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Sample records for phosphorus potassium fertilisation

  1. Phosphorus fertilisation under nitrogen limitation can deplete soil carbon stocks: evidence from Swedish meta-replicated long-term field experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Poeplau, Christopher; Bolinder, Martin A.; Kirchmann, Holger; Kätterer, Thomas

    2016-02-01

    Increasing soil organic carbon (SOC) in agricultural soils can mitigate atmospheric CO2 concentration and also contribute to increased soil fertility and ecosystem resilience. The role of major nutrients in SOC dynamics is complex, due to simultaneous effects on net primary productivity (NPP) that influence crop residue carbon inputs and in the rate of heterotrophic respiration (carbon outputs). This study investigated the effect on SOC stocks of three different levels of phosphorus and potassium (PK) fertilisation rates in the absence of nitrogen fertilisation and of three different levels of nitrogen fertiliser in the absence of PK fertiliser. This was done by analysing data from 10 meta-replicated Swedish long-term field experiments (> 45 years). With N fertilisation, SOC stocks followed yield increases. However, for all PK levels, we found average SOC losses ranging from -0.04 ± 0.09 Mg ha-1 yr-1 (ns) for the lowest to -0.09 ± 0.07 Mg ha-1 yr-1 (p = 0.008) for the highest application rate, while crop yields as a proxy for carbon input increased significantly with PK fertilisation by 1, 10 and 15 %. We conclude that SOC dynamics are mainly output-driven in the PK-fertilised regime but mostly input-driven in the N-fertilised regime, due to the much more pronounced response of NPP to N than to PK fertilisation. It has been established that P rather than K is the element affecting ecosystem carbon fluxes, where P fertilisation has been shown to (i) stimulate heterotrophic respiration, (ii) reduce the abundance of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi and (iii) decrease the crop root : shoot ratio, leading to higher root-derived carbon input. The higher export of N in the PK-fertilised plots in this study could (iv) have led to increased N mining and thus mineralisation of organic matter. More integrated experiments are needed to gain a better understanding of the relative importance of each of the above-mentioned mechanisms leading to SOC losses after P addition.

  2. Seasonal exports of phosphorus from intensively fertilised nested grassland catchments.

    PubMed

    Lewis, Ciaran; Rafique, Rashad; Foley, Nelius; Leahy, Paul; Morgan, Gerard; Albertson, John; Kumar, Sandeep; Kiely, Gerard

    2013-09-01

    We carried out a one year (2002) study of phosphorus (P) loss from soil to water in three nested grassland catchments with known P input in chemical fertilizer and animal liquid slurry applications. Chemical fertilizer was applied to the grasslands between March and September and animal slurry was applied over the twelve months. The annual chemical P fertilizer applications for the 17 and 211 ha catchments were 16.4 and 23.7 kg P/ha respectively and the annual slurry applications were 10.7 and 14.0 kg P/ha, respectively. The annual total phosphorus (TP) export in stream-flow was 2.61, 2.48 and 1.61 kg P/ha for the 17, 211 and 1524 ha catchments, respectively, compared with a maximum permissible (by regulation) annual export of ca. 0.35 kg P/ha. The export rate (ratio of P export to P in land applications) was 9.6% and 6.6% from the 17 and 211 ha catchments, respectively. On average, 70% of stream flow and 85% of the P export occurred during the five wet months (October to February) indicating that when precipitation is much greater than evaporation, the hydrological conditions are most favourable for P export. However the soil quality and land use history may vary the results. Particulate P made up 22%, 43% and 37% of the TP export at the 17, 211 and 1524 ha catchment areas, respectively. As the chemical fertilizer was spread during the grass growth months (March to September), it has less immediate impact on stream water quality than the slurry applications. We also show that as the catchment scale increases, the P concentrations and P export decrease, confirming dilution due to increasing rural catchment size. In the longer term, the excess P from fertilizer maintains high soil P levels, an antecedent condition favourable to P loss from soil to water. This study confirms the significant negative water quality impact of excess P applications, particularly liquid animal slurry applications in wet winter months. The findings suggest that restricted P application in

  3. Phosphorus fertilisation under nitrogen limitation can deplete soil carbon stocks - evidence from Swedish meta-replicated long-term field experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Poeplau, C.; Bolinder, M. A.; Kirchmann, H.; Kätterer, T.

    2015-10-01

    Increasing soil organic carbon (SOC) in agricultural soils can mitigate atmospheric CO2 concentration and also contribute to increase soil fertility and ecosystem resilience. The role of major nutrients on SOC dynamics is complex, due to simultaneous effects on net primary productivity (NPP) that influence crop residue carbon inputs and on the rate of heterotrophic respiration (carbon outputs). This study investigated the effect on SOC stocks of three different levels of phosphorus and potassium (PK) fertilisation rates in the absence of nitrogen fertilisation and of three different levels of nitrogen in the absence of PK. This was done by analysing data from 10 meta-replicated Swedish long-term field experiments (> 45 years). With N fertilisation, SOC stocks followed yield increases. However, for all PK levels, we found average SOC losses ranging from -0.04 ± 0.09 Mg ha-1 yr-1 (ns) for the lowest to -0.09 ± 0.07 Mg ha-1 yr-1 (p = 0.008) for the highest application rate, while crop yields as a proxy for carbon input increased significantly with PK fertilization by 1, 10 and 15 %. We conclude that SOC dynamics are mainly output-driven in the PK fertilised regime but mostly input-driven in the N fertilised regime, due to the much more pronounced response of NPP to N than to PK fertilisation. It has been established that P rather than K is the element affecting ecosystem carbon fluxes, where P fertilisation has been shown to: (i) stimulate heterotrophic respiration, (ii) reduce the abundance of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi and (iii) decrease crop root : shoot ratio, leading to lower root-derived carbon input. The higher export of N in the PK fertilised plots in this study could (iv) have led to increased N mining and thus mineralisation of organic matter. More integrated experiments are needed to gain a better understanding of the relative importance of each of the above-mentioned mechanisms leading to SOC losses after P addition.

  4. Sewage sludge ash to phosphorus fertiliser: Variables influencing heavy metal removal during thermochemical treatment

    SciTech Connect

    Mattenberger, H.; Fraissler, G.; Brunner, T. Herk, P.; Hermann, L.

    2008-12-15

    The aim of this study was to improve the removal of heavy metals from sewage sludge ash by a thermochemical process. The resulting detoxified ash was intended for use as a raw material rich in phosphorus (P) for inorganic fertiliser production. The thermochemical treatment was performed in a rotary kiln where the evaporation of relevant heavy metals was enhanced by additives. The four variables investigated for process optimisation were treatment temperature, type of additive (KCl, MgCl{sub 2}) and its amount, as well as type of reactor (directly or indirectly heated rotary kiln). The removal rates of Cd, Cr, Cu, Ni, Pb, Zn and of Ca, P and Cl were investigated. The best overall removal efficiency for Cd, Cu, Pb and Zn could be found for the indirectly heated system. The type of additive was critical, since MgCl{sub 2} favours Zn- over Cu-removal, while KCl acts conversely. The use of MgCl{sub 2} caused less particle abrasion from the pellets in the kiln than KCl. In the case of the additive KCl, liquid KCl - temporarily formed in the pellets - acted as a barrier to heavy metal evaporation as long as treatment temperatures were not sufficiently high to enhance its reaction or evaporation.

  5. Soil phosphorus and potassium estimation by reflectance spectroscopy

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Visible and near infrared (VNIR) diffuse reflectance spectroscopy has potential in site-specific measurement of soil properties. However, previous studies have reported VNIR estimates of plant available soil phosphorus (P) and potassium (K) to be of variable accuracy. In this study, we used a databa...

  6. Factors affecting soil phosphorus and potassium estimation by reflectance spectroscopy

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Visible and near infrared (VNIR) diffuse reflectance spectroscopy has potential in site-specific measurement of soil properties. However, previous studies have reported VNIR estimates of plant available soil phosphorus (P) and potassium (K) to be of variable accuracy. In this study, we used a databa...

  7. Optimising the recovery and re-use of phosphorus from wastewater effluent for sustainable fertiliser development.

    PubMed

    Shepherd, Jessica G; Sohi, Saran P; Heal, Kate V

    2016-05-01

    Recovery and re-use of phosphorus (P) from wastewater treatment systems as agricultural fertiliser presents an important and viable target for P waste reduction and recycling. In this study novel biochar materials for P filtration of wastewater were designed and produced using waste feedstocks, with consideration of the plant accessibility of the P captured by the biochars. The biochars were produced using batch slow pyrolysis at 450 °C and 550 °C from a) AD: anaerobically digested sewage sludge and b) OCAD: a 1:1 mixture of anaerobically digested sewage sludge and ochre, a mineral product from mine drainage treatment. A set of experiments was designed using pH buffering to provide a robust framework for assessing the P recovery capacity and affinity of the biochars compared to other potential P recovery materials (unprocessed ochre, activated carbon and zeolite). After 5 days of repeated exposure to a P solution at a wastewater-relevant concentration (0.02 g P l(-1)) replenished each 24 h, relatively high masses of P were recovered by ochre (1.73 ± 8.93×10(-3) mg P g(-1)) and the biochars OCAD550 (1.26 ± 4.66×10(-3) mg P g(-1)), OCAD450 (1.24 ± 2.10×10(-3) mg P g(-1)), AD450 (1.06 ± 3.84×10(-3) mg P g(-1)), and AD550 (0.986 ± 9.31×10(-3) mg P g(-1)). The biochar materials had higher removal rates than both activated carbon (0.884 ± 1.69×10(-2) mg P g(-1)) and zeolite (0.130 ± 1.05×10(-2) mg P g(-1)). To assess the extractability of recovered P, P exposure was followed by repeated extraction for 4 days with pH 7-buffered deionised water. The AD biochars retained 55% of the P recovered, OCAD biochars 78% and ochre 100%. Assessment of potentially toxic element concentrations in the biochars against guideline values indicated low risk associated with their use in the environment. Our successful demonstration of biochar materials highlights the potential for further development of P filters for wastewater

  8. Spatiotemporal dynamics of phosphorus release, oxygen consumption and greenhouse gas emissions after localised soil amendment with organic fertilisers.

    PubMed

    Christel, Wibke; Zhu, Kun; Hoefer, Christoph; Kreuzeder, Andreas; Santner, Jakob; Bruun, Sander; Magid, Jakob; Jensen, Lars Stoumann

    2016-06-01

    Organic fertilisation inevitably leads to heterogeneous distribution of organic matter and nutrients in soil, i.e. due to uneven surface spreading or inhomogeneous incorporation. The resulting localised hotspots of nutrient application will induce various biotic and abiotic nutrient turnover processes and fixation in the residue sphere, giving rise to distinct differences in nutrient availability, soil oxygen content and greenhouse gas (GHG) production. In this study we investigated the spatiotemporal dynamics of the reaction of manure solids and manure solids char with soil, focusing on their phosphorus (P) availability, as current emphasis on improving societal P efficiency through recycling waste or bio-based fertilisers necessitates a sound understanding of their behaviour. Soil layers amended at a constant P application rate with either pig manure solids or char made from pig manure solids were incubated for three weeks between layers of non-amended, P-depleted soil. Spatial and temporal changes in and around the amendment layers were simultaneously investigated in this study using a sandwich sensor consisting of a planar oxygen optode and multi-element diffusive gradients in thin films (DGT) gels, combined with GHG emission measurements. After three weeks of incubation, the soil containing a layer amended with manure solids had a lower overall O2 content and had emitted significantly more CO2 than the non-amended control or the char-amended soil. The P availability from manure solids was initially higher than that from the char, but decreased over time, whereas from the char-amended layer P availability increased in the same period. In both treatments, increases in P availability were confined to the amended soil layer and did not greatly affect P availability in the directly adjacent soil layers during the three-week incubation. These results highlight the importance of placing organic P fertilisers close to where the plant roots will grow in order to

  9. Relative bio-availability and utilisation of phosphatic fertilisers as sources of phosphorus in broilers and layers.

    PubMed

    Rama Rao, S V; Ramasubba Reddy, V

    2003-03-01

    1. Different concentrations of non-phytate phosphorus (NPP, 2.5, 3.0, 3.5, 4.0 and 4.5 g/kg diet) were given to broilers (8 to 42 d of age) to establish regressions between dietary NPP concentration and body weight gain and tibia ash content. Second and third experiments were conducted to study the feasibility of utilisation of different phosphatic fertilisers [ammonium phosphate (AP), ammonium polyphosphate (APP), single super phosphate (SSP), NPK (17:17:17, NPK) and NP (28:28:0, NPK)] in commercial broilers (8 to 42 d) and White Leghorn layers (252 to 364 d). 2. Phosphatic fertilisers were incorporated both in broiler (10 g calcium and 4.5 g NPP/kg) and layer (35 g calcium and 3.5 g NPP/kg) diets by replacing dicalcium phosphate (DCP) in toto. 3. The logarithmic curves obtained for predicting the body weight gain and tibia ash content at different levels of NPP used in experiment 1 were Y = 156.27 + 2,468.8 logX (r2= 0.958) and Y = 530.82 + 144.26 log X (r2 = 0.916), respectively. 4. Body weight gain and food intake in broilers given APP- or NP-supplemented diets were comparable to these in the DCP-fed group. Feeding of NPK, AP or SSP resulted in significant depression in weight gain and food intake and high excreta moisture content. Food/gain, Ca and P contents in tibia ash and serum were not influenced by the use of phosphatic fertilisers as P sources in broiler diets. 5. Tibia ash content in broilers fed on diets containing fertilisers was either similar to or significantly higher than that in the DCP-fed group. Broilers on AP or SSP retained more P and had higher tibia ash content than those on DCP. AP, SSP or NPK caused degenerative and necrotic changes in liver, kidney and intestine of broilers. 6. Relative bio-availability of P from APP or NP was better for body weight gain than AP, SSP or NPK, while the reverse was true for bone calcification. 7. APP and NP gave hen-d egg production similar to that of DCP-fed layers. Food intake was significantly reduced

  10. Suppression methods of radon emanation from phosphorus fertiliser and diatomaceous earth.

    PubMed

    Sasaki, T; Gunji, Y; Okuda, T

    2007-01-01

    The present paper shows methods to suppress radon emanation from artificial porous materials such as phosphorous fertiliser or diatomaceous earth with a small amount of radium. The basic concept of suppression is making the radon emanation mechanism 'null', which comes from the fact that recoil is the main mechanism of radon emanation at room temperature. Nullifying may be done through removal of water in the pore volume by heating and through removal of pores by melting or filling with sulphur. These radon emanation suppression methods were tried for phosphorous fertiliser and diatomaceous earth with a small amount of radium. The melting method was the most effective of all. Sustainability of these methods was also studied. The melting method was the most sustainable. The heating method was also sustainable for diatomaceous earth in spite of a long-term immersion in water.

  11. Chemical state of chromium in sewage sludge ash based phosphorus-fertilisers.

    PubMed

    Vogel, Christian; Adam, Christian; Kappen, Peter; Schiller, Tara; Lipiec, Ewelina; McNaughton, Don

    2014-05-01

    Sewage sludge ash (SSA) based P-fertilisers were produced by thermochemical treatment of SSA with Cl-donors at approximately 1000°C. During this thermochemical process heavy metals are separated as heavy metal chlorides via the gas phase. Chromium cannot be separated under normal conditions. The risk of the development of toxic Cr(VI) during the thermochemical process was investigated. X-ray Absorption Spectroscopy measurements showed that SSA and thermochemically treated SSA with CaCl2, MgCl2 and NaCl contain Cr(III) compounds only. In contrast, treating SSA with elevated quantities of Na2CO3, to enhance the plant-availability of the phosphate phases of the fertiliser, developed approximately 10-15% Cr(VI). Furthermore, Raman microspectroscopy showed that using Mg-carbonate reduces the risk of a Cr(VI) development during thermochemical treatment. Additionally, leaching tests showed that only a Cr-water solubility>10% is an indicator for Cr(VI) in SSA based P-fertilisers.

  12. Simultaneous recovery of phosphorus and potassium as magnesium potassium phosphate from synthetic sewage sludge effluent.

    PubMed

    Nakao, Satoshi; Nishio, Takayuki; Kanjo, Yoshinori

    2016-12-11

    Bench-scale experiments were performed to investigate simultaneous recovery of phosphorus and potassium from synthetic sewage sludge effluent as crystals of magnesium potassium phosphate (MPP or struvite-(K), MgKPO4·6H2O). The optimal pH of MPP formation was 11.5. A phosphorus level of at least 3 mM and K:P molar ratio over 3 were necessary to form MPP, which showed higher content rate of phosphorus and potassium in precipitate. MPP crystallization was confirmed by analysing the precipitates using a scanning electron microscope-energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (SEM-EDX) apparatus and an X-ray Diffractometer (XRD). Inhibition of MPP crystallization by iron and aluminium was confirmed by precipitation experiments and SEM-EDX analysis. Potassium ratio against magnesium in precipitate decreased for iron concentrations greater than over 0.2 mM and aluminium concentrations over 0.05 mM.

  13. Uranium content and dose assessment for phosphate fertiliser and soil samples: comparison of uranium concentration between virgin soil and fertilised soil.

    PubMed

    Boukhenfouf, Wassila; Boucenna, Ahmed

    2012-01-01

    Specific activity of (235)U and (238)U in soil and fertiliser samples from Guellal region in Setif (Algeria) was determined by gamma-ray spectrometry. The selected phosphate fertilisers samples were collected from two types of fertilisers NPK (N, nitrogen; P, phosphorus; K, potassium) and NPKs (sulphate-based NPK). These last ones are used to fertilise the studied area as well as a radioactivity comparison between the soils before and after fertilisation. NPK and NPKs fertilisers have presented higher concentrations of the radionuclide (238)U, up to 1125 and 1545 Bq kg(-1), respectively. For soils before and after fertilisation, the concentrations of (238)U were, respectively, 252.8 and 316.2 Bq kg(-1). The average value and range of measured concentration of (235)U for soils before fertilisation was 12.16 ± 1.4 Bq kg(-1) and for the fertilised soils was 15.16 ± 1.8 Bq kg(-1), whereas the corresponding values for NPK and NPKs fertilisers were, respectively, 49.38 ± 5.7 and 50.61 ± 5.2 Bq kg(-1).

  14. The surprisingly small but increasing role of international agricultural trade on the European Union’s dependence on mineral phosphorus fertiliser

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nesme, Thomas; Roques, Solène; Metson, Geneviève S.; Bennett, Elena M.

    2016-02-01

    Phosphorus (P) is subject to global management challenges due to its importance to both food security and water quality. The European Union (EU) has promoted policies to limit fertiliser over-application and protect water quality for more than 20 years, helping to reduce European P use. Over this time period, the EU has, however, become more reliant on imported agricultural products. These imported products require fertiliser to be used in distant countries to grow crops that will ultimately feed European people and livestock. As such, these imports represent a displacement of European P demand, possibly allowing Europe to decrease its apparent P footprint by moving P use to locations outside the EU. We investigated the effect of EU imports on the European P fertiliser footprint to better understand whether the EU’s decrease in fertiliser use over time resulted from P demand being ‘outsourced’ to other countries or whether it truly represented a decline in P demand. To do this, we quantified the ‘virtual P flow’ defined as the amount of mineral P fertiliser applied to agricultural soils in non-EU countries to support agricultural product imports to the EU. We found that the EU imported a virtual P flow of 0.55 Tg P/yr in 1995 that, surprisingly, decreased to 0.50 Tg P/yr in 2009. These results were contrary to our hypothesis that trade increases would be used to help the EU reduce its domestic P fertiliser use by outsourcing its P footprint abroad. Still, the contribution of virtual P flows to the total P footprint of the EU has increased by 40% from 1995 to 2009 due to a dramatic decrease in domestic P fertiliser use in Europe: in 1995, virtual P was equivalent to 32% of the P used as fertiliser domestically to support domestic consumption but jumped to 53% in 2009. Soybean and palm tree products from South America and South East Asia contributed most to the virtual P flow. These results demonstrate that, although policies in the EU have successfully

  15. Sewage sludge ash to phosphorus fertiliser (II): Influences of ash and granulate type on heavy metal removal.

    PubMed

    Mattenberger, H; Fraissler, G; Jöller, M; Brunner, T; Obernberger, I; Herk, P; Hermann, L

    2010-01-01

    Ashes from monoincineration of sewage sludge suggest themselves as an ideal base for inorganic fertiliser production due to their relatively high phosphorus (P)-content. However, previously they need to be detoxified by reducing their heavy metal content. The core process considered in this paper consists of three steps: mixing of the ashes with suitable chlorine-containing additives, granulation of the mixture and thermochemical treatment in a rotary kiln. Here relevant heavy metal compounds are first transformed into volatile species with the help of the additives and then evaporated from the granules. In this study two chemically different ashes and their mixture were agglomerated to two different granulate types, briquettes and rolled pellets. The resulting six different materials were subjected to thermal treatment at different temperatures. The heavy metals examined were Cu and Zn due to their strong dependence on treatment conditions and their relevance concerning thermal treatment of sewage sludge ashes. Besides, the behaviour of Cl and K was monitored and evaluated. The experiments showed that ash type and temperature are more influential on Cl and heavy metal chemistry than granulate type. Temperature is a primary variable for controlling removal in both cases. Cu removal was less dependent on both ash and granulate type than Zn. The Cl utilization was more effective for Cu than for Zn. Depending on the treatment conditions some K could be retained, whereas always all P remained in the treated material. This satisfies the requirement for complete P recycling.

  16. Bryophyte physiological responses to, and recovery from, long-term nitrogen deposition and phosphorus fertilisation in acidic grassland.

    PubMed

    Arróniz-Crespo, María; Leake, Jonathan R; Horton, Peter; Phoenix, Gareth K

    2008-01-01

    Atmospheric nitrogen deposition can cause major declines in bryophyte abundance yet the physiological basis for such declines is not fully understood. Bryophyte physiological responses may also be sensitive bioindicators of both the impacts of, and recovery from, N deposition. Here, responses of tissue nutrients (nitrogen (N), phosphorus (P) and potassium (K): NPK), N and P metabolism enzymes (nitrate reductase and phosphomonoesterase), photosynthetic pigments, chlorophyll fluorescence, sclerophylly and percentage cover of two common bryophytes (Pseudoscleropodium purum and Rhytidiadelphus squarrosus) to long-term (11 yr) enhanced N deposition (+3.5 and +14 g N m(-2) yr(-1)) are reported in factorial combination with P addition. Recovery of responses 22 months after treatment cessation were also assessed. Enhanced N deposition caused up to 90% loss of bryophyte cover but no recovery was observed. Phosphomonoesterase activity and tissue N:P ratios increased up to threefold in response to N loading and showed clear recovery, particularly in P. purum. Smaller responses and recovery were also seen in all chlorophyll fluorescence measurements and altered photosynthetic pigment composition. The P limitation of growth appears to be a key mechanism driving bryophyte loss along with damage to photosystem II. Physiological measurements are more sensitive than measurements of abundance as bioindicators of N deposition impact and of recovery in particular.

  17. The treatment of run-off from a fertiliser plant for nitrification, denitrification and phosphorus removal by use of constructed wetlands: a demonstration study.

    PubMed

    Cooper, P F; McBarnet, W; O'Donnell, D; McMahon, A; Houston, L; Brian, M

    2010-01-01

    The paper describes an evaluation carried out on demonstration scale to show that it was possible to use a Hybrid Reed Bed System comprising a Horizontal flow and a Vertical Flow Bed for treating the high strength run-off from a fertiliser packaging plant. The site is located close to an estuary which is sensitive to nutrients. The environmental regulators were therefore concerned that excessive mass flows of nitrate, ammoniacal nitrogen and phosphate, potentially arising from the site run-off, were not discharged into the estuary. The fertiliser manufacturing company required a simple, low maintenance system for removing nitrogen and phosphorus. A series of experimental runs were carried out to characterise the performance of the Hybrid System, establishing the effluent quality that could be achieved and the mass removal rate which was appropriate for acceptable treatment. These tests showed that it was possible to achieve a reduction of 79% in Total N whilst using molasses as a carbon source for denitrification. When using a 4:1 recycle ratio this produced an effluent with concentrations of 14 mg NH(4)-N/litre and 18 mg NO(3)-N/litre from treating site run-off containing concentrations in the order of 75 mg/litre of both NH(3)N and NO(3)-N. Chemical dosing with an iron salt brought the P concentration down to around 0.5 mg PO(4)-P/litre.

  18. Evaluating topsoil depth effects on phosphorus and potassium nutrient dynamics of grain and switchgrass production systems

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Understanding the effects of fertilizer addition and crop removal on long-term change in soil test phosphorus (STP) and soil test potassium (STK) is crucial for maximizing the use of grower inputs on claypan soils. Due to variable nutrient supply from subsoils and variable crop removal across fields...

  19. Nitrogen, phosphorus, potassium, calcium, magnesium, and zinc in southeastern USA harvested flax

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Flax (Linum usitatissimum L.) is a winter crop in the Southeast USA that has potential in double cropping systems. This research was conducted to provide estimates of nitrogen (N), phosphorus (P), potassium (K), calcium (Ca), magnesium (Mg), and zinc (Zn) removal in the harvested portions of the cro...

  20. Nitrogen, phosphorus, and potassium effects on biomass yield and flavonoid content of American Skullcap (Scutellaria Lateriflora)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Information on optimum dosage of nitrogen (N), phosphorus (P) and potassium (K) fertilizer for high dry matter yield and flavonoid yield of American Skullcap is lacking. Greenhouse experiments were conducted to determine the effects of N, P and K fertilizer on biomass yield and flavonoid content of...

  1. Effect of Phosphorus, Potassium, and Chloride Nutrition on Cold Tolerance of Winter Canola (Brassica napus L.)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A field experiment was conducted to determine whether fertility treatments improve cold hardiness of canola (Brassica napus L.). Measurements of chlorophyll fluorescence and overwinter survival of field-grown canola were used to evaluate the effect of chloride (Cl), potassium (K), and phosphorus (P)...

  2. Potassium and Phosphorus Have No Effects on Severity of Charcoal Rot of Soybean

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The effects of potassium (K) and phosphorus (P) fertilizers on charcoal rot of soybean [Glycine max (L.) Merr.] are unknown. Therefore, the severity of charcoal rot was studied at five levels of K (0, 37, 75, 111 and 149 kg K ha-1) and a level that was equal to the recommended fertilizer applicatio...

  3. Potassium and Phosphorus effects on disease severity of charcoal rot of soybean

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The effects of potassium (K) and phosphorus (P) fertilizers on charcoal rot of soybean [Glycine max (L.) Merr.] are unknown. Therefore, the severity of charcoal rot was studied at five levels of K (0, 37, 75, 111 and 149 kg K ha-1) and a level that was equal to the recommended fertilizer applicatio...

  4. Stability and broad-sense heritability of mineral content in potato: potassium and phosphorus

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In the study of nutritional variability in potato it is desirable to know the present range of expression and genetic potential for increase. Potato breeding lines and varieties in two separate trials were evaluated for potassium and phosphorus content by wet ashing and Inductively Coupled Argon Pl...

  5. Effect of excess dietary sodium, potassium, calcium and phosphorus on excreta moisture of laying hens.

    PubMed

    Smith, A; Rose, S P; Wells, R G; Pirgozliev, V

    2000-12-01

    1. Four experiments were conducted to investigate the effects of dietary concentrations of sodium, potassium, calcium or phosphate on the water intake and excreta moisture of laying hens. A fifth experiment examined the effect on these variables of increasing amounts of 2 different sodium salts (chloride or bicarbonate) and the interactions with 2 levels of dietary phosphorus. 2. All experiments involved individually caged laying hens fed on diets varying in 1 or 2 minerals in replacement for washed sand. The experimental diets contained mineral concentrations that either met or exceeded the expected requirement of the hens. The diets were given for a 7 or 8 d feeding period and food and water intakes were measured and excreta were collected for the last 48 h of each feeding period. These data were corrected for evaporative water loss to the environment during the collection period. 3. Increasing dietary concentrations of sodium, potassium or phosphorus gave linear increases (P<0.001) in the water intake of the laying hens and linear increases (P<0.01) in the moisture content of their excreta. Each 1 g/kg increase in dietary mineral increased the moisture content of the excreta by 9.04 (+/- 1.57), 11.95 (+/- 2.02) and 5.59 (+/- 0.31) g/kg (+/- standard error) for sodium, potassium and phosphorus, respectively. Increasing concentrations of dietary calcium did not significantly affect the water intakes or excreta moisture levels of the laying hens. 4. The fifth experiment showed that, although there was a sodium x phosphorus interaction (P<0.05), the effects of the 2 mineral additions were approximately additive. There were no significant differences (P>0.05) in water intakes or excreta moisture contents due to the 2 different sodium salts (chloride or bicarbonate).

  6. [Applying local neural network and visible/near-infrared spectroscopy to estimating available nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium in soil].

    PubMed

    Wu, Qian; Yang, Yu-hong; Xu, Zhao-li; Jin, Yan; Guo, Yan; Lao, Cai-lian

    2014-08-01

    To establish the quantitative relationship between soil spectrum and the concentration of available nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium in soil, the critical procedures of a new analysis method were examined, involving spectral preprocessing, wavebands selection and adoption of regression methods. As a result, a soil spectral analysis model was built using VIS/NIRS bands, with multiplicative scatter correction and first-derivative for spectral preprocessing, and local nonlinear regression method (Local regression method of BP neural network). The coefficients of correlation between the chemically determined and the modeled available nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium for predicted samples were 0.90, 0.82 and 0.94, respectively. It is proved that the prediction of local regression method of BP neural network has better accuracy and stability than that of global regression methods. In addition, the estimation accuracy of soil available nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium was increased by 40.63%, 28.64% and 28.64%, respectively. Thus, the quantitative analysis model established by the local regression method of BP neural network could be used to estimate the concentration of available nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium rapidly. It is innovative for using local nonlinear method to improve the stability and reliability of the soil spectrum model for nutrient diagnosis, which provides technical support for dynamic monitoring and process control for the soil nutrient under different growth stages of field-growing crops.

  7. Root cortical aerenchyma enhances the growth of maize on soils with suboptimal availability of nitrogen, phosphorus, and potassium.

    PubMed

    Postma, Johannes Auke; Lynch, Jonathan Paul

    2011-07-01

    Root cortical aerenchyma (RCA) is induced by hypoxia, drought, and several nutrient deficiencies. Previous research showed that RCA formation reduces the respiration and nutrient content of root tissue. We used SimRoot, a functional-structural model, to provide quantitative support for the hypothesis that RCA formation is a useful adaptation to suboptimal availability of phosphorus, nitrogen, and potassium by reducing the metabolic costs of soil exploration in maize (Zea mays). RCA increased the growth of simulated 40-d-old maize plants up to 55%, 54%, or 72% on low nitrogen, phosphorus, or potassium soil, respectively, and reduced critical fertility levels by 13%, 12%, or 7%, respectively. The greater utility of RCA on low-potassium soils is associated with the fact that root growth in potassium-deficient plants was more carbon limited than in phosphorus- and nitrogen-deficient plants. In contrast to potassium-deficient plants, phosphorus- and nitrogen-deficient plants allocate more carbon to the root system as the deficiency develops. The utility of RCA also depended on other root phenes and environmental factors. On low-phosphorus soils (7.5 μM), the utility of RCA was 2.9 times greater in plants with increased lateral branching density than in plants with normal branching. On low-nitrate soils, the utility of RCA formation was 56% greater in coarser soils with high nitrate leaching. Large genetic variation in RCA formation and the utility of RCA for a range of stresses position RCA as an interesting crop-breeding target for enhanced soil resource acquisition.

  8. Foliar nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium content in trees in environmentally toxic plastic industry area.

    PubMed

    Sett, Rupnarayan; Soni, Bhawna

    2013-04-01

    In plants, nitrogen deficiency causes stunted growth and chlorosis or yellowing of the leaves due to decreased levels of chlorophyll, while excess nitrogen uptake may cause dark green overly vigorous foliage which may have increased susceptibility to disease and insect attacks. Phosphorus is an important nutrient in crop production, since many soils in their native state do not have sufficient available phosphorus to maximize crop yield. Potassium deficiency may cause necrosis or interveinal chlorosis. Plastics are synthetic or semi-synthetic moldable organic solids that are organic polymers of high molecular mass, most commonly derived from petrochemicals; these polymers are based on chains of carbon atoms alone or with oxygen, sulfur, or nitrogen. Plastic is a non- biodegradable major toxic pollutant. It pollutes earth and leads to air pollution and water pollution. Merely there is any safe way to dispose the hazardous plastic wastes. The study was targeted to estimate foliar level of NPK content of three plant species, viz. Cassia tora (Herb), Ailanthus excelsa (Tree) and Dalbergia sissoo (Tree) from polluted areas associated to polythene-industries as well as control areas having least pollution, where all the parameters were found to be higher than the control experiments.

  9. Activity concentrations of ²²⁶Ra, ²³²Th and ⁴⁰K in brands of fertilisers used in Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Jibiri, N N; Fasae, K P

    2012-01-01

    The activity concentration of naturally occurring radionuclides ⁴⁰K, ²²⁶Ra and ²³²Th have been measured in different brands of fertiliser samples sold to farmers in retail markets in six commercial cities in southwestern Nigeria. Gamma ray spectroscopy was employed in the measurements of these radionuclides. The results of measurements showed that the average activity concentration of ⁴⁰K in the nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium fertilisers across the cities varied from 3972.0 ± 416.9 to 5089.3 ± 111.3 Bq kg⁻¹, 9.9 ± 7.3 to 450.6 ± 14.3 Bq kg⁻¹ for ²²⁶Ra, while for ²³²Th it varied from less than lower limit of detection to 15.1 ± 2.8 Bq kg⁻¹. The activity concentrations of ⁴⁰K, ²²⁶Ra and ²³²Th in single super phosphate (SSP) fertilisers and phosphate rocks were also determined. However, high activity concentrations of ²²⁶Ra were obtained in the SSP fertiliser and phosphate rocks and in particular, two brands of fertilisers from ITL/TAK and F & C companies. The values of the activity concentration of the radionuclides in the brands of fertilisers used in Nigeria are within the range of values reported in several other countries except ⁴⁰K.

  10. Transcriptional activities of methanogens and methanotrophs vary with methane emission flux in rice soils under chronic nutrient constraints of phosphorus and potassium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sheng, Rong; Chen, Anlei; Zhang, Miaomiao; Whiteley, Andrew S.; Kumaresan, Deepak; Wei, Wenxue

    2016-12-01

    Nutrient status in soil is crucial for the growth and development of plants which indirectly or directly affect the ecophysiological functions of resident soil microorganisms. Soil methanogens and methanotrophs can be affected by soil nutrient availabilities and plant growth, which in turn modulate methane (CH4) emissions. Here, we assessed whether deficits in soil-available phosphorus (P) and potassium (K) modulated the activities of methanogens and methanotrophs in a long-term (20 year) experimental system involving limitation in either one or both nutrients. Results showed that a large amount of CH4 was emitted from paddy soil at rice tillering stage (flooding) while CH4 flux was minimum at ripening stage (drying). Compared to soils amended with NPK fertiliser treatment, the soils without P input significantly reduced methane flux rates, whereas those without K input did not. Under P limitation, methanotroph transcript copy number significantly increased in tandem with a decrease in methanogen transcript abundance, suggesting that P-deficiency-induced changes in soil physio-chemical properties, in tandem with rice plant growth, might constrain the activity of methanogens, whereas the methanotrophs might be adaptive to this soil environment. In contrast, lower transcript abundance of both methanogen and methanotrophs were observed in K-deficient soils. Assessments of community structures based upon transcripts indicated that soils deficient in P induced greater shifts in the active methanotrophic community than K-deficient soils, while similar community structures of active methanogens were observed in both treatments. These results suggested that the population dynamics of methanogens and methanotrophs could vary along with the changes in plant growth states and soil properties induced by nutrient deficiency.

  11. Effect of Vermicompost Alone and Its Combination with Recommended Dose of Fertilizers on Available Nitrogen, Phosphorus, Potassium in Rice Field.

    PubMed

    Shwetha, S; Narayana, J

    2014-01-01

    Rice variety KMP101 was treated with both organic and inorganic manure. The field and experimental studies were conducted, before applying organic and inorganic manures.The values obtained for available nitrogen, phosphorous and potassium were 360 kg/ha, 12 kg/ha and 166 kg/ha respectively. After treatment and harvest there was a gradual increase in available nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium ranging between 335-415, 14 -23 and 173- 235 kg/ha respectively among the treatments. Applying 15 t of vermicompost /ha and 10 t of vermicompost /ha and recommended dose of fertilizer showed a greater availability of nitrogen and phosphorus. It is revealed that after addition of organics into the soil year-wise, the soil became more stable. Also, the biological activity increased in the soil and was influenced to maintain the available nitrogen in the soil. Therefore, it is evident that vermicompost significantly increases the availability of available nutrients.

  12. [Vertical distribution patterns of nitrogen, phosphorus, and potassium in Chinese pine forest soils developed from different parent materials in Songshan Mountain Nature Reserve, Beijing of China].

    PubMed

    Gou, Li-hui; Sun, Zhao-di; Nie, Li-shui; Luo, Pan-pan; Wu, Ji-Gui; Xu, Wu-de

    2013-04-01

    Taking the soils developed from two kinds of parent materials (granite and limestone) under Pinus tabulaeformis forest at the same altitude in Songshan Mountain Nature Reserve of Beijing as test objects, this paper studied the vertical distribution patterns of soil total nitrogen, available phosphorus, and available potassium. The soil developed from granite had the total nitrogen, available phosphorus, and available potassium contents being 1.61-2. 35 g kg-1, 5. 84-10.74 mg kg- 1, and 39.33-93.66 mg kg-1, while that developed from limestone had the total nitrogen, available phosphorus, and available potassium contents being 1. 69 -2. 36 g kg-1, 4.45-8.57 mg . kg-1, and 60.66-124.00 mg kg-1, respectively. The total nitrogen, available phosphorus, and available potassium contents in the two soils were the highest in 0-10 cm layer, decreased with increasing depth, and had significant differences between different layers, showing that the soil total nitrogen, available phosphorus, and available potassium had a strong tendency to accumulate in surface layer. Such a tendency was more obvious for the soil developed from limestone. The paired t-test for the two soils indicated that the total nitrogen content in different layers had no significant difference, whereas the available phosphorus content in 0-10 cm layer and the available potassium content in 10-20 cm layer differed significantly.

  13. Nitrogen, Phosphorus, and Potassium Flows through the Manure Management Chain in China.

    PubMed

    Bai, Zhaohai; Ma, Lin; Jin, Shuqin; Ma, Wenqi; Velthof, Gerard L; Oenema, Oene; Liu, Ling; Chadwick, David; Zhang, Fusuo

    2016-12-20

    The largest livestock production and greatest fertilizer use in the world occurs in China. However, quantification of the nutrient flows through the manure management chain and their interactions with management-related measures is lacking. Herein, we present a detailed analysis of the nutrient flows and losses in the "feed intake-excretion-housing-storage-treatment-application" manure chain, while considering differences among livestock production systems. We estimated the environmental loss from the manure chain in 2010 to be up to 78% of the excreted nitrogen and over 50% of the excreted phosphorus and potassium. The greatest losses occurred from housing and storage stages through NH3 emissions (39% of total nitrogen losses) and direct discharge of manure into water bodies or landfill (30-73% of total nutrient losses). There are large differences among animal production systems, where the landless system has the lowest manure recycling. Scenario analyses for the year 2020 suggest that significant reductions of fertilizer use (27-100%) and nutrient losses (27-56%) can be achieved through a combination of prohibiting manure discharge, improving manure collection and storages infrastructures, and improving manure application to cropland. We recommend that current policies and subsidies targeted at the fertilizer industry should shift to reduce the costs of manure storage, transport, and application.

  14. Greater effect of dietary potassium tripolyphosphate than of potassium dihydrogenphosphate on the nephrocalcinosis and proximal tubular function in female rats from the intake of a high-phosphorus diet.

    PubMed

    Matsuzaki, H; Masuyama, R; Uehara, M; Nakamura, K; Suzuki, K

    2001-04-01

    We examined whether a difference in potassium dihydrogenphosphate (KH2PO4) and potassium tripolyphosphate (K5P3O10) as dietary phosphorus sources could differentially effect the nephrocalcinosis and proximal tubular function in female rats. Rats were fed on a diet containing KH2PO4 or K5P3O10, at the normal phosphorus level (normal phosphorus diet) or at a high phosphorus level (high-phosphorus diet) for 21 d. Nephrocalcinosis, as confirmed by a histological examination, was apparent in all rats fed on the high-phosphorus diet, and this condition was more severe in those rats fed on K5P3O10 than in those fed on KH2PO4. As indicators of the proximal tubular function, the N-acetyl-beta-D-glucosaminidase activity in urine and the urinary beta2-microglobulin excretion were significantly increased in those rats fed on the high-phosphorus diet containing K5P3O10. These results indicate that the intake of a high-phosphorus diet, more strongly influenced the nephrocalcinosis and proximal tubular function when K5P3O10 rather than KH2PO4 was used as the dietary phosphorus source.

  15. Potassium/energy and phosphorus/calcium ratios reflect the quality of nutrition.

    PubMed

    Yoshita, K; Nakagawa, H; Tabata, M; Morikawa, Y; Nishijo, M; Senma, M; Miura, K; Ishizaki, M; Kido, T; Kawano, S

    1994-02-01

    A nutritional survey and questionnaire regarding dietary habits were administered to 649 men ranging in age from 35 to 64 years receiving a one-day health screening examination. First, comparisons of nutrient intake based on the nutrient rate of the Recommended Dietary Allowances for Japanese (RDA), and the total score on the questionnaire regarding dietary habits according to the RDA rates of total energy and calcium (Ca) were investigated. Then, the comparisons of intake of food groups, intake of nutrients and the total score on the questionnaire regarding dietary habits according to potassium/energy (K/E) ratio and phosphorus/calcium (P/Ca) ratio were determined. Last, differences between comparisons with the nutrient rates of RDA and comparisons with K/E ratio and P/Ca ratio were investigated. The following results were obtained: 1. Even in the group with RDA rates of total energy or Ca of > or = 90% and < or = 110% the RDA rates of some other nutrients were out-side the appropriate range. 2. In the group with high K/E ratios, as compared to the group with low ratios, the intake of potatoes, pulses, fruits, green/yellow vegetables, other vegetables, soy sauce, other beverages, fish/shellfish, and milk products showed high values, while cereals and fats/oils showed low values. For this reason, in the former group as compared to the latter, the intake and RDA total energy rate showed low values whereas the intake and RDA rates of nutrients such as Ca, Fe, and vitamin A were low. 3. In the group with high P/Ca ratios, as compared to the group with low ratios, the intake of beer and meats showed high values while that of pulses, green/yellow vegetables, and milk products showed low values. For this reason, in the former group as compared to the other groups, despite the fact that the intake and RDA total energy rate tended to be higher, the intake of nutrients such as Ca, P, K, and vitamin A showed lower values. 4. The RDA rates of all of the nutrients of group

  16. Magnesium, Potassium and Phosphorus in Available Forms in Luvisols in the Vicinity of Głogów Copper Smelter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jaworska, H.; Dąbkowska-Naskręt, H.; Różański, S.

    2016-02-01

    Region near Głogów is characterized as industrial—agricultural area, intensively used. Presented study was undertaken to estimate the impact of agricultural land use and the vicinity of Głogów copper smelter on the contents of available forms of magnesium, phosphorus and potassium in selected profiles of Luvisols. The following analysis were performed: soil particle-size distribution, pH, organic carbon contents, CaCO3 contents. The contents of available forms of phosphorus and potassium were determined by Egner- Riehm method and that of magnesium using Schachtschabel's method. The results of the study showed that the contents of available P is medium (III class of abundance), very low in K (V class) and for available Mg very low (V class) to medium for surface horizons and very high (I class of abundance) in other soil horizons. The soils, in spite of the elevated copper content in humus horizons, according to IUNG, were classified as uncontaminated soils, therefore, can be used in plant production for all types of crops.

  17. Potassium nutrition of ectomycorrhizal Pinus pinaster: overexpression of the Hebeloma cylindrosporum HcTrk1 transporter affects the translocation of both K(+) and phosphorus in the host plant.

    PubMed

    Garcia, Kevin; Delteil, Amandine; Conéjéro, Geneviève; Becquer, Adeline; Plassard, Claude; Sentenac, Hervé; Zimmermann, Sabine

    2014-02-01

    Mycorrhizal associations are known to improve the hydro-mineral nutrition of their host plants. However, the importance of mycorrhizal symbiosis for plant potassium nutrition has so far been poorly studied. We therefore investigated the impact of the ectomycorrhizal fungus Hebeloma cylindrosporum on the potassium nutrition of Pinus pinaster and examined the involvement of the fungal potassium transporter HcTrk1. HcTrk1 transcripts and proteins were localized in ectomycorrhizas using in situ hybridization and EGFP translational fusion constructs. Importantly, an overexpression strategy was performed on a H. cylindrosporum endogenous gene in order to dissect the role of this transporter. The potassium nutrition of mycorrhizal pine plants was significantly improved under potassium-limiting conditions. Fungal strains overexpressing HcTrk1 reduced the translocation of potassium and phosphorus from the roots to the shoots of inoculated plants in mycorrhizal experiments. Furthermore, expression of HcTrk1 and the phosphate transporter HcPT1.1 were reciprocally linked to the external inorganic phosphate and potassium availability. The development of these approaches provides a deeper insight into the role of ectomycorrhizal symbiosis on host plant K(+) nutrition and in particular, the K(+) transporter HcTrk1. The work augments our knowledge of the link between potassium and phosphorus nutrition via the mycorrhizal pathway.

  18. Elemental stoichiometry indicates predominant influence of potassium and phosphorus limitation on arbuscular mycorrhizal symbiosis in acidic soil at high altitude.

    PubMed

    Khan, Mohammad Haneef; Meghvansi, Mukesh K; Gupta, Rajeev; Veer, Vijay

    2015-09-15

    The functioning of high-altitude agro-ecosystems is constrained by the harsh environmental conditions, such as low temperatures, acidic soil, and low nutrient supply. It is therefore imperative to investigate the site-specific ecological stoichiometry with respect to AM symbiosis in order to maximize the arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) benefits for the plants in such ecosystems. Here, we assess the elemental stoichiometry of four Capsicum genotypes grown on acidic soil at high altitude in Arunachal Pradesh, India. Further, we try to identify the predominant resource limitations influencing the symbioses of different Capsicum genotypes with the AM fungi. Foliar and soil elemental stoichiometric relations of Capsicum genotypes were evaluated with arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) colonization and occurrence under field conditions. AM fungal diversity in rhizosphere, was estimated through PCR-DGGE profiling. Results demonstrated that the symbiotic interaction of various Capsicum genotypes with the AM fungi in acidic soil was not prominent in the study site as evident from the low range of root colonization (21-43.67%). In addition, despite the rich availability of carbon in plant leaves as well as in soil, the carbon-for-phosphorus trade between AMF and plants appeared to be limited. Our results provide strong evidences of predominant influence of the potassium-limitation, in addition to phosphorus-limitation, on AM symbiosis with Capsicum in acidic soil at high altitude. We also conclude that the potassium should be considered in addition to carbon, nitrogen, and phosphorus in further studies investigating the stoichiometric relationships with the AMF symbioses in high altitude agro-ecosystems.

  19. Effect of fertiliser application and abandonment on plant species composition of Festuca rubra grassland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pavlů, Vilém; Gaisler, Jan; Pavlů, Lenka; Hejcman, Michal; Ludvíková, Vendula

    2012-11-01

    Little is known about the effects of nitrogen (N), phosphorus (P) and potassium (K) application on soil chemical properties and plant species composition of mountain Festuca rubra grasslands. In this study, we aimed to determine whether fertiliser application affects plant species composition and soil properties during periods of management, and whether residual after-effects of fertiliser application can be detected eight years after its use is abandoned. The experiment with unfertilised control, PK treatment and treatments with low and higher level of NPK application under three (intensive management from 1993 to 1997) and two cut management (moderate management from 1997 to 1999) was established in the Jizera Mts. (Czech Republic) on F. rubra meadow and then the experiment was eight years abandoned. Immediately after the introduction of intensive management, a decrease in species richness and diversification of plant species composition occurred. Plant communities which had diversified in different fertiliser treatments persisted under moderately intensive management. The cover of Alopecurus pratensis increased to >50% while the cover of Agrostis capillaris decreased to <5% in NPK treatments during the period of intensive management. Trifolium repens became the dominant species in the PK treatment. Within eight years, under no management, the differences in plant species composition disappeared, species richness decreased and F. rubra, followed by Hypericum maculatum, became dominant in all treatments. The differences in biomass P concentration and plant available P and K concentrations in the soil were still detectable eight years after the last fertiliser application. As shown in this study, moderate application of NPK and consequent abandonment need not generate irreversible changes in species composition of mountain grassland.

  20. Metabolomic profiling from leaves and roots of tomato (Solanum lycopersicum L.) plants grown under nitrogen, phosphorus or potassium-deficient condition

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Nitrogen (N), phosphorus (P) and potassium (K) are essential macronutrients that are required in large quantities by growing plants. Deficiency of N, P or K can strongly affect metabolites in plant tissues. However, specific metabolic network responses to nutrient deficiencies are not well-defined. ...

  1. Simultaneous removal of phosphorus and potassium from synthetic urine through the precipitation of magnesium potassium phosphate hexahydrate.

    PubMed

    Xu, Kangning; Wang, Chengwen; Liu, Haiyan; Qian, Yi

    2011-06-01

    This study investigated the simultaneous removal of P and K from synthetic urine through the precipitation of magnesium potassium phosphate hexahydrate (MPP, MgKPO(4)·6H(2)O) in bench-scale experiments. Results show that the removal efficiencies of P and K are mainly determined by the solution pH and the molar ratio of Mg:K:P. Co-precipitation of struvite-type compounds, i.e., magnesium ammonium phosphate hexahydrate (MAP, MgNH(4)PO(4)·6H(2)O), magnesium sodium phosphate heptahydrate (MSP, MgNaPO(4)·7H(2)O), and MPP, was confirmed by analysis of the solid precipitates using a Scanning Electron Microscope/Energy Dispersive X-ray Apparatus and an X-ray Diffractometer. The co-precipitation significantly influenced the removal of K. As much ammonium as possible should be removed prior to MPP precipitation because MAP had higher tendency to form than MPP. The inevitable co-precipitation of MPP and MSP resulted in the addition of more MgCl(2)·6H(2)O and Na(2)HPO(4)·12H(2)O to obtain the high removal of K. In total, the removal efficiencies of P and K were 77% and 98%, respectively, in the absence of ammonium when pH was 10 and the molar ratio of Mg:K:P was 2:1:2. The results indicate that the MPP precipitation is an efficient method for the simultaneous removal of P and K to yield multi-nutrient products.

  2. Relationships between phenology and the remobilization of nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium in branches of eight Mediterranean evergreens.

    PubMed

    Milla, R; Castro-Díez, P; Maestro-Martínez, M; Montserrat-Martí, G

    2005-10-01

    Few studies have examined the effects of plant growth on nutrient remobilization in phenologically contrasting species. Here we evaluated the consequences of above-ground seasonality of growth and leaf shedding on the remobilization of nutrients from branches in eight evergreen Mediterranean phanaerophytes that differ widely in phenology. Vegetative growth, flower bud formation, flowering, fruiting, leaf shedding, and the variations in nitrogen (N), phosphorus (P) and potassium (K) pools in branches throughout the year were monitored in each species. Nitrogen and P remobilization occurred in summer, after vegetative growth and synchronously with leaf shedding. Despite the time-lag between growth and remobilization, the branches that invested more nutrients in vegetative growth also remobilized more nutrients from their old organs. Potassium remobilization peaked in the climatically harshest periods, and appears to be related to osmotic requirements. We conclude that N and P remobilization occurs mainly associated with leaf senescence, which might be triggered by factors such as the replenishment of nutrient reserves in woody organs, the hormonal relations between new and old leaves, or the constraints that summer drought poses on the amount of leaf area per branch in summer.

  3. Phosphorus-Based Alloy Materials for Advanced Potassium-Ion Battery Anode.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Wenchao; Mao, Jianfeng; Li, Sean; Chen, Zhixin; Guo, Zaiping

    2017-03-08

    Potassium-ion batteries (PIBs) are interesting as one of the alternative metal-ion battery systems to lithium-ion batteries (LIBs) due to the abundance and low cost of potassium. We have herein investigated Sn4P3/C composite as a novel anode material for PIBs. The electrode delivered a reversible capacity of 384.8 mA h g(-1) at 50 mA g(-1) and a good rate capability of 221.9 mA h g(-1), even at 1 A g(-1). Its electrochemical performance is better than any anode material reported so far for PIBs. It was also found that the Sn4P3/C electrode displays a discharge potential plateau of 0.1 V in PIBs, slightly higher than for sodium-ion batteries (SIBs) (0.01 V), and well above the plating potential of metal. This diminishes the formation of dendrites during cycling, and thus Sn4P3 is a relatively safe anode material, especially for application in large-scale energy storage, where large amounts of electrode materials are used. Furthermore, a possible reaction mechanism of the Sn4P3/C composite as PIB anode is proposed. This work may open up a new avenue for further development of alloy-based anodes with high capacity and long cycle life for PIBs.

  4. Potassium, phosphorus, or nitrogen limit root allocation, tree growth, or litter production in a lowland tropical forest.

    PubMed

    Wright, S Joseph; Yavitt, Joseph B; Wurzburger, Nina; Turner, Benjamin L; Tanner, Edmund V J; Sayer, Emma J; Santiago, Louis S; Kaspari, Michael; Hedin, Lars O; Harms, Kyle E; Garcia, Milton N; Corre, Marife D

    2011-08-01

    We maintained a factorial nitrogen (N), phosphorus (P), and potassium (K) addition experiment for 11 years in a humid lowland forest growing on a relatively fertile soil in Panama to evaluate potential nutrient limitation of tree growth rates, fine-litter production, and fine-root biomass. We replicated the eight factorial treatments four times using 32 plots of 40 x 40 m each. The addition of K was associated with significant decreases in stand-level fine-root biomass and, in a companion study of seedlings, decreases in allocation to roots and increases in height growth rates. The addition of K and N together was associated with significant increases in growth rates of saplings and poles (1-10 cm in diameter at breast height) and a further marginally significant decrease in stand-level fine-root biomass. The addition of P was associated with a marginally significant (P = 0.058) increase in fine-litter production that was consistent across all litter fractions. Our experiment provides evidence that N, P, and K all limit forest plants growing on a relatively fertile soil in the lowland tropics, with the strongest evidence for limitation by K among seedlings, saplings, and poles.

  5. Dietary Intake Ratios of Calcium-to-Phosphorus and Sodium-to-Potassium Are Associated with Serum Lipid Levels in Healthy Korean Adults.

    PubMed

    Bu, So-Young; Kang, Myung-Hwa; Kim, Eun-Jin; Choi, Mi-Kyeong

    2012-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to identify food sources for major minerals such as calcium (Ca), phosphorus (P), sodium (Na) and potassium (K), and to evaluate the relationship between dietary intake of these minerals and serum lipids in healthy Korean adults. A total of 132 healthy men and women completed a physical examination and dietary record and provided blood samples for lipid profile analysis. Results showed the following daily average mineral intakes: 373.4 mg of calcium, 806.0 mg of phosphorous, 3685.8 mg of sodium, and 1938.3 mg of potassium. The calcium-to-phosphorus and sodium-to-potassium ratio was about 0.5 and 2.0, respectively. The primary sources for each mineral were: vegetables (24.9%) and fishes (19.0%) for calcium, grains (31.4%) for phosphorus, seasonings (41.6%) and vegetables (27.0%) for sodium, and vegetables (30.6%) and grains (18.5%) for potassium. The correlation analysis, which has been adjusted for age, gender, total food consumption, and energy intake, showed significantly positive correlations between Ca/P and serum HDL cholesterol levels, between Na intake and the level of serum total cholesterol, and between Na/K and the level of serum cholesterol and LDL cholesterol. Our data indicates that the level of mineral consumption partially contributes to serum lipid profiles and that a diet consisting of a low Ca/P ratio and a high Na/K ratio may have negative impacts on lipid metabolism.

  6. Nitrogen, phosphorus, potassium, calcium and magnesium release from two compressed fertilizers: column experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fernández-Sanjurjo, M. J.; Alvarez-Rodríguez, E.; Núñez-Delgado, A.; Fernández-Marcos, M. L.; Romar-Gasalla, A.

