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Sample records for phosphorus potassium fertilisation

  1. Response of Thlaspi caerulescens to nitrogen, phosphorus and sulfur fertilisation.

    PubMed

    Catherine, Sirguey; Christophe, Schwartz; Louis, Morel Jean

    2006-01-01

    The main limiting factor for cleaning-up contaminated soils with hyperaccumulator plants is the low production of aerial biomass and the number of successive crops needed to reach the objective of remediation. The aim of this study was to contribute to the determination of a fertilisation strategy to optimise soil metal phytoextraction by Thlaspi caerulescens. A pot experiment was conducted on an agricultural soil and on a contaminated soil from the vicinity of a former Pb/Zn smelter. The nitrogen (N) treatment consisted of 4 levels (0, 11, 21.5 and 31 mg N kg(-1) dry soil (DS)) added as NH4NO3. The highest N treatment was combined with 4 levels of phosphorus (P) (0, 20, 40 and 80 mg P kg(-1) DS as KH2PO4) and sulfur (S) additions (0, 10, 20 and 30 mg S kg(-1) DS as MgSO4). The highest N fertilisation contributed significantly to enhance biomass production of T. caerulescens and to decrease the concentration of Cd and Zn in the biomass. At constant N addition, P supply did not affect metal extraction by T. caerulescens but negatively affected plant health. Sulfur supply slightly increased phytoextraction of Cd. Our results show that N and S fertilisation might interact but further investigations on the effect of such interaction on Cd extraction efficiency are needed. PMID:16924963

  2. Movement and transformation of potassium in fertiliser micro-sites in latosol

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    He, Y. D.; Cui, X. B.; Wang, L. X.; Liu, Y. X.; Jing, T.; Wang, B. Z.

    2016-08-01

    A soil column method was used to analyse the characteristics of the movement and transformation of potassium (K) in a latosol. The internal temperature was maintained at 28 to 30 °C. The distances moved by the added K were 50 to 100 mm after 7 and 28 d, respectively. Potassium moved faster within 7 d during the incubation time of 28 d. The concentrations of water-extractable K, and exchangeable K, had significant negative linear relationships with distance from fertiliser placement in the region of K movement. In incubation time, water-extractable K and exchangeable K had significant effects on the concentration distributions for fertiliser micro-sites, but had no significant effects on non-exchangeable K. Most of K was still in an available form at fertiliser micro-sites after moving into the soil except that 4.22% to 11.19% of all applied K was fixed by soil.

  3. From wastewater to fertilisers--Technical overview and critical review of European legislation governing phosphorus recycling.

    PubMed

    Hukari, Sirja; Hermann, Ludwig; Nättorp, Anders

    2016-01-15

    The present paper is based on an analysis of the EU legislation regulating phosphorus recovery and recycling from wastewater stream, in particular as fertiliser. To recover phosphorus, operators need to deal with market regulations, health and environment protection laws. Often, several permits and lengthy authorisation processes for both installation (e.g. environmental impact assessment) and the recovered phosphorus (e.g. End-of-Waste, REACH) are required. Exemptions to certain registration processes for recoverers are in place but rarely applied. National solutions are often needed. Emerging recovery and recycling sectors are affected by legislation in different ways: Wastewater treatment plants are obliged to remove phosphorus but may also recover it in low quantities for operational reasons. Permit processes allowing recovery and recycling operations next to water purification should thus be rationalised. In contrast, the fertiliser industry relies on legal quality requirements, ensuring their market reputation. For start-ups, raw-material sourcing and related legislation will be the key. Phosphorus recycling is governed by fragmented decision-making in regional administrations. Active regulatory support, such as recycling obligation or subsidies, is lacking. Legislation harmonisation, inclusion of recycled phosphorus in existing fertiliser regulations and support of new operators would speed up market penetration of novel technologies, reduce phosphorus losses and safeguard European quality standards.

  4. Phosphorus fertilisation under nitrogen limitation can deplete soil carbon stocks: evidence from Swedish meta-replicated long-term field experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Poeplau, Christopher; Bolinder, Martin A.; Kirchmann, Holger; Kätterer, Thomas

    2016-02-01

    Increasing soil organic carbon (SOC) in agricultural soils can mitigate atmospheric CO2 concentration and also contribute to increased soil fertility and ecosystem resilience. The role of major nutrients in SOC dynamics is complex, due to simultaneous effects on net primary productivity (NPP) that influence crop residue carbon inputs and in the rate of heterotrophic respiration (carbon outputs). This study investigated the effect on SOC stocks of three different levels of phosphorus and potassium (PK) fertilisation rates in the absence of nitrogen fertilisation and of three different levels of nitrogen fertiliser in the absence of PK fertiliser. This was done by analysing data from 10 meta-replicated Swedish long-term field experiments (> 45 years). With N fertilisation, SOC stocks followed yield increases. However, for all PK levels, we found average SOC losses ranging from -0.04 ± 0.09 Mg ha-1 yr-1 (ns) for the lowest to -0.09 ± 0.07 Mg ha-1 yr-1 (p = 0.008) for the highest application rate, while crop yields as a proxy for carbon input increased significantly with PK fertilisation by 1, 10 and 15 %. We conclude that SOC dynamics are mainly output-driven in the PK-fertilised regime but mostly input-driven in the N-fertilised regime, due to the much more pronounced response of NPP to N than to PK fertilisation. It has been established that P rather than K is the element affecting ecosystem carbon fluxes, where P fertilisation has been shown to (i) stimulate heterotrophic respiration, (ii) reduce the abundance of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi and (iii) decrease the crop root : shoot ratio, leading to higher root-derived carbon input. The higher export of N in the PK-fertilised plots in this study could (iv) have led to increased N mining and thus mineralisation of organic matter. More integrated experiments are needed to gain a better understanding of the relative importance of each of the above-mentioned mechanisms leading to SOC losses after P addition.

  5. Fluoride accumulation in pasture forages and soils following long-term applications of phosphorus fertilisers.

    PubMed

    Loganathan, P; Hedley, M J; Wallace, G C; Roberts, A H

    2001-01-01

    Ingestion of soils with high fluoride (F) concentration may cause chronic fluorosis in grazing animals. Analysis of New Zealand pasture soils with long-term phosphorus (P) fertilisation histories showed that total surface soil (0-75 mm depth) F concentration increased up to 217-454 mg kg-1 with P fertiliser application. One-third to two-thirds of F applied in fertilisers resides in the top 75 mm soil depth. Pasture forage accumulation of F was low, and therefore, F intake by grazing animals through pasture consumption is expected to be much lower than F intake by soil ingestion. Ten annual applications of single superphosphate (30 and 60 kg P ha-1 year-1) to a Pallic Soil (Aeric Fragiaqualf) significantly increased total F and labile F (0.01 M CaCl2 extract) concentrations to 200 and 120 mm depths, respectively, of the 300 mm depth investigated. The mobility of F in the soil profile was similar to two other elements, P and cadmium derived from the fertiliser.

  6. Seasonal exports of phosphorus from intensively fertilised nested grassland catchments.

    PubMed

    Lewis, Ciaran; Rafique, Rashad; Foley, Nelius; Leahy, Paul; Morgan, Gerard; Albertson, John; Kumar, Sandeep; Kiely, Gerard

    2013-09-01

    We carried out a one year (2002) study of phosphorus (P) loss from soil to water in three nested grassland catchments with known P input in chemical fertilizer and animal liquid slurry applications. Chemical fertilizer was applied to the grasslands between March and September and animal slurry was applied over the twelve months. The annual chemical P fertilizer applications for the 17 and 211 ha catchments were 16.4 and 23.7 kg P/ha respectively and the annual slurry applications were 10.7 and 14.0 kg P/ha, respectively. The annual total phosphorus (TP) export in stream-flow was 2.61, 2.48 and 1.61 kg P/ha for the 17, 211 and 1524 ha catchments, respectively, compared with a maximum permissible (by regulation) annual export of ca. 0.35 kg P/ha. The export rate (ratio of P export to P in land applications) was 9.6% and 6.6% from the 17 and 211 ha catchments, respectively. On average, 70% of stream flow and 85% of the P export occurred during the five wet months (October to February) indicating that when precipitation is much greater than evaporation, the hydrological conditions are most favourable for P export. However the soil quality and land use history may vary the results. Particulate P made up 22%, 43% and 37% of the TP export at the 17, 211 and 1524 ha catchment areas, respectively. As the chemical fertilizer was spread during the grass growth months (March to September), it has less immediate impact on stream water quality than the slurry applications. We also show that as the catchment scale increases, the P concentrations and P export decrease, confirming dilution due to increasing rural catchment size. In the longer term, the excess P from fertilizer maintains high soil P levels, an antecedent condition favourable to P loss from soil to water. This study confirms the significant negative water quality impact of excess P applications, particularly liquid animal slurry applications in wet winter months. The findings suggest that restricted P application in

  7. Phosphorus fertilisation under nitrogen limitation can deplete soil carbon stocks - evidence from Swedish meta-replicated long-term field experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Poeplau, C.; Bolinder, M. A.; Kirchmann, H.; Kätterer, T.

    2015-10-01

    Increasing soil organic carbon (SOC) in agricultural soils can mitigate atmospheric CO2 concentration and also contribute to increase soil fertility and ecosystem resilience. The role of major nutrients on SOC dynamics is complex, due to simultaneous effects on net primary productivity (NPP) that influence crop residue carbon inputs and on the rate of heterotrophic respiration (carbon outputs). This study investigated the effect on SOC stocks of three different levels of phosphorus and potassium (PK) fertilisation rates in the absence of nitrogen fertilisation and of three different levels of nitrogen in the absence of PK. This was done by analysing data from 10 meta-replicated Swedish long-term field experiments (> 45 years). With N fertilisation, SOC stocks followed yield increases. However, for all PK levels, we found average SOC losses ranging from -0.04 ± 0.09 Mg ha-1 yr-1 (ns) for the lowest to -0.09 ± 0.07 Mg ha-1 yr-1 (p = 0.008) for the highest application rate, while crop yields as a proxy for carbon input increased significantly with PK fertilization by 1, 10 and 15 %. We conclude that SOC dynamics are mainly output-driven in the PK fertilised regime but mostly input-driven in the N fertilised regime, due to the much more pronounced response of NPP to N than to PK fertilisation. It has been established that P rather than K is the element affecting ecosystem carbon fluxes, where P fertilisation has been shown to: (i) stimulate heterotrophic respiration, (ii) reduce the abundance of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi and (iii) decrease crop root : shoot ratio, leading to lower root-derived carbon input. The higher export of N in the PK fertilised plots in this study could (iv) have led to increased N mining and thus mineralisation of organic matter. More integrated experiments are needed to gain a better understanding of the relative importance of each of the above-mentioned mechanisms leading to SOC losses after P addition.

  8. Epiphytic lichen community dynamics in deciduous forests around a phosphorus fertiliser factory in Central Lithuania.

    PubMed

    Motiejūnaite, Jurga

    2007-03-01

    The detailed dynamics of epiphytic lichen communities were observed while studying permanent quadrats in the zone of influence of a phosphorus fertiliser factory in central Lithuania. The most significant changes were induced by several factors: changes in macroenvironment (increase of illumination), bark scaling, succession processes, individual growth characteristics of the community members, and influence of fungal infection and invertebrate grazing. None of these changes could be directly linked with air pollution. These observations have shown that in conditions of more or less stable pollution, epiphytic community dynamics should be evaluated with care, the best indicators of the characteristics of the communities being species richness and presence/absence and abundance of indicator (nitrophilous or acidophilous) species.

  9. Sewage sludge ash to phosphorus fertiliser: Variables influencing heavy metal removal during thermochemical treatment

    SciTech Connect

    Mattenberger, H.; Fraissler, G.; Brunner, T. Herk, P.; Hermann, L.

    2008-12-15

    The aim of this study was to improve the removal of heavy metals from sewage sludge ash by a thermochemical process. The resulting detoxified ash was intended for use as a raw material rich in phosphorus (P) for inorganic fertiliser production. The thermochemical treatment was performed in a rotary kiln where the evaporation of relevant heavy metals was enhanced by additives. The four variables investigated for process optimisation were treatment temperature, type of additive (KCl, MgCl{sub 2}) and its amount, as well as type of reactor (directly or indirectly heated rotary kiln). The removal rates of Cd, Cr, Cu, Ni, Pb, Zn and of Ca, P and Cl were investigated. The best overall removal efficiency for Cd, Cu, Pb and Zn could be found for the indirectly heated system. The type of additive was critical, since MgCl{sub 2} favours Zn- over Cu-removal, while KCl acts conversely. The use of MgCl{sub 2} caused less particle abrasion from the pellets in the kiln than KCl. In the case of the additive KCl, liquid KCl - temporarily formed in the pellets - acted as a barrier to heavy metal evaporation as long as treatment temperatures were not sufficiently high to enhance its reaction or evaporation.

  10. Soil phosphorus and potassium estimation by reflectance spectroscopy

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Visible and near infrared (VNIR) diffuse reflectance spectroscopy has potential in site-specific measurement of soil properties. However, previous studies have reported VNIR estimates of plant available soil phosphorus (P) and potassium (K) to be of variable accuracy. In this study, we used a databa...

  11. Optimising the recovery and re-use of phosphorus from wastewater effluent for sustainable fertiliser development.

    PubMed

    Shepherd, Jessica G; Sohi, Saran P; Heal, Kate V

    2016-05-01

    Recovery and re-use of phosphorus (P) from wastewater treatment systems as agricultural fertiliser presents an important and viable target for P waste reduction and recycling. In this study novel biochar materials for P filtration of wastewater were designed and produced using waste feedstocks, with consideration of the plant accessibility of the P captured by the biochars. The biochars were produced using batch slow pyrolysis at 450 °C and 550 °C from a) AD: anaerobically digested sewage sludge and b) OCAD: a 1:1 mixture of anaerobically digested sewage sludge and ochre, a mineral product from mine drainage treatment. A set of experiments was designed using pH buffering to provide a robust framework for assessing the P recovery capacity and affinity of the biochars compared to other potential P recovery materials (unprocessed ochre, activated carbon and zeolite). After 5 days of repeated exposure to a P solution at a wastewater-relevant concentration (0.02 g P l(-1)) replenished each 24 h, relatively high masses of P were recovered by ochre (1.73 ± 8.93×10(-3) mg P g(-1)) and the biochars OCAD550 (1.26 ± 4.66×10(-3) mg P g(-1)), OCAD450 (1.24 ± 2.10×10(-3) mg P g(-1)), AD450 (1.06 ± 3.84×10(-3) mg P g(-1)), and AD550 (0.986 ± 9.31×10(-3) mg P g(-1)). The biochar materials had higher removal rates than both activated carbon (0.884 ± 1.69×10(-2) mg P g(-1)) and zeolite (0.130 ± 1.05×10(-2) mg P g(-1)). To assess the extractability of recovered P, P exposure was followed by repeated extraction for 4 days with pH 7-buffered deionised water. The AD biochars retained 55% of the P recovered, OCAD biochars 78% and ochre 100%. Assessment of potentially toxic element concentrations in the biochars against guideline values indicated low risk associated with their use in the environment. Our successful demonstration of biochar materials highlights the potential for further development of P filters for wastewater

  12. Spatiotemporal dynamics of phosphorus release, oxygen consumption and greenhouse gas emissions after localised soil amendment with organic fertilisers.

    PubMed

    Christel, Wibke; Zhu, Kun; Hoefer, Christoph; Kreuzeder, Andreas; Santner, Jakob; Bruun, Sander; Magid, Jakob; Jensen, Lars Stoumann

    2016-06-01

    Organic fertilisation inevitably leads to heterogeneous distribution of organic matter and nutrients in soil, i.e. due to uneven surface spreading or inhomogeneous incorporation. The resulting localised hotspots of nutrient application will induce various biotic and abiotic nutrient turnover processes and fixation in the residue sphere, giving rise to distinct differences in nutrient availability, soil oxygen content and greenhouse gas (GHG) production. In this study we investigated the spatiotemporal dynamics of the reaction of manure solids and manure solids char with soil, focusing on their phosphorus (P) availability, as current emphasis on improving societal P efficiency through recycling waste or bio-based fertilisers necessitates a sound understanding of their behaviour. Soil layers amended at a constant P application rate with either pig manure solids or char made from pig manure solids were incubated for three weeks between layers of non-amended, P-depleted soil. Spatial and temporal changes in and around the amendment layers were simultaneously investigated in this study using a sandwich sensor consisting of a planar oxygen optode and multi-element diffusive gradients in thin films (DGT) gels, combined with GHG emission measurements. After three weeks of incubation, the soil containing a layer amended with manure solids had a lower overall O2 content and had emitted significantly more CO2 than the non-amended control or the char-amended soil. The P availability from manure solids was initially higher than that from the char, but decreased over time, whereas from the char-amended layer P availability increased in the same period. In both treatments, increases in P availability were confined to the amended soil layer and did not greatly affect P availability in the directly adjacent soil layers during the three-week incubation. These results highlight the importance of placing organic P fertilisers close to where the plant roots will grow in order to

  13. Spatiotemporal dynamics of phosphorus release, oxygen consumption and greenhouse gas emissions after localised soil amendment with organic fertilisers.

    PubMed

    Christel, Wibke; Zhu, Kun; Hoefer, Christoph; Kreuzeder, Andreas; Santner, Jakob; Bruun, Sander; Magid, Jakob; Jensen, Lars Stoumann

    2016-06-01

    Organic fertilisation inevitably leads to heterogeneous distribution of organic matter and nutrients in soil, i.e. due to uneven surface spreading or inhomogeneous incorporation. The resulting localised hotspots of nutrient application will induce various biotic and abiotic nutrient turnover processes and fixation in the residue sphere, giving rise to distinct differences in nutrient availability, soil oxygen content and greenhouse gas (GHG) production. In this study we investigated the spatiotemporal dynamics of the reaction of manure solids and manure solids char with soil, focusing on their phosphorus (P) availability, as current emphasis on improving societal P efficiency through recycling waste or bio-based fertilisers necessitates a sound understanding of their behaviour. Soil layers amended at a constant P application rate with either pig manure solids or char made from pig manure solids were incubated for three weeks between layers of non-amended, P-depleted soil. Spatial and temporal changes in and around the amendment layers were simultaneously investigated in this study using a sandwich sensor consisting of a planar oxygen optode and multi-element diffusive gradients in thin films (DGT) gels, combined with GHG emission measurements. After three weeks of incubation, the soil containing a layer amended with manure solids had a lower overall O2 content and had emitted significantly more CO2 than the non-amended control or the char-amended soil. The P availability from manure solids was initially higher than that from the char, but decreased over time, whereas from the char-amended layer P availability increased in the same period. In both treatments, increases in P availability were confined to the amended soil layer and did not greatly affect P availability in the directly adjacent soil layers during the three-week incubation. These results highlight the importance of placing organic P fertilisers close to where the plant roots will grow in order to

  14. Relative bio-availability and utilisation of phosphatic fertilisers as sources of phosphorus in broilers and layers.

    PubMed

    Rama Rao, S V; Ramasubba Reddy, V

    2003-03-01

    1. Different concentrations of non-phytate phosphorus (NPP, 2.5, 3.0, 3.5, 4.0 and 4.5 g/kg diet) were given to broilers (8 to 42 d of age) to establish regressions between dietary NPP concentration and body weight gain and tibia ash content. Second and third experiments were conducted to study the feasibility of utilisation of different phosphatic fertilisers [ammonium phosphate (AP), ammonium polyphosphate (APP), single super phosphate (SSP), NPK (17:17:17, NPK) and NP (28:28:0, NPK)] in commercial broilers (8 to 42 d) and White Leghorn layers (252 to 364 d). 2. Phosphatic fertilisers were incorporated both in broiler (10 g calcium and 4.5 g NPP/kg) and layer (35 g calcium and 3.5 g NPP/kg) diets by replacing dicalcium phosphate (DCP) in toto. 3. The logarithmic curves obtained for predicting the body weight gain and tibia ash content at different levels of NPP used in experiment 1 were Y = 156.27 + 2,468.8 logX (r2= 0.958) and Y = 530.82 + 144.26 log X (r2 = 0.916), respectively. 4. Body weight gain and food intake in broilers given APP- or NP-supplemented diets were comparable to these in the DCP-fed group. Feeding of NPK, AP or SSP resulted in significant depression in weight gain and food intake and high excreta moisture content. Food/gain, Ca and P contents in tibia ash and serum were not influenced by the use of phosphatic fertilisers as P sources in broiler diets. 5. Tibia ash content in broilers fed on diets containing fertilisers was either similar to or significantly higher than that in the DCP-fed group. Broilers on AP or SSP retained more P and had higher tibia ash content than those on DCP. AP, SSP or NPK caused degenerative and necrotic changes in liver, kidney and intestine of broilers. 6. Relative bio-availability of P from APP or NP was better for body weight gain than AP, SSP or NPK, while the reverse was true for bone calcification. 7. APP and NP gave hen-d egg production similar to that of DCP-fed layers. Food intake was significantly reduced

  15. Chemical state of chromium in sewage sludge ash based phosphorus-fertilisers.

    PubMed

    Vogel, Christian; Adam, Christian; Kappen, Peter; Schiller, Tara; Lipiec, Ewelina; McNaughton, Don

    2014-05-01

    Sewage sludge ash (SSA) based P-fertilisers were produced by thermochemical treatment of SSA with Cl-donors at approximately 1000°C. During this thermochemical process heavy metals are separated as heavy metal chlorides via the gas phase. Chromium cannot be separated under normal conditions. The risk of the development of toxic Cr(VI) during the thermochemical process was investigated. X-ray Absorption Spectroscopy measurements showed that SSA and thermochemically treated SSA with CaCl2, MgCl2 and NaCl contain Cr(III) compounds only. In contrast, treating SSA with elevated quantities of Na2CO3, to enhance the plant-availability of the phosphate phases of the fertiliser, developed approximately 10-15% Cr(VI). Furthermore, Raman microspectroscopy showed that using Mg-carbonate reduces the risk of a Cr(VI) development during thermochemical treatment. Additionally, leaching tests showed that only a Cr-water solubility>10% is an indicator for Cr(VI) in SSA based P-fertilisers.

  16. The surprisingly small but increasing role of international agricultural trade on the European Union’s dependence on mineral phosphorus fertiliser

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nesme, Thomas; Roques, Solène; Metson, Geneviève S.; Bennett, Elena M.

    2016-02-01

    Phosphorus (P) is subject to global management challenges due to its importance to both food security and water quality. The European Union (EU) has promoted policies to limit fertiliser over-application and protect water quality for more than 20 years, helping to reduce European P use. Over this time period, the EU has, however, become more reliant on imported agricultural products. These imported products require fertiliser to be used in distant countries to grow crops that will ultimately feed European people and livestock. As such, these imports represent a displacement of European P demand, possibly allowing Europe to decrease its apparent P footprint by moving P use to locations outside the EU. We investigated the effect of EU imports on the European P fertiliser footprint to better understand whether the EU’s decrease in fertiliser use over time resulted from P demand being ‘outsourced’ to other countries or whether it truly represented a decline in P demand. To do this, we quantified the ‘virtual P flow’ defined as the amount of mineral P fertiliser applied to agricultural soils in non-EU countries to support agricultural product imports to the EU. We found that the EU imported a virtual P flow of 0.55 Tg P/yr in 1995 that, surprisingly, decreased to 0.50 Tg P/yr in 2009. These results were contrary to our hypothesis that trade increases would be used to help the EU reduce its domestic P fertiliser use by outsourcing its P footprint abroad. Still, the contribution of virtual P flows to the total P footprint of the EU has increased by 40% from 1995 to 2009 due to a dramatic decrease in domestic P fertiliser use in Europe: in 1995, virtual P was equivalent to 32% of the P used as fertiliser domestically to support domestic consumption but jumped to 53% in 2009. Soybean and palm tree products from South America and South East Asia contributed most to the virtual P flow. These results demonstrate that, although policies in the EU have successfully

  17. Nitrogen, phosphorus, and potassium effects on biomass yield and flavonoid content of American Skullcap (Scutellaria Lateriflora)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Information on optimum dosage of nitrogen (N), phosphorus (P) and potassium (K) fertilizer for high dry matter yield and flavonoid yield of American Skullcap is lacking. Greenhouse experiments were conducted to determine the effects of N, P and K fertilizer on biomass yield and flavonoid content of...

  18. Potassium and phosphorus effects on disease severity of charcoal rot of soybean

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The effects of potassium (K) and phosphorus (P) fertilizers on charcoal rot of soybean [Glycine max (L.) Merr.] are unknown. Therefore, the severity of charcoal rot was studied at five levels of K (0, 37, 75, 111 and 149 kg K ha-1) and a level that was equal to the recommended fertilizer applicatio...

  19. Evaluating topsoil depth effects on phosphorus and potassium nutrient dynamics of grain and switchgrass production systems

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Understanding the effects of fertilizer addition and crop removal on long-term change in soil test phosphorus (STP) and soil test potassium (STK) is crucial for maximizing the use of grower inputs on claypan soils. Due to variable nutrient supply from subsoils and variable crop removal across fields...

  20. Potassium and Phosphorus effects on disease severity of charcoal rot of soybean

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The effects of potassium (K) and phosphorus (P) fertilizers on charcoal rot of soybean [Glycine max (L.) Merr.] are unknown. Therefore, the severity of charcoal rot was studied at five levels of K (0, 37, 75, 111 and 149 kg K ha-1) and a level that was equal to the recommended fertilizer applicatio...

  1. Nitrogen, phosphorus, potassium, calcium, magnesium, and zinc in southeastern USA harvested flax

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Flax (Linum usitatissimum L.) is a winter crop in the Southeast USA that has potential in double cropping systems. This research was conducted to provide estimates of nitrogen (N), phosphorus (P), potassium (K), calcium (Ca), magnesium (Mg), and zinc (Zn) removal in the harvested portions of the cro...

  2. [Dynamics of nitrogen, phosphorus, and potassium content in shoots of plants in urban plantations].

    PubMed

    Bukharina, I L

    2014-01-01

    The characteristics of dynamics of total nitrogen, potassium, and phosphorus content in the shoots of plants growing in plantations of different environmental categories in a large industrial center were studied. In the urban environment, an increased nitrogen content in plant shoots, the disturbance of the balance of the basic mineral elements and change in their distribution pattern in structural parts of plant shoots, and the disturbance of autumnal physiological efflux of elements from leaves to dormant shoots were detected.

  3. [Dynamics of nitrogen, phosphorus, and potassium content in shoots of plants in urban plantations].

    PubMed

    Bukharina, I L

    2014-01-01

    The characteristics of dynamics of total nitrogen, potassium, and phosphorus content in the shoots of plants growing in plantations of different environmental categories in a large industrial center were studied. In the urban environment, an increased nitrogen content in plant shoots, the disturbance of the balance of the basic mineral elements and change in their distribution pattern in structural parts of plant shoots, and the disturbance of autumnal physiological efflux of elements from leaves to dormant shoots were detected. PMID:25735185

  4. The role of potassium, magnesium and calcium in the Enhanced Biological Phosphorus Removal treatment plants.

    PubMed

    Barat, R; Montoya, T; Seco, A; Ferrer, J

    2005-09-01

    Cations as potassium and magnesium play an important role in maintaining the stability of Enhanced Biological Phosphorus Removal (EBPR) process. In this paper potassium, magnesium and calcium behaviour in EBPR treatment plants has been studied. An ASM2d model extension which takes into account the role of potassium and magnesium in the EBPR process has been developed. Finally, a simulation of the effect on P removal of a shortage of K and Mg was studied. The experimental results showed that K and Mg play an important role in the EBPR process being cotransported with P into and out of bacterial cells. It has been observed that calcium is not involved in P release and uptake. The values of the molar ratios K/P (0.28 mol K mol P(-1)) and Mg/P (0.36 mol Mg mol P(-1)) were obtained accomplishing the charge balance, with different K/Mg mass ratios and without phosphorus precipitation. Model predictions accurately reproduced experimental data. The simulations carried out showed the important effect of the K and Mg influent concentration for P removal efficiency. The results illustrate that the proposed ASM2d model extension must be considered in order to accurately simulate the phosphorus removal process.

  5. Effect of excess dietary sodium, potassium, calcium and phosphorus on excreta moisture of laying hens.

    PubMed

    Smith, A; Rose, S P; Wells, R G; Pirgozliev, V

    2000-12-01

    1. Four experiments were conducted to investigate the effects of dietary concentrations of sodium, potassium, calcium or phosphate on the water intake and excreta moisture of laying hens. A fifth experiment examined the effect on these variables of increasing amounts of 2 different sodium salts (chloride or bicarbonate) and the interactions with 2 levels of dietary phosphorus. 2. All experiments involved individually caged laying hens fed on diets varying in 1 or 2 minerals in replacement for washed sand. The experimental diets contained mineral concentrations that either met or exceeded the expected requirement of the hens. The diets were given for a 7 or 8 d feeding period and food and water intakes were measured and excreta were collected for the last 48 h of each feeding period. These data were corrected for evaporative water loss to the environment during the collection period. 3. Increasing dietary concentrations of sodium, potassium or phosphorus gave linear increases (P<0.001) in the water intake of the laying hens and linear increases (P<0.01) in the moisture content of their excreta. Each 1 g/kg increase in dietary mineral increased the moisture content of the excreta by 9.04 (+/- 1.57), 11.95 (+/- 2.02) and 5.59 (+/- 0.31) g/kg (+/- standard error) for sodium, potassium and phosphorus, respectively. Increasing concentrations of dietary calcium did not significantly affect the water intakes or excreta moisture levels of the laying hens. 4. The fifth experiment showed that, although there was a sodium x phosphorus interaction (P<0.05), the effects of the 2 mineral additions were approximately additive. There were no significant differences (P>0.05) in water intakes or excreta moisture contents due to the 2 different sodium salts (chloride or bicarbonate).

  6. Effect of acute hypoxia on the concentrations of potassium and phosphorus in the cardiomyocyte of a pregnant animal during early organogenesis.

    PubMed

    Pogorelov, A G

    2008-05-01

    The concentrations of potassium and phosphorus in the cardiomyocyte cytoplasm of the Wistar rat were measured by means of electron probe microanalysis. Pregnancy was accompanied by a decrease in cytoplasmic phosphorus concentration and an increase in cytoplasmic potassium concentration. Acute hypoxia modified the concentrations of these elements in the cytoplasm. PMID:19145292

  7. [Applying local neural network and visible/near-infrared spectroscopy to estimating available nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium in soil].

    PubMed

    Wu, Qian; Yang, Yu-hong; Xu, Zhao-li; Jin, Yan; Guo, Yan; Lao, Cai-lian

    2014-08-01

    To establish the quantitative relationship between soil spectrum and the concentration of available nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium in soil, the critical procedures of a new analysis method were examined, involving spectral preprocessing, wavebands selection and adoption of regression methods. As a result, a soil spectral analysis model was built using VIS/NIRS bands, with multiplicative scatter correction and first-derivative for spectral preprocessing, and local nonlinear regression method (Local regression method of BP neural network). The coefficients of correlation between the chemically determined and the modeled available nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium for predicted samples were 0.90, 0.82 and 0.94, respectively. It is proved that the prediction of local regression method of BP neural network has better accuracy and stability than that of global regression methods. In addition, the estimation accuracy of soil available nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium was increased by 40.63%, 28.64% and 28.64%, respectively. Thus, the quantitative analysis model established by the local regression method of BP neural network could be used to estimate the concentration of available nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium rapidly. It is innovative for using local nonlinear method to improve the stability and reliability of the soil spectrum model for nutrient diagnosis, which provides technical support for dynamic monitoring and process control for the soil nutrient under different growth stages of field-growing crops.

  8. Root cortical aerenchyma enhances the growth of maize on soils with suboptimal availability of nitrogen, phosphorus, and potassium.

    PubMed

    Postma, Johannes Auke; Lynch, Jonathan Paul

    2011-07-01

    Root cortical aerenchyma (RCA) is induced by hypoxia, drought, and several nutrient deficiencies. Previous research showed that RCA formation reduces the respiration and nutrient content of root tissue. We used SimRoot, a functional-structural model, to provide quantitative support for the hypothesis that RCA formation is a useful adaptation to suboptimal availability of phosphorus, nitrogen, and potassium by reducing the metabolic costs of soil exploration in maize (Zea mays). RCA increased the growth of simulated 40-d-old maize plants up to 55%, 54%, or 72% on low nitrogen, phosphorus, or potassium soil, respectively, and reduced critical fertility levels by 13%, 12%, or 7%, respectively. The greater utility of RCA on low-potassium soils is associated with the fact that root growth in potassium-deficient plants was more carbon limited than in phosphorus- and nitrogen-deficient plants. In contrast to potassium-deficient plants, phosphorus- and nitrogen-deficient plants allocate more carbon to the root system as the deficiency develops. The utility of RCA also depended on other root phenes and environmental factors. On low-phosphorus soils (7.5 μM), the utility of RCA was 2.9 times greater in plants with increased lateral branching density than in plants with normal branching. On low-nitrate soils, the utility of RCA formation was 56% greater in coarser soils with high nitrate leaching. Large genetic variation in RCA formation and the utility of RCA for a range of stresses position RCA as an interesting crop-breeding target for enhanced soil resource acquisition.

  9. Potassium

    MedlinePlus

    Potassium is essential for the proper functioning of the heart, kidneys, muscles, nerves, and digestive system. Usually the food you eat supplies all of the potassium you need. However, certain diseases (e.g., kidney ...

  10. Effect of Vermicompost Alone and Its Combination with Recommended Dose of Fertilizers on Available Nitrogen, Phosphorus, Potassium in Rice Field.

    PubMed

    Shwetha, S; Narayana, J

    2014-01-01

    Rice variety KMP101 was treated with both organic and inorganic manure. The field and experimental studies were conducted, before applying organic and inorganic manures.The values obtained for available nitrogen, phosphorous and potassium were 360 kg/ha, 12 kg/ha and 166 kg/ha respectively. After treatment and harvest there was a gradual increase in available nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium ranging between 335-415, 14 -23 and 173- 235 kg/ha respectively among the treatments. Applying 15 t of vermicompost /ha and 10 t of vermicompost /ha and recommended dose of fertilizer showed a greater availability of nitrogen and phosphorus. It is revealed that after addition of organics into the soil year-wise, the soil became more stable. Also, the biological activity increased in the soil and was influenced to maintain the available nitrogen in the soil. Therefore, it is evident that vermicompost significantly increases the availability of available nutrients. PMID:26445754

  11. Effect of Vermicompost Alone and Its Combination with Recommended Dose of Fertilizers on Available Nitrogen, Phosphorus, Potassium in Rice Field.

    PubMed

    Shwetha, S; Narayana, J

    2014-01-01

    Rice variety KMP101 was treated with both organic and inorganic manure. The field and experimental studies were conducted, before applying organic and inorganic manures.The values obtained for available nitrogen, phosphorous and potassium were 360 kg/ha, 12 kg/ha and 166 kg/ha respectively. After treatment and harvest there was a gradual increase in available nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium ranging between 335-415, 14 -23 and 173- 235 kg/ha respectively among the treatments. Applying 15 t of vermicompost /ha and 10 t of vermicompost /ha and recommended dose of fertilizer showed a greater availability of nitrogen and phosphorus. It is revealed that after addition of organics into the soil year-wise, the soil became more stable. Also, the biological activity increased in the soil and was influenced to maintain the available nitrogen in the soil. Therefore, it is evident that vermicompost significantly increases the availability of available nutrients.

  12. [Vertical distribution patterns of nitrogen, phosphorus, and potassium in Chinese pine forest soils developed from different parent materials in Songshan Mountain Nature Reserve, Beijing of China].

    PubMed

    Gou, Li-hui; Sun, Zhao-di; Nie, Li-shui; Luo, Pan-pan; Wu, Ji-Gui; Xu, Wu-de

    2013-04-01

    Taking the soils developed from two kinds of parent materials (granite and limestone) under Pinus tabulaeformis forest at the same altitude in Songshan Mountain Nature Reserve of Beijing as test objects, this paper studied the vertical distribution patterns of soil total nitrogen, available phosphorus, and available potassium. The soil developed from granite had the total nitrogen, available phosphorus, and available potassium contents being 1.61-2. 35 g kg-1, 5. 84-10.74 mg kg- 1, and 39.33-93.66 mg kg-1, while that developed from limestone had the total nitrogen, available phosphorus, and available potassium contents being 1. 69 -2. 36 g kg-1, 4.45-8.57 mg . kg-1, and 60.66-124.00 mg kg-1, respectively. The total nitrogen, available phosphorus, and available potassium contents in the two soils were the highest in 0-10 cm layer, decreased with increasing depth, and had significant differences between different layers, showing that the soil total nitrogen, available phosphorus, and available potassium had a strong tendency to accumulate in surface layer. Such a tendency was more obvious for the soil developed from limestone. The paired t-test for the two soils indicated that the total nitrogen content in different layers had no significant difference, whereas the available phosphorus content in 0-10 cm layer and the available potassium content in 10-20 cm layer differed significantly. PMID:23898652

  13. [Vertical distribution patterns of nitrogen, phosphorus, and potassium in Chinese pine forest soils developed from different parent materials in Songshan Mountain Nature Reserve, Beijing of China].

    PubMed

    Gou, Li-hui; Sun, Zhao-di; Nie, Li-shui; Luo, Pan-pan; Wu, Ji-Gui; Xu, Wu-de

    2013-04-01

    Taking the soils developed from two kinds of parent materials (granite and limestone) under Pinus tabulaeformis forest at the same altitude in Songshan Mountain Nature Reserve of Beijing as test objects, this paper studied the vertical distribution patterns of soil total nitrogen, available phosphorus, and available potassium. The soil developed from granite had the total nitrogen, available phosphorus, and available potassium contents being 1.61-2. 35 g kg-1, 5. 84-10.74 mg kg- 1, and 39.33-93.66 mg kg-1, while that developed from limestone had the total nitrogen, available phosphorus, and available potassium contents being 1. 69 -2. 36 g kg-1, 4.45-8.57 mg . kg-1, and 60.66-124.00 mg kg-1, respectively. The total nitrogen, available phosphorus, and available potassium contents in the two soils were the highest in 0-10 cm layer, decreased with increasing depth, and had significant differences between different layers, showing that the soil total nitrogen, available phosphorus, and available potassium had a strong tendency to accumulate in surface layer. Such a tendency was more obvious for the soil developed from limestone. The paired t-test for the two soils indicated that the total nitrogen content in different layers had no significant difference, whereas the available phosphorus content in 0-10 cm layer and the available potassium content in 10-20 cm layer differed significantly.

  14. Carbon, nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium stoichiometry of plants and litter in boreal peatlands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, M.; Moore, T. R.

    2013-12-01

    Ecological stoichiometry, dealing with the balance of multiple elements during ecological processes and interactions, provides an integrative framework linking the biogeochemical patterns at a global scale to physiological constraints that operate at cellular or organismal levels. Unlike the well-explained and constrained carbon:nitrogen:phosphorus (C:N:P) ratios in marine plankton (e.g. Redfield ratio), terrestrial ecosystems have evoked less attention. We examined the leaf-level C:N:P:potassium (K) stoichiometry of the dominant vascular plants (deciduous, evergreen, forb and graminoid) and Sphagnum mosses from four boreal bogs in eastern Canada. A generally convergent C:N:P:K stoichiometric ratio (632:14:1:9, mass ratio) in current year's leaves (or capitula of Sphagnum mosses) was observed in the fast growing season (June to July), indicating N and P co-limitation. With ~50% of N, P and K being resorbed during leaf senescence, the C:nutrients ratios in the matures leaves (C:N:P:K = 826:17:1:6) of two dominant evergreen species (Chamaedaphne calyculata and Rhododendron groenlandicum) were increased in senesced leaves (C:N:P:K = 964:15:1:5) whereas no substantial changes were observed in N:P:K ratios. The dramatic imbalance between litter and soil microbes stoichiometry (C:N:P = 31:3:1) governs the overall nutrient cycling and C sequestration in peatland ecosystems. Overall, N and P seem to co-limit both plant growth and microbial activity in ombrotrophic bogs.

  15. Activity concentrations of ²²⁶Ra, ²³²Th and ⁴⁰K in brands of fertilisers used in Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Jibiri, N N; Fasae, K P

    2012-01-01

    The activity concentration of naturally occurring radionuclides ⁴⁰K, ²²⁶Ra and ²³²Th have been measured in different brands of fertiliser samples sold to farmers in retail markets in six commercial cities in southwestern Nigeria. Gamma ray spectroscopy was employed in the measurements of these radionuclides. The results of measurements showed that the average activity concentration of ⁴⁰K in the nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium fertilisers across the cities varied from 3972.0 ± 416.9 to 5089.3 ± 111.3 Bq kg⁻¹, 9.9 ± 7.3 to 450.6 ± 14.3 Bq kg⁻¹ for ²²⁶Ra, while for ²³²Th it varied from less than lower limit of detection to 15.1 ± 2.8 Bq kg⁻¹. The activity concentrations of ⁴⁰K, ²²⁶Ra and ²³²Th in single super phosphate (SSP) fertilisers and phosphate rocks were also determined. However, high activity concentrations of ²²⁶Ra were obtained in the SSP fertiliser and phosphate rocks and in particular, two brands of fertilisers from ITL/TAK and F & C companies. The values of the activity concentration of the radionuclides in the brands of fertilisers used in Nigeria are within the range of values reported in several other countries except ⁴⁰K. PMID:21355005

  16. Quasi-particle band structure of potassium-doped few-layer black phosphorus with GW approximation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Han-Gyu; Baik, Seung Su; Choi, Hyoung Joon

    We calculate the quasi-particle band structure of pristine and potassium-doped black phosphorus (BP) by using the GW approximation. We obtain band gaps of pristine bulk and few-layer BP and compare them with the result of the density functional calculations and experimental measurements. For potassium-doped cases, we calculate the electronic band structure of potassium-doped few-layer BPs with various doping densities. We obtain the critical doping density for the band-gap closing, and the energy-band dispersions when the band gap is inverted. We discuss Dirac semimetal properties of doped few-layer BPs obtained by the GW approximation. This work was supported by NRF of Korea (Grant No. 2011-0018306) and KISTI supercomputing center (Project No. KSC-2015-C3-039).

  17. Potassium

    MedlinePlus

    ... blackberries Root vegetables, such as carrots and potatoes Citrus fruits, such as oranges and grapefruit Your kidneys help to keep the right amount of potassium in your body. If you have chronic kidney disease, your kidneys may not remove extra potassium from ...

  18. The role of phosphorus, magnesium and potassium availability in soil fungal exploration of mineral nutrient sources in Norway spruce forests.

    PubMed

    Rosenstock, Nicholas P; Berner, Christoffer; Smits, Mark M; Krám, Pavel; Wallander, Håkan

    2016-07-01

    We investigated fungal growth and community composition in buried meshbags, amended with apatite, biotite or hornblende, in Norway spruce (Picea abies) forests of varying nutrient status. Norway spruce needles and soil collected from forests overlying serpentinite had low levels of potassium and phosphorus, those from granite had low levels of magnesium, whereas those from amphibolite had comparably high levels of these nutrients. We assayed the fungal colonization of meshbags by measuring ergosterol content and fungal community with 454 sequencing of the internal transcribed spacer region. In addition, we measured fine root density. Fungal biomass was increased by apatite amendment across all plots and particularly on the K- and P-deficient serpentinite plots, whereas hornblende and biotite had no effect on fungal biomass on any plots. Fungal community (total fungal and ectomycorrhizal) composition was affected strongly by sampling location and soil depth, whereas mineral amendments had no effect on community composition. Fine root biomass was significantly correlated with fungal biomass. Ectomycorrhizal communities may respond to increased host-tree phosphorus demand by increased colonization of phosphorus-containing minerals, but this does not appear to translate to a shift in ectomycorrhizal community composition. This growth response to nutrient demand does not appear to exist for potassium or magnesium limitation.

  19. The role of phosphorus, magnesium and potassium availability in soil fungal exploration of mineral nutrient sources in Norway spruce forests.

    PubMed

    Rosenstock, Nicholas P; Berner, Christoffer; Smits, Mark M; Krám, Pavel; Wallander, Håkan

    2016-07-01

    We investigated fungal growth and community composition in buried meshbags, amended with apatite, biotite or hornblende, in Norway spruce (Picea abies) forests of varying nutrient status. Norway spruce needles and soil collected from forests overlying serpentinite had low levels of potassium and phosphorus, those from granite had low levels of magnesium, whereas those from amphibolite had comparably high levels of these nutrients. We assayed the fungal colonization of meshbags by measuring ergosterol content and fungal community with 454 sequencing of the internal transcribed spacer region. In addition, we measured fine root density. Fungal biomass was increased by apatite amendment across all plots and particularly on the K- and P-deficient serpentinite plots, whereas hornblende and biotite had no effect on fungal biomass on any plots. Fungal community (total fungal and ectomycorrhizal) composition was affected strongly by sampling location and soil depth, whereas mineral amendments had no effect on community composition. Fine root biomass was significantly correlated with fungal biomass. Ectomycorrhizal communities may respond to increased host-tree phosphorus demand by increased colonization of phosphorus-containing minerals, but this does not appear to translate to a shift in ectomycorrhizal community composition. This growth response to nutrient demand does not appear to exist for potassium or magnesium limitation. PMID:26996085

  20. Magnesium, Potassium and Phosphorus in Available Forms in Luvisols in the Vicinity of Głogów Copper Smelter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jaworska, H.; Dąbkowska-Naskręt, H.; Różański, S.

    2016-02-01

    Region near Głogów is characterized as industrial—agricultural area, intensively used. Presented study was undertaken to estimate the impact of agricultural land use and the vicinity of Głogów copper smelter on the contents of available forms of magnesium, phosphorus and potassium in selected profiles of Luvisols. The following analysis were performed: soil particle-size distribution, pH, organic carbon contents, CaCO3 contents. The contents of available forms of phosphorus and potassium were determined by Egner- Riehm method and that of magnesium using Schachtschabel's method. The results of the study showed that the contents of available P is medium (III class of abundance), very low in K (V class) and for available Mg very low (V class) to medium for surface horizons and very high (I class of abundance) in other soil horizons. The soils, in spite of the elevated copper content in humus horizons, according to IUNG, were classified as uncontaminated soils, therefore, can be used in plant production for all types of crops.

  1. [Electron probe microanalysis of the potassium and phosphorus content in cytoplasm of cardiomyocytes of pregnant rats after an acute hypoxia incident].

    PubMed

    Pogorelov, A G

    2008-01-01

    The concentration of the elements (K, P) in the cytoplasm of rat (Wistar) cardiomyocytes has been determined by the electron probe analysis. The intracellular content of potassium and phosphorus was determined in early organogenesis and in unfertilized animals. In pregnant animals, a decrease in the cytoplasmic concentration of phosphorus and an increase in the concentration of potassium were registered. It was shown that the acute hypobaric hypoxia changes the content of both elements in the cytoplasm. The data obtained are discussed in terms of the activation of the ion transport system, which is aimed at compensating the cellular acidosis and lactosis induced by the development of hypoxic deenergization in pregnant animals. PMID:19137687

  2. Elemental stoichiometry indicates predominant influence of potassium and phosphorus limitation on arbuscular mycorrhizal symbiosis in acidic soil at high altitude.

    PubMed

    Khan, Mohammad Haneef; Meghvansi, Mukesh K; Gupta, Rajeev; Veer, Vijay

    2015-09-15

    The functioning of high-altitude agro-ecosystems is constrained by the harsh environmental conditions, such as low temperatures, acidic soil, and low nutrient supply. It is therefore imperative to investigate the site-specific ecological stoichiometry with respect to AM symbiosis in order to maximize the arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) benefits for the plants in such ecosystems. Here, we assess the elemental stoichiometry of four Capsicum genotypes grown on acidic soil at high altitude in Arunachal Pradesh, India. Further, we try to identify the predominant resource limitations influencing the symbioses of different Capsicum genotypes with the AM fungi. Foliar and soil elemental stoichiometric relations of Capsicum genotypes were evaluated with arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) colonization and occurrence under field conditions. AM fungal diversity in rhizosphere, was estimated through PCR-DGGE profiling. Results demonstrated that the symbiotic interaction of various Capsicum genotypes with the AM fungi in acidic soil was not prominent in the study site as evident from the low range of root colonization (21-43.67%). In addition, despite the rich availability of carbon in plant leaves as well as in soil, the carbon-for-phosphorus trade between AMF and plants appeared to be limited. Our results provide strong evidences of predominant influence of the potassium-limitation, in addition to phosphorus-limitation, on AM symbiosis with Capsicum in acidic soil at high altitude. We also conclude that the potassium should be considered in addition to carbon, nitrogen, and phosphorus in further studies investigating the stoichiometric relationships with the AMF symbioses in high altitude agro-ecosystems. PMID:26555273

  3. Elemental stoichiometry indicates predominant influence of potassium and phosphorus limitation on arbuscular mycorrhizal symbiosis in acidic soil at high altitude.

    PubMed

    Khan, Mohammad Haneef; Meghvansi, Mukesh K; Gupta, Rajeev; Veer, Vijay

    2015-09-15

    The functioning of high-altitude agro-ecosystems is constrained by the harsh environmental conditions, such as low temperatures, acidic soil, and low nutrient supply. It is therefore imperative to investigate the site-specific ecological stoichiometry with respect to AM symbiosis in order to maximize the arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) benefits for the plants in such ecosystems. Here, we assess the elemental stoichiometry of four Capsicum genotypes grown on acidic soil at high altitude in Arunachal Pradesh, India. Further, we try to identify the predominant resource limitations influencing the symbioses of different Capsicum genotypes with the AM fungi. Foliar and soil elemental stoichiometric relations of Capsicum genotypes were evaluated with arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) colonization and occurrence under field conditions. AM fungal diversity in rhizosphere, was estimated through PCR-DGGE profiling. Results demonstrated that the symbiotic interaction of various Capsicum genotypes with the AM fungi in acidic soil was not prominent in the study site as evident from the low range of root colonization (21-43.67%). In addition, despite the rich availability of carbon in plant leaves as well as in soil, the carbon-for-phosphorus trade between AMF and plants appeared to be limited. Our results provide strong evidences of predominant influence of the potassium-limitation, in addition to phosphorus-limitation, on AM symbiosis with Capsicum in acidic soil at high altitude. We also conclude that the potassium should be considered in addition to carbon, nitrogen, and phosphorus in further studies investigating the stoichiometric relationships with the AMF symbioses in high altitude agro-ecosystems.

  4. Nitrogen, phosphorus, potassium, calcium and magnesium release from two compressed fertilizers: column experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fernández-Sanjurjo, M. J.; Alvarez-Rodríguez, E.; Núñez-Delgado, A.; Fernández-Marcos, M. L.; Romar-Gasalla, A.

    2014-12-01

    The objective of this work was to study nutrients release from two compressed nitrogen-potassium-phosphorous (NPK) fertilizers. In the Lourizán Forest Center, tablet-type controlled-release fertilizers (CRF) were prepared by compressing various mixtures of fertilizers without covers or binders. We used soil columns (50 cm long and 7.3 cm inner diameter) that were filled with soil from the surface layer (0-20 cm) of an A horizon corresponding to a Cambic Umbrisol. Tablets of two slow-release NPK fertilizers (11-18-11 or 8-8-16) were placed into the soil (within the first 3 cm), and then water was percolated through the columns in a saturated regime for 80 days. Percolates were analyzed for N, P, K+, Ca2+ and Mg2+. These elements were also determined in soil and fertilizer tablets at the end of the trials. Nutrient concentrations were high in the first leachates and reached a steady state when 1426 mm of water had been percolated, which is equivalent to approximately 1.5 years of rainfall in this geographic area. In the whole trial, both tablets lost more than 80% of their initial N, P and K contents. However, K+, Ca2+ and Mg2+ were the most leached, whereas N and P were lost in leachates to a lesser extent. Nutrient release was slower from the tablet with a composition of 8-8-16 than from the 11-18-11 fertilizer. In view of that, the 8-8-16 tablet can be considered more adequate for crops with a nutrient demand sustained over time. At the end of the trial, the effects of these fertilizers on soil chemical parameters were still evident, with a significant increase of pH, available Ca2+, Mg2+, K+, P and effective cation exchange capacity (eCEC) in the fertilized columns, as well as a significant decrease in exchangeable Al3+, reaching values < 0.08 cmol (+) kg-1.

  5. [Quantitatively Determination of Available Phosphorus and Available Potassium in Soil by Near Infrared Spectroscopy Combining with Recursive Partial Least Squares].

    PubMed

    Jia, Sheng-yao; Yang, Xiang-long; Li, Guang; Zhang, Jian-ming

    2015-09-01

    Soil available phosphorus (P) and available potassium (K) don't possess direct spectral response in the near infrared (NIR) region. They are predictable because of their correlation with spectrally active constituents (organic matter, carbonates, clays, water, etc.). Such correlation may of course differ between the soil sample sets. Therefore, the NIR calibration models with fixed structure are difficult to achieve good prediction performances for soil P and K. In this work, the method of recursive partial least squares (RPLS), which is able to update the model coefficients recursively during the prediction process, has been applied to improve the predictive abilities of calibration models. This work compared the performance of partial least squares regression (PLS), locally weighted PLS (LW-PLS), moving window LW-PLS (LW-PLS2) and RPLS for the measurement of soil P and K. The entire data set of 194 soil samples was split into calibration set and prediction set based on soil types. The calibration set was composed of 120 Anthrosols samples, while the prediction set included 29 Ferralsols samples, 23 Anthrosols samples and 22 Primarosols samples. The best prediction results were obtained by the RPLS model. The coefficient of determination (R2) and residual prediction deviation (RPD) were respectively 0.61, 0.76 and 1.60, 2.05 for soil P and K. The results indicate that RPLS is able to learn the information from the latest modeling sample by recursively updating the model coefficients. The proposed method RPLS has the advantages of wider applicability and better performance for NIR prediction of soil P and K compared with other methods in this work. PMID:26669158

  6. Genetic control and transgressive segregation of zinc, iron, potassium, phosphorus, calcium, and sodium accumulation in cowpea (Vigna unguiculata) seeds.

    PubMed

    Fernandes Santos, C A; Boiteux, L S

    2015-01-16

    Cowpea crop, through combining a range of essential minerals with high quality proteins, plays an important role in providing nutritional security to human population living in semi-arid regions. Studies on genetics of biofortification with essential minerals are still quite scarce, and the major objective of the present study was to provide genetic information on development of cowpea cultivars with high seed mineral contents. Genetic parameters heritability and minimum number of genes were estimated for seed accumulation of zinc (Zn), iron (Fe), calcium (Ca), phosphorus (P), potassium (K), and sodium (Na). Generation mean and variance analyses were conducted using contrasting parental lines, F₁, F₂, and backcross populations derived from IT97K-1042-3 x BRS Tapaihum and IT97K-1042-3 x Canapu crosses. High narrow-sense heritability (h²) values were found for accumulation of Fe (65-86%), P (74-77%), and K (77-88%), whereas moderate h(2) values were observed for accumulation of Ca (41-56%), Zn (51-83%), and Na (50-55%) in seeds. Significant additive genetic effects as well as parental mean effects were detected in both crosses for all minerals, whereas epistasis was important genetic component in Zn content. The minimum number of genes controlling the accumulation of minerals ranged from two (K) to 11 (P). Transgressive segregation was observed in F2 populations of both crosses for all minerals analyzed. The results suggest that, although under either oligogenic or polygenic control, the seed content of these six minerals in cowpea can be improved via standard breeding methods largely used for self-pollinated crops.

  7. Genetic control and transgressive segregation of zinc, iron, potassium, phosphorus, calcium, and sodium accumulation in cowpea (Vigna unguiculata) seeds.

