strong no-go theorem for Gaussian quantum bit commitment

    SciTech Connect

    Magnin, Loieck; Magniez, Frederic; Leverrier, Anthony

    2010-01-15

    Unconditionally secure bit commitment is forbidden by quantum mechanics. We extend this no-go theorem to continuous-variable protocols where both players are restricted to use Gaussian states and operations, which is a reasonable assumption in current-state optical implementations. Our Gaussian no-go theorem also provides a natural counter-example to a conjecture that quantum mechanics can be rederived from the assumption that key distribution is allowed while bit commitment is forbidden in Nature.

  6. Compact surfaces of constant Gaussian curvature in Randers manifolds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cui, Ningwei

    2016-08-01

    The flag curvature of a Finsler surface is called the Gaussian curvature in Finsler geometry. In this paper, we characterize the surfaces of constant Gaussian curvature (CGC) in the Randers 3-manifold. Then we give a classification of the orientable closed CGC surfaces in two Randers space forms, which are the non-Euclidean Minkowski-Randers 3-space (K = 0) and the Bao-Shen sphere (K = 1).

  7. GAUSSIAN 76: An ab initio Molecular Orbital Program

    DOE R&D Accomplishments Database

    Binkley, J. S.; Whiteside, R.; Hariharan, P. C.; Seeger, R.; Hehre, W. J.; Lathan, W. A.; Newton, M. D.; Ditchfield, R.; Pople, J. A.

    1978-01-01

    Gaussian 76 is a general-purpose computer program for ab initio Hartree-Fock molecular orbital calculations. It can handle basis sets involving s, p and d-type Gaussian functions. Certain standard sets (STO-3G, 4-31G, 6-31G*, etc.) are stored internally for easy use. Closed shell (RHF) or unrestricted open shell (UHF) wave functions can be obtained. Facilities are provided for geometry optimization to potential minima and for limited potential surface scans.

  8. Non-gaussianity versus nonlinearity of cosmological perturbations.

    PubMed

    Verde, L

    2001-06-01

    Following the discovery of the cosmic microwave background, the hot big-bang model has become the standard cosmological model. In this theory, small primordial fluctuations are subsequently amplified by gravity to form the large-scale structure seen today. Different theories for unified models of particle physics, lead to different predictions for the statistical properties of the primordial fluctuations, that can be divided in two classes: gaussian and non-gaussian. Convincing evidence against or for gaussian initial conditions would rule out many scenarios and point us toward a physical theory for the origin of structures. The statistical distribution of cosmological perturbations, as we observe them, can deviate from the gaussian distribution in several different ways. Even if perturbations start off gaussian, nonlinear gravitational evolution can introduce non-gaussian features. Additionally, our knowledge of the Universe comes principally from the study of luminous material such as galaxies, but galaxies might not be faithful tracers of the underlying mass distribution. The relationship between fluctuations in the mass and in the galaxies distribution (bias), is often assumed to be local, but could well be nonlinear. Moreover, galaxy catalogues use the redshift as third spatial coordinate: the resulting redshift-space map of the galaxy distribution is nonlinearly distorted by peculiar velocities. Nonlinear gravitational evolution, biasing, and redshift-space distortion introduce non-gaussianity, even in an initially gaussian fluctuation field. I investigate the statistical tools that allow us, in principle, to disentangle the above different effects, and the observational datasets we require to do so in practice.

  9. Gauge invariance and non-Gaussianity in inflation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rigopoulos, Gerasimos

    2011-07-01

    We clarify the role of gauge invariance for the computation of quantum non-Gaussian correlators in inflation. A gauge invariant generating functional for n-point functions is given and the special status of the spatially flat gauge is pointed out. We also comment on the relation between gauge transformations, field redefinitions, the choice of t=const hypersurfaces and the use of boundary terms in computations of non-Gaussianity.

  10. Nonclassicality of a photon-subtracted Gaussian field

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, M.S.; Park, E.; Knight, P.L.; Jeong, H.

    2005-04-01

    We investigate the nonclassicality of a photon-subtracted Gaussian field, which was produced in a recent experiment, using negativity of the Wigner function and the nonexistence of well-behaved positive P function. We obtain the condition to see negativity of the Wigner function for the case including the mixed Gaussian incoming field, the threshold photodetection and the inefficient homodyne measurement. We show how similar the photon-subtracted state is to a superposition of coherent states.

  11. Non-gaussianity versus nonlinearity of cosmological perturbations.

    PubMed

    Verde, L

    2001-06-01

    Following the discovery of the cosmic microwave background, the hot big-bang model has become the standard cosmological model. In this theory, small primordial fluctuations are subsequently amplified by gravity to form the large-scale structure seen today. Different theories for unified models of particle physics, lead to different predictions for the statistical properties of the primordial fluctuations, that can be divided in two classes: gaussian and non-gaussian. Convincing evidence against or for gaussian initial conditions would rule out many scenarios and point us toward a physical theory for the origin of structures. The statistical distribution of cosmological perturbations, as we observe them, can deviate from the gaussian distribution in several different ways. Even if perturbations start off gaussian, nonlinear gravitational evolution can introduce non-gaussian features. Additionally, our knowledge of the Universe comes principally from the study of luminous material such as galaxies, but galaxies might not be faithful tracers of the underlying mass distribution. The relationship between fluctuations in the mass and in the galaxies distribution (bias), is often assumed to be local, but could well be nonlinear. Moreover, galaxy catalogues use the redshift as third spatial coordinate: the resulting redshift-space map of the galaxy distribution is nonlinearly distorted by peculiar velocities. Nonlinear gravitational evolution, biasing, and redshift-space distortion introduce non-gaussianity, even in an initially gaussian fluctuation field. I investigate the statistical tools that allow us, in principle, to disentangle the above different effects, and the observational datasets we require to do so in practice. PMID:11411156

  12. A note on the wideband Gaussian broadcast channel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mceliece, R. J.; Posner, E. C.; Swanson, L.

    1986-01-01

    It is well known that for the Gaussian broadcast channel, timeshared coding is not as efficient as more sophisticated broadcast coding strategies. However, the relative advantage of broadcast coding over timeshared coding is shown to be small if the signal-to-noise ratios of both receivers are small. One surprising consequence of this is that for the wideband Gaussian broadcast channel, which is defined, broadcast coding offers no advantage over timeshared coding at all, and so timeshared coding is optimal.

  13. Propagation of a Gaussian beam in a nonhomogeneous plasma

    SciTech Connect

    Mazzucato, E.

    1989-06-01

    The asymptotic theory of Choudhary and Felsen on the propagation of scalar inhomogeneous waves in two-dimensional isotropic media is extended to the case of three-dimensional vector fields. The theory is applied to the propagation of Gaussian beams in nonhomogeneous media. The wave trajectory equations are then reformulated for anisotropic media and used for tracking a Gaussian beam in a tokamak plasma. 14 refs., 5 figs.

  14. Non-Gaussianity and Excursion Set Theory: Halo Bias

    SciTech Connect

    Adshead, Peter; Baxter, Eric J.; Dodelson, Scott; Lidz, Adam

    2012-09-01

    We study the impact of primordial non-Gaussianity generated during inflation on the bias of halos using excursion set theory. We recapture the familiar result that the bias scales as $k^{-2}$ on large scales for local type non-Gaussianity but explicitly identify the approximations that go into this conclusion and the corrections to it. We solve the more complicated problem of non-spherical halos, for which the collapse threshold is scale dependent.

  15. Self-focusing of Gaussian laser beam in weakly relativistic and ponderomotive regime using upward ramp of plasma density

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Patil, S. D.; Takale, M. V.

    2013-08-01

    We have studied the steady state self-focusing of Gaussian laser beam in weakly relativistic and ponderomotive regime for upward increasing plasma ramp density profile. We have obtained the differential equation for beam width parameter by using parabolic equation approach under the usual Wentzel-Kramers-Brillouin and paraxial approximations. The variation of beam width parameter with respect to dimensionless distance of propagation is presented graphically by varying the parameters of density profile, intensity parameter, and electronic temperature. It shows that the above stated parameters play an important role in propagation characteristics and give reasonably interesting results.

  16. Experimental realization of a diffractive unstable resonator with Gaussian amplitude of the outcoupled beam using a VECSEL amplifier.

    PubMed

    Eckstein, Hans-Christoph; Zeitner, Uwe Detlef

    2009-09-28

    Unstable resonators show an intense discrimination of undesired higher order modes but a high beam quality cannot be obtained with conventional resonators composed of spherical mirrors. In the present paper we demonstrate the possibility to tailor the fundamental mode by inserting diffractive elements into the resonator to generate a desirable output beam profile even for unstable resonators. We show a concept to design such surface structured elements for customizing the amplitude shape of the outcoupled beam. Further we demonstrate the first experimental realization of an unstable diffractive resonator with a Gaussian shaped amplitude profile of the laser beam for a vertical external cavity surface emitting laser (VECSEL). PMID:19907524

  17. Self-focusing of Gaussian laser beam in weakly relativistic and ponderomotive regime using upward ramp of plasma density

    SciTech Connect

    Patil, S. D.; Takale, M. V.

    2013-08-15

    We have studied the steady state self-focusing of Gaussian laser beam in weakly relativistic and ponderomotive regime for upward increasing plasma ramp density profile. We have obtained the differential equation for beam width parameter by using parabolic equation approach under the usual Wentzel–Kramers–Brillouin and paraxial approximations. The variation of beam width parameter with respect to dimensionless distance of propagation is presented graphically by varying the parameters of density profile, intensity parameter, and electronic temperature. It shows that the above stated parameters play an important role in propagation characteristics and give reasonably interesting results.

  18. Phosphorus flux from wetland ditch sediments.

    PubMed

    Hill, C R; Robinson, J S

    2012-10-15

    The accumulation of phosphorus (P) in the bottom sediment of field drainage ditches poses a threat to the ecology both of the ditch water and downstream water courses. We investigated the amounts, forms and internal loading of sediment-bound P along two drainage ditches that regulate water levels in a basin fen (~200 ha) supporting a mixture of restored wetland and drained agricultural fields. Water levels in the Lady's Drove Rhyne are currently managed to enhance the biodiversity of the wetland (Catcott Lows Reserve - an area formerly cultivated for arable crop production); whereas, the East Ditch is managed to drain adjoining land that remains under arable and livestock production. Laboratory-based chemical fractionation schemes were used to characterise the forms and potential mobility of the sediment-bound P, whilst pore-water equilibrators were employed in situ to evaluate the diffusive flux of P through the sediment-water column, and to characterise the corresponding redox conditions. Along both ditches, sediment pore-water profiles indicated conditions ranging from weakly to very reducing conditions with increasing depth, and net fluxes of P from the sediment to overlying water. P flux values ranged from 0.33 to 1.30 mg m(-2) day(-1). Both the degree of P saturation (DPS) of the sediment and NaOH extractable (Fe/Al-bound) P correlated significantly (P<0.05) with P flux. Both in the wetland and agricultural ditches, by far the highest values for P flux were recorded at sites closest to points of drainage water entry from the corresponding, adjoining land. Although the P flux data were obtained from only a single sampling event, this study highlights the contribution of historical as well as ongoing agricultural land use on the sustained elevated P status of ditch sediments in lowland catchments.

  19. [Research on theory and application of the interferogram of Voigt profile].

    PubMed

    He, Jian; Zhang, Chun-min; Zhang, Qing-guo

    2007-03-01

    At normal pressure, Voigt profile (the convolution of Gaussian profile and Lorentzian profile) is the closest to actual profile, but it has no accurate expression, so in actual application many approximations are used to express Voigt profile. In the present paper, without any approximation, the authors calculate the interferogram of Voigt profile, showing that Voigt profile has no expression, but its interferogram can be calculated strictly. The transform has only one term, which is very similar to the expressions of Gaussian profile and Lorentzian profile, so any calculations of the widened profile can be finished, which doesn't have two terms as some papers predict, and difficulties will be brought. The calculation results are consistent with the experimental results. As an example in actual application, its application in atmospheric wind measurement is pointed out. This calculation has important significance in Fourier transform spectrometer of gas widened profile. PMID:17554889

  20. Gaussian Analytic Centroiding method of star image of star tracker

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Haiyong; Xu, Ershuai; Li, Zhifeng; Li, Jingjin; Qin, Tianmu

    2015-11-01

    The energy distribution of an actual star image coincides with the Gaussian law statistically in most cases, so the optimized processing algorithm about star image centroiding should be constructed also by following Gaussian law. For a star image spot covering a certain number of pixels, the marginal distribution of the gray accumulation on rows and columns are shown and analyzed, based on which the formulas of Gaussian Analytic Centroiding method (GAC) are deduced, and the robustness is also promoted due to the inherited filtering effect of gray accumulation. Ideal reference star images are simulated by the PSF (point spread function) with integral form. Precision and speed tests for the Gaussian Analytic formulas are conducted under three scenarios of Gaussian radius (0.5, 0.671, 0.8 pixel), The simulation results show that the precision of GAC method is better than that of the other given algorithms when the Gaussian radius is not bigger than 5 × 5 pixel window, a widely used parameter. Above all, the algorithm which consumes the least time is still the novel GAC method. GAC method helps to promote the comprehensive performance in the attitude determination of a star tracker.

  1. Gaussian reference fluid and interpretation of quantum geometrodynamics

    SciTech Connect

    Kuchar, K.V. ); Torre, C.G. )

    1991-01-15

    The Wheeler-DeWitt equation of vacuum geometrodynamics is turned into a Schroedinger equation by imposing the normal Gaussian coordinate conditions with Lagrange multipliers and then restoring the coordinate invariance of the action by parametrization. This procedure corresponds to coupling the gravitational field to a reference fluid. The source appearing in the Einstein law of gravitation has the structure of a heat-conducting dust. When one imposes only the Gaussian time condition but not the Gaussian frame conditions, the heat flow vanishes and the dust becomes incoherent. The canonical description of the fluid uses the Gaussian coordinates and their conjugate momenta as the fluid variables. The energy density and the momentum density of the fluid turn out to be homogeneous linear functions of such momenta. This feature guarantees that the Dirac constraint quantization of the gravitational field coupled to the Gaussian reference fluid leads to a functional Schroedinger equation in Gaussian time. Such an equation possesses the standard positive-definite conserved norm.

  2. Characterization of non-Gaussianity in gravitational wave detector noise

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamamoto, Takahiro; Hayama, Kazuhiro; Mano, Shuhei; Itoh, Yousuke; Kanda, Nobuyuki

    2016-04-01

    The first detection of a gravitational wave (GW) has been achieved by two detectors of the advanced LIGO. Routine detections of GW events from various GW sources are expected in the coming decades. Although the first signal was statistically significant, we expect to see numerous low signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) events with which we may be able to learn various aspects of the Universe that have yet to be unveiled. On the other hand, instrumental glitches due to nonstationarity and/or a non-Gaussian tail of detector noise distribution prevent us from confidently identifying true but low SNR GW signals out of instrumental noise. Thus, to make the best use of data from GW detectors, it is important to establish a method to safely distinguish true GW signals from false signals due to instrumental noises. For this purpose, we urgently need to understand characteristics of detector noises, since the nonstationarity and non-Gaussianity inherent in detector outputs are known to increase false detections of signals. Focusing on identifying the non-Gaussian noise components, this paper introduces a new measure for characterizing the non-Gaussian noise components using the parameter ν which characterizes the weight of tail in a Student-t distribution. A confidence interval is reported on the extent to which detector noise deviates from Gaussianity. Our method revealed stationary and transient deterioration of Gaussianity in LIGO S5 data.

  3. Ballistic diffusion induced by non-Gaussian noise

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qin, Li; Li, Qiang

    2013-03-01

    In this letter, we have analyzed the diffusive behavior of a Brownian particle subject to both internal Gaussian thermal and external non-Gaussian noise sources. We discuss two time correlation functions C(t) of the non-Gaussian stochastic process, and find that they depend on the parameter q, indicating the departure of the non-Gaussian noise from Gaussian behavior: for q <= 1, C(t) is fitted very well by the first-order exponentially decaying curve and approaches zero in the long-time limit, whereas for q > 1, C(t) can be approximated by a second-order exponentially decaying function and converges to a non-zero constant. Due to the properties of C(t), the particle exhibits a normal diffusion for q <= 1, while for q > 1 the non-Gaussian noise induces a ballistic diffusion, i.e., the long-time mean square displacement of the free particle reads <[x(t) - ]2> ∝ t2.