    2014-12-01

    The objective of this work was to study nutrients release from two compressed nitrogen-potassium-phosphorous (NPK) fertilizers. In the Lourizán Forest Center, tablet-type controlled-release fertilizers (CRF) were prepared by compressing various mixtures of fertilizers without covers or binders. We used soil columns (50 cm long and 7.3 cm inner diameter) that were filled with soil from the surface layer (0-20 cm) of an A horizon corresponding to a Cambic Umbrisol. Tablets of two slow-release NPK fertilizers (11-18-11 or 8-8-16) were placed into the soil (within the first 3 cm), and then water was percolated through the columns in a saturated regime for 80 days. Percolates were analyzed for N, P, K+, Ca2+ and Mg2+. These elements were also determined in soil and fertilizer tablets at the end of the trials. Nutrient concentrations were high in the first leachates and reached a steady state when 1426 mm of water had been percolated, which is equivalent to approximately 1.5 years of rainfall in this geographic area. In the whole trial, both tablets lost more than 80% of their initial N, P and K contents. However, K+, Ca2+ and Mg2+ were the most leached, whereas N and P were lost in leachates to a lesser extent. Nutrient release was slower from the tablet with a composition of 8-8-16 than from the 11-18-11 fertilizer. In view of that, the 8-8-16 tablet can be considered more adequate for crops with a nutrient demand sustained over time. At the end of the trial, the effects of these fertilizers on soil chemical parameters were still evident, with a significant increase of pH, available Ca2+, Mg2+, K+, P and effective cation exchange capacity (eCEC) in the fertilized columns, as well as a significant decrease in exchangeable Al3+, reaching values < 0.08 cmol (+) kg-1.

  7. Genetic control and transgressive segregation of zinc, iron, potassium, phosphorus, calcium, and sodium accumulation in cowpea (Vigna unguiculata) seeds.

    PubMed

    Fernandes Santos, C A; Boiteux, L S

    2015-01-16

    Cowpea crop, through combining a range of essential minerals with high quality proteins, plays an important role in providing nutritional security to human population living in semi-arid regions. Studies on genetics of biofortification with essential minerals are still quite scarce, and the major objective of the present study was to provide genetic information on development of cowpea cultivars with high seed mineral contents. Genetic parameters heritability and minimum number of genes were estimated for seed accumulation of zinc (Zn), iron (Fe), calcium (Ca), phosphorus (P), potassium (K), and sodium (Na). Generation mean and variance analyses were conducted using contrasting parental lines, F₁, F₂, and backcross populations derived from IT97K-1042-3 x BRS Tapaihum and IT97K-1042-3 x Canapu crosses. High narrow-sense heritability (h²) values were found for accumulation of Fe (65-86%), P (74-77%), and K (77-88%), whereas moderate h(2) values were observed for accumulation of Ca (41-56%), Zn (51-83%), and Na (50-55%) in seeds. Significant additive genetic effects as well as parental mean effects were detected in both crosses for all minerals, whereas epistasis was important genetic component in Zn content. The minimum number of genes controlling the accumulation of minerals ranged from two (K) to 11 (P). Transgressive segregation was observed in F2 populations of both crosses for all minerals analyzed. The results suggest that, although under either oligogenic or polygenic control, the seed content of these six minerals in cowpea can be improved via standard breeding methods largely used for self-pollinated crops.

  8. Greenhouse gas emissions and stocks of soil carbon and nitrogen from a 20-year fertilised wheat-maize intercropping system: A model approach.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xubo; Xu, Minggang; Liu, Jian; Sun, Nan; Wang, Boren; Wu, Lianhai

    2016-02-01

    Accurate modelling of agricultural management impacts on greenhouse gas emissions and the cycling of carbon and nitrogen is complicated due to interactions between various processes and the disturbance caused by field management. In this study, a process-based model, the Soil-Plant-Atmosphere Continuum System (SPACSYS), was used to simulate the effects of different fertilisation regimes on crop yields, the dynamics of soil organic carbon (SOC) and total nitrogen (SN) stocks from 1990 to 2010, and soil CO2 (2007-2010) and N2O (2007-2008) emissions based on a long-term fertilisation experiment with a winter-wheat (Triticum Aestivum L.) and summer-maize (Zea mays L.) intercropping system in Eutric Cambisol (FAO) soil in southern China. Three fertilisation treatments were 1) unfertilised (Control), 2) chemical nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium (NPK), and 3) NPK plus pig manure (NPKM). Statistical analyses indicated that the SPACSYS model can reasonably simulate the yields of wheat and maize, the evolution of SOC and SN stocks and soil CO2 and N2O emissions. The simulations showed that the NPKM treatment had the highest values of crop yields, SOC and SN stocks, and soil CO2 and N2O emissions were the lowest from the Control treatment. Furthermore, the simulated results showed that manure amendment along with chemical fertiliser applications led to both C (1017 ± 470 kg C ha(-1) yr(-1)) and N gains (91.7 ± 15.1 kg N ha(-1) yr(-1)) in the plant-soil system, while the Control treatment caused a slight loss in C and N. In conclusion, the SPACSYS model can accurately simulate the processes of C and N as affected by various fertilisation treatments in the red soil. Furthermore, application of chemical fertilisers plus manure could be a suitable management for ensuring crop yield and sustaining soil fertility in the red soil region, but the ratio of chemical fertilisers to manure should be optimized to reduce C and N losses to the environment.

  9. Emergence of Two-Dimensional Massless Dirac Fermions, Chiral Pseudospins, and Berry's Phase in Potassium Doped Few-Layer Black Phosphorus.

    PubMed

    Baik, Seung Su; Kim, Keun Su; Yi, Yeonjin; Choi, Hyoung Joon

    2015-12-09

    Thin flakes of black phosphorus (BP) are a two-dimensional (2D) semiconductor whose energy gap is predicted being sensitive to the number of layers and external perturbations. Very recently, it was found that a simple method of potassium (K) doping on the surface of BP closes its band gap completely, producing a Dirac semimetal state with a linear band dispersion in the armchair direction and a quadratic one in the zigzag direction. Here, based on first-principles density functional calculations, we predict that, beyond the critical K density of the gap closure, 2D massless Dirac Fermions (i.e., Dirac cones) emerge in K-doped few-layer BP, with linear band dispersions in all momentum directions, and the electronic states around Dirac points have chiral pseudospins and Berry's phase. These features are robust with respect to the spin-orbit interaction and may lead to graphene-like electronic transport properties with greater flexibility for potential device applications.

  10. [Dynamics of litter decomposition and phosphorus and potassium release in Jinggang Mountain region of Jiangxi Province, China].

    PubMed

    Li, Hait-tao; Yu, Gui-rui; Li, Jia-yong; Liang, Tao; Chen, Yong-rui

    2007-02-01

    By using litter bag method, a 2-year experiment was made to study the dynamics of litter decomposition and phosphorous and potassium release of Castanopsis eyrei-dominated evergreen broad-leaved forest (EBF), Pinus taiwanensis, Cyclobalanopsis nubium and Castanopsisfabri coniferous and broad-leaved mixed forest (CBF) , and Rhododendron simiarum-dominated mountainous dwarf forest (MDF) in Jinggang Mountain region of Jiangxi Province, China. In each forest, litter bags were placed on soil surface (aboveground treatment, AG) and at the depth of 10 cm (below-ground treatment, BG). An inverse exponential relationship was found between litter decay rate and time for each of the three forests. The average value of the litter mass loss of AG and BG was 50.6% for EBF, 41. 7% for CBF, and 40. 13% for MDF by the end of first year, and 60.95% for EBF, 57. 06% for CBF, and 56. 60% for MDF by the end of second year, indicating that the litter decomposition of the forests was faster in first year than in second year. The annual litter loss decreased in the order of EBF > CBF > MDF, and that of AG was significantly higher than that of BG in first year but no significant difference was found in second year. According to the model simulation by Olson' s exponential function, it might take 6. 8-9. 9 years to reach 95% of decay (t095) for the forests investigated, compared with 8-17 years for warm temperate forests and 2 -8 years for south subtropical forests. The t0.95 value of the three test forests increased in the order of EBF < CBF < MDF. A net phospbhorus (P) immobilization was observed in the process of litter decomposition, with the intensity decreased in the order of MDF > CBF > EBF, which was related to the initial P content and C/P ratio of the litter. As for potassium ( K) , it was net release in most cases. By the end of the experiment, the release rate of P had little difference between AG and BG, while that of K was significantly higher in AG than in BG.

  11. Combined effect of Nitrogen, Phosphorus and Potassium fertilizers on the contents of glucosinolates in rocket salad (Eruca sativa Mill.).

    PubMed

    Chun, Jin-Hyuk; Kim, Silbia; Arasu, Mariadhas Valan; Al-Dhabi, Naif Abdullah; Chung, Doug Young; Kim, Sun-Ju

    2017-02-01

    Nitrogen (N), phosphorous (P) and potassium (K) are the most limiting factors in crop production. N often affects the amino acid composition of protein and in turn its nutritional quality. In Brassica plants, abundant supply of N fertilizer decreases the relative proportion of glucosinolates (GSLs), thus reducing the biological and medical values of the vegetables. Hence effort was made to evaluate the influence of different proportions of nutrient solutions containing N-P-K on the GSL profiles of rocket salad (Eruca sativa Mill.). Fifteen desulpho-(DS) GSLs were isolated and identified using liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC/MS) analysis. Rocket salad plants supplied with lesser amount of N, P or higher concentrations of K showed a typical improvement in total GSL contents. In contrast, total GSL levels were less at higher N supply. Furthermore, with N concentrations above 5 mM and K concentrations less than 2.5 mM, the GSL amounts were on average 13.51 and 13.75 μmol/g dry weight (DW), respectively. Aliphatic GSLs predominated in all concentrations of NPK while indolyl GSLs made up marginally less amount of the total compositions. Five and 2 mM N and P possessed much higher levels of several types of aliphatic GSLs than other concentrations, including glucoerucin, glucoraphanin and dimeric 4-mercaptobutyl GSL. From this perspective, it is contended that supply of less N results in enhancing the metabolic pathway for the synthesis of GSLs in rocket salad.

  12. Further developments in self-fertilising geotextiles for use in pervious pavements.

    PubMed

    Newman, A P; Nnadi, E O; Duckers, L J; Cobley, A J

    2011-01-01

    Geotextiles incorporating inorganic nutrients (particularly phosphorous) to enhance the growth of oil degrading microoganisms when geotextiles are used in pervious pavement applications have been shown to be effective in the past. However the cost and manufacturing difficulties have been a barrier to their use. A polypropylene random mat geotextile incorporating an alternative polymer additive as a source of phosphorus has been investigated as a potential self-fertilising geotextile. Experiments are reported which investigate nutrient leach rates, biofilm formation and biodegradation activity.

  13. Effects of N and P fertilisation on greenhouse gas (GHG) production in floodplain fen peat: A microcosm fertilisation experiment.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stanley, Kieran; Heppell, Catherine; Belyea, Lisa; Baird, Andrew

    2016-04-01

    Biogeochemical and hydrological cycles are being significantly perturbed by anthropic activities altering atmospheric mole fractions of greenhouse gases (GHG) and increasing global temperatures. With the intensification of the hydrological cycle, lowland areas, such as floodplain fens, may be inundated more frequently. Rivers in agricultural catchments have the potential to pollute floodplain fens with significant amounts of nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P); however, the effects of short-term (< 15 days) N and P fertilisation via fluvial inundation on GHG emissions from floodplain fens are poorly understood. The aim of this research was to determine how N (51 mg L-1 NO3-N) and P (1.4 mg L-1 PO43--P) additions may alter GHG (CO2, CH4, and N2O) production in floodplain fens of contrasting nutrient status under anaerobic conditions. A five-level (control, glucose (G), N+G, P+G, and N+P+G), fully-factorial microcosm experiment was designed and undertaken in Spring 2013 with peat from two floodplain fens under conservation management with similar vegetation (from Norfolk, United Kingdom). One site receives a higher nutrient load than the other and has a historical legacy of higher N and P contents within the peat. Results from the experiment showed no significant difference in CO2 production between the control and fertilised treatments from 0 to 96 hours, but a significant difference between treatments (ANCOVA, between factors: treatment and site; covariate: time; F4,419 = 11.844, p < 0.001) and site (F1,149 = 5.721, p = 0.017) from 96 hours to in the end of the experiment due to fermentation. N2O production only occurred in samples fertilised with N (N+G and N+P+G) due to denitrification. Rates of N2O production were significantly greater in samples from the lower-nutrient site in comparison to the nutrient-rich site (t12= 6.539, p < 0.001 and t12= 7.273, p < 0.001 for N+G and N+P+G fertilised samples, respectively). Fertilisation with N and P had different effects on

  14. Some physiological measurements on growth, pod yields and polyamines in leaves of chili plants (Capsicum annuum cv. Hua Reua) in relation to applied organic manures and chemical fertilisers.

    PubMed

    Rapatsa, J; Terapongtanakorn, S

    2010-03-15

    The experiment was carried out at the Faculty of Agriculture, Ubon Ratchathani University during November 2006 to July 2007. A Completely Randomized Design (CRD) with four replications was used. Six treatments were allocated into two experimental fields, i.e., field A, animal manures added soil. Field B, chemical fertilizers added soil and both fields have been used for chili cultivation for more than 5 years and they belong to Warin soil series (Oxic Paleustults). The results showed that mean values of soil pH and organic matter % of field A were much higher than field B but mean values of nitrogen % and phosphorus were much higher for field B than field A. Exchangeable potassium were inadequately available in all treatments. All treatments of field B gave excessive amounts of available phosphorus at a toxic level. T3 of field A gave higher plant height, total dry weight plant(-1), pod fresh and dry weights plant(-1) than T5 of field B. Of overall results in terms of growth and yields of chili plants, field A gave much better advantages over field B. The CO2 uptake and CO2 in leaves were higher for field A than field B. Polyamines of putrescine (Put), spermidine (Spd) and spermine (Spm) of T2 were affected by stress conditions due to previous applied chemical fertilisers. Available phosphorus mean values in most treatments were excessively available. Amounts of polyamines in chili leaves due to the added organic manure and chemical fertilizers (T3 up to T6) were not cleared.

  15. Energy and phosphorus recovery from black water.

    PubMed

    de Graaff, M S; Temmink, H; Zeeman, G; Buisman, C J N

    2011-01-01

    Source-separated black water (BW) (toilet water) containing 38% of the organic material and 68% of the phosphorus in the total household waste (water) stream including kitchen waste, is a potential source for energy and phosphorus recovery. The energy recovered, in the form of electricity and heat, is more than sufficient for anaerobic treatment, nitrogen removal and phosphorus recovery. The phosphorus balance of an upflow anaerobic sludge blanket reactor treating concentrated BW showed a phosphorus conservation of 61% in the anaerobic effluent. Precipitation of phosphate as struvite from this stream resulted in a recovery of 0.22 kgP/p/y, representing 10% of the artificial phosphorus fertiliser production in the world. The remaining part of the phosphorus ended up in the anaerobic sludge, mainly due to precipitation (39%). Low dilution and a high pH favour the accumulation of phosphorus in the anaerobic sludge and this sludge could be used as a phosphorus-enriched organic fertiliser, provided that it is safe regarding heavy metals, pathogens and micro-pollutants.

  16. Phosphorus and potassium losses by runoff under three oats residue treatments in two no-tillage variants on a Southbrazilian Typic Hapludox

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Do Amaral, André J.; Bertol, Ildegardis; Cogo, Neroli P.; Barbosa, Fabrício T.; Vidal Vázquez, Eva; Paz Ferreiro, Jorge

    2010-05-01

    rates of 1, 1 -2, and 1 -4, respectively. Phosphorus and potassium levels in runoff water showed a similar trend than water losses, so that they decreased as the crop residue rate decreased. In our conditions the value of P and K losses varied between 0.31 and 12.08 US ha-1. We concluded that the state of the soil surface under NT, which depends on the operations during sowing and on the rate of addition of previous crop residue, influence total water losses as well as P and K contents. In turn differences in P and K losses have a bearing on financial aspects of nutrient application. Acknowledgement: This work was supported by Spanish Ministry of Education (Project CGL2005-08219-C02).

  17. Expanding the menu for carnivorous plants: uptake of potassium, iron and manganese by carnivorous pitcher plants.

    PubMed

    Adlassnig, Wolfram; Steinhauser, Georg; Peroutka, Marianne; Musilek, Andreas; Sterba, Johannes H; Lichtscheidl, Irene K; Bichler, Max

    2009-12-01

    Carnivorous plants use animals as fertiliser substitutes which allow them to survive on nutrient deficient soils. Most research concentrated on the uptake of the prey's nitrogen and phosphorus; only little is known on the utilisation of other elements. We studied the uptake of three essential nutrients, potassium, iron and manganese, in three species of carnivorous pitcher plants (Cephalotus follicularis LaBilladiere, Sarracenia purpureaL., Heliamphora nutans Bentham). Using relatively short-lived and gamma-emitting radiotracers, we significantly improved the sensitivity compared to conventional protocols and gained the following results. We demonstrated the uptake of trace elements like iron and manganese. In addition, we found direct evidence for the uptake of potassium into the pitcher tissue. Potassium and manganese were absorbed to virtually 100% if offered in physiological concentrations or below in Cephalotus. Analysis of pitcher fluid collected in the natural habitat showed that uptake was performed here as efficiently as in the laboratory. The absorption of nutrients is an active process depending on living glandular cells in the pitcher epidermis and can be inhibited by azide. Unphysiologically high amounts of nutrients were taken up for a short time, but after a few hours the absorbing cells were damaged, and uptake stopped. Absorption rates of pitcher leaves from plants under controlled conditions varied highly, indicating that each trap is functionally independent. The comparison of minerals in typical prey with the plants' tissues showed that a complete coverage of the plants' needs by prey capture is improbable.

  18. Fertilisation and moral status: a scientific perspective.

    PubMed

    Dawson, K

    1987-12-01

    The debate about the moral status of the embryo has gained new impetus because of the advances in reproductive technology that have made early human embryo experimentation a possibility, and because of the public concern that this arouses. Several philosophical arguments claiming that fertilisation is the event that accords moral status to the embryo were initially formulated in the context of the abortion debate. Were they formulated with sufficient precision to account for the scientific facts as we now understand them? Or do these arguments need modification? Aspects of three arguments for moral status being acquired at fertilisation are examined in relation to current scientific knowledge, highlighting the reasons why such arguments, at present, seem to provide an inadequate basis for the determination of moral status.

  19. Progesterone improves porcine in vitro fertilisation system.

    PubMed

    Malo, Clara; Gil, Lydia; Cano, Rafael; Martinez, Felisa; Gonzalez, Noelia

    2014-03-01

    In an effort to improve the quality of in vitro produced porcine embryos, the effect of progestagens - progesterone analogues - on the in vitro developmental competence of porcine oocytes was studied. A total of 1421 in vitro matured oocytes, from 4 replicates, were inseminated with frozen-thawed spermatozoa. Progestagens were added to late maturation and embryo cultures (10 IU/ml). Fertilisation success (pre-maturation, penetration, monospermy and efficiency) and nuclear maturation were evaluated. There were no differences among prematuration rates between groups (P = 0.221). Penetration rates were higher (P < 0.001) in the presence of progestagens (75.0%) as compared to the control (51.7%). However, no differences were observed in monospermy percentages (P = 0.246). The results indicated that supplementation with progestagens increased the efficiency of the in vitro fertilisation system (P < 0.001). An additional beneficial effect was observed in nuclear maturation with progestagens (P = 0.035). In summary, progestagen supplementation is an important factor to improve the in vitro fertilisation procedure.

  20. Potassium Counts.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gipps, John

    1995-01-01

    Presents an activity to determine whether the radioactivity of a pure potassium salt is directly proportional to the amount of potassium in it and whether this could be used as a method of analysis for potassium in a solid. (MKR)

  1. The phosphorus mass balance: identifying 'hotspots' in the food system as a roadmap to phosphorus security.

    PubMed

    Cordell, Dana; Neset, Tina-Simone Schmid; Prior, Timothy

    2012-12-01

    Phosphorus is a critical element on which all life depends. Global crop production depends on fertilisers derived from phosphate rock to maintain high crop yields. Population increase, changing dietary preferences towards more meat and dairy products, and the continuing intensification of global agriculture supporting this expansion will place increasing pressure on an uncertain, but finite supply of high-quality phosphate rock. Growing concern about phosphorus scarcity and security, coupled with the environmental impact of phosphorus pollution, has encouraged an increase in research exploring how phosphorus is used and lost in the food system-from mine to field to fork. An assessment of recent phosphorus flows analyses at different geographical scales identifies the key phosphorus 'hotspots', for example within the mining, agriculture or food processing sectors, where efficiency and reuse can be substantially improved through biotechnological approaches coupled with policy changes.

  2. In vitro fertilisation: the major issues.

    PubMed Central

    Singer, P; Wells, D

    1983-01-01

    In vitro fertilisation is now an established technique for treating some forms of infertility, yet it remains ethically controversial. New developments, such as embryo donation and embryo freezing, have led to further discussion. We briefly discuss the ethical aspects of IVF, focusing on the issues of resource allocation, the 'unnaturalness' of the procedure, the moral status of the embryo, surrogate motherhood, and restrictions on access to IVF. We argue that, on the whole, IVF is an ethically justifiable method of assisting infertile couples. PMID:6668584

  3. Determination of calcium, copper, iron, magnesium, manganese, potassium, phosphorus, sodium, and zinc in fortified food products by microwave digestion and inductively coupled plasma-optical emission spectrometry: single-laboratory validation and ring trial.

    PubMed

    Poitevin, Eric

    2012-01-01

    A single-laboratory validation (SLV) and a ring trial (RT) were undertaken to determine nine nutritional elements in food products by inductively coupled plasma-optical emission spectrometry in order to modernize AOAC Official Method 984.27. The improvements involved extension of the scope to all food matrixes (including infant formula), optimized microwave digestion, selected analytical lines, internal standardization, and ion buffering. Simultaneous determination of nine elements (calcium, copper, iron, potassium, magnesium, manganese, sodium, phosphorus, and zinc) was made in food products. Sample digestion was performed through wet digestion of food samples by microwave technology with either closed- or open-vessel systems. Validation was performed to characterize the method for selectivity, sensitivity, linearity, accuracy, precision, recovery, ruggedness, and uncertainty. The robustness and efficiency of this method was proven through a successful RT using experienced independent food industry laboratories. Performance characteristics are reported for 13 certified and in-house reference materials, populating the AOAC triangle food sectors, which fulfilled AOAC criteria and recommendations for accuracy (trueness, recovery, and z-scores) and precision (repeatability and reproducibility RSD, and HorRat values) regarding SLVs and RTs. This multielemental method is cost-efficient, time-saving, accurate, and fit-for-purpose according to ISO 17025 Norm and AOAC acceptability criteria, and is proposed as an extended updated version of AOAC Official Method 984.27 for fortified food products, including infant formula.

  4. Fertilisation in the horse and paracrine signalling in the oviduct.

    PubMed

    Goudet, Ghylène

    2011-01-01

    The mammalian oviduct plays a crucial role in the preparation of gametes for fertilisation (transport and final maturation) and fertilisation itself. An increasing number of studies offers a comprehensive overview of the functions of the oviduct and its secretions, but this topic has had limited investigation in the horse. Limited data are available on the final oocyte maturation in the equine oviduct. However, in vitro and in vivo systems have been established to analyse the influence of equine oviduct epithelial cells (OEC) during maturation on the potential of oocytes for fertilisation and development. Most studies focus on the role of the oviduct in equine sperm function, such as spermatozoa transport, attachment to oviduct epithelium, viability, motility and capacitation. Moreover, some possible candidate molecules for sperm-oviducal interactions have been identified in the horse. Finally, the low efficiency of conventional in vitro fertilisation and the in vivo fertilisation of equine oocytes transferred into the oviduct of an inseminated mare predicted an influence of oviduct in equine fertilisation. Actually, in vivo and in vitro experiments demonstrated a role of the oviduct in equine fertilisation. Moreover, recent studies showed a beneficial effect of homologous and heterologous OEC on equine in vitro fertilisation, and some candidate molecules have been studied.

  5. Method development for the determination of calcium, copper, magnesium, manganese, iron, potassium, phosphorus and zinc in different types of breads by microwave induced plasma-atomic emission spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Ozbek, Nil; Akman, Suleyman

    2016-06-01

    A novel method was developed for the determination of calcium, magnesium, potassium, iron, copper, zinc, and manganese and phosphorous in various kinds of breads samples sold in Turkey by microwave plasma-atomic emission spectrometry (MIP-AES). Breads were dried at 100 °C for one day, ground thoroughly and then digested using nitric acid/hydrogen per oxide (3:1). The analytes in certified reference wheat flour and maize flour samples were determined in the uncertainty limits of the certified values as well as the analytes added to the mixture of ground bread and acid mixture prior to digestion were recovered quantitatively (>90%). Therefore, all determinations were made by linear calibration technique using aqueous standards. The LOD values for Ca, Cu, Fe, K, Mg, Mn, P and Zn were 13.1, 0.28, 4.47, 118, 1.10, 0.41, 7550 and 3.00 ng mL(-1), respectively. No spectral interference was detected at the working wavelengths of the analytes.

  6. Soil Fertility Evaluation for Fertiliser Recommendation Using Hyperion Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ghosh, Ranendu; Padmanabhan, N.; Patel, K. C.

    2015-12-01

    Soil fertility characterised by nitrogen, phosphorus, potassium, calcium, magnesium and sulphur is traditionally measured from soil samples collected from the field. The process is very cumbersome and time intensive. Hyperspectral data available from Hyperion payload of EO 1 was used for facilitating preparation of soil fertility map of Udaipur district of Rajasthan state, India. Hyperion data was pre-processed for band and area sub setting, atmospheric correction and reflectance data preparation. Spectral analysis in the form of SFF and PPI were carried out for selecting the ground truth sites for soil sample collection. Soil samples collected from forty one sites were analysed for analysis of nutrient composition. Generation of correlogram followed by multiple regressions was done for identifying the most important bands and spectral parameters that can be used for nutrient map generation.

  7. Potassium test

    MedlinePlus

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/003484.htm Potassium test To use the sharing features on this ... enable JavaScript. This test measures the amount of potassium in the fluid portion (serum) of the blood. ...

  8. Potassium Iodide

    MedlinePlus

    ... gland.Potassium iodide can protect you from the effects of radioactive iodine that may be released during ... increase the risk that you may experience side effects.The dose of potassium iodide you should take ...

  9. Comparison of effect of high intake of magnesium with high intake of phosphorus and potassium on urolithiasis in goats fed with cottonseed meal diet.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jin-Yong; Sun, Wei-Dong; Wang, Xiao-Long

    2009-08-01

    The effect of high intake of Mg on urolithiasis was compared with high intake of P and K in goats being fed with a cottonseed meal and rice straw diet. Eighteen wether goats were randomly allocated into group A, B and C evenly and fed with cottonseed meal and rice straw diet for three months. From day 60 onwards, KH(2)PO(4) and K(2)HPO(4) were provided via drinking water to goats in group B to increase the intake of P, K, and MgO to goats in group C to increase the intake of Mg. Blood and urine samples were collected to analyze the concentration of P, K, Mg and Ca, and the activity product (AP) of potassium magnesium phosphate (MKP) in urine was also calculated. The composition of calculi and urinary sedimentary crystals were examined by chemical qualitative analysis, X-ray diffraction, X-ray energy dispersive spectrometry and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. The results showed that the incidence of urolithiasis in group C (6/6) was higher than that in group A (1/6) and B (1/6) (P<0.05). The calculi were mainly composed of magnesium ammonium phosphate (MAP) and partly composed of MKP. MKP presented in crystals of different phases in this experiment. The high intake of Mg contributed to a significant increase of plasma Mg, but additional P, K did not cause a further increase of plasma P, K. Urine P, K, Mg and Ca and AP of MKP in group C decreased significantly after the onset of urolithiasis. In conclusion, high intake of Mg was more important in inducing struvite calculi compared with high intake of K and P in goats under these feeding conditions. Cottonseed meal and rice straw with additional Mg is a good dietary model for inducing struvite calculi in castrated goats.

  10. Mitochondria directly influence fertilisation outcome in the pig.

    PubMed

    El Shourbagy, Shahinaz H; Spikings, Emma C; Freitas, Mariana; St John, Justin C

    2006-02-01

    The mitochondrion is explicitly involved in cytoplasmic regulation and is the cell's major generator of ATP. Our aim was to determine whether mitochondria alone could influence fertilisation outcome. In vitro, oocyte competence can be assessed through the presence of glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) as indicated by the dye, brilliant cresyl blue (BCB). Using porcine in vitro fertilisation (IVF), we have assessed oocyte maturation, cytoplasmic volume, fertilisation outcome, mitochondrial number as determined by mtDNA copy number, and whether mitochondria are uniformly distributed between blastomeres of each embryo. After staining with BCB, we observed a significant difference in cytoplasmic volume between BCB positive (BCB+) and BCB negative (BCB-) oocytes. There was also a significant difference in mtDNA copy number between fertilised and unfertilised oocytes and unequal mitochondrial segregation between blastomeres during early cleavage stages. Furthermore, we have supplemented BCB- oocytes with mitochondria from maternal relatives and observed a significant difference in fertilisation outcomes following both IVF and intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI) between supplemented, sham-injected and non-treated BCB- oocytes. We have therefore demonstrated a relationship between oocyte maturity, cytoplasmic volume, and fertilisation outcome and mitochondrial content. These data suggest that mitochondrial number is important for fertilisation outcome and embryonic development. Furthermore, a mitochondrial pre-fertilisation threshold may ensure that, as mitochondria are diluted out during post-fertilisation cleavage, there are sufficient copies of mtDNA per blastomere to allow transmission of mtDNA to each cell of the post-implantation embryo after the initiation of mtDNA replication during the early postimplantation stages.

  11. Potassium physiology.

    PubMed

    Thier, S O

    1986-04-25

    Potassium is the most abundant exchangeable cation in the body. It exists predominantly in the intracellular fluid at concentrations of 140 to 150 meq/liter and in the extracellular fluid at concentrations of 3.5 to 5 meq/liter. The maintenance of the serum potassium concentration is a complex bodily function and results from the balance between intake, excretion, and distribution between intracellular and extracellular space. Ingested potassium is virtually completely absorbed from and minimally excreted through the intestine under nonpathologic circumstances. Renal excretion of potassium, which is the major chronic protective mechanism against abnormalities in potassium balance, depends on filtration, reabsorption, and a highly regulated distal nephron secretory process. Factors regulating potassium secretion include prior potassium intake, intracellular potassium, delivery of sodium chloride and poorly reabsorbable anions to the distal nephron, the urine flow rate, hormones such as aldosterone and beta-catecholamines, and the integrity of the renal tubular cell. The maintenance of distribution between the inside and outside of cells depends on the integrity of the cell membrane and its pumps, osmolality, pH, and the hormones insulin, aldosterone, beta 2-catecholamines, alpha-catecholamines, and prostaglandins. Both distribution across cell membranes and/or renal excretion of potassium may be altered by pharmacologic agents such as diuretics, alpha- and beta-catechol antagonists and agonists, depolarizing agents, and digitalis. Problems with hypokalemia and hyperkalemia can be analyzed on the basis of potassium physiology and pharmacology; proper treatment depends on an accurate analysis.

  12. Indicators: Phosphorus

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Phosphorus, like nitrogen, is a critical nutrient required for all life. Phosphate (PO4), which plays major roles in the formation of DNA, cellular energy, and cell membranes (and plant cell walls). Too much phosphorus can create water quality problems.

  13. Survey on nutrient content of different organic fertilisers.

    PubMed

    Rajan, Jagadish; Anandhan, Shanmugaselvan Veilumuthu

    2015-06-01

    The knowledge of nutrient aspects of organic fertilisers is of much relevance in assessing their availability and long-term effect to the soil and crop and in formulating sound fertiliser recommendation. Around 619 organic fertiliser samples under different categories, which were received by the analytical laboratory of UPASI Tea Research Institute, Valparai, were examined for their nutrient status. The trend in the number of samples received every year for the past 5 years showed that there is a gradual, steady and linear increase in the number of samples received by the laboratory which, in turn, authenticates the increase in the production and utilisation of organic fertilisers in agricultural sector. This also reveals the awareness of organic farming among farmers in recent times. The organic fertilisers received by the laboratory were categorised into different groups based on their nomenclature. The number of samples received each year under different categories varies to a larger extent. The nutritional status was unpredictable based on the nomenclature of the sample received. In addition to this frequency distribution, the nutritional values analysed are discussed in this paper. Correlation matrix was worked out between all the parameters estimated. It is evident that if maintenance of proper carbon-to-nitrogen ratio and moisture content is ascertained in the finished product, one can guarantee the quality of the organic fertiliser in terms of nutrient content.

  14. Global phosphorus scarcity: identifying synergies for a sustainable future.

    PubMed

    Neset, Tina-Simone S; Cordell, Dana

    2012-01-15

    Global food production is dependent on constant inputs of phosphorus. In the current system this phosphorus is not predominantly derived from organic recycled waste, but to a large degree from phosphate-rock based mineral fertilisers. However, phosphate rock is a finite resource that cannot be manufactured. Our dependency therefore needs to be addressed from a sustainability perspective in order to ensure global food supplies for a growing global population. The situation is made more urgent by predictions that, for example, the consumption of resource intensive foods and the demand for biomass energy will increase. The scientific and societal debate has so far been focussed on the exact timing of peak phosphorus and on when the total depletion of the global reserves will occur. Even though the timing of these events is important, all dimensions of phosphorus scarcity need to be addressed in a manner which acknowledges linkages to other sustainable development challenges and which takes into consideration the synergies between different sustainability measures. Many sustainable phosphorus measures have positive impacts on other challenges; for example, shifting global diets to more plant-based foods would not only reduce global phosphorus consumption, but also reduce greenhouse gas emissions, reduce nitrogen fertiliser demand and reduce water consumption.

  15. Environmental factors limiting fertilisation and larval success in corals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Woods, Rachael M.; Baird, Andrew H.; Mizerek, Toni L.; Madin, Joshua S.

    2016-12-01

    Events in the early life history of reef-building corals, including fertilisation and larval survival, are susceptible to changes in the chemical and physical properties of sea water. Quantifying how changes in water quality affect these events is therefore important for understanding and predicting population establishment in novel and changing environments. A review of the literature identified that levels of salinity, temperature, pH, suspended sediment, nutrients and heavy metals affect coral early life-history stages to various degrees. In this study, we combined published experimental data to determine the relative importance of sea water properties for coral fertilisation success and larval survivorship. Of the water properties manipulated in experiments, fertilisation success was most sensitive to suspended sediment, copper, salinity, phosphate and ammonium. Larval survivorship was sensitive to copper, lead and salinity. A combined model was developed that estimated the joint probability of both fertilisation and larval survivorship in sea water with different chemical and physical properties. We demonstrated the combined model using water samples from Sydney and Lizard Island in Australia to estimate the likelihood of larvae surviving through both stages of development to settlement competency. Our combined model could be used to recommend targets for water quality in coastal waterways as well as to predict the potential for species to expand their geographical ranges in response to climate change.

  16. The future of the Human Fertilisation and Embryology Authority.

    PubMed

    English, Veronica

    2013-04-01

    The UK Government has proposed that the Human Fertilisation and Embryology Authority (HFEA) should be abolished and its functions transferred to the Care Quality Commission. This commentary explores the problems with this proposal and suggests that an independent review of how the HFEA carries out its functions and a subsequent reform of some of its practices represent a better option for the UK.

  17. Proper ubiquitination effect on the fertilisation outcome post-ICSI.

    PubMed

    Eskandari-Shahraki, M; Tavalaee, M; Deemeh, M R; Jelodar, Gh A; Nasr-Esfahani, M H

    2013-06-01

    Ubiquitin is an 8.5-kDa protein that tags outlived proteins for degradation by the proteasome. It also marks defective spermatozoa during epididymal passage and has been proposed as a biomarker of sperm quality. This study evaluates the relationship between sperm ubiquitination, protamine deficiency, semen parameters and fertilisation rate in infertile individuals undergoing the intracytoplasmic sperm insemination (ICSI) procedure. Semen samples from 73 ICSI candidates were collected and analysed according to World Health Organization criteria. A portion of each sample was evaluated for sperm ubiquitination using the sperm ubiquitin tag immunoassay (SUTI) with flow cytometry, and protamine deficiency by chromomycin A3 (CMA3) staining. In addition, the relationship between the fertilisation rate and sperm ubiquitination was calculated in ICSI candidates. The intensity of ubiquitination showed a significant negative correlation with sperm concentration (r = -0.255, P = 0.032) and a positive correlation with fertilisation rate (r = 0.384, P = 0.013) post-ICSI. No correlation was observed between protamine deficiency and the percentage of ubiquitination or ubiquitination intensity. The results of this study suggest that sperm ubiquitination prior to capacitation may be considered as a marker of defective spermatozoon. Spermatozoa that undergo proper ubiquitination may have a higher chance for fertilisation, because they are made redundant by the ubiquitin-proteasome pathway in the epididymis compared to hypo-ubiquitinated spermatozoa.

  18. In vitro fertilisation treatment and factors affecting success.

    PubMed

    Huang, Jack Yu Jen; Rosenwaks, Zev

    2012-12-01

    The efficacy of assisted reproductive technologies has improved significantly over the past decades. The main indications for in vitro fertilisation include tubal obstruction, severe male-factor infertility, severe endometriosis, ovulatory dysfunction, diminished ovarian reserve, and infertility of unexplained cause. In vitro fertilisation has also become an effective treatment option for couples wishing to undergo pre-implantation genetic diagnosis or screening, and for those wishing to cryopreserve their oocytes or embryos for preservation of fertility. The management of women in late reproductive age poses a major challenge; the optimum in vitro fertilisation treatment for poor responders remains elusive. The success of in vitro fertilisation treatment can be optimised by taking an individualised, patient-centered approach to controlled ovarian hyperstimulation. Key components involve selection of an appropriate controlled ovarian protocol, close-cycle monitoring, adjustment of gonadotropin dosage to avoid hyper-response, and individualised timing of human chorionic gonadotropin injection. Future directions of assisted reproductive technologies include development of non-invasive embryo selection methods, use of transcriptomics, proteomics, metabolomics, and time-lapse imaging technologies.

  19. Characteristics of differently stabilised soil organic carbon fractions in relation to long-term fertilisation in Brown Earth of Northeast China.

    PubMed

    Xu, Xiangru; Zhang, Wenju; Xu, Minggang; Li, Shuangyi; An, Tingting; Pei, Jiubo; Xiao, Jing; Xie, Hongtu; Wang, Jingkuan

    2016-12-01

    Long-term use of artificial fertiliser has a significant impact on soil organic carbon (SOC). We used physical-chemical fractionation methods to assess the impact of long-term (26years) fertilisation in a maize cropping system developed on Brown Earth in Northeast China. Plot treatments consisted of control (CK); nitrogen (N) fertiliser (N2); low-level organic manure combined with inorganic N and phosphorus (P) fertiliser (M1N1P1); medium-level organic manure combined with inorganic N fertiliser (M2N2); and high-level organic manure combined with inorganic N and P fertiliser (M4N2P1). Our objectives were to (1) determine the contents of and variations in the SOC fractions; (2) explore the relationship between total SOC and its fractions. In treatments involving organic manure (M1N1P1, M2N2, and M4N2P1), total SOC and physically protected microaggregate (μagg) and μagg occluded particulate organic carbon (iPOC) contents increased by 9.9-58.9%, 1.3-34.7%, 29.5-127.9% relative to control, respectively. But there no significant differences (P>0.05) were detected for the chemically, physically-chemically, and physically-biochemically protected fractions among the M1N1P1, M2N2, and M4N2P1 treatments. Regression analysis revealed that there was a linear positive correlation between SOC and the unprotected coarse particulate organic carbon (cPOC), physically protected μagg, and iPOC fractions (P<0.05). However, physically-chemically, and physically-biochemically protected fractions responded negatively to SOC content. The highest rate of C accumulation among the SOC fractions occurred in the cPOC fraction, which accounted for as much as 32% of C accumulation as total SOC increased, suggesting that cPOC may be the most sensitive fraction to fertiliser application. We found that treatments had no effect on C levels in H-μsilt and NH-μsilt, indicating that the microaggregated silt C-fractions may have reached a steady state in terms of C saturation in the Brown Earth of

  20. Dietary phosphorus affects the growth of larval Manduca sexta.

    PubMed

    Perkins, Marc C; Woods, H Arthur; Harrison, Jon F; Elser, James J

    2004-03-01

    Although phosphorus has long been considered an important factor in the growth of diverse biota such as bacteria, algae, and zooplankton, insect nutrition has classically focused on dietary protein and energy content. However, research in elemental stoichiometry has suggested that primary producer biomass has similar N:P ratios in aquatic and terrestrial systems, and phosphorus-rich herbivores in freshwater systems frequently face phosphorus-limited nutritional conditions. Therefore, herbivorous insects should also be prone to phosphorus limitation. We tested this prediction by rearing Manduca sexta larvae on artificial and natural (Datura wrightii leaves) diets containing varying levels of phosphorus (approximately 0.20, 0.55, or 1.2% phosphorus by dry weight). For both artificial and natural diets, increased dietary phosphorus significantly increased growth rates and body phosphorus contents, and shortened the time to the final instar molt. Caterpillars did not consistently exhibit compensatory feeding for phosphorus on either type of diet. The growth and body phosphorus responses were not explicable by changes in amounts of potassium or calcium, which co-varied with phosphorus in the diets. Concentrations of phosphorus in D. wrightii leaves collected in the field varied over a range in which leaf phosphorus is predicted to affect M. sexta's growth rates. These results suggest that natural variation in dietary phosphorus is likely to affect the growth rate and population dynamics of M. sexta, and perhaps larval insects more generally.

  1. Comparison of different fertilisation media for an in vitro maturation?fertilisation?culture system using flow-cytometrically sorted X chromosome-bearing spermatozoa for bovine embryo production.

    PubMed

    Ferré, Luis B; Bogliotti, Yanina; Chitwood, James L; Fresno, Cristóbal; Ortega, Hugo H; Kjelland, Michael E; Ross, Pablo J

    2015-05-13

    High demand exists among commercial cattle producers for in vitro-derived bovine embryos fertilised with female sex-sorted spermatozoa from high-value breeding stock. The aim of this study was to evaluate three fertilisation media, namely M199, synthetic oviductal fluid (SOF) and Tyrode's albumin-lactate-pyruvate (TALP), on IVF performance using female sex-sorted spermatozoa. In all, 1143, 1220 and 1041 cumulus-oocyte complexes were fertilised in M199, SOF and TALP, respectively. There were significant differences among fertilisation media (P < 0.05) in cleavage rate (M199 = 57%, SOF = 71% and TALP = 72%), blastocyst formation (M199 = 9%, SOF = 20% and TALP = 19%), proportion of Grade 1 blastocysts (M199 = 15%, SOF = 52% and TALP = 51%), proportion of Grade 3 blastocysts (M199 = 58%, SOF = 21% and TALP = 20%) and hatching rates (M199 = 29%, SOF = 60% and TALP = 65%). The inner cell mass (ICM) and trophectoderm (TE) cells of Day 7 blastocysts were also affected by the fertilisation medium. Embryos derived from SOF and TALP fertilisation media had higher numbers of ICM, TE and total cells than those fertilised in M199. In conclusion, fertilisation media affected cleavage rate, as well as subsequent embryo development, quality and hatching ability. SOF and TALP fertilisation media produced significantly more embryos of higher quality than M199.

  2. Potassium cyanide

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    Jump to main content . Integrated Risk Information System Recent Additions | Contact Us Search : All EPA IRIS • You are here : EPA Home • Research • Environmental Assessment • IRIS • IRIS Summaries Redirect Page As of September 28 , 2010 , the assessment summary for potassium cyanide is included in

  3. Potassium in diet

    MedlinePlus

    ... the diet; Hypokalemia - potassium in the diet; Chronic kidney disease - potassium in diet; Kidney failure - potassium in diet ... are also excellent sources of potassium. People with kidney problems, especially those on dialysis, should not eat ...

  4. Coral skeletons provide historical evidence of phosphorus runoff on the great barrier reef.

    PubMed

    Mallela, Jennie; Lewis, Stephen E; Croke, Barry

    2013-01-01

    Recently, the inshore reefs of the Great Barrier Reef have declined rapidly because of deteriorating water quality. Increased catchment runoff is one potential culprit. The impacts of land-use on coral growth and reef health however are largely circumstantial due to limited long-term data on water quality and reef health. Here we use a 60 year coral core record to show that phosphorus contained in the skeletons (P/Ca) of long-lived, near-shore Porites corals on the Great Barrier Reef correlates with annual records of fertiliser application and particulate phosphorus loads in the adjacent catchment. Skeletal P/Ca also correlates with Ba/Ca, a proxy for fluvial sediment loading, again linking near-shore phosphorus records with river runoff. Coral core records suggest that phosphorus levels increased 8 fold between 1949 and 2008 with the greatest levels coinciding with periods of high fertiliser-phosphorus use. Periods of high P/Ca correspond with intense agricultural activity and increased fertiliser application in the river catchment following agricultural expansion and replanting after cyclone damage. Our results demonstrate how coral P/Ca records can be used to assess terrestrial nutrient loading of vulnerable near-shore reefs.

  5. Runoff of faecal microorganisms and nutrients from perennial grass ley after application of slurry and mineral fertiliser.

    PubMed

    Heinonen-Tanski, H; Uusi-Kämppä, J

    2001-01-01

    Perennial grass was fertilised with cattle slurry either surface-spread or injected into the soil. Slurry was spread once (early summer) in 1996 and 1997 and twice (both summer and autumn) in 1998 and 1999. The control was mineral fertilisation in summer. Faecal microbial numbers in surface runoff water were very high in late June 1998 soon after very heavy rains even though the last slurry application had been made almost one year earlier. There was no clear difference between slurry spreading methods. Autumn spreading of slurry lead to high microbial levels in runoff waters and water hygiene was protected better by slurry injection than by surface spreading. In spring, after snow melt, some faecal microorganisms were found in surface runoff water and the numbers of faecal microorganisms were less from plots with slurry surface spreading than those with slurry-injection. Losses of total phosphorus (TP) and total nitrogen (TN) in surface runoff were 2.7 and 7.7 kg/ha respectively from grass with surface-spread slurry in winter 1998-1999. The injection of slurry decreased TP and TN runoff by an average of 81% and 73% respectively. In 1999 there was little runoff because the summer was sunny and dry.

  6. Effects of organic fertilisation on sweet orange bearing trees

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roccuzzo, Giancarlo; Torrisi, Biagio; Canali, Stefano; Intrigliolo, Francesco

    2010-05-01

    In a study realised over a five year period (2001-2006) on orange bearing trees [Citrus sinensis (L.) Osbeck] cv. ‘Valencia late', grafted on sour orange (C. aurantium L.), four fertiliser treatments were applied: citrus by-products compost (CB), poultry manure (PM), livestock waste compost (LW) and mineral fertiliser (MF), as control. The trees, with the exception of MF treatment, were organically grown since 1994 in the experimental farm of CRA-ACM in Lentini, Sicily, and received the same N input every year. The research objectives were to evaluate the effect of long term repeated organic fertilisers application on i) soil fertility; ii) citrus bearing trees nutritional status by means of leaf analysis and iii) yield and fruit quality, determining parameters currently utilized to evaluate sweet orange production either for fresh consumption and processing. The CB treatment showed significantly higher values of Corg in soil than MF treatment (about 30%). Corg in PM and LW treatments was higher than MF treatment (13% and 20%, respectively), but these differences were not statistically significant either from the control treatment nor from the soil fertilised with CB. Similar trend was showed by the humic and fulvic C being the values of the CB treatment significantly higher than the control. PM and LW treatments had intermediate values, without statistical significance. The long term addition to soil of a quality compost (CB) with high C/N ratio increased the level of nutrients wich usually show low availability for citrus plants (P, Fe, Zn, Mn), as demonstrated by leaf analysis. No significant difference was noticed as far as yield was concerned, whereas CB treatment enhanced some fruit quality parameters.

  7. Intracellular Ca2+ and antioxidant values induced positive effect on fertilisation ratio and oocyte quality of granulosa cells in patients undergoing in vitro fertilisation.

    PubMed

    Tola, Esra Nur; Mungan, Muhittin Tamer; Uğuz, Abdülhadi Cihangir; Naziroğlu, Mustafa

    2013-01-01

    Oxidative stress is important for promoting oocyte maturation and ovulation within the follicle through calcium ion (Ca(2+)) influx. The relationship between antioxidant and cytosolic Ca(2+) levels and oocyte quality and fertilisation rate in the granulosa cells of patients undergoing in vitro fertilisation was investigated. Granulosa cells were collected from 33 patients. Cytosolic free Ca(2+) ([Ca(2+)]i) concentration, lipid peroxidation, reduced glutathione, glutathione peroxidase and oocyte quality were measured in the granulosa cells. The relationship between two drug protocols was also examined (gonadotrophin-releasing hormone antagonist and agonist protocols) and the same parameters investigated. The [Ca(2+)]i concentration (P<0.001), glutathione (P<0.05) and oocyte quality (P<0.001) values were significantly higher in the fertilised group than in the non-fertilised group, although glutathione peroxidase activity was significantly (P<0.05) higher in the non-fertilised group than in the fertilised group. The [Ca(2+)]i concentrations were also higher (P<0.001) in the good-quality oocyte groups than in the poor-quality oocyte group. There was no correlation between the two drug protocols and investigated parameters. In conclusion, it was observed that high glutathione and cytosolic Ca(2+) concentrations in granulosa cells of patients undergoing in vitro fertilisation tended to increase the fertilisation potential of oocytes.

  8. Peak phosphorus - peak food? The need to close the phosphorus cycle.

    PubMed

    Rhodes, Christopher J

    2013-01-01

    The peak in the world production of phosphorus has been predicted to occur in 2033, based on world reserves of rock phosphate (URR) reckoned at around 24,000 million tonnes (Mt), with around 18,000 Mt remaining. This figure was reckoned-up to 71,000 Mt, by the USGS, in 2012, but a production maximum during the present century is still highly probable. There are complex issues over what the demand will be for phosphorus in the future, as measured against a rising population (from 7 billion to over 9 billion in 2050), and a greater per capita demand for fertiliser to grow more grain, in part to feed animals and meet a rising demand for meat by a human species that is not merely more populous but more affluent. As a counterweight to this, we may expect that greater efficiencies in the use of phosphorus - including recycling from farms and of human and animal waste - will reduce the per capita demand for phosphate rock. The unseen game changer is peak oil, since phosphate is mined and recovered using machinery powered by liquid fuels refined from crude oil. Hence, peak oil and peak phosphorus might appear as conjoined twins. There is no unequivocal case that we can afford to ignore the likelihood of a supply-demand gap for phosphorus occurring sometime this century, and it would be perilous to do so.

  9. Spectrophotometric determination of phosphorus acid

    SciTech Connect

    Domin, A.V.; Domina, N.G.; Zakharov, Yu.A.; Shechkov, G.T.

    1987-03-01

    A number of procedures have been proposed to determine phosphorus acid and its salts, the phosphites, in the presence of hypophosphorus acid and its salts, the hypophosphites. Among these procedures, iodometric back-titration has produced the most reliable results. In this paper, the authors propose an improved iodometric determination of phosphorus acid that enables the sensitivity to be increased by at least two orders of magnitude. The essence of this improvement is that excess iodine that did not react with phosphite ion is determined not volumetrically but spectrophotometrically. To eliminate the effect of iodine ion that is liberated when iodine reacts with phosphite ion on the optical density of the solution, a 200-fold excess of potassium iodide is added before the photometric measurement. The working iodine solution is prepared by diluting 10 m of 0.025 N iodine titrant and 50 ml of phosphate buffer, pH 6.7-7.2, to 1 liter with distilled water in a coulometric flask. To construct the calibration curve, 5, 10, 15, 20, and 25 ml, respectively of working iodine solution, and 10 ml of 2% aqueous potassium iodide are placed into five 100-ml volumetric flasks, and the solutions are made up to volume with water. After 10 min the photometric measurements are carried out at 380 nm using curvets and the reference solution is obtained by diluting 10 ml of 2% aqueous potassium iodide to 100 ml with distilled water.

  10. White phosphorus

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    White phosphorus ; CASRN 7723 - 14 - 0 Human health assessment information on a chemical substance is included in the IRIS database only after a comprehensive review of toxicity data , as outlined in the IRIS assessment development process . Sections I ( Health Hazard Assessments for Noncarcinogenic

  11. Nitrogen fertiliser formulation: The impact on N2O emissions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harty, Mary; Krol, Dominika; Carolan, Rachael; McNeill, Gavin; McGeough, Karen; Laughlin, Ronnie; Watson, Catherine; Richards, Karl; Lanigan, Gary; Forrestal, Patrick

    2015-04-01

    Agriculture was responsible for 31% of Ireland's Agricultural Greenhouse Gas (GHG) emissions in 2012, with 39% of these emissions arising from chemical/organic fertilizers in the form of nitrous oxide (N2O). Switching from calcium ammonium nitrate (CAN) to a urea based fertiliser limits the soil residence period of nitrate, the major substrate for denitrification loss in the N2O form. However, urea is susceptible to ammonia (NH3) volatilisation but this risk can be managed using urease inhibitors. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of switching from CAN to urea, urea with the urease inhibitor N- (n-butyl) thiophosphoric triamide (trade name Agrotain®) and/or the nitrification inhibitor dicyandiamide (DCD on direct and indirect N2O emissions. The experiment is a two year study (commenced March 2013) at six permanent pasture sites located on the island of Ireland, at Johnstown Castle Co. Wexford, Moorepark Co. Cork and Hillsborough Co. Down, covering a range of soil textures and drainage characteristics. The experiment simulated a grazing environment; annual fertiliser N was applied at different rates (0, 100, 200, 300, 400 or 500 kg N ha-1) in five equal splits, with grass harvested prior to fertilizer application. Direct N2O emissions were quantified regularly using static chambers over 1 year and indirect N2O from ammonia volatilisation was measured using wind tunnels and annual emission factors calculated. Switching from CAN to urea dramatically reduced direct N2O emissions, but had little effect on dry-matter yield. However, there was evidence of pollution swapping of direct for indirect N2O from NH3. In the first year, two urea based formulations successfully reduced both direct and indirect N2O emissions at all sites. Fertiliser formulation strategy has the potential to be a solution for reduction of direct and indirect N2O emissions.

  12. Lagrangian Analysis of Kerguelen's Naturally Iron-fertilised Phytoplankton Bloom

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Della Penna, A.; Trull, T. W.; Grenier, M.; Wotherspoon, S.; Johnson, C.; De Monte, S.; d'Ovidio, F.

    2015-12-01

    The role of iron as a limiting micro-nutrient for primary production in High Nutrient Low Chlorophyll regions has been highlighted by paleoceanography, artificial fertilisation experiments and observed naturally fertilised systems. Examples of natural fertilisation have suggested that (sub-)mesoscale (1-100 km, days-months) horizontal transport modulates and structures the spatial and temporal extent of iron enrichment, phytoplankton production and biogeography. Here we combine different satellite products (altimetry, ocean color, PHYSAT), in-situ sampling, drifting floats and autonomous profilers to analyse the naturally iron-fertilised phytoplankton bloom of the Kerguelen region (Southern Ocean). Considering the Kerguelen Plateau as the main local source of iron, we compute two Lagrangian diagnostics: the "age" - how long before a water parcel has touched the plateau- and the "origin" - the latitude where a water parcel has left the plateau. First, we verify that these altimetry-defined diagnostics' spatial patterns -computed using geostrophic and Ekman corrected velocity fields- are coherent with the ones structuring the trajectories of more than 100 drifters and that trends in surface Chlorophyll (Chl) present an overall agreement with total column content (yet with ~2-3x differences in dynamic ranges likely due to the varying presence of Chl below the mixed layer). Second, assuming a first-order removal, we fit "age" with iron measurements and we estimate removal rates for bloom and abiotic conditions of respectively 0.058 and 0.041 1/d. Then, we relate "age" and "origin" with locations of high Chl concentrations and diatom-dominance. We find out that locations of high Chl concentration correspond to water parcels that have recently left the plateau. Furthermore, general additive models reveal that recently enriched waters are more likely to present a diatom dominance. However, the expected exponential fit varies within the geographic domain suggesting that

  13. Phosphorus recovery from sewage sludge with a hybrid process of low pressure wet oxidation and nanofiltration.

    PubMed

    Blöcher, Christoph; Niewersch, Claudia; Melin, Thomas

    2012-04-15

    Phosphorus recovery from sewage sludge will become increasingly important within the next decades due to depletion of mineral phosphorus resources. In this work a new process concept was investigated, which aims at realising phosphorus recovery in a synergistic way with the overall sewage sludge treatment scheme. This process combines a low pressure wet oxidation for sewage sludge decomposition as well as phosphorus dissolution and a nanofiltration process to separate phosphorus from heavy metals and obtain a clean diluted phosphoric acid, from which phosphorus can be recovered as clean fertiliser. It was shown that this process concept is feasible for sewage sludge for wastewater treatment plants that apply enhanced biological removal or precipitation with alumina salts for phosphorus removal. The critical parameter for phosphorus dissolution in the low pressure wet oxidation process is the iron concentration, while in the nanofiltration multi-valent cations play a predominant role. In total, a phosphorus recovery of 54% was obtained for an exemplary wastewater treatment plant. Costs of the entire process are in the same range as conventional sewage sludge disposal, with the benefit being phosphorus recovery and reduced emission of greenhouse gases due to avoidance of sludge incineration.