    PubMed

    Fernandes Santos, C A; Boiteux, L S

    2015-01-01

    Cowpea crop, through combining a range of essential minerals with high quality proteins, plays an important role in providing nutritional security to human population living in semi-arid regions. Studies on genetics of biofortification with essential minerals are still quite scarce, and the major objective of the present study was to provide genetic information on development of cowpea cultivars with high seed mineral contents. Genetic parameters heritability and minimum number of genes were estimated for seed accumulation of zinc (Zn), iron (Fe), calcium (Ca), phosphorus (P), potassium (K), and sodium (Na). Generation mean and variance analyses were conducted using contrasting parental lines, F₁, F₂, and backcross populations derived from IT97K-1042-3 x BRS Tapaihum and IT97K-1042-3 x Canapu crosses. High narrow-sense heritability (h²) values were found for accumulation of Fe (65-86%), P (74-77%), and K (77-88%), whereas moderate h(2) values were observed for accumulation of Ca (41-56%), Zn (51-83%), and Na (50-55%) in seeds. Significant additive genetic effects as well as parental mean effects were detected in both crosses for all minerals, whereas epistasis was important genetic component in Zn content. The minimum number of genes controlling the accumulation of minerals ranged from two (K) to 11 (P). Transgressive segregation was observed in F2 populations of both crosses for all minerals analyzed. The results suggest that, although under either oligogenic or polygenic control, the seed content of these six minerals in cowpea can be improved via standard breeding methods largely used for self-pollinated crops. PMID:25729958

  8. Greenhouse gas emissions and stocks of soil carbon and nitrogen from a 20-year fertilised wheat-maize intercropping system: A model approach.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xubo; Xu, Minggang; Liu, Jian; Sun, Nan; Wang, Boren; Wu, Lianhai

    2016-02-01

    Accurate modelling of agricultural management impacts on greenhouse gas emissions and the cycling of carbon and nitrogen is complicated due to interactions between various processes and the disturbance caused by field management. In this study, a process-based model, the Soil-Plant-Atmosphere Continuum System (SPACSYS), was used to simulate the effects of different fertilisation regimes on crop yields, the dynamics of soil organic carbon (SOC) and total nitrogen (SN) stocks from 1990 to 2010, and soil CO2 (2007-2010) and N2O (2007-2008) emissions based on a long-term fertilisation experiment with a winter-wheat (Triticum Aestivum L.) and summer-maize (Zea mays L.) intercropping system in Eutric Cambisol (FAO) soil in southern China. Three fertilisation treatments were 1) unfertilised (Control), 2) chemical nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium (NPK), and 3) NPK plus pig manure (NPKM). Statistical analyses indicated that the SPACSYS model can reasonably simulate the yields of wheat and maize, the evolution of SOC and SN stocks and soil CO2 and N2O emissions. The simulations showed that the NPKM treatment had the highest values of crop yields, SOC and SN stocks, and soil CO2 and N2O emissions were the lowest from the Control treatment. Furthermore, the simulated results showed that manure amendment along with chemical fertiliser applications led to both C (1017 ± 470 kg C ha(-1) yr(-1)) and N gains (91.7 ± 15.1 kg N ha(-1) yr(-1)) in the plant-soil system, while the Control treatment caused a slight loss in C and N. In conclusion, the SPACSYS model can accurately simulate the processes of C and N as affected by various fertilisation treatments in the red soil. Furthermore, application of chemical fertilisers plus manure could be a suitable management for ensuring crop yield and sustaining soil fertility in the red soil region, but the ratio of chemical fertilisers to manure should be optimized to reduce C and N losses to the environment. PMID:26615226

  9. Greenhouse gas emissions and stocks of soil carbon and nitrogen from a 20-year fertilised wheat-maize intercropping system: A model approach.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xubo; Xu, Minggang; Liu, Jian; Sun, Nan; Wang, Boren; Wu, Lianhai

    2016-02-01

    Accurate modelling of agricultural management impacts on greenhouse gas emissions and the cycling of carbon and nitrogen is complicated due to interactions between various processes and the disturbance caused by field management. In this study, a process-based model, the Soil-Plant-Atmosphere Continuum System (SPACSYS), was used to simulate the effects of different fertilisation regimes on crop yields, the dynamics of soil organic carbon (SOC) and total nitrogen (SN) stocks from 1990 to 2010, and soil CO2 (2007-2010) and N2O (2007-2008) emissions based on a long-term fertilisation experiment with a winter-wheat (Triticum Aestivum L.) and summer-maize (Zea mays L.) intercropping system in Eutric Cambisol (FAO) soil in southern China. Three fertilisation treatments were 1) unfertilised (Control), 2) chemical nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium (NPK), and 3) NPK plus pig manure (NPKM). Statistical analyses indicated that the SPACSYS model can reasonably simulate the yields of wheat and maize, the evolution of SOC and SN stocks and soil CO2 and N2O emissions. The simulations showed that the NPKM treatment had the highest values of crop yields, SOC and SN stocks, and soil CO2 and N2O emissions were the lowest from the Control treatment. Furthermore, the simulated results showed that manure amendment along with chemical fertiliser applications led to both C (1017 ± 470 kg C ha(-1) yr(-1)) and N gains (91.7 ± 15.1 kg N ha(-1) yr(-1)) in the plant-soil system, while the Control treatment caused a slight loss in C and N. In conclusion, the SPACSYS model can accurately simulate the processes of C and N as affected by various fertilisation treatments in the red soil. Furthermore, application of chemical fertilisers plus manure could be a suitable management for ensuring crop yield and sustaining soil fertility in the red soil region, but the ratio of chemical fertilisers to manure should be optimized to reduce C and N losses to the environment.

  10. Kinetics of phosphorus and potassium release from rock phosphate and waste mica enriched compost and their effect on yield and nutrient uptake by wheat (Triticum aestivum).

    PubMed

    Nishanth, D; Biswas, D R

    2008-06-01

    An attempt was made to study the efficient use of rice straw and indigenous source of phosphorus and potassium in crop production through composting technology. Various enriched composts were prepared using rice straw, rock phosphate (RP), waste mica and bioinoculant (Aspergillus awamori) and kinetics of release of phosphorus and potassium from enriched composts and their effect on yield and nutrient uptake by wheat (Triticum aestivum) were carried out. Results showed sharp increases in release in water-soluble P and K from all the composts at 8th to 12th day of leaching, thereafter, it decreased gradually. Maximum release of water-soluble P and K were obtained in ordinary compost than enriched composts during the initial stages of leaching, but their differences narrowed down at latter stages. Data in pot experiments revealed that enriched composts performed poorly than diammonium phosphate during initial stages of crop growth, but they out yielded at the latter stages, particularly at maturity stage, as evident from their higher yield, uptake, nutrient recoveries and fertility status of P and K in soils. Moreover, enriched composts prepared with RP and waste mica along with A. awamori resulted in significantly higher biomass yield, uptake and recoveries of P and K as well as available P and K in soils than composts prepared without inoculant. Results indicated that enriched compost could be an alternate technology for the efficient management of rice straw, low-grade RP and waste mica in crop production, which could help to reduce the reliance on costly chemical fertilizers. PMID:17905580

  11. [The structure and phosphorus or potassium deficiency induced expression of a calmodulin-like protein gene in Arabidopsis].

    PubMed

    Duan, Rui-Jun; Yi, Ke-Ke; Wu, Ping

    2005-10-01

    According to our previous microarray analysis, we found a putative calmodulin gene related to Pi deficiency and designated AtPsiCaM (Arabidopsis Pi-starvation-induced CaM). Results of structural analysis indicate that AtPsiCaM has three conserved EF-hands motif and belongs to calmodulin-like proteins family (Figs. 1-3). Northern blot analysis revealed that this gene could be induced by potassium and phosphate deficiency and not by potassium deficiency or high salinity (Fig. 4). The results of RT-PCR and GUS histochemical staining assays of the AtPsiCaM promoter::GUS transgenic plants showed that this gene can be expressed in all tissues to different expression levels (Figs. 5, 6). PMID:16222095

  12. Effect of nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium availability on emergence, nodulation and growth of Trifolium medium L. in alkaline soil.

    PubMed

    Chmelíková, L; Hejcman, M

    2014-07-01

    Little is known about the effects of nutrient availability on the growth of Trifolium medium in alkaline soil. In 2010, a pot experiment (10 N, P and K fertiliser treatments) with seeding of T. medium into alkaline soil was performed and emergence of seedlings, survival, aboveground and belowground organs were studied. The positive effects of increased nutrient availability on seedling emergence ranged from 5% in the control to 17% in the high P treatment. The lowest mortality was in treatments with P and K supply and the highest in treatments with N supply, due to the sensitivity of young plants to high N availability. The highest values of most measured aboveground plant traits were recorded in treatments with simultaneous application of N, P and K. There were highly positive effects of P supply alone or in combination with N and K on the development of belowground organs. Taproot length ranged from 11.5 in high N to 40.2 cm in P treatment. There was a negative effect of N application on nodulation, especially in N treatments, where growth of T. medium was limited by insufficient P supply. The number of nodules per plant ranged from 0.8 to 4.5 in the high N and P treatments. As demonstrated in this study, T. medium is a potentially suitable legume for alkaline soils. It requires a relatively high P and K supply as well as moderate mineral N supply to achieve its maximum growth potential. PMID:24355109

  13. Emergence of Two-Dimensional Massless Dirac Fermions, Chiral Pseudospins, and Berry's Phase in Potassium Doped Few-Layer Black Phosphorus.

    PubMed

    Baik, Seung Su; Kim, Keun Su; Yi, Yeonjin; Choi, Hyoung Joon

    2015-12-01

    Thin flakes of black phosphorus (BP) are a two-dimensional (2D) semiconductor whose energy gap is predicted being sensitive to the number of layers and external perturbations. Very recently, it was found that a simple method of potassium (K) doping on the surface of BP closes its band gap completely, producing a Dirac semimetal state with a linear band dispersion in the armchair direction and a quadratic one in the zigzag direction. Here, based on first-principles density functional calculations, we predict that, beyond the critical K density of the gap closure, 2D massless Dirac Fermions (i.e., Dirac cones) emerge in K-doped few-layer BP, with linear band dispersions in all momentum directions, and the electronic states around Dirac points have chiral pseudospins and Berry's phase. These features are robust with respect to the spin-orbit interaction and may lead to graphene-like electronic transport properties with greater flexibility for potential device applications.

  14. Emergence of Two-Dimensional Massless Dirac Fermions, Chiral Pseudospins, and Berry's Phase in Potassium Doped Few-Layer Black Phosphorus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baik, Seung Su; Kim, Keun Su; Yi, Yeonjin; Choi, Hyoung Joon

    2015-12-01

    Thin flakes of black phosphorus (BP) are a two-dimensional (2D) semiconductor whose energy gap is predicted being sensitive to the number of layers and external perturbations. Very recently, it was found that a simple method of potassium (K) doping on the surface of BP closes its band gap completely, producing a Dirac semimetal state with a linear band dispersion in the armchair direction and a quadratic one in the zigzag direction. Here, based on first-principles density functional calculations, we predict that, beyond the critical K density of the gap closure, 2D massless Dirac Fermions (i.e., Dirac cones) emerge in K-doped few-layer BP, with linear band dispersions in all momentum directions, and the electronic states around Dirac points have chiral pseudospins and Berry's phase. These features are robust with respect to the spin-orbit interaction and may lead to graphene-like electronic transport properties with greater flexibility for potential device applications.

  15. Use of sugarcane filter cake and nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium fertilization in the process of bioremediation of soil contaminated with diesel.

    PubMed

    Tellechea, Fernando Reynel Fundora; Martins, Marco Antônio; da Silva, Alexsandro Araujo; da Gama-Rodrigues, Emanuela Forestieri; Martins, Meire Lelis Leal

    2016-09-01

    This study evaluated the use of sugarcane filter cake and nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium (NPK) fertilization in the bioremediation of a soil contaminated with diesel fuel using a completely randomized design. Five treatments (uncontaminated soil, T1; soil contaminated with diesel, T2; soil contaminated with diesel and treated with 15 % (wt) filter cake, T3; soil contaminated with diesel and treated with NPK fertilizer, T4; and soil contaminated with diesel and treated with 15 % (wt) filter cake and NPK fertilizer, T5) and four evaluation periods (1, 60, 120, and 180 days after the beginning of the experiment) were used according to a 4 × 5 factorial design to analyze CO2 release. The variables total organic carbon (TOC) and total petroleum hydrocarbons (TPH) remaining in the soil were analyzed using a 5 × 2 factorial design, with the same treatments described above and two evaluation periods (1 and 180 days after the beginning of the experiment). In T3 and T5, CO2 release was significantly higher, compared with the other treatments. Significant TPH removal was observed on day 180, when percent removal values were 61.9, 70.1, 68.2, and 75.9 in treatments T2, T3, T4, and T5, respectively, compared with the initial value (T1).

  16. Use of sugarcane filter cake and nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium fertilization in the process of bioremediation of soil contaminated with diesel.

    PubMed

    Tellechea, Fernando Reynel Fundora; Martins, Marco Antônio; da Silva, Alexsandro Araujo; da Gama-Rodrigues, Emanuela Forestieri; Martins, Meire Lelis Leal

    2016-09-01

    This study evaluated the use of sugarcane filter cake and nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium (NPK) fertilization in the bioremediation of a soil contaminated with diesel fuel using a completely randomized design. Five treatments (uncontaminated soil, T1; soil contaminated with diesel, T2; soil contaminated with diesel and treated with 15 % (wt) filter cake, T3; soil contaminated with diesel and treated with NPK fertilizer, T4; and soil contaminated with diesel and treated with 15 % (wt) filter cake and NPK fertilizer, T5) and four evaluation periods (1, 60, 120, and 180 days after the beginning of the experiment) were used according to a 4 × 5 factorial design to analyze CO2 release. The variables total organic carbon (TOC) and total petroleum hydrocarbons (TPH) remaining in the soil were analyzed using a 5 × 2 factorial design, with the same treatments described above and two evaluation periods (1 and 180 days after the beginning of the experiment). In T3 and T5, CO2 release was significantly higher, compared with the other treatments. Significant TPH removal was observed on day 180, when percent removal values were 61.9, 70.1, 68.2, and 75.9 in treatments T2, T3, T4, and T5, respectively, compared with the initial value (T1). PMID:27255323

  17. Mortality of nitrate fertiliser workers.

    PubMed

    Al-Dabbagh, S; Forman, D; Bryson, D; Stratton, I; Doll, R

    1986-08-01

    An epidemiological cohort study was conducted to investigate the mortality patterns among a group of workers engaged in the production of nitrate based fertilisers. This study was designed to test the hypothesis that individuals exposed to high concentrations of nitrates might be at increased risk of developing cancers, particularly gastric cancer. A total of 1327 male workers who had been employed in the production of fertilisers between 1946 and 1981 and who had been occupationally exposed to nitrates for at least one year were followed up until 1 March 1981. In total, 304 deaths were observed in this group and these were compared with expected numbers calculated from mortality rates in the northern region of England, where the factory was located. Analysis was also carried out separately for a subgroup of the cohort who had been heavily exposed to nitrates--that is, working in an environment likely to contain more than 10 mg nitrate/m3 for a year or longer. In neither the entire cohort nor the subgroup was any significant excess observed for all causes of mortality or for mortality from any of five broad categories of cause or from four specific types of cancer. A small excess of lung cancer was noted more than 20 years after first exposure in men heavily exposed for more than 10 years. That men were exposed to high concentrations of nitrate was confirmed by comparing concentrations of nitrates in the saliva of a sample of currently employed men with control men, employed at the same factory but not in fertiliser production. The men exposed to nitrate had substantially raised concentrations of nitrate in their saliva compared with both controls within the industry and with men in the general population and resident nearby. The results of this study therefore weight against the idea that exposure to nitrates in the environment leads to the formation in vivo of material amounts of carcinogens. PMID:3015194

  18. Optimization of the diffusive gradients in thin films (DGT) method for simultaneous assay of potassium and plant-available phosphorus in soils.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yulin; Mason, Sean; McNeill, Ann; McLaughlin, Michael J

    2013-09-15

    Potassium (K) and phosphorus (P) are two important macronutrients for crops, and are usually applied to soils as granular fertilizer before seeding. Therefore, accurate soil tests prior to planting to predict crop response to fertilizers are important in optimizing crop yields. Traditional methods used for testing both available K and P in soils, which are based on chemical extraction procedures, are to be soil-type dependent, and the predictive relationships across a broad range of soils are generally poor. The diffusive gradients in thin films (DGT) technique, based on diffusion theory, is extensively used to measure the diffusive supply of trace elements, metals and some nutrients in soils and water. When DGT is used to assess plant-available P in soils, a good relationship is found between crop response to P fertilizer and concentrations of P in soil measured by DGT, and therefore the DGT method provides a more precise recommendation of P fertilizer requirements. Adaptation of the DGT method to measure plant-available K in soils has already been attempted [1], but limitations were reported due to the non-uniform size of the resin gel, decreased K binding rate of the gel at long deployment times and a limited ability to measure a wide range of K concentrations. To eliminate these problems, a new resin gel has been developed by combining Amberlite and ferrihydrite. This mixed Amberlite and ferrihydrite (MAF) gel has improved properties in terms of handling and even distribution of Amberlite in the gel. The elution efficiencies of the MAF gel for K and P were 90% and 96%, respectively. The diffusion coefficient of K through the diffusive gel was 1.30 × 10(-5)cm(2)s(-1) at 22 ± 1°C and was stable through time. Since ferrihydrite is already used in DGT P testing, the ability of the MAF gel to assess available P simultaneously was also assessed. The MAF gel performed the same as the traditional ferrihydrite gel for available P assessment in a wide variety of

  19. Further developments in self-fertilising geotextiles for use in pervious pavements.

    PubMed

    Newman, A P; Nnadi, E O; Duckers, L J; Cobley, A J

    2011-01-01

    Geotextiles incorporating inorganic nutrients (particularly phosphorous) to enhance the growth of oil degrading microoganisms when geotextiles are used in pervious pavement applications have been shown to be effective in the past. However the cost and manufacturing difficulties have been a barrier to their use. A polypropylene random mat geotextile incorporating an alternative polymer additive as a source of phosphorus has been investigated as a potential self-fertilising geotextile. Experiments are reported which investigate nutrient leach rates, biofilm formation and biodegradation activity.

  20. Effects of N and P fertilisation on greenhouse gas (GHG) production in floodplain fen peat: A microcosm fertilisation experiment.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stanley, Kieran; Heppell, Catherine; Belyea, Lisa; Baird, Andrew

    2016-04-01

    Biogeochemical and hydrological cycles are being significantly perturbed by anthropic activities altering atmospheric mole fractions of greenhouse gases (GHG) and increasing global temperatures. With the intensification of the hydrological cycle, lowland areas, such as floodplain fens, may be inundated more frequently. Rivers in agricultural catchments have the potential to pollute floodplain fens with significant amounts of nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P); however, the effects of short-term (< 15 days) N and P fertilisation via fluvial inundation on GHG emissions from floodplain fens are poorly understood. The aim of this research was to determine how N (51 mg L-1 NO3-N) and P (1.4 mg L-1 PO43--P) additions may alter GHG (CO2, CH4, and N2O) production in floodplain fens of contrasting nutrient status under anaerobic conditions. A five-level (control, glucose (G), N+G, P+G, and N+P+G), fully-factorial microcosm experiment was designed and undertaken in Spring 2013 with peat from two floodplain fens under conservation management with similar vegetation (from Norfolk, United Kingdom). One site receives a higher nutrient load than the other and has a historical legacy of higher N and P contents within the peat. Results from the experiment showed no significant difference in CO2 production between the control and fertilised treatments from 0 to 96 hours, but a significant difference between treatments (ANCOVA, between factors: treatment and site; covariate: time; F4,419 = 11.844, p < 0.001) and site (F1,149 = 5.721, p = 0.017) from 96 hours to in the end of the experiment due to fermentation. N2O production only occurred in samples fertilised with N (N+G and N+P+G) due to denitrification. Rates of N2O production were significantly greater in samples from the lower-nutrient site in comparison to the nutrient-rich site (t12= 6.539, p < 0.001 and t12= 7.273, p < 0.001 for N+G and N+P+G fertilised samples, respectively). Fertilisation with N and P had different effects on

  1. Phosphorus and potassium losses by runoff under three oats residue treatments in two no-tillage variants on a Southbrazilian Typic Hapludox

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Do Amaral, André J.; Bertol, Ildegardis; Cogo, Neroli P.; Barbosa, Fabrício T.; Vidal Vázquez, Eva; Paz Ferreiro, Jorge

    2010-05-01

    rates of 1, 1 -2, and 1 -4, respectively. Phosphorus and potassium levels in runoff water showed a similar trend than water losses, so that they decreased as the crop residue rate decreased. In our conditions the value of P and K losses varied between 0.31 and 12.08 US ha-1. We concluded that the state of the soil surface under NT, which depends on the operations during sowing and on the rate of addition of previous crop residue, influence total water losses as well as P and K contents. In turn differences in P and K losses have a bearing on financial aspects of nutrient application. Acknowledgement: This work was supported by Spanish Ministry of Education (Project CGL2005-08219-C02).

  2. Expanding the menu for carnivorous plants: uptake of potassium, iron and manganese by carnivorous pitcher plants.

    PubMed

    Adlassnig, Wolfram; Steinhauser, Georg; Peroutka, Marianne; Musilek, Andreas; Sterba, Johannes H; Lichtscheidl, Irene K; Bichler, Max

    2009-12-01

    Carnivorous plants use animals as fertiliser substitutes which allow them to survive on nutrient deficient soils. Most research concentrated on the uptake of the prey's nitrogen and phosphorus; only little is known on the utilisation of other elements. We studied the uptake of three essential nutrients, potassium, iron and manganese, in three species of carnivorous pitcher plants (Cephalotus follicularis LaBilladiere, Sarracenia purpureaL., Heliamphora nutans Bentham). Using relatively short-lived and gamma-emitting radiotracers, we significantly improved the sensitivity compared to conventional protocols and gained the following results. We demonstrated the uptake of trace elements like iron and manganese. In addition, we found direct evidence for the uptake of potassium into the pitcher tissue. Potassium and manganese were absorbed to virtually 100% if offered in physiological concentrations or below in Cephalotus. Analysis of pitcher fluid collected in the natural habitat showed that uptake was performed here as efficiently as in the laboratory. The absorption of nutrients is an active process depending on living glandular cells in the pitcher epidermis and can be inhibited by azide. Unphysiologically high amounts of nutrients were taken up for a short time, but after a few hours the absorbing cells were damaged, and uptake stopped. Absorption rates of pitcher leaves from plants under controlled conditions varied highly, indicating that each trap is functionally independent. The comparison of minerals in typical prey with the plants' tissues showed that a complete coverage of the plants' needs by prey capture is improbable.

  3. Expanding the menu for carnivorous plants: uptake of potassium, iron and manganese by carnivorous pitcher plants.

    PubMed

    Adlassnig, Wolfram; Steinhauser, Georg; Peroutka, Marianne; Musilek, Andreas; Sterba, Johannes H; Lichtscheidl, Irene K; Bichler, Max

    2009-12-01

    Carnivorous plants use animals as fertiliser substitutes which allow them to survive on nutrient deficient soils. Most research concentrated on the uptake of the prey's nitrogen and phosphorus; only little is known on the utilisation of other elements. We studied the uptake of three essential nutrients, potassium, iron and manganese, in three species of carnivorous pitcher plants (Cephalotus follicularis LaBilladiere, Sarracenia purpureaL., Heliamphora nutans Bentham). Using relatively short-lived and gamma-emitting radiotracers, we significantly improved the sensitivity compared to conventional protocols and gained the following results. We demonstrated the uptake of trace elements like iron and manganese. In addition, we found direct evidence for the uptake of potassium into the pitcher tissue. Potassium and manganese were absorbed to virtually 100% if offered in physiological concentrations or below in Cephalotus. Analysis of pitcher fluid collected in the natural habitat showed that uptake was performed here as efficiently as in the laboratory. The absorption of nutrients is an active process depending on living glandular cells in the pitcher epidermis and can be inhibited by azide. Unphysiologically high amounts of nutrients were taken up for a short time, but after a few hours the absorbing cells were damaged, and uptake stopped. Absorption rates of pitcher leaves from plants under controlled conditions varied highly, indicating that each trap is functionally independent. The comparison of minerals in typical prey with the plants' tissues showed that a complete coverage of the plants' needs by prey capture is improbable. PMID:19428263

  4. Energy and phosphorus recovery from black water.

    PubMed

    de Graaff, M S; Temmink, H; Zeeman, G; Buisman, C J N

    2011-01-01

    Source-separated black water (BW) (toilet water) containing 38% of the organic material and 68% of the phosphorus in the total household waste (water) stream including kitchen waste, is a potential source for energy and phosphorus recovery. The energy recovered, in the form of electricity and heat, is more than sufficient for anaerobic treatment, nitrogen removal and phosphorus recovery. The phosphorus balance of an upflow anaerobic sludge blanket reactor treating concentrated BW showed a phosphorus conservation of 61% in the anaerobic effluent. Precipitation of phosphate as struvite from this stream resulted in a recovery of 0.22 kgP/p/y, representing 10% of the artificial phosphorus fertiliser production in the world. The remaining part of the phosphorus ended up in the anaerobic sludge, mainly due to precipitation (39%). Low dilution and a high pH favour the accumulation of phosphorus in the anaerobic sludge and this sludge could be used as a phosphorus-enriched organic fertiliser, provided that it is safe regarding heavy metals, pathogens and micro-pollutants.

  5. Potassium Counts.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gipps, John

    1995-01-01

    Presents an activity to determine whether the radioactivity of a pure potassium salt is directly proportional to the amount of potassium in it and whether this could be used as a method of analysis for potassium in a solid. (MKR)

  6. Progesterone improves porcine in vitro fertilisation system.

    PubMed

    Malo, Clara; Gil, Lydia; Cano, Rafael; Martinez, Felisa; Gonzalez, Noelia

    2014-03-01

    In an effort to improve the quality of in vitro produced porcine embryos, the effect of progestagens - progesterone analogues - on the in vitro developmental competence of porcine oocytes was studied. A total of 1421 in vitro matured oocytes, from 4 replicates, were inseminated with frozen-thawed spermatozoa. Progestagens were added to late maturation and embryo cultures (10 IU/ml). Fertilisation success (pre-maturation, penetration, monospermy and efficiency) and nuclear maturation were evaluated. There were no differences among prematuration rates between groups (P = 0.221). Penetration rates were higher (P < 0.001) in the presence of progestagens (75.0%) as compared to the control (51.7%). However, no differences were observed in monospermy percentages (P = 0.246). The results indicated that supplementation with progestagens increased the efficiency of the in vitro fertilisation system (P < 0.001). An additional beneficial effect was observed in nuclear maturation with progestagens (P = 0.035). In summary, progestagen supplementation is an important factor to improve the in vitro fertilisation procedure.

  7. Determination of calcium, copper, iron, magnesium, manganese, potassium, phosphorus, sodium, and zinc in fortified food products by microwave digestion and inductively coupled plasma-optical emission spectrometry: single-laboratory validation and ring trial.

    PubMed

    Poitevin, Eric

    2012-01-01

    A single-laboratory validation (SLV) and a ring trial (RT) were undertaken to determine nine nutritional elements in food products by inductively coupled plasma-optical emission spectrometry in order to modernize AOAC Official Method 984.27. The improvements involved extension of the scope to all food matrixes (including infant formula), optimized microwave digestion, selected analytical lines, internal standardization, and ion buffering. Simultaneous determination of nine elements (calcium, copper, iron, potassium, magnesium, manganese, sodium, phosphorus, and zinc) was made in food products. Sample digestion was performed through wet digestion of food samples by microwave technology with either closed- or open-vessel systems. Validation was performed to characterize the method for selectivity, sensitivity, linearity, accuracy, precision, recovery, ruggedness, and uncertainty. The robustness and efficiency of this method was proven through a successful RT using experienced independent food industry laboratories. Performance characteristics are reported for 13 certified and in-house reference materials, populating the AOAC triangle food sectors, which fulfilled AOAC criteria and recommendations for accuracy (trueness, recovery, and z-scores) and precision (repeatability and reproducibility RSD, and HorRat values) regarding SLVs and RTs. This multielemental method is cost-efficient, time-saving, accurate, and fit-for-purpose according to ISO 17025 Norm and AOAC acceptability criteria, and is proposed as an extended updated version of AOAC Official Method 984.27 for fortified food products, including infant formula. PMID:22468357

  8. Method development for the determination of calcium, copper, magnesium, manganese, iron, potassium, phosphorus and zinc in different types of breads by microwave induced plasma-atomic emission spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Ozbek, Nil; Akman, Suleyman

    2016-06-01

    A novel method was developed for the determination of calcium, magnesium, potassium, iron, copper, zinc, and manganese and phosphorous in various kinds of breads samples sold in Turkey by microwave plasma-atomic emission spectrometry (MIP-AES). Breads were dried at 100 °C for one day, ground thoroughly and then digested using nitric acid/hydrogen per oxide (3:1). The analytes in certified reference wheat flour and maize flour samples were determined in the uncertainty limits of the certified values as well as the analytes added to the mixture of ground bread and acid mixture prior to digestion were recovered quantitatively (>90%). Therefore, all determinations were made by linear calibration technique using aqueous standards. The LOD values for Ca, Cu, Fe, K, Mg, Mn, P and Zn were 13.1, 0.28, 4.47, 118, 1.10, 0.41, 7550 and 3.00 ng mL(-1), respectively. No spectral interference was detected at the working wavelengths of the analytes. PMID:26830585

  9. Method development for the determination of calcium, copper, magnesium, manganese, iron, potassium, phosphorus and zinc in different types of breads by microwave induced plasma-atomic emission spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Ozbek, Nil; Akman, Suleyman

    2016-06-01

    A novel method was developed for the determination of calcium, magnesium, potassium, iron, copper, zinc, and manganese and phosphorous in various kinds of breads samples sold in Turkey by microwave plasma-atomic emission spectrometry (MIP-AES). Breads were dried at 100 °C for one day, ground thoroughly and then digested using nitric acid/hydrogen per oxide (3:1). The analytes in certified reference wheat flour and maize flour samples were determined in the uncertainty limits of the certified values as well as the analytes added to the mixture of ground bread and acid mixture prior to digestion were recovered quantitatively (>90%). Therefore, all determinations were made by linear calibration technique using aqueous standards. The LOD values for Ca, Cu, Fe, K, Mg, Mn, P and Zn were 13.1, 0.28, 4.47, 118, 1.10, 0.41, 7550 and 3.00 ng mL(-1), respectively. No spectral interference was detected at the working wavelengths of the analytes.

  10. Fertilisation in the horse and paracrine signalling in the oviduct.

    PubMed

    Goudet, Ghylène

    2011-01-01

    The mammalian oviduct plays a crucial role in the preparation of gametes for fertilisation (transport and final maturation) and fertilisation itself. An increasing number of studies offers a comprehensive overview of the functions of the oviduct and its secretions, but this topic has had limited investigation in the horse. Limited data are available on the final oocyte maturation in the equine oviduct. However, in vitro and in vivo systems have been established to analyse the influence of equine oviduct epithelial cells (OEC) during maturation on the potential of oocytes for fertilisation and development. Most studies focus on the role of the oviduct in equine sperm function, such as spermatozoa transport, attachment to oviduct epithelium, viability, motility and capacitation. Moreover, some possible candidate molecules for sperm-oviducal interactions have been identified in the horse. Finally, the low efficiency of conventional in vitro fertilisation and the in vivo fertilisation of equine oocytes transferred into the oviduct of an inseminated mare predicted an influence of oviduct in equine fertilisation. Actually, in vivo and in vitro experiments demonstrated a role of the oviduct in equine fertilisation. Moreover, recent studies showed a beneficial effect of homologous and heterologous OEC on equine in vitro fertilisation, and some candidate molecules have been studied.

  11. Soil Fertility Evaluation for Fertiliser Recommendation Using Hyperion Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ghosh, Ranendu; Padmanabhan, N.; Patel, K. C.

    2015-12-01

    Soil fertility characterised by nitrogen, phosphorus, potassium, calcium, magnesium and sulphur is traditionally measured from soil samples collected from the field. The process is very cumbersome and time intensive. Hyperspectral data available from Hyperion payload of EO 1 was used for facilitating preparation of soil fertility map of Udaipur district of Rajasthan state, India. Hyperion data was pre-processed for band and area sub setting, atmospheric correction and reflectance data preparation. Spectral analysis in the form of SFF and PPI were carried out for selecting the ground truth sites for soil sample collection. Soil samples collected from forty one sites were analysed for analysis of nutrient composition. Generation of correlogram followed by multiple regressions was done for identifying the most important bands and spectral parameters that can be used for nutrient map generation.

  12. A kelp with integrity: Macrocystis pyrifera prioritises tissue maintenance in response to nitrogen fertilisation.

    PubMed

    Stephens, Tiffany A; Hepburn, Christopher D

    2016-09-01

    Our understanding of the response of vascular, terrestrial plants to nitrogen (N) addition is advanced and provides the foundation for modern agriculture. In comparison, information on responses of marine macroalgae to increased nitrogen is far less developed. We investigated how in situ pulses of nitrate (NO3 (-)) affected the growth and N physiology of Macrocystis pyrifera by adding N using potassium nitrate dissolution blocks during a period of low seawater N concentration. Multiple parameters (e.g. growth, pigments, soluble NO3 (-)) were measured in distinct tissues throughout entire fronds (apical meristem, stipe, adult blade, mature blade, sporophyll, and holdfast). Unexpectedly, N fertilisation did not enhance elongation rates within the frond, but instead thickness (biomass per unit area) increased in adult blades. Increased blade thickness may have enhanced tissue integrity as fertilised kelp had lower rates of blade erosion. Tissue chemistry also responded to enrichment; pigmentation, soluble NO3 (-), and % N were higher throughout fertilised fronds. Labelled (15)N traced N uptake and translocation from N sources in the kelp canopy to sinks in the holdfast, 10 m below. This is the first evidence of long-distance (>1 m) transport of N in macroalgae. Patterns in physiological parameters suggest that M. pyrifera displays functional differentiation between canopy and basal tissues that may aid in nutrient-tolerance strategies, similar to those seen in higher plants and unlike those seen in more simple algae (i.e. non-kelps). This study highlights how little we know about N additions and N-use strategies within kelp compared to the wealth of literature available for higher plants. PMID:27170330

  13. A kelp with integrity: Macrocystis pyrifera prioritises tissue maintenance in response to nitrogen fertilisation.

    PubMed

    Stephens, Tiffany A; Hepburn, Christopher D

    2016-09-01

    Our understanding of the response of vascular, terrestrial plants to nitrogen (N) addition is advanced and provides the foundation for modern agriculture. In comparison, information on responses of marine macroalgae to increased nitrogen is far less developed. We investigated how in situ pulses of nitrate (NO3 (-)) affected the growth and N physiology of Macrocystis pyrifera by adding N using potassium nitrate dissolution blocks during a period of low seawater N concentration. Multiple parameters (e.g. growth, pigments, soluble NO3 (-)) were measured in distinct tissues throughout entire fronds (apical meristem, stipe, adult blade, mature blade, sporophyll, and holdfast). Unexpectedly, N fertilisation did not enhance elongation rates within the frond, but instead thickness (biomass per unit area) increased in adult blades. Increased blade thickness may have enhanced tissue integrity as fertilised kelp had lower rates of blade erosion. Tissue chemistry also responded to enrichment; pigmentation, soluble NO3 (-), and % N were higher throughout fertilised fronds. Labelled (15)N traced N uptake and translocation from N sources in the kelp canopy to sinks in the holdfast, 10 m below. This is the first evidence of long-distance (>1 m) transport of N in macroalgae. Patterns in physiological parameters suggest that M. pyrifera displays functional differentiation between canopy and basal tissues that may aid in nutrient-tolerance strategies, similar to those seen in higher plants and unlike those seen in more simple algae (i.e. non-kelps). This study highlights how little we know about N additions and N-use strategies within kelp compared to the wealth of literature available for higher plants.

  14. Potassium Iodide

    MedlinePlus

    Potassium iodide is used to protect the thyroid gland from taking in radioactive iodine that may be released during a nuclear radiation emergency. Radioactive iodine can damage the thyroid gland. You should only ...

  15. Potassium test

    MedlinePlus

    ... also be done if your provider suspects metabolic acidosis (for example, caused by uncontrolled diabetes) or alkalosis ( ... Hypoaldosteronism (very rare) Kidney failure Metabolic or respiratory acidosis Red blood cell destruction Too much potassium in ...

  16. Phosphorus Test

    MedlinePlus

    ... be limited. Home Visit Global Sites Search Help? Phosphorus Share this page: Was this page helpful? Also ... else I should know? How is it used? Phosphorus tests are most often ordered along with other ...

  17. Survey on nutrient content of different organic fertilisers.

    PubMed

    Rajan, Jagadish; Anandhan, Shanmugaselvan Veilumuthu

    2015-06-01

    The knowledge of nutrient aspects of organic fertilisers is of much relevance in assessing their availability and long-term effect to the soil and crop and in formulating sound fertiliser recommendation. Around 619 organic fertiliser samples under different categories, which were received by the analytical laboratory of UPASI Tea Research Institute, Valparai, were examined for their nutrient status. The trend in the number of samples received every year for the past 5 years showed that there is a gradual, steady and linear increase in the number of samples received by the laboratory which, in turn, authenticates the increase in the production and utilisation of organic fertilisers in agricultural sector. This also reveals the awareness of organic farming among farmers in recent times. The organic fertilisers received by the laboratory were categorised into different groups based on their nomenclature. The number of samples received each year under different categories varies to a larger extent. The nutritional status was unpredictable based on the nomenclature of the sample received. In addition to this frequency distribution, the nutritional values analysed are discussed in this paper. Correlation matrix was worked out between all the parameters estimated. It is evident that if maintenance of proper carbon-to-nitrogen ratio and moisture content is ascertained in the finished product, one can guarantee the quality of the organic fertiliser in terms of nutrient content.

  18. Global phosphorus scarcity: identifying synergies for a sustainable future.

    PubMed

    Neset, Tina-Simone S; Cordell, Dana

    2012-01-15

    Global food production is dependent on constant inputs of phosphorus. In the current system this phosphorus is not predominantly derived from organic recycled waste, but to a large degree from phosphate-rock based mineral fertilisers. However, phosphate rock is a finite resource that cannot be manufactured. Our dependency therefore needs to be addressed from a sustainability perspective in order to ensure global food supplies for a growing global population. The situation is made more urgent by predictions that, for example, the consumption of resource intensive foods and the demand for biomass energy will increase. The scientific and societal debate has so far been focussed on the exact timing of peak phosphorus and on when the total depletion of the global reserves will occur. Even though the timing of these events is important, all dimensions of phosphorus scarcity need to be addressed in a manner which acknowledges linkages to other sustainable development challenges and which takes into consideration the synergies between different sustainability measures. Many sustainable phosphorus measures have positive impacts on other challenges; for example, shifting global diets to more plant-based foods would not only reduce global phosphorus consumption, but also reduce greenhouse gas emissions, reduce nitrogen fertiliser demand and reduce water consumption.

  19. Potassium cyanide

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    Jump to main content . Integrated Risk Information System Recent Additions | Contact Us Search : All EPA IRIS • You are here : EPA Home • Research • Environmental Assessment • IRIS • IRIS Summaries Redirect Page As of September 28 , 2010 , the assessment summary for potassium cyanide is included in

  20. Rationing in practice: the case of in vitro fertilisation.

    PubMed Central

    Redmayne, S; Klein, R

    1993-01-01

    One of the few examples of explicit rationing in the National Health Service is provided by in vitro fertilisation. Of six purchasing authorities examined three have decided against buying in vitro fertilisation while three have decided in favour. The decisions reflect local factors such as the absence or presence of local providers and the views of the public and health professionals. But in vitro fertilisation also illustrates some of the wider issues involved in all decisions about purchasing: questions about what should be provided by the National Health Service, about what procedures should be compared when weighing up value for money, and whether equity demands national decisions about what to provide. Images p1521-a PMID:8257491

  1. Proper ubiquitination effect on the fertilisation outcome post-ICSI.

    PubMed

    Eskandari-Shahraki, M; Tavalaee, M; Deemeh, M R; Jelodar, Gh A; Nasr-Esfahani, M H

    2013-06-01

    Ubiquitin is an 8.5-kDa protein that tags outlived proteins for degradation by the proteasome. It also marks defective spermatozoa during epididymal passage and has been proposed as a biomarker of sperm quality. This study evaluates the relationship between sperm ubiquitination, protamine deficiency, semen parameters and fertilisation rate in infertile individuals undergoing the intracytoplasmic sperm insemination (ICSI) procedure. Semen samples from 73 ICSI candidates were collected and analysed according to World Health Organization criteria. A portion of each sample was evaluated for sperm ubiquitination using the sperm ubiquitin tag immunoassay (SUTI) with flow cytometry, and protamine deficiency by chromomycin A3 (CMA3) staining. In addition, the relationship between the fertilisation rate and sperm ubiquitination was calculated in ICSI candidates. The intensity of ubiquitination showed a significant negative correlation with sperm concentration (r = -0.255, P = 0.032) and a positive correlation with fertilisation rate (r = 0.384, P = 0.013) post-ICSI. No correlation was observed between protamine deficiency and the percentage of ubiquitination or ubiquitination intensity. The results of this study suggest that sperm ubiquitination prior to capacitation may be considered as a marker of defective spermatozoon. Spermatozoa that undergo proper ubiquitination may have a higher chance for fertilisation, because they are made redundant by the ubiquitin-proteasome pathway in the epididymis compared to hypo-ubiquitinated spermatozoa.

  2. In vitro fertilisation treatment and factors affecting success.

    PubMed

    Huang, Jack Yu Jen; Rosenwaks, Zev

    2012-12-01

    The efficacy of assisted reproductive technologies has improved significantly over the past decades. The main indications for in vitro fertilisation include tubal obstruction, severe male-factor infertility, severe endometriosis, ovulatory dysfunction, diminished ovarian reserve, and infertility of unexplained cause. In vitro fertilisation has also become an effective treatment option for couples wishing to undergo pre-implantation genetic diagnosis or screening, and for those wishing to cryopreserve their oocytes or embryos for preservation of fertility. The management of women in late reproductive age poses a major challenge; the optimum in vitro fertilisation treatment for poor responders remains elusive. The success of in vitro fertilisation treatment can be optimised by taking an individualised, patient-centered approach to controlled ovarian hyperstimulation. Key components involve selection of an appropriate controlled ovarian protocol, close-cycle monitoring, adjustment of gonadotropin dosage to avoid hyper-response, and individualised timing of human chorionic gonadotropin injection. Future directions of assisted reproductive technologies include development of non-invasive embryo selection methods, use of transcriptomics, proteomics, metabolomics, and time-lapse imaging technologies.

  3. Coral skeletons provide historical evidence of phosphorus runoff on the great barrier reef.

    PubMed

    Mallela, Jennie; Lewis, Stephen E; Croke, Barry

    2013-01-01

    Recently, the inshore reefs of the Great Barrier Reef have declined rapidly because of deteriorating water quality. Increased catchment runoff is one potential culprit. The impacts of land-use on coral growth and reef health however are largely circumstantial due to limited long-term data on water quality and reef health. Here we use a 60 year coral core record to show that phosphorus contained in the skeletons (P/Ca) of long-lived, near-shore Porites corals on the Great Barrier Reef correlates with annual records of fertiliser application and particulate phosphorus loads in the adjacent catchment. Skeletal P/Ca also correlates with Ba/Ca, a proxy for fluvial sediment loading, again linking near-shore phosphorus records with river runoff. Coral core records suggest that phosphorus levels increased 8 fold between 1949 and 2008 with the greatest levels coinciding with periods of high fertiliser-phosphorus use. Periods of high P/Ca correspond with intense agricultural activity and increased fertiliser application in the river catchment following agricultural expansion and replanting after cyclone damage. Our results demonstrate how coral P/Ca records can be used to assess terrestrial nutrient loading of vulnerable near-shore reefs.

  4. Coral Skeletons Provide Historical Evidence of Phosphorus Runoff on the Great Barrier Reef

    PubMed Central

    Mallela, Jennie; Lewis, Stephen E.; Croke, Barry

    2013-01-01

    Recently, the inshore reefs of the Great Barrier Reef have declined rapidly because of deteriorating water quality. Increased catchment runoff is one potential culprit. The impacts of land-use on coral growth and reef health however are largely circumstantial due to limited long-term data on water quality and reef health. Here we use a 60 year coral core record to show that phosphorus contained in the skeletons (P/Ca) of long-lived, near-shore Porites corals on the Great Barrier Reef correlates with annual records of fertiliser application and particulate phosphorus loads in the adjacent catchment. Skeletal P/Ca also correlates with Ba/Ca, a proxy for fluvial sediment loading, again linking near-shore phosphorus records with river runoff. Coral core records suggest that phosphorus levels increased 8 fold between 1949 and 2008 with the greatest levels coinciding with periods of high fertiliser-phosphorus use. Periods of high P/Ca correspond with intense agricultural activity and increased fertiliser application in the river catchment following agricultural expansion and replanting after cyclone damage. Our results demonstrate how coral P/Ca records can be used to assess terrestrial nutrient loading of vulnerable near-shore reefs. PMID:24086606

  5. Runoff of faecal microorganisms and nutrients from perennial grass ley after application of slurry and mineral fertiliser.

    PubMed

    Heinonen-Tanski, H; Uusi-Kämppä, J

    2001-01-01

    Perennial grass was fertilised with cattle slurry either surface-spread or injected into the soil. Slurry was spread once (early summer) in 1996 and 1997 and twice (both summer and autumn) in 1998 and 1999. The control was mineral fertilisation in summer. Faecal microbial numbers in surface runoff water were very high in late June 1998 soon after very heavy rains even though the last slurry application had been made almost one year earlier. There was no clear difference between slurry spreading methods. Autumn spreading of slurry lead to high microbial levels in runoff waters and water hygiene was protected better by slurry injection than by surface spreading. In spring, after snow melt, some faecal microorganisms were found in surface runoff water and the numbers of faecal microorganisms were less from plots with slurry surface spreading than those with slurry-injection. Losses of total phosphorus (TP) and total nitrogen (TN) in surface runoff were 2.7 and 7.7 kg/ha respectively from grass with surface-spread slurry in winter 1998-1999. The injection of slurry decreased TP and TN runoff by an average of 81% and 73% respectively. In 1999 there was little runoff because the summer was sunny and dry.

  6. Effects of organic fertilisation on sweet orange bearing trees

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roccuzzo, Giancarlo; Torrisi, Biagio; Canali, Stefano; Intrigliolo, Francesco

    2010-05-01

    In a study realised over a five year period (2001-2006) on orange bearing trees [Citrus sinensis (L.) Osbeck] cv. ‘Valencia late', grafted on sour orange (C. aurantium L.), four fertiliser treatments were applied: citrus by-products compost (CB), poultry manure (PM), livestock waste compost (LW) and mineral fertiliser (MF), as control. The trees, with the exception of MF treatment, were organically grown since 1994 in the experimental farm of CRA-ACM in Lentini, Sicily, and received the same N input every year. The research objectives were to evaluate the effect of long term repeated organic fertilisers application on i) soil fertility; ii) citrus bearing trees nutritional status by means of leaf analysis and iii) yield and fruit quality, determining parameters currently utilized to evaluate sweet orange production either for fresh consumption and processing. The CB treatment showed significantly higher values of Corg in soil than MF treatment (about 30%). Corg in PM and LW treatments was higher than MF treatment (13% and 20%, respectively), but these differences were not statistically significant either from the control treatment nor from the soil fertilised with CB. Similar trend was showed by the humic and fulvic C being the values of the CB treatment significantly higher than the control. PM and LW treatments had intermediate values, without statistical significance. The long term addition to soil of a quality compost (CB) with high C/N ratio increased the level of nutrients wich usually show low availability for citrus plants (P, Fe, Zn, Mn), as demonstrated by leaf analysis. No significant difference was noticed as far as yield was concerned, whereas CB treatment enhanced some fruit quality parameters.

  7. Manure and sorbent fertilisers increase on-going nutrient availability relative to conventional fertilisers.

    PubMed

    Redding, M R; Lewis, R; Kearton, T; Smith, O

    2016-11-01

    The key to better nutrient efficiency is to simultaneously improve uptake and decrease losses. This study sought to achieve this balance using sorbent additions and manure nutrients (spent poultry litter; SL) compared with results obtained using conventional sources (Conv; urea nitrogen, N; and phosphate-phosphorus; P). Two experiments were conducted. Firstly, a phosphorus pot trial involving two soils (sandy and clay) based on a factorial design (Digitaria eriantha/Pennisetum clandestinum). Subsequently, a factorial N and P field trial was conducted on the clay soil (D. eriantha/Lolium rigidum). In the pot trial, sorbent additions (26.2g of hydrotalcite [HT] gP(-1)) to the Conv treatment deferred P availability (both soils) as did SL in the sandy soil. In this soil, P delivery by the Conv treatments declined rapidly, and began to fall behind the HT and SL treatments. Addition of HT increased post-trial Colwell P. In the field trial low HT-rates (3.75 and 7.5g of HTgP(-1)) plus bentonite, allowed dry matter production and nutrient uptake to match that of Conv treatments, and increased residual mineral-N. The SL treatments performed similarly to (or better than) Conv treatments regarding nutrient uptake. With successive application, HT forms may provide better supply profiles than Conv treatments. Our findings, combined with previous studies, suggest it is possible to use manures and ion-exchangers to match conventional N and P source productivity with lower risk of nutrient losses. PMID:27432730

  8. Intracellular Ca2+ and antioxidant values induced positive effect on fertilisation ratio and oocyte quality of granulosa cells in patients undergoing in vitro fertilisation.

    PubMed

    Tola, Esra Nur; Mungan, Muhittin Tamer; Uğuz, Abdülhadi Cihangir; Naziroğlu, Mustafa

    2013-01-01

    Oxidative stress is important for promoting oocyte maturation and ovulation within the follicle through calcium ion (Ca(2+)) influx. The relationship between antioxidant and cytosolic Ca(2+) levels and oocyte quality and fertilisation rate in the granulosa cells of patients undergoing in vitro fertilisation was investigated. Granulosa cells were collected from 33 patients. Cytosolic free Ca(2+) ([Ca(2+)]i) concentration, lipid peroxidation, reduced glutathione, glutathione peroxidase and oocyte quality were measured in the granulosa cells. The relationship between two drug protocols was also examined (gonadotrophin-releasing hormone antagonist and agonist protocols) and the same parameters investigated. The [Ca(2+)]i concentration (P<0.001), glutathione (P<0.05) and oocyte quality (P<0.001) values were significantly higher in the fertilised group than in the non-fertilised group, although glutathione peroxidase activity was significantly (P<0.05) higher in the non-fertilised group than in the fertilised group. The [Ca(2+)]i concentrations were also higher (P<0.001) in the good-quality oocyte groups than in the poor-quality oocyte group. There was no correlation between the two drug protocols and investigated parameters. In conclusion, it was observed that high glutathione and cytosolic Ca(2+) concentrations in granulosa cells of patients undergoing in vitro fertilisation tended to increase the fertilisation potential of oocytes.

  9. Peak phosphorus - peak food? The need to close the phosphorus cycle.

    PubMed

    Rhodes, Christopher J

    2013-01-01

    The peak in the world production of phosphorus has been predicted to occur in 2033, based on world reserves of rock phosphate (URR) reckoned at around 24,000 million tonnes (Mt), with around 18,000 Mt remaining. This figure was reckoned-up to 71,000 Mt, by the USGS, in 2012, but a production maximum during the present century is still highly probable. There are complex issues over what the demand will be for phosphorus in the future, as measured against a rising population (from 7 billion to over 9 billion in 2050), and a greater per capita demand for fertiliser to grow more grain, in part to feed animals and meet a rising demand for meat by a human species that is not merely more populous but more affluent. As a counterweight to this, we may expect that greater efficiencies in the use of phosphorus - including recycling from farms and of human and animal waste - will reduce the per capita demand for phosphate rock. The unseen game changer is peak oil, since phosphate is mined and recovered using machinery powered by liquid fuels refined from crude oil. Hence, peak oil and peak phosphorus might appear as conjoined twins. There is no unequivocal case that we can afford to ignore the likelihood of a supply-demand gap for phosphorus occurring sometime this century, and it would be perilous to do so.

  10. White phosphorus

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    White phosphorus ; CASRN 7723 - 14 - 0 Human health assessment information on a chemical substance is included in the IRIS database only after a comprehensive review of toxicity data , as outlined in the IRIS assessment development process . Sections I ( Health Hazard Assessments for Noncarcinogenic

  11. Nitrogen fertiliser formulation: The impact on N2O emissions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harty, Mary; Krol, Dominika; Carolan, Rachael; McNeill, Gavin; McGeough, Karen; Laughlin, Ronnie; Watson, Catherine; Richards, Karl; Lanigan, Gary; Forrestal, Patrick

    2015-04-01

    Agriculture was responsible for 31% of Ireland's Agricultural Greenhouse Gas (GHG) emissions in 2012, with 39% of these emissions arising from chemical/organic fertilizers in the form of nitrous oxide (N2O). Switching from calcium ammonium nitrate (CAN) to a urea based fertiliser limits the soil residence period of nitrate, the major substrate for denitrification loss in the N2O form. However, urea is susceptible to ammonia (NH3) volatilisation but this risk can be managed using urease inhibitors. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of switching from CAN to urea, urea with the urease inhibitor N- (n-butyl) thiophosphoric triamide (trade name Agrotain®) and/or the nitrification inhibitor dicyandiamide (DCD on direct and indirect N2O emissions. The experiment is a two year study (commenced March 2013) at six permanent pasture sites located on the island of Ireland, at Johnstown Castle Co. Wexford, Moorepark Co. Cork and Hillsborough Co. Down, covering a range of soil textures and drainage characteristics. The experiment simulated a grazing environment; annual fertiliser N was applied at different rates (0, 100, 200, 300, 400 or 500 kg N ha-1) in five equal splits, with grass harvested prior to fertilizer application. Direct N2O emissions were quantified regularly using static chambers over 1 year and indirect N2O from ammonia volatilisation was measured using wind tunnels and annual emission factors calculated. Switching from CAN to urea dramatically reduced direct N2O emissions, but had little effect on dry-matter yield. However, there was evidence of pollution swapping of direct for indirect N2O from NH3. In the first year, two urea based formulations successfully reduced both direct and indirect N2O emissions at all sites. Fertiliser formulation strategy has the potential to be a solution for reduction of direct and indirect N2O emissions.

  12. Lagrangian Analysis of Kerguelen's Naturally Iron-fertilised Phytoplankton Bloom

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Della Penna, A.; Trull, T. W.; Grenier, M.; Wotherspoon, S.; Johnson, C.; De Monte, S.; d'Ovidio, F.

    2015-12-01

    The role of iron as a limiting micro-nutrient for primary production in High Nutrient Low Chlorophyll regions has been highlighted by paleoceanography, artificial fertilisation experiments and observed naturally fertilised systems. Examples of natural fertilisation have suggested that (sub-)mesoscale (1-100 km, days-months) horizontal transport modulates and structures the spatial and temporal extent of iron enrichment, phytoplankton production and biogeography. Here we combine different satellite products (altimetry, ocean color, PHYSAT), in-situ sampling, drifting floats and autonomous profilers to analyse the naturally iron-fertilised phytoplankton bloom of the Kerguelen region (Southern Ocean). Considering the Kerguelen Plateau as the main local source of iron, we compute two Lagrangian diagnostics: the "age" - how long before a water parcel has touched the plateau- and the "origin" - the latitude where a water parcel has left the plateau. First, we verify that these altimetry-defined diagnostics' spatial patterns -computed using geostrophic and Ekman corrected velocity fields- are coherent with the ones structuring the trajectories of more than 100 drifters and that trends in surface Chlorophyll (Chl) present an overall agreement with total column content (yet with ~2-3x differences in dynamic ranges likely due to the varying presence of Chl below the mixed layer). Second, assuming a first-order removal, we fit "age" with iron measurements and we estimate removal rates for bloom and abiotic conditions of respectively 0.058 and 0.041 1/d. Then, we relate "age" and "origin" with locations of high Chl concentrations and diatom-dominance. We find out that locations of high Chl concentration correspond to water parcels that have recently left the plateau. Furthermore, general additive models reveal that recently enriched waters are more likely to present a diatom dominance. However, the expected exponential fit varies within the geographic domain suggesting that

  13. Phosphorus cycling in the Early Aptian

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oakes, R.; Dittrich, M.; Wortmann, U. G.

    2012-12-01

    Phosphorus is an essential nutrient for living organisms. It is vital for the formation of ATP, the energy store in cells, and is needed for DNA synthesis. Seawater phosphorus concentration therefore plays a critical role in controlling marine productivity on geological timescales. The majority of research on the P cycle focuses on modern lacustrine and marine settings. This follows the necessity to gain a further understanding on the effects of agricultural fertilisers on nutrient cycling; in particular on the mechanisms which lead to eutrophication. These studies use sequential extraction to determine the speciation of P. The results suggest that bottom sediments can act as both a source and a sink of phosphorus; the role they assume depends on range of factors including bottom water oxygen concentrations, sedimentation rate and the concentration of iron. This study applies a sequential extraction method developed in modern sediments to sediments from the Early Cretaceous, specifically the Early Aptian. During this time, globally synchronous oceanic anoxic events (OAE's) appear in the rock record. It has been suggested that these events represent an increase in marine productivity combined with bottom water anoxia. Our study investigates whether the speciation of sedimentary phosphorus can be used to reconstruct P cycling at this time. Our samples are taken from pre-, syn- and post-OAE1a but are not from the organic matter rich layers. Our results show that the original fractions of phosphorus have been altered during diagenesis with the majority of phosphorus now being preserved as either apatite (Ca-P) or phosphorus in organic matter (Porg). The dominance of Ca-P is expected as it is thought that redox-sensitive forms of P undergo 'sink switching' during diagenesis and are preserved as Ca-P. The high concentration of Porg however, differs from previous studies which generally find that Ca-P or iron (oxyhydr)oxide associated phosphorus (Fe-P) are dominant

  14. Multiple paternity in a viviparous toad with internal fertilisation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sandberger-Loua, Laura; Feldhaar, Heike; Jehle, Robert; Rödel, Mark-Oliver

    2016-08-01

    Anurans are renowned for a high diversity of reproductive modes, but less than 1 % of species exhibit internal fertilisation followed by viviparity. In the live-bearing West African Nimba toad ( Nimbaphrynoides occidentalis), females produce yolk-poor eggs and internally nourish their young after fertilisation. Birth of fully developed juveniles takes place after 9 months. In the present study, we used genetic markers (eight microsatellite loci) to assign the paternity of litters of 12 females comprising on average 9.7 juveniles. In 9 out of 12 families (75 %), a single sire was sufficient; in three families (25 %), more than one sire was necessary to explain the observed genotypes in each family. These findings are backed up with field observations of male resource defence (underground cavities in which mating takes place) as well as coercive mating attempts, suggesting that the observed moderate level of multiple paternity in a species without distinct sperm storage organs is governed by a balance of female mate choice and male reproductive strategies.

  15. Multiple paternity in a viviparous toad with internal fertilisation.

    PubMed

    Sandberger-Loua, Laura; Feldhaar, Heike; Jehle, Robert; Rödel, Mark-Oliver

    2016-08-01

    Anurans are renowned for a high diversity of reproductive modes, but less than 1 % of species exhibit internal fertilisation followed by viviparity. In the live-bearing West African Nimba toad (Nimbaphrynoides occidentalis), females produce yolk-poor eggs and internally nourish their young after fertilisation. Birth of fully developed juveniles takes place after 9 months. In the present study, we used genetic markers (eight microsatellite loci) to assign the paternity of litters of 12 females comprising on average 9.7 juveniles. In 9 out of 12 families (75 %), a single sire was sufficient; in three families (25 %), more than one sire was necessary to explain the observed genotypes in each family. These findings are backed up with field observations of male resource defence (underground cavities in which mating takes place) as well as coercive mating attempts, suggesting that the observed moderate level of multiple paternity in a species without distinct sperm storage organs is governed by a balance of female mate choice and male reproductive strategies. PMID:27262290

  16. Multiple paternity in a viviparous toad with internal fertilisation.

    PubMed

    Sandberger-Loua, Laura; Feldhaar, Heike; Jehle, Robert; Rödel, Mark-Oliver

    2016-08-01

    Anurans are renowned for a high diversity of reproductive modes, but less than 1 % of species exhibit internal fertilisation followed by viviparity. In the live-bearing West African Nimba toad (Nimbaphrynoides occidentalis), females produce yolk-poor eggs and internally nourish their young after fertilisation. Birth of fully developed juveniles takes place after 9 months. In the present study, we used genetic markers (eight microsatellite loci) to assign the paternity of litters of 12 females comprising on average 9.7 juveniles. In 9 out of 12 families (75 %), a single sire was sufficient; in three families (25 %), more than one sire was necessary to explain the observed genotypes in each family. These findings are backed up with field observations of male resource defence (underground cavities in which mating takes place) as well as coercive mating attempts, suggesting that the observed moderate level of multiple paternity in a species without distinct sperm storage organs is governed by a balance of female mate choice and male reproductive strategies.