  4. Epitaxial Growth of Single Layer Blue Phosphorus: A New Phase of Two-Dimensional Phosphorus.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Jia Lin; Zhao, Songtao; Han, Cheng; Wang, Zhunzhun; Zhong, Shu; Sun, Shuo; Guo, Rui; Zhou, Xiong; Gu, Cheng Ding; Yuan, Kai Di; Li, Zhenyu; Chen, Wei

    2016-08-10

    Blue phosphorus, a previously unknown phase of phosphorus, has been recently predicted by theoretical calculations and shares its layered structure and high stability with black phosphorus, a rapidly rising two-dimensional material. Here, we report a molecular beam epitaxial growth of single layer blue phosphorus on Au(111) by using black phosphorus as precursor, through the combination of in situ low temperature scanning tunneling microscopy and density functional theory calculation. The structure of the as-grown single layer blue phosphorus on Au(111) is explained with a (4 × 4) blue phosphorus unit cell coinciding with a (5 × 5) Au(111) unit cell, and this is verified by the theoretical calculations. The electronic bandgap of single layer blue phosphorus on Au(111) is determined to be 1.10 eV by scanning tunneling spectroscopy measurement. The realization of epitaxial growth of large-scale and high quality atomic-layered blue phosphorus can enable the rapid development of novel electronic and optoelectronic devices based on this emerging two-dimensional material. PMID:27359041

  5. Epitaxial Growth of Single Layer Blue Phosphorus: A New Phase of Two-Dimensional Phosphorus.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Jia Lin; Zhao, Songtao; Han, Cheng; Wang, Zhunzhun; Zhong, Shu; Sun, Shuo; Guo, Rui; Zhou, Xiong; Gu, Cheng Ding; Yuan, Kai Di; Li, Zhenyu; Chen, Wei

    2016-08-10

    Blue phosphorus, a previously unknown phase of phosphorus, has been recently predicted by theoretical calculations and shares its layered structure and high stability with black phosphorus, a rapidly rising two-dimensional material. Here, we report a molecular beam epitaxial growth of single layer blue phosphorus on Au(111) by using black phosphorus as precursor, through the combination of in situ low temperature scanning tunneling microscopy and density functional theory calculation. The structure of the as-grown single layer blue phosphorus on Au(111) is explained with a (4 × 4) blue phosphorus unit cell coinciding with a (5 × 5) Au(111) unit cell, and this is verified by the theoretical calculations. The electronic bandgap of single layer blue phosphorus on Au(111) is determined to be 1.10 eV by scanning tunneling spectroscopy measurement. The realization of epitaxial growth of large-scale and high quality atomic-layered blue phosphorus can enable the rapid development of novel electronic and optoelectronic devices based on this emerging two-dimensional material.

  6. Anisotropic exciton Stark shift in black phosphorus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chaves, A.; Low, Tony; Avouris, P.; ćakır, D.; Peeters, F. M.

    2015-04-01

    We calculate the excitonic spectrum of few-layer black phosphorus by direct diagonalization of the effective mass Hamiltonian in the presence of an applied in-plane electric field. The strong attractive interaction between electrons and holes in this system allows one to investigate the Stark effect up to very high ionizing fields, including also the excited states. Our results show that the band anisotropy in black phosphorus becomes evident in the direction-dependent field-induced polarizability of the exciton.

  7. Method of removing phosphorus impurities from yellowcake

    SciTech Connect

    Brown, R.A.; Winkley, D.C.

    1983-04-05

    PhospHorus impurities are removed from yellowcake by dissolving it in hydrochloric or sulfuric acid to a U/sub 3/O/sub 88/ assay of at least 150 g/l at a pH of 2; precipitating uranium peroxide W hydrogen peroxide while keeping the pH between 2.2 and 2.6 and recovering the uranium peroxide from the phosphorus impurities remaining in solution.

  8. Sustainable Phosphorus Management in Land Applied Reclaimed Water Scenarios

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weinkam, G.

    2015-12-01

    Florida leads the nation in wastewater effluent/reclaimed water use, at over 700 million gallons per day, of which 75% is land applied. While these effluent waters are treated to reduce pathogen loads, phosphorus (P) concentrations can still be substantial in long term application scenarios. Currently an estimated 1.5 million kg of P are reintroduced to the landscape yearly (at effluent = 2 mg P/L), compared to only 23,000 kg that would be applied if landscapes were irrigated with ground water (at ground water = 0.03 mg P/L). Research suggests that under long term applications of P systems can reach a state at which they are no longer able to assimilate further loading, potentially resulting in landscapes that are actively leaching and eroding P rich particulate matter to receiving hydrologic systems. This can be especially relevant in Florida given the large proportion of sandy soils that contain, relatively, low physical and chemical ion exchange capacity and high hydraulic conductivity, thus increasing the potential for water quality impairment. Due to increasingly stringent surface water P concentrations allowances, and the many uncertainties regarding the long term fate and transport of P, this research seeks to determine how different soil conditions and reclaimed water loading amounts can alter P leaching profiles in Florida. Field sampling at reclaimed water sprayfield sites are used to determine the relative change in P sequestration potential using soil-phosphorus saturation capacity (SPSC) analyses and potential leaching risk is determined by soil core experimentation. The resulting information improves fundamental understanding of soil-phosphorus transport dynamics and provides insights into alternative techniques for long term environmental sustainability of reclaimed wastewater usage.

  9. Soil test phosphorus and cumulative phosphorus budgets in fertilized grassland.

    PubMed

    Messiga, Aimé Jean; Ziadi, Noura; Jouany, Claire; Virkajärvi, Perttu; Suomela, Raija; Sinaj, Sokrat; Bélanger, Gilles; Stroia, Ciprian; Morel, Christian

    2015-03-01

    We analyzed the linearity of relationships between soil test P (STP) and cumulative phosphorus (P) budget using data from six long-term fertilized grassland sites in four countries: France (Ercé and Gramond), Switzerland (Les Verrières), Canada (Lévis), and Finland (Maaninka and Siikajoki). STP was determined according to existing national guidelines. A linear-plateau model was used to determine the presence of deflection points in the relationships. Deflection points with (x, y) coordinates were observed everywhere but Maaninka. Above the deflection point, a significant linear relationship was obtained (0.33 < r (2) < 0.72) at four sites, while below the deflection point, the relationship was not significant, with a negligible rate of STP decrease. The relationship was not linear over the range of STP encountered at most sites, suggesting a need for caution when using the P budget approach to predict STP changes in grasslands, particularly in situations of very low P fertilization. Our study provides insights and description of a tool to improve global P strategies aimed at maintaining STP at levels adequate for grassland production while reducing the risk of P pollution of water.

  10. Assessing phosphorus reduction efforts in the Everglades

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tretkoff, Ernie

    2011-05-01

    Years of agricultural and urban runoff have resulted in too much phosphorus in northern regions of the Florida Everglades. To deal with this problem, very large constructed wetlands, known as Stormwater Treatment Areas (STAs), have been built to strip phosphorus from runoff before the water enters protected Everglades areas. The more than $1 billion STA project currently relies on large areas (cells) of submerged aquatic vegetation (SAV) to absorb phosphorus as the final stage of treatment. To evaluate how well the treatment cells are functioning, as well as the potential lower limits of treatment, it is essential to have an accurate picture of the inflows, outflows, and background phosphorus levels. Juston and DeBusk made long-term measurements in one of the SAV cells. They found that after total phosphorous levels in the cells reached about 15 micrograms per liter, no more phosphorus removal occurred. They also analyzed inflow and outflow data from the cell and inferred background phosphorus concentrations for eight additional SAV cells. Background concentrations averaged around 16 micrograms per liter. (Water Resources Research, doi:10.1029/2010WR009294, 2011)

  11. Soil phosphorus constrains biodiversity across European grasslands.

    PubMed

    Ceulemans, Tobias; Stevens, Carly J; Duchateau, Luc; Jacquemyn, Hans; Gowing, David J G; Merckx, Roel; Wallace, Hilary; van Rooijen, Nils; Goethem, Thomas; Bobbink, Roland; Dorland, Edu; Gaudnik, Cassandre; Alard, Didier; Corcket, Emmanuel; Muller, Serge; Dise, Nancy B; Dupré, Cecilia; Diekmann, Martin; Honnay, Olivier

    2014-12-01

    Nutrient pollution presents a serious threat to biodiversity conservation. In terrestrial ecosystems, the deleterious effects of nitrogen pollution are increasingly understood and several mitigating environmental policies have been developed. Compared to nitrogen, the effects of increased phosphorus have received far less attention, although some studies have indicated that phosphorus pollution may be detrimental for biodiversity as well. On the basis of a dataset covering 501 grassland plots throughout Europe, we demonstrate that, independent of the level of atmospheric nitrogen deposition and soil acidity, plant species richness was consistently negatively related to soil phosphorus. We also identified thresholds in soil phosphorus above which biodiversity appears to remain at a constant low level. Our results indicate that nutrient management policies biased toward reducing nitrogen pollution will fail to preserve biodiversity. As soil phosphorus is known to be extremely persistent and we found no evidence for a critical threshold below which no environmental harm is expected, we suggest that agro-environmental schemes should include grasslands that are permanently free from phosphorus fertilization.

  12. Phosphorus removal and N₂O production in anaerobic/anoxic denitrifying phosphorus removal process: long-term impact of influent phosphorus concentration.

    PubMed

    Wang, Zhen; Meng, Yuan; Fan, Ting; Du, Yuneng; Tang, Jie; Fan, Shisuo

    2015-03-01

    This study was conducted to investigate the long-term impact of influent phosphorus concentration on denitrifying phosphorus removal and N2O production during denitrifying phosphorous removal process. The results showed that, denitrifying phosphate accumulating organisms (DPAOs) could become dominant populations quickly in anaerobic/anoxic SBR by providing optimum cultivating conditions, and the reactor performed well for denitrifying phosphorus removal. The influent phosphorus concentration significantly affected anaerobic poly-β-hydroxyalkanoates (PHA) synthesis, denitrifying phosphorus removal, and N2O production during the denitrifying phosphorus removal process. As the influent phosphorus concentration was more than 20 mg L(-1), the activity of DPAOs began to be inhibited due to the transformation of the available carbon source type. Meanwhile, N2O production was inhibited with the mitigation of anoxic NO2(-)-N accumulation. Adoption of a modified feeding could enhance denitrifying phosphorus removal and inhibit N2O production during denitrifying phosphorous removal processes.

  13. Phosphorus speciation by coupled HPLC-ICPMS: low level determination of reduced phosphorus in natural materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Atlas, Zachary; Pasek, Matthew; Sampson, Jacqueline

    2015-04-01

    Phosphorus is a geologically important minor element in the Earth's crust commonly found as relatively insoluble apatite. This constraint causes phosphorus to be a key limiting nutrient in biologic processes. Despite this, phosphorus plays a direct role in the formation of DNA, RNA and other cellular materials. Recent works suggest that since reduced phosphorus is considerably more soluble than oxidized phosphorus that it was integrally involved in the development of life on the early Earth and may continue to play a role in biologic productivity to this day. This work examines a new method for quantification and identification of reduced phosphorus as well as applications to the speciation of organo-phosphates separated by coupled HPLC - ICP-MS. We show that reduced phosphorus species (P1+, P3+ and P5+) are cleanly separated in the HPLC and coupled with the ICPMS reaction cell, using oxygen as a reaction gas to effectively convert elemental P to P-O. Analysis at M/Z= 47 producing lower background and flatter baseline chromatography than analyses performed at M/Z = 31. Results suggest very low detection limits (0.05 μM) for P species analyzed as P-O. Additionally we show that this technique has potential to speciate at least 5 other forms of phosphorus compounds. We verified the efficacy of method on numerous materials including leached Archean rocks, suburban retention pond waters, blood and urine samples and most samples show small but detectible levels of reduced phosphorus and or organo-phaospates. This finding in nearly all substances analyzed supports the assumption that the redox processing of phosphorus has played a significant role throughout the history of the Earth and it's presence in the present environment is nearly ubiquitous with the reduced oxidation state phosphorus compounds, phosphite and hypophosphite, potentially acting as significant constituents in the anaerobic environment.

  14. Beam profile effects on NPB performance

    SciTech Connect

    Leclaire, R.J. Jr.; Bunker, W.J.

    1988-03-01

    A comparison of neutral particle beam (NPB) brightness for various neutral beam profiles indicates that the widely used assumption of a Gaussian profile may be misleading for collisional neutralizers. An analysis of available experimental evidence shows that lower peaks and higher tails, compared to a Gaussian beam profile, are observed out of collisional neutralizers, which implies that peak brightness is over estimated, and for a given NPB platform-to-target range, the beam current (power), dwell time or some combination of such engagement parameters would have to be altered to maintain a fixed dose on the target. Based on the present analysis, this factor is nominally about 2.4 but may actually be as low as 1.8 or as high as 8. This is an important consideration in estimating NPB constellation performance in SDI engagement contexts.

  15. Estimate of dietary phosphorus intake using 24-h urine collection.

    PubMed

    Morimoto, Yuuka; Sakuma, Masae; Ohta, Hiroyuki; Suzuki, Akitsu; Matsushita, Asami; Umeda, Minako; Ishikawa, Makoto; Taketani, Yutaka; Takeda, Eiji; Arai, Hidekazu

    2014-07-01

    Increases in serum phosphorus levels and dietary phosphorus intake induces vascular calcification, arterial sclerosis and cardiovascular diseases. Limiting phosphorus intake is advisable, however, no assessment methods are capable of estimating dietary phosphorus intake. We hypothesized that urinary phosphorus excretion can be translated into estimation of dietary phosphorus intake, and we evaluated whether a 24-h urine collection method could estimate dietary phosphorus intake. Thirty two healthy subjects were recruited for this study. Subjects collected urine samples over 24 h and weighed dietary records. We calculated dietary protein intake and phosphorus intake from dietary records and urine collection, and investigated associations between the two methods in estimating protein and phosphorus intake. Significant positive correlations were observed between dietary records and UC for protein and phosphorus intake. The average intakes determined from dietary records were significantly higher than from urine collection for both protein and phosphorus. There was a significant positive correlation between both the phosphorus and protein difference in dietary records and urine collection. The phosphorus-protein ratio in urine collection was significantly higher than in dietary records. Our data indicated that the 24-h urine collection method can estimate the amount of dietary phosphorus intake, and the results were superior to estimation by weighed dietary record.

  16. Rapid and portable electrochemical quantification of phosphorus.

    PubMed

    Kolliopoulos, Athanasios V; Kampouris, Dimitrios K; Banks, Craig E

    2015-04-21

    Phosphorus is one of the key indicators of eutrophication levels in natural waters where it exists mainly as dissolved phosphorus. Various analytical protocols exist to provide an offsite analysis, and a point of site analysis is required. The current standard method recommended by the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) for the detection of total phosphorus is colorimetric and based upon the color of a phosphomolybdate complex formed as a result of the reaction between orthophosphates and molybdates ions where ascorbic acid and antimony potassium tartrate are added and serve as reducing agents. Prior to the measurements, all forms of phosphorus are converted into orthophosphates via sample digestion (heating and acidifying). The work presented here details an electrochemical adaptation of this EPA recommended colorimetric approach for the measurement of dissolved phosphorus in water samples using screen-printed graphite macroelectrodes for the first time. This novel indirect electrochemical sensing protocol allows the determination of orthophosphates over the range from 0.5 to 20 μg L(-1) in ideal pH 1 solutions utilizing cyclic voltammetry with a limit of detection (3σ) found to correspond to 0.3 μg L(-1) of phosphorus. The reaction time and influence of foreign ions (potential interferents) upon this electroanalytical protocol was also investigated, where it was found that a reaction time of 5 min, which is essential in the standard colorimetric approach, is not required in the new proposed electrochemically adapted protocol. The proposed electrochemical method was independently validated through the quantification of orthophosphates and total dissolved phosphorus in polluted water samples (canal water samples) with ion chromatography and ICP-OES, respectively. This novel electrochemical protocol exhibits advantages over the established EPA recommended colorimetric determination for total phosphorus with lower detection limits and shorter experimental times

  17. Rapid and portable electrochemical quantification of phosphorus.

    PubMed

    Kolliopoulos, Athanasios V; Kampouris, Dimitrios K; Banks, Craig E

    2015-04-21

    Phosphorus is one of the key indicators of eutrophication levels in natural waters where it exists mainly as dissolved phosphorus. Various analytical protocols exist to provide an offsite analysis, and a point of site analysis is required. The current standard method recommended by the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) for the detection of total phosphorus is colorimetric and based upon the color of a phosphomolybdate complex formed as a result of the reaction between orthophosphates and molybdates ions where ascorbic acid and antimony potassium tartrate are added and serve as reducing agents. Prior to the measurements, all forms of phosphorus are converted into orthophosphates via sample digestion (heating and acidifying). The work presented here details an electrochemical adaptation of this EPA recommended colorimetric approach for the measurement of dissolved phosphorus in water samples using screen-printed graphite macroelectrodes for the first time. This novel indirect electrochemical sensing protocol allows the determination of orthophosphates over the range from 0.5 to 20 μg L(-1) in ideal pH 1 solutions utilizing cyclic voltammetry with a limit of detection (3σ) found to correspond to 0.3 μg L(-1) of phosphorus. The reaction time and influence of foreign ions (potential interferents) upon this electroanalytical protocol was also investigated, where it was found that a reaction time of 5 min, which is essential in the standard colorimetric approach, is not required in the new proposed electrochemically adapted protocol. The proposed electrochemical method was independently validated through the quantification of orthophosphates and total dissolved phosphorus in polluted water samples (canal water samples) with ion chromatography and ICP-OES, respectively. This novel electrochemical protocol exhibits advantages over the established EPA recommended colorimetric determination for total phosphorus with lower detection limits and shorter experimental times

  18. Nitrogen, phosphorus, carbon and population.

    PubMed

    Gilland, Bernard

    2015-01-01

    Population growth makes food production increase necessary; economic growth increases demand for animal products and livestock feed. As further increase of the cropland area is ecologically undesirable, it is necessary to increase crop yields; this requires, inter alia, more nitrogen and phosphorus fertiliser despite the environmental problems which this will exacerbate. It is probable that a satisfactory food supply and an environmentally benign agriculture worldwide cannot be achieved without reducing population to approximately three billion. The reduction could be achieved by 2200 if the total fertility rate--currently 2.5--declined to 1.5 as a world average by 2050, and remained at that level until 2200, but the probability of such a global fertility trajectory is close to zero. It will also be necessary to replace fossil energy by nuclear and renewable energy in order to stabilise atmospheric carbon dioxide concentration, but the phase-out cannot be completed until the 22nd century, when the atmospheric concentration will be approximately 50% above the 2015 level of 400 ppm. PMID:26790176

  19. The renaissance of black phosphorus

    PubMed Central

    Ling, Xi; Wang, Han; Huang, Shengxi; Xia, Fengnian; Dresselhaus, Mildred S.