  14. Biologically and chemically mediated adsorption and precipitation of phosphorus from wastewater.

    PubMed

    Pratt, Chris; Parsons, Simon A; Soares, Ana; Martin, Ben D

    2012-12-01

    Biologically and chemically mediated adsorption and precipitation processes offer a range of approaches for removing phosphorus (P) from agricultural, domestic and industrial effluents. Technologies implemented at full-scale include filtration by adsorbent media, such as steel slag, and recovery of phosphorus as struvite, which has been successfully commercialised as a fertiliser. Other promising technologies under investigation include P removal by polymers and nanomaterials as well as struvite formation by bacteria. There is a need to focus future research on improving the efficiency of P removal by adsorption and precipitation. This can be achieved by techniques such as regenerating filters, polymers and nanomaterials for renewed P removal. Research is also needed to optimise the fertiliser potential of struvite precipitates.

  15. Some problems challenging the UK's Human Fertilisation and Embryology Authority.

    PubMed

    Pattinson, Shaun D

    2005-06-01

    The UK's Human Fertilisation and Embryology Authority (hereafter the HFEA) is a regulatory body facing growing pressures and difficulties. Like any regulatory body, it faces the challenge of regulating with sufficient expertise, legitimacy, and contemporaneity. This challenge is, however, exacerbated by the fact that it seeks to regulate some of the most controversial and rapidly changing technologies of our time. Its decisions and jurisdictional assumptions face increasing challenge. In addition to the multitude of cases brought against it, the HFEA's actions recently led a House of Commons Select Committee to pointedly declare that "democracy is not served by unelected quangos (quasi-autonomous non-governmental organizations) taking decisions on behalf of Parliament". While endorsing the general need to review the legislation under which the HFEA operates (the Human Fertilisation and Embryology Act 1990), this paper will argue that the HFEA was correct in interpreting its jurisdiction to encompass the technique used to produce Dolly the sheep. This paper thereby defends the key feature of the approach of the House of Lords in the recent case of R (Bruno Quintavalle on behalf of the ProLife Alliance) v Secretary of State for Health [2003] UKHL 13.

  16. Multiple paternity in a viviparous toad with internal fertilisation.

    PubMed

    Sandberger-Loua, Laura; Feldhaar, Heike; Jehle, Robert; Rödel, Mark-Oliver

    2016-08-01

    Anurans are renowned for a high diversity of reproductive modes, but less than 1 % of species exhibit internal fertilisation followed by viviparity. In the live-bearing West African Nimba toad (Nimbaphrynoides occidentalis), females produce yolk-poor eggs and internally nourish their young after fertilisation. Birth of fully developed juveniles takes place after 9 months. In the present study, we used genetic markers (eight microsatellite loci) to assign the paternity of litters of 12 females comprising on average 9.7 juveniles. In 9 out of 12 families (75 %), a single sire was sufficient; in three families (25 %), more than one sire was necessary to explain the observed genotypes in each family. These findings are backed up with field observations of male resource defence (underground cavities in which mating takes place) as well as coercive mating attempts, suggesting that the observed moderate level of multiple paternity in a species without distinct sperm storage organs is governed by a balance of female mate choice and male reproductive strategies.

  17. Multiple paternity in a viviparous toad with internal fertilisation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sandberger-Loua, Laura; Feldhaar, Heike; Jehle, Robert; Rödel, Mark-Oliver

    2016-08-01

    Anurans are renowned for a high diversity of reproductive modes, but less than 1 % of species exhibit internal fertilisation followed by viviparity. In the live-bearing West African Nimba toad ( Nimbaphrynoides occidentalis), females produce yolk-poor eggs and internally nourish their young after fertilisation. Birth of fully developed juveniles takes place after 9 months. In the present study, we used genetic markers (eight microsatellite loci) to assign the paternity of litters of 12 females comprising on average 9.7 juveniles. In 9 out of 12 families (75 %), a single sire was sufficient; in three families (25 %), more than one sire was necessary to explain the observed genotypes in each family. These findings are backed up with field observations of male resource defence (underground cavities in which mating takes place) as well as coercive mating attempts, suggesting that the observed moderate level of multiple paternity in a species without distinct sperm storage organs is governed by a balance of female mate choice and male reproductive strategies.

  18. Hair from different ethnic groups vary in elemental composition and nitrogen and phosphorus mineralisation in soil.

    PubMed

    Malepfane, N M; Muchaonyerwa, P

    2017-02-01

    Disposal of hair wastes at landfills causes nitrate leaching to ground water, and use of the waste as fertiliser could be a viable option. This study was to determine elemental composition of major hair types in South Africa and their nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) release in soil. Wastes of African, White and Indian hair were obtained from local salons and analysed for carbon (C), N and sulphur (S) with the Leco CNS analyzer, and P, bases, aluminium (Al) and micronutrients, with the ICP. We also conducted an incubation study to determine changes in mineral N and P in soil. Hair wastes were added to soil at increasing rates based on N, incubated at 25 °C with destructive sampling after 0, 28, 56 and 84 days and pH, ammonium-N, nitrate-N and extractable P measured. All data were subjected to analysis of variance. Indian and White hair had higher N than African. White hair had higher C and lower potassium (K) than those of other types. The Fe levels in hair were in the order White > African > Indian, whilst those of Al were African > Indian > White. African hair had higher calcium (Ca), manganese (Mn), zinc (Zn) and cobalt (Co) than the other types. Ammonium-N and nitrate-N releases were in the order: Indian > African > White, especially at higher rates. Ammonium-N increased in the first 28 days and declined thereafter, when nitrate-N increased and pH decreased. The findings implied that hair types differ in elemental composition and nitrogen release in soil, with implications on pollution and soil fertility.

  19. Ammonium sulphate fertiliser increases larval populations of Anopheles arabiensis and culicine mosquitoes in rice fields.

    PubMed

    Mutero, C M; Ng'ang'a, P N; Wekoyela, P; Githure, J; Konradsen, F

    2004-01-01

    Field experiments were conducted in central Kenya, to study the effect of ammonium sulphate fertiliser ((NH(4))(2)SO(4)) on mosquito larval populations in rice fields. The experiments used a complete randomised block design having four blocks with two experimental ponds per block, and the fertiliser and control treatments allocated randomly among the ponds. Student's two-sample unpaired t-test was used to test for the significance of differences between the relative counts of larvae in fertiliser and control treatments. The results showed a significant overall increase in the larval populations of An. arabiensis (P<0.01) and culicine mosquitoes (P<0.05), after ponds were treated with the fertiliser. Significantly more fourth instar larvae of An. arabiensis were collected in fertiliser than control plots (P<0.001). An. arabiensis data indicated that the first fertiliser application had the most impact, compared to the second and third applications. This was evident in a significant peak of combined first and second instar An. arabiensis larvae observed 5 days after the first fertiliser application (P<0.05). The studies suggest that ammonium sulphate fertiliser reduces turbidity of water in rice fields, thereby making them visually more attractive for egg-laying by An. arabiensis and culicine mosquitoes.

  20. Enhanced efficiency fertilisers: a review of formulation and nutrient release patterns.

    PubMed

    Timilsena, Yakindra Prasad; Adhikari, Raju; Casey, Phil; Muster, Tim; Gill, Harsharn; Adhikari, Benu

    2015-04-01

    Fertilisers are one of the most important elements of modern agriculture. The application of fertilisers in agricultural practices has markedly increased the production of food, feed, fuel, fibre and other plant products. However, a significant portion of nutrients applied in the field is not taken up by plants and is lost through leaching, volatilisation, nitrification, or other means. Such a loss increases the cost of fertiliser and severely pollutes the environment. To alleviate these problems, enhanced efficiency fertilisers (EEFs) are produced and used in the form of controlled release fertilisers and nitrification/urease inhibitors. The application of biopolymers for coating in EEFs, tailoring the release pattern of nutrients to closely match the growth requirement of plants and development of realistic models to predict the release pattern of common nutrients have been the foci of fertiliser research. In this context, this paper intends to review relevant aspects of new developments in fertiliser production and use, agronomic, economic and environmental drives for enhanced efficiency fertilisers and their formulation process and the nutrient release behaviour. Application of biopolymers and complex coacervation technique for nutrient encapsulation is also explored as a promising technology to produce EEFs.

  1. Nitrogen, phosphorus, carbon and population.

    PubMed

    Gilland, Bernard

    2015-01-01

    Population growth makes food production increase necessary; economic growth increases demand for animal products and livestock feed. As further increase of the cropland area is ecologically undesirable, it is necessary to increase crop yields; this requires, inter alia, more nitrogen and phosphorus fertiliser despite the environmental problems which this will exacerbate. It is probable that a satisfactory food supply and an environmentally benign agriculture worldwide cannot be achieved without reducing population to approximately three billion. The reduction could be achieved by 2200 if the total fertility rate--currently 2.5--declined to 1.5 as a world average by 2050, and remained at that level until 2200, but the probability of such a global fertility trajectory is close to zero. It will also be necessary to replace fossil energy by nuclear and renewable energy in order to stabilise atmospheric carbon dioxide concentration, but the phase-out cannot be completed until the 22nd century, when the atmospheric concentration will be approximately 50% above the 2015 level of 400 ppm.

  2. Fate of phosphorus from biological aerobic treatment of pig slurry. By-products characterization and recovery.

    PubMed

    Daumer, M L; Beline, F; Guiziou, F

    2003-11-01

    The fate of phosphorus distribution in the products obtained from biological aerobic treatment of pig slurry, e.g. separated solids, liquid effluent and sludge, was monitored in three different farm-scale units. Samples of raw slurry, solid products, aerated slurry, liquid effluent and sludge were characterised and analysed for their concentration in total phosphorus, nitrogen content and heavy metals (Cu and Zn). At each treatment stage, nitrogen, phosphorus and heavy metals mass balance between input and output was established. Moreover, liquid products were characterised and analysed both for their total and dissolved ortho-phosphate content. Separated solids, sludge and liquid effluent represented 5%, 15-40% and 75-83% of the mass of the raw slurry, respectively. A mechanical separation step prior to aeration allowed the export of 25-30% of total phosphorus for further use as organic fertiliser. A large amount of total phosphorus (e.g. 60-70%) was located in sludge while phosphorus remaining in liquid effluent was about 15-25%. Raw slurry separation and sufficient aeration allowed phosphorus to concentrate in the sludge. Insufficient aeration resulted in the release of phosphorus as dissolved ortho-phosphate within the liquid effluent. Finally, relevance of the agronomic use of the products was discussed and improvements of biological aerobic treatment to enhance phosphorus removal and/or recovery were considered.

  3. Preparation of calcium sulphoaluminate cement using fertiliser plant wastes.

    PubMed

    Singh, Maneesh; Kapur, P C; Pradip

    2008-08-30

    Phosphochalks from fertiliser plants contain significant amount of calcium sulphate along with P(2)O(5) and fluorine. The presence of these impurities makes them unsuitable for most applications and, hence its availability in millions of tons. We demonstrate that it is possible to prepare calcium sulphoaluminate-aluminoferrite based special cements having strength values comparable to ordinary Portland cement (OPC) using these waste chalks. Such cements are insensitive to the presence of impurities in the raw mixture, clinker at low temperatures (1,230 degrees C) and the clinkers produced are soft and friable. An empirical technique has been developed to predict the phase composition of the clinkers given the chemical composition of the starting raw mixture. The proposed low temperature clinkering route appears to be a promising method for converting waste phosphochalks into construction grade cements.

  4. Rapid and portable electrochemical quantification of phosphorus.

    PubMed

    Kolliopoulos, Athanasios V; Kampouris, Dimitrios K; Banks, Craig E

    2015-04-21

    Phosphorus is one of the key indicators of eutrophication levels in natural waters where it exists mainly as dissolved phosphorus. Various analytical protocols exist to provide an offsite analysis, and a point of site analysis is required. The current standard method recommended by the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) for the detection of total phosphorus is colorimetric and based upon the color of a phosphomolybdate complex formed as a result of the reaction between orthophosphates and molybdates ions where ascorbic acid and antimony potassium tartrate are added and serve as reducing agents. Prior to the measurements, all forms of phosphorus are converted into orthophosphates via sample digestion (heating and acidifying). The work presented here details an electrochemical adaptation of this EPA recommended colorimetric approach for the measurement of dissolved phosphorus in water samples using screen-printed graphite macroelectrodes for the first time. This novel indirect electrochemical sensing protocol allows the determination of orthophosphates over the range from 0.5 to 20 μg L(-1) in ideal pH 1 solutions utilizing cyclic voltammetry with a limit of detection (3σ) found to correspond to 0.3 μg L(-1) of phosphorus. The reaction time and influence of foreign ions (potential interferents) upon this electroanalytical protocol was also investigated, where it was found that a reaction time of 5 min, which is essential in the standard colorimetric approach, is not required in the new proposed electrochemically adapted protocol. The proposed electrochemical method was independently validated through the quantification of orthophosphates and total dissolved phosphorus in polluted water samples (canal water samples) with ion chromatography and ICP-OES, respectively. This novel electrochemical protocol exhibits advantages over the established EPA recommended colorimetric determination for total phosphorus with lower detection limits and shorter experimental times

  5. Private initiatives, public support, and war practices: development of fertilisers in Russia.

    PubMed

    Elina, Olga Y

    2011-03-01

    The scarcity of experiments with fertilisers, the poor domestic industry, and high prices for imported products made Russia lag far behind the leading agrarian countries in the research and use of fertilisers. The first experiments on fertilisers were connected mostly with the private estates of Russian nobility. Things began to change slowly by the turn of the twentieth century, when the Ministry of Agriculture launched a policy of agricultural science promotion, including the development of agricultural chemistry. It was the outbreak of World War I that created a powerful stimulus for fertiliser research in Russia. A specific Russian "symbiosis" emerged between military industry and agricultural chemistry. The numerous factories of explosives set up ad hoc produced vast amounts of waste products; modified, they could serve as fertilisers. In 1915, the Public Committee for Support of Fertilisers was organised. Eventually, this committee gave birth to the Institute of Fertilisers, the first institute founded by the Bolshevik government. Thus, the project of "chemicalisation of agriculture," usually described as a revolutionary endeavour, was firmly rooted in World War I.

  6. Sewage sludge fertiliser use: implications for soil and plant copper evolution in forest and agronomic soils.

    PubMed

    Ferreiro-Domínguez, Nuria; Rigueiro-Rodríguez, Antonio; Mosquera-Losada, M Rosa

    2012-05-01

    Fertilisation with sewage sludge may lead to crop toxicity and environmental degradation. This study aims to evaluate the effects of two types of soils (forest and agronomic), two types of vegetation (unsown (coming from soil seed bank) and sown), and two types of fertilisation (sludge fertilisation and mineral fertilisation, with a no fertiliser control) in afforested and treeless swards and in sown and unsown forestlands on the total and available Cu concentration in soil, the leaching of this element and the Cu levels in plant. The experimental design was completely randomised with nine treatments and three replicates. Fertilisation with sewage sludge increased the concentration of Cu in soil and plant, but the soil values never exceeded the maximum set by Spanish regulations. Sewage sludge inputs increased both the total and Mehlich 3 Cu concentrations in agronomic soils and the Cu levels in plant developed in agronomic and forest soils, with this effect pronounced in the unsown swards of forest soils. Therefore, the use of high quality sewage sludge as fertiliser may improve the global productivity of forest, agronomic and silvopastoral systems without creating environmental hazards.

  7. Uptake of phosphorus by filamentous bacteria and the role of cation on polyphosphates composition.

    PubMed

    Machnicka, A; Suschka, J; Wiatowski, M

    2008-01-01

    Many microorganisms have the ability to store phosphorus as polyphosphates in volutin granules. The aim of the research was to characterise the phosphorus sequestered by filamentous microorganisms present in the foam. Also the importance of required cations like potassium and magnesium in the process of phosphorus uptake by filamentous microorganisms was examined. Electron microscopy and energy dispersive X - ray analysis were used to define the composition of polyphosphate granules in filamentous bacteria.

  8. SIMS(DAIRY): a modelling framework to identify sustainable dairy farms in the UK. Framework description and test for organic systems and N fertiliser optimisation.

    PubMed

    Del Prado, A; Misselbrook, T; Chadwick, D; Hopkins, A; Dewhurst, R J; Davison, P; Butler, A; Schröder, J; Scholefield, D

    2011-09-01

    Multiple demands are placed on farming systems today. Society, national legislation and market forces seek what could be seen as conflicting outcomes from our agricultural systems, e.g. food quality, affordable prices, a healthy environmental, consideration of animal welfare, biodiversity etc., Many of these demands, or desirable outcomes, are interrelated, so reaching one goal may often compromise another and, importantly, pose a risk to the economic viability of the farm. SIMS(DAIRY), a farm-scale model, was used to explore this complexity for dairy farm systems. SIMS(DAIRY) integrates existing approaches to simulate the effect of interactions between farm management, climate and soil characteristics on losses of nitrogen, phosphorus and carbon. The effects on farm profitability and attributes of biodiversity, milk quality, soil quality and animal welfare are also included. SIMS(DAIRY) can also be used to optimise fertiliser N. In this paper we discuss some limitations and strengths of using SIMS(DAIRY) compared to other modelling approaches and propose some potential improvements. Using the model we evaluated the sustainability of organic dairy systems compared with conventional dairy farms under non-optimised and optimised fertiliser N use. Model outputs showed for example, that organic dairy systems based on grass-clover swards and maize silage resulted in much smaller total GHG emissions per l of milk and slightly smaller losses of NO(3) leaching and NO(x) emissions per l of milk compared with the grassland/maize-based conventional systems. These differences were essentially because the conventional systems rely on indirect energy use for 'fixing' N compared with biological N fixation for the organic systems. SIMS(DAIRY) runs also showed some other potential benefits from the organic systems compared with conventional systems in terms of financial performance and soil quality and biodiversity scores. Optimisation of fertiliser N timings and rates showed a

  9. Dietary phosphorus, serum phosphorus, and cardiovascular disease.

    PubMed

    Menon, Madhav C; Ix, Joachim H

    2013-10-01

    Recent epidemiologic studies have linked higher serum phosphorus concentrations to cardiovascular disease (CVD) events and mortality. This association has been identified in the general population and in those with chronic kidney disease (CKD). The risk of adverse outcomes appears to begin with phosphorus concentrations within the upper limit of the normal reference range. Multiple experimental studies have suggested pathogenetic mechanisms that involve direct and indirect effects of high phosphorus concentrations to explain these associations. Drawing from these observations, guideline-forming agencies have recommended that serum phosphorus concentrations be maintained within the normal reference range in patients with CKD and that dietary phosphorus restriction or use of intestinal phosphate binders should be considered to achieve this goal. However, outside the dialysis population, the links between dietary phosphorus intake and serum phosphorus concentrations, and dietary phosphorus intake and CVD events, are uncertain. With specific reference to the nondialysis populations, this review discusses the available data linking dietary phosphorus intake with serum phosphorus concentrations and CVD events.

  10. Management of natural and added dietary phosphorus burden in kidney disease.

    PubMed

    Cupisti, Adamasco; Kalantar-Zadeh, Kamyar

    2013-03-01

    Phosphorus retention occurs from higher dietary phosphorus intake relative to its renal excretion or dialysis removal. In the gastrointestinal tract the naturally existing organic phosphorus is only partially (∼60%) absorbable; however, this absorption varies widely and is lower for plant-based phosphorus including phytate (<40%) and higher for foods enhanced with inorganic phosphorus-containing preservatives (>80%). The latter phosphorus often remains unrecognized by patients and health care professionals, even though it is widely used in contemporary diets, in particular, low-cost foods. In a nonenhanced mixed diet, digestible phosphorus correlates closely with total protein content, making protein-rich foods a main source of natural phosphorus. Phosphorus burden is limited more appropriately in predialysis patients who are on a low-protein diet (∼0.6 g/kg/d), whereas dialysis patients who require higher protein intake (∼1.2 g/kg/d) are subject to a higher dietary phosphorus load. An effective and patient-friendly approach to reduce phosphorus intake without depriving patients of adequate proteins is to educate patients to avoid foods with high phosphorus relative to protein such as egg yolk and those with high amounts of phosphorus-based preservatives such as certain soft drinks and enhanced cheese and meat. Phosphorus rich foods should be prepared by boiling, which reduces phosphorus as well as sodium and potassium content, or by other types of cooking-induced demineralization. The dose of phosphorus-binding therapy should be adjusted separately for the amount and absorbability of phosphorus in each meal. Dietician counseling to address the emerging aspects of dietary phosphorus management is instrumental for achieving a reduction of phosphorus load.

  11. Exposure of ova to cortisol pre-fertilisation affects subsequent behaviour and physiology of brown trout.

    PubMed

    Sloman, Katherine A

    2010-08-01

    Even before fertilisation, exposure of ova to high levels of stress corticosteroids can have significant effects on offspring in a variety of animals. In fish, high levels of cortisol in ovarian fluid can elicit morphological changes and reduce offspring survival. Whether there are other more subtle effects, including behavioural effects, of exposure to cortisol pre-fertilisation in fish is unclear. Here I demonstrate that a brief (3h) exposure of brown trout eggs to a physiologically relevant ( approximately 500 microg l(-)(1)) concentration of cortisol pre-fertilisation resulted in changes to developing offspring. Embryos exposed to cortisol pre-fertilisation displayed elevated oxygen consumption and ammonia excretion rates during development. After hatch, in contrast to the effects of cortisol exposure in juvenile fish, fish exposed to cortisol as eggs were more aggressive than control individuals and responded differently within a maze system. Thus, a transient exposure to corticosteroids in unfertilised eggs results in both physiological and behavioural alterations in fish.

  12. Embracing post-fertilisation methods of family planning: a call to action.

    PubMed

    Raymond, Elizabeth G; Coeytaux, Francine; Gemzell-Danielsson, Kristina; Moore, Kirsten; Trussell, James; Winikoff, Beverly

    2013-10-01

    Family planning methods that act when administered after fertilisation would have substantial benefits: they could be used longer after sex than current emergency contraceptives, and potentially a woman could use them only on relatively rare occasions when her menstrual period is delayed. Although such methods would displease abortion opponents, they would likely be welcomed by many women. Research to develop post-fertilisation fertility control agents should be pursued.

  13. Derangements of potassium.

    PubMed

    Medford-Davis, Laura; Rafique, Zubaid

    2014-05-01

    Changes in potassium elimination, primarily due to the renal and GI systems, and shifting potassium between the intracellular and extracellular spaces cause potassium derangement. Symptoms are vague, but can be cardiac, musculoskeletal, or gastrointestinal. There are no absolute guidelines for when to treat, but it is generally recommended when the patient is symptomatic or has ECG changes. Treatment of hyperkalemia includes cardiac membrane stabilization with IV calcium, insulin and beta-antagonists to push potassium intracellularly, and dialysis. Neither sodium bicarbonate nor kayexelate are recommended. Treatment of symptomatic hypokalemia consists of PO or IV repletion with potassium chloride and magnesium sulfate.

  14. Artificial fertilisation in a terrestrial toadlet (Pseudophryne guentheri): effect of medium osmolality, sperm concentration and gamete storage.

    PubMed

    Silla, Aimee J

    2013-01-01

    Anurans exhibit a greater reproductive diversity than any other vertebrate order. However, studies investigating the effects of the external fertilisation environment on fertilisation success are limited to aquatic-breeding species. This study investigated the effects of fertilisation medium osmolality, sperm concentration and short-term oocyte storage on fertilisation success in a terrestrial-breeding anuran, Pseudophryne guentheri. Split-clutch experimental designs were used to determine optimal fertilisation conditions. To determine the effect of short-term sperm storage, sperm viability was assessed using fluorescence microscopy and percentage sperm motility and velocity quantified with a computer-assisted sperm analysis system. Fertilisation success was highest in media ranging in osmolality from 25 mOsm kg⁻¹ to 100 mOsm kg⁻¹, representing a broader range and higher optimal osmolality than previously reported for aquatic breeders. High rates of fertilisation (>75%) were achieved in relatively low sperm concentrations (2.5×10⁴ mL⁻¹). Oocytes stored in isotonic solutions (200 mOsm kg⁻¹) retained fertilisation capacity (32%) after 8h of storage, while sperm suspensions maintained motility (≥26%) for 13 days. Additional studies on terrestrial-breeding anurans will be required to ascertain whether the optimal fertilisation conditions reported reflect adaptations to achieve fertilisation in a terrestrial environment.

  15. WEED POPULATION IN RELATION TO CROP ROTATION AND NITROGEN FERTILISATION.

    PubMed

    Derycke, V; Latré, J; Van De Vijver, E; De Roo, B; De Cauwer, B; Haesaert, G

    2014-01-01

    In order to assess the impact of crop rotation and nitrogen fertilisation in an agro system, a long-term field experiment has been established in 2006 at the experimental farm of Ghent University and University College Ghent (Bottelare-Belgium). The trial comprises 11 different crop rotations in combination with four nitrogen fertilizer regimes. The different crop rotations are monoculture of grain- and silage maize, whether or not followed by Italian ryegrass, permanent and temporary grass-clover and six other rotations of maize in combination with potatoes, wheat, fodder beet and peas. Normal crop husbandry measures were taken for each crop. The experiment was set up on a sandy loam soil, according to a strip plot design with 3 replicates. In the course of the experiment, crop rotation was the horizontal factor and fertilizer nitrogen (N) the vertical factor. The effect of crop rotation on yield, disease pressure, soil structure and earthworm abundance were evaluated yearly. In autumn 2013 the weed seed bank was analysed for each plot using the seedling emergence method. The obtained results indicated differences between the different crop rotations.

  16. Production of 15N-Labelled Liquid Organic Fertilisers Based on Manure and Crop Residue for Use in Fertigation Studies.

    PubMed

    Martínez-Alcántara, Belén; Martínez-Cuenca, Mary-Rus; Fernández, Carlos; Legaz, Francisco; Quiñones, Ana

    2016-01-01

    Large quantities of crop residue and animal manure from agricultural and livestock activities are annually produced worldwide. With proper management, these residues are potentially valuable sources of plant nutrients, mainly N. Recycling such subproducts in sustainably-based agricultural systems can minimise the use of mineral fertilisers, and hence reduce the potential risk of surface and groundwater pollution. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to obtain (small scale) two liquid labelled-organic fertilisers, an animal- and a vegetal-based organic (AO and VO, respectively) fertiliser, to be used as organic N sources in subsequent fertigation studies. Forage maize (Zea mays L.) grown under 15N-labelled fertiliser supply was used as raw material for VO fertiliser production, and also as 15N-labelled sheep feed to obtain 15N-labelled manure. The labelled faeces fraction was used as raw material for the AO fertiliser. The VO fertiliser was obtained after an acidic and an enzyme-driven hydrolysis. The AO fertiliser was obtained after acidic hydrolysis. The VO liquid fertiliser presented an N concentration of 330 mg·L-1, 85% of total N was organic, while ammonium and nitrate N accounted for 55% and 45% of the mineral nitrogen fraction, respectively. This fertiliser also exhibited high K, Ca and S concentrations and notable values for the remaining macro- and micronutrients. The AO liquid fertiliser had a similar total N concentration (496 mg·L-1, 82% of total N in an organic form) to that of VO, but its mineral N fraction significantly differed, which came in a predominantly (95%) ammonia form. It also had a high content of N, P, K and other macronutrients, and sufficient Fe, Zn, Mn, Cu and B levels, which suggests its suitability as a potential fertiliser. The percentage of 15N enrichment in both VO and AO liquid fertilisers exceeded 2% 15N atom excess, which enabled their use in subsequent assays run to assess nitrogen uptake efficiency.

  17. Potassium Secondary Batteries.

    PubMed

    Eftekhari, Ali; Jian, Zelang; Ji, Xiulei

    2017-02-08

    Potassium may exhibit advantages over lithium or sodium as a charge carrier in rechargeable batteries. Analogues of Prussian blue can provide millions of cyclic voltammetric cycles in aqueous electrolyte. Potassium intercalation chemistry has recently been demonstrated compatible with both graphite and nongraphitic carbons. In addition to potassium-ion batteries, potassium-O2 (or -air) and potassium-sulfur batteries are emerging. Additionally, aqueous potassium-ion batteries also exhibit high reversibility and long cycling life. Because of potentially low cost, availability of basic materials, and intriguing electrochemical behaviors, this new class of secondary batteries is attracting much attention. This mini-review summarizes the current status, opportunities, and future challenges of potassium secondary batteries.

  18. Phosphorus in diet

    MedlinePlus

    Phosphorus is so readily available in the food supply so deficiency is rare. Excessively high levels of phosphorus in the blood, although rare, can combine with calcium to form deposits in soft tissues such ...

  19. Nutrient effects on the calcium economy: emphasizing the potassium controversy.

    PubMed

    Rafferty, Karen; Heaney, Robert P

    2008-01-01

    The calcium economy is a dynamic state influenced by fluxes in dietary calcium intake, intestinal calcium absorption, and renal calcium conservation. The relationship of selected bone-related nutrients to these calcium fluxes exhibits both constructive and destructive interactions that affect the overall state of calcium balance. The basis of the calcium requirement and the impact of vitamin D, protein, phosphorus, sodium, and caffeine on the calcium economy are reviewed. Against this background, emerging data on potassium are presented. Data from balance studies of healthy white women at midlife were reviewed to assess the effect of diet potassium on the calcium economy under steady-state conditions. Potassium was inversely associated with both urinary calcium excretion and intestinal calcium absorption, yielding no significant net change in calcium balance. In the population reported on here, dairy, meat, and cereal grains together contributed 56%, and fruits and vegetables 44%, of total dietary potassium. To the extent that fruit and vegetable potassium is a surrogate for high bicarbonate, this cohort did not have a dietary intake pattern allowing for measurement or interpretation of the potential effect of a high-bicarbonate-containing diet on long-term steady-state calcium balance. Potassium itself is uniformly well absorbed regardless of the dietary source. Mean 24-h urinary potassium averaged 92% of dietary intake. According to nationwide food consumption surveys, milk is the number 1 single food source of potassium in all age groups in the United States.

  20. Substitution of peat, fertiliser and manure by compost in hobby gardening: user surveys and case studies.

    PubMed

    Andersen, Jacob K; Christensen, Thomas H; Scheutz, Charlotte

    2010-12-01

    Four user surveys were performed at recycle centres (RCs) in the Municipalities of Aarhus and Copenhagen, Denmark, to get general information on compost use and to examine the substitution of peat, fertiliser and manure by compost in hobby gardening. The average driving distance between the users' households and the RCs was found to be 4.3 km and the average amount of compost picked up was estimated at 800 kg per compost user per year. The application layer of the compost varied (between 1 and 50 cm) depending on the type of use. The estimated substitution (given as a fraction of the compost users that substitute peat, fertiliser and manure with compost) was 22% for peat, 12% for fertiliser and 7% for manure (41% in total) from the survey in Aarhus (n=74). The estimate from the survey in Copenhagen (n=1832) was 19% for peat, 24% for fertiliser and 15% for manure (58% in total). This is the first time, to the authors' knowledge, that the substitution of peat, fertiliser and manure with compost has been assessed for application in hobby gardening. Six case studies were performed as home visits in addition to the Aarhus surveys. From the user surveys and the case studies it was obvious that the total substitution of peat, fertiliser and manure was not 100%, as is often assumed when assigning environmental credits to compost. It was more likely around 50% and thus there is great potential for improvement. It was indicated that compost was used for a lot of purposes in hobby gardening. Apart from substitution of peat, fertiliser and manure, compost was used to improve soil quality and as a filling material (as a substitute for soil). Benefits from these types of application are, however, difficult to assess and thereby quantify.

  1. Fertilisation and early developmental barriers to hybridisation in field crickets

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Post-mating interactions between the reproductive traits and gametes of mating individuals and among their genes within zygotes are invariably complex, providing multiple opportunities for reproduction to go awry. These interactions have the potential to act as barriers to gene flow between species, and may be important in the process of speciation. There are multiple post-mating barriers to interbreeding between the hybridising field crickets Gryllus bimaculatus and G. campestris. Female G. bimaculatus preferentially store sperm from conspecific males when mated to both conspecific and heterospecific partners. Additionally, conspecific males sire an even greater proportion of offspring than would be predicted from their sperm’s representation in the spermatheca. The nature of these post-sperm-storage barriers to hybridisation are unknown. We use a fluorescent staining technique to determine whether barriers occur prior to, or during embryo development. Results We show that eggs laid by G. bimaculatus females mated to G. campestris males are less likely to begin embryogenesis than eggs from conspecific mating pairs. Of the eggs that are successfully fertilised and start to develop, those from heterospecific mating pairs are more likely to arrest early, prior to blastoderm formation. We find evidence for bimodal variation among egg clutches in the number of developing embryos that subsequently arrest, indicating that there is genetic variation for incompatibility between mating individuals. In contrast to the pattern of early embryonic mortality, those hybrids reaching advanced stages of embryogenesis have survival rates equal to that of embryos from conspecific mating pairs. Conclusions Post-sperm-storage barriers to hybridisation show evidence of genetic polymorphism. They are sufficiently large, that if the species interbreed where they are sympatric, these barriers could play a role in the maintenance of reproductive isolation between them. The

  2. Cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator protein expression rate in healthy spermatozoa is not correlated with ovum fertilisation rate.

    PubMed

    Li, H-G; Xu, C-M; Chen, W-Y; Shi, Q-X; Ni, Y

    2012-05-01

    Our previous studies have shown that the cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) was important for capacitation and fertilisation in mouse, guinea pig and human spermatozoa. However, it is unclear whether CFTR is correlated with ovum fertilisation rate. The present study was to test the possible relationship between spermatozoa CFTR protein expression rate in healthy men and ovum fertilisation rate during in vitro fertilisation. Ninety-four couples for female factor infertility for IVF-ET treatments were retrospectively studied. All the patients were divided into three groups based on the fertilisation rate of ovum in vitro. It was performed to explore whether there were differences in sperm CFTR protein expression rate among the three groups and the relevance between CFTR protein expression rate and ovum fertilisation rate. Our study showed that there was no significant differences in sperm CFTR protein expression rate among the three groups (F = 0.614, P = 0.544), and the relevance between spermatozoa CFTR protein expression rate and ovum fertilisation rate was not significantly different (r = 0.013, P = 0.904). These results further suggest that CFTR protein expression rate in healthy men spermatozoa was not associated with ovum fertilisation rate and thus we cannot predict ovum fertilisation results by sperm CFTR protein expression rate.

  3. Effect of potassium depletion on urinary stone risk factors in Wistar rats.

    PubMed

    Yachantha, Chatchai; Hossain, Rayhan Zubair; Yamakawa, Kenichi; Sugaya, Kimio; Tosukhowong, Piyaratana; Ogawa, Yoshihide; Saito, Seiichi

    2009-12-01

    Various studies have suggested that potassium depletion leads to acidosis and hypocitraturia. In Northeastern Thailand, for example, mild hypokalemia and mild hyperoxaluria are observed in most stone formers. However, there are limited reports about the direct link between potassium depletion and the formation of urinary stones, most of which are calcium oxalate stones. Therefore, we studied the direct effect of potassium depletion on the risk factors for calcium oxalate stone formation. Seventy-two rats were fed a control diet or a potassium-deficient diet for 1, 2, or 3 weeks (n = 12 per group). Twenty-four-hour urine collection was done for the measurement of potassium, calcium, oxalate, glycolate, citrate, phosphorus, and magnesium. Lactate dehydrogenase activity was also measured in order to assess renal tubular damage, and kidneys were harvested for histological examination. Furthermore, urinary supersaturation of calcium oxalate was calculated. With potassium depletion, the urinary concentrations of potassium, citrate, magnesium, and phosphorus decreased rapidly. There was no detectable renal damage, renal calcium deposition, and no significant increase of urinary oxalate or calcium. However, the urinary supersaturation index of calcium oxalate increased significantly in rats with potassium depletion. These findings indicate that potassium deficiency may increase the risk of stone formation through enhanced supersaturation.

  4. Sequential analysis of sperm functional aspects involved in fertilisation: a pilot study.

    PubMed

    Abu, D A H; Franken, D R; Hoffman, B; Henkel, R

    2012-05-01

    The development of diagnostic techniques in andrology as a second level of approach to the diagnosis of male factor infertility has enthused the focus of researchers on the development of a sequential diagnostic programme for these men. Semen samples of 78 men form couples undergoing in vitro fertilisation therapy were used in the study. The semen samples were used to test sperm functional aspects known to interfere with fertilisation. These tests included semen profile, DNA integrity, apoptosis, chromatin packaging, acridin orange staining, zona binding capacity, zona-induced acrosome reaction (AR). Results were correlated with fertilisation outcome. Statistical analyses of the recorded data were carried out using a logistic regression analysis model on all sperm functional tests. A negative and significant association with the fertilisation rates was recorded for DNA damage (r = -0.56; P ≤ 0.0005). A positive significant correlation was recorded between fertilisation rates and sperm with normal DNA (r = -0.57, P ≤ 0.0004), and zona-induced AR (r = 0.33, P ≤ 0.002). Diagnostic andrology can be regarded as a mandatory part of the male factor patient's work-up schedule to assist clinicians with the most suitable therapeutic modality to follow.

  5. Ultrastructural study on the fertilisation process in sturgeon (Acipenser), function of acrosome and prevention of polyspermy.

    PubMed

    Psenicka, Martin; Rodina, Marek; Linhart, Otomar

    2010-01-01

    Sturgeon gametes differ from other fish in that their spermatozoa possess acrosome with finger-like posterolateral projections, which undergo exocytosis and filament formation, whereas eggs possess numerous micropyles. The fertilisation process in Acipenser baerii was investigated by fluorescence and electron microscopy. A suitable activation solution containing 2.5 mM CaCl(2), 15 mM Tris, pH 10 was found for detailed description of acrosomal reaction. The acrosome reaction includes the formation of a spear-like fertilisation filament coming from three endonuclear canals and implantation fossa through the acrosomes. It can accelerate the process of polyspermy prevention. Another unique feature of the acrosome was an anchor-like opening of the posterolateral projections. Mature eggs of A. baerii possessed 2-10 micropyles in the animal pole region. The eggs consisted of three principal layers and an outermost jelly coat blocking micropyle, and a layer of cortical granules in unfertilised eggs. With the exposure to freshwater, the jelly like layer separated from the egg surface, whereas the cortical granules swelled. No change between the layers of fertilised and unfertilised eggs, apart from the generation of an increasing perivitelline space by dissolution of the cortical granules, had been observed after the fusion of spermatozoon with an egg. A fertilisation cone blocked a fusion of other spermatozoa with cytoplasmatic projection in the fertilised micropyle.

  6. Live birth from slow-frozen rabbit oocytes after in vivo fertilisation.

    PubMed

    Jiménez-Trigos, Estrella; Vicente, José S; Marco-Jiménez, Francisco

    2013-01-01

    In vivo fertilisation techniques such as intraoviductal oocyte transfer have been considered as alternatives to bypass the inadequacy of conventional in vitro fertilisation in rabbit. There is only one study in the literature, published in 1989, that reports live offspring from cryopreserved rabbit oocytes. The aim of the present study was to establish the in vivo fertilisation procedure to generate live offspring with frozen oocytes. First, the effect of two recipient models (i) ovariectomised or (ii) oviduct ligated immediately after transfer on the ability of fresh oocytes to fertilise were compared. Second, generation of live offspring from slow-frozen oocytes was carried out using the ligated oviduct recipient model. Throughout the experiment, recipients were artificially inseminated 9 hours prior to oocyte transfer. In the first experiment, two days after unilateral transfer of fresh oocytes, oviducts and uterine horns were flushed to assess embryo recovery rates. The embryo recovery rates were low compared to control in both ovariectomised and ligated oviduct groups. However, ligated oviduct recipient showed significantly (P<0.05) higher embryo recovery rates compared to ovariectomised and control-transferred. In the second experiment, using bilateral oviduct ligation model, all females that received slow-frozen oocytes became pregnant and delivered a total of 4 live young naturally. Thus, in vivo fertilisation is an effective technique to generate live offspring using slow-frozen oocytes in rabbits.

  7. Low Potassium (Hypokalemia)

    MedlinePlus

    ... critical to the proper functioning of nerve and muscles cells, particularly heart muscle cells. Normally, your blood potassium level is 3.6 to 5.2 millimoles per liter (mmol/L). A very low potassium level (less than 2.5 ... isolated symptoms such as muscle cramps if you are feeling well in other ...

  8. Potassium food supplement

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bourland, C. T.; Huber, C. S.; Rambaut, C.; Heidelbaugh, N. D.

    1973-01-01

    Potassium gluconate is considered best supplementary source for potassium. Gluconate consistently received highest taste rating and was indistinguishable from nonsupplemented samples. No unfavorable side effects were found during use, and none are reported in literature. Gluconate is normal intermediary metabolite that is readily adsorbed and produces no evidence of gastrointestinal ulcerations.

  9. Evolutionary shifts to self-fertilisation restricted to geographic range margins in North American Arabidopsis lyrata.

    PubMed

    Griffin, P C; Willi, Y

    2014-04-01

    Cross-fertilisation predominates in eukaryotes, but shifts to self-fertilisation are common and ecologically and evolutionarily important. Reproductive assurance under outcross gamete limitation is one eco-evolutionary process held responsible for the shift to selfing. Although small effective population size is a situation where selfing plants could theoretically benefit from reproductive assurance, empirical tests of the role of population size are rare. Here, we show that selfing evolved repeatedly at range margins, where historical demographic processes produced low effective population sizes. Outcrossing populations of North American Arabidopsis lyrata have low genetic diversity at geographic margins, with a signature of post-glacial range expansion in the north and rear-edge isolation in the south. Selfing populations occur at the margins of two genetic groups and never in their interior. These results corroborate small effective population size as the promoter of self-fertilisation and have important implications for our understanding of species turnover, range limits and range dynamics.

  10. Contaminant cocktails: Interactive effects of fertiliser and copper paint on marine invertebrate recruitment and mortality.

    PubMed

    Lawes, Jasmin C; Clark, Graeme F; Johnston, Emma L

    2016-01-15

    Understanding interactive effects of contaminants is critical to predict how human activities change ecosystem structure and function. We examined independent and interactive effects of two contaminants (fertiliser and copper paint) on the recruitment, mortality, and total abundance of developing invertebrate communities in the field, 2, 4, 6, and 8 weeks after substrate submersion. Contaminants affected community structure differently, and produced an intermediate community in combination. Fertiliser increased recruitment and decreased mortality of active filter feeders (ascidians and barnacles), while copper paint decreased recruitment and increased mortality of some taxa. Contaminants applied together affected some taxa (e.g. Didemnid ascidians) antagonistically, as fertiliser mitigated adverse effects of copper paint. Recruitment of active filter feeders appears to be indicative of nutrient enrichment, and their increased abundance may reduce elevated nutrients in modified waterways. This study demonstrates the need to consider both independent and interactive effects of contaminants on marine communities in the field.

  11. The application of a selenium fertiliser for the correction of marginal deficiencies in grazing sheep.

    PubMed

    Cloete, S W; van Niekerk, F E; Young, M; van der Merwe, G D; Clark, J

    1999-09-01

    A commercial fertiliser, consisting of a poorly soluble barium selenate core with a coating of highly soluble sodium selenite, was evaluated in 2 trials for the provision of selenium (Se) to grazing sheep. The fertiliser was administered at a level of 1 kg per hectare to 3 of 6 kikuyu paddocks during 1995 and 1996 in Trial 1, while the other paddocks were left untreated. The Se status of SA mutton merino ram lambs, as reflected by whole blood, liver and kidney Se concentrations, was elevated (P < 0.01) for at least 5 months after application of the fertiliser. Whole blood and liver Se concentrations of animals grazing unfertilised control paddocks were indicative of a subclinical Se deficiency at times (<100 ng Se/ml whole blood and <300 microg Se/kg liver dry matter). In Trial 2, 4 of 7 paddocks on which an oat fodder crop was established were treated with the Se fertiliser during 1995 and 1997. The remaining 3 paddocks were left unfertilised as controls. Groups of 10-15 pregnant SA mutton merino ewes were introduced to these paddocks within 2 weeks of parturition. These ewes and their progeny utilised these paddocks for a mean (+/- SD) period of 41 +/- 8 days after parturition. The whole blood Se concentrations of these ewes and their offspring were elevated (P < 0.01) relative to their contemporaries utilising control paddocks. No suggestion of a subclinical Se deficiency was discernible in animals grazing control paddocks, although whole blood Se levels approached 100 ng Se/ml during 1997. The application of Se fertiliser did not result in improvements in ewe reproduction or lamb growth. There was a suggestion of an improvement (P = 0.21) in mean (+/- SE) lamb survival on paddocks receiving Se fertiliser compared to control paddocks (71.5 +/- 4.6% vs 62.2 +/- 5.3% respectively).

  12. Potassium and health.

    PubMed

    Weaver, Connie M

    2013-05-01

    Potassium was identified as a shortfall nutrient by the Dietary Guidelines for Americans 2010 Advisory Committee. The committee concluded that there was a moderate body of evidence of the association between potassium intake and blood pressure reduction in adults, which in turn influences the risk of stroke and coronary heart disease. Evidence is also accumulating of the protective effect of adequate dietary potassium on age-related bone loss and reduction of kidney stones. These benefits depend on organic anions associated with potassium as occurs in foods such as fruits and vegetables, in contrast to similar blood pressure-lowering benefits of potassium chloride. Benefits to blood pressure and bone health may occur at levels below current recommendations for potassium intake, especially from diet, but dose-response trials are needed to confirm this. Nevertheless, intakes considerably above current levels are needed for optimal health, and studies evaluating small increases in fruit and vegetable intake on bone and heart outcomes for short periods have had disappointing results. In modern societies, Western diets have led to a decrease in potassium intake with reduced consumption of fruits and vegetables with a concomitant increase in sodium consumption through increased consumption of processed foods. Consumption of white vegetables is associated with decreased risk of stroke, possibly related to their high potassium content. Potatoes are the highest source of dietary potassium, but the addition of salt should be limited. Low potassium-to-sodium intake ratios are more strongly related to cardiovascular disease risk than either nutrient alone. This relationship deserves further attention for multiple target tissue endpoints.

  13. Phosphorus poisoning in waterfowl

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Coburn, D.R.; DeWitt, J.B.; Derby, J.V.; Ediger, E.

    1950-01-01

    Black ducks and mallards were found to be highly susceptible to phosphorus poisoning. 3 mg. of white phosphorus per kg. of body weight given in a single dose resulted in death of a black duck in 6 hours. Pathologic changes in both acute and chronic poisoning were studied. Data are presented showing that diagnosis can be made accurately by chemical analysis of stored tissues in cases of phosphorus poisoning.

  14. Claypan depth effect on soil phosphorus and potassium dynamics

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Understanding the effects of fertilizer addition and crop removal on long-term change in spatially-variable soil test P (STP) and soil test K (STK) is crucial for maximizing the use of grower inputs on claypan soils. Using apparent electrical conductivity (ECa) to estimate topsoil depth (or depth to...

  15. Effects of Potassium Mineral Fertilization on Potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) Yield on a Chernozem Soil in Hungary

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    László, Márton, ,, Dr.

    2010-05-01

    O and 0.8 kg per tonne MgO, respectivly. We found that 32.6 t/ha crop removed 1.8 kg sodium, 1.6 kg iron, 400 g zinc and 100 g manganese. Pattern of potassium and other nutrient uptake The uptake of nutrients during potato growth were studied. Results for tuber average uptake of nitrogen (472 kg/ha), phosphorus (77 kg/ha) and potassium (426 kg/ha) reached a maximum about 130 days after planting. It was observed that crop took up about 3.6 kg N, 0.5 kg P and 3.0 kg K per ha per day. Nutrient interaction Improving K- supply of the soil was found to increase yield and induce low concentration of numerous elements on leaves considered as important. K- fertilization had a negative effect mainly on the Mg and Ca contents. Thus e.g. K/Mg ratio increased from 3 to 11 at yearly flowering as an effect of K fertilization, that however, should not be considered an unfavourable ratio as yet and on these plots K fertilization still remained effective. Acknowledgements This research was supported by Research Institute for Soil Science and Agricultural Chemistry of the Hungarian Academy of Sciences. References Anderson, G.D.-Hewgill, D. (1978).: Effects of nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium on ‘Blueprint' grown potatoes. Maximising Yields of crops. ADASARC Symposium. 139-150. Burton, W.G. (1966).: The potato. Veemann. Wageningen. Evans, S.A. (1977).: The place of fertilizers in ‘Blueprints' for the production of potatoes and cereals. Fertilizer use and production of carbohydrates and lipids. Proc. 13th Coll. Inst. Bern, 231-241. FAO. (1995).: Production Yearbook, Vol. 49. Grewal, J.S. (1975).: Manuring of potatoes. Indian Farming. 25:15-17. Kali, K.K. (1980).: Private communication. Tokyo. Loué, A. (1977).: Fertilisation et nutrition minérale de la pomme de terre. Expérimentation et études agronomiques, SCPA. Mulhouse. 147. Márton, L. (1984).: Fertilization effects on potato yield and quality. Doctoral dissertation. KAU. Keszthely. Márton, L.-Jose, A.B. (1999).: Potato

  16. Biogeochemistry: The fate of phosphorus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Némery, Julien; Garnier, Josette

    2016-05-01

    Phosphorus is essential for food production, but it is also a key cause of eutrophication. Estimates of phosphorus flux for the past 40-70 years reveal that large river basins can experience phases of phosphorus accumulation and depletion.

  17. Potassium targets from KI

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sletten, G.

    1982-09-01

    Targets of potassium iodide (KI) on thin carbon backings have been prepared. Potassium isotopes are supplied as chlorides, and the chlorine is, in certain experiments, an unwanted contaminant. Target peeparation involves conversion of KCl to KI and subsequent vacuum evaporation of the iodide. Targets of both 39K and 41K in the thickness range of 60 to 100 μg/cm 2 of potassium have been prepared. These targets contain less than 0.5 μg/cm 2 of chlorine impurity and are stable in α-beams of 25 MeV.

  18. Glacial atmospheric phosphorus deposition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kjær, Helle Astrid; Dallmayr, Remi; Gabrieli, Jacopo; Goto-Azuma, Kumiko; Hirabayashi, Motohiro; Svensson, Anders; Vallelonga, Paul

    2016-04-01

    Phosphorus in the atmosphere is poorly studied and thus not much is known about atmospheric phosphorus and phosphate transport and deposition changes over time, though it is well known that phosphorus can be a source of long-range nutrient transport, e.g. Saharan dust transported to the tropical forests of Brazil. In glacial times it has been speculated that transport of phosphorus from exposed shelves would increase the ocean productivity by wash out. However whether the exposed shelf would also increase the atmospheric load to more remote places has not been investigated. Polar ice cores offer a unique opportunity to study the atmospheric transport of aerosols on various timescales, from glacial-interglacial periods to recent anthropogenic influences. We have for the first time determined the atmospheric transport of phosphorus to the Arctic by means of ice core analysis. Both total and dissolved reactive phosphorus were measured to investigate current and past atmospheric transport of phosphorus to the Arctic. Results show that glacial cold stadials had increased atmospheric total phosphorus mass loads of 70 times higher than in the past century, while DRP was only increased by a factor of 14. In the recent period we find evidence of a phosphorus increase over the past 50 yrs in ice cores close to human occupation likely correlated to forest fires. References: Kjær, Helle Astrid, et al. "Continuous flow analysis method for determination of dissolved reactive phosphorus in ice cores." Environmental science & technology 47.21 (2013): 12325-12332. Kjær, Helle Astrid, et al. "Greenland ice cores constrain glacial atmospheric fluxes of phosphorus." Journal of Geophysical Research: Atmospheres120.20 (2015).

  19. Phosphorus recovery from wastes

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Phosphorus (P) is an important macro-nutrient essential for all living organisms and phosphate rock is the main raw material for all inorganic P fertilizers. It is expected that there will be a P peak and resulting P fertilizer shortage in near future. In general, phosphorus use efficiency is low a...

  20. Black Phosphorus Terahertz Photodetectors.

    PubMed

    Viti, Leonardo; Hu, Jin; Coquillat, Dominique; Knap, Wojciech; Tredicucci, Alessandro; Politano, Antonio; Vitiello, Miriam Serena

    2015-10-07

    The first room-temperature terahertz (THz)-frequency nanodetector exploiting a 10 nm thick flake of exfoliated crystalline black phosphorus as an active channel of a field-effect transistor, is devised. By engineering and embedding planar THz antennas for efficient light harvesting, the first technological demonstration of a phosphorus-based active THz device is described.

  1. Black phosphorus gas sensors.

    PubMed

    Abbas, Ahmad N; Liu, Bilu; Chen, Liang; Ma, Yuqiang; Cong, Sen; Aroonyadet, Noppadol; Köpf, Marianne; Nilges, Tom; Zhou, Chongwu

    2015-05-26

    The utilization of black phosphorus and its monolayer (phosphorene) and few-layers in field-effect transistors has attracted a lot of attention to this elemental two-dimensional material. Various studies on optimization of black phosphorus field-effect transistors, PN junctions, photodetectors, and other applications have been demonstrated. Although chemical sensing based on black phosphorus devices was theoretically predicted, there is still no experimental verification of such an important study of this material. In this article, we report on chemical sensing of nitrogen dioxide (NO2) using field-effect transistors based on multilayer black phosphorus. Black phosphorus sensors exhibited increased conduction upon NO2 exposure and excellent sensitivity for detection of NO2 down to 5 ppb. Moreover, when the multilayer black phosphorus field-effect transistor was exposed to NO2 concentrations of 5, 10, 20, and 40 ppb, its relative conduction change followed the Langmuir isotherm for molecules adsorbed on a surface. Additionally, on the basis of an exponential conductance change, the rate constants for adsorption and desorption of NO2 on black phosphorus were extracted for different NO2 concentrations, and they were in the range of 130-840 s. These results shed light on important electronic and sensing characteristics of black phosphorus, which can be utilized in future studies and applications.

  2. Effect of You Gui Wan on mouse sperm fertilising ability in vivo and in vitro.

    PubMed

    Jiang, X-H; Yie, S-M; Zhen, X; Den, Y-L; Liang, X; Hu, X; Li, L-M; Li, Q-J; Cao, S; Lu, H

    2014-04-01

    This study is to explore whether YGW has an impact on sperm fertilising ability in mice. Twenty male mice were randomly divided into two groups. In vivo experiments, one group of animals were orally administrated with YGW decoction and another group administered with saline for 14 days. Afterwards, the animals were mated with their female partners. Percentages of retrieved zygotes were then compared. In vitro experiments, in vitro fertilisation (IVF) assay, sperm acrosome reaction and acrosin activity were used to compare sperm fertilising ability between the two groups. The YGW-treated group had a significantly higher percentage of zygotes than the saline controls (P = 0.005). The IVF rates induced by spermatozoa from the herb-treated mice were also significantly higher than those from the control animals (P = 0.015). The sperm acrosin activity of the herb-treated group was significantly higher than that of the saline-treated group (P = 0.048), although there was no significant difference in testicular weight, sperm count and sperm motility. These data suggest that YGW decoction has a significant effect on normal sperm fertilising ability both in vivo and in vitro, which may be due to, at least in part, increments in the sperm acrosin activity.

  3. Dynamic regulation of sperm interactions with the zona pellucida prior to and after fertilisation.

    PubMed

    Gadella, B M

    2012-01-01

    Recent findings have refined our thinking on sperm interactions with the cumulus-oocyte complex (COC) and our understanding of how, at the molecular level, the sperm cell fertilises the oocyte. Proteomic analyses has identified a capacitation-dependent sperm surface reordering that leads to the formation of functional multiprotein complexes involved in zona-cumulus interactions in several mammalian species. During this process, multiple docking of the acrosomal membrane to the plasma membrane takes place. In contrast with the dogma that the acrosome reaction is initiated when spermatozoa bind to the zona pellucida (ZP), it has been established recently that, in mice, the fertilising spermatozoon initiates its acrosome reaction during its voyage through the cumulus before it reaches the ZP. In fact, even acrosome-reacted mouse spermatozoa collected from the perivitelline space can fertilise another ZP-intact oocyte. The oviduct appears to influence the extracellular matrix properties of the spermatozoa as well as the COC. This may influence sperm binding and penetration of the cumulus and ZP, and, in doing so, increase monospermic while decreasing polyspermic fertilisation rates. Structural analysis of the ZP has shed new light on how spermatozoa bind and penetrate this structure and how the cortical reaction blocks sperm-ZP interactions. The current understanding of sperm interactions with the cumulus and ZP layers surrounding the oocyte is reviewed with a special emphasis on the lack of comparative knowledge on this topic in humans, as well as in most farm mammals.

  4. Uncommon but devastating event: total fertilisation failure following intracytoplasmic sperm injection.

    PubMed

    Goksan Pabuccu, E; Sinem Caglar, G; Dogus Demirkiran, O; Pabuccu, R

    2016-03-01

    Fertilisation with intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI) is a consequence of complex molecular interactions between spermatozoon and oocyte. Disruption of the process obviously prompts a frustrating event called total fertilisation failure (TFF). Up to 3% of ICSI cycles may result in TFF, and brief counselling for subsequent cycle management is indispensable. Within this perspective, ICSI cycles of a centre over a 10-year period were analysed to document TFF cases. Initial TFF after ICSI and subsequent ICSI cycle of the same cases were documented to clarify predictive factors of successful outcomes after initial TFF. In subsequent cycles, assisted oocyte activation (AOA) with calcium ionophore and Hypo-osmotic swelling test (HOST)/pentoxifilline for sperm selection was used. In the current analysis, successful fertilisation was achieved in 85% of the cases with previous TFF. The significant contributing factors for successful fertilisation in the latter cycle were: improved oocyte quantity and better sperm morphology. In conclusion, sporadic TFF event in the first and only cycle is usually a technically modifiable condition, but repeated TFF could indicate possible gamete defects, which might not be overcomed in the next modified ICSI cycle.