  17. Some problems challenging the UK's Human Fertilisation and Embryology Authority.

    PubMed

    Pattinson, Shaun D

    2005-06-01

    The UK's Human Fertilisation and Embryology Authority (hereafter the HFEA) is a regulatory body facing growing pressures and difficulties. Like any regulatory body, it faces the challenge of regulating with sufficient expertise, legitimacy, and contemporaneity. This challenge is, however, exacerbated by the fact that it seeks to regulate some of the most controversial and rapidly changing technologies of our time. Its decisions and jurisdictional assumptions face increasing challenge. In addition to the multitude of cases brought against it, the HFEA's actions recently led a House of Commons Select Committee to pointedly declare that "democracy is not served by unelected quangos (quasi-autonomous non-governmental organizations) taking decisions on behalf of Parliament". While endorsing the general need to review the legislation under which the HFEA operates (the Human Fertilisation and Embryology Act 1990), this paper will argue that the HFEA was correct in interpreting its jurisdiction to encompass the technique used to produce Dolly the sheep. This paper thereby defends the key feature of the approach of the House of Lords in the recent case of R (Bruno Quintavalle on behalf of the ProLife Alliance) v Secretary of State for Health [2003] UKHL 13. PMID:16082873

  18. Enhanced efficiency fertilisers: a review of formulation and nutrient release patterns.

    PubMed

    Timilsena, Yakindra Prasad; Adhikari, Raju; Casey, Phil; Muster, Tim; Gill, Harsharn; Adhikari, Benu

    2015-04-01

    Fertilisers are one of the most important elements of modern agriculture. The application of fertilisers in agricultural practices has markedly increased the production of food, feed, fuel, fibre and other plant products. However, a significant portion of nutrients applied in the field is not taken up by plants and is lost through leaching, volatilisation, nitrification, or other means. Such a loss increases the cost of fertiliser and severely pollutes the environment. To alleviate these problems, enhanced efficiency fertilisers (EEFs) are produced and used in the form of controlled release fertilisers and nitrification/urease inhibitors. The application of biopolymers for coating in EEFs, tailoring the release pattern of nutrients to closely match the growth requirement of plants and development of realistic models to predict the release pattern of common nutrients have been the foci of fertiliser research. In this context, this paper intends to review relevant aspects of new developments in fertiliser production and use, agronomic, economic and environmental drives for enhanced efficiency fertilisers and their formulation process and the nutrient release behaviour. Application of biopolymers and complex coacervation technique for nutrient encapsulation is also explored as a promising technology to produce EEFs. PMID:25043832

  19. Enhanced efficiency fertilisers: a review of formulation and nutrient release patterns.

    PubMed

    Timilsena, Yakindra Prasad; Adhikari, Raju; Casey, Phil; Muster, Tim; Gill, Harsharn; Adhikari, Benu

    2015-04-01

    Fertilisers are one of the most important elements of modern agriculture. The application of fertilisers in agricultural practices has markedly increased the production of food, feed, fuel, fibre and other plant products. However, a significant portion of nutrients applied in the field is not taken up by plants and is lost through leaching, volatilisation, nitrification, or other means. Such a loss increases the cost of fertiliser and severely pollutes the environment. To alleviate these problems, enhanced efficiency fertilisers (EEFs) are produced and used in the form of controlled release fertilisers and nitrification/urease inhibitors. The application of biopolymers for coating in EEFs, tailoring the release pattern of nutrients to closely match the growth requirement of plants and development of realistic models to predict the release pattern of common nutrients have been the foci of fertiliser research. In this context, this paper intends to review relevant aspects of new developments in fertiliser production and use, agronomic, economic and environmental drives for enhanced efficiency fertilisers and their formulation process and the nutrient release behaviour. Application of biopolymers and complex coacervation technique for nutrient encapsulation is also explored as a promising technology to produce EEFs.

  20. Biologically and chemically mediated adsorption and precipitation of phosphorus from wastewater.

    PubMed

    Pratt, Chris; Parsons, Simon A; Soares, Ana; Martin, Ben D

    2012-12-01

    Biologically and chemically mediated adsorption and precipitation processes offer a range of approaches for removing phosphorus (P) from agricultural, domestic and industrial effluents. Technologies implemented at full-scale include filtration by adsorbent media, such as steel slag, and recovery of phosphorus as struvite, which has been successfully commercialised as a fertiliser. Other promising technologies under investigation include P removal by polymers and nanomaterials as well as struvite formation by bacteria. There is a need to focus future research on improving the efficiency of P removal by adsorption and precipitation. This can be achieved by techniques such as regenerating filters, polymers and nanomaterials for renewed P removal. Research is also needed to optimise the fertiliser potential of struvite precipitates.

  1. Potassium carbonate poisoning

    MedlinePlus

    Potassium carbonate is a white powder used to make soap, glass, and other items. This article discusses poisoning from swallowing or breathing in potassium carbonate. This article is for information only. Do ...

  2. Birth of healthy infant through testicular sperms using conventional in vitro fertilisation technique--a case report.

    PubMed

    Kotia, Namita; Swarankar, M L; Bafna, Neelam; Soni, R R

    2011-12-01

    We present a case of birth of healthy normal baby through testicular sperms using standard in vitro fertilisation technique. Fertilisation and cleavage from testicular sperms by conventional in vitro fertilisation has been documented. Here a case of a 28-year-old lady presented with 4 years primary infertility is reported.

  3. Nitrogen, phosphorus, carbon and population.

    PubMed

    Gilland, Bernard

    2015-01-01

    Population growth makes food production increase necessary; economic growth increases demand for animal products and livestock feed. As further increase of the cropland area is ecologically undesirable, it is necessary to increase crop yields; this requires, inter alia, more nitrogen and phosphorus fertiliser despite the environmental problems which this will exacerbate. It is probable that a satisfactory food supply and an environmentally benign agriculture worldwide cannot be achieved without reducing population to approximately three billion. The reduction could be achieved by 2200 if the total fertility rate--currently 2.5--declined to 1.5 as a world average by 2050, and remained at that level until 2200, but the probability of such a global fertility trajectory is close to zero. It will also be necessary to replace fossil energy by nuclear and renewable energy in order to stabilise atmospheric carbon dioxide concentration, but the phase-out cannot be completed until the 22nd century, when the atmospheric concentration will be approximately 50% above the 2015 level of 400 ppm. PMID:26790176

  4. Regulation of Potassium Homeostasis.

    PubMed

    Palmer, Biff F

    2015-06-01

    Potassium is the most abundant cation in the intracellular fluid, and maintaining the proper distribution of potassium across the cell membrane is critical for normal cell function. Long-term maintenance of potassium homeostasis is achieved by alterations in renal excretion of potassium in response to variations in intake. Understanding the mechanism and regulatory influences governing the internal distribution and renal clearance of potassium under normal circumstances can provide a framework for approaching disorders of potassium commonly encountered in clinical practice. This paper reviews key aspects of the normal regulation of potassium metabolism and is designed to serve as a readily accessible review for the well informed clinician as well as a resource for teaching trainees and medical students.

  5. Rapid and portable electrochemical quantification of phosphorus.

    PubMed

    Kolliopoulos, Athanasios V; Kampouris, Dimitrios K; Banks, Craig E

    2015-04-21

    Phosphorus is one of the key indicators of eutrophication levels in natural waters where it exists mainly as dissolved phosphorus. Various analytical protocols exist to provide an offsite analysis, and a point of site analysis is required. The current standard method recommended by the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) for the detection of total phosphorus is colorimetric and based upon the color of a phosphomolybdate complex formed as a result of the reaction between orthophosphates and molybdates ions where ascorbic acid and antimony potassium tartrate are added and serve as reducing agents. Prior to the measurements, all forms of phosphorus are converted into orthophosphates via sample digestion (heating and acidifying). The work presented here details an electrochemical adaptation of this EPA recommended colorimetric approach for the measurement of dissolved phosphorus in water samples using screen-printed graphite macroelectrodes for the first time. This novel indirect electrochemical sensing protocol allows the determination of orthophosphates over the range from 0.5 to 20 μg L(-1) in ideal pH 1 solutions utilizing cyclic voltammetry with a limit of detection (3σ) found to correspond to 0.3 μg L(-1) of phosphorus. The reaction time and influence of foreign ions (potential interferents) upon this electroanalytical protocol was also investigated, where it was found that a reaction time of 5 min, which is essential in the standard colorimetric approach, is not required in the new proposed electrochemically adapted protocol. The proposed electrochemical method was independently validated through the quantification of orthophosphates and total dissolved phosphorus in polluted water samples (canal water samples) with ion chromatography and ICP-OES, respectively. This novel electrochemical protocol exhibits advantages over the established EPA recommended colorimetric determination for total phosphorus with lower detection limits and shorter experimental times

  6. Rapid and portable electrochemical quantification of phosphorus.

    PubMed

    Kolliopoulos, Athanasios V; Kampouris, Dimitrios K; Banks, Craig E

    2015-04-21

    Phosphorus is one of the key indicators of eutrophication levels in natural waters where it exists mainly as dissolved phosphorus. Various analytical protocols exist to provide an offsite analysis, and a point of site analysis is required. The current standard method recommended by the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) for the detection of total phosphorus is colorimetric and based upon the color of a phosphomolybdate complex formed as a result of the reaction between orthophosphates and molybdates ions where ascorbic acid and antimony potassium tartrate are added and serve as reducing agents. Prior to the measurements, all forms of phosphorus are converted into orthophosphates via sample digestion (heating and acidifying). The work presented here details an electrochemical adaptation of this EPA recommended colorimetric approach for the measurement of dissolved phosphorus in water samples using screen-printed graphite macroelectrodes for the first time. This novel indirect electrochemical sensing protocol allows the determination of orthophosphates over the range from 0.5 to 20 μg L(-1) in ideal pH 1 solutions utilizing cyclic voltammetry with a limit of detection (3σ) found to correspond to 0.3 μg L(-1) of phosphorus. The reaction time and influence of foreign ions (potential interferents) upon this electroanalytical protocol was also investigated, where it was found that a reaction time of 5 min, which is essential in the standard colorimetric approach, is not required in the new proposed electrochemically adapted protocol. The proposed electrochemical method was independently validated through the quantification of orthophosphates and total dissolved phosphorus in polluted water samples (canal water samples) with ion chromatography and ICP-OES, respectively. This novel electrochemical protocol exhibits advantages over the established EPA recommended colorimetric determination for total phosphorus with lower detection limits and shorter experimental times

  7. Sewage sludge fertiliser use: implications for soil and plant copper evolution in forest and agronomic soils.

    PubMed

    Ferreiro-Domínguez, Nuria; Rigueiro-Rodríguez, Antonio; Mosquera-Losada, M Rosa

    2012-05-01

    Fertilisation with sewage sludge may lead to crop toxicity and environmental degradation. This study aims to evaluate the effects of two types of soils (forest and agronomic), two types of vegetation (unsown (coming from soil seed bank) and sown), and two types of fertilisation (sludge fertilisation and mineral fertilisation, with a no fertiliser control) in afforested and treeless swards and in sown and unsown forestlands on the total and available Cu concentration in soil, the leaching of this element and the Cu levels in plant. The experimental design was completely randomised with nine treatments and three replicates. Fertilisation with sewage sludge increased the concentration of Cu in soil and plant, but the soil values never exceeded the maximum set by Spanish regulations. Sewage sludge inputs increased both the total and Mehlich 3 Cu concentrations in agronomic soils and the Cu levels in plant developed in agronomic and forest soils, with this effect pronounced in the unsown swards of forest soils. Therefore, the use of high quality sewage sludge as fertiliser may improve the global productivity of forest, agronomic and silvopastoral systems without creating environmental hazards. PMID:22425275

  8. Private initiatives, public support, and war practices: development of fertilisers in Russia.

    PubMed

    Elina, Olga Y

    2011-03-01

    The scarcity of experiments with fertilisers, the poor domestic industry, and high prices for imported products made Russia lag far behind the leading agrarian countries in the research and use of fertilisers. The first experiments on fertilisers were connected mostly with the private estates of Russian nobility. Things began to change slowly by the turn of the twentieth century, when the Ministry of Agriculture launched a policy of agricultural science promotion, including the development of agricultural chemistry. It was the outbreak of World War I that created a powerful stimulus for fertiliser research in Russia. A specific Russian "symbiosis" emerged between military industry and agricultural chemistry. The numerous factories of explosives set up ad hoc produced vast amounts of waste products; modified, they could serve as fertilisers. In 1915, the Public Committee for Support of Fertilisers was organised. Eventually, this committee gave birth to the Institute of Fertilisers, the first institute founded by the Bolshevik government. Thus, the project of "chemicalisation of agriculture," usually described as a revolutionary endeavour, was firmly rooted in World War I.

  9. Soil phosphorus and the ecology of lowland tropical forests

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Turner, Ben

    2016-04-01

    In this presentation I will explore the extent to which phosphorus influences the productivity, diversity, and distribution of plant species in tropical forests. I will highlight the range of soils that occur in tropical forests and will argue that pedogenesis and associated phosphorus depletion is a primary driver of forest diversity over long timescales. I will draw on data from a regional-scale network of forest dynamics plots in Panama to show that tree species distributions are determined predominantly as a function of dry season intensity and soil phosphorus availability, and will suggest potential mechanistic explanations for this pattern in relation to phosphorus acquisition. Finally, I will present observational and experimental evidence from Panama to show how phosphorus, nitrogen, and potassium, limit plant productivity and microbial communities on strongly-weathered soils in the lowland tropics.

  10. SIMS(DAIRY): a modelling framework to identify sustainable dairy farms in the UK. Framework description and test for organic systems and N fertiliser optimisation.

    PubMed

    Del Prado, A; Misselbrook, T; Chadwick, D; Hopkins, A; Dewhurst, R J; Davison, P; Butler, A; Schröder, J; Scholefield, D

    2011-09-01

    Multiple demands are placed on farming systems today. Society, national legislation and market forces seek what could be seen as conflicting outcomes from our agricultural systems, e.g. food quality, affordable prices, a healthy environmental, consideration of animal welfare, biodiversity etc., Many of these demands, or desirable outcomes, are interrelated, so reaching one goal may often compromise another and, importantly, pose a risk to the economic viability of the farm. SIMS(DAIRY), a farm-scale model, was used to explore this complexity for dairy farm systems. SIMS(DAIRY) integrates existing approaches to simulate the effect of interactions between farm management, climate and soil characteristics on losses of nitrogen, phosphorus and carbon. The effects on farm profitability and attributes of biodiversity, milk quality, soil quality and animal welfare are also included. SIMS(DAIRY) can also be used to optimise fertiliser N. In this paper we discuss some limitations and strengths of using SIMS(DAIRY) compared to other modelling approaches and propose some potential improvements. Using the model we evaluated the sustainability of organic dairy systems compared with conventional dairy farms under non-optimised and optimised fertiliser N use. Model outputs showed for example, that organic dairy systems based on grass-clover swards and maize silage resulted in much smaller total GHG emissions per l of milk and slightly smaller losses of NO(3) leaching and NO(x) emissions per l of milk compared with the grassland/maize-based conventional systems. These differences were essentially because the conventional systems rely on indirect energy use for 'fixing' N compared with biological N fixation for the organic systems. SIMS(DAIRY) runs also showed some other potential benefits from the organic systems compared with conventional systems in terms of financial performance and soil quality and biodiversity scores. Optimisation of fertiliser N timings and rates showed a

  11. Management of natural and added dietary phosphorus burden in kidney disease.

    PubMed

    Cupisti, Adamasco; Kalantar-Zadeh, Kamyar

    2013-03-01

    Phosphorus retention occurs from higher dietary phosphorus intake relative to its renal excretion or dialysis removal. In the gastrointestinal tract the naturally existing organic phosphorus is only partially (∼60%) absorbable; however, this absorption varies widely and is lower for plant-based phosphorus including phytate (<40%) and higher for foods enhanced with inorganic phosphorus-containing preservatives (>80%). The latter phosphorus often remains unrecognized by patients and health care professionals, even though it is widely used in contemporary diets, in particular, low-cost foods. In a nonenhanced mixed diet, digestible phosphorus correlates closely with total protein content, making protein-rich foods a main source of natural phosphorus. Phosphorus burden is limited more appropriately in predialysis patients who are on a low-protein diet (∼0.6 g/kg/d), whereas dialysis patients who require higher protein intake (∼1.2 g/kg/d) are subject to a higher dietary phosphorus load. An effective and patient-friendly approach to reduce phosphorus intake without depriving patients of adequate proteins is to educate patients to avoid foods with high phosphorus relative to protein such as egg yolk and those with high amounts of phosphorus-based preservatives such as certain soft drinks and enhanced cheese and meat. Phosphorus rich foods should be prepared by boiling, which reduces phosphorus as well as sodium and potassium content, or by other types of cooking-induced demineralization. The dose of phosphorus-binding therapy should be adjusted separately for the amount and absorbability of phosphorus in each meal. Dietician counseling to address the emerging aspects of dietary phosphorus management is instrumental for achieving a reduction of phosphorus load. PMID:23465504

  12. Management of natural and added dietary phosphorus burden in kidney disease.

    PubMed

    Cupisti, Adamasco; Kalantar-Zadeh, Kamyar

    2013-03-01

    Phosphorus retention occurs from higher dietary phosphorus intake relative to its renal excretion or dialysis removal. In the gastrointestinal tract the naturally existing organic phosphorus is only partially (∼60%) absorbable; however, this absorption varies widely and is lower for plant-based phosphorus including phytate (<40%) and higher for foods enhanced with inorganic phosphorus-containing preservatives (>80%). The latter phosphorus often remains unrecognized by patients and health care professionals, even though it is widely used in contemporary diets, in particular, low-cost foods. In a nonenhanced mixed diet, digestible phosphorus correlates closely with total protein content, making protein-rich foods a main source of natural phosphorus. Phosphorus burden is limited more appropriately in predialysis patients who are on a low-protein diet (∼0.6 g/kg/d), whereas dialysis patients who require higher protein intake (∼1.2 g/kg/d) are subject to a higher dietary phosphorus load. An effective and patient-friendly approach to reduce phosphorus intake without depriving patients of adequate proteins is to educate patients to avoid foods with high phosphorus relative to protein such as egg yolk and those with high amounts of phosphorus-based preservatives such as certain soft drinks and enhanced cheese and meat. Phosphorus rich foods should be prepared by boiling, which reduces phosphorus as well as sodium and potassium content, or by other types of cooking-induced demineralization. The dose of phosphorus-binding therapy should be adjusted separately for the amount and absorbability of phosphorus in each meal. Dietician counseling to address the emerging aspects of dietary phosphorus management is instrumental for achieving a reduction of phosphorus load.

  13. Dietary phosphorus, serum phosphorus, and cardiovascular disease.

    PubMed

    Menon, Madhav C; Ix, Joachim H

    2013-10-01

    Recent epidemiologic studies have linked higher serum phosphorus concentrations to cardiovascular disease (CVD) events and mortality. This association has been identified in the general population and in those with chronic kidney disease (CKD). The risk of adverse outcomes appears to begin with phosphorus concentrations within the upper limit of the normal reference range. Multiple experimental studies have suggested pathogenetic mechanisms that involve direct and indirect effects of high phosphorus concentrations to explain these associations. Drawing from these observations, guideline-forming agencies have recommended that serum phosphorus concentrations be maintained within the normal reference range in patients with CKD and that dietary phosphorus restriction or use of intestinal phosphate binders should be considered to achieve this goal. However, outside the dialysis population, the links between dietary phosphorus intake and serum phosphorus concentrations, and dietary phosphorus intake and CVD events, are uncertain. With specific reference to the nondialysis populations, this review discusses the available data linking dietary phosphorus intake with serum phosphorus concentrations and CVD events.

  14. Exposure of ova to cortisol pre-fertilisation affects subsequent behaviour and physiology of brown trout.

    PubMed

    Sloman, Katherine A

    2010-08-01

    Even before fertilisation, exposure of ova to high levels of stress corticosteroids can have significant effects on offspring in a variety of animals. In fish, high levels of cortisol in ovarian fluid can elicit morphological changes and reduce offspring survival. Whether there are other more subtle effects, including behavioural effects, of exposure to cortisol pre-fertilisation in fish is unclear. Here I demonstrate that a brief (3h) exposure of brown trout eggs to a physiologically relevant ( approximately 500 microg l(-)(1)) concentration of cortisol pre-fertilisation resulted in changes to developing offspring. Embryos exposed to cortisol pre-fertilisation displayed elevated oxygen consumption and ammonia excretion rates during development. After hatch, in contrast to the effects of cortisol exposure in juvenile fish, fish exposed to cortisol as eggs were more aggressive than control individuals and responded differently within a maze system. Thus, a transient exposure to corticosteroids in unfertilised eggs results in both physiological and behavioural alterations in fish.

  15. Potassium kinetics during hemodialysis.

    PubMed

    Agar, Baris U; Culleton, Bruce F; Fluck, Richard; Leypoldt, John K

    2015-01-01

    Hyperkalemia in hemodialysis patients is associated with high mortality, but prescription of low dialysate potassium concentrations to decrease serum potassium levels is associated with a high incidence of sudden cardiac arrest or sudden death. Improved clinical outcomes for these patients may be possible if rapid and substantial intradialysis decreases in serum potassium concentration can be avoided while maintaining adequate potassium removal. Data from kinetic modeling sessions during the HEMO Study of the dependence of serum potassium concentration on time during hemodialysis treatments and 30 minutes postdialysis were evaluated using a pseudo one-compartment model. Kinetic estimates of potassium mobilization clearance (K(M)) and predialysis central distribution volume (V(pre)) were determined in 551 hemodialysis patients. The studied patients were 58.8 ± 14.4 years of age with predialysis body weight of 72.1 ± 15.1 kg; 306 (55.4%) of the patients were female and 337 (61.2%) were black. K(M) and V(pre) for all patients were non-normally distributed with values of 158 (111, 235) (median [interquartile range]) mL/min and 15.6 (11.4, 22.8) L, respectively. K(M) was independent of dialysate potassium concentration (P > 0.2), but V(pre) was lower at higher dialysate potassium concentration (R = -0.188, P < 0.001). For patients with dialysate potassium concentration between 1.6 and 2.5 mEq/L (N = 437), multiple linear regression of K(M) and V(pre) demonstrated positive association with predialysis body weight and negative association with predialysis serum potassium concentration. Potassium kinetics during hemodialysis can be described using a pseudo one-compartment model.

  16. Embracing post-fertilisation methods of family planning: a call to action.

    PubMed

    Raymond, Elizabeth G; Coeytaux, Francine; Gemzell-Danielsson, Kristina; Moore, Kirsten; Trussell, James; Winikoff, Beverly

    2013-10-01

    Family planning methods that act when administered after fertilisation would have substantial benefits: they could be used longer after sex than current emergency contraceptives, and potentially a woman could use them only on relatively rare occasions when her menstrual period is delayed. Although such methods would displease abortion opponents, they would likely be welcomed by many women. Research to develop post-fertilisation fertility control agents should be pursued.

  17. R v. Human Fertilisation and Embryology Authority, ex parte Blood.

    PubMed

    1997-02-01

    England's Court of Appeal, Civil Division, upheld the lower court decision that, without the necessary written consent of the deceased husband, the 1990 Human Fertilisation and Embryology Act prohibits the storage of his cryopreserved sperm and its use in artificial insemination by the widow. When doctors retrieved sperm from Stephen Blood, he was already comatose from meningitis and would die soon thereafter. His widow sought release of the sperm to her for posthumous conception. Without the actual existence of a written consent for cryopreservation and also for disposition upon death, both storage of the sperm and its later use are prohibited under the licensing statute. The court did not address common law issues concerning consent to the retrieval of sperm from an unconscious man because those issues were not argued. In dicta (nonbinding opinion), the court noted that written consent is not required under the statute in a case involving fresh, i.e., nonpreserved, sperm where the donor later dies. The court did uphold the right to appeal the licensing authority's refusal to authorize the widow's export of the sperm for insemination at a medical clinic in another state of the European Community, such as Belgium, as infringing on her right to treatment under Community law. PMID:11648631

  18. WEED POPULATION IN RELATION TO CROP ROTATION AND NITROGEN FERTILISATION.

    PubMed

    Derycke, V; Latré, J; Van De Vijver, E; De Roo, B; De Cauwer, B; Haesaert, G

    2014-01-01

    In order to assess the impact of crop rotation and nitrogen fertilisation in an agro system, a long-term field experiment has been established in 2006 at the experimental farm of Ghent University and University College Ghent (Bottelare-Belgium). The trial comprises 11 different crop rotations in combination with four nitrogen fertilizer regimes. The different crop rotations are monoculture of grain- and silage maize, whether or not followed by Italian ryegrass, permanent and temporary grass-clover and six other rotations of maize in combination with potatoes, wheat, fodder beet and peas. Normal crop husbandry measures were taken for each crop. The experiment was set up on a sandy loam soil, according to a strip plot design with 3 replicates. In the course of the experiment, crop rotation was the horizontal factor and fertilizer nitrogen (N) the vertical factor. The effect of crop rotation on yield, disease pressure, soil structure and earthworm abundance were evaluated yearly. In autumn 2013 the weed seed bank was analysed for each plot using the seedling emergence method. The obtained results indicated differences between the different crop rotations.

  19. Artificial fertilisation in a terrestrial toadlet (Pseudophryne guentheri): effect of medium osmolality, sperm concentration and gamete storage.

    PubMed

    Silla, Aimee J

    2013-01-01

    Anurans exhibit a greater reproductive diversity than any other vertebrate order. However, studies investigating the effects of the external fertilisation environment on fertilisation success are limited to aquatic-breeding species. This study investigated the effects of fertilisation medium osmolality, sperm concentration and short-term oocyte storage on fertilisation success in a terrestrial-breeding anuran, Pseudophryne guentheri. Split-clutch experimental designs were used to determine optimal fertilisation conditions. To determine the effect of short-term sperm storage, sperm viability was assessed using fluorescence microscopy and percentage sperm motility and velocity quantified with a computer-assisted sperm analysis system. Fertilisation success was highest in media ranging in osmolality from 25 mOsm kg⁻¹ to 100 mOsm kg⁻¹, representing a broader range and higher optimal osmolality than previously reported for aquatic breeders. High rates of fertilisation (>75%) were achieved in relatively low sperm concentrations (2.5×10⁴ mL⁻¹). Oocytes stored in isotonic solutions (200 mOsm kg⁻¹) retained fertilisation capacity (32%) after 8h of storage, while sperm suspensions maintained motility (≥26%) for 13 days. Additional studies on terrestrial-breeding anurans will be required to ascertain whether the optimal fertilisation conditions reported reflect adaptations to achieve fertilisation in a terrestrial environment.

  20. Penicillin V Potassium Oral

    MedlinePlus

    Penicillin V potassium is an antibiotic used to treat certain infections caused by bacteria such as pneumonia, scarlet fever, and ear, ... Penicillin V potassium comes as a tablet and liquid to take by mouth. It is usually taken every 6 hours (four ...

  1. Potassium food supplement

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bourland, C. T.; Huber, C. S.; Rambaut, C.; Heidelbaugh, N. D.

    1973-01-01

    Potassium gluconate is considered best supplementary source for potassium. Gluconate consistently received highest taste rating and was indistinguishable from nonsupplemented samples. No unfavorable side effects were found during use, and none are reported in literature. Gluconate is normal intermediary metabolite that is readily adsorbed and produces no evidence of gastrointestinal ulcerations.

  2. Production of 15N-Labelled Liquid Organic Fertilisers Based on Manure and Crop Residue for Use in Fertigation Studies.

    PubMed

    Martínez-Alcántara, Belén; Martínez-Cuenca, Mary-Rus; Fernández, Carlos; Legaz, Francisco; Quiñones, Ana

    2016-01-01

    Large quantities of crop residue and animal manure from agricultural and livestock activities are annually produced worldwide. With proper management, these residues are potentially valuable sources of plant nutrients, mainly N. Recycling such subproducts in sustainably-based agricultural systems can minimise the use of mineral fertilisers, and hence reduce the potential risk of surface and groundwater pollution. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to obtain (small scale) two liquid labelled-organic fertilisers, an animal- and a vegetal-based organic (AO and VO, respectively) fertiliser, to be used as organic N sources in subsequent fertigation studies. Forage maize (Zea mays L.) grown under 15N-labelled fertiliser supply was used as raw material for VO fertiliser production, and also as 15N-labelled sheep feed to obtain 15N-labelled manure. The labelled faeces fraction was used as raw material for the AO fertiliser. The VO fertiliser was obtained after an acidic and an enzyme-driven hydrolysis. The AO fertiliser was obtained after acidic hydrolysis. The VO liquid fertiliser presented an N concentration of 330 mg·L-1, 85% of total N was organic, while ammonium and nitrate N accounted for 55% and 45% of the mineral nitrogen fraction, respectively. This fertiliser also exhibited high K, Ca and S concentrations and notable values for the remaining macro- and micronutrients. The AO liquid fertiliser had a similar total N concentration (496 mg·L-1, 82% of total N in an organic form) to that of VO, but its mineral N fraction significantly differed, which came in a predominantly (95%) ammonia form. It also had a high content of N, P, K and other macronutrients, and sufficient Fe, Zn, Mn, Cu and B levels, which suggests its suitability as a potential fertiliser. The percentage of 15N enrichment in both VO and AO liquid fertilisers exceeded 2% 15N atom excess, which enabled their use in subsequent assays run to assess nitrogen uptake efficiency.

  3. Potassium and health.

    PubMed

    Weaver, Connie M

    2013-05-01

    Potassium was identified as a shortfall nutrient by the Dietary Guidelines for Americans 2010 Advisory Committee. The committee concluded that there was a moderate body of evidence of the association between potassium intake and blood pressure reduction in adults, which in turn influences the risk of stroke and coronary heart disease. Evidence is also accumulating of the protective effect of adequate dietary potassium on age-related bone loss and reduction of kidney stones. These benefits depend on organic anions associated with potassium as occurs in foods such as fruits and vegetables, in contrast to similar blood pressure-lowering benefits of potassium chloride. Benefits to blood pressure and bone health may occur at levels below current recommendations for potassium intake, especially from diet, but dose-response trials are needed to confirm this. Nevertheless, intakes considerably above current levels are needed for optimal health, and studies evaluating small increases in fruit and vegetable intake on bone and heart outcomes for short periods have had disappointing results. In modern societies, Western diets have led to a decrease in potassium intake with reduced consumption of fruits and vegetables with a concomitant increase in sodium consumption through increased consumption of processed foods. Consumption of white vegetables is associated with decreased risk of stroke, possibly related to their high potassium content. Potatoes are the highest source of dietary potassium, but the addition of salt should be limited. Low potassium-to-sodium intake ratios are more strongly related to cardiovascular disease risk than either nutrient alone. This relationship deserves further attention for multiple target tissue endpoints.

  4. Phosphorus in diet

    MedlinePlus

    According to Institute of Medicine recommendations, the recommended dietary intakes of phosphorus are as follows: 0 to 6 ... Food and Nutrition Board, Institute of Medicine. DRI Dietary Reference Intakes for Calcium, Phosphorus, Magnesium, Vitamin D, and Fluoride . ...

  5. Fertilisation and early developmental barriers to hybridisation in field crickets

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Post-mating interactions between the reproductive traits and gametes of mating individuals and among their genes within zygotes are invariably complex, providing multiple opportunities for reproduction to go awry. These interactions have the potential to act as barriers to gene flow between species, and may be important in the process of speciation. There are multiple post-mating barriers to interbreeding between the hybridising field crickets Gryllus bimaculatus and G. campestris. Female G. bimaculatus preferentially store sperm from conspecific males when mated to both conspecific and heterospecific partners. Additionally, conspecific males sire an even greater proportion of offspring than would be predicted from their sperm’s representation in the spermatheca. The nature of these post-sperm-storage barriers to hybridisation are unknown. We use a fluorescent staining technique to determine whether barriers occur prior to, or during embryo development. Results We show that eggs laid by G. bimaculatus females mated to G. campestris males are less likely to begin embryogenesis than eggs from conspecific mating pairs. Of the eggs that are successfully fertilised and start to develop, those from heterospecific mating pairs are more likely to arrest early, prior to blastoderm formation. We find evidence for bimodal variation among egg clutches in the number of developing embryos that subsequently arrest, indicating that there is genetic variation for incompatibility between mating individuals. In contrast to the pattern of early embryonic mortality, those hybrids reaching advanced stages of embryogenesis have survival rates equal to that of embryos from conspecific mating pairs. Conclusions Post-sperm-storage barriers to hybridisation show evidence of genetic polymorphism. They are sufficiently large, that if the species interbreed where they are sympatric, these barriers could play a role in the maintenance of reproductive isolation between them. The

  6. Substitution of peat, fertiliser and manure by compost in hobby gardening: user surveys and case studies.

    PubMed

    Andersen, Jacob K; Christensen, Thomas H; Scheutz, Charlotte

    2010-12-01

    Four user surveys were performed at recycle centres (RCs) in the Municipalities of Aarhus and Copenhagen, Denmark, to get general information on compost use and to examine the substitution of peat, fertiliser and manure by compost in hobby gardening. The average driving distance between the users' households and the RCs was found to be 4.3 km and the average amount of compost picked up was estimated at 800 kg per compost user per year. The application layer of the compost varied (between 1 and 50 cm) depending on the type of use. The estimated substitution (given as a fraction of the compost users that substitute peat, fertiliser and manure with compost) was 22% for peat, 12% for fertiliser and 7% for manure (41% in total) from the survey in Aarhus (n=74). The estimate from the survey in Copenhagen (n=1832) was 19% for peat, 24% for fertiliser and 15% for manure (58% in total). This is the first time, to the authors' knowledge, that the substitution of peat, fertiliser and manure with compost has been assessed for application in hobby gardening. Six case studies were performed as home visits in addition to the Aarhus surveys. From the user surveys and the case studies it was obvious that the total substitution of peat, fertiliser and manure was not 100%, as is often assumed when assigning environmental credits to compost. It was more likely around 50% and thus there is great potential for improvement. It was indicated that compost was used for a lot of purposes in hobby gardening. Apart from substitution of peat, fertiliser and manure, compost was used to improve soil quality and as a filling material (as a substitute for soil). Benefits from these types of application are, however, difficult to assess and thereby quantify.

  7. Cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator protein expression rate in healthy spermatozoa is not correlated with ovum fertilisation rate.

    PubMed

    Li, H-G; Xu, C-M; Chen, W-Y; Shi, Q-X; Ni, Y

    2012-05-01

    Our previous studies have shown that the cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) was important for capacitation and fertilisation in mouse, guinea pig and human spermatozoa. However, it is unclear whether CFTR is correlated with ovum fertilisation rate. The present study was to test the possible relationship between spermatozoa CFTR protein expression rate in healthy men and ovum fertilisation rate during in vitro fertilisation. Ninety-four couples for female factor infertility for IVF-ET treatments were retrospectively studied. All the patients were divided into three groups based on the fertilisation rate of ovum in vitro. It was performed to explore whether there were differences in sperm CFTR protein expression rate among the three groups and the relevance between CFTR protein expression rate and ovum fertilisation rate. Our study showed that there was no significant differences in sperm CFTR protein expression rate among the three groups (F = 0.614, P = 0.544), and the relevance between spermatozoa CFTR protein expression rate and ovum fertilisation rate was not significantly different (r = 0.013, P = 0.904). These results further suggest that CFTR protein expression rate in healthy men spermatozoa was not associated with ovum fertilisation rate and thus we cannot predict ovum fertilisation results by sperm CFTR protein expression rate.

  8. High potassium level

    MedlinePlus

    ... symptoms. Tests that may be ordered include: Electrocardiogram (ECG) Potassium level Your provider will likely check your ... have danger signs, such as changes in an ECG . Emergency treatment may include: Calcium given into your ...

  9. Potassium hydroxide poisoning

    MedlinePlus

    This article discusses poisoning from swallowing or touching potassium hydroxide or products that contain this chemical. This article is for information only. Do NOT use it to treat or manage an actual poison exposure. If ...

  10. What is Potassium?

    MedlinePlus

    ... carrots and beans. It's also found in dairy foods, meat, poultry, fish and nuts. Reach your recommended daily intake of potassium by frequently adding these foods to your daily menu: 1 cup cooked spinach: ...

  11. Potassium in diet

    MedlinePlus

    ... pressure. You may have hypokalemia if you: Take diuretics (water pills) to treat high blood pressure or ... and angiotensin 2 receptor blockers (ARBs) Potassium-sparing diuretics (water pills) such as spironolactone or amiloride Severe ...

  12. Potassium urine test

    MedlinePlus

    ... anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) Potassium supplements Water pills (diuretics) DO NOT stop taking any medicine before talking ... medicines, including beta blockers, lithium, trimethoprim, ... or nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) Adrenal glands ...

  13. Low potassium level

    MedlinePlus

    ... laxative, which can cause diarrhea Chronic kidney disease Diuretic medicines (water pills), used to treat heart failure ... potassium through a vein (IV). If you need diuretics, your provider may: Switch you to a form ...

  14. Effects of Potassium Mineral Fertilization on Potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) Yield on a Chernozem Soil in Hungary

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    László, Márton, ,, Dr.

    2010-05-01

    O and 0.8 kg per tonne MgO, respectivly. We found that 32.6 t/ha crop removed 1.8 kg sodium, 1.6 kg iron, 400 g zinc and 100 g manganese. Pattern of potassium and other nutrient uptake The uptake of nutrients during potato growth were studied. Results for tuber average uptake of nitrogen (472 kg/ha), phosphorus (77 kg/ha) and potassium (426 kg/ha) reached a maximum about 130 days after planting. It was observed that crop took up about 3.6 kg N, 0.5 kg P and 3.0 kg K per ha per day. Nutrient interaction Improving K- supply of the soil was found to increase yield and induce low concentration of numerous elements on leaves considered as important. K- fertilization had a negative effect mainly on the Mg and Ca contents. Thus e.g. K/Mg ratio increased from 3 to 11 at yearly flowering as an effect of K fertilization, that however, should not be considered an unfavourable ratio as yet and on these plots K fertilization still remained effective. Acknowledgements This research was supported by Research Institute for Soil Science and Agricultural Chemistry of the Hungarian Academy of Sciences. References Anderson, G.D.-Hewgill, D. (1978).: Effects of nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium on ‘Blueprint' grown potatoes. Maximising Yields of crops. ADASARC Symposium. 139-150. Burton, W.G. (1966).: The potato. Veemann. Wageningen. Evans, S.A. (1977).: The place of fertilizers in ‘Blueprints' for the production of potatoes and cereals. Fertilizer use and production of carbohydrates and lipids. Proc. 13th Coll. Inst. Bern, 231-241. FAO. (1995).: Production Yearbook, Vol. 49. Grewal, J.S. (1975).: Manuring of potatoes. Indian Farming. 25:15-17. Kali, K.K. (1980).: Private communication. Tokyo. Loué, A. (1977).: Fertilisation et nutrition minérale de la pomme de terre. Expérimentation et études agronomiques, SCPA. Mulhouse. 147. Márton, L. (1984).: Fertilization effects on potato yield and quality. Doctoral dissertation. KAU. Keszthely. Márton, L.-Jose, A.B. (1999).: Potato

  15. Ultrastructural study on the fertilisation process in sturgeon (Acipenser), function of acrosome and prevention of polyspermy.

    PubMed

    Psenicka, Martin; Rodina, Marek; Linhart, Otomar

    2010-01-01

    Sturgeon gametes differ from other fish in that their spermatozoa possess acrosome with finger-like posterolateral projections, which undergo exocytosis and filament formation, whereas eggs possess numerous micropyles. The fertilisation process in Acipenser baerii was investigated by fluorescence and electron microscopy. A suitable activation solution containing 2.5 mM CaCl(2), 15 mM Tris, pH 10 was found for detailed description of acrosomal reaction. The acrosome reaction includes the formation of a spear-like fertilisation filament coming from three endonuclear canals and implantation fossa through the acrosomes. It can accelerate the process of polyspermy prevention. Another unique feature of the acrosome was an anchor-like opening of the posterolateral projections. Mature eggs of A. baerii possessed 2-10 micropyles in the animal pole region. The eggs consisted of three principal layers and an outermost jelly coat blocking micropyle, and a layer of cortical granules in unfertilised eggs. With the exposure to freshwater, the jelly like layer separated from the egg surface, whereas the cortical granules swelled. No change between the layers of fertilised and unfertilised eggs, apart from the generation of an increasing perivitelline space by dissolution of the cortical granules, had been observed after the fusion of spermatozoon with an egg. A fertilisation cone blocked a fusion of other spermatozoa with cytoplasmatic projection in the fertilised micropyle.

  16. Live birth from slow-frozen rabbit oocytes after in vivo fertilisation.

    PubMed

    Jiménez-Trigos, Estrella; Vicente, José S; Marco-Jiménez, Francisco

    2013-01-01

    In vivo fertilisation techniques such as intraoviductal oocyte transfer have been considered as alternatives to bypass the inadequacy of conventional in vitro fertilisation in rabbit. There is only one study in the literature, published in 1989, that reports live offspring from cryopreserved rabbit oocytes. The aim of the present study was to establish the in vivo fertilisation procedure to generate live offspring with frozen oocytes. First, the effect of two recipient models (i) ovariectomised or (ii) oviduct ligated immediately after transfer on the ability of fresh oocytes to fertilise were compared. Second, generation of live offspring from slow-frozen oocytes was carried out using the ligated oviduct recipient model. Throughout the experiment, recipients were artificially inseminated 9 hours prior to oocyte transfer. In the first experiment, two days after unilateral transfer of fresh oocytes, oviducts and uterine horns were flushed to assess embryo recovery rates. The embryo recovery rates were low compared to control in both ovariectomised and ligated oviduct groups. However, ligated oviduct recipient showed significantly (P<0.05) higher embryo recovery rates compared to ovariectomised and control-transferred. In the second experiment, using bilateral oviduct ligation model, all females that received slow-frozen oocytes became pregnant and delivered a total of 4 live young naturally. Thus, in vivo fertilisation is an effective technique to generate live offspring using slow-frozen oocytes in rabbits.

  17. Sequential analysis of sperm functional aspects involved in fertilisation: a pilot study.

    PubMed

    Abu, D A H; Franken, D R; Hoffman, B; Henkel, R

    2012-05-01

    The development of diagnostic techniques in andrology as a second level of approach to the diagnosis of male factor infertility has enthused the focus of researchers on the development of a sequential diagnostic programme for these men. Semen samples of 78 men form couples undergoing in vitro fertilisation therapy were used in the study. The semen samples were used to test sperm functional aspects known to interfere with fertilisation. These tests included semen profile, DNA integrity, apoptosis, chromatin packaging, acridin orange staining, zona binding capacity, zona-induced acrosome reaction (AR). Results were correlated with fertilisation outcome. Statistical analyses of the recorded data were carried out using a logistic regression analysis model on all sperm functional tests. A negative and significant association with the fertilisation rates was recorded for DNA damage (r = -0.56; P ≤ 0.0005). A positive significant correlation was recorded between fertilisation rates and sperm with normal DNA (r = -0.57, P ≤ 0.0004), and zona-induced AR (r = 0.33, P ≤ 0.002). Diagnostic andrology can be regarded as a mandatory part of the male factor patient's work-up schedule to assist clinicians with the most suitable therapeutic modality to follow.

  18. Live Birth from Slow-Frozen Rabbit Oocytes after In Vivo Fertilisation

    PubMed Central

    Jiménez-Trigos, Estrella; Vicente, José S.; Marco-Jiménez, Francisco

    2013-01-01

    In vivo fertilisation techniques such as intraoviductal oocyte transfer have been considered as alternatives to bypass the inadequacy of conventional in vitro fertilisation in rabbit. There is only one study in the literature, published in 1989, that reports live offspring from cryopreserved rabbit oocytes. The aim of the present study was to establish the in vivo fertilisation procedure to generate live offspring with frozen oocytes. First, the effect of two recipient models (i) ovariectomised or (ii) oviduct ligated immediately after transfer on the ability of fresh oocytes to fertilise were compared. Second, generation of live offspring from slow-frozen oocytes was carried out using the ligated oviduct recipient model. Throughout the experiment, recipients were artificially inseminated 9 hours prior to oocyte transfer. In the first experiment, two days after unilateral transfer of fresh oocytes, oviducts and uterine horns were flushed to assess embryo recovery rates. The embryo recovery rates were low compared to control in both ovariectomised and ligated oviduct groups. However, ligated oviduct recipient showed significantly (P<0.05) higher embryo recovery rates compared to ovariectomised and control-transferred. In the second experiment, using bilateral oviduct ligation model, all females that received slow-frozen oocytes became pregnant and delivered a total of 4 live young naturally. Thus, in vivo fertilisation is an effective technique to generate live offspring using slow-frozen oocytes in rabbits. PMID:24358281

  19. Claypan depth effect on soil phosphorus and potassium dynamics

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Understanding the effects of fertilizer addition and crop removal on long-term change in spatially-variable soil test P (STP) and soil test K (STK) is crucial for maximizing the use of grower inputs on claypan soils. Using apparent electrical conductivity (ECa) to estimate topsoil depth (or depth to...

  20. Evolutionary shifts to self-fertilisation restricted to geographic range margins in North American Arabidopsis lyrata.

    PubMed

    Griffin, P C; Willi, Y

    2014-04-01

    Cross-fertilisation predominates in eukaryotes, but shifts to self-fertilisation are common and ecologically and evolutionarily important. Reproductive assurance under outcross gamete limitation is one eco-evolutionary process held responsible for the shift to selfing. Although small effective population size is a situation where selfing plants could theoretically benefit from reproductive assurance, empirical tests of the role of population size are rare. Here, we show that selfing evolved repeatedly at range margins, where historical demographic processes produced low effective population sizes. Outcrossing populations of North American Arabidopsis lyrata have low genetic diversity at geographic margins, with a signature of post-glacial range expansion in the north and rear-edge isolation in the south. Selfing populations occur at the margins of two genetic groups and never in their interior. These results corroborate small effective population size as the promoter of self-fertilisation and have important implications for our understanding of species turnover, range limits and range dynamics.

  1. Contaminant cocktails: Interactive effects of fertiliser and copper paint on marine invertebrate recruitment and mortality.

    PubMed

    Lawes, Jasmin C; Clark, Graeme F; Johnston, Emma L

    2016-01-15

    Understanding interactive effects of contaminants is critical to predict how human activities change ecosystem structure and function. We examined independent and interactive effects of two contaminants (fertiliser and copper paint) on the recruitment, mortality, and total abundance of developing invertebrate communities in the field, 2, 4, 6, and 8 weeks after substrate submersion. Contaminants affected community structure differently, and produced an intermediate community in combination. Fertiliser increased recruitment and decreased mortality of active filter feeders (ascidians and barnacles), while copper paint decreased recruitment and increased mortality of some taxa. Contaminants applied together affected some taxa (e.g. Didemnid ascidians) antagonistically, as fertiliser mitigated adverse effects of copper paint. Recruitment of active filter feeders appears to be indicative of nutrient enrichment, and their increased abundance may reduce elevated nutrients in modified waterways. This study demonstrates the need to consider both independent and interactive effects of contaminants on marine communities in the field. PMID:26632524

  2. Contaminant cocktails: Interactive effects of fertiliser and copper paint on marine invertebrate recruitment and mortality.

    PubMed

    Lawes, Jasmin C; Clark, Graeme F; Johnston, Emma L

    2016-01-15

    Understanding interactive effects of contaminants is critical to predict how human activities change ecosystem structure and function. We examined independent and interactive effects of two contaminants (fertiliser and copper paint) on the recruitment, mortality, and total abundance of developing invertebrate communities in the field, 2, 4, 6, and 8 weeks after substrate submersion. Contaminants affected community structure differently, and produced an intermediate community in combination. Fertiliser increased recruitment and decreased mortality of active filter feeders (ascidians and barnacles), while copper paint decreased recruitment and increased mortality of some taxa. Contaminants applied together affected some taxa (e.g. Didemnid ascidians) antagonistically, as fertiliser mitigated adverse effects of copper paint. Recruitment of active filter feeders appears to be indicative of nutrient enrichment, and their increased abundance may reduce elevated nutrients in modified waterways. This study demonstrates the need to consider both independent and interactive effects of contaminants on marine communities in the field.

  3. Dietary phosphorus requirement of young abalone Haliotis discus Hannai Ino

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tan, Bei-Ping; Mai, Kang-Sen; Liufu, Zhi-Guo

    2002-03-01

    An experiment was performed to determine the dietary phosphorus requirement of the young abalone, Haliotis discus hannai. Five semi-purified diets were formulated to provide a series of graded levels of dietary total phosphorus (0.23% 1.98) from monobasic potassium phosphate (KH2P04). The brown alga, Laminaria japonica, was used as a control diet. Similar size abalone were distributed in a single-pass, flow-through system using a completely randomized design with six treatments and three replicates each treatment. The abalone were hand-fed to satiation with appropriate diets in excess, once daily at 17:00. The feeding trial was run for 120-d. Survival rate and soft-body to shell ratio (SB/S) were constantly maintained regardless of dietary treatment. However, the weight gain rate (WGR), daily increment in shell length (DISL), muscle RNA to DNA ratio (RNA/DNA), carcass levels of lipid and protein, soft-body alkaline phosphatase (SBAKP), and phosphorus concentrations of whole body (WB) and soft body (SB) were significantly (ANOVA, P<0.05) affected by the dietary phosphorus level. The dietary phosphorus requirements of the abalone were evaluated from the WGR, DISL, and RNA/DNA ratio respectively, by using second-order polynomial regression analysis. Based on these criteria, about 1.0% 1.2% total dietary phosphorus, i.e. 0.9% 1.1% dietary available phosphorus is recommended for the maximum growth of the abalone.

  4. Assessing nitrate leaching losses with simulation scenarios and model based fertiliser recommendations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Michalczyk, A.; Kersebaum, K. C.; Hartmann, T.; Yue, S. C.; Chen, X. P.

    2012-04-01

    Excessive mineral nitrogen fertiliser application and irrigation in intensive agricultural cropping systems is seen as a major reason for low water and nitrogen use efficiencies in the North China Plain. High nitrogen fertiliser and irrigation water inputs do not only lead to higher production costs but also to decreasing ground water tables, nitrate accumulation in deeper soil layers below the root zone and water pollution. To evaluate the effects of improved management practices on environmental pollution risk, the HERMES model is used to simulate nitrate leaching losses. The HERMES model is a dynamic, process based crop model made for practical applications such as fertiliser recommendations. The model was tested and validated on two field studies in the south of the Hebei Province that lasted for about three years with a winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) and summer maize (Zea mays L.) double cropping system. Biomass, grain yield, plant N uptake and soil water content were better simulated than mineral nitrogen in the soil. A model based nitrogen fertiliser recommendation was applied in the field for one wheat crop. The parallel model simulation showed satisfying results. Although there was no change in the amount of irrigation, the results indicated a possibility to reduce the fertiliser rate and thus nitrogen leaching even more than in the reduced treatment without reducing crop yields. Further more a simulation scenario with a model based fertiliser recommendation and a field capacity based irrigation was compared to farmers practice and reduced nitrogen treatment. The scenario results showed that the model recommendation together with the reduced irrigation has the highest potential to reduce nitrate leaching. The results also showed that flood irrigation as practiced by the farmers and its difficult to estimate amounts of water bears a big uncertainty for modelling.

  5. Phosphorus poisoning in waterfowl

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Coburn, D.R.; DeWitt, J.B.; Derby, J.V.; Ediger, E.

    1950-01-01

    Black ducks and mallards were found to be highly susceptible to phosphorus poisoning. 3 mg. of white phosphorus per kg. of body weight given in a single dose resulted in death of a black duck in 6 hours. Pathologic changes in both acute and chronic poisoning were studied. Data are presented showing that diagnosis can be made accurately by chemical analysis of stored tissues in cases of phosphorus poisoning.

  6. Recipe for potassium

    SciTech Connect

    Izutani, Natsuko

    2012-11-12

    I investigate favorable conditions for producing potassium (K). Observations show [K/Fe] > 0 at low metallicities, while zero-metal supernova models show low [K/Fe] (< 0). Theoretically, it is natural that the odd-Z element, potassium decreases with lower metallicity, and thus, the observation should imply new and unknown sites for potassium. In this proceedings, I calculate proton-rich nucleosynthesis with three parameters, the initial Y{sub e} (from 0.51 to 0.60), the initial density {rho}{sub max} (10{sup 7}, 10{sup 8}, and 10{sup 9} [g/cm{sup 3}]), and the e-fold time {tau} for the density (0.01, 0.1, and 1.0 [sec]). Among 90 models I have calculated, only 26 models show [K/Fe] > 0, and they all have {rho}{sub max} = 10{sup 9}[g/cm{sup 3}]. I discuss parameter dependence of [K/Fe].

  7. High Temperature Stability of Potassium Beta Alumina

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Williams, R. M.; Kisor, A.; Ryan, M. A.

    1996-01-01

    None. From Objectives section: Evaluate the stability of potassium beta alumina under potassium AMTEC operating conditions. Evaluate the stability regime in which potassium beta alumina can be fabricated.

  8. Potassium Beta-Alumina/Molybdenum/Potassium Electrochemical Cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Williams, R.; Kisor, A.; Ryan, M.; Nakamura, B.; Kikert, S.; O'Connor, D.

    1994-01-01

    potassium alkali metal thermal-to-electric converter (K-AMTEC) cells utilizing potassium beta alumina solid electrolyte (K-BASE) are predicted to have improved properties for thermal to electric conversion at somewhat lower temperatures than sodium AMTEC's.

  9. Biogeochemistry: The fate of phosphorus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Némery, Julien; Garnier, Josette

    2016-05-01

    Phosphorus is essential for food production, but it is also a key cause of eutrophication. Estimates of phosphorus flux for the past 40-70 years reveal that large river basins can experience phases of phosphorus accumulation and depletion.

  10. Errors in potassium balance

    SciTech Connect

    Forbes, G.B.; Lantigua, R.; Amatruda, J.M.; Lockwood, D.H.

    1981-01-01

    Six overweight adult subjects given a low calorie diet containing adequate amounts of nitrogen but subnormal amounts of potassium (K) were observed on the Clinical Research Center for periods of 29 to 40 days. Metabolic balance of potassium was measured together with frequent assays of total body K by /sup 40/K counting. Metabolic K balance underestimated body K losses by 11 to 87% (average 43%): the intersubject variability is such as to preclude the use of a single correction value for unmeasured losses in K balance studies.

  11. Phosphorus availability for beneficial use in biosolids products.

    PubMed

    Hogan, F; McHugh, M; Morton, S

    2001-11-01

    It has become necessary to identify accurately the availability of phosphorus in biosolids products applied to land. The fertiliser value of these products must be quantified not only to satisfy the customer but also to ensure the best use of phosphorus when considering the need to avoid excess concentrations in the wider environment, With the advent of chemical phosphorus removal at more wastewater treatment works, the impact of iron and phosphate availability is particularly important. Existing research has indicated that there is a correlation between phosphate availability, and factors such as biosolids pH and iron concentration. However, it has not yet been possible to draw any firm conclusions, which can be used as a tool to manage the availability of phosphate in practice. Through a joint research programme for Anglian Water, involving literature investigation, laboratory tests on biosolid/soil interactions, and benchmarking phosphate availability over time, the study uses the best available input and output data to indicate the parts of the land bank most at risk from over-enrichment. PMID:11804356

  12. Glacial atmospheric phosphorus deposition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kjær, Helle Astrid; Dallmayr, Remi; Gabrieli, Jacopo; Goto-Azuma, Kumiko; Hirabayashi, Motohiro; Svensson, Anders; Vallelonga, Paul

    2016-04-01

    Phosphorus in the atmosphere is poorly studied and thus not much is known about atmospheric phosphorus and phosphate transport and deposition changes over time, though it is well known that phosphorus can be a source of long-range nutrient transport, e.g. Saharan dust transported to the tropical forests of Brazil. In glacial times it has been speculated that transport of phosphorus from exposed shelves would increase the ocean productivity by wash out. However whether the exposed shelf would also increase the atmospheric load to more remote places has not been investigated. Polar ice cores offer a unique opportunity to study the atmospheric transport of aerosols on various timescales, from glacial-interglacial periods to recent anthropogenic influences. We have for the first time determined the atmospheric transport of phosphorus to the Arctic by means of ice core analysis. Both total and dissolved reactive phosphorus were measured to investigate current and past atmospheric transport of phosphorus to the Arctic. Results show that glacial cold stadials had increased atmospheric total phosphorus mass loads of 70 times higher than in the past century, while DRP was only increased by a factor of 14. In the recent period we find evidence of a phosphorus increase over the past 50 yrs in ice cores close to human occupation likely correlated to forest fires. References: Kjær, Helle Astrid, et al. "Continuous flow analysis method for determination of dissolved reactive phosphorus in ice cores." Environmental science & technology 47.21 (2013): 12325-12332. Kjær, Helle Astrid, et al. "Greenland ice cores constrain glacial atmospheric fluxes of phosphorus." Journal of Geophysical Research: Atmospheres120.20 (2015).