    2015-01-01

    One hundred years after its first successful synthesis in the bulk form in 1914, black phosphorus (black P) was recently rediscovered from the perspective of a 2D layered material, attracting tremendous interest from condensed matter physicists, chemists, semiconductor device engineers, and material scientists. Similar to graphite and transition metal dichalcogenides (TMDs), black P has a layered structure but with a unique puckered single-layer geometry. Because the direct electronic band gap of thin film black P can be varied from 0.3 eV to around 2 eV, depending on its film thickness, and because of its high carrier mobility and anisotropic in-plane properties, black P is promising for novel applications in nanoelectronics and nanophotonics different from graphene and TMDs. Black P as a nanomaterial has already attracted much attention from researchers within the past year. Here, we offer our opinions on this emerging material with the goal of motivating and inspiring fellow researchers in the 2D materials community and the broad readership of PNAS to discuss and contribute to this exciting new field. We also give our perspectives on future 2D and thin film black P research directions, aiming to assist researchers coming from a variety of disciplines who are desirous of working in this exciting research field. PMID:25820173

  20. The renaissance of black phosphorus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ling, Xi; Wang, Han; Huang, Shengxi; Xia, Fengnian; Dresselhaus, Mildred S.

    2015-04-01

    One hundred years after its first successful synthesis in the bulk form in 1914, black phosphorus (black P) was recently rediscovered from the perspective of a 2D layered material, attracting tremendous interest from condensed matter physicists, chemists, semiconductor device engineers, and material scientists. Similar to graphite and transition metal dichalcogenides (TMDs), black P has a layered structure but with a unique puckered single-layer geometry. Because the direct electronic band gap of thin film black P can be varied from 0.3 eV to around 2 eV, depending on its film thickness, and because of its high carrier mobility and anisotropic in-plane properties, black P is promising for novel applications in nanoelectronics and nanophotonics different from graphene and TMDs. Black P as a nanomaterial has already attracted much attention from researchers within the past year. Here, we offer our opinions on this emerging material with the goal of motivating and inspiring fellow researchers in the 2D materials community and the broad readership of PNAS to discuss and contribute to this exciting new field. We also give our perspectives on future 2D and thin film black P research directions, aiming to assist researchers coming from a variety of disciplines who are desirous of working in this exciting research field.

  1. Total Value of Phosphorus Recovery.

    PubMed

    Mayer, Brooke K; Baker, Lawrence A; Boyer, Treavor H; Drechsel, Pay; Gifford, Mac; Hanjra, Munir A; Parameswaran, Prathap; Stoltzfus, Jared; Westerhoff, Paul; Rittmann, Bruce E

    2016-07-01

    Phosphorus (P) is a critical, geographically concentrated, nonrenewable resource necessary to support global food production. In excess (e.g., due to runoff or wastewater discharges), P is also a primary cause of eutrophication. To reconcile the simultaneous shortage and overabundance of P, lost P flows must be recovered and reused, alongside improvements in P-use efficiency. While this motivation is increasingly being recognized, little P recovery is practiced today, as recovered P generally cannot compete with the relatively low cost of mined P. Therefore, P is often captured to prevent its release into the environment without beneficial recovery and reuse. However, additional incentives for P recovery emerge when accounting for the total value of P recovery. This article provides a comprehensive overview of the range of benefits of recovering P from waste streams, i.e., the total value of recovering P. This approach accounts for P products, as well as other assets that are associated with P and can be recovered in parallel, such as energy, nitrogen, metals and minerals, and water. Additionally, P recovery provides valuable services to society and the environment by protecting and improving environmental quality, enhancing efficiency of waste treatment facilities, and improving food security and social equity. The needs to make P recovery a reality are also discussed, including business models, bottlenecks, and policy and education strategies.

  2. THE CHEMICAL EVOLUTION OF PHOSPHORUS

    SciTech Connect

    Jacobson, Heather R.; Thanathibodee, Thanawuth; Frebel, Anna; Roederer, Ian U.; Cescutti, Gabriele; Matteucci, Francesca

    2014-12-01

    Phosphorus is one of the few remaining light elements for which little is known about its nucleosynthetic origin and chemical evolution, given the lack of optical absorption lines in the spectra of long-lived FGK-type stars. We have identified a P I doublet in the near-ultraviolet (2135/2136 Å) that is measurable in stars of low metallicity. Using archival Hubble Space Telescope-Space Telescope Imaging Spectrograph spectra, we have measured P abundances in 13 stars spanning –3.3 ≤ [Fe/H] ≤ -0.2, and obtained an upper limit for a star with [Fe/H] ∼ -3.8. Combined with the only other sample of P abundances in solar-type stars in the literature, which spans a range of –1 ≤ [Fe/H] ≤ +0.2, we compare the stellar data to chemical evolution models. Our results support previous indications that massive-star P yields may need to be increased by a factor of a few to match stellar data at all metallicities. Our results also show that hypernovae were important contributors to the P production in the early universe. As P is one of the key building blocks of life, we also discuss the chemical evolution of the important elements to life, C-N-O-P-S, together.

  3. Total Value of Phosphorus Recovery.

    PubMed

    Mayer, Brooke K; Baker, Lawrence A; Boyer, Treavor H; Drechsel, Pay; Gifford, Mac; Hanjra, Munir A; Parameswaran, Prathap; Stoltzfus, Jared; Westerhoff, Paul; Rittmann, Bruce E

    2016-07-01

    Phosphorus (P) is a critical, geographically concentrated, nonrenewable resource necessary to support global food production. In excess (e.g., due to runoff or wastewater discharges), P is also a primary cause of eutrophication. To reconcile the simultaneous shortage and overabundance of P, lost P flows must be recovered and reused, alongside improvements in P-use efficiency. While this motivation is increasingly being recognized, little P recovery is practiced today, as recovered P generally cannot compete with the relatively low cost of mined P. Therefore, P is often captured to prevent its release into the environment without beneficial recovery and reuse. However, additional incentives for P recovery emerge when accounting for the total value of P recovery. This article provides a comprehensive overview of the range of benefits of recovering P from waste streams, i.e., the total value of recovering P. This approach accounts for P products, as well as other assets that are associated with P and can be recovered in parallel, such as energy, nitrogen, metals and minerals, and water. Additionally, P recovery provides valuable services to society and the environment by protecting and improving environmental quality, enhancing efficiency of waste treatment facilities, and improving food security and social equity. The needs to make P recovery a reality are also discussed, including business models, bottlenecks, and policy and education strategies. PMID:27214029

  4. The renaissance of black phosphorus.

    PubMed

    Ling, Xi; Wang, Han; Huang, Shengxi; Xia, Fengnian; Dresselhaus, Mildred S

    2015-04-14

    One hundred years after its first successful synthesis in the bulk form in 1914, black phosphorus (black P) was recently rediscovered from the perspective of a 2D layered material, attracting tremendous interest from condensed matter physicists, chemists, semiconductor device engineers, and material scientists. Similar to graphite and transition metal dichalcogenides (TMDs), black P has a layered structure but with a unique puckered single-layer geometry. Because the direct electronic band gap of thin film black P can be varied from 0.3 eV to around 2 eV, depending on its film thickness, and because of its high carrier mobility and anisotropic in-plane properties, black P is promising for novel applications in nanoelectronics and nanophotonics different from graphene and TMDs. Black P as a nanomaterial has already attracted much attention from researchers within the past year. Here, we offer our opinions on this emerging material with the goal of motivating and inspiring fellow researchers in the 2D materials community and the broad readership of PNAS to discuss and contribute to this exciting new field. We also give our perspectives on future 2D and thin film black P research directions, aiming to assist researchers coming from a variety of disciplines who are desirous of working in this exciting research field.

  5. Evaluation of Phosphorus Source Coefficients as Predictors of Runoff Phosphorus Concentrations

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The objectives of this study were to determine Phosphorus Source Coefficients (PSC) for organic phosphorus (P) sources, and to examine the relationship between PSCs and P concentrations measured in simulated rainfall runoff. The PSC is an important parameter in the P Site Index (PSI). An incubatio...

  6. Uptake and accumulation of phosphorus by dominant plant species growing in a phosphorus mining area.

    PubMed

    Xiao, Guangli; Li, Tingxuan; Zhang, Xizhou; Yu, Haiying; Huang, Huagang; Gupta, D K

    2009-11-15

    Phosphorus accumulation potentials were investigated for 12 dominant plant species growing in a phosphorus mining area in Shifang, as well as their corresponding non-mining ecotypes growing in Ya'an, China. High phosphorus concentrations were observed in the seedling and flowering stages of two species, Pilea sinofasciata and Polygonum hydropiper, up to 16.23 and 8.59 g kg(-1), respectively, which were 3.4 and 7 times higher than in the non-mining ecotypes. Available phosphorus levels in the respective rhizosphere soils of these plants were 112.84 and 121.78 mg kg(-1), 12 and 4 times higher than in the non-rhizosphere soil. Phosphorus concentrations in shoots of the mining ecotypes of all 12 species were significantly negatively correlated with available phosphorus in the rhizosphere soils (p<0.05), whereas a positive correlation was observed in the non-mining ecotypes. The biomass in shoot of the mining ecotype of P. hydropiper was nearly 2 times that in the non-mining ecotype. The results suggested that P. sinofasciata and P. hydropiper were efficient candidates among the tested species for phosphorus accumulation in shoots, and that further studies should be conducted to investigate their potential to be adopted as phosphorus accumulators.

  7. Treatment of cows with milk fever using intravenous and oral calcium and phosphorus.

    PubMed

    Braun, U; Blatter, M; Büchi, R; Hässig, M

    2012-09-01

    Fifteen cows with milk fever were treated with 500ml of 40 % calcium borogluconate (group A) administered intravenously. Fifteen other cows with milk fever received the same treatment, supplemented with 500ml of 10 % sodium phosphate administered intravenously, and 80g calcium as calcium lactate and 70g inorganic phosphorus as sodium phosphate administered orally in drinking water. The cows were monitored and blood samples collected for 3 days to measure the concentrations of total and ionized calcium, inorganic phosphorus and magnesium and the activity of creatine kinase. The two groups did not differ significantly with respect to the course of the disease. In each group 14 cows were cured. A rapid and significant increase in serum calcium concentration from the hypo- to the hypercalcaemic range occurred in both groups within 10min of the start of treatment, followed by a slow and steady decrease to the hypocalcaemic range. Calcium lactate did not prevent the calcium concentration from returning to the hypocalcaemic range, and the calcium profiles of the two groups did not differ significantly. As expected, treatment had little effect on the concentration of inorganic phosphorus in group A. In group B, treatment caused a rapid increase in the concentration of inorganic phosphorus to a maximum 20min after the start of treatment. This was followed by a slow decrease in the phosphorus concentration to the normophosphataemic range. Our findings confirmed that combined intravenous and oral administration of sodium phosphate in cows with periparturient paresis attributable to hypocalcaemia and hypophosphataemia results in a rapid and sustained increase in serum phosphorus, but not in serum calcium concentration. This modified therapy did not improve the success rate of milk fever treatment and further studies are needed to improve treatment of periparturient paresis.

  8. Estimation of phosphorus flux in rivers during flooding.

    PubMed

    Chen, Yen-Chang; Liu, Jih-Hung; Kuo, Jan-Tai; Lin, Cheng-Fang

    2013-07-01

    Reservoirs in Taiwan are inundated with nutrients that result in algal growth, and thus also reservoir eutrophication. Controlling the phosphorus load has always been the most crucial issue for maintaining reservoir water quality. Numerous agricultural activities, especially the production of tea in riparian areas, are conducted in watersheds in Taiwan. Nutrients from such activities, including phosphorus, are typically flushed into rivers during flooding, when over 90% of the yearly total amount of phosphorous enters reservoirs. Excessive or enhanced soil erosion from rainstorms can dramatically increase the river sediment load and the amount of particulate phosphorus flushed into rivers. When flow rates are high, particulate phosphorus is the dominant form of phosphorus, but sediment and discharge measurements are difficult during flooding, which makes estimating phosphorus flux in rivers difficult. This study determines total amounts of phosphorus transport by measuring flood discharge and phosphorous levels during flooding. Changes in particulate phosphorus, dissolved phosphorus, and their adsorption behavior during a 24-h period are analyzed owing to the fact that the time for particulate phosphorus adsorption and desorption approaching equilibrium is about 16 h. Erosion of the reservoir watershed was caused by adsorption and desorption of suspended solids in the river, a process which can be summarily described using the Lagmuir isotherm. A method for estimating the phosphorus flux in the Daiyujay Creek during Typhoon Bilis in 2006 is presented in this study. Both sediment and phosphorus are affected by the drastic discharge during flooding. Water quality data were collected during two flood events, flood in June 9, 2006 and Typhoon Bilis, to show the concentrations of suspended solids and total phosphorus during floods are much higher than normal stages. Therefore, the drastic changes of total phosphorus, particulate phosphorus, and dissolved phosphorus in

  9. Simulating soil phosphorus dynamics for a phosphorus loss quantification tool.

    PubMed

    Vadas, Peter A; Joern, Brad C; Moore, Philip A

    2012-01-01

    Pollution of fresh waters by agricultural phosphorus (P) is a water quality concern. Because soils can contribute significantly to P loss in runoff, it is important to assess how management affects soil P status over time, which is often done with models. Our objective was to describe and validate soil P dynamics in the Annual P Loss Estimator (APLE) model. APLE is a user-friendly spreadsheet model that simulates P loss in runoff and soil P dynamics over 10 yr for a given set of runoff, erosion, and management conditions. For soil P dynamics, APLE simulates two layers in the topsoil, each with three inorganic P pools and one organic P pool. It simulates P additions to soil from manure and fertilizer, distribution among pools, mixing between layers due to tillage and bioturbation, leaching between and out of layers, crop P removal, and loss by surface runoff and erosion. We used soil P data from 25 published studies to validate APLE's soil P processes. Our results show that APLE reliably simulated soil P dynamics for a wide range of soil properties, soil depths, P application sources and rates, durations, soil P contents, and management practices. We validated APLE specifically for situations where soil P was increasing from excessive P inputs, where soil P was decreasing due to greater outputs than inputs, and where soil P stratification occurred in no-till and pasture soils. Successful simulations demonstrate APLE's potential to be applied to major management scenarios related to soil P loss in runoff and erosion. PMID:23128732

  10. Capacity and optimal collusion attack channels for Gaussian fingerprinting games

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Ying; Moulin, Pierre

    2007-02-01

    In content fingerprinting, the same media covertext - image, video, audio, or text - is distributed to many users. A fingerprint, a mark unique to each user, is embedded into each copy of the distributed covertext. In a collusion attack, two or more users may combine their copies in an attempt to "remove" their fingerprints and forge a pirated copy. To trace the forgery back to members of the coalition, we need fingerprinting codes that can reliably identify the fingerprints of those members. Researchers have been focusing on designing or testing fingerprints for Gaussian host signals and the mean square error (MSE) distortion under some classes of collusion attacks, in terms of the detector's error probability in detecting collusion members. For example, under the assumptions of Gaussian fingerprints and Gaussian attacks (the fingerprinted signals are averaged and then the result is passed through a Gaussian test channel), Moulin and Briassouli1 derived optimal strategies in a game-theoretic framework that uses the detector's error probability as the performance measure for a binary decision problem (whether a user participates in the collusion attack or not); Stone2 and Zhao et al. 3 studied average and other non-linear collusion attacks for Gaussian-like fingerprints; Wang et al. 4 stated that the average collusion attack is the most efficient one for orthogonal fingerprints; Kiyavash and Moulin 5 derived a mathematical proof of the optimality of the average collusion attack under some assumptions. In this paper, we also consider Gaussian cover signals, the MSE distortion, and memoryless collusion attacks. We do not make any assumption about the fingerprinting codes used other than an embedding distortion constraint. Also, our only assumptions about the attack channel are an expected distortion constraint, a memoryless constraint, and a fairness constraint. That is, the colluders are allowed to use any arbitrary nonlinear strategy subject to the above

  11. Gaussianization for fast and accurate inference from cosmological data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schuhmann, Robert L.; Joachimi, Benjamin; Peiris, Hiranya V.