  5. Historical arsenic contamination of soil due to long-term phosphate fertiliser applications.

    PubMed

    Hartley, Tom N; Macdonald, Andy J; McGrath, Steve P; Zhao, Fang-Jie

    2013-09-01

    Archived samples from the Park Grass Experiment, established in 1856, were analysed to determine the impacts of long-term phosphate fertiliser applications on arsenic concentrations in soil and herbage. In plots receiving 35 kg P ha(-1) annually (+P), topsoil As concentrations almost doubled from an initial value of ∼10 mg kg(-1) during 1888-1947 and remained stable thereafter. The phosphate fertilisers used before 1948 contained 401-1575 mg As kg(-1), compared to 1.6-20.3 mg As kg(-1) in the later samples. Herbage samples from the +P plots collected during 1888-1947 contained significantly more As than those from the -P plots, but later samples did not differ significantly. Mass-balance calculations show that the increase in soil As can be explained by the As input from P fertiliser applications before 1948. The results demonstrate that the P fertilisers used on the Park Grass Experiment before 1948 caused substantial As contamination of the soil.

  6. High potassium level

    MedlinePlus

    ... symptoms. Tests that may be ordered include: Electrocardiogram (ECG) Potassium level Your provider will likely check your ... have danger signs, such as changes in an ECG . Emergency treatment may include: Calcium given into your ...

  7. Potassium carbonate poisoning

    MedlinePlus

    ... is a white powder used to make soap, glass, and other items. This article discusses poisoning from ... Potassium carbonate is found in: Glass Some dishwasher soaps Some ... that is used in fertilizers) Some home permanent-wave solutions ...

  8. Potassium urine test

    MedlinePlus

    ... be due to: Certain medicines, including beta blockers, lithium, trimethoprim, potassium-sparing diuretics, or nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory ... Diabetic ketoacidosis Hyperaldosteronism - primary and secondary Medullary cystic kidney disease Review Date 8/29/2015 Updated by: Laura ...

  9. Production of 15N-Labelled Liquid Organic Fertilisers Based on Manure and Crop Residue for Use in Fertigation Studies

    PubMed Central

    Martínez-Alcántara, Belén; Martínez-Cuenca, Mary-Rus; Fernández, Carlos; Legaz, Francisco; Quiñones, Ana

    2016-01-01

    Large quantities of crop residue and animal manure from agricultural and livestock activities are annually produced worldwide. With proper management, these residues are potentially valuable sources of plant nutrients, mainly N. Recycling such subproducts in sustainably-based agricultural systems can minimise the use of mineral fertilisers, and hence reduce the potential risk of surface and groundwater pollution. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to obtain (small scale) two liquid labelled-organic fertilisers, an animal- and a vegetal-based organic (AO and VO, respectively) fertiliser, to be used as organic N sources in subsequent fertigation studies. Forage maize (Zea mays L.) grown under 15N-labelled fertiliser supply was used as raw material for VO fertiliser production, and also as 15N-labelled sheep feed to obtain 15N-labelled manure. The labelled faeces fraction was used as raw material for the AO fertiliser. The VO fertiliser was obtained after an acidic and an enzyme-driven hydrolysis. The AO fertiliser was obtained after acidic hydrolysis. The VO liquid fertiliser presented an N concentration of 330 mg·L-1, 85% of total N was organic, while ammonium and nitrate N accounted for 55% and 45% of the mineral nitrogen fraction, respectively. This fertiliser also exhibited high K, Ca and S concentrations and notable values for the remaining macro- and micronutrients. The AO liquid fertiliser had a similar total N concentration (496 mg·L-1, 82% of total N in an organic form) to that of VO, but its mineral N fraction significantly differed, which came in a predominantly (95%) ammonia form. It also had a high content of N, P, K and other macronutrients, and sufficient Fe, Zn, Mn, Cu and B levels, which suggests its suitability as a potential fertiliser. The percentage of 15N enrichment in both VO and AO liquid fertilisers exceeded 2% 15N atom excess, which enabled their use in subsequent assays run to assess nitrogen uptake efficiency. PMID:26982183

  10. Cytokine expression in the seminal plasma and its effects on fertilisation rates in an IVF cycle.

    PubMed

    Seshadri, S; Bates, M; Vince, G; Jones, D I Lewis

    2011-12-01

    Cytokines are released by various immunocompetent cell subsets in the male urogenital tract and are thought to affect sperm cell function and reproductive process. The aim of the study was to evaluate the levels and a possible role of seven seminal plasma cytokines with fertilisation rates in men attending an in vitro fertilisation (IVF) programme. A total of 36 men of couples who were undergoing traditional IVF in a regional reproductive medicine unit were recruited into this prospective study. Cytokines such as interleukin (IL)-6, IL-8, IL-10, IL-11, IL-12, tumour necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) and interferon gamma (IFN-γ) in the seminal plasma were determined using enzyme linked immunosorbent assay. IL-6, IL-8, IL-10, IL-11 and IFN-γ were detected in all samples. IL-12, and TNF-α were detected in most samples. Levels of IL-11 were significantly higher in the good fertiliser group (P ≤ 0.05). Positive correlation between cytokines such as IL-6 and IL-8 (P < 0.03), IL-10 and IL-11 (P < 0.001) and IFN-γ and IL-10 and IL-11 (P < 0.04 and P < 0.0001 respectively) were found. Our study confirms that the six cytokines other than IL-11 do not affect spermatozoon-oocyte interaction and fertilisation rates in IVF. IL-11 could have a role in the fertilising capacity of the spermatozoa. Significant correlation exists among these cytokines which shows that cytokines rarely act in isolation but rather in a network.

  11. Effects of Controlled-Release Fertiliser on Nitrogen Use Efficiency in Summer Maize

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Bin; Dong, Shuting; Zhang, Jiwang; Liu, Peng

    2013-01-01

    Nitrogen (N) is a nutrient element necessary for plant growth and development. However, excessive inputs of N will lead to inefficient use and large N losses to the environment, which can adversely affect air and water quality, biodiversity and human health. To examine the effects of controlled-release fertilisers (CRF) on yield, we measured ammonia volatilisation, N use efficiency (NUE) and photosynthetic rate after anthesis in summer maize hybrid cultivar Zhengdan958. Maize was grown using common compound fertiliser (CCF), the same amount of resin-coated controlled release fertiliser (CRFIII), the same amount of sulphur-coated controlled release fertiliser (SCFIII) as CCF, 75% CRF (CRFII) and SCF (SCFII), 50% CRF (CRFI) and SCF (SCFI), and no fertiliser. We found that treatments CRFIII, SCFIII, CRFII and SCFII produced grain yields that were 13.15%, 14.15%, 9.69% and 10.04% higher than CCF. There were no significant differences in grain yield among CRFI, SCFI and CCF. We also found that the ammonia volatilisation rates of CRF were significantly lower than those of CCF. The CRF treatments reduced the emission of ammonia by 51.34% to 91.34% compared to CCF. In addition, after treatment with CRF, maize exhibited a higher net photosynthetic rate than CCF after anthesis. Agronomic NUE and apparent N recovery were higher in the CRF treatment than in the CCF treatment. The N uptake and physiological NUE of the four yield-enhanced CRF treatments were higher than those of CCF. These results suggest that the increase in NUE in the CRF treatments was generally attributable to the higher photosynthetic rate and lower ammonia volatilisation compared to CCF-treated maize. PMID:23936449

  12. Effects of controlled-release fertiliser on nitrogen use efficiency in summer maize.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Bin; Dong, Shuting; Zhang, Jiwang; Liu, Peng

    2013-01-01

    Nitrogen (N) is a nutrient element necessary for plant growth and development. However, excessive inputs of N will lead to inefficient use and large N losses to the environment, which can adversely affect air and water quality, biodiversity and human health. To examine the effects of controlled-release fertilisers (CRF) on yield, we measured ammonia volatilisation, N use efficiency (NUE) and photosynthetic rate after anthesis in summer maize hybrid cultivar Zhengdan958. Maize was grown using common compound fertiliser (CCF), the same amount of resin-coated controlled release fertiliser (CRFIII), the same amount of sulphur-coated controlled release fertiliser (SCFIII) as CCF, 75% CRF (CRFII) and SCF (SCFII), 50% CRF (CRFI) and SCF (SCFI), and no fertiliser. We found that treatments CRFIII, SCFIII, CRFII and SCFII produced grain yields that were 13.15%, 14.15%, 9.69% and 10.04% higher than CCF. There were no significant differences in grain yield among CRFI, SCFI and CCF. We also found that the ammonia volatilisation rates of CRF were significantly lower than those of CCF. The CRF treatments reduced the emission of ammonia by 51.34% to 91.34% compared to CCF. In addition, after treatment with CRF, maize exhibited a higher net photosynthetic rate than CCF after anthesis. Agronomic NUE and apparent N recovery were higher in the CRF treatment than in the CCF treatment. The N uptake and physiological NUE of the four yield-enhanced CRF treatments were higher than those of CCF. These results suggest that the increase in NUE in the CRF treatments was generally attributable to the higher photosynthetic rate and lower ammonia volatilisation compared to CCF-treated maize.

  13. Determination of phosphorus in lubricating oils by cool-flame emission spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Elliott, W N; Heathcote, C; Mostyn, R A

    1972-03-01

    The phosphorus content of lubricating oils is determined by measurement of the emission from the HPO molecular species at 528 nm in a cool hydrogen-nitrogen diffusion flame. The oil is ashed in the presence of potassium hydroxide and an aqueous extract of the melt is treated with ion-exchange resin to remove interferents, before aspiration into the flame. Analytical results are presented on samples containing phosphorus in the range 0.009-0.2%. The precision of the method is +/- 5% at the 0.04% phosphorus level.

  14. Hidden phosphorus in popular beverages.

    PubMed

    Murphy-Gutekunst, Lisa

    2005-01-01

    To maintain normal serum phosphorus levels, dialysis patient education has emphasized adherence with phosphate binder prescription and low phosphorus diet. In addition to the standard advice to avoid dairy products and legumes, education also focused on lower phosphorus protein foods and beverages. To meet the public's demands for more high quality convenience food, food-processing practices have stepped up the use of phosphorus additives. These additives are now found in beverages that were once considered low in phosphorus content.

  15. High Temperature Stability of Potassium Beta Alumina

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Williams, R. M.; Kisor, A.; Ryan, M. A.

    1996-01-01

    None. From Objectives section: Evaluate the stability of potassium beta alumina under potassium AMTEC operating conditions. Evaluate the stability regime in which potassium beta alumina can be fabricated.

  16. Prevention of multiple pregnancies in couples with unexplained or mild male subfertility: randomised controlled trial of in vitro fertilisation with single embryo transfer or in vitro fertilisation in modified natural cycle compared with intrauterine insemination with controlled ovarian hyperstimulation

    PubMed Central

    Bensdorp, A J; Tjon-Kon-Fat, R I; Bossuyt, P M M; Koks, C A M; Oosterhuis, G J E; Hoek, A; Hompes, P G A; Broekmans, F J M; Verhoeve, H R; de Bruin, J P; van Golde, R; Repping, S; Cohlen, B J; Lambers, M D A; van Bommel, P F; Slappendel, E; Perquin, D; Smeenk, J M; Pelinck, M J; Gianotten, J; Hoozemans, D A; Maas, J W M; Eijkemans, M J C; van der Veen, F; Mol, B W J

    2015-01-01

    Objectives To compare the effectiveness of in vitro fertilisation with single embryo transfer or in vitro fertilisation in a modified natural cycle with that of intrauterine insemination with controlled ovarian hyperstimulation in terms of a healthy child. Design Multicentre, open label, three arm, parallel group, randomised controlled non-inferiority trial. Setting 17 centres in the Netherlands. Participants Couples seeking fertility treatment after at least 12 months of unprotected intercourse, with the female partner aged between 18 and 38 years, an unfavourable prognosis for natural conception, and a diagnosis of unexplained or mild male subfertility. Interventions Three cycles of in vitro fertilisation with single embryo transfer (plus subsequent cryocycles), six cycles of in vitro fertilisation in a modified natural cycle, or six cycles of intrauterine insemination with ovarian hyperstimulation within 12 months after randomisation. Main outcome measures The primary outcome was birth of a healthy child resulting from a singleton pregnancy conceived within 12 months after randomisation. Secondary outcomes were live birth, clinical pregnancy, ongoing pregnancy, multiple pregnancy, time to pregnancy, complications of pregnancy, and neonatal morbidity and mortality Results 602 couples were randomly assigned between January 2009 and February 2012; 201 were allocated to in vitro fertilisation with single embryo transfer, 194 to in vitro fertilisation in a modified natural cycle, and 207 to intrauterine insemination with controlled ovarian hyperstimulation. Birth of a healthy child occurred in 104 (52%) couples in the in vitro fertilisation with single embryo transfer group, 83 (43%) in the in vitro fertilisation in a modified natural cycle group, and 97 (47%) in the intrauterine insemination with controlled ovarian hyperstimulation group. This corresponds to a risk, relative to intrauterine insemination with ovarian hyperstimulation, of 1.10 (95% confidence interval

  17. Biogeochemistry: Early phosphorus redigested

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Poulton, Simon W.

    2017-02-01

    Atmospheric oxygen was maintained at low levels throughout huge swathes of Earth's early history. Estimates of phosphorus availability through time suggest that scavenging from anoxic, iron-rich oceans stabilized this low-oxygen world.

  18. Recipe for potassium

    SciTech Connect

    Izutani, Natsuko

    2012-11-12

    I investigate favorable conditions for producing potassium (K). Observations show [K/Fe] > 0 at low metallicities, while zero-metal supernova models show low [K/Fe] (< 0). Theoretically, it is natural that the odd-Z element, potassium decreases with lower metallicity, and thus, the observation should imply new and unknown sites for potassium. In this proceedings, I calculate proton-rich nucleosynthesis with three parameters, the initial Y{sub e} (from 0.51 to 0.60), the initial density {rho}{sub max} (10{sup 7}, 10{sup 8}, and 10{sup 9} [g/cm{sup 3}]), and the e-fold time {tau} for the density (0.01, 0.1, and 1.0 [sec]). Among 90 models I have calculated, only 26 models show [K/Fe] > 0, and they all have {rho}{sub max} = 10{sup 9}[g/cm{sup 3}]. I discuss parameter dependence of [K/Fe].

  19. Measuring metal and phosphorus speciation in P-rich anaerobic digesters.

    PubMed

    Carliell-Marquet, C M; Wheatley, A D

    2002-01-01

    High concentrations of soluble orthophosphate, magnesium and potassium are released during anaerobic digestion of biological phosphorus removal (BPR) sludge. This research was undertaken to investigate the effects of phosphorus enrichment on digester performance, metal and phosphorus speciation. High concentrations of soluble PO4-P (> 250 mg/l) were found to have a retarding effect on anaerobic digestion, reducing the rate of volatile solids digestion and methane production in comparison to control digesters. This was found to be reversible after a period of time, which was related to the amount of PO4-P added to the digesters, higher concentrations of PO4-P requiring more time for digester recovery. Addition of magnesium and potassium to the digesters, together with PO4-P, reduced the inhibitory effect of phosphorus enrichment but these digesters still showed lower rates of volatile solids digestion and methane production in comparison to the control digesters. Phosphorus enrichment resulted in extensive precipitation of calcium, magnesium and manganese, markedly reducing the soluble and easily available fractions of these metals. Other trace metals such as copper, zinc, chromium, nickel and cobalt actually showed increased levels of solubility as a result of phosphorus enrichment. This was thought to be caused by high levels of soluble organic carbon in the phosphorus-rich anaerobic digesters, which acted as organic ligands for metal complexation.

  20. Potassium Beta-Alumina/Molybdenum/Potassium Electrochemical Cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Williams, R.; Kisor, A.; Ryan, M.; Nakamura, B.; Kikert, S.; O'Connor, D.

    1994-01-01

    potassium alkali metal thermal-to-electric converter (K-AMTEC) cells utilizing potassium beta alumina solid electrolyte (K-BASE) are predicted to have improved properties for thermal to electric conversion at somewhat lower temperatures than sodium AMTEC's.

  1. Errors in potassium balance

    SciTech Connect

    Forbes, G.B.; Lantigua, R.; Amatruda, J.M.; Lockwood, D.H.

    1981-01-01

    Six overweight adult subjects given a low calorie diet containing adequate amounts of nitrogen but subnormal amounts of potassium (K) were observed on the Clinical Research Center for periods of 29 to 40 days. Metabolic balance of potassium was measured together with frequent assays of total body K by /sup 40/K counting. Metabolic K balance underestimated body K losses by 11 to 87% (average 43%): the intersubject variability is such as to preclude the use of a single correction value for unmeasured losses in K balance studies.

  2. Juno is the egg Izumo receptor and is essential for mammalian fertilisation

    PubMed Central

    Bianchi, Enrica; Doe, Brendan; Goulding, David; Wright, Gavin J.

    2014-01-01

    Fertilisation occurs when sperm and egg recognise each other and fuse to form a new, genetically distinct organism. The molecular basis of sperm-egg recognition is unknown, but is likely to require interactions between receptor proteins displayed on their surface. Izumo1 is an essential sperm cell surface protein, but its egg receptor has remained a mystery. Here, we identify Juno as the receptor for Izumo1 on mouse eggs, and show this interaction is conserved within mammals. Female mice lacking Juno are infertile and Juno-deficient eggs do not fuse with normal sperm. Rapid shedding of Juno from the oolemma after fertilisation suggests a mechanism for the membrane block to polyspermy, ensuring eggs normally fuse with just a single sperm. Our discovery of an essential receptor pair at the nexus of conception provides opportunities for the rational development of new fertility treatments and contraceptives. PMID:24739963

  3. Study of contents of 226Ra, 232Th and 40K in fertilisers.

    PubMed

    Tahir, S N A; Alaamer, A S; Omer, R M

    2009-02-01

    In this study concentrations of naturally occurring radionuclides (226)Ra, (232)Th and (40)K were measured in the fertiliser samples in Pakistan using a high-resolution and high-purity germanium detector. Samples were collected from main fertiliser depots located in 10 big cities in the Punjab province. Gamma spectrometric analysis revealed that concentrations of (226)Ra, (232)Th and (40)K existed in the ranges from 232 to 511 Bq kg(-1), 21 to 58 Bq kg(-1) and 556 to 1302 Bq kg(-1) with average values of 386 +/- 92, 38 +/- 14 and 885 +/- 220 Bq kg(-1), respectively. Average values of the three natural radionuclides measured in this study were within the range of reported values from some of the other countries of the world. Correlations drawn between measured concentrations were not significant.

  4. Fertiliser products from new sanitation systems: their potential values and risks.

    PubMed

    Winker, Martina; Vinnerås, Björn; Muskolus, Andreas; Arnold, Ute; Clemens, Joachim

    2009-09-01

    The plant nutrients consumed in human society today are lost through the established wastewater treatment systems in industrialised countries as well as via insufficient or non-existent handling of sewage in the developing world. New sanitation systems have been designated to overcome this failure. The source separated wastewater streams collected within these systems contain a high nutrient content, and can be used as fertiliser as well as soil conditioner after appropriate storage and/or treatment. Application in agriculture with existing techniques is feasible. However, pathogens and pharmaceuticals contained in these fertiliser types are a potential hazard. Nevertheless, storage and appropriate treatment can minimise the risks. The products deriving from these systems have a high potential to preserve available plant nutrient resources and deficiencies in agriculture as well as being able to substitute synthetic plant nutrients and at the same time prevent unwanted environmental nutrient over-enrichment.

  5. Rethinking early Earth phosphorus geochemistry

    PubMed Central

    Pasek, Matthew A.

    2008-01-01

    Phosphorus is a key biologic element, and a prebiotic pathway leading to its incorporation into biomolecules has been difficult to ascertain. Most potentially prebiotic phosphorylation reactions have relied on orthophosphate as the source of phosphorus. It is suggested here that the geochemistry of phosphorus on the early Earth was instead controlled by reduced oxidation state phosphorus compounds such as phosphite (HPO32−), which are more soluble and reactive than orthophosphates. This reduced oxidation state phosphorus originated from extraterrestrial material that fell during the heavy bombardment period or was produced during impacts, and persisted in the mildly reducing atmosphere. This alternate view of early Earth phosphorus geochemistry provides an unexplored route to the formation of pertinent prebiotic phosphorus compounds, suggests a facile reaction pathway to condensed phosphates, and is consistent with the biochemical usage of reduced oxidation state phosphorus compounds in life today. Possible studies are suggested that may detect reduced oxidation state phosphorus compounds in ancient Archean rocks. PMID:18195373

  6. Distributed and dynamic modelling of hydrology, phosphorus and ecology in the Hampshire Avon and Blashford Lakes: evaluating alternative strategies to meet WFD standards.

    PubMed

    Whitehead, P G; Jin, L; Crossman, J; Comber, S; Johnes, P J; Daldorph, P; Flynn, N; Collins, A L; Butterfield, D; Mistry, R; Bardon, R; Pope, L; Willows, R

    2014-05-15

    The issues of diffuse and point source phosphorus (P) pollution in the Hampshire Avon and Blashford Lakes are explored using a catchment model of the river system. A multibranch, process based, dynamic water quality model (INCA-P) has been applied to the whole river system to simulate water fluxes, total phosphorus (TP) and soluble reactive phosphorus (SRP) concentrations and ecology. The model has been used to assess impacts of both agricultural runoff and point sources from waste water treatment plants (WWTPs) on water quality. The results show that agriculture contributes approximately 40% of the phosphorus load and point sources the other 60% of the load in this catchment. A set of scenarios have been investigated to assess the impacts of alternative phosphorus reduction strategies and it is shown that a combined strategy of agricultural phosphorus reduction through either fertiliser reductions or better phosphorus management together with improved treatment at WWTPs would reduce the SRP concentrations in the river to acceptable levels to meet the EU Water Framework Directive (WFD) requirements. A seasonal strategy for WWTP phosphorus reductions would achieve significant benefits at reduced cost.

  7. Ultrastructural changes of the egg apparatus associated with fertilisation of natural tetraploid Trifolium pratense L. (Fabaceae).

    PubMed

    Buyukkartal, H Nurhan Bakar

    2009-01-01

    The aim of this study is to describe the ultrastructural changes of the egg apparatus associated with fertilisation of the natural tetraploid Trifolium pratense. The pollen tube enters one of the synergids through the filliform apparatus from the micropyle. Before the entry of the pollen tube into the embryo sac, one of the synergids begins to degenerate, as indicated by increased electron density and a loss of volume. This cell serves as the site of entry for the pollen tube. Following fertilization, the vacuolar organisation in the zygote changes; in addition to the large micropylar vacuole, there are several small vacuoles of varying size. Ribosomal concentration increases significantly after fertilisation. In T. pratense, ultrastructural changes between the egg cell and zygote stages are noticeable. Several marked changes occur in the egg cell because of fertilisation. The zygote cell contains ribosomes has many mitochondria, plastids, lipids, vacuoles. After fertilization, most of the food reserves are located in the integument in the form of starch. The zygote shows ultrastructural changes when compared to the egg cell and appears to be metabolically active.

  8. Influence of mitochondrial membrane potential of spermatozoa on in vitro fertilisation outcome.

    PubMed

    Marchetti, P; Ballot, C; Jouy, N; Thomas, P; Marchetti, C

    2012-04-01

    To determine whether the outcome of in vitro fertilisation (IVF) is influenced by the percentage of spermatozoa with functional mitochondria, a total of 91 random couples undergoing IVF were included. Mitochondrial function was determined by flow cytometry and expressed as percentage of spermatozoa. Conventional sperm parameters were studied by light microscopy. Reproductive outcome parameters were fertilisation rate, embryo quality and clinical pregnancy. It was found that the fertilisation rate was correlated with the percentage of spermatozoa (r = 0.24, P = 0.01) as well as with the percentage of highly motile spermatozoa. However, we did not find any relationship between the percentage of spermatozoa and embryo quality. Nevertheless, no patient who exhibited less than 64% of spermatozoa achieved pregnancy. It is concluded that determination of Δψ(m) provides accurate information to guide physicians to identify male patients for whom IVF will be unlikely to result in pregnancy. Therefore, we suggest that the percentage of spermatozoa may contribute to identify the most appropriate treatment for an individual patient.

  9. Differences in shoot and root terpenoid profiles and plant responses to fertilisation in Tanacetum vulgare.

    PubMed

    Kleine, Sandra; Müller, Caroline

    2013-12-01

    Intraspecific chemical diversity is a common phenomenon especially found in shoots of essential oil-accumulating plant species. Abiotic factors can influence the concentration of essential oils, but the effects are inconsistent and little is known in how far these may vary within an individual and within species between chemotypes. Tanacetum vulgare L. occurs in various chemotypes that differ in the composition of mono- and sesquiterpenoids in their shoot tissues. We investigated how far shoot chemotype grouping is mirrored in root terpenoid profiles. Furthermore, we studied whether different fertilisation amounts influence the plant growth and morphological traits as well as the constitutive terpenoid concentration of leaves and roots of three chemotypes, trans-carvyl acetate, β-thujone, and camphor, to different degrees. Shoot terpenoids were dominated by monoterpenoids, while the roots contained mainly sesquiterpenoids. The clear grouping in three chemotypes based on leaf chemistry was weakly mirrored in the root terpenoid composition. Furthermore, the leaf C/N ratio and the stem height differed between chemotypes. All plants responded to increased nutrient availability with increased total biomass and specific leaf area but decreased C/N and root/shoot ratios. Leaf terpenoid concentrations decreased with increasing fertiliser supply, independent of chemotype. In contrast to the leaves, the terpenoid concentrations of the roots were unaffected by fertilisation. Our results demonstrate that aboveground and belowground organs within a species can be under different selection pressures.

  10. Comparison of conventional in vitro fertilisation and intracytoplasmic sperm injection outcomes in patients with moderate oligoasthenozoospermia.

    PubMed

    Shuai, H-L; Ye, Q; Huang, Y-H; Xie, B-G

    2015-06-01

    The method of choice for assisted reproductive technology treatment in vitro fertilisation (IVF) or intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI) is usually based on the evaluation of male infertility factors. Decisions for couples with moderate oligoasthenozoospermia (OA) are often empirical because uniform treatment criteria are lacking. This study aimed to evaluate the effect of patients with moderate OA treated with conventional IVF and ICSI. A total of 199 couples with moderate OA undergoing their first IVF/ICSI cycle were included in the study. The patients were divided into two groups according to the type of insemination: conventional IVF group (n = 97) and ICSI group (n = 102). All patients were randomised to be inseminated either by conventional IVF or ICSI. The fertilisation rate, embryo quality, implantation rate and clinical pregnancy rate were examined. No differences in the fertilisation, implantation and pregnancy rates were observed between conventional IVF and ICSI groups (P > 0.05). However, the number of good-quality embryos was significantly higher in the ICSI group than in the IVF group (P < 0.05). Couples with moderate OA did not influence on the overall clinical outcomes between IVF and ICSI treatments, and a negative influence by ICSI on blastocyst development was not confirmed.

  11. Sewage sludge or cattle slurry as pasture fertilisers: comparative cysticercosis and trichostrongylosis risk for grazing cattle.

    PubMed

    Moussavou-Boussougou, Marie-Noelle; Geerts, Stanny; Madeline, Maryline; Ballandonne, Cèline; Barbier, Dominique; Cabaret, Jacques

    2005-08-01

    Sewage sludge and slurry are used as fertilisers on pastures grazed by ruminants. The former may be a source of Taenia saginata, which causes cysticercosis in cattle and taeniosis in man. The latter is a source of digestive tract-strongyles, a major helminth infection in cattle. The interest of application on pastures of these two biowastes is environmental (optimal recycling of biowastes) and agronomic (fertilisation). The parasitic risk and the fertilisation value of such applications on pastures were evaluated during one grazing season. Liquid sewage sludge did induce higher herbage biomass, which corresponded to higher liveweight gains during the first 2 months of grazing, compared to slurry spread pastures and calves grazing them. The sludge group of calves did not acquire live cysticerci and thus the risk was nil under the conditions of the study (delay of 6 weeks between application and grazing). The slurry group of calves did become lightly infected with digestive-tract strongyles, mostly Ostertagia ostertagi. Under the conditions of this experiment, a 6-week delay between application and grazing strongly reduced the risk of infection: it renders compatible the agronomic use and requirements of public or animal health.

  12. Membrane scaling and flux decline during fertiliser-drawn forward osmosis desalination of brackish groundwater.

    PubMed

    Phuntsho, Sherub; Lotfi, Fezeh; Hong, Seungkwan; Shaffer, Devin L; Elimelech, Menachem; Shon, Ho Kyong

    2014-06-15

    Fertiliser-drawn forward osmosis (FDFO) desalination has been recently studied as one feasible application of forward osmosis (FO) for irrigation. In this study, the potential of membrane scaling in the FDFO process has been investigated during the desalination of brackish groundwater (BGW). While most fertilisers containing monovalent ions did not result in any scaling when used as an FO draw solution (DS), diammonium phosphate (DAP or (NH4)2HPO4) resulted in significant scaling, which contributed to severe flux decline. Membrane autopsy using scanning electron microscopy (SEM), energy-dispersive x-ray spectroscopy (EDS), and x-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis indicated that the reverse diffusion of DAP from the DS to the feed solution was primarily responsible for scale formation during the FDFO process. Physical cleaning of the membrane with deionised water at varying crossflow velocities was employed to evaluate the reversibility of membrane scaling and the extent of flux recovery. For the membrane scaled using DAP as DS, 80-90% of the original flux was recovered when the crossflow velocity for physical cleaning was the same as the crossflow velocity during FDFO desalination. However, when a higher crossflow velocity or Reynolds number was used, the flux was recovered almost completely, irrespective of the DS concentration used. This study underscores the importance of selecting a suitable fertiliser for FDFO desalination of brackish groundwater to avoid membrane scaling and severe flux decline.

  13. Penicillin V Potassium Oral

    MedlinePlus

    ... or have ever had kidney or liver disease, allergies, asthma, blood disease, colitis, stomach problems, or hay fever.tell your doctor if you are pregnant, plan to become pregnant, or are breast-feeding. If you become pregnant while taking penicillin V potassium, call your doctor.if you are ...

  14. Potassium silver cyanide

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    Jump to main content . Integrated Risk Information System Recent Additions | Contact Us Search : All EPA IRIS • You are here : EPA Home • Research • Environmental Assessment • IRIS • IRIS Summaries Redirect Page As of September 28 , 2010 , the assessment summary for potassium silver cyanide is inclu

  15. Fluorescent sperm offer a method for tracking the real-time success of ejaculates when they compete to fertilise eggs

    PubMed Central

    Lymbery, Rowan A.; Kennington, W. Jason; Evans, Jonathan P.

    2016-01-01

    Despite intensive research effort, many uncertainties remain in the field of gamete-level sexual selection, particularly in understanding how sperm from different males interact when competing for fertilisations. Here, we demonstrate the utility of broadcast spawning marine invertebrates for unravelling these mysteries, highlighting their mode of reproduction and, in some species, unusual patterns of mitochondrial inheritance. We present a method utilising both properties in the blue mussel, Mytilus galloprovincialis. In mytilids and many other bivalves, both sperm and egg mitochondria are inherited. We exploit this, using the vital mitochondrial dye MitoTracker, to track the success of sperm from individual males when they compete with those from rivals to fertilise eggs. We confirm that dying mitochondria has no adverse effects on in vitro measures of sperm motility (reflecting mitochondrial energetics) or sperm competitive fertilisation success. Therefore, we propose the technique as a powerful and logistically tractable tool for sperm competition studies. Importantly, our method allows the competitive fertilisation success of sperm from any male to be measured directly and disentangled from confounding effects of post-fertilisation embryo survival. Moreover, the mitochondrial dye has broader applications in taxa without paternal mitochondrial inheritance, for example by tracking the dynamics of competing ejaculates prior to fertilisation. PMID:26941059

  16. Determining the need for rescue intracytoplasmic sperm injection in partial fertilisation failure during a conventional IVF cycle.

    PubMed

    Cao, S; Wu, X; Zhao, C; Zhou, L; Zhang, J; Ling, X

    2016-12-01

    To explore the need for rescue intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI) in cases of partial fertilisation failure during a conventional in vitro fertilisation cycle, rescue ICSI was performed for cycles with a fertilisation rate of <50%. The data were divided into three groups based on the fertilisation rate: group 1 (0%), group 2 (<25%) and group 3 (>25%). The impact of rescue ICSI on each group was then analysed in terms of ovum fertilisation, embryo development, embryo utilisation and selection of embryos for transfer. Rescue ICSI was performed on 1831 unfertilised oocytes from 313 cycles. The fertilisation rates for group 1, group 2 and group 3 were 74.66, 68.35 and 65.46%, and the rate of polyploidy in the three groups was 8.55, 11.33, and 14.47%. The percentage of embryos that can be transferred from rescue ICSI for group 2 was 38.33%, and this value was higher than those of the other two groups. It is concluded that rescue ICSI is not recommended for patients with an IVF rate of >25% as the procedure is associated with a greater risk and low returns. However, it is feasible to perform rescue ICSI for patients with IVF rates of <25%.

  17. Fluorescent sperm offer a method for tracking the real-time success of ejaculates when they compete to fertilise eggs.

    PubMed

    Lymbery, Rowan A; Kennington, W Jason; Evans, Jonathan P

    2016-03-04

    Despite intensive research effort, many uncertainties remain in the field of gamete-level sexual selection, particularly in understanding how sperm from different males interact when competing for fertilisations. Here, we demonstrate the utility of broadcast spawning marine invertebrates for unravelling these mysteries, highlighting their mode of reproduction and, in some species, unusual patterns of mitochondrial inheritance. We present a method utilising both properties in the blue mussel, Mytilus galloprovincialis. In mytilids and many other bivalves, both sperm and egg mitochondria are inherited. We exploit this, using the vital mitochondrial dye MitoTracker, to track the success of sperm from individual males when they compete with those from rivals to fertilise eggs. We confirm that dying mitochondria has no adverse effects on in vitro measures of sperm motility (reflecting mitochondrial energetics) or sperm competitive fertilisation success. Therefore, we propose the technique as a powerful and logistically tractable tool for sperm competition studies. Importantly, our method allows the competitive fertilisation success of sperm from any male to be measured directly and disentangled from confounding effects of post-fertilisation embryo survival. Moreover, the mitochondrial dye has broader applications in taxa without paternal mitochondrial inheritance, for example by tracking the dynamics of competing ejaculates prior to fertilisation.

  18. Differential elution of sodium or potassium dihydrogen- and hydrogenphosphate ions from a sephadex G-15 column with sodium or potassium chloride solution.

    PubMed

    Okada, T K; Miyakoshi, M; Inoue, M; Nakabayashi, Y; Jisaki, F

    2001-04-20

    When a mixed solution of sodium or potassium dihydrogenphosphate and disodium or dipotassium hydrogenphosphate was eluted from a Sephadex G-15 column with either a sodium or potassium chloride solution, the elution profiles of ions showed that the hydrogenphosphate ion was eluted more rapidly than the dihydrogenphosphate ion. When the sample solutions containing potassium dihydrogenphosphate and/or dipotassium hydrogenphosphate, all of which were supplemented with phosphorus-32-labelled potassium dihydrogenphosphate, were eluted with sodium chloride solution, the elution profiles of radioactivity showed that the dihydrogenphosphate ion changed to hydrogenphosphate ion and vice versa, depending on the pH values of the sample solution and the availability of the cation of the eluent during elution for the phosphate ion to pair with.

  19. Modelling climate change, land-use change and phosphorus reduction impacts on phytoplankton in the River Thames (UK)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bussi, Gianbattista; Whitehead, Paul; Dadson, Simon

    2016-04-01

    In this study, we assess the impact of changes in precipitation and temperature on the phytoplankton concentration of the River Thames (UK) by means of a physically-based model. A scenario-neutral approach was employed to evaluate the effects of climate variability on flow, phosphorus concentration and phytoplankton concentration. In particular, the impact of uniform changes in precipitation and temperature on five groups of phytoplankton (diatoms and large chlorophytes, other chlorophytes, picoalgae, Microcystis-like cyanobacteria and other cyanobacteria) was assessed under three different land-use/land-management scenarios (1 - current land use and phosphorus reduction practices; 2 - expansion of agricultural land and current phosphorus reduction practices; 3 - expansion of agricultural land and optimal phosphorus reduction practices). The model results were assessed within the framework of future climate projections, using the UK Climate Projections 09 (UKCP09) for the 2030s. The results of the model demonstrate that an increase in average phytoplankton concentration due to climate change is highly likely to occur, and its magnitude varies depending on the river reach. Cyanobacteria show significant increases under future climate change and land-use change. An expansion of intensive agriculture accentuates the growth in phytoplankton, especially in the upper reaches of the River Thames. However, an optimal phosphorus removal mitigation strategy, which combines reduction of fertiliser application and phosphorus removal from wastewater, can help to reduce this increase in phytoplankton concentration, and in some cases, compensate for the effect of rising temperature.

  20. HEATS OF FORMATION OF PHOSPHORUS OXIDES

    DTIC Science & Technology

    Contents: Phosphorus Coated with Lucite, Phosphorus Coated with Cellulose Acetate , Evaluation of the Combustion Results, Sample Calculation of...Corrections for Combustion of Phosphorus Coated with Cellulose Acetate , and Heat of Combustion of Phosphorus.

  1. Soil and pasture P concentration in a Fraxinus excelsior L. silvopastoral system fertilised with different types of sewage sludge

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ferreiro-Domínguez, Nuria; Nair, Vimala; Rigueiro-Rodríguez, Antonio; Rosa Mosquera-Losada, María

    2015-04-01

    In Europe, sewage sludge should be stabilised before using as fertiliser in agriculture. Depending on the stabilisation process that is used, sewage sludge has different characteristics, nutrient contents and soil nutrient incorporation rates. Sewage sludge is usually applied on a plant-available N or total metal concentration basic, and therefore, P concentrations can be well above crop needs. Leaching of excess P can threaten surface and ground waters with eutrophication. In this context, recent studies have demonstrated that the implementation of agroforestry systems could reduce the P leaching risk compared with conventional agricultural systems due to the different localisation of tree and crop roots which enhance nutrient uptake. The aim of this study was to evaluate during three consecutive years the effect of municipal sewage sludge stabilised by anaerobic digestion, composting, and pelletisation on concentration of P in soil and pasture compared to control treatments (mineral and no fertilisation) in a silvopastoral system established under Fraxinus excelsior L. in Galicia (Spain). The results showed that at the beginning of the study, the fertilisation with mineral increased more the total and available P in soil than the fertilisation with sewage sludge probably because the sludge nutrient release rate is slower than those from mineral fertilisers. The increment of soil available P caused by the mineral fertiliser implied an improvement of the P concentration in the pasture. However, in the last year of the experiment it was observed a positive effect of the fertilisation with pelletised sludge on the concentration of P in pasture compared with the composted sludge and the mineral fertiliser probably due to the annual application of this type of sludge. Therefore, the establishment of silvopastoral systems and their fertilisation with pelletized sludge should be recommended because the pelletized sludge increases the concentration of P in the pasture and

  2. Energy transfer from PO excited states to alkali metal atoms in the phosphorus chemiluminescence flame

    PubMed Central

    Khan, Ahsan U.

    1980-01-01

    Phosphorus chemiluminescence under ambient conditions of a phosphorus oxidation flame is found to offer an efficient electronic energy transferring system to alkali metal atoms. The lowest resonance lines, 2P3 / 2,½→2S½, of potassium and sodium are excited by energy transfer when an argon stream at 80°C carrying potassium or sodium atoms intersects a phosphorus vapor stream, either at the flame or in the postflame region. The lowest electronically excited metastable 4IIi state of PO or the (PO[unk]PO)* excimer is considered to be the probable energy donor. The (PO[unk]PO)* excimer results from the interaction of the 4IIi state of one PO molecule with the ground 2IIr state of another. Metastability of the donor state is strongly indicated by the observation of intense sensitized alkali atom fluorescence in the postflame region. PMID:16592925

  3. Phosphorus in prebiotic chemistry

    PubMed Central

    Schwartz, Alan W

    2006-01-01

    The prebiotic synthesis of phosphorus-containing compounds—such as nucleotides and polynucleotides—would require both a geologically plausible source of the element and pathways for its incorporation into chemical systems on the primitive Earth. The mineral apatite, which is the only significant source of phosphate on Earth, has long been thought to be problematical in this respect due to its low solubility and reactivity. However, in the last decade or so, at least two pathways have been demonstrated which would circumvent these perceived problems. In addition, recent results would seem to suggest an additional, extraterrestrial source of reactive phosphorus. It appears that the ‘phosphorus problem’ is no longer the stumbling block which it was once thought to be. PMID:17008215

  4. Fertilisation of the Southern Atlantic: Ephemeral River Valleys as a replenishing source of nutrient-enriched mineral aerosols

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dansie, Andrew; Wiggs, Giles; Thomas, David

    2016-04-01

    Oceanic dust deposition provides biologically important iron and macronutrients (Phosphorus (P) and Nitrogen-based (N) compounds) that contribute to phytoplankton growth, marine productivity and oceanic atmospheric CO2 uptake. Research on dust emission sources to date has largely focused on the northern hemisphere and on ephemeral lakes and pans. Our work considers the ephemeral river valleys of the west coast of Namibia as an important yet overlooked source of ocean-fertilizing dust. Dust plumes are frequently emitted from the river valleys by strong easterly winds during the Southern Hemisphere winter, when the upwelling of the Benguela Current is at its weakest. We present field data from dust emission source areas along the main river channels near the coastal termini of the Huab, Kuiseb and Tsauchab river valleys. Collected data include erodible surface sediment, wind-blown flux, and associated meteorological data. Extensive surface sediment sampling was also undertaken throughout the combined 34,250 km2 extent of each river valley catchment with samples collected from within the main river channels, the main branches of each river system, selected tributaries, and into the upper watersheds. Geochemical data show valley sediment and wind-blown flux material have high concentrations of bioavailable Fe, P and N, exceeding that measured at the major dry lake basin dust sources in southern Africa. The contribution of fertilising deposition material is enhanced by both the spatial proximity of the source areas to the ocean and enrichment of source material by ephemeral fluvial accumulation and desiccation. Results show that geographical factors within each watershed play a key role in the nutrient composition of the emitting fluvial deposits in the river valleys. Analysis explores potential relationships between land use, geology, climate and precipitation in the upper watersheds and their influence on bioavailability of Fe, P and N compounds in wind

  5. Combustion of White Phosphorus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Keiter, Richard L.; Gamage, Chaminda P.

    2001-07-01

    The reaction of white phosphorus with pure oxygen is conveniently and safely demonstrated by carrying out the reaction in a retort that has its open end submerged in water. After filling the retort with oxygen gas, a small amount of white phosphorus is introduced and heated with a hot-plate until it ignites. The spectacular reaction leads to consumption and expulsion of oxygen gas, creation of a partial vacuum in the retort, and back suction of water that extinguishes the combustion. Featured on the Cover

  6. Detecting potassium on Mercury

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Killen, R. M.; Potter, A. E.; Morgan, T. H.

    1991-01-01

    A critical comment on the work of A.L. Sprague et al. (1990) is presented. It is argued that, in attributing an enhanced emission in the potassium D lines on Oct. 14, 1987 in the equatorial region of Mercury to a diffusion source centered on Caloris Basin, Sprague et al. misinterpreted the data. Sprague et al. present a reply, taking issue with the commenters.

  7. The influence of testicular microlithiasis on the outcomes of in vitro fertilisation in a Chinese Han population.

    PubMed

    Xu, C; Zhang, F-F; Yang, H-L; Ma, G; Zhang, B; Li, K-J; Zhang, T-J; Liu, J-L; Xuan, X-J

    2016-11-23

    To investigate the influence of testicular microlithiasis (TM) on the outcomes of in vitro fertilisation (IVF), we retrospectively reviewed the ultrasonography results of the TM patients who underwent IVF treatment in our hospital. They were classified as classic-TM (CTM) or limited-TM (LTM) comparing with patients without TM (Non-TM). Semen parameters, rates of fertilisation, normal fertilisation, good embryos and clinical pregnancy were analysed. The Non-TM group showed higher percentage of morphologically normal spermatozoa than the CTM or LTM group (4.08 ± 2.07 versus 3.40 ± 2.00 versus 3.04 ± 1.66, p = .003) while the other general semen parameters were comparable. The LTM group showed higher rate of fertilisation than the CTM group (85.10% versus 81.12%, p = .044). Moreover, the rates of normal fertilisation of Non-TM (62.47%) and LTM (66.32%) group were significantly higher than the CTM (58.02%) group (p = .027 and p = .001 respectively). There were 333 embryo transfer cycles in total (including 222 fresh and 111 frozen). The overall clinical pregnancy rate was 54.95%, 58.33% and 64.12% in the group of CTM, LTM and Non-TM respectively. However, no statistically significant difference was obtained (p = .326). Our results suggest that TM may have influence on the IVF outcomes. The extent of microlithiasis correlates inversely with the rates of fertilisation and normal fertilisation.

  8. Correlation analysis of the progesterone-induced sperm acrosome reaction rate and the fertilisation rate in vitro.

    PubMed

    Jiang, T; Qin, Y; Ye, T; Wang, Y; Pan, J; Zhu, Y; Duan, L; Li, K; Teng, X

    2015-10-01

    In this study, we aimed to investigate whether progesterone-induced acrosome reaction (AR) rate could be an indicator for fertilisation rate in vitro. Twenty-six couples with unexplained infertility and undergoing in vitro fertilisation (IVF) treatment were involved. On the oocytes retrieval day after routine IVF, residual sperm samples were collected to receive progesterone induction (progesterone group) or not (control group). AR rate was calculated and fertilisation rate was recorded. The correlation between progesterone-induced AR and fertilisation rate and between sperm normal morphology and 3PN (tripronuclear) were analysed using the Spearman correlation analysis. The AR rate of progesterone group was statistically higher than that of the control group (15.6 ± 5.88% versus 9.66 ± 5.771%, P < 0.05), but not significantly correlated with fertilisation rate (r = -0.053, P > 0.01) or rate of high-quality embryo development (r = -0.055, P > 0.01). Normal sperm morphology also showed no significant correlation with the amount of 3PN zygotes (r = 0.029, P > 0.01), rate of 3PN zygotes production (r = 0.20, P > 0.01), rate of 3PN embryo development (r = -0.406, P > 0.01), fertilisation rate (r = -0.148, P > 0.01) or progesterone-induced AR rate (r = 0.214, P > 0.01). Progesterone can induce AR in vitro significantly; however, the progesterone-induced AR may not be used to indicate fertilisation rate.

  9. Phosphorus derivatives of salicylic acid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chvertkina, L. V.; Khoklov, P. S.; Mironov, Vladimir F.

    1992-10-01

    The present state of work on the methods of synthesis, chemical properties, and practical applications of phosphorus-containing derivatives of salicylic acid has been reviewed. The characteristics of the chemical transformations of cyclic and acyclic phosphorus derivatives of salicylic acid related to the coordination state of the phosphorus atom have been examined. The bibliography includes 158 references.

  10. [Diet low in potassium].

    PubMed

    Sáez Rodríguez, Loreto; Meizoso Ameneiro, Ana; Pérez Paz, Ma Jesús; Valiño Pazos, Cristina

    2011-11-01

    After confirming the high prevalence rates in our hemodialysis unit of the following nursing diagnoses: nutritional imbalances--both excesses and shortages, willingness to improve nutrition and fear related to the consequences of excessive intake of potassium and manifested by the inhibition in some people towards the enjoyment of food, we decided to plan an educational strategy which later resulted in a nursing intervention for these diagnoses, with the objective of providing adequate resources for the monitoring of balanced diets with a restriction of potassium. Inspired by dietary rations, as well as recognized dietary programs of learning by points, we decided to incorporate these ideas to design an educational tool to facilitate advice to our patients on how to follow diet plans as well as the choice of appropriate foods. The result was a set of cards incorporating nutritional information of various kinds, aimed at our patients covering different aspects of the diet appropriate food rations using household measurements, promoting good food preparation, appropriate dietary advice for different chronic diseases and a scoring system of foods according to their potassium content. Together they form a board game available during the hemodialysis sessions that also takes into consideration other issues of importance related to conditions such as cognitive stimulation, coping with the disease, improving the therapeutic performance or resources to increase patient motivation. Although initially it was only an educational exercise, the result has turned out to be both enjoyable and entertaining.

  11. Leaf nitrogen to phosphorus ratios of tropical trees: experimental assessment of physiological and environmental controls.

    PubMed

    Cernusak, Lucas A; Winter, Klaus; Turner, Benjamin L

    2010-02-01

    We investigated the variation in leaf nitrogen to phosphorus ratios of tropical tree and liana seedlings as a function of the relative growth rate, whole-plant water-use efficiency, soil water content and fertilizer addition. First, seedlings of 13 tree and liana species were grown individually in 38-l pots prepared with a homogeneous soil mixture. Second, seedlings of three tree species were grown in 19-l pots at high or low soil water content, and with or without added fertilizer containing nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium. For plants grown under common soil conditions, leaf nitrogen to phosphorus ratios showed a unimodal, or hump-shaped, relationship with the relative growth rate. The leaf nitrogen to phosphorus ratio increased in response to low soil water content in three species, and increased in response to fertilizer addition in two of the three species. Across all species and treatments, the leaf nitrogen to phosphorus ratio was positively correlated with the water-use efficiency. The results suggest that the within-site variation among tropical tree species in the leaf nitrogen to phosphorus ratio may be caused by associations between this ratio and the relative growth rate. Modification of the soil environment changed the leaf nitrogen to phosphorus ratio, but underlying associations between this ratio and the relative growth rate were generally maintained. The observed correlation between the leaf nitrogen to phosphorus ratio and water-use efficiency has implications for linking nutrient stoichiometry with plant transpiration.

  12. Potassium Channelopathies and Gastrointestinal Ulceration

    PubMed Central

    Han, Jaeyong; Lee, Seung Hun; Giebisch, Gerhard; Wang, Tong

    2016-01-01

    Potassium channels and transporters maintain potassium homeostasis and play significant roles in several different biological actions via potassium ion regulation. In previous decades, the key revelations that potassium channels and transporters are involved in the production of gastric acid and the regulation of secretion in the stomach have been recognized. Drugs used to treat peptic ulceration are often potassium transporter inhibitors. It has also been reported that potassium channels are involved in ulcerative colitis. Direct toxicity to the intestines from nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs has been associated with altered potassium channel activities. Several reports have indicated that the long-term use of the antianginal drug Nicorandil, an adenosine triphosphate-sensitive potassium channel opener, increases the chances of ulceration and perforation from the oral to anal regions throughout the gastrointestinal (GI) tract. Several of these drug features provide further insights into the role of potassium channels in the occurrence of ulceration in the GI tract. The purpose of this review is to investigate whether potassium channelopathies are involved in the mechanisms responsible for ulceration that occurs throughout the GI tract. PMID:27784845

  13. Oocyte glutathione and fertilisation outcome of Macaca nemestrina and Macaca fascicularis in in vivo- and in vitro-matured oocytes.

    PubMed

    Curnow, E C; Ryan, J P; Saunders, D M; Hayes, E S

    2010-01-01

    Fertilisation and development of IVM non-human primate oocytes is limited compared with that of in vivo-matured (IVO) oocytes. The present study describes the IVM of macaque oocytes with reference to oocyte glutathione (GSH). Timing of maturation, comparison of IVM media and cysteamine (CYS) supplementation as a modulator of GSH were investigated. A significantly greater proportion of oocytes reached MII after 30 h compared with 24 h of IVM. Following insemination, IVM oocytes had a significantly lower incidence of normal fertilisation (i.e. 2PN = two pronuclei and at least one polar body) and a higher rate of abnormal fertilisation (1PN = one pronucleus and at least one polar body) compared with IVO oocytes. Immunofluorescence of 1PN zygotes identified incomplete sperm head decondensation and failure of male pronucleus formation as the principal cause of abnormal fertilisation in IVM oocytes. The IVO oocytes had significantly higher GSH content than IVM oocytes. Cumulus-denuded oocytes had significantly lower GSH following IVM compared with immature oocytes at collection. Cysteamine supplementation of the IVM medium significantly increased the GSH level of cumulus-intact oocytes and reduced the incidence of 1PN formation, but did not improve GSH levels of the denuded oocyte. Suboptimal GSH levels in macaque IVM oocytes may be related to reduced fertilisation outcomes.

  14. Distribution of arsenic and risk assessment of activities on a golf course fertilised with arsenic-containing Ascophyllum nodosum seaweed.

    PubMed

    O'Neill, Antonia; Gupta, Bhaskar Sen; Phillips, Debra H

    2014-06-01

    The use of seaweed fertilisers in sports green maintenance has become a common practice across the globe due to its image as an "eco-friendly" alternative to chemical fertilisers. The aim of this study was to characterise the risk of human exposure to arsenic (As), via dermal absorption, from golfing activities on a private golf course in the UK, where As contaminated seaweed fertiliser (~100mg/kg d.wt.) is applied. This was fulfilled by, 1) determining As concentrations in shallow soils with GIS geo-statistical analysis, 2) measuring As concentrations from an on-site borehole groundwater well, and (3) developing a risk assessment calculation for golfing activities based on field and questionnaire data. Total As concentrations in shallow soils were less than the UK threshold for domestic soils, however, frequent and sustained dermal contact between site-users and surface soil attributed to a maximum carcinogenic risk value of 2.75×10(-4), which is in the upper limit of the acceptable risk range. Arsenic concentrations in underlying groundwater exceeded the WHO's permissible drinking water standard, demonstrating the risk of groundwater contamination following the application of seaweed fertiliser to golf course soils. This is the first risk study on dermal As absorption via the application of a seaweed fertiliser.

  15. The effects of anxiety and depression on in vitro fertilisation outcomes of infertile Chinese women.

    PubMed

    Xu, Hongmei; Ouyang, Nengyong; Li, Ruiqi; Tuo, Ping; Mai, Meiqi; Wang, Wenjun

    2017-01-01

    The object was to assess anxiety and depression during in vitro fertilisation (IVF) treatment and determine IVF-related psychological factors in infertile Chinese women. The self-rating anxiety scale (SAS) and self-rating depression scale (SDS) were used to evaluate anxiety and depression among 842 patients, respectively. A univariate analysis was used to compare variables among three SAS groups and three SDS groups. Anxiety and depression were both represented in 21.3% of the cases. Patients <35 years tended to be more anxious. In women <35 years, the SDS scores were higher with lower educational backgrounds and female or couple's infertility, while the SAS scores were higher in female or couple's infertility. In older ones, the SDS scores were higher in those with lower educational backgrounds and longer time for infertility, while the SAS scores were higher in those with lower educational backgrounds. In SAS groups 1-3, the embryo availability was 5.0 (3.0-8.0), 5.0 (3.0-8.0), and 3.0 (2.0-4.5) (p = .013); and the fertilisation rate was 91.9, 90.4, and 81.8% (p < .001), respectively. We concluded that infertile women experience anxiety and depression during IVF treatment, especially in women <35 years. Younger women with female infertility would be more anxious and depressive while higher education can protect them from depression. In older ones, they would experience more depressive with longer time for infertility and be less anxious and depressive with higher education. Anxiety affects the fertilisation rate and embryo availability.