  13. The Global Phosphorus Cycle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ruttenberg, K. C.

    2003-12-01

    Phosphorus is an essential nutrient for all life forms. It is a key player in fundamental biochemical reactions (Westheimer, 1987) involving genetic material (DNA, RNA) and energy transfer (ATP), and in structural support of organisms provided by membranes (phospholipids) and bone (the biomineral hydroxyapatite). Photosynthetic organisms utilize dissolved phosphorus, carbon, and other essential nutrients to build their tissues using energy from the Sun. Biological productivity is contingent upon the availability of phosphorus to these simple organisms that constitute the base of the food web in both terrestrial and aquatic systems. (For reviews of P-utilization, P-biochemicals, and pathways in aquatic plants, see Fogg (1973), Bieleski and Ferguson (1983), and Cembella et al. (1984a, 1984b).)Phosphorus locked up in bedrock, soils, and sediments is not directly available to organisms. Conversion of unavailable forms to dissolved orthophosphate, which can be directly assimilated, occurs through geochemical and biochemical reactions at various stages in the global phosphorus cycle. Production of biomass fueled by P-bioavailability results in the deposition of organic matter in soils and sediments, where it acts as a source of fuel and nutrients to microbial communities. Microbial activity in soils and sediments, in turn, strongly influences the concentration and chemical form of phosphorus incorporated into the geological record.The global phosphorus cycle has four major components: (i) tectonic uplift and exposure of phosphorus-bearing rocks to the forces of weathering; (ii) physical erosion and chemical weathering of rocks producing soils and providing dissolved and particulate phosphorus to rivers; (iii) riverine transport of phosphorus to lakes and the ocean; and (iv) sedimentation of phosphorus associated with organic and mineral matter and burial in sediments (Figure 1). The cycle begins anew with uplift of sediments into the weathering regime.

  14. Dynamic regulation of sperm interactions with the zona pellucida prior to and after fertilisation.

    PubMed

    Gadella, B M

    2012-01-01

    Recent findings have refined our thinking on sperm interactions with the cumulus-oocyte complex (COC) and our understanding of how, at the molecular level, the sperm cell fertilises the oocyte. Proteomic analyses has identified a capacitation-dependent sperm surface reordering that leads to the formation of functional multiprotein complexes involved in zona-cumulus interactions in several mammalian species. During this process, multiple docking of the acrosomal membrane to the plasma membrane takes place. In contrast with the dogma that the acrosome reaction is initiated when spermatozoa bind to the zona pellucida (ZP), it has been established recently that, in mice, the fertilising spermatozoon initiates its acrosome reaction during its voyage through the cumulus before it reaches the ZP. In fact, even acrosome-reacted mouse spermatozoa collected from the perivitelline space can fertilise another ZP-intact oocyte. The oviduct appears to influence the extracellular matrix properties of the spermatozoa as well as the COC. This may influence sperm binding and penetration of the cumulus and ZP, and, in doing so, increase monospermic while decreasing polyspermic fertilisation rates. Structural analysis of the ZP has shed new light on how spermatozoa bind and penetrate this structure and how the cortical reaction blocks sperm-ZP interactions. The current understanding of sperm interactions with the cumulus and ZP layers surrounding the oocyte is reviewed with a special emphasis on the lack of comparative knowledge on this topic in humans, as well as in most farm mammals.

  15. Uncommon but devastating event: total fertilisation failure following intracytoplasmic sperm injection.

    PubMed

    Goksan Pabuccu, E; Sinem Caglar, G; Dogus Demirkiran, O; Pabuccu, R

    2016-03-01

    Fertilisation with intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI) is a consequence of complex molecular interactions between spermatozoon and oocyte. Disruption of the process obviously prompts a frustrating event called total fertilisation failure (TFF). Up to 3% of ICSI cycles may result in TFF, and brief counselling for subsequent cycle management is indispensable. Within this perspective, ICSI cycles of a centre over a 10-year period were analysed to document TFF cases. Initial TFF after ICSI and subsequent ICSI cycle of the same cases were documented to clarify predictive factors of successful outcomes after initial TFF. In subsequent cycles, assisted oocyte activation (AOA) with calcium ionophore and Hypo-osmotic swelling test (HOST)/pentoxifilline for sperm selection was used. In the current analysis, successful fertilisation was achieved in 85% of the cases with previous TFF. The significant contributing factors for successful fertilisation in the latter cycle were: improved oocyte quantity and better sperm morphology. In conclusion, sporadic TFF event in the first and only cycle is usually a technically modifiable condition, but repeated TFF could indicate possible gamete defects, which might not be overcomed in the next modified ICSI cycle.

  16. Pregnancy established in an infertile patient after transfer of a donated embryo fertilised in vitro.

    PubMed Central

    Trounson, A; Leeton, J; Besanko, M; Wood, C; Conti, A

    1983-01-01

    In vitro fertilisation after stimulation of the ovulatory cycle has led to successful pregnancy. If more oocytes are recovered than are needed they may be left unfertilised, preserved, or donated to a recipient couple from whom oocytes cannot be obtained. A case of human pregnancy initiated by transfer of a donated embryo fertilised in vitro is reported. The donor was a 42 year old woman with primary infertility from whom six follicles were aspirated after stimulation of the ovulatory cycle. The recipient was a 38 year old infertile woman who had undergone several unsuccessful attempts for artificial insemination from a donor. Five oocytes were recovered from the donor's six follicles, four of which were inseminated with spermatozoa of the donor's husband and the fifth with a frozen sample of semen. Three of the four embryos fertilised by her husband were returned to the donor and the fifth was transferred to the recipient. No pregnancy was recorded in the donor, but pregnancy was confirmed in the recipient, though spontaneous abortion occurred after 10 weeks. This case will give useful information for further study of in vitro fertilisation, but also raises many ethical issues. PMID:6403104

  17. Potassium and High Blood Pressure

    MedlinePlus

    ... in blood pressure to certain patterns of food consumption. For example, the D.A.S.H. (Dietary Approaches ... are good natural sources of potassium. Potassium-rich foods include: Sweet ... Levels Mean * ...

  18. Potassium silver cyanide

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    Jump to main content . Integrated Risk Information System Recent Additions | Contact Us Search : All EPA IRIS • You are here : EPA Home • Research • Environmental Assessment • IRIS • IRIS Summaries Redirect Page As of September 28 , 2010 , the assessment summary for potassium silver cyanide is inclu

  19. Production of 15N-Labelled Liquid Organic Fertilisers Based on Manure and Crop Residue for Use in Fertigation Studies.

    PubMed

    Martínez-Alcántara, Belén; Martínez-Cuenca, Mary-Rus; Fernández, Carlos; Legaz, Francisco; Quiñones, Ana

    2016-01-01

    Large quantities of crop residue and animal manure from agricultural and livestock activities are annually produced worldwide. With proper management, these residues are potentially valuable sources of plant nutrients, mainly N. Recycling such subproducts in sustainably-based agricultural systems can minimise the use of mineral fertilisers, and hence reduce the potential risk of surface and groundwater pollution. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to obtain (small scale) two liquid labelled-organic fertilisers, an animal- and a vegetal-based organic (AO and VO, respectively) fertiliser, to be used as organic N sources in subsequent fertigation studies. Forage maize (Zea mays L.) grown under 15N-labelled fertiliser supply was used as raw material for VO fertiliser production, and also as 15N-labelled sheep feed to obtain 15N-labelled manure. The labelled faeces fraction was used as raw material for the AO fertiliser. The VO fertiliser was obtained after an acidic and an enzyme-driven hydrolysis. The AO fertiliser was obtained after acidic hydrolysis. The VO liquid fertiliser presented an N concentration of 330 mg·L-1, 85% of total N was organic, while ammonium and nitrate N accounted for 55% and 45% of the mineral nitrogen fraction, respectively. This fertiliser also exhibited high K, Ca and S concentrations and notable values for the remaining macro- and micronutrients. The AO liquid fertiliser had a similar total N concentration (496 mg·L-1, 82% of total N in an organic form) to that of VO, but its mineral N fraction significantly differed, which came in a predominantly (95%) ammonia form. It also had a high content of N, P, K and other macronutrients, and sufficient Fe, Zn, Mn, Cu and B levels, which suggests its suitability as a potential fertiliser. The percentage of 15N enrichment in both VO and AO liquid fertilisers exceeded 2% 15N atom excess, which enabled their use in subsequent assays run to assess nitrogen uptake efficiency. PMID:26982183

  20. Production of 15N-Labelled Liquid Organic Fertilisers Based on Manure and Crop Residue for Use in Fertigation Studies

    PubMed Central

    Martínez-Alcántara, Belén; Martínez-Cuenca, Mary-Rus; Fernández, Carlos; Legaz, Francisco; Quiñones, Ana

    2016-01-01

    Large quantities of crop residue and animal manure from agricultural and livestock activities are annually produced worldwide. With proper management, these residues are potentially valuable sources of plant nutrients, mainly N. Recycling such subproducts in sustainably-based agricultural systems can minimise the use of mineral fertilisers, and hence reduce the potential risk of surface and groundwater pollution. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to obtain (small scale) two liquid labelled-organic fertilisers, an animal- and a vegetal-based organic (AO and VO, respectively) fertiliser, to be used as organic N sources in subsequent fertigation studies. Forage maize (Zea mays L.) grown under 15N-labelled fertiliser supply was used as raw material for VO fertiliser production, and also as 15N-labelled sheep feed to obtain 15N-labelled manure. The labelled faeces fraction was used as raw material for the AO fertiliser. The VO fertiliser was obtained after an acidic and an enzyme-driven hydrolysis. The AO fertiliser was obtained after acidic hydrolysis. The VO liquid fertiliser presented an N concentration of 330 mg·L-1, 85% of total N was organic, while ammonium and nitrate N accounted for 55% and 45% of the mineral nitrogen fraction, respectively. This fertiliser also exhibited high K, Ca and S concentrations and notable values for the remaining macro- and micronutrients. The AO liquid fertiliser had a similar total N concentration (496 mg·L-1, 82% of total N in an organic form) to that of VO, but its mineral N fraction significantly differed, which came in a predominantly (95%) ammonia form. It also had a high content of N, P, K and other macronutrients, and sufficient Fe, Zn, Mn, Cu and B levels, which suggests its suitability as a potential fertiliser. The percentage of 15N enrichment in both VO and AO liquid fertilisers exceeded 2% 15N atom excess, which enabled their use in subsequent assays run to assess nitrogen uptake efficiency. PMID:26982183

  1. Phosphorus recovery from wastes

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Phosphorus (P) is an important macro-nutrient essential for all living organisms and phosphate rock is the main raw material for all inorganic P fertilizers. It is expected that there will be a P peak and resulting P fertilizer shortage in near future. In general, phosphorus use efficiency is low a...

  2. Black phosphorus gas sensors.

    PubMed

    Abbas, Ahmad N; Liu, Bilu; Chen, Liang; Ma, Yuqiang; Cong, Sen; Aroonyadet, Noppadol; Köpf, Marianne; Nilges, Tom; Zhou, Chongwu

    2015-05-26

    The utilization of black phosphorus and its monolayer (phosphorene) and few-layers in field-effect transistors has attracted a lot of attention to this elemental two-dimensional material. Various studies on optimization of black phosphorus field-effect transistors, PN junctions, photodetectors, and other applications have been demonstrated. Although chemical sensing based on black phosphorus devices was theoretically predicted, there is still no experimental verification of such an important study of this material. In this article, we report on chemical sensing of nitrogen dioxide (NO2) using field-effect transistors based on multilayer black phosphorus. Black phosphorus sensors exhibited increased conduction upon NO2 exposure and excellent sensitivity for detection of NO2 down to 5 ppb. Moreover, when the multilayer black phosphorus field-effect transistor was exposed to NO2 concentrations of 5, 10, 20, and 40 ppb, its relative conduction change followed the Langmuir isotherm for molecules adsorbed on a surface. Additionally, on the basis of an exponential conductance change, the rate constants for adsorption and desorption of NO2 on black phosphorus were extracted for different NO2 concentrations, and they were in the range of 130-840 s. These results shed light on important electronic and sensing characteristics of black phosphorus, which can be utilized in future studies and applications.

  3. Black Phosphorus Terahertz Photodetectors.

    PubMed

    Viti, Leonardo; Hu, Jin; Coquillat, Dominique; Knap, Wojciech; Tredicucci, Alessandro; Politano, Antonio; Vitiello, Miriam Serena

    2015-10-01

    The first room-temperature terahertz (THz)-frequency nanodetector exploiting a 10 nm thick flake of exfoliated crystalline black phosphorus as an active channel of a field-effect transistor, is devised. By engineering and embedding planar THz antennas for efficient light harvesting, the first technological demonstration of a phosphorus-based active THz device is described. PMID:26270791

  4. Cytokine expression in the seminal plasma and its effects on fertilisation rates in an IVF cycle.

    PubMed

    Seshadri, S; Bates, M; Vince, G; Jones, D I Lewis

    2011-12-01

    Cytokines are released by various immunocompetent cell subsets in the male urogenital tract and are thought to affect sperm cell function and reproductive process. The aim of the study was to evaluate the levels and a possible role of seven seminal plasma cytokines with fertilisation rates in men attending an in vitro fertilisation (IVF) programme. A total of 36 men of couples who were undergoing traditional IVF in a regional reproductive medicine unit were recruited into this prospective study. Cytokines such as interleukin (IL)-6, IL-8, IL-10, IL-11, IL-12, tumour necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) and interferon gamma (IFN-γ) in the seminal plasma were determined using enzyme linked immunosorbent assay. IL-6, IL-8, IL-10, IL-11 and IFN-γ were detected in all samples. IL-12, and TNF-α were detected in most samples. Levels of IL-11 were significantly higher in the good fertiliser group (P ≤ 0.05). Positive correlation between cytokines such as IL-6 and IL-8 (P < 0.03), IL-10 and IL-11 (P < 0.001) and IFN-γ and IL-10 and IL-11 (P < 0.04 and P < 0.0001 respectively) were found. Our study confirms that the six cytokines other than IL-11 do not affect spermatozoon-oocyte interaction and fertilisation rates in IVF. IL-11 could have a role in the fertilising capacity of the spermatozoa. Significant correlation exists among these cytokines which shows that cytokines rarely act in isolation but rather in a network.

  5. Effects of controlled-release fertiliser on nitrogen use efficiency in summer maize.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Bin; Dong, Shuting; Zhang, Jiwang; Liu, Peng

    2013-01-01

    Nitrogen (N) is a nutrient element necessary for plant growth and development. However, excessive inputs of N will lead to inefficient use and large N losses to the environment, which can adversely affect air and water quality, biodiversity and human health. To examine the effects of controlled-release fertilisers (CRF) on yield, we measured ammonia volatilisation, N use efficiency (NUE) and photosynthetic rate after anthesis in summer maize hybrid cultivar Zhengdan958. Maize was grown using common compound fertiliser (CCF), the same amount of resin-coated controlled release fertiliser (CRFIII), the same amount of sulphur-coated controlled release fertiliser (SCFIII) as CCF, 75% CRF (CRFII) and SCF (SCFII), 50% CRF (CRFI) and SCF (SCFI), and no fertiliser. We found that treatments CRFIII, SCFIII, CRFII and SCFII produced grain yields that were 13.15%, 14.15%, 9.69% and 10.04% higher than CCF. There were no significant differences in grain yield among CRFI, SCFI and CCF. We also found that the ammonia volatilisation rates of CRF were significantly lower than those of CCF. The CRF treatments reduced the emission of ammonia by 51.34% to 91.34% compared to CCF. In addition, after treatment with CRF, maize exhibited a higher net photosynthetic rate than CCF after anthesis. Agronomic NUE and apparent N recovery were higher in the CRF treatment than in the CCF treatment. The N uptake and physiological NUE of the four yield-enhanced CRF treatments were higher than those of CCF. These results suggest that the increase in NUE in the CRF treatments was generally attributable to the higher photosynthetic rate and lower ammonia volatilisation compared to CCF-treated maize. PMID:23936449

  6. Effects of Controlled-Release Fertiliser on Nitrogen Use Efficiency in Summer Maize

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Bin; Dong, Shuting; Zhang, Jiwang; Liu, Peng

    2013-01-01

    Nitrogen (N) is a nutrient element necessary for plant growth and development. However, excessive inputs of N will lead to inefficient use and large N losses to the environment, which can adversely affect air and water quality, biodiversity and human health. To examine the effects of controlled-release fertilisers (CRF) on yield, we measured ammonia volatilisation, N use efficiency (NUE) and photosynthetic rate after anthesis in summer maize hybrid cultivar Zhengdan958. Maize was grown using common compound fertiliser (CCF), the same amount of resin-coated controlled release fertiliser (CRFIII), the same amount of sulphur-coated controlled release fertiliser (SCFIII) as CCF, 75% CRF (CRFII) and SCF (SCFII), 50% CRF (CRFI) and SCF (SCFI), and no fertiliser. We found that treatments CRFIII, SCFIII, CRFII and SCFII produced grain yields that were 13.15%, 14.15%, 9.69% and 10.04% higher than CCF. There were no significant differences in grain yield among CRFI, SCFI and CCF. We also found that the ammonia volatilisation rates of CRF were significantly lower than those of CCF. The CRF treatments reduced the emission of ammonia by 51.34% to 91.34% compared to CCF. In addition, after treatment with CRF, maize exhibited a higher net photosynthetic rate than CCF after anthesis. Agronomic NUE and apparent N recovery were higher in the CRF treatment than in the CCF treatment. The N uptake and physiological NUE of the four yield-enhanced CRF treatments were higher than those of CCF. These results suggest that the increase in NUE in the CRF treatments was generally attributable to the higher photosynthetic rate and lower ammonia volatilisation compared to CCF-treated maize. PMID:23936449

  7. Effects of controlled-release fertiliser on nitrogen use efficiency in summer maize.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Bin; Dong, Shuting; Zhang, Jiwang; Liu, Peng

    2013-01-01

    Nitrogen (N) is a nutrient element necessary for plant growth and development. However, excessive inputs of N will lead to inefficient use and large N losses to the environment, which can adversely affect air and water quality, biodiversity and human health. To examine the effects of controlled-release fertilisers (CRF) on yield, we measured ammonia volatilisation, N use efficiency (NUE) and photosynthetic rate after anthesis in summer maize hybrid cultivar Zhengdan958. Maize was grown using common compound fertiliser (CCF), the same amount of resin-coated controlled release fertiliser (CRFIII), the same amount of sulphur-coated controlled release fertiliser (SCFIII) as CCF, 75% CRF (CRFII) and SCF (SCFII), 50% CRF (CRFI) and SCF (SCFI), and no fertiliser. We found that treatments CRFIII, SCFIII, CRFII and SCFII produced grain yields that were 13.15%, 14.15%, 9.69% and 10.04% higher than CCF. There were no significant differences in grain yield among CRFI, SCFI and CCF. We also found that the ammonia volatilisation rates of CRF were significantly lower than those of CCF. The CRF treatments reduced the emission of ammonia by 51.34% to 91.34% compared to CCF. In addition, after treatment with CRF, maize exhibited a higher net photosynthetic rate than CCF after anthesis. Agronomic NUE and apparent N recovery were higher in the CRF treatment than in the CCF treatment. The N uptake and physiological NUE of the four yield-enhanced CRF treatments were higher than those of CCF. These results suggest that the increase in NUE in the CRF treatments was generally attributable to the higher photosynthetic rate and lower ammonia volatilisation compared to CCF-treated maize.

  8. Phosphorus chemistry in everyday living

    SciTech Connect

    Toy, D.F.; Walsh, E.F.

    1987-01-01

    This book brings to life the versatility of phosphorus and its compounds and is filled with personal anecdotes and experiences of the authors. Covers the uses of phosphorus in matches and warfare; phosphates and food, fertilizers, cleaners, and detergents; organic phosphorus nerve gases and insecticides. Also discusses phosphoric acids, organic phosphorus polymers, deoxyribonucleic and ribonucleic acids and adenosine triphosphate.

  9. Detecting potassium on Mercury

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Killen, R. M.; Potter, A. E.; Morgan, T. H.

    1991-01-01

    A critical comment on the work of A.L. Sprague et al. (1990) is presented. It is argued that, in attributing an enhanced emission in the potassium D lines on Oct. 14, 1987 in the equatorial region of Mercury to a diffusion source centered on Caloris Basin, Sprague et al. misinterpreted the data. Sprague et al. present a reply, taking issue with the commenters.

  10. Phosphorus, phosphorous, and phosphate.

    PubMed

    Iheagwara, O Susan; Ing, Todd S; Kjellstrand, Carl M; Lew, Susie Q

    2013-10-01

    This article distinguishes the terms "phosphorus, phosphorous, and phosphate" which are frequently used interchangeably. We point out the difference between phosphorus and phosphate, with an emphasis on the unit of measure. Expressing a value without the proper name or unit of measure may lead to misunderstanding and erroneous conclusions. We indicate why phosphate must be expressed as milligrams per deciliter or millimoles per liter and not as milliequivalents per liter. Therefore, we elucidate the distinction among the terms "phosphorus, phosphorous, and phosphate" and the importance of saying precisely what one really means.

  11. Measuring metal and phosphorus speciation in P-rich anaerobic digesters.

    PubMed

    Carliell-Marquet, C M; Wheatley, A D

    2002-01-01

    High concentrations of soluble orthophosphate, magnesium and potassium are released during anaerobic digestion of biological phosphorus removal (BPR) sludge. This research was undertaken to investigate the effects of phosphorus enrichment on digester performance, metal and phosphorus speciation. High concentrations of soluble PO4-P (> 250 mg/l) were found to have a retarding effect on anaerobic digestion, reducing the rate of volatile solids digestion and methane production in comparison to control digesters. This was found to be reversible after a period of time, which was related to the amount of PO4-P added to the digesters, higher concentrations of PO4-P requiring more time for digester recovery. Addition of magnesium and potassium to the digesters, together with PO4-P, reduced the inhibitory effect of phosphorus enrichment but these digesters still showed lower rates of volatile solids digestion and methane production in comparison to the control digesters. Phosphorus enrichment resulted in extensive precipitation of calcium, magnesium and manganese, markedly reducing the soluble and easily available fractions of these metals. Other trace metals such as copper, zinc, chromium, nickel and cobalt actually showed increased levels of solubility as a result of phosphorus enrichment. This was thought to be caused by high levels of soluble organic carbon in the phosphorus-rich anaerobic digesters, which acted as organic ligands for metal complexation. PMID:12188563

  12. Assessment and management of risks arising from exposure to cadmium in fertilisers--II.

    PubMed

    Cupit, M; Larsson, O; de Meeûs, C; Eduljee, G H; Hutton, M

    2002-05-27

    A preliminary, illustrative human health risk assessment of exposure to cadmium in phosphate fertilisers was performed using typical UK data and a protocol previously developed for application by individual Member States in the European Union. The risk assessment indicated that the for the most pessimistic population exposures characterised by both extreme (97th percentile) cereal and potato consumption and high susceptibility to cadmium uptake, the estimated dose was under the WHO Provisional Tolerable Weekly Intake (PTWI) for fertiliser cadmium concentrations ranging from 15 to 100 mg Cd/kg P2O5 applied over 100 years. However, the low margin of safety for high risk groups and the uncertainties inherent in the overall risk assessment suggested that a prudent risk management strategy would involve maintenance of low levels of cadmium in fertilisers and/or conditions that permitted low accumulation of cadmium in soils. On this basis, two main risk reduction measures were developed and assessed: (a) imposition of limits on cadmium concentration in fertilisers; and (b) imposition of charges on levels of cadmium in phosphate fertilisers. An assessment of the economic impact of these risk reduction measures indicated that, at all price elasticities, the most significant impact in terms of changes in demand and changes in consumer expenditure on phosphate fertilisers will be seen with cadmium charges where no thresholds are defined. The impact on the consumer (i.e. farmer) will be an increase in spending of approximately US $4000 per year, which is considered significant, accompanied by a decrease in demand above 20%. If a threshold is set at 60 mg Cd/kg P2O5, the impact is significantly reduced, but stays relatively high compared to the other options. The analysis also indicates that the use of low-cadmium rock is the low cost option. At a likely rock price increase of approximately 5% and assuming a likely price elasticity of -0.2, the yearly costs to farmers will be

  13. Prevention of multiple pregnancies in couples with unexplained or mild male subfertility: randomised controlled trial of in vitro fertilisation with single embryo transfer or in vitro fertilisation in modified natural cycle compared with intrauterine insemination with controlled ovarian hyperstimulation

    PubMed Central

    Bensdorp, A J; Tjon-Kon-Fat, R I; Bossuyt, P M M; Koks, C A M; Oosterhuis, G J E; Hoek, A; Hompes, P G A; Broekmans, F J M; Verhoeve, H R; de Bruin, J P; van Golde, R; Repping, S; Cohlen, B J; Lambers, M D A; van Bommel, P F; Slappendel, E; Perquin, D; Smeenk, J M; Pelinck, M J; Gianotten, J; Hoozemans, D A; Maas, J W M; Eijkemans, M J C; van der Veen, F; Mol, B W J

    2015-01-01

    Objectives To compare the effectiveness of in vitro fertilisation with single embryo transfer or in vitro fertilisation in a modified natural cycle with that of intrauterine insemination with controlled ovarian hyperstimulation in terms of a healthy child. Design Multicentre, open label, three arm, parallel group, randomised controlled non-inferiority trial. Setting 17 centres in the Netherlands. Participants Couples seeking fertility treatment after at least 12 months of unprotected intercourse, with the female partner aged between 18 and 38 years, an unfavourable prognosis for natural conception, and a diagnosis of unexplained or mild male subfertility. Interventions Three cycles of in vitro fertilisation with single embryo transfer (plus subsequent cryocycles), six cycles of in vitro fertilisation in a modified natural cycle, or six cycles of intrauterine insemination with ovarian hyperstimulation within 12 months after randomisation. Main outcome measures The primary outcome was birth of a healthy child resulting from a singleton pregnancy conceived within 12 months after randomisation. Secondary outcomes were live birth, clinical pregnancy, ongoing pregnancy, multiple pregnancy, time to pregnancy, complications of pregnancy, and neonatal morbidity and mortality Results 602 couples were randomly assigned between January 2009 and February 2012; 201 were allocated to in vitro fertilisation with single embryo transfer, 194 to in vitro fertilisation in a modified natural cycle, and 207 to intrauterine insemination with controlled ovarian hyperstimulation. Birth of a healthy child occurred in 104 (52%) couples in the in vitro fertilisation with single embryo transfer group, 83 (43%) in the in vitro fertilisation in a modified natural cycle group, and 97 (47%) in the intrauterine insemination with controlled ovarian hyperstimulation group. This corresponds to a risk, relative to intrauterine insemination with ovarian hyperstimulation, of 1.10 (95% confidence interval

  14. Phosphorus blood test

    MedlinePlus

    ... serum; HPO4 -2 ; PO4 -3 ; Inorganic phosphate; Serum phosphorus ... that may affect the test. These medicines include water pills (diuretics), antacids, and laxatives. DO NOT stop taking any medicine before talking to your provider.

  15. Potassium Channelopathies and Gastrointestinal Ulceration

    PubMed Central

    Han, Jaeyong; Lee, Seung Hun; Giebisch, Gerhard; Wang, Tong

    2016-01-01

    Potassium channels and transporters maintain potassium homeostasis and play significant roles in several different biological actions via potassium ion regulation. In previous decades, the key revelations that potassium channels and transporters are involved in the production of gastric acid and the regulation of secretion in the stomach have been recognized. Drugs used to treat peptic ulceration are often potassium transporter inhibitors. It has also been reported that potassium channels are involved in ulcerative colitis. Direct toxicity to the intestines from nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs has been associated with altered potassium channel activities. Several reports have indicated that the long-term use of the antianginal drug Nicorandil, an adenosine triphosphate-sensitive potassium channel opener, increases the chances of ulceration and perforation from the oral to anal regions throughout the gastrointestinal (GI) tract. Several of these drug features provide further insights into the role of potassium channels in the occurrence of ulceration in the GI tract. The purpose of this review is to investigate whether potassium channelopathies are involved in the mechanisms responsible for ulceration that occurs throughout the GI tract. PMID:27784845

  16. Potassium toxicity at low serum potassium levels with refeeding syndrome.

    PubMed

    Vemula, Praveen; Abela, Oliver G; Narisetty, Keerthy; Rhine, David; Abela, George S

    2015-01-01

    Refeeding syndrome is a life-threatening condition occurring in severely malnourished patients after initiating feeding. Severe hypophosphatemia with reduced adenosine triphosphate production has been implicated, but little data are available regarding electrolyte abnormalities. In this case, we report electrocardiographic changes consistent with hyperkalemia during potassium replacement after a serum level increase from 1.9 to 2.9 mEq/L. This was reversed by lowering serum potassium back to 2.0 mEq/L. In conclusion, the patient with prolonged malnutrition became adapted to low potassium levels and developed potassium toxicity with replacement.

  17. Targeting potassium channels in cancer

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Potassium channels are pore-forming transmembrane proteins that regulate a multitude of biological processes by controlling potassium flow across cell membranes. Aberrant potassium channel functions contribute to diseases such as epilepsy, cardiac arrhythmia, and neuromuscular symptoms collectively known as channelopathies. Increasing evidence suggests that cancer constitutes another category of channelopathies associated with dysregulated channel expression. Indeed, potassium channel–modulating agents have demonstrated antitumor efficacy. Potassium channels regulate cancer cell behaviors such as proliferation and migration through both canonical ion permeation–dependent and noncanonical ion permeation–independent functions. Given their cell surface localization and well-known pharmacology, pharmacological strategies to target potassium channel could prove to be promising cancer therapeutics. PMID:25049269

  18. Differences in shoot and root terpenoid profiles and plant responses to fertilisation in Tanacetum vulgare.

    PubMed

    Kleine, Sandra; Müller, Caroline

    2013-12-01

    Intraspecific chemical diversity is a common phenomenon especially found in shoots of essential oil-accumulating plant species. Abiotic factors can influence the concentration of essential oils, but the effects are inconsistent and little is known in how far these may vary within an individual and within species between chemotypes. Tanacetum vulgare L. occurs in various chemotypes that differ in the composition of mono- and sesquiterpenoids in their shoot tissues. We investigated how far shoot chemotype grouping is mirrored in root terpenoid profiles. Furthermore, we studied whether different fertilisation amounts influence the plant growth and morphological traits as well as the constitutive terpenoid concentration of leaves and roots of three chemotypes, trans-carvyl acetate, β-thujone, and camphor, to different degrees. Shoot terpenoids were dominated by monoterpenoids, while the roots contained mainly sesquiterpenoids. The clear grouping in three chemotypes based on leaf chemistry was weakly mirrored in the root terpenoid composition. Furthermore, the leaf C/N ratio and the stem height differed between chemotypes. All plants responded to increased nutrient availability with increased total biomass and specific leaf area but decreased C/N and root/shoot ratios. Leaf terpenoid concentrations decreased with increasing fertiliser supply, independent of chemotype. In contrast to the leaves, the terpenoid concentrations of the roots were unaffected by fertilisation. Our results demonstrate that aboveground and belowground organs within a species can be under different selection pressures.

  19. Ultrastructural changes of the egg apparatus associated with fertilisation of natural tetraploid Trifolium pratense L. (Fabaceae).

    PubMed

    Buyukkartal, H Nurhan Bakar

    2009-01-01

    The aim of this study is to describe the ultrastructural changes of the egg apparatus associated with fertilisation of the natural tetraploid Trifolium pratense. The pollen tube enters one of the synergids through the filliform apparatus from the micropyle. Before the entry of the pollen tube into the embryo sac, one of the synergids begins to degenerate, as indicated by increased electron density and a loss of volume. This cell serves as the site of entry for the pollen tube. Following fertilization, the vacuolar organisation in the zygote changes; in addition to the large micropylar vacuole, there are several small vacuoles of varying size. Ribosomal concentration increases significantly after fertilisation. In T. pratense, ultrastructural changes between the egg cell and zygote stages are noticeable. Several marked changes occur in the egg cell because of fertilisation. The zygote cell contains ribosomes has many mitochondria, plastids, lipids, vacuoles. After fertilization, most of the food reserves are located in the integument in the form of starch. The zygote shows ultrastructural changes when compared to the egg cell and appears to be metabolically active.

  20. Influence of mitochondrial membrane potential of spermatozoa on in vitro fertilisation outcome.

    PubMed

    Marchetti, P; Ballot, C; Jouy, N; Thomas, P; Marchetti, C

    2012-04-01

    To determine whether the outcome of in vitro fertilisation (IVF) is influenced by the percentage of spermatozoa with functional mitochondria, a total of 91 random couples undergoing IVF were included. Mitochondrial function was determined by flow cytometry and expressed as percentage of spermatozoa. Conventional sperm parameters were studied by light microscopy. Reproductive outcome parameters were fertilisation rate, embryo quality and clinical pregnancy. It was found that the fertilisation rate was correlated with the percentage of spermatozoa (r = 0.24, P = 0.01) as well as with the percentage of highly motile spermatozoa. However, we did not find any relationship between the percentage of spermatozoa and embryo quality. Nevertheless, no patient who exhibited less than 64% of spermatozoa achieved pregnancy. It is concluded that determination of Δψ(m) provides accurate information to guide physicians to identify male patients for whom IVF will be unlikely to result in pregnancy. Therefore, we suggest that the percentage of spermatozoa may contribute to identify the most appropriate treatment for an individual patient.

  1. Comparison of conventional in vitro fertilisation and intracytoplasmic sperm injection outcomes in patients with moderate oligoasthenozoospermia.

    PubMed

    Shuai, H-L; Ye, Q; Huang, Y-H; Xie, B-G

    2015-06-01

    The method of choice for assisted reproductive technology treatment in vitro fertilisation (IVF) or intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI) is usually based on the evaluation of male infertility factors. Decisions for couples with moderate oligoasthenozoospermia (OA) are often empirical because uniform treatment criteria are lacking. This study aimed to evaluate the effect of patients with moderate OA treated with conventional IVF and ICSI. A total of 199 couples with moderate OA undergoing their first IVF/ICSI cycle were included in the study. The patients were divided into two groups according to the type of insemination: conventional IVF group (n = 97) and ICSI group (n = 102). All patients were randomised to be inseminated either by conventional IVF or ICSI. The fertilisation rate, embryo quality, implantation rate and clinical pregnancy rate were examined. No differences in the fertilisation, implantation and pregnancy rates were observed between conventional IVF and ICSI groups (P > 0.05). However, the number of good-quality embryos was significantly higher in the ICSI group than in the IVF group (P < 0.05). Couples with moderate OA did not influence on the overall clinical outcomes between IVF and ICSI treatments, and a negative influence by ICSI on blastocyst development was not confirmed.

  2. Influence of mitochondrial membrane potential of spermatozoa on in vitro fertilisation outcome.

    PubMed

    Marchetti, P; Ballot, C; Jouy, N; Thomas, P; Marchetti, C

    2012-04-01

    To determine whether the outcome of in vitro fertilisation (IVF) is influenced by the percentage of spermatozoa with functional mitochondria, a total of 91 random couples undergoing IVF were included. Mitochondrial function was determined by flow cytometry and expressed as percentage of spermatozoa. Conventional sperm parameters were studied by light microscopy. Reproductive outcome parameters were fertilisation rate, embryo quality and clinical pregnancy. It was found that the fertilisation rate was correlated with the percentage of spermatozoa (r = 0.24, P = 0.01) as well as with the percentage of highly motile spermatozoa. However, we did not find any relationship between the percentage of spermatozoa and embryo quality. Nevertheless, no patient who exhibited less than 64% of spermatozoa achieved pregnancy. It is concluded that determination of Δψ(m) provides accurate information to guide physicians to identify male patients for whom IVF will be unlikely to result in pregnancy. Therefore, we suggest that the percentage of spermatozoa may contribute to identify the most appropriate treatment for an individual patient. PMID:21714802

  3. Membrane scaling and flux decline during fertiliser-drawn forward osmosis desalination of brackish groundwater.

    PubMed

    Phuntsho, Sherub; Lotfi, Fezeh; Hong, Seungkwan; Shaffer, Devin L; Elimelech, Menachem; Shon, Ho Kyong

    2014-06-15

    Fertiliser-drawn forward osmosis (FDFO) desalination has been recently studied as one feasible application of forward osmosis (FO) for irrigation. In this study, the potential of membrane scaling in the FDFO process has been investigated during the desalination of brackish groundwater (BGW). While most fertilisers containing monovalent ions did not result in any scaling when used as an FO draw solution (DS), diammonium phosphate (DAP or (NH4)2HPO4) resulted in significant scaling, which contributed to severe flux decline. Membrane autopsy using scanning electron microscopy (SEM), energy-dispersive x-ray spectroscopy (EDS), and x-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis indicated that the reverse diffusion of DAP from the DS to the feed solution was primarily responsible for scale formation during the FDFO process. Physical cleaning of the membrane with deionised water at varying crossflow velocities was employed to evaluate the reversibility of membrane scaling and the extent of flux recovery. For the membrane scaled using DAP as DS, 80-90% of the original flux was recovered when the crossflow velocity for physical cleaning was the same as the crossflow velocity during FDFO desalination. However, when a higher crossflow velocity or Reynolds number was used, the flux was recovered almost completely, irrespective of the DS concentration used. This study underscores the importance of selecting a suitable fertiliser for FDFO desalination of brackish groundwater to avoid membrane scaling and severe flux decline.

  4. Membrane scaling and flux decline during fertiliser-drawn forward osmosis desalination of brackish groundwater.

    PubMed

    Phuntsho, Sherub; Lotfi, Fezeh; Hong, Seungkwan; Shaffer, Devin L; Elimelech, Menachem; Shon, Ho Kyong

    2014-06-15

    Fertiliser-drawn forward osmosis (FDFO) desalination has been recently studied as one feasible application of forward osmosis (FO) for irrigation. In this study, the potential of membrane scaling in the FDFO process has been investigated during the desalination of brackish groundwater (BGW). While most fertilisers containing monovalent ions did not result in any scaling when used as an FO draw solution (DS), diammonium phosphate (DAP or (NH4)2HPO4) resulted in significant scaling, which contributed to severe flux decline. Membrane autopsy using scanning electron microscopy (SEM), energy-dispersive x-ray spectroscopy (EDS), and x-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis indicated that the reverse diffusion of DAP from the DS to the feed solution was primarily responsible for scale formation during the FDFO process. Physical cleaning of the membrane with deionised water at varying crossflow velocities was employed to evaluate the reversibility of membrane scaling and the extent of flux recovery. For the membrane scaled using DAP as DS, 80-90% of the original flux was recovered when the crossflow velocity for physical cleaning was the same as the crossflow velocity during FDFO desalination. However, when a higher crossflow velocity or Reynolds number was used, the flux was recovered almost completely, irrespective of the DS concentration used. This study underscores the importance of selecting a suitable fertiliser for FDFO desalination of brackish groundwater to avoid membrane scaling and severe flux decline. PMID:24721664

  5. Relationship between human spermatozoa-hyaluronan-binding assay, conventional semen parameters and fertilisation rates in intracytoplasmic spermatozoa injection.

    PubMed

    Esterhuizen, A D; Franken, D R; Bosman, E; Rodrigues, F A; Van Rensburg, J H; Van Schouwenburg, J A M; Lombaard, C

    2015-09-01

    Selecting the best spermatozoa for intracytoplasmic spermatozoa injection (ICSI) has recently been a topic of great interest among embryologists. The study aimed to evaluate the relationship between the spermatozoa-hyaluronan-binding assay (HBA), routine semen analysis results and fertilisation rates as recorded during conventional ICSI therapy. Ninety-one patients undergoing conventional ICSI treatment in the Medfem Fertility Clinic in Johannesburg (South Africa) were included in the study. A total of 797 oocytes were injected of which 457 oocytes fertilised (57.3%, range 0-100%). None of the semen parameters correlated with the fertilisation rates (Table 2). HBA scores, however, revealed a highly significant association (p ≤ 0.0001) with the fertilisation rates. The HBA scores also correlated significantly with the biochemical pregnancy values (Spearman r = 0.24, P = 0.02, 95% CI 0.039-0.43); however, the HBA scores did not correlate with the clinical pregnancy rates (Spearman r = 0.14, P = 0.16, 95% CI -0.06 to 0.34). No correlation was recorded between HBA and the standard semen parameters. The study showed that HBA is significantly associated with fertilisation in conventional ICSI. The HBA scores were also significantly associated with the fertilisation rates and biochemical pregnancies.

  6. Fluorescent sperm offer a method for tracking the real-time success of ejaculates when they compete to fertilise eggs

    PubMed Central

    Lymbery, Rowan A.; Kennington, W. Jason; Evans, Jonathan P.

    2016-01-01

    Despite intensive research effort, many uncertainties remain in the field of gamete-level sexual selection, particularly in understanding how sperm from different males interact when competing for fertilisations. Here, we demonstrate the utility of broadcast spawning marine invertebrates for unravelling these mysteries, highlighting their mode of reproduction and, in some species, unusual patterns of mitochondrial inheritance. We present a method utilising both properties in the blue mussel, Mytilus galloprovincialis. In mytilids and many other bivalves, both sperm and egg mitochondria are inherited. We exploit this, using the vital mitochondrial dye MitoTracker, to track the success of sperm from individual males when they compete with those from rivals to fertilise eggs. We confirm that dying mitochondria has no adverse effects on in vitro measures of sperm motility (reflecting mitochondrial energetics) or sperm competitive fertilisation success. Therefore, we propose the technique as a powerful and logistically tractable tool for sperm competition studies. Importantly, our method allows the competitive fertilisation success of sperm from any male to be measured directly and disentangled from confounding effects of post-fertilisation embryo survival. Moreover, the mitochondrial dye has broader applications in taxa without paternal mitochondrial inheritance, for example by tracking the dynamics of competing ejaculates prior to fertilisation. PMID:26941059

  7. Fluorescent sperm offer a method for tracking the real-time success of ejaculates when they compete to fertilise eggs.

    PubMed

    Lymbery, Rowan A; Kennington, W Jason; Evans, Jonathan P

    2016-01-01

    Despite intensive research effort, many uncertainties remain in the field of gamete-level sexual selection, particularly in understanding how sperm from different males interact when competing for fertilisations. Here, we demonstrate the utility of broadcast spawning marine invertebrates for unravelling these mysteries, highlighting their mode of reproduction and, in some species, unusual patterns of mitochondrial inheritance. We present a method utilising both properties in the blue mussel, Mytilus galloprovincialis. In mytilids and many other bivalves, both sperm and egg mitochondria are inherited. We exploit this, using the vital mitochondrial dye MitoTracker, to track the success of sperm from individual males when they compete with those from rivals to fertilise eggs. We confirm that dying mitochondria has no adverse effects on in vitro measures of sperm motility (reflecting mitochondrial energetics) or sperm competitive fertilisation success. Therefore, we propose the technique as a powerful and logistically tractable tool for sperm competition studies. Importantly, our method allows the competitive fertilisation success of sperm from any male to be measured directly and disentangled from confounding effects of post-fertilisation embryo survival. Moreover, the mitochondrial dye has broader applications in taxa without paternal mitochondrial inheritance, for example by tracking the dynamics of competing ejaculates prior to fertilisation. PMID:26941059

  8. Rethinking early Earth phosphorus geochemistry

    PubMed Central

    Pasek, Matthew A.

    2008-01-01

    Phosphorus is a key biologic element, and a prebiotic pathway leading to its incorporation into biomolecules has been difficult to ascertain. Most potentially prebiotic phosphorylation reactions have relied on orthophosphate as the source of phosphorus. It is suggested here that the geochemistry of phosphorus on the early Earth was instead controlled by reduced oxidation state phosphorus compounds such as phosphite (HPO32−), which are more soluble and reactive than orthophosphates. This reduced oxidation state phosphorus originated from extraterrestrial material that fell during the heavy bombardment period or was produced during impacts, and persisted in the mildly reducing atmosphere. This alternate view of early Earth phosphorus geochemistry provides an unexplored route to the formation of pertinent prebiotic phosphorus compounds, suggests a facile reaction pathway to condensed phosphates, and is consistent with the biochemical usage of reduced oxidation state phosphorus compounds in life today. Possible studies are suggested that may detect reduced oxidation state phosphorus compounds in ancient Archean rocks. PMID:18195373

  9. The fluvial flux of phosphorus from the UK 1974 - 2012: where has all the phosphorus gone?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Worrall, Fred; Howden, Nicholas; Burt, Timothy; Jarvie, Helen

    2015-04-01

    As part of the Harmonised Monitoring Scheme, the UK has been monitoring total phosphorus (TP) and total reactive phosphorus (TRP) concentration at the tidal limit of all major UK rivers since 1974. Over the study period there were over 40,000 measurements of TP from 230 catchments and 160,000 measurements of TRP from 270 catchments. Concentrations of TRP and TP in UK rivers have decreased significantly since 1989, with values now less than 50% of their 1974 values. During this time, the ratio of TRP to TP has increased slightly with TRP now representing 73% of TP. The UK riverine flux of TRP peaked at 70.9 ktonnes P/yr (0.29 tonnes P/km2/yr) in 2000 and reached a minimum in 2011 of 9.3 ktonnes P/yr (0.04 tonnes P/km2/yr). Similarly, for TP, the peak flux occurred in 2001 at 95 ktonnes P/yr, with a minimum in 2011 of 15.8 ktonnes P/yr. A comparison of patterns in P fluxes with catchment land-use, soil types and hydroclimatic factors shows that the fluxes of both TP and TRP are dominantly linked to urban land cover, which we consider to be proxy for sewage inputs. The fluvial fluxes of TRP and TP will be discussed in the light of declining P fertiliser inputs; decreased direct sewage outputs of P; increased transfers of P via food and feed imports; and an increasing UK population.

  10. Distributed and dynamic modelling of hydrology, phosphorus and ecology in the Hampshire Avon and Blashford Lakes: evaluating alternative strategies to meet WFD standards.

    PubMed

    Whitehead, P G; Jin, L; Crossman, J; Comber, S; Johnes, P J; Daldorph, P; Flynn, N; Collins, A L; Butterfield, D; Mistry, R; Bardon, R; Pope, L; Willows, R

    2014-05-15

    The issues of diffuse and point source phosphorus (P) pollution in the Hampshire Avon and Blashford Lakes are explored using a catchment model of the river system. A multibranch, process based, dynamic water quality model (INCA-P) has been applied to the whole river system to simulate water fluxes, total phosphorus (TP) and soluble reactive phosphorus (SRP) concentrations and ecology. The model has been used to assess impacts of both agricultural runoff and point sources from waste water treatment plants (WWTPs) on water quality. The results show that agriculture contributes approximately 40% of the phosphorus load and point sources the other 60% of the load in this catchment. A set of scenarios have been investigated to assess the impacts of alternative phosphorus reduction strategies and it is shown that a combined strategy of agricultural phosphorus reduction through either fertiliser reductions or better phosphorus management together with improved treatment at WWTPs would reduce the SRP concentrations in the river to acceptable levels to meet the EU Water Framework Directive (WFD) requirements. A seasonal strategy for WWTP phosphorus reductions would achieve significant benefits at reduced cost.

  11. Distributed and dynamic modelling of hydrology, phosphorus and ecology in the Hampshire Avon and Blashford Lakes: evaluating alternative strategies to meet WFD standards.

    PubMed

    Whitehead, P G; Jin, L; Crossman, J; Comber, S; Johnes, P J; Daldorph, P; Flynn, N; Collins, A L; Butterfield, D; Mistry, R; Bardon, R; Pope, L; Willows, R

    2014-05-15

    The issues of diffuse and point source phosphorus (P) pollution in the Hampshire Avon and Blashford Lakes are explored using a catchment model of the river system. A multibranch, process based, dynamic water quality model (INCA-P) has been applied to the whole river system to simulate water fluxes, total phosphorus (TP) and soluble reactive phosphorus (SRP) concentrations and ecology. The model has been used to assess impacts of both agricultural runoff and point sources from waste water treatment plants (WWTPs) on water quality. The results show that agriculture contributes approximately 40% of the phosphorus load and point sources the other 60% of the load in this catchment. A set of scenarios have been investigated to assess the impacts of alternative phosphorus reduction strategies and it is shown that a combined strategy of agricultural phosphorus reduction through either fertiliser reductions or better phosphorus management together with improved treatment at WWTPs would reduce the SRP concentrations in the river to acceptable levels to meet the EU Water Framework Directive (WFD) requirements. A seasonal strategy for WWTP phosphorus reductions would achieve significant benefits at reduced cost. PMID:24594744

  12. Energy transfer from PO excited states to alkali metal atoms in the phosphorus chemiluminescence flame

    PubMed Central

    Khan, Ahsan U.

    1980-01-01

    Phosphorus chemiluminescence under ambient conditions of a phosphorus oxidation flame is found to offer an efficient electronic energy transferring system to alkali metal atoms. The lowest resonance lines, 2P3 / 2,½→2S½, of potassium and sodium are excited by energy transfer when an argon stream at 80°C carrying potassium or sodium atoms intersects a phosphorus vapor stream, either at the flame or in the postflame region. The lowest electronically excited metastable 4IIi state of PO or the (PO[unk]PO)* excimer is considered to be the probable energy donor. The (PO[unk]PO)* excimer results from the interaction of the 4IIi state of one PO molecule with the ground 2IIr state of another. Metastability of the donor state is strongly indicated by the observation of intense sensitized alkali atom fluorescence in the postflame region. PMID:16592925

  13. Modelling climate change, land-use change and phosphorus reduction impacts on phytoplankton in the River Thames (UK)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bussi, Gianbattista; Whitehead, Paul; Dadson, Simon

    2016-04-01

    In this study, we assess the impact of changes in precipitation and temperature on the phytoplankton concentration of the River Thames (UK) by means of a physically-based model. A scenario-neutral approach was employed to evaluate the effects of climate variability on flow, phosphorus concentration and phytoplankton concentration. In particular, the impact of uniform changes in precipitation and temperature on five groups of phytoplankton (diatoms and large chlorophytes, other chlorophytes, picoalgae, Microcystis-like cyanobacteria and other cyanobacteria) was assessed under three different land-use/land-management scenarios (1 - current land use and phosphorus reduction practices; 2 - expansion of agricultural land and current phosphorus reduction practices; 3 - expansion of agricultural land and optimal phosphorus reduction practices). The model results were assessed within the framework of future climate projections, using the UK Climate Projections 09 (UKCP09) for the 2030s. The results of the model demonstrate that an increase in average phytoplankton concentration due to climate change is highly likely to occur, and its magnitude varies depending on the river reach. Cyanobacteria show significant increases under future climate change and land-use change. An expansion of intensive agriculture accentuates the growth in phytoplankton, especially in the upper reaches of the River Thames. However, an optimal phosphorus removal mitigation strategy, which combines reduction of fertiliser application and phosphorus removal from wastewater, can help to reduce this increase in phytoplankton concentration, and in some cases, compensate for the effect of rising temperature.

  14. 21 CFR 184.1619 - Potassium carbonate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Potassium carbonate. 184.1619 Section 184.1619... Listing of Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1619 Potassium carbonate. (a) Potassium carbonate... of potassium chloride followed by exposing the resultant potassium to carbon dioxide; (2) By...

  15. 21 CFR 184.1619 - Potassium carbonate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Potassium carbonate. 184.1619 Section 184.1619... Listing of Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1619 Potassium carbonate. (a) Potassium carbonate... of potassium chloride followed by exposing the resultant potassium to carbon dioxide; (2) By...

  16. 21 CFR 184.1643 - Potassium sulfate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Potassium sulfate. 184.1643 Section 184.1643 Food... GRAS § 184.1643 Potassium sulfate. (a) Potassium sulfate (K2SO4, CAS Reg. No. 7778-80-5) occurs.... It is prepared by the neutralization of sulfuric acid with potassium hydroxide or potassium...

  17. 21 CFR 172.800 - Acesulfame potassium.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Acesulfame potassium. 172.800 Section 172.800 Food... Multipurpose Additives § 172.800 Acesulfame potassium. Acesulfame potassium (CAS Reg. No. 55589-62-3), also... not preclude such use, under the following conditions: (a) Acesulfame potassium is the potassium...

  18. 21 CFR 184.1613 - Potassium bicarbonate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Potassium bicarbonate. 184.1613 Section 184.1613... Listing of Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1613 Potassium bicarbonate. (a) Potassium... potassium hydroxide with carbon dioxide; (2) By treating a solution of potassium carbonate with...

  19. 21 CFR 184.1610 - Potassium alginate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Potassium alginate. 184.1610 Section 184.1610 Food... GRAS § 184.1610 Potassium alginate. (a) Potassium alginate (CAS Reg. No. 9005-36-1) is the potassium salt of alginic acid, a natural polyuronide constituent of certain brown algae. Potassium alginate...

  20. 21 CFR 184.1634 - Potassium iodide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Potassium iodide. 184.1634 Section 184.1634 Food... GRAS § 184.1634 Potassium iodide. (a) Potassium iodide (KI, CAS Reg. No. 7681-11-0) is the potassium... reacting hydriodic acid (HI) with potassium bicarbonate (KHCO3). (b) The ingredient meets...

  1. 21 CFR 184.1613 - Potassium bicarbonate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Potassium bicarbonate. 184.1613 Section 184.1613... Listing of Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1613 Potassium bicarbonate. (a) Potassium... potassium hydroxide with carbon dioxide; (2) By treating a solution of potassium carbonate with...

  2. 21 CFR 184.1619 - Potassium carbonate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Potassium carbonate. 184.1619 Section 184.1619... Listing of Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1619 Potassium carbonate. (a) Potassium carbonate... of potassium chloride followed by exposing the resultant potassium to carbon dioxide; (2) By...

  3. 21 CFR 172.800 - Acesulfame potassium.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Acesulfame potassium. 172.800 Section 172.800 Food... Multipurpose Additives § 172.800 Acesulfame potassium. Acesulfame potassium (CAS Reg. No. 55589-62-3), also... not preclude such use, under the following conditions: (a) Acesulfame potassium is the potassium...

  4. 21 CFR 184.1613 - Potassium bicarbonate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Potassium bicarbonate. 184.1613 Section 184.1613... Listing of Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1613 Potassium bicarbonate. (a) Potassium... potassium hydroxide with carbon dioxide; (2) By treating a solution of potassium carbonate with...

  5. 21 CFR 172.800 - Acesulfame potassium.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Acesulfame potassium. 172.800 Section 172.800 Food... Multipurpose Additives § 172.800 Acesulfame potassium. Acesulfame potassium (CAS Reg. No. 55589-62-3), also... not preclude such use, under the following conditions: (a) Acesulfame potassium is the potassium...

  6. 21 CFR 184.1613 - Potassium bicarbonate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Potassium bicarbonate. 184.1613 Section 184.1613... Listing of Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1613 Potassium bicarbonate. (a) Potassium... potassium hydroxide with carbon dioxide; (2) By treating a solution of potassium carbonate with...

  7. 21 CFR 184.1619 - Potassium carbonate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Potassium carbonate. 184.1619 Section 184.1619 Food... Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1619 Potassium carbonate. (a) Potassium carbonate (K2CO3, CAS... potassium chloride followed by exposing the resultant potassium to carbon dioxide; (2) By treating...

  8. Enhanced phosphorus nutrition in monocots and dicots over-expressing a phosphorus-responsive type I H+-pyrophosphatase.