    2016-06-01

    We present a method to transform multivariate unimodal non-Gaussian posterior probability densities into approximately Gaussian ones via non-linear mappings, such as Box-Cox transformations and generalizations thereof. This permits an analytical reconstruction of the posterior from a point sample, like a Markov chain, and simplifies the subsequent joint analysis with other experiments. This way, a multivariate posterior density can be reported efficiently, by compressing the information contained in Markov Chain Monte Carlo samples. Further, the model evidence integral (i.e. the marginal likelihood) can be computed analytically. This method is analogous to the search for normal parameters in the cosmic microwave background, but is more general. The search for the optimally Gaussianizing transformation is performed computationally through a maximum-likelihood formalism; its quality can be judged by how well the credible regions of the posterior are reproduced. We demonstrate that our method outperforms kernel density estimates in this objective. Further, we select marginal posterior samples from Planck data with several distinct strongly non-Gaussian features, and verify the reproduction of the marginal contours. To demonstrate evidence computation, we Gaussianize the joint distribution of data from weak lensing and baryon acoustic oscillations, for different cosmological models, and find a preference for flat Λcold dark matter. Comparing to values computed with the Savage-Dickey density ratio, and Population Monte Carlo, we find good agreement of our method within the spread of the other two.

  12. Kurtosis, skewness, and non-Gaussian cosmological density perturbations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Luo, Xiaochun; Schramm, David N.

    1993-01-01

    Cosmological topological defects as well as some nonstandard inflation models can give rise to non-Gaussian density perturbations. Skewness and kurtosis are the third and fourth moments that measure the deviation of a distribution from a Gaussian. Measurement of these moments for the cosmological density field and for the microwave background temperature anisotropy can provide a test of the Gaussian nature of the primordial fluctuation spectrum. In the case of the density field, the importance of measuring the kurtosis is stressed since it will be preserved through the weakly nonlinear gravitational evolution epoch. Current constraints on skewness and kurtosis of primeval perturbations are obtained from the observed density contrast on small scales and from recent COBE observations of temperature anisotropies on large scales. It is also shown how, in principle, future microwave anisotropy experiments might be able to reveal the initial skewness and kurtosis. It is shown that present data argue that if the initial spectrum is adiabatic, then it is probably Gaussian, but non-Gaussian isocurvature fluctuations are still allowed, and these are what topological defects provide.

  13. Gaussian weighted projection for visualization of cardiac calcification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Xiang; Li, Ke; Gilkeson, Robert; Fei, Baowei

    2008-03-01

    At our institution, we are using dual-energy digital radiography (DEDR) as a cost-effective screening tool for the detection of cardiac calcification. We are evaluating DEDR using CT as the gold standard. We are developing image projection methods for the generation of digitally reconstructed radiography (DRR) from CT image volumes. Traditional visualization methods include maximum intensity projection (MIP) and average-based projection (AVG) that have difficulty to show cardiac calcification. Furthermore, MIP can over estimate the calcified lesion as it displays the maximum intensity along the projection rays regardless of tissue types. For AVG projection, the calcified tissue is usually overlapped with bone, lung and mediastinum. In order to improve the visualization of calcification on DRR images, we developed a Gaussian-weighted projection method for this particular application. We assume that the CT intensity values of calcified tissues have a Gaussian distribution. We then use multiple Gaussian functions to fit the intensity histogram. Based on the mean and standard deviation parameters, we incorporate a Gaussian weighted function into the perspective projection and display the calcification exclusively. Our digital and physical phantom studies show that the new projection method can display tissues selectively. In addition, clinical images show that the Gaussian-weighted projection method better visualizes cardiac calcification than either the AVG or MIP method and can be used to evaluate DEDR as a screening tool for the detection of coronary artery diseases.

  14. Consistency relations for sharp inflationary non-Gaussian features

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mooij, Sander; Palma, Gonzalo A.; Panotopoulos, Grigoris; Soto, Alex

    2016-09-01

    If cosmic inflation suffered tiny time-dependent deviations from the slow-roll regime, these would induce the existence of small scale-dependent features imprinted in the primordial spectra, with their shapes and sizes revealing information about the physics that produced them. Small sharp features could be suppressed at the level of the two-point correlation function, making them undetectable in the power spectrum, but could be amplified at the level of the three-point correlation function, offering us a window of opportunity to uncover them in the non-Gaussian bispectrum. In this article, we show that sharp features may be analyzed using only data coming from the three point correlation function parametrizing primordial non-Gaussianity. More precisely, we show that if features appear in a particular non-Gaussian triangle configuration (e.g. equilateral, folded, squeezed), these must reappear in every other configuration according to a specific relation allowing us to correlate features across the non-Gaussian bispectrum. As a result, we offer a method to study scale-dependent features generated during inflation that depends only on data coming from measurements of non-Gaussianity, allowing us to omit data from the power spectrum.

  15. Reactive power in the full Gaussian light wave.

    PubMed

    Seshadri, S R

    2009-11-01

    The electric current sources that are required for the excitation of the fundamental Gaussian beam and the corresponding full Gaussian light wave are determined. The current sources are situated on the secondary source plane that forms the boundary between the two half-spaces in which the waves are launched. The electromagnetic fields and the complex power generated by the current sources are evaluated. For the fundamental Gaussian beam, the reactive power vanishes, and the normalization is chosen such that the real power is 2 W. The various full Gaussian waves are identified by the length parameter b(t) that lies in the range 0 < or = b(t) < or = b, where b is the Rayleigh distance. The other parameters are the wavenumber k, the free-space wavelength lambda, and the beam waist w0 at the input plane. The dependence of the real power of the full Gaussian light wave on b(t)/b and w0/lambda is examined. For a specified w0/lambda, the reactive power, which can be positive or negative, increases as b(t)/b is increased from 0 to 1 and becomes infinite for b(t)/b=1. For a specified b(t)/b, the reactive power approaches zero as kw0 is increased and reaches the limiting value of zero of the paraxial beam.

  16. Passive interferometric symmetries of multimode Gaussian pure states

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gabay, Natasha; Menicucci, Nicolas C.

    2016-05-01

    As large-scale multimode Gaussian states begin to become accessible in the laboratory, their representation and analysis become a useful topic of research in their own right. The graphical calculus for Gaussian pure states provides powerful tools for their representation, while this work presents a useful tool for their analysis: passive interferometric (i.e., number-conserving) symmetries. Here we show that these symmetries of multimode Gaussian states simplify calculations in measurement-based quantum computing and provide constructive tools for engineering large-scale harmonic systems with specific physical properties, and we provide a general mathematical framework for deriving them. Such symmetries are generated by linear combinations of operators expressed in the Schwinger representation of U (2 ) , called nullifiers because the Gaussian state in question is a zero eigenstate of them. This general framework is shown to have applications in the noise analysis of continuous-various cluster states and is expected to have additional applications in future work with large-scale multimode Gaussian states.

  17. Large Non-Gaussianity from Multi-Brid Inflation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Naruko, A.; Sasaki, M.

    2009-01-01

    A model of multi-component hybrid inflation, dubbed multi-brid inflation, in which various observable quantities including the non-Gaussianity parameter f_{NL} can be analytically calculated was proposed recently. In particular, for a two-brid inflation model with an exponential potential and the condition that the end of inflation is an ellipse in the field space, it was found that, while keeping the other observational quantities within the range consistent with observations, large non-Gaussianity is possible for certain inflationary trajectories, provided that the ratio of the two masses is large. One might question whether the resulting large non-Gaussianity is specific to this particular form of the potential and the condition for the end of inflation. In this paper, we consider a model of multi-brid inflation with a potential given by an exponential function of terms quadratic in the scalar field components. We also consider a more general class of ellipses for the end of inflation than those studied previously. Then, focusing on the case of two-brid inflation, we find that large non-Gaussianity is possible in the present model even for the equal-mass case. Then by tuning the model parameters, we find that there exist models for which both the non-Gaussianity and the tensor-to-scalar ratio are large enough to be detected in the very near future.

  18. The Gaussian CLs method for searches of new physics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qian, X.; Tan, A.; Ling, J. J.; Nakajima, Y.; Zhang, C.

    2016-08-01

    We describe a method based on the CLs approach to present results in searches of new physics, under the condition that the relevant parameter space is continuous. Our method relies on a class of test statistics developed for non-nested hypotheses testing problems, denoted by ΔT, which has a Gaussian approximation to its parent distribution when the sample size is large. This leads to a simple procedure of forming exclusion sets for the parameters of interest, which we call the Gaussian CLs method. Our work provides a self-contained mathematical proof for the Gaussian CLs method that explicitly outlines the required conditions. These conditions are milder than that required by Wilks' theorem to set confidence intervals (CIs). We illustrate the Gaussian CLs method in an example of searching for a sterile neutrino, where the CLs approach was rarely used before. We also compare data analysis results produced by the Gaussian CLs method and various CI methods to showcase their differences.

  19. Non-gaussian mode coupling and the statistical cosmological principle

    SciTech Connect

    LoVerde, Marilena; Nelson, Elliot; Shandera, Sarah E-mail: eln121@psu.edu

    2013-06-01

    Local-type primordial non-Gaussianity couples statistics of the curvature perturbation ζ on vastly different physical scales. Because of this coupling, statistics (i.e. the polyspectra) of ζ in our Hubble volume may not be representative of those in the larger universe — that is, they may be biased. The bias depends on the local background value of ζ, which includes contributions from all modes with wavelength k∼Gaussianity. We consider three examples in detail: (i) the usual f{sub NL}, g{sub NL} model, (ii) a strongly non-Gaussian model with ζ ∼ ζ{sub G}{sup p}, and (iii) two-field non-Gaussian initial conditions. In each scenario one may generate statistics in a Hubble-size patch that are weakly Gaussian and consistent with observations despite the fact that the statistics in the larger, post-inflationary patch look very different.

  20. Non-Gaussian error distribution of 7Li abundance measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Crandall, Sara; Houston, Stephen; Ratra, Bharat

    2015-07-01

    We construct the error distribution of 7Li abundance measurements for 66 observations (with error bars) used by Spite et al. (2012) that give A(Li) = 2.21 ± 0.065 (median and 1σ symmetrized error). This error distribution is somewhat non-Gaussian, with larger probability in the tails than is predicted by a Gaussian distribution. The 95.4% confidence limits are 3.0σ in terms of the quoted errors. We fit the data to four commonly used distributions: Gaussian, Cauchy, Student’s t and double exponential with the center of the distribution found with both weighted mean and median statistics. It is reasonably well described by a widened n = 8 Student’s t distribution. Assuming Gaussianity, the observed A(Li) is 6.5σ away from that expected from standard Big Bang Nucleosynthesis (BBN) given the Planck observations. Accounting for the non-Gaussianity of the observed A(Li) error distribution reduces the discrepancy to 4.9σ, which is still significant.

  1. Reactive-transport simulation of phosphorus in the sewage plume at the Massachusetts Military Reservation, Cape Cod, Massachusetts

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Parkhurst, David L.; Stollenwerk, Kenneth G.; Colman, John A.

    2003-01-01

    which non-desorbable phosphorus is incorporated in the sediments. The uncertainties were large enough to make it difficult to determine whether loads of phosphorus transported to Ashumet Pond in the 1990s were greater or less than loads during the previous two decades. The model simulations indicate substantial discharge of phosphorus to Ashumet Pond after about 1965. After the period 2000?10 the simulations indicate that the load of phosphorus transported to Ashumet Pond decreases continuously, but the load of phosphorus remains substantial for many decades. The current simulations indicate a peak in phosphorus discharge to Ashumet Pond of about 1,000 kilograms per year during the 1990s; however, comparisons of simulated phosphorus concentrations with measured concentrations in 1993 indicate that the peak in phosphorus load transported to Ashumet Pond may be larger and moving more quickly in the model simulations than in the aquifer. The results of the three-dimensional reactive-transport simulations are consistent with the loading history, experimental laboratory data, and field measurements. The results of the simulations adequately reproduce the spatial distribution of phosphorus concentrations measured in 1993, the magnitude of changes in phosphorus concentration with time in a profile near the disposal beds following cessation of sewage disposal, the observed iron zone in the sewage plume, the approximate flow of treated sewage effluent into Ashumet Valley, and laboratory-column data for phosphorus sorption and desorption.

  2. Influence of position-dependent effective mass on the nonlinear optical properties of impurity doped quantum dots in presence of Gaussian white noise

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pratim Ghosh, Arghya; Mandal, Arkajit; Sarkar, Sucharita; Ghosh, Manas

    2016-05-01

    We examine the influence of position-dependent effective mass (PDEM) on a few nonlinear optical (NLO) properties of impurity doped quantum dots (QDs) in presence and absence of noise. The said properties include total optical absorption coefficient (TOAC), nonlinear optical rectification (NOR), second harmonic generation (SHG) and third harmonic generation (THG). The impurity potential is modeled by a Gaussian function and the noise applied being Gaussian white noise. The profiles of above NLO properties have been pursued as a function of incident photon energy for different values of PDEM. Using PDEM the said profiles exhibit considerable departure from that of fixed effective mass (FEM). Presence of noise almost invariably amplifies the NLO properties with a few exceptions. A change in the mode of application of noise also sometimes affects the above profiles. The investigation furnishes us with a detailed picture of the subtle interplay between noise and PDEM through which the said NLO properties of doped QD systems can be tailored.

  3. Influence of Gaussian white noise on the frequency-dependent first nonlinear polarizability of doped quantum dot

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ganguly, Jayanta; Ghosh, Manas

    2014-05-01

    We investigate the profiles of diagonal components of frequency-dependent first nonlinear (βxxx and βyyy) optical response of repulsive impurity doped quantum dots. We have assumed a Gaussian function to represent the dopant impurity potential. This study primarily addresses the role of noise on the polarizability components. We have invoked Gaussian white noise consisting of additive and multiplicative characteristics (in Stratonovich sense). The doped system has been subjected to an oscillating electric field of given intensity, and the frequency-dependent first nonlinear polarizabilities are computed. The noise characteristics are manifested in an interesting way in the nonlinear polarizability components. In case of additive noise, the noise strength remains practically ineffective in influencing the optical responses. The situation completely changes with the replacement of additive noise by its multiplicative analog. The replacement enhances the nonlinear optical response dramatically and also causes their maximization at some typical value of noise strength that depends on oscillation frequency.

  4. Influence of Gaussian white noise on the frequency-dependent first nonlinear polarizability of doped quantum dot

    SciTech Connect

    Ganguly, Jayanta; Ghosh, Manas

    2014-05-07

    We investigate the profiles of diagonal components of frequency-dependent first nonlinear (β{sub xxx} and β{sub yyy}) optical response of repulsive impurity doped quantum dots. We have assumed a Gaussian function to represent the dopant impurity potential. This study primarily addresses the role of noise on the polarizability components. We have invoked Gaussian white noise consisting of additive and multiplicative characteristics (in Stratonovich sense). The doped system has been subjected to an oscillating electric field of given intensity, and the frequency-dependent first nonlinear polarizabilities are computed. The noise characteristics are manifested in an interesting way in the nonlinear polarizability components. In case of additive noise, the noise strength remains practically ineffective in influencing the optical responses. The situation completely changes with the replacement of additive noise by its multiplicative analog. The replacement enhances the nonlinear optical response dramatically and also causes their maximization at some typical value of noise strength that depends on oscillation frequency.

  5. Phosphorus Doping of Polycrystalline CdTe by Diffusion

    SciTech Connect

    Colegrove, Eric; Albin, David S.; Guthrey, Harvey; Harvey, Steve; Burst, James; Moutinho, Helio; Farrell, Stuart; Al-Jassim, Mowafak; Metzger, Wyatt K.

    2015-06-14

    Phosphorus diffusion in single crystal and polycrystalline CdTe material is explored using various methods. Dynamic secondary ion mass spectroscopy (SIMS) is used to determine 1D P diffusion profiles. A 2D diffusion model is used to determine the expected cross-sectional distribution of P in CdTe after diffusion anneals. Time of flight SIMS and cross-sectional cathodoluminescence corroborates expected P distributions. Devices fabricated with diffused P exhibit hole concentrations up to low 1015 cm-3, however a subsequent activation anneal enabled hole concentrations greater than 1016 cm-3. CdCl2 treatments and Cu based contacts were also explored in conjunction with the P doping process.