  16. Assessment and management of risks arising from exposure to cadmium in fertilisers. I.

    PubMed

    de Meeûs, C; Eduljee, G H; Hutton, M

    2002-05-27

    A risk assessment protocol has been developed for use by individual EU Member States with appropriate selection of input data, to assess the risks to humans and the environment arising from exposure to cadmium in fertilisers. The protocol comprises of three modules: (1) the accumulation module, in which the net accumulation of cadmium in soil and soil solution, resulting from the application of fertiliser, is computed over time. The accumulation module allows for a range of inputs from different sources (atmospheric deposition, sludge addition, manure and fertiliser application) as well as for average and extreme rates of fertiliser application. A critical parameter is the solid/liquid partition coefficient, which in turn is a function of soil properties such as pH and is highly variable depending on the algorithm selected as being representative of national conditions. (2) The exposure module, in which the uptake of cadmium from soil into plants and the subsequent intake of cadmium by humans is computed, using exposure parameters characterising both average and extreme exposure scenarios. The protocol focuses on food types known to be sensitive to cadmium uptake (grain, cereals, potatoes, root vegetables and leafy vegetables). Environmental exposure is also characterised. (3) The risk characterisation module, in which Member States may estimate the incidence and severity of the adverse effects likely to occur due to actual or predicted exposure to cadmium. This is undertaken by modelling the Predicted Environmental Concentrations (PECs) in humans and the environment using the accumulation and exposure modules, and then comparing these values against the relevant Predicted No Effect Concentrations (PNECs). A range of environmental PNEC values are reported in the literature; the European Commission recommends that normally the lowest No Observed Adverse Effect Level (NOAEL) should be used in the risk characterisation. For humans, the current WHO Provisional

  17. The effect of urea fertiliser formulations on gross nitrogen transformations in a permanent grassland soil.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harty, Mary; Mueller, Christoph; Laughlin, Ronnie; Watson, Catherine; Richards, Karl; Lanigan, Gary; Forrestal, Patrick; McGeough, Karen

    2015-04-01

    Introduction By 2050, the current food production rate will need to increase by 70 % in order to meet the needs of the projected world population (FAO, 2014). Under the climate change response bill, Ireland has a target to reduce GHG emissions by 20% by 2020. Agriculture was responsible for almost one third of Ireland's overall Greenhouse Gas (GHG) emissions in 2012, with 39% of these emissions arising from chemical/organic fertilisers in the form of nitrous oxide (N2O). N2O losses represent environmental damage through ozone depletion and global warming as well as acidification, eutrophication, surface and groundwater contamination and it also represents financial loss to the farmer (Cameron 2013). The contradictory aims of increasing food production while reducing GHG emissions will require an adjustment to the current system of agricultural production. As part of a larger study evaluating the switching of nitrogen (N) fertiliser formulation to minimise N2O emissions, (from calcium ammonium nitrate (CAN) to urea based formulations), this experiment examined the effect of urea based fertiliser formulations on gross N transformations in a permanent pasture soil at Hillsborough, Co. Down, Northern Ireland. Study Design/Methodology A laboratory incubation study was undertaken, to examine the effect of urea in various combinations with two types of inhibitors on soil N dynamics and N2O and N2 emissions. The inhibitors examined were the urease inhibitor N-(butyl) thiophosphoric triamide (nBTPT) and the nitrification inhibitor dicyandiamide (DCD). The fertiliser products were labelled with 15N and the soil was incubated at 15 ° C at a water filled pore space of 65%. Soil mineral N (urea, NH4+, NO2- and NO3-) concentrations, gaseous losses (N2O and N2) and the 15N enrichments of NH4+, NO2-, NO3-, N2O and N2were analysed on 8 separate occasions over 25 days. An adapted numerical 15N tracing model (Müller et al., 2007) was used to quantify the effect of the inhibitors on

  18. 21 CFR 184.1610 - Potassium alginate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Potassium alginate. 184.1610 Section 184.1610 Food... GRAS § 184.1610 Potassium alginate. (a) Potassium alginate (CAS Reg. No. 9005-36-1) is the potassium salt of alginic acid, a natural polyuronide constituent of certain brown algae. Potassium alginate...

  19. 21 CFR 184.1613 - Potassium bicarbonate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Potassium bicarbonate. 184.1613 Section 184.1613... Listing of Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1613 Potassium bicarbonate. (a) Potassium... potassium hydroxide with carbon dioxide; (2) By treating a solution of potassium carbonate with...

  20. 21 CFR 184.1631 - Potassium hydroxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Potassium hydroxide. 184.1631 Section 184.1631... GRAS § 184.1631 Potassium hydroxide. (a) Potassium hydroxide (KOH, CAS Reg. No. 1310-58-3) is also... powders. Potassium hydroxide is obtained commercially from the electrolysis of potassium chloride...

  1. 21 CFR 172.800 - Acesulfame potassium.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Acesulfame potassium. 172.800 Section 172.800 Food... Multipurpose Additives § 172.800 Acesulfame potassium. Acesulfame potassium (CAS Reg. No. 55589-62-3), also... not preclude such use, under the following conditions: (a) Acesulfame potassium is the potassium...

  2. 21 CFR 184.1613 - Potassium bicarbonate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Potassium bicarbonate. 184.1613 Section 184.1613... Listing of Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1613 Potassium bicarbonate. (a) Potassium... potassium hydroxide with carbon dioxide; (2) By treating a solution of potassium carbonate with...

  3. 21 CFR 172.800 - Acesulfame potassium.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Acesulfame potassium. 172.800 Section 172.800 Food... Acesulfame potassium. Acesulfame potassium (CAS Reg. No. 55589-62-3), also known as acesulfame K, may be... following conditions: (a) Acesulfame potassium is the potassium salt of...

  4. 21 CFR 184.1619 - Potassium carbonate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Potassium carbonate. 184.1619 Section 184.1619... Listing of Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1619 Potassium carbonate. (a) Potassium carbonate... of potassium chloride followed by exposing the resultant potassium to carbon dioxide; (2) By...

  5. 21 CFR 172.800 - Acesulfame potassium.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Acesulfame potassium. 172.800 Section 172.800 Food... Multipurpose Additives § 172.800 Acesulfame potassium. Acesulfame potassium (CAS Reg. No. 55589-62-3), also... not preclude such use, under the following conditions: (a) Acesulfame potassium is the potassium...

  6. 21 CFR 184.1643 - Potassium sulfate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Potassium sulfate. 184.1643 Section 184.1643 Food... GRAS § 184.1643 Potassium sulfate. (a) Potassium sulfate (K2SO4, CAS Reg. No. 7778-80-5) occurs.... It is prepared by the neutralization of sulfuric acid with potassium hydroxide or potassium...

  7. 21 CFR 184.1613 - Potassium bicarbonate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Potassium bicarbonate. 184.1613 Section 184.1613... Listing of Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1613 Potassium bicarbonate. (a) Potassium... potassium hydroxide with carbon dioxide; (2) By treating a solution of potassium carbonate with...

  8. 21 CFR 184.1613 - Potassium bicarbonate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Potassium bicarbonate. 184.1613 Section 184.1613... Listing of Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1613 Potassium bicarbonate. (a) Potassium... potassium hydroxide with carbon dioxide; (2) By treating a solution of potassium carbonate with...

  9. 21 CFR 184.1634 - Potassium iodide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Potassium iodide. 184.1634 Section 184.1634 Food... GRAS § 184.1634 Potassium iodide. (a) Potassium iodide (KI, CAS Reg. No. 7681-11-0) is the potassium... reacting hydriodic acid (HI) with potassium bicarbonate (KHCO3). (b) The ingredient meets...

  10. 21 CFR 184.1619 - Potassium carbonate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Potassium carbonate. 184.1619 Section 184.1619... Listing of Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1619 Potassium carbonate. (a) Potassium carbonate... of potassium chloride followed by exposing the resultant potassium to carbon dioxide; (2) By...

  11. 21 CFR 172.800 - Acesulfame potassium.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Acesulfame potassium. 172.800 Section 172.800 Food... Multipurpose Additives § 172.800 Acesulfame potassium. Acesulfame potassium (CAS Reg. No. 55589-62-3), also... not preclude such use, under the following conditions: (a) Acesulfame potassium is the potassium...

  12. 21 CFR 184.1619 - Potassium carbonate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Potassium carbonate. 184.1619 Section 184.1619... Listing of Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1619 Potassium carbonate. (a) Potassium carbonate... of potassium chloride followed by exposing the resultant potassium to carbon dioxide; (2) By...

  13. 21 CFR 184.1619 - Potassium carbonate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Potassium carbonate. 184.1619 Section 184.1619 Food... Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1619 Potassium carbonate. (a) Potassium carbonate (K2CO3, CAS... potassium chloride followed by exposing the resultant potassium to carbon dioxide; (2) By treating...

  14. Implications of phosphorus redox geochemistry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pasek, Matthew

    2015-04-01

    Phosphorus is the limiting nutrient in many environments. Until recently, redox changes to phosphorus speciation have been confined to the realm of chemical laboratories as phosphorus was considered to be synonymous with phosphate in the natural environment. The few known phosphorus species with a reduced redox state, such as phosphine gas, were considered novelties. Recent work has revealed a surprising role for low redox state organophosphorus compounds -- the phosphonates -- in biogeochemistry. Additionally, phosphite and hypophosphite (the lower oxyanions of phosphorus) have been identified from natural sources, and microbial genomics suggests these compounds may be ubiquitous in nature. Recent work from our laboratory suggests that reduced phosphorus compounds such as phosphite and hypophosphite may be ubiquitous (Pasek et al. 2014). If so, then these species maybe important in the global phosphorus biogeochemical cycle, and could influence global phosphorus sustainability. Additionally, these compounds could have been relevant on the early earth environment, priming the earth with reactive phosphorus for prebiotic chemistry. Reference: Pasek, M. A., Sampson, J. M., & Atlas, Z. (2014). Redox chemistry in the phosphorus biogeochemical cycle. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 111(43), 15468-15473.

  15. R (on the application of Quintavalle) v Human Fertilisation and Embryology Authority.

    PubMed

    2003-01-01

    Court Decision: 2 All England Law Reports 105; 2002 December 20 (date of decision). The Queen's Bench Division held that testing an embryo to determine compatibility with potential donees fell under the statutory definition of the use of an embyro. A pro-life organization brought suit against the Human Fertilisation and Embryology Authority following its announcement that it would authorize tissue typing of embryos. Tissue typing involves the removal of embryonic cells and the pre-implantation genetic screening of them. This process can lead to a genetic diagnosis to determine compatibility with an older sibling who is suffering from a serious genetic disorder. Despite the fact that the embryo was not itself analyzed, tissue typing constituted the "use" of the embryo because analyzing the cells necessarily leads to a diagnosis of the embryo. Furthermore, the Human Fertilisation and Embryology Act 1990 allowed the "use" of an embryo only for the purpose of providing "treatment services" which was construed by the court to mean "assisting women to carry children". Because tissue typing is not necessary for gestation, it is not allowed by the Act.

  16. Desperately seeking donors: the 'saviour sibling' decision in Quintavalle v Human Fertilisation and Embryology Authority (UK).

    PubMed

    Hocking, Barbara Ann; Guy, Scott

    2005-08-01

    The recent House of Lords decision in Quintavalle v Human Fertilisation and Embryology Authority has raised difficult and complex issues regarding the extent to which embryo selection and reproductive technology can be used as a means of rectifying genetic disorders and treating critically ill children. This comment outlines the facts of Quintavalle and explores how the House of Lords approached the legal, ethical and policy issues that arose out of the Human Fertilisation and Embryology Authority's (UK) decision to allow reproductive and embryo technology to be used to produce a 'saviour sibling' whose tissue could be used to save the life of a critically ill child. Particular attention will be given to the implications of the decision in Quintavalle for Australian family and medical law and policy. As part of this focus, the comment explores the current Australian legislative and policy framework regarding the use of genetic and reproductive technology as a mechanism through which to assist critically ill siblings. It is argued that the present Australian framework would appear to impose significant limits on the medical uses of genetic technology and, in this context, would seem to reflect many of the principles that were articulated by the House of Lords in Quintavalle.

  17. Nitrogen fertiliser production based on biogas - energy input, environmental impact and land use.

    PubMed

    Ahlgren, Serina; Bernesson, Sven; Nordberg, Ke; Hansson, Per-Anders

    2010-09-01

    The aim of the present paper was to investigate the land use, environmental impact and fossil energy use when using biogas instead of natural gas in the production of nitrogen fertilisers. The biogas was assumed to be produced from anaerobic digestion of ley grass and maize. The calculations showed that 1 ha of agricultural land in south-west Sweden can produce 1.7 metric ton of nitrogen in the form of ammonium nitrate per year from ley grass, or 3.6 ton from maize. The impact on global warming, from cradle to gate, was calculated to be lower when producing nitrogen fertiliser from biomass compared with natural gas. Eutrophication and acidification potential was higher in the biomass scenarios. The greatest advantage of the biomass systems however lies in the potential to reduce agriculture's dependency on fossil fuels. In the biomass scenarios, only 2-4 MJ of primary fossil energy was required, while 35 MJ/kgN was required when utilising natural gas.

  18. Effects of temperature, water content and nitrogen fertilisation on emissions of nitrous oxide by soils

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, K. A.; Thomson, P. E.; Clayton, H.; Mctaggart, I. P.; Conen, F.

    Nitrous oxide emissions were measured from several grassland and arable soils in the field, and from two of these soils and a forest soil transferred in large monoliths to a greenhouse. The effects of fertiliser N additions and of soil water content and temperature were investigated. Emissions were in the order grazed grassland>grassland cut for conservation>potatoes>cereal crops, and generally were higher than those from temperate natural ecosystems. Based on these data, agricultural soils constitute the major soil source of N 2O in the U.K. The highest emission recorded was 8 kg N 2O-N ha -1 over 10 months, from a grazed grassland site. Emissions varied from year to year, depending particularly on rainfall at the time of fertilisation. When soil mineral N was not limiting, exponential relationships between N 2O flux and both water-filled pore space (WFPS) and temperature were observed. The Q10 value for a sandy loam was 1.6, but ranged up to 12 for a clay loam soil at high WFPS. The high values were attributed to the increase in anaerobic zones where denitrification could take place, as respiratory demand for O 2 increased. A forest soil (peaty gley) showed an optimum water potential for N 2O emission. Diurnal fluctuations in emissions were associated with diurnal cycles in soil temperature, but with varying time lags, which could be explained by the N 2O being produced at different depths.

  19. Oocyte quality determines bovine embryo development after fertilisation with hydrogen peroxide-stressed spermatozoa.

    PubMed

    Rahman, Mohammad Bozlur; Vandaele, Leen; Rijsselaere, Tom; Zhandi, Mahdi; Maes, Dominiek; Shamsuddin, Mohammed; Van Soom, Ann

    2012-01-01

    Exposure of gametes to specific stressors at sublethal levels can enhance the gametes' subsequent performance in processes such as cryopreservation. In the present study, bull spermatozoa were subjected to H₂O₂ for 4 h at 100-, 200- and 500-μM levels; computer-assisted sperm analysis (CASA) and terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated dUTP nick-end labelling (TUNEL) assay were used for evaluation of subsequent sperm motility and DNA integrity, respectively. Exposure of spermatozoa to H₂O₂ did not affect sperm motility but DNA integrity was negatively affected by 500 μM H₂O₂ compared with mock-exposed spermatozoa, whereas both motility and DNA integrity were affected compared with untreated spermatozoa. Nevertheless, insemination of oocytes with spermatozoa exposed to 200 μM H₂O₂ increased fertilisation, cleavage and blastocyst rates (P < 0.05). Furthermore, the higher blastocyst yield after fertilisation of oocytes with spermatozoa exposed to 200 μM H₂O₂ was related to oocyte diameter, with large-medium oocytes yielding higher blastocyst rates, while small-diameter oocytes consistently failed to develop into blastocysts. In conclusion, the results indicate that exposure of spermatozoa to 200 μM H₂O₂ before sperm-oocyte interaction may enhance in vitro embryo production in cattle. However, this increased embryo production is largely dependent on the intrinsic quality of the oocytes.

  20. Persistence of cytosine methylation of DNA following fertilisation in the mouse.

    PubMed

    Li, Yan; O'Neill, Chris

    2012-01-01

    Normal development of the mammalian embryo requires epigenetic reprogramming of the genome. The level of cytosine methylation of CpG-rich (5meC) regions of the genome is a major epigenetic regulator and active global demethylation of 5meC throughout the genome is reported to occur within the first cell-cycle following fertilization. An enzyme or mechanism capable of catalysing such rapid global demethylation has not been identified. The mouse is a widely used model for studying developmental epigenetics. We have reassessed the evidence for this phenomenon of genome-wide demethylation following fertilisation in the mouse. We found when using conventional methods of immunolocalization that 5meC showed a progressive acid-resistant antigenic masking during zygotic maturation which gave the appearance of demethylation. Changing the unmasking strategy by also performing tryptic digestion revealed a persistence of a methylated state. Analysis of methyl binding domain 1 protein (MBD1) binding confirmed that the genome remained methylated following fertilisation. The maintenance of this methylated state over the first several cell-cycles required the actions of DNA methyltransferase activity. The study shows that any 5meC remodelling that occurs during early development is not explained by a global active loss of 5meC staining during the cleavage stage of development and global loss of methylation following fertilization is not a major component of epigenetic reprogramming in the mouse zygote.

  1. Fertilisation is not a new beginning: sperm environment affects offspring developmental success.

    PubMed

    Ritchie, Hannah; Marshall, Dustin J

    2013-08-15

    For organisms with complex life histories, the direction and magnitude of phenotypic links among life-history stages can have important ecological and evolutionary effects. While the phenotypic links between mothers and offspring, as well as between larvae and adults, are well recognised, the links between sperm phenotype and offspring phenotype have been less well explored. Here, we used a split-clutch/split-ejaculate design to examine whether the environment that sperm experience affects the subsequent performance of larvae in the broadcast spawning marine invertebrate Galeolaria gemineoa. The environment that sperm experienced affected the developmental success of larvae sired by these sperm; larvae sired by sperm that experienced low salinities had poorer developmental success than larvae sired by sperm that experienced a normal salinity. When we explored the interactive effects of the sperm environment and the larval environment with an orthogonal design, we found an interaction; when sperm and larvae experienced the same environment, performance was generally higher than when the sperm and larval environments differed. These effects could be due to selection on specific sperm phenotypes, phenotypic modification of the sperm or both. Together, our results challenge the traditional notion that sperm are merely transporters of genetic material; instead, significant covariance between sperm and offspring phenotypes exists. Our study adds to a growing list that demonstrates that fertilisation does have a homogenising effect on the phenotype of the zygote, and that events before fertilisation during the gamete phase can carry through to affect performance in later life-history stages.

  2. Developing a regional scale approach for modelling the impacts of fertiliser regime on N2O emissions in Ireland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zimmermann, Jesko; Jones, Michael

    2016-04-01

    Agriculture can be significant contributor to greenhouse gas emissions, this is especially prevalent in Ireland where the agricultural sector accounts for a third of total emissions. The high emissions are linked to both the importance of agriculture in the Irish economy and the focus on dairy and beef production. In order to reduce emissions three main categories are explored: (1) reduction of methane emissions from cattle, (2) reduction of nitrous oxide emissions from fertilisation, and (3) fostering the carbon sequestration potential of soils. The presented research focuses on the latter two categories, especially changes in fertiliser amount and composition. Soil properties and climate conditions measured at the four experimental sites (two silage and two spring barley) were used to parameterise four biogeochemical models (DayCent, ECOSSE, DNDC 9.4, and DNDC 9.5). All sites had a range of different fertiliser regimes applied. This included changes in amount (0 to 500 kg N/ha on grassland and 0 to 200 kg N/ha on arable fields), fertiliser type (calcium ammonium nitrate and urea), and added inhibitors (the nitrification inhibitor DCD, and the urease inhibitor Agrotain). Overall, 20 different treatments were applied to the grassland sites, and 17 to the arable sites. Nitrous oxide emissions, measured in 2013 and 2014 at all sites using closed chambers, were made available to validate model results for these emissions. To assess model performance for the daily measurements, the Root Mean Square Error (RMSE) was compared to the measured 95% confidence interval of the measured data (RMSE95). Bias was tested comparing the relative error (RE) the 95 % confidence interval of the relative error (RE95). Preliminary results show mixed model performance, depending on the model, site, and the fertiliser regime. However, with the exception of urea fertilisation and added inhibitors, all scenarios were reproduced by at least one model with no statistically significant total

  3. Sourcing the iron in the naturally fertilised bloom around the Kerguelen Plateau: particulate trace metal dynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van der Merwe, P.; Bowie, A. R.; Quéroué, F.; Armand, L.; Blain, S.; Chever, F.; Davies, D.; Dehairs, F.; Planchon, F.; Sarthou, G.; Townsend, A. T.; Trull, T. W.

    2015-02-01

    The KEOPS2 project aims to elucidate the role of natural Fe fertilisation on biogeochemical cycles and ecosystem functioning, including quantifying the sources and processes by which iron is delivered in the vicinity of the Kerguelen Archipelago, Southern Ocean. The KEOPS2 process study used an upstream high-nutrient, low-chlorophyll (HNLC), deep water (2500 m), reference station to compare with a shallow (500 m), strongly fertilised plateau station and continued the observations to a downstream, bathymetrically trapped recirculation of the Polar Front where eddies commonly form and persist for hundreds of kilometres into the Southern Ocean. Over the Kerguelen Plateau, mean particulate (1-53 μm) Fe and Al concentrations (pFe = 13.4 nM, pAl = 25.2 nM) were more than 20-fold higher than at an offshore (lower-productivity) reference station (pFe = 0.53 nM, pAl = 0.83 nM). In comparison, over the plateau dissolved Fe levels were only elevated by a factor of ~ 2. Over the Kerguelen Plateau, ratios of pMn / pAl and pFe / pAl resemble basalt, likely originating from glacial/fluvial inputs into shallow coastal waters. In downstream, offshore deep-waters, higher pFe / pAl, and pMn / pAl ratios were observed, suggesting loss of lithogenic material accompanied by retention of pFe and pMn. Biological uptake of dissolved Fe and Mn and conversion into the biogenic particulate fraction or aggregation of particulate metals onto bioaggregates also increased these ratios further in surface waters as the bloom developed within the recirculation structure. While resuspension of shelf sediments is likely to be one of the important mechanisms of Fe fertilisation over the plateau, fluvial and glacial sources appear to be important to areas downstream of the island. Vertical profiles within an offshore recirculation feature associated with the Polar Front show pFe and pMn levels that were 6-fold and 3.5-fold lower, respectively, than over the plateau in surface waters, though still 3

  4. Characterization and sonochemical synthesis of black phosphorus from red phosphorus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aldave, Sandra H.; Yogeesh, Maruthi N.; Zhu, Weinan; Kim, Joonseok; Sonde, Sushant S.; Nayak, Avinash P.; Akinwande, Deji

    2016-03-01

    Phosphorene is a new two-dimensional material which is commonly prepared by exfoliation from black phosphorus bulk crystals that historically have been synthesized from white phosphorus under high-pressure conditions. The few layers of phosphorene have a direct band gap in the range of 0.3-2 eV and high mobility at room temperature comparable to epitaxial graphene. These characteristics can be used for the design of high speed digital circuits, radio frequency circuits, flexible and printed systems, and optoelectronic devices. In this work, we synthesized black phosphorus from red phosphorus, which is a safer solid precursor, using sonochemistry. Furthermore, via a variety of microscopy and spectroscopy techniques, we report characterization results of the sonochemically synthesized black phosphorus in addition to the commercial black phosphorus. Finally, we describe the air stability of black phosphors and the crystalline structure of the synthesized material. This is the first result of sonochemical or solution-based synthesis of black phosphorus based on readily available low-cost red phosphorus. This solution-based synthesis of black phosphorus is suitable for printable applications of nanomaterial.

  5. [The impact of known and unknown dietary components to phosphorus intake].

    PubMed

    Cupisti, Adamasco; D'Alessandro, Claudia

    2011-01-01

    The pathogenesis of CKD-MBD is multifactorial but the tendency towards phosphorus retention due to an excessive dietary intake for the residual renal function plays a central role. The dietary phosphorus is absorbed in the intestine as inorganic free phosphorus. The share of intestinal absorption (about 60% on average) is negligible for plant phosphorus (in the form of phytate), while it is maximal for phosphate or polyphosphates contained in food additives. The latter represent a dangerous extra load of phosphorus because they are poorly recognized by patients and widely used in modern nutrition, in particular in low-cost food. In a free mixed diet, the phosphorus content is directly related to that of proteins. It follows that protein-rich foods are the main source of phosphorus. This is a favorable condition for CKD patients in conservative therapy when a low-protein diet is implemented, while it represents a huge problem for dialysis patients, who need a high-protein diet. A simple and effective approach to reduce the load of dietary phosphorus without reducing protein intake is to educate patients to avoid foods high in phosphorus (cheese, egg yolk, nuts, etc.), and particularly those containing phosphorus additives. In addition, they should prefer boiling (resulting also in a decrease in sodium and potassium) to other methods of cooking. Counseling by a dietician is important for successful patient care. The dietician provides nutritional education, can help the patient with the choice of food, and may favor the adherence to dietary prescriptions, which is a crucial aspect in an integrated approach to CKD-MBD.

  6. Frequently Asked Questions on Potassium Iodide (KI)

    MedlinePlus

    ... needs to take potassium iodide (KI) after a nuclear radiation release? What potassium iodide (KI) products are currently ... needs to take potassium iodide (KI) after a nuclear radiation release? The FDA guidance prioritizes groups based on ...

  7. Total body potassium measurement method

    SciTech Connect

    Tomlinson, F.K.

    1985-09-01

    The body counter facility at Mound was used to measure the total body potassium (TBK) in hypertensive patients. Radioactive /sup 40/K accounts for 0.0118% of natural potassium and can be readily measured in vivo. The normal adult human generally has 80 to 185 g of TBK depending on sex, age, height, etc. 10 refs., 1 tab.

  8. Effects of maize cultivation on nitrogen and phosphorus loadings to drainage channels in Central Chile.

    PubMed

    Corradini, Fabio; Nájera, Francisco; Casanova, Manuel; Tapia, Yasna; Singh, Ranvir; do Salazar, Osval

    2015-11-01

    There are concerns about the impact of maize cultivation with high applications of nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) on water quality in surface waters in Mediterranean Central Chile. This study estimated the contribution of N and P from maize fields to nearby drainage channels and evaluated the effects in water quality. An N and P budget was drawn up for three fields managed with a maize-fallow system, El Maitén (20.7 ha), El Naranjal (14.9 ha) and El Caleuche (4.2 ha), and water quality variables (pH, EC, dissolved oxygen, total solids, turbidity, NO3-N, NH4-N, PO4(3-), COD, total N, total P and sulphate) were monitored in nearby drainage channels. The N and P balances for the three fields indicated a high risk of N and P non-point source pollution, with fertiliser management, soil texture and climate factors determining the temporal variations in water quality parameters. Elevated levels of NH4-N and PO4(3-) in the drainage channels were usually observed during the winter period, while NO3- concentrations did not show a clear tendency. The results suggest that excessive slurry application during winter represents a very high risk of N and P runoff to drainage channels. Overall, great emphasis must be placed on good agronomic management of fields neighbouring drainage channels, including accurately calculating N and P fertiliser rates and establishing mitigation measures.

  9. Successful pregnancy after rituximab in a women with recurrent in vitro fertilisation failures and anti-phospholipid antibody positive.

    PubMed

    Ng, C T; O'Neil, M; Walsh, D; Walsh, T; Veale, D J

    2009-12-01

    We report a case of successful pregnancy after rituximab in a patient with a history of in vitro fertilisation (IVF) failures and positive anti-cardiolipin antibody (ACA). Following a course of rituximab, her ACA became negative and she successfully conceived with IVF treatment. This is the first case in literature describing the use of rituximab therapy in this clinical scenario.

  10. Pelleted organo-mineral fertilisers from composted pig slurry solids, animal wastes and spent mushroom compost for amenity grasslands.

    PubMed

    Rao, Juluri R; Watabe, Miyuki; Stewart, T Andrew; Millar, B Cherie; Moore, John E

    2007-01-01

    In Ireland, conversion of biodegradable farm wastes such as pig manure spent mushroom compost and poultry litter wastes to pelletised fertilisers is a desirable option for farmers. In this paper, results obtained from the composting of pig waste solids (20% w/w) blended with other locally available biodegradable wastes comprising poultry litter (26% w/w), spent mushroom compost (26% w/w), cocoa husks (18% w/w) and moistened shredded paper (10% w/w) are presented. The resulting 6-mo old 'mature' composts had a nutrient content of 2.3% total N, 1.6% P and 3.1% K, too 'low' for direct use as an agricultural fertiliser. Formulations incorporating dried blood or feather meal amendments enriched the organic N-content, reduced the moisture in mature compost mixtures and aided the granulation process. Inclusion of mineral supplements viz., sulphate of ammonia, rock phosphate and sulphate of potash, yielded slow release fertilisers with nutrient N:P:K ratios of 10:3:6 and 3:5:10 that were suited for amenity grasslands such as golf courses for spring or summer application and autumn dressing, respectively. Rigorous microbiological tests carried out throughout the composting, processing and pelletising phases indicated that the formulated organo-mineral fertilisers were free of vegetative bacterial pathogens.

  11. Ectomycorrhizal fungi as an alternative to the use of chemical fertilisers in nursery production of Pinus pinaster.

    PubMed

    Sousa, Nadine R; Franco, Albina R; Oliveira, Rui S; Castro, Paula M L

    2012-03-01

    Addition of fertilisers is a common practice in nursery production of conifer seedlings. The aim of this study was to evaluate whether ectomycorrhizal (ECM) fungi can be an alternative to the use of chemical fertilisers in the nursery production of Pinus pinaster. A greenhouse nursery experiment was conducted by inoculating seedlings obtained from seeds of P. pinaster plus trees with a range of compatible ECM fungi: (1) Thelephora terrestris, (2) Rhizopogon vulgaris, (3) a mixture of Pisolithus tinctorius and Scleroderma citrinum, and (4) a mixture of Suillus bovinus, Laccaria laccata and Lactarius deterrimus, using forest soil as substrate. Plant development was assessed at two levels of N-P-K fertiliser (0 or 600 mg/seedling). Inoculation with a mixture of mycelium from S. bovinus, L. laccata and L. deterrimus and with a mixture of spores of P. tinctorius and S. citrinum improved plant growth and nutrition, without the need of fertiliser. Results indicate that selected ECM fungi can be a beneficial biotechnological tool in nursery production of P. pinaster.

  12. Effects of nitrogen fertilisation rate and maturity of grass silage on methane emission by lactating dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Warner, D; Hatew, B; Podesta, S C; Klop, G; van Gastelen, S; van Laar, H; Dijkstra, J; Bannink, A

    2016-01-01

    Grass silage is typically fed to dairy cows in temperate regions. However, in vivo information on methane (CH(4)) emission from grass silage of varying quality is limited. We evaluated the effect of two rates of nitrogen (N) fertilisation of grassland (low fertilisation (LF), 65 kg of N/ha; and high fertilisation (HF), 150 kg of N/ha) and of three stages of maturity of grass at cutting: early maturity (EM; 28 days of regrowth), mid maturity (MM; 41 days of regrowth) and late maturity (LM; 62 days of regrowth) on CH(4) production by lactating dairy cows. In a randomised block design, 54 lactating Holstein-Friesian dairy cows (168±11 days in milk; mean±standard error of mean) received grass silage (mainly ryegrass) and compound feed at 80 : 20 on dry matter basis. Cows were adapted to the diet for 12 days and CH(4) production was measured in climate respiration chambers for 5 days. Dry matter intake (DMI; 14.9±0.56 kg/day) decreased with increasing N fertilisation and grass maturity. Production of fat- and protein-corrected milk (FPCM; 24.0±1.57 kg/day) decreased with advancing grass maturity but was not affected by N fertilisation. Apparent total-tract feed digestibility decreased with advancing grass maturity but was unaffected by N fertilisation except for an increase and decrease in N and fat digestibility with increasing N fertilisation, respectively. Total CH(4) production per cow (347±13.6 g/day) decreased with increasing N fertilisation by 4% and grass maturity by 6%. The smaller CH(4) production with advancing grass maturity was offset by a smaller FPCM and lower feed digestibility. As a result, with advancing grass maturity CH(4) emission intensity increased per units of FPCM (15.0±1.00 g CH(4)/kg) by 31% and digestible organic matter intake (33.1±0.78 g CH(4)/kg) by 15%. In addition, emission intensity increased per units of DMI (23.5±0.43 g CH(4)/kg) by 7% and gross energy intake (7.0±0.14% CH(4)) by 9%, implying an increased loss of dietary

  13. Availability of phosphorus from selected inorganic phosphate to juvenile abalone, Haliotis discus hannai ino.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bei-Ping, Tan; Kang-Sen, Mai; Wei, Xu

    2002-06-01

    The availability of phosphorus to juvenile abalone, Haliotis discus hannai from primary, secondary and tertiary calcium phosphate, primary sodium or potassium phosphate separately or in combination was determined in a 120-day feeding trial. Seven semi-purified diets were formulated to contain relatively constant dietary phosphorus, ranging from 0.78%-0.82%. The concentrations of dietary phosphorus were presumed to be slightly below the requirement for abalone. A brown alga, Laminaria japonica, was used as a control diet. Abalone juveniles of silimar size (average weight 1.18 g; average shell length 18.74 mm) were distributed in a single-pass, flow-through system using a completely randomized design with eight treatments and three replicates each treatment. The survival ranged from 71.1% to 81.1%, and was not significantly (P>0.05) related to dietary treatment. However, the weight gain rate (41.72%-65.02%), daily increment in shell length (36.87-55.07 μm) and muscle RNA-DNA ratio (3.44-4.69) were significantly (P<0.05) affected by dietary treatment. Soft body alkaline phosphatase activity (10.9-19.8 U/g wet tissue) and carcass levels of lipid (7.71%-9.33%) and protein (46.68%-49.35%) were significantly (P<0.05) responsive to available phosphorus of the diets. Dietary treatment had significant effect (P<0.05) on concentrations of phosphorus in the whole body (WB) and soft body (SB). Apparent digestibility coefficients (45%-97%) of phosphorus were also significantly (P<0.05) different between dietary treatments. The results indicated that among these inorganic compounds, primary calcium, potassium and sodium phosphates separately or in combination could be utilized effectively by juvenile abalone as dietary phosphorus sources (availability ranging from 87%-97%). However, secondary and tertiary calcium phosphates were found to be low in availability, the values being 45% and 77%, repectively.

  14. Identification of organic matter from peat, leonardite and lignite fertilisers using humification parameters and electrofocusing.

    PubMed

    Cavani, L; Ciavatta, C; Gessa, C

    2003-01-01

    The organic matter extracted from peats (P), leonardites (Le) and lignites (Li) was characterised by humification parameters and electrofocusing (EF). The degree of humification and the humification index might be used to distinguish P from Le and Li, but not Le from Li because they showed overlapped values, while the humification rate could be used only for the identification of Le and EF profiles of P, Le and Li fertilisers revealed different band patterns: P samples did not show bands in the region with isoelectric point, pI > 4.4; Le samples showed very intense bands in the region with pI > 4.4; Li samples showed a very different band pattern with poorly resolved bands in the region with pI > 3.8. P, Le and Li samples can be distinguished by combining humification parameters and EF.

  15. Malformation of gynoecia impedes fertilisation in bud-flowering Calluna vulgaris.

    PubMed

    Behrend, A; Borchert, T; Müller, A; Tänzer, J; Hohe, A

    2013-01-01

    In Calluna vulgaris, a common bedding plant during autumn in the northern hemisphere, the bud-blooming mutation of flower morphology is of high economic importance. Breeding of new bud-blooming cultivars suffers from poor seed set in some of the desirable bud-flowering crossing partners. In the current study, fertilisation and seed development in genotypes with good or poor seed set were monitored in detail in order to examine pre- and post-zygotic cross breeding incompatibilities. Whereas no distinct differences were detected in seed development, pollen tube growth was impeded in the pistils of genotypes characterised by poor seed set. Detailed microscopic analysis revealed malformations of the gynoecia due to imperfect fusion of carpels. Hence, a pre-zygotic mechanism hindering pollen tube growth due to malformation of gynoecia was deduced. An interaction of putative candidate genes involved in malformation of gynoecia with floral organ identity genes controlling the flower architecture is discussed.

  16. Occupational exposures in two industrial plants devoted to the production of ammonium phosphate fertilisers.

    PubMed

    Bolívar, J P; García-Tenorio, R; Mosqueda, F; Gázquez, M J; López-Coto, I; Adame, J A; Vaca, F

    2013-03-01

    In order to fill a gap in the open literature, occupational exposures and activity concentrations have been assessed in two NORM industrial plants, located in the south-west of Spain, devoted to the production of mono-ammonium phosphate (MAP) and di-ammonium phosphate (DAP) fertilisers. The annual effective doses received by the workers from these plants are clearly below 1 mSv yr(-1) and the contribution due to external radiation is similar to that due to inhalation. The contribution to the maximum effective doses due to inhalation of particulate matter has been estimated to be about 0.12 mSv yr(-1), while the (222)Rn concentrations inside the plants are of no concern. Consequently, no additional actions or radiological protection measures need to be taken to decrease the natural radiation received by the workers in these facilities.

  17. Malignant melanoma arising in an in vitro fertilisation pregnancy: A case report.

    PubMed

    Pabuccu, Recai; Kiseli, Mine; Kahyaoğlu, Inci; Cağlar, Gamze Sinem; Yılmaz, Müşerref Banu

    2013-01-01

    Malignant melanoma diagnosed during pregnancy results in confusion about staging and management. In this case report, a 39-year-old pregnant woman, who had undergone conception via in vitro fertilisation, was diagnosed with malignant melanoma of a growing lesion on her back in the 20th week of gestation. She delivered her baby by caesarean section in the 38th week. Metastasis was not found by chest X-ray, ultrasonography and positron emission tomography after delivery. She has been disease free for 6 months postpartum. Surgical resection of malignant melanoma and postponing of the sentinel lymph node biopsy has been proposed. Risk of adverse perinatal outcomes has not been increased; but the prognosis of malignant melanoma is known to be poorer when diagnosed during pregnancy. As a conclusion, any pigmentary change in the nevi should be assessed carefully during pregnancy.

  18. Severe systemic candidiasis following immunomodulation therapy in in vitro fertilisation-embryo transfer (IVF-ET).

    PubMed

    Akhanoba, Folasade; MacDougall, Jane; Mathur, Raj; Hassan, Wassim

    2014-03-31

    A 41-year-old nulliparous woman, with a medical history of unexplained infertility and multiple in vitro fertilisation (IVF) cycles with immunosuppressive therapy, was admitted to our tertiary obstetrics unit with sepsis at 18 weeks of pregnancy with dichorionic diamniotic twins. Candida glabrata was grown from her blood cultures, then subsequently from the liquor and placentae. She was treated with intravenous ambisome (amphotericin), but unfortunately, the infection resulted in the rupture of her membranes, preterm labour and the demise of her twins. She delivered both twins at 23 weeks, 3 days apart. The antifungal agent was changed to high-dose fluconazole after delivery for 2 weeks and she is now well. Women undergoing IVF-embryo transfer with immunomodulation therapy have a potential risk of developing candidal chorioamnionitis and sepsis.

  19. Phosphorus runoff from turfgrass as affected by phosphorus fertilization and clipping management.

    PubMed

    Bierman, Peter M; Horgan, Brian P; Rosen, Carl J; Hollman, Andrew B; Pagliari, Paulo H

    2010-01-01

    Phosphorus enrichment of surface water is a concern in many urban watersheds. A 3-yr study on a silt loam soil with 5% slope and high soil test P (27 mg kg(-1) Bray P1) was conducted to evaluate P fertilization and clipping management effects on P runoff from turfgrass (Poa pratensis L.) under frozen and nonfrozen conditions. Four fertilizer treatments were compared: (i) no fertilizer, (ii) nitrogen (N)+potassium (K)+0xP, (iii) N+K+1xP, and (iv) N+K+3xP. Phosphorus rates were 21.3 and 63.9 kg ha(-1) yr(-1) the first year and 7.1 and 21.3 kg ha(-1) yr(-1) the following 2 yr. Each fertilizer treatment was evaluated with clippings removed or clippings recycled back to the turf. In the first year, P runoff increased with increasing P rate and P losses were greater in runoff from frozen than nonfrozen soil. In year 2, total P runoff from the no fertilizer treatment was greater than from treatments receiving fertilizer. This was because reduced turf quality resulted in greater runoff depth from the no fertilizer treatment. In year 3, total P runoff from frozen soil and cumulative total P runoff increased with increasing P rate. Clipping management was not an important factor in any year, indicating that returning clippings does not significantly increase P runoff from turf. In the presence of N and K, P fertilization did not improve turf growth or quality in any year. Phosphorus runoff can be reduced by not applying P to high testing soils and avoiding fall applications when P is needed.

  20. Natural history of potassium-deficiency myopathy in the dog: role of adrenocorticosteroid in rhabdomyolysis.

    PubMed

    Patterson, R E; Haut, M J; Montgomery, C A; Lowensohn, H S; McQuilken, C T; Djuh, Y Y; Huott, A; Olsson, R A

    1983-10-01

    Potassium deficiency occurs in several conditions and is reported to cause muscle weakness and rhabdomyolysis. The mechanisms by which potassium deficiency cause muscle disease remain unknown, but the primary purpose of the present study was to determine whether abnormal muscle glycogen metabolism causes muscle weakness, as suggested by previous work. We monitored the natural history of potassium deficiency in two groups of dogs, one of which also received deoxycorticosterone acetate (DOCA), an agent commonly used in other studies to accelerate potassium loss. Group I dogs on potassium-free diet alone showed a 41% decrease in muscle potassium, no change in serum CO2, creatine kinase (CK), or muscle phosphorylase activity and only mild histopathologic abnormalities before death, after 198 +/- 42 days on the diet (mean +/- S.D.). In contrast, group II dogs on the same diet plus DOCA developed clinically similar severe weakness and died more rapidly than group I, 37 +/- 7 days (p less than 0.03). DOCA dogs showed a more rapid decrease in muscle potassium to the same level as group I, a 37% increase in serum CO2, an increase in serum CK to 1060 to 2775 IU/ml, a 23% decrease in muscle phosphorylase activity, and severe muscle histopathology, including rhabdomyolysis. Neither group showed any change in body weight, electromyogram (EMG), muscle glycogen concentration, glycogen synthetase activity, serum or muscle magnesium or phosphorus, or serum T3 or T4. In conclusion, dietary potassium deficiency in dogs causes severe weakness and death without causing rhabdomyolysis or abnormal muscle glycogen metabolism. Adding DOCA to the potassium-free diet creates a different model characterized by rapid clinical deterioration and rhabdomyolysis.

  1. Reducing nitrous oxide emissions by changing N fertiliser use from calcium ammonium nitrate (CAN) to urea based formulations.

    PubMed

    Harty, M A; Forrestal, P J; Watson, C J; McGeough, K L; Carolan, R; Elliot, C; Krol, D; Laughlin, R J; Richards, K G; Lanigan, G J

    2016-09-01

    The accelerating use of synthetic nitrogen (N) fertilisers, to meet the world's growing food demand, is the primary driver for increased atmospheric concentrations of nitrous oxide (N2O). The IPCC default emission factor (EF) for N2O from soils is 1% of the N applied, irrespective of its form. However, N2O emissions tend to be higher from nitrate-containing fertilisers e.g. calcium ammonium nitrate (CAN) compared to urea, particularly in regions, which have mild, wet climates and high organic matter soils. Urea can be an inefficient N source due to NH3 volatilisation, but nitrogen stabilisers (urease and nitrification inhibitors) can improve its efficacy. This study evaluated the impact of switching fertiliser formulation from calcium ammonium nitrate (CAN) to urea-based products, as a potential mitigation strategy to reduce N2O emissions at six temperate grassland sites on the island of Ireland. The surface applied formulations included CAN, urea and urea with the urease inhibitor N-(n-butyl) thiophosphoric triamide (NBPT) and/or the nitrification inhibitor dicyandiamide (DCD). Results showed that N2O emissions were significantly affected by fertiliser formulation, soil type and climatic conditions. The direct N2O emission factor (EF) from CAN averaged 1.49% overall sites, but was highly variable, ranging from 0.58% to 3.81. Amending urea with NBPT, to reduce ammonia volatilisation, resulted in an average EF of 0.40% (ranging from 0.21 to 0.69%)-compared to an average EF of 0.25% for urea (ranging from 0.1 to 0.49%), with both fertilisers significantly lower and less variable than CAN. Cumulative N2O emissions from urea amended with both NBPT and DCD were not significantly different from background levels. Switching from CAN to stabilised urea formulations was found to be an effective strategy to reduce N2O emissions, particularly in wet, temperate grassland.

  2. Effect of fertilising with pig slurry and chicken manure on GHG emissions from Mediterranean paddies.

    PubMed

    Maris, S C; Teira-Esmatges, M R; Bosch-Serra, A D; Moreno-García, B; Català, M M

    2016-11-01

    Soil fertilisation affects greenhouse gas emissions. The objective of this study was to compare the effect of different fertilisation strategies on N2O, CH4 emissions and on ecosystem respiration (CO2 emissions), during different periods of rice cultivation (rice crop, postharvest period, and seedling) under Mediterranean climate. Emissions were quantified weekly by the photoacoustic technique at two sites. At Site 1 (2011 and 2012), background treatments were 2 doses of chicken manure (CM): 90 and 170kgNH4(+)-Nha(-1) (CM-90, CM-170), urea (U, 150kgNha(-1)) and no-N (control). Fifty kilogram N ha(-1) ammonium sulphate (AS) were topdress applied to all of them. At Site 2 (2012), background treatments were 2 doses of pig slurry (PS): 91 and 152kgNH4(+)-Nha(-1) (PS-91, PS-152) and ammonium sulphate (AS) at 120kgNH4(+)-Nha(-1) and no-N (control). Sixty kilogram NH4(+)-Nha(-1) as AS were topdress applied to AS and PS-91. During seedling, global warming potential (GWP) was ~3.5-17% of that of the whole rice crop for the CM treatments. The postharvest period was a net sink for CH4, and CO2 emissions only increased for the CM-170 treatment (up to 2MgCO2ha(-1)). The GWP of the entire rice crop reached 17Mg CO2-eqha(-1) for U, and was 14 for CM-170, and 37 for CM-90. The application of PS at agronomic doses (~170kgNha(-1)) allowed high yields (~7.4Mgha(-1)), the control of GWP (~6.5MgCO2-eqha(-1)), and a 13% reduction in greenhouse gas intensity (GHGI) to 0.89kgCO2-eqkg(-1) when compared to AS (1.02kgCO2-eqkg(-1)).

  3. Hygiene versus fertiliser: the use of human excreta in agriculture--a Vietnamese example.

    PubMed

    Jensen, Peter Kjaer Mackie; Phuc, Pham Duc; Knudsen, Line Gram; Dalsgaard, Anders; Konradsen, Flemming

    2008-07-01

    The use of human excreta as fertiliser in agriculture is a common practice in parts of South East Asia benefiting production but at the same time a risk factor for increased helminth infections. This paper describes the hygienic handling of human excreta for use in agriculture in Central Vietnam from a practical farming perspective presenting the farmers perceived health risks and benefits of its use. Further, in the study findings are discussed relating to the new Vietnamese guidelines for the use of human excreta in agriculture to their implications on an on-farm context. A total of 471 households in five communes responded to a structured questionnaire. This survey was supplemented by focus group discussions, key informant interviews and participant observations. More than 90% of the surveyed households used their own excreta as fertiliser and a total of 94% composted the excreta before use, either inside or outside the latrine. However, due to the prevailing design of the latrine and the three annual cropping seasons, it was found that for a minimum of one cultivation season per year 74% of the households will have only 3-4 months for composting before the input is needed in production, which is short of the 6 months stipulated in the national guidelines. The community associated great benefits from using human excreta in agriculture, especially if composted, and did not associate risks with the use of composted excreta if it was dry and lacked odour. It is recommended that the guidelines be revised and attempts made to identify ways of reducing the time needed to ensure the die-off of helminth eggs, including the use of pH regulators, such as an increased use of lime in the latrines.

  4. Multiple Mating, Paternity and Complex Fertilisation Patterns in the Chokka Squid Loligo reynaudii.

    PubMed

    Naud, Marie-Jose; Sauer, Warwick H H; McKeown, Niall J; Shaw, Paul W

    2016-01-01

    Polyandry is widespread and influences patterns of sexual selection, with implications for sexual conflict over mating. Assessing sperm precedence patterns is a first step towards understanding sperm competition within a female and elucidating the roles of male- and female-controlled factors. In this study behavioural field data and genetic data were combined to investigate polyandry in the chokka squid Loligo reynaudii. Microsatellite DNA-based paternity analysis revealed multiple paternity to be the norm, with 79% of broods sired by at least two males. Genetic data also determined that the male who was guarding the female at the moment of sampling was a sire in 81% of the families tested, highlighting mate guarding as a successful male tactic with postcopulatory benefits linked to sperm deposition site giving privileged access to extruded egg strings. As females lay multiple eggs in capsules (egg strings) wherein their position is not altered during maturation it is possible to describe the spatial / temporal sequence of fertilisation / sperm precedence There were four different patterns of fertilisation found among the tested egg strings: 1) unique sire; 2) dominant sire, with one or more rare sires; 3) randomly mixed paternity (two or more sires); and 4) a distinct switch in paternity occurring along the egg string. The latter pattern cannot be explained by a random use of stored sperm, and suggests postcopulatory female sperm choice. Collectively the data indicate multiple levels of male- and female-controlled influences on sperm precedence, and highlights squid as interesting models to study the interplay between sexual and natural selection.

  5. Multiple Mating, Paternity and Complex Fertilisation Patterns in the Chokka Squid Loligo reynaudii

    PubMed Central

    Naud, Marie-Jose; Sauer, Warwick H. H.; McKeown, Niall J.; Shaw, Paul W.

    2016-01-01

    Polyandry is widespread and influences patterns of sexual selection, with implications for sexual conflict over mating. Assessing sperm precedence patterns is a first step towards understanding sperm competition within a female and elucidating the roles of male- and female-controlled factors. In this study behavioural field data and genetic data were combined to investigate polyandry in the chokka squid Loligo reynaudii. Microsatellite DNA-based paternity analysis revealed multiple paternity to be the norm, with 79% of broods sired by at least two males. Genetic data also determined that the male who was guarding the female at the moment of sampling was a sire in 81% of the families tested, highlighting mate guarding as a successful male tactic with postcopulatory benefits linked to sperm deposition site giving privileged access to extruded egg strings. As females lay multiple eggs in capsules (egg strings) wherein their position is not altered during maturation it is possible to describe the spatial / temporal sequence of fertilisation / sperm precedence There were four different patterns of fertilisation found among the tested egg strings: 1) unique sire; 2) dominant sire, with one or more rare sires; 3) randomly mixed paternity (two or more sires); and 4) a distinct switch in paternity occurring along the egg string. The latter pattern cannot be explained by a random use of stored sperm, and suggests postcopulatory female sperm choice. Collectively the data indicate multiple levels of male- and female-controlled influences on sperm precedence, and highlights squid as interesting models to study the interplay between sexual and natural selection. PMID:26872354

  6. Ammonium nitrate fertiliser production based on biomass - environmental effects from a life cycle perspective.

    PubMed

    Ahlgren, Serina; Baky, Andras; Bernesson, Sven; Nordberg, Ke; Norén, Olle; Hansson, Per-Anders

    2008-11-01

    Ammonium nitrate and calcium ammonium nitrate are the most commonly used straight nitrogen fertilisers in Europe, accounting for 43% of the total nitrogen used for fertilisers. They are both produced in a similar way; carbonate can be added as a last step to produce calcium ammonium nitrate. The environmental impact, fossil energy input and land use from using gasified biomass (cereal straw and short rotation willow (Salix) coppice) as feedstock in ammonium nitrate production were studied in a cradle-to-gate evaluation using life cycle assessment methodology. The global warming potential in the biomass systems was only 22-30% of the impact from conventional production using natural gas. The eutrophication potential was higher for the biomass systems due to nutrient leaching during cultivation, while the acidification was about the same in all systems. The primary fossil energy use was calculated to be 1.45 and 1.37MJ/kg nitrogen for Salix and straw, respectively, compared to 35.14MJ for natural gas. The biomass production was assumed to be self-supporting with nutrients by returning part of the ammonium nitrate produced together with the ash from the gasification. For the production of nitrogen from Salix, it was calculated that 3914kg of nitrogen can be produced every year from 1ha, after that 1.6% of the produced nitrogen has been returned to the Salix production. From wheat straw, 1615kg of nitrogen can be produced annually from 1ha, after that 0.6% of the nitrogen has been returned.

  7. Preparation of high purity phosphorus

    DOEpatents

    Rupp, Arthur F.; Woo, David V.

    1981-01-01

    High purity phosphorus and phosphorus compounds are prepared by first reacting H.sub.3 PO.sub.4 with a lead compound such as PbO to form Pb.sub.3 (PO.sub.4).sub.2. The Pb.sub.3 (PO.sub.4).sub.2 is reduced with H.sub.2 at a temperature sufficient to form gaseous phosphorus which can be recovered as a high purity phosphorus product. Phosphorus compounds can be easily prepared by reacting the phosphorus product with gaseous reactants. For example, the phosphorus product is reacted with gaseous Cl.sub.2 to form PCl.sub.5. PCl.sub.5 is reduced to PCl.sub.3 by contacting it in the gaseous phase with solid elemental phosphorus. POCl.sub.3 can be prepared by contacting PCl.sub.5 in the gaseous phase with solid P.sub.2 O.sub.5. The general process is particularly suitable for the preparation of radiophosphorus compounds.

  8. Virtual phosphorus ore requirement of Japanese economy.

    PubMed

    Matsubae, Kazuyo; Kajiyama, Jun; Hiraki, Takehito; Nagasaka, Tetsuya

    2011-08-01

    Phosphorus is indispensable for agricultural production. Hence, the consumption of imported food indirectly implies the import of phosphorus resources. The global consumption of agricultural products depends on a small number of ore-producing countries. For sustainable management of phosphorus resources, the global supply and demand network should be clarified. In this study, we propose the virtual phosphorus ore requirement as a new indicator of the direct and indirect phosphorus requirements for our society. The virtual phosphorus ore requirement indicates the direct and indirect demands for phosphorus ore transformed into agricultural products and fertilizer. In this study, the virtual phosphorus ore requirement was evaluated for the Japanese economy in 2005. Importantly, the results show that our society requires twice as much phosphorus ore as the domestic demand for fertilizer production. The phosphorus contained in "eaten" agricultural products was only 12% of virtual phosphorus ore requirement.

  9. 21 CFR 184.1613 - Potassium bicarbonate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Potassium bicarbonate. 184.1613 Section 184.1613... GRAS § 184.1613 Potassium bicarbonate. (a) Potassium bicarbonate (KHCO3, CAS Reg. No. 298-14-6) is made by the following processes: (1) By treating a solution of potassium hydroxide with carbon dioxide;...

  10. 21 CFR 184.1610 - Potassium alginate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Potassium alginate. 184.1610 Section 184.1610 Food... Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1610 Potassium alginate. (a) Potassium alginate (CAS Reg. No. 9005-36-1) is the potassium salt of alginic acid, a natural polyuronide constituent of certain...

  11. 21 CFR 184.1634 - Potassium iodide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Potassium iodide. 184.1634 Section 184.1634 Food... Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1634 Potassium iodide. (a) Potassium iodide (KI, CAS Reg. No. 7681-11-0) is the potassium salt of hydriodic acid. It occurs naturally in sea water and in...

  12. 21 CFR 184.1610 - Potassium alginate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Potassium alginate. 184.1610 Section 184.1610 Food... Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1610 Potassium alginate. (a) Potassium alginate (CAS Reg. No. 9005-36-1) is the potassium salt of alginic acid, a natural polyuronide constituent of certain...

  13. 21 CFR 184.1622 - Potassium chloride.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Potassium chloride. 184.1622 Section 184.1622 Food... Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1622 Potassium chloride. (a) Potassium chloride (KCl, CAS Reg... levels not to exceed current good manufacturing practice. Potassium chloride may be used in...

  14. 21 CFR 184.1610 - Potassium alginate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Potassium alginate. 184.1610 Section 184.1610 Food... Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1610 Potassium alginate. (a) Potassium alginate (CAS Reg. No. 9005-36-1) is the potassium salt of alginic acid, a natural polyuronide constituent of certain...

  15. 21 CFR 184.1634 - Potassium iodide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Potassium iodide. 184.1634 Section 184.1634 Food... Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1634 Potassium iodide. (a) Potassium iodide (KI, CAS Reg. No. 7681-11-0) is the potassium salt of hydriodic acid. It occurs naturally in sea water and in...

  16. 21 CFR 184.1631 - Potassium hydroxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Potassium hydroxide. 184.1631 Section 184.1631 Food... Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1631 Potassium hydroxide. (a) Potassium hydroxide (KOH, CAS Reg... pellets, flakes, sticks, lumps, and powders. Potassium hydroxide is obtained commercially from...

  17. 21 CFR 184.1631 - Potassium hydroxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Potassium hydroxide. 184.1631 Section 184.1631... Listing of Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1631 Potassium hydroxide. (a) Potassium hydroxide..., including pellets, flakes, sticks, lumps, and powders. Potassium hydroxide is obtained commercially from...

  18. 21 CFR 184.1619 - Potassium carbonate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Potassium carbonate. 184.1619 Section 184.1619... GRAS § 184.1619 Potassium carbonate. (a) Potassium carbonate (K2CO3, CAS Reg. No. 584-08-7) is produced by the following methods of manufacture: (1) By electrolysis of potassium chloride followed...

  19. 21 CFR 184.1622 - Potassium chloride.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Potassium chloride. 184.1622 Section 184.1622 Food... Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1622 Potassium chloride. (a) Potassium chloride (KCl, CAS Reg... levels not to exceed current good manufacturing practice. Potassium chloride may be used in...

  20. 21 CFR 184.1610 - Potassium alginate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Potassium alginate. 184.1610 Section 184.1610 Food... Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1610 Potassium alginate. (a) Potassium alginate (CAS Reg. No. 9005-36-1) is the potassium salt of alginic acid, a natural polyuronide constituent of certain...

  1. 21 CFR 184.1634 - Potassium iodide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Potassium iodide. 184.1634 Section 184.1634 Food... Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1634 Potassium iodide. (a) Potassium iodide (KI, CAS Reg. No. 7681-11-0) is the potassium salt of hydriodic acid. It occurs naturally in sea water and in...

  2. 21 CFR 184.1631 - Potassium hydroxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Potassium hydroxide. 184.1631 Section 184.1631... Listing of Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1631 Potassium hydroxide. (a) Potassium hydroxide..., including pellets, flakes, sticks, lumps, and powders. Potassium hydroxide is obtained commercially from...

  3. 21 CFR 184.1635 - Potassium iodate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Potassium iodate. 184.1635 Section 184.1635 Food... GRAS § 184.1635 Potassium iodate. (a) Potassium iodate (KIO3, CAS Reg. No. 7758-05-6) does not occur naturally but can be prepared by reacting iodine with potassium hydroxide. (b) The ingredient meets...