    PubMed

    Yang, Haibing; Knapp, Jane; Koirala, Pratistha; Rajagopal, Divya; Peer, Wendy Ann; Silbart, Lawrence K; Murphy, Angus; Gaxiola, Roberto A

    2007-11-01

    Plants challenged by limited phosphorus undergo dramatic morphological and architectural changes in their root systems in order to increase their absorptive surface area. In this paper, it is shown that phosphorus deficiency results in increased expression of the type I H+-pyrophosphatase AVP1 (AVP, Arabidopsis vacuolar pyrophosphatase), subsequent increased P-type adenosine triphosphatase (P-ATPase)-mediated rhizosphere acidification and root proliferation. Molecular genetic manipulation of AVP1 expression in Arabidopsis, tomato and rice results in plants that outperform controls when challenged with limited phosphorus. However, AVP1 over-expression and the resulting rhizosphere acidification do not result in increased sensitivity to AlPO4, apparently because of the enhancement of potassium uptake and the release of organic acids. Thus, the over-expression of type I H+-pyrophosphatases appears to be a generally applicable technology to help alleviate agricultural losses in low-phosphorus tropical/subtropical soils and to reduce phosphorus runoff pollution of aquatic and marine environments resulting from fertilizer application. PMID:17711412

  9. Soil and pasture P concentration in a Fraxinus excelsior L. silvopastoral system fertilised with different types of sewage sludge

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ferreiro-Domínguez, Nuria; Nair, Vimala; Rigueiro-Rodríguez, Antonio; Rosa Mosquera-Losada, María

    2015-04-01

    In Europe, sewage sludge should be stabilised before using as fertiliser in agriculture. Depending on the stabilisation process that is used, sewage sludge has different characteristics, nutrient contents and soil nutrient incorporation rates. Sewage sludge is usually applied on a plant-available N or total metal concentration basic, and therefore, P concentrations can be well above crop needs. Leaching of excess P can threaten surface and ground waters with eutrophication. In this context, recent studies have demonstrated that the implementation of agroforestry systems could reduce the P leaching risk compared with conventional agricultural systems due to the different localisation of tree and crop roots which enhance nutrient uptake. The aim of this study was to evaluate during three consecutive years the effect of municipal sewage sludge stabilised by anaerobic digestion, composting, and pelletisation on concentration of P in soil and pasture compared to control treatments (mineral and no fertilisation) in a silvopastoral system established under Fraxinus excelsior L. in Galicia (Spain). The results showed that at the beginning of the study, the fertilisation with mineral increased more the total and available P in soil than the fertilisation with sewage sludge probably because the sludge nutrient release rate is slower than those from mineral fertilisers. The increment of soil available P caused by the mineral fertiliser implied an improvement of the P concentration in the pasture. However, in the last year of the experiment it was observed a positive effect of the fertilisation with pelletised sludge on the concentration of P in pasture compared with the composted sludge and the mineral fertiliser probably due to the annual application of this type of sludge. Therefore, the establishment of silvopastoral systems and their fertilisation with pelletized sludge should be recommended because the pelletized sludge increases the concentration of P in the pasture and

  10. Fertilisation of the Southern Atlantic: Ephemeral River Valleys as a replenishing source of nutrient-enriched mineral aerosols

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dansie, Andrew; Wiggs, Giles; Thomas, David

    2016-04-01

    Oceanic dust deposition provides biologically important iron and macronutrients (Phosphorus (P) and Nitrogen-based (N) compounds) that contribute to phytoplankton growth, marine productivity and oceanic atmospheric CO2 uptake. Research on dust emission sources to date has largely focused on the northern hemisphere and on ephemeral lakes and pans. Our work considers the ephemeral river valleys of the west coast of Namibia as an important yet overlooked source of ocean-fertilizing dust. Dust plumes are frequently emitted from the river valleys by strong easterly winds during the Southern Hemisphere winter, when the upwelling of the Benguela Current is at its weakest. We present field data from dust emission source areas along the main river channels near the coastal termini of the Huab, Kuiseb and Tsauchab river valleys. Collected data include erodible surface sediment, wind-blown flux, and associated meteorological data. Extensive surface sediment sampling was also undertaken throughout the combined 34,250 km2 extent of each river valley catchment with samples collected from within the main river channels, the main branches of each river system, selected tributaries, and into the upper watersheds. Geochemical data show valley sediment and wind-blown flux material have high concentrations of bioavailable Fe, P and N, exceeding that measured at the major dry lake basin dust sources in southern Africa. The contribution of fertilising deposition material is enhanced by both the spatial proximity of the source areas to the ocean and enrichment of source material by ephemeral fluvial accumulation and desiccation. Results show that geographical factors within each watershed play a key role in the nutrient composition of the emitting fluvial deposits in the river valleys. Analysis explores potential relationships between land use, geology, climate and precipitation in the upper watersheds and their influence on bioavailability of Fe, P and N compounds in wind

  11. Phosphorus in prebiotic chemistry.

    PubMed

    Schwartz, Alan W

    2006-10-29

    The prebiotic synthesis of phosphorus-containing compounds-such as nucleotides and polynucleotides-would require both a geologically plausible source of the element and pathways for its incorporation into chemical systems on the primitive Earth. The mineral apatite, which is the only significant source of phosphate on Earth, has long been thought to be problematical in this respect due to its low solubility and reactivity. However, in the last decade or so, at least two pathways have been demonstrated which would circumvent these perceived problems. In addition, recent results would seem to suggest an additional, extraterrestrial source of reactive phosphorus. It appears that the 'phosphorus problem' is no longer the stumbling block which it was once thought to be. PMID:17008215

  12. Frequently Asked Questions on Potassium Iodide (KI)

    MedlinePlus

    ... needs to take potassium iodide (KI) after a nuclear radiation release? What potassium iodide (KI) products are currently ... needs to take potassium iodide (KI) after a nuclear radiation release? The FDA guidance prioritizes groups based on ...

  13. Correlation analysis of the progesterone-induced sperm acrosome reaction rate and the fertilisation rate in vitro.

    PubMed

    Jiang, T; Qin, Y; Ye, T; Wang, Y; Pan, J; Zhu, Y; Duan, L; Li, K; Teng, X

    2015-10-01

    In this study, we aimed to investigate whether progesterone-induced acrosome reaction (AR) rate could be an indicator for fertilisation rate in vitro. Twenty-six couples with unexplained infertility and undergoing in vitro fertilisation (IVF) treatment were involved. On the oocytes retrieval day after routine IVF, residual sperm samples were collected to receive progesterone induction (progesterone group) or not (control group). AR rate was calculated and fertilisation rate was recorded. The correlation between progesterone-induced AR and fertilisation rate and between sperm normal morphology and 3PN (tripronuclear) were analysed using the Spearman correlation analysis. The AR rate of progesterone group was statistically higher than that of the control group (15.6 ± 5.88% versus 9.66 ± 5.771%, P < 0.05), but not significantly correlated with fertilisation rate (r = -0.053, P > 0.01) or rate of high-quality embryo development (r = -0.055, P > 0.01). Normal sperm morphology also showed no significant correlation with the amount of 3PN zygotes (r = 0.029, P > 0.01), rate of 3PN zygotes production (r = 0.20, P > 0.01), rate of 3PN embryo development (r = -0.406, P > 0.01), fertilisation rate (r = -0.148, P > 0.01) or progesterone-induced AR rate (r = 0.214, P > 0.01). Progesterone can induce AR in vitro significantly; however, the progesterone-induced AR may not be used to indicate fertilisation rate.

  14. Potassium bromide-associated panniculitis.

    PubMed

    Boynosky, N A; Stokking, L B

    2014-12-01

    Two cases of panniculitis associated with administration of potassium bromide in dogs are reported. Both dogs were treated with potassium bromide for idiopathic epilepsy for over 1 year. Dose increases in both cases were associated with panniculitis, characterised by painful subcutaneous nodules in a generalised distribution over the trunk. Nodule eruption waxed and waned in one dog and was persistent in the other. In both cases, panniculitis was accompanied by lethargy and pyrexia. Panniculitis, lethargy and pyrexia resolved and failed to recur after discontinuation of potassium bromide. No other cause of panniculitis could be determined for either dog. Panniculitis has been reported after administration of potassium bromide in humans and may be a form of drug-induced erythema nodosum. To the authors' knowledge, these are the first reports of potassium bromide-associated panniculitis in dogs.

  15. Nitrate losses from fertilised short rotation willow - a preliminary evaluation of two years data

    SciTech Connect

    Reynolds, S.E.; Riddell-Block, D.M.

    1995-11-01

    The contamination of surface and ground waters arising from fertiliser use and livestock husbandry is arousing increasing concern and legislative controls on nitrogen application in vulnerable areas are being applied across the European Union. The production of wood on agricultural land is increasing as farmers diversify away from food crops. One crop which is attracting significant interest amongst farmers is the production of fuel from intensively planted willow and poplar grown on short rotations, referred to as short rotation forestry (SRF). The management of these crops is substantially less intensive than that employed in traditional agriculture. However, concerns over the potential environmental impact of the large-scale development of SRF have prompted the investigation of its water usage and influence on water quality. The opportunity was taken to conduct a preliminary investigation of nitrate leaching losses from intensively planted willow through the monitoring of a trial established to examine the fertiliser response of the crop. Two years data are reported in the poster presentation. Soil pore water samples were collected over two winters using porous ceramic suction samples installed vertically to a depth of 0.75 m beneath 18 month old stools of Salix dasyclados to which 172m{sup -3} ha{sup -1} equivalent of sewage sludge was applied in May 1993. Samplers were also installed in unfertilised control plots. Stools were spaced to give stocking densities of 20,000, 10,000 and 6,600 ha{sup -1}. Sampling commenced in November 1993 and continued at two to four week intervals until the end of May 1994. The process was repeated over the winter of 1994/95. Nitrate concentrations in soil pore water was significantly higher in the fertilised plots than under the unfertilised control in both years. However, differences were no longer significant at the end of the sampling period in either year.

  16. Distribution of arsenic and risk assessment of activities on a golf course fertilised with arsenic-containing Ascophyllum nodosum seaweed.

    PubMed

    O'Neill, Antonia; Gupta, Bhaskar Sen; Phillips, Debra H

    2014-06-01

    The use of seaweed fertilisers in sports green maintenance has become a common practice across the globe due to its image as an "eco-friendly" alternative to chemical fertilisers. The aim of this study was to characterise the risk of human exposure to arsenic (As), via dermal absorption, from golfing activities on a private golf course in the UK, where As contaminated seaweed fertiliser (~100mg/kg d.wt.) is applied. This was fulfilled by, 1) determining As concentrations in shallow soils with GIS geo-statistical analysis, 2) measuring As concentrations from an on-site borehole groundwater well, and (3) developing a risk assessment calculation for golfing activities based on field and questionnaire data. Total As concentrations in shallow soils were less than the UK threshold for domestic soils, however, frequent and sustained dermal contact between site-users and surface soil attributed to a maximum carcinogenic risk value of 2.75×10(-4), which is in the upper limit of the acceptable risk range. Arsenic concentrations in underlying groundwater exceeded the WHO's permissible drinking water standard, demonstrating the risk of groundwater contamination following the application of seaweed fertiliser to golf course soils. This is the first risk study on dermal As absorption via the application of a seaweed fertiliser.

  17. Oocyte glutathione and fertilisation outcome of Macaca nemestrina and Macaca fascicularis in in vivo- and in vitro-matured oocytes

    PubMed Central

    Curnow, E. C.; Ryan, J. P.; Saunders, D. M.; Hayes, E. S.

    2010-01-01

    Fertilisation and development of IVM non-human primate oocytes is limited compared with that of in vivo-matured (IVO) oocytes. The present study describes the IVM of macaque oocytes with reference to oocyte glutathione (GSH). Timing of maturation, comparison of IVM media and cysteamine (CYS) supplementation as a modulator of GSH were investigated. A significantly greater proportion of oocytes reached MII after 30 h compared with 24 h of IVM. Following insemination, IVM oocytes had a significantly lower incidence of normal fertilisation (i.e. 2PN = two pronuclei and at least one polar body) and a higher rate of abnormal fertilisation (1PN = one pronucleus and at least one polar body) compared with IVO oocytes. Immunofluorescence of 1PN zygotes identified incomplete sperm head decondensation and failure of male pronucleus formation as the principal cause of abnormal fertilisation in IVM oocytes. The IVO oocytes had significantly higher GSH content than IVM oocytes. Cumulus-denuded oocytes had significantly lower GSH following IVM compared with immature oocytes at collection. Cysteamine supplementation of the IVM medium significantly increased the GSH level of cumulus-intact oocytes and reduced the incidence of 1PN formation, but did not improve GSH levels of the denuded oocyte. Suboptimal GSH levels in macaque IVM oocytes may be related to reduced fertilisation outcomes. PMID:20591337

  18. Oocyte glutathione and fertilisation outcome of Macaca nemestrina and Macaca fascicularis in in vivo- and in vitro-matured oocytes.

    PubMed

    Curnow, E C; Ryan, J P; Saunders, D M; Hayes, E S

    2010-01-01

    Fertilisation and development of IVM non-human primate oocytes is limited compared with that of in vivo-matured (IVO) oocytes. The present study describes the IVM of macaque oocytes with reference to oocyte glutathione (GSH). Timing of maturation, comparison of IVM media and cysteamine (CYS) supplementation as a modulator of GSH were investigated. A significantly greater proportion of oocytes reached MII after 30 h compared with 24 h of IVM. Following insemination, IVM oocytes had a significantly lower incidence of normal fertilisation (i.e. 2PN = two pronuclei and at least one polar body) and a higher rate of abnormal fertilisation (1PN = one pronucleus and at least one polar body) compared with IVO oocytes. Immunofluorescence of 1PN zygotes identified incomplete sperm head decondensation and failure of male pronucleus formation as the principal cause of abnormal fertilisation in IVM oocytes. The IVO oocytes had significantly higher GSH content than IVM oocytes. Cumulus-denuded oocytes had significantly lower GSH following IVM compared with immature oocytes at collection. Cysteamine supplementation of the IVM medium significantly increased the GSH level of cumulus-intact oocytes and reduced the incidence of 1PN formation, but did not improve GSH levels of the denuded oocyte. Suboptimal GSH levels in macaque IVM oocytes may be related to reduced fertilisation outcomes.

  19. Distribution of arsenic and risk assessment of activities on a golf course fertilised with arsenic-containing Ascophyllum nodosum seaweed.

    PubMed

    O'Neill, Antonia; Gupta, Bhaskar Sen; Phillips, Debra H

    2014-06-01

    The use of seaweed fertilisers in sports green maintenance has become a common practice across the globe due to its image as an "eco-friendly" alternative to chemical fertilisers. The aim of this study was to characterise the risk of human exposure to arsenic (As), via dermal absorption, from golfing activities on a private golf course in the UK, where As contaminated seaweed fertiliser (~100mg/kg d.wt.) is applied. This was fulfilled by, 1) determining As concentrations in shallow soils with GIS geo-statistical analysis, 2) measuring As concentrations from an on-site borehole groundwater well, and (3) developing a risk assessment calculation for golfing activities based on field and questionnaire data. Total As concentrations in shallow soils were less than the UK threshold for domestic soils, however, frequent and sustained dermal contact between site-users and surface soil attributed to a maximum carcinogenic risk value of 2.75×10(-4), which is in the upper limit of the acceptable risk range. Arsenic concentrations in underlying groundwater exceeded the WHO's permissible drinking water standard, demonstrating the risk of groundwater contamination following the application of seaweed fertiliser to golf course soils. This is the first risk study on dermal As absorption via the application of a seaweed fertiliser. PMID:24657370

  20. Black Phosphorus RF Transistor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Han; Wang, Xiaomu; Xia, Fengnian; Wang, Luhao; Jiang, Hao; Xia, Qiangfei; Chin, Mattew L.; Dubey, Madan; Han, Shu-Jen

    2015-03-01

    Few-layer and thin film form of layered black phosphorus (BP) has recently emerged as a promising material for applications in high performance thin film electronics and infrared optoelectronics. Layered BP offers a ~ 0.3eV bandgap and high mobility, leading to transistor devices with decent on/off ratio and high on-state current density. Here, we demonstrate the GHz frequency operation of black phosphorus field-effect transistor for the first time. BP transistors demonstrated here show excellent current saturation with an on-off ratio exceeding 2 × 103. The S-parameter characterization is performed for the first time on black phosphorus transistors, giving a 12 GHz short-circuit current-gain cut-off frequency and 20 GHz maximum oscillation frequency in 300 nm channel length devices. A current density in excess of 270 mA/mm and DC transconductance above 180 mS/mm are achieved for hole conductions. The results reveal the promising potential of black phosphorus transistors for enabling the next generation thin film transistor technology that can operate in the multi-GHz frequency range and beyond.

  1. The effect of urea fertiliser formulations on gross nitrogen transformations in a permanent grassland soil.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harty, Mary; Mueller, Christoph; Laughlin, Ronnie; Watson, Catherine; Richards, Karl; Lanigan, Gary; Forrestal, Patrick; McGeough, Karen

    2015-04-01

    Introduction By 2050, the current food production rate will need to increase by 70 % in order to meet the needs of the projected world population (FAO, 2014). Under the climate change response bill, Ireland has a target to reduce GHG emissions by 20% by 2020. Agriculture was responsible for almost one third of Ireland's overall Greenhouse Gas (GHG) emissions in 2012, with 39% of these emissions arising from chemical/organic fertilisers in the form of nitrous oxide (N2O). N2O losses represent environmental damage through ozone depletion and global warming as well as acidification, eutrophication, surface and groundwater contamination and it also represents financial loss to the farmer (Cameron 2013). The contradictory aims of increasing food production while reducing GHG emissions will require an adjustment to the current system of agricultural production. As part of a larger study evaluating the switching of nitrogen (N) fertiliser formulation to minimise N2O emissions, (from calcium ammonium nitrate (CAN) to urea based formulations), this experiment examined the effect of urea based fertiliser formulations on gross N transformations in a permanent pasture soil at Hillsborough, Co. Down, Northern Ireland. Study Design/Methodology A laboratory incubation study was undertaken, to examine the effect of urea in various combinations with two types of inhibitors on soil N dynamics and N2O and N2 emissions. The inhibitors examined were the urease inhibitor N-(butyl) thiophosphoric triamide (nBTPT) and the nitrification inhibitor dicyandiamide (DCD). The fertiliser products were labelled with 15N and the soil was incubated at 15 ° C at a water filled pore space of 65%. Soil mineral N (urea, NH4+, NO2- and NO3-) concentrations, gaseous losses (N2O and N2) and the 15N enrichments of NH4+, NO2-, NO3-, N2O and N2were analysed on 8 separate occasions over 25 days. An adapted numerical 15N tracing model (Müller et al., 2007) was used to quantify the effect of the inhibitors on

  2. Assessment and management of risks arising from exposure to cadmium in fertilisers. I.

    PubMed

    de Meeûs, C; Eduljee, G H; Hutton, M

    2002-05-27

    A risk assessment protocol has been developed for use by individual EU Member States with appropriate selection of input data, to assess the risks to humans and the environment arising from exposure to cadmium in fertilisers. The protocol comprises of three modules: (1) the accumulation module, in which the net accumulation of cadmium in soil and soil solution, resulting from the application of fertiliser, is computed over time. The accumulation module allows for a range of inputs from different sources (atmospheric deposition, sludge addition, manure and fertiliser application) as well as for average and extreme rates of fertiliser application. A critical parameter is the solid/liquid partition coefficient, which in turn is a function of soil properties such as pH and is highly variable depending on the algorithm selected as being representative of national conditions. (2) The exposure module, in which the uptake of cadmium from soil into plants and the subsequent intake of cadmium by humans is computed, using exposure parameters characterising both average and extreme exposure scenarios. The protocol focuses on food types known to be sensitive to cadmium uptake (grain, cereals, potatoes, root vegetables and leafy vegetables). Environmental exposure is also characterised. (3) The risk characterisation module, in which Member States may estimate the incidence and severity of the adverse effects likely to occur due to actual or predicted exposure to cadmium. This is undertaken by modelling the Predicted Environmental Concentrations (PECs) in humans and the environment using the accumulation and exposure modules, and then comparing these values against the relevant Predicted No Effect Concentrations (PNECs). A range of environmental PNEC values are reported in the literature; the European Commission recommends that normally the lowest No Observed Adverse Effect Level (NOAEL) should be used in the risk characterisation. For humans, the current WHO Provisional

  3. Bound potassium in muscle II.

    PubMed

    Hummel, Z

    1980-01-01

    Experiments were performed to decide between the alternatives a) the ionized K+ is in a dissolved state in the muscle water, or b) a part of the muscle potassium is in a "bound' state. Sartorius muscles of Rana esculenta were put into glicerol for about one hour at 0-2 degrees C. Most of muscle water came out, but most of muscle potassium remained in the muscles. In contrast to this: from muscle in heat rigor more potassium was released due to glicerol treating than from the intact ones. 1. Supposition a) is experimentally refuted. 2. Supposition b) corresponds to the experimental results. PMID:6969511

  4. 21 CFR 184.1631 - Potassium hydroxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Potassium hydroxide. 184.1631 Section 184.1631... Listing of Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1631 Potassium hydroxide. (a) Potassium hydroxide..., including pellets, flakes, sticks, lumps, and powders. Potassium hydroxide is obtained commercially from...

  5. 21 CFR 184.1622 - Potassium chloride.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Potassium chloride. 184.1622 Section 184.1622 Food... Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1622 Potassium chloride. (a) Potassium chloride (KCl, CAS Reg... levels not to exceed current good manufacturing practice. Potassium chloride may be used in...

  6. 21 CFR 184.1610 - Potassium alginate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Potassium alginate. 184.1610 Section 184.1610 Food... Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1610 Potassium alginate. (a) Potassium alginate (CAS Reg. No. 9005-36-1) is the potassium salt of alginic acid, a natural polyuronide constituent of certain...

  7. 21 CFR 184.1634 - Potassium iodide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Potassium iodide. 184.1634 Section 184.1634 Food... Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1634 Potassium iodide. (a) Potassium iodide (KI, CAS Reg. No. 7681-11-0) is the potassium salt of hydriodic acid. It occurs naturally in sea water and in...

  8. 21 CFR 184.1634 - Potassium iodide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Potassium iodide. 184.1634 Section 184.1634 Food... Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1634 Potassium iodide. (a) Potassium iodide (KI, CAS Reg. No. 7681-11-0) is the potassium salt of hydriodic acid. It occurs naturally in sea water and in...

  9. 21 CFR 184.1635 - Potassium iodate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Potassium iodate. 184.1635 Section 184.1635 Food... Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1635 Potassium iodate. (a) Potassium iodate (KIO3, CAS Reg. No. 7758-05-6) does not occur naturally but can be prepared by reacting iodine with potassium hydroxide....

  10. 21 CFR 184.1631 - Potassium hydroxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Potassium hydroxide. 184.1631 Section 184.1631... Listing of Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1631 Potassium hydroxide. (a) Potassium hydroxide..., including pellets, flakes, sticks, lumps, and powders. Potassium hydroxide is obtained commercially from...

  11. 21 CFR 184.1635 - Potassium iodate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Potassium iodate. 184.1635 Section 184.1635 Food... Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1635 Potassium iodate. (a) Potassium iodate (KIO3, CAS Reg. No. 7758-05-6) does not occur naturally but can be prepared by reacting iodine with potassium hydroxide....

  12. 21 CFR 184.1610 - Potassium alginate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Potassium alginate. 184.1610 Section 184.1610 Food... Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1610 Potassium alginate. (a) Potassium alginate (CAS Reg. No. 9005-36-1) is the potassium salt of alginic acid, a natural polyuronide constituent of certain...

  13. 21 CFR 184.1613 - Potassium bicarbonate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Potassium bicarbonate. 184.1613 Section 184.1613... GRAS § 184.1613 Potassium bicarbonate. (a) Potassium bicarbonate (KHCO3, CAS Reg. No. 298-14-6) is made by the following processes: (1) By treating a solution of potassium hydroxide with carbon dioxide;...

  14. 21 CFR 184.1622 - Potassium chloride.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Potassium chloride. 184.1622 Section 184.1622 Food... GRAS § 184.1622 Potassium chloride. (a) Potassium chloride (KCl, CAS Reg. No. 7447-40-7) is a white... manufacturing practice. Potassium chloride may be used in infant formula in accordance with section 412(g)...

  15. 21 CFR 184.1622 - Potassium chloride.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Potassium chloride. 184.1622 Section 184.1622 Food... Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1622 Potassium chloride. (a) Potassium chloride (KCl, CAS Reg... levels not to exceed current good manufacturing practice. Potassium chloride may be used in...

  16. 21 CFR 184.1622 - Potassium chloride.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Potassium chloride. 184.1622 Section 184.1622 Food... Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1622 Potassium chloride. (a) Potassium chloride (KCl, CAS Reg... levels not to exceed current good manufacturing practice. Potassium chloride may be used in...

  17. 21 CFR 184.1631 - Potassium hydroxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Potassium hydroxide. 184.1631 Section 184.1631... Listing of Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1631 Potassium hydroxide. (a) Potassium hydroxide..., including pellets, flakes, sticks, lumps, and powders. Potassium hydroxide is obtained commercially from...

  18. 21 CFR 184.1635 - Potassium iodate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Potassium iodate. 184.1635 Section 184.1635 Food... GRAS § 184.1635 Potassium iodate. (a) Potassium iodate (KIO3, CAS Reg. No. 7758-05-6) does not occur naturally but can be prepared by reacting iodine with potassium hydroxide. (b) The ingredient meets...

  19. 21 CFR 184.1634 - Potassium iodide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Potassium iodide. 184.1634 Section 184.1634 Food... Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1634 Potassium iodide. (a) Potassium iodide (KI, CAS Reg. No. 7681-11-0) is the potassium salt of hydriodic acid. It occurs naturally in sea water and in...

  20. 21 CFR 184.1610 - Potassium alginate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Potassium alginate. 184.1610 Section 184.1610 Food... Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1610 Potassium alginate. (a) Potassium alginate (CAS Reg. No. 9005-36-1) is the potassium salt of alginic acid, a natural polyuronide constituent of certain...

  1. 21 CFR 184.1619 - Potassium carbonate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Potassium carbonate. 184.1619 Section 184.1619... GRAS § 184.1619 Potassium carbonate. (a) Potassium carbonate (K2CO3, CAS Reg. No. 584-08-7) is produced by the following methods of manufacture: (1) By electrolysis of potassium chloride followed...

  2. 21 CFR 184.1635 - Potassium iodate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Potassium iodate. 184.1635 Section 184.1635 Food... Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1635 Potassium iodate. (a) Potassium iodate (KIO3, CAS Reg. No. 7758-05-6) does not occur naturally but can be prepared by reacting iodine with potassium hydroxide....

  3. 21 CFR 184.1610 - Potassium alginate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Potassium alginate. 184.1610 Section 184.1610 Food... Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1610 Potassium alginate. (a) Potassium alginate (CAS Reg. No. 9005-36-1) is the potassium salt of alginic acid, a natural polyuronide constituent of certain...

  4. 21 CFR 184.1622 - Potassium chloride.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Potassium chloride. 184.1622 Section 184.1622 Food... Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1622 Potassium chloride. (a) Potassium chloride (KCl, CAS Reg... levels not to exceed current good manufacturing practice. Potassium chloride may be used in...

  5. 21 CFR 184.1635 - Potassium iodate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Potassium iodate. 184.1635 Section 184.1635 Food... Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1635 Potassium iodate. (a) Potassium iodate (KIO3, CAS Reg. No. 7758-05-6) does not occur naturally but can be prepared by reacting iodine with potassium hydroxide....

  6. 21 CFR 184.1631 - Potassium hydroxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Potassium hydroxide. 184.1631 Section 184.1631 Food... Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1631 Potassium hydroxide. (a) Potassium hydroxide (KOH, CAS Reg... pellets, flakes, sticks, lumps, and powders. Potassium hydroxide is obtained commercially from...

  7. 21 CFR 184.1634 - Potassium iodide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Potassium iodide. 184.1634 Section 184.1634 Food... Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1634 Potassium iodide. (a) Potassium iodide (KI, CAS Reg. No. 7681-11-0) is the potassium salt of hydriodic acid. It occurs naturally in sea water and in...

  8. Fertilisation is not a new beginning: sperm environment affects offspring developmental success.

    PubMed

    Ritchie, Hannah; Marshall, Dustin J

    2013-08-15

    For organisms with complex life histories, the direction and magnitude of phenotypic links among life-history stages can have important ecological and evolutionary effects. While the phenotypic links between mothers and offspring, as well as between larvae and adults, are well recognised, the links between sperm phenotype and offspring phenotype have been less well explored. Here, we used a split-clutch/split-ejaculate design to examine whether the environment that sperm experience affects the subsequent performance of larvae in the broadcast spawning marine invertebrate Galeolaria gemineoa. The environment that sperm experienced affected the developmental success of larvae sired by these sperm; larvae sired by sperm that experienced low salinities had poorer developmental success than larvae sired by sperm that experienced a normal salinity. When we explored the interactive effects of the sperm environment and the larval environment with an orthogonal design, we found an interaction; when sperm and larvae experienced the same environment, performance was generally higher than when the sperm and larval environments differed. These effects could be due to selection on specific sperm phenotypes, phenotypic modification of the sperm or both. Together, our results challenge the traditional notion that sperm are merely transporters of genetic material; instead, significant covariance between sperm and offspring phenotypes exists. Our study adds to a growing list that demonstrates that fertilisation does have a homogenising effect on the phenotype of the zygote, and that events before fertilisation during the gamete phase can carry through to affect performance in later life-history stages.

  9. Persistence of cytosine methylation of DNA following fertilisation in the mouse.

    PubMed

    Li, Yan; O'Neill, Chris

    2012-01-01

    Normal development of the mammalian embryo requires epigenetic reprogramming of the genome. The level of cytosine methylation of CpG-rich (5meC) regions of the genome is a major epigenetic regulator and active global demethylation of 5meC throughout the genome is reported to occur within the first cell-cycle following fertilization. An enzyme or mechanism capable of catalysing such rapid global demethylation has not been identified. The mouse is a widely used model for studying developmental epigenetics. We have reassessed the evidence for this phenomenon of genome-wide demethylation following fertilisation in the mouse. We found when using conventional methods of immunolocalization that 5meC showed a progressive acid-resistant antigenic masking during zygotic maturation which gave the appearance of demethylation. Changing the unmasking strategy by also performing tryptic digestion revealed a persistence of a methylated state. Analysis of methyl binding domain 1 protein (MBD1) binding confirmed that the genome remained methylated following fertilisation. The maintenance of this methylated state over the first several cell-cycles required the actions of DNA methyltransferase activity. The study shows that any 5meC remodelling that occurs during early development is not explained by a global active loss of 5meC staining during the cleavage stage of development and global loss of methylation following fertilization is not a major component of epigenetic reprogramming in the mouse zygote.

  10. Effects of temperature, water content and nitrogen fertilisation on emissions of nitrous oxide by soils

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, K. A.; Thomson, P. E.; Clayton, H.; Mctaggart, I. P.; Conen, F.

    Nitrous oxide emissions were measured from several grassland and arable soils in the field, and from two of these soils and a forest soil transferred in large monoliths to a greenhouse. The effects of fertiliser N additions and of soil water content and temperature were investigated. Emissions were in the order grazed grassland>grassland cut for conservation>potatoes>cereal crops, and generally were higher than those from temperate natural ecosystems. Based on these data, agricultural soils constitute the major soil source of N 2O in the U.K. The highest emission recorded was 8 kg N 2O-N ha -1 over 10 months, from a grazed grassland site. Emissions varied from year to year, depending particularly on rainfall at the time of fertilisation. When soil mineral N was not limiting, exponential relationships between N 2O flux and both water-filled pore space (WFPS) and temperature were observed. The Q10 value for a sandy loam was 1.6, but ranged up to 12 for a clay loam soil at high WFPS. The high values were attributed to the increase in anaerobic zones where denitrification could take place, as respiratory demand for O 2 increased. A forest soil (peaty gley) showed an optimum water potential for N 2O emission. Diurnal fluctuations in emissions were associated with diurnal cycles in soil temperature, but with varying time lags, which could be explained by the N 2O being produced at different depths.

  11. In-vitro fertilisation treatment: factors affecting its results and outcome.

    PubMed

    Qublan, H S; Malkawi, H Y; Tahat, Y A; Areidah, S; Nusair, B; Khreisat, B M; Al-Quraan, G; Abu-Assaf, A; Hadaddein, M F; Abu-Jassar, H

    2005-10-01

    The objective of this study was to determine factors affecting results and outcome of in-vitro fertilisation (IVF). In this retrospective study, a total of 891 infertile women underwent IVF/ICSI cycles at the King Hussein Medical Center (KHMC) between January 2001 and December 2002. Conventional IVF treatment was performed in 64.6% of women and intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI) in 35.4%, using a standardised long luteal protocol. Pregnancy rate was analysed according to age, type of infertility, cause of infertility, duration of infertility, number of eggs collected and follicle stimulating hormone (FSH) levels. A total of 126 cycles (14.1%) were cancelled. Among 765 cycles continued, fertilisation rate was 73.9%, implantation rate was 15.1% and pregnancy rate was 29.8%. Pregnant women had a multiple pregnancy rate of 28.9%, abortion rate of 13.6% and ectopic pregnancy rate of 1.3%. Duration and type of infertility had no significant effect on the pregnancy rate. Factors which appear to affect significantly the outcome of treatment include the woman's age, cause of infertility, basal concentrations of FSH, adequate ovarian responsiveness and the number of eggs collected. In some cases with poor outcome, the understanding of these factors may predict the results and lead to the development of new strategies to improve the outcome of IVF treatment.

  12. Developing a regional scale approach for modelling the impacts of fertiliser regime on N2O emissions in Ireland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zimmermann, Jesko; Jones, Michael

    2016-04-01

    Agriculture can be significant contributor to greenhouse gas emissions, this is especially prevalent in Ireland where the agricultural sector accounts for a third of total emissions. The high emissions are linked to both the importance of agriculture in the Irish economy and the focus on dairy and beef production. In order to reduce emissions three main categories are explored: (1) reduction of methane emissions from cattle, (2) reduction of nitrous oxide emissions from fertilisation, and (3) fostering the carbon sequestration potential of soils. The presented research focuses on the latter two categories, especially changes in fertiliser amount and composition. Soil properties and climate conditions measured at the four experimental sites (two silage and two spring barley) were used to parameterise four biogeochemical models (DayCent, ECOSSE, DNDC 9.4, and DNDC 9.5). All sites had a range of different fertiliser regimes applied. This included changes in amount (0 to 500 kg N/ha on grassland and 0 to 200 kg N/ha on arable fields), fertiliser type (calcium ammonium nitrate and urea), and added inhibitors (the nitrification inhibitor DCD, and the urease inhibitor Agrotain). Overall, 20 different treatments were applied to the grassland sites, and 17 to the arable sites. Nitrous oxide emissions, measured in 2013 and 2014 at all sites using closed chambers, were made available to validate model results for these emissions. To assess model performance for the daily measurements, the Root Mean Square Error (RMSE) was compared to the measured 95% confidence interval of the measured data (RMSE95). Bias was tested comparing the relative error (RE) the 95 % confidence interval of the relative error (RE95). Preliminary results show mixed model performance, depending on the model, site, and the fertiliser regime. However, with the exception of urea fertilisation and added inhibitors, all scenarios were reproduced by at least one model with no statistically significant total

  13. [Potassium channelopathies and Morvan's syndromes].

    PubMed

    Serratrice, Georges; Pellissier, Jean-François; Serra-Trice, Jacques; Weiller, Pierre-Jean

    2010-02-01

    Interest in Morvan's disease or syndrome has grown, owing to its close links with various potassium channelopathies. Potassium is crucial for gating mechanisms (channel opening and closing), and especially for repolarization. Defective potassium regulation can lead to neuronal hyperexcitability. There are three families of potassium channels: voltage-gated potassium channels or VGKC (Kv1.1-Kv1.8), inward rectifier K+ channels (Kir), and two-pore channels (K2p). VGK channels are the commonest, and especially those belonging to the Shaker group (neuromyotonia and Morvan's syndrome, limbic encephalitis, and type 1 episodic ataxia). Brain and heart K+ channelopathies are a separate group due to KCNQ1 mutation (severe type 2 long QT syndrome). Kv7 channel mutations (in KNQ2 and KCNQ3) are responsible for benign familial neonatal seizures. Mutation of the Ca+ activated K+ channel gene causes epilepsy and paroxysmal dyskinesia. Inward rectifier K+ channels regulate intracellular potassium levels. The DEND syndrome, a treatable channelopathy of the brain and pancreas, is due to KCNJ1 mutation. Andersen's syndrome, due to KCNJ2 mutation, is characterized by periodic paralysis, cardiac arrythmia, and dysmorphia. Voltage-insensitive K2p channelopathies form a final group. PMID:21166127

  14. [The impact of known and unknown dietary components to phosphorus intake].

    PubMed

    Cupisti, Adamasco; D'Alessandro, Claudia

    2011-01-01

    The pathogenesis of CKD-MBD is multifactorial but the tendency towards phosphorus retention due to an excessive dietary intake for the residual renal function plays a central role. The dietary phosphorus is absorbed in the intestine as inorganic free phosphorus. The share of intestinal absorption (about 60% on average) is negligible for plant phosphorus (in the form of phytate), while it is maximal for phosphate or polyphosphates contained in food additives. The latter represent a dangerous extra load of phosphorus because they are poorly recognized by patients and widely used in modern nutrition, in particular in low-cost food. In a free mixed diet, the phosphorus content is directly related to that of proteins. It follows that protein-rich foods are the main source of phosphorus. This is a favorable condition for CKD patients in conservative therapy when a low-protein diet is implemented, while it represents a huge problem for dialysis patients, who need a high-protein diet. A simple and effective approach to reduce the load of dietary phosphorus without reducing protein intake is to educate patients to avoid foods high in phosphorus (cheese, egg yolk, nuts, etc.), and particularly those containing phosphorus additives. In addition, they should prefer boiling (resulting also in a decrease in sodium and potassium) to other methods of cooking. Counseling by a dietician is important for successful patient care. The dietician provides nutritional education, can help the patient with the choice of food, and may favor the adherence to dietary prescriptions, which is a crucial aspect in an integrated approach to CKD-MBD.

  15. Potassium stimulates fungal epidemics in Daphnia by increasing host and parasite reproduction.

    PubMed

    Civitello, David J; Penczykowski, Rachel M; Hite, Jessica L; Duffy, Meghan A; Hall, Spencer R

    2013-02-01

    As natural enemies, parasites can dramatically harm host populations, and even catalyze their decline. Thus, identifying factors that promote disease spread is paramount. Environmental factors can drive epidemics by altering traits involved in disease spread. For example, nutrients (such as nitrogen and phosphorus) can stimulate reproduction of both hosts and parasites or alter rates of disease transmission by stimulating productivity and nutrition of food resources of hosts. Here, we demonstrate nutrient-trait-epidemic connections between the greatly understudied macronutrient potassium (K) and fungal disease (Metschnikowia bicuspidata) in a zooplankton host (Daphnia dentifera). In a three-year survey, epidemics grew larger in lakes with more potassium. In laboratory assays, potassium enrichment of low-K lake water enhanced both host and parasite reproduction. Parameterized with these data, a model predicted that potassium addition catalyzes disease spread. We confirmed this prediction with an experiment in large mesocosms (6000 L) in a low K-lake: potassium enrichment caused larger epidemics in replicated Daphnia populations. Consequently, the model--data combination mechanistically explained the field pattern and revealed a novel ecological role for the nutrient potassium. Furthermore, our findings highlight the need for further development of theory for nutrient limitation of epidemics. Such theory could help to explain heterogeneous eruptions of disease in space, connect these outbreaks to natural or anthropogenic enrichment of ecosystems, predict the ecological consequences of these outbreaks, and reveal novel strategies for disease management.

  16. Does Hemodialysis Dialysate Potassium Composition Matter?.

    PubMed

    Haras, Mary S

    2015-01-01

    Dyskalemia is known to cause cardiac arrhythmias and cardiac arrest. In persons undergoing hemodialysis, potassium dialysate composition has been identified as a contributingfactor in addition to co-morbidities, medications, dietary potassium intake, and stage of kidney disease. Current evidence recommends a thorough evaluation of all factors affecting potassium balance, and lower potassium concentration should be used cautiously in patients who are likely to develop cardiac arrhythmias. Nephrology nurses play a key role inpatient assessment and edu- cation related to potassium balance.

  17. Multiple phosphorus chemical sites in heavily phosphorus-doped diamond

    SciTech Connect

    Okazaki, Hiroyuki; Yoshida, Rikiya; Muro, Takayuki; Nakamura, Tetsuya; Hirai, Masaaki; Kato, Hiromitsu; Yamasaki, Satoshi; Takano, Yoshihiko; Ishii, Satoshi; Oguchi, Tamio

    2011-02-21

    We have performed high-resolution core level photoemission spectroscopy on a heavily phosphorus (P)-doped diamond film in order to elucidate the chemical sites of doped-phosphorus atoms in diamond. P 2p core level study shows two bulk components, providing spectroscopic evidence for multiple chemical sites of doped-phosphorus atoms. This indicates that only a part of doped-phosphorus atoms contribute to the formation of carriers. From a comparison with band calculations, possible origins for the chemical sites are discussed.

  18. Characterization and sonochemical synthesis of black phosphorus from red phosphorus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aldave, Sandra H.; Yogeesh, Maruthi N.; Zhu, Weinan; Kim, Joonseok; Sonde, Sushant S.; Nayak, Avinash P.; Akinwande, Deji

    2016-03-01

    Phosphorene is a new two-dimensional material which is commonly prepared by exfoliation from black phosphorus bulk crystals that historically have been synthesized from white phosphorus under high-pressure conditions. The few layers of phosphorene have a direct band gap in the range of 0.3-2 eV and high mobility at room temperature comparable to epitaxial graphene. These characteristics can be used for the design of high speed digital circuits, radio frequency circuits, flexible and printed systems, and optoelectronic devices. In this work, we synthesized black phosphorus from red phosphorus, which is a safer solid precursor, using sonochemistry. Furthermore, via a variety of microscopy and spectroscopy techniques, we report characterization results of the sonochemically synthesized black phosphorus in addition to the commercial black phosphorus. Finally, we describe the air stability of black phosphors and the crystalline structure of the synthesized material. This is the first result of sonochemical or solution-based synthesis of black phosphorus based on readily available low-cost red phosphorus. This solution-based synthesis of black phosphorus is suitable for printable applications of nanomaterial.

  19. Lunar atmosphere. How surface composition and meteoroid impacts mediate sodium and potassium in the lunar exosphere.

    PubMed

    Colaprete, A; Sarantos, M; Wooden, D H; Stubbs, T J; Cook, A M; Shirley, M

    2016-01-15

    Despite being trace constituents of the lunar exosphere, sodium and potassium are the most readily observed species due to their bright line emission. Measurements of these species by the Ultraviolet and Visible Spectrometer (UVS) on the Lunar Atmosphere and Dust Environment Explorer (LADEE) have revealed unambiguous temporal and spatial variations indicative of a strong role for meteoroid bombardment and surface composition in determining the composition and local time dependence of the Moon's exosphere. Observations show distinct lunar day (monthly) cycles for both species as well as an annual cycle for sodium. The first continuous measurements for potassium show a more repeatable variation across lunations and an enhancement over KREEP (Potassium Rare Earth Elements and Phosphorus) surface regions, revealing a strong dependence on surface composition.

  20. How surface composition and meteoroid impacts mediate sodium and potassium in the lunar exosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Colaprete, A.; Sarantos, M.; Wooden, D. H.; Stubbs, T. J.; Cook, A. M.; Shirley, M.

    2016-01-01

    Despite being trace constituents of the lunar exosphere, sodium and potassium are the most readily observed species due to their bright line emission. Measurements of these species by the Ultraviolet and Visible Spectrometer (UVS) on the Lunar Atmosphere and Dust Environment Explorer (LADEE) have revealed unambiguous temporal and spatial variations indicative of a strong role for meteoroid bombardment and surface composition in determining the composition and local time dependence of the Moon’s exosphere. Observations show distinct lunar day (monthly) cycles for both species as well as an annual cycle for sodium. The first continuous measurements for potassium show a more repeatable variation across lunations and an enhancement over KREEP (Potassium Rare Earth Elements and Phosphorus) surface regions, revealing a strong dependence on surface composition.

  1. Lunar atmosphere. How surface composition and meteoroid impacts mediate sodium and potassium in the lunar exosphere.

    PubMed

    Colaprete, A; Sarantos, M; Wooden, D H; Stubbs, T J; Cook, A M; Shirley, M

    2016-01-15

    Despite being trace constituents of the lunar exosphere, sodium and potassium are the most readily observed species due to their bright line emission. Measurements of these species by the Ultraviolet and Visible Spectrometer (UVS) on the Lunar Atmosphere and Dust Environment Explorer (LADEE) have revealed unambiguous temporal and spatial variations indicative of a strong role for meteoroid bombardment and surface composition in determining the composition and local time dependence of the Moon's exosphere. Observations show distinct lunar day (monthly) cycles for both species as well as an annual cycle for sodium. The first continuous measurements for potassium show a more repeatable variation across lunations and an enhancement over KREEP (Potassium Rare Earth Elements and Phosphorus) surface regions, revealing a strong dependence on surface composition. PMID:26678876

  2. Vascular potassium channels in NVC.

    PubMed

    Yamada, K

    2016-01-01

    It has long been proposed that the external potassium ion ([K(+)]0) works as a potent vasodilator in the dynamic regulation of local cerebral blood flow. Astrocytes may play a central role for producing K(+) outflow possibly through calcium-activated potassium channels on the end feet, responding to a rise in the intracellular Ca(2+) concentration, which might well reflect local neuronal activity. A mild elevation of [K(+)]0 in the end feet/vascular smooth muscle space could activate Na(+)/K(+)-ATPase concomitant with inwardly rectifying potassium (Kir) channels in vascular smooth muscle cells, leading to a hyperpolarization of vascular smooth muscle and relaxation of smooth muscle actin-positive vessels. Also proposed notion is endothelial calcium-activated potassium channels and/or inwardly rectifying potassium channel-mediated hyperpolarization of vascular smooth muscle. A larger elevation of [K(+)]0, which may occur pathophysiologically in such as spreading depression or stroke, can trigger a depolarization of vascular smooth muscle cells and vasoconstriction instead. PMID:27130411

  3. Regulation of renal potassium secretion: molecular mechanisms.

    PubMed

    Welling, Paul A

    2013-05-01

    A new understanding of renal potassium balance has emerged as the molecular underpinnings of potassium secretion have become illuminated, highlighting the key roles of apical potassium channels, renal outer medullary potassium channel (ROMK) and Big Potassium (BK), in the aldosterone-sensitive distal nephron and collecting duct. These channels act as the final-regulated components of the renal potassium secretory machinery. Their activity, number, and driving forces are precisely modulated to ensure potassium excretion matches dietary potassium intake. Recent identification of the underlying regulatory mechanisms at the molecular level provides a new appreciation of the physiology and reveals a molecular insight to explain the paradoxic actions of aldosterone on potassium secretion. Here, we review the current state of knowledge in the field.

  4. Pelleted organo-mineral fertilisers from composted pig slurry solids, animal wastes and spent mushroom compost for amenity grasslands.

    PubMed

    Rao, Juluri R; Watabe, Miyuki; Stewart, T Andrew; Millar, B Cherie; Moore, John E

    2007-01-01

    In Ireland, conversion of biodegradable farm wastes such as pig manure spent mushroom compost and poultry litter wastes to pelletised fertilisers is a desirable option for farmers. In this paper, results obtained from the composting of pig waste solids (20% w/w) blended with other locally available biodegradable wastes comprising poultry litter (26% w/w), spent mushroom compost (26% w/w), cocoa husks (18% w/w) and moistened shredded paper (10% w/w) are presented. The resulting 6-mo old 'mature' composts had a nutrient content of 2.3% total N, 1.6% P and 3.1% K, too 'low' for direct use as an agricultural fertiliser. Formulations incorporating dried blood or feather meal amendments enriched the organic N-content, reduced the moisture in mature compost mixtures and aided the granulation process. Inclusion of mineral supplements viz., sulphate of ammonia, rock phosphate and sulphate of potash, yielded slow release fertilisers with nutrient N:P:K ratios of 10:3:6 and 3:5:10 that were suited for amenity grasslands such as golf courses for spring or summer application and autumn dressing, respectively. Rigorous microbiological tests carried out throughout the composting, processing and pelletising phases indicated that the formulated organo-mineral fertilisers were free of vegetative bacterial pathogens. PMID:16971105

  5. Availability of phosphorus from selected inorganic phosphate to juvenile abalone, Haliotis discus hannai ino.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bei-Ping, Tan; Kang-Sen, Mai; Wei, Xu

    2002-06-01

    The availability of phosphorus to juvenile abalone, Haliotis discus hannai from primary, secondary and tertiary calcium phosphate, primary sodium or potassium phosphate separately or in combination was determined in a 120-day feeding trial. Seven semi-purified diets were formulated to contain relatively constant dietary phosphorus, ranging from 0.78%-0.82%. The concentrations of dietary phosphorus were presumed to be slightly below the requirement for abalone. A brown alga, Laminaria japonica, was used as a control diet. Abalone juveniles of silimar size (average weight 1.18 g; average shell length 18.74 mm) were distributed in a single-pass, flow-through system using a completely randomized design with eight treatments and three replicates each treatment. The survival ranged from 71.1% to 81.1%, and was not significantly (P>0.05) related to dietary treatment. However, the weight gain rate (41.72%-65.02%), daily increment in shell length (36.87-55.07 μm) and muscle RNA-DNA ratio (3.44-4.69) were significantly (P<0.05) affected by dietary treatment. Soft body alkaline phosphatase activity (10.9-19.8 U/g wet tissue) and carcass levels of lipid (7.71%-9.33%) and protein (46.68%-49.35%) were significantly (P<0.05) responsive to available phosphorus of the diets. Dietary treatment had significant effect (P<0.05) on concentrations of phosphorus in the whole body (WB) and soft body (SB). Apparent digestibility coefficients (45%-97%) of phosphorus were also significantly (P<0.05) different between dietary treatments. The results indicated that among these inorganic compounds, primary calcium, potassium and sodium phosphates separately or in combination could be utilized effectively by juvenile abalone as dietary phosphorus sources (availability ranging from 87%-97%). However, secondary and tertiary calcium phosphates were found to be low in availability, the values being 45% and 77%, repectively.

  6. Impact of fertilisation practices on soil respiration, as measured by the metabolic index of short-term nitrogen input behaviour.

    PubMed

    López-López, G; Lobo, M C; Negre, A; Colombàs, M; Rovira, J M; Martorell, A; Reolid, C; Sastre-Conde, I

    2012-12-30

    The main objective of this study was the evaluation of the impact of different sources of organic waste (used as an N source) on soil quality (as measured by CO(2) release) and N transformation processes (available inorganic N forms) in a short-term field study of an almond tree plantation. Three compost types were used as organic fertilisers: EC compost constituted from organic agriculture farm (vegetables and manure), SC compost formed from sewage sludge and pruning waste composted, and XC compost comprised a mixture of composted sewage sludge plus slurry and manure from an intensive pig farm. The two compost doses were compared according to N content, and a high dose (H), corresponding to 210 kg N ha(-1), and a low dose (L), equivalent to 105 kg N ha(-1), were used. In addition, an N rate corresponding to 130 kg N ha(-1), which resulted from the supplementation of NPK mineral fertiliser with compost application at a low dose (mixed fertilisation), was compared in a parallel study. Generally, almost all organically treated soils demonstrated an improvement in the levels of C, N and P, compared to controls (unfertilised soils). In addition, the nitrate content increased, predominating over ammonium content, with the highest values in the soils with the low dose application of SC. Furthermore, soil respiration improved in organically treated soils, which showed different responses according to the organic-exogenous source of the incorporated matter. In contrast, a mineral supplement promoted a decrease in biological activity and resulted in lower CO(2) production in soils with XC and mineral fertiliser. Contrary to the organically treated soil, in soils with mix fertilisation the NH(4)(+)-N was the primary available form of nitrogen. However, the application of SC plus mineral fertiliser to soil caused a positive effect on CO(2) emissions compared to the control soil. Soil respiration behaviour was closely related to the form of inorganic N available in

  7. Atmospheric deposition of phosphorus to land and freshwater.

    PubMed

    Tipping, E; Benham, S; Boyle, J F; Crow, P; Davies, J; Fischer, U; Guyatt, H; Helliwell, R; Jackson-Blake, L; Lawlor, A J; Monteith, D T; Rowe, E C; Toberman, H

    2014-07-01

    We compiled published and newly-obtained data on the directly-measured atmospheric deposition of total phosphorus (TP), filtered total phosphorus (FTP), and inorganic phosphorus (PO4-P) to open land, lakes, and marine coasts. The resulting global data base includes data for c. 250 sites, covering the period 1954 to 2012. Most (82%) of the measurement locations are in Europe and North America, with 44 in Africa, Asia, Oceania, and South-Central America. The deposition rates are log-normally distributed, and for the whole data set the geometric mean deposition rates are 0.027, 0.019 and 0.14 g m(-2) a(-1) for TP, FTP and PO4-P respectively. At smaller scales there is little systematic spatial variation, except for high deposition rates at some sites in Germany, likely due to local agricultural sources. In cases for which PO4-P was determined as well as one of the other forms of P, strong parallels between logarithmic values were found. Based on the directly-measured deposition rates to land, and published estimates of P deposition to the oceans, we estimate a total annual transfer of P to and from the atmosphere of 3.7 Tg. However, much of the phosphorus in larger particles (principally primary biological aerosol particles) is probably redeposited near to its origin, so that long-range transport, important for tropical forests, large areas of peatland and the oceans, mainly involves fine dust from deserts and soils, as described by the simulations of Mahowald et al. (Global Biogeochemical Cycles 22, GB4026, 2008). We suggest that local release to the atmosphere and subsequent deposition bring about a pseudo-diffusive redistribution of P in the landscape, with P-poor ecosystems, for example ombrotrophic peatlands and oligotrophic lakes, gaining at the expense of P-rich ones. Simple calculations suggest that atmospheric transport could bring about significant local redistribution of P among terrestrial ecosystems. Although most atmospherically transported P is natural

  8. Effects of maize cultivation on nitrogen and phosphorus loadings to drainage channels in Central Chile.

    PubMed

    Corradini, Fabio; Nájera, Francisco; Casanova, Manuel; Tapia, Yasna; Singh, Ranvir; do Salazar, Osval

    2015-11-01

    There are concerns about the impact of maize cultivation with high applications of nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) on water quality in surface waters in Mediterranean Central Chile. This study estimated the contribution of N and P from maize fields to nearby drainage channels and evaluated the effects in water quality. An N and P budget was drawn up for three fields managed with a maize-fallow system, El Maitén (20.7 ha), El Naranjal (14.9 ha) and El Caleuche (4.2 ha), and water quality variables (pH, EC, dissolved oxygen, total solids, turbidity, NO3-N, NH4-N, PO4(3-), COD, total N, total P and sulphate) were monitored in nearby drainage channels. The N and P balances for the three fields indicated a high risk of N and P non-point source pollution, with fertiliser management, soil texture and climate factors determining the temporal variations in water quality parameters. Elevated levels of NH4-N and PO4(3-) in the drainage channels were usually observed during the winter period, while NO3- concentrations did not show a clear tendency. The results suggest that excessive slurry application during winter represents a very high risk of N and P runoff to drainage channels. Overall, great emphasis must be placed on good agronomic management of fields neighbouring drainage channels, including accurately calculating N and P fertiliser rates and establishing mitigation measures.

  9. Effects of maize cultivation on nitrogen and phosphorus loadings to drainage channels in Central Chile.

    PubMed

    Corradini, Fabio; Nájera, Francisco; Casanova, Manuel; Tapia, Yasna; Singh, Ranvir; do Salazar, Osval

    2015-11-01

    There are concerns about the impact of maize cultivation with high applications of nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) on water quality in surface waters in Mediterranean Central Chile. This study estimated the contribution of N and P from maize fields to nearby drainage channels and evaluated the effects in water quality. An N and P budget was drawn up for three fields managed with a maize-fallow system, El Maitén (20.7 ha), El Naranjal (14.9 ha) and El Caleuche (4.2 ha), and water quality variables (pH, EC, dissolved oxygen, total solids, turbidity, NO3-N, NH4-N, PO4(3-), COD, total N, total P and sulphate) were monitored in nearby drainage channels. The N and P balances for the three fields indicated a high risk of N and P non-point source pollution, with fertiliser management, soil texture and climate factors determining the temporal variations in water quality parameters. Elevated levels of NH4-N and PO4(3-) in the drainage channels were usually observed during the winter period, while NO3- concentrations did not show a clear tendency. The results suggest that excessive slurry application during winter represents a very high risk of N and P runoff to drainage channels. Overall, great emphasis must be placed on good agronomic management of fields neighbouring drainage channels, including accurately calculating N and P fertiliser rates and establishing mitigation measures. PMID:26490735

  10. Effects of nitrogen fertilisation rate and maturity of grass silage on methane emission by lactating dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Warner, D; Hatew, B; Podesta, S C; Klop, G; van Gastelen, S; van Laar, H; Dijkstra, J; Bannink, A

    2016-01-01

    Grass silage is typically fed to dairy cows in temperate regions. However, in vivo information on methane (CH(4)) emission from grass silage of varying quality is limited. We evaluated the effect of two rates of nitrogen (N) fertilisation of grassland (low fertilisation (LF), 65 kg of N/ha; and high fertilisation (HF), 150 kg of N/ha) and of three stages of maturity of grass at cutting: early maturity (EM; 28 days of regrowth), mid maturity (MM; 41 days of regrowth) and late maturity (LM; 62 days of regrowth) on CH(4) production by lactating dairy cows. In a randomised block design, 54 lactating Holstein-Friesian dairy cows (168±11 days in milk; mean±standard error of mean) received grass silage (mainly ryegrass) and compound feed at 80 : 20 on dry matter basis. Cows were adapted to the diet for 12 days and CH(4) production was measured in climate respiration chambers for 5 days. Dry matter intake (DMI; 14.9±0.56 kg/day) decreased with increasing N fertilisation and grass maturity. Production of fat- and protein-corrected milk (FPCM; 24.0±1.57 kg/day) decreased with advancing grass maturity but was not affected by N fertilisation. Apparent total-tract feed digestibility decreased with advancing grass maturity but was unaffected by N fertilisation except for an increase and decrease in N and fat digestibility with increasing N fertilisation, respectively. Total CH(4) production per cow (347±13.6 g/day) decreased with increasing N fertilisation by 4% and grass maturity by 6%. The smaller CH(4) production with advancing grass maturity was offset by a smaller FPCM and lower feed digestibility. As a result, with advancing grass maturity CH(4) emission intensity increased per units of FPCM (15.0±1.00 g CH(4)/kg) by 31% and digestible organic matter intake (33.1±0.78 g CH(4)/kg) by 15%. In addition, emission intensity increased per units of DMI (23.5±0.43 g CH(4)/kg) by 7% and gross energy intake (7.0±0.14% CH(4)) by 9%, implying an increased loss of dietary

  11. Malformation of gynoecia impedes fertilisation in bud-flowering Calluna vulgaris.

    PubMed

    Behrend, A; Borchert, T; Müller, A; Tänzer, J; Hohe, A

    2013-01-01

    In Calluna vulgaris, a common bedding plant during autumn in the northern hemisphere, the bud-blooming mutation of flower morphology is of high economic importance. Breeding of new bud-blooming cultivars suffers from poor seed set in some of the desirable bud-flowering crossing partners. In the current study, fertilisation and seed development in genotypes with good or poor seed set were monitored in detail in order to examine pre- and post-zygotic cross breeding incompatibilities. Whereas no distinct differences were detected in seed development, pollen tube growth was impeded in the pistils of genotypes characterised by poor seed set. Detailed microscopic analysis revealed malformations of the gynoecia due to imperfect fusion of carpels. Hence, a pre-zygotic mechanism hindering pollen tube growth due to malformation of gynoecia was deduced. An interaction of putative candidate genes involved in malformation of gynoecia with floral organ identity genes controlling the flower architecture is discussed.