  6. 40 CFR 422.10 - Applicability; description of the phosphorus production subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... phosphorus production subcategory. 422.10 Section 422.10 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION... Phosphorus Production Subcategory § 422.10 Applicability; description of the phosphorus production... production of phosphorus and ferrophosphorus by smelting of phosphate ore....

  7. 40 CFR 422.10 - Applicability; description of the phosphorus production subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... phosphorus production subcategory. 422.10 Section 422.10 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION... Phosphorus Production Subcategory § 422.10 Applicability; description of the phosphorus production... production of phosphorus and ferrophosphorus by smelting of phosphate ore....

  8. 40 CFR 422.10 - Applicability; description of the phosphorus production subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... phosphorus production subcategory. 422.10 Section 422.10 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION... Phosphorus Production Subcategory § 422.10 Applicability; description of the phosphorus production... production of phosphorus and ferrophosphorus by smelting of phosphate ore....

  9. 40 CFR 422.10 - Applicability; description of the phosphorus production subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... phosphorus production subcategory. 422.10 Section 422.10 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION... Phosphorus Production Subcategory § 422.10 Applicability; description of the phosphorus production... production of phosphorus and ferrophosphorus by smelting of phosphate ore....

  10. 40 CFR 422.10 - Applicability; description of the phosphorus production subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... phosphorus production subcategory. 422.10 Section 422.10 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION... Phosphorus Production Subcategory § 422.10 Applicability; description of the phosphorus production... production of phosphorus and ferrophosphorus by smelting of phosphate ore....

  11. Phosphorus cycling in the Early Aptian

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oakes, R.; Dittrich, M.; Wortmann, U. G.

    2012-12-01

    Phosphorus is an essential nutrient for living organisms. It is vital for the formation of ATP, the energy store in cells, and is needed for DNA synthesis. Seawater phosphorus concentration therefore plays a critical role in controlling marine productivity on geological timescales. The majority of research on the P cycle focuses on modern lacustrine and marine settings. This follows the necessity to gain a further understanding on the effects of agricultural fertilisers on nutrient cycling; in particular on the mechanisms which lead to eutrophication. These studies use sequential extraction to determine the speciation of P. The results suggest that bottom sediments can act as both a source and a sink of phosphorus; the role they assume depends on range of factors including bottom water oxygen concentrations, sedimentation rate and the concentration of iron. This study applies a sequential extraction method developed in modern sediments to sediments from the Early Cretaceous, specifically the Early Aptian. During this time, globally synchronous oceanic anoxic events (OAE's) appear in the rock record. It has been suggested that these events represent an increase in marine productivity combined with bottom water anoxia. Our study investigates whether the speciation of sedimentary phosphorus can be used to reconstruct P cycling at this time. Our samples are taken from pre-, syn- and post-OAE1a but are not from the organic matter rich layers. Our results show that the original fractions of phosphorus have been altered during diagenesis with the majority of phosphorus now being preserved as either apatite (Ca-P) or phosphorus in organic matter (Porg). The dominance of Ca-P is expected as it is thought that redox-sensitive forms of P undergo 'sink switching' during diagenesis and are preserved as Ca-P. The high concentration of Porg however, differs from previous studies which generally find that Ca-P or iron (oxyhydr)oxide associated phosphorus (Fe-P) are dominant

  12. Scattering of polarized Gaussian light by a spheroidal particle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Xianming; Xiao, Sai; Ma, Lixiu; Su, Baochen

    2015-02-01

    Light scattering by a small particle can produce light with polarization characteristics different from those of the incident beam. In this article, we studied the polarized Gaussian beam scattered by a spheroidal particle within the generalized Lorenz-Mie theory framework. A theoretical procedure is given to expand an incident Gaussian beam in terms of spheroidal vector wave functions. We studied the single scattering properties of a single spheroidal particle with varying aspect ratios and size parameters. Exact analytic solutions are obtained for computing the amplitude matrix and single scattering Muller matrix for a single spheroid with normal illumination. The Muller scattering matrix elements of a single spheroid are compared between plane wave and Gaussian light beam as incident light source.

  13. Best approximation of Gaussian neural networks with nodes uniformly spaced.

    PubMed

    Mulero-Martinez, J I

    2008-02-01

    This paper is aimed at exposing the reader to certain aspects in the design of the best approximants with Gaussian radial basis functions (RBFs). The class of functions to which this approach applies consists of those compactly supported in frequency. The approximative properties of uniqueness and existence are restricted to this class. Functions which are smooth enough can be expanded in Gaussian series converging uniformly to the objective function. The uniqueness of these series is demonstrated by the context of the orthonormal basis in a Hilbert space. Furthermore, the best approximation to a given band-limited function from a truncated Gaussian series is analyzed by an energy-based argument. This analysis not only gives a theoretical proof concerned with the existence of best approximations but addresses the problems of architectural selection. Specifically, guidance for selecting the variance and the oversampling parameters is provided for practitioners. PMID:18269959

  14. Effects of non-Gaussian noise near supercritical Hopf bifurcation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Ruiting; Hou, Zhonghuai; Xin, Houwen

    2011-01-01

    We have studied the effects of non-Gaussian colored noise in a chemical oscillation system, the well-known Brusselator model, in the parameter region close to the supercritical Hopf bifurcation. With the variation of the parameter q, which quantifies the deviation from Gaussian character, the signal-to-noise ratio of noise induced oscillation exhibits a bell-shaped change, indicating the presence of resonant activity. The cooperative effects of q and the correlation time τ on the performance of noise induced oscillation are also investigated. Interestingly, resonance-like behavior can be induced by either q or τ when the other parameter is properly fixed. Stochastic normal form theory is used to analyze these nontrivial effects and the simulation results are well reproduced. This work provides us comprehensive understanding of how non-Gaussian noise influences the dynamics in chemical oscillation systems.

  15. Quantum Entanglement and Quantum Discord in Gaussian Open Systems

    SciTech Connect

    Isar, Aurelian

    2011-10-03

    In the framework of the theory of open systems based on completely positive quantum dynamical semigroups, we give a description of the continuous-variable quantum entanglement and quantum discord for a system consisting of two noninteracting modes embedded in a thermal environment. Entanglement and discord are used to quantify the quantum correlations of the system. For all values of the temperature of the thermal reservoir, an initial separable Gaussian state remains separable for all times. In the case of an entangled initial Gaussian state, entanglement suppression (entanglement sudden death) takes place for non-zero temperatures of the environment. Only for a zero temperature of the thermal bath the initial entangled state remains entangled for finite times. We analyze the time evolution of the Gaussian quantum discord, which is a measure of all quantum correlations in the bipartite state, including entanglement, and show that quantum discord decays asymptotically in time under the effect of the thermal bath.

  16. Non-Gaussian isocurvature perturbations in dark radiation

    SciTech Connect

    Kawakami, Etsuko; Kawasaki, Masahiro; Miyamoto, Koichi; Nakayama, Kazunori; Sekiguchi, Toyokazu E-mail: kawasaki@icrr.u-tokyo.ac.jp E-mail: kazunori@hep-th.phys.s.u-tokyo.ac.jp

    2012-07-01

    We study non-Gaussian properties of the isocurvature perturbations in the dark radiation, which consists of the active neutrinos and extra light species, if exist. We first derive expressions for the bispectra of primordial perturbations which are mixtures of curvature and dark radiation isocurvature perturbations. We also discuss CMB bispectra produced in our model and forecast CMB constraints on the non-linearity parameters based on the Fisher matrix analysis. Some concrete particle physics motivated models are presented in which large isocurvature perturbations in extra light species and/or the neutrino density isocurvature perturbations as well as their non-Gaussianities may be generated. Thus detections of non-Gaussianity in the dark radiation isocurvature perturbation will give us an opportunity to identify the origin of extra light species and lepton asymmetry.

  17. Continuous-variable quantum teleportation with non-Gaussian resources

    SciTech Connect

    Dell'Anno, F.; De Siena, S.; Albano, L.; Illuminati, F.

    2007-08-15

    We investigate continuous variable quantum teleportation using non-Gaussian states of the radiation field as entangled resources. We compare the performance of different classes of degaussified resources, including two-mode photon-added and two-mode photon-subtracted squeezed states. We then introduce a class of two-mode squeezed Bell-like states with one-parameter dependence for optimization. These states interpolate between and include as subcases different classes of degaussified resources. We show that optimized squeezed Bell-like resources yield a remarkable improvement in the fidelity of teleportation both for coherent and nonclassical input states. The investigation reveals that the optimal non-Gaussian resources for continuous variable teleportation are those that most closely realize the simultaneous maximization of the content of entanglement, the degree of affinity with the two-mode squeezed vacuum, and the, suitably measured, amount of non-Gaussianity.

  18. Controllably accelerating and decelerating Airy–Bessel–Gaussian wave packets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deng, Fu; Yu, Weihao; Deng, Dongmei

    2016-11-01

    By solving the (3  +  1)D free-space Schrödinger equation in polar coordinates analytically, we have investigated the propagation of 3D controllably accelerating and decelerating Airy–Bessel–Gaussian (CAiBG) wave packets, even CAiBG wave packets, odd CAiBG wave packets and the superposition of several CAiBG wave packets in free space. The CAiBG wave packets are constructed with the Airy pulses with initial velocity in temporal domain and the Bessel–Gaussian beams in space domain. Due to the initial velocity on Airy pulses, we can obtain decelerating and accelerating Airy–Bessel–Gaussian wave packets by selecting different initial velocities. Moreover, by superposing several CAiBG wave packets, we can obtain the rotating wave packets.

  19. Recurrence plots of discrete-time Gaussian stochastic processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ramdani, Sofiane; Bouchara, Frédéric; Lagarde, Julien; Lesne, Annick

    2016-09-01

    We investigate the statistical properties of recurrence plots (RPs) of data generated by discrete-time stationary Gaussian random processes. We analytically derive the theoretical values of the probabilities of occurrence of recurrence points and consecutive recurrence points forming diagonals in the RP, with an embedding dimension equal to 1. These results allow us to obtain theoretical values of three measures: (i) the recurrence rate (REC) (ii) the percent determinism (DET) and (iii) RP-based estimation of the ε-entropy κ(ε) in the sense of correlation entropy. We apply these results to two Gaussian processes, namely first order autoregressive processes and fractional Gaussian noise. For these processes, we simulate a number of realizations and compare the RP-based estimations of the three selected measures to their theoretical values. These comparisons provide useful information on the quality of the estimations, such as the minimum required data length and threshold radius used to construct the RP.

  20. Neutrino mixing and mass hierarchy in Gaussian landscapes

    SciTech Connect

    Hall, Lawrence J.; Salem, Michael P.; Watari, Taizan

    2009-01-15

    The flavor structure of the standard model may arise from random selection on a landscape. In a class of simple models, called ''Gaussian landscapes,'' Yukawa couplings derive from overlap integrals of Gaussian zero-mode wave functions on an extra-dimensional space. Statistics of vacua are generated by scanning the peak positions of these wave functions, giving probability distributions for all flavor observables. Gaussian landscapes can account for all of the major features of flavor, including both the small electroweak mixing in the quark sector and the large mixing observed in the lepton sector. We find that large lepton mixing stems directly from lepton doublets having broad wave functions on the internal manifold. Assuming the seesaw mechanism, we find the mass hierarchy among neutrinos is sensitive to the number of right-handed neutrinos and can provide a good fit to neutrino oscillation measurements.

  1. Renormalized Newtonian cosmic evolution with primordial non-Gaussianity

    SciTech Connect

    Izumi, Keisuke; Soda, Jiro

    2007-10-15

    We study Newtonian cosmological perturbation theory from a field theoretical point of view. We derive a path integral representation for the cosmological evolution of stochastic fluctuations. Our main result is the closed form of the generating functional valid for any initial statistics. Moreover, we extend the renormalization group method proposed by Mataresse and Pietroni to the case of primordial non-Gaussian density and velocity fluctuations. As an application, we calculate the nonlinear propagator and examine how the non-Gaussianity affects the memory of cosmic fields to their initial conditions. It turns out that the non-Gaussianity affects the nonlinear propagator. In the case of positive skewness, the onset of the nonlinearity is advanced with a given comoving wave number. On the other hand, the negative skewness gives the opposite result.

  2. Gaussian geometric discord in terms of Hellinger distance

    SciTech Connect

    Suciu, Serban Isar, Aurelian

    2015-12-07

    In the framework of the theory of open systems based on completely positive quantum dynamical semigroups, we address the quantification of general non-classical correlations in Gaussian states of continuous variable systems from a geometric perspective. We give a description of the Gaussian geometric discord by using the Hellinger distance as a measure for quantum correlations between two non-interacting non-resonant bosonic modes embedded in a thermal environment. We evaluate the Gaussian geometric discord by taking two-mode squeezed thermal states as initial states of the system and show that it has finite values between 0 and 1 and that it decays asymptotically to zero in time under the effect of the thermal bath.

  3. Qubit Noise Spectroscopy for Non-Gaussian Dephasing Environments.

    PubMed

    Norris, Leigh M; Paz-Silva, Gerardo A; Viola, Lorenza

    2016-04-15

    We introduce open-loop quantum control protocols for characterizing the spectral properties of non-Gaussian noise, applicable to both classical and quantum dephasing environments. By engineering a multidimensional frequency comb via repetition of suitably designed pulse sequences, the desired high-order spectra may be related to observable properties of the qubit probe. We prove that access to a high time resolution is key to achieving spectral reconstruction over an extended bandwidth, overcoming the limitations of existing schemes. Non-Gaussian spectroscopy is demonstrated for a classical noise model describing quadratic dephasing at an optimal point, as well as a quantum spin-boson model out of equilibrium. In both cases, we obtain spectral reconstructions that accurately predict the qubit dynamics in the non-Gaussian regime.

  4. Non-Gaussianity from tachyonic preheating in hybrid inflation

    SciTech Connect

    Barnaby, Neil; Cline, James M.

    2007-04-15

    In a previous work we showed that large non-Gaussianities and nonscale-invariant distortions in the cosmic microwave background power spectrum can be generated in hybrid inflation models, due to the contributions of the tachyon (waterfall) field to the second order curvature perturbation. Here we clarify, correct, and extend those results. We show that large non-Gaussianity occurs only when the tachyon remains light throughout inflation, whereas n=4 contamination to the spectrum is the dominant effect when the tachyon is heavy. We find constraints on the parameters of warped-throat brane-antibrane inflation from non-Gaussianity. For F-term and D-term inflation models from supergravity, we obtain nontrivial constraints from the spectral distortion effect. We also establish that our analysis applies to complex tachyon fields.

  5. Local non-Gaussianity from rapidly varying sound speeds

    SciTech Connect

    Emery, Jon; Tasinato, Gianmassimo; Wands, David E-mail: gianmassimo.tasinato@port.ac.uk

    2012-08-01

    We study the effect of non-trivial sound speeds on local-type non-Gaussianity during multiple-field inflation. To this end, we consider a multiple-DBI model and use the δN formalism to track the super-horizon evolution of perturbations. By adopting a sum separable Hubble parameter we derive analytic expressions for the relevant quantities in the two-field case, valid beyond slow variation. We find that non-trivial sound speeds can, in principle, curve the trajectory in such a way that significant local-type non-Gaussianity is produced. Deviations from slow variation, such as rapidly varying sound speeds, enhance this effect. To illustrate our results we consider two-field inflation in the tip regions of two warped throats and find large local-type non-Gaussianity produced towards the end of the inflationary process.

  6. The Chemical Evolution of Phosphorus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jacobson, Heather R.; Thanathibodee, Thanawuth; Frebel, Anna; Roederer, Ian U.; Cescutti, Gabriele; Matteucci, Francesca

    2014-12-01

    Phosphorus is one of the few remaining light elements for which little is known about its nucleosynthetic origin and chemical evolution, given the lack of optical absorption lines in the spectra of long-lived FGK-type stars. We have identified a P I doublet in the near-ultraviolet (2135/2136 Å) that is measurable in stars of low metallicity. Using archival Hubble Space Telescope-Space Telescope Imaging Spectrograph spectra, we have measured P abundances in 13 stars spanning -3.3 <= [Fe/H] <= -0.2, and obtained an upper limit for a star with [Fe/H] ~ -3.8. Combined with the only other sample of P abundances in solar-type stars in the literature, which spans a range of -1 <= [Fe/H] <= +0.2, we compare the stellar data to chemical evolution models. Our results support previous indications that massive-star P yields may need to be increased by a factor of a few to match stellar data at all metallicities. Our results also show that hypernovae were important contributors to the P production in the early universe. As P is one of the key building blocks of life, we also discuss the chemical evolution of the important elements to life, C-N-O-P-S, together. Based on observations made with the NASA/ESA Hubble Space Telescope, obtained at the Space Telescope Science Institute, which is operated by the Association of Universities for Research in Astronomy, Inc., under NASA contract NAS 5-26555. This work is supported through program AR-13246. Other portions of this work are based on data gathered with the 6.5 m Magellan Telescopes located at Las Campanas Observatory, Chile, and the McDonald Observatory of the University of Texas at Austin.