  4. 21 CFR 184.1622 - Potassium chloride.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Potassium chloride. 184.1622 Section 184.1622 Food... Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1622 Potassium chloride. (a) Potassium chloride (KCl, CAS Reg... levels not to exceed current good manufacturing practice. Potassium chloride may be used in...

  5. 21 CFR 184.1622 - Potassium chloride.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Potassium chloride. 184.1622 Section 184.1622 Food... GRAS § 184.1622 Potassium chloride. (a) Potassium chloride (KCl, CAS Reg. No. 7447-40-7) is a white... manufacturing practice. Potassium chloride may be used in infant formula in accordance with section 412(g)...

  6. 21 CFR 184.1622 - Potassium chloride.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Potassium chloride. 184.1622 Section 184.1622 Food... Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1622 Potassium chloride. (a) Potassium chloride (KCl, CAS Reg... levels not to exceed current good manufacturing practice. Potassium chloride may be used in...

  7. 21 CFR 184.1634 - Potassium iodide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Potassium iodide. 184.1634 Section 184.1634 Food... Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1634 Potassium iodide. (a) Potassium iodide (KI, CAS Reg. No. 7681-11-0) is the potassium salt of hydriodic acid. It occurs naturally in sea water and in...

  8. 21 CFR 184.1635 - Potassium iodate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Potassium iodate. 184.1635 Section 184.1635 Food... Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1635 Potassium iodate. (a) Potassium iodate (KIO3, CAS Reg. No. 7758-05-6) does not occur naturally but can be prepared by reacting iodine with potassium hydroxide....

  9. 21 CFR 184.1631 - Potassium hydroxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Potassium hydroxide. 184.1631 Section 184.1631... Listing of Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1631 Potassium hydroxide. (a) Potassium hydroxide..., including pellets, flakes, sticks, lumps, and powders. Potassium hydroxide is obtained commercially from...

  10. 21 CFR 184.1635 - Potassium iodate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Potassium iodate. 184.1635 Section 184.1635 Food... Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1635 Potassium iodate. (a) Potassium iodate (KIO3, CAS Reg. No. 7758-05-6) does not occur naturally but can be prepared by reacting iodine with potassium hydroxide....

  11. Nutrient additions in pristine Patagonian Sphagnum bog vegetation: can phosphorus addition alleviate (the effects of) increased nitrogen loads.

    PubMed

    Fritz, C; van Dijk, G; Smolders, A J P; Pancotto, V A; Elzenga, T J T M; Roelofs, J G M; Grootjans, A P

    2012-05-01

    Sphagnum-bog ecosystems have a limited capability to retain carbon and nutrients when subjected to increased nitrogen (N) deposition. Although it has been proposed that phosphorus (P) can dilute negative effects of nitrogen by increasing biomass production of Sphagnum mosses, it is still unclear whether P-addition can alleviate physiological N-stress in Sphagnum plants. A 3-year fertilisation experiment was conducted in lawns of a pristine Sphagnum magellanicum bog in Patagonia, where competing vascular plants were practically absent. Background wet deposition of nitrogen was low (≈ 0.1-0.2 g · N · m(-2) · year(-1)). Nitrogen (4 g · N · m(-2) · year(-1)) and phosphorus (1 g · P · m(-2) · year(-1)) were applied, separately and in combination, six times during the growing season. P-addition substantially increased biomass production of Sphagnum. Nitrogen and phosphorus changed the morphology of Sphagnum mosses by enhancing height increment, but lowering moss stem density. In contrast to expectations, phosphorus failed to alleviate physiological stress imposed by excess nitrogen (e.g. amino acid accumulation, N-saturation and decline in photosynthetic rates). We conclude that despite improving growth conditions by P-addition, Sphagnum-bog ecosystems remain highly susceptible to nitrogen additions. Increased susceptibility to desiccation by nutrients may even worsen the negative effects of excess nitrogen especially in windy climates like in Patagonia.

  12. How surface composition and meteoroid impacts mediate sodium and potassium in the lunar exosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Colaprete, A.; Sarantos, M.; Wooden, D. H.; Stubbs, T. J.; Cook, A. M.; Shirley, M.

    2016-01-01

    Despite being trace constituents of the lunar exosphere, sodium and potassium are the most readily observed species due to their bright line emission. Measurements of these species by the Ultraviolet and Visible Spectrometer (UVS) on the Lunar Atmosphere and Dust Environment Explorer (LADEE) have revealed unambiguous temporal and spatial variations indicative of a strong role for meteoroid bombardment and surface composition in determining the composition and local time dependence of the Moon’s exosphere. Observations show distinct lunar day (monthly) cycles for both species as well as an annual cycle for sodium. The first continuous measurements for potassium show a more repeatable variation across lunations and an enhancement over KREEP (Potassium Rare Earth Elements and Phosphorus) surface regions, revealing a strong dependence on surface composition.

  13. How Surface Composition and Meteoroid Impacts Mediate Sodium and Potassium in the Lunar Exosphere

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Colaprete, A.; Sarantos, M.; Wooden, D. H.; Stubbs, T. J.; Cook, A. M.; Shirley, M.

    2016-01-01

    Despite being trace constituents of the lunar exosphere, sodium and potassium are the most readily observed species due to their bright line emission. Measurements of these species by the Ultraviolet and Visible Spectrometer (UVS) on the Lunar Atmosphere and Dust Environment Explorer (LADEE) have revealed unambiguous temporal and spatial variations indicative of a strong role for meteoroid bombardment and surface composition in determining the composition and local time dependence of the Moon's exosphere. Observations show distinct lunar day (monthly) cycles for both species as well as an annual cycle for sodium. The first continuous measurements for potassium show a more repeatable variation across lunations and an enhancement over KREEP (Potassium Rare Earth Elements and Phosphorus) surface regions, revealing a strong dependence on surface composition.

  14. Lunar atmosphere. How surface composition and meteoroid impacts mediate sodium and potassium in the lunar exosphere.

    PubMed

    Colaprete, A; Sarantos, M; Wooden, D H; Stubbs, T J; Cook, A M; Shirley, M

    2016-01-15

    Despite being trace constituents of the lunar exosphere, sodium and potassium are the most readily observed species due to their bright line emission. Measurements of these species by the Ultraviolet and Visible Spectrometer (UVS) on the Lunar Atmosphere and Dust Environment Explorer (LADEE) have revealed unambiguous temporal and spatial variations indicative of a strong role for meteoroid bombardment and surface composition in determining the composition and local time dependence of the Moon's exosphere. Observations show distinct lunar day (monthly) cycles for both species as well as an annual cycle for sodium. The first continuous measurements for potassium show a more repeatable variation across lunations and an enhancement over KREEP (Potassium Rare Earth Elements and Phosphorus) surface regions, revealing a strong dependence on surface composition.

  15. Potassium Disorders: Hypokalemia and Hyperkalemia.

    PubMed

    Viera, Anthony J; Wouk, Noah

    2015-09-15

    Hypokalemia and hyperkalemia are common electrolyte disorders caused by changes in potassium intake, altered excretion, or transcellular shifts. Diuretic use and gastrointestinal losses are common causes of hypokalemia, whereas kidney disease, hyperglycemia, and medication use are common causes of hyperkalemia. When severe, potassium disorders can lead to life-threatening cardiac conduction disturbances and neuromuscular dysfunction. Therefore, a first priority is determining the need for urgent treatment through a combination of history, physical examination, laboratory, and electrocardiography findings. Indications for urgent treatment include severe or symptomatic hypokalemia or hyperkalemia; abrupt changes in potassium levels; electrocardiography changes; or the presence of certain comorbid conditions. Hypokalemia is treated with oral or intravenous potassium. To prevent cardiac conduction disturbances, intravenous calcium is administered to patients with hyperkalemic electrocardiography changes. Insulin, usually with concomitant glucose, and albuterol are preferred to lower serum potassium levels in the acute setting; sodium polystyrene sulfonate is reserved for subacute treatment. For both disorders, it is important to consider potential causes of transcellular shifts because patients are at increased risk of rebound potassium disturbances.

  16. Does Hemodialysis Dialysate Potassium Composition Matter?.

    PubMed

    Haras, Mary S

    2015-01-01

    Dyskalemia is known to cause cardiac arrhythmias and cardiac arrest. In persons undergoing hemodialysis, potassium dialysate composition has been identified as a contributingfactor in addition to co-morbidities, medications, dietary potassium intake, and stage of kidney disease. Current evidence recommends a thorough evaluation of all factors affecting potassium balance, and lower potassium concentration should be used cautiously in patients who are likely to develop cardiac arrhythmias. Nephrology nurses play a key role inpatient assessment and edu- cation related to potassium balance.

  17. DPPX potassium channel antibody

    PubMed Central

    Tobin, William Oliver; Lennon, Vanda A.; Komorowski, Lars; Probst, Christian; Clardy, Stacey Lynn; Aksamit, Allen J.; Appendino, Juan Pablo; Lucchinetti, Claudia F.; Matsumoto, Joseph Y.; Pittock, Sean J.; Sandroni, Paola; Tippmann-Peikert, Maja; Wirrell, Elaine C.

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To describe the detection frequency and clinical associations of immunoglobulin G (IgG) targeting dipeptidyl-peptidase-like protein-6 (DPPX), a regulatory subunit of neuronal Kv4.2 potassium channels. Methods: Specimens from 20 patients evaluated on a service basis by tissue-based immunofluorescence yielded a synaptic immunostaining pattern consistent with DPPX-IgG (serum, 20; CSF, all 7 available). Transfected HEK293 cell-based assay confirmed DPPX specificity in all specimens. Sixty-nine patients with stiff-person syndrome and related disorders were also evaluated by DPPX-IgG cell-based assay. Results: Of 20 seropositive patients, 12 were men; median symptom onset age was 53 years (range, 13–75). Symptom onset was insidious in 15 and subacute in 5. Twelve patients reported prodromal weight loss. Neurologic disorders were multifocal. All had one or more brain or brainstem manifestations: amnesia (16), delirium (8), psychosis (4), depression (4), seizures (2), and brainstem disorders (15; eye movement disturbances [8], ataxia [7], dysphagia [6], dysarthria [4], respiratory failure [3]). Nine patients reported sleep disturbance. Manifestations of central hyperexcitability included myoclonus (8), exaggerated startle (6), diffuse rigidity (6), and hyperreflexia (6). Dysautonomia involved the gastrointestinal tract (9; diarrhea [6], gastroparesis, and constipation [3]), bladder (7), cardiac conduction system (3), and thermoregulation (1). Two patients had B-cell neoplasms: gastrointestinal lymphoma (1), and chronic lymphocytic leukemia (1). Substantial neurologic improvements followed immunotherapy in 7 of 11 patients with available treatment data. DPPX-IgG was not detected in any of the stiff-person syndrome patients. Conclusions: DPPX-IgG is a biomarker for an immunotherapy-responsive multifocal neurologic disorder of the central and autonomic nervous systems. PMID:25320100

  18. Prebiotic phosphorus chemistry reconsidered

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schwartz, A. W.; Orgel, L. E. (Principal Investigator)

    1997-01-01

    The available evidence indicates that the origin of life on Earth certainly occurred earlier than 3.5 billion years ago and perhaps substantially earlier. The time available for the chemical evolution which must have preceded this event is more difficult to estimate. Both endogenic and exogenic contributions to chemical evolution have been considered; i.e., from chemical reactions in a primitive atmosphere, or by introduction in the interiors of comets and/or meteorites. It is argued, however, that the phosphorus chemistry of Earth's earliest hydrosphere, whether primarily exogenic or endogenic in origin, was most likely dominated by compounds less oxidized than phosphoric acid and its esters. A scenario is presented for the early production of a suite of reactive phosphonic acid derivatives, the properties of which may have foreshadowed the later appearance of biophosphates.

  19. [Phosphorus intake and osteoporosis].

    PubMed

    Omi, N; Ezawa, I

    2001-10-01

    Phosphorus (P) is one of the most important nutrients for bone metabolism, such as calcium. In general, P intake is usually adequate in our daily diet, and there is a risk of over-consumption from processed food. On the other hand, Ca intake is not always adequate from the Japanese daily diet. When Ca/P is taken from the daily diet at a level of 0.5 - 2.0, the P intake level dose not affect intestinal Ca absorption. Therefore, it is important not only to pay attention to preventing the over-consumption of P, but also to obtain a sufficient intake of Ca. For the prevention of osteoporosis, it is important to consume sufficient Ca and to maintain and appropriate Ca/P balance from diet.

  20. Fertiliser-induced nitrous oxide emissions from vegetable production in the world and the regulating factors: A review

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rezaei Rashti, Mehran; Wang, Weijin; Moody, Phil; Chen, Chengrong; Ghadiri, Hossein

    2015-07-01

    The emission of nitrous oxide (N2O) from vegetable fields contributes to the global greenhouse gases budget. However, reliable estimation of N2O emissions from vegetable production in the word has been lack. Vegetable cropping systems are characterised with high N application rates, irrigation, intensive production and multiple planting-harvest cycles during the year. Improved understanding of the key factors controlling N2O production is critical for developing effective mitigation strategies for vegetable cropping systems under different climate, soil type and management practices. Based on a comprehensive literature review and data analysis, we estimated the global N2O emission from vegetable production using seasonal fertiliser-induced emission factors (EFs) and examined the relationship of the seasonal emissions and EFs to possible controlling factors. The global average seasonal EF for vegetable fields is around 0.94% of applied N fertiliser, which is very similar to the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) annual emission factor of 1.0% for all cropping systems. The total N2O emission from global vegetable production is estimated to be 9.5 × 107 kg N2O-N yr-1, accounting for 9.0% of the total N2O emissions from synthetic fertilisers. Stepwise multiple regression analysis on the relationships of soil properties, climatic factors and N application rates to seasonal N2O emissions and N2O EFs showed that N fertiliser application rate is the main regulator of seasonal N2O emission from vegetable fields but the seasonal EFs are negatively related to soil organic carbon (SOC) content. In fields receiving ≥250 kg ha-1 N fertiliser, 67% (n = 23, P ≤ 0.01) of the variation in seasonal emissions can be explained by the combined effects of N application rate, mean water-filled pore space (WFPS) and air temperature, while 59% (n = 23, P ≤ 0.01) of the variation in seasonal EFs relates to temperature, mean WFPS and soil pH. The result also shows that in

  1. Phosphorus Dynamic in Wetlands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pant, H. K.

    2010-12-01

    The projected greater warming at higher/northern latitudes in the coming decades due to global climatic changes can mineralize substantial amount of the organic matter and supply massive amount of phosphorus (P) to the water column, and cause the collapse of freshwater wetlands. Thus, the rates and duration of organic matter accumulations/decompositions under rising global temperatures are critical determinants of how a freshwater wetland functions as an ecological unit within a landscape. Phosphorus is a limiting nutrient and a primary controller of eutrophication. Once the external P loads are curtailed, internal P regeneration, resulting from decompositions of detritus and soil/sediment organic matter determine the productivity, as well as the water quality of a wetland. Thus, global rise in temperature not only causes hydro-climatic fluctuations but can also change the composition of aquatic/semi-aquatic communities, in turn, could lead to adverse effect on human food chain to collapse of the ecosystem. While P enrichment may lead to immediate algal blooms in wetlands/aquatic systems, decreased in P input from external sources may not be able to stop the blooms for a considerable period of time depending on the P loading from within. The extent of P mineralization under changing conditions, enzymatic hydrolysis, and estimation of different P pools using 31P NMR in sediments and the water columns showed that the stability and bioavailability of P can greatly be influenced by rise in temperature and fluctuations in water level, thus, are crucial in determining the fate of the freshwater wetlands.

  2. Phosphorus speciation and treatment using enhanced phosphorus removal bioretention.

    PubMed

    Liu, Jiayu; Davis, Allen P

    2014-01-01

    This field research investigated the water quality performance of a traditional bioretention cell retrofitted with 5% (by mass) water treatment residual (WTR) for enhanced phosphorus removal. Results indicate that WTR incorporation into the bioretention media does not negatively influence the infiltration mechanism of the bioretention system. Total suspended solids (TSS), total phosphorus (TP), and particulate phosphorus (PP) concentrations in runoff inflow were significantly reduced compared to outflow due to filtration of particulate matter. TP concentrations were significantly reduced by the bioretention cell; before WTR retrofit TP export occurred. Although net removal of soluble reactive phosphorus (SRP) and dissolved organic phosphorus (DOP) from incoming runoff was not found, leaching of dissolved phosphorus (DP) was prevented not only from incoming runoff, but also from the media and captured PP. Near constant outflow SRP and DOP concentrations suggest an equilibrium adsorption treatment mechanism. Both event mean concentrations and mass loads were reduced for TSS and all P species. Pollutant mass removals were higher than the event mean concentration removals due to the attenuation of volume by the bioretention media.

  3. Regulation of renal potassium secretion: molecular mechanisms.

    PubMed

    Welling, Paul A

    2013-05-01

    A new understanding of renal potassium balance has emerged as the molecular underpinnings of potassium secretion have become illuminated, highlighting the key roles of apical potassium channels, renal outer medullary potassium channel (ROMK) and Big Potassium (BK), in the aldosterone-sensitive distal nephron and collecting duct. These channels act as the final-regulated components of the renal potassium secretory machinery. Their activity, number, and driving forces are precisely modulated to ensure potassium excretion matches dietary potassium intake. Recent identification of the underlying regulatory mechanisms at the molecular level provides a new appreciation of the physiology and reveals a molecular insight to explain the paradoxic actions of aldosterone on potassium secretion. Here, we review the current state of knowledge in the field.

  4. Ultra rapid freezing and vitrification of human embryos derived from abnormally fertilised zygotes.

    PubMed

    Molina, I; Duque, C C; Alfonso, J; Cervera, R P; Romeu, A

    2006-01-01

    The present study was undertaken to compare the developmental capacity of human embryos derived from abnormally fertilised zygotes (1 PN, > 3 PN; 16-18 hours after ICSI) cryopreserved using two techniques: ultra rapid freezing and vitrification. At 2-4 cell stage, (48 hours after ICSI), these abnormally fertilised embryos were then distributed in three groups: a) embryos that were cryopreserved by ultra rapid freezing (URF Group), b) embryos cryopreserved by vitrification (V Group) and c) embryos that were not cryopreserved (Control group). Survival rates and embryo development after 24 hours of in vitro culture (72 hours after ICSI) were compared. 42 embryos were cryopreserved by ultra rapid freezing in 0.5 mL straws, using a mixture of dimethyl sulphoxide (3M) and sucrose (0.25M) in a base solution consisting of IVF medium plus 20 percent (v/v) of Human Serum Albumin (HSA), and 24 embryos were vitrified in 0.25 ml straws, using a two step protocol with an equilibration solution consisting of 10 percent ethylene glycol (1.79 M) and 10 percent dimethyl sulphoxide (1.41 M) in a base solution of modified phosphate buffered saline (PBS) with 20 percent of HSA and a vitrification solution consisting of 20 percent ethylene glycol (3.58 M), 20 percent dimethyl sulphoxide (2.82 M) and 0.5 M sucrose in base solution. The recovery rate after thawing/warming was lower for the vitrification group (75 percent V; 83 percent URF). The number of embryos with less than 50 percent of intact blastomeres after cryopreservation was significantly higher for the URF group (0 percent V; 34 percent URF). After in vitro culture, the rate of embryos not cryopreserved (Control group) that developed in vitro (72 hours after ICSI) was the highest (86 percent), followed by group V (50 percent), while group URF was the lowest (13 percent). These differences were statistically significant. This straw method of vitrification is successful and safe.

  5. Missisquoi Bay Phosphorus Model Addendum

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This technical memorandum provides results of an extended load reduction simulation. The memorandum serves as an addendum to the main Missisquoi Bay Phosphorus Mass Balance Model report prepared for the Lake Champlain Basin Program by LimnoTech in 2012

  6. Dietary phosphorus and kidney disease.

    PubMed

    Uribarri, Jaime

    2013-10-01

    High serum phosphate is linked to poor health outcome and mortality in chronic kidney disease (CKD) patients before or after the initiation of dialysis. Therefore, maintenance of normal serum phosphate levels is a major concern in the clinical care of this population with dietary phosphorus restriction and/or use of oral phosphate binders considered to be the best corrective care. This review discusses (1) evidence for an association between serum phosphate levels and bone and cardiovascular disease (CVD) in CKD patients as well as progression of kidney disease itself; (2) the relationship between serum phosphate and dietary phosphorus intake; and (3) implications from these data for future research. Increasing our understanding of the relationship between altered phosphorus metabolism and disease in CKD patients may clarify the potential role of excess dietary phosphorus as a risk factor for disease in the general population.

  7. Generation of selenium-enriched rice with enhanced grain yield, selenium content and bioavailability through fertilisation with selenite.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yu-Dong; Wang, Xu; Wong, Yum-Shing

    2013-12-01

    To fulfill the natural human needs of selenium, selenium biofortification has been carried out in rice (Oryza sativa) in recent years. Despite some improvements have been made, the increase of selenium content in rice was still limited and a large amount of fertilisers are often required, which may cause environmental pullution. In this study, we further improved the selenium biofortification of rice by using less selenium fertilisers (10.5 g selenium/hectare) whereas, largely increasing selenium content in rice grains (up to 51 times vs. control). Furthermore, selenium speciation analysis, in vitro gastrointestinal digestion and antioxidant assays were performed to evaluate the selenium bioaccessibility and bioavailability in selenium-enriched rice grains. The major selenium species found were readily absorbable selenomethionine. Meanwhile, the selenium-enriched rice grains have significantly higher antioxidant bioactivities. In conclusion, this selenium-enriched rice has enormous potential for selenium supplementation in humans.

  8. The impact of the time interval on in-vitro fertilisation success after failure of the first attempt.

    PubMed

    Bayoglu Tekin, Y; Ceyhan, S T; Kilic, S; Korkmaz, C

    2015-05-01

    The aim of this study was to identify the optimal time interval for in-vitro fertilisation that would increase treatment success after failure of the first attempt. This retrospective study evaluated 454 consecutive cycles of 227 infertile women who had two consecutive attempts within a 6-month period at an IVF centre. Data were collected on duration of stimulation, consumption of gonadotropin, numbers of retrieved oocytes, mature oocytes, fertilised eggs, good quality embryos on day 3/5 following oocyte retrieval and clinical and ongoing pregnancy. There were significant increases in clinical pregnancy rates at 2-, 3- and 4-month intervals. The maximum increase was after two menstrual cycles (p = 0.001). The highest rate of ongoing pregnancy was in women that had the second attempt after the next menstrual cycle following failure of IVF (27.2%). After IVF failure, initiating the next attempt within 2-4 months increases the clinical pregnancy rates.

  9. Phosphorus and Defoliation Interact and Improve the Growth and Composition of the Plant Community and Soil Properties in an Alpine Pasture of Qinghai-Tibet Plateau.

    PubMed

    Qi, Juan; Nie, Zhongnan; Jiao, Ting; Zhang, Degang

    2015-01-01

    Pasture degradation caused by overgrazing and inappropriate fertiliser management is a major production and environmental threat in Qinghai-Tibet Plateau. Previous research has focused on the effects of mixed nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) fertiliser and reduced grazing pressure on the plant community of the grassland; however, the role of P and how it interacts with various defoliation (the process of the complete or partial removal of the above-ground parts of plants by grazing or cutting) intensities on the plant and soil of the grassland ecosystem have not been quantified. A field experiment was conducted to quantify how P application in combination of defoliation pressure could impact the dynamic change of the plant and soil in a native alpine grassland ecosystem of the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau, China, from May 2012 to September 2014. A split-plot design with 4 replicates and repeated measures was used to determine the growth and composition of plant community and soil physical and chemical properties under various levels of P fertiliser and defoliation intensity. The results showed that applying 20 kg P/ha increased the herbage yield of Melissitus ruthenica by 68% and total pasture yield by 25%. Close defoliation favoured the growth and plant frequency of the shorter species, whereas lax defoliation favoured that of the taller plant species. Medium P rate and cutting to 3 cm above ground gave an overall best outcome in pasture yield, quality and frequency and soil moisture and nutrient concentration. Application of P fertiliser with a moderate defoliation pressure to promote legume growth and N fixation has the potential to achieve multiple benefits in increasing pasture and livestock production and improving environmental sustainability in the alpine pasture of Qinghai-Tibet Plateau, a fragile and P-deficient ecosystem zone in China and its western neighbouring countries.

  10. Body composition, dietary carbohydrates and fatty acids determine post-fertilisation development of bovine oocytes in vitro.

    PubMed

    Adamiak, S J; Powell, K; Rooke, J A; Webb, R; Sinclair, K D

    2006-02-01

    This study assessed the interactive effects of carbohydrate type (fibre vs starch) and fatty acid (FA) supplementation (0% vs 6% calcium soaps of palm oil FA) on the post-fertilisation development of oocytes recovered from low and moderate body condition score (BCS) heifers. A secondary objective was to compare the FA composition of plasma to that of granulosa cells (GCs) and cumulus-oocyte complexes (COCs) from these animals, and to relate these findings to the developmental potential of oocytes. Plasma, GCs and COCs were recovered from 32 heifers on day 5 of a synchronised oestrous cycle for FA analyses. Oocytes were also recovered on days 10 and 15 of the same cycle after short-term ovarian stimulation (FSH + GnRH), and matured, fertilised and cultured to the blastocyst stage in vitro. High levels of dietary starch increased (P < 0.01) plasma insulin but, together with dietary FA, reduced (P < 0.05) blastocyst yields in low, but not in moderate, BCS heifers. Diet-induced alterations to the FA content of plasma were less apparent in GCs and COCs. In summary, although dietary lipids increased the FA content of COCs, the selective uptake of saturated FAs at the expense of mainly polyunsaturated FAs within the follicular compartment ensured that the FA composition of COCs was largely unaffected by diet. However, the concentration of saturated FAs within COCs was inherently high, and so further increases in FA content may have impaired post-fertilisation development. The data establish a robust nutritional framework for more detailed studies into the mechanistic effects of dietary composition on the post-fertilisation developmental potential of oocytes.

  11. DNase I and II present in avian oocytes: a possible involvement in sperm degradation at polyspermic fertilisation.

    PubMed

    Stepińska, Urszula; Olszańska, Bozenna

    2003-02-01

    During polyspermic fertilisation in birds numerous spermatozoa enter the eggs, in contrast to the situation in mammals where fertilisation is monospermic. However, in birds only one of the spermatozoa which have entered an egg participates in zygote nucleus formation, while the supernumerary spermatozoa degenerate at early embryogenesis. Our previous work has demonstrated the presence in preovulatory quail oocytes of DNase I and II activities able to digest naked lambdaDNA/HindIII substrate in vitro. In the present studies, the activities of both DNases in quail oocytes at different stages of oogenesis and in ovulated mouse oocytes were assayed in vitro using the same substrate. Degradation of quail spermatozoa by quail oocyte extracts was also checked. Digestion of the DNA substrate was evaluated by electrophoresis on agarose gels. The activities of DNase I and II in quail oocytes increased during oogenesis and were the highest in mature oocytes. The activities were present not only in germinal discs but also in a thin layer of cytoplasm adhering to the perivitelline layer surrounding the yolk. At all stages of oogenesis the activity of DNase II was much higher than that of DNase I. DNA contained in spermatozoa was also degraded by the quail oocyte extracts under conditions optimal for both DNases. In contrast to what is observed in quail oocytes, no DNase activities were detected in ovulated mouse eggs; this is logical as they would be useless or even harmful in monospermic fertilisation. The possible role of DNase activities in avian oocytes, in degradation of accessory spermatozoa during polyspermic fertilisation, is discussed.

  12. Phosphorus balance with daily dialysis.

    PubMed

    Kooienga, Laura

    2007-01-01

    Hyperphosphatemia is an almost universal finding in patients with end-stage renal disease and is associated with increased all-cause mortality, cardiovascular mortality, and vascular calcification. These associations have raised the question of whether reducing phosphorus levels could result in improved survival. In light of the recent findings that increased per-session dialysis dose, as assessed by urea kinetics, did not result in improved survival, the definition of adequacy of dialysis should be re-evaluated and consideration given to alternative markers. Two alternatives to conventional thrice weekly dialysis (CHD) are nocturnal hemodialysis (NHD) and short daily hemodialysis (SDHD). The elimination kinetics of phosphorus as they relate to these alternative daily dialysis schedules and the clinical implications of overall phosphorus balance are discussed here. The total weekly phosphorus removal with NHD is more than twice that removed by CHD (4985 mg/week +/- 1827 mg vs. 2347 mg/week +/- 697 mg) and this is associated with a significantly lower average serum phosphorous (4.0 mg/dl vs. 6.5 mg/dl). In spite of the observed increase in protein and phosphorus intake seen in patients on SDHD, phosphate binder requirements and serum phosphorus levels are generally stable to decrease although this effect is strongly dependent on the frequency and overall treatment time.

  13. Re-evaluation of post-wash sperm is a helpful tool in the decision to perform in vitro fertilisation or intracytoplasmic sperm injection.

    PubMed

    Wiser, A; Ghetler, Y; Gonen, O; Piura, E; Berkovits, A; Itskovich, A; Rom, T; Shulman, A

    2012-04-01

    The aim of this study was to find discriminatory parameters, based on sperm characteristics on the day of ovum pickup, that can help guide the decision to perform either intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI) or in vitro fertilisation (IVF). We evaluated 112 cycles fertilised with both regular and ICSI insemination during the same cycle. A total of 112 cycles were analysed. In 62 cycles, fertilisation was obtained with both ICSI and IVF, and in 50 cycles, fertilisation was obtained by ICSI alone. The sperm samples were re-evaluated after the preparation process. The mean initial total motile sperm count (TMSC) was 66.3 × 10(6) ± 47.5 in the group that underwent both methods and 23.1 × 10(6) ± 20.4 in the ICSI only group (P < 0.05). After sperm preparation, the mean post-wash TMSC was 4.4 × 10(6) ± 3.4 and 1.06 × 10(6) ± 0.9 respectively (P < 0.05). A cutoff of 1.5 × 10(6) or fewer sperm after preparation as an indicator for ICSI has a sensitivity of 80% and a specificity of 77%. Re-evaluation of TMSC can prevent unexpected fertilisation failure. Fewer than 1.5 million TMSC after wash should be considered an indication for ICSI fertilisation.

  14. Kisspeptin as a promising oocyte maturation trigger for in vitro fertilisation in humans.

    PubMed

    Kasum, Miro; Franulić, Daniela; Čehić, Ermin; Orešković, Slavko; Lila, Albert; Ejubović, Emina

    2017-04-10

    The aim of this review is to analyse the effectiveness of exogenous kisspeptin administration as a novel alternative of triggering oocyte maturation, instead of currently used triggers such as human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) or gonadotropin releasing hormone (GnRH) agonist, in women undergoing in vitro fertilisation (IVF) treatment. Kisspeptin has been considered a master regulator of two modes of GnRH and hence gonadotropin secretion, pulses and surges. Administration of kisspeptin-10 and kisspeptin-54 induces the luteinising hormone (LH) surge required for egg maturation and ovulation in animal investigations and LH release during the preovulatory phase of the menstrual cycle and hypothalamic amenorrhoea in humans. Exogenous kisspeptin-54 has been successfully administered as a promising method of triggering oocyte maturation, following ovarian stimulation with gonadotropins and GnRH antagonists in women undergoing IVF, due to its efficacy considering achieved pregnancy rates compared to hCG and GnRH agonists. Also, its safety in patients at high risk of developing ovarian hyperstimulation syndrome is noteworthy. Nevertheless, further studies would be desirable to establish the optimal trigger of egg maturation and to improve the reproductive outcome for women undergoing IVF treatment.

  15. Assessing child welfare under the Human Fertilisation and Embryology Act 2008: a case study in medicalisation?

    PubMed

    Lee, Ellie; Macvarish, Jan; Sheldon, Sally

    2014-05-01

    This article reports on a study with staff working in assisted conception clinics in the UK about making welfare of the child (WOC) assessments pre-conception. This aspect of infertility treatment is obligatory under section 13(5) of the Human Fertilisation and Embryology Act, which was amended in 2008. The aim of the study was to find out how this change to the law had impacted on practice. In describing what we found, we also make a contribution to scholarship about the medicalisation of reproduction. S13(5) has often been discussed as a prime example of medicalisation, giving clinics power to grant or deny access to treatment on child welfare grounds, encompassing far more than purely clinical considerations. Yet, while such medicalisation may be entrenched in the law, our findings suggest this power is used with a very light touch. Further, while our interviewees offered near-universal support for the need to consider child welfare, this is now justified by concerns that address not only family form (e.g. the need for a father figure) but also the quality of interactions between parents and children. In this light we suggest that the concept of medicalisation may offer a rather blunt tool for understanding a far more complex reality.

  16. A new tool to study the fertilising effect of Saharan dust at sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stuut, Jan-Berend; Bakker, Roel; van der Does, Michelle; Friese, Carmen; Keijzer, Edwin; Korte, Laura; Koster, Bob; Lenting, Walther; Laan, Martin; van Maarsseveen, Frank; Munday, Chris; Schrama, Matthias; Witte, Yvo

    2015-04-01

    Massive amounts of dust (>200 Million Ton) are blown from the Sahara into and over the Atlantic Ocean every year. This dust strongly alters the atmosphere through blocking incoming solar radiation [cooling the atmosphere] and trapping outgoing heat that was reflected at the earth's surface [warming the atmosphere]. In addition, aerosols carry huge amounts of metals and nutrients that can boost marine life, but also vast amounts of microbes, spores, and pathogens that are harmful for both marine- and terrestrial (including human!) life. The net effect of cooling/warming and ocean fertilisation/poisoning is presently far from understood as it depends on a complex set of parameters related to dust emission, dispersal, and deposition. In order to quantify these parameters, we are carrying out a novel approach to study the transatlantic flux of Saharan dust and its environmental effect on the ocean with classic marine sediment traps and three new dust-collecting surface buoys sampling the Saharan dust plume between NW Africa and the Caribbean. Here, we focus on the design, functionality, and initial results of the dust-collecting buoys that were constructed at NIOZ, and which have been deployed in the Atlantic Ocean in November 2013.

  17. Carbohydrate Production and Consumption In Phytoplankton Subjected To Iron Fertilisation In The Southern Ocean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van Oijen, T.; Veldhuis, M. J. W.; van Leeuwe, M. A.; de Baar, H. J. W.

    Iron concentrations in the Southern Ocean are generally low. At these concentrations microalgal growth, in particular of large diatoms, is affected because iron plays a central role in photosynthesis and several metabolic processes. During the Polarstern 2000 iron release experiment, we studied the effect of in situ iron enrichment on the microalgal production and consumption of intracellular carbohydrates. The experi- ment was performed in the Southern Polar Frontal Zone and lasted three weeks. Dur- ing the course of the experiment, discrete samples were taken along vertical profiles (0-100m), both in the centre of the iron enriched patch and outside the patch. In the patch, the particulate carbohydrate concentration had doubled at the end of the exper- iment. An increasing part of the carbohydrates was produced by large diatom cells (>10 micrometer). Outside the patch, little changes were observed. On day 6, 10 and 19 after the release, seawater from inside and outside the patch was incubated on deck for 24h. In all three deck incubations, the diurnal production and nocturnal con- sumption of intracellular carbohydrates by phytoplankton were higher in iron-enriched bottles. Concluding, particulate carbohydrate concentration showed to be a sensitive parameter that clearly responded to iron fertilisation. This study contributes to a bet- ter understanding of factors governing phytoplankton growth in High Nitrogen Low Chlorophyll areas.

  18. Spines as a mechanical defence: the effects of fertiliser treatment on juvenile Acacia tortilis plants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gowda, Juan H.; Albrectsen, Benedicte R.; Ball, John P.; Sjöberg, Mikael; Palo, R. Thomas

    2003-04-01

    Using growth of different tissues in Acacia tortilis as a model, we tested current hypotheses on how nutrients affect mechanical plant defence. In a greenhouse experiment we applied a balanced commercial fertiliser (NPK) at three treatment levels to juvenile potted Acacias. As expected, plants increased in size with nutrient addition. More importantly, however, the relative mass of long spines increased significantly more than other structural components (leaves and twigs). This effect is not predicted by current nutrient availability hypotheses, which suggest either equal or proportionally lower investment in mechanical defence with increasing nutrient availability. Our results suggest that investment in spine size is nutrient limited in Acacia tortilis. It is commonly observed that the risk of damage by herbivores is highest on plants growing in nutrient-rich soils. If spines act as an effective form of anti-herbivore protection, then these plants might be expected to increase their production of physical defences (long spines) under such circumstances. Plants growing under higher nutrient conditions might therefore invest more in constitutive defences. These changes in allocation pattern are consistent with the increase in production of long spines, which are also induced by browsing.

  19. Influence of fertilisation with foliar urea on the content of amines in wine.

    PubMed

    Ancín-Azpilicueta, C; Nieto-Rojo, R; Gómez-Cordón, J

    2011-01-01

    Amines are substances that could cause toxic effects in the consumer. The concentration of amines in wine depends on different factors such as grape variety, vinification conditions and nitrogen fertilisation of the vines. The aim of this work was to study the influence of the application of foliar urea on the concentration of amines in wine. To carry out the study, grapevines of Tempranillo variety were used. These grapevines were treated with foliar urea at two different concentrations: 2 and 4 kg N ha(-1). Treatment with foliar urea significantly increased (p < 0.05) the concentration of histamine in the wines compared with the control sample (65% in the treatment with 2 kg N ha(-1) and 93% in the treatment with 4 kg N ha(-1)), reaching higher concentrations than the threshold level where it could provoke toxic effects in the consumer (8-20 mg l(-1)). On the other hand, treatment with foliar urea did not increase the concentrations of other amines which could be toxic such as tyramine or phenylethylamine, nor amines such as putrescine which could enhance the toxic effect of histamine. In the case of the volatile amines containing secondary amine groups, the concentration of pirrolidine increased by 37% after treatment with 2 kg N ha(-1) and 61% after treatment with 4 kg N ha(-1).

  20. Participation of the sperm proteasome during in vitro fertilisation and the acrosome reaction in cattle.

    PubMed

    Sánchez, R; Deppe, M; Schulz, M; Bravo, P; Villegas, J; Morales, P; Risopatrón, J

    2011-04-01

    In this work, we have investigated the role of the bovine sperm proteasome during in vitro fertilisation (IVF) and the acrosome reaction (AR). Motile spermatozoa, obtained by a swim-up method in Sperm-Talp medium, were capacitated for 3.5 h and incubated in the presence or absence of the specific proteasome inhibitor epoxomicin for 30 and 60 min. Then, the spermatozoa were co-incubated with mature bovine cumulus oocytes and after 48 h the cleavage rate of inseminated oocytes was evaluated. In addition, we evaluated the participation of the sperm proteasome during the progesterone-induced AR. Capacitated spermatozoa were incubated for 30 min with or without epoxomicin, then progesterone was added and the ARs were evaluated using the dual fluorescent staining technique 'Hoechst and chlortetracycline'. The results indicate that the proteasome inhibitor decreased the cleavage rate of oocytes inseminated with treated spermatozoa. In addition, acrosomal exocytosis levels were statistically significantly higher in the samples treated with the AR inducer progesterone than in control samples in the absence of the inducer. However, the progesterone-induced AR was significantly reduced by previous treatment of the spermatozoa with epoxomicin (P < 0.001). These observations indicate that the bovine sperm proteasome participates in the IVF and AR processes.

  1. Hydrosalpinx: Tubal surgery or in vitro fertilisation? An everlasting dilemma nowadays; a narrative review.

    PubMed

    Daniilidis, A; Balaouras, D; Chitzios, D; Theodoridis, T; Assimakopoulos, E

    2017-03-21

    The decision on how to treat tubal diseases, specifically hydrosalpinx, is a difficult one. Ιt involves surgical, medical, social, emotional and economic factors. This narrative review aims to increase awareness of tubal disease diagnosis and treatment, to compare between tubal surgery and in vitro fertilisation (IVF) for tubal factor infertility, and to investigate the effect of the combination of both. This way, we can be more effective, safe and provide our patients with better treatment results. The review analysed randomised studies, trials and meta-analysis, which give new aspects on the treatment methods for tubal pathology before IVF. Recent papers published in English have been studied, alongside guidelines and committee opinions from previous years. Tubal surgery and IVF aim to exploit a woman's reproductive potential. IVF and endoscopic tubal surgery must be thought of as complementary, rather than competing techniques in tubal disease cases, in order to improve fertility outcome. The first-line treatment for young women less than 35 years old with minor tubal pathology, is tubal surgery. IVF should be offered if there are other factors in a couple's subfertility, if the patient is >38 years old, if moderate to severe tubal disease is present, and if it has been more than 12 months post-surgery.

  2. Cold blood--potassium cardioplegia.

    PubMed

    Levinsky, L; Lee, A B; Lee, K C; Tatransky, F; Dockstader, R; Schimert, G

    1980-09-01

    A technique is described for providing myocardial protection utilizing oxygenated blood that is drawn from the pump oxygenator and passed through two disposable cardioplegic cooling coils, which are joined in series and submerged in ice slush. A potassium-containing cardioplegic solution is run into the oxygenated blood at the level of the cooling coils. The amount of blood used in the blood-potassium cardioplegic mixture is controlled using a screw clamp. This method has been used with excellent results in 150 consecutive patients undergoing aortocoronary saphenous vein bypass grafting.

  3. Equatorial potassium currents in lenses.

    PubMed

    Wind, B E; Walsh, S; Patterson, J W

    1988-02-01

    Earlier work with the vibrating probe demonstrated the existence of outward potassium currents at the equator and inward sodium currents at the optical poles of the lens. By adding microelectrodes to the system, it is possible to relate steady currents (J) to the potential difference (PD) measured with a microelectrode. By injecting an outward current (I), it is possible to determine resistances and also the PD at which the steady outward potassium current becomes zero (PDJ = 0). At this PD the concentration gradient for potassium efflux and the electrical gradient for potassium influx are balanced so that there is no net flow of potassium across the membranes associated with the production of J. The PDJ = 0 for 18 rat lenses was 86 mV and that for 12 frogs lenses was -95 mV. This agrees with the potassium equilibrium potential and provides strong evidence to support the view that the outward equatorial current, J, is a potassium current. With the injection of outward current, I, the PD becomes more negative, the outward equatorial current, J, decreases, and the inward current at the optical poles increases. This suggests that there are separate electrical loops for K+ and Na+ that are partially linked by the Na, K-pump. Using Ohm's law, it is possible to calculate the input resistance (R = delta PD/I), the resistance related to the production of J (RJ = delta PD/delta J), and the effect of the combined resistances (delta J/I). The driving force for J can be estimated (PDJ = 0-PD). The relationships among currents, voltages and resistance can be used to determine the characteristics of the membranes that are associated with the outward potassium current observed at the equator. The effects of graded deformation of the lens were determined. The effects were reversible. The sites of inward and outward currents were not altered. Following deformation, the equatorial current, J, increased, and the PD became less negative. The PDJ = 0 remains the same so the ratio of K

  4. Fertilisers production from ashes after sewage sludge combustion - A strategy towards sustainable development.

    PubMed

    Gorazda, Katarzyna; Tarko, Barbara; Wzorek, Zbigniew; Kominko, Halyna; Nowak, Anna K; Kulczycka, Joanna; Henclik, Anna; Smol, Marzena

    2017-04-01

    Sustainable development and circular economy rules force the global fertilizer industry to develop new phosphorous recovery methods from alternative sources. In this paper a phosphorus recovery technology from Polish industrial Sewage Sludge Ashes was investigated (PolFerAsh - Polish Fertilizers form Ash). A wet method with the use of mineral acid and neutralization was proposed. Detailed characteristic of SSA from largest mono-combustion plans were given and compared to raw materials used on the market. The technological factors associated with such materials were discussed. The composition of the extracts was compared to typical industrial phosphoric acid and standard values characterizing suspension fertilizers. The most favorable conditions for selective precipitation of phosphorus compounds were revealed. The fertilizers obtained also meet EU regulations in the case of the newly discussed Cd content. The process was scaled up and a flow mass diagram was defined.

  5. Extrarenal potassium adaptation: role of skeletal muscle

    SciTech Connect

    Blachley, J.D.; Crider, B.P.; Johnson, J.H.

    1986-08-01

    Following the ingestion of a high-potassium-content diet for only a few days, the plasma potassium of rats rises only modestly in response to a previously lethal dose of potassium salts. This acquired tolerance, termed potassium adaptation, is principally the result of increased capacity to excrete potassium into the urine. However, a substantial portion of the acute potassium dose is not immediately excreted and is apparently translocated into cells. Previous studies have failed to show an increase in the content of potassium of a variety of tissues from such animals. Using /sup 86/Rb as a potassium analogue, we have shown that the skeletal muscle of potassium-adapted rats takes up significantly greater amounts of potassium in vivo in response to an acute challenge than does that of control animals. Furthermore, the same animals exhibit greater efflux of /sup 86/Rb following the termination of the acute infusion. We have also shown that the Na+-K+-ATPase activity and ouabain-binding capacity of skeletal muscle microsomes are increased by the process of potassium adaptation. We conclude that skeletal muscle is an important participant in potassium adaptation and acts to temporarily buffer acute increases in the extracellular concentration of potassium.

  6. Physiology and pathophysiology of potassium homeostasis.

    PubMed

    Palmer, Biff F; Clegg, Deborah J

    2016-12-01

    Total body potassium content and proper distribution of potassium across the cell membrane is of critical importance for normal cellular function. Potassium homeostasis is maintained by several different methods. In the kidney, total body potassium content is achieved by alterations in renal excretion of potassium in response to variations in intake. Insulin and beta-adrenergic tone play critical roles in maintaining the internal distribution of potassium under normal conditions. Despite homeostatic pathways designed to maintain potassium levels within the normal range, disorders of altered potassium homeostasis are common. The clinical approach to designing effective treatments relies on understanding the pathophysiology and regulatory influences which govern the internal distribution and external balance of potassium. Here we provide an overview of the key regulatory aspects of normal potassium physiology. This review is designed to provide an overview of potassium homeostasis as well as provide references of seminal papers to guide the reader into a more in depth discussion of the importance of potassium balance. This review is designed to be a resource for educators and well-informed clinicians who are teaching trainees about the importance of potassium balance.

  7. Can Diuretics Decrease Your Potassium Level?

    MedlinePlus

    ... High blood pressure (hypertension) Can diuretics decrease your potassium level? Answers from Sheldon G. Sheps, M.D. Yes, some diuretics — also called water pills — decrease potassium in the blood. Diuretics are commonly used to ...

  8. 21 CFR 172.730 - Potassium bromate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ....730 Potassium bromate. The food additive potassium bromate may be safely used in the malting of barley... barley under conditions whereby the amount of the additive present in the malt from the treatment...

  9. Recovery of phosphorus from waste ponds

    SciTech Connect

    Crea, D. A.

    1985-01-08

    Process for recovery of elemental phosphorus from waste ponds by dredging the waste pond to obtain an aqueous phosphorus slurry, separating particles larger than 2 mm from the slurry, treating the remaining slurry in an initial hydrocyclone and removing an overflow of solids larger than 500 micrometers, treating the underflow from the initial hydrocyclones in smaller diameter hydrocyclones, removing a second overflow enriched in slimes and diminished in phosphorus, removing a second underflow enriched in phosphorus and diminished in slimes and heating it sufficiently to melt the phosphorus therein, treating the heated second underflow in a centrifugal separator, and separating and recovering a stream of coalesced phosphorus from a heavy fraction of impurities.

  10. A Substance Flow Model for Global Phosphorus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vaccari, D. A.

    2015-12-01

    A system-based substance flow model (SFM) for phosphorus is developed based on the global phosphorus substance flow analysis (SFA) of Cordell et al (2009). The model is based strictly on mass balance considerations. It predicts the sensitivity of phosphorus consumption to various interventions intended to conserve reserves, as well as interactions among these efforts, allowing a comparison of their impacts on phosphorus demand. The interventions include control of phosphorus losses from soil erosion, food production and food waste, or phosphorus recycling such as from animal manure or human waste.

  11. Reexamining the Phosphorus-Protein Dilemma: Does Phosphorus Restriction Compromise Protein Status?

    PubMed

    St-Jules, David E; Woolf, Kathleen; Pompeii, Mary Lou; Kalantar-Zadeh, Kamyar; Sevick, Mary Ann

    2016-05-01

    Dietary phosphorus restriction is recommended to help control hyperphosphatemia in hemodialysis patients, but many high-phosphorus foods are important sources of protein. In this review, we examine whether restricting dietary phosphorus compromises protein status in hemodialysis patients. Although dietary phosphorus and protein are highly correlated, phosphorus intakes can range up to 600 mg/day for a given energy and protein intake level. Furthermore, the collinearity of phosphorus and protein may be biased because the phosphorus burden of food depends on: (1) the presence of phosphate additives, (2) food preparation method, and (3) bioavailability of phosphorus, which are often unaccounted for in nutrition assessments. Ultimately, we argue that clinically relevant reductions in phosphorus intake can be made without limiting protein intake by avoiding phosphate additives in processed foods, using wet cooking methods such as boiling, and if needed, substituting high-phosphorus foods for nutritionally equivalent foods that are lower in bioavailable phosphorus.

  12. 21 CFR 184.1625 - Potassium citrate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Potassium citrate. 184.1625 Section 184.1625 Food... Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1625 Potassium citrate. (a) Potassium citrate (C6H5K3O7·H2O, CAS Reg. No. 006100-0905-096) is the potassium salt of citric acid. It is prepared by neutralizing...

  13. 21 CFR 184.1639 - Potassium lactate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Potassium lactate. 184.1639 Section 184.1639 Food... Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1639 Potassium lactate. (a) Potassium lactate (C3H5O3K, CAS Reg. No. 996-31-6) is the potassium salt of lactic acid. It is a hydroscopic, white, odorless solid and...

  14. The Ketogenic Diet and Potassium Channel Function

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-10-01

    1 AWARD NUMBER: W81XWH-13-1-0463 TITLE: The Ketogenic Diet and Potassium Channel Function...Diet and Potassium Channel Function 5b. GRANT NUMBER W81XWH-13-1-0463 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S) Geoffrey Murphy 5d. PROJECT...regulates neuronal excitability by influencing potassium channel activity via the auxiliary potassium channel subunit Kvβ2. To test this hypothesis we

  15. 21 CFR 184.1625 - Potassium citrate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Potassium citrate. 184.1625 Section 184.1625 Food... Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1625 Potassium citrate. (a) Potassium citrate (C6H5K3O7·H2O, CAS Reg. No. 006100-0905-096) is the potassium salt of citric acid. It is prepared by neutralizing...

  16. 21 CFR 184.1625 - Potassium citrate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Potassium citrate. 184.1625 Section 184.1625 Food... Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1625 Potassium citrate. (a) Potassium citrate (C6H5K3O7·H2O, CAS Reg. No. 006100-0905-096) is the potassium salt of citric acid. It is prepared by neutralizing...

  17. 21 CFR 184.1639 - Potassium lactate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Potassium lactate. 184.1639 Section 184.1639 Food... GRAS § 184.1639 Potassium lactate. (a) Potassium lactate (C3H5O3K, CAS Reg. No. 996-31-6) is the potassium salt of lactic acid. It is a hydroscopic, white, odorless solid and is prepared commercially...

  18. 21 CFR 184.1625 - Potassium citrate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Potassium citrate. 184.1625 Section 184.1625 Food... GRAS § 184.1625 Potassium citrate. (a) Potassium citrate (C6H5K3O7·H2O, CAS Reg. No. 006100-0905-096) is the potassium salt of citric acid. It is prepared by neutralizing citric acid with...

  19. 21 CFR 184.1639 - Potassium lactate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Potassium lactate. 184.1639 Section 184.1639 Food... Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1639 Potassium lactate. (a) Potassium lactate (C3H5O3K, CAS Reg. No. 996-31-6) is the potassium salt of lactic acid. It is a hydroscopic, white, odorless solid and...

  20. 21 CFR 184.1639 - Potassium lactate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Potassium lactate. 184.1639 Section 184.1639 Food... Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1639 Potassium lactate. (a) Potassium lactate (C3H5O3K, CAS Reg. No. 996-31-6) is the potassium salt of lactic acid. It is a hydroscopic, white, odorless solid and...

  1. 21 CFR 184.1639 - Potassium lactate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Potassium lactate. 184.1639 Section 184.1639 Food... Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1639 Potassium lactate. (a) Potassium lactate (C3H5O3K, CAS Reg. No. 996-31-6) is the potassium salt of lactic acid. It is a hydroscopic, white, odorless solid and...

  2. 21 CFR 184.1625 - Potassium citrate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Potassium citrate. 184.1625 Section 184.1625 Food... Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1625 Potassium citrate. (a) Potassium citrate (C6H5K3O7·H2O, CAS Reg. No. 006100-0905-096) is the potassium salt of citric acid. It is prepared by neutralizing...

  3. The Relevance of Phosphorus and Iron Chemistry to the Recovery of Phosphorus from Wastewater: A Review.

    PubMed

    Wilfert, Philipp; Kumar, Prashanth Suresh; Korving, Leon; Witkamp, Geert-Jan; van Loosdrecht, Mark C M

    2015-08-18

    The addition of iron is a convenient way for removing phosphorus from wastewater, but this is often considered to limit phosphorus recovery. Struvite precipitation is currently used to recover phosphorus, and this approach has attracted much interest. However, it requires the use of enhanced biological phosphorus removal (EBPR). EBPR is not yet widely applied and the recovery potential is low. Other phosphorus recovery methods, including sludge application to agricultural land or recovering phosphorus from sludge ash, also have limitations. Energy-producing wastewater treatment plants increasingly rely on phosphorus removal using iron, but the problem (as in current processes) is the subsequent recovery of phosphorus from the iron. In contrast, phosphorus is efficiently mobilized from iron by natural processes in sediments and soils. Iron-phosphorus chemistry is diverse, and many parameters influence the binding and release of phosphorus, including redox conditions, pH, presence of organic substances, and particle morphology. We suggest that the current poor understanding of iron and phosphorus chemistry in wastewater systems is preventing processes being developed to recover phosphorus from iron-phosphorus rich wastes like municipal wastewater sludge. Parameters that affect phosphorus recovery are reviewed here, and methods are suggested for manipulating iron-phosphorus chemistry in wastewater treatment processes to allow phosphorus to be recovered.

  4. III. Quantitative aspects of phosphorus excretion in ruminants.

    PubMed

    Bravo, David; Sauvant, Daniel; Bogaert, Catherine; Meschy, François

    2003-01-01

    Ruminant phosphorus excretion and metabolism were studied through a database. Faecal endogenous phosphorus is the main pathway of phosphorus excretion and averages 0.85 of total faecal phosphorus. The remaining 0.15 is unabsorbed dietary phosphorus. Faecal endogenous phosphorus is mainly unabsorbed phosphorus, with saliva being the major source, and is correlated to factors influencing saliva secretion (DM intake, physical dietary characteristics and dietary phosphorus content). Another source of faecal endogenous phosphorus is rumen microbial phosphorus that escaped solubilisation during post-rumen digestion. All factors stimulating microbial growth would increase phosphorus uptake by the rumen microbes and consequently the faecal endogenous phosphorus. Understanding the determinants of faecal endogenous phosphorus flow will help to precise the determination of net phosphorus requirements for maintenance. The role of plasma phosphorus in urinary phosphorus loss is discussed.

  5. 75 FR 23298 - Potassium Permanganate From China

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-05-03

    ... COMMISSION Potassium Permanganate From China AGENCY: United States International Trade Commission. ACTION: Institution of a five-year review concerning the antidumping duty order on potassium permanganate from China... antidumping duty order on potassium permanganate from China would be likely to lead to continuation...

  6. Potassium channels and their evolving gates.

    PubMed

    Jan, L Y; Jan, Y N

    1994-09-08

    Potassium channels allow potassium ions to flow across the membrane and play a key role in maintaining membrane potential. Recent research has begun to reveal how these channels transport potassium in preference to other ions, how their activity is controlled, and how they are related to other channels.

  7. 21 CFR 182.3640 - Potassium sorbate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Potassium sorbate. 182.3640 Section 182.3640 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR... Potassium sorbate. (a) Product. Potassium sorbate. (b) Conditions of use. This substance is...

  8. 21 CFR 582.1625 - Potassium citrate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Potassium citrate. 582.1625 Section 582.1625 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Additives § 582.1625 Potassium citrate. (a) Product. Potassium citrate. (b) Conditions of use....

  9. 21 CFR 184.1643 - Potassium sulfate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Potassium sulfate. 184.1643 Section 184.1643 Food... Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1643 Potassium sulfate. (a) Potassium sulfate (K2SO4, CAS Reg... having a bitter, saline taste. It is prepared by the neutralization of sulfuric acid with...

  10. 21 CFR 182.3640 - Potassium sorbate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Potassium sorbate. 182.3640 Section 182.3640 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR... Potassium sorbate. (a) Product. Potassium sorbate. (b) Conditions of use. This substance is...

  11. 21 CFR 582.1613 - Potassium bicarbonate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Potassium bicarbonate. 582.1613 Section 582.1613 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Additives § 582.1613 Potassium bicarbonate. (a) Product. Potassium bicarbonate. (b) Conditions of use....