  12. Arsenic and selenium mobilisation from organic matter treated mine spoil with and without inorganic fertilisation.

    PubMed

    Moreno-Jiménez, Eduardo; Clemente, Rafael; Mestrot, Adrien; Meharg, Andrew A

    2013-02-01

    Organic matter amendments are applied to contaminated soil to provide a better habitat for re-vegetation and remediation, and olive mill waste compost (OMWC) has been described as a promising material for this aim. We report here the results of an incubation experiment carried out in flooded conditions to study its influence in As and metal solubility in a trace elements contaminated soil. NPK fertilisation and especially organic amendment application resulted in increased As, Se and Cu concentrations in pore water. Independent of the amendment, dimethylarsenic acid (DMA) was the most abundant As species in solution. The application of OMWC increased pore water dissolved organic-carbon (DOC) concentrations, which may explain the observed mobilisation of As, Cu and Se; phosphate added in NPK could also be in part responsible of the mobilisation caused in As. Therefore, the application of soil amendments in mine soils may be particularly problematic in flooded systems.

  13. Effect of fertilising with pig slurry and chicken manure on GHG emissions from Mediterranean paddies.

    PubMed

    Maris, S C; Teira-Esmatges, M R; Bosch-Serra, A D; Moreno-García, B; Català, M M

    2016-11-01

    Soil fertilisation affects greenhouse gas emissions. The objective of this study was to compare the effect of different fertilisation strategies on N2O, CH4 emissions and on ecosystem respiration (CO2 emissions), during different periods of rice cultivation (rice crop, postharvest period, and seedling) under Mediterranean climate. Emissions were quantified weekly by the photoacoustic technique at two sites. At Site 1 (2011 and 2012), background treatments were 2 doses of chicken manure (CM): 90 and 170kgNH4(+)-Nha(-1) (CM-90, CM-170), urea (U, 150kgNha(-1)) and no-N (control). Fifty kilogram N ha(-1) ammonium sulphate (AS) were topdress applied to all of them. At Site 2 (2012), background treatments were 2 doses of pig slurry (PS): 91 and 152kgNH4(+)-Nha(-1) (PS-91, PS-152) and ammonium sulphate (AS) at 120kgNH4(+)-Nha(-1) and no-N (control). Sixty kilogram NH4(+)-Nha(-1) as AS were topdress applied to AS and PS-91. During seedling, global warming potential (GWP) was ~3.5-17% of that of the whole rice crop for the CM treatments. The postharvest period was a net sink for CH4, and CO2 emissions only increased for the CM-170 treatment (up to 2MgCO2ha(-1)). The GWP of the entire rice crop reached 17Mg CO2-eqha(-1) for U, and was 14 for CM-170, and 37 for CM-90. The application of PS at agronomic doses (~170kgNha(-1)) allowed high yields (~7.4Mgha(-1)), the control of GWP (~6.5MgCO2-eqha(-1)), and a 13% reduction in greenhouse gas intensity (GHGI) to 0.89kgCO2-eqkg(-1) when compared to AS (1.02kgCO2-eqkg(-1)). PMID:27344120

  14. Multiple Mating, Paternity and Complex Fertilisation Patterns in the Chokka Squid Loligo reynaudii.

    PubMed

    Naud, Marie-Jose; Sauer, Warwick H H; McKeown, Niall J; Shaw, Paul W

    2016-01-01

    Polyandry is widespread and influences patterns of sexual selection, with implications for sexual conflict over mating. Assessing sperm precedence patterns is a first step towards understanding sperm competition within a female and elucidating the roles of male- and female-controlled factors. In this study behavioural field data and genetic data were combined to investigate polyandry in the chokka squid Loligo reynaudii. Microsatellite DNA-based paternity analysis revealed multiple paternity to be the norm, with 79% of broods sired by at least two males. Genetic data also determined that the male who was guarding the female at the moment of sampling was a sire in 81% of the families tested, highlighting mate guarding as a successful male tactic with postcopulatory benefits linked to sperm deposition site giving privileged access to extruded egg strings. As females lay multiple eggs in capsules (egg strings) wherein their position is not altered during maturation it is possible to describe the spatial / temporal sequence of fertilisation / sperm precedence There were four different patterns of fertilisation found among the tested egg strings: 1) unique sire; 2) dominant sire, with one or more rare sires; 3) randomly mixed paternity (two or more sires); and 4) a distinct switch in paternity occurring along the egg string. The latter pattern cannot be explained by a random use of stored sperm, and suggests postcopulatory female sperm choice. Collectively the data indicate multiple levels of male- and female-controlled influences on sperm precedence, and highlights squid as interesting models to study the interplay between sexual and natural selection.

  15. Multiple Mating, Paternity and Complex Fertilisation Patterns in the Chokka Squid Loligo reynaudii

    PubMed Central

    Naud, Marie-Jose; Sauer, Warwick H. H.; McKeown, Niall J.; Shaw, Paul W.

    2016-01-01

    Polyandry is widespread and influences patterns of sexual selection, with implications for sexual conflict over mating. Assessing sperm precedence patterns is a first step towards understanding sperm competition within a female and elucidating the roles of male- and female-controlled factors. In this study behavioural field data and genetic data were combined to investigate polyandry in the chokka squid Loligo reynaudii. Microsatellite DNA-based paternity analysis revealed multiple paternity to be the norm, with 79% of broods sired by at least two males. Genetic data also determined that the male who was guarding the female at the moment of sampling was a sire in 81% of the families tested, highlighting mate guarding as a successful male tactic with postcopulatory benefits linked to sperm deposition site giving privileged access to extruded egg strings. As females lay multiple eggs in capsules (egg strings) wherein their position is not altered during maturation it is possible to describe the spatial / temporal sequence of fertilisation / sperm precedence There were four different patterns of fertilisation found among the tested egg strings: 1) unique sire; 2) dominant sire, with one or more rare sires; 3) randomly mixed paternity (two or more sires); and 4) a distinct switch in paternity occurring along the egg string. The latter pattern cannot be explained by a random use of stored sperm, and suggests postcopulatory female sperm choice. Collectively the data indicate multiple levels of male- and female-controlled influences on sperm precedence, and highlights squid as interesting models to study the interplay between sexual and natural selection. PMID:26872354

  16. Effect of fertilising with pig slurry and chicken manure on GHG emissions from Mediterranean paddies.

    PubMed

    Maris, S C; Teira-Esmatges, M R; Bosch-Serra, A D; Moreno-García, B; Català, M M

    2016-11-01

    Soil fertilisation affects greenhouse gas emissions. The objective of this study was to compare the effect of different fertilisation strategies on N2O, CH4 emissions and on ecosystem respiration (CO2 emissions), during different periods of rice cultivation (rice crop, postharvest period, and seedling) under Mediterranean climate. Emissions were quantified weekly by the photoacoustic technique at two sites. At Site 1 (2011 and 2012), background treatments were 2 doses of chicken manure (CM): 90 and 170kgNH4(+)-Nha(-1) (CM-90, CM-170), urea (U, 150kgNha(-1)) and no-N (control). Fifty kilogram N ha(-1) ammonium sulphate (AS) were topdress applied to all of them. At Site 2 (2012), background treatments were 2 doses of pig slurry (PS): 91 and 152kgNH4(+)-Nha(-1) (PS-91, PS-152) and ammonium sulphate (AS) at 120kgNH4(+)-Nha(-1) and no-N (control). Sixty kilogram NH4(+)-Nha(-1) as AS were topdress applied to AS and PS-91. During seedling, global warming potential (GWP) was ~3.5-17% of that of the whole rice crop for the CM treatments. The postharvest period was a net sink for CH4, and CO2 emissions only increased for the CM-170 treatment (up to 2MgCO2ha(-1)). The GWP of the entire rice crop reached 17Mg CO2-eqha(-1) for U, and was 14 for CM-170, and 37 for CM-90. The application of PS at agronomic doses (~170kgNha(-1)) allowed high yields (~7.4Mgha(-1)), the control of GWP (~6.5MgCO2-eqha(-1)), and a 13% reduction in greenhouse gas intensity (GHGI) to 0.89kgCO2-eqkg(-1) when compared to AS (1.02kgCO2-eqkg(-1)).

  17. Sewage sludge stabilisation and fertiliser value in a silvopastoral system developed with Eucalyptus nitens Maiden in Lugo (Spain).

    PubMed

    Mosquera-Losada, M R; Ferreiro-Domínguez, N; Daboussi, S; Rigueiro-Rodríguez, A

    2016-10-01

    Copper (Cu) is one of the heavy metals with highest proportion in sewage sludge. In Europe, sewage sludge should be stabilised before using it as a fertiliser in agriculture. Depending on the stabilisation process, sewage sludge has different Cu contents, and soil Cu incorporation rates. This study was undertaken to examine the effect of fertilisation with different types of sewage sludge (anaerobic, composted, and pelletised) on the concentration of total and available Cu in the soil, the tree growth, the pasture production, and the concentration of Cu in the pasture when compared with control treatments (i.e. no fertilisation and mineral fertilisation) in a silvopastoral system under Eucalyptus nitens Maiden. The results of this experiment show that an improvement of the soil pH increased the incorporation and the mineralisation of the sewage sludge and litter, and therefore, the release of Cu from the soil. Moreover, the concentration of Cu in the pasture and the levels of Cu extracted by the pasture improved when the soil organic matter decreased because the high levels of organic matter in the soil could have formed Cu complex. The composted sewage sludge (COM) increased a) the soil variables studied (pH, total Cu, and available Cu) and b) the Cu extracted by the pasture, both probably due to the higher inputs of cations made with it. In any case, the levels of Cu found in the soil never exceeded the maximums as set by Spanish regulations and did not cause harmful effects on the plants and animals. Therefore, the use of COM as an organic fertiliser should be promoted in silvopastoral systems established in edaphoclimatic conditions similar to this study because COM enhanced the productivity of the system from a viewpoint of the soil and the pasture, without causing any environmental damage.

  18. Reducing nitrous oxide emissions by changing N fertiliser use from calcium ammonium nitrate (CAN) to urea based formulations.

    PubMed

    Harty, M A; Forrestal, P J; Watson, C J; McGeough, K L; Carolan, R; Elliot, C; Krol, D; Laughlin, R J; Richards, K G; Lanigan, G J

    2016-09-01

    The accelerating use of synthetic nitrogen (N) fertilisers, to meet the world's growing food demand, is the primary driver for increased atmospheric concentrations of nitrous oxide (N2O). The IPCC default emission factor (EF) for N2O from soils is 1% of the N applied, irrespective of its form. However, N2O emissions tend to be higher from nitrate-containing fertilisers e.g. calcium ammonium nitrate (CAN) compared to urea, particularly in regions, which have mild, wet climates and high organic matter soils. Urea can be an inefficient N source due to NH3 volatilisation, but nitrogen stabilisers (urease and nitrification inhibitors) can improve its efficacy. This study evaluated the impact of switching fertiliser formulation from calcium ammonium nitrate (CAN) to urea-based products, as a potential mitigation strategy to reduce N2O emissions at six temperate grassland sites on the island of Ireland. The surface applied formulations included CAN, urea and urea with the urease inhibitor N-(n-butyl) thiophosphoric triamide (NBPT) and/or the nitrification inhibitor dicyandiamide (DCD). Results showed that N2O emissions were significantly affected by fertiliser formulation, soil type and climatic conditions. The direct N2O emission factor (EF) from CAN averaged 1.49% overall sites, but was highly variable, ranging from 0.58% to 3.81. Amending urea with NBPT, to reduce ammonia volatilisation, resulted in an average EF of 0.40% (ranging from 0.21 to 0.69%)-compared to an average EF of 0.25% for urea (ranging from 0.1 to 0.49%), with both fertilisers significantly lower and less variable than CAN. Cumulative N2O emissions from urea amended with both NBPT and DCD were not significantly different from background levels. Switching from CAN to stabilised urea formulations was found to be an effective strategy to reduce N2O emissions, particularly in wet, temperate grassland.

  19. Reducing nitrous oxide emissions by changing N fertiliser use from calcium ammonium nitrate (CAN) to urea based formulations.

    PubMed

    Harty, M A; Forrestal, P J; Watson, C J; McGeough, K L; Carolan, R; Elliot, C; Krol, D; Laughlin, R J; Richards, K G; Lanigan, G J

    2016-09-01

    The accelerating use of synthetic nitrogen (N) fertilisers, to meet the world's growing food demand, is the primary driver for increased atmospheric concentrations of nitrous oxide (N2O). The IPCC default emission factor (EF) for N2O from soils is 1% of the N applied, irrespective of its form. However, N2O emissions tend to be higher from nitrate-containing fertilisers e.g. calcium ammonium nitrate (CAN) compared to urea, particularly in regions, which have mild, wet climates and high organic matter soils. Urea can be an inefficient N source due to NH3 volatilisation, but nitrogen stabilisers (urease and nitrification inhibitors) can improve its efficacy. This study evaluated the impact of switching fertiliser formulation from calcium ammonium nitrate (CAN) to urea-based products, as a potential mitigation strategy to reduce N2O emissions at six temperate grassland sites on the island of Ireland. The surface applied formulations included CAN, urea and urea with the urease inhibitor N-(n-butyl) thiophosphoric triamide (NBPT) and/or the nitrification inhibitor dicyandiamide (DCD). Results showed that N2O emissions were significantly affected by fertiliser formulation, soil type and climatic conditions. The direct N2O emission factor (EF) from CAN averaged 1.49% overall sites, but was highly variable, ranging from 0.58% to 3.81. Amending urea with NBPT, to reduce ammonia volatilisation, resulted in an average EF of 0.40% (ranging from 0.21 to 0.69%)-compared to an average EF of 0.25% for urea (ranging from 0.1 to 0.49%), with both fertilisers significantly lower and less variable than CAN. Cumulative N2O emissions from urea amended with both NBPT and DCD were not significantly different from background levels. Switching from CAN to stabilised urea formulations was found to be an effective strategy to reduce N2O emissions, particularly in wet, temperate grassland. PMID:27155080

  20. Sewage sludge stabilisation and fertiliser value in a silvopastoral system developed with Eucalyptus nitens Maiden in Lugo (Spain).

    PubMed

    Mosquera-Losada, M R; Ferreiro-Domínguez, N; Daboussi, S; Rigueiro-Rodríguez, A

    2016-10-01

    Copper (Cu) is one of the heavy metals with highest proportion in sewage sludge. In Europe, sewage sludge should be stabilised before using it as a fertiliser in agriculture. Depending on the stabilisation process, sewage sludge has different Cu contents, and soil Cu incorporation rates. This study was undertaken to examine the effect of fertilisation with different types of sewage sludge (anaerobic, composted, and pelletised) on the concentration of total and available Cu in the soil, the tree growth, the pasture production, and the concentration of Cu in the pasture when compared with control treatments (i.e. no fertilisation and mineral fertilisation) in a silvopastoral system under Eucalyptus nitens Maiden. The results of this experiment show that an improvement of the soil pH increased the incorporation and the mineralisation of the sewage sludge and litter, and therefore, the release of Cu from the soil. Moreover, the concentration of Cu in the pasture and the levels of Cu extracted by the pasture improved when the soil organic matter decreased because the high levels of organic matter in the soil could have formed Cu complex. The composted sewage sludge (COM) increased a) the soil variables studied (pH, total Cu, and available Cu) and b) the Cu extracted by the pasture, both probably due to the higher inputs of cations made with it. In any case, the levels of Cu found in the soil never exceeded the maximums as set by Spanish regulations and did not cause harmful effects on the plants and animals. Therefore, the use of COM as an organic fertiliser should be promoted in silvopastoral systems established in edaphoclimatic conditions similar to this study because COM enhanced the productivity of the system from a viewpoint of the soil and the pasture, without causing any environmental damage. PMID:27243933

  1. Preparation of high purity phosphorus

    DOEpatents

    Rupp, Arthur F.; Woo, David V.

    1981-01-01

    High purity phosphorus and phosphorus compounds are prepared by first reacting H.sub.3 PO.sub.4 with a lead compound such as PbO to form Pb.sub.3 (PO.sub.4).sub.2. The Pb.sub.3 (PO.sub.4).sub.2 is reduced with H.sub.2 at a temperature sufficient to form gaseous phosphorus which can be recovered as a high purity phosphorus product. Phosphorus compounds can be easily prepared by reacting the phosphorus product with gaseous reactants. For example, the phosphorus product is reacted with gaseous Cl.sub.2 to form PCl.sub.5. PCl.sub.5 is reduced to PCl.sub.3 by contacting it in the gaseous phase with solid elemental phosphorus. POCl.sub.3 can be prepared by contacting PCl.sub.5 in the gaseous phase with solid P.sub.2 O.sub.5. The general process is particularly suitable for the preparation of radiophosphorus compounds.

  2. Synthesis of pure phosphorus nanostructures.

    PubMed

    Winchester, Richard A L; Whitby, Max; Shaffer, Milo S P

    2009-01-01

    To Bi or not to Bi? The synthesis of phosphorus nanorods of two differing morphologies is reported, in both the presence and absence of a bismuth catalyst. Not only do these materials represent a new class of elemental nanorods but they also give valuable insight into the complex allotropy of phosphorus. PMID:19180611

  3. Extrarenal potassium adaptation: role of skeletal muscle

    SciTech Connect

    Blachley, J.D.; Crider, B.P.; Johnson, J.H.

    1986-08-01

    Following the ingestion of a high-potassium-content diet for only a few days, the plasma potassium of rats rises only modestly in response to a previously lethal dose of potassium salts. This acquired tolerance, termed potassium adaptation, is principally the result of increased capacity to excrete potassium into the urine. However, a substantial portion of the acute potassium dose is not immediately excreted and is apparently translocated into cells. Previous studies have failed to show an increase in the content of potassium of a variety of tissues from such animals. Using /sup 86/Rb as a potassium analogue, we have shown that the skeletal muscle of potassium-adapted rats takes up significantly greater amounts of potassium in vivo in response to an acute challenge than does that of control animals. Furthermore, the same animals exhibit greater efflux of /sup 86/Rb following the termination of the acute infusion. We have also shown that the Na+-K+-ATPase activity and ouabain-binding capacity of skeletal muscle microsomes are increased by the process of potassium adaptation. We conclude that skeletal muscle is an important participant in potassium adaptation and acts to temporarily buffer acute increases in the extracellular concentration of potassium.

  4. Extraction of soil organic phosphorus.

    PubMed

    Turner, Benjamin L; Cade-Menun, Barbara J; Condron, Leo M; Newman, Susan

    2005-04-15

    Organic phosphorus is an important component of soil biogeochemical cycles, but must be extracted from soil prior to analysis. Here we critically review the extraction of soil organic phosphorus, including procedures for quantification, speciation, and assessment of biological availability. Quantitative extraction conventionally requires strong acids and bases, which inevitably alter chemical structure. However, a single-step procedure involving sodium hydroxide and EDTA (ethylenediaminetetraacetate) is suitable for most soils and facilitates subsequent speciation by nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy. Analysis of extracts by molybdate colorimetry is a potential source of error in all procedures, because organic phosphorus is overestimated in the presence of inorganic polyphosphates or complexes between inorganic phosphate and humic substances. Sequential extraction schemes fractionate organic phosphorus based on chemical solubility, but the link to potential bioavailability is misleading. Research should be directed urgently towards establishing extractable pools of soil organic phosphorus with ecological relevance.

  5. Sources and bioavailability of phosphorus fractions in freshwaters: a British perspective.

    PubMed

    Reynolds, C S; Davies, P S

    2001-02-01

    another nutrient). At high orthophosphate loadings, the straight stoichiometric yield relationship between biomass yield and phosphorus a vailability is lost. Movements of phosphorus and its recycling within aquatic systems do not prevent the slow gravitation of phosphorus to the bottom substrata. The phosphorus retentivity of sediments depends upon their chemical composition. While oxide-hydroxide binding capacity in the surface sediments persists, they act as a sink for phosphorus and a control on further cycling. Iron-rich and clay-rich sediments perform best in these conditions; calcareous sediments least so. Eutrophication may lead to the exhaustion of sediment P-binding capacity. Non-sorbed phosphate is readily recyclable if primary producers have access to it. Recycling is most rapid in shallow waters (where sediment disturbance, by flow, by wind action and through bioturbation, is frequent and least in deep ventilated sediments. The contributions of phosphorus from catchments are assessed. The slow rate of weathering of (mostly apatitic) minerals, the role of chemical binding in soils and the incorporation and retentivity bv forested terrestrial ecosystems each contribute to the minimisation of phosphorus leakage to drainage waters. Palaeolimnological and experimental evidence confirms that clearance of land and ploughing its surface weakens the phosphorus retentivity of catchments. The phosphorus transferred from arable land to drainage remains dominated by sorbed fractions which are scarcely bioavailable. Some forms of intensive market gardening or concentrated stock rearing may mobilise phosphates to drainage but it is deduced that drainage from agricultural land is not commonly a major source of readily bioavailable phosphorus in water. Careful budgeting of the phosphates in run-off from over-fertilised soils may nevertheless show that a proportionately small loss of bioavailable phosphorus can still be highly significant in promoting aquatic plant production

  6. 21 CFR 582.5622 - Potassium chloride.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS SUBSTANCES GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Nutrients and/or Dietary Supplements 1 § 582.5622 Potassium chloride. (a) Product. Potassium chloride. (b) Conditions of use....

  7. 21 CFR 582.5622 - Potassium chloride.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS SUBSTANCES GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Nutrients and/or Dietary Supplements 1 § 582.5622 Potassium chloride. (a) Product. Potassium chloride. (b) Conditions of use....

  8. 21 CFR 582.5622 - Potassium chloride.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS SUBSTANCES GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Nutrients and/or Dietary Supplements 1 § 582.5622 Potassium chloride. (a) Product. Potassium chloride. (b) Conditions of use....

  9. 21 CFR 582.5622 - Potassium chloride.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS SUBSTANCES GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Nutrients and/or Dietary Supplements 1 § 582.5622 Potassium chloride. (a) Product. Potassium chloride. (b) Conditions of use....

  10. 21 CFR 184.1639 - Potassium lactate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Potassium lactate. 184.1639 Section 184.1639 Food... Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1639 Potassium lactate. (a) Potassium lactate (C3H5O3K, CAS Reg. No. 996-31-6) is the potassium salt of lactic acid. It is a hydroscopic, white, odorless solid and...

  11. 21 CFR 184.1639 - Potassium lactate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Potassium lactate. 184.1639 Section 184.1639 Food... Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1639 Potassium lactate. (a) Potassium lactate (C3H5O3K, CAS Reg. No. 996-31-6) is the potassium salt of lactic acid. It is a hydroscopic, white, odorless solid and...

  12. 21 CFR 184.1639 - Potassium lactate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Potassium lactate. 184.1639 Section 184.1639 Food... Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1639 Potassium lactate. (a) Potassium lactate (C3H5O3K, CAS Reg. No. 996-31-6) is the potassium salt of lactic acid. It is a hydroscopic, white, odorless solid and...

  13. 21 CFR 184.1639 - Potassium lactate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Potassium lactate. 184.1639 Section 184.1639 Food... GRAS § 184.1639 Potassium lactate. (a) Potassium lactate (C3H5O3K, CAS Reg. No. 996-31-6) is the potassium salt of lactic acid. It is a hydroscopic, white, odorless solid and is prepared commercially...

  14. 21 CFR 184.1639 - Potassium lactate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Potassium lactate. 184.1639 Section 184.1639 Food... Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1639 Potassium lactate. (a) Potassium lactate (C3H5O3K, CAS Reg. No. 996-31-6) is the potassium salt of lactic acid. It is a hydroscopic, white, odorless solid and...

  15. 21 CFR 582.3616 - Potassium bisulfite.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Potassium bisulfite. 582.3616 Section 582.3616 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL....3616 Potassium bisulfite. (a) Product. Potassium bisulfite. (b) (c) Limitations, restrictions,...

  16. 21 CFR 582.1613 - Potassium bicarbonate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Potassium bicarbonate. 582.1613 Section 582.1613 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Additives § 582.1613 Potassium bicarbonate. (a) Product. Potassium bicarbonate. (b) Conditions of use....

  17. 21 CFR 184.1643 - Potassium sulfate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Potassium sulfate. 184.1643 Section 184.1643 Food... Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1643 Potassium sulfate. (a) Potassium sulfate (K2SO4, CAS Reg... having a bitter, saline taste. It is prepared by the neutralization of sulfuric acid with...

  18. 21 CFR 182.3637 - Potassium metabisulfite.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Potassium metabisulfite. 182.3637 Section 182.3637...) SUBSTANCES GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Chemical Preservatives § 182.3637 Potassium metabisulfite. (a) Product. Potassium metabisulfite. (b) (c) Limitations, restrictions, or explanation. This substance...

  19. 21 CFR 201.72 - Potassium labeling.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 4 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Potassium labeling. 201.72 Section 201.72 Food and... LABELING Labeling Requirements for Over-the-Counter Drugs § 201.72 Potassium labeling. (a) The labeling of over-the-counter (OTC) drug products intended for oral ingestion shall contain the potassium...

  20. 21 CFR 172.730 - Potassium bromate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Potassium bromate. 172.730 Section 172.730 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR... Other Specific Usage Additives § 172.730 Potassium bromate. The food additive potassium bromate may...

  1. 21 CFR 582.1613 - Potassium bicarbonate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Potassium bicarbonate. 582.1613 Section 582.1613 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Additives § 582.1613 Potassium bicarbonate. (a) Product. Potassium bicarbonate. (b) Conditions of use....

  2. 21 CFR 182.3616 - Potassium bisulfite.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Potassium bisulfite. 182.3616 Section 182.3616 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD....3616 Potassium bisulfite. (a) Product. Potassium bisulfite. (b) (c) Limitations, restrictions,...

  3. 21 CFR 172.730 - Potassium bromate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Potassium bromate. 172.730 Section 172.730 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD....730 Potassium bromate. The food additive potassium bromate may be safely used in the malting of...

  4. 21 CFR 582.1625 - Potassium citrate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Potassium citrate. 582.1625 Section 582.1625 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Additives § 582.1625 Potassium citrate. (a) Product. Potassium citrate. (b) Conditions of use....

  5. 21 CFR 582.1643 - Potassium sulfate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Potassium sulfate. 582.1643 Section 582.1643 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Additives § 582.1643 Potassium sulfate. (a) Product. Potassium sulfate. (b) Conditions of use....

  6. 21 CFR 582.3640 - Potassium sorbate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Potassium sorbate. 582.3640 Section 582.3640 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL....3640 Potassium sorbate. (a) Product. Potassium sorbate. (b) Conditions of use. This substance...

  7. 21 CFR 582.3640 - Potassium sorbate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Potassium sorbate. 582.3640 Section 582.3640 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL....3640 Potassium sorbate. (a) Product. Potassium sorbate. (b) Conditions of use. This substance...

  8. 21 CFR 582.1613 - Potassium bicarbonate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Potassium bicarbonate. 582.1613 Section 582.1613 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Additives § 582.1613 Potassium bicarbonate. (a) Product. Potassium bicarbonate. (b) Conditions of use....

  9. 21 CFR 172.730 - Potassium bromate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Potassium bromate. 172.730 Section 172.730 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR... Other Specific Usage Additives § 172.730 Potassium bromate. The food additive potassium bromate may...

  10. 21 CFR 182.3616 - Potassium bisulfite.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Potassium bisulfite. 182.3616 Section 182.3616 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD....3616 Potassium bisulfite. (a) Product. Potassium bisulfite. (b) (c) Limitations, restrictions,...

  11. 21 CFR 182.3637 - Potassium metabisulfite.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Potassium metabisulfite. 182.3637 Section 182.3637 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD....3637 Potassium metabisulfite. (a) Product. Potassium metabisulfite. (b) (c) Limitations,...

  12. 21 CFR 582.3637 - Potassium metabisulfite.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Potassium metabisulfite. 582.3637 Section 582.3637 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL....3637 Potassium metabisulfite. (a) Product. Potassium metabisulfite. (b) (c) Limitations,...

  13. 21 CFR 582.6625 - Potassium citrate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Potassium citrate. 582.6625 Section 582.6625 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Potassium citrate. (a) Product. Potassium citrate. (b) Conditions of use. This substance is...

  14. 21 CFR 582.3637 - Potassium metabisulfite.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Potassium metabisulfite. 582.3637 Section 582.3637 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL....3637 Potassium metabisulfite. (a) Product. Potassium metabisulfite. (b) (c) Limitations,...

  15. 21 CFR 582.3640 - Potassium sorbate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Potassium sorbate. 582.3640 Section 582.3640 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL....3640 Potassium sorbate. (a) Product. Potassium sorbate. (b) Conditions of use. This substance...

  16. 21 CFR 582.1613 - Potassium bicarbonate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Potassium bicarbonate. 582.1613 Section 582.1613 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Additives § 582.1613 Potassium bicarbonate. (a) Product. Potassium bicarbonate. (b) Conditions of use....

  17. 21 CFR 582.1631 - Potassium hydroxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Potassium hydroxide. 582.1631 Section 582.1631 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Additives § 582.1631 Potassium hydroxide. (a) Product. Potassium hydroxide. (b) Conditions of use....

  18. 21 CFR 582.5628 - Potassium glycerophosphate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Potassium glycerophosphate. 582.5628 Section 582.5628 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED... Dietary Supplements 1 § 582.5628 Potassium glycerophosphate. (a) Product. Potassium glycerophosphate....

  19. 21 CFR 582.1625 - Potassium citrate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Potassium citrate. 582.1625 Section 582.1625 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Additives § 582.1625 Potassium citrate. (a) Product. Potassium citrate. (b) Conditions of use....

  20. 21 CFR 182.3640 - Potassium sorbate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Potassium sorbate. 182.3640 Section 182.3640 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR... Potassium sorbate. (a) Product. Potassium sorbate. (b) Conditions of use. This substance is...

  1. 21 CFR 582.1631 - Potassium hydroxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Potassium hydroxide. 582.1631 Section 582.1631 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Additives § 582.1631 Potassium hydroxide. (a) Product. Potassium hydroxide. (b) Conditions of use....

  2. 21 CFR 582.3616 - Potassium bisulfite.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Potassium bisulfite. 582.3616 Section 582.3616 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL....3616 Potassium bisulfite. (a) Product. Potassium bisulfite. (b) (c) Limitations, restrictions,...

  3. 21 CFR 582.1619 - Potassium carbonate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Potassium carbonate. 582.1619 Section 582.1619 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Additives § 582.1619 Potassium carbonate. (a) Product. Potassium carbonate. (b) Conditions of use....

  4. 21 CFR 582.3637 - Potassium metabisulfite.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Potassium metabisulfite. 582.3637 Section 582.3637 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL....3637 Potassium metabisulfite. (a) Product. Potassium metabisulfite. (b) (c) Limitations,...

  5. 21 CFR 582.7610 - Potassium alginate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Potassium alginate. 582.7610 Section 582.7610 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Potassium alginate. (a) Product. Potassium alginate. (b) Conditions of use. This substance is...

  6. 21 CFR 582.5628 - Potassium glycerophosphate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Potassium glycerophosphate. 582.5628 Section 582.5628 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED... Dietary Supplements 1 § 582.5628 Potassium glycerophosphate. (a) Product. Potassium glycerophosphate....

  7. 21 CFR 582.1631 - Potassium hydroxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Potassium hydroxide. 582.1631 Section 582.1631 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Additives § 582.1631 Potassium hydroxide. (a) Product. Potassium hydroxide. (b) Conditions of use....

  8. 21 CFR 582.3616 - Potassium bisulfite.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Potassium bisulfite. 582.3616 Section 582.3616 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL....3616 Potassium bisulfite. (a) Product. Potassium bisulfite. (b) (c) Limitations, restrictions,...

  9. 21 CFR 582.1619 - Potassium carbonate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Potassium carbonate. 582.1619 Section 582.1619 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Additives § 582.1619 Potassium carbonate. (a) Product. Potassium carbonate. (b) Conditions of use....

  10. 21 CFR 184.1643 - Potassium sulfate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Potassium sulfate. 184.1643 Section 184.1643 Food... Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1643 Potassium sulfate. (a) Potassium sulfate (K2SO4, CAS Reg... having a bitter, saline taste. It is prepared by the neutralization of sulfuric acid with...

  11. 21 CFR 582.3640 - Potassium sorbate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Potassium sorbate. 582.3640 Section 582.3640 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL....3640 Potassium sorbate. (a) Product. Potassium sorbate. (b) Conditions of use. This substance...

  12. 21 CFR 582.6625 - Potassium citrate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Potassium citrate. 582.6625 Section 582.6625 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Potassium citrate. (a) Product. Potassium citrate. (b) Conditions of use. This substance is...

  13. 21 CFR 582.6625 - Potassium citrate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Potassium citrate. 582.6625 Section 582.6625 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Potassium citrate. (a) Product. Potassium citrate. (b) Conditions of use. This substance is...

  14. 21 CFR 172.730 - Potassium bromate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Potassium bromate. 172.730 Section 172.730 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR... Other Specific Usage Additives § 172.730 Potassium bromate. The food additive potassium bromate may...

  15. 21 CFR 182.3640 - Potassium sorbate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Potassium sorbate. 182.3640 Section 182.3640 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR... Potassium sorbate. (a) Product. Potassium sorbate. (b) Conditions of use. This substance is...

  16. 21 CFR 582.1631 - Potassium hydroxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Potassium hydroxide. 582.1631 Section 582.1631 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Additives § 582.1631 Potassium hydroxide. (a) Product. Potassium hydroxide. (b) Conditions of use....

  17. 21 CFR 582.5634 - Potassium iodide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Potassium iodide. 582.5634 Section 582.5634 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Supplements 1 § 582.5634 Potassium iodide. (a) Product. Potassium iodide. (b) Tolerance. 0.01 percent....

  18. 21 CFR 182.3616 - Potassium bisulfite.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Potassium bisulfite. 182.3616 Section 182.3616...) SUBSTANCES GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Chemical Preservatives § 182.3616 Potassium bisulfite. (a) Product. Potassium bisulfite. (b) (c) Limitations, restrictions, or explanation. This substance is...

  19. 21 CFR 582.7610 - Potassium alginate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Potassium alginate. 582.7610 Section 582.7610 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Potassium alginate. (a) Product. Potassium alginate. (b) Conditions of use. This substance is...

  20. 21 CFR 582.5628 - Potassium glycerophosphate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Potassium glycerophosphate. 582.5628 Section 582.5628 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED... Dietary Supplements 1 § 582.5628 Potassium glycerophosphate. (a) Product. Potassium glycerophosphate....

  1. 21 CFR 582.7610 - Potassium alginate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Potassium alginate. 582.7610 Section 582.7610 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Potassium alginate. (a) Product. Potassium alginate. (b) Conditions of use. This substance is...

  2. 21 CFR 201.72 - Potassium labeling.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 4 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Potassium labeling. 201.72 Section 201.72 Food and... LABELING Labeling Requirements for Over-the-Counter Drugs § 201.72 Potassium labeling. (a) The labeling of over-the-counter (OTC) drug products intended for oral ingestion shall contain the potassium...

  3. 21 CFR 582.5634 - Potassium iodide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Potassium iodide. 582.5634 Section 582.5634 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Supplements 1 § 582.5634 Potassium iodide. (a) Product. Potassium iodide. (b) Tolerance. 0.01 percent....

  4. 21 CFR 184.1643 - Potassium sulfate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Potassium sulfate. 184.1643 Section 184.1643 Food... Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1643 Potassium sulfate. (a) Potassium sulfate (K2SO4, CAS Reg... having a bitter, saline taste. It is prepared by the neutralization of sulfuric acid with...

  5. 21 CFR 582.1625 - Potassium citrate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Potassium citrate. 582.1625 Section 582.1625 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Additives § 582.1625 Potassium citrate. (a) Product. Potassium citrate. (b) Conditions of use....

  6. 21 CFR 182.3640 - Potassium sorbate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Potassium sorbate. 182.3640 Section 182.3640 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR... Potassium sorbate. (a) Product. Potassium sorbate. (b) Conditions of use. This substance is...

  7. 21 CFR 582.1643 - Potassium sulfate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Potassium sulfate. 582.1643 Section 582.1643 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Additives § 582.1643 Potassium sulfate. (a) Product. Potassium sulfate. (b) Conditions of use....

  8. 21 CFR 582.1619 - Potassium carbonate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Potassium carbonate. 582.1619 Section 582.1619 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Additives § 582.1619 Potassium carbonate. (a) Product. Potassium carbonate. (b) Conditions of use....

  9. 21 CFR 582.7610 - Potassium alginate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Potassium alginate. 582.7610 Section 582.7610 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Potassium alginate. (a) Product. Potassium alginate. (b) Conditions of use. This substance is...

  10. 21 CFR 582.1625 - Potassium citrate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Potassium citrate. 582.1625 Section 582.1625 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Additives § 582.1625 Potassium citrate. (a) Product. Potassium citrate. (b) Conditions of use....

  11. 21 CFR 582.6625 - Potassium citrate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Potassium citrate. 582.6625 Section 582.6625 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Potassium citrate. (a) Product. Potassium citrate. (b) Conditions of use. This substance is...

  12. 21 CFR 582.5628 - Potassium glycerophosphate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Potassium glycerophosphate. 582.5628 Section 582.5628 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED... Dietary Supplements 1 § 582.5628 Potassium glycerophosphate. (a) Product. Potassium glycerophosphate....

  13. 21 CFR 582.1643 - Potassium sulfate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Potassium sulfate. 582.1643 Section 582.1643 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Additives § 582.1643 Potassium sulfate. (a) Product. Potassium sulfate. (b) Conditions of use....

  14. 21 CFR 582.1619 - Potassium carbonate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Potassium carbonate. 582.1619 Section 582.1619 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Additives § 582.1619 Potassium carbonate. (a) Product. Potassium carbonate. (b) Conditions of use....

  15. 21 CFR 182.3637 - Potassium metabisulfite.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Potassium metabisulfite. 182.3637 Section 182.3637 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD....3637 Potassium metabisulfite. (a) Product. Potassium metabisulfite. (b) (c) Limitations,...

  16. 21 CFR 582.1643 - Potassium sulfate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Potassium sulfate. 582.1643 Section 582.1643 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Additives § 582.1643 Potassium sulfate. (a) Product. Potassium sulfate. (b) Conditions of use....

  17. 21 CFR 582.3637 - Potassium metabisulfite.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Potassium metabisulfite. 582.3637 Section 582.3637 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL....3637 Potassium metabisulfite. (a) Product. Potassium metabisulfite. (b) (c) Limitations,...

  18. 21 CFR 201.72 - Potassium labeling.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 4 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Potassium labeling. 201.72 Section 201.72 Food and... LABELING Labeling Requirements for Over-the-Counter Drugs § 201.72 Potassium labeling. (a) The labeling of over-the-counter (OTC) drug products intended for oral ingestion shall contain the potassium...

  19. 21 CFR 582.3616 - Potassium bisulfite.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Potassium bisulfite. 582.3616 Section 582.3616 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL....3616 Potassium bisulfite. (a) Product. Potassium bisulfite. (b) (c) Limitations, restrictions,...

  20. 21 CFR 182.3616 - Potassium bisulfite.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Potassium bisulfite. 182.3616 Section 182.3616 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR... Potassium bisulfite. (a) Product. Potassium bisulfite. (b) (c) Limitations, restrictions, or...

  1. 21 CFR 582.5622 - Potassium chloride.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Potassium chloride. 582.5622 Section 582.5622 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Supplements 1 § 582.5622 Potassium chloride. (a) Product. Potassium chloride. (b) Conditions of use....

  2. 21 CFR 582.1613 - Potassium bicarbonate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Potassium bicarbonate. 582.1613 Section 582.1613 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Additives § 582.1613 Potassium bicarbonate. (a) Product. Potassium bicarbonate. (b) Conditions of use....

  3. 21 CFR 184.1643 - Potassium sulfate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Potassium sulfate. 184.1643 Section 184.1643 Food... Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1643 Potassium sulfate. (a) Potassium sulfate (K2SO4, CAS Reg... having a bitter, saline taste. It is prepared by the neutralization of sulfuric acid with...

  4. 21 CFR 582.1619 - Potassium carbonate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Potassium carbonate. 582.1619 Section 582.1619 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Additives § 582.1619 Potassium carbonate. (a) Product. Potassium carbonate. (b) Conditions of use....

  5. 21 CFR 582.1625 - Potassium citrate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Potassium citrate. 582.1625 Section 582.1625 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Additives § 582.1625 Potassium citrate. (a) Product. Potassium citrate. (b) Conditions of use....

  6. 21 CFR 582.3640 - Potassium sorbate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Potassium sorbate. 582.3640 Section 582.3640 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL....3640 Potassium sorbate. (a) Product. Potassium sorbate. (b) Conditions of use. This substance...

  7. 21 CFR 582.1631 - Potassium hydroxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Potassium hydroxide. 582.1631 Section 582.1631 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Additives § 582.1631 Potassium hydroxide. (a) Product. Potassium hydroxide. (b) Conditions of use....

  8. 21 CFR 201.72 - Potassium labeling.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 4 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Potassium labeling. 201.72 Section 201.72 Food and... LABELING Labeling Requirements for Over-the-Counter Drugs § 201.72 Potassium labeling. (a) The labeling of over-the-counter (OTC) drug products intended for oral ingestion shall contain the potassium...

  9. 21 CFR 582.3637 - Potassium metabisulfite.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Potassium metabisulfite. 582.3637 Section 582.3637 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL....3637 Potassium metabisulfite. (a) Product. Potassium metabisulfite. (b) (c) Limitations,...

  10. 21 CFR 182.3640 - Potassium sorbate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Potassium sorbate. 182.3640 Section 182.3640 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR... Potassium sorbate. (a) Product. Potassium sorbate. (b) Conditions of use. This substance is...

  11. 21 CFR 182.3637 - Potassium metabisulfite.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Potassium metabisulfite. 182.3637 Section 182.3637 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD....3637 Potassium metabisulfite. (a) Product. Potassium metabisulfite. (b) (c) Limitations,...

  12. 21 CFR 172.730 - Potassium bromate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Potassium bromate. 172.730 Section 172.730 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN... Specific Usage Additives § 172.730 Potassium bromate. The food additive potassium bromate may be...

  13. 21 CFR 582.6625 - Potassium citrate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Potassium citrate. 582.6625 Section 582.6625 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Potassium citrate. (a) Product. Potassium citrate. (b) Conditions of use. This substance is...

  14. 21 CFR 582.7610 - Potassium alginate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Potassium alginate. 582.7610 Section 582.7610 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Potassium alginate. (a) Product. Potassium alginate. (b) Conditions of use. This substance is...

  15. 21 CFR 582.5628 - Potassium glycerophosphate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Potassium glycerophosphate. 582.5628 Section 582.5628 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED... Dietary Supplements 1 § 582.5628 Potassium glycerophosphate. (a) Product. Potassium glycerophosphate....

  16. 21 CFR 172.160 - Potassium nitrate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Potassium nitrate. 172.160 Section 172.160 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN... Preservatives § 172.160 Potassium nitrate. The food additive potassium nitrate may be safely used as a...

  17. 21 CFR 582.5634 - Potassium iodide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Potassium iodide. 582.5634 Section 582.5634 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Supplements 1 § 582.5634 Potassium iodide. (a) Product. Potassium iodide. (b) Tolerance. 0.01 percent....

  18. 21 CFR 582.3616 - Potassium bisulfite.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Potassium bisulfite. 582.3616 Section 582.3616 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL....3616 Potassium bisulfite. (a) Product. Potassium bisulfite. (b) (c) Limitations, restrictions,...

  19. 21 CFR 582.1643 - Potassium sulfate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Potassium sulfate. 582.1643 Section 582.1643 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Additives § 582.1643 Potassium sulfate. (a) Product. Potassium sulfate. (b) Conditions of use....

  20. 21 CFR 172.160 - Potassium nitrate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Potassium nitrate. 172.160 Section 172.160 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR... Food Preservatives § 172.160 Potassium nitrate. The food additive potassium nitrate may be safely...

  1. 21 CFR 172.160 - Potassium nitrate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Potassium nitrate. 172.160 Section 172.160 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR... Food Preservatives § 172.160 Potassium nitrate. The food additive potassium nitrate may be safely...

  2. 21 CFR 172.160 - Potassium nitrate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Potassium nitrate. 172.160 Section 172.160 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR... Food Preservatives § 172.160 Potassium nitrate. The food additive potassium nitrate may be safely...

  3. 2D MATERIALS. Observation of tunable band gap and anisotropic Dirac semimetal state in black phosphorus.

    PubMed

    Kim, Jimin; Baik, Seung Su; Ryu, Sae Hee; Sohn, Yeongsup; Park, Soohyung; Park, Byeong-Gyu; Denlinger, Jonathan; Yi, Yeonjin; Choi, Hyoung Joon; Kim, Keun Su

    2015-08-14

    Black phosphorus consists of stacked layers of phosphorene, a two-dimensional semiconductor with promising device characteristics. We report the realization of a widely tunable band gap in few-layer black phosphorus doped with potassium using an in situ surface doping technique. Through band structure measurements and calculations, we demonstrate that a vertical electric field from dopants modulates the band gap, owing to the giant Stark effect, and tunes the material from a moderate-gap semiconductor to a band-inverted semimetal. At the critical field of this band inversion, the material becomes a Dirac semimetal with anisotropic dispersion, linear in armchair and quadratic in zigzag directions. The tunable band structure of black phosphorus may allow great flexibility in design and optimization of electronic and optoelectronic devices.

  4. Fertiliser-induced nitrous oxide emissions from vegetable production in the world and the regulating factors: A review

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rezaei Rashti, Mehran; Wang, Weijin; Moody, Phil; Chen, Chengrong; Ghadiri, Hossein

    2015-07-01

    The emission of nitrous oxide (N2O) from vegetable fields contributes to the global greenhouse gases budget. However, reliable estimation of N2O emissions from vegetable production in the word has been lack. Vegetable cropping systems are characterised with high N application rates, irrigation, intensive production and multiple planting-harvest cycles during the year. Improved understanding of the key factors controlling N2O production is critical for developing effective mitigation strategies for vegetable cropping systems under different climate, soil type and management practices. Based on a comprehensive literature review and data analysis, we estimated the global N2O emission from vegetable production using seasonal fertiliser-induced emission factors (EFs) and examined the relationship of the seasonal emissions and EFs to possible controlling factors. The global average seasonal EF for vegetable fields is around 0.94% of applied N fertiliser, which is very similar to the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) annual emission factor of 1.0% for all cropping systems. The total N2O emission from global vegetable production is estimated to be 9.5 × 107 kg N2O-N yr-1, accounting for 9.0% of the total N2O emissions from synthetic fertilisers. Stepwise multiple regression analysis on the relationships of soil properties, climatic factors and N application rates to seasonal N2O emissions and N2O EFs showed that N fertiliser application rate is the main regulator of seasonal N2O emission from vegetable fields but the seasonal EFs are negatively related to soil organic carbon (SOC) content. In fields receiving ≥250 kg ha-1 N fertiliser, 67% (n = 23, P ≤ 0.01) of the variation in seasonal emissions can be explained by the combined effects of N application rate, mean water-filled pore space (WFPS) and air temperature, while 59% (n = 23, P ≤ 0.01) of the variation in seasonal EFs relates to temperature, mean WFPS and soil pH. The result also shows that in

  5. Antecedent conditions, hydrological connectivity and anthropogenic inputs: Factors affecting nitrate and phosphorus transfers to agricultural headwater streams.

    PubMed

    Outram, Faye N; Cooper, Richard J; Sünnenberg, Gisela; Hiscock, Kevin M; Lovett, Andrew A

    2016-03-01

    This paper examines relationships between rainfall-runoff, catchment connectivity, antecedent moisture conditions and fertiliser application with nitrate-N and total phosphorus (TP) fluxes in an arable headwater catchment over three hydrological years (2012-2014). Annual precipitation totals did not vary substantially between years, yet the timing of rainfall strongly influenced runoff generation and subsequent nitrate-N and TP fluxes. The greatest nitrate-N (>250 kg N day(-1)) and TP (>10 kg TP day(-1)) fluxes only occurred when shallow groundwater was within 0.6m of the ground surface and runoff coefficients were greater than 0.1. These thresholds were reached less frequently in 2012 due to drought recovery resulting in lower annual nitrate-N (7.4 kg N ha(-1)) and TP (0.12 kg P ha(-1)) fluxes in comparison with 2013 (15.1 kg N ha(-1); 0.21 kg P ha(-1)). The wet winter of 2013 with elevated shallow groundwater levels led to more frequent activation of sub-surface pathways and tile drain flow. Throughout the period, dry antecedent conditions had a temporary effect in elevating TP loads. Evidence of TP source exhaustion after consecutive storm events can be attributed to the repeated depletion of temporarily connected critical source areas to the river network via impermeable road surfaces. Fertiliser application varied considerably across three years due to differences in crop rotation between farms, with annual N and P fertiliser inputs varying by up to 21% and 41%, respectively. Proportional reductions in annual riverine nitrate-N and TP loadings were not observed at the sub-catchment outlet as loadings were largely influenced by annual runoff. Nitrate loadings were slightly higher during fertiliser application, but there was little relationship between P fertiliser application and riverine TP load. These data indicate that this intensive arable catchment may be in a state of biogeochemical stationarity, whereby legacy stores of nutrients buffer against changes

  6. Prebiotic phosphorus chemistry reconsidered

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schwartz, A. W.; Orgel, L. E. (Principal Investigator)

    1997-01-01

    The available evidence indicates that the origin of life on Earth certainly occurred earlier than 3.5 billion years ago and perhaps substantially earlier. The time available for the chemical evolution which must have preceded this event is more difficult to estimate. Both endogenic and exogenic contributions to chemical evolution have been considered; i.e., from chemical reactions in a primitive atmosphere, or by introduction in the interiors of comets and/or meteorites. It is argued, however, that the phosphorus chemistry of Earth's earliest hydrosphere, whether primarily exogenic or endogenic in origin, was most likely dominated by compounds less oxidized than phosphoric acid and its esters. A scenario is presented for the early production of a suite of reactive phosphonic acid derivatives, the properties of which may have foreshadowed the later appearance of biophosphates.

  7. [Bone and Nutrition. Bone and phosphorus intake].

    PubMed

    Arai, Hidekazu; Sakuma, Masae

    2015-07-01

    Phosphorus is necessary for bone mineralization. Although adequate phosphorus intake is essential for skeletal mineralization, it is reported that excessive phosphorus intake can induce deleterious effect on bone. Recently, since the Japanese diet has been westernized, phosphorus intake by the meat and dairy products has increased. Furthermore, along with the development of processed foods, excessive intake of inorganic phosphorus from food additives has become a problem. An adverse effect on parathyroid hormone (PTH) secretion from high phosphorus intake was seen only when calcium intake was inadequate. Dietary calcium to phosphorus ratio can be considered as one of the indicators that can predict the health of the bone.

  8. [Bone and Nutrition. Bone and phosphorus intake].

    PubMed

    Arai, Hidekazu; Sakuma, Masae

    2015-07-01

    Phosphorus is necessary for bone mineralization. Although adequate phosphorus intake is essential for skeletal mineralization, it is reported that excessive phosphorus intake can induce deleterious effect on bone. Recently, since the Japanese diet has been westernized, phosphorus intake by the meat and dairy products has increased. Furthermore, along with the development of processed foods, excessive intake of inorganic phosphorus from food additives has become a problem. An adverse effect on parathyroid hormone (PTH) secretion from high phosphorus intake was seen only when calcium intake was inadequate. Dietary calcium to phosphorus ratio can be considered as one of the indicators that can predict the health of the bone. PMID:26119308

  9. Phosphorus Dynamic in Wetlands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pant, H. K.

    2010-12-01

    The projected greater warming at higher/northern latitudes in the coming decades due to global climatic changes can mineralize substantial amount of the organic matter and supply massive amount of phosphorus (P) to the water column, and cause the collapse of freshwater wetlands. Thus, the rates and duration of organic matter accumulations/decompositions under rising global temperatures are critical determinants of how a freshwater wetland functions as an ecological unit within a landscape. Phosphorus is a limiting nutrient and a primary controller of eutrophication. Once the external P loads are curtailed, internal P regeneration, resulting from decompositions of detritus and soil/sediment organic matter determine the productivity, as well as the water quality of a wetland. Thus, global rise in temperature not only causes hydro-climatic fluctuations but can also change the composition of aquatic/semi-aquatic communities, in turn, could lead to adverse effect on human food chain to collapse of the ecosystem. While P enrichment may lead to immediate algal blooms in wetlands/aquatic systems, decreased in P input from external sources may not be able to stop the blooms for a considerable period of time depending on the P loading from within. The extent of P mineralization under changing conditions, enzymatic hydrolysis, and estimation of different P pools using 31P NMR in sediments and the water columns showed that the stability and bioavailability of P can greatly be influenced by rise in temperature and fluctuations in water level, thus, are crucial in determining the fate of the freshwater wetlands.

  10. Assisted ejaculation combined with in vitro fertilisation: an effective technique treating male infertility due to spinal cord injury.

    PubMed

    Hultling, C; Levi, R; Garoff, L; Nylund, L; Rosenborg, L; Sjöblom, P; Hillensjö, T

    1994-07-01

    Infertility due to spinal cord injury (SCI) in males has been identified for decades as an area of major concern and techniques for assisted ejaculation are available. There has not been an overall consensus regarding which type of assisted procreation is the most appropriate for these couples. We describe here our experience from a programme based on assisted ejaculation combined with in vitro fertilization (IVF). Twelve couples have been treated so far and altogether 22 cycles with ovum pick-up have been completed. Fertilisation of the oocytes was obtained in 18 of these cycles. The overall oocyte fertilisation rate was 49%. Embryo transfer took place in 17 cycles, leading to seven clinical pregnancies. Four of the pregnancies are delivered or are ongoing, whereas three ended in first trimester spontaneous abortion. Thus our initial experience suggests that assisted ejaculation in combination with IVF is an effective option for these couples.

  11. The significance of fertilisation experiments for understanding the impacts of atmospheric nitrogen deposition on the forest carbon cycle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mencuccini, M.; Rivas, A.; Perks, M.; Levy, P. E.; Sheppard, L. J.

    2009-04-01

    The current discussion on the role of nitrogen deposition on the forest carbon cycle is focussed on determining the likely system response (in terms of added or reduced C sequestration) to a unit addition of nitrogen, i.e., dC/dN (kg C/kg N). A potential source of valuable information is given by existing fertilisation experiments, which we will review in this presentation. The literature on fertilisation consists of the order of 300 separate experiments worldwide, of which about 60 to 70 have been conducted in forests. However, for a number of reasons, only a few experiments have been conducted in such a manner that they can provide useful information to understand the impacts of N deposition. Here we highlight two main issues. The first one relates to the high and infrequent doses typically applied during fertilisation studies, which differ from the low and chronic doses prevailing under ambient deposition. A small subset of the existing studies can be used to enable the extrapolation of the results from high but infrequent doses to low but chronic additions. The second issue is that only a handful of the existing experiments have been carried out by spraying a nitrogen solution over canopies. Our knowledge principally relies on the results obtained via traditional ground fertilisation experiments. This presents a potential problem because atmospheric deposition filters through the canopies whereas ground applications exclude direct canopy N processing. Overall, we find that: a) the dose applied has a crucial effect in determining the response, in such a way that with high doses the values of dC/dN are lower (or even change sign). Therefore, current estimates of the impacts of N deposition based on fertilisation studies alone are generally too low, because this non-linear effect was not taken into account. Here, we provide a method by which a correction factor can be derived for experiments conducted at unrealistically high doses. b) There is a large variability

  12. Generation of selenium-enriched rice with enhanced grain yield, selenium content and bioavailability through fertilisation with selenite.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yu-Dong; Wang, Xu; Wong, Yum-Shing

    2013-12-01

    To fulfill the natural human needs of selenium, selenium biofortification has been carried out in rice (Oryza sativa) in recent years. Despite some improvements have been made, the increase of selenium content in rice was still limited and a large amount of fertilisers are often required, which may cause environmental pullution. In this study, we further improved the selenium biofortification of rice by using less selenium fertilisers (10.5 g selenium/hectare) whereas, largely increasing selenium content in rice grains (up to 51 times vs. control). Furthermore, selenium speciation analysis, in vitro gastrointestinal digestion and antioxidant assays were performed to evaluate the selenium bioaccessibility and bioavailability in selenium-enriched rice grains. The major selenium species found were readily absorbable selenomethionine. Meanwhile, the selenium-enriched rice grains have significantly higher antioxidant bioactivities. In conclusion, this selenium-enriched rice has enormous potential for selenium supplementation in humans. PMID:23870972

  13. DNase I and II present in avian oocytes: a possible involvement in sperm degradation at polyspermic fertilisation.

    PubMed

    Stepińska, Urszula; Olszańska, Bozenna

    2003-02-01

    During polyspermic fertilisation in birds numerous spermatozoa enter the eggs, in contrast to the situation in mammals where fertilisation is monospermic. However, in birds only one of the spermatozoa which have entered an egg participates in zygote nucleus formation, while the supernumerary spermatozoa degenerate at early embryogenesis. Our previous work has demonstrated the presence in preovulatory quail oocytes of DNase I and II activities able to digest naked lambdaDNA/HindIII substrate in vitro. In the present studies, the activities of both DNases in quail oocytes at different stages of oogenesis and in ovulated mouse oocytes were assayed in vitro using the same substrate. Degradation of quail spermatozoa by quail oocyte extracts was also checked. Digestion of the DNA substrate was evaluated by electrophoresis on agarose gels. The activities of DNase I and II in quail oocytes increased during oogenesis and were the highest in mature oocytes. The activities were present not only in germinal discs but also in a thin layer of cytoplasm adhering to the perivitelline layer surrounding the yolk. At all stages of oogenesis the activity of DNase II was much higher than that of DNase I. DNA contained in spermatozoa was also degraded by the quail oocyte extracts under conditions optimal for both DNases. In contrast to what is observed in quail oocytes, no DNase activities were detected in ovulated mouse eggs; this is logical as they would be useless or even harmful in monospermic fertilisation. The possible role of DNase activities in avian oocytes, in degradation of accessory spermatozoa during polyspermic fertilisation, is discussed. PMID:12625527

  14. Body composition, dietary carbohydrates and fatty acids determine post-fertilisation development of bovine oocytes in vitro.