  7. The Adequacy of Phosphorus Binder Prescriptions Among American Hemodialysis Patients

    PubMed Central

    Huml, Anne M.; Sullivan, Catherine M.; Leon, Janeen B.; Sehgal, Ashwini R.

    2013-01-01

    Because hemodialysis treatment has a limited ability to remove phosphorus, dialysis patients must restrict dietary phosphorus intake and use phosphorus binding medication. Among patients with restricted dietary phosphorus intake (1000 mg/d), phosphorus binders must bind about 250 mg of excess phosphorus per day and among patients with more typical phosphorus intake (1500 mg/d), binders must bind about 750 mg per day. To determine the phosphorus binding capacity of binder prescriptions among American hemodialysis patients, we undertook a cross-sectional study of a random sample of in-center chronic hemodialysis patients. We obtained data for one randomly selected patient from 244 facilities nationwide. About one-third of patients had hyperphosphatemia (serum phosphorus level > 5.5 mg/dL). Among the 224 patients prescribed binders, the mean phosphorus binding capacity was 256 mg/d (SD 143). 59% of prescriptions had insufficient binding capacity for restricted dietary phosphorus intake, and 100% had insufficient binding capacity for typical dietary phosphorus intake. Patients using two binders had a higher binding capacity than patients using one binder (451 vs. 236 mg/d, p <0.001). A majority of binder prescriptions have insufficient binding capacity to maintain phosphorus balance. Use of two binders results in higher binder capacity. Further work is needed to understand the impact of binder prescriptions on mineral balance and metabolism and to determine the value of substantially increasing binder prescriptions. PMID:23013171

  8. Secondary poisoning of kestrels by white phosphorus

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sparling, D.W.; Federoff, N.E.

    1997-01-01

    Since 1982, extensive waterfowl mortality due to white phosphorus (P4) has been observed at Eagle River Flats, a tidal marsh near Anchorage, Alaska. Ducks and swans that ingest P4 pellets become lethargic and may display severe convulsions. Intoxicated waterfowl attract raptors and gulls that feed on dead or dying birds. To determine if avian predators can be affected by secondary poisoning, we fed American kestrels (Falco sparverius) 10-day-old domestic chickens that had been dosed with white phosphorus. Eight of 15 kestrels fed intact chicks with a pellet of P4 implanted in their crops died within seven days. Three of 15 kestrels fed chicks that had their upper digestive tracts removed to eliminate any pellets of white phosphorus also died. Hematocrit and hemoglobin in kestrels decreased whereas lactate dehydrogenaseL, glucose, and alanine aminotransferase levels in plasma increased with exposure to contaminated chicks. Histological examination of liver and kidneys showed that the incidence and severity of lesions increased when kestrels were fed contaminated chicks. White phosphorus residues were measurable in 87% of the kestrels dying on study and 20% of the survivors. This study shows that raptors can become intoxicated either by ingesting portions of digestive tracts containing white phosphorus pellets or by consuming tissues of P4 contaminated prey.

  9. Anomalous structure and dynamics of the Gaussian-core fluid.

    PubMed

    Krekelberg, William P; Kumar, Tanuj; Mittal, Jeetain; Errington, Jeffrey R; Truskett, Thomas M

    2009-03-01

    It is known that there are thermodynamic states for which the Gaussian-core fluid displays anomalous properties such as expansion upon isobaric cooling (density anomaly) and increased single-particle mobility upon isothermal compression (self-diffusivity anomaly). Here, we investigate how temperature and density affect its short-range translational structural order, as characterized by the two-body excess entropy. We find that there is a wide range of conditions for which the short-range translational order of the Gaussian-core fluid decreases upon isothermal compression (structural order anomaly). As we show, the origin of the structural anomaly is qualitatively similar to that of other anomalous fluids (e.g., water or colloids with short-range attractions) and is connected to how compression affects static correlations at different length scales. Interestingly, we find that the self-diffusivity of the Gaussian-core fluid obeys a scaling relationship with the two-body excess entropy that is very similar to the one observed for a variety of simple liquids. One consequence of this relationship is that the state points for which structural, self-diffusivity, and density anomalies of the Gaussian-core fluid occur appear as cascading regions on the temperature-density plane; a phenomenon observed earlier for models of waterlike fluids. There are, however, key differences between the anomalies of Gaussian-core and waterlike fluids, and we discuss how those can be qualitatively understood by considering the respective interparticle potentials of these models. Finally, we note that the self-diffusivity of the Gaussian-core fluid obeys different scaling laws depending on whether the two-body or total excess entropy is considered. This finding, which deserves more comprehensive future study, appears to underscore the significance of higher-body correlations for the behavior of fluids with bounded interactions. PMID:19391927

  10. Detection methods for non-Gaussian gravitational wave stochastic backgrounds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Drasco, Steve; Flanagan, Éanna É.

    2003-04-01

    A gravitational wave stochastic background can be produced by a collection of independent gravitational wave events. There are two classes of such backgrounds, one for which the ratio of the average time between events to the average duration of an event is small (i.e., many events are on at once), and one for which the ratio is large. In the first case the signal is continuous, sounds something like a constant hiss, and has a Gaussian probability distribution. In the second case, the discontinuous or intermittent signal sounds something like popcorn popping, and is described by a non-Gaussian probability distribution. In this paper we address the issue of finding an optimal detection method for such a non-Gaussian background. As a first step, we examine the idealized situation in which the event durations are short compared to the detector sampling time, so that the time structure of the events cannot be resolved, and we assume white, Gaussian noise in two collocated, aligned detectors. For this situation we derive an appropriate version of the maximum likelihood detection statistic. We compare the performance of this statistic to that of the standard cross-correlation statistic both analytically and with Monte Carlo simulations. In general the maximum likelihood statistic performs better than the cross-correlation statistic when the stochastic background is sufficiently non-Gaussian, resulting in a gain factor in the minimum gravitational-wave energy density necessary for detection. This gain factor ranges roughly between 1 and 3, depending on the duty cycle of the background, for realistic observing times and signal strengths for both ground and space based detectors. The computational cost of the statistic, although significantly greater than that of the cross-correlation statistic, is not unreasonable. Before the statistic can be used in practice with real detector data, further work is required to generalize our analysis to accommodate separated, misaligned

  11. TH-C-BRD-04: Beam Modeling and Validation with Triple and Double Gaussian Dose Kernel for Spot Scanning Proton Beams

    SciTech Connect

    Hirayama, S; Takayanagi, T; Fujii, Y; Fujimoto, R; Fujitaka, S; Umezawa, M; Nagamine, Y; Hosaka, M; Yasui, K; Toshito, T

    2014-06-15

    Purpose: To present the validity of our beam modeling with double and triple Gaussian dose kernels for spot scanning proton beams in Nagoya Proton Therapy Center. This study investigates the conformance between the measurements and calculation results in absolute dose with two types of beam kernel. Methods: A dose kernel is one of the important input data required for the treatment planning software. The dose kernel is the 3D dose distribution of an infinitesimal pencil beam of protons in water and consists of integral depth doses and lateral distributions. We have adopted double and triple Gaussian model as lateral distribution in order to take account of the large angle scattering due to nuclear reaction by fitting simulated inwater lateral dose profile for needle proton beam at various depths. The fitted parameters were interpolated as a function of depth in water and were stored as a separate look-up table for the each beam energy. The process of beam modeling is based on the method of MDACC [X.R.Zhu 2013]. Results: From the comparison results between the absolute doses calculated by double Gaussian model and those measured at the center of SOBP, the difference is increased up to 3.5% in the high-energy region because the large angle scattering due to nuclear reaction is not sufficiently considered at intermediate depths in the double Gaussian model. In case of employing triple Gaussian dose kernels, the measured absolute dose at the center of SOBP agrees with calculation within ±1% regardless of the SOBP width and maximum range. Conclusion: We have demonstrated the beam modeling results of dose distribution employing double and triple Gaussian dose kernel. Treatment planning system with the triple Gaussian dose kernel has been successfully verified and applied to the patient treatment with a spot scanning technique in Nagoya Proton Therapy Center.

  12. Continuous contour phase plates for tailoring the focal plane irradiance profile

    SciTech Connect

    Dixit, S.N.; Rushford, M.C.; Thomas, I.M.; Perry, M.D.

    1995-08-09

    We present fully continuous phase screens for producing super-Gaussian focal-plane irradiance profiles. Such phase screens are constructed with the assumption of either circular symmetric near-field and far-field profiles or a separable phase screen in Cartesian co-ordinates. In each case, the phase screen is only a few waves deep. Under illumination by coherent light, such phase screens produce high order super-Gaussian profiles in the focal plane with high energy content effects of beam aberrations on the focal profiles and their energy content are also discussed.

  13. A Model for Phosphosilicate Glass Deposition via POCl3 for Control of Phosphorus Dose in Si

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, Renyu; Wagner, Hannes; Dastgheib-Shirazi, Amir; Kessler, Michael; Zhu, Zihua; Shutthanandan, V.; Altermatt, Pietro P.; Dunham, Scott T.

    2012-12-27

    Effective control of diffused phosphorus profiles in crystalline silicon requires detailed understanding of the doping process. We develop a model and analyze concentration profiles within the deposited phosphosilicate glass (PSG) for a range of POCl3 conditions. During predeposition, a PSG layer with composition nearly independent of process conditions forms. This layer is separated from Si by a thin SiO2 layer. There is also strong accumulation of P at the SiO2-Si interface. A simple linear-parabolic model cannot fully explain the kinetics of thickness and dose; while an improved model including oxygen dependence and dose saturation gives better fits to the experiments.

  14. Economical Gaussian cloning of coherent states with known phase

    SciTech Connect

    Dong Yuli; Zou Xubo; Guo Guangcan; Li Shangbin

    2007-07-15

    We investigate the economical Gaussian cloning of coherent states with the known phase, which produces M copies from N input replica and can be implemented with degenerate parametric amplifiers and beam splitters.The achievable fidelity of single copy is given by 2M{radical}(N)/[{radical}(N)(M-1)+{radical}((1+N)(M{sup 2}+N))], which is bigger than the optimal fidelity of the universal Gaussian cloning. The cloning machine presented here works without ancillary optical modes and can be regarded as the continuous variable generalization of the economical cloning machine for qudits.

  15. Improving entanglement concentration of Gaussian states by local displacements

    SciTech Connect

    Fiurasek, Jaromir

    2011-07-15

    We investigate entanglement concentration of continuous-variable Gaussian states by local single-photon subtractions combined with local Gaussian operations. We first analyze the local squeezing-enhanced entanglement-concentration protocol proposed very recently by Zhang and van Loock [arXiv:1103.4500] and discuss the mechanism by which local squeezing before photon subtraction helps to increase the entanglement of the output state of the protocol. We next show that a similar entanglement improvement can be achieved by using local coherent displacements instead of single-mode squeezing.

  16. Moving target detection algorithm based on Gaussian mixture model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Zhihua; Kai, Du; Zhang, Xiandong

    2013-07-01

    In real-time video surveillance system, background noise and disturbance for the detection of moving objects will have a significant impact. The traditional Gaussian mixture model;GMM&;has strong adaptive various complex background ability, but slow convergence speed and vulnerable to illumination change influence. the paper proposes an improved moving target detection algorithm based on Gaussian mixture model which increase the convergence rate of foreground to the background model transformation and introducing the concept of the changing factors, through the three frame differential method solved light mutation problem. The results show that this algorithm can improve the accuracy of the moving object detection, and has good stability and real-time.

  17. Hyperbranched polymer stars with Gaussian chain statistics revisited.

    PubMed

    Polińska, P; Gillig, C; Wittmer, J P; Baschnagel, J

    2014-02-01

    Conformational properties of regular dendrimers and more general hyperbranched polymer stars with Gaussian statistics for the spacer chains between branching points are revisited numerically. We investigate the scaling for asymptotically long chains especially for fractal dimensions df = 3 (marginally compact) and df = 2.5 (diffusion limited aggregation). Power-law stars obtained by imposing the number of additional arms per generation are compared to truly self-similar stars. We discuss effects of weak excluded-volume interactions and sketch the regime where the Gaussian approximation should hold in dense solutions and melts for sufficiently large spacer chains. PMID:24574057

  18. Trans-Planckian enhancements of the primordial non-Gaussianities

    SciTech Connect

    Collins, Hael; Holman, R.

    2009-08-15

    This article examines how breaking a Lorentz-invariant description of nature at tiny space-time intervals would affect the non-Gaussian character of the pattern of primordial perturbations left by inflation. We specifically study a set of irrelevant operators that preserve the spatial symmetries of the usual inflationary background. The non-Gaussian component in the primordial fluctuations can be much larger than the usual, small, inflationary prediction and can thus lead to much stronger constraints on the role of 'trans-Planckian' physics in inflation than those from the measurements of the primordial power spectrum.

  19. A new method for generating a hollow Gaussian beam

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wei, Cun; Lu, Xingyuan; Wu, Gaofeng; Wang, Fei; Cai, Yangjian

    2014-04-01

    Hollow Gaussian beam (HGB) was introduced 10 years ago (Cai et al. in Opt Lett 28:1084, 2003). In this paper, we introduce a new method for generating a HGB through transforming a Laguerre-Gaussian beam with radial index 0 and azimuthal index l into a HGB with mode n = l/2. Furthermore, we report experimental generation of a HGB based on the proposed method, and we carry out experimental study of the focusing properties of the generated HGB. Our experimental results agree well with the theoretical predictions.

  20. Fractionalization of optical beams: II. Elegant Laguerre Gaussian modes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gutiérrez-Vega, Julio C.

    2007-05-01

    We apply the tools of fractional calculus to introduce new fractional-order solutions of the paraxial wave equation that smoothly connect the elegant Laguerre-Gaussian beams of integral-order. The solutions are characterized in general by two fractional indices and are obtained by fractionalizing the creation operators used to create elegant Laguerre-Gauss beams from the fundamental Gaussian beam. The physical and mathematical properties of the circular fractional beams are discussed in detail. The orbital angular momentum carried by the fractional beam is a continuous function of the angular mode index and it is not restricted to take only discrete values.

  1. Statistical naturalness and non-gaussianity in a finite universe.

    PubMed

    Nelson, Elliot; Shandera, Sarah

    2013-03-29

    We study the behavior of n-point functions of the primordial curvature perturbations, assuming our observed Universe is only a subset of a larger space with statistically homogeneous and isotropic perturbations. If the larger space has arbitrary n-point functions in a family of local type non-gaussian statistics, sufficiently biased smaller volumes will have statistics from a "natural" version of that family with moments that are weakly non-gaussian and ordered, regardless of the statistics of the original field. We also describe the effect of this bias on the shape of the bispectrum.

  2. Nonclassicality Invariant of General Two-Mode Gaussian States

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arkhipov, Ievgen I.; Peřina, Jan, Jr.; Svozilík, Jiří; Miranowicz, Adam

    2016-05-01

    We introduce a new quantity for describing nonclassicality of an arbitrary optical two-mode Gaussian state which remains invariant under any global photon-number preserving unitary transformation of the covariance matrix of the state. The invariant naturally splits into an entanglement monotone and local-nonclassicality quantifiers applied to the reduced states. This shows how entanglement can be converted into local squeezing and vice versa. Twin beams and their transformations at a beam splitter are analyzed as an example providing squeezed light. An extension of this approach to pure three-mode Gaussian states is given.

  3. An optical tweezer in asymmetrical vortex Bessel-Gaussian beams

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kotlyar, V. V.; Kovalev, A. A.; Porfirev, A. P.

    2016-07-01

    We study an optical micromanipulation that comprises trapping, rotating, and transporting 5-μm polystyrene microbeads in asymmetric Bessel-Gaussian (BG) laser beams. The beams that carry orbital angular momentum are generated by means of a liquid crystal microdisplay and focused by a microobjective with a numerical aperture of NA = 0.85. We experimentally show that given a constant topological charge, the rate of microparticle motion increases near linearly with increasing asymmetry of the BG beam. Asymmetric BG beams can be used instead of conventional Gaussian beam for trapping and transferring live cells without thermal damage.