  12. 21 CFR 201.72 - Potassium labeling.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 4 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Potassium labeling. 201.72 Section 201.72 Food and... LABELING Labeling Requirements for Over-the-Counter Drugs § 201.72 Potassium labeling. (a) The labeling of over-the-counter (OTC) drug products intended for oral ingestion shall contain the potassium...

  13. 21 CFR 582.1619 - Potassium carbonate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Potassium carbonate. 582.1619 Section 582.1619 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Additives § 582.1619 Potassium carbonate. (a) Product. Potassium carbonate. (b) Conditions of use....

  14. 21 CFR 182.3616 - Potassium bisulfite.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Potassium bisulfite. 182.3616 Section 182.3616 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR... Potassium bisulfite. (a) Product. Potassium bisulfite. (b) (c) Limitations, restrictions, or...

  15. 21 CFR 582.3640 - Potassium sorbate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Potassium sorbate. 582.3640 Section 582.3640 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL....3640 Potassium sorbate. (a) Product. Potassium sorbate. (b) Conditions of use. This substance...

  16. 21 CFR 582.7610 - Potassium alginate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Potassium alginate. 582.7610 Section 582.7610 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Potassium alginate. (a) Product. Potassium alginate. (b) Conditions of use. This substance is...

  17. 21 CFR 201.72 - Potassium labeling.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 4 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Potassium labeling. 201.72 Section 201.72 Food and... LABELING Labeling Requirements for Over-the-Counter Drugs § 201.72 Potassium labeling. (a) The labeling of over-the-counter (OTC) drug products intended for oral ingestion shall contain the potassium...

  18. 21 CFR 582.1643 - Potassium sulfate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Potassium sulfate. 582.1643 Section 582.1643 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Additives § 582.1643 Potassium sulfate. (a) Product. Potassium sulfate. (b) Conditions of use....

  19. 21 CFR 582.5628 - Potassium glycerophosphate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Potassium glycerophosphate. 582.5628 Section 582.5628 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED... Dietary Supplements 1 § 582.5628 Potassium glycerophosphate. (a) Product. Potassium glycerophosphate....

  20. 21 CFR 582.7610 - Potassium alginate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Potassium alginate. 582.7610 Section 582.7610 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Potassium alginate. (a) Product. Potassium alginate. (b) Conditions of use. This substance is...

  1. 21 CFR 582.6625 - Potassium citrate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Potassium citrate. 582.6625 Section 582.6625 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Potassium citrate. (a) Product. Potassium citrate. (b) Conditions of use. This substance is...

  2. 21 CFR 582.3616 - Potassium bisulfite.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Potassium bisulfite. 582.3616 Section 582.3616 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL....3616 Potassium bisulfite. (a) Product. Potassium bisulfite. (b) (c) Limitations, restrictions,...

  3. 21 CFR 582.5634 - Potassium iodide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Potassium iodide. 582.5634 Section 582.5634 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Supplements 1 § 582.5634 Potassium iodide. (a) Product. Potassium iodide. (b) Tolerance. 0.01 percent....

  4. 21 CFR 182.3616 - Potassium bisulfite.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Potassium bisulfite. 182.3616 Section 182.3616...) SUBSTANCES GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Chemical Preservatives § 182.3616 Potassium bisulfite. (a) Product. Potassium bisulfite. (b) (c) Limitations, restrictions, or explanation. This substance is...

  5. 21 CFR 182.3616 - Potassium bisulfite.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Potassium bisulfite. 182.3616 Section 182.3616 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD....3616 Potassium bisulfite. (a) Product. Potassium bisulfite. (b) (c) Limitations, restrictions,...

  6. 21 CFR 582.1619 - Potassium carbonate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Potassium carbonate. 582.1619 Section 582.1619 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Additives § 582.1619 Potassium carbonate. (a) Product. Potassium carbonate. (b) Conditions of use....

  7. 21 CFR 582.6625 - Potassium citrate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Potassium citrate. 582.6625 Section 582.6625 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Potassium citrate. (a) Product. Potassium citrate. (b) Conditions of use. This substance is...

  8. 21 CFR 182.3616 - Potassium bisulfite.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Potassium bisulfite. 182.3616 Section 182.3616 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD....3616 Potassium bisulfite. (a) Product. Potassium bisulfite. (b) (c) Limitations, restrictions,...

  9. 21 CFR 582.1625 - Potassium citrate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Potassium citrate. 582.1625 Section 582.1625 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Additives § 582.1625 Potassium citrate. (a) Product. Potassium citrate. (b) Conditions of use....

  10. 21 CFR 582.1619 - Potassium carbonate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Potassium carbonate. 582.1619 Section 582.1619 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Additives § 582.1619 Potassium carbonate. (a) Product. Potassium carbonate. (b) Conditions of use....

  11. 21 CFR 182.3637 - Potassium metabisulfite.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Potassium metabisulfite. 182.3637 Section 182.3637 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD....3637 Potassium metabisulfite. (a) Product. Potassium metabisulfite. (b) (c) Limitations,...

  12. 21 CFR 582.3640 - Potassium sorbate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Potassium sorbate. 582.3640 Section 582.3640 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL....3640 Potassium sorbate. (a) Product. Potassium sorbate. (b) Conditions of use. This substance...

  13. 21 CFR 172.730 - Potassium bromate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Potassium bromate. 172.730 Section 172.730 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN... Specific Usage Additives § 172.730 Potassium bromate. The food additive potassium bromate may be...

  14. 21 CFR 582.3616 - Potassium bisulfite.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Potassium bisulfite. 582.3616 Section 582.3616 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL....3616 Potassium bisulfite. (a) Product. Potassium bisulfite. (b) (c) Limitations, restrictions,...

  15. 21 CFR 182.3640 - Potassium sorbate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Potassium sorbate. 182.3640 Section 182.3640 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR... Potassium sorbate. (a) Product. Potassium sorbate. (b) Conditions of use. This substance is...

  16. 21 CFR 582.1613 - Potassium bicarbonate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Potassium bicarbonate. 582.1613 Section 582.1613 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Additives § 582.1613 Potassium bicarbonate. (a) Product. Potassium bicarbonate. (b) Conditions of use....

  17. 21 CFR 582.1619 - Potassium carbonate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Potassium carbonate. 582.1619 Section 582.1619 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Additives § 582.1619 Potassium carbonate. (a) Product. Potassium carbonate. (b) Conditions of use....

  18. 21 CFR 582.1643 - Potassium sulfate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Potassium sulfate. 582.1643 Section 582.1643 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Additives § 582.1643 Potassium sulfate. (a) Product. Potassium sulfate. (b) Conditions of use....

  19. 21 CFR 582.3637 - Potassium metabisulfite.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Potassium metabisulfite. 582.3637 Section 582.3637 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL....3637 Potassium metabisulfite. (a) Product. Potassium metabisulfite. (b) (c) Limitations,...

  20. 21 CFR 582.7610 - Potassium alginate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Potassium alginate. 582.7610 Section 582.7610 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Potassium alginate. (a) Product. Potassium alginate. (b) Conditions of use. This substance is...

  1. 21 CFR 582.7610 - Potassium alginate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Potassium alginate. 582.7610 Section 582.7610 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Potassium alginate. (a) Product. Potassium alginate. (b) Conditions of use. This substance is...

  2. 21 CFR 582.3637 - Potassium metabisulfite.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Potassium metabisulfite. 582.3637 Section 582.3637 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL....3637 Potassium metabisulfite. (a) Product. Potassium metabisulfite. (b) (c) Limitations,...

  3. 21 CFR 582.1625 - Potassium citrate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Potassium citrate. 582.1625 Section 582.1625 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Additives § 582.1625 Potassium citrate. (a) Product. Potassium citrate. (b) Conditions of use....

  4. 21 CFR 582.1625 - Potassium citrate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Potassium citrate. 582.1625 Section 582.1625 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Additives § 582.1625 Potassium citrate. (a) Product. Potassium citrate. (b) Conditions of use....

  5. 21 CFR 582.3640 - Potassium sorbate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Potassium sorbate. 582.3640 Section 582.3640 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL....3640 Potassium sorbate. (a) Product. Potassium sorbate. (b) Conditions of use. This substance...

  6. 21 CFR 182.3616 - Potassium bisulfite.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Potassium bisulfite. 182.3616 Section 182.3616 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD....3616 Potassium bisulfite. (a) Product. Potassium bisulfite. (b) (c) Limitations, restrictions,...

  7. 21 CFR 582.3637 - Potassium metabisulfite.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Potassium metabisulfite. 582.3637 Section 582.3637 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL....3637 Potassium metabisulfite. (a) Product. Potassium metabisulfite. (b) (c) Limitations,...

  8. 21 CFR 582.1625 - Potassium citrate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Potassium citrate. 582.1625 Section 582.1625 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Additives § 582.1625 Potassium citrate. (a) Product. Potassium citrate. (b) Conditions of use....

  9. 21 CFR 182.3640 - Potassium sorbate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Potassium sorbate. 182.3640 Section 182.3640 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR... Potassium sorbate. (a) Product. Potassium sorbate. (b) Conditions of use. This substance is...

  10. 21 CFR 582.1631 - Potassium hydroxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Potassium hydroxide. 582.1631 Section 582.1631 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Additives § 582.1631 Potassium hydroxide. (a) Product. Potassium hydroxide. (b) Conditions of use....

  11. 21 CFR 582.1643 - Potassium sulfate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Potassium sulfate. 582.1643 Section 582.1643 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Additives § 582.1643 Potassium sulfate. (a) Product. Potassium sulfate. (b) Conditions of use....

  12. 21 CFR 182.3637 - Potassium metabisulfite.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Potassium metabisulfite. 182.3637 Section 182.3637 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD....3637 Potassium metabisulfite. (a) Product. Potassium metabisulfite. (b) (c) Limitations,...

  13. 21 CFR 582.1619 - Potassium carbonate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Potassium carbonate. 582.1619 Section 582.1619 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Additives § 582.1619 Potassium carbonate. (a) Product. Potassium carbonate. (b) Conditions of use....

  14. 21 CFR 582.1613 - Potassium bicarbonate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Potassium bicarbonate. 582.1613 Section 582.1613 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Additives § 582.1613 Potassium bicarbonate. (a) Product. Potassium bicarbonate. (b) Conditions of use....

  15. 21 CFR 582.5634 - Potassium iodide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Potassium iodide. 582.5634 Section 582.5634 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Supplements 1 § 582.5634 Potassium iodide. (a) Product. Potassium iodide. (b) Tolerance. 0.01 percent....

  16. 21 CFR 582.5622 - Potassium chloride.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Potassium chloride. 582.5622 Section 582.5622 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Supplements 1 § 582.5622 Potassium chloride. (a) Product. Potassium chloride. (b) Conditions of use....

  17. 21 CFR 582.5628 - Potassium glycerophosphate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Potassium glycerophosphate. 582.5628 Section 582.5628 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED... Dietary Supplements 1 § 582.5628 Potassium glycerophosphate. (a) Product. Potassium glycerophosphate....

  18. 21 CFR 582.1631 - Potassium hydroxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Potassium hydroxide. 582.1631 Section 582.1631 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Additives § 582.1631 Potassium hydroxide. (a) Product. Potassium hydroxide. (b) Conditions of use....

  19. 21 CFR 582.6625 - Potassium citrate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Potassium citrate. 582.6625 Section 582.6625 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Potassium citrate. (a) Product. Potassium citrate. (b) Conditions of use. This substance is...

  20. 21 CFR 172.730 - Potassium bromate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Potassium bromate. 172.730 Section 172.730 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR... Other Specific Usage Additives § 172.730 Potassium bromate. The food additive potassium bromate may...

  1. 21 CFR 582.1643 - Potassium sulfate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Potassium sulfate. 582.1643 Section 582.1643 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Additives § 582.1643 Potassium sulfate. (a) Product. Potassium sulfate. (b) Conditions of use....

  2. 21 CFR 184.1643 - Potassium sulfate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Potassium sulfate. 184.1643 Section 184.1643 Food... Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1643 Potassium sulfate. (a) Potassium sulfate (K2SO4, CAS Reg... having a bitter, saline taste. It is prepared by the neutralization of sulfuric acid with...

  3. 21 CFR 582.6625 - Potassium citrate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Potassium citrate. 582.6625 Section 582.6625 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Potassium citrate. (a) Product. Potassium citrate. (b) Conditions of use. This substance is...

  4. 21 CFR 184.1643 - Potassium sulfate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Potassium sulfate. 184.1643 Section 184.1643 Food... Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1643 Potassium sulfate. (a) Potassium sulfate (K2SO4, CAS Reg... having a bitter, saline taste. It is prepared by the neutralization of sulfuric acid with...

  5. 21 CFR 182.3637 - Potassium metabisulfite.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Potassium metabisulfite. 182.3637 Section 182.3637 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD....3637 Potassium metabisulfite. (a) Product. Potassium metabisulfite. (b) (c) Limitations,...

  6. 21 CFR 201.72 - Potassium labeling.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 4 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Potassium labeling. 201.72 Section 201.72 Food and... LABELING Labeling Requirements for Over-the-Counter Drugs § 201.72 Potassium labeling. (a) The labeling of over-the-counter (OTC) drug products intended for oral ingestion shall contain the potassium...

  7. 21 CFR 582.6625 - Potassium citrate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Potassium citrate. 582.6625 Section 582.6625 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Potassium citrate. (a) Product. Potassium citrate. (b) Conditions of use. This substance is...

  8. 21 CFR 582.5634 - Potassium iodide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Potassium iodide. 582.5634 Section 582.5634 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Supplements 1 § 582.5634 Potassium iodide. (a) Product. Potassium iodide. (b) Tolerance. 0.01 percent....

  9. 21 CFR 182.3637 - Potassium metabisulfite.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Potassium metabisulfite. 182.3637 Section 182.3637 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD....3637 Potassium metabisulfite. (a) Product. Potassium metabisulfite. (b) (c) Limitations,...

  10. 21 CFR 582.1631 - Potassium hydroxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Potassium hydroxide. 582.1631 Section 582.1631 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Additives § 582.1631 Potassium hydroxide. (a) Product. Potassium hydroxide. (b) Conditions of use....

  11. 21 CFR 582.3640 - Potassium sorbate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Potassium sorbate. 582.3640 Section 582.3640 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL....3640 Potassium sorbate. (a) Product. Potassium sorbate. (b) Conditions of use. This substance...

  12. 21 CFR 582.7610 - Potassium alginate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Potassium alginate. 582.7610 Section 582.7610 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Potassium alginate. (a) Product. Potassium alginate. (b) Conditions of use. This substance is...

  13. 21 CFR 582.3637 - Potassium metabisulfite.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Potassium metabisulfite. 582.3637 Section 582.3637 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL....3637 Potassium metabisulfite. (a) Product. Potassium metabisulfite. (b) (c) Limitations,...

  14. 21 CFR 201.72 - Potassium labeling.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 4 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Potassium labeling. 201.72 Section 201.72 Food and... LABELING Labeling Requirements for Over-the-Counter Drugs § 201.72 Potassium labeling. (a) The labeling of over-the-counter (OTC) drug products intended for oral ingestion shall contain the potassium...

  15. 21 CFR 582.1631 - Potassium hydroxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Potassium hydroxide. 582.1631 Section 582.1631 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Additives § 582.1631 Potassium hydroxide. (a) Product. Potassium hydroxide. (b) Conditions of use....

  16. 21 CFR 582.1631 - Potassium hydroxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Potassium hydroxide. 582.1631 Section 582.1631 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Additives § 582.1631 Potassium hydroxide. (a) Product. Potassium hydroxide. (b) Conditions of use....

  17. 21 CFR 582.3616 - Potassium bisulfite.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Potassium bisulfite. 582.3616 Section 582.3616 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL....3616 Potassium bisulfite. (a) Product. Potassium bisulfite. (b) (c) Limitations, restrictions,...

  18. 21 CFR 184.1643 - Potassium sulfate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Potassium sulfate. 184.1643 Section 184.1643 Food... Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1643 Potassium sulfate. (a) Potassium sulfate (K2SO4, CAS Reg... having a bitter, saline taste. It is prepared by the neutralization of sulfuric acid with...

  19. 21 CFR 582.1643 - Potassium sulfate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Potassium sulfate. 582.1643 Section 582.1643 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Additives § 582.1643 Potassium sulfate. (a) Product. Potassium sulfate. (b) Conditions of use....

  20. 21 CFR 582.3616 - Potassium bisulfite.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Potassium bisulfite. 582.3616 Section 582.3616 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL....3616 Potassium bisulfite. (a) Product. Potassium bisulfite. (b) (c) Limitations, restrictions,...

  1. 21 CFR 582.3637 - Potassium metabisulfite.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Potassium metabisulfite. 582.3637 Section 582.3637 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL....3637 Potassium metabisulfite. (a) Product. Potassium metabisulfite. (b) (c) Limitations,...

  2. 21 CFR 182.3637 - Potassium metabisulfite.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Potassium metabisulfite. 182.3637 Section 182.3637...) SUBSTANCES GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Chemical Preservatives § 182.3637 Potassium metabisulfite. (a) Product. Potassium metabisulfite. (b) (c) Limitations, restrictions, or explanation. This substance...

  3. 21 CFR 582.3640 - Potassium sorbate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Potassium sorbate. 582.3640 Section 582.3640 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL....3640 Potassium sorbate. (a) Product. Potassium sorbate. (b) Conditions of use. This substance...

  4. 21 CFR 582.5622 - Potassium chloride.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Potassium chloride. 582.5622 Section 582.5622 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Supplements 1 § 582.5622 Potassium chloride. (a) Product. Potassium chloride. (b) Conditions of use....

  5. 21 CFR 582.1613 - Potassium bicarbonate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Potassium bicarbonate. 582.1613 Section 582.1613 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Additives § 582.1613 Potassium bicarbonate. (a) Product. Potassium bicarbonate. (b) Conditions of use....

  6. 21 CFR 582.3616 - Potassium bisulfite.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Potassium bisulfite. 582.3616 Section 582.3616 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL....3616 Potassium bisulfite. (a) Product. Potassium bisulfite. (b) (c) Limitations, restrictions,...

  7. 21 CFR 582.1613 - Potassium bicarbonate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Potassium bicarbonate. 582.1613 Section 582.1613 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Additives § 582.1613 Potassium bicarbonate. (a) Product. Potassium bicarbonate. (b) Conditions of use....

  8. 21 CFR 172.160 - Potassium nitrate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Potassium nitrate. 172.160 Section 172.160 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN... Preservatives § 172.160 Potassium nitrate. The food additive potassium nitrate may be safely used as a...

  9. 21 CFR 172.160 - Potassium nitrate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Potassium nitrate. 172.160 Section 172.160 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR... Food Preservatives § 172.160 Potassium nitrate. The food additive potassium nitrate may be safely...

  10. 21 CFR 172.160 - Potassium nitrate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Potassium nitrate. 172.160 Section 172.160 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR... Food Preservatives § 172.160 Potassium nitrate. The food additive potassium nitrate may be safely...

  11. 21 CFR 172.160 - Potassium nitrate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Potassium nitrate. 172.160 Section 172.160 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR... Food Preservatives § 172.160 Potassium nitrate. The food additive potassium nitrate may be safely...

  12. The potential of nutrient reuse from a source-separated domestic wastewater system in Indonesia--case study: ecological sanitation pilot plant in Surabaya.

    PubMed

    Malisie, A F; Prihandrijanti, M; Otterpohl, R

    2007-01-01

    Human excreta (faeces and urine) contribute only a small volume in domestic wastewater but are one of the main causes of water pollution. On the other hand, they contain very valuable nutrients to be reused as anthropogenic fertiliser through proper collection, treatment and hygienisation processes. To know the potential of nutrient recovery and reuse in Indonesia, a pilot scale source separation domestic wastewater system has been built in Surabaya and, so far, has shown promising results. Using urine diverting toilets, up to 86% nitrogen, 21% phosphorus and 69% potassium from urine and 12% of nitrogen, 68% of phosphorus and 20% of potassium from the faecal matter can be recovered. The separated urine was stored for 6 months before usage as fertiliser for hygienic reasons, while the separated faecal matter was composted with worms (vermicomposting). In order to investigate the fertilising effect, a preliminary cultivation experiment has been carried out on young rose plants using different fertilisers for 2 months.

  13. [Effects of fertilization on aquic brown soil potassium budget and crop potassium allocation].

    PubMed

    Jiang, Zishao; Yu, Wantai; Zhang, Lu

    2006-12-01

    Through a consecutive 15 years field trial on the aquic brown soil in Shenyang suburb of Northeast China, this paper studied the soil potassium budget and crop potassium allocation under effects of different fertilization systems. The results indicated that applying nitrogen or nitrogen plus phosphorous without potassium application accelerated the deficit of soil potassium. The potassium concentration in soybean grain and stalk was higher under potassium application than with no potassium supply, while that in maize grain had no significant difference in different fertilization treatments. The reutilization of recycled nutrients in farming system could mitigate the deficit of soil potassium budget, and such reutilization assorted with appropriate amount of potassium fertilization could not only produce high crop yield, but also balance soil potassium budget.

  14. Twenty-two years of warming, fertilisation and shading of subarctic heath shrubs promote secondary growth and plasticity but not primary growth.

    PubMed

    Campioli, Matteo; Leblans, Niki; Michelsen, Anders

    2012-01-01

    Most manipulation experiments simulating global change in tundra were short-term or did not measure plant growth directly. Here, we assessed the growth of three shrubs (Cassiope tetragona, Empetrum hermaphroditum and Betula nana) at a subarctic heath in Abisko (Northern Sweden) after 22 years of warming (passive greenhouses), fertilisation (nutrients addition) and shading (hessian fabric), and compare this to observations from the first decade of treatment. We assessed the growth rate of current-year leaves and apical stem (primary growth) and cambial growth (secondary growth), and integrated growth rates with morphological measurements and species coverage. Primary- and total growth of Cassiope and Empetrum were unaffected by manipulations, whereas growth was substantially reduced under fertilisation and shading (but not warming) for Betula. Overall, shrub height and length tended to increase under fertilisation and warming, whereas branching increased mostly in shaded Cassiope. Morphological changes were coupled to increased secondary growth under fertilisation. The species coverage showed a remarkable increase in graminoids in fertilised plots. Shrub response to fertilisation was positive in the short-term but changed over time, likely because of an increased competition with graminoids. More erected postures and large, canopies (requiring enhanced secondary growth for stem reinforcement) likely compensated for the increased light competition in Empetrum and Cassiope but did not avoid growth reduction in the shade intolerant Betula. The impact of warming and shading on shrub growth was more conservative. The lack of growth enhancement under warming suggests the absence of long-term acclimation for processes limiting biomass production. The lack of negative effects of shading on Cassiope was linked to morphological changes increasing the photosynthetic surface. Overall, tundra shrubs showed developmental plasticity over the longer term. However, such plasticity

  15. Twenty-Two Years of Warming, Fertilisation and Shading of Subarctic Heath Shrubs Promote Secondary Growth and Plasticity but Not Primary Growth

    PubMed Central

    Campioli, Matteo; Leblans, Niki; Michelsen, Anders

    2012-01-01

    Most manipulation experiments simulating global change in tundra were short-term or did not measure plant growth directly. Here, we assessed the growth of three shrubs (Cassiope tetragona, Empetrum hermaphroditum and Betula nana) at a subarctic heath in Abisko (Northern Sweden) after 22 years of warming (passive greenhouses), fertilisation (nutrients addition) and shading (hessian fabric), and compare this to observations from the first decade of treatment. We assessed the growth rate of current-year leaves and apical stem (primary growth) and cambial growth (secondary growth), and integrated growth rates with morphological measurements and species coverage. Primary- and total growth of Cassiope and Empetrum were unaffected by manipulations, whereas growth was substantially reduced under fertilisation and shading (but not warming) for Betula. Overall, shrub height and length tended to increase under fertilisation and warming, whereas branching increased mostly in shaded Cassiope. Morphological changes were coupled to increased secondary growth under fertilisation. The species coverage showed a remarkable increase in graminoids in fertilised plots. Shrub response to fertilisation was positive in the short-term but changed over time, likely because of an increased competition with graminoids. More erected postures and large, canopies (requiring enhanced secondary growth for stem reinforcement) likely compensated for the increased light competition in Empetrum and Cassiope but did not avoid growth reduction in the shade intolerant Betula. The impact of warming and shading on shrub growth was more conservative. The lack of growth enhancement under warming suggests the absence of long-term acclimation for processes limiting biomass production. The lack of negative effects of shading on Cassiope was linked to morphological changes increasing the photosynthetic surface. Overall, tundra shrubs showed developmental plasticity over the longer term. However, such plasticity

  16. Greenhouse gas fluxes induced by tillage and fertilisation in an organic grass-clover-wheat sequence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krauss, Maike; Ruser, Reiner; Hansen, Sissel; Mäder, Paul; Gattinger, Andreas

    2015-04-01

    Reduced tillage is technically a challenging task in organic arable farming due to the weed competition but also concerning the destruction of grass-clover leys. Regarding its climate impact, there are hardly any data existing. Soil-derived greenhouse gas fluxes were therefore monitored in a long-term field trial in Frick/CH. The trial is arranged in a strip-split-plot design on a heavy clay soil and compares since 2002 conventional tillage (up to 15 cm deep mouldboard ploughing) with reduced tillage (skim plough 5 cm deep and occasional chisel ploughing). In addition, cattle slurry only (SL) is compared with a slurry/manure compost treatment (MC) at a rate of 90 kg N/year. MC plots received one manure compost and two slurry batches, the latter applied with SL the same day but with half the amount. The overall management is in compliance with the EU organic farming regulation. Nitrous oxide and methane fluxes were monitored in a two-year period including a grass-clover ley, its destruction and a subsequent winter wheat crop. We adjusted the closed chamber sampling method developed by Flessa et al. (1995) with eight replicates for each treatment. Gas and soil sampling took place weekly with additional measurements after fertiliser and tillage management. Soil samples were analysed for mineralised nitrogen, dissolved organic carbon and water filled pore space. Flux calculation included linear and non-linear regression calculated with the HMR-Model after Pedersen et al. (2010) and Fuss et al. (unpublished). N2O fluxes calculated with the non-linear model were 10% higher than calculated with the linear model only. First results for the grass-clover period show no significant differences in N2O fluxes neither between reduced tillage and ploughing nor between slurry and manure compost/slurry application. However, ley destruction induced high N2O emissions which will be discussed with the subsequent wheat period.

  17. Impact of gonadotropins on oocyte maturation, fertilisation and developmental competence in vitro.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xuemei; Tsai, Tony; Qiao, Jie; Zhang, Zhan; Feng, Huai L

    2014-06-01

    The aim of the present study was to evaluate the dose-dependent effects of gonadotropins, either singly (Bravelle (B), Luveris (L), Menupur (M), Repronex (R), Gonal-F (G), Follism (F) and Norvarel (N)) or in combination (Menupur+Bravelle; Repronext+Bravelle; and Bravelle+Norvarel), on rates of oocyte maturation, fertilisation and early embryo development in vitro in an animal model. Bovine cumulus-oocyte complexes (COCs) were purchased commercially and cultured in TCM-199 with 10% fetal bovine serum supplemented with varying concentrations of gonadotropin (0, 5, 10, 20, 40IU or United States Pharmacopoeia (USP) mL-1) for 24 and 48h according to current IVF clinical stimulation protocols. All gonadotropins enhanced oocyte maturation in vitro in a dose-dependent manner. Individually, Gonal-F (Merck KGaA, Darmstadt, Germany), Follism (Merck Co, Whitehouse Station, NJ, USA) and Repronext (Ferring, Parsippany, NJ, USA) promoted oocyte maturation; in combination, they effectively enhanced COC expansion and increased the maturation competence of MII oocytes. However, high concentrations of gonadotropins may result in maturation arrest. Specific combinations of gonadotropins may change the rate of early embryonic development (8-16-cells) and morula-blastocyst formation. These data provide support for the responsiveness of bovine oocytes to gonadotropins in vitro and the need to consider variations in the relative concentrations and ratio of combinations (FSH/LH or human chorionic gonadotropin) for optimisation of oocyte developmental competence. The results of the present study could be applied to therapeutic clinical stimulation protocols and help improve IVF success rates.

  18. Fate of Phosphorus During Co-Combustion of Rapeseed Cake with Wood

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Piotrowska, P.; Zevenhoven, M.; Hupa, M.; Davidsson, K.; Åmand, L. E.; Zabetta, E. C.; Barišić, V.

    Recent studies show that deposit formation and agglomeration in fluidized bed boilers may be aggravated by a high phosphorus content besides alkali metals, chlorine and sulphur in a fuel. This paper presents the fate of phosphorus during co-combustion of wood chips and wood pellets with rapeseed cake pellets, a high phosphorus fuel in a 12MW CFB boiler. 12 hour tests with 12% and 18% (energy basis) of rapeseed cake with wood were performed with and without limestone addition. All fuels were characterised by means of standard fuel analyses combined with chemical fractionation. Retrieved ash samples were analysed using wet chemical analysis complemented with SEMlEDXA. Gaseous alkali metal chlorides as well as HCI and SO2 were measured upstream of the convective pass at a flue gas temperature of 800°C where also the deposit samples were collected with a deposit probe. The composition of deposits was studied with SEMlEDXA. Analyses of bed material particle cross-sections showed phosphorus compounds present within a K-silicates matrix between the agglomerated sand particles, indicating direct attack of gaseous potassium compounds on the bed surface followed by adhesion of rich in phosphorus ash particles. Build-up of the deposits took place mainly on the windward side of the probe; where up to 9 wt-% of phosphorus was present. SEMlEDXA shows that rapeseed cake addition caused an increase of K, Na besides P indicating presence of low melting phosphate salts in the deposits. During limestone addition in the deposit samples the increase of CI could be noticed however no significant change in P content was observed. This paper shows that agglomeration and fouling when co-firing rapeseed cake may be linked to its high content of organically bonded phosphorus — phytic acid salts; together with high content of water soluble fraction of alkali metals chlorides and sulphates in the fuel mixture.

  19. Edge phonons in black phosphorus

    PubMed Central

    Ribeiro, H. B.; Villegas, C. E. P.; Bahamon, D. A.; Muraca, D.; Castro Neto, A. H.; de Souza, E. A. T.; Rocha, A. R.; Pimenta, M. A.; de Matos, C. J. S.

    2016-01-01

    Black phosphorus has recently emerged as a new layered crystal that, due to its peculiar and anisotropic crystalline and electronic band structures, may have important applications in electronics, optoelectronics and photonics. Despite the fact that the edges of layered crystals host a range of singular properties whose characterization and exploitation are of utmost importance for device development, the edges of black phosphorus remain poorly characterized. In this work, the atomic structure and behaviour of phonons near different black phosphorus edges are experimentally and theoretically studied using Raman spectroscopy and density functional theory calculations. Polarized Raman results show the appearance of new modes at the edges of the sample, and their spectra depend on the atomic structure of the edges (zigzag or armchair). Theoretical simulations confirm that the new modes are due to edge phonon states that are forbidden in the bulk, and originated from the lattice termination rearrangements. PMID:27412813

  20. Edge phonons in black phosphorus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ribeiro, H. B.; Villegas, C. E. P.; Bahamon, D. A.; Muraca, D.; Castro Neto, A. H.; de Souza, E. A. T.; Rocha, A. R.; Pimenta, M. A.; de Matos, C. J. S.

    2016-07-01

    Black phosphorus has recently emerged as a new layered crystal that, due to its peculiar and anisotropic crystalline and electronic band structures, may have important applications in electronics, optoelectronics and photonics. Despite the fact that the edges of layered crystals host a range of singular properties whose characterization and exploitation are of utmost importance for device development, the edges of black phosphorus remain poorly characterized. In this work, the atomic structure and behaviour of phonons near different black phosphorus edges are experimentally and theoretically studied using Raman spectroscopy and density functional theory calculations. Polarized Raman results show the appearance of new modes at the edges of the sample, and their spectra depend on the atomic structure of the edges (zigzag or armchair). Theoretical simulations confirm that the new modes are due to edge phonon states that are forbidden in the bulk, and originated from the lattice termination rearrangements.

  1. Economic feasibility study for phosphorus recovery processes.

    PubMed

    Molinos-Senante, María; Hernández-Sancho, Francesc; Sala-Garrido, Ramón; Garrido-Baserba, Manel

    2011-06-01

    Phosphorus recovery from wastewater has become a necessity for sustainable development because phosphorus is a non-renewable essential resource, and its discharge into the environment causes serious negative impacts. There are no economic incentives for the implementation of phosphorus recovery technologies because the selling price of rock phosphate is lower than phosphorus recovered from sewage. The methodologies used to determine the feasibility of such projects are usually focused on internal costs without considering environmental externalities. This article shows a methodology to assess the economic feasibility of wastewater phosphorus recovery projects that takes into account internal and external impacts. The shadow price of phosphorus is estimated using the directional distance function to measure the environmental benefits obtained by preventing the discharge of phosphorus into the environment. The economic feasibility analysis taking into account the environmental benefits shows that the phosphorus recovery is viable not only from sustainable development but also from an economic point of view.

  2. Fire-Resistant Polyimides Containing Phosphorus

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mikroyannidis, J.

    1986-01-01

    Limiting oxygen index increased. Copolyimide with a group containing phosphorus synthesized from 1-2,4-diaminobenzene, m-phenylenediamine, and tetracarboxylic dianhydride. Copolymer more fire resistant than corresponding polyimide without phosphorus.

  3. Dietary phosphorus requirement of channel catfish.

    PubMed

    Wilson, R P; Robinson, E H; Gatlin, D M; Poe, W E

    1982-06-01

    Two experiments were conducted to reevaluate the dietary phosphorus requirement of fingerling channel catfish. Basal diets containing either casein with supplemental inorganic phosphorus and 0.5% total calcium or egg albumin with supplemental inorganic phosphorus and 0.75% total calcium yielded similar requirement data. Eleven-week growth, feed efficiency, serum phosphorus, bone ash, bone calcium and bon phosphorus data indicate that 0.33% apparent available dietary phosphorus is adequate for maximum growth and bone mineralization. Based on these data and previous findings, we would suggest a value of 0.4% apparent available phosphorus be used in formulating catfish feeds. The apparent availability of phosphorus from soybean meal, as determined by the chromic oxide indicator method, was 29% for channel catfish.

  4. Phosphorus Flamethrower: A Demonstration Using Red and White Allotropes of Phosphorus

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Golden, Melissa L.; Person, Eric C.; Bejar, Miriam; Golden, Donnie R.; Powell, Jonathan M.

    2010-01-01

    A demonstration was created to display the unique behavior of a familiar element, phosphorus, and to make chemistry more accessible to the introductory student. The common allotropes of phosphorus and their reactivity are discussed. In this demonstration, the white allotrope of phosphorus is synthesized from the red phosphorus obtained from a…

  5. Modifying the Kentucky phosphorus index using published phosphorus loss data

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The phosphorus index (PI) is a field-scale assessment tool developed to identify fields most vulnerable to P loss. The USDA NRCS recently revised its 590 Nutrient Management Standard and Title 190 National Instruction requiring that all NRCS-approved PI tools meet certain criteria. A recent study e...

  6. Closing the Phosphorus Loop by Recovering Phosphorus From Waste Streams With Layered Double Hydroxide Nanocomposites and Converting the Product into an Efficient Fertilizer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yan, H.; Shih, K.

    2015-12-01

    Phosphorus (P) recovery has been frequently discussed in recent decades due to the uncertain availability and uneven distribution of global phosphate rock reserves. Sorption technology is increasingly considered as a reliable, efficient and environmentally friendly P removal method from aqueous solution. In this study, a series of Mg-Al-based layered double hydroxide nanocomposites and their corresponding calcined products were fabricated and applied as phosphate adsorbents. The prepared samples were with average size at ~50 nm and self-assembled into larger particles in irregular shapes. The results of batch adsorption experiments demonstrated that calcination significantly enhanced the adsorption ability of LDHs for phosphorus, and the maximum adsorption capacity of calcined Mg-Al-LDH was as high as 100.7 mg-P/g. Furthermore, incorporation of Zr4+ and La3+ into LDH materials increases the sorption selectivity as well as sorption amount of phosphorus in LDHs, which was confirmed by experiments operated in synthetic human urine. For the first time ammonia (NH4OH) and potassium hydroxide (KOH) solutions were employed to desorb the P-loaded LDH. Identification of solids derived from two eluting solutions showed that struvite (MgNH4PO4•6H2O, MAP) was precipitated in ammonia solution while most phosphate was desorbed into liquid phase in KOH system without crystallization of potassium struvite (MgKPO4•6H2O) due to its higher solubility. Quantitative X-ray diffraction technique was used to determine struvite contents in obtained solids and the results revealed that ~ 30% of adsorbed P was transferred into struvite form in the sample extracted by 0.5M NH4OH. Leaching tests suggested that the phosphorus releasing kinetics of ammonia treated LDH was comparable to that of pure struvite product, indicating that postsorption Mg-Al-LDH desorbed with ammonia could serve as a slow-releasing fertilizer in agriculture (see Figure 1).

  7. The Effects of Dietary Phosphorus on the Growth Performance and Phosphorus Excretion of Dairy Heifers.

    PubMed

    Zhang, B; Wang, C; Wei, Z H; Sun, H Z; Xu, G Z; Liu, J X; Liu, H Y

    2016-07-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of reducing dietary phosphorus (P) on the frame size, udder traits, blood parameters and nutrient digestibility coefficient in 8- to 10-month-old Holstein heifers. Forty-five heifers were divided into 15 blocks according to the mo of age and were randomly assigned one of three dietary treatments: 0.26% (low P [LP]), 0.36% (medium P [MP]), or 0.42% (high P [HP]) (dry matter basis). Samples were collected at the wk 1, 4, 8. The results show that low dietary P had no effect on body measurement. The blood P concentration decreased with decreasing dietary P (p<0.05), while the blood calcium content of LP was higher than that of the MP and HP groups (p<0.05), though still in the normal range. The serum contents of alkalinephosphatase, potassium, and magnesium were similar among the treatments. No differences were found in all nutrients' apparent digestibility coefficients with varied dietary P. However, with P diet decreased from HP to LP, the total fecal P and urine P concentration declined significantly, as did fecal water soluble P (p<0.05). In conclusion, reducing the dietary P from 0.42% to 0.26% did not negatively affect the heifers' growth performance but did significantly lessen manure P excretion into the environment.

  8. Iron budgets for three distinct biogeochemical sites around the Kerguelen Archipelago (Southern Ocean) during the natural fertilisation study, KEOPS-2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bowie, A. R.; van der Merwe, P.; Quéroué, F.; Trull, T.; Fourquez, M.; Planchon, F.; Sarthou, G.; Chever, F.; Townsend, A. T.; Obernosterer, I.; Sallée, J.-B.; Blain, S.

    2015-07-01

    Iron availability in the Southern Ocean controls phytoplankton growth, community composition and the uptake of atmospheric CO2 by the biological pump. The KEOPS-2 (KErguelen Ocean and Plateau compared Study 2) "process study", took place around the Kerguelen Plateau in the Indian sector of the Southern Ocean. This is a region naturally fertilised with iron on the scale of hundreds to thousands of square kilometres, producing a mosaic of spring blooms which show distinct biological and biogeochemical responses to fertilisation. This paper presents biogeochemical iron budgets (incorporating vertical and lateral supply, internal cycling, and sinks) for three contrasting sites: an upstream high-nutrient low-chlorophyll reference, over the plateau and in the offshore plume east of the Kerguelen Islands. These budgets show that distinct regional environments driven by complex circulation and transport pathways are responsible for differences in the mode and strength of iron supply, with vertical supply dominant on the plateau and lateral supply dominant in the plume. Iron supply from "new" sources (diffusion, upwelling, entrainment, lateral advection, atmospheric dust) to the surface waters of the plume was double that above the plateau and 20 times greater than at the reference site, whilst iron demand (measured by cellular uptake) in the plume was similar to that above the plateau but 40 times greater than at the reference site. "Recycled" iron supply by bacterial regeneration and zooplankton grazing was a relatively minor component at all sites (< 8 % of new supply), in contrast to earlier findings from other biogeochemical iron budgets in the Southern Ocean. Over the plateau, a particulate iron dissolution term of 2.5 % was invoked to balance the budget; this approximately doubled the standing stock of dissolved iron in the mixed layer. The exchange of iron between dissolved, biogenic particulate and lithogenic particulate pools was highly dynamic in time and space

  9. Leptin and leptin receptor are detectable in equine spermatozoa but are not involved in in vitro fertilisation.

    PubMed

    Lange-Consiglio, Anna; Corradetti, Bruna; Perrini, Claudia; Bizzaro, Davide; Cremonesi, Fausto

    2016-04-01

    In human and swine, leptin (OB) has been identified in seminal plasma and leptin receptors (OB-R) on the cell surface of spermatozoa, indicating that spermatozoa are a target for OB. This hormone has also been detected in follicular fluid (FF) in women and mares, although its role requires further study. The aims of this study were to investigate the immunolocalisation and the expression of OB and OB-R in equine spermatozoa and to evaluate the involvement of OB in equine in vitro fertilisation (IVF). Since progesterone (P) and OB are both found in FF, the individual and combined effects of these two hormones were studied in equine IVF and compared with the results obtained from the use of FF for in vitro sperm preparation. For the first time, we were able to identify OB and OB-R mRNA and their corresponding proteins in equine spermatozoa. When spermatozoa were treated with OB, there was a decrease in the three motility parameters VSL, STR and LIN, commonly associated with hyperactivation, whilst the acrosome reaction rate increased (P<0.05). The fertilisation rate was 51% with FF, 46.15% with P, 43.64% with P+OB and 0% with OB alone. The percentage of eight-cell stage embryos was 18.7% with FF, 17.1% with P and 16.7% with OB+P. OB alone did not permit oocyte fertilisation, indicating that, in the horse, OB is involved in capacitation and hyperactivation but not in sperm penetration.

  10. A novel technique for oviduct occlusion to generate live births from cryopreserved rabbit oocytes after in vivo fertilisation.

    PubMed

    Jiménez-Trigos, E; Vicente, J S; Marco-Jiménez, F

    2014-08-01

    Intraoviductal transfer technique in combination with in vivo fertilisation has arisen as an effective technique to assess live births after transfer of slow-frozen oocytes in the rabbit. Nevertheless, the great disadvantage of this method is the accumulation of tubal fluid in a large number of females after clamping the oviducts. In this study, we develop an alternative method to minimise damage to the oviduct and increase the birth rate. The aims of this study were (1) to evaluate the ability of cyanoacrylate tissue adhesive to occlude the oviduct for female sterilisation; (2) to evaluate the effect of oviduct occlusion immediately after transferring fresh oocytes on in vivo fertilisation; and (3) to assess this technique to generate live births from fresh and slow-frozen oocytes. In all the experiments, recipients were artificially inseminated 9h prior to occluding the oviducts. In the first experiment, the left oviduct was blocked with cyanoacrylate tissue adhesive, while the right one was used as a control. Six days later, oviducts and uterine horns were flushed to assess embryo recovery rates. While the embryo recovery rate was 79.2% in the intact oviduct, no embryos were recovered in the blocked one. In the second experiment, fresh oocytes were transferred into both oviducts, which were immediately occluded. Six days later, the in vivo fertilisation success rate was 33.7%. Finally, in the last experiment, slow-frozen oocytes were transferred and the rate of live births was 13.2±4.5%. The study shows that when using this method the generation of live births from slow-frozen oocytes increases significantly. In addition, our results suggest that in vivo environment could help improve the results of oocyte cryopreservation.

  11. Maturity and hygiene quality of composts and hygiene indicators in agricultural soil fertilised with municipal waste or manure compost.

    PubMed

    Tontti, Tiina; Heinonen-Tanski, Helvi; Karinen, Päivi; Reinikainen, Olli; Halinen, Arja

    2011-02-01

    Composts produced from municipal source separated biowaste (Biowaste), a mixture of biowaste and anaerobically digested sewage sludge (Biosludge) and cattle manure (Manure) were examined for their maturity and hygiene quality. The composts were applied to a potato crop in 2004 and to a barley nurse crop of forage ley in 2005 in a field experiment. Numbers of faecal coliforms, enterococci, clostridia and Salmonella in field soil were determined 2 weeks and 16 weeks after compost applications. Municipal compost batches chosen based on successful processing showed variable maturity during field application, and the need to evaluate compost maturity with multiple variables was confirmed. The numbers of faecal coliform were similar in all compost types, averaging 4.7 and 2.3 log( 10) CFU g(-1) in the first and second years, respectively. The highest number of enterococci was 5.2 log(10) CFU g(-1), found in Manure compost in the first year, while the highest clostridia numbers were found in Biosludge compost, averaging 4.0 log(10) CFU g(-1) over both years. Except for one case, less than 2.4 log(10) CFU g(-1) of faecal coliforms or clostridia were found in compost-fertilised soil, while the numbers of enterococci were mostly higher than in unfertilised soil (<4.2 or <3.2 log(10) CFU g(-1), respectively). No hygiene indicator bacteria were present in compost-fertilised potato at harvest. Overall, compost fertilisations caused rather small changes in the counts of hygiene indicators in the field environment.

  12. Clinical Disorders of Phosphorus Metabolism

    PubMed Central

    Yu, George C.; Lee, David B. N.

    1987-01-01

    Deranged phosphorus metabolism is commonly encountered in clinical medicine. Disturbances in phosphate intake, excretion and transcellular shift account for the abnormal serum levels. As a result of the essential role played by phosphate in intracellular metabolism, the clinical manifestations of hypophosphatemia and hyperphosphatemia are extensive. An understanding of the pathophysiology of various phosphate disorders is helpful in guiding therapeutic decisions. Images PMID:3321712

  13. Major Minerals - Calcium, Magnesium, Phosphorus

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Calcium, magnesium and phosphorus are essential elements critically important for the function of the musculoskeletal system, including the formation and transduction of energy and the maintenance of healthy bone. The major calcium concern for physically active healthy middle-aged adults is to consu...

  14. Enzymatic hydrolysis of organic phosphorus

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Orthophosphate-releasing enzymatic hydrolysis is an alternative means for characterizing organic phosphorus (Po) in animal manure. The approach is not only simple and fast, but can also provide information difficult to obtain by other methods. Currently, commercially available phosphatases are mainl...

  15. Gettering Silicon Wafers with Phosphorus

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Daiello, R. V.

    1983-01-01

    Silicon wafers subjected to gettering in phosphorus atmosphere have longer diffusion lengths and higher solar-cell efficiencies than untreated wafers. Gettering treatment improves properties of solar cells manufactured from impure silicon and is compatible with standard solar-cell processing.

  16. 40 CFR 422.20 - Applicability; description of the phosphorus consuming subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... phosphorus consuming subcategory. 422.20 Section 422.20 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION... Phosphorus Consuming Subcategory § 422.20 Applicability; description of the phosphorus consuming subcategory... manufacture of phosphoric acid, phosphorus pentoxide, phosphorus pentasulfide, phosphorus trichloride,...

  17. 40 CFR 422.20 - Applicability; description of the phosphorus consuming subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... phosphorus consuming subcategory. 422.20 Section 422.20 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION... Phosphorus Consuming Subcategory § 422.20 Applicability; description of the phosphorus consuming subcategory... manufacture of phosphoric acid, phosphorus pentoxide, phosphorus pentasulfide, phosphorus trichloride,...

  18. 40 CFR 422.20 - Applicability; description of the phosphorus consuming subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... phosphorus consuming subcategory. 422.20 Section 422.20 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION... Phosphorus Consuming Subcategory § 422.20 Applicability; description of the phosphorus consuming subcategory... manufacture of phosphoric acid, phosphorus pentoxide, phosphorus pentasulfide, phosphorus trichloride,...

  19. 40 CFR 422.20 - Applicability; description of the phosphorus consuming subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... phosphorus consuming subcategory. 422.20 Section 422.20 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION... Phosphorus Consuming Subcategory § 422.20 Applicability; description of the phosphorus consuming subcategory... manufacture of phosphoric acid, phosphorus pentoxide, phosphorus pentasulfide, phosphorus trichloride,...

  20. 40 CFR 422.20 - Applicability; description of the phosphorus consuming subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... phosphorus consuming subcategory. 422.20 Section 422.20 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION... Phosphorus Consuming Subcategory § 422.20 Applicability; description of the phosphorus consuming subcategory... manufacture of phosphoric acid, phosphorus pentoxide, phosphorus pentasulfide, phosphorus trichloride,...

  1. Plasma Potassium Levels in Healthy Prehypertension Subjects and the Role of A High Potassium Drink.

    PubMed

    Farapti, Farapti; Sayogo, Savitri; Siregar, Parlindungan

    2017-02-24

    Most populations around the world consume less than the recommended levels of potassium. Long term low potassium intake could lead to decreased plasma potassium levels and induce hypokalemia. The increasing of plasma potassium levels 0,2-0,4 mmol/L by improving potassium intake decreased significantly blood pressure (BP). Assessing plasma potassium levels in healthy people related to potassium intake have not been studied. In this study, we analysed plasma potassium levels in prehypertension (PHT) subjects and to evaluate the effect of tender coconut water (TCW) as a high potassium drink on plasma potassium levels in PHT adults. Thirthy-two female aged 25-44 years were randomly allocated to 14 days on TCW or water in a parallel randomized clinical trial . The treatment (T) group received TCW 300 ml twice daily and the control (C) group received water 300 ml twice daily too. At baseline, plasma potassium levels was 3.71±0.41 mmol/L, and 22.58% were categorized as hypokalemia. After 14 days treatment, potassium plasma level between T and C groups were not significantly different (p=0,247). The change of plasma potassium levels in both groups showed tendency to increase but not statistically significant (p=0.166). In healthy prehypertension women, the low levels of potassium plasma may be caused by low potassium intake for long time and intervension with TCW 300 ml twice daily for 14 consecutive days has not proven yet to increase plasma potassium levels. It is necessary to give higher dose and longer time to increase potassium plasma in low potassium plasma level subjects.

  2. Few-layer black phosphorus nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Sofer, Zdenek; Bouša, Daniel; Luxa, Jan; Mazanek, Vlastimil; Pumera, Martin

    2016-01-28

    Herein, black phosphorus quantum dots and nanoparticles of a few layer thickness were prepared and characterized using STEM, AFM, dynamic light scattering, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction, Raman spectroscopy and photoluminescence. Impact electrochemistry of the induvidual black phosphorus nanoparticles allows their size determination. The centrifugation of colloidal black phosphorus nanoparticles allowed separation of quantum dots with sizes up to 15 nm. These black phosphorus nanoparticles exhibit a large band gap and are expected to find a wide range of applications from semiconductors to biomolecule tags. The use of black phosphorus nanoparticles for vapour sensing was successfully demonstrated.

  3. Potassium Intake, Bioavailability, Hypertension, and Glucose Control

    PubMed Central

    Stone, Michael S.; Martyn, Lisa; Weaver, Connie M.

    2016-01-01

    Potassium is an essential nutrient. It is the most abundant cation in intracellular fluid where it plays a key role in maintaining cell function. The gradient of potassium across the cell membrane determines cellular membrane potential, which is maintained in large part by the ubiquitous ion channel the sodium-potassium (Na+-K+) ATPase pump. Approximately 90% of potassium consumed (60–100 mEq) is lost in the urine, with the other 10% excreted in the stool, and a very small amount lost in sweat. Little is known about the bioavailability of potassium, especially from dietary sources. Less is understood on how bioavailability may affect health outcomes. Hypertension (HTN) is the leading cause of cardiovascular disease (CVD) and a major financial burden ($50.6 billion) to the US public health system, and has a significant impact on all-cause morbidity and mortality worldwide. The relationship between increased potassium supplementation and a decrease in HTN is relatively well understood, but the effect of increased potassium intake from dietary sources on blood pressure overall is less clear. In addition, treatment options for hypertensive individuals (e.g., thiazide diuretics) may further compound chronic disease risk via impairments in potassium utilization and glucose control. Understanding potassium bioavailability from various sources may help to reveal how specific compounds and tissues influence potassium movement, and further the understanding of its role in health. PMID:27455317

  4. Potassium Intake, Bioavailability, Hypertension, and Glucose Control.

    PubMed

    Stone, Michael S; Martyn, Lisa; Weaver, Connie M

    2016-07-22

    Potassium is an essential nutrient. It is the most abundant cation in intracellular fluid where it plays a key role in maintaining cell function. The gradient of potassium across the cell membrane determines cellular membrane potential, which is maintained in large part by the ubiquitous ion channel the sodium-potassium (Na+-K+) ATPase pump. Approximately 90% of potassium consumed (60-100 mEq) is lost in the urine, with the other 10% excreted in the stool, and a very small amount lost in sweat. Little is known about the bioavailability of potassium, especially from dietary sources. Less is understood on how bioavailability may affect health outcomes. Hypertension (HTN) is the leading cause of cardiovascular disease (CVD) and a major financial burden ($50.6 billion) to the US public health system, and has a significant impact on all-cause morbidity and mortality worldwide. The relationship between increased potassium supplementation and a decrease in HTN is relatively well understood, but the effect of increased potassium intake from dietary sources on blood pressure overall is less clear. In addition, treatment options for hypertensive individuals (e.g., thiazide diuretics) may further compound chronic disease risk via impairments in potassium utilization and glucose control. Understanding potassium bioavailability from various sources may help to reveal how specific compounds and tissues influence potassium movement, and further the understanding of its role in health.

  5. The Galactic evolution of phosphorus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Caffau, E.; Bonifacio, P.; Faraggiana, R.; Steffen, M.

    2011-08-01

    Context. As a galaxy evolves, its chemical composition changes and the abundance ratios of different elements are powerful probes of the underlying evolutionary processes. Phosphorous is an element whose evolution has remained quite elusive until now, because it is difficult to detect in cool stars. The infrared weak P i lines of the multiplet 1, at 1050-1082 nm, are the most reliable indicators of the presence of phosphorus. The availability of CRIRES at VLT has permitted access to this wavelength range in stellar spectra. Aims: We attempt to measure the phosphorus abundance of twenty cool stars in the Galactic disk. Methods: The spectra are analysed with one-dimensional model-atmospheres computed in local thermodynamic equilibrium (LTE). The line formation computations are performed assuming LTE. Results: The ratio of phosphorus to iron behaves similarly to sulphur, increasing towards lower metallicity stars. Its ratio with respect to sulphur is roughly constant and slightly larger than solar, [P/S] = 0.10 ± 0.10. Conclusions: We succeed in taking an important step towards the understanding of the chemical evolution of phosphorus in the Galaxy. However, the observed rise in the P/Fe abundance ratio is steeper than predicted by Galactic chemical evolution model developed by Kobayashi and collaborators. Phosphorus appears to evolve differently from the light odd-Z elements sodium and aluminium. The constant value of [P/S] with metallicity implies that P production is insensitive to the neutron excess, thus processes other than neutron captures operate. We suggest that proton captures on 30Si and α captures on 27Al are possibilities to investigate. We see no clear distinction between our results for stars with planets and stars without any detected planet. Based on observations obtained with the CRIRES spectrograph at ESO-VLT Antu 8.2 m telescope at Paranal, Programme 386.D-0130, P.I. E. Caffau.

  6. Global warming and the phosphorus cycle

    SciTech Connect

    Tarasova, N.P.; Smetannikov, Y.V.; Balitsky, V.Y. )

    1994-09-01

    Greenhouse-induced climate change seriously influences the phosphorus cycle. In this paper the authors have analyzed how environmental conditions cause an increase or a decrease in the phosphorus content of the soil. Phosphorus production in South Kazakhstan without strict control for fulfilling environment-protection measures may lead to the chemical erosion of soils, i.e., disturb the balance of soluble and insoluble, as well as organic and inorganic, forms of phosphorus. Phosphorus accumulation in the soil can be promoted by heavy metals. The authors have constructed a general dynamic system for phosphorus flows in the soil. The results of 7-years monitoring of the soils in the region of South Kazakhstan are discussed and compared with the dynamic system. The role of chemical elements promoting phosphorus accumulation in the soil is further analyzed.

  7. Study of the effects of proline, phenylalanine, and urea foliar application to Tempranillo vineyards on grape amino acid content. Comparison with commercial nitrogen fertilisers.

    PubMed

    Garde-Cerdán, T; López, R; Portu, J; González-Arenzana, L; López-Alfaro, I; Santamaría, P

    2014-11-15

    The aim of this work was to study the influence of foliar application of different nitrogen sources on grape amino acid content. The nitrogen sources applied to Tempranillo grapevines were proline, phenylalanine, urea, and two commercial nitrogen fertilisers, both without and with amino acids in their formulations. All treatments were applied at veraison and one week later. Proline treatment did not affect the must nitrogen composition. However, phenylalanine and urea foliar application enhanced the plants' synthesis of most of the amino acids, producing similar effects. In addition, the spray of commercial nitrogen fertilisers over leaves also induced a rise in grape amino acid concentrations regardless of the presence or absence of amino acids in their formulation. The most effective treatments were phenylalanine and urea followed by nitrogen fertilisers. This finding is of oenological interest for improved must nitrogen composition, ensuring better fermentation kinetics and most likely enhancing wine quality.