    PubMed

    Adamiak, S J; Powell, K; Rooke, J A; Webb, R; Sinclair, K D

    2006-02-01

    This study assessed the interactive effects of carbohydrate type (fibre vs starch) and fatty acid (FA) supplementation (0% vs 6% calcium soaps of palm oil FA) on the post-fertilisation development of oocytes recovered from low and moderate body condition score (BCS) heifers. A secondary objective was to compare the FA composition of plasma to that of granulosa cells (GCs) and cumulus-oocyte complexes (COCs) from these animals, and to relate these findings to the developmental potential of oocytes. Plasma, GCs and COCs were recovered from 32 heifers on day 5 of a synchronised oestrous cycle for FA analyses. Oocytes were also recovered on days 10 and 15 of the same cycle after short-term ovarian stimulation (FSH + GnRH), and matured, fertilised and cultured to the blastocyst stage in vitro. High levels of dietary starch increased (P < 0.01) plasma insulin but, together with dietary FA, reduced (P < 0.05) blastocyst yields in low, but not in moderate, BCS heifers. Diet-induced alterations to the FA content of plasma were less apparent in GCs and COCs. In summary, although dietary lipids increased the FA content of COCs, the selective uptake of saturated FAs at the expense of mainly polyunsaturated FAs within the follicular compartment ensured that the FA composition of COCs was largely unaffected by diet. However, the concentration of saturated FAs within COCs was inherently high, and so further increases in FA content may have impaired post-fertilisation development. The data establish a robust nutritional framework for more detailed studies into the mechanistic effects of dietary composition on the post-fertilisation developmental potential of oocytes. PMID:16452718

  15. A simple model for assessing ammonia emission from ammoniacal fertilisers as affected by pH and injection into soil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nyord, T.; Schelde, K. M.; Søgaard, H. T.; Jensen, L. S.; Sommer, S. G.

    Ammonia (NH 3) volatilisation following the application of ammoniacal fertilisers and liquid manure to agricultural land is a significant source of atmospheric NH 3, which not only poses a risk to the environment, but may also result in a loss of plant available nitrogen (N). This study examined the potential for reducing NH 3 emission through acidifying an ammoniacal solution and by injecting the solution. The combination of the two technologies was studied and a model for predicting the most optimal treatment was developed. In the laboratory, ammonium (NH 4+) hydroxide (aqueous NH 3) was dissolved in water (pH 11) and injected into a loamy sand soil. The NH 3 emission was measured with a dynamic chamber technology. Injecting the solution to 10 mm below the soil surface reduced NH 3 emission by 10% compared to surface application, and injection to 30 mm reduced emission by 20% compared to surface application. Acidifying the ammoniacal solution by adding sulphuric acid and reducing pH to 10 reduced the emission by 60% at a 10 mm injection depth and 90% at 30 mm compared with non-acidified and surface-spread ammoniacal solution. The results show that there is an important interaction of pH and injection depth and that there is a need for models predicting a combined effect. This type of model could contribute to reduce cost and energy (traction force) by providing the optimal combination of acidifying and injection depth that gives a specific reduction in NH 3 emission, which in this study was reducing pH to 10 and inject the fertiliser to 30 mm below surface. This study showed that relatively simple models can predict the NH 3 emission from injected ammoniacal fertilisers, but that there is still a need for developing algorithms that predict the effect of pH, including the pH buffering capacity of the fertiliser and the soil.

  16. Dietary phosphorus and kidney disease.

    PubMed

    Uribarri, Jaime

    2013-10-01

    High serum phosphate is linked to poor health outcome and mortality in chronic kidney disease (CKD) patients before or after the initiation of dialysis. Therefore, maintenance of normal serum phosphate levels is a major concern in the clinical care of this population with dietary phosphorus restriction and/or use of oral phosphate binders considered to be the best corrective care. This review discusses (1) evidence for an association between serum phosphate levels and bone and cardiovascular disease (CVD) in CKD patients as well as progression of kidney disease itself; (2) the relationship between serum phosphate and dietary phosphorus intake; and (3) implications from these data for future research. Increasing our understanding of the relationship between altered phosphorus metabolism and disease in CKD patients may clarify the potential role of excess dietary phosphorus as a risk factor for disease in the general population.

  17. Black Phosphorus Optoelectronics and Electronics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xia, Fengnian

    Black phosphorus recently emerged as a promising new 2D material due to its widely tunable and direct bandgap, high carrier mobility and remarkable in-plane anisotropic electrical, optical and phonon properties. It serendipitously bridges the zero-gap graphene and the relatively large-bandgap transition metal dichalcogenides such as molybdenum disulfide (MoS2) . In this talk, I will first cover the basic properties of few-layer and thin-film black phosphorus, followed by a discussion of recent observation of highly anisotropic robust excitons in monolayer black phosphorus. Finally I will present a few potential applications of black phosphorus such as radio-frequency transistors and wideband photodetectors. We acknowledge support from the Office of Naval Research, the Air Force Office of Scientific Research, the National Science Foundation and Yale University.

  18. Phosphorus and Defoliation Interact and Improve the Growth and Composition of the Plant Community and Soil Properties in an Alpine Pasture of Qinghai-Tibet Plateau

    PubMed Central

    Qi, Juan; Nie, Zhongnan; Jiao, Ting; Zhang, Degang

    2015-01-01

    Pasture degradation caused by overgrazing and inappropriate fertiliser management is a major production and environmental threat in Qinghai-Tibet Plateau. Previous research has focused on the effects of mixed nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) fertiliser and reduced grazing pressure on the plant community of the grassland; however, the role of P and how it interacts with various defoliation (the process of the complete or partial removal of the above-ground parts of plants by grazing or cutting) intensities on the plant and soil of the grassland ecosystem have not been quantified. A field experiment was conducted to quantify how P application in combination of defoliation pressure could impact the dynamic change of the plant and soil in a native alpine grassland ecosystem of the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau, China, from May 2012 to September 2014. A split-plot design with 4 replicates and repeated measures was used to determine the growth and composition of plant community and soil physical and chemical properties under various levels of P fertiliser and defoliation intensity. The results showed that applying 20 kg P/ha increased the herbage yield of Melissitus ruthenica by 68% and total pasture yield by 25%. Close defoliation favoured the growth and plant frequency of the shorter species, whereas lax defoliation favoured that of the taller plant species. Medium P rate and cutting to 3 cm above ground gave an overall best outcome in pasture yield, quality and frequency and soil moisture and nutrient concentration. Application of P fertiliser with a moderate defoliation pressure to promote legume growth and N fixation has the potential to achieve multiple benefits in increasing pasture and livestock production and improving environmental sustainability in the alpine pasture of Qinghai-Tibet Plateau, a fragile and P-deficient ecosystem zone in China and its western neighbouring countries. PMID:26513363

  19. Phosphorus and Defoliation Interact and Improve the Growth and Composition of the Plant Community and Soil Properties in an Alpine Pasture of Qinghai-Tibet Plateau.

    PubMed

    Qi, Juan; Nie, Zhongnan; Jiao, Ting; Zhang, Degang

    2015-01-01

    Pasture degradation caused by overgrazing and inappropriate fertiliser management is a major production and environmental threat in Qinghai-Tibet Plateau. Previous research has focused on the effects of mixed nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) fertiliser and reduced grazing pressure on the plant community of the grassland; however, the role of P and how it interacts with various defoliation (the process of the complete or partial removal of the above-ground parts of plants by grazing or cutting) intensities on the plant and soil of the grassland ecosystem have not been quantified. A field experiment was conducted to quantify how P application in combination of defoliation pressure could impact the dynamic change of the plant and soil in a native alpine grassland ecosystem of the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau, China, from May 2012 to September 2014. A split-plot design with 4 replicates and repeated measures was used to determine the growth and composition of plant community and soil physical and chemical properties under various levels of P fertiliser and defoliation intensity. The results showed that applying 20 kg P/ha increased the herbage yield of Melissitus ruthenica by 68% and total pasture yield by 25%. Close defoliation favoured the growth and plant frequency of the shorter species, whereas lax defoliation favoured that of the taller plant species. Medium P rate and cutting to 3 cm above ground gave an overall best outcome in pasture yield, quality and frequency and soil moisture and nutrient concentration. Application of P fertiliser with a moderate defoliation pressure to promote legume growth and N fixation has the potential to achieve multiple benefits in increasing pasture and livestock production and improving environmental sustainability in the alpine pasture of Qinghai-Tibet Plateau, a fragile and P-deficient ecosystem zone in China and its western neighbouring countries. PMID:26513363

  20. Phosphorus and Defoliation Interact and Improve the Growth and Composition of the Plant Community and Soil Properties in an Alpine Pasture of Qinghai-Tibet Plateau.

    PubMed

    Qi, Juan; Nie, Zhongnan; Jiao, Ting; Zhang, Degang

    2015-01-01

    Pasture degradation caused by overgrazing and inappropriate fertiliser management is a major production and environmental threat in Qinghai-Tibet Plateau. Previous research has focused on the effects of mixed nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) fertiliser and reduced grazing pressure on the plant community of the grassland; however, the role of P and how it interacts with various defoliation (the process of the complete or partial removal of the above-ground parts of plants by grazing or cutting) intensities on the plant and soil of the grassland ecosystem have not been quantified. A field experiment was conducted to quantify how P application in combination of defoliation pressure could impact the dynamic change of the plant and soil in a native alpine grassland ecosystem of the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau, China, from May 2012 to September 2014. A split-plot design with 4 replicates and repeated measures was used to determine the growth and composition of plant community and soil physical and chemical properties under various levels of P fertiliser and defoliation intensity. The results showed that applying 20 kg P/ha increased the herbage yield of Melissitus ruthenica by 68% and total pasture yield by 25%. Close defoliation favoured the growth and plant frequency of the shorter species, whereas lax defoliation favoured that of the taller plant species. Medium P rate and cutting to 3 cm above ground gave an overall best outcome in pasture yield, quality and frequency and soil moisture and nutrient concentration. Application of P fertiliser with a moderate defoliation pressure to promote legume growth and N fixation has the potential to achieve multiple benefits in increasing pasture and livestock production and improving environmental sustainability in the alpine pasture of Qinghai-Tibet Plateau, a fragile and P-deficient ecosystem zone in China and its western neighbouring countries.

  1. Re-evaluation of post-wash sperm is a helpful tool in the decision to perform in vitro fertilisation or intracytoplasmic sperm injection.

    PubMed

    Wiser, A; Ghetler, Y; Gonen, O; Piura, E; Berkovits, A; Itskovich, A; Rom, T; Shulman, A

    2012-04-01

    The aim of this study was to find discriminatory parameters, based on sperm characteristics on the day of ovum pickup, that can help guide the decision to perform either intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI) or in vitro fertilisation (IVF). We evaluated 112 cycles fertilised with both regular and ICSI insemination during the same cycle. A total of 112 cycles were analysed. In 62 cycles, fertilisation was obtained with both ICSI and IVF, and in 50 cycles, fertilisation was obtained by ICSI alone. The sperm samples were re-evaluated after the preparation process. The mean initial total motile sperm count (TMSC) was 66.3 × 10(6) ± 47.5 in the group that underwent both methods and 23.1 × 10(6) ± 20.4 in the ICSI only group (P < 0.05). After sperm preparation, the mean post-wash TMSC was 4.4 × 10(6) ± 3.4 and 1.06 × 10(6) ± 0.9 respectively (P < 0.05). A cutoff of 1.5 × 10(6) or fewer sperm after preparation as an indicator for ICSI has a sensitivity of 80% and a specificity of 77%. Re-evaluation of TMSC can prevent unexpected fertilisation failure. Fewer than 1.5 million TMSC after wash should be considered an indication for ICSI fertilisation.

  2. Some comments on Dr Iglesias's paper, 'In vitro fertilisation: the major issues'.

    PubMed

    Mill, J M

    1986-03-01

    In an article in an earlier edition of the Journal of Medical Ethics (1) Dr Iglesias bases her analysis upon the mediaeval interpretation of Platonic metaphysics and Aristotelian logic as given by Aquinas. Propositional forms are applied to the analysis of experience. This results in a very abstract analysis. The essential connection of events and their changing temporal relationships are ignored. The dichotomy between body and soul is a central concept. The unchanging elements in experience are assumed to be more real than the actual world of experienced process. Such a view makes the analysis of the temporal factors in experience impossible. Its abstractness is quite unsuitable for the analysis of the ontological structure and development of the neonate from fertilisation to birth. A N Whitehead made the notion of organism central to his philosophy. He refused to place human experience outside nature, or admit dualism. His philosophy of organism is an attempt to uncover the essential elements connecting human experience with the physical and biological sciences. Time, change and process are, in his view, more real than the static abstractions obtainable by the use of the fallacy of misplaced concreteness. Use of the latter negates the essential connectedness of events and the importance of temporarily and change (2). In this paper I argue that the embryo, being an organism, is not analysable in terms of thinghood. It is a process. To apply Aristotelian logical concepts to it is to distort the real nature of the datum. PMID:3959039

  3. Assessing child welfare under the Human Fertilisation and Embryology Act 2008: a case study in medicalisation?

    PubMed

    Lee, Ellie; Macvarish, Jan; Sheldon, Sally

    2014-05-01

    This article reports on a study with staff working in assisted conception clinics in the UK about making welfare of the child (WOC) assessments pre-conception. This aspect of infertility treatment is obligatory under section 13(5) of the Human Fertilisation and Embryology Act, which was amended in 2008. The aim of the study was to find out how this change to the law had impacted on practice. In describing what we found, we also make a contribution to scholarship about the medicalisation of reproduction. S13(5) has often been discussed as a prime example of medicalisation, giving clinics power to grant or deny access to treatment on child welfare grounds, encompassing far more than purely clinical considerations. Yet, while such medicalisation may be entrenched in the law, our findings suggest this power is used with a very light touch. Further, while our interviewees offered near-universal support for the need to consider child welfare, this is now justified by concerns that address not only family form (e.g. the need for a father figure) but also the quality of interactions between parents and children. In this light we suggest that the concept of medicalisation may offer a rather blunt tool for understanding a far more complex reality. PMID:24386909

  4. Spines as a mechanical defence: the effects of fertiliser treatment on juvenile Acacia tortilis plants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gowda, Juan H.; Albrectsen, Benedicte R.; Ball, John P.; Sjöberg, Mikael; Palo, R. Thomas

    2003-04-01

    Using growth of different tissues in Acacia tortilis as a model, we tested current hypotheses on how nutrients affect mechanical plant defence. In a greenhouse experiment we applied a balanced commercial fertiliser (NPK) at three treatment levels to juvenile potted Acacias. As expected, plants increased in size with nutrient addition. More importantly, however, the relative mass of long spines increased significantly more than other structural components (leaves and twigs). This effect is not predicted by current nutrient availability hypotheses, which suggest either equal or proportionally lower investment in mechanical defence with increasing nutrient availability. Our results suggest that investment in spine size is nutrient limited in Acacia tortilis. It is commonly observed that the risk of damage by herbivores is highest on plants growing in nutrient-rich soils. If spines act as an effective form of anti-herbivore protection, then these plants might be expected to increase their production of physical defences (long spines) under such circumstances. Plants growing under higher nutrient conditions might therefore invest more in constitutive defences. These changes in allocation pattern are consistent with the increase in production of long spines, which are also induced by browsing.

  5. A new tool to study the fertilising effect of Saharan dust at sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stuut, Jan-Berend; Bakker, Roel; van der Does, Michelle; Friese, Carmen; Keijzer, Edwin; Korte, Laura; Koster, Bob; Lenting, Walther; Laan, Martin; van Maarsseveen, Frank; Munday, Chris; Schrama, Matthias; Witte, Yvo

    2015-04-01

    Massive amounts of dust (>200 Million Ton) are blown from the Sahara into and over the Atlantic Ocean every year. This dust strongly alters the atmosphere through blocking incoming solar radiation [cooling the atmosphere] and trapping outgoing heat that was reflected at the earth's surface [warming the atmosphere]. In addition, aerosols carry huge amounts of metals and nutrients that can boost marine life, but also vast amounts of microbes, spores, and pathogens that are harmful for both marine- and terrestrial (including human!) life. The net effect of cooling/warming and ocean fertilisation/poisoning is presently far from understood as it depends on a complex set of parameters related to dust emission, dispersal, and deposition. In order to quantify these parameters, we are carrying out a novel approach to study the transatlantic flux of Saharan dust and its environmental effect on the ocean with classic marine sediment traps and three new dust-collecting surface buoys sampling the Saharan dust plume between NW Africa and the Caribbean. Here, we focus on the design, functionality, and initial results of the dust-collecting buoys that were constructed at NIOZ, and which have been deployed in the Atlantic Ocean in November 2013.

  6. Incidence of cancer among workers in a Norwegian nitrate fertiliser plant.

    PubMed Central

    Fandrem, S I; Kjuus, H; Andersen, A; Amlie, E

    1993-01-01

    The incidence of cancer among 2023 male fertiliser workers has been investigated in a historical cohort study. Workers who had been employed for more than one year in work with possible exposure to dust containing nitrate between 1945 and 1979 were included. An individual cumulated exposure to dust expressed in level-years was calculated for each participant. The cohort was followed up from 1953 to the end of 1988, and the incidence of cancer was compared with the national rates. There were 467 deaths v 504.8 expected (standardised mortality ratio (SMR) = 0.93), and 185 cases of cancer v 195.5 expected (standardised incidence ratio (SIR) = 0.95). Thirty cases of lung cancer were found v 27.5 expected (SIR = 1.09). No overall excess of gastric cancer was found (15 cases v 17.0 expected; SIR = 0.89). No association was found between cumulated exposure to nitrate and gastric cancer, and there was no association between duration of employment or time since first employment and incidence of gastric cancer. PMID:8393697

  7. Pilot experiments with electrodialysis and ozonation for the production of a fertiliser from urine.

    PubMed

    Pronk, W; Zuleeg, S; Lienert, J; Escher, B; Koller, M; Berner, A; Koch, G; Boller, M

    2007-01-01

    Pilot tests were performed with a process combination of electrodialysis and ozonation for the removal of micropollutants and the concentration of nutrients in urine. In continuous and batch experiments, maximum concentration factors up to 3.5 and 4.1 were obtained, respectively. The desalination capacity did not decrease significantly during continuous operation periods of several weeks. Membrane cleaning after 195 days resulted in approximately 35% increase in desalination rate. The Yeast Estrogen Screen (YES), a bioassay that selectively detects oestrogenic compounds, confirmed that about 90% of the oestrogenic activity was removed by electrodialysis. HPLC analysis showed that ibuprofen was removed to a high extent, while other micropollutants were below the detection limit. In view of the fact that ibuprofen is among the most rapidly transported micropollutants in electrodialysis processes, this result indicates that electrodialysis provides an effective barrier for micropollutants. Standardised plant growth tests were performed in the field with the salt solution resulting from the treatment by electrodialysis and subsequent ozonation. The results show that the plant height is comparable to synthetic fertilisers, but the crop yield is slightly lower. The latter is probably caused by volatilisation losses during field application, which can be prevented by improved application technologies.

  8. Genetic heterogeneity of platelet glycoproteins Ia and IIIa is associated with in vitro fertilisation implantation failure.

    PubMed

    Vlachadis, N; Tsamadias, V; Kouskouni, E; Vitoratos, N; Hatziveis, K; Economou, E

    2015-01-01

    Thrombophilic genetic factors have been shown to play an important role in implantation outcome after in vitro fertilisation (IVF). In this pilot study we investigated the frequencies of glycoprotein Ia (GpIa)-C807T and GpIIIa-PlA1/PlA2 polymorphisms in 60 nulligravidae women with a history of unexplained IVF implantation failures and compared them with 60 healthy fertile women. We found statistically significant associations between the GpIa-C807T and GpIIIa-PlA1/PlA2 polymorphisms and IVF implantation failure (odds ratio [OR] = 3.45, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.63-7.30, p = 0.001; and OR = 2.86, 95% CI: 1.27-6.45, p = 0.010, respectively) with the risk being higher for combined carriers of GpIa-807T and GpIIIa-PlA2 alleles (OR = 10.13, 95% CI: 2.85-35.99, p < 0.001), suggesting a synergistic effect of the two polymorphisms. The above associations were strongest for the youngest age group. Our results indicate that GpIa-807T and GpIIIa-PlA2 may be susceptibility alleles for IVF implantation failure. PMID:25643034

  9. Psychosocial trends in couples prior to commencement of in vitro fertilisation (IVF) treatment.

    PubMed

    Kondaveeti, Nirmala; Hamilton, Joan; Maher, Bonnie; Kirkham, Colin; Harrison, Robert F; Mocanu, Edgar V

    2011-12-01

    Facing infertility and undergoing fertility treatment can create emotional turmoil in couples' lives. It is essential for fertility therapy providers to assess the coping and communication strategies of couples before treatment in order to provide appropriate support. We performed a two time point (year 2003 & year 2009) cross-sectional study of patients attending our services to undergo in vitro fertilisation. All couples attending the Human Assisted Reproduction Ireland Unit, a tertiary referral academic centre at the Rotunda Hospital, were requested to complete a psychosocial questionnaire before commencing the treatment. The questions assessed couples' understanding of their own infertility, family background and support, relationship traits and stress levels prior to commencing fertility treatment. A total of 180 patients participated in the study. Our findings showed that within a 6-year time span, couples' attitudes have changed significantly. Compared to 6 years ago, couples now have a better understanding of infertility and are seeking treatment quicker. Interestingly, we showed higher stress levels nowadays with fewer couples following routine stress management. We also identified specific gender differences in that women have a more open attitude in discussing infertility and seeking more support from friends and family compared to men.

  10. Evaluation of mitigation strategies to reduce ammonia losses from slurry fertilisation on arable lands.

    PubMed

    Carozzi, M; Ferrara, R M; Rana, G; Acutis, M

    2013-04-01

    To evaluate the best practices in reducing ammonia (NH3) losses from fertilised arable lands, six field trials were carried out in three different locations in northern Italy. NH3 emissions from cattle slurry were estimated considering the spreading techniques and the field incorporation procedures. The measurements were performed using long term exposure samplers associated to the determination of the atmospheric turbulence and the use of the backward Lagrangian stochastic (bLS) model WindTrax. The results obtained indicate that the NH3 emission process was exhausted in the first 24-48 h after slurry spreading. The slurry incorporation technique was able to reduce the NH3 losses with respect to the surface spreading, where a contextual incorporation led to reductions up to 87%. However, the best abatement strategy for NH3 losses from slurry applications has proved to be the direct injection into the soil, with a reduction of about 95% with respect to the surface spreading. The results obtained highlight the strong dependence of the volatilisation phenomenon by soil and weather conditions.

  11. Determination of free L- and D-alanine in hydrolysed protein fertilisers by capillary electrophoresis.

    PubMed

    Cavani, Luciano; Ciavatta, Claudio; Gessa, Carlo

    2003-01-24

    of racemisation of hydrolysed protein fertilisers (HPFs) using an The objective of this study was to determine the degree inexpensive and easy to handle analytical method for qualitative control of the products. Using a polyacrylamide coated capillary and a run buffer containing 0.1 M Tris-borate+2.5 mM EDTA-Na2+0.1% sodium dodecylsulfate+10 mM beta-cyclodextrin a quantitative separation of D- and L-alanine (Ala) was made from an not treated HPF sample derivatised with dansyl chlorine by capillary electrophoresis. The D-Ala:[D-Ala+L-Ala] ratio, called degree of racemisation (RD), was calculated. The analysis of ten commercial HPFs has shown that more than 60% of HPFs have an RD > or = 40%. while only one product has shown an RD <5%. These results showed that most of the HPFs on the market are obtained with strong hydrolytic processes and high contents of D-amino acids are probably less effective as plant nutrients or even potentially dangerous to plants.

  12. Carbohydrate Production and Consumption In Phytoplankton Subjected To Iron Fertilisation In The Southern Ocean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van Oijen, T.; Veldhuis, M. J. W.; van Leeuwe, M. A.; de Baar, H. J. W.

    Iron concentrations in the Southern Ocean are generally low. At these concentrations microalgal growth, in particular of large diatoms, is affected because iron plays a central role in photosynthesis and several metabolic processes. During the Polarstern 2000 iron release experiment, we studied the effect of in situ iron enrichment on the microalgal production and consumption of intracellular carbohydrates. The experi- ment was performed in the Southern Polar Frontal Zone and lasted three weeks. Dur- ing the course of the experiment, discrete samples were taken along vertical profiles (0-100m), both in the centre of the iron enriched patch and outside the patch. In the patch, the particulate carbohydrate concentration had doubled at the end of the exper- iment. An increasing part of the carbohydrates was produced by large diatom cells (>10 micrometer). Outside the patch, little changes were observed. On day 6, 10 and 19 after the release, seawater from inside and outside the patch was incubated on deck for 24h. In all three deck incubations, the diurnal production and nocturnal con- sumption of intracellular carbohydrates by phytoplankton were higher in iron-enriched bottles. Concluding, particulate carbohydrate concentration showed to be a sensitive parameter that clearly responded to iron fertilisation. This study contributes to a bet- ter understanding of factors governing phytoplankton growth in High Nitrogen Low Chlorophyll areas.

  13. Participation of the sperm proteasome during in vitro fertilisation and the acrosome reaction in cattle.

    PubMed

    Sánchez, R; Deppe, M; Schulz, M; Bravo, P; Villegas, J; Morales, P; Risopatrón, J

    2011-04-01

    In this work, we have investigated the role of the bovine sperm proteasome during in vitro fertilisation (IVF) and the acrosome reaction (AR). Motile spermatozoa, obtained by a swim-up method in Sperm-Talp medium, were capacitated for 3.5 h and incubated in the presence or absence of the specific proteasome inhibitor epoxomicin for 30 and 60 min. Then, the spermatozoa were co-incubated with mature bovine cumulus oocytes and after 48 h the cleavage rate of inseminated oocytes was evaluated. In addition, we evaluated the participation of the sperm proteasome during the progesterone-induced AR. Capacitated spermatozoa were incubated for 30 min with or without epoxomicin, then progesterone was added and the ARs were evaluated using the dual fluorescent staining technique 'Hoechst and chlortetracycline'. The results indicate that the proteasome inhibitor decreased the cleavage rate of oocytes inseminated with treated spermatozoa. In addition, acrosomal exocytosis levels were statistically significantly higher in the samples treated with the AR inducer progesterone than in control samples in the absence of the inducer. However, the progesterone-induced AR was significantly reduced by previous treatment of the spermatozoa with epoxomicin (P < 0.001). These observations indicate that the bovine sperm proteasome participates in the IVF and AR processes.

  14. The inhibitory effects of potassium chloride versus potassium silicate application on (137)Cs uptake by rice.

    PubMed

    Fujimura, Shigeto; Yoshioka, Kunio; Ota, Takeshi; Ishikawa, Tetsuya; Sato, Makoto; Satou, Mutsuto

    2016-03-01

    After the accident at the Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant owned by the Tokyo Electric Power Company on 11 March 2011, potassium fertilizer was applied to agricultural fields in the southern Tohoku and northern Kanto regions of Japan to reduce the uptake of radiocesium by crops. In this study, we examined the effects of two types of potassium fertilizers, potassium chloride (a readily available potassium fertilizer) and potassium silicate (a slow-release potassium fertilizer), as well as a split application of potassium, on the accumulation of (137)Cs by rice plants in two pot experiments. The (137)Cs concentrations in the brown rice and in the above-ground plants were significantly lower after potassium chloride application than after potassium silicate application. The potassium ion (K(+)) concentrations in soil solutions sampled 9 and 21 d after transplanting were significantly higher for the potassium chloride application than for the potassium silicate application. The K(+) concentrations in soil solutions observed in the application of potassium silicate were similar to those in the treatment when no potassium was applied. This finding indicates that the application of potassium silicate did not sufficiently increase the available K(+) for rice plants in the soil, which led to a greater uptake of (137)Cs after the potassium silicate application than after the application of potassium chloride. The (137)Cs concentration in brown rice was higher in the split application of potassium fertilizer with the second application at the full heading stage than that without split application and the split application with the second application before heading. PMID:26773513

  15. Potassium Intake, Bioavailability, Hypertension, and Glucose Control

    PubMed Central

    Stone, Michael S.; Martyn, Lisa; Weaver, Connie M.

    2016-01-01

    Potassium is an essential nutrient. It is the most abundant cation in intracellular fluid where it plays a key role in maintaining cell function. The gradient of potassium across the cell membrane determines cellular membrane potential, which is maintained in large part by the ubiquitous ion channel the sodium-potassium (Na+-K+) ATPase pump. Approximately 90% of potassium consumed (60–100 mEq) is lost in the urine, with the other 10% excreted in the stool, and a very small amount lost in sweat. Little is known about the bioavailability of potassium, especially from dietary sources. Less is understood on how bioavailability may affect health outcomes. Hypertension (HTN) is the leading cause of cardiovascular disease (CVD) and a major financial burden ($50.6 billion) to the US public health system, and has a significant impact on all-cause morbidity and mortality worldwide. The relationship between increased potassium supplementation and a decrease in HTN is relatively well understood, but the effect of increased potassium intake from dietary sources on blood pressure overall is less clear. In addition, treatment options for hypertensive individuals (e.g., thiazide diuretics) may further compound chronic disease risk via impairments in potassium utilization and glucose control. Understanding potassium bioavailability from various sources may help to reveal how specific compounds and tissues influence potassium movement, and further the understanding of its role in health. PMID:27455317

  16. Potassium Intake, Bioavailability, Hypertension, and Glucose Control.

    PubMed

    Stone, Michael S; Martyn, Lisa; Weaver, Connie M

    2016-01-01

    Potassium is an essential nutrient. It is the most abundant cation in intracellular fluid where it plays a key role in maintaining cell function. The gradient of potassium across the cell membrane determines cellular membrane potential, which is maintained in large part by the ubiquitous ion channel the sodium-potassium (Na+-K+) ATPase pump. Approximately 90% of potassium consumed (60-100 mEq) is lost in the urine, with the other 10% excreted in the stool, and a very small amount lost in sweat. Little is known about the bioavailability of potassium, especially from dietary sources. Less is understood on how bioavailability may affect health outcomes. Hypertension (HTN) is the leading cause of cardiovascular disease (CVD) and a major financial burden ($50.6 billion) to the US public health system, and has a significant impact on all-cause morbidity and mortality worldwide. The relationship between increased potassium supplementation and a decrease in HTN is relatively well understood, but the effect of increased potassium intake from dietary sources on blood pressure overall is less clear. In addition, treatment options for hypertensive individuals (e.g., thiazide diuretics) may further compound chronic disease risk via impairments in potassium utilization and glucose control. Understanding potassium bioavailability from various sources may help to reveal how specific compounds and tissues influence potassium movement, and further the understanding of its role in health. PMID:27455317

  17. Evaluation of the potassium adsorption capacity of a potassium adsorption filter during rapid blood transfusion.

    PubMed

    Matsuura, H; Akatsuka, Y; Muramatsu, C; Isogai, S; Sugiura, Y; Arakawa, S; Murayama, M; Kurahashi, M; Takasuga, H; Oshige, T; Yuba, T; Mizuta, S; Emi, N

    2015-05-01

    The concentration of extracellular potassium in red blood cell concentrates (RCCs) increases during storage, leading to risk of hyperkalemia. A potassium adsorption filter (PAF) can eliminate the potassium at normal blood transfusion. This study aimed to investigate the potassium adsorption capacity of a PAF during rapid blood transfusion. We tested several different potassium concentrations under a rapid transfusion condition using a pressure bag. The adsorption rates of the 70-mEq/l model were 76·8%. The PAF showed good potassium adsorption capacity, suggesting that this filter may provide a convenient method to prevent hyperkalemia during rapid blood transfusion.

  18. Reexamining the Phosphorus-Protein Dilemma: Does Phosphorus Restriction Compromise Protein Status?

    PubMed

    St-Jules, David E; Woolf, Kathleen; Pompeii, Mary Lou; Kalantar-Zadeh, Kamyar; Sevick, Mary Ann

    2016-05-01

    Dietary phosphorus restriction is recommended to help control hyperphosphatemia in hemodialysis patients, but many high-phosphorus foods are important sources of protein. In this review, we examine whether restricting dietary phosphorus compromises protein status in hemodialysis patients. Although dietary phosphorus and protein are highly correlated, phosphorus intakes can range up to 600 mg/day for a given energy and protein intake level. Furthermore, the collinearity of phosphorus and protein may be biased because the phosphorus burden of food depends on: (1) the presence of phosphate additives, (2) food preparation method, and (3) bioavailability of phosphorus, which are often unaccounted for in nutrition assessments. Ultimately, we argue that clinically relevant reductions in phosphorus intake can be made without limiting protein intake by avoiding phosphate additives in processed foods, using wet cooking methods such as boiling, and if needed, substituting high-phosphorus foods for nutritionally equivalent foods that are lower in bioavailable phosphorus.

  19. A Substance Flow Model for Global Phosphorus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vaccari, D. A.

    2015-12-01

    A system-based substance flow model (SFM) for phosphorus is developed based on the global phosphorus substance flow analysis (SFA) of Cordell et al (2009). The model is based strictly on mass balance considerations. It predicts the sensitivity of phosphorus consumption to various interventions intended to conserve reserves, as well as interactions among these efforts, allowing a comparison of their impacts on phosphorus demand. The interventions include control of phosphorus losses from soil erosion, food production and food waste, or phosphorus recycling such as from animal manure or human waste.

  20. The Relevance of Phosphorus and Iron Chemistry to the Recovery of Phosphorus from Wastewater: A Review.

    PubMed

    Wilfert, Philipp; Kumar, Prashanth Suresh; Korving, Leon; Witkamp, Geert-Jan; van Loosdrecht, Mark C M

    2015-08-18

    The addition of iron is a convenient way for removing phosphorus from wastewater, but this is often considered to limit phosphorus recovery. Struvite precipitation is currently used to recover phosphorus, and this approach has attracted much interest. However, it requires the use of enhanced biological phosphorus removal (EBPR). EBPR is not yet widely applied and the recovery potential is low. Other phosphorus recovery methods, including sludge application to agricultural land or recovering phosphorus from sludge ash, also have limitations. Energy-producing wastewater treatment plants increasingly rely on phosphorus removal using iron, but the problem (as in current processes) is the subsequent recovery of phosphorus from the iron. In contrast, phosphorus is efficiently mobilized from iron by natural processes in sediments and soils. Iron-phosphorus chemistry is diverse, and many parameters influence the binding and release of phosphorus, including redox conditions, pH, presence of organic substances, and particle morphology. We suggest that the current poor understanding of iron and phosphorus chemistry in wastewater systems is preventing processes being developed to recover phosphorus from iron-phosphorus rich wastes like municipal wastewater sludge. Parameters that affect phosphorus recovery are reviewed here, and methods are suggested for manipulating iron-phosphorus chemistry in wastewater treatment processes to allow phosphorus to be recovered. PMID:25950504

  1. Phosphorus release from agriculture to surface waters: past, present and future in China.

    PubMed

    Chen, M; Chen, J

    2008-01-01

    So far, there is no clear picture at national level regarding the severity, spatial distribution, trend and driving forces of phosphorus (P) release from agriculture to surface waters in China, which presents a major obstacle for surface water quality management and relevant policy-making. By applying a proposed Activity-Unit-Balance (AUB) methodology, this paper retrospects and prospects phosphorus release from agricultural activities to surface waters from 1978 to 2050 in China. Modelling results reveal that P load from agriculture has increased 3.4 times during 1978-2005 and will increase by 1.8 times during 2005-2050. Although major contribution factors are mineral fertiliser application (MFA) and livestock feeding activities (LFAs), LFAs will be the single largest source of increased total P load in the next decades. Most importantly, agricultural pollution in China is spatially overlapped with industrial and domestic pollution, and regions in the southeast to "Heihe-Tengchong" line have to be confronted with an austere challenge to control and manage industrial and domestic pollution as well as pollution from agriculture at present and in future.

  2. III. Quantitative aspects of phosphorus excretion in ruminants.

    PubMed

    Bravo, David; Sauvant, Daniel; Bogaert, Catherine; Meschy, François

    2003-01-01

    Ruminant phosphorus excretion and metabolism were studied through a database. Faecal endogenous phosphorus is the main pathway of phosphorus excretion and averages 0.85 of total faecal phosphorus. The remaining 0.15 is unabsorbed dietary phosphorus. Faecal endogenous phosphorus is mainly unabsorbed phosphorus, with saliva being the major source, and is correlated to factors influencing saliva secretion (DM intake, physical dietary characteristics and dietary phosphorus content). Another source of faecal endogenous phosphorus is rumen microbial phosphorus that escaped solubilisation during post-rumen digestion. All factors stimulating microbial growth would increase phosphorus uptake by the rumen microbes and consequently the faecal endogenous phosphorus. Understanding the determinants of faecal endogenous phosphorus flow will help to precise the determination of net phosphorus requirements for maintenance. The role of plasma phosphorus in urinary phosphorus loss is discussed.

  3. Potassium and potassium clouds in endothelium-dependent hyperpolarizations.

    PubMed

    Edwards, Gillian; Weston, Arthur H

    2004-06-01

    A small increase in extracellular K(+) acts as a local, physiological regulator of blood flow to certain vascular beds. The K(+) derives from active tissues such as contracting skeletal muscle and brain and increases blood supply to these organs by the activation of Na(+)/K(+)-ATPases and/or inwardly-rectifying K(+) channels on the vascular myocytes. K(+) liberated from the vascular endothelium also acts as an endothelium-derived hyperpolarizing and relaxing factor within blood vessels. The K(+) effluxes from endothelial cell intermediate- and small-conductance, Ca(2+)-sensitive K(+) channels which open in response to stretch and local hormones. In many vessels, endothelium-derived hyperpolarizing factor (EDHF) seems identical to the K(+) derived from endothelial cells; it activates Na(+)/K(+)-ATPases (particularly those containing alpha2 and alpha3 subunits) and inward rectifiers (particularly Kir2.1) located on the vascular myocytes. Vasospastic agents generate "potassium clouds" around vascular smooth muscle cells via the efflux of this ion through large conductance, Ca(2+)-sensitive K(+) channels on the myocytes. These potassium clouds can reduce the hyperpolarizing actions of endothelium-derived K(+) by effectively saturating the Na(+)/K(+)-ATPases and inward rectifiers on the muscle cells and they may be of clinical significance in vasospastic conditions.

  4. Potassium

    MedlinePlus

    ... a Healthy Heart Healthy Kids Our Kids Programs Childhood Obesity What is childhood obesity? Overweight in Children BMI in Children Is Childhood Obesity an Issue in Your Home? Addressing your Child's ...

  5. 21 CFR 184.1625 - Potassium citrate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... is incorporated by reference in accordance with 5 U.S.C. 552(a) and 1 CFR part 51. Copies are... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Potassium citrate. 184.1625 Section 184.1625 Food... Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1625 Potassium citrate. (a) Potassium citrate (C6H5K3O7·H2O,...

  6. 21 CFR 184.1625 - Potassium citrate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... is incorporated by reference in accordance with 5 U.S.C. 552(a) and 1 CFR part 51. Copies are... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Potassium citrate. 184.1625 Section 184.1625 Food... Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1625 Potassium citrate. (a) Potassium citrate (C6H5K3O7·H2O,...

  7. 21 CFR 184.1625 - Potassium citrate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... is incorporated by reference in accordance with 5 U.S.C. 552(a) and 1 CFR part 51. Copies are... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Potassium citrate. 184.1625 Section 184.1625 Food... Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1625 Potassium citrate. (a) Potassium citrate (C6H5K3O7·H2O,...

  8. 21 CFR 184.1625 - Potassium citrate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... is incorporated by reference in accordance with 5 U.S.C. 552(a) and 1 CFR part 51. Copies are... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Potassium citrate. 184.1625 Section 184.1625 Food... Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1625 Potassium citrate. (a) Potassium citrate (C6H5K3O7·H2O,...

  9. RADIOACTIVITY AND PHYSIOLOGICAL ACTION OF POTASSIUM.

    PubMed

    Loeb, R F

    1920-11-20

    1. The non-radioactive cesium ion can replace the potassium ion almost quantitatively in solutions required for the development of the egg of the sea urchin into swimming blastulae. 2. Thorium chloride and uranium acetate cannot replace the potassium chloride in the solutions required for the development of the egg. 3. Thorium chloride and uranium acetate do not antagonize the action of the potassium contained in sea water upon the development of eggs.

  10. Greenhouse gas fluxes induced by tillage and fertilisation in an organic grass-clover-wheat sequence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krauss, Maike; Ruser, Reiner; Hansen, Sissel; Mäder, Paul; Gattinger, Andreas

    2015-04-01

    Reduced tillage is technically a challenging task in organic arable farming due to the weed competition but also concerning the destruction of grass-clover leys. Regarding its climate impact, there are hardly any data existing. Soil-derived greenhouse gas fluxes were therefore monitored in a long-term field trial in Frick/CH. The trial is arranged in a strip-split-plot design on a heavy clay soil and compares since 2002 conventional tillage (up to 15 cm deep mouldboard ploughing) with reduced tillage (skim plough 5 cm deep and occasional chisel ploughing). In addition, cattle slurry only (SL) is compared with a slurry/manure compost treatment (MC) at a rate of 90 kg N/year. MC plots received one manure compost and two slurry batches, the latter applied with SL the same day but with half the amount. The overall management is in compliance with the EU organic farming regulation. Nitrous oxide and methane fluxes were monitored in a two-year period including a grass-clover ley, its destruction and a subsequent winter wheat crop. We adjusted the closed chamber sampling method developed by Flessa et al. (1995) with eight replicates for each treatment. Gas and soil sampling took place weekly with additional measurements after fertiliser and tillage management. Soil samples were analysed for mineralised nitrogen, dissolved organic carbon and water filled pore space. Flux calculation included linear and non-linear regression calculated with the HMR-Model after Pedersen et al. (2010) and Fuss et al. (unpublished). N2O fluxes calculated with the non-linear model were 10% higher than calculated with the linear model only. First results for the grass-clover period show no significant differences in N2O fluxes neither between reduced tillage and ploughing nor between slurry and manure compost/slurry application. However, ley destruction induced high N2O emissions which will be discussed with the subsequent wheat period.

  11. Impact of gonadotropins on oocyte maturation, fertilisation and developmental competence in vitro.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xuemei; Tsai, Tony; Qiao, Jie; Zhang, Zhan; Feng, Huai L

    2014-06-01

    The aim of the present study was to evaluate the dose-dependent effects of gonadotropins, either singly (Bravelle (B), Luveris (L), Menupur (M), Repronex (R), Gonal-F (G), Follism (F) and Norvarel (N)) or in combination (Menupur+Bravelle; Repronext+Bravelle; and Bravelle+Norvarel), on rates of oocyte maturation, fertilisation and early embryo development in vitro in an animal model. Bovine cumulus-oocyte complexes (COCs) were purchased commercially and cultured in TCM-199 with 10% fetal bovine serum supplemented with varying concentrations of gonadotropin (0, 5, 10, 20, 40IU or United States Pharmacopoeia (USP) mL-1) for 24 and 48h according to current IVF clinical stimulation protocols. All gonadotropins enhanced oocyte maturation in vitro in a dose-dependent manner. Individually, Gonal-F (Merck KGaA, Darmstadt, Germany), Follism (Merck Co, Whitehouse Station, NJ, USA) and Repronext (Ferring, Parsippany, NJ, USA) promoted oocyte maturation; in combination, they effectively enhanced COC expansion and increased the maturation competence of MII oocytes. However, high concentrations of gonadotropins may result in maturation arrest. Specific combinations of gonadotropins may change the rate of early embryonic development (8-16-cells) and morula-blastocyst formation. These data provide support for the responsiveness of bovine oocytes to gonadotropins in vitro and the need to consider variations in the relative concentrations and ratio of combinations (FSH/LH or human chorionic gonadotropin) for optimisation of oocyte developmental competence. The results of the present study could be applied to therapeutic clinical stimulation protocols and help improve IVF success rates.

  12. Fate of Phosphorus During Co-Combustion of Rapeseed Cake with Wood

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Piotrowska, P.; Zevenhoven, M.; Hupa, M.; Davidsson, K.; Åmand, L. E.; Zabetta, E. C.; Barišić, V.

    Recent studies show that deposit formation and agglomeration in fluidized bed boilers may be aggravated by a high phosphorus content besides alkali metals, chlorine and sulphur in a fuel. This paper presents the fate of phosphorus during co-combustion of wood chips and wood pellets with rapeseed cake pellets, a high phosphorus fuel in a 12MW CFB boiler. 12 hour tests with 12% and 18% (energy basis) of rapeseed cake with wood were performed with and without limestone addition. All fuels were characterised by means of standard fuel analyses combined with chemical fractionation. Retrieved ash samples were analysed using wet chemical analysis complemented with SEMlEDXA. Gaseous alkali metal chlorides as well as HCI and SO2 were measured upstream of the convective pass at a flue gas temperature of 800°C where also the deposit samples were collected with a deposit probe. The composition of deposits was studied with SEMlEDXA. Analyses of bed material particle cross-sections showed phosphorus compounds present within a K-silicates matrix between the agglomerated sand particles, indicating direct attack of gaseous potassium compounds on the bed surface followed by adhesion of rich in phosphorus ash particles. Build-up of the deposits took place mainly on the windward side of the probe; where up to 9 wt-% of phosphorus was present. SEMlEDXA shows that rapeseed cake addition caused an increase of K, Na besides P indicating presence of low melting phosphate salts in the deposits. During limestone addition in the deposit samples the increase of CI could be noticed however no significant change in P content was observed. This paper shows that agglomeration and fouling when co-firing rapeseed cake may be linked to its high content of organically bonded phosphorus — phytic acid salts; together with high content of water soluble fraction of alkali metals chlorides and sulphates in the fuel mixture.

  13. The importance of potassium in managing hypertension.

    PubMed

    Houston, Mark C

    2011-08-01

    Dietary potassium intake has been demonstrated to significantly lower blood pressure (BP) in a dose-responsive manner in both hypertensive and nonhypertensive patients in observational studies, clinical trials, and several meta-analyses. In hypertensive patients, the linear dose-response relationship is a 1.0 mm Hg reduction in systolic BP and a 0.52 mm Hg reduction in diastolic BP per 0.6 g per day increase in dietary potassium intake that is independent of baseline potassium deficiency. The average reduction in BP with 4.7 g (120 mmol) of dietary potassium per day is 8.0/4.1 mm Hg, depending race and on the relative intakes of other minerals such as sodium, magnesium, and calcium. If the dietary sodium chloride intake is high, there is a greater BP reduction with an increased intake of dietary potassium. Blacks have a greater decrease in BP than Caucasians with an equal potassium intake. Potassium-induced reduction in BP significantly lowers the incidence of stroke (cerebrovascular accident, CVA), coronary heart disease, myocardial infarction, and other cardiovascular events. However, potassium also reduces the risk of CVA independent of BP reductions. Increasing consumption of potassium to 4.7 g per day predicts lower event rates for future cardiovascular disease, with estimated decreases of 8% to 15% in CVA and 6% to 11% in myocardial infarction.

  14. Fire-Resistant Polyimides Containing Phosphorus

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mikroyannidis, J.

    1986-01-01

    Limiting oxygen index increased. Copolyimide with a group containing phosphorus synthesized from 1-2,4-diaminobenzene, m-phenylenediamine, and tetracarboxylic dianhydride. Copolymer more fire resistant than corresponding polyimide without phosphorus.

  15. Phosphorus Flamethrower: A Demonstration Using Red and White Allotropes of Phosphorus

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Golden, Melissa L.; Person, Eric C.; Bejar, Miriam; Golden, Donnie R.; Powell, Jonathan M.

    2010-01-01

    A demonstration was created to display the unique behavior of a familiar element, phosphorus, and to make chemistry more accessible to the introductory student. The common allotropes of phosphorus and their reactivity are discussed. In this demonstration, the white allotrope of phosphorus is synthesized from the red phosphorus obtained from a…

  16. Edge phonons in black phosphorus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ribeiro, H. B.; Villegas, C. E. P.; Bahamon, D. A.; Muraca, D.; Castro Neto, A. H.; de Souza, E. A. T.; Rocha, A. R.; Pimenta, M. A.; de Matos, C. J. S.

    2016-07-01

    Black phosphorus has recently emerged as a new layered crystal that, due to its peculiar and anisotropic crystalline and electronic band structures, may have important applications in electronics, optoelectronics and photonics. Despite the fact that the edges of layered crystals host a range of singular properties whose characterization and exploitation are of utmost importance for device development, the edges of black phosphorus remain poorly characterized. In this work, the atomic structure and behaviour of phonons near different black phosphorus edges are experimentally and theoretically studied using Raman spectroscopy and density functional theory calculations. Polarized Raman results show the appearance of new modes at the edges of the sample, and their spectra depend on the atomic structure of the edges (zigzag or armchair). Theoretical simulations confirm that the new modes are due to edge phonon states that are forbidden in the bulk, and originated from the lattice termination rearrangements.

  17. Edge phonons in black phosphorus.

    PubMed

    Ribeiro, H B; Villegas, C E P; Bahamon, D A; Muraca, D; Castro Neto, A H; de Souza, E A T; Rocha, A R; Pimenta, M A; de Matos, C J S

    2016-01-01

    Black phosphorus has recently emerged as a new layered crystal that, due to its peculiar and anisotropic crystalline and electronic band structures, may have important applications in electronics, optoelectronics and photonics. Despite the fact that the edges of layered crystals host a range of singular properties whose characterization and exploitation are of utmost importance for device development, the edges of black phosphorus remain poorly characterized. In this work, the atomic structure and behaviour of phonons near different black phosphorus edges are experimentally and theoretically studied using Raman spectroscopy and density functional theory calculations. Polarized Raman results show the appearance of new modes at the edges of the sample, and their spectra depend on the atomic structure of the edges (zigzag or armchair). Theoretical simulations confirm that the new modes are due to edge phonon states that are forbidden in the bulk, and originated from the lattice termination rearrangements. PMID:27412813

  18. Edge phonons in black phosphorus

    PubMed Central

    Ribeiro, H. B.; Villegas, C. E. P.; Bahamon, D. A.; Muraca, D.; Castro Neto, A. H.; de Souza, E. A. T.; Rocha, A. R.; Pimenta, M. A.; de Matos, C. J. S.

    2016-01-01

    Black phosphorus has recently emerged as a new layered crystal that, due to its peculiar and anisotropic crystalline and electronic band structures, may have important applications in electronics, optoelectronics and photonics. Despite the fact that the edges of layered crystals host a range of singular properties whose characterization and exploitation are of utmost importance for device development, the edges of black phosphorus remain poorly characterized. In this work, the atomic structure and behaviour of phonons near different black phosphorus edges are experimentally and theoretically studied using Raman spectroscopy and density functional theory calculations. Polarized Raman results show the appearance of new modes at the edges of the sample, and their spectra depend on the atomic structure of the edges (zigzag or armchair). Theoretical simulations confirm that the new modes are due to edge phonon states that are forbidden in the bulk, and originated from the lattice termination rearrangements. PMID:27412813

  19. Closing the Phosphorus Loop by Recovering Phosphorus From Waste Streams With Layered Double Hydroxide Nanocomposites and Converting the Product into an Efficient Fertilizer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yan, H.; Shih, K.

    2015-12-01

    Phosphorus (P) recovery has been frequently discussed in recent decades due to the uncertain availability and uneven distribution of global phosphate rock reserves. Sorption technology is increasingly considered as a reliable, efficient and environmentally friendly P removal method from aqueous solution. In this study, a series of Mg-Al-based layered double hydroxide nanocomposites and their corresponding calcined products were fabricated and applied as phosphate adsorbents. The prepared samples were with average size at ~50 nm and self-assembled into larger particles in irregular shapes. The results of batch adsorption experiments demonstrated that calcination significantly enhanced the adsorption ability of LDHs for phosphorus, and the maximum adsorption capacity of calcined Mg-Al-LDH was as high as 100.7 mg-P/g. Furthermore, incorporation of Zr4+ and La3+ into LDH materials increases the sorption selectivity as well as sorption amount of phosphorus in LDHs, which was confirmed by experiments operated in synthetic human urine. For the first time ammonia (NH4OH) and potassium hydroxide (KOH) solutions were employed to desorb the P-loaded LDH. Identification of solids derived from two eluting solutions showed that struvite (MgNH4PO4•6H2O, MAP) was precipitated in ammonia solution while most phosphate was desorbed into liquid phase in KOH system without crystallization of potassium struvite (MgKPO4•6H2O) due to its higher solubility. Quantitative X-ray diffraction technique was used to determine struvite contents in obtained solids and the results revealed that ~ 30% of adsorbed P was transferred into struvite form in the sample extracted by 0.5M NH4OH. Leaching tests suggested that the phosphorus releasing kinetics of ammonia treated LDH was comparable to that of pure struvite product, indicating that postsorption Mg-Al-LDH desorbed with ammonia could serve as a slow-releasing fertilizer in agriculture (see Figure 1).

  20. Cholestatic presentation of yellow phosphorus poisoning.

    PubMed

    Lakshmi, C P; Goel, Amit; Basu, Debdatta

    2014-01-01

    Yellow phosphorus, a component of certain pesticide pastes and fireworks, is well known to cause hepatotoxicity. Poisoning with yellow phosphorus classically manifests with acute hepatitis leading to acute liver failure which may need liver transplantation. We present a case of yellow phosphorus poisoning in which a patient presented with florid clinical features of cholestasis highlighting the fact that cholestasis can rarely be a presenting feature of yellow phosphorus hepatotoxicity. PMID:24554916

  1. A Case of Hypophosphatemia with Increased Urinary Excretion of Phosphorus Associated with Ibrutinib.

    PubMed

    Wysokinska, Ewa M; Thompson, Amanda M; Franco Palacios, Carlos R

    2016-01-01

    Ibrutinib, an irreversible oral inhibitor of Bruton's tyrosine kinase, has been used in the treatment of patients with multiple hematologic malignancies. A 59-year-old male with chronic lymphocytic leukemia was treated with 420 mg/day of ibrutinib. No evidence of bruising or diarrhea was noted. The treatment was complicated by a transient increase in creatinine (from a baseline of 1.2 to 1.5 mg/dl) and potassium (reaching a peak of 6.5 mEq/l). Uric acid and calcium levels were normal. The patient developed hypophosphatemia (prior to initiation of therapy the serum phosphorus was 2.9 mg/dl). No metabolic acidosis was noted. Urinalysis showed no glucosuria or proteinuria. Urinary fraction of excretion of phosphate was found to be 345% (normal <5%). Because of these changes, ibrutinib was held, and the patient was given kayexalate. Serum potassium normalized. Serum phosphorus was checked a couple of weeks later and also normalized. A lower dose of ibrutinib (140 mg/day) was restarted. Upon follow-up, the phosphorus level has been between 2.9 and 3.2 mg/dl. No further evidence of hyperkalemia has been noted. Renal function has remained at baseline. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first case report describing the mechanism of hypophosphatemia in a patient treated with ibrutinib. PMID:27194982

  2. The Effects of Dietary Phosphorus on the Growth Performance and Phosphorus Excretion of Dairy Heifers.

    PubMed

    Zhang, B; Wang, C; Wei, Z H; Sun, H Z; Xu, G Z; Liu, J X; Liu, H Y

    2016-07-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of reducing dietary phosphorus (P) on the frame size, udder traits, blood parameters and nutrient digestibility coefficient in 8- to 10-month-old Holstein heifers. Forty-five heifers were divided into 15 blocks according to the mo of age and were randomly assigned one of three dietary treatments: 0.26% (low P [LP]), 0.36% (medium P [MP]), or 0.42% (high P [HP]) (dry matter basis). Samples were collected at the wk 1, 4, 8. The results show that low dietary P had no effect on body measurement. The blood P concentration decreased with decreasing dietary P (p<0.05), while the blood calcium content of LP was higher than that of the MP and HP groups (p<0.05), though still in the normal range. The serum contents of alkalinephosphatase, potassium, and magnesium were similar among the treatments. No differences were found in all nutrients' apparent digestibility coefficients with varied dietary P. However, with P diet decreased from HP to LP, the total fecal P and urine P concentration declined significantly, as did fecal water soluble P (p<0.05). In conclusion, reducing the dietary P from 0.42% to 0.26% did not negatively affect the heifers' growth performance but did significantly lessen manure P excretion into the environment.

  3. Ferrous iron phosphorus in sediments: development of a quantification method through 2,2'-bipyridine extraction.

    PubMed

    Li, Qingman; Wang, Xingxiang; Bartlett, Rebecca; Pinay, Gilles; Kan, Dan; Zhang, Wen; Sun, Jingxian

    2012-11-01

    The role of ferrous iron in the phosphorus cycle of an aquatic ecosystem is poorly understood because of a lack of suitable methods to quantitatively evaluate ferrous iron phosphorus (FIP) phases. Using sediments sampled from Fubao Bay of Dianchi Lake in China, a novel extraction method for FIP using 2,2'-bipyridine was explored. Total phosphorus and iron in the sediments ranged from 1.0 to 5.0 mg/g (dry weight) and 28.5 to 90.6 mg/g, respectively. Organic content (as indicated by loss on ignition or LOI) and iron(II) ranged from 3.1 to 27.0% and 26.5 to 64.9 mg/g, respectively. The dissolution dynamics of FIP extraction with a low solid/liquid ratio (1:25) indicated that a single application of 0.2% 2,2'-bipyridine extracted both iron(II) (Fe(II)) and phosphorus (as PO4(3-)) in sediments with different organic contents with low efficiency. The extraction efficiency of Fe(II) was improved by alteration of the solid/liquid ratio, but the effect was limited. However, addition of a 1:1000 solid/liquid ratio of 0.5 M potassium chloride to a 0.2% 2,2'-bipyridine solution significantly accelerated extraction of FIP with the release of Fe(II) and phosphorus toward equilibrium at approximately 150 hours. Further investigation demonstrated that 2,2'-bipyridine exhibited a higher selectivity in distinguishing FIP from phosphorus bound to ferric (Fe(III)) oxides or precipitated by calcium (Ca2+). Air-drying sediments significantly decreased the amount of extracted FIP, which indicates that fresh, wet sediment should be used in this type of FIP extraction. Based on experimental results using the proposed extraction protocol, (1) FIP in sediments of Fubao Bay had a predominant status in the lake sediment and accounted for 23.4 to 39.8% of total phosphorus, and (2) Fe(II)(FIP) released in the extraction is directly proportional to phosphorus(FIP) (Fe(II)(FIP) = 2.84 x P(FIP) + 0.0007; R2 = 0.97) with an average molar ratio of Fe(II)(FIP)/P(FIP) of 2.7. This study shows that FIP

  4. A novel technique for oviduct occlusion to generate live births from cryopreserved rabbit oocytes after in vivo fertilisation.