  4. Nonclassicality Invariant of General Two-Mode Gaussian States

    PubMed Central

    Arkhipov, Ievgen I.; Peřina Jr., Jan; Svozilík, Jiří; Miranowicz, Adam

    2016-01-01

    We introduce a new quantity for describing nonclassicality of an arbitrary optical two-mode Gaussian state which remains invariant under any global photon-number preserving unitary transformation of the covariance matrix of the state. The invariant naturally splits into an entanglement monotone and local-nonclassicality quantifiers applied to the reduced states. This shows how entanglement can be converted into local squeezing and vice versa. Twin beams and their transformations at a beam splitter are analyzed as an example providing squeezed light. An extension of this approach to pure three-mode Gaussian states is given. PMID:27210547

  5. Non-Gaussianities from the Standard Model Higgs

    SciTech Connect

    Simone, Andrea De; Perrier, Hideki; Riotto, Antonio E-mail: hideki.perrier@unige.ch

    2013-01-01

    We have recently proposed that the Standard Model Higgs might be responsible for generating the cosmological perturbations of the universe by acting as an isocurvature mode during a de Sitter inflationary stage. In this paper we study the level of non-Gaussianity in the cosmological perturbations which are inevitably generated due to the non-linearities of the Standard Model Higgs potential. In particular, for the current central value of the top mass, we find that a future detection of non-Gaussianity would exclude the detection of tensor modes by the PLANCK satellite.

  6. Non-gaussian statistics of pencil beam surveys

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Amendola, Luca

    1994-01-01

    We study the effect of the non-Gaussian clustering of galaxies on the statistics of pencil beam surveys. We derive the probability from the power spectrum peaks by means of Edgeworth expansion and find that the higher order moments of the galaxy distribution play a dominant role. The probability of obtaining the 128 Mpc/h periodicity found in pencil beam surveys is raised by more than one order of magnitude, up to 1%. Further data are needed to decide if non-Gaussian distribution alone is sufficient to explain the 128 Mpc/h periodicity, or if extra large-scale power is necessary.

  7. Gaussian beam scattering by a gyrotropic anisotropic object

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Zhenzhen; Zhang, Huayong; Wu, Xianliang; Huang, Zhixiang

    2016-09-01

    An exact semi-analytical solution is presented to the scattering of an on-axis Gaussian beam incident on a gyrotropic anisotropic object. The on-axis incident Gaussian beam, scattered fields as well as internal fields are expanded in terms of appropriate spherical vector wave functions, and the unknown expansion coefficients of the scattered fields are determined by virtue of Schelkunoff's equivalence theorem and electromagnetic boundary conditions. Numerical results of the normalized differential scattering cross section are presented, and the scattering characteristics are discussed concisely.

  8. Local features with large spiky non-Gaussianities during inflation

    SciTech Connect

    Abolhasani, Ali Akbar; Firouzjahi, Hassan; Khosravi, Shahram; Sasaki, Misao E-mail: firouz@mail.ipm.ir E-mail: misao@yukawa.kyoto-u.ac.jp

    2012-11-01

    We provide a dynamical mechanism to generate localized features during inflation. The local feature is due to a sharp waterfall phase transition which is coupled to the inflaton field. The key effect is the contributions of waterfall quantum fluctuations which induce a sharp peak on the curvature perturbation which can be as large as the background curvature perturbation from inflaton field. Due to non-Gaussian nature of waterfall quantum fluctuations a large spike non-Gaussianity is produced which is narrowly peaked at modes which leave the Hubble radius at the time of phase transition. The large localized peaks in power spectrum and bispectrum can have interesting consequences on CMB anisotropies.

  9. Metabolic Adaptations of White Lupin Roots and Shoots under Phosphorus Deficiency.

    PubMed

    Müller, Julia; Gödde, Victoria; Niehaus, Karsten; Zörb, Christian

    2015-01-01

    White lupin (Lupinus albus L.) is highly adapted to phosphorus-diminished soils. P-deficient white lupin plants modify their root architecture and physiology to acquire sparingly available soil phosphorus. We employed gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) for metabolic profiling of P-deficient white lupins, to investigate biochemical pathways involved in the P-acquiring strategy. After 14 days of P-deficiency, plants showed reduced levels of fructose, glucose, and sucrose in shoots. Phosphorylated metabolites such as glucose-6-phosphate, fructose-6-phosphate, myo-inositol-phosphate and glycerol-3-phosphate were reduced in both shoots and roots. After 22 days of P-deficiency, no effect on shoot or root sugar metabolite levels was found, but the levels of phosphorylated metabolites were further reduced. Organic acids, amino acids and several shikimate pathway products showed enhanced levels in 22-day-old P-deficient roots and shoots. These results indicate that P-deficient white lupins adapt their carbohydrate partitioning between shoot and root in order to supply their growing root system as an early response to P-deficiency. Organic acids are released into the rhizosphere to mobilize phosphorus from soil particles. A longer period of P-deficiency leads to scavenging of Pi from P-containing metabolites and reduced protein anabolism, but enhanced formation of secondary metabolites. The latter can serve as stress protection molecules or actively acquire phosphorus from the soil. PMID:26635840

  10. Metabolic Adaptations of White Lupin Roots and Shoots under Phosphorus Deficiency

    PubMed Central

    Müller, Julia; Gödde, Victoria; Niehaus, Karsten; Zörb, Christian

    2015-01-01

    White lupin (Lupinus albus L.) is highly adapted to phosphorus-diminished soils. P-deficient white lupin plants modify their root architecture and physiology to acquire sparingly available soil phosphorus. We employed gas chromatography–mass spectrometry (GC-MS) for metabolic profiling of P-deficient white lupins, to investigate biochemical pathways involved in the P-acquiring strategy. After 14 days of P-deficiency, plants showed reduced levels of fructose, glucose, and sucrose in shoots. Phosphorylated metabolites such as glucose-6-phosphate, fructose-6-phosphate, myo-inositol-phosphate and glycerol-3-phosphate were reduced in both shoots and roots. After 22 days of P-deficiency, no effect on shoot or root sugar metabolite levels was found, but the levels of phosphorylated metabolites were further reduced. Organic acids, amino acids and several shikimate pathway products showed enhanced levels in 22-day-old P-deficient roots and shoots. These results indicate that P-deficient white lupins adapt their carbohydrate partitioning between shoot and root in order to supply their growing root system as an early response to P-deficiency. Organic acids are released into the rhizosphere to mobilize phosphorus from soil particles. A longer period of P-deficiency leads to scavenging of Pi from P-containing metabolites and reduced protein anabolism, but enhanced formation of secondary metabolites. The latter can serve as stress protection molecules or actively acquire phosphorus from the soil. PMID:26635840

  11. Comparing phosphorus mobilization strategies using Aspergillus niger for the mineral dissolution of three phosphate rocks.

    PubMed

    Schneider, K D; van Straaten, P; de Orduña, R Mira; Glasauer, S; Trevors, J; Fallow, D; Smith, P S

    2010-01-01

    Phosphorus deficiencies are limiting crop production in agricultural soils worldwide. Locally available sources of raw phosphate rock (PR) are being recognized for their potential role in soil fertility improvement. Phosphorus bioavailability is essential for the efficiency of PRs and can be increased by acid treatments. The utilization of organic acid producing micro-organisms, notably Aspergillus niger, presents a sustainable alternative to the use of strong inorganic acids, but acid production of A. niger strongly depends on the mineral content of the growth media. This study compared the phosphorus mobilization efficiency of two biological treatments, namely addition of acidic cell-free supernatants from A. niger cultivations to PRs and the direct cultivation of A. niger with PRs. The results show that addition of PR to cultivations leads to significant differences in the profile of organic acids produced by A. niger. Additions of PR, especially igneous rocks containing high amounts of iron and manganese, lead to reduced citric acid concentrations. In spite of these differences, phosphorus mobilization was similar between treatments, suggesting that the simpler direct cultivation method was not inferior. In addition to citric acid, it is suggested that oxalic acid contributes to PR solubilization in direct cultivations with A. niger, which would benefit farmers in developing countries where conventional fertilizers are not adequately accessible. PMID:19709342

  12. Comparing phosphorus mobilization strategies using Aspergillus niger for the mineral dissolution of three phosphate rocks.

    PubMed

    Schneider, K D; van Straaten, P; de Orduña, R Mira; Glasauer, S; Trevors, J; Fallow, D; Smith, P S

    2010-01-01

    Phosphorus deficiencies are limiting crop production in agricultural soils worldwide. Locally available sources of raw phosphate rock (PR) are being recognized for their potential role in soil fertility improvement. Phosphorus bioavailability is essential for the efficiency of PRs and can be increased by acid treatments. The utilization of organic acid producing micro-organisms, notably Aspergillus niger, presents a sustainable alternative to the use of strong inorganic acids, but acid production of A. niger strongly depends on the mineral content of the growth media. This study compared the phosphorus mobilization efficiency of two biological treatments, namely addition of acidic cell-free supernatants from A. niger cultivations to PRs and the direct cultivation of A. niger with PRs. The results show that addition of PR to cultivations leads to significant differences in the profile of organic acids produced by A. niger. Additions of PR, especially igneous rocks containing high amounts of iron and manganese, lead to reduced citric acid concentrations. In spite of these differences, phosphorus mobilization was similar between treatments, suggesting that the simpler direct cultivation method was not inferior. In addition to citric acid, it is suggested that oxalic acid contributes to PR solubilization in direct cultivations with A. niger, which would benefit farmers in developing countries where conventional fertilizers are not adequately accessible.

  13. Phosphorus removal coupled to bioenergy production by three cyanobacterial isolates in a biofilm dynamic growth system.

    PubMed

    Gismondi, Alessandra; Pippo, Francesca Di; Bruno, Laura; Antonaroli, Simonetta; Congestri, Roberta

    2016-09-01

    In the present study a closed incubator, designed for biofilm growth on artificial substrata, was used to grow three isolates of biofilm-forming heterocytous cyanobacteria using an artificial wastewater secondary effluent as the culture medium. We evaluated biofilm efficiency in removing phosphorus, by simulating biofilm-based tertiary wastewater treatment and coupled this process with biodiesel production from the developed biomass. The three strains were able to grow in the synthetic medium and remove phosphorus in percentages, between 6 and 43%, which varied between strains and also among each strain according to the biofilm growth phase. Calothrix sp. biofilm turned out to be a good candidate for tertiary treatment, showing phosphorus reducing capacity (during the exponential biofilm growth) at the regulatory level for the treated effluent water being discharged into natural water systems. Besides phosphorus removal, the three cyanobacterial biofilms produced high quality lipids, whose profile showed promising chemical stability and combustion behavior. Further integration of the proposed processes could include the integration of oil extracted from these cyanobacterial biofilms with microalgal oil known for high monounsaturated fatty acids content, in order to enhance biodiesel cold flow characteristics.

  14. Examination of metabolic responses to phosphorus limitation via proteomic analyses in the marine diatom Phaeodactylum tricornutum

    PubMed Central

    Feng, Tian-Ya; Yang, Zhi-Kai; Zheng, Jian-Wei; Xie, Ying; Li, Da-Wei; Murugan, Shanmugaraj Bala; Yang, Wei-Dong; Liu, Jie-Sheng; Li, Hong-Ye

    2015-01-01

    Phosphorus (P) is an essential macronutrient for the survival of marine phytoplankton. In the present study, phytoplankton response to phosphorus limitation was studied by proteomic profiling in diatom Phaeodactylum tricornutum in both cellular and molecular levels. A total of 42 non-redundant proteins were identified, among which 8 proteins were found to be upregulated and 34 proteins were downregulated. The results also showed that the proteins associated with inorganic phosphate uptake were downregulated, whereas the proteins involved in organic phosphorus uptake such as alkaline phosphatase were upregulated. The proteins involved in metabolic responses such as protein degradation, lipid accumulation and photorespiration were upregulated whereas energy metabolism, photosynthesis, amino acid and nucleic acid metabolism tend to be downregulated. Overall our results showed the changes in protein levels of P. tricornutum during phosphorus stress. This study preludes for understanding the role of phosphorous in marine biogeochemical cycles and phytoplankton response to phosphorous scarcity in ocean. It also provides insight into the succession of phytoplankton community, providing scientific basis for elucidating the mechanism of algal blooms. PMID:26020491

  15. Releasing characteristics of phosphorus and other substances during thermal treatment of excess sludge.

    PubMed

    Xue, Tao; Huang, Xia

    2007-01-01

    The releasing characteristics of phosphorus, nitrogen compounds, organics, and some metal cations during thermal treatment of excess sludge were investigated. It was found that during heating not only phosphorus, but also nitrogen compounds, organics, and some metal cations could be released in abundance. The maximum orthophosphate (ortho-P) release of about 90 mg/L in concentration was observed at 50 degrees C in 1 h. Except for volatile fatty acids (VFAs), comparatively little total nitrogen (TN), total organic carbon (TOC), and metal cations were released at the same time. Such results might favor further process of phosphorus recovery. VFAs were considerably released only at 50 degrees C. Acetic, butyric, and propionic acid were the most abundant components in turn and their releasing profiles exhibited good linear relationship with time (R2 = 0.9977, 0.9624, and 0.8908, respectively). The concentrations of Mg2+ and K+ increased with time and temperature during thermal treatment, but Ca2+ decreased. The release of Mg2+ and K+ agreed well with TP release (R2 = 0.9892 and 0.9476, respectively). Temperature in the experimental range had very little impact on the linear relationships, especially of Mg2+. Moreover, the parameter of mixed liquor suspended solids (MLSS) was found to be an important factor for thermal sludge treatment as the released ortho-P and total phosphorus (TP) at 50 degrees C increased more than one-fold when MLSS was increased from 4000 to 8000 mg/L.

  16. Examination of metabolic responses to phosphorus limitation via proteomic analyses in the marine diatom Phaeodactylum tricornutum.

    PubMed

    Feng, Tian-Ya; Yang, Zhi-Kai; Zheng, Jian-Wei; Xie, Ying; Li, Da-Wei; Murugan, Shanmugaraj Bala; Yang, Wei-Dong; Liu, Jie-Sheng; Li, Hong-Ye

    2015-05-28

    Phosphorus (P) is an essential macronutrient for the survival of marine phytoplankton. In the present study, phytoplankton response to phosphorus limitation was studied by proteomic profiling in diatom Phaeodactylum tricornutum in both cellular and molecular levels. A total of 42 non-redundant proteins were identified, among which 8 proteins were found to be upregulated and 34 proteins were downregulated. The results also showed that the proteins associated with inorganic phosphate uptake were downregulated, whereas the proteins involved in organic phosphorus uptake such as alkaline phosphatase were upregulated. The proteins involved in metabolic responses such as protein degradation, lipid accumulation and photorespiration were upregulated whereas energy metabolism, photosynthesis, amino acid and nucleic acid metabolism tend to be downregulated. Overall our results showed the changes in protein levels of P. tricornutum during phosphorus stress. This study preludes for understanding the role of phosphorous in marine biogeochemical cycles and phytoplankton response to phosphorous scarcity in ocean. It also provides insight into the succession of phytoplankton community, providing scientific basis for elucidating the mechanism of algal blooms.

  17. Phosphorus removal coupled to bioenergy production by three cyanobacterial isolates in a biofilm dynamic growth system.

    PubMed

    Gismondi, Alessandra; Pippo, Francesca Di; Bruno, Laura; Antonaroli, Simonetta; Congestri, Roberta

    2016-09-01

    In the present study a closed incubator, designed for biofilm growth on artificial substrata, was used to grow three isolates of biofilm-forming heterocytous cyanobacteria using an artificial wastewater secondary effluent as the culture medium. We evaluated biofilm efficiency in removing phosphorus, by simulating biofilm-based tertiary wastewater treatment and coupled this process with biodiesel production from the developed biomass. The three strains were able to grow in the synthetic medium and remove phosphorus in percentages, between 6 and 43%, which varied between strains and also among each strain according to the biofilm growth phase. Calothrix sp. biofilm turned out to be a good candidate for tertiary treatment, showing phosphorus reducing capacity (during the exponential biofilm growth) at the regulatory level for the treated effluent water being discharged into natural water systems. Besides phosphorus removal, the three cyanobacterial biofilms produced high quality lipids, whose profile showed promising chemical stability and combustion behavior. Further integration of the proposed processes could include the integration of oil extracted from these cyanobacterial biofilms with microalgal oil known for high monounsaturated fatty acids content, in order to enhance biodiesel cold flow characteristics. PMID:26939844

  18. Finite orbital angular momentum states and Laguerre-Gaussian potential in two-temperature electron plasmas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shahzad, K.; Ali, S.

    2014-09-01

    Electron-acoustic waves are studied with orbital angular momentum (OAM) in an unmagnetized collisionless uniform plasma, whose constituents are the Boltzmann hot electrons, inertial cold electrons and stationary ions. For this purpose, we employ the fluid equations to obtain a paraxial equation in terms of cold electron density perturbations, which admits both the Gaussian and Laguerre-Gaussian (LG) beam solutions. Furthermore, an approximate solution for the electrostatic potential problem is found, which also allows us to express the components of the electric field in terms of LG potential perturbations. Calculating the energy flux of the electron-acoustic waves, an OAM density for these waves is obtained. Numerically, it is found that the parameters, such as, azimuthal angle, radial and angular mode numbers, and the beam waist strongly modify the LG potential profiles associated with electron-acoustic waves. The present results should be helpful to study the trapping and transportation of plasma particles and energy as well as to understand the electron-acoustic mode excitations produced by the Raman backscattering of laser beams in a uniform plasma.