  8. Improving methane production and phosphorus release in anaerobic digestion of particulate saline sludge from a brackish aquaculture recirculation system.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xuedong; Ferreira, Rui B; Hu, Jianmei; Spanjers, Henri; van Lier, Jules B

    2014-06-01

    In this study, batch tests were conducted to examine the effects of trehalose and glycine betaine as well as potassium on the specific methanogenic activity (SMA), acid and alkaline phosphatase activity of anaerobic biomass and phosphorus release in anaerobic digestion of saline sludge from a brackish recirculation aquaculture system. The results of ANOVA and Tukey's HSD (honestly significant difference) tests showed that glycine betaine and trehalose enhanced SMA of anaerobic biomass and reactive phosphorus release from the particulate waste. Moreover, SMA tests revealed that methanogenic sludge, which was long-term acclimatized to a salinity level of 17 g/L was severely affected by the increase in salinity to values exceeding 35 g/L. Addition of compatible solutes, such as glycine betaine and trehalose, could be used to enhance the specific methane production rate and phosphorus release in anaerobic digestion from particulate organic waste produced in marine or brackish aquaculture recirculation systems.

  9. Influence of sperm fertilising concentration, sperm selection method and sperm capacitation procedure on the incidence of numerical chromosomal abnormalities in IVF early bovine embryos.

    PubMed

    Demyda-Peyrás, Sebastián; Dorado, Jesús; Hidalgo, Manuel; Moreno-Millán, Miguel

    2015-01-01

    The occurrence of numerical chromosomal aberrations, widely described as a major cause of mortality in in vitro-produced (IVP) embryos, has been linked to several factors. In the present study we investigated the effect of sperm fertilising concentration and semen handling (sperm selection and capacitation) before IVF on the rate of numerical chromosomal abnormalities in bovine embryos. In all, 466 IVP cattle embryos were karyotyped throughout three sequential experiments, analysing the effects of sperm fertilising concentration (0.1, 1.0 or 10×10(6) spermatozoa mL(-1)), selection method (unselected or Percoll-selected spermatozoa) and capacitation medium (bovine serum albumin (BSA), heparin or their combination). The percentage of normal (diploid) and aberrant (haploid, polyploid or aneuploid) embryos was noted in each experiment. The rate of numerical chromosomal abnormalities was mainly affected by sperm fertilising concentration (P<0.01) and, to a lesser extent, by the sperm capacitation medium (P<0.05). Polyploidy and haploidy rates were only affected by sperm fertilising concentration (P<0.05). Interestingly, the sperm selection technique used in the present study did not reduce the incidence of chromosome abnormalities in IVP cattle embryos (P>0.05). Finally, aneuploidy rates were not affected during the experiments (P>0.05), which suggests that they are not related to sperm-related factors. On the basis of these results, we conclude that sperm fertilising concentration is the 'paternal' key factor that affects the rate of numerical chromosomal abnormalities in IVP bovine embryos. By making small adjustments to fertilising protocols, the rate of cytogenetically aberrant embryos can be markedly reduced.

  10. NMR of Phosphorus in Iii-Phosphorus Semiconductors.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rutland, Jonathan Mark

    Second moment measurements have been obtained for phosphorus in III-phosphorus semiconductor compounds, including the first such measurements on BP. By the use of various multiple pulse sequences, the second moment contributions due to like and unlike spins can be measured independently. A new technique for extracting the second moment has been developed that eliminates or reduces many of the limitations imposed by previous methods. Previous work has attributed the differences between the measured and theoretical second moment to the indirect nuclear interactions; the exchange and pseudodipolar interactions. Engelsburg and Norberg have shown that the measured second moments place limits on the range of allowed values for the indirect coupling coefficients. Their theory is extended in this work to the case when multiple isotopes are present. The derived coupling coefficient limits are compared to theoretical calculations based on the two-electron bond orbital model. The results are in agreement with a scaling of the coupling coefficients with atomic number.

  11. Distribution of prepubertal and adult goat oocyte cortical granules during meiotic maturation and fertilisation: ultrastructural and cytochemical study.

    PubMed

    Velilla, E; Izquierdo, D; Rodríguez-González, E; López-Béjar, M; Vidal, F; Paramio, M T

    2004-08-01

    The aim of this study was evaluate cortical granule (CG) distribution during in vitro maturation (IVM) and fertilisation of prepubertal goat oocytes compared to CG distribution of ovulated and in vitro fertilised oocytes from adult goats. Oocytes from prepubertal goats were recovered from a slaughterhouse and were matured in M199 with hormones and serum for 27 hr. Ovulated oocytes were collected from gonadotrophin treated Murciana goats. Frozen-thawed spermatozoa were selected by centrifugation in percoll gradient and were capacitated in DMH with 20% steer serum for 1 hr. Ovulated and IVM-oocytes were inseminated in DMH medium with steer serum and calcium lactate for 20 hr. Oocytes and presumptive zygotes were stained with FITC-LCA (Lens culinaris agglutinin labelled with fluorescein isothiocyanate) and observed under a confocal laser scanning microscope. Ultrastructure morphology of oocytes and presumptive zygotes were analysed by transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Prepubertal goat oocytes at germinal vesicle stage show a homogeneous CG distribution in the cytoplasm. IVM-oocytes at Metaphase II (MII) and ovulated oocytes presented CGs located in the cortex with the formation of a monolayer beneath to the plasma membrane. At 20 hr postinsemination (hpi), zygotes from IVM-oocytes showed a complete CG exocytosis whereas zygotes from ovulated oocytes presented aggregates of CGs located at the cortical region. Images by TEM detected that CGs were more electrodense and compacts in oocytes from prepubertal than from adult goats.

  12. Mortality experience among employees at a hydrometallurgical nickel refinery and fertiliser complex in Fort Saskatchewan, Alberta (1954-95)

    PubMed Central

    Egedahl, R; Carpenter, M; Lundell, D

    2001-01-01

    OBJECTIVE—To study the mortality experience of workers at a hydrometallurgical nickel refinery and fertiliser complex in Fort Saskatchewan, Alberta, Canada.
METHODS—A total of 1649 male employees of Sherritt International who worked for at least 12 continuous months during the years 1954 to 1978 at the Fort Saskatchewan, Alberta hydrometallurgical nickel refinery and fertiliser complex were followed up for an additional 17 years. Mortality was ascertained from the Canadian mortality data base maintained by Statistics Canada and covered the years 1954-95. Statistics were analysed with Monson's computer program.
RESULTS—Total mortality, when compared with the Canadian population, was significantly below expectation. Fewer deaths were found for circulatory disease, ischaemic heart disease, respiratory disease, neoplasms, digestive cancer, and accidents, poisonings, and violence. Among the 718 men in the group exposed to nickel, there were no deaths due to nasal cavity or paranasal sinus cancer. Fewer deaths were found for all causes, circulatory disease, ischaemic heart disease, neoplasms and digestive cancer. Lower death rates were observed than expected for respiratory malignancies and cancer of the bronchus and lung.
CONCLUSION—No association was found in this study between exposure to nickel concentrate or metallic nickel in the hydrometallurgical refining process and the subsequent development of respiratory cancer.


Keywords: epidemiology; nickel workers; mortality PMID:11600726

  13. Availability of phosphorus from selected inorganic phosphate to juvenile abalone, Haliotis discus hannai ino.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tan, Bei-Ping; Mai, Kang-Sen; Xu, Wei

    2002-06-01

    The availability of phosphorus to juvenile abalone, Haliotis discus hannai from primary, secondary and tertiary calcium phosphate, primary sodium or potassium phosphate separately or in combination was determined in a 120-day feeding trial. Seven semi-purified diets were formulated to contain relatively constant dietary phosphorus, ranging from 0.78% 0.82%. The concentrations of dietary phosphorus were presumed to be slightly below the requirement for abalone. A brown alga, Laminaria japonica, was used as a control diet. Abalone juveniles of silimar size (average weight 1.18 g; average shell length 18.74 mm) were distributed in a single-pass, flow-through system using a completely randomized design with eight treatments and three replicates each treatment. The survival ranged from 71.1% to 81.1%, and was not significantly (P>0.05) related to dietary treatment. However, the weight gain rate (41.72% 65.02%), daily increment in shell length (36.87 55.07 μm) and muscle RNA-DNA ratio (3.44 4.69) were significantly (P<0.05) affected by dietary treatment. Soft body alkaline phosphatase activity (10.9 19.8 U/g wet tissue) and carcass levels of lipid (7.71% 9.33%) and protein (46.68% 49.35%) were significantly (P<0.05) responsive to available phosphorus of the diets. Dietary treatment had significant effect (P<0.05) on concentrations of phosphorus in the whole body (WB) and soft body (SB). Apparent digestibility coefficients (45% 97%) of phosphorus were also significantly (P<0.05) different between dietary treatments. The results indicated that among these inorganic compounds, primary calcium, potassium and sodium phosphates separately or in combination could be utilized effectively by juvenile abalone as dietary phosphorus sources (availability ranging from 87% 97%). However, secondary and tertiary calcium phosphates were found to be low in availability, the values being 45% and 77%, repectively.

  14. [Rare, severe hypersensitivity reaction to potassium iodide].

    PubMed

    Korsholm, Anne Sofie; Ebbehøj, Eva; Richelsen, Bjørn

    2014-07-07

    The literature reports a large variety of adverse reactions to potassium iodide. A severe hypersensitivity reaction to potassium iodide in a 51-year-old woman with Graves' thyrotoxicosis is described. Following administration the patient developed sialadenitis, conjunctivitis, stomatitis and acneiform iododerma that responded dramatically to withdrawal of the potassium iodide and administration with corticosteroids. Awareness of these adverse reactions may prevent prolonged hospitalization and unnecessary tests and treatments.

  15. Potassium

    MedlinePlus

    ... Talk to your pharmacist or contact your local garbage/recycling department to learn about take-back programs in your community. See the FDA's Safe Disposal of Medicines website (http://goo.gl/c4Rm4p) for ...

  16. Potassium

    MedlinePlus

    ... a Healthy Heart Healthy Kids Our Kids Programs Childhood Obesity What is childhood obesity? Overweight in Children BMI in Children Is Childhood Obesity an Issue in Your Home? Addressing your Child's ...

  17. Sewage sludge ash (SSA) from large and small incineration plants as a potential source of phosphorus - Polish case study.

    PubMed

    Smol, Marzena; Kulczycka, Joanna; Kowalski, Zygmunt

    2016-12-15

    The aim of this research is to present the possibility of using the sewage sludge ash (SSA) generated in incineration plants as a secondary source of phosphorus (P). The importance of issues related to P recovery from waste materials results from European Union (UE) legislation, which indicated phosphorus as a critical raw material (CRM). Due to the risks of a shortage of supply and its impact on the economy, which is greater than other raw materials, the proper management of phosphorus resources is required in order to achieve global P security. Based on available databases and literature, an analysis of the potential use of SSA for P-recovery in Poland was conducted. Currently, approx. 43,000 Mg/year of SSA is produced in large and small incineration plants and according to in the Polish National Waste Management Plan 2014 (NWMP) further steady growth is predicted. This indicates a great potential to recycle phosphorus from SSA and to reintroduce it again into the value chain as a component of fertilisers which can be applied directly on fields. The amount of SSA generated in installations, both large and small, varies and this contributes to the fact that new and different P recovery technology solutions must be developed and put into use in the years to come (e.g. mobile/stationary P recovery installations). The creation of a database focused on the collection and sharing of data about the amount of P recovered in EU and Polish installations is identified as a helpful tool in the development of an efficient P management model for Poland.

  18. Genetic Control of Potassium Channels.

    PubMed

    Amin, Ahmad S; Wilde, Arthur A M

    2016-06-01

    Approximately 80 genes in the human genome code for pore-forming subunits of potassium (K(+)) channels. Rare variants (mutations) in K(+) channel-encoding genes may cause heritable arrhythmia syndromes. Not all rare variants in K(+) channel-encoding genes are necessarily disease-causing mutations. Common variants in K(+) channel-encoding genes are increasingly recognized as modifiers of phenotype in heritable arrhythmia syndromes and in the general population. Although difficult, distinguishing pathogenic variants from benign variants is of utmost importance to avoid false designations of genetic variants as disease-causing mutations.

  19. The importance of potassium in managing hypertension.

    PubMed

    Houston, Mark C

    2011-08-01

    Dietary potassium intake has been demonstrated to significantly lower blood pressure (BP) in a dose-responsive manner in both hypertensive and nonhypertensive patients in observational studies, clinical trials, and several meta-analyses. In hypertensive patients, the linear dose-response relationship is a 1.0 mm Hg reduction in systolic BP and a 0.52 mm Hg reduction in diastolic BP per 0.6 g per day increase in dietary potassium intake that is independent of baseline potassium deficiency. The average reduction in BP with 4.7 g (120 mmol) of dietary potassium per day is 8.0/4.1 mm Hg, depending race and on the relative intakes of other minerals such as sodium, magnesium, and calcium. If the dietary sodium chloride intake is high, there is a greater BP reduction with an increased intake of dietary potassium. Blacks have a greater decrease in BP than Caucasians with an equal potassium intake. Potassium-induced reduction in BP significantly lowers the incidence of stroke (cerebrovascular accident, CVA), coronary heart disease, myocardial infarction, and other cardiovascular events. However, potassium also reduces the risk of CVA independent of BP reductions. Increasing consumption of potassium to 4.7 g per day predicts lower event rates for future cardiovascular disease, with estimated decreases of 8% to 15% in CVA and 6% to 11% in myocardial infarction.

  20. Dietary phosphorus acutely impairs endothelial function.

    PubMed

    Shuto, Emi; Taketani, Yutaka; Tanaka, Rieko; Harada, Nagakatsu; Isshiki, Masashi; Sato, Minako; Nashiki, Kunitaka; Amo, Kikuko; Yamamoto, Hironori; Higashi, Yukihito; Nakaya, Yutaka; Takeda, Eiji

    2009-07-01

    Excessive dietary phosphorus may increase cardiovascular risk in healthy individuals as well as in patients with chronic kidney disease, but the mechanisms underlying this risk are not completely understood. To determine whether postprandial hyperphosphatemia may promote endothelial dysfunction, we investigated the acute effect of phosphorus loading on endothelial function in vitro and in vivo. Exposing bovine aortic endothelial cells to a phosphorus load increased production of reactive oxygen species, which depended on phosphorus influx via sodium-dependent phosphate transporters, and decreased nitric oxide production via inhibitory phosphorylation of endothelial nitric oxide synthase. Phosphorus loading inhibited endothelium-dependent vasodilation of rat aortic rings. In 11 healthy men, we alternately served meals containing 400 mg or 1200 mg of phosphorus in a double-blind crossover study and measured flow-mediated dilation of the brachial artery before and 2 h after the meals. The high dietary phosphorus load increased serum phosphorus at 2 h and significantly decreased flow-mediated dilation. Flow-mediated dilation correlated inversely with serum phosphorus. Taken together, these findings suggest that endothelial dysfunction mediated by acute postprandial hyperphosphatemia may contribute to the relationship between serum phosphorus level and the risk for cardiovascular morbidity and mortality.

  1. Black phosphorus nonvolatile transistor memory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Dain; Choi, Yongsuk; Hwang, Euyheon; Kang, Moon Sung; Lee, Seungwoo; Cho, Jeong Ho

    2016-04-01

    We demonstrated nanofloating gate transistor memory devices (NFGTMs) using mechanically-exfoliated few-layered black phosphorus (BP) channels and gold nanoparticle (AuNPs) charge trapping layers. The resulting BP-NFGTMs exhibited excellent memory performances, including the five-level data storage, large memory window (58.2 V), stable retention (104 s), and cyclic endurance (1000 cycles).We demonstrated nanofloating gate transistor memory devices (NFGTMs) using mechanically-exfoliated few-layered black phosphorus (BP) channels and gold nanoparticle (AuNPs) charge trapping layers. The resulting BP-NFGTMs exhibited excellent memory performances, including the five-level data storage, large memory window (58.2 V), stable retention (104 s), and cyclic endurance (1000 cycles). Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available. See DOI: 10.1039/c6nr02078j

  2. Phosphorus doping a semiconductor particle

    DOEpatents

    Stevens, G.D.; Reynolds, J.S.

    1999-07-20

    A method of phosphorus doping a semiconductor particle using ammonium phosphate is disclosed. A p-doped silicon sphere is mixed with a diluted solution of ammonium phosphate having a predetermined concentration. These spheres are dried with the phosphorus then being diffused into the sphere to create either a shallow or deep p-n junction. A good PSG glass layer is formed on the surface of the sphere during the diffusion process. A subsequent segregation anneal process is utilized to strip metal impurities from near the p-n junction into the glass layer. A subsequent HF strip procedure is then utilized to removed the PSG layer. Ammonium phosphate is not a restricted chemical, is inexpensive, and does not pose any special shipping, handling, or disposal requirement. 1 fig.

  3. Biological Availability of Total Phosphorus.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1979-01-01

    STANDARDS-I963- A ELECT MA 18 * SZCURIrY CLASSIFICAION Of THIS PACE (U"n 1De a rnt*.d) 5REPORT DOCUMENTATION PAGEREDISUCON Final Biological Aviaiiyof...Chemical Engineering Department West Virginia University Joseph V. DePinto Clarkson College January 1979 A I , Lake Erie Wastevater Manageuent Study U. S...INTRODUCTION 1 LITERATURE REVIEW 4 A a . Chemical Fractionation of Sediment Phosphorus b. Chemical Measurement of Available P c. Bioassay Measurement of

  4. [Effect of low phosphorus concentration on the growth of Scenedesmus obliquus and phosphorus removal].

    PubMed

    Zhang, Ying; Li, Bao-Zhen; Qu, Jiang-Hang; Yang, Jin-Shui; Huang, Huai-Zeng; Yuan, Hong-Li

    2010-11-01

    Effects of phosphorus of low concentrations on the growth and the phosphorus removal efficiency of Scenedesmus obliquus were investigated in this study. Results showed that Scenedesmus obliquus achieved a phosphorus removal efficiency of 100% within 22 h when the initial algal cell concentration was 1 x 10(5) /mL and the initial phosphorus concentration was 0.02-0.10 mg/L. With the initial phosphorus concentration increased from 0.02 mg/L to 0.10 mg/L, both growth velocity of Scenedesmus obliquus and maximum biomass increased obviously. Research found that phosphorus concentration had a significant influence on cell morphology of algal. In the external phosphorus sufficient conditions, most of algae cell present as four cells gather round form, then transformed into two cells side by side form in the absence of external phosphorus in culture medium, Finally in single as the main form of existence.

  5. Unusually Stable Helical Coil Allotrope of Phosphorus.

    PubMed

    Liu, Dan; Guan, Jie; Jiang, Jingwei; Tománek, David

    2016-12-14

    We have identified an unusually stable helical coil allotrope of phosphorus. Our ab initio density functional theory calculations indicate that the uncoiled, isolated straight one-dimensional chain is equally stable as a monolayer of black phosphorus dubbed phosphorene. The coiling tendency and the attraction between adjacent coil segments add an extra stabilization energy of ∼12 meV/atom to the coil allotrope, similar in value to the ∼16 meV/atom interlayer attraction in bulk black phosphorus. Thus, the helical coil structure is essentially as stable as black phosphorus, the most stable phosphorus allotrope known to date. With an optimum radius of 2.4 nm, the helical coil of phosphorus may fit well and even form inside wide carbon nanotubes.

  6. Dietary potassium modulates active potassium absorption and secretion in rat distal colon

    SciTech Connect

    Foster, E.S.; Sandle, G.I.; Hayslett, J.P.; Binder, H.J.

    1986-11-01

    To determine the effect of variations in body stores of potassium on the rate of active potassium transport in the large intestine, unidirectional 42K fluxes were performed under short-circuit conditions across isolated distal colonic mucosa of control, dietary potassium-depleted and dietary potassium-loaded rats. Potassium depletion stimulated net potassium absorption (JK net) (0.87 +/- 0.19 vs. 0.49 +/- 0.04 mu eq X h-1 X cm-2, P less than 0.025) due to a 40% increase in mucosal-to-serosal potassium transport (JK m----s). In sodium-free Ringer solution JK net in the potassium-depleted group was also significantly greater than in controls (1.93 +/- 0.26 vs. 1.01 +/- 0.11 mu eq X h-1 X cm-2, P less than 0.005). In contrast, in chloride-free Ringer solution JK net was identical in the control and potassium-depleted groups (0.39 +/- 0.05 vs. 0.46 +/- 0.07 mu eq X h-1 X cm-2, P = NS). Potassium loading reversed net potassium absorption to net potassium secretion (-0.76 +/- 0.08 mu eq X h-1 X cm-2, P less than 0.001) as the result of a decrease in JK m----s and an increase in serosal-to-mucosal potassium transport (JK s----m). Net potassium secretion was abolished in the absence of either sodium or chloride from the bathing solution but not by mucosal amiloride. In sodium-free Ringer solution JK net was similar in control and potassium-loaded groups, respectively.

  7. Changes in Olsen Phosphorus Concentration and Its Response to Phosphorus Balance in Black Soils under Different Long-Term Fertilization Patterns.

    PubMed

    Zhan, Xiaoying; Zhang, Li; Zhou, Baoku; Zhu, Ping; Zhang, Shuxiang; Xu, Minggang

    2015-01-01

    The Olsen phosphorus (P) concentration of a soil is a key index that can be used to evaluate the P supply capacity of the soil and to estimate the optimal P fertilization rate. A study of the relationship between the soil Olsen P concentration and the P balance (P input minus P output) and their variations among different fertilization patterns will help to provide useful information for proper management of P fertilization. In this paper, the two investigated long-term experiments were established on black soils in the northeast region of China. Six fertilization treatments were selected: (1) unfertilized (CK); (2) nitrogen only (N); (3) nitrogen and potassium (NK); (4) nitrogen and phosphorus (NP); (5) nitrogen, phosphorus, and potassium (NPK); and (6) nitrogen, phosphorus, potassium and manure (NPKM). The results showed that the average Olsen P concentrations in the black soils at Gongzhuling and Harbin (16- and 31-year study periods, respectively), decreased by 0.49 and 0.56 mg kg-1 a-1, respectively, without P addition and increased by 3.17 and 1.78 mg kg-1 a-1, respectively, with P fertilization. The changes in soil Olsen P concentrations were significantly (P<0.05) correlated with the P balances at both sites except for the NP and NPK treatments at Gongzhuling. Under an average deficit of 100 kg ha-1 P, the soil Olsen P concentration at both sites decreased by 1.36~3.35 mg kg-1 in the treatments without P addition and increased by 4.80~16.04 mg kg-1 in the treatments with 100 kg ha-1 of P accumulation. In addition, the changes in Olsen P concentrations in the soil with 100 kg ha-1of P balance were significantly correlated with the P activation coefficient (PAC, percentage of Olsen P to total P, r=0.99, P<0.01) and soil organic matter content (r=0.91, P<0.01). A low pH was related to large changes of Olsen P by 1 kg ha-1 of P balance. These results indicated that soil organic matter and pH have important effects on the change in soil Olsen P by 1 kg ha-1 of P

  8. Evolution of the global phosphorus cycle.

    PubMed

    Reinhard, Christopher T; Planavsky, Noah J; Gill, Benjamin C; Ozaki, Kazumi; Robbins, Leslie J; Lyons, Timothy W; Fischer, Woodward W; Wang, Chunjiang; Cole, Devon B; Konhauser, Kurt O

    2017-01-19

    The macronutrient phosphorus is thought to limit primary productivity in the oceans on geological timescales. Although there has been a sustained effort to reconstruct the dynamics of the phosphorus cycle over the past 3.5 billion years, it remains uncertain whether phosphorus limitation persisted throughout Earth's history and therefore whether the phosphorus cycle has consistently modulated biospheric productivity and ocean-atmosphere oxygen levels over time. Here we present a compilation of phosphorus abundances in marine sedimentary rocks spanning the past 3.5 billion years. We find evidence for relatively low authigenic phosphorus burial in shallow marine environments until about 800 to 700 million years ago. Our interpretation of the database leads us to propose that limited marginal phosphorus burial before that time was linked to phosphorus biolimitation, resulting in elemental stoichiometries in primary producers that diverged strongly from the Redfield ratio (the atomic ratio of carbon, nitrogen and phosphorus found in phytoplankton). We place our phosphorus record in a quantitative biogeochemical model framework and find that a combination of enhanced phosphorus scavenging in anoxic, iron-rich oceans and a nutrient-based bistability in atmospheric oxygen levels could have resulted in a stable low-oxygen world. The combination of these factors may explain the protracted oxygenation of Earth's surface over the last 3.5 billion years of Earth history. However, our analysis also suggests that a fundamental shift in the phosphorus cycle may have occurred during the late Proterozoic eon (between 800 and 635 million years ago), coincident with a previously inferred shift in marine redox states, severe perturbations to Earth's climate system, and the emergence of animals.

  9. Phosphorus Cycling Through Space and Time

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Filippelli, Gabriel

    2014-05-01

    The cycling of phosphorus, a biocritical element in short supply in nature, is an important Earth system process. Variations in the phosphorus cycle have occurred in the past. For example, the rapid uplift of the Himalayan-Tibet Plateau increased chemical weathering, which led to enhanced input of phosphorus to the oceans. This drove the late Miocene "biogenic bloom." On glacial timescales, phosphorus is quite dynamic. In terrestrial systems, phosphorus soil mineralogy alters rapidly in response to early soil development, and ultimately becomes limited to plant availability in many setting. In marine systems, the loss of the substantial continental margin sink for reactive P occurs during glacial sea-level lowstands, effectively concentrating phosphorus in the deep sea. Finally, in the modern, the phosphorus cycle is dominated by human activity and agriculture, which causes unwanted pollution due to high phosphorus loading and itself poses significant concerns about the ultimate future availability of this nutrient to feed an expanding human population. This presentation will cover several critical components of the phosphorus cycle, including terrestrial and marine systems, through the lens of geologic time. This perspective reveals the significant changes that have occurred in the availability of phosphorus through time, and how other biogeochemical systems have responded to these changes. Furthermore, the perspective provides some sobering insights into the mechanisms behind the concentration of marine phosphorus into viable sources of phosphate rock. The rarity of high-quality phosphate rock deposits and the limitation of easily minable reserves are becoming critical, as the human demand for fertilizer phosphorus far outstrips the geologic rate of replacement and few prospects exist for new discoveries of phosphate rock.

  10. Phosphorus-containing materials for organic electronics.

    PubMed

    Stolar, Monika; Baumgartner, Thomas

    2014-05-01

    Phosphorus-based materials have received widespread attention in recent years, in particular as possible candidates for practical application in organic electronics. The geometry and electronic nature of phosphorus make it a favorable heteroatom for property tuning in order to obtain better performing organic electronics. This Focus Review discusses recent structural modifications and syntheses of phosphorus-based materials, illustrates property tuning at the same time, and highlights specific examples for device applications.

  11. Evolution of the global phosphorus cycle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reinhard, Christopher T.; Planavsky, Noah J.; Gill, Benjamin C.; Ozaki, Kazumi; Robbins, Leslie J.; Lyons, Timothy W.; Fischer, Woodward W.; Wang, Chunjiang; Cole, Devon B.; Konhauser, Kurt O.

    2016-12-01

    The macronutrient phosphorus is thought to limit primary productivity in the oceans on geological timescales. Although there has been a sustained effort to reconstruct the dynamics of the phosphorus cycle over the past 3.5 billion years, it remains uncertain whether phosphorus limitation persisted throughout Earth’s history and therefore whether the phosphorus cycle has consistently modulated biospheric productivity and ocean–atmosphere oxygen levels over time. Here we present a compilation of phosphorus abundances in marine sedimentary rocks spanning the past 3.5 billion years. We find evidence for relatively low authigenic phosphorus burial in shallow marine environments until about 800 to 700 million years ago. Our interpretation of the database leads us to propose that limited marginal phosphorus burial before that time was linked to phosphorus biolimitation, resulting in elemental stoichiometries in primary producers that diverged strongly from the Redfield ratio (the atomic ratio of carbon, nitrogen and phosphorus found in phytoplankton). We place our phosphorus record in a quantitative biogeochemical model framework and find that a combination of enhanced phosphorus scavenging in anoxic, iron-rich oceans and a nutrient-based bistability in atmospheric oxygen levels could have resulted in a stable low-oxygen world. The combination of these factors may explain the protracted oxygenation of Earth’s surface over the last 3.5 billion years of Earth history. However, our analysis also suggests that a fundamental shift in the phosphorus cycle may have occurred during the late Proterozoic eon (between 800 and 635 million years ago), coincident with a previously inferred shift in marine redox states, severe perturbations to Earth’s climate system, and the emergence of animals.

  12. Development of a Phosphorus-Eutrophication Management Strategy for Vermont: Evaluations Available Phosphorus Loads.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1985-11-01

    attention is biological phosphorus removal . 107 This technique has been known for many years, but is only now beginning to receive widespread use...phosphorus from biological treatment plants below that attainable using this technology alone. A recent study indicated that biological phosphorus removal has...Guide for HSPF, EPA 600/3-84-065 (1984). USEPA, Emerging Technology Assessment of Biological Phosphorus Removal , NTIS #PB-85 165-744 (1985). Velz, C. J

  13. Shifting the Balance of Sodium and Potassium in Your Diet

    MedlinePlus

    ... Resources About FAQ Contact Shifting the Balance of Sodium and Potassium in Your Diet Most Americans consume ... doctor before trying a potassium-based salt substitute. Sodium and Potassium Amounts in Fresh and Processed Foods ...

  14. 75 FR 51112 - Potassium Permanganate From China

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-18

    ... COMMISSION Potassium Permanganate From China AGENCY: United States International Trade Commission. ACTION... from China. SUMMARY: The Commission hereby gives notice of the scheduling of an expedited review... whether revocation of the antidumping duty order on potassium permanganate from China would be likely...

  15. 21 CFR 182.3640 - Potassium sorbate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Potassium sorbate. 182.3640 Section 182.3640 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) SUBSTANCES GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Chemical Preservatives § 182.3640 Potassium sorbate. (a) Product....

  16. Potassium - Multiple Languages: MedlinePlus

    MedlinePlus

    ... Center Chinese - Traditional (繁體中文) Potassium Content of Common Foods (High) English 含高量鉀質的食品(每份所含鉀質多過200毫克) - 繁體中文 (Chinese - Traditional) PDF Chinese Community Health Resource Center Potassium Content ...

  17. Process for preparation of potassium-38

    DOEpatents

    Lambrecht, Richard M.; Wolf, Alfred P.

    1981-01-01

    A solution of potassium-38 suitable for use as a radiopharmaceutical and a method for its production. Argon is irradiated with protons having energies above the threshold for the .sup.40 Ar(p,3n).sup.38 K reaction. The resulting potassium-38 is dissolved in a sterile water and any contaminating chlorine-38 is removed.

  18. 21 CFR 172.160 - Potassium nitrate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Potassium nitrate. 172.160 Section 172.160 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD... nitrate. The food additive potassium nitrate may be safely used as a curing agent in the processing of...

  19. Altered chromatin condensation of heat-stressed spermatozoa perturbs the dynamics of DNA methylation reprogramming in the paternal genome after in vitro fertilisation in cattle.

    PubMed

    Rahman, Mohammad Bozlur; Kamal, Md Mostofa; Rijsselaere, Tom; Vandaele, Leen; Shamsuddin, Mohammed; Van Soom, Ann

    2014-10-01

    Shortly after penetration of the oocyte, sperm DNA is actively demethylated, which is required for totipotent zygotic development. Aberrant DNA methylation is thought to be associated with altered chromatin condensation of spermatozoa. The objectives of this study were to investigate the dynamics of DNA methylation reprogramming in the paternal pronucleus and subsequent fertilisation potential of heat-stressed bull spermatozoa having altered chromatin condensation. Hence, bovine zygotes (n=1239) were collected at three different time points (12, 18 and 24h post insemination, hpi), and stained with an antibody against 5-methylcytosine. Fluorescence intensities of paternal and maternal pronuclei were measured by ImageJ. DNA methylation patterns in paternal pronuclei derived from heat-stressed spermatozoa did not differ between time points (P>0.05), whereas control zygotes clearly showed demethylation and de novo methylation at 18 and 24hpi, respectively. Moreover, heat-stressed spermatozoa showed a highly reduced (P<0.01) fertilisation rate compared with non-heat-stressed or normal control spermatozoa (53.7% vs 70.2% or 81.5%, respectively). Our data show that the normal pattern of active DNA demethylation followed by de novo methylation in the paternal pronucleus is perturbed when oocytes are fertilised with heat-stressed spermatozoa, which may be responsible for decreased fertilisation potential.

  20. Sperm characteristics and heterologous in vitro fertilisation capacity of Iberian ibex (Capra pyrenaica) epididymal sperm, frozen in the presence of the enzymatic antioxidant catalase.

    PubMed

    López-Saucedo, J; Paramio, M T; Fierro, R; Izquierdo, D; Catalá, M G; Coloma, M A; Toledano-Díaz, A; López-Sebastián, A; Santiago-Moreno, J

    2014-06-01

    The aim of this work was to evaluate the protective effect of catalase (CAT) on frozen/thawed ibex epididymal sperm recovered post mortem, and to detect any harmful effect this might have on sperm fertilisation capacity. Epididymal spermatozoa were diluted using a Tris-citric acid-glucose medium (TCG) composed of 3.8% Tris (w/v), 2.2% citric acid (w/v), 0.6% glucose (w/v), 5% glycerol (v/v), and 6% egg yolk (v/v). Sperm masses from the right epididymis were diluted with TCG medium, while those from the left were diluted with TCG medium supplemented with 200IU/mL CAT. Heterologous in vitro fertilisation (IVF) was used to assess the fertilisation capacity of this sperm. The addition of CAT to the extender did not improve frozen/thawed sperm variables. Moreover, a reduced fertilisation capacity was detected: sperm diluted with TCG provided 25.5% 2PN zygotes, while just 13.2% was recorded for that diluted with TCG-CAT (P<0.01). The percentage of cleaved embryos at 48hpi was higher (P<0.01) with the TCG sperm than with the TCG-CAT sperm (16.7% vs. 7.6%). The use of 200IU/mL CAT as an additive cannot, therefore, be recommended for the preservation of ibex epididymal sperm. Other antioxidants should, however, be tested in both this and related wild mountain ungulates.

  1. Phosphorus recovery from wastewater through microbial processes.

    PubMed

    Yuan, Zhiguo; Pratt, Steven; Batstone, Damien J

    2012-12-01

    Waste streams offer a compelling opportunity to recover phosphorus (P). 15-20% of world demand for phosphate rock could theoretically be satisfied by recovering phosphorus from domestic waste streams alone. For very dilute streams (<10 mg PL(-1)), including domestic wastewater, it is necessary to concentrate phosphorus in order to make recovery and reuse feasible. This review discusses enhanced biological phosphorus removal (EBPR) as a key technology to achieve this. EBPR relies on polyphosphate accumulating organisms (PAOs) to take up phosphorus from waste streams, so concentrating phosphorus in biomass. The P-rich biosolids can be either directly applied to land, or solubilized and phosphorus recovered as a mineral product. Direct application is effective, but the product is bulky and carries contaminant risks that need to be managed. Phosphorus release can be achieved using either thermochemical or biochemical methods, while recovery is generally by precipitation as struvite. We conclude that while EBPR technology is mature, the subsequent phosphorus release and recovery technologies need additional development.

  2. Assessing Long Term Impact of Phosphorus Fertilization on Phosphorus Loadings Using AnnAGNPS

    EPA Science Inventory

    High phosphorus (P) loss from agricultural fields has been an environmental concern because of potential water quality problems in streams and lakes. To better understand the process of P loss and evaluate the different phosphorus fertilization rates on phosphorus losses, the US...

  3. Potassium in hypertension and cardiovascular disease.

    PubMed

    Castro, Hector; Raij, Leopoldo

    2013-05-01

    The increased prevalence of hypertension and cardiovascular disease in industrialized societies undoubtedly is associated with the modern high-sodium/low-potassium diet. Extensive experimental and clinical data strongly link potassium intake to cardiovascular outcome. Most studies suggest that the sodium-to-potassium intake ratio is a better predictor of cardiovascular outcome than either nutrient individually. A high-sodium/low-potassium environment results in significant abnormalities in central hemodynamics, leading to potential target organ damage. Altered renal sodium handling, impaired endothelium-dependent vasodilatation, and increased oxidative stress are important mediators of this effect. It remains of paramount importance to reinforce consumption of a low-sodium/high-potassium diet as a critical strategy for prevention and treatment of hypertension and cardiovascular disease.

  4. Novel Nanocomposite-based Potassium Ion Biosensor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xue, R.; Gouma, P. I.

    2009-05-01

    Potassium ion (K+) is important in regulating normal cell function in the human body, specifically the heartbeat and the muscle function. Thus, it is important to be able to monitor potassium ion concentrations in human fluids. This paper describes a novel concept for a potassium ion biosensor that accurately, rapidly, and efficiently monitors the presence and records the concentration of potassium ions with high specificity, not only in serum and urine, but also in the sweat or even eye fluid. This specific biosensor design utilizes a nanomanufacturing technique, i.e. electrospinning, to produce advanced nano-bio-composites that specifically trace even minute quantities of potassium ions through the use of selective bio-receptors (ionophores) attached to high surface area nanofibers. Electroactive polymers are then employed as transducers to produce an electronic (rather than ionic) output that changes instantly with the change in K+ concentration. Such biosensors may be manufactured in a skin patch configuration.

  5. Understanding nitrogen, phosphorus, potassium and other nutrient impacts of corn stover harvest

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Corn (Zea mays L.) stover has been identified as an important feedstock for several uses including advanced biofuel production, enhanced animal feeds, mushroom production, and several green chemistry constituents. Harvesting stover for any of these uses will increase macronutrient (N, P, and K), sec...

  6. Characterization of nitrogen, phosphorus, and potassium mass balances of dairy farms in New York State.

    PubMed

    Cela, Sebastian; Ketterings, Quirine M; Czymmek, Karl; Soberon, Melanie; Rasmussen, Caroline

    2014-12-01

    A whole-farm nutrient mass balance (NMB) is a useful measure of the nutrient status of a dairy farm. Research is needed to define and determine a feasible NMB range for dairy farm systems in New York State (NY). The objectives of this study were to (1) document the distribution of N, P, and K mass balances of 102 NY dairy farms (including 75 small, 15 medium, and 12 large farms); (2) establish initial NMB benchmarks based on what 75% of the farms achieved; (3) determine the maximum animal density that allows an example NY dairy farm to balance cow P excretions and crop P removal without exporting crops or manure; and (4) identify opportunities to improve NMB over time. Nutrient mass balances of the 102 farms ranged from -39 to 237 kg of N/ha for N without including N2 fixation (N1), from -14 to 259 kg of N/ha when N2 fixation was included (N2), from -7 to 51 kg of P/ha, and from -46 to 148 kg of K/ha. Seventy-five percent of the farms were operating at NMB less than 118 kg of N/ha for N1, 146 kg of N/ha for N2, 13 kg of P/ha, and 41 kg of K/ha (75% benchmarks). Farms with the highest nutrient use efficiencies (lowest NMB per unit of milk produced) operated with less than 8.8 kg of N/Mg of milk for N1, 11.8 kg of N/Mg of milk for N2, 1.1 kg of P/Mg of milk, and 3.0 kg of K/Mg of milk. The biggest contributor to the NMB was the amount of imported nutrients, primarily feed purchases. The example farm assessment (assuming no export of crops or manure) suggested that, when 70% of the feed is produced on the farm and P in feed rations does not exceed 4 g of P/kg of DM, cow P excretion and crop P removal were balanced at a maximum animal density of 2.4 animal units (AU)/ha (~0.97 AU/acre). Dairy farms operating with animal densities <2.4 AU/ha typically had NMB below the 75% benchmark, whereas most dairies with more than 2.4 AU/ha needed to export manure or crops to meet the 75% benchmark. Opportunities to reduce NMB on many farms, independent of size and without changes in animal density, are possible by more tightly managing fertilizer and feed imports, increasing the percentage of farm-produced nutrients, implementing precision feeding, and exporting crops or manure.

  7. Sorghum response to foliar application of phosphorus and potassium with saline water irrigation

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Increasing demand for fresh water resources for urban and industrial uses is leading to limited availability of better quality water for crop irrigation. Therefore, crop response to poor quality irrigation water (ex: saline water), and strategies to mitigate the negative effects of poor quality irri...

  8. Topsoil thickness effects on phosphorus and potassium dynamics on claypan soils

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Due to variable depth to claypan (DTC) across landscapes, nutrient supply from subsoils, and crop removal, precise P and K fertilizer management on claypan soil fields can be difficult. Therefore, a study was performed to determine if DTC derived from soil apparent electrical conductivity (ECa) coul...

  9. Variation in yield gap induced by nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium fertilizer in North China Plain.

    PubMed

    Dai, Xiaoqin; Ouyang, Zhu; Li, Yunsheng; Wang, Huimin

    2013-01-01

    A field experiment was conducted under a wheat-maize rotation system from 1990 to 2006 in North China Plain (NCP) to determine the effects of N, P and K on yield and yield gap. There were five treatments: NPK, PK, NK, NP and a control. Average wheat and maize yields were the highest in the NPK treatment, followed by those in the NP plots among all treatments. For wheat and maize yield, a significant increasing trend over time was found in the NPK-treated plots and a decreasing trend in the NK-treated plots. In the absence of N or P, wheat and maize yields were significantly lower than those in the NPK treatment. For both crops, the increasing rate of the yield gap was the highest in the P omission plots, i.e., 189.1 kg ha(-1) yr(-1) for wheat and 560.6 kg ha(-1) yr(-1) for maize. The cumulative omission of P fertilizer induced a deficit in the soil available N and extractable P concentrations for maize. The P fertilizer was more pivotal in long-term wheat and maize growth and soil fertility conservation in NCP, although the N fertilizer input was important for both crops growth. The crop response to K fertilizers was much lower than that to N or P fertilizers, but for maize, the cumulative omission of K fertilizer decreased the yield by 26% and increased the yield gap at a rate of 322.7 kg ha(-1) yr(-1). The soil indigenous K supply was not sufficiently high to meet maize K requirement over a long period. The proper application of K fertilizers is necessary for maize production in the region. Thus, the appropriate application of N and P fertilizers for the growth of both crops, while regularly combining K fertilizers for maize growth, is absolutely necessary for sustainable crop production in the NCP.

  10. Nitrogen, phosphorus, potassium, calcium and magnesium release from two compressed fertilizers: column experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fernández-Sanjurjo, M. J.; Alvarez-Rodríguez, E.; Núñez-Delgado, A.; Fernández-Marcos, M. L.; Romar-Gasalla, A.

    2014-07-01

    We used soil columns to study nutrients release from two compressed NPK fertilizers. The columns were filled with soil material from the surface horizon of a granitic soil. Tablets of two slow-release NPK fertilizers (11-18-11 or 8-8-16) were placed into the soil, and then water was percolated through the columns in a saturated regime. Percolates were analyzed for N, P, K, Ca and Mg. These nutrients were also determined in soil and fertilizer tablets at the end of the trials. Nutrient concentrations were high in the first percolates, reaching a steady state when 1426 mm water have percolated, which is equivalent to approximately 1.5 years of rainfall in the geographic area. In the whole trial, both tablets lost more than 80% of their initial N, P and K contents. However, K, Ca and Mg were the most leached, whereas N and P were lost in leachates to a lesser extent. Nutrient release was slower from the tablet with composition 8-8-16 than from the 11-18-11 fertilizer. In view of that, the 8-8-16 tablet can be considered more adequate for crops with a nutrient demand sustained over time. At the end of the trial, the effects of these fertilizers on soil chemical parameters were still evident.

  11. Gasified rice hull biochar is a source of phosphorus and potassium for container-grown plants

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Biochar materials have been reported to improve the chemical, physical, and biological properties of mineral soils and soilless substrates. The objective of this research was to determine the effect of gasified rice hull biochar (GRHB) on available nutrients in a container substrate. Two experimen...

  12. Changes in point and diffuse source phosphorus inputs to the River Frome (Dorset, UK) from 1966 to 2006.

    PubMed

    Bowes, Michael J; Smith, Jim T; Jarvie, Helen P; Neal, Colin; Barden, Ruth

    2009-03-01

    Changes in the relationship between soluble reactive phosphorus (SRP) concentration and river flow between 1966 and 2006 were assessed for the River Frome, UK using the recently developed Load Apportionment Model. The resulting source load estimates gave good agreement with known changes within the catchment. The model indicated an increase in point source contribution to the total river load from 46% to 62% between 1970 and 1985. This corresponded with the population increase within the catchment during that time. The predicted mean SRP load was highest between 1996 and 2000 (30 t y(-1)), with 49% coming from point sources. Despite no lowering in population or major changes in agricultural practice, the model predicted a reduced load of 18.1 t y(-1) for the period 2001 to 2005, due mainly to a decrease in point source inputs from 14.6 t y(-1) to 6.1 t y(-1) (equivalent to 34% of the total load). This prediction matches the major improvements in sewage treatment that occurred within the catchment in 2002. This study thus provides a major validation of the Load Apportionment Model. The model provides an effective and rapid method of determining past changes in phosphorus sources, based entirely on the P concentration - flow relationship: critically, it does not require any historical information on land use, fertiliser application rates, topography, soil types and sewage inputs. Further decreases in SRP concentration in the River Frome during the algal growing season would be best achieved by further reductions of STW inputs.

  13. Sourcing the iron in the naturally-fertilised bloom around the Kerguelen Plateau: particulate trace metal dynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van der Merwe, P.; Bowie, A. R.; Quéroué, F.; Armand, L.; Blain, S.; Chever, F.; Davies, D.; Dehairs, F.; Planchon, F.; Sarthou, G.; Townsend, A. T.; Trull, T.

    2014-09-01

    The KEOPS2 project aims to elucidate the role of natural Fe fertilisation on biogeochemical cycles and ecosystem functioning, including quantifying the sources and processes by which iron is delivered in the vicinity of the Kerguelen Archipelago, Southern Ocean. The KEOPS2 process study used an upstream HNLC, deep water (2500 m), reference station to compare with a shallow (500 m), strongly fertilised plateau station and continued the observations to a downstream, bathymetrically trapped recirculation of the Polar Front where eddies commonly form and persist for hundreds of kilometres into the Southern Ocean. Over the Kerguelen Plateau, mean particulate (1-53 μm) Fe and Al concentrations (pFe = 13.4 nM, pAl = 25.2 nM) were more than 20-fold higher than at an offshore (lower-productivity) reference station (pFe = 0.53 nM, pAl = 0.83 nM). In comparison, over the plateau dissolved Fe levels were only elevated by a factor of ∼2. Over the Kerguelen Plateau, ratios of pMn/pAl and pFe/pAl resemble basalt, likely originating from glacial/fluvial inputs into shallow coastal waters. In downstream, offshore deep-waters, higher pFe/pAl, and pMn/pAl ratios were observed, suggesting loss of lithogenic material accompanied by retention of pFe and pMn. Biological uptake of dissolved Fe and Mn and conversion into the biogenic particulate fraction or aggregation of particulate metals onto bioaggregates also increased these ratios further in surface waters as the bloom developed within the recirculation structure. While resuspension of shelf sediments is likely to be one of the important mechanisms of Fe fertilisation over the plateau, fluvial and glacial sources appear to be important to areas downstream of the island. Vertical profiles within an offshore recirculation feature associated with the Polar Front show pFe and pMn levels that were 6-fold and 3.5-fold lower respectively than over the plateau in surface waters, though still 3.6-fold and 1.7-fold higher respectively

  14. Effects of crop rotation and reduced nitrogen fertilisation on Apera spica-venti populations in a long-term experiment.

    PubMed

    Schulz, A; Pallurt, B; Gerowitt, B

    2011-01-01

    Apera spica-venti is one of the most serious annual grass weeds in Germany and may cause considerably yield losses in untreated fields. A long-term field experiment was conducted investigating the effects of crop rotation and nitrogen fertiliser use on A. spica-venti populations. A six-field cash-crop rotation with 67% winter cereals and a six-field fodder crop rotation with 50% winter cereals were studied. The rate of tillering was in the fodder crop rotation significantly higher than in the cash crop rotation. The halving of nitrogen fertilizer dose caused a significant increase in the tillering rate. Most plants of A. spica-venti emerged in winter wheat. There was an increase of emerged A. spica-venti in winter wheat from year to year.

  15. Bilateral ureteric obstruction during in vitro fertilisation therapy in a patient with complex surgically managed Crohn's disease.

    PubMed

    Khoo, Christopher Charles; Ahluwalia, Nikhil; Grace, Jan; Sahai, Arun

    2016-11-24

    A 37-year-old woman receiving in vitro fertilisation (IVF) treatment presented with lethargy, fevers and anuria. Her background included complex surgically managed Crohn's disease and mild right-sided hydronephrosis (with no evidence of obstruction on MAG3 renogram). On examination, she had a distended abdomen with generalised tenderness. Blood tests revealed an acute kidney injury and confirmed sepsis. She was found to have bilateral ureteric obstruction with worsening of the right-sided hydronephrosis and new-onset left-sided hydronephrosis secondary to bilateral ovarian masses, diagnosed as mild ovarian hyperstimulation syndrome (OHSS). She was initially managed with fluid resuscitation, bilateral nephrostomies, antibiotics and supportive management of mild OHSS. She made a good recovery and was discharged after placement of antegrade stents and removal of nephrostomies. On follow-up, following resolution of ovarian hyperstimulation, she has been diagnosed with a right-sided distal ureteric stricture and is awaiting reconstruction. Her left ureteric stent has been removed.

  16. Polymeric potassium triformatocobalt(II)

    PubMed Central

    Wöhlert, Susanne; Wriedt, Mario; Jess, Inke; Näther, Christian

    2011-01-01

    In the crystal structure of the title compound, poly[tri-μ-formato-cobalt(II)potassium], [CoK(CHO2)3]n the Co2+ cations are coordinated by six O-bonded formate anions in an octa­hedral coordination mode and the K+ cations are eightfold coordinated by seven O-bonded formate anions within irregular polyhedra. The Co2+ cations are connected by bridging formate anions into a three-dimensional coordination network in which the K+ cations are embedded. The asymmetric unit consits of one Co2+ cation located on a center of inversion, one K+ cation located on a twofold axis and two crystallographically independent formato anions, of which one is located on a twofold axis and the other occupies a general position. PMID:21753951

  17. The effect of free air carbon dioxide enrichment and nitrogen fertilisation on the chemical composition and nutritional value of wheat and barley grain.

    PubMed

    Wroblewitz, Stefanie; Hüther, Liane; Manderscheid, Remy; Weigel, Hans-Joachim; Wätzig, Hermann; Dänicke, Sven

    2013-08-01

    A rising atmospheric CO2 concentration might influence the nutrient composition of feedstuffs and consequently the nutritional value for livestock. The present study investigates the effects of atmospheric CO2 enrichment on the chemical composition and nutritional value of winter wheat cv. "Batis" and winter barley cv. "Theresa". Both cereals were grown at two different atmospheric CO2 concentrations (ambient CO2 [AMBI]: 380 ppm and enriched CO2 [free air carbon dioxide enrichment, FACE]: 550 ppm) for two growing seasons. The influence of two different nitrogen (N) fertilisation levels (adequate N supply [N100] and nearly 50% of adequate N supply [N50]) were studied as well. A significant effect was observed for the crude protein content, which declined at FACE condition in a range of 8-16 g kg(-1) in wheat and of 10-20 g kg(-1) in barley. A reduced N fertilisation level resulted in a strong reduction of crude protein concentration in both cereal species. In wheat, a decrease in N supply significantly enhanced the concentration of starch and crude fibre. In barley, only the concentration of fructose increased under FACE condition and reduced N fertilisation. The FACE did not have major effects on the concentrations of minerals, while the influence of N fertilisation was different for both cereals. Whereas no effects could be observed for barley, a reduced N supply caused a significant reduction in concentrations of zinc, manganese and iron in wheat. Furthermore, an undirected effect of atmospheric CO2 and N fertilisation levels were found for the amino acid concentrations. Based on these results, future scenarios of climate change would have an impact on the nutritional value of cereal grains.

  18. Long-Term Effect of Crop Rotation and Fertilisation on Bioavailability and Fractionation of Copper in Soil on the Loess Plateau in Northwest China.

    PubMed

    Zang, Yifei; Wei, Xiaorong; Hao, Mingde

    2015-01-01

    The bioavailability and fractionation of Cu reflect its deliverability in soil. Little research has investigated Cu supply to crops in soil under long-term rotation and fertilisation on the Loess Plateau. A field experiment was conducted in randomized complete block design to determine the bioavailability and distribution of Cu fractions in a Heilu soil (Calcaric Regosol) after 18 years of rotation and fertilisation. The experiment started in 1984, including five cropping systems (fallow control, alfalfa cropping, maize cropping, winter wheat cropping, and grain-legume rotation of pea/winter wheat/winter wheat + millet) and five fertiliser treatments (unfertilised control, N, P, N + P, and N + P + manure). Soil samples were collected in 2002 for chemical analysis. Available Cu was assessed by diethylene triamine pentaacetic acid (DTPA) extraction, and Cu was fractionated by sequential extraction. Results showed that DTPA-Cu was lower in cropping systems compared with fallow control. Application of fertilisers resulted in no remarkable changes in DTPA-Cu compared with unfertilised control. Correlation and path analyses revealed that soil pH and CaCO3 directly affected Cu bioavailability, whereas available P indirectly affected Cu bioavailability. The concentrations of Cu fractions (carbonate and Fe/Al oxides) in the plough layer were lower in cropping systems, while the values in the plough sole were higher under grain-legume rotation relative to fallow control. Manure with NP fertiliser increased Cu fractions bound to organic matter and minerals in the plough layer, and its effects in the plough sole varied with cropping systems. The direct sources (organic-matter-bound fraction and carbonate-bound fraction) of available Cu contributed much to Cu bioavailability. The mineral-bound fraction of Cu acted as an indicator of Cu supply potential in the soil.

  19. Iron fertilisation and century-scale effects of open ocean dissolution of olivine in a simulated CO2 removal experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hauck, Judith; Köhler, Peter; Wolf-Gladrow, Dieter; Völker, Christoph

    2016-02-01

    Carbon dioxide removal (CDR) approaches are efforts to reduce the atmospheric CO2 concentration. Here we use a marine carbon cycle model to investigate the effects of one CDR technique: the open ocean dissolution of the iron-containing mineral olivine. We analyse the maximum CDR potential of an annual dissolution of 3 Pg olivine during the 21st century and focus on the role of the micro-nutrient iron for the biological carbon pump. Distributing the products of olivine dissolution (bicarbonate, silicic acid, iron) uniformly in the global surface ocean has a maximum CDR potential of 0.57 gC/g-olivine mainly due to the alkalinisation of the ocean, with a significant contribution from the fertilisation of phytoplankton with silicic acid and iron. The part of the CDR caused by ocean fertilisation is not permanent, while the CO2 sequestered by alkalinisation would be stored in the ocean as long as alkalinity is not removed from the system. For high CO2 emission scenarios the CDR potential due to the alkalinity input becomes more efficient over time with increasing ocean acidification. The alkalinity-induced CDR potential scales linearly with the amount of olivine, while the iron-induced CDR saturates at 113 PgC per century (on average ˜ 1.1 PgC yr-1) for an iron input rate of 2.3 Tg Fe yr-1 (1% of the iron contained in 3 Pg olivine). The additional iron-related CO2 uptake occurs in the Southern Ocean and in the iron-limited regions of the Pacific. Effects of this approach on surface ocean pH are small (\\lt 0.01).

  20. Assessment of basic seminal characteristics, sperm cryopreservation and heterologous in vitro fertilisation in the fishing cat (Prionailurus viverrinus).

    PubMed

    Thiangtum, Khongsak; Swanson, William F; Howard, JoGayle; Tunwattana, Wanchai; Tongthainan, Dakara; Wichasilpa, Wisid; Patumrattanathan, Pornchai; Pinyopoommintr, Tanu

    2006-01-01

    Conservation of the fishing cat, a threatened south-east Asian felid, could benefit from effective ex situ genetic management and breeding programmes, including the use of assisted reproduction. The aims of the present study were to: (1) characterise basal seminal traits of fishing cats in Thailand zoos; and (2) investigate the effect of cryopreservation on sperm motility, acrosomal integrity and in vitro function. Seminal traits were evaluated in electroejaculates collected from eight males. Spermatozoa were diluted in n-tris(hydroxymethyl)-methyl-2-aminoethanesulfonic acid Tris (TEST)-yolk buffer (TYB) without glycerol, then diluted further with TYB with glycerol (4% final concentration) at either 25 degrees C or after slow cooling to 5 degrees C and frozen in straws over liquid nitrogen vapour. After thawing, sperm function was assessed by insemination of viable domestic cat oocytes. Fishing cat ejaculates averaged (+/- s.e.m.) 43.6 +/- 14.2 x 10(6) motile spermatozoa with 33.5 +/- 6.8% normal sperm morphology. Semen processing had a negligible effect (P > 0.05) on sperm motility and acrosomal integrity, but values were reduced (P < 0.05) after thawing. All thawed samples fertilised domestic cat oocytes, with 62.1% (36/58) of mature oocytes cleaving. Glycerol addition at 5 degrees C resulted in higher (P < 0.05) post-thaw motility and intact acrosomes than glycerol addition at 25 degrees C. In conclusion, good-quality ejaculates can be obtained from Thai fishing cats and their spermatozoa exhibit adequate function after cryopreservation for in vitro fertilisation procedures.