    PubMed

    Jiménez-Trigos, E; Vicente, J S; Marco-Jiménez, F

    2014-08-01

    Intraoviductal transfer technique in combination with in vivo fertilisation has arisen as an effective technique to assess live births after transfer of slow-frozen oocytes in the rabbit. Nevertheless, the great disadvantage of this method is the accumulation of tubal fluid in a large number of females after clamping the oviducts. In this study, we develop an alternative method to minimise damage to the oviduct and increase the birth rate. The aims of this study were (1) to evaluate the ability of cyanoacrylate tissue adhesive to occlude the oviduct for female sterilisation; (2) to evaluate the effect of oviduct occlusion immediately after transferring fresh oocytes on in vivo fertilisation; and (3) to assess this technique to generate live births from fresh and slow-frozen oocytes. In all the experiments, recipients were artificially inseminated 9h prior to occluding the oviducts. In the first experiment, the left oviduct was blocked with cyanoacrylate tissue adhesive, while the right one was used as a control. Six days later, oviducts and uterine horns were flushed to assess embryo recovery rates. While the embryo recovery rate was 79.2% in the intact oviduct, no embryos were recovered in the blocked one. In the second experiment, fresh oocytes were transferred into both oviducts, which were immediately occluded. Six days later, the in vivo fertilisation success rate was 33.7%. Finally, in the last experiment, slow-frozen oocytes were transferred and the rate of live births was 13.2±4.5%. The study shows that when using this method the generation of live births from slow-frozen oocytes increases significantly. In addition, our results suggest that in vivo environment could help improve the results of oocyte cryopreservation. PMID:25022329

  5. A novel technique for oviduct occlusion to generate live births from cryopreserved rabbit oocytes after in vivo fertilisation.

    PubMed

    Jiménez-Trigos, E; Vicente, J S; Marco-Jiménez, F

    2014-08-01

    Intraoviductal transfer technique in combination with in vivo fertilisation has arisen as an effective technique to assess live births after transfer of slow-frozen oocytes in the rabbit. Nevertheless, the great disadvantage of this method is the accumulation of tubal fluid in a large number of females after clamping the oviducts. In this study, we develop an alternative method to minimise damage to the oviduct and increase the birth rate. The aims of this study were (1) to evaluate the ability of cyanoacrylate tissue adhesive to occlude the oviduct for female sterilisation; (2) to evaluate the effect of oviduct occlusion immediately after transferring fresh oocytes on in vivo fertilisation; and (3) to assess this technique to generate live births from fresh and slow-frozen oocytes. In all the experiments, recipients were artificially inseminated 9h prior to occluding the oviducts. In the first experiment, the left oviduct was blocked with cyanoacrylate tissue adhesive, while the right one was used as a control. Six days later, oviducts and uterine horns were flushed to assess embryo recovery rates. While the embryo recovery rate was 79.2% in the intact oviduct, no embryos were recovered in the blocked one. In the second experiment, fresh oocytes were transferred into both oviducts, which were immediately occluded. Six days later, the in vivo fertilisation success rate was 33.7%. Finally, in the last experiment, slow-frozen oocytes were transferred and the rate of live births was 13.2±4.5%. The study shows that when using this method the generation of live births from slow-frozen oocytes increases significantly. In addition, our results suggest that in vivo environment could help improve the results of oocyte cryopreservation.

  6. Iron budgets for three distinct biogeochemical sites around the Kerguelen Archipelago (Southern Ocean) during the natural fertilisation study, KEOPS-2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bowie, A. R.; van der Merwe, P.; Quéroué, F.; Trull, T.; Fourquez, M.; Planchon, F.; Sarthou, G.; Chever, F.; Townsend, A. T.; Obernosterer, I.; Sallée, J.-B.; Blain, S.

    2015-07-01

    Iron availability in the Southern Ocean controls phytoplankton growth, community composition and the uptake of atmospheric CO2 by the biological pump. The KEOPS-2 (KErguelen Ocean and Plateau compared Study 2) "process study", took place around the Kerguelen Plateau in the Indian sector of the Southern Ocean. This is a region naturally fertilised with iron on the scale of hundreds to thousands of square kilometres, producing a mosaic of spring blooms which show distinct biological and biogeochemical responses to fertilisation. This paper presents biogeochemical iron budgets (incorporating vertical and lateral supply, internal cycling, and sinks) for three contrasting sites: an upstream high-nutrient low-chlorophyll reference, over the plateau and in the offshore plume east of the Kerguelen Islands. These budgets show that distinct regional environments driven by complex circulation and transport pathways are responsible for differences in the mode and strength of iron supply, with vertical supply dominant on the plateau and lateral supply dominant in the plume. Iron supply from "new" sources (diffusion, upwelling, entrainment, lateral advection, atmospheric dust) to the surface waters of the plume was double that above the plateau and 20 times greater than at the reference site, whilst iron demand (measured by cellular uptake) in the plume was similar to that above the plateau but 40 times greater than at the reference site. "Recycled" iron supply by bacterial regeneration and zooplankton grazing was a relatively minor component at all sites (< 8 % of new supply), in contrast to earlier findings from other biogeochemical iron budgets in the Southern Ocean. Over the plateau, a particulate iron dissolution term of 2.5 % was invoked to balance the budget; this approximately doubled the standing stock of dissolved iron in the mixed layer. The exchange of iron between dissolved, biogenic particulate and lithogenic particulate pools was highly dynamic in time and space

  7. Iron budgets for three distinct biogeochemical sites around the Kerguelen archipelago (Southern Ocean) during the natural fertilisation experiment KEOPS-2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bowie, A. R.; van der Merwe, P.; Quéroué, F.; Trull, T.; Fourquez, M.; Planchon, F.; Sarthou, G.; Chever, F.; Townsend, A. T.; Obernosterer, I.; Sallée, J.-B.; Blain, S.

    2014-12-01

    Iron availability in the Southern Ocean controls phytoplankton growth, community composition and the uptake of atmospheric CO2 by the biological pump. The KEOPS-2 experiment took place around the Kerguelen plateau in the Indian sector of the Southern Ocean, a region naturally fertilised with iron at the scale of hundreds to thousands of square kilometres, producing a mosaic of spring blooms which showed distinct biological and biogeochemical responses to fertilisation. This paper presents biogeochemical iron budgets (incorporating vertical and lateral supply, internal cycling, and sinks) for three contrasting sites: an upstream high-nutrient low-chlorophyll reference, over the plateau, and in the offshore plume east of Kerguelen Island. These budgets show that distinct regional environments driven by complex circulation and transport pathways are responsible for differences in the mode and strength of iron supply, with vertical supply dominant on the plateau and lateral supply dominant in the plume. Iron supply from "new" sources to surface waters of the plume was double that above the plateau and 20 times greater than at the reference site, whilst iron demand (measured by cellular uptake) in the plume was similar to the plateau but 40 times greater than the reference. "Recycled" iron supply by bacterial regeneration and zooplankton grazing was a relative minor component at all sites (<8% of "new" supply), in contrast to earlier findings from other biogeochemical iron budgets in the Southern Ocean. Over the plateau, a particulate iron dissolution term of 2.5% was invoked to balance the budget; this approximately doubled the standing stock of dissolved iron in the mixed layer. The exchange of iron between dissolved, biogenic and lithogenic particulate pools was highly dynamic in time and space, resulting in a decoupling of iron supply and carbon export and, importantly, controlling the efficiency of fertilisation.

  8. Leptin and leptin receptor are detectable in equine spermatozoa but are not involved in in vitro fertilisation.

    PubMed

    Lange-Consiglio, Anna; Corradetti, Bruna; Perrini, Claudia; Bizzaro, Davide; Cremonesi, Fausto

    2016-04-01

    In human and swine, leptin (OB) has been identified in seminal plasma and leptin receptors (OB-R) on the cell surface of spermatozoa, indicating that spermatozoa are a target for OB. This hormone has also been detected in follicular fluid (FF) in women and mares, although its role requires further study. The aims of this study were to investigate the immunolocalisation and the expression of OB and OB-R in equine spermatozoa and to evaluate the involvement of OB in equine in vitro fertilisation (IVF). Since progesterone (P) and OB are both found in FF, the individual and combined effects of these two hormones were studied in equine IVF and compared with the results obtained from the use of FF for in vitro sperm preparation. For the first time, we were able to identify OB and OB-R mRNA and their corresponding proteins in equine spermatozoa. When spermatozoa were treated with OB, there was a decrease in the three motility parameters VSL, STR and LIN, commonly associated with hyperactivation, whilst the acrosome reaction rate increased (P<0.05). The fertilisation rate was 51% with FF, 46.15% with P, 43.64% with P+OB and 0% with OB alone. The percentage of eight-cell stage embryos was 18.7% with FF, 17.1% with P and 16.7% with OB+P. OB alone did not permit oocyte fertilisation, indicating that, in the horse, OB is involved in capacitation and hyperactivation but not in sperm penetration.

  9. Amelioration of bauxite residue sand by intermittent additions of nitrogen fertiliser and leaching fractions: The effect on growth of kikuyu grass and fate of applied nutrients.

    PubMed

    Kaur, Navjot; Phillips, Ian; Fey, Martin V

    2016-04-15

    Bauxite residue, a waste product of aluminium processing operations is characterised by high pH, salinity and exchangeable sodium which hinders sustainable plant growth. The aim of this study was to investigate the uptake form, optimum application rate and timing of nitrogen fertiliser to improve bauxite residue characteristics for plant growth. Kikuyu grass was grown in plastic columns filled with residue sand/carbonated residue mud mixture (20:1) previously amended with gypsum, phosphoric acid and basal nutrients. The experiment was set up as a 4×4 factorial design comprising four levels of applied nitrogen (N) fertiliser (0, 3, 6 and 12mgNkg(-1) residue) and four frequencies of leaching (16, 8 and 4day intervals). We hypothesised that the use of ammonium sulfate fertiliser would increase retention of N within the rhizosphere thereby encouraging more efficient fertiliser use. We found that N uptake by kikuyu grass was enhanced due to leaching of excess salts and alkalinity from the residue profile. It was also concluded that biomass production and associated N uptake by kikuyu grass grown in residue is dependent on the type of fertiliser used.

  10. Amelioration of bauxite residue sand by intermittent additions of nitrogen fertiliser and leaching fractions: The effect on growth of kikuyu grass and fate of applied nutrients.

    PubMed

    Kaur, Navjot; Phillips, Ian; Fey, Martin V

    2016-04-15

    Bauxite residue, a waste product of aluminium processing operations is characterised by high pH, salinity and exchangeable sodium which hinders sustainable plant growth. The aim of this study was to investigate the uptake form, optimum application rate and timing of nitrogen fertiliser to improve bauxite residue characteristics for plant growth. Kikuyu grass was grown in plastic columns filled with residue sand/carbonated residue mud mixture (20:1) previously amended with gypsum, phosphoric acid and basal nutrients. The experiment was set up as a 4×4 factorial design comprising four levels of applied nitrogen (N) fertiliser (0, 3, 6 and 12mgNkg(-1) residue) and four frequencies of leaching (16, 8 and 4day intervals). We hypothesised that the use of ammonium sulfate fertiliser would increase retention of N within the rhizosphere thereby encouraging more efficient fertiliser use. We found that N uptake by kikuyu grass was enhanced due to leaching of excess salts and alkalinity from the residue profile. It was also concluded that biomass production and associated N uptake by kikuyu grass grown in residue is dependent on the type of fertiliser used. PMID:26824271

  11. 21 CFR 182.3640 - Potassium sorbate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Potassium sorbate. 182.3640 Section 182.3640 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) SUBSTANCES GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Chemical Preservatives § 182.3640 Potassium sorbate. (a) Product....

  12. 21 CFR 582.5634 - Potassium iodide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS SUBSTANCES GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Nutrients and/or Dietary Supplements 1 § 582.5634 Potassium iodide. (a) Product. Potassium iodide. (b) Tolerance. 0.01 percent. (c... salt as a source of dietary iodine in accordance with good manufacturing or feeding practice....

  13. 21 CFR 582.5634 - Potassium iodide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS SUBSTANCES GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Nutrients and/or Dietary Supplements 1 § 582.5634 Potassium iodide. (a) Product. Potassium iodide. (b) Tolerance. 0.01 percent. (c... salt as a source of dietary iodine in accordance with good manufacturing or feeding practice....

  14. Process for preparation of potassium-38

    DOEpatents

    Lambrecht, Richard M.; Wolf, Alfred P.

    1981-01-01

    A solution of potassium-38 suitable for use as a radiopharmaceutical and a method for its production. Argon is irradiated with protons having energies above the threshold for the .sup.40 Ar(p,3n).sup.38 K reaction. The resulting potassium-38 is dissolved in a sterile water and any contaminating chlorine-38 is removed.

  15. 21 CFR 172.160 - Potassium nitrate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Potassium nitrate. 172.160 Section 172.160 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD... nitrate. The food additive potassium nitrate may be safely used as a curing agent in the processing of...

  16. A survey of Io's potassium cloud

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Trafton, L.

    1981-01-01

    Io's potassium cloud exhibits spatial and temporal variations similar to those observed for Io's sodium cloud. Spectra from five apparitions show that the potassium cloud is elongated so that it extends forward from Io's leading, inner hemisphere and makes an angle with Io's orbit of 10-30 deg, slightly less than the angle for the sodium cloud. The potassium cloud is a long-lived phenomenon which undergoes periodic fluctuations in response to solar radiation pressure and the ionizing influence of Jupiter's plasma torus. These give rise to east-west and north-south asymmetry variations similar to those observed for the sodium cloud. Evidence for temporary jets of potassium streaming from Io have also been observed. These similarities with the sodium cloud suggest that both sodium and potassium are ejected from nearly the same regions of Io by the same physical mechanism.

  17. Potassium in hypertension and cardiovascular disease.

    PubMed

    Castro, Hector; Raij, Leopoldo

    2013-05-01

    The increased prevalence of hypertension and cardiovascular disease in industrialized societies undoubtedly is associated with the modern high-sodium/low-potassium diet. Extensive experimental and clinical data strongly link potassium intake to cardiovascular outcome. Most studies suggest that the sodium-to-potassium intake ratio is a better predictor of cardiovascular outcome than either nutrient individually. A high-sodium/low-potassium environment results in significant abnormalities in central hemodynamics, leading to potential target organ damage. Altered renal sodium handling, impaired endothelium-dependent vasodilatation, and increased oxidative stress are important mediators of this effect. It remains of paramount importance to reinforce consumption of a low-sodium/high-potassium diet as a critical strategy for prevention and treatment of hypertension and cardiovascular disease.

  18. Black phosphorus nonvolatile transistor memory.

    PubMed

    Lee, Dain; Choi, Yongsuk; Hwang, Euyheon; Kang, Moon Sung; Lee, Seungwoo; Cho, Jeong Ho

    2016-04-28

    We demonstrated nanofloating gate transistor memory devices (NFGTMs) using mechanically-exfoliated few-layered black phosphorus (BP) channels and gold nanoparticle (AuNPs) charge trapping layers. The resulting BP-NFGTMs exhibited excellent memory performances, including the five-level data storage, large memory window (58.2 V), stable retention (10(4) s), and cyclic endurance (1000 cycles). PMID:27074903

  19. Gettering Silicon Wafers with Phosphorus

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Daiello, R. V.

    1983-01-01

    Silicon wafers subjected to gettering in phosphorus atmosphere have longer diffusion lengths and higher solar-cell efficiencies than untreated wafers. Gettering treatment improves properties of solar cells manufactured from impure silicon and is compatible with standard solar-cell processing.

  20. Major Minerals - Calcium, Magnesium, Phosphorus

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Calcium, magnesium and phosphorus are essential elements critically important for the function of the musculoskeletal system, including the formation and transduction of energy and the maintenance of healthy bone. The major calcium concern for physically active healthy middle-aged adults is to consu...

  1. Natural phosphorus sources for the Pacific Northwest

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Johnson, Hank

    2011-01-01

    Phosphorus is a naturally occurring element found in all rocks; the amount varies by the type of rock. The amount of phosphorus in sediments is expected to be correlated with the amount of phosphorus in the parent rocks. Streambed sediment collected by the National Uranium Resource Evaluation (NURE) Program were used to estimate the variation of phosphorus across the Pacific Northwest. This file provides an estimate of the mean concentration of phosphorus in soils for each incremental catchment of the USGS Pacific Northwest SPARROW model.

  2. Few-layer black phosphorus nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Sofer, Zdenek; Bouša, Daniel; Luxa, Jan; Mazanek, Vlastimil; Pumera, Martin

    2016-01-28

    Herein, black phosphorus quantum dots and nanoparticles of a few layer thickness were prepared and characterized using STEM, AFM, dynamic light scattering, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction, Raman spectroscopy and photoluminescence. Impact electrochemistry of the induvidual black phosphorus nanoparticles allows their size determination. The centrifugation of colloidal black phosphorus nanoparticles allowed separation of quantum dots with sizes up to 15 nm. These black phosphorus nanoparticles exhibit a large band gap and are expected to find a wide range of applications from semiconductors to biomolecule tags. The use of black phosphorus nanoparticles for vapour sensing was successfully demonstrated.

  3. Extracellular potassium inhibits Kv7.1 potassium channels by stabilizing an inactivated state.

    PubMed

    Larsen, Anders Peter; Steffensen, Annette Buur; Grunnet, Morten; Olesen, Søren-Peter

    2011-08-17

    Kv7.1 (KCNQ1) channels are regulators of several physiological processes including vasodilatation, repolarization of cardiomyocytes, and control of secretory processes. A number of Kv7.1 pore mutants are sensitive to extracellular potassium. We hypothesized that extracellular potassium also modulates wild-type Kv7.1 channels. The Kv7.1 currents were measured in Xenopus laevis oocytes at different concentrations of extracellular potassium (1-50 mM). As extracellular potassium was elevated, Kv7.1 currents were reduced significantly more than expected from theoretical calculations based on the Goldman-Hodgkin-Katz flux equation. Potassium inhibited the steady-state current with an IC(50) of 6.0 ± 0.2 mM. Analysis of tail-currents showed that potassium increased the fraction of channels in the inactivated state. Similarly, the recovery from inactivation was slowed by potassium, suggesting that extracellular potassium stabilizes an inactivated state in Kv7.1 channels. The effect of extracellular potassium was absent in noninactivating Kv7.1/KCNE1 and Kv7.1/KCNE3 channels, further supporting a stabilized inactivated state as the underlying mechanism. Interestingly, coexpression of Kv7.1 with KCNE2 did not attenuate the inhibition by potassium. In a number of other Kv channels, including Kv1.5, Kv4.3, and Kv7.2-5 channels, currents were only minimally reduced by an increase in extracellular potassium as expected. These results show that extracellular potassium modulates Kv7.1 channels and suggests that physiological changes in potassium concentrations may directly control the function of Kv7.1 channels. This may represent a novel regulatory mechanism of excitability and of potassium transport in tissues expressing Kv7.1 channels. PMID:21843472

  4. The electrical basis for enhanced potassium secretion in rat distal colon during dietary potassium loading.

    PubMed

    Sandle, G I; Foster, E S; Lewis, S A; Binder, H J; Hayslett, J P

    1985-04-01

    Previous studies in rat distal colon provide evidence for an active absorptive process for potassium under basal conditions, and for active potassium secretion during chronic dietary potassium loading. The present studies were performed with conventional and potassium-selective microelectrodes to determine the electrical basis for the increase in transcellular (active) potassium secretion observed during potassium loading. Compared to control tissues, potassium loading resulted in a 5-fold increase in transepithelial voltage (VT) and a 52% decrease in total resistance (RT) in the distal colon. The rise in VT was due to a decrease in apical membrane resistance and an increase in basolateral membrane voltage from -45 +/- 2 mV (cell interior negative) in control to -56 +/- 2 mV (p less than 0.001) in potassium loaded tissues. This difference in basolateral membrane voltage reflected in increase in intracellular potassium activity from 86 +/- 4 mM to 153 +/- 12 mM (P less than 0.001). In control tissues, the sequential mucosal addition of the sodium channel blocker amiloride (0.1 mM) and the potassium channel blocker tetraethylammonium chloride (TEA: 30 mM) produced no effect on the electrical measurements. However, in potassium loaded tissues, amiloride and TEA produced transepithelial changes consistent with inhibition of apical membrane conductances for sodium and potassium, respectively, reflected by increases in the resistance ratio, alpha (ratio of apical to basolateral membrane resistances). These data indicate that the decrease in apical membrane resistance during potassium loading was caused by an increase in apical membrane conductance for both potassium and sodium.

  5. Improving methane production and phosphorus release in anaerobic digestion of particulate saline sludge from a brackish aquaculture recirculation system.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xuedong; Ferreira, Rui B; Hu, Jianmei; Spanjers, Henri; van Lier, Jules B

    2014-06-01

    In this study, batch tests were conducted to examine the effects of trehalose and glycine betaine as well as potassium on the specific methanogenic activity (SMA), acid and alkaline phosphatase activity of anaerobic biomass and phosphorus release in anaerobic digestion of saline sludge from a brackish recirculation aquaculture system. The results of ANOVA and Tukey's HSD (honestly significant difference) tests showed that glycine betaine and trehalose enhanced SMA of anaerobic biomass and reactive phosphorus release from the particulate waste. Moreover, SMA tests revealed that methanogenic sludge, which was long-term acclimatized to a salinity level of 17 g/L was severely affected by the increase in salinity to values exceeding 35 g/L. Addition of compatible solutes, such as glycine betaine and trehalose, could be used to enhance the specific methane production rate and phosphorus release in anaerobic digestion from particulate organic waste produced in marine or brackish aquaculture recirculation systems.

  6. Study of the effects of proline, phenylalanine, and urea foliar application to Tempranillo vineyards on grape amino acid content. Comparison with commercial nitrogen fertilisers.

    PubMed

    Garde-Cerdán, T; López, R; Portu, J; González-Arenzana, L; López-Alfaro, I; Santamaría, P

    2014-11-15

    The aim of this work was to study the influence of foliar application of different nitrogen sources on grape amino acid content. The nitrogen sources applied to Tempranillo grapevines were proline, phenylalanine, urea, and two commercial nitrogen fertilisers, both without and with amino acids in their formulations. All treatments were applied at veraison and one week later. Proline treatment did not affect the must nitrogen composition. However, phenylalanine and urea foliar application enhanced the plants' synthesis of most of the amino acids, producing similar effects. In addition, the spray of commercial nitrogen fertilisers over leaves also induced a rise in grape amino acid concentrations regardless of the presence or absence of amino acids in their formulation. The most effective treatments were phenylalanine and urea followed by nitrogen fertilisers. This finding is of oenological interest for improved must nitrogen composition, ensuring better fermentation kinetics and most likely enhancing wine quality.

  7. The Galactic evolution of phosphorus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Caffau, E.; Bonifacio, P.; Faraggiana, R.; Steffen, M.

    2011-08-01

    Context. As a galaxy evolves, its chemical composition changes and the abundance ratios of different elements are powerful probes of the underlying evolutionary processes. Phosphorous is an element whose evolution has remained quite elusive until now, because it is difficult to detect in cool stars. The infrared weak P i lines of the multiplet 1, at 1050-1082 nm, are the most reliable indicators of the presence of phosphorus. The availability of CRIRES at VLT has permitted access to this wavelength range in stellar spectra. Aims: We attempt to measure the phosphorus abundance of twenty cool stars in the Galactic disk. Methods: The spectra are analysed with one-dimensional model-atmospheres computed in local thermodynamic equilibrium (LTE). The line formation computations are performed assuming LTE. Results: The ratio of phosphorus to iron behaves similarly to sulphur, increasing towards lower metallicity stars. Its ratio with respect to sulphur is roughly constant and slightly larger than solar, [P/S] = 0.10 ± 0.10. Conclusions: We succeed in taking an important step towards the understanding of the chemical evolution of phosphorus in the Galaxy. However, the observed rise in the P/Fe abundance ratio is steeper than predicted by Galactic chemical evolution model developed by Kobayashi and collaborators. Phosphorus appears to evolve differently from the light odd-Z elements sodium and aluminium. The constant value of [P/S] with metallicity implies that P production is insensitive to the neutron excess, thus processes other than neutron captures operate. We suggest that proton captures on 30Si and α captures on 27Al are possibilities to investigate. We see no clear distinction between our results for stars with planets and stars without any detected planet. Based on observations obtained with the CRIRES spectrograph at ESO-VLT Antu 8.2 m telescope at Paranal, Programme 386.D-0130, P.I. E. Caffau.

  8. Global warming and the phosphorus cycle

    SciTech Connect

    Tarasova, N.P.; Smetannikov, Y.V.; Balitsky, V.Y. )

    1994-09-01

    Greenhouse-induced climate change seriously influences the phosphorus cycle. In this paper the authors have analyzed how environmental conditions cause an increase or a decrease in the phosphorus content of the soil. Phosphorus production in South Kazakhstan without strict control for fulfilling environment-protection measures may lead to the chemical erosion of soils, i.e., disturb the balance of soluble and insoluble, as well as organic and inorganic, forms of phosphorus. Phosphorus accumulation in the soil can be promoted by heavy metals. The authors have constructed a general dynamic system for phosphorus flows in the soil. The results of 7-years monitoring of the soils in the region of South Kazakhstan are discussed and compared with the dynamic system. The role of chemical elements promoting phosphorus accumulation in the soil is further analyzed.

  9. Availability of phosphorus from selected inorganic phosphate to juvenile abalone, Haliotis discus hannai ino.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tan, Bei-Ping; Mai, Kang-Sen; Xu, Wei

    2002-06-01

    The availability of phosphorus to juvenile abalone, Haliotis discus hannai from primary, secondary and tertiary calcium phosphate, primary sodium or potassium phosphate separately or in combination was determined in a 120-day feeding trial. Seven semi-purified diets were formulated to contain relatively constant dietary phosphorus, ranging from 0.78% 0.82%. The concentrations of dietary phosphorus were presumed to be slightly below the requirement for abalone. A brown alga, Laminaria japonica, was used as a control diet. Abalone juveniles of silimar size (average weight 1.18 g; average shell length 18.74 mm) were distributed in a single-pass, flow-through system using a completely randomized design with eight treatments and three replicates each treatment. The survival ranged from 71.1% to 81.1%, and was not significantly (P>0.05) related to dietary treatment. However, the weight gain rate (41.72% 65.02%), daily increment in shell length (36.87 55.07 μm) and muscle RNA-DNA ratio (3.44 4.69) were significantly (P<0.05) affected by dietary treatment. Soft body alkaline phosphatase activity (10.9 19.8 U/g wet tissue) and carcass levels of lipid (7.71% 9.33%) and protein (46.68% 49.35%) were significantly (P<0.05) responsive to available phosphorus of the diets. Dietary treatment had significant effect (P<0.05) on concentrations of phosphorus in the whole body (WB) and soft body (SB). Apparent digestibility coefficients (45% 97%) of phosphorus were also significantly (P<0.05) different between dietary treatments. The results indicated that among these inorganic compounds, primary calcium, potassium and sodium phosphates separately or in combination could be utilized effectively by juvenile abalone as dietary phosphorus sources (availability ranging from 87% 97%). However, secondary and tertiary calcium phosphates were found to be low in availability, the values being 45% and 77%, repectively.

  10. Mortality experience among employees at a hydrometallurgical nickel refinery and fertiliser complex in Fort Saskatchewan, Alberta (1954-95)

    PubMed Central

    Egedahl, R; Carpenter, M; Lundell, D

    2001-01-01

    OBJECTIVE—To study the mortality experience of workers at a hydrometallurgical nickel refinery and fertiliser complex in Fort Saskatchewan, Alberta, Canada.
METHODS—A total of 1649 male employees of Sherritt International who worked for at least 12 continuous months during the years 1954 to 1978 at the Fort Saskatchewan, Alberta hydrometallurgical nickel refinery and fertiliser complex were followed up for an additional 17 years. Mortality was ascertained from the Canadian mortality data base maintained by Statistics Canada and covered the years 1954-95. Statistics were analysed with Monson's computer program.
RESULTS—Total mortality, when compared with the Canadian population, was significantly below expectation. Fewer deaths were found for circulatory disease, ischaemic heart disease, respiratory disease, neoplasms, digestive cancer, and accidents, poisonings, and violence. Among the 718 men in the group exposed to nickel, there were no deaths due to nasal cavity or paranasal sinus cancer. Fewer deaths were found for all causes, circulatory disease, ischaemic heart disease, neoplasms and digestive cancer. Lower death rates were observed than expected for respiratory malignancies and cancer of the bronchus and lung.
CONCLUSION—No association was found in this study between exposure to nickel concentrate or metallic nickel in the hydrometallurgical refining process and the subsequent development of respiratory cancer.


Keywords: epidemiology; nickel workers; mortality PMID:11600726

  11. Relative importance of fertiliser addition to plants and exclusion of predators for aphid growth in the field.

    PubMed

    Müller, Christine B; Fellowes, Mark D E; Godfray, H Charles J

    2005-04-01

    Herbivore dynamics and community structure are influenced both by plant quality and the actions of natural enemies. A factorial experiment manipulating both higher and lower trophic levels was designed to explore the determinants of colony growth of the aphid Aphis jacobaeae, a specialist herbivore on ragwort Senecio jacobaea. Potential plant quality was manipulated by regular addition of NPK-fertiliser and predator pressure was reduced by interception traps; the experiment was carried out at two sites. The size and persistence of aphid colonies were measured. Fertiliser addition affected plant growth in only one site, but never had a measurable effect on aphid colony growth. In both habitats the action of insect predators dominated, imposing strong and negative effects on aphid colony performance. Ants were left unmanipulated in both sites and their performance on the aphid colonies did not significantly differ between sites or between treatments. Our results suggest that, at least for aphid herbivores on S. jacobaea, the action of generalist insect predators appears to be the dominant factor affecting colony performance and can under certain conditions even improve plant productivity. PMID:15756583

  12. Potassium and Sodium Transport in Yeast.

    PubMed

    Yenush, Lynne

    2016-01-01

    As the proper maintenance of intracellular potassium and sodium concentrations is vital for cell growth, all living organisms have developed a cohort of strategies to maintain proper monovalent cation homeostasis. In the model yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae, potassium is accumulated to relatively high concentrations and is required for many aspects of cellular function, whereas high intracellular sodium/potassium ratios are detrimental to cell growth and survival. The fact that S. cerevisiae cells can grow in the presence of a broad range of concentrations of external potassium (10 μM-2.5 M) and sodium (up to 1.5 M) indicates the existence of robust mechanisms that have evolved to maintain intracellular concentrations of these cations within appropriate limits. In this review, current knowledge regarding potassium and sodium transporters and their regulation will be summarized. The cellular responses to high sodium and potassium and potassium starvation will also be discussed, as well as applications of this knowledge to diverse fields, including antifungal treatments, bioethanol production and human disease.

  13. Dynamic distribution of potassium in sugarcane.

    PubMed

    Medina, Nilberto H; Branco, Maíra L T; Silveira, Marcilei A Guazzelli da; Santos, Roberto Baginski B

    2013-12-01

    In this work the distribution of potassium in sugarcane has been studied during its growth. The soil was prepared with natural fertilizers prepared with sugarcane bagasse. For the measurement of potassium concentration in each part of the plant, gamma-ray spectrometry was used to measure gamma-rays emitted from the radioisotope (40)K. The concentrations of potassium in roots, stems and leaves were measured every two to three months beginning about five months after planting the sugarcane. The results show a higher concentration of potassium at the beginning of plant development and over time, there is an oscillatory behavior in this concentration in each part of the plant, reaching a lower concentration in the adult plant. To describe the evolution of potassium distribution in sugarcane we proposed a phenomenological model assuming that the potassium incorporation rate is proportional to the difference between the element concentration in the plant and a very long term equilibrium value and it is coupled to a resource-limited growth model. The proposed model succeeded in interpreting the results for the potassium distribution in stems and leaves during the sugarcane growth.

  14. Colorimetric analyzer based on mobile phone camera for determination of available phosphorus in soil.

    PubMed

    Moonrungsee, Nuntaporn; Pencharee, Somkid; Jakmunee, Jaroon

    2015-05-01

    A field deployable colorimetric analyzer based on an "Android mobile phone" was developed for the determination of available phosphorus content in soil. An inexpensive mobile phone embedded with digital camera was used for taking photograph of the chemical solution under test. The method involved a reaction of the phosphorus (orthophosphate form), ammonium molybdate and potassium antimonyl tartrate to form phosphomolybdic acid which was reduced by ascorbic acid to produce the intense colored molybdenum blue. The software program was developed to use with the phone for recording and analyzing RGB color of the picture. A light tight box with LED light to control illumination was fabricated to improve precision and accuracy of the measurement. Under the optimum conditions, the calibration graph was created by measuring blue color intensity of a series of standard phosphorus solution (0.0-1.0mgPL(-1)), then, the calibration equation obtained was retained by the program for the analysis of sample solution. The results obtained from the proposed method agreed well with the spectrophotometric method, with a detection limit of 0.01mgPL(-1) and a sample throughput about 40h(-1) was achieved. The developed system provided good accuracy (RE<5%) and precision (RSD<2%, intra- and inter-day), fast and cheap analysis, and especially convenient to use in crop field for soil analysis of phosphorus nutrient.

  15. Potassium bromide method of infrared sampling

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Milkey, R.G.

    1958-01-01

    In the preparation of potassium bromide pressed windows for use in the infrared analysis of solids, severe grinding of the potassium bromide powder may produce strong absorption bands that could interfere seriously with the spectra of the sample. These absorption bands appear to be due to some crystal alteration of the potassium bromide as a result of the grinding process. They were less apt to occur when the coarser powder, which had received a relatively gentle grinding, was used. Window blanks prepared from the coarser powders showed smaller adsorbed water peaks and generally higher over-all transmittance readings than windows pressed from the very fine powders.

  16. Potassium in the atmosphere of Mercury

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Potter, A. E.; Morgan, T. H.

    1986-01-01

    Spectral data are reported from a search for potassium in the Mercury atmosphere. The data were collected with instrumentation at Kitt Peak (7699 A) and at McDonald Observatory (7698.98 and 7664.86 A). The equivalent mean widths of the potassium emission lines observed are tabulated, along with the estimated abundances, which are compared with sodium abundances as determined by resonance lines. The average column abundance of potassium is projected to be 1 billion atoms/sq cm, about 1 percent the column abundance of sodium.

  17. Characterization of nitrogen, phosphorus, and potassium mass balances of dairy farms in New York State.

    PubMed

    Cela, Sebastian; Ketterings, Quirine M; Czymmek, Karl; Soberon, Melanie; Rasmussen, Caroline

    2014-12-01

    A whole-farm nutrient mass balance (NMB) is a useful measure of the nutrient status of a dairy farm. Research is needed to define and determine a feasible NMB range for dairy farm systems in New York State (NY). The objectives of this study were to (1) document the distribution of N, P, and K mass balances of 102 NY dairy farms (including 75 small, 15 medium, and 12 large farms); (2) establish initial NMB benchmarks based on what 75% of the farms achieved; (3) determine the maximum animal density that allows an example NY dairy farm to balance cow P excretions and crop P removal without exporting crops or manure; and (4) identify opportunities to improve NMB over time. Nutrient mass balances of the 102 farms ranged from -39 to 237 kg of N/ha for N without including N2 fixation (N1), from -14 to 259 kg of N/ha when N2 fixation was included (N2), from -7 to 51 kg of P/ha, and from -46 to 148 kg of K/ha. Seventy-five percent of the farms were operating at NMB less than 118 kg of N/ha for N1, 146 kg of N/ha for N2, 13 kg of P/ha, and 41 kg of K/ha (75% benchmarks). Farms with the highest nutrient use efficiencies (lowest NMB per unit of milk produced) operated with less than 8.8 kg of N/Mg of milk for N1, 11.8 kg of N/Mg of milk for N2, 1.1 kg of P/Mg of milk, and 3.0 kg of K/Mg of milk. The biggest contributor to the NMB was the amount of imported nutrients, primarily feed purchases. The example farm assessment (assuming no export of crops or manure) suggested that, when 70% of the feed is produced on the farm and P in feed rations does not exceed 4 g of P/kg of DM, cow P excretion and crop P removal were balanced at a maximum animal density of 2.4 animal units (AU)/ha (~0.97 AU/acre). Dairy farms operating with animal densities <2.4 AU/ha typically had NMB below the 75% benchmark, whereas most dairies with more than 2.4 AU/ha needed to export manure or crops to meet the 75% benchmark. Opportunities to reduce NMB on many farms, independent of size and without changes in animal density, are possible by more tightly managing fertilizer and feed imports, increasing the percentage of farm-produced nutrients, implementing precision feeding, and exporting crops or manure.

  18. Nitrogen, phosphorus, potassium, calcium and magnesium release from two compressed fertilizers: column experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fernández-Sanjurjo, M. J.; Alvarez-Rodríguez, E.; Núñez-Delgado, A.; Fernández-Marcos, M. L.; Romar-Gasalla, A.

    2014-07-01

    We used soil columns to study nutrients release from two compressed NPK fertilizers. The columns were filled with soil material from the surface horizon of a granitic soil. Tablets of two slow-release NPK fertilizers (11-18-11 or 8-8-16) were placed into the soil, and then water was percolated through the columns in a saturated regime. Percolates were analyzed for N, P, K, Ca and Mg. These nutrients were also determined in soil and fertilizer tablets at the end of the trials. Nutrient concentrations were high in the first percolates, reaching a steady state when 1426 mm water have percolated, which is equivalent to approximately 1.5 years of rainfall in the geographic area. In the whole trial, both tablets lost more than 80% of their initial N, P and K contents. However, K, Ca and Mg were the most leached, whereas N and P were lost in leachates to a lesser extent. Nutrient release was slower from the tablet with composition 8-8-16 than from the 11-18-11 fertilizer. In view of that, the 8-8-16 tablet can be considered more adequate for crops with a nutrient demand sustained over time. At the end of the trial, the effects of these fertilizers on soil chemical parameters were still evident.

  19. Nitrogen, phosphorus, and potassium requirements to support a multi-billion gallon biofuel industry

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    To accomplish the goals for biofuel and bioenergy production, 1 billion tons of biomass will need to be produced annually by the year 2030. Crop production data from a joint study by the U.S. Department of Energy (US DOE) and the U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA) demonstrated how this goal could...

  20. Understanding nitrogen, phosphorus, potassium and other nutrient impacts of corn stover harvest

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Corn (Zea mays L.) stover has been identified as an important feedstock for several uses including advanced biofuel production, enhanced animal feeds, mushroom production, and several green chemistry constituents. Harvesting stover for any of these uses will increase macronutrient (N, P, and K), sec...

  1. Variation in yield gap induced by nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium fertilizer in North China Plain.

    PubMed

    Dai, Xiaoqin; Ouyang, Zhu; Li, Yunsheng; Wang, Huimin

    2013-01-01

    A field experiment was conducted under a wheat-maize rotation system from 1990 to 2006 in North China Plain (NCP) to determine the effects of N, P and K on yield and yield gap. There were five treatments: NPK, PK, NK, NP and a control. Average wheat and maize yields were the highest in the NPK treatment, followed by those in the NP plots among all treatments. For wheat and maize yield, a significant increasing trend over time was found in the NPK-treated plots and a decreasing trend in the NK-treated plots. In the absence of N or P, wheat and maize yields were significantly lower than those in the NPK treatment. For both crops, the increasing rate of the yield gap was the highest in the P omission plots, i.e., 189.1 kg ha(-1) yr(-1) for wheat and 560.6 kg ha(-1) yr(-1) for maize. The cumulative omission of P fertilizer induced a deficit in the soil available N and extractable P concentrations for maize. The P fertilizer was more pivotal in long-term wheat and maize growth and soil fertility conservation in NCP, although the N fertilizer input was important for both crops growth. The crop response to K fertilizers was much lower than that to N or P fertilizers, but for maize, the cumulative omission of K fertilizer decreased the yield by 26% and increased the yield gap at a rate of 322.7 kg ha(-1) yr(-1). The soil indigenous K supply was not sufficiently high to meet maize K requirement over a long period. The proper application of K fertilizers is necessary for maize production in the region. Thus, the appropriate application of N and P fertilizers for the growth of both crops, while regularly combining K fertilizers for maize growth, is absolutely necessary for sustainable crop production in the NCP.

  2. Sorghum response to foliar application of phosphorus and potassium with saline water irrigation

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Increasing demand for fresh water resources for urban and industrial uses is leading to limited availability of better quality water for crop irrigation. Therefore, crop response to poor quality irrigation water (ex: saline water), and strategies to mitigate the negative effects of poor quality irri...

  3. Live-birth rate associated with repeat in vitro fertilisation treatment cycles

    PubMed Central

    Smith, Andrew D.A.C.; Tilling, Kate

    2016-01-01

    Importance The likelihood of achieving a live-birth with repeat in-vitro fertilisation (IVF) is unclear, yet treatment is commonly limited to three or four embryo transfers. Objective To determine the live-birth rate per initiated IVF cycle and with repeated cycles. Design, Setting and Participants Prospective study of 156,947 UK women who received 257,398 IVF ovarian stimulation cycles between 2003 and 2010 and were followed until June 2012. Main exposure IVF, with a cycle defined as an episode of ovarian stimulation and all subsequent separate fresh and frozen embryo transfers. Main Outcome(s) Live-birth rate per IVF cycle and the cumulative live-birth rates across all cycles in all women and by age and treatment type. Optimal, prognosis-adjusted and conservative cumulative live-birth rates were estimated, reflecting 0%, 30% and 100% of women discontinuing due to poor prognosis and having a live-birth rate of zero had they continued. Results In all women the live-birth rate for the first cycle was 29.5% (95%CI: 29.3, 29.7). This remained above 20% up to and including the fourth cycle. The cumulative prognosis-adjusted live-birth rate across all cycles continued to increase up to the ninth, with 65.3% (64.8, 65.8) of women achieving a live-birth by the sixth cycle. In women younger than 40 using their own oocytes, the live-birth rate for the first cycle was 32.3% (32.0, 32.5), and remained above 20% up to and including the fourth cycle. Six cycles achieved a cumulative prognosis-adjusted live-birth rate of 68.4% (67.8, 68.9). For women aged 40-42, the live-birth rate for the first cycle was 12.3% (95%CI: 11.8, 12.8), with six cycles achieving a cumulative prognosis-adjusted live-birth rate of 31.5% (29.7, 33.3). For women older than 42 years all rates within each cycle were less than 4%. No age differential was observed among women using donor oocytes. Rates were lower in those with untreated male factor infertility compared to those with any other cause, but

  4. Black phosphorus nonvolatile transistor memory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Dain; Choi, Yongsuk; Hwang, Euyheon; Kang, Moon Sung; Lee, Seungwoo; Cho, Jeong Ho

    2016-04-01

    We demonstrated nanofloating gate transistor memory devices (NFGTMs) using mechanically-exfoliated few-layered black phosphorus (BP) channels and gold nanoparticle (AuNPs) charge trapping layers. The resulting BP-NFGTMs exhibited excellent memory performances, including the five-level data storage, large memory window (58.2 V), stable retention (104 s), and cyclic endurance (1000 cycles).We demonstrated nanofloating gate transistor memory devices (NFGTMs) using mechanically-exfoliated few-layered black phosphorus (BP) channels and gold nanoparticle (AuNPs) charge trapping layers. The resulting BP-NFGTMs exhibited excellent memory performances, including the five-level data storage, large memory window (58.2 V), stable retention (104 s), and cyclic endurance (1000 cycles). Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available. See DOI: 10.1039/c6nr02078j

  5. Phosphorus doping a semiconductor particle

    DOEpatents

    Stevens, G.D.; Reynolds, J.S.

    1999-07-20

    A method of phosphorus doping a semiconductor particle using ammonium phosphate is disclosed. A p-doped silicon sphere is mixed with a diluted solution of ammonium phosphate having a predetermined concentration. These spheres are dried with the phosphorus then being diffused into the sphere to create either a shallow or deep p-n junction. A good PSG glass layer is formed on the surface of the sphere during the diffusion process. A subsequent segregation anneal process is utilized to strip metal impurities from near the p-n junction into the glass layer. A subsequent HF strip procedure is then utilized to removed the PSG layer. Ammonium phosphate is not a restricted chemical, is inexpensive, and does not pose any special shipping, handling, or disposal requirement. 1 fig.

  6. Changes in Olsen Phosphorus Concentration and Its Response to Phosphorus Balance in Black Soils under Different Long-Term Fertilization Patterns.

    PubMed

    Zhan, Xiaoying; Zhang, Li; Zhou, Baoku; Zhu, Ping; Zhang, Shuxiang; Xu, Minggang

    2015-01-01

    The Olsen phosphorus (P) concentration of a soil is a key index that can be used to evaluate the P supply capacity of the soil and to estimate the optimal P fertilization rate. A study of the relationship between the soil Olsen P concentration and the P balance (P input minus P output) and their variations among different fertilization patterns will help to provide useful information for proper management of P fertilization. In this paper, the two investigated long-term experiments were established on black soils in the northeast region of China. Six fertilization treatments were selected: (1) unfertilized (CK); (2) nitrogen only (N); (3) nitrogen and potassium (NK); (4) nitrogen and phosphorus (NP); (5) nitrogen, phosphorus, and potassium (NPK); and (6) nitrogen, phosphorus, potassium and manure (NPKM). The results showed that the average Olsen P concentrations in the black soils at Gongzhuling and Harbin (16- and 31-year study periods, respectively), decreased by 0.49 and 0.56 mg kg-1 a-1, respectively, without P addition and increased by 3.17 and 1.78 mg kg-1 a-1, respectively, with P fertilization. The changes in soil Olsen P concentrations were significantly (P<0.05) correlated with the P balances at both sites except for the NP and NPK treatments at Gongzhuling. Under an average deficit of 100 kg ha-1 P, the soil Olsen P concentration at both sites decreased by 1.36~3.35 mg kg-1 in the treatments without P addition and increased by 4.80~16.04 mg kg-1 in the treatments with 100 kg ha-1 of P accumulation. In addition, the changes in Olsen P concentrations in the soil with 100 kg ha-1of P balance were significantly correlated with the P activation coefficient (PAC, percentage of Olsen P to total P, r=0.99, P<0.01) and soil organic matter content (r=0.91, P<0.01). A low pH was related to large changes of Olsen P by 1 kg ha-1 of P balance. These results indicated that soil organic matter and pH have important effects on the change in soil Olsen P by 1 kg ha-1 of P

  7. Changes in Olsen Phosphorus Concentration and Its Response to Phosphorus Balance in Black Soils under Different Long-Term Fertilization Patterns

    PubMed Central

    Zhan, Xiaoying; Zhang, Li; Zhou, Baoku; Zhu, Ping; Zhang, Shuxiang; Xu, Minggang

    2015-01-01

    The Olsen phosphorus (P) concentration of a soil is a key index that can be used to evaluate the P supply capacity of the soil and to estimate the optimal P fertilization rate. A study of the relationship between the soil Olsen P concentration and the P balance (P input minus P output) and their variations among different fertilization patterns will help to provide useful information for proper management of P fertilization. In this paper, the two investigated long-term experiments were established on black soils in the northeast region of China. Six fertilization treatments were selected: (1) unfertilized (CK); (2) nitrogen only (N); (3) nitrogen and potassium (NK); (4) nitrogen and phosphorus (NP); (5) nitrogen, phosphorus, and potassium (NPK); and (6) nitrogen, phosphorus, potassium and manure (NPKM). The results showed that the average Olsen P concentrations in the black soils at Gongzhuling and Harbin (16- and 31-year study periods, respectively), decreased by 0.49 and 0.56 mg kg-1 a-1, respectively, without P addition and increased by 3.17 and 1.78 mg kg-1 a-1, respectively, with P fertilization. The changes in soil Olsen P concentrations were significantly (P<0.05) correlated with the P balances at both sites except for the NP and NPK treatments at Gongzhuling. Under an average deficit of 100 kg ha-1 P, the soil Olsen P concentration at both sites decreased by 1.36~3.35 mg kg-1 in the treatments without P addition and increased by 4.80~16.04 mg kg-1 in the treatments with 100 kg ha-1 of P accumulation. In addition, the changes in Olsen P concentrations in the soil with 100 kg ha-1of P balance were significantly correlated with the P activation coefficient (PAC, percentage of Olsen P to total P, r=0.99, P<0.01) and soil organic matter content (r=0.91, P<0.01). A low pH was related to large changes of Olsen P by 1 kg ha-1 of P balance. These results indicated that soil organic matter and pH have important effects on the change in soil Olsen P by 1 kg ha-1 of P

  8. Changes in Olsen Phosphorus Concentration and Its Response to Phosphorus Balance in Black Soils under Different Long-Term Fertilization Patterns.

    PubMed

    Zhan, Xiaoying; Zhang, Li; Zhou, Baoku; Zhu, Ping; Zhang, Shuxiang; Xu, Minggang

    2015-01-01

    The Olsen phosphorus (P) concentration of a soil is a key index that can be used to evaluate the P supply capacity of the soil and to estimate the optimal P fertilization rate. A study of the relationship between the soil Olsen P concentration and the P balance (P input minus P output) and their variations among different fertilization patterns will help to provide useful information for proper management of P fertilization. In this paper, the two investigated long-term experiments were established on black soils in the northeast region of China. Six fertilization treatments were selected: (1) unfertilized (CK); (2) nitrogen only (N); (3) nitrogen and potassium (NK); (4) nitrogen and phosphorus (NP); (5) nitrogen, phosphorus, and potassium (NPK); and (6) nitrogen, phosphorus, potassium and manure (NPKM). The results showed that the average Olsen P concentrations in the black soils at Gongzhuling and Harbin (16- and 31-year study periods, respectively), decreased by 0.49 and 0.56 mg kg-1 a-1, respectively, without P addition and increased by 3.17 and 1.78 mg kg-1 a-1, respectively, with P fertilization. The changes in soil Olsen P concentrations were significantly (P<0.05) correlated with the P balances at both sites except for the NP and NPK treatments at Gongzhuling. Under an average deficit of 100 kg ha-1 P, the soil Olsen P concentration at both sites decreased by 1.36~3.35 mg kg-1 in the treatments without P addition and increased by 4.80~16.04 mg kg-1 in the treatments with 100 kg ha-1 of P accumulation. In addition, the changes in Olsen P concentrations in the soil with 100 kg ha-1of P balance were significantly correlated with the P activation coefficient (PAC, percentage of Olsen P to total P, r=0.99, P<0.01) and soil organic matter content (r=0.91, P<0.01). A low pH was related to large changes of Olsen P by 1 kg ha-1 of P balance. These results indicated that soil organic matter and pH have important effects on the change in soil Olsen P by 1 kg ha-1 of P

  9. Sensitive determination of total particulate phosphorus and particulate inorganic phosphorus in seawater using liquid waveguide spectrophotometry.

    PubMed

    Ehama, Makoto; Hashihama, Fuminori; Kinouchi, Shinko; Kanda, Jota; Saito, Hiroaki

    2016-06-01

    Determining the total particulate phosphorus (TPP) and particulate inorganic phosphorus (PIP) in oligotrophic oceanic water generally requires the filtration of a large amount of water sample. This paper describes methods that require small filtration volumes for determining the TPP and PIP concentrations. The methods were devised by validating or improving conventional sample processing and by applying highly sensitive liquid waveguide spectrophotometry to the measurements of oxidized or acid-extracted phosphate from TPP and PIP, respectively. The oxidation of TPP was performed by a chemical wet oxidation method using 3% potassium persulfate. The acid extraction of PIP was initially carried out based on the conventional extraction methodology, which requires 1M HCl, followed by the procedure for decreasing acidity. While the conventional procedure for acid removal requires a ten-fold dilution of the 1M HCl extract with purified water, the improved procedure proposed in this study uses 8M NaOH solution for neutralizing 1M HCl extract in order to reduce the dilution effect. An experiment for comparing the absorbances of the phosphate standard dissolved in 0.1M HCl and of that dissolved in a neutralized solution [1M HCl: 8M NaOH=8:1 (v:v)] exhibited a higher absorbance in the neutralized solution. This indicated that the improved procedure completely removed the acid effect, which reduces the sensitivity of the phosphate measurement. Application to an ultraoligotrophic water sample showed that the TPP concentration in a 1075mL-filtered sample was 8.4nM with a coefficient of variation (CV) of 4.3% and the PIP concentration in a 2300mL-filtered sample was 1.3nM with a CV of 6.1%. Based on the detection limit (3nM) of the sensitive phosphate measurement and the ambient TPP and PIP concentrations of the ultraoligotrophic water, the minimum filtration volumes required for the detection of TPP and PIP were estimated to be 15 and 52mL, respectively.

  10. Sensitive determination of total particulate phosphorus and particulate inorganic phosphorus in seawater using liquid waveguide spectrophotometry.

    PubMed

    Ehama, Makoto; Hashihama, Fuminori; Kinouchi, Shinko; Kanda, Jota; Saito, Hiroaki

    2016-06-01

    Determining the total particulate phosphorus (TPP) and particulate inorganic phosphorus (PIP) in oligotrophic oceanic water generally requires the filtration of a large amount of water sample. This paper describes methods that require small filtration volumes for determining the TPP and PIP concentrations. The methods were devised by validating or improving conventional sample processing and by applying highly sensitive liquid waveguide spectrophotometry to the measurements of oxidized or acid-extracted phosphate from TPP and PIP, respectively. The oxidation of TPP was performed by a chemical wet oxidation method using 3% potassium persulfate. The acid extraction of PIP was initially carried out based on the conventional extraction methodology, which requires 1M HCl, followed by the procedure for decreasing acidity. While the conventional procedure for acid removal requires a ten-fold dilution of the 1M HCl extract with purified water, the improved procedure proposed in this study uses 8M NaOH solution for neutralizing 1M HCl extract in order to reduce the dilution effect. An experiment for comparing the absorbances of the phosphate standard dissolved in 0.1M HCl and of that dissolved in a neutralized solution [1M HCl: 8M NaOH=8:1 (v:v)] exhibited a higher absorbance in the neutralized solution. This indicated that the improved procedure completely removed the acid effect, which reduces the sensitivity of the phosphate measurement. Application to an ultraoligotrophic water sample showed that the TPP concentration in a 1075mL-filtered sample was 8.4nM with a coefficient of variation (CV) of 4.3% and the PIP concentration in a 2300mL-filtered sample was 1.3nM with a CV of 6.1%. Based on the detection limit (3nM) of the sensitive phosphate measurement and the ambient TPP and PIP concentrations of the ultraoligotrophic water, the minimum filtration volumes required for the detection of TPP and PIP were estimated to be 15 and 52mL, respectively. PMID:27130091

  11. Crystal structure transformation in potassium acrylate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pai Verneker, V. R.; Vasanthakumari, R.

    1983-10-01

    Potassium acrylate undergoes a reversible phase transformation around 335°K with an activation energy of 133 kcal/mole. Differential scanning calorimetry and high temperature X-ray powder diffraction techniques have been used to probe this phenomenon.

  12. Low Potassium Diet (Beyond the Basics)

    MedlinePlus

    ... to 120 mL/min) . A registered dietitian or nutritionist can help to create a low-potassium meal ... volumes. You agree to comply with all applicable laws, including all US export laws and regulations, in ...

  13. 21 CFR 862.1600 - Potassium test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Potassium test system. 862.1600 Section 862.1600....1600 Potassium test system. (a) Identification. A potassium test system is a device intended to measure potassium in serum, plasma, and urine. Measurements obtained by this device are used to monitor...

  14. 21 CFR 181.34 - Sodium nitrite and potassium nitrite.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Sodium nitrite and potassium nitrite. 181.34...-Sanctioned Food Ingredients § 181.34 Sodium nitrite and potassium nitrite. Sodium nitrite and potassium... fixatives and preservative agents, with or without sodium or potassium nitrate, in the curing of red...

  15. 21 CFR 181.34 - Sodium nitrite and potassium nitrite.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Sodium nitrite and potassium nitrite. 181.34... nitrite and potassium nitrite. Sodium nitrite and potassium nitrite are subject to prior sanctions issued... without sodium or potassium nitrate, in the curing of red meat and poultry products....

  16. 21 CFR 862.1600 - Potassium test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Potassium test system. 862.1600 Section 862.1600....1600 Potassium test system. (a) Identification. A potassium test system is a device intended to measure potassium in serum, plasma, and urine. Measurements obtained by this device are used to monitor...

  17. 21 CFR 862.1600 - Potassium test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Potassium test system. 862.1600 Section 862.1600....1600 Potassium test system. (a) Identification. A potassium test system is a device intended to measure potassium in serum, plasma, and urine. Measurements obtained by this device are used to monitor...

  18. 21 CFR 181.34 - Sodium nitrite and potassium nitrite.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Sodium nitrite and potassium nitrite. 181.34...-Sanctioned Food Ingredients § 181.34 Sodium nitrite and potassium nitrite. Sodium nitrite and potassium... fixatives and preservative agents, with or without sodium or potassium nitrate, in the curing of red...

  19. 21 CFR 862.1600 - Potassium test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Potassium test system. 862.1600 Section 862.1600....1600 Potassium test system. (a) Identification. A potassium test system is a device intended to measure potassium in serum, plasma, and urine. Measurements obtained by this device are used to monitor...

  20. 21 CFR 181.34 - Sodium nitrite and potassium nitrite.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Sodium nitrite and potassium nitrite. 181.34...-Sanctioned Food Ingredients § 181.34 Sodium nitrite and potassium nitrite. Sodium nitrite and potassium... fixatives and preservative agents, with or without sodium or potassium nitrate, in the curing of red...