  19. Propagation of cosine-Gaussian-correlated Schell-model beams in atmospheric turbulence.

    PubMed

    Mei, Zhangrong; Schchepakina, Elena; Korotkova, Olga

    2013-07-29

    A stochastic beam generated by a recently introduced source of Schell type with cosine-Gaussian spectral degree of coherence is shown to possess interesting novel features on propagation in isotropic and homogeneous atmospheric turbulence with general non-Kolmogorov power spectrum. It is shown that while at small distances from the source the beam's intensity exhibits annular profile with adjustable area of the dark region, the center disappears at sufficiently large distances and the beam's intensity tends to Gaussian form. Hence the 3D bottle beam is produced by the cumulative effect of the random source and the atmosphere. The distances at which the on-axis beam intensity has local minima and maxima are shown to have analytic dependence on the source and the atmospheric parameters. And the influence of the fractal constant of the atmospheric power spectrum and refractive-index structure constant on beam characteristics is analyzed in depth. The novel double-cycle qualitative change in the degree of coherence is shown to occur on atmospheric propagation which was not previously known for any other beams.

  20. Effect of phosphorus-ion implantation on the corrosion resistance and biocompatibility of titanium.

    PubMed

    Krupa, D; Baszkiewicz, J; Kozubowski, J A; Barcz, A; Sobczak, J W; Biliński, A; Lewandowska-Szumieł, M; Rajchel, B

    2002-08-01

    This work presents data on the structure and corrosion resistance of titanium after phosphorus-ion implantation with a dose of 10(17)P/cm2. The ion energy was 25keV. Transmission electron microscopy was used to investigate the microstructure of the implanted layer. The chemical composition of the surface layer was examined by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and secondary ion mass spectrometry. The corrosion resistance was examined by electrochemical methods in a simulated body fluid at a temperature of 37 C. Biocompatibility tests in vitro were performed in a culture of human derived bone cells in direct contact with the materials tested. Both, the viability of the cells determined by an XTT assay and activity of the cells evaluated by alkaline phosphatase activity measurements in contact with implanted and non-implanted titanium samples were detected. The morphology of the cells spread on the surface of the materials examined was also observed. The results confirmed the biocompatibility of both phosphorus-ion-implanted and non-implanted titanium under the conditions of the experiment. As shown by transmission electron microscope results, the surface layer formed during phosphorus-ion implantation was amorphous. The results of electrochemical examinations indicate that phosphorus-ion implantation increases the corrosion resistance after short-term as well as long-term exposures.

  1. Response of Sugarcane in a Red Ultisol to Phosphorus Rates, Phosphorus Sources, and Filter Cake

    PubMed Central

    Prado, Renato de Mello; Campos, Cid Naudi Silva; Rosatto Moda, Leandro; de Lima Vasconcelos, Ricardo; Pizauro Júnior, João Martins

    2015-01-01

    We evaluated the effect of phosphorus application rates from various sources and in the presence or absence of filter cake on soil phosphorus, plant phosphorus, changes in acid phosphatase activity, and sugarcane productivity grown in Eutrophic Red Ultisol. Three P sources were used (triple superphosphate, Araxa rock phosphate, and Bayovar rock phosphate) and four application rates (0, 90, 180, and 360 kg ha−1 of P2O5) in the presence or absence of filter cake (7.5 t ha−1, dry basis). The soil P, the accumulated plant P, the leaf acid phosphatase activity and straw, the stalk productivity, the concentration of soluble solids in the juice (Brix), the juice sucrose content (Pol), and the purity were the parameters evaluated. We found that P applications increased levels of soil, leaf, and juice phosphorus and led to higher phosphorus accumulation and greater stalk and straw productivity. These levels were highest in the presence of filter cake. Acid phosphatase activity decreased with increasing plant phosphorus concentration. Phosphate fertilization did not show effect on sugarcane technological quality. We concluded that P application, regardless of source, improved phosphorus nutrition and increased productivity in sugarcane and, when associated with filter cake, reduced the need for mineral fertilizer. PMID:26078993

  2. Response of Sugarcane in a Red Ultisol to Phosphorus Rates, Phosphorus Sources, and Filter Cake.

    PubMed

    Caione, Gustavo; Prado, Renato de Mello; Campos, Cid Naudi Silva; Rosatto Moda, Leandro; de Lima Vasconcelos, Ricardo; Pizauro Júnior, João Martins

    2015-01-01

    We evaluated the effect of phosphorus application rates from various sources and in the presence or absence of filter cake on soil phosphorus, plant phosphorus, changes in acid phosphatase activity, and sugarcane productivity grown in Eutrophic Red Ultisol. Three P sources were used (triple superphosphate, Araxa rock phosphate, and Bayovar rock phosphate) and four application rates (0, 90, 180, and 360 kg ha(-1) of P2O5) in the presence or absence of filter cake (7.5 t ha(-1), dry basis). The soil P, the accumulated plant P, the leaf acid phosphatase activity and straw, the stalk productivity, the concentration of soluble solids in the juice (Brix), the juice sucrose content (Pol), and the purity were the parameters evaluated. We found that P applications increased levels of soil, leaf, and juice phosphorus and led to higher phosphorus accumulation and greater stalk and straw productivity. These levels were highest in the presence of filter cake. Acid phosphatase activity decreased with increasing plant phosphorus concentration. Phosphate fertilization did not show effect on sugarcane technological quality. We concluded that P application, regardless of source, improved phosphorus nutrition and increased productivity in sugarcane and, when associated with filter cake, reduced the need for mineral fertilizer. PMID:26078993

  3. Observations of interstellar chlorine and phosphorus

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jura, M.; York, D. G.

    1978-01-01

    Copernicus observations of interstellar Cl I, Cl II, and P II UV lines toward 10 stars are reported. Column densities are estimated for each species, and upper limits are computed for HCl column densities. Derivation of the gas-phase abundances of chlorine and phosphorus indicates that the averages of both the chlorine and the phosphorus logarithmic abundances relative to hydrogen are between 5.0 and 5.1. It is suggested that interstellar chlorine may be depleted by about a factor of 3 relative to the solar abundance and that interstellar phosphorus is depleted by a factor of 2 to 3. The results are shown to support the prediction that chlorine is ionized in regions containing primarily atomic oxygen and is neutral in regions where there is a significant amount of molecular hydrogen. The photoionization rate of neutral chlorine toward 15 Mon is estimated, and it is concluded that most chlorine is contained within the gas phase.

  4. Electric field effect in ultrathin black phosphorus

    SciTech Connect

    Koenig, Steven P.; Schmidt, Hennrik; Doganov, Rostislav A.; Castro Neto, A. H.; Özyilmaz, Barbaros

    2014-03-10

    Black phosphorus exhibits a layered structure similar to graphene, allowing mechanical exfoliation of ultrathin single crystals. Here, we demonstrate few-layer black phosphorus field effect devices on Si/SiO{sub 2} and measure charge carrier mobility in a four-probe configuration as well as drain current modulation in a two-point configuration. We find room-temperature mobilities of up to 300 cm{sup 2}/Vs and drain current modulation of over 10{sup 3}. At low temperatures, the on-off ratio exceeds 10{sup 5}, and the device exhibits both electron and hole conduction. Using atomic force microscopy, we observe significant surface roughening of thin black phosphorus crystals over the course of 1 h after exfoliation.

  5. Selective myelosuppression following yellow phosphorus ingestion.

    PubMed

    Basheer, Aneesh; Mookkappan, Sudhagar; Padhi, Somanath; Iqbal, Nayyar

    2015-01-01

    Toxicity from accidental and intentional ingestion of yellow phosphorus, ubiquitously present in fireworks and rodenticides, has recently become more frequent. Gastrointestinal, renal, neurologic, and cardiovascular manifestations are common, with mortality of 23 per cent to 73 per cent. Reports of haematological abnormalities are rare. We report only the second case of severe neutropenia secondary to selective myelosuppression in a 14-year-old girl following intentional ingestion of yellow phosphorus. Leucocyte counts recovered spontaneously without further complications. Our case indicates that, besides hepatic and renal function monitoring, physicians should meticulously monitor blood counts in such cases for early detection of marrow suppression. Further studies are required to elucidate the complex mechanisms and significance of this unusual toxicity of yellow phosphorus. PMID:25848404

  6. Flammability of Epoxy Resins Containing Phosphorus

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hergenrother, P. M.; Thompson, C. M.; Smith, J. G.; Connell, J. W.; Hinkley, J. A.

    2005-01-01

    As part of a program to develop fire-resistant exterior composite structures for future subsonic commercial and general aviation aircraft, flame-retardant epoxy resins are under investigation. Epoxies and their curing agents (aromatic diamines) containing phosphorus were synthesized and used to prepare epoxy formulations. Phosphorus was incorporated within the backbone of the epoxy resin and not used as an additive. The resulting cured neat epoxy formulations were characterized by thermogravimetric analysis, propane torch test, elemental analysis, microscale combustion calorimetry, and fire calorimetry. Several formulations showed excellent flame retardation with phosphorous contents as low as 1.5% by weight. The fracture toughness and compressive strength of several cured formulations showed no detrimental effect due to phosphorus content. The chemistry and properties of these new epoxy formulations are discussed.

  7. Phosphorus index as a phosphorus awareness tool: documented phosphorus use reduction in New York state.

    PubMed

    Ketterings, Quirine M; Czymmek, Karl J

    2012-01-01

    In 1999, New York introduced its concentrated animal feeding operation (CAFO) permit followed, in 2001, by release of the New York phosphorus index (NY-PI) and establishment of a statewide on-farm research partnership. State policy requires that the Natural Resources Conservation Service's 590 nutrient management standard, and therefore the NY-PI, be implemented on all CAFO farms as well as animal feeding operations (AFOs) receiving state or federal cost share funds for manure storage and other related practices. Since the introduction of the NY-PI, P fertilizer sales (farm use) declined from 14,470 Mg in 2001 (8.6 kg P ha) to 7,376 Mg in 2009 (5.0 kg P ha). Cost of fertilizer was not a significant covariate for the reduction in P use over time. Certified nutrient management planners were surveyed in 2011 to evaluate their perceptions of drivers for changes in P use. In addition, whole farm P balances were recorded for 54 New York dairy farms. The survey data illustrate key ingredients for success: (i) statewide awareness of environmental challenges through both regulations and extension programming; (ii) science-based, user-friendly tools that allow for farm-specific responses to the challenges; (iii) risk assessment of management alternatives through on-farm research; (iv) enforcement of regulations; and (v) existence of economically feasible alternatives. Whole farm balances showed a reduction in P surplus of 44%, averaged across farms, whereas milk production increased, further illustrating the willingness and economic potential to make changes that improve production efficiency and reduce risk of nutrient loss to the environment. PMID:23128734

  8. [Bone and Nutrition. A novel function of phosphorus].

    PubMed

    Taketani, Yutaka; Imi, Yukiko; Abuduli, Maerjianghan

    2015-07-01

    Phosphorus is an essential nutrient for bone formation by forming hydroxyapatite with calcium. Simultaneously, phosphorus is also a component of high energy bond of ATP, nucleic acids, and phospholipids. Recent studies have demonstrated that excess or lack of dietary phosphorus intake may cause vascular dysfunction, cardiac hypertrophy, and impaired glucose tolerance. Here, we introduce recent findings about the effects of high or low dietary phosphorus intake on several organs except for bone.

  9. New phosphorus-containing bisimide resins

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Varma, I. K.; Fohlen, G. M.; Hsu, M.-T.; Parker, J. A.

    1984-01-01

    Phosphorus-based flame retardants have been effectively used in a wide variety of polymeric materials. Such additives, however, may either influence the decomposition reaction in polymers or lack durability due to a tendency to be leached out by solvents. Attention is given to the synthesis, characterization, thermal stability and degradation mechanisms of bisimide resins, and an evaluation is conducted of the flammability and mechanical properties of graphite cloth-reinforced laminates fabricated from one of the six phosphorus-containing bisimide resins considered.

  10. Incommensurate Structure of Phosphorus Phase IV

    SciTech Connect

    Fujihisa, Hiroshi; Gotoh, Yoshito; Yamawaki, Hiroshi; Sakashita, Mami; Takeya, Satoshi; Honda, Kazumasa; Akahama, Yuichi; Kawamura, Haruki; Ohishi, Yasuo

    2007-04-27

    There are six known phases for phosphorus at room temperature under high pressure. Only the structure of phase IV, which exists from 107 GPa to 137 GPa, remains unsolved. We performed a powder x-ray diffraction experiment and a Rietveld analysis and successfully determined its structure to be an incommensurately modulated structure by only 1 site of atomic position. High-pressure phases of halogens and chalcogens have previously been shown to have a similar modulated structure; however, phosphorus phase IV is different from them and was shown to be the third case.

  11. 46 CFR 151.50-50 - Elemental phosphorus in water.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Elemental phosphorus in water. 151.50-50 Section 151.50... phosphorus in water. (a) Tanks shall be designed and tested for a head equivalent to the design lading of phosphorus and its water blanket extended to 8 feet above the tank top. In addition, tank design...

  12. 46 CFR 151.50-50 - Elemental phosphorus in water.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Elemental phosphorus in water. 151.50-50 Section 151.50... phosphorus in water. (a) Tanks shall be designed and tested for a head equivalent to the design lading of phosphorus and its water blanket extended to 8 feet above the tank top. In addition, tank design...

  13. 46 CFR 151.50-50 - Elemental phosphorus in water.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Elemental phosphorus in water. 151.50-50 Section 151.50... phosphorus in water. (a) Tanks shall be designed and tested for a head equivalent to the design lading of phosphorus and its water blanket extended to 8 feet above the tank top. In addition, tank design...

  14. 40 CFR 721.2752 - Epoxy resin containing phosphorus (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Epoxy resin containing phosphorus... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.2752 Epoxy resin containing phosphorus (generic). (a) Chemical substance... epoxy resin containing phosphorus (PMN P-00-912) is subject to reporting under this section for...

  15. 40 CFR 721.2752 - Epoxy resin containing phosphorus (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Epoxy resin containing phosphorus... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.2752 Epoxy resin containing phosphorus (generic). (a) Chemical substance... epoxy resin containing phosphorus (PMN P-00-912) is subject to reporting under this section for...

  16. 40 CFR 721.2752 - Epoxy resin containing phosphorus (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Epoxy resin containing phosphorus... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.2752 Epoxy resin containing phosphorus (generic). (a) Chemical substance... epoxy resin containing phosphorus (PMN P-00-912) is subject to reporting under this section for...

  17. 40 CFR 721.2752 - Epoxy resin containing phosphorus (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Epoxy resin containing phosphorus... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.2752 Epoxy resin containing phosphorus (generic). (a) Chemical substance... epoxy resin containing phosphorus (PMN P-00-912) is subject to reporting under this section for...

  18. Soil phosphorus dynamics under sprinkler and furrow irrigation

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Furrow irrigation detaches and transports soil particles and subsequently nutrients such as phosphorus. To reduce the risk of erosion and offsite phosphorus movement, producers can convert from furrow to sprinkler irrigation. We completed research on soil phosphorus dynamics in furrow versus sprin...

  19. Availability of phosphorus contained in poultry litter for lambs.

    PubMed

    Tagari, H; Silanikove, N; Hurwitz, S

    1981-03-01

    Percentage net phosphorus availability (NPHA) and set phosphorus utilization (NPHU) of the phosphorus contained in a heat-sterilized poultry litter (PL) as compared to feed grade dicalcium phosphate (DCP) for lambs was assessed by the "slope" method. The method was based on the evaluation of the function of apparent phosphorus absorption (NPHA), or retention (NPHU), on phosphorus intake. Nitrogen retention was also evaluated. Plasma inorganic phosphorus concentration as a function of phosphorus intake was evaluated and compared to NPHA and NPHU. The percentage of NPHA was found to be 63.7 and 39, and that of NPHU was 63 and 38 for the phosphorus supplied by DCP and PL, respectively. Thus, the NPHA or NPHU for the phosphorus contained in PL is 60.9 and 60.3% of that of DCP, respectively. The slope ratio between the two phosphate supplements as observed for plasma inorganic phosphorus concentrations was similar to those found for NPHA and NPHU but the coefficient of variation was 5 times higher. Nitrogen digestibility was not affected by the level of phosphorus in the diets. Correlation between nitrogen retention and NPHA or NPHU was, however, significant (P less than 0.05). The slopes of dependence of N retention upon phosphorus intake were 2.81 and 1.6 (P less than 0.05) for DCP and PL treatments, respectively, and the ratio between the slopes was 0.57, close to the ratio of NPHU in PL to DCP-supplemented diets.

  20. 49 CFR 173.188 - White or yellow phosphorus.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false White or yellow phosphorus. 173.188 Section 173... Class 7 § 173.188 White or yellow phosphorus. Phosphorus, white or yellow, when offered for transportation or transported by rail, highway, or water, must be packaged in water or dry